WorldWideScience

Sample records for space power system

  1. Recent space nuclear power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takizuka, Takakazu; Yasuda, Hideshi; Hishida, Makoto

    1991-01-01

    For the advance of mankind into the space, the power sources of large output are indispensable, and it has been considered that atomic energy is promising as compared with solar energy and others. Accordingly in USA and USSR, the development of the nuclear power generation systems for space use has been carried out since considerable years ago. In this report, the general features of space nuclear reactors are shown, and by taking the system for the SP-100 project being carried out in USA as the example, the contents of the recent design regarding the safety as an important factor are discussed. Moreover, as the examples of utilizing space nuclear reactors, the concepts of the power source for the base on the moon, the sources of propulsive power for the rockets used for Mars exploration and others, the remote power transmission system by laser in the space and so on are explained. In September, 1988, the launching of a space shuttle of USA was resumed, and the Jupiter explorer 'Galileo' and the space telescope 'Hubble' were successfully launched. The space station 'Mir' of USSR has been used since February, 1986. The history of the development of the nuclear power generation systems for space use is described. (K.I.)

  2. Space Station power system issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giudici, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    Issues governing the selection of power systems for long-term manned Space Stations intended solely for earth orbital missions are covered briefly, drawing on trade study results from both in-house and contracted studies that have been conducted over nearly two decades. An involvement, from the Program Development Office at MSFC, with current Space Station concepts began in late 1982 with the NASA-wide Systems Definition Working Group and continued throughout 1984 in support of various planning activities. The premise for this discussion is that, within the confines of the current Space Station concept, there is good reason to consider photovoltaic power systems to be a venerable technology option for both the initial 75 kW and 300 kW (or much greater) growth stations. The issue of large physical size required by photovoltaic power systems is presented considering mass, atmospheric drag, launch packaging and power transmission voltage as being possible practicality limitations. The validity of searching for a cross-over point necessitating the introduction of solar thermal or nuclear power system options as enabling technologies is considered with reference to programs ranging from the 4.8 kW Skylab to the 9.5 gW Space Power Satellite

  3. Brayton cycle space power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietsch, A.; Trimble, S.W.; Harper, A.D.

    1985-01-01

    The latest accomplishments in the design and development of the Brayton Isotope Power System (BIPS) for space applications are described, together with a reexamination of the design/cost tradeoffs with respect to current economic parameters and technology status. The results of tests performed on a ground test version of the flight configuration, the workhorse loop, were used to confirm the performance projections made for the flight system. The results of cost-model analysis indicate that the use of the highest attainable power conversion system efficiency will yield the most cost-effective systems. 13 references

  4. NUCLEAR THERMIONIC SPACE POWER SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, R. C.; Rasor, N. S.

    1963-03-15

    The various concepts for utilizing thermionic conversion in space reactor power plants are described and evaluated. The problems (and progress toward their solution) of the in-core concept, particularly, are considered. Progress in thermionic conversion technology is then reviewed from both the hardware and research points of view. Anticipated progress in thermionic conversion and the possible consequences for the performance of electrical propulsion systems are summarized. 46 references. (D.C.W.)

  5. Nuclear Space Power Systems Materials Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckman, R.W. Jr.

    2004-01-01

    High specific energy is required for space nuclear power systems. This generally means high operating temperatures and the only alloy class of materials available for construction of such systems are the refractory metals niobium, tantalum, molybdenum and tungsten. The refractory metals in the past have been the construction materials selected for nuclear space power systems. The objective of this paper will be to review the past history and requirements for space nuclear power systems from the early 1960's through the SP-100 program. Also presented will be the past and present status of refractory metal alloy technology and what will be needed to support the next advanced nuclear space power system. The next generation of advanced nuclear space power systems can benefit from the review of this past experience. Because of a decline in the refractory metal industry in the United States, ready availability of specific refractory metal alloys is limited

  6. Space power systems--''Spacecraft 2000''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faymon, K.A.

    1985-01-01

    The National Space programs of the 21st century will require abundant and relatively low cost power and energy produced by high reliability-low mass systems. Advancement of current power system related technologies will enable the U.S. to realize increased scientific payload for government missions or increased revenue producing payload for commercial space endeavors. Autonomous, unattended operation will be a highly desirable characteristic of these advanced power systems. Those space power-energy related technologies, which will comprise the space craft of the late 1990's and the early 2000's, will evolve from today's state-of-the-art systems and those long term technology development programs presently in place. However, to foster accelerated development of the more critical technologies which have the potential for high-payoffs, additional programs will be proposed and put in place between now and the end of the century. Such a program is ''Spacecraft 2000'', which is described in this paper

  7. New Generation Power System for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Loren; Carr, Greg; Deligiannis, Frank; Lam, Barbara; Nelson, Ron; Pantaleon, Jose; Ruiz, Ian; Treicler, John; Wester, Gene; Sauers, Jim; hide

    2004-01-01

    The Deep Space Avionics (DSA) Project is developing a new generation of power system building blocks. Using application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) and power switching modules a scalable power system can be constructed for use on multiple deep space missions including future missions to Mars, comets, Jupiter and its moons. The key developments of the DSA power system effort are five power ASICs and a mod ule for power switching. These components enable a modular and scalab le design approach, which can result in a wide variety of power syste m architectures to meet diverse mission requirements and environments . Each component is radiation hardened to one megarad) total dose. The power switching module can be used for power distribution to regular spacecraft loads, to propulsion valves and actuation of pyrotechnic devices. The number of switching elements per load, pyrotechnic firin gs and valve drivers can be scaled depending on mission needs. Teleme try data is available from the switch module via an I2C data bus. The DSA power system components enable power management and distribution for a variety of power buses and power system architectures employing different types of energy storage and power sources. This paper will describe each power ASIC#s key performance characteristics as well a s recent prototype test results. The power switching module test results will be discussed and will demonstrate its versatility as a multip urpose switch. Finally, the combination of these components will illu strate some of the possible power system architectures achievable fro m small single string systems to large fully redundant systems.

  8. New architectures for space power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehsani, M.; Patton, A.D.; Biglic, O.

    1992-01-01

    Electric power generation and conditioning have experienced revolutionary development over the past two decades. Furthermore, new materials such as high energy magnets and high temperature superconductors are either available or on the horizon. The authors' work is based on the promise that new technologies are an important driver of new power system concepts and architectures. This observation is born out by the historical evolution of power systems both in terrestrial and aerospace applications. This paper will introduce new approaches to designing space power systems by using several new technologies

  9. Reliability models for Space Station power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, C.; Patton, A. D.; Kim, Y.; Wagner, H.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for the reliability evaluation of Space Station power system. The two options considered are the photovoltaic system and the solar dynamic system. Reliability models for both of these options are described along with the methodology for calculating the reliability indices.

  10. Advanced materials for space nuclear power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titran, R.H.; Grobstein, T.L.

    1991-01-01

    Research on monolithic refractory metal alloys and on metal matrix composites is being conducted at the NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, in support of advanced space power systems. The overall philosophy of the research is to develop and characterize new high-temperature power conversion and radiator materials and to provide spacecraft designers with material selection options and design information. Research on three candidate materials (carbide strengthened niobium alloy PWC-11 for fuel cladding, graphite fiber reinforced copper matrix composites (Gr/Cu) for heat rejection fins, and tungsten fiber reinforced niobium matrix composites (W/NB) for fuel containment and structural supports) considered for space power system applications is discussed. Each of these types of materials offers unique advantages for space power applications

  11. Microwave transmission system for space power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickinson, R M [Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena, Calif. (USA)

    1976-09-01

    A small total system model and a large subsystem element similar to those that could be eventually used for wireless power transmission experiments in space have been successfully demonstrated by NASA. The short range, relatively low-power laboratory system achieved a dc-to-dc transmission efficiency of 54%. A separate high-power-level receiving subsystem, tested over a 1.54-km range at Goldstone, California, has achieved the transportation of over 30 kW of dc output power. Both tests used 12-cm wave-length microwaves.

  12. SP-100 space reactor power system readiness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josloff, A.T.; Matteo, D.N.; Bailey, H.S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the SP-100 Space Reactor Power System which is being developed by GE, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy, to provide electrical power in the range of 10's to 100's of kW. The system represents an enabling technology for a wide variety of earth orbital and interplanetary science missions, nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) stages, and lunar/Mars surface power for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). The technology and design is now at a state of readiness to support the definition of early flight demonstration missions. Of particular importance is that SP-100 meets the demanding U.S. safety performance, reliability and life requirements. The system is scalable and flexible and can be configured to provide 10's to 100's of kWe without repeating development work and can meet DoD goals for an early, low-power demonstration flight in the 1996-1997 time frame

  13. The NASA Advanced Space Power Systems Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.; Hoberecht, Mark A.; Bennett, William R.; Lvovich, Vadim F.; Bugga, Ratnakumar

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the NASA Advanced Space Power Systems Project is to develop advanced, game changing technologies that will provide future NASA space exploration missions with safe, reliable, light weight and compact power generation and energy storage systems. The development effort is focused on maturing the technologies from a technology readiness level of approximately 23 to approximately 56 as defined in the NASA Procedural Requirement 7123.1B. Currently, the project is working on two critical technology areas: High specific energy batteries, and regenerative fuel cell systems with passive fluid management. Examples of target applications for these technologies are: extending the duration of extravehicular activities (EVA) with high specific energy and energy density batteries; providing reliable, long-life power for rovers with passive fuel cell and regenerative fuel cell systems that enable reduced system complexity. Recent results from the high energy battery and regenerative fuel cell technology development efforts will be presented. The technical approach, the key performance parameters and the technical results achieved to date in each of these new elements will be included. The Advanced Space Power Systems Project is part of the Game Changing Development Program under NASAs Space Technology Mission Directorate.

  14. Space nuclear power systems, Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Genk, M.S.; Hoover, M.D.

    1992-01-01

    This volume, number two of three, contains the reviewed and edited papers were being presented at the Ninth Symposium in Albuquerque, New Mexico, 12--16 January 1992. The objective of the symposium, and hence these volumes, is to summarize the state of knowledge in the area of space nuclear power and propulsion and to provide a forum at which the most recent findings and important new developments can be presented and discussed. Topics included is this volume are: reactor and power systems control; thermionic energy conversion; space missions and power needs; key issues in nuclear and propulsion; nuclear thermal propulsion; manufacturing and processing; thermal management; space nuclear safety; and nuclear testing and production facilities

  15. Space nuclear power systems for extraterrestrial basing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lance, J.R.; Chi, J.W.H.

    1989-01-01

    Previous studies of nuclear and non-nuclear power systems for lunar bases are compared with recent studies by others. Power levels from tens of kW e for early base operation up to 2000 kW e for a self-sustaining base with a Closed Environment Life Support System (CELSS) are considered. Permanent lunar or Martian bases will require the use of multiple nuclear units connected to loads with a power transmission and distribution system analogous to earth-based electric utility systems. A methodology used for such systems is applied to the lunar base system to examine the effects of adding 100 kW e SP-100 class and/or larger nuclear units when a reliability criterion is imposed. The results show that resource and logistic burdens can be reduced by using 1000 kW e units early in the base growth scenario without compromising system reliability. Therefore, both technologies being developed in two current programs (SP-100 and NERVA Derivative Reactor (NDR) technology for space power) can be used effectively for extraterrestrial base power systems. Recent developments in NDR design that result in major reductions in reactor mass are also described. (author)

  16. Power conditioning for space nuclear reactor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Baruch

    1987-01-01

    This paper addresses the power conditioning subsystem for both Stirling and Brayton conversion of space nuclear reactor systems. Included are the requirements summary, trade results related to subsystem implementation, subsystem description, voltage level versus weight, efficiency and operational integrity, components selection, and shielding considerations. The discussion is supported by pertinent circuit and block diagrams. Summary conclusions and recommendations derived from the above studies are included.

  17. Cermet fuels for space power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barner, J.O.; Coomes, E.P.; Williford, R.E.; Neimark, L.A.

    1986-01-01

    A refractory-metal matrix, UN-fueled cermet is a very promising fuel candidate for a wide range of multi-megawatt space reactor systems, e.g., steady-state, flexible duty-cycle, or bimodal, single- or two-phase liquid-metal cooled reactors, or thermionic reactors. Cermet fuel is especially promising for reactor designs that require operational strategies which incorporate rapid power changes because of its anticipated capability to withstand thermal shock

  18. SP-100 space nuclear power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Given, R.W.; Morgan, R.E.; Chi, J.W.H.; Westinghouse Electric Corp., Madison, PA)

    1984-01-01

    A baseline design concept for a 100 kWe nuclear reactor space power system is described. The concept was developed under contract from JPL as part of a joint program of the DOE, DOD, and NASA. The major technical and safety constraints influencing the selection of reactor operating parameters are discussed. A lithium-cooled compact fast reactor was selected as the best candidate system. The material selected for the thermoelectric conversion system was silicon germanium (SiGe) with gallium phosphide doping. Attention is given to the improved safety of the seven in-core control rod configuration

  19. Hubble Space Telescope electrical power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitt, Thomas H.; Bush, John R., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) electrical power system (EPS) is supplying between 2000 and 2400 W of continuous power to the electrical loads. The major components of the EPS are the 5000-W back surface field reflector solar array, the six nickel-hydrogen (NiH2) 22-cell 88-Ah batteries, and the charge current controllers, which, in conjunction with the flight computer, control battery charging. The operation of the HST EPS and the results of the HST NiH2 six-battery test are discussed, and preliminary flight data are reviewed. The HST NiH2 six-battery test is a breadboard of the HST EPS on test at Marshall Space Flight Center.

  20. Challenges for future space power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandhorst, H.W. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Forecasts of space power needs are presented. The needs fall into three broad categories: survival, self-sufficiency, and industrialization. The cost of delivering payloads to orbital locations and from Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to Mars are determined. Future launch cost reductions are predicted. From these projections the performances necessary for future solar and nuclear space power options are identified. The availability of plentiful cost effective electric power and of low cost access to space are identified as crucial factors in the future extension of human presence in space

  1. A Space Based Solar Power Satellite System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, J. M.; Polling, D.; Ustamujic, F.; Yaldiz, R.; et al.

    2002-01-01

    (SPoTS) supplying other satellites with energy. SPoTS is due to be commercially viable and operative in 2020. of Technology designed the SPoTS during a full-time design period of six weeks as a third year final project. The team, organized according to the principles of systems engineering, first conducted a literature study on space wireless energy transfer to select the most suitable candidates for use on the SPoTS. After that, several different system concepts have been generated and evaluated, the most promising concept being worked out in greater detail. km altitude. Each SPoTS satellite has a 50m diameter inflatable solar collector that focuses all received sunlight. Then, the received sunlight is further redirected by means of four pointing mirrors toward four individual customer satellites. A market-analysis study showed, that providing power to geo-stationary communication satellites during their eclipse would be most beneficial. At arrival at geo-stationary orbit, the focused beam has expended to such an extent that its density equals one solar flux. This means that customer satellites can continue to use their regular solar arrays during their eclipse for power generation, resulting in a satellite battery mass reduction. the customer satellites in geo-stationary orbit, the transmitted energy beams needs to be pointed with very high accuracy. Computations showed that for this degree of accuracy, sensors are needed, which are not mainstream nowadays. Therefore further research must be conducted in this area in order to make these high-accuracy-pointing systems commercially attractive for use on the SPoTS satellites around 2020. Total 20-year system lifetime cost for 18 SPoT satellites are estimated at approximately USD 6 billion [FY2001]. In order to compete with traditional battery-based satellite power systems or possible ground based wireless power transfer systems the price per kWh for the customer must be significantly lower than the present one

  2. Space solar power satellite systems with a space elevator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellum, M. J. (Mervyn J.); Laubscher, B. E. (Bryan E.)

    2004-01-01

    The Space Elevator (SE) represents a major paradigm shift in mankind's access to outer space. If the SE's promise of low-cost access to space can be realized, the economics of space-based business endeavors becomes much more feasible. In this paper, we describe a Solar Power Satellite (SPS) system and estimate its costs within the context of an SE. We also offer technical as well as financial comparisons between SPS and terrestrial solar photovoltaic technologies. Even though SPS systems have been designed for over 35 years, technologies pertinent to SPS systems are continually evolving. One of the designs we present includes an evolving technology, optical rectennas. SPS systems could be a long-term energy source that is clean, technologically feasible, and virtually limitless. Moreover, electrical energy could be distributed inexpensively to remote areas where such power does not currently exist, thereby raising the quality of life of the people living in those areas. The energy 'playing field' will be leveled across the world and the resulting economic growth will improve the lot of humankind everywhere.

  3. Electrical power systems for Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, W. E.

    1984-01-01

    Major challenges in power system development are described. Evolutionary growth, operational lifetime, and other design requirements are discussed. A pictorial view of weight-optimized power system applications shows which systems are best for missions of various lengths and required power level. Following definition of the major elements of the electrical power system, an overview of element options and a brief technology assessment are presented. Selected trade-study results show end-to-end system efficiencies, required photovoltaic power capability as a function of energy storage system efficiency, and comparisons with other systems such as a solar dynamic power system.

  4. Space power plants and power-consuming industrial systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latyshev, L.; Semashko, N.

    1996-01-01

    An opportunity to create the space power production on the basis of solar, nuclear and fusion energies is analyzed. The priority of solar power production as the most accessible and feasible in comparison with others is emphasized. However, later on, it probably will play an auxiliary role. The possibilities of fusion power production, as a basic one in future, are also considered. It is necessary to create reactors using the fueling cycle with helium-3 (instead of tritium and deuterium, later on). The reaction products--charged particles, mainly--allow one to organize the system of direct fusion energy conversion into electricity. The produced energy is expected not to be transmitted to Earth, but an industry in space is expected to be produced on its basis. The industrial (power and science-consuming) objects located on a whole number of space apparatus will form a single complex with its own basic power plant. The power transmission within the complex will be realized with high power density fluxes of microwave radiation to short distances with their receivers at the objects. The necessary correction of the apparatus positions in the complex will be done with ion and plasma thrusters. The materials present on the Moon, asteroids and on other planets can serve as raw materials for industrial objects. Such an approach will help to improve the ecological state on Earth, to eliminate the necessity in the fast energy consumption growth and to reduce the hazard of global thermal crisis

  5. Solar dynamic power systems for space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Thomas B.; Nall, Marsha M.; Seidel, Robert C.

    1986-01-01

    The Parabolic Offset Linearly Actuated Reflector (POLAR) solar dynamic module was selected as the baseline design for a solar dynamic power system aboard the space station. The POLAR concept was chosen over other candidate designs after extensive trade studies. The primary advantages of the POLAR concept are the low mass moment of inertia of the module about the transverse boom and the compactness of the stowed module which enables packaging of two complete modules in the Shuttle orbiter payload bay. The fine pointing control system required for the solar dynamic module has been studied and initial results indicate that if disturbances from the station are allowed to back drive the rotary alpha joint, pointing errors caused by transient loads on the space station can be minimized. This would allow pointing controls to operate in bandwidths near system structural frequencies. The incorporation of the fine pointing control system into the solar dynamic module is fairly straightforward for the three strut concentrator support structure. However, results of structural analyses indicate that this three strut support is not optimum. Incorporation of a vernier pointing system into the proposed six strut support structure is being studied.

  6. Challenges for future space power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandhorst, H.W. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The future appears rich in missions that will extend the frontiers of knowledge, human presence in space, and opportunities for profitable commerce. The key to success of these ventures is the availability of plentiful, cost effective electric power and assured, low cost access to space. While forecasts of space power needs are problematic, an assessment of future needs based on terrestrial experience was made. These needs fall into three broad categories-survival, self sufficiency and industrialization. The cost of delivering payloads to orbital locations from low earth orbit (LEO) to Mars was determined and future launch cost reductions projected. From these factors, then, projections of the performance necessary for future solar and nuclear space power options were made. These goals are largely dependent upon orbital location and energy storage needs

  7. Thermoacoustic power systems for space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backhaus, S.N.; Tward, E.; Pedach, M.

    2001-01-01

    Future NASA deep-space missions will require radioisotope-powered electric generators that are just as reliable as current RTGs, but more efficient and of higher specific power (W/kg). Thermoacoustic engines can convert high-temperature heat into acoustic, or PV, power without moving parts at 30% efficiency. Consisting of only tubes and a few heat exchangers, these engines are low mass and promise to be highly reliable. Coupling a thermoacoustic engine to a low-mass, highly reliable and efficient linear alternator will create a heat-driven electric generator suitable for deep-space applications. Data will be presented on the first tests of a demonstration thermoacoustic engine designed for the 100-Watt power range.

  8. Systems aspects of a space nuclear reactor power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, L.; Fujita, T.; Beatty, R.; Bhandari, P.; Chow, E.; Deininger, W.; Ewell, R.; Grossman, M.; Bloomfield, H.; Heller, J.

    1988-01-01

    Various system aspects of a 300-kW nuclear reactor power system for spacecraft have been investigated. Special attention is given to the cases of a reusable OTV and a space-based radar. It is demonstrated that the stowed length of the power system is important to mission design, and that orbital storage for months to years may be needed for missions involving orbital assembly.

  9. Multimegawatt nuclear systems for space power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dearien, J.A.; Whitbeck, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    The conceptual design and performance capability requirements of multi-MW nuclear powerplants for SDI systems are considered. The candidate powerplant configurations encompass Rankine, Brayton, and thermionic cycles; these respectively provide the lightest to heaviest system masses, since reactor and shield masses represent only 10-30 percent of total closed power system weight for the Rankine and Brayton systems. Many of the gas reactor concepts entertained may be operated in dual mode, thereby furnishing both long term low power and high power for short periods. Heat rejection is identified as the most important technology, since about 50 percent of the total closed mass is constituted by the heat rejection system. 9 references

  10. Toluene stability Space Station Rankine power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havens, V. N.; Ragaller, D. R.; Sibert, L.; Miller, D.

    1987-01-01

    A dynamic test loop is designed to evaluate the thermal stability of an organic Rankine cycle working fluid, toluene, for potential application to the Space Station power conversion unit. Samples of the noncondensible gases and the liquid toluene were taken periodically during the 3410 hour test at 750 F peak temperature. The results obtained from the toluene stability loop verify that toluene degradation will not lead to a loss of performance over the 30-year Space Station mission life requirement. The identity of the degradation products and the low rates of formation were as expected from toluene capsule test data.

  11. Military space power systems technology trends and issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthelemy, R.R.; Massie, L.D.

    1985-01-01

    This paper assesses baseload and above-baseload (alert, active, pulsed and burst mode) power system options, places them in logical perspective relative to power level and operating time, discusses power systems technology state-of-the-art and trends and finally attempts to project future (post 2000) space power system capabilities

  12. An economically viable space power relay system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekey, Ivan; Boudreault, Richard

    1999-09-01

    This paper describes and analyzes the economics of a power relay system that takes advantage of recent technological advances to implement a system that is economically viable. A series of power relay systems are described and analyzed which transport power ranging from 1,250 megawatts to 5,000 megawatts, and distribute it to receiving sites at transcontinental distances. Two classes of systems are discussed—those with a single reflector and delivering all the power to a single rectenna, and a second type which has multiple reflectors and distributes it to 10 rectenna sites, sharing power among them. It is shown that when offering electricity at prices competitive to those prevalent in developed cities in the US that a low IRR is inevitable, and economic feasibility of a business is unlikely. However, when the target market is Japan where the prevalent electricity prices are much greater, that an IRR exceeding 65% is readily attainable. This is extremely attractive to potential investors, making capitalization of a venture likely. The paper shows that the capital investment required for the system can be less than 1 per installed watt, contributing less than 0.02 /KW-hr to the cost of energy provision. Since selling prices in feasible regions range from 0.18 to over 030 $/kW-hr, these costs are but a small fraction of the operating expenses. Thus a very large IRR is possible for such a business.

  13. Systems aspects of a space nuclear reactor power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaffe, L.; Fujita, T.; Beatty, R.

    1988-01-01

    Selected systems aspects of a 300 kW nuclear reactor power system for spacecraft have been studied. The approach included examination of two candidate missions and their associated spacecraft, and a number of special topics dealing with the power system design and operation. The missions considered were a reusable orbital transfer vehicle and a space-based radar. The special topics included: Power system configuration and scaling, launch vehicle integration, operating altitude, orbital storage, start-up, thawing, control, load following, procedures in case of malfunction, restart, thermal and nuclear radiation to other portions of the spacecraft, thermal stresses between subsystems, boom and cable designs, vibration modes, attitude control, reliability, and survivability. Among the findings are that the stowed length of the power system is important to mission design and that orbital storage for months to years may be needed for missions involving orbital assembly

  14. Thermophotovoltaic Energy Conversion in Space Nuclear Reactor Power Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Presby, Andrew L

    2004-01-01

    .... This has potential benefits for space nuclear reactor power systems currently in development. The primary obstacle to space operation of thermophotovoltaic devices appears to be the low heat rejection temperatures which necessitate large radiator areas...

  15. Alert-derivative bimodal space power and propulsion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houts, M.G.; Ranken, W.A.; Buksa, J.J.

    1994-01-01

    Safe, reliable, low-mass bimodal space power and propulsion systems could have numerous civilian and military applications. This paper discusses potential bimodal systems that could be derived from the ALERT space fission power supply concept. These bimodal concepts have the potential for providing 5 to 10 kW of electrical power and a total impulse of 100 MN-s at an average specific impulse of 770 s. System mass is on the order of 1000 kg

  16. Transactions of the fifth symposium on space nuclear power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Genk, M.S.; Hoover, M.D. (eds.)

    1988-01-01

    This paper contains the presented papers at the fourth symposium on space nuclear power systems. Topics of these paper include: space nuclear missions and applications, reactors and shielding, nuclear electric and nuclear propulsion, high-temperature materials, instrumentation and control, energy conversion and storage, space nuclear fuels, thermal management, nuclear safety, simulation and modeling, and multimegawatt system concepts. (LSP)

  17. Transactions of the fourth symposium on space nuclear power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Genk, M.S.; Hoover, M.D. (eds.)

    1987-01-01

    This paper contains the presented papers at the fourth symposium on space nuclear power systems. Topics of these papers include: space nuclear missions and applications, reactors and shielding, nuclear electric and nuclear propulsion, refractory alloys and high-temperature materials, instrumentation and control, energy conversion and storage, space nuclear fuels, thermal management, nuclear safety, simulation and modeling, and multimegawatt system concepts. (LSP)

  18. Approach to developing reliable space reactor power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondt, J.F.; Shinbrot, C.H.

    1991-01-01

    The Space Reactor Power System Project is in the engineering development phase of a three-phase program. During Phase II, the Engineering Development Phase, the SP-100 Project has defined and is pursuing a new approach to developing reliable power systems. The approach to developing such a system during the early technology phase is described in this paper along with some preliminary examples to help explain the approach. Developing reliable components to meet space reactor power system requirements is based on a top down systems approach which includes a point design based on a detailed technical specification of a 100 kW power system

  19. Lewis Research Center space station electric power system test facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birchenough, Arthur G.; Martin, Donald F.

    1988-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center facilities were developed to support testing of the Space Station Electric Power System. The capabilities and plans for these facilities are described. The three facilities which are required in the Phase C/D testing, the Power Systems Facility, the Space Power Facility, and the EPS Simulation Lab, are described in detail. The responsibilities of NASA Lewis and outside groups in conducting tests are also discussed.

  20. Refractory metal alloys and composites for space power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, J.R.; Petrasek, D.W.; Titran, R.H.

    1994-01-01

    Space power requirements for future NASA and other United States missions will range from a few kilowatts to megawatts of electricity. Maximum efficiency is a key goal of any power system in order to minimize weight and size so that the space shuttle may be used a minimum number of times to put the power supply into orbit. Nuclear power has been identified as the primary power source to meet these high levels of electrical demand. One method to achieve maximum efficiency is to operate the power supply, energy conversion system, and related components at relatively high temperatures. NASA Lewis Research Center has undertaken a research program on advanced technology of refractory metal alloys and composites that will provide base line information for space power systems in the 1900's and the 21st century. Basic research on the tensile and creep properties of fibers, matrices, and composites will be discussed

  1. Nuclear alkali metal Rankine power systems for space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moyers, J.C.; Holcomb, R.S.

    1986-08-01

    Nucler power systems utilizing alkali metal Rankine power conversion cycles offer the potential for high efficiency, lightweight space power plants. Conceptual design studies are being carried out for both direct and indirect cycle systems for steady state space power applications. A computational model has been developed for calculating the performance, size, and weight of these systems over a wide range of design parameters. The model is described briefly and results from parametric design studies, with descriptions of typical point designs, are presented in this paper

  2. Nuclear alkali metal Rankine power systems for space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moyers, J.C.; Holcomb, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear power systems utilizing alkali metal Rankine power conversion cycles offer the potential for high efficiency, lightweight space power plants. Conceptual design studies are being carried out for both direct and indirect cycle systems for steady state space power applications. A computational model has been developed for calculating the performance, size, and weight of these systems over a wide range of design parameters. The model is described briefly and results from parametric design studies, with descriptions of typical point designs, are presented in this paper

  3. 8th symposium on space nuclear power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandhorst, H. W.

    1991-01-01

    The future appears rich in missions that will extend the frontiers of knowledge, human presence in space, and opportunities for profitable commerce. Key to the success of these ventures is the availability of plentiful, cost effective electric power and assured, low cost access to space. While forecasts of space power needs are problematic, an assessment of future needs based on terrestrial experience has been made. These needs fall into three broad categories: survival, self sufficiency, and industrialization. The cost of delivering payloads to orbital locations from LEO to Mars has been determined and future launch cost reductions projected. From these factors, then, projections of the performance necessary for future solar and nuclear space power options has been made. These goals are largely dependent upon orbital location and energy storage needs. Finally the cost of present space power systems has been determined and projections made for future systems

  4. Space-Based Solar Power System Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    to this thesis, “the Boeing 702 offers a range of power up to 18 kW. Dual and triple -junction gallium arsenide solar cells enable such high power...CONCLUSIONS ........................................................................................................85 A. KEY POINTS AND...USAF. Without the proper starting point and frame of reference, this thesis would not have been possible. Thank you to everyone who had an influence on

  5. Electrical Power Systems for NASA's Space Transportation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lollar, Louis F.; Maus, Louis C.

    1998-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) lead center for space transportation systems development. These systems include earth to orbit launch vehicles, as well as vehicles for orbital transfer and deep space missions. The tasks for these systems include research, technology maturation, design, development, and integration of space transportation and propulsion systems. One of the key elements in any transportation system is the electrical power system (EPS). Every transportation system has to have some form of electrical power and the EPS for each of these systems tends to be as varied and unique as the missions they are supporting. The Preliminary Design Office (PD) at MSFC is tasked to perform feasibility analyses and preliminary design studies for new projects, particularly in the space transportation systems area. All major subsystems, including electrical power, are included in each of these studies. Three example systems being evaluated in PD at this time are the Liquid Fly Back Booster (LFBB) system, the Human Mission to Mars (HMM) study, and a tether based flight experiment called the Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS). These three systems are in various stages of definition in the study phase.

  6. A cooperative power trading system based on satisfaction space technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, K.; Maruo, T.; Mori, N.

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposed a new power trading system model designed to ensure customer cooperation with power suppliers. Designed as an Internet application, the cooperative power trading system modelled power markets using a satisfaction space technology A network model of electric power trading systems was developed to create a communication network system that consisted of suppliers, customers, and auctioneers. When demand exceeded supply, the auctioneer in the trading system requested power reductions from customers. Rewards were paid to maintain the degree of satisfaction of the customers. The supplier's evaluation function was defined as a function of market price and power supply. A power reducing method was developed using a combinatorial optimization technique. Suppliers and customers submitted bids for initial power trading quantities, while the auctioneer decided a market price based on bidding values. After receiving the market price, suppliers and customers submitted a second set of bids for expected power trading quantities. A power reduction plan was then developed by the auctioneer to balance the amount of power supply and demand. The system can be applied to customers whose evaluation functions cannot be estimated beforehand, as the auctioneer was able to choose the most efficient power reduction point selected by consumers using a maximum steep slope method. Simulations conducted to validate the trading system demonstrated that the system is capable of choosing efficient energy reduction plans. 6 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs

  7. Man--machine interface issues for space nuclear power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, W.R.; Haugset, K.

    1991-01-01

    The deployment of nuclear reactors in space necessitates an entirely new set of guidelines for the design of the man--machine interface (MMI) when compared to earth-based applications such as commerical nuclear power plants. Although the design objectives of earth- and space-based nuclear power systems are the same, that is, to produce electrical power, the differences in the application environments mean that the operator's role will be significantly different for space-based systems. This paper explores the issues associated with establishing the necessary MMI guidelines for space nuclear power systems. The generic human performance requirements for space-based systems are described, and the operator roles that are utilized for the operation of current and advanced earth-based reactors are briefly summarized. The development of a prototype advanced control room, the Integrated Surveillance and Control System (ISACS) at the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Halden Reactor Project is introduced. Finally, preliminary ideas for the use of the ISACS system as a test bed for establishing MMI guidelines for space nuclear systems are presented

  8. Thin film coatings for space electrical power system applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulino, Daniel A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper examines some of the ways in which thin film coatings can play a role in aerospace applications. Space systems discussed include photovoltaic and solar dynamic electric power generation systems, including applications in environmental protection, thermal energy storage, and radiator emittance enhancement. Potential applications of diamondlike films to both atmospheric and space based systems are examined. Also, potential uses of thin films of the recently discovered high-temperature superconductive materials are discussed.

  9. Expert systems for space power supply: design, analysis, and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, R.S.; Thomson, M.K.; Hoshor, A.

    1987-01-01

    The authors evaluated the feasibility of applying expert systems to the conceptual design, analysis, and evaluation of space power supplies in particular, and complex systems in general. To do this, they analyzed the space power supply design process and in associated knowledge base, and characterized them in a form suitable for computer emulation of a human expert. The existing expert system tools and the results achieved with them were evaluated to assess their applicability to power system design. They applied some new concepts for combining program architectures (modular expert systems and algorithms) with information about the domain to create a deep system for handling the complex design problem. They authors developed, programmed and tested NOVICE, a code to solve a simplified version of a scoping study of a wide variety of power supply types for a broad range of missions, as a concrete feasibility demonstration

  10. SPGD: A central power system for space title in French

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widrig, R.D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the Space Power Generation and Distribution (SPGD) concept for providing power to any satellite in earth orbit via power beaming. Other applications such as providing power for terrestrial or space exploration purposes are identified. An assessment of SPGD versus conventional space power is summarized concluding SPGD appears extremely attractive for our space future. 1 ref

  11. Power system requirements and selection for the space exploration initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biringer, K.L.; Bartine, D.E.; Buden, D.; Foreman, J.; Harrison, S.

    1991-01-01

    The Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) seeks to reestablish a US program of manned and unmanned space exploration. The President has called for a program which includes a space station element, a manned habitation of the moon, and a human exploration of Mars. The NASA Synthesis Group has developed four significantly different architectures for the SEI program. One key element of a space exploration effort is the power required to support the missions. The Power Speciality Team of the Synthesis Group was tasked with assessing and evaluating the power requirements and candidate power technologies for such missions. Inputs to the effort came from existing NASA studies as well as other governments agency inputs such as those from DOD and DOE. In addition, there were industry and university briefings and results of solicitations from the AIAA and the general public as part of the NASA outreach effort. Because of the variety of power needs in the SEI program, there will be a need for multiple power system technologies including solar, nuclear and electrochemical. Due to the high rocket masses required to propel payloads to the moon and beyond to Mars, there is great emphasis placed on the need for high power density and high energy density systems. Power system technology development work is needed results will determine the ultimate technology selections. 23 refs., 10 figs

  12. Evolutionary growth for Space Station Freedom electrical power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Matthew Fisk; Mclallin, Kerry; Zernic, Mike

    1989-01-01

    Over an operational lifetime of at least 30 yr, Space Station Freedom will encounter increased Space Station user requirements and advancing technologies. The Space Station electrical power system is designed with the flexibility to accommodate these emerging technologies and expert systems and is being designed with the necessary software hooks and hardware scars to accommodate increased growth demand. The electrical power system is planned to grow from the initial 75 kW up to 300 kW. The Phase 1 station will utilize photovoltaic arrays to produce the electrical power; however, for growth to 300 kW, solar dynamic power modules will be utilized. Pairs of 25 kW solar dynamic power modules will be added to the station to reach the power growth level. The addition of solar dynamic power in the growth phase places constraints in the initial Space Station systems such as guidance, navigation, and control, external thermal, truss structural stiffness, computational capabilities and storage, which must be planned-in, in order to facilitate the addition of the solar dynamic modules.

  13. A Review of Tribomaterial Technology for Space Nuclear Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Malcolm K.

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has recently proposed a nuclear closed-cycle electric power conversion system for generation of 100-kW of electrical power for space exploration missions. A critical issue is the tribological performance of sliding components within the power conversion unit that will be exposed to neutron radiation. This paper presents a review of the main considerations that have been made in the selection of solid lubricants for similar applications in the past as well as a recommendations for continuing development of the technology.

  14. Planning for a space infrastructure for disposal of nuclear space power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelo, J. Jr.; Albert, T.E.; Lee, J.

    1989-01-01

    The development of safe, reliable, and compact power systems is vital to humanity's exploration, development, and, ultimately, civilization of space. Nuclear power systems appear to present to offer the only practical option of compact high-power systems. From the very beginning of US space nuclear power activities, safety has been a paramount requirement. Assurance of nuclear safety has included prelaunch ground handling operations, launch, and space operations of nuclear power sources, and more recently serious attention has been given to postoperational disposal of spent or errant nuclear reactor systems. The purpose of this paper is to describe the progress of a project to utilize the capabilities of an evolving space infrastructure for planning for disposal of space nuclear systems. Project SIREN (Search, Intercept, Retrieve, Expulsion - Nuclear) is a project that has been initiated to consider post-operational disposal options for nuclear space power systems. The key finding of Project SIREN was that although no system currently exists to affect the disposal of a nuclear space power system, the requisite technologies for such a system either exist or are planned for part of the evolving space infrastructure

  15. Performance analysis of Brayton cycle system for space power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhi; Yang Xiaoyong; Zhao Gang; Wang Jie; Zhang Zuoyi

    2017-01-01

    The closed Brayton cycle system now is the potential choice as the power conversion system for High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors because of its high energy conversion efficiency and compact configuration. The helium is the best working fluid for the system for its chemical stability and small neutron absorption cross section. However, the Helium has small mole mass and big specific volume, which would lead to larger pipes and heat exchanger. What's more, the big compressor enthalpy rise of helium would also lead to an unacceptably large number of compressor's stage. For space use, it's more important to satisfy the limit of the system's volume and mass, instead of the requirement of the system's thermal capacity. So Noble-Gas binary mixture of helium and xenon is presented as the working fluid for space Brayton cycle. This paper makes a mathematical model for space Brayton cycle system by Fortran language, then analyzes the binary mixture of helium and xenon's properties and effects on power conversion units of the space power reactor, which would be helpful to understand and design the space power reactor. The results show that xenon would lead to a worse system's thermodynamic property, the cycle's efficiency and specific power decrease as xenon's mole fraction increasing. On the other hand, proper amount of xenon would decrease the enthalpy changes in turbomachines, which would be good for turbomachines' design. Another optimization method – the specific power optimization is also proposed to make a comparison. (author)

  16. IEC fusion: The future power and propulsion system for space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, Walter E.; Coventry, Matt; Miley, George H.; Nadler, Jon; Hanson, John; Hrbud, Ivana

    2000-01-01

    Rapid access to any point in the solar system requires advanced propulsion concepts that will provide extremely high specific impulse, low specific power, and a high thrust-to-power ratio. Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) fusion is one of many exciting concepts emerging through propulsion and power research in laboratories across the nation which will determine the future direction of space exploration. This is part of a series of papers that discuss different applications of the Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) fusion concept for both in-space and terrestrial use. IEC will enable tremendous advances in faster travel times within the solar system. The technology is currently under investigation for proof of concept and transitioning into the first prototype units for commercial applications. In addition to use in propulsion for space applications, terrestrial applications include desalinization plants, high energy neutron sources for radioisotope generation, high flux sources for medical applications, proton sources for specialized medical applications, and tritium production

  17. Static and dynamic high power, space nuclear electric generating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetch, J.R.; Begg, L.L.; Koester, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    Space nuclear electric generating systems concepts have been assessed for their potential in satisfying future spacecraft high power (several megawatt) requirements. Conceptual designs have been prepared for reactor power systems using the most promising static (thermionic) and the most promising dynamic conversion processes. Component and system layouts, along with system mass and envelope requirements have been made. Key development problems have been identified and the impact of the conversion process selection upon thermal management and upon system and vehicle configuration is addressed. 10 references

  18. Fuel Cells: Power System Option for Space Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaneeth, M.; Mohanty, Surajeet

    2012-07-01

    Fuel Cells are direct energy conversion devices and, thereby, they deliver electrical energy at very high efficiency levels. Hydrogen and Oxygen gases are electrochemically processed, producing clean electric power with water as the only by product. A typical, Fuel Cell based power system involve a Electrochemical power converter, gas storage and management systems, thermal management systems and relevant control units. While there exists different types of Fuel cells, Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells are considered as the most suitable one for portable applications. Generally, Fuel Cells are considered as the primary power system option in space missions requiring high power ( > 5kW) and long durations and also where water is a consumable, such as manned missions. This is primarily due to the advantage that fuel cell based power systems offer, in terms of specific energy. Fuel cells have the potential to attain specific energy > 500Wh/kg, specific power >500W/kg, energy density > 400Whr/L and also power density > 200 W/L. This apart, a fuel cell system operate totally independent of sun light, whereas as battery based system is fully dependent on the same. This uniqueness provides added flexibility and capabilities to the missions and modularity for power system. High power requiring missions involving reusable launch vehicles, manned missions etc are expected to be richly benefited from this. Another potential application of Fuel Cell would be interplanetary exploration. Unpredictable and dusty atmospheres of heavenly bodies limits sun light significantly and there fuel cells of different types, eg, Bio-Fuel Cells, PEMFC, DMFCs would be able to work effectively. Manned or unmanned lunar out post would require continuous power even during extra long lunar nights and high power levels are expected. Regenerative Fuel Cells, a combination of Fuel Cells and Electrolysers, are identified as strong candidate. While application of Fuel Cells in high power

  19. 46 CFR 111.103-1 - Power ventilation systems except machinery space ventilation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Power ventilation systems except machinery space ventilation systems. 111.103-1 Section 111.103-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Power ventilation systems except machinery space ventilation systems. Each power ventilation system must...

  20. Nuclear space power systems for orbit raising and maneuvering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buden, D.; Sullivan, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    Reference is made to recent studies which have shown that direct thrust nuclear rockets for routine orbit raising and near-earth space tug missions are probably not cost-effective. The need for additional trade-off studies and comparisons of direct-thrust nuclear systems with chemical systems to clarify the role of nuclear rockets in missions requiring rapid orbit maneuvering is stressed. Attention is confined here to nuclear electric propulsion considerations. Low-mass nuclear power plants are constructed to optimize nuclear electric propulsion systems. Electric power levels from 100 kilowatts to as much as several megawatts are desirable. The goals for the power plant specific mass are 20-30 kg/kW at the lower powers to 2-4 kg/kW at the higher powers

  1. Concept for a power system controller for large space electrical power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lollar, L. F.; Lanier, J. R., Jr.; Graves, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    The development of technology for a fail-operatonal power system controller (PSC) utilizing microprocessor technology for managing the distribution and power processor subsystems of a large multi-kW space electrical power system is discussed. The specific functions which must be performed by the PSC, the best microprocessor available to do the job, and the feasibility, cost savings, and applications of a PSC were determined. A limited function breadboard version of a PSC was developed to demonstrate the concept and potential cost savings.

  2. Enabling autonomous control for space reactor power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, R. T.

    2006-01-01

    The application of nuclear reactors for space power and/or propulsion presents some unique challenges regarding the operations and control of the power system. Terrestrial nuclear reactors employ varying degrees of human control and decision-making for operations and benefit from periodic human interaction for maintenance. In contrast, the control system of a space reactor power system (SRPS) employed for deep space missions must be able to accommodate unattended operations due to communications delays and periods of planetary occlusion while adapting to evolving or degraded conditions with no opportunity for repair or refurbishment. Thus, a SRPS control system must provide for operational autonomy. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has conducted an investigation of the state of the technology for autonomous control to determine the experience base in the nuclear power application domain, both for space and terrestrial use. It was found that control systems with varying levels of autonomy have been employed in robotic, transportation, spacecraft, and manufacturing applications. However, autonomous control has not been implemented for an operating terrestrial nuclear power plant nor has there been any experience beyond automating simple control loops for space reactors. Current automated control technologies for nuclear power plants are reasonably mature, and basic control for a SRPS is clearly feasible under optimum circumstances. However, autonomous control is primarily intended to account for the non optimum circumstances when degradation, failure, and other off-normal events challenge the performance of the reactor and near-term human intervention is not possible. Thus, the development and demonstration of autonomous control capabilities for the specific domain of space nuclear power operations is needed. This paper will discuss the findings of the ORNL study and provide a description of the concept of autonomy, its key characteristics, and a prospective

  3. Thermal energy storage for a space solar dynamic power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faget, N. M.; Fraser, W. M., Jr.; Simon, W. E.

    1985-01-01

    In the past, NASA has employed solar photovoltaic devices for long-duration missions. Thus, the Skylab system has operated with a silicon photovoltaic array and a nickel-cadmium electrochemical system energy storage system. Difficulties regarding the employment of such a system for the larger power requirements of the Space Station are related to a low orbit system efficiency and the large weight of the battery. For this reason the employment of a solar dynamic power system (SDPS) has been considered. The primary components of an SDPS include a concentrating mirror, a heat receiver, a thermal energy storage (TES) system, a thermodynamic heat engine, an alternator, and a heat rejection system. The heat-engine types under consideration are a Brayton cycle engine, an organic Rankine cycle engine, and a free-piston/linear-alternator Stirling cycle engine. Attention is given to a system description, TES integration concepts, and a TES technology assessment.

  4. Estimating inhalation hazards for space nuclear power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoover, M.D.; Cuddihy, R.G.; Seiler, F.Z.

    1989-01-01

    Minimizing inhalation hazards is a major consideration in the design, development, transportation, handling, testing, storage, launch, use, and ultimate disposition of nuclear space power systems (NSPSs). An accidental dispersion of 238 Pu is of concern for missions involving the radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) or lightweight radioisotope heater units. Materials of concern for missions involving a nuclear reactor might include other radionuclides, such as uranium, or chemically toxic materials, such as beryllium or lithium. This paper provides an overview of some of the current approaches and uncertainties associated with estimating inhalation hazards from potential NSPS accidents. The question of whether inhalation risks can be acceptable for nuclear space power systems is still open and active. The inherently low toxicity of the uranium fuel of a space nuclear reactor is a desirable feature of that option. The extensive engineering and testing that have contributed to the current generation of plutonium RTGs provide a measure of confidence that dispersion of the RTG fuel would be unlikely in an accident. The use of nuclear reactors or RTGs in space, however, requires society to assume a risk (albeit low) for dispersion of the fuel material. It can be argued that any additional risks from the use of nuclear power in space are far less than the risks we face daily

  5. Autonomous power expert fault diagnostic system for Space Station Freedom electrical power system testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Long V.; Walters, Jerry L.; Roth, Mary Ellen; Quinn, Todd M.; Krawczonek, Walter M.

    1990-01-01

    The goal of the Autonomous Power System (APS) program is to develop and apply intelligent problem solving and control to the Space Station Freedom Electrical Power System (SSF/EPS) testbed being developed and demonstrated at NASA Lewis Research Center. The objectives of the program are to establish artificial intelligence technology paths, to craft knowledge-based tools with advanced human-operator interfaces for power systems, and to interface and integrate knowledge-based systems with conventional controllers. The Autonomous Power EXpert (APEX) portion of the APS program will integrate a knowledge-based fault diagnostic system and a power resource planner-scheduler. Then APEX will interface on-line with the SSF/EPS testbed and its Power Management Controller (PMC). The key tasks include establishing knowledge bases for system diagnostics, fault detection and isolation analysis, on-line information accessing through PMC, enhanced data management, and multiple-level, object-oriented operator displays. The first prototype of the diagnostic expert system for fault detection and isolation has been developed. The knowledge bases and the rule-based model that were developed for the Power Distribution Control Unit subsystem of the SSF/EPS testbed are described. A corresponding troubleshooting technique is also described.

  6. Nuclear safety as applied to space power reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummings, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    To develop a strategy for incorporating and demonstrating safety, it is necessary to enumerate the unique aspects of space power reactor systems from a safety standpoint. These features must be differentiated from terrestrial nuclear power plants so that our experience can be applied properly. Some ideas can then be developed on how safe designs can be achieved so that they are safe and perceived to be safe by the public. These ideas include operating only after achieving a stable orbit, developing an inherently safe design, ''designing'' in safety from the start and managing the system development (design) so that it is perceived safe. These and other ideas are explored further in this paper

  7. Proposed advanced satellite applications utilizing space nuclear power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, P.G.; Isenberg, L.

    1990-01-01

    A review of the status of space nuclear reactor systems and their possible applications is presented. Such systems have been developed over the past twenty years and are capable of use in various military and civilian applications in the 5-1000 kWe power range. The capabilities and limitations of the currently proposed nuclear reactor systems are summarized. Safety issues are shown to be identified, and if properly addressed should not pose a hindrance. Applications are summarized for the federal and civilian community. These applications include both low and high altitude satellite surveillance missions, communications satellites, planetary probes, low and high power lunar and planetary base power systems, broad-band global telecommunications, air traffic control, and high-definition television

  8. SP-100 nuclear space power systems with application to space commercialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to familiarize the Space Commercialization Community with the status and characteristics of the SP-100 space nuclear power system. The program is a joint undertaking by the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy and NASA. The goal of the program is to develop, validate, and demonstrate the technology for space nuclear power systems in the range of 10 to 1000 kWe electric for use in the future civilian and military space missions. Also discussed are mission applications which are enhanced and/or enabled by SP-100 technology and how this technology compares to that of more familiar solar power systems. The mission applications include earth orbiting platforms and lunar/Mars surface power

  9. Cooperating expert systems for space station power distribution management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, T.A.; Chiou, W.C.

    1986-01-01

    In a complex system such as the manned Space Station, it is deemed necessary that many expert systems must perform tasks in a concurrent and cooperative manner. An important question to arise is: what cooperative-task-performing models are appropriate for multiple expert systems to jointly perform tasks. The solution to this question will provide a crucial automation design criteria for the Space Station complex systems architecture. Based on a client/server model for performing tasks, the authors have developed a system that acts as a front-end to support loosely-coupled communications between expert systems running on multiple Symbolics machines. As an example, they use the two ART*-based expert systems to demonstrate the concept of parallel symbolic manipulation for power distribution management and dynamic load planner/scheduler in the simulated Space Station environment. This on-going work will also explore other cooperative-task-performing models as alternatives which can evaluate inter and intra expert system communication mechanisms. It will serve as a testbed and a bench-marking tool for other Space Station expert subsystem communication and information exchange

  10. Cooperating Expert Systems For Space Station Power Distribution Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, T. A.; Chiou, W. C.

    1987-02-01

    In a complex system such as the manned Space Station, it is deem necessary that many expert systems must perform tasks in a concurrent and cooperative manner. An important question arise is: what cooperative-task-performing models are appropriate for multiple expert systems to jointly perform tasks. The solution to this question will provide a crucial automation design criteria for the Space Station complex systems architecture. Based on a client/server model for performing tasks, we have developed a system that acts as a front-end to support loosely-coupled communications between expert systems running on multiple Symbolics machines. As an example, we use two ART*-based expert systems to demonstrate the concept of parallel symbolic manipulation for power distribution management and dynamic load planner/scheduler in the simulated Space Station environment. This on-going work will also explore other cooperative-task-performing models as alternatives which can evaluate inter and intra expert system communication mechanisms. It will be served as a testbed and a bench-marking tool for other Space Station expert subsystem communication and information exchange.

  11. Radiator selection for Space Station Solar Dynamic Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Mike; Hoehn, Frank

    A study was conducted to define the best radiator for heat rejection of the Space Station Solar Dynamic Power System. Included in the study were radiators for both the Organic Rankine Cycle and Closed Brayton Cycle heat engines. A number of potential approaches were considered for the Organic Rankine Cycle and a constructable radiator was chosen. Detailed optimizations of this concept were conducted resulting in a baseline for inclusion into the ORC Preliminary Design. A number of approaches were also considered for the CBC radiator. For this application a deployed pumped liquid radiator was selected which was also refined resulting in a baseline for the CBC preliminary design. This paper reports the results and methodology of these studies and describes the preliminary designs of the Space Station Solar Dynamic Power System radiators for both of the candidate heat engine cycles.

  12. Advanced Thermophotovoltaic Devices for Space Nuclear Power Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wernsman, Bernard; Mahorter, Robert G.; Siergiej, Richard; Link, Samuel D.; Wehrer, Rebecca J.; Belanger, Sean J.; Fourspring, Patrick; Murray, Susan; Newman, Fred; Taylor, Dan; Rahmlow, Tom

    2005-01-01

    Advanced thermophotovoltaic (TPV) modules capable of producing > 0.3 W/cm2 at an efficiency > 22% while operating at a converter radiator and module temperature of 1228 K and 325 K, respectively, have been made. These advanced TPV modules are projected to produce > 0.9 W/cm2 at an efficiency > 24% while operating at a converter radiator and module temperature of 1373 K and 325 K, respectively. Radioisotope and nuclear (fission) powered space systems utilizing these advanced TPV modules have been evaluated. For a 100 We radioisotope TPV system, systems utilizing as low as 2 general purpose heat source (GPHS) units are feasible, where the specific power for the 2 and 3 GPHS unit systems operating in a 200 K environment is as large as ∼ 16 We/kg and ∼ 14 We/kg, respectively. For a 100 kWe nuclear powered (as was entertained for the thermoelectric SP-100 program) TPV system, the minimum system radiator area and mass is ∼ 640 m2 and ∼ 1150 kg, respectively, for a converter radiator, system radiator and environment temperature of 1373 K, 435 K and 200 K, respectively. Also, for a converter radiator temperature of 1373 K, the converter volume and mass remains less than 0.36 m3 and 640 kg, respectively. Thus, the minimum system radiator + converter (reactor and shield not included) specific mass is ∼ 16 kg/kWe for a converter radiator, system radiator and environment temperature of 1373 K, 425 K and 200 K, respectively. Under this operating condition, the reactor thermal rating is ∼ 1110 kWt. Due to the large radiator area, the added complexity and mission risk needs to be weighed against reducing the reactor thermal rating to determine the feasibility of using TPV for space nuclear (fission) power systems

  13. Operational environments for electrical power wiring on NASA space systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavnes, Mark W.; Hammoud, Ahmad N.; Bercaw, Robert W.

    1994-01-01

    Electrical wiring systems are used extensively on NASA space systems for power management and distribution, control and command, and data transmission. The reliability of these systems when exposed to the harsh environments of space is very critical to mission success and crew safety. Failures have been reported both on the ground and in flight due to arc tracking in the wiring harnesses, made possible by insulation degradation. This report was written as part of a NASA Office of Safety and Mission Assurance (Code Q) program to identify and characterize wiring systems in terms of their potential use in aerospace vehicles. The goal of the program is to provide the information and guidance needed to develop and qualify reliable, safe, lightweight wiring systems, which are resistant to arc tracking and suitable for use in space power applications. This report identifies the environments in which NASA spacecraft will operate, and determines the specific NASA testing requirements. A summary of related test programs is also given in this report. This data will be valuable to spacecraft designers in determining the best wiring constructions for the various NASA applications.

  14. A logistics model for large space power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelle, H. H.

    Space Power Systems (SPS) have to overcome two hurdles: (1) to find an attractive design, manufacturing and assembly concept and (2) to have available a space transportation system that can provide economical logistic support during the construction and operational phases. An initial system feasibility study, some five years ago, was based on a reference system that used terrestrial resources only and was based partially on electric propulsion systems. The conclusion was: it is feasible but not yet economically competitive with other options. This study is based on terrestrial and extraterrestrial resources and on chemical (LH 2/LOX) propulsion systems. These engines are available from the Space Shuttle production line and require small changes only. Other so-called advanced propulsion systems investigated did not prove economically superior if lunar LOX is available! We assume that a Shuttle derived Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV) will become available around the turn of the century and that this will be used to establish a research base on the lunar surface. This lunar base has the potential to grow into a lunar factory producing LOX and construction materials for supporting among other projects also the construction of space power systems in geostationary orbit. A model was developed to simulate the logistics support of such an operation for a 50-year life cycle. After 50 years 111 SPS units with 5 GW each and an availability of 90% will produce 100 × 5 = 500 GW. The model comprises 60 equations and requires 29 assumptions of the parameter involved. 60-state variables calculated with the 60 equations mentioned above are given on an annual basis and as averages for the 50-year life cycle. Recycling of defective parts in geostationary orbit is one of the features of the model. The state-of-the-art with respect to SPS technology is introduced as a variable Mg mass/MW electric power delivered. If the space manufacturing facility, a maintenance and repair facility

  15. Autonomous Control Capabilities for Space Reactor Power Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, Richard T.; Neal, John S.; Brittain, C. Ray; Mullens, James A.

    2004-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Project Prometheus, the Nuclear Systems Program, is investigating a possible Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) mission, which would conduct in-depth studies of three of the moons of Jupiter by using a space reactor power system (SRPS) to provide energy for propulsion and spacecraft power for more than a decade. Terrestrial nuclear power plants rely upon varying degrees of direct human control and interaction for operations and maintenance over a forty to sixty year lifetime. In contrast, an SRPS is intended to provide continuous, remote, unattended operation for up to fifteen years with no maintenance. Uncertainties, rare events, degradation, and communications delays with Earth are challenges that SRPS control must accommodate. Autonomous control is needed to address these challenges and optimize the reactor control design. In this paper, we describe an autonomous control concept for generic SRPS designs. The formulation of an autonomous control concept, which includes identification of high-level functional requirements and generation of a research and development plan for enabling technologies, is among the technical activities that are being conducted under the U.S. Department of Energy's Space Reactor Technology Program in support of the NASA's Project Prometheus. The findings from this program are intended to contribute to the successful realization of the JIMO mission

  16. ALKASYS, Rankine-Cycle Space Nuclear Power System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: The program ALKASYS is used for the creation of design concepts of multimegawatt space power systems that employ potassium Rankine power conversion cycles. 2 - Method of solution: ALKASYS calculates performance and design characteristics and mass estimates for the major subsystems composing the total power system. Design and engineering performance characteristics are determined by detailed engineering procedures rather than by empirical algorithms. Mass estimates are developed using basic design principles augmented in some cases by empirical coefficients determined from the literature. The reactor design is based on a fast spectrum, metallic-clad rod fuel element containing UN pellets. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: ALKASYS was developed primarily for the analysis of systems with electric power in the range from 1,000 to 25,000 kW(e) and full-power life from 1 to 10 years. The program should be used with caution in systems that are limited by heat flux (which might indicate need for extended surfaces on fuel elements) or criticality (which might indicate the need for other geometries or moderators)

  17. Advanced Space Power Systems (ASPS): Regenerative Fuel Cells (RFC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the regenerative fuel cell project element is to develop power and energy storage technologies that enable new capabilities for future human space...

  18. Brayton rotating units for space reactor power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallo, Bruno M.; El-Genk, Mohamed S. [Institute for Space and Nuclear Power Studies and Chemical and Nuclear Engineering Dept., The Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States)

    2009-09-15

    Designs and analyses models of centrifugal-flow compressor and radial-inflow turbine of 40.8kW{sub e} Brayton Rotating Units (BRUs) are developed for 15 and 40 g/mole He-Xe working fluids. Also presented are the performance results of a space power system with segmented, gas cooled fission reactor heat source and three Closed Brayton Cycle loops, each with a separate BRU. The calculated performance parameters of the BRUs and the reactor power system are for shaft rotational speed of 30-55 krpm, reactor thermal power of 120-471kW{sub th}, and turbine inlet temperature of 900-1149 K. With 40 g/mole He-Xe, a power system peak thermal efficiency of 26% is achieved at rotation speed of 45 krpm, compressor and turbine inlet temperatures of 400 and 1149 K and 0.93 MPa at exit of the compressor. The corresponding system electric power is 122.4kW{sub e}, working fluid flow rate is 1.85 kg/s and the pressure ratio and polytropic efficiency are 1.5% and 86.3% for the compressor and 1.42% and 94.1% for the turbine. For the same nominal electrical power of 122.4kW{sub e}, decreasing the molecular weight of the working fluid (15 g/mole) decreases its flow rate to 1.03 kg/s and increases the system pressure to 1.2 MPa. (author)

  19. Small Stirling dynamic isotope power system for robotic space missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bents, D.J.

    1992-08-01

    The design of a multihundred-watt Dynamic Isotope Power System (DIPS), based on the US Department of Energy (DOE) General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) and small (multihundred-watt) free-piston Stirling engine (FPSE), is being pursued as a potential lower cost alternative to radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG's). The design is targeted at the power needs of future unmanned deep space and planetary surface exploration missions ranging from scientific probes to Space Exploration Initiative precursor missions. Power level for these missions is less than a kilowatt. The incentive for any dynamic system is that it can save fuel and reduce costs and radiological hazard. Unlike DIPS based on turbomachinery conversion (e.g. Brayton), this small Stirling DIPS can be advantageously scaled to multihundred-watt unit size while preserving size and mass competitiveness with RTG's. Stirling conversion extends the competitive range for dynamic systems down to a few hundred watts--a power level not previously considered for dynamic systems. The challenge for Stirling conversion will be to demonstrate reliability and life similar to RTG experience. Since the competitive potential of FPSE as an isotope converter was first identified, work has focused on feasibility of directly integrating GPHS with the Stirling heater head. Thermal modeling of various radiatively coupled heat source/heater head geometries has been performed using data furnished by the developers of FPSE and GPHS. The analysis indicates that, for the 1050 K heater head configurations considered, GPHS fuel clad temperatures remain within acceptable operating limits. Based on these results, preliminary characterizations of multihundred-watt units have been established

  20. A heat receiver design for solar dynamic space power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Karl W.; Dustin, Miles O.; Crane, Roger

    1990-01-01

    An advanced heat pipe receiver designed for a solar dynamic space power system is described. The power system consists of a solar concentrator, solar heat receiver, Stirling heat engine, linear alternator and waste heat radiator. The solar concentrator focuses the sun's energy into a heat receiver. The engine and alternator convert a portion of this energy to electric power and the remaining heat is rejected by a waste heat radiator. Primary liquid metal heat pipes transport heat energy to the Stirling engine. Thermal energy storage allows this power system to operate during the shade portion of an orbit. Lithium fluoride/calcium fluoride eutectic is the thermal energy storage material. Thermal energy storage canisters are attached to the midsection of each heat pipe. The primary heat pipes pass through a secondary vapor cavity heat pipe near the engine and receiver interface. The secondary vapor cavity heat pipe serves three important functions. First, it smooths out hot spots in the solar cavity and provides even distribution of heat to the engine. Second, the event of a heat pipe failure, the secondary heat pipe cavity can efficiently transfer heat from other operating primary heat pipes to the engine heat exchanger of the defunct heat pipe. Third, the secondary heat pipe vapor cavity reduces temperature drops caused by heat flow into the engine. This unique design provides a high level of reliability and performance.

  1. Space Station Freedom power - A reliability, availability, and maintainability assessment of the proposed Space Station Freedom electric power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnquist, S. R.; Twombly, M.; Hoffman, D.

    1989-01-01

    A preliminary reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM) analysis of the proposed Space Station Freedom electric power system (EPS) was performed using the unit reliability, availability, and maintainability (UNIRAM) analysis methodology. Orbital replacement units (ORUs) having the most significant impact on EPS availability measures were identified. Also, the sensitivity of the EPS to variations in ORU RAM data was evaluated for each ORU. Estimates were made of average EPS power output levels and availability of power to the core area of the space station. The results of assessments of the availability of EPS power and power to load distribution points in the space stations are given. Some highlights of continuing studies being performed to understand EPS availability considerations are presented.

  2. Gas-cooled reactor for space power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, C.E.; Pearson, J.S.

    1987-05-01

    Reactor characteristics based on extensive development work on the 500-MWt reactor for the Pluto nuclear ramjet are described for space power systems useful in the range of 2 to 20 MWe for operating times of 1 y. The modest pressure drop through the prismatic ceramic core is supported at the outlet end by a ceramic dome which also serves as a neutron reflector. Three core materials are considered which are useful at temperatures up to about 2000 K. Most of the calculations are based on a beryllium oxide with uranium dioxide core. Reactor control is accomplished by use of a burnable poison, a variable-leakage reflector, and internal control rods. Reactivity swings of 20% are obtained with a dozen internal boron-10 rods for the size cores studied. Criticality calculations were performed using the ALICE Monte Carlo code. The inherent high-temperature capability of the reactor design removes the reactor as a limiting condition on system performance. The low fuel inventories required, particularly for beryllium oxide reactors, make space power systems based on gas-cooled near-thermal reactors a lesser safeguard risk than those based on fast reactors

  3. Summary of space nuclear reactor power systems, 1983--1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buden, D.

    1993-08-11

    This report summarizes major developments in the last ten years which have greatly expanded the space nuclear reactor power systems technology base. In the SP-100 program, after a competition between liquid-metal, gas-cooled, thermionic, and heat pipe reactors integrated with various combinations of thermoelectric thermionic, Brayton, Rankine, and Stirling energy conversion systems, three concepts:were selected for further evaluation. In 1985, the high-temperature (1,350 K), lithium-cooled reactor with thermoelectric conversion was selected for full scale development. Since then, significant progress has been achieved including the demonstration of a 7-y-life uranium nitride fuel pin. Progress on the lithium-cooled reactor with thermoelectrics has progressed from a concept, through a generic flight system design, to the design, development, and testing of specific components. Meanwhile, the USSR in 1987--88 orbited a new generation of nuclear power systems beyond the, thermoelectric plants on the RORSAT satellites. The US has continued to advance its own thermionic fuel element development, concentrating on a multicell fuel element configuration. Experimental work has demonstrated a single cell operating time of about 1 1/2-y. Technology advances have also been made in the Stirling engine; an advanced engine that operates at 1,050 K is ready for testing. Additional concepts have been studied and experiments have been performed on a variety of systems to meet changing needs; such as powers of tens-to-hundreds of megawatts and highly survivable systems of tens-of-kilowatts power.

  4. Summary of space nuclear reactor power systems, 1983--1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buden, D.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes major developments in the last ten years which have greatly expanded the space nuclear reactor power systems technology base. In the SP-100 program, after a competition between liquid-metal, gas-cooled, thermionic, and heat pipe reactors integrated with various combinations of thermoelectric thermionic, Brayton, Rankine, and Stirling energy conversion systems, three concepts:were selected for further evaluation. In 1985, the high-temperature (1,350 K), lithium-cooled reactor with thermoelectric conversion was selected for full scale development. Since then, significant progress has been achieved including the demonstration of a 7-y-life uranium nitride fuel pin. Progress on the lithium-cooled reactor with thermoelectrics has progressed from a concept, through a generic flight system design, to the design, development, and testing of specific components. Meanwhile, the USSR in 1987--88 orbited a new generation of nuclear power systems beyond the, thermoelectric plants on the RORSAT satellites. The US has continued to advance its own thermionic fuel element development, concentrating on a multicell fuel element configuration. Experimental work has demonstrated a single cell operating time of about 1 1/2-y. Technology advances have also been made in the Stirling engine; an advanced engine that operates at 1,050 K is ready for testing. Additional concepts have been studied and experiments have been performed on a variety of systems to meet changing needs; such as powers of tens-to-hundreds of megawatts and highly survivable systems of tens-of-kilowatts power

  5. Nuclear safety as applied to space power reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummings, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    Current space nuclear power reactor safety issues are discussed with respect to the unique characteristics of these reactors. An approach to achieving adequate safety and a perception of safety is outlined. This approach calls for a carefully conceived safety program which makes uses of lessons learned from previous terrestrial power reactor development programs. This approach includes use of risk analyses, passive safety design features, and analyses/experiments to understand and control off-design conditions. The point is made that some recent accidents concerning terrestrial power reactors do not imply that space power reactors cannot be operated safety

  6. Adaptive Modeling of the International Space Station Electrical Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Justin Ray

    2007-01-01

    Software simulations provide NASA engineers the ability to experiment with spacecraft systems in a computer-imitated environment. Engineers currently develop software models that encapsulate spacecraft system behavior. These models can be inaccurate due to invalid assumptions, erroneous operation, or system evolution. Increasing accuracy requires manual calibration and domain-specific knowledge. This thesis presents a method for automatically learning system models without any assumptions regarding system behavior. Data stream mining techniques are applied to learn models for critical portions of the International Space Station (ISS) Electrical Power System (EPS). We also explore a knowledge fusion approach that uses traditional engineered EPS models to supplement the learned models. We observed that these engineered EPS models provide useful background knowledge to reduce predictive error spikes when confronted with making predictions in situations that are quite different from the training scenarios used when learning the model. Evaluations using ISS sensor data and existing EPS models demonstrate the success of the adaptive approach. Our experimental results show that adaptive modeling provides reductions in model error anywhere from 80% to 96% over these existing models. Final discussions include impending use of adaptive modeling technology for ISS mission operations and the need for adaptive modeling in future NASA lunar and Martian exploration.

  7. Instrumentation and Controls evaluation for space nuclear power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.L.; Oakes, L.C.

    1984-01-01

    Design of control and protection systems should be coordinated with the design of the neutronic, thermal-hydraulic, and mechanical aspects of the core and plant at the earliest possible stage of concept development. An integrated systematic design approach is necessary to prevent uncoordinated choices in one technology area from imposing impractical or impossible requirements in another. Significant development and qualification will be required for virtually every aspect of reactor control and instrumentation. In-core instrumentation widely used in commercial light water reactors will not likely be usable in the higher temperatures of a space power plant. Thermocouples for temperature measurement and gamma thermometers for flux measurement appear to be the only viable candidates. Recent developments in ex-core neutron detectors may provide achievable alternatives to in-core measurements. Reliable electronic equipment and high-temperature actuators will require major development efforts

  8. Space Solar Power Satellite Systems, Modern Small Satellites, and Space Rectenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergsrud, Corey Alexis Marvin

    Space solar power satellite (SSPS) systems is the concept of placing large satellite into geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) to harvest and convert massive amounts of solar energy into microwave energy, and to transmit the microwaves to a rectifying antenna (rectenna) array on Earth. The rectenna array captures and converts the microwave power into usable power that is injected into the terrestrial electric grid for use. This work approached the microwave power beam as an additional source of power (with solar) for lower orbiting satellites. Assuming the concept of retrodirectivity, a GEO-SSPS antenna array system tracks and delivers microwave power to lower orbiting satellites. The lower orbiting satellites are equipped with a stacked photovoltaic (PV)/rectenna array hybrid power generation unit (HPGU) in order to harvest solar and/or microwave energy for on-board use during orbit. The area, and mass of the PV array part of the HPGU was reduced at about 32% beginning-of-life power in order to achieve the spacecraft power requirements. The HPGU proved to offer a mass decrease in the PGU, and an increase in mission life due to longer living component life of the rectenna array. Moreover, greater mission flexibility is achieved through a track and power delivery concept. To validate the potential advantages offered by a HPGU, a mission concept was presented that utilizes modern small satellites as technology demonstrators. During launch, a smaller power receiving "daughter" satellite sits inside a larger power transmitting "mother" satellite. Once separated from the launch vehicle the daughter satellite is ejected away from the mother satellite, and each satellite deploys its respective power transmitting or power receiving hardware's for experimentation. The concept of close proximity mission operations between the satellites is considered. To validate the technology of the space rectenna array part of the HPGU, six milestones were completed in the design. The first

  9. Space Weather Effects on Current and Future Electric Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, D.; Dutta, O.; Tandoi, C.; Brandauer, W.; Mohamed, A.; Damas, M. C.

    2016-12-01

    This work addresses the effects of Geomagnetic Disturbances (GMDs) on the present bulk power system as well as the future smart grid, and discusses the mitigation of these geomagnetic impacts, so as to reduce the vulnerabilities of the electric power network to large space weather events. Solar storm characterized by electromagnetic radiation generates geo-electric fields that result in the flow of Geomagnetically Induced Currents (GICs) through the transmission lines, followed by transformers and the ground. As the ground conductivity and the power network topology significantly vary with the region, it becomes imperative to estimate of the magnitude of GICs for different places. In this paper, the magnitude of GIC has been calculated for New York State (NYS) with the help of extensive modelling of the whole NYS electricity transmission network using real data. Although GIC affects only high voltage levels, e.g. above 300 kV, the presence of coastline in NYS makes the low voltage transmission lines also susceptible to GIC. Besides this, the encroachment of technologies pertaining to smart grid implementation, such as Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs), Microgrids, Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS), and Information and Communication Technology (ICT) have been analyzed for GMD impacts. Inaccurate PMU results due to scintillation of GPS signals that are affected by electromagnetic interference of solar storm, presence of renewable energy resources in coastal areas that are more vulnerable to GMD, the ability of FACTS devices to either block or pave new path for GICs and so on, shed some light on impacts of GMD on smart grid technologies.

  10. Advanced Fusion Reactors for Space Propulsion and Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, John J.

    2011-06-15

    In recent years the methodology proposed for conversion of light elements into energy via fusion has made steady progress. Scientific studies and engineering efforts in advanced fusion systems designs have introduced some new concepts with unique aspects including consideration of Aneutronic fuels. The plant parameters for harnessing aneutronic fusion appear more exigent than those required for the conventional fusion fuel cycle. However aneutronic fusion propulsion plants for Space deployment will ultimately offer the possibility of enhanced performance from nuclear gain as compared to existing ionic engines as well as providing a clean solution to Planetary Protection considerations and requirements. Proton triggered 11Boron fuel (p- 11B) will produce abundant ion kinetic energy for In-Space vectored thrust. Thus energetic alpha particles' exhaust momentum can be used directly to produce high Isp thrust and also offer possibility of power conversion into electricity. p-11B is an advanced fusion plant fuel with well understood reaction kinematics but will require some new conceptual thinking as to the most effective implementation.

  11. Advanced Fusion Reactors for Space Propulsion and Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, John J.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years the methodology proposed for conversion of light elements into energy via fusion has made steady progress. Scientific studies and engineering efforts in advanced fusion systems designs have introduced some new concepts with unique aspects including consideration of Aneutronic fuels. The plant parameters for harnessing aneutronic fusion appear more exigent than those required for the conventional fusion fuel cycle. However aneutronic fusion propulsion plants for Space deployment will ultimately offer the possibility of enhanced performance from nuclear gain as compared to existing ionic engines as well as providing a clean solution to Planetary Protection considerations and requirements. Proton triggered 11Boron fuel (p- 11B) will produce abundant ion kinetic energy for In-Space vectored thrust. Thus energetic alpha particles "exhaust" momentum can be used directly to produce high ISP thrust and also offer possibility of power conversion into electricity. p- 11B is an advanced fusion plant fuel with well understood reaction kinematics but will require some new conceptual thinking as to the most effective implementation.

  12. Gas-cooled reactor power systems for space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, C.E.

    1987-01-01

    Efficiency and mass characteristics for four gas-cooled reactor power system configurations in the 2- to 20-MWe power range are modeled. The configurations use direct and indirect Brayton cycles with and without regeneration in the power conversion loop. The prismatic ceramic core of the reactor consists of several thousand pencil-shaped tubes made from a homogeneous mixture of moderator and fuel. The heat rejection system is found to be the major contributor to system mass, particularly at high power levels. A direct, regenerated Brayton cycle with helium working fluid permits high efficiency and low specific mass for a 10-MWe system

  13. SCEPS In Space - Non-Radioisotope Power Systems for Sunless Solar System Exploration Missions (Phase II)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Stored Chemical Energy Power Systems (SCEPS) have been used in U.S. Navy torpedos for decades. The Penn State Applied Research Lab proposes to continue the study of...

  14. Continuing Development for Free-Piston Stirling Space Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Allen A.; Qiu, Songgang; Redinger, Darin L.; Augenblick, John E.; Petersen, Stephen L.

    2004-02-01

    Long-life radioisotope power generators based on free-piston Stirling engines are an energy-conversion solution for future space applications. The high efficiency of Stirling machines makes them more attractive than the thermoelectric generators currently used in space. Stirling Technology Company (STC) has been developing free-piston Stirling machines for over 30 years, and its family of Stirling generators is ideally suited for reliable, maintenance-free operation. This paper describes recent progress and status of the STC RemoteGen™ 55 W-class Stirling generator (RG-55), presents an overview of recent testing, and discusses how the technology demonstration design has evolved toward space-qualified hardware.

  15. Power transmission cable development for the Space Station Freedom electrical power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Gregory V.; Biess, John J.

    1989-01-01

    Power transmission cable is presently being evaluated under a NASA Lewis Research Center advanced development contract for application in the Space Station Freedom (SSF) electrical power system (EPS). Evaluation testing has been performed by TRW and NASA Lewis Research Center. The results of this development contract are presented. The primary cable design goals are to provide (1) a low characteristic inductance to minimize line voltage drop at 20 kHz, (2) electromagnetic compatibility control of the 20-kHz ac power current, (3) a physical configuration that minimizes ac resistance and (4) release of trapped air for corona-free operation.

  16. Development of a component centered fault monitoring and diagnosis knowledge based system for space power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. C.; Lollar, Louis F.

    1988-01-01

    The overall approach currently being taken in the development of AMPERES (Autonomously Managed Power System Extendable Real-time Expert System), a knowledge-based expert system for fault monitoring and diagnosis of space power systems, is discussed. The system architecture, knowledge representation, and fault monitoring and diagnosis strategy are examined. A 'component-centered' approach developed in this project is described. Critical issues requiring further study are identified.

  17. Assessment of ceramic composites for MMW space nuclear power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besmann, T.M.

    1987-01-01

    Proposed multimegawatt nuclear power systems which operate at high temperatures, high levels of stress, and in hostile environments, including corrosive working fluids, have created interest in the use of ceramic composites as structural materials. This report assesses the applicability of several ceramic composites in both Brayton and Rankine cycle power systems. This assessment considers an equilibrium thermodynamic analysis and also a nonequilibrium assessment. (FI)

  18. The fault monitoring and diagnosis knowledge-based system for space power systems: AMPERES, phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. C.

    1989-01-01

    The objective is to develop a real time fault monitoring and diagnosis knowledge-based system (KBS) for space power systems which can save costly operational manpower and can achieve more reliable space power system operation. The proposed KBS was developed using the Autonomously Managed Power System (AMPS) test facility currently installed at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), but the basic approach taken for this project could be applicable for other space power systems. The proposed KBS is entitled Autonomously Managed Power-System Extendible Real-time Expert System (AMPERES). In Phase 1 the emphasis was put on the design of the overall KBS, the identification of the basic research required, the initial performance of the research, and the development of a prototype KBS. In Phase 2, emphasis is put on the completion of the research initiated in Phase 1, and the enhancement of the prototype KBS developed in Phase 1. This enhancement is intended to achieve a working real time KBS incorporated with the NASA space power system test facilities. Three major research areas were identified and progress was made in each area. These areas are real time data acquisition and its supporting data structure; sensor value validations; development of inference scheme for effective fault monitoring and diagnosis, and its supporting knowledge representation scheme.

  19. Advanced Modular Power Approach to Affordable, Supportable Space Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Kimnach, Greg L.; Fincannon, James; Mckissock,, Barbara I.; Loyselle, Patricia L.; Wong, Edmond

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies of missions to the Moon, Mars and Near Earth Asteroids (NEA) indicate that these missions often involve several distinct separately launched vehicles that must ultimately be integrated together in-flight and operate as one unit. Therefore, it is important to see these vehicles as elements of a larger segmented spacecraft rather than separate spacecraft flying in formation. The evolution of large multi-vehicle exploration architecture creates the need (and opportunity) to establish a global power architecture that is common across all vehicles. The Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Modular Power System (AMPS) project managed by NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is aimed at establishing the modular power system architecture that will enable power systems to be built from a common set of modular building blocks. The project is developing, demonstrating and evaluating key modular power technologies that are expected to minimize non-recurring development costs, reduce recurring integration costs, as well as, mission operational and support costs. Further, modular power is expected to enhance mission flexibility, vehicle reliability, scalability and overall mission supportability. The AMPS project not only supports multi-vehicle architectures but should enable multi-mission capability as well. The AMPS technology development involves near term demonstrations involving developmental prototype vehicles and field demonstrations. These operational demonstrations not only serve as a means of evaluating modular technology but also provide feedback to developers that assure that they progress toward truly flexible and operationally supportable modular power architecture.

  20. Small space reactor power systems for unmanned solar system exploration missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloomfield, H.S.

    1987-12-01

    A preliminary feasibility study of the application of small nuclear reactor space power systems to the Mariner Mark II Cassini spacecraft/mission was conducted. The purpose of the study was to identify and assess the technology and performance issues associated with the reactor power system/spacecraft/mission integration. The Cassini mission was selected because study of the Saturn system was identified as a high priority outer planet exploration objective. Reactor power systems applied to this mission were evaluated for two different uses. First, a very small 1 kWe reactor power system was used as an RTG replacement for the nominal spacecraft mission science payload power requirements while still retaining the spacecraft's usual bipropellant chemical propulsion system. The second use of reactor power involved the additional replacement of the chemical propulsion system with a small reactor power system and an electric propulsion system. The study also provides an examination of potential applications for the additional power available for scientific data collection. The reactor power system characteristics utilized in the study were based on a parametric mass model that was developed specifically for these low power applications. The model was generated following a neutronic safety and operational feasibility assessment of six small reactor concepts solicited from U.S. industry. This assessment provided the validation of reactor safety for all mission phases and generatad the reactor mass and dimensional data needed for the system mass model

  1. An Advanced Light Weight Recuperator for Space Power Systems, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) space power system is one of the most efficient energy conversion technologies for nuclear and solar electric propulsion. The recuperator...

  2. The Need for Intelligent Control of Space Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Ryan David; Soeder, James F.; Beach, Raymond F.; McNelis, Nancy B.

    2013-01-01

    As manned spacecraft venture farther from Earth, the need for reliable, autonomous control of vehicle subsystems becomes critical. This is particularly true for the electrical power system which is critical to every other system. Autonomy can not be achieved by simple scripting techniques due to the communication latency times and the difficulty associated with failures (or combinations of failures) that need to be handled in as graceful a manner as possible to ensure system availability. Therefore an intelligent control system must be developed that can respond to disturbances and failures in a robust manner and ensure that critical system loads are served and all system constraints are respected.

  3. Transient heat pipe investigations for space power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrigan, M.A.; Keddy, E.S.; Sena, J.T.

    1985-01-01

    A 4-meter long, high temperature, high power, molybdenum-lithium heat pipe has been fabricated and tested in transient and steady state operation at temperatures to 1500 K. Maximum power throughput during the tests was approximately 37 kW/cm 2 for the 1.4 cm diameter vapor space of the annular wick heat pipe. The evaporator flux density for the tests was 150.0 W/cm 2 over a length of 40 cm. Condenser length was approximately 3.0 m with radiant heat rejection from the condenser to a coaxial, water cooled radiation calorimeter. A variable radiation shield, controllable from the outside of the vacuum enclosure, was used to vary the load on the heat pipe during the tests. 1 ref., 9 figs

  4. The Effect of Operating Temperature on Open, Multimegawatt Space Power Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Edenburn, Michael

    1988-01-01

    .... Both systems will provide power to space-based antiballistic missile weapons that require hydrogen for cooling, and both use this hydrogen coolant as a working fluid or as a fuel for power generation...

  5. Reference Concepts for a Space-Based Hydrogen-Oxygen Combustion, Turboalternator, Burst Power System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Edenburn, Michael

    1990-01-01

    This report describes reference concepts for a hydrogen-oxygen combustion, turboalternator power system that supplies power during battle engagement to a space-based, ballistic missile defense platform...

  6. A knowledge-based system for monitoring the electrical power system of the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Pat

    1987-01-01

    The design and the prototype for the expert system for the Hubble Space Telescope's electrical power system are discussed. This prototype demonstrated the capability to use real time data from a 32k telemetry stream and to perform operational health and safety status monitoring, detect trends such as battery degradation, and detect anomalies such as solar array failures. This prototype, along with the pointing control system and data management system expert systems, forms the initial Telemetry Analysis for Lockheed Operated Spacecraft (TALOS) capability.

  7. Selection of power plant elements for future reactor space electric power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buden, D.; Bennett, G.A.; Copper, K.

    1979-09-01

    Various types of reactor designs, electric power conversion equipment, and reject-heat systems to be used in nuclear reactor power plants for future space missions were studied. The designs included gas-cooled, liquid-cooled, and heat-pipe reactors. For the power converters, passive types such as thermoelectric and thermionic converters and dynamic types such as Brayton, potassium Rankine, and Stirling cycles were considered. For the radiators, heat pipes for transfer and radiating surface, pumped fluid for heat transfer with fins as the radiating surface, and pumped fluid for heat transfer with heat pipes as the radiating surface were considered. After careful consideration of weights, sizes, reliabilities, safety, and development cost and time, a heat-pipe reactor design, thermoelectric converters, and a heat-pipe radiator for an experimental program were selected

  8. Thermal-hydraulics for space power, propulsion, and thermal management system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krotiuk, W.J.

    1990-01-01

    The present volume discusses thermal-hydraulic aspects of current space projects, Space Station thermal management systems, the thermal design of the Space Station Free-Flying Platforms, the SP-100 Space Reactor Power System, advanced multi-MW space nuclear power concepts, chemical and electric propulsion systems, and such aspects of the Space Station two-phase thermal management system as its mechanical pumped loop and its capillary pumped loop's supporting technology. Also discussed are the startup thaw concept for the SP-100 Space Reactor Power System, calculational methods and experimental data for microgravity conditions, an isothermal gas-liquid flow at reduced gravity, low-gravity flow boiling, computations of Space Shuttle high pressure cryogenic turbopump ball bearing two-phase coolant flow, and reduced-gravity condensation

  9. Application of NASA Kennedy Space Center system assurance analysis methodology to nuclear power plant systems designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    The Kennedy Space Center (KSC) entered into an agreement with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to conduct a study to demonstrate the feasibility and practicality of applying the KSC System Assurance Analysis (SAA) methodology to nuclear power plant systems designs. In joint meetings of KSC and Duke Power personnel, an agreement was made to select to CATAWBA systems, the Containment Spray System and the Residual Heat Removal System, for the analyses. Duke Power provided KSC with a full set a Final Safety Analysis Reports as well as schematics for the two systems. During Phase I of the study the reliability analyses of the SAA were performed. During Phase II the hazard analyses were performed. The final product of Phase II is a handbook for implementing the SAA methodology into nuclear power plant systems designs. The purpose of this paper is to describe the SAA methodology as it applies to nuclear power plant systems designs and to discuss the feasibility of its application. The conclusion is drawn that nuclear power plant systems and aerospace ground support systems are similar in complexity and design and share common safety and reliability goals. The SAA methodology is readily adaptable to nuclear power plant designs because of it's practical application of existing and well known safety and reliability analytical techniques tied to an effective management information system

  10. Power supplies for space systems quality assurance by Sandia Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannigan, R.L.; Harnar, R.R.

    1976-07-01

    The Sandia Laboratories' participation in Quality Assurance programs for Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generators which have been used in space systems over the past 10 years is summarized. Basic elements of this QA program are briefly described and recognition of assistance from other Sandia organizations is included. Descriptions of the various systems for which Sandia has had the QA responsibility are presented, including SNAP 19 (Nimbus, Pioneer, Viking), SNAP 27 (Apollo), Transit, Multi-Hundred Watt (LES 8/9 and MJS), and a new program, High-Performance Generator Mod 3. The outlook for Sandia participation in RTG programs for the next several years is noted

  11. A modular Space Station/Base electrical power system - Requirements and design study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliason, J. T.; Adkisson, W. B.

    1972-01-01

    The requirements and procedures necessary for definition and specification of an electrical power system (EPS) for the future space station are discussed herein. The considered space station EPS consists of a replaceable main power module with self-contained auxiliary power, guidance, control, and communication subsystems. This independent power source may 'plug into' a space station module which has its own electrical distribution, control, power conditioning, and auxiliary power subsystems. Integration problems are discussed, and a transmission system selected with local floor-by-floor power conditioning and distribution in the station module. This technique eliminates the need for an immediate long range decision on the ultimate space base power sources by providing capability for almost any currently considered option.

  12. Thermoelectric converter for SP-100 space reactor power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrill, W. R.; Haley, V. F.

    1986-01-01

    Conductively coupling the thermoelectric converter to the heat source and the radiator maximizes the utilization of the reactor and radiator temperatures and thereby minimizes the power system weight. This paper presents the design for the converter and the individual thermoelectric cells that are the building block modules for the converter. It also summarizes progress on the fabrication of initial cells and the results obtained from the preparation of a manufacturing plan. The design developed for the SP-100 system utilizes thermally conductive compliant pads that can absorb the displacement and distortion caused by the combinations of temperatures and thermal expansion coefficients. The converter and cell designs provided a 100 kWe system which met the system requirements. Initial cells were fabricated and tested.

  13. Thermoelectric converter for SP-100 space reactor power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrill, W.R.; Haley, V.F.

    1986-01-01

    Conductively coupling the thermoelectric converter to the heat source and the radiator maximizes the utilization of the reactor and radiator temperatures and thereby minimizes the power system weight. This paper presents the design for the converter and the individual thermoelectric cells that are the building block modules for the converter. It also summarizes progress on the fabrication of initial cells and the results obtained from the preparation of a manufacturing plan. The design developed for the SP-100 system utilizes thermally conductive compliant pads that can absorb the displacement and distortion caused by the combinations of temperatures and thermal expansion coefficients. The converter and cell designs provided a 100 kWe system which met the system requirements. Initial cells were fabricated and tested. The manufacturing plan showed that the chosen materials and processes are compatible with today's production techniques, that the production volume can readily be achieved and that the costs are reasonable

  14. Power system for production, construction, life support and operations in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sovie, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    As one looks to man's future in space it becomes obvious that unprecedented amounts of power are required for the exploration, colonization, and exploitation of space. Activities envisioned include interplanetary travel and LEO to GEO transport using electric propulsion, Earth and lunar observatories, advance space stations, free-flying manufacturing platforms, communications platforms, and eventually evolutionary lunar and Mars bases. These latter bases would start as camps with modest power requirements (kWes) and evolve to large bases as manufacturing, food production, and life support materials are developed from lunar raw materials. These latter activities require very robust power supplies (MWes). The advanced power system technologies being pursued by NASA to fulfill these future needs are described. Technologies discussed will include nuclear, photovoltaic, and solar dynamic space power systems, including energy storage, power conditioning, power transmission, and thermal management. The state-of-the-art and gains to be made by technology advancements will be discussed. Mission requirements for a variety of applications (LEO, GEO, lunar, and Martian) will be treated, and data for power systems ranging from a few kilowatts to megawatt power systems will be represented. In addition the space power technologies being initiated under NASA's new Civilian Space Technology Initiative (CSTI) and Space Leadership Planning Group Activities will be discussed

  15. Application of NASA Kennedy Space Center System Assurance Analysis methodology to nuclear power plant systems designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    In May of 1982, the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) entered into an agreement with the NRC to conduct a study to demonstrate the feasibility and practicality of applying the KSC System Assurance Analysis (SAA) methodology to nuclear power plant systems designs. North Carolina's Duke Power Company expressed an interest in the study and proposed the nuclear power facility at CATAWBA for the basis of the study. In joint meetings of KSC and Duke Power personnel, an agreement was made to select two CATAWBA systems, the Containment Spray System and the Residual Heat Removal System, for the analyses. Duke Power provided KSC with a full set of Final Safety Analysis Reports (FSAR) as well as schematics for the two systems. During Phase I of the study the reliability analyses of the SAA were performed. During Phase II the hazard analyses were performed. The final product of Phase II is a handbook for implementing the SAA methodology into nuclear power plant systems designs. The purpose of this paper is to describe the SAA methodology as it applies to nuclear power plant systems designs and to discuss the feasibility of its application. (orig./HP)

  16. Commercial microwave space power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siambis, J.; Gregorwich, W.; Walmsley, S.; Shockey, K.; Chang, K.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on central commercial space power, generating power via large scale solar arrays, and distributing power to satellites via docking, tethering or beamed power such as microwave or laser beams, that is being investigated as a potentially advantageous alternative to present day technology where each satellite carries its own power generating capability. The cost, size and weight for electrical power service, together with overall mission requirements and flexibility are the principal selection criteria, with the case of standard solar array panels based on the satellite, as the reference point. This paper presents and investigates a current technology design point for beamed microwave commercial space power. The design point requires that 25 kW be delivered to the user load with 30% overall system efficiency. The key elements of the design point are: An efficient rectenna at the user end; a high gain, low beam width, efficient antenna at the central space power station end, a reliable and efficient cw microwave tube. Design trades to optimize the proposed near term design point and to explore characteristics of future systems were performed. Future development for making the beamed microwave space power approach more competitive against docking and tethering are discussed

  17. Progress in space nuclear reactor power systems technology development - The SP-100 program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, H. S.

    1984-01-01

    Activities related to the development of high-temperature compact nuclear reactors for space applications had reached a comparatively high level in the U.S. during the mid-1950s and 1960s, although only one U.S. nuclear reactor-powered spacecraft was actually launched. After 1973, very little effort was devoted to space nuclear reactor and propulsion systems. In February 1983, significant activities toward the development of the technology for space nuclear reactor power systems were resumed with the SP-100 Program. Specific SP-100 Program objectives are partly related to the determination of the potential performance limits for space nuclear power systems in 100-kWe and 1- to 100-MW electrical classes. Attention is given to potential missions and applications, regimes of possible space power applicability, safety considerations, conceptual system designs, the establishment of technical feasibility, nuclear technology, materials technology, and prospects for the future.

  18. Space and Terrestrial Power System Integration Optimization Code BRMAPS for Gas Turbine Space Power Plants With Nuclear Reactor Heat Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhasz, Albert J.

    2007-01-01

    In view of the difficult times the US and global economies are experiencing today, funds for the development of advanced fission reactors nuclear power systems for space propulsion and planetary surface applications are currently not available. However, according to the Energy Policy Act of 2005 the U.S. needs to invest in developing fission reactor technology for ground based terrestrial power plants. Such plants would make a significant contribution toward drastic reduction of worldwide greenhouse gas emissions and associated global warming. To accomplish this goal the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project (NGNP) has been established by DOE under the Generation IV Nuclear Systems Initiative. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) was designated as the lead in the development of VHTR (Very High Temperature Reactor) and HTGR (High Temperature Gas Reactor) technology to be integrated with MMW (multi-megawatt) helium gas turbine driven electric power AC generators. However, the advantages of transmitting power in high voltage DC form over large distances are also explored in the seminar lecture series. As an attractive alternate heat source the Liquid Fluoride Reactor (LFR), pioneered at ORNL (Oak Ridge National Laboratory) in the mid 1960's, would offer much higher energy yields than current nuclear plants by using an inherently safe energy conversion scheme based on the Thorium --> U233 fuel cycle and a fission process with a negative temperature coefficient of reactivity. The power plants are to be sized to meet electric power demand during peak periods and also for providing thermal energy for hydrogen (H2) production during "off peak" periods. This approach will both supply electric power by using environmentally clean nuclear heat which does not generate green house gases, and also provide a clean fuel H2 for the future, when, due to increased global demand and the decline in discovering new deposits, our supply of liquid fossil fuels will have been used up. This is

  19. Nuclear power in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anghaie, S.

    2007-01-01

    The development of space nuclear power and propulsion in the United States started in 1955 with the initiation of the ROVER project. The first step in the ROVER program was the KIWI project that included the development and testing of 8 non-flyable ultrahigh temperature nuclear test reactors during 1955-1964. The KIWI project was precursor to the PHOEBUS carbon-based fuel reactor project that resulted in ground testing of three high power reactors during 1965-1968 with the last reactor operated at 4,100 MW. During the same time period a parallel program was pursued to develop a nuclear thermal rocket based on cermet fuel technology. The third component of the ROVER program was the Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Applications (NERVA) that was initiated in 1961 with the primary goal of designing the first generation of nuclear rocket engine based on the KIWI project experience. The fourth component of the ROVER program was the Reactor In-Flight Test (RIFT) project that was intended to design, fabricate, and flight test a NERVA powered upper stage engine for the Saturn-class lunch vehicle. During the ROVER program era, the Unites States ventured in a comprehensive space nuclear program that included design and testing of several compact reactors and space suitable power conversion systems, and the development of a few light weight heat rejection systems. Contrary to its sister ROVER program, the space nuclear power program resulted in the first ever deployment and in-space operation of the nuclear powered SNAP-10A in 1965. The USSR space nuclear program started in early 70's and resulted in deployment of two 6 kWe TOPAZ reactors into space and ground testing of the prototype of a relatively small nuclear rocket engine in 1984. The US ambition for the development and deployment of space nuclear powered systems was resurrected in mid 1980's and intermittently continued to date with the initiation of several research programs that included the SP-100, Space Exploration

  20. Heat receivers for solar dynamic space power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Davis, Marla Esther

    A review of state-of-the-art technology is presented and discussed for phase change materials. Some of the advanced solar dynamic designs developed as part of the Advanced Heat Receiver Conceptual Design Study performed for LeRC are discussed. The heat receivers are analyzed and several recommendations are proposed, including two new concepts. The first concept evaluated the effect of tube geometries inside the heat receiver. It was found that a triangular configuration would provide better heat transfer to the working fluid, although not necessarily with a reduction in receiver size. A sensible heat receiver considered in this study uses vapor grown graphite fiber-carbon (VGCF/C) composite as the thermal storage media and was designed for a 7 kW Brayton engine. The proposed heat receiver stores the required energy to power the system during eclipse in the VGCF/C composite. The heat receiver analysis was conducted through the Systems Improved Numerical Differencing Analyzer and Fluid Integrator (SINDA) software package. The proposed heat receiver compares well with other latent and advanced sensible heat receivers while avoiding the problems associated with latent heat storage salts and liquid metal heat pipes. The weight and size of the system can be optimized by changes in geometry and technology advances for this new material. In addition to the new concepts, the effect of atomic oxygen on several materials is reviewed. A test was conducted for atomic oxygen attack on boron nitride, which experienced a negligible mass loss when exposed to an atomic oxygen fluence of 5 x 10 exp 21 atoms/sq cm. This material could be used to substitute the graphite aperture plate of the heat receiver.

  1. E VA Space Suit Power, Avionics, and Software Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA is interested in a reliable, robust, and low Size Weight and Power (SWAP) input device that will allow for EVA astronauts to navigate display menu systems. The...

  2. PC Software graphics tool for conceptual design of space/planetary electrical power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Long V.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the Decision Support System (DSS), a personal computer software graphics tool for designing conceptual space and/or planetary electrical power systems. By using the DSS, users can obtain desirable system design and operating parameters, such as system weight, electrical distribution efficiency, and bus power. With this tool, a large-scale specific power system was designed in a matter of days. It is an excellent tool to help designers make tradeoffs between system components, hardware architectures, and operation parameters in the early stages of the design cycle. The DSS is a user-friendly, menu-driven tool with online help and a custom graphical user interface. An example design and results are illustrated for a typical space power system with multiple types of power sources, frequencies, energy storage systems, and loads.

  3. Utilization of artificial intelligence techniques for the Space Station power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evatt, Thomas C.; Gholdston, Edward W.

    1988-01-01

    Due to the complexity of the Space Station Electrical Power System (EPS) as currently envisioned, artificial intelligence/expert system techniques are being investigated to automate operations, maintenance, and diagnostic functions. A study was conducted to investigate this technology as it applies to failure detection, isolation, and reconfiguration (FDIR) and health monitoring of power system components and of the total system. Control system utilization of expert systems for load scheduling and shedding operations was also researched. A discussion of the utilization of artificial intelligence/expert systems for Initial Operating Capability (IOC) for the Space Station effort is presented along with future plans at Rocketdyne for the utilization of this technology for enhanced Space Station power capability.

  4. Design criteria and candidate electrical power systems for a reusable Space Shuttle booster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrifield, D. V.

    1972-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a preliminary study to establish electrical power requirements, investigate candidate power sources, and select a representative power generation concept for the NASA Space Shuttle booster stage. Design guidelines and system performance requirements are established. Candidate power sources and combinations thereof are defined and weight estimates made. The selected power source concept utilizes secondary silver-zinc batteries, engine-driven alternators with constant speed drive, and an airbreathing gas turbine. The need for cost optimization, within safety, reliability, and performance constraints, is emphasized as being the most important criteria in design of the final system.

  5. A high resolution, low power time-of-flight system for the space experiment AMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvisi, D.; Anselmo, F.; Baldini, L.; Bari, G.; Basile, M.; Bellagamba, L.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Boscherini, D.; Casadei, D.; Cara Romeo, G.; Castellini, G.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Contin, A.; De Pasquale, S.; Giusti, P.; Iacobucci, G.; Laurenti, G.; Levi, G.; Margotti, A.; Massam, T.; Nania, R.; Palmonari, F.; Polini, A.; Recupero, S.; Sartorelli, G.; Williams, C.; Zichichi, A.

    1999-01-01

    The system of plastic scintillator counters for the AMS experiment is described. The main characteristics of the detector are: (a) large sensitive area (four 1.6 m 2 planes) with small dead space; (b) low-power consumption (150 W for the power and the read-out electronics of 336 PMs); (c) 120 ps time resolution

  6. Applicability of trends in nuclear safety analysis to space nuclear power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bari, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    A survey is presented of some current trends in nuclear safety analysis that may be relevant to space nuclear power systems. This includes: lessons learned from operating power reactor safety and licensing; approaches to the safety design of advanced and novel reactors and facilities; the roles of risk assessment, extremely unlikely accidents, safety goals/targets; and risk-benefit analysis and communication

  7. Nuclear reactor descriptions for space power systems analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccauley, E. W.; Brown, N. J.

    1972-01-01

    For the small, high performance reactors required for space electric applications, adequate neutronic analysis is of crucial importance, but in terms of computational time consumed, nuclear calculations probably yield the least amount of detail for mission analysis study. It has been found possible, after generation of only a few designs of a reactor family in elaborate thermomechanical and nuclear detail to use simple curve fitting techniques to assure desired neutronic performance while still performing the thermomechanical analysis in explicit detail. The resulting speed-up in computation time permits a broad detailed examination of constraints by the mission analyst.

  8. The ground testing of a 2 kWe solar dynamic space power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calogeras, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    Over the past 25 years Space Solar Dynamic component development has advanced to the point where it is considered a leading candidate power source technology for the evolutionary phases of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) program. Selection of SD power was based on studies and analyses which indicated significant savings in life cycle costs, launch mass and EVA requirements were possible when the system is compared to more conventional photovoltaic/battery power systems. Issues associated with micro-gravity operation such as the behavior of the thermal energy storage materials are being addressed in other programs. This paper reports that a ground test of a 2 kWe solar dynamic system is being planned by the NASA Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology to address the integration issues. The test will be scalable up to 25 kWe, will be flight configured and will incorporate relevant features of the SSF Solar Dynamic Power Module design

  9. Space power system utilizing Fresnel lenses for solar power and also thermal energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, R. H.

    1983-01-01

    A solar power plant suitable for earth orbits passing through Van Allen radiation belts is described. The solar-to-electricity conversion efficiency is estimated to be around 9 percent, and the expected power-to-weight ratio is competitive with photovoltaic arrays. The system is designed to be self-contained, to be indifferent to radiation belt exposures, store energy for periods when the orbiting system is in earth shadow (so that power generation is contant), have no moving parts and no working fluids, and be robust against micrometeorite attack. No electrical batteries are required.

  10. Free-piston Stirling engine system considerations for various space power applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dochat, G.R.; Dhar, M.

    1991-01-01

    The U.S. Government is evaluating power requirements for future space applications. As power requirements increase solar or nuclear dynamic systems become increasingly attractive. Free-Piston Stirling Engines (FPSE) have the potential to provide high reliability, long life, and efficient operation. Therefore, they are excellent candidates for the dynamic power conversion module of a space-based, power-generating system. FPSE can be coupled with many potential heat sources (radioisotope, solar, or nuclear reactor), various heat input systems (pumped loop, heat pipe), heat rejection (pumped loop or heat pipe), and various power management and distribution systems (AC, DC, high or low voltage, and fixed or variable load). This paper will review potential space missions that can be met using free-piston Stirling engines and discusses options of various system integration approaches. Currently free-piston Stirling engine technology for space power applications is being developed under contract with NASA-Lewis Research Center. This paper will also briefly outline the program and recent progress

  11. 10 KWe dual-mode space nuclear power system for military and scientific applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malloy, J.; Westerman, K.; Rochow, R.; Scoles, S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses a 10 KWe dual-mode space power system concept which has been identified and is based on INEL's Small Externally-fueled Heat Pipe Thermionic Reactor (SEHPTR) concept. This power system will enhance user capabilities by providing reliable electric power and by providing two propulsion systems; electric power for an arc-jet electric propulsion system and direct thrust by heating hydrogen propellant inside the reactor. The low thrust electric thrusters allow efficient station keeping and long-term maneuvering. This paper will focus on the nuclear power system design, including: the reactor with its UO 2 fuel in tungsten clad, 36 thermionic heat pipe modules (THPMs) which produce electricity within the reactor and remove waste heat, radiation shielding, waste heat radiators, and reactivity control systems. The use of non-vented fuel elements for short lifetime missions (under five years) will be described

  12. Low earth orbit environmental effects on the space station photovoltaic power generation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahra, H.K.

    1977-01-01

    A summary of the Low Earth Orbital Environment, its impact on the photovoltaic power systems of the space station and the solutions implemented to resolve the environmental concerns or issues are described. Low Earth Orbital Environment (LEO) presents several concerns to the photovoltaic power systems of the space station. These concerns include atomic oxygen interaction with the polymeric substrate of the solar arrays, ionized environment effects on the array operating voltage, the effects of the meteoroids and debris impacts and penetration through the different layers of the solar cells and their circuits, and the high energy particle and radiation effects on the overall solar array performance. Potential solutions to some of the degrading environmental interactions that will provide the photovoltaic power system of the space station with the desired life are also summarized

  13. Frequency Domain Modeling and Simulation of DC Power Electronic Systems Using Harmonic State Space Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwon, Jun Bum; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    For the efficiency and simplicity of electric systems, the dc power electronic systems are widely used in a variety of applications such as electric vehicles, ships, aircraft and also in homes. In these systems, there could be a number of dynamic interactions and frequency coupling between network...... with different switching frequency or harmonics from ac-dc converters makes that harmonics and frequency coupling are both problems of ac system and challenges of dc system. This paper presents a modeling and simulation method for a large dc power electronic system by using Harmonic State Space (HSS) modeling...

  14. Study of solar array switching power management technology for space power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassinelli, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    This report documents work performed on the Solar Array Switching Power Management Study. Mission characteristics for three missions were defined to the depth necessary to determine their power management requirements. Solar array switching concepts which could satisfy the mission requirements were identified. The switching concepts were compared with a conventional buck regulator system for cost, weight and volume, reliability, efficiency and thermal control. Solar array switching provided significant advantages in all areas of comparison for the reviewed missions.

  15. Innovative Approaches to Development and Ground Testing of Advanced Bimodal Space Power and Propulsion Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, T.; Noble, C.; Martinell, J.; Borowski, S.

    2000-01-01

    The last major development effort for nuclear power and propulsion systems ended in 1993. Currently, there is not an initiative at either the National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) or the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) that requires the development of new nuclear power and propulsion systems. Studies continue to show nuclear technology as a strong technical candidate to lead the way toward human exploration of adjacent planets or provide power for deep space missions, particularly a 15,000 lbf bimodal nuclear system with 115 kW power capability. The development of nuclear technology for space applications would require technology development in some areas and a major flight qualification program. The last major ground test facility considered for nuclear propulsion qualification was the U.S. Air Force/DOE Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Project. Seven years have passed since that effort, and the questions remain the same, how to qualify nuclear power and propulsion systems for future space flight. It can be reasonably assumed that much of the nuclear testing required to qualify a nuclear system for space application will be performed at DOE facilities as demonstrated by the Nuclear Rocket Engine Reactor Experiment (NERVA) and Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) programs. The nuclear infrastructure to support testing in this country is aging and getting smaller, though facilities still exist to support many of the technology development needs. By renewing efforts, an innovative approach to qualifying these systems through the use of existing facilities either in the U.S. (DOE's Advance Test Reactor, High Flux Irradiation Facility and the Contained Test Facility) or overseas should be possible

  16. Innovation Approaches to Development and Ground Testing of Advanced Bimodal Space Power and Propulsion Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, T.; Noble, C.; Martinell, J. (INEEL); Borowski, S. (NASA Glenn Research Center)

    2000-07-14

    The last major development effort for nuclear power and propulsion systems ended in 1993. Currently, there is not an initiative at either the National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) or the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) that requires the development of new nuclear power and propulsion systems. Studies continue to show nuclear technology as a strong technical candidate to lead the way toward human exploration of adjacent planets or provide power for deep space missions, particularly a 15,000 lbf bimodal nuclear system with 115 kW power capability. The development of nuclear technology for space applications would require technology development in some areas and a major flight qualification program. The last major ground test facility considered for nuclear propulsion qualification was the U.S. Air Force/DOE Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Project. Seven years have passed since that effort, and the questions remain the same, how to qualify nuclear power and propulsion systems for future space flight. It can be reasonably assumed that much of the nuclear testing required to qualify a nuclear system for space application will be performed at DOE facilities as demonstrated by the Nuclear Rocket Engine Reactor Experiment (NERVA) and Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) programs. The nuclear infrastructure to support testing in this country is aging and getting smaller, though facilities still exist to support many of the technology development needs. By renewing efforts, an innovative approach to qualifying these systems through the use of existing facilities either in the U.S. (DOE's Advance Test Reactor, High Flux Irradiation Facility and the Contained Test Facility) or overseas should be possible.

  17. Innovative Approaches to Development and Ground Testing of Advanced Bimodal Space Power and Propulsion Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Thomas Johnathan; Noble, Cheryl Ann; Noble, C.; Martinell, John Stephen; Borowski, S.

    2000-07-01

    The last major development effort for nuclear power and propulsion systems ended in 1993. Currently, there is not an initiative at either the National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) or the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) that requires the development of new nuclear power and propulsion systems. Studies continue to show nuclear technology as a strong technical candidate to lead the way toward human exploration of adjacent planets or provide power for deep space missions, particularly a 15,000 lbf bimodal nuclear system with 115 kW power capability. The development of nuclear technology for space applications would require technology development in some areas and a major flight qualification program. The last major ground test facility considered for nuclear propulsion qualification was the U.S. Air Force/DOE Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Project. Seven years have passed since that effort, and the questions remain the same, how to qualify nuclear power and propulsion systems for future space flight. It can be reasonable assumed that much of the nuclear testing required to qualify a nuclear system for space application will be performed at DOE facilities as demonstrated by the Nuclear Rocket Engine Reactor Experiment (NERVA) and Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) programs. The nuclear infrastructure to support testing in this country is aging and getting smaller, though facilities still exist to support many of the technology development needs. By renewing efforts, an innovative approach to qualifying these systems through the use of existing facilities either in the U.S. (DOE's Advance Test Reactor, High Flux Irradiation Facility and the Contained Test Facility) or overseas should be possible.

  18. Space solar power for powering a space elevator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laubscher, B. E. (Bryan E.); Kellum, M. J. (Mervyn J.)

    2004-01-01

    The Space Elevator (SE) represents a major paradigm shift in space access. If the SE's promise of low cost access can be realized, everything becomes economically more feasible to accomplish in space. In this paper we describe a Space Solar Power (SSP) system capable of powering the climbers of an SE. The initial SE will use laser power beaming from floating platforms near the SE platform. This study outlines an SSP system, based near the SE at geosynchronous altitude (GEO), which powers the climbers traversing the elevator. Such a system would reduce the SE system's dependence on fuel supply from land for its power beaming facilities. Moreover, since deploying SSP systems is anticipated to be a major use for SE's, SSP's could represent an elegant solution to the problem of SE energy consumption. SSP systems for sending usable power to Earth have been designed for well over 30 years. Technologies pertinent to SSP systems are continually evolving. This slightly different application carries the added requirements of aiming the beamed power at a moving target and sending the power in a form the climbers can use. Systems considered include beaming power to the climbers directly from a traditional SSP and reflecting sunlight onto the climbers. One of our designs includes a very new technology, optical rectennas. Mars SEs are conceived as having space-based power systems. Therefore, it is important to consider the problems that will be encountered in these types of applications.

  19. Application of the monolithic solid oxide fuel cell to space power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myles, K.M.; Bhattacharyya, S.K.

    1991-01-01

    The monolithic solid-oxide fuel cell (MSOFC) is a promising electrochemical power generation device that is currently under development at Argonne National Laboratory. The extremely high power density of the MSOFC leads to MSOFC systems that have sufficiently high energy densities that they are excellent candidates for a number of space missions. The fuel cell can also be operated in reverse, if it can be coupled to an external power source, to regenerate the fuel and oxidant from the water product. This feature further enhances the potential mission applications of the MSOFC. In this paper, the current status of the fuel cell development is presented---the focus being on fabrication and currently achievable performance. In addition, a specific example of a space power system, featuring a liquid metal cooled fast spectrum nuclear reactor and a monolithic solid oxide fuel cell, is presented to demonstrate the features of an integrated system

  20. Application of the monolithic solid oxide fuel cell to space power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myles, Kevin M.; Bhattacharyya, Samit K.

    1991-01-01

    The monolithic solid-oxide fuel cell (MSOFC) is a promising electrochemical power generation device that is currently under development at Argonne National Laboratory. The extremely high power density of the MSOFC leads to MSOFC systems that have sufficiently high energy densities that they are excellent candidates for a number of space missions. The fuel cell can also be operated in reverse, if it can be coupled to an external power source, to regenerate the fuel and oxidant from the water product. This feature further enhances the potential mission applications of the MSOFC. In this paper, the current status of the fuel cell development is presented—the focus being on fabrication and currently achievable performance. In addition, a specific example of a space power system, featuring a liquid metal cooled fast spectrum nuclear reactor and a monolithic solid oxide fuel cell, is presented to demonstrate the features of an integrated system.

  1. Space Station Freedom electrical power system hardware commonality with the United States Polar Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieker, Lorra L.; Haraburda, Francis M.

    1989-01-01

    Information is presented on how the concept of commonality is being implemented with respect to electric power system hardware for the Space Station Freedom and the U.S. Polar Platform. Included is a historical account of the candidate common items which have the potential to serve the same power system functions on both Freedom and the Polar Platform. The Space Station program and objectives are described, focusing on the test and development responsibilities. The program definition and preliminary design phase and the design and development phase are discussed. The goal of this work is to reduce the program cost.

  2. Mini-cavity plasma core reactors for dual-mode space nuclear power/propulsion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, S.

    1976-01-01

    A mini-cavity plasma core reactor is investigated for potential use in a dual-mode space power and propulsion system. In the propulsive mode, hydrogen propellant is injected radially inward through the reactor solid regions and into the cavity. The propellant is heated by both solid driver fuel elements surrounding the cavity and uranium plasma before it is exhausted out the nozzle. The propellant only removes a fraction of the driver power, the remainder is transferred by a coolant fluid to a power conversion system, which incorporates a radiator for heat rejection. In the power generation mode, the plasma and propellant flows are shut off, and the driver elements supply thermal power to the power conversion system, which generates electricity for primary electric propulsion purposes

  3. Modeling and Simulation of DC Power Electronics Systems Using Harmonic State Space (HSS) Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwon, Jun Bum; Wang, Xiongfei; Bak, Claus Leth

    2015-01-01

    based on the state-space averaging and generalized averaging, these also have limitations to show the same results as with the non-linear time domain simulations. This paper presents a modeling and simulation method for a large dc power electronic system by using Harmonic State Space (HSS) modeling......For the efficiency and simplicity of electric systems, the dc based power electronics systems are widely used in variety applications such as electric vehicles, ships, aircrafts and also in homes. In these systems, there could be a number of dynamic interactions between loads and other dc-dc....... Through this method, the required computation time and CPU memory for large dc power electronics systems can be reduced. Besides, the achieved results show the same results as with the non-linear time domain simulation, but with the faster simulation time which is beneficial in a large network....

  4. Radioisotope fueled pulsed power generation system for propulsion and electrical power for deep space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Troy

    Space exploration missions to the moon, Mars, and other celestial bodies have allowed for great scientific leaps to enhance our knowledge of the universe; yet the astronomical cost of these missions limits their utility to only a few select agencies. Reducing the cost of exploratory space travel will give rise to a new era of exploration, where private investors, universities, and world governments can send satellites to far off planets and gather important data. By using radioisotope power sources and thermal storage devices, a duty cycle can be introduced to extract large amounts of energy in short amounts of time, allowing for efficient space travel. The same device can also provide electrical power for subsystems such as communications, drills, lasers, or other components that can provide valuable scientific information. This project examines the use of multiple radioisotope sources combined with a thermal capacitor using Phase Change Materials (PCMs) which can collect energy over a period of time. The result of this design culminates in a variety of possible spacecraft with their own varying costs, transit times, and objectives. Among the most promising are missions to Mars which cost less than 17M, missions that can provide power to satellite constellations for decades, or missions that can deliver large, Opportunity-sized (185kg) payloads to mars for less than 53M. All made available to a much wider range of customer with commercially available satellite launches from earth. The true cost of such progress though lies in the sometimes substantial increase in transit times for these missions.

  5. Power beaming providing a space power infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamberger, J.A.; Coomes, E.P.

    1992-01-01

    This paper, based on two levels of technology maturity, applied the power beaming concept to four panned satellite constellations. The analysis shows that with currently available technology, power beaming can provide mass savings to constellations in orbits ranging from low-Earth orbit to geosynchronous orbit. Two constellations, space surveillance and tracking system and space-based radar, can be supported with current technology. The other two constellations, space-based laser array and boost surveillance and tracking system, will require power and transmission system improvements before their breakeven specific mass is achieved. A doubling of SP-100 conversion efficiency from 10 to 20% would meet or exceed breakeven for these constellations

  6. Status of CEA reactor studies for a 200 kWe turbo electric space power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carre, F.; Gervaise, F.; Proust, E.; Schwartz, J.P.; Tilliette, Z.; Vrillon, B.

    1986-01-01

    The present European ARIANE space program will expand after 1995 in the development of the large ARIANE 5 launch vehicle. Considering, that the range of power needs (50 to 400 kWe) and operation times required for the space missions planned after the year 2000, are relevant to a nuclear power system, the French Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) invited in 1983 the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) to undertake preliminary studies on space power systems. The purpose of the present two year phase (mid 1984-mid 1986) is to identify key technologies for a space generator within the power range of interest and to estimate the development cost of such a project to be examined for commitment in 1986. This work mainly consists in the feasibility and cost assessment of a reference 200 kWe turboelectric space generator, selected for the maturity and availability of the conversion system and for its attractive specific mass compared to thermionics and thermoelectricity, considering the available radiator area afforded by the specific ARIANE 5 geometrical features. The system is basically composed of a fast neutron spectrum lithium cooled reactor, of a Brayton conversion loop and of a heat pipe radiator

  7. Space Power Facility (SPF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Space Power Facility (SPF) houses the world's largest space environment simulation chamber, measuring 100 ft. in diameter by 122 ft. high. In this chamber, large...

  8. Free-piston Stirling Engine system considerations for various space power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dochat, George R.; Dhar, Manmohan

    1991-01-01

    Free-Piston Stirling Engines (FPSE) have the potential to provide high reliability, long life, and efficient operation. Therefore, they are excellent candidates for the dynamic power conversion module of a space-based, power-generating system. FPSE can be coupled with many potential heat sources (radioisotope, solar, or nuclear reactor), various heat input systems (pumped loop, heat pipe), heat rejection (pumped loop or heat pipe), and various power management and distribution systems (ac, dc, high or low voltage, and fixed or variable load). This paper reviews potential space missions that can be met using free-piston Stirling engines and discusses options of various system integration approaches. This paper briefly outlines the program and recent progress.

  9. Evolution of systems concepts for a 100 kWe class space nuclear power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katucki, R.; Josloff, A.; Kirpich, A.; Florio, F.

    1985-01-01

    Conceptual designs for the SP-100 space nuclear power system have been prepared that meet baseline, backup and growth program scenarios. Near-term advancement in technology was considered in the design of the baseline concept. An improved silicon-germanium thermoelectric technique is used to convert the heat from a fast-spectrum, liquid lithium cooled reactor. This system produces a net power of 100 kWe with a 10-year end of life, under the specific constraints of area and volume. Output of the backup concept is estimated to be 60 kWe for a 10-year end of life. This system differs from the naseline concept because currently available thermoelectric conversion is used from energy supplied by a liquid sodium cooled reactor. The growth concept uses Stirling engine conversion to produce 100 kWe within the constraints of mass and volume. The growth concept can be scaled up to produce a 1 MWe output that uses the same type reactor developed for the baseline concept. Assessments made for each of the program scenarios indicate the key development efforts needed to initiate detailed design and hardware program phases. Development plans were prepared for each scenario that detail the work elements and show the program activities leading to a state of flight readiness

  10. Evolution of systems concepts for a 100 kWe class Space Nuclear Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katucki, R.; Josloff, A.; Kirpich, A.; Florio, F.

    1985-01-01

    Conceptual designs for the SP-100 Space Nuclear Power System have been prepared that meet baseline, backup and growth program scenarios. Near-term advancement in technology was considered in the design of the Baseline Concept. An improved silicon-germanium thermoelectric technique is used to convert the heat from a fast-spectrum, liquid lithium cooled reactor. This system produces a net power of 100 kWe with a 10-year end of life, under the specific constraints of area and volume. Output of the Backup Concept is estimated to be 60 kWe for a 10-year end of life. This system differs from the Baseline Concept because currently available thermoelectric conversion is used from energy supplied by a liquid sodium cooled reactor. The Growth Concept uses Stirling engine conversion to produce 100 kWe within the constraints of mass and volume. The Growth Concept can be scaled up to produce a 1 MWe output that uses the same type reactor developed for the Baseline Concept. Assessments made for each of the program scenarios indicate the key development efforts needed to initiate detailed design and hardware program phases. Development plans were prepared for each scenario that detail the work elements and show the program activities leading to a state of flight readiness.

  11. A simulation model for reliability evaluation of Space Station power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, C.; Patton, A. D.; Kumar, Mudit; Wagner, H.

    1988-01-01

    A detailed simulation model for the hybrid Space Station power system is presented which allows photovoltaic and solar dynamic power sources to be mixed in varying proportions. The model considers the dependence of reliability and storage characteristics during the sun and eclipse periods, and makes it possible to model the charging and discharging of the energy storage modules in a relatively accurate manner on a continuous basis.

  12. MODELING OF THE CONTROLLED TRACTION POWER SUPPLY SYSTEM IN THE SPACE-TIME COORDINATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry BOSYI

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The problems of the traction power supply system calculation are considered in the article. The authors proposed the space-time model, which is based on the analytical functions of the current- and voltage-drop distributions in the contact network. The usage of the proposed model is shown for the control law calculation both to stabilize the voltage at the pantographs of the electric rolling stocks and to reduce the power losses.

  13. Development of Space Qualified Microlens Arrays for Solar Cells Used on Satellite Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Faruk Keser

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The power system, one of the main systems of satellite, provides energy required for the satellite. Solar cells are also the most used energy source in the power system. The third generation multi-junction solar cells are known as the ones with highest performance. One of the methods to increase the performance of the solar cells is anti-reflective surface coatings with the Micro Lens Array-MLA. It's expected that satellite technologies has high power efficiency and low mass. The space environment has many effects like atomic oxygen, radiation and thermal cycles. Researches for increasing the solar cells performance shows that MLA coated solar cell has increased light absorption performance and less cell heating with very low additional mass. However, it is established that few studies on MLA coatings of solar cells are not applicable on space platforms. In this study, the process of development of MLA which is convenient to space power systems is investigated in a methodological way. In this context, a method which is developed based on MLA coatings of multi-junction solar cells for satellite power systems is presented.

  14. Space power subsystem sizing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geis, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses a Space Power Subsystem Sizing program which has been developed by the Aerospace Power Division of Wright Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. The Space Power Subsystem program (SPSS) contains the necessary equations and algorithms to calculate photovoltaic array power performance, including end-of-life (EOL) and beginning-of-life (BOL) specific power (W/kg) and areal power density (W/m 2 ). Additional equations and algorithms are included in the spreadsheet for determining maximum eclipse time as a function of orbital altitude, and inclination. The Space Power Subsystem Sizing program (SPSS) has been used to determine the performance of several candidate power subsystems for both Air Force and SDIO potential applications. Trade-offs have been made between subsystem weight and areal power density (W/m 2 ) as influenced by orbital high energy particle flux and time in orbit

  15. Development of a Novel Wireless Electric Power Transfer System for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    VazquezRamos, Gabriel; Yuan, Jiann-Shiun

    2011-01-01

    This paper will introduce a new implementation for wireless electric power transfer systems: space applications. Due to the risks that constitute the use of electrical connector for some space missions/applications, a simple wireless power system design approach will be evaluated as an alternative for the use of electrical connectors. This approach takes into consideration the overall system performance by designing the magnetic resonance elements and by verifying the overall system electrical behavior. System characterization is accomplished by executing circuit and analytical simulations using Matlab(TradeMark) and LTSpiceIV(TradeMark) software packages. The design methodology was validated by two different experiments: frequency consideration (design of three magnetic elements) and a small scale proof-ofconcept prototype. Experiment results shows successful wireless power transfer for all the cases studied. The proof-of-concept prototype provided approx.4 W of wireless power to the load (light bulb) at a separation of 3 cm from the source. In addition. a resonant circuit was designed and installed to the battery terminals of a handheld radio without batteries, making it tum on at a separation of approx.5 cm or less from the source. It was also demonstrated by prototype experimentation that multiple loads can be powered wirelessly at the same time with a single electric power source.

  16. Design of a gigawatt space solar power satellite using optical concentrator system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessanti, B.; Komerath, N.; Shah, S.

    A 1-gigawatt space solar power satellite using a large array of individually pointable optical elements is identified as the key mass element of a large scale space solar power architecture using the Space Power Grid concept. The proposed satellite design enables a significant increase in specific power. Placed in sun-synchronous dynamic orbits near 2000km altitude, these satellites can maintain the constant solar view requirement of GEO-based architectures, while greatly reducing the beaming distance required, decreasing the required antenna size and in turn the overall system mass. The satellite uses an array of individually pointable optical elements (which we call a Mirasol Concentrator Array) to concentrate solar energy to an intensified feed target that feeds into the main heater of the spacecraft, similar conceptually to heliostat arrays. The spacecraft then utilizes Brayton cycle conversion to take advantage of non-linear power level scaling in order to generate high specific power values. Using phase array antennas, the power is then beamed at a millimeter wave frequency of 220GHz down to Earth. The design of the Mirasol concentrator system will be described and a detailed mass estimation of the system is developed. The technical challenges of pointing the elements and maintaining constant solar view is investigated. An end-to-end efficiency analysis is performed. Subsystem designs for the spacecraft are outlined. A detailed mass budget is refined to reflect reductions in uncertainty of the spacecraft mass, particularly in the Mirasol system. One of the key mass drivers of the spacecraft is the active thermal control system. The design of a lightweight thermal control system utilizing graphene sheets is also detailed.

  17. Status of an advanced radioisotope space power system using free-piston Stirling technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, M.A.; Qiu, S.; Erbeznik, R.M.; Olan, R.W.; Welty, S.C.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes a free-piston Stirling engine technology project to demonstrate a high efficiency power system capable of being further developed for deep space missions using a radioisotope (RI) heat source. The key objective is to develop a power system with an efficiency exceeding 20% that can function with a high degree of reliability for 10 years or longer on deep space missions. Primary issues being addressed for Stirling space power systems are weight and the vibration associated with reciprocating pistons. Similar weight and vibration issues have been successfully addressed with Stirling cryocoolers, which are the accepted standard for cryogenic cooling in space. Integrated long-life Stirling engine-generator (or convertor) operation has been demonstrated by the terrestrial Radioisotope Stirling Generator (RSG) and other Stirling Technology Company (STC) programs. Extensive RSG endurance testing includes more than 40,000 maintenance-free, degradation-free hours for the complete convertor, in addition to several critical component and subsystem endurance tests. The Stirling space power convertor project is being conducted by STC under DOE Contract, and NASA SBIR Phase II contracts. The DOE contract objective is to demonstrate a two-convertor module that represents half of a nominal 150-W(e) power system. Each convertor is referred to as a Technology Demonstration Convertor (TDC). The ultimate Stirling power system would be fueled by three general purpose heat source (GPHS) modules, and is projected to produce substantially more electric power than the 150-watt target. The system is capable of full power output with one failed convertor. One NASA contract, nearing completion, uses existing 350-W(e) RG-350 convertors to evaluate interactivity of two back-to-back balanced convertors with various degrees of electrical and mechanical interaction. This effort has recently provided the first successful synchronization of two convertors by means of parallel

  18. Space-time wind speed forecasting for improved power system dispatch

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Xinxin

    2014-02-27

    To support large-scale integration of wind power into electric energy systems, state-of-the-art wind speed forecasting methods should be able to provide accurate and adequate information to enable efficient, reliable, and cost-effective scheduling of wind power. Here, we incorporate space-time wind forecasts into electric power system scheduling. First, we propose a modified regime-switching, space-time wind speed forecasting model that allows the forecast regimes to vary with the dominant wind direction and with the seasons, hence avoiding a subjective choice of regimes. Then, results from the wind forecasts are incorporated into a power system economic dispatch model, the cost of which is used as a loss measure of the quality of the forecast models. This, in turn, leads to cost-effective scheduling of system-wide wind generation. Potential economic benefits arise from the system-wide generation of cost savings and from the ancillary service cost savings. We illustrate the economic benefits using a test system in the northwest region of the United States. Compared with persistence and autoregressive models, our model suggests that cost savings from integration of wind power could be on the scale of tens of millions of dollars annually in regions with high wind penetration, such as Texas and the Pacific northwest. © 2014 Sociedad de Estadística e Investigación Operativa.

  19. Nuclear power in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aftergood, S.; Hafemeister, D.W.; Prilutsky, O.F.; Rodionov, S.N.; Primack, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear reactors have provided energy for satellites-with nearly disastrous results. Now the US government is proposing to build nuclear-powered boosters to launch Star Wars defenses. These authors represent scientific groups that are opposed to the use of nuclear power in near space. The authors feel that the best course for space-borne reactors is to ban them from Earth orbit and use them in deep space

  20. Space power station. Uchu hatsuden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudo, I. (Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan))

    1993-02-20

    A calculation tells that the amount of electric power the world will use in the future will require 100 to 500 power plants each with an output of 5-GW class. If this conception is true, it is beyond dispute that utilizing nuclear power will constitute a core of the power generation even though the geographical conditions are severe for nuclear power plants. It is also certain that power generation using clean solar energy will play important roles if power supply stability can be achieved. This paper describes plans to develop space solar power generation and space nuclear power generation that can supply power solving problems concerning geographical conditions and power supply stability. The space solar power generation is a system to arrest solar energy on a static orbit. According to a result of discussions in the U.S.A., the plan calls for solar cell sheets spread over the surface of a structure with a size of 5 km [times] 10 km [times] 0.5 km thick, and electric power obtained therefrom is transmitted to a rectenna with a size of 10 km [times] 13 km, a receiving antenna on the ground. The space nuclear power generation will be constructed similarly on a static orbit. Researches on space nuclear reactors have already begun. 10 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Space Solar Power Program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arif, Humayun; Barbosa, Hugo; Bardet, Christophe; Baroud, Michel; Behar, Alberto; Berrier, Keith; Berthe, Phillipe; Bertrand, Reinhold; Bibyk, Irene; Bisson, Joel; Bloch, Lawrence; Bobadilla, Gabriel; Bourque, Denis; Bush, Lawrence; Carandang, Romeo; Chiku, Takemi; Crosby, Norma; De Seixas, Manuel; De Vries, Joha; Doll, Susan; Dufour, Francois; Eckart, Peter; Fahey, Michael; Fenot, Frederic; Foeckersperger, Stefan; Fontaine, Jean-Emmanuel; Fowler, Robert; Frey, Harald; Fujio, Hironobu; Gasa, Jaume Munich; Gleave, Janet; Godoe, Jostein; Green, Iain; Haeberli, Roman; Hanada, Toshiya; Harris, Peter; Hucteau, Mario; Jacobs, Didier Fernand; Johnson, Richard; Kanno, Yoshitsugu; Koenig, Eva Maria; Kojima, Kazuo; Kondepudi, Phani; Kottbauer, Christian; Kulper, Doede; Kulagin, Konstantin; Kumara, Pekka; Kurz, Rainer; Laaksonen, Jyrki; Lang, Andrew Neill; Lathan, Corinna; Le Fur, Thierry; Lewis, David; Louis, Alain; Mori, Takeshi; Morlanes, Juan; Murbach, Marcus; Nagatomo, Hideo; O' brien, Ivan; Paines, Justin; Palaszewski, Bryan; Palmnaes, Ulf; Paraschivolu, Marius; Pathare, Asmin; Perov, Egor; Persson, Jan; Pessoa-Lopes, Isabel; Pinto, Michel; Porro, Irene; Reichert, Michael; Ritt-Fischer, Monika; Roberts, Margaret; Robertson II, Lawrence; Rogers, Keith; Sasaki, Tetsuo; Scire, Francesca; Shibatou, Katsuya; Shirai, Tatsuya; Shiraishi, Atsushi; Soucaille, Jean-Francois; Spivack, Nova; St. Pierre, Dany; Suleman, Afzal; Sullivan, Thomas; Theelen, Bas Johan; Thonstad, Hallvard; Tsuji, Masatoshi; Uchiumi, Masaharu; Vidqvist, Jouni; Warrell, David; Watanabe, Takafumi; Willis, Richard; Wolf, Frank; Yamakawa, Hiroshi; Zhao, Hong

    1992-08-01

    Information pertaining to the Space Solar Power Program is presented on energy analysis; markets; overall development plan; organizational plan; environmental and safety issues; power systems; space transportation; space manufacturing, construction, operations; design examples; and finance.

  2. Materials compatibility issues related to thermal energy storage for a space solar dynamic power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faget, N. M.

    1986-01-01

    Attention is given to results obtained to date in developmental investigations of a thermal energy storage (TES) system for the projected NASA Space Station's solar dynamic power system; these tests have concentrated on issues related to materials compatibility for phase change materials (PCMs) and their containment vessels' materials. The five PCMs tested have melting temperatures that correspond to the operating temperatures of either the Brayton or Rankine heat engines, which were independently chosen for their high energy densities.

  3. Recent advances in Alkali Metal Thermoelectric Converter (AMTEC) electrode performance and modeling. [for space power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankston, C. P.; Williams, R. M.; Jeffries-Nakamura, B.; Loveland, M. E.; Underwood, M. L.

    1988-01-01

    The Alkali Metal Thermoelectric Converter (AMTEC) is a direct energy conversion device, utilizing a high sodium vapor pressure or activity ratio across a beta-double prime-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE). This paper describes progress on the remaining scientific issue which must be resolved to demonstrate AMTEC feasibility for space power systems: a stable, high power density electrode. Two electrode systems have recently been discovered at JPL that now have the potential to meet space power requirements. One of these is a very thin sputtered molybdenum film, less than 0.5 micron thick, with overlying current collection grids. This electrode has experimentally demonstrated stable performance at 0.4-0.5 W/sq cm for hundreds of hours. Recent modeling results show that at least 0.7 W/sq cm can be achieved. The model of electrode performance now includes all loss mechanisms, including charge transfer resistances at the electrode/electrolyte interface. A second electrode composition, cosputtered platinum/tungsten, has demonstrated 0.8 W/sq cm for 160 hours. Systems studies show that a stable electrode performance of 0.6 W/sq cm will enable high efficiency space power systems.

  4. Startup thaw concept for the SP-100 space reactor power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirpich, A.; Das, A.; Choe, H.; Mcnamara, E.; Switick, D.; Bhandari, P.

    1990-01-01

    A thaw concept for a space reactor power system which employs lithium as a circulant for both the heat-transport and the heat-rejection fluid loops is presented. An exemplary thermal analysis for a 100-kWe (i.e., SP-100) system is performed. It is shown that the design of the thaw system requires a thorough knowledge of the various physical states of the circulant throughout the system, both spatially and temporally, and that the design has to provide adequate margins for the system to avoid a structural or thermally induced damage.

  5. Load-Following Voltage Controller Design for a Static Space Nuclear Power System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parlos, Alexander G.; Onbasioglou, Fetiye O.; Metzger, John D.

    2000-01-01

    The reliability of static space nuclear power systems (SNPSs) could be improved through the use of backup devices in addition to shunt regulators, as currently proposed for load following. Shunt regulator failure leading to reactor shutdown is possible, as is the possible need to deliver somewhat higher power level to the load than originally expected. A backup system is proposed in SNPSs to eliminate the possibility of a single-point failure in the shunt regulators and to increase the overall system power delivery capability despite changing mission needs and component characteristics. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the feasibility of such a backup device for voltage regulation in static SNPSs that is capable of overcoming system variations resulting from operation at different power levels. A dynamic compensator is designed using the Linear Quadratic Gaussian with Loop Transfer Recovery method. The resulting compensators are gain scheduled using the SNPS electric power as the scheduling variable, resulting in a nonlinear compensator. The performance of the gain-scheduled compensator is investigated extensively using an SNPS simulator. The simulations demonstrate the effects of the fuel temperature reactivity coefficient variations on the load-following capabilities of the SNPS. Robustness analysis results demonstrate that the proposed controller exhibits significant operational flexibility, and it can be considered for long-term space mission requiring significant levels of autonomy

  6. Status update of a free-piston Stirling convertor for radioisotope space power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, Maurice; Qiu Songgang; Augenblick, Jack; Peterson, Allen; Faultersack, Frank

    2001-01-01

    Free-piston Stirling engines offer a relatively mature technology that is well-suited for advanced, high-efficiency radioisotope space power systems. This paper updates results from a combination of DOE and NASA contracts with Stirling Technology Company (STC). These contracts have demonstrated STC's Stirling convertor technology in a configuration and power level representative of a space power system. Based on demonstrated performance, long-life maintenance-free technology heritage, and success with aggressively imposed vibration testing. DOE has awarded system integration contracts to Boeing, Lockheed Martin and Teledyne Energy Systems. The objectives of these competitive Phase I contracts are to develop complete spacecraft power system conceptual designs based on the STC Stirling convertor, and to plan subsequent phases for two launches. Performance results for the DOE 55-W(e) Technology Demonstration Convertors (TDC's) have met original projections. Although the TDC's were intended only for technology demonstration, they have achieved very aggressive efficiency goals, demonstrated convertor-induced vibration levels below the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) specifications, passed a simulated launch load vibration test at 0.2 g2/Hz (12.3 g rms), and met EMI/EMC goals for most contemplated missions. No consideration for EMI reduction was included in the TDC design. Minor changes are underway to reduce EMI levels, with a goal of meeting specifications for missions such as Solar Probe with highly sensitive instrumentation. The long-term objective for DOE is to develop a power system with a system efficiency exceeding 20% that can function with a high degree of reliability for 10 years and longer on deep space missions

  7. Status update of a free-piston Stirling convertor for radioisotope space power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Maurice; Qiu, Songgang; Augenblick, Jack; Peterson, Allen; Faultersack, Frank

    2001-02-01

    Free-piston Stirling engines offer a relatively mature technology that is well-suited for advanced, high-efficiency radioisotope space power systems. This paper updates results from a combination of DOE and NASA contracts with Stirling Technology Company (STC). These contracts have demonstrated STC's Stirling convertor technology in a configuration and power level representative of a space power system. Based on demonstrated performance, long-life maintenance-free technology heritage, and success with aggressively imposed vibration testing. DOE has awarded system integration contracts to Boeing, Lockheed Martin and Teledyne Energy Systems. The objectives of these competitive Phase I contracts are to develop complete spacecraft power system conceptual designs based on the STC Stirling convertor, and to plan subsequent phases for two launches. Performance results for the DOE 55-W(e) Technology Demonstration Convertors (TDC's) have met original projections. Although the TDC's were intended only for technology demonstration, they have achieved very aggressive efficiency goals, demonstrated convertor-induced vibration levels below the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) specifications, passed a simulated launch load vibration test at 0.2 g2/Hz (12.3 g rms), and met EMI/EMC goals for most contemplated missions. No consideration for EMI reduction was included in the TDC design. Minor changes are underway to reduce EMI levels, with a goal of meeting specifications for missions such as Solar Probe with highly sensitive instrumentation. The long-term objective for DOE is to develop a power system with a system efficiency exceeding 20% that can function with a high degree of reliability for 10 years and longer on deep space missions. .

  8. Status of CEA reactor studies for a 200 kWe turboelectric Space Power System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carre, F.; Gervaise, F.; Proust, E.; Schwartz, J.P.; Tilliette, Z.; Vrillon, B.

    1986-01-01

    A reference design for a 200 kWe Space Nuclear Power System has been developed by the CNES and CEA Agencies of the French Government in order to assess within a first study phase running from mid 1984 to mid 1986, the key feasibility issues and the development cost of a Space Power System compatible with the version of the European launcher (ARIANE V), that will be available after 1995, and with adequate power range and lifetime performances for the missions considered at that time. The heat from a fast spectrum lithium cooled reactor is converted by a turboelectric system, selected for its technological readiness and for its advantage over thermionics and thermoelectricity, of minimizing the total mass of 100 to 300 kWe power systems, considering the available radiator area afforded by the specific ARIANE V geometrical features. A heat pipe radiator is preferred to an equivalent gas cooled system, for the increased reliability brought by the large number of independent cooling elements. The successive topics addressed in the paper, include a description of the system main components and steady state operating conditions, and the present views about the start up procedure and the reactor control

  9. Primary and secondary electrical space power based on advanced PEM systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderborgh, N. E.; Hedstrom, J. C.; Stroh, K. R.; Huff, J. R.

    1993-01-01

    For new space ventures, power continues to be a pacing function for mission planning and experiment endurance. Although electrochemical power is a well demonstrated space power technology, current hardware limitations impact future mission viability. In order to document and augment electrochemical technology, a series of experiments for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Lewis Research Center (NASA LeRC) are underway at the Los Alamos National Laboratory that define operational parameters on contemporary proton exchange membrane (PEM) hardware operating with hydrogen and oxygen reactants. Because of the high efficiency possible for water electrolysis, this hardware is also thought part of a secondary battery design built around stored reactants - the so-called regenerative fuel cell. An overview of stack testing at Los Alamos and of analyses related to regenerative fuel cell systems are provided in this paper. Finally, this paper describes work looking at innovative concepts that remove complexity from stack hardware with the specific intent of higher system reliability. This new concept offers the potential for unprecedented electrochemical power system energy densities.

  10. Solid-State Power Generating Microdevices for Distributed Space System Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleurial, J.-P.; Patel, J.; Snyder, G. J.; Huang, C.-K.; Averback, R.; Hill, C.; Chen, G.

    2001-01-01

    Deep space missions have a strong need for compact, high power density, reliable and long life electrical power generation and storage under extreme temperature conditions. Conventional power generating devices become inefficient at very low temperatures (temperatures lower than 200 K encountered during Mars missions for example) and rechargeable energy storage devices cannot be operated thereby limiting mission duration. At elevated temperatures (for example for planned solar probe or Venus lander missions), thin film interdiffusion destroys electronic devices used for generating and storing power. Solar power generation strongly depends upon the light intensity, which falls rapidly in deep interplanetary missions (beyond 5 AU), and in planetary missions in the sun shadow or in dusty environments (Mars, for example). Radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) have been successfully used for a number of deep space missions RTGs. However, their energy conversion efficiency and specific power characteristics are quite low, and this technology has been limited to relatively large systems (more than 100 W). The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) have been planning the use of much smaller spacecrafts that will incorporate a variety of microdevices and miniature vehicles such as microdetectors, microsensors, and microrovers. Except for electrochemical batteries and solar cells, there are currently no available miniaturized power sources. Novel technologies that will function reliably over a long duration mission (ten years and over), in harsh environments (temperature, pressure, and atmosphere) must be developed to enable the success of future space missions. It is also expected that such micropower sources could have a wide range of terrestrial applications, in particular when the limited lifetime and environmental limitations of batteries are key factors. Additional information is contained in the original

  11. DynMo: Dynamic Simulation Model for Space Reactor Power Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Genk, Mohamed; Tournier, Jean-Michel

    2005-01-01

    A Dynamic simulation Model (DynMo) for space reactor power systems is developed using the SIMULINK registered platform. DynMo is modular and could be applied to power systems with different types of reactors, energy conversion, and heat pipe radiators. This paper presents a general description of DynMo-TE for a space power system powered by a Sectored Compact Reactor (SCoRe) and that employs off-the-shelf SiGe thermoelectric converters. SCoRe is liquid metal cooled and designed for avoidance of a single point failure. The reactor core is divided into six equal sectors that are neutronically, but not thermal-hydraulically, coupled. To avoid a single point failure in the power system, each reactor sector has its own primary and secondary loops, and each loop is equipped with an electromagnetic (EM) pump. A Power Conversion assembly (PCA) and a Thermoelectric Conversion Assembly (TCA) of the primary and secondary EM pumps thermally couple each pair of a primary and a secondary loop. The secondary loop transports the heat rejected by the PCA and the pumps TCA to a rubidium heat pipes radiator panel. The primary loops transport the thermal power from the reactor sector to the PCAs for supplying a total of 145-152 kWe to the load at 441-452 VDC, depending on the selections of the primary and secondary liquid metal coolants. The primary and secondary coolant combinations investigated are lithium (Li)/Li, Li/sodium (Na), Na-Na, Li/NaK-78 and Na/NaK-78, for which the reactor exit temperature is kept below 1250 K. The results of a startup transient of the system from an initial temperature of 500 K are compared and discussed

  12. A probabilistic approach to safety/reliability of space nuclear power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medford, G.; Williams, K.; Kolaczkowski, A.

    1989-01-01

    An ongoing effort is investigating the feasibility of using probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) modeling techniques to construct a living model of a space nuclear power system. This is being done in conjunction with a traditional reliability and survivability analysis of the SP-100 space nuclear power system. The initial phase of the project consists of three major parts with the overall goal of developing a top-level system model and defining initiating events of interest for the SP-100 system. The three major tasks were performing a traditional survivability analysis, performing a simple system reliability analysis, and constructing a top-level system fault-tree model. Each of these tasks and their interim results are discussed in this paper. Initial results from the study support the conclusion that PRA modeling techniques can provide a valuable design and decision-making tool for space reactors. The ability of the model to rank and calculate relative contributions from various failure modes allows design optimization for maximum safety and reliability. Future efforts in the SP-100 program will see data development and quantification of the model to allow parametric evaluations of the SP-100 system. Current efforts have shown the need for formal data development and test programs within such a modeling framework

  13. An architecture for object-oriented intelligent control of power systems in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmquist, Sven G.; Jayaram, Prakash; Jansen, Ben H.

    1993-01-01

    A control system for autonomous distribution and control of electrical power during space missions is being developed. This system should free the astronauts from localizing faults and reconfiguring loads if problems with the power distribution and generation components occur. The control system uses an object-oriented simulation model of the power system and first principle knowledge to detect, identify, and isolate faults. Each power system component is represented as a separate object with knowledge of its normal behavior. The reasoning process takes place at three different levels of abstraction: the Physical Component Model (PCM) level, the Electrical Equivalent Model (EEM) level, and the Functional System Model (FSM) level, with the PCM the lowest level of abstraction and the FSM the highest. At the EEM level the power system components are reasoned about as their electrical equivalents, e.g, a resistive load is thought of as a resistor. However, at the PCM level detailed knowledge about the component's specific characteristics is taken into account. The FSM level models the system at the subsystem level, a level appropriate for reconfiguration and scheduling. The control system operates in two modes, a reactive and a proactive mode, simultaneously. In the reactive mode the control system receives measurement data from the power system and compares these values with values determined through simulation to detect the existence of a fault. The nature of the fault is then identified through a model-based reasoning process using mainly the EEM. Compound component models are constructed at the EEM level and used in the fault identification process. In the proactive mode the reasoning takes place at the PCM level. Individual components determine their future health status using a physical model and measured historical data. In case changes in the health status seem imminent the component warns the control system about its impending failure. The fault isolation

  14. Performance predictions and measurements for space-power-system heat pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prenger, F.C. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    High temperature liquid metal heat pipes designed for space power systems have been analyzed and tested. Three wick designs are discussed and a design rationale for the heat pipe is provided. Test results on a molybdenum, annular wick heat pipe are presented. Performance limitations due to boiling and capillary limits are presented. There is evidence that the vapor flow in the adiabatic section is turbulent and that the transition Reynolds number is 4000

  15. Ultrahigh temperature vapor core reactor-MHD system for space nuclear electric power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maya, Isaac; Anghaie, Samim; Diaz, Nils J.; Dugan, Edward T.

    1991-01-01

    The conceptual design of a nuclear space power system based on the ultrahigh temperature vapor core reactor with MHD energy conversion is presented. This UF4 fueled gas core cavity reactor operates at 4000 K maximum core temperature and 40 atm. Materials experiments, conducted with UF4 up to 2200 K, demonstrate acceptable compatibility with tungsten-molybdenum-, and carbon-based materials. The supporting nuclear, heat transfer, fluid flow and MHD analysis, and fissioning plasma physics experiments are also discussed.

  16. Orientation of Space Station Freedom electrical power system in environmental effects assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Cheng-Yi

    1990-01-01

    The orientation effects of six Space Station Freedom Electrical Power System (EPS) components are evaluated for three environmental interactions: aerodynamic drag, atomic oxygen erosion, and orbital debris impact. Designers can directly apply these orientation factors to estimate the magnitude of the examined environment and the environmental effects for the EPS component of interest. The six EPS components are the solar array, photovoltaic module radiator, integrated equipment assembly, solar dynamic concentrator, solar dynamic radiator, and beta gimbal.

  17. Recent materials compatibility studies in refractory metal-alkali metal systems for space power applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, R. W.; Hoffman, E. E.; Davies, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    Advanced Rankine and other proposed space power systems utilize refractory metals in contact with both single-phase and two-phase alkali metals at elevated temperatures. A number of recent compatibility experiments are described which emphasize the excellent compatibility of refractory metals with the alkali metals, lithium, sodium, and potassium, under a variety of environmental conditions. The alkali metal compatibilities of tantalum-, columbium-, molybdenum-, and tungsten-base alloys are discussed.

  18. Heat-pipe development for the SPAR space-power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranken, W.A.

    1981-01-01

    The SPAR space power system design is based on a high temperature fast spectrum nuclear reactor that furnishes heat to a thermoelectric conversion system to generate an electrical power output of 100 kW/sub (e)/. An important feature of this design is the use of alkali metal heat pipes to provide redundant, reliable, and low-loss heat transfer at high temperature. Three sets of heat pipes are used in the system. These include sodium/molybdenum heat pipes to transfer heat from the reactor core to the conversion system, potassium/niobium heat pipes to couple the conversion system to the radiator in a redundant manner, and potassium/titanium heat pipes to distribute rejected heat throughout the radiator surface. The designs of these units are discussed and fabrication methods and testing results are described. 12 figures

  19. Assessment of environmental effects on Space Station Freedom Electrical Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Cheng-Yi; Nahra, Henry K.

    1991-01-01

    Analyses of EPS (electrical power system) interactions with the LEO (low earth orbit) environment are described. The results of these analyses will support EPS design so as to be compatible with the natural and induced environments and to meet power, lifetime, and performance requirements. The environmental impacts to the Space Station Freedom EPS include aerodynamic drag, atomic oxygen erosion, ultraviolet degradation, VXB effect, ionizing radiation dose and single event effects, electromagnetic interference, electrostatic discharge, plasma interactions (ion sputtering, arcing, and leakage current), meteoroid and orbital debris threats, thermal cycling effects, induced current and voltage potential differences in the SSF due to induced electric field, and contamination degradation.

  20. Selection of high temperature thermal energy storage materials for advanced solar dynamic space power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Dovie E.; Coles-Hamilton, Carolyn; Juhasz, Albert

    1987-01-01

    Under the direction of NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Technology (OAST), the NASA Lewis Research Center has initiated an in-house thermal energy storage program to identify combinations of phase change thermal energy storage media for use with a Brayton and Stirling Advanced Solar Dynamic (ASD) space power system operating between 1070 and 1400 K. A study has been initiated to determine suitable combinations of thermal energy storage (TES) phase change materials (PCM) that result in the smallest and lightest weight ASD power system possible. To date the heats of fusion of several fluoride salt mixtures with melting points greater than 1025 K have been verified experimentally. The study has indicated that these salt systems produce large ASD systems because of their inherent low thermal conductivity and low density. It is desirable to have PCMs with high densities and high thermal conductivities. Therefore, alternate phase change materials based on metallic alloy systems are also being considered as possible TES candidates for future ASD space power systems.

  1. Thermodynamic analysis and optimization of a Closed Regenerative Brayton Cycle for nuclear space power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Guilherme B.; Braz Filho, Francisco A.; Guimarães, Lamartine N.F.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear power systems turned to space electric propulsion differ strongly from usual ground-based power systems regarding the importance of overall size and mass. For propulsion power systems, size and mass are essential drivers that should be minimized during conception processes. Considering this aspect, this paper aims the development of a design-based model of a Closed Regenerative Brayton Cycle that applies the thermal conductance of the main components in order to predict the energy conversion performance, allowing its use as a preliminary tool for heat exchanger and radiator panel sizing. The centrifugal-flow turbine and compressor characterizations were achieved using algebraic equations from literature data. A binary mixture of Helium–Xenon with molecular weight of 40 g/mole is applied and the impact of the components sizing in the energy efficiency is evaluated in this paper, including the radiator panel area. Moreover, an optimization analysis based on the final mass of heat the exchangers is performed. - Highlights: • A design-based model of a Closed Brayton Cycle is proposed for nuclear space needs. • Turbomachinery efficiency presented a strong influence on the system efficiency. • Radiator area presented the highest potential to increase the system efficiency. • There is maximum system efficiency for each total mass of heat exchangers. • Size or efficiency optimization was performed by changing heat exchanger proportion.

  2. A four-year investigation of Brayton cycle systems for future french space power applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilliette, Z.P.; Proust, E.; Carre, F.

    1988-01-01

    Within the framework of a joint program initiated in 1983 by the two French Government Agencies C.N.E.S. (Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales) and C.E.A. (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique), in order to study space nuclear power systems for future ARIANE 5 applications, extensive investigations have dealt with the Brayton cycle which has been selected as the energy conversion system. Several aspects can be mentioned in this field: the matching of the power system to the available radiator dimensions up to 200 kWe, the direct or indirect waste heat transfer to the radiator, the use of a recuperator, the recent work on moderate (25 kWe) power levels, the simulation studies related to various operating conditions and the general system optimization. A limited experimental program is starting on some crucial technology areas including a first contract to the industry concerning the turbogenerator. Particular attention is being paid to the significance of the adoption of a Brayton cycle for space applications involving a nuclear heat source which can be either a liquid metal-cooled or a gas-cooled reactor. As far as a gas-cooled reactor, direct cycle system is concerned, the relevance to the reactor technology and the concept for moderator thermal conditioning, is particularly addressed

  3. A novel Generalized State-Space Averaging (GSSA) model for advanced aircraft electric power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebrahimi, Hadi; El-Kishky, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A study model is developed for aircraft electric power systems. • A novel GSSA model is developed for the interconnected power grid. • The system’s dynamics are characterized under various conditions. • The averaged results are compared and verified with the actual model. • The obtained measured values are validated with available aircraft standards. - Abstract: The growing complexity of Advanced Aircraft Electric Power Systems (AAEPS) has made conventional state-space averaging models inadequate for systems analysis and characterization. This paper presents a novel Generalized State-Space Averaging (GSSA) model for the system analysis, control and characterization of AAEPS. The primary objective of this paper is to introduce a mathematically elegant and computationally simple model to copy the AAEPS behavior at the critical nodes of the electric grid. Also, to reduce some or all of the drawbacks (complexity, cost, simulation time…, etc) associated with sensor-based monitoring and computer aided design software simulations popularly used for AAEPS characterization. It is shown in this paper that the GSSA approach overcomes the limitations of the conventional state-space averaging method, which fails to predict the behavior of AC signals in a circuit analysis. Unlike conventional averaging method, the GSSA model presented in this paper includes both DC and AC components. This would capture the key dynamic and steady-state characteristics of the aircraft electric systems. The developed model is then examined for the aircraft system’s visualization and accuracy of computation under different loading scenarios. Through several case studies, the applicability and effectiveness of the GSSA method is verified by comparing to the actual real-time simulation model obtained from Powersim 9 (PSIM9) software environment. The simulations results represent voltage, current and load power at the major nodes of the AAEPS. It has been demonstrated that

  4. Mission needs and system commonality for space nuclear power and propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buden, D.; Zuppero, A.; Redd, L.

    1993-01-01

    Nuclear power enables or significantly enhances a variety of space missions whether near-Earth, or for solar system exploration, lunar-Mars exploration and recovery of near-Earth resources. Performance optimizations for individual missions leads to a large number of power and propulsion systems to be developed. However, the realities of the budget and schedules indicates that the number of nuclear systems that will be developed are limited. One needs to seek the ''minimum requirements'' to do a job rather than the last ounce of performance, and areas of commonality. To develop a minimum number of systems to meet the overall DoD, NASA, and commercial needs, the broad spectrum of requirements has been examined along with cost drivers

  5. Recent Joint Studies Related to the Development of Space Radioisotope Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kramer Daniel P.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last several years there has been a mutually beneficial ongoing technical interchange between the U.K and the U.S. related to various aspects of space radioisotope power systems (RPS. While this interchange has been primarily focused on materials based activities, it has also included some aspects related to safety, environmental, and lessons learned during the application of RPSs by the U.S. during the last fifty years. Recent joint technical RPS endeavors have centered on the development of a possible “cold” ceramic surrogate for 238PuO2 and 241AmOx and the irradiation of thermoelectrics and other materials at expected RPS related neutron fluences. As the U.S. continues to deploy and Europe develops RPS capability, on-going joint RPS technical interfaces will continue to enhance each entities’ endeavors in this nuclear based power technology critical for deep space exploration.

  6. Low-temperature thermionics in space nuclear power systems with the safe-type fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zrodnikov, A.V.; Yarygin, V.I.; Lazarenko, G.E.; Zabudko, A.N.; Ovcharenko, M.K.; Pyshko, A.P.; Mironov, V.S.; Kuznetsov, R.V.

    2007-01-01

    The potentialities of the use of the low-temperature thermionic converters (TIC) with the emitter temperature ≤ 1500 K in the space nuclear power system (SNPS) with the SAFE-type (Safe Affordable Fission Engine) fast reactor proposed and developed by common efforts of American experts have been considered. The main directions of the 'SAFE-300-TEG' SNPS (300 kW(thermal)) design update by replacing the thermoelectric converters with the low-temperature high-performance thermionic converters (with the barrier index V B ≤ 1.9 eV and efficiency ≥ 10%) meant for a long-term operation (5 years at least) as the components of the SAFE-300-TIC SNPS for a Lunar base have been discussed. The concept of the SNPS with the SAFE-type fast reactor and low-temperature TICs with specific electric power of about 1.45 W/cm 2 as the components of the SAFE-300-TIC system meeting the Nasa's initial requirements to a Lunar base with the electric power demand of about 30 kW(electrical) for robotic mission has been considered. The results, involving optimization and mass-and-size estimation, show that the SAFE-300-TIC system meets the initial requirements by Nasa to the lunar base power supply. The main directions of the system update aimed at the output electric power increase up to 100 kW(electrical) have also been presented. (authors)

  7. An Advanced Light Weight Recuperator for Space Power Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) technology holds great promise for power and propulsion demands of NASA current and future deep space explorations. Closed Brayton...

  8. AES Modular Power Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AES Modular Power Systems (AMPS) project will demonstrate and infuse modular power electronics, batteries, fuel cells, and autonomous control for exploration...

  9. Developing a Free-Piston Stirling Convertor for advanced radioisotope space power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Songgang; Augenblick, John E.; White, Maurice A.; Peterson, Allen A.; Redinger, Darin L.; Petersen, Stephen L.

    2002-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has selected Free-Piston Stirling Convertors as a technology for future advanced radioisotope space power systems. In August 2000, DOE awarded competitive Phase I, Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG) power system integration contracts to three major aerospace contractors, resulting in SRG conceptual designs in February 2001. All three contractors based their designs on the Technology Demonstration Convertor (TDC) developed by Stirling Technology Company (STC) for DOE. The contract award to a single system integration contractor for Phases II and III of the SRG program is anticipated in late 2001. The first potential SRG mission is targeted for a Mars rover. This paper provides a description of the Flight Prototype (FP) Stirling convertor design as compared to the previous TDC design. The initial flight prototype units are already undergoing performance tuning at STC. The new design will be hermetically scaled and will provide a weight reduction from approximately 4.8 kg to approximately 3.9 kg. .

  10. A dynamic isotope power system for Space Exploration Initiative surface transport systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, M.E.; Harty, R.B.; Cataldo, R.

    1992-03-01

    The Dynamic Isotope Power System (DIPS) Demonstration Program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy with support funding from NASA, is currently focused on the development of a standardized 2.5-kWe portable generator for multiple applications on the lunar or Martian surface. A variety of remote and mobile potential applications have been identified by NASA, including surface rovers for both short- and extended-duration missions, remote power to science packages, and backup to central base power. Recent work focused on refining the 2.5-kWe design and emphasizing the compatibility of the system with potential surface transport systems. Work included an evaluation of the design to ensure compatibility with the Martian atmosphere while imposing only a minor mass penalty on lunar operations. Additional work included a study performed to compare the DIPS with regenerative fuel cell systems for lunar mobile and remote power systems. Power requirements were reviewed and a modular system chosen for the comparison. 4 refs

  11. 10- to 30-kWe space power system using the uranium-zirconium hydride reactor and organic Rankine power conversion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Determan, W.R.; Bost, D.S.

    1987-01-01

    The UZrH reactor-ORC power system has been reviewed to determine its feasibility issues and characterize the system size, mass, and efficiency in the 10- to 30-kWe power range. The major component technologies required for this concept were reviewed to determine their technology status rating for early deployment of the system on near-term missions. Dynamic Isotope Power System (DIPS) technology is directly applicable to the UZrH reactor-ORC concept in the areas of power system reliability and survivability. The UZrH reactor-ORC concept provides a truly state-of-the-art system for use in future military and civilian space power programs. 9 references

  12. Space Nuclear Power and Propulsion - a basic Tool for the manned Exploration of the Solar System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frischauf, Norbert; Hamilton, Booz Allen

    2004-01-01

    Humanity has started to explore space more than 40 years ago. Numerous spacecraft have left the Earth in this endeavour, but while unmanned spacecraft were already sent out on missions, where they would eventually reach the outer limits of the Solar System, manned exploration has always been confined to the tiny bubble of the Earth's gravitational well, stretching out at maximum to our closest celestial companion - the Moon - during the era of the Apollo programme in the late 60's and early 70's. When mankind made its giant leap, the exploration of our cosmic neighbour was seen as the initial step for the manned exploration of the whole Solar System. Consequently ambitious research and development programmes were undertaken at that time to enable what seemed to be the next logical steps: the establishment of a permanent settled base on the Moon and the first manned mission to Mars in the 80's. Nuclear space power and propulsion played an important role in these entire future scenarios, hence ambitious development programmes were undertaken to make these technologies available. Unfortunately the 70's-paradigm shift in space policies did not only bring an end to the Apollo programme, but it also brought a complete halt to all of these technology programmes and confined the human presence in space to a tiny bubble including nothing more than the Earth's sphere and a mere shell of a few hundred kilometres of altitude, too small to even include the Moon. Today, after more than three decades, manned exploration of the Solar System has become an issue again and so are missions to Moon and Mars. However, studies and analyses show that all of these future plans are hampered by today's available propulsion systems and by the problematic of solar power generation at distances at and beyond of Mars, a problem, however, that can readily be solved by the utilisation of space nuclear reactors and propulsion systems. This paper intends to provide an overview on the various fission

  13. Advances in defining a closed brayton conversion system for future ARIANE 5 space nuclear power applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilliette, Z.P.

    1986-06-01

    The present European ARIANE space program will expand into the large ARIANE 5 launch vehicle from 1995. It is assumed that important associated missions would require the generation of 200 kWe or more in space during several years at the very beginning of the next century. It is the reason why, in 1983, the French C.N.E.S. (Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales) and C.E.A. (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique) have initiated preliminary studies of a space nuclear power system. The currently selected conversion system is a closed Brayton cycle. Reasons for this choice are given: high efficiency of a dynamic system; monophasic, inert working fluid; extensive turbomachinery experience, etc... A key aspect of the project is the adaptation to the heat rejection conditions, namely to the radiator geometry which depends upon the dimensions of the ARIANE 5 spacecraft. In addition to usual concepts already studied for space applications, another cycle arrangement is being investigated which could offer satisfactory compromises among many considerations, increase the efficiency of the system and make it more attractive as far as the specific mass (kg/kWe), the specific radiator area (m 2 /kWe) and various technological aspects are concerned. Comparative details are presented

  14. High Efficiency Space Power Systems Project Advanced Space-Rated Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Concha M.

    2011-01-01

    Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) has an agreement with China National Offshore Oil Corporation New Energy Investment Company, Ltd. (CNOOC), under the United States-China EcoPartnerships Framework, to create a bi-national entity seeking to develop technically feasible and economically viable solutions to energy and environmental issues. Advanced batteries have been identified as one of the initial areas targeted for collaborations. CWRU invited NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) personnel from the Electrochemistry Branch to CWRU to discuss various aspects of advanced battery development as they might apply to this partnership. Topics discussed included: the process for the selection of a battery chemistry; the establishment of an integrated development program; project management/technical interactions; new technology developments; and synergies between batteries for automotive and space operations. Additional collaborations between CWRU and NASA GRC's Electrochemistry Branch were also discussed.

  15. Stirling Radioisotope Power System as an Alternative for NASAs Deep Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaltens, R. K.; Mason, L. S.; Schreiber, J. G.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) and the Department of Energy (DOE) are developing a free-piston Stirling convertor for a Stirling Radioisotope Power System (SRPS) to provide on-board electric power for future NASA deep space missions. The SRPS currently being developed provides about 100 watts and reduces the amount of radioisotope fuel by a factor of four over conventional Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG). The present SRPS design has a specific power of approximately 4 W/kg which is comparable to an RTG. GRC estimates for advanced versions of the SRPS with improved heat source integration, lightweight Stirling convertors, composite radiators, and chip-packaged controllers improves the specific mass to about 8 W/kg. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  16. Artificial neural network application for space station power system fault diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momoh, James A.; Oliver, Walter E.; Dias, Lakshman G.

    1995-01-01

    This study presents a methodology for fault diagnosis using a Two-Stage Artificial Neural Network Clustering Algorithm. Previously, SPICE models of a 5-bus DC power distribution system with assumed constant output power during contingencies from the DDCU were used to evaluate the ANN's fault diagnosis capabilities. This on-going study uses EMTP models of the components (distribution lines, SPDU, TPDU, loads) and power sources (DDCU) of Space Station Alpha's electrical Power Distribution System as a basis for the ANN fault diagnostic tool. The results from the two studies are contrasted. In the event of a major fault, ground controllers need the ability to identify the type of fault, isolate the fault to the orbital replaceable unit level and provide the necessary information for the power management expert system to optimally determine a degraded-mode load schedule. To accomplish these goals, the electrical power distribution system's architecture can be subdivided into three major classes: DC-DC converter to loads, DC Switching Unit (DCSU) to Main bus Switching Unit (MBSU), and Power Sources to DCSU. Each class which has its own electrical characteristics and operations, requires a unique fault analysis philosophy. This study identifies these philosophies as Riddles 1, 2 and 3 respectively. The results of the on-going study addresses Riddle-1. It is concluded in this study that the combination of the EMTP models of the DDCU, distribution cables and electrical loads yields a more accurate model of the behavior and in addition yielded more accurate fault diagnosis using ANN versus the results obtained with the SPICE models.

  17. Feasibility study of a small, thorium-based fission power system for space and terrestrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrall, Michael Jason

    One of the current challenges facing space exploration is the creation of a power source capable of providing useful energy for the entire duration of a mission. Historically, radioisotope batteries have been used to provide load power, but this conventional system may not be capable of sustaining continuous power for longer duration missions. To remedy this, many forays into nuclear powered spacecraft have been investigated, but no robust system for long-term power generation has been found. In this study, a novel spin on the traditional fission power system that represents a potential optimum solution is presented. By utilizing mature High Temperature Gas Reactor (HTGR) technology in conjunction with the capabilities of the thorium fuel cycle, we have created a light-weight, long-term power source capable of a continuous electric power output of up to 70kW for over 15 years. This system relies upon a combination of fissile, highly-enriched uranium dioxide and fertile thorium carbide Tri-Structural Isotropic (TRISO) fuel particles embedded in a hexagonal beryllium oxide matrix. As the primary fissile material is consumed, the fertile material breeds new fissile material leading to more steady fuel loading over the lifetime of the core. Reactor control is achieved through an innovative approach to the conventional boron carbide neutron absorber by utilizing sections of borated aluminum placed in rotating control drums within the reflector. Borated aluminum allows for much smaller boron concentrations, thus eliminating the potential for 10B(n,alpha)6Li heating issues that are common in boron carbide systems. A wide range of other reactivity control systems are also investigated, such as a radially-split rotating reflector. Lastly, an extension of the design to a terrestrial based system is investigated. In this system, uranium enrichment is dropped to 20 percent in order to meet current regulations, a solid uranium-zirconium hydride fissile driver replaces the

  18. U.S. Space Radioisotope Power Systems and Applications: Past, Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Robert L.; Bennett, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    Radioisotope power systems (RPS) have been essential to the U.S. exploration of outer space. RPS have two primary uses: electrical power and thermal power. To provide electrical power, the RPS uses the heat produced by the natural decay of a radioisotope (e.g., plutonium-238 in U.S. RPS) to drive a converter (e.g., thermoelectric elements or Stirling linear alternator). As a thermal power source the heat is conducted to whatever component on the spacecraft needs to be kept warm; this heat can be produced by a radioisotope heater unit (RHU) or by using the excess heat of a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). As of 2010, the U.S. has launched 41 RTGs on 26 space systems. These space systems have ranged from navigational satellites to challenging outer planet missions such as Pioneer 10/11, Voyager 1/2, Galileo, Ulysses, Cassini and the New Horizons mission to Pluto. In the fall of 2011, NASA plans to launch the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) that will employ the new Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG) as the principal power source. Hundreds of radioisotope heater units (RHUs) have been launched to provide warmth to Apollo 11, used to provide heating of critical components in a seismic experiment package, Pioneer 10/11, Voyager 1/2, Galileo, Cassini, Mars Pathfinder, MER rovers, etc. to provide temperature control to critical spacecraft electronics and other mechanical devices such as propulsion system propellant valves. A radioisotope (electrical) power source or system (RPS) consists of three basic elements: (1) the radioisotope heat source that provides the thermal power, (2) the converter that transforms the thermal power into electrical power and (3) the heat rejection radiator. Figure 1 illustrates the basic features of an RPS. The idea of a radioisotope power source follows closely after the early investigations of radioactivity by researchers such as Henri Becquerel (1852-1908), Marie Curie (1867-1935), Pierre Curie (1859

  19. Ionizing radiation risks to Satellite Power Systems (SPS) workers in space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    A reference Satellite Power System (SPS) has been designed by NASA and its contractors for the purposes of evaluating the concept and carrying out assessments of the various consequences of development, including those on the health of the space workers. The Department of Energy has responsibility for directing various assessments. Present planning calls for the SPS workers to move from Earth to a low earth orbit (LEO) at an altitude of 500 kilometers; to travel by a transfer ellipse (TE) trajectory to a geosynchronous orbit (GEO) at an altitude of 36,000 kilometers; and to remain in GEO orbit for about 90 percent of the total time aloft. The radiation risks to the health of workers who will construct and maintain solar power satellites in the space environment are studied. The charge to the committee was: (a) to evaluate the radiation environment estimated for the Reference System which could represent a hazard; (b) to assess the possible somatic and genetic radiation hazards; and (c) to estimate the risks to the health of SPS workers due to space radiation exposure, and to make recommendations based on these conclusions. Details are presented. (WHK)

  20. Performance estimates for the Space Station power system Brayton Cycle compressor and turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    The methods which have been used by the NASA Lewis Research Center for predicting Brayton Cycle compressor and turbine performance for different gases and flow rates are described. These methods were developed by NASA Lewis during the early days of Brayton cycle component development and they can now be applied to the task of predicting the performance of the Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) Space Station Freedom power system. Computer programs are given for performing these calculations and data from previous NASA Lewis Brayton Compressor and Turbine tests is used to make accurate estimates of the compressor and turbine performance for the CBC power system. Results of these calculations are also given. In general, calculations confirm that the CBC Brayton Cycle contractor has made realistic compressor and turbine performance estimates.

  1. Space station common module power system network topology and hardware development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    Candidate power system newtork topologies for the space station common module are defined and developed and the necessary hardware for test and evaluation is provided. Martin Marietta's approach to performing the proposed program is presented. Performance of the tasks described will assure systematic development and evaluation of program results, and will provide the necessary management tools, visibility, and control techniques for performance assessment. The plan is submitted in accordance with the data requirements given and includes a comprehensive task logic flow diagram, time phased manpower requirements, a program milestone schedule, and detailed descriptions of each program task.

  2. Nuclear Power in Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Nuclear Energy Office.

    Research has shown that nuclear radioisotope power generators can supply compact, reliable, and efficient sources of energy for a broad range of space missions. These missions range from televising views of planetary surfaces to communicating scientific data to Earth. This publication presents many applications of the advancing technology and…

  3. Space Solar Power: Satellite Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Frank E.

    1999-01-01

    Space Solar Power (SSP) applies broadly to the use of solar power for space related applications. The thrust of the NASA SSP initiative is to develop concepts and demonstrate technology for applying space solar power to NASA missions. Providing power from satellites in space via wireless transmission to a receiving station either on earth, another celestial body or a second satellite is one goal of the SSP initiative. The sandwich design is a satellite design in which the microwave transmitting array is the front face of a thin disk and the back of the disk is populated with solar cells, with the microwave electronics in between. The transmitter remains aimed at the earth in geostationary orbit while a system of mirrors directs sunlight to the photovoltaic cells, regardless of the satellite's orientation to the sun. The primary advantage of the sandwich design is it eliminates the need for a massive and complex electric power management and distribution system for the satellite. However, it requires a complex system for focusing sunlight onto the photovoltaic cells. In addition, positioning the photovoltaic array directly behind the transmitting array power conversion electronics will create a thermal management challenge. This project focused on developing designs and finding emerging technology to meet the challenges of solar tracking, a concentrating mirror system including materials and coatings, improved photovoltaic materials and thermal management.

  4. Preliminary neutronic design of spock reactor: A nuclear system for space power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgio, N.; Santagata, A.; Cumo, M.; Fasano, A.; Frullini, M.

    2007-01-01

    Aim of this paper is to preliminary investigates the neutronic features of an upgrade of the MAUS [1] nuclear reactor whose core will be able to supply a thermoelectric converter in order to generate 30 kW of electricity for space applications. The neutronic layout of SPOCK (Space Power Core Ka) is a compact, MOX fuelled, liquid metal cooled and totally reflected fast reactor with a control system based on neutron absorption. Spock, that during the heart and launch operation must be maintained in sub-critical state, has to start up in the outer space at 40 K temperatures with the coolant in a solid state and it will reach the operating steady condition at the maximum temperature of 1300 K with the coolant in the liquid state. The main design goal is to maintains, in the operating conditions of a typical space mission, the control of the appropriate criticality margin versus temperature and coolant physical state. For this purpose, a neutronic/thermal-hydraulic calculation chain able to assists the entire design process must be set up. As preliminary recognition, MCNPX 2.5.0 and FLUENT calculations were carried out. The emerging key features of SPOCK are: an equilateral triangular mesh of 91 cylindrical UO 2 fuel rods with a Molybdenum clad ensured by two grids of the same material, cooled by liquid Sodium and contained in an AISI 316 L vessel. The core is totally wrapped by a Beryllium reflector that hosts six absorber (B 4 C) rotating control rods. The reactor shape is cylindrical (radius = 30 cm and height = 60 cm) with a total mass of 275 kg. The excess reactivity was of 5000 PCM at 1300 K. A preliminary evaluation of the control rods worth and a power spatial distribution were also discussed. Through the definition of an ideal reference K e ff value at 300 K for the actual SPOCK configuration, a sensitivity analysis on various cross sections data and material physical properties was performed for the given mission temperature range, allowing consideration on

  5. Low-cost space fission power systems utilizing US and former Soviet Union experience and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetch, J.R.; Britt, E.J.; Koester, J.K.; Gunther, N.; Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N.N.; Nikolaev, Y.V.; Nikitin, V.

    1997-01-01

    This report summarizes the author close-quote s approach to space power total economics. In the past 40 years of U.S. government sponsored space nuclear power developments, total economics has received only token consideration. In the real world, nuclear power has had limited acceptance where it provided the enabling capability i.e. isotopes for low power, long life, deep space missions, or reactor power for underwater nuclear submarines. It was also accepted where it was perceived to be more economic. Examples are nuclear reactor powered aircraft carriers, escort vessels and central station power stations. In any case, real and perceived public and environmental safety must always be included into the economic equation. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  6. High-Temperature, Wirebondless, Ultra-Compact Wide Bandgap Power Semiconductor Modules for Space Power Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Silicon carbide (SiC) and other wide band-gap semiconductors offer great promise of high power rating, high operating temperature, simple thermal management, and...

  7. Space power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khudyakov, S. A.

    1985-05-01

    Power generators in space are examined. A semiconducting photoelectric converter (FEP) which converts the energy of solar radiation directly into electrical energy is discussed. The operating principle of an FEP is based on the interaction of solar light with a crystal semiconductor, in the process of which the photons produce free electrons, carriers of an electrical charge, in the crystal. Areas with a strong electrical field created specially under the effect of the p-n junction trap the freed electrons and divide them in such a fashion that a current and corresponding electrical power appear in the load circuit. The absorption of light in metals and pure semiconductors is outlined.

  8. Space power transmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuribayashi, Shizuma [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo, (Japan)

    1989-10-05

    There being a conception to utilize solar energy by use of a space power station (SPS), a method to bring that universal grace to mankind is wireless energy transmission. The wireless energy transmission is regarded to be microwave transmission or laser beam transmission. The microwave transmission is to transmit 2.45GHz band microwave from the SPS to a receiving station on the ground to meet power demand on earth. The microwave, as small in attenuation in atmosphere and resistant against rain and cloud, is made candidate and, however, problematic in influence on organism, necessary large area of receiving antenna and many other points to be studied. While the laser transmission, as more convergent of beam than the microwave transmission, is advantageous with enabling the receiving area to be small and, however, disadvantageous with being not resistant against dust, rain and cloud, if used for the energy transmission between the space and earth. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  9. Study of toluene stability for an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) space-based power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havens, Vance; Ragaller, Dana

    1988-01-01

    The design, fabrication, assembly, and endurance operation of a dynamic test loop, built to evaluate the thermal stability of a proposed Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) working fluid, is discussed. The test fluid, toluene, was circulated through a heater, simulated turbine, regenerator, condenser and pump to duplicate an actual ORC system. The maximum nominal fluid temperature, 750 F, was at the turbine simulator inlet. Samples of noncondensible gases and liquid toluene were taken periodically during the test. The samples were analyzed to identify the degradation products formed and the quantity of these products. From these data it was possible to determine the degradation rate of the working fluid and the generation rate of noncondensible gases. A further goal of this work was to relate the degradation observed in the dynamic operating loop to degradation obtained in isothermal capsule tests. This relationship was the basis for estimating the power loop degradation in the Space Station Organic Rankine Cycle system.

  10. A feasibility assessment of nuclear reactor power system concepts for the NASA Growth Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, H. S.; Heller, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    A preliminary feasibility assessment of the integration of reactor power system concepts with a projected growth Space Station architecture was conducted to address a variety of installation, operational, disposition and safety issues. A previous NASA sponsored study, which showed the advantages of Space Station - attached concepts, served as the basis for this study. A study methodology was defined and implemented to assess compatible combinations of reactor power installation concepts, disposal destinations, and propulsion methods. Three installation concepts that met a set of integration criteria were characterized from a configuration and operational viewpoint, with end-of-life disposal mass identified. Disposal destinations that met current aerospace nuclear safety criteria were identified and characterized from an operational and energy requirements viewpoint, with delta-V energy requirement as a key parameter. Chemical propulsion methods that met current and near-term application criteria were identified and payload mass and delta-V capabilities were characterized. These capabilities were matched against concept disposal mass and destination delta-V requirements to provide a feasibility of each combination.

  11. A feasibility assessment of nuclear reactor power system concepts for the NASA growth Space Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloomfield, H.S.; Heller, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    A preliminary feasibility assessment of the integration of reactor power system concepts with a projected growth space station architecture was conducted to address a variety of installation, operational, disposition and safety issues. A previous NASA sponsored study, which showed the advantages of space station related concepts, served as the basis for this study. A study methodology was defined and implemented to assess compatible combinations of reactor power installation concepts, disposal destinations, and propulsion methods. Three installation concepts that met a set of integration criteria were characterized from a configuration and operational viewpoint, with end-of-life disposal mass identified. Disposal destinations that met current aerospace nuclear safety criteria were identified and characterized from an operational and energy requirements viewpoint, with delta-V energy requirement as a key parameter. Chemical propulsion methods that met current and near-term application criteria were identified and payload mass and delta-V capabilities were characterized. These capabilities were matched against concept disposal mass and destination delta-V requirements to provide a feasibility of each combination

  12. NASA's Space Launch System: Developing the World's Most Powerful Solid Booster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priskos, Alex

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Journey to Mars has begun. Indicative of that challenge, this will be a multi-decadal effort requiring the development of technology, operational capability, and experience. The first steps are under way with more than 15 years of continuous human operations aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and development of commercial cargo and crew transportation capabilities. NASA is making progress on the transportation required for deep space exploration - the Orion crew spacecraft and the Space Launch System (SLS) heavy-lift rocket that will launch Orion and large components such as in-space stages, habitat modules, landers, and other hardware necessary for deep-space operations. SLS is a key enabling capability and is designed to evolve with mission requirements. The initial configuration of SLS - Block 1 - will be capable of launching more than 70 metric tons (t) of payload into low Earth orbit, greater mass than any other launch vehicle in existence. By enhancing the propulsion elements and larger payload fairings, future SLS variants will launch 130 t into space, an unprecedented capability that simplifies hardware design and in-space operations, reduces travel times, and enhances the odds of mission success. SLS will be powered by four liquid fuel RS-25 engines and two solid propellant five-segment boosters, both based on space shuttle technologies. This paper will focus on development of the booster, which will provide more than 75 percent of total vehicle thrust at liftoff. Each booster is more than 17 stories tall, 3.6 meters (m) in diameter and weighs 725,000 kilograms (kg). While the SLS booster appears similar to the shuttle booster, it incorporates several changes. The additional propellant segment provides additional booster performance. Parachutes and other hardware associated with recovery operations have been deleted and the booster designated as expendable for affordability reasons. The new motor incorporates new avionics, new propellant

  13. A new state-space model for three-phase systems for Kalman filtering with application to power quality estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Anh Tuan; Ho, Duc Du; Hermann, Gilles; Wira, Patrice

    2015-12-01

    For power quality issues like reducing harmonic pollution, reactive power and load unbalance, the estimation of the fundamental frequency of a power lines in a fast and precise way is essential. This paper introduces a new state-space model to be used with an extended Kalman filter (EKF) for estimating the frequency of distorted power system signals in real-time. The proposed model takes into account all the characteristics of a general three-phase power system and mainly the unbalance. Therefore, the symmetrical components of the power system, i.e., their amplitude and phase angle values, can also be deduced at each iteration from the proposed state-space model. The effectiveness of the method has been evaluated. Results and comparisons of online frequency estimation and symmetrical components identification show the efficiency of the proposed method for disturbed and time-varying signals.

  14. Green Applications for Space Power

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spacecraft propulsion and power for many decades has relied on Hydrazine monopropellant technology for auxiliary power units (APU), orbital circularization, orbit...

  15. Thermodynamics Properties of Binary Gas Mixtures for Brayton Space Nuclear Power System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You Ersheng; Shi Lei; Zhang Zuoyi

    2014-01-01

    Space nuclear power system with closed Brayton cycle has the potential advantages of high cycle efficiency. It can be achieved to limit the specific mass of the system with a competitive design scheme, so as to strengthen the advantage of the nuclear energy applying in space propulsion and electric generating compared to solar or chemical propellant. Whereby, the thermodynamic properties of working fluids have a significant influence on the performance of the plant. Therefore, two binary mixtures helium-nitrogen and helium-carbon dioxide are introduced to analysis the variation in the transport and heat transfer capacity of working fluids. Based on the parameters of pure gases, the heat transfer coefficient, pressure losses and aerodynamic loading are calculated as a function of mole fraction at the temperature of 400 K and 1200 K, as well as the typical operating pressure of 2 MPa. Results indicated that the mixture of helium-carbon dioxide with a mole fraction of 0.4 is a more attractive choice for the high heat transfer coefficient, low aerodynamic loading and acceptable pressure losses in contrast to helium-nitrogen and other mixing ratios of helium-carbon dioxide. Its heat transfer coefficient is almost 20% more than that of pure helium and the normalized aerodynamic loading is less than 34% at 1200 K. However; the pressure losses are a little higher with ~3.5 times those of pure helium. (author)

  16. [Space-time water monitoring system at the Iriklinsk hydroelectric power station].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deriabin, D G; Poliakov, E G; Priakhina, A A; Karimov, I F

    2002-01-01

    The Microbiosensor B 17677 F test system was applied to make a space-time monitoring of the biotoxicity of water used for production and everyday purposes at the Iriklinsk hydroelectric power station (IHEPS) and to identify the leading causes determining the biotoxicity of tested samples. There were seasonal variations in the biotoxicity with the maximum in spring and with minimum in winter and spring and a relationship of the spring rise in the biotoxicity to water pH changes. There was also an association of the certain values of the biotoxicity of industrial water with the concentration of petroleum products that are major pollutants at the IHEPS. The datum points that characterize the maximum level of technogenic exposure were identified.

  17. Impact test characterization of carbon-carbon composites for the thermoelectric space power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanoski, G.R.; Pih, Hui.

    1995-01-01

    Thirty-eight unique carbon-carbon composite materials of cylindrical architecture were fabricated by commercial vendors for evaluation as alternative impact shell materials for the modular heat source of the thermoelectric space power system. Characterization of these materials included gas gun impact tests where cylindrical specimens containing a mass simulant were fired at 55 m/s to impact a target instrumented to measure force. The force versus time output was analyzed to determine: peak force, acceleration, velocity, and displacement. All impact tests exhibited an equivalence between preimpact momentum and measured impulse. In addition, energy was conserved based on a comparison of preimpact kinetic energy and measured work. Impact test results showed that the currently specified material provided impact energy absorption comparable to the best alternatives considered to date

  18. Identification of high performance and component technology for space electrical power systems for use beyond the year 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisel, James E.

    1988-01-01

    Addressed are some of the space electrical power system technologies that should be developed for the U.S. space program to remain competitive in the 21st century. A brief historical overview of some U.S. manned/unmanned spacecraft power systems is discussed to establish the fact that electrical systems are and will continue to become more sophisticated as the power levels appoach those on the ground. Adaptive/Expert power systems that can function in an extraterrestrial environment will be required to take an appropriate action during electrical faults so that the impact is minimal. Manhours can be reduced significantly by relinquishing tedious routine system component maintenance to the adaptive/expert system. By cataloging component signatures over time this system can set a flag for a premature component failure and thus possibly avoid a major fault. High frequency operation is important if the electrical power system mass is to be cut significantly. High power semiconductor or vacuum switching components will be required to meet future power demands. System mass tradeoffs have been investigated in terms of operating at high temperature, efficiency, voltage regulation, and system reliability. High temperature semiconductors will be required. Silicon carbide materials will operate at a temperature around 1000 K and the diamond material up to 1300 K. The driver for elevated temperature operation is that radiator mass is reduced significantly because of inverse temperature to the fourth power.

  19. Harmonic Instability Assessment Using State-Space Modeling and Participation Analysis in Inverter-Fed Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yanbo; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    parameters on the harmonic instability of the power system. Moreover, the harmonic-frequency oscillation modes are identified, where participation analysis is presented to evaluate the contributions of different states to these modes and to further reveal how the system gives rise to harmonic instability......This paper presents a harmonic instability analysis method using state-space modeling and participation analysis in the inverter-fed ac power systems. A full-order state-space model for the droop-controlled Distributed Generation (DG) inverter is built first, including the time delay of the digital...... control system, inner current and voltage control loops, and outer droop-based power control loop. Based on the DG inverter model, an overall state-space model of a two-inverter-fed system is established. The eigenvalue-based stability analysis is then presented to assess the influence of controller...

  20. The approach to risk analysis in three industries: nuclear power, space systems, and chemical process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrick, B.J.

    1988-01-01

    The aerospace, nuclear power, and chemical processing industries are providing much of the incentive for the development and application of advanced risk analysis techniques to engineered systems. Risk analysis must answer three basic questions: What can go wrong? How likely is it? and What are the consequences? The result of such analyses is not only a quantitative answer to the question of 'What is the risk', but, more importantly, a framework for intelligent and visible risk management. Because of the societal importance of the subject industries and the amount of risk analysis activity involved in each, it is interesting to look for commonalities, differences, and, hopefully, a basis for some standardization. Each industry has its strengths: the solid experience base of the chemical industry, the extensive qualification and testing procedures of the space industry, and the integrative and quantitative risk and reliability methodologies developed for the nuclear power industry. In particular, most advances in data handling, systems interaction modeling, and uncertainty analysis have come from the probabilistic risk assessment work in the nuclear safety field. In the final analysis, all three industries would greatly benefit from a more deliberate technology exchange program in the rapidly evolving discipline of quantitative risk analysis. (author)

  1. Megawatt Class Nuclear Space Power Systems (MCNSPS) conceptual design and evaluation report. Volume 2, technologies 1: Reactors, heat transport, integration issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetch, J. R.

    1988-01-01

    The objectives of the Megawatt Class Nuclear Space Power System (MCNSPS) study are summarized and candidate systems and subsystems are described. Particular emphasis is given to the heat rejection system and the space reactor subsystem.

  2. Investigation of heat exchangers for energy conversion systems of megawatt-class space power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilmov, D. N.; Mamontov, Yu. N.; Skorohodov, A. S.; Smolyarov, V. A.; Filatov, N. I.

    2016-01-01

    The specifics of operation (high temperatures in excess of 1000 K and large pressure drops of several megapascals between "hot" and "cold" coolant paths) of heat exchangers in the closed circuit of a gasturbine power converter operating in accordance with the Brayton cycle with internal heat recovery are analyzed in the context of construction of space propulsion systems. The design of a heat-exchange matrix made from doubly convex stamped plates with a specific surface relief is proposed. This design offers the opportunity to construct heat exchangers with the required parameters (strength, rigidity, weight, and dimensions) for the given operating conditions. The diagram of the working area of a test bench is presented, and the experimental techniques are outlined. The results of experimental studies of heat exchange and flow regimes in the models of heat exchangers with matrices containing 50 and 300 plates for two pairs of coolants (gas-gas and gas-liquid) are detailed. A criterion equation for the Nusselt number in the range of Reynolds numbers from 200 to 20 000 is proposed. The coefficients of hydraulic resistance for each coolant path are determined as functions of the Reynolds number. It is noted that the pressure in the water path in the "gas-liquid" series of experiments remained almost constant. This suggests that no well-developed processes of vaporization occurred within this heat-exchange matrix design even when the temperature drop between gas and water was as large as tens or hundreds of degrees. The obtained results allow one to design flight heat exchangers for various space power plants.

  3. Integrated design support systems for conceptual design of a space power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimoda, Hiroshi; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Takahashi, Makoto; Takeoka, Satoshi; Nagamatsu, Takashi; Ishizaki, Hiroaki

    1999-01-01

    In the process of conceptual design of large and complex engineering systems such as a nuclear power reactor, there must be various human works by several fields of engineers on each stage of design, analysis and evaluation. In this study, we have rearranged the design information to reduce the human workloads and have studied an efficient method to support the conceptual design works by new information technologies. For this purpose, we have developed two design support environments for conceptual design of a space power reactor as a concrete design target. When constructing an integrated design support environment, VINDS, which employs virtual reality(VR) technology, we focused on visualization of physical structure, functional organization and analysis calculation with full usage of easy perception and direct manipulation of VR. On the other hand, when constructing another asynchronous and distributed design support environment, WINDS, which employs WWW technology, we improved the support functions for cooperative design works among various fields of experts. In this paper, the basic concepts, configurations and functions of the design support environments are first described, then the future improvement is surveyed by their intercomparison. (author)

  4. Advanced electrical power, distribution and control for the Space Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Irving G.; Brandhorst, Henry W., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    High frequency power distribution and management is a technology ready state of development. As such, a system employs the fewest power conversion steps, and employs zero current switching for those steps. It results in the most efficiency, and lowest total parts system count when equivalent systems are compared. The operating voltage and frequency are application specific trade off parameters. However, a 20 kHz Hertz system is suitable for wide range systems.

  5. Advanced Space Power Systems (ASPS): Advanced Microelectromechanical (MEMs) Photovoltaic Systems (AMPS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop new cell and blanket technologies and manufacturing processes that reduce overall array costs•Cells: develop new cell technology comparable to SOA with...

  6. Power Optimization of Wireless Media Systems With Space-Time Block Codes

    OpenAIRE

    Yousefi'zadeh, Homayoun; Jafarkhani, Hamid; Moshfeghi, Mehran

    2004-01-01

    We present analytical and numerical solutions to the problem of power control in wireless media systems with multiple antennas. We formulate a set of optimization problems aimed at minimizing total power consumption of wireless media systems subject to a given level of QoS and an available bit rate. Our formulation takes in to consideration the power consumption related to source coding, channel coding, and transmission of multiple-transmit antennas. In our study, we consider Gauss-Markov and...

  7. Modular Power Standard for Space Explorations Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Gardner, Brent G.

    2016-01-01

    Future human space exploration will most likely be composed of assemblies of multiple modular spacecraft elements with interconnected electrical power systems. An electrical system composed of a standardized set modular building blocks provides significant development, integration, and operational cost advantages. The modular approach can also provide the flexibility to configure power systems to meet the mission needs. A primary goal of the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Modular Power System (AMPS) project is to establish a Modular Power Standard that is needed to realize these benefits. This paper is intended to give the space exploration community a "first look" at the evolving Modular Power Standard and invite their comments and technical contributions.

  8. Alternative power generation concepts for space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandhorst, H.W. Jr.; Juhasz, A.J.; Jones, B.I.

    1994-01-01

    With the advent of the NASA Space Station, there has emerged a general realization that large quantities of power in space are necessary and, in fact, enabling. This realization has led to the examination of alternative options to the ubiquitous solar array/battery power system. Several factors led to the consideration of solar dynamic and nuclear power systems. These include better scaling to high power levels, higher efficiency conversion and storage subsystems, and lower system specific mass. The objective of this paper is to present the results of trade and optimization studies that high-light the potential of solar and nuclear dynamic systems relative to photovoltaic power systems

  9. Cooperating expert systems for Space Station - Power/thermal subsystem testbeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Carla M.; Weeks, David J.; Sundberg, Gale R.; Healey, Kathleen L.; Dominick, Jeffrey S.

    1988-01-01

    The Systems Autonomy Demonstration Project (SADP) is a NASA-sponsored series of increasingly complex demonstrations to show the benefits of integrating knowledge-based systems with conventional process control in real-time, real-world problem domains that can facilitate the operations and availability of major Space Station distributed systems. This paper describes the system design, objectives, approaches, and status of each of the testbed knowledge-based systems. Simplified schematics of the systems are shown.

  10. Applicability of Long Duration Exposure Facility environmental effects data to the design of Space Station Freedom electrical power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Robert J.; Lu, Cheng-Yi; Aronoff, Irene

    1992-01-01

    Data defining space environmental effects on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) are examined in terms of the design of the electrical power system (EPS) of the Space Station Freedom (SSF). The significant effects of long-term exposure to space are identified with respect to the performance of the LDEF's materials, components, and systems. A total of 57 experiments were conducted on the LDEF yielding information regarding coatings, thermal systems, electronics, optics, and power systems. The resulting database is analyzed in terms of the specifications of the SSF EPS materials and subsystems and is found to be valuable in the design of control and protection features. Specific applications are listed for findings regarding the thermal environment, atomic oxygen, UV and ionizing radiation, debris, and contamination. The LDEF data are shown to have a considerable number of applications to the design and planning of the SSF and its EPS.

  11. Independent Safety Assessment of the TOPAZ-II space nuclear reactor power system (Revised)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The Independent Safety Assessment described in this study report was performed to assess the safety of the design and launch plans anticipated by the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) in 1993 for a Russian-built, U.S.-modified, TOPAZ-II space nuclear reactor power system. Its conclusions, and the bases for them, were intended to provide guidance for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) management in the event that the DOD requested authorization under section 91b. of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, for possession and use (including ground testing and launch) of a nuclear-fueled, modified TOPAZ-II. The scientists and engineers who were engaged to perform this assessment are nationally-known nuclear safety experts in various disciplines. They met with participants in the TOPAZ-II program during the spring and summer of 1993 and produced a report based on their analysis of the proposed TOPAZ-II mission. Their conclusions were confined to the potential impact on public safety and did not include budgetary, reliability, or risk-benefit analyses

  12. Probabilistic Physics-Based Risk Tools Used to Analyze the International Space Station Electrical Power System Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Bhogila M.; Hoge, Peter A.; Nagpal, Vinod K.; Hojnicki, Jeffrey S.; Rusick, Jeffrey J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the methods employed to apply probabilistic modeling techniques to the International Space Station (ISS) power system. These techniques were used to quantify the probabilistic variation in the power output, also called the response variable, due to variations (uncertainties) associated with knowledge of the influencing factors called the random variables. These uncertainties can be due to unknown environmental conditions, variation in the performance of electrical power system components or sensor tolerances. Uncertainties in these variables, cause corresponding variations in the power output, but the magnitude of that effect varies with the ISS operating conditions, e.g. whether or not the solar panels are actively tracking the sun. Therefore, it is important to quantify the influence of these uncertainties on the power output for optimizing the power available for experiments.

  13. Voltage profile program for the Kennedy Space Center electric power distribution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The Kennedy Space Center voltage profile program computes voltages at all busses greater than 1 Kv in the network under various conditions of load. The computation is based upon power flow principles and utilizes a Newton-Raphson iterative load flow algorithm. Power flow conditions throughout the network are also provided. The computer program is designed for both steady state and transient operation. In the steady state mode, automatic tap changing of primary distribution transformers is incorporated. Under transient conditions, such as motor starts etc., it is assumed that tap changing is not accomplished so that transformer secondary voltage is allowed to sag.

  14. Nanostructured Photovoltaics for Space Power

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA NSTRF proposal entitled Nanostructured Photovoltaics for Space Power is targeted towards research to improve the current state of the art photovoltaic...

  15. Analysis of Advanced Modular Power Systems (AMPS) for Deep Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeftering, Richard; Soeder, James F.; Beach, Ray

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced Modular Power Systems (AMPS) project is developing a modular approach to spacecraft power systems for exploration beyond Earth orbit. AMPS is intended to meet the need of reducing the cost of design development, test and integration and also reducing the operational logistics cost of supporting exploration missions. AMPS seeks to establish modular power building blocks with standardized electrical, mechanical, thermal and data interfaces that can be applied across multiple exploration vehicles. The presentation discusses the results of a cost analysis that compares the cost of the modular approach against a traditional non-modular approach.

  16. Space power subsystem automation technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, J. R. (Compiler)

    1982-01-01

    The technology issues involved in power subsystem automation and the reasonable objectives to be sought in such a program were discussed. The complexities, uncertainties, and alternatives of power subsystem automation, along with the advantages from both an economic and a technological perspective were considered. Whereas most spacecraft power subsystems now use certain automated functions, the idea of complete autonomy for long periods of time is almost inconceivable. Thus, it seems prudent that the technology program for power subsystem automation be based upon a growth scenario which should provide a structured framework of deliberate steps to enable the evolution of space power subsystems from the current practice of limited autonomy to a greater use of automation with each step being justified on a cost/benefit basis. Each accomplishment should move toward the objectives of decreased requirement for ground control, increased system reliability through onboard management, and ultimately lower energy cost through longer life systems that require fewer resources to operate and maintain. This approach seems well-suited to the evolution of more sophisticated algorithms and eventually perhaps even the use of some sort of artificial intelligence. Multi-hundred kilowatt systems of the future will probably require an advanced level of autonomy if they are to be affordable and manageable.

  17. Overview of NASA Lewis Research Center free-piston Stirling engine technology activities applicable to space power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaby, Jack G.

    1987-01-01

    A brief overview is presented of the development and technological activities of the free-piston Stirling engine. The engine started as a small scale fractional horsepower engine which demonstrated basic engine operating principles and the advantages of being hermetically sealed, highly efficient, and simple. It eventually developed into the free piston Stirling engine driven heat pump, and then into the SP-100 Space Reactor Power Program from which came the Space Power Demonstrator Engine (SPDE). The SPDE successfully operated for over 300 hr and delivered 20 kW of PV power to an alternator plunger. The SPDE demonstrated that a dynamic power conversion system can, with proper design, be balanced; and the engine performed well with externally pumped hydrostatic gas bearings.

  18. Design study of nuclear power systems for deep space explorers. (2) Electricity supply capabilities of solid cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaji, Akifumi; Takizuka, Takakazu; Nabeshima, Kunihiko; Iwamura, Takamichi; Akimoto, Hajime

    2009-01-01

    This study has been carried out in series with the other study, 'Criticality of Low Enriched Uranium Fueled Core' to explore the possibilities of a solid reactor electricity generation system for supplying propulsion power of a deep space explorer. The design ranges of two different systems are determined with respect to the electric power, the radiator mass, and the operating temperatures of the heat-pipes and thermoelectric converters. The two systems are the core surface cooling with heat-pipe system (CSHP), and the core direct cooling with heat-pipe system (CDHP). The evaluated electric powers widely cover the 1 to 100 kW range, which had long been claimed to be the range that lacked the power sources in space. Therefore, the concepts shown by this study may lead to a breakthrough of the human activities in space. The working temperature ranges of the main components, namely the heat-pipes and thermoelectric converters, are wide and covers down to relatively low temperatures. This is desirable from the viewpoints of broadening the choices, reducing the development needs, and improving the reliabilities of the devices. Hence, it is advantageous for an early establishment of the concept. (author)

  19. Preparation of All-Ceramic, High Performance Li-ion Batteries for Deep Space Power Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lithium (Li) ion batteries are among the most promising power sources for many civilian, military and space applications due to their high power and high energy...

  20. The Himalayan hydro machine and space transmission power systems - An Asian dream of 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Admoddie, M.

    The advantages and disadvantages for the development of hydroelectric power are assessed for the Himalayan Rectangle, an area rising 1500 km north of a baseline between Karachi and Mandalay. This area has the potential for possessing one of the world's greatest power production capabilities. Among the disadvantages cited are the political instability and religious fundamentalism of the area, the bankrupt governments, environmental degradation, and inefficient power and irrigation systems. The advantages include the millions of talented and enterprising people in the region awaiting higher opportunities who are eager to improve their families' living standards and the large untapped hydropower resources. The concepts for hydropower development are discussed and go beyond the technologies of power and water. They include catchment ecodevelopment strategies with massive afforestation plans, setting up plans to strengthen village-level institutions to manage local natural biomass and water assets, the conversion of this regional hydropower potential into a subcontinental power system, and the exporting of power and the development of an interregional and international power grid by 2030, when both oil and local ecosystems would be dangerously depleted.

  1. Thermal energy storage for organic Rankine cycle solar dynamic space power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidenreich, G. R.; Parekh, M. B.

    An organic Rankine cycle-solar dynamic power system (ORC-SDPS) comprises a concentrator, a radiator, a power conversion unit, and a receiver with a thermal energy storage (TES) subsystem which charges and discharges energy to meet power demands during orbital insolation and eclipse periods. Attention is presently given to the criteria used in designing and evaluating an ORC-SDPS TES, as well as the automated test facility employed. It is found that a substantial data base exists for the design of an ORC-SDPS TES subsystem.

  2. Rejoinder on: Space-time wind speed forecasting for improved power system dispatch

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Xinxin

    2014-02-27

    We are thankful to the four reviewers for providing very valuable and insightful comments. We have divided our rejoinder into two main parts: (1) the rotating RSTD model; and (2) the integration of wind power into a power system. In each part, we present our views on the various comments of the discussants and provide further discussion. © 2014 Sociedad de Estadística e Investigación Operativa.

  3. Rejoinder on: Space-time wind speed forecasting for improved power system dispatch

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Xinxin; Genton, Marc G.; Gu, Yingzhong; Xie, Le

    2014-01-01

    We are thankful to the four reviewers for providing very valuable and insightful comments. We have divided our rejoinder into two main parts: (1) the rotating RSTD model; and (2) the integration of wind power into a power system. In each part, we present our views on the various comments of the discussants and provide further discussion. © 2014 Sociedad de Estadística e Investigación Operativa.

  4. HPS: A space fission power system suitable for near-term, low-cost lunar and planetary bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houts, M.G.; Poston, D.I.; Ranken, W.A.

    1996-01-01

    Near-term, low-cost space fission power systems can enhance the feasibility and utility of lunar and planetary bases. One such system, the Heatpipe Power System (HPS), is described in this paper. The HPS draws on 40 yr of United States and international experience to enable a system that can be developed in <5 yr at a cost of <$100M. Total HPS mass is <600 kg at 5 kWe and <2000 kg at 50 kWe, assuming that thermoelectric power conversion is used. More advanced power conversion systems could reduce system mass significantly. System mass for planetary surface systems also may be reduced (1) if indigenous material is used for radiation shielding and (2) because of the positive effect of the gravitational field on heatpipe operation. The HPS is virtually non-radioactive at launch and is passively subcritical during all credible launch accidents. Full-system electrically heated testing is possible, and a ground nuclear power test is not needed for flight qualification. Fuel burnup limits are not reached for several decades, thus giving the system long-life potential

  5. Space nuclear reactor power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buden, D.; Ranken, W.A.; Koenig, D.R.

    1980-01-01

    Requirements for electrical and propulsion power for space are expected to increase dramatically in the 1980s. Nuclear power is probably the only source for some deep space missions and a major competitor for many orbital missions, especially those at geosynchronous orbit. Because of the potential requirements, a technology program on space nuclear power plant components has been initiated by the Department of Energy. The missions that are foreseen, the current power plant concept, the technology program plan, and early key results are described

  6. Space nuclear power: a strategy for tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buden, D.; Angelo, J. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Energy: reliable, portable, abundant and low cost will be a most critical factor, perhaps the sine qua non, for the unfolding of man's permanent presence in space. Space-based nuclear power, in turn, is a key technology for developing such space platforms and the transportation systems necessary to service them. A strategy for meeting space power requirements is the development of a 100-kW(e) nuclear reactor system for high earth orbit missions, transportation from Shuttle orbits to geosynchronous orbit, and for outer planet exploration. The component technology for this nuclear power plant is now underway at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. As permanent settlements are established on the Moon and in space, multimegawatt power plants will be needed. This would involve different technology similar to terrestrial nuclear power plants

  7. Isotopic power supplies for space and terrestrial systems: quality assurance by Sandia National Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannigan, R.L.; Harnar, R.R.

    1981-09-01

    The Sandia National Laboratories participation in Quality Assurance (QA) programs for Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generators which have been used in space and terrestrial systems over the past 15 years is summarized. Basic elements of the program are briefly described and recognition of assistance from other Sandia organizations is included. Descriptions of the various systems for which Sandia has had the QA responsibility are also presented. In addition, the outlook for Sandia participation in RTG programs for the next several years is noted

  8. The Thermionic System Evaluation Test (TSET): Descriptions, limitations, and the involvement of the space nuclear power community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, D.B.

    1993-01-01

    Project and test planning for the Thermionic System Evaluation Test (TSET) Project began in August 1990. Since the formalization of the contract agreement two years ago, the TOPAZ-II testing hardware was delivered in May 1992. In the months since the delivery of the test hardware, Russians and Americans working side-by-side installed the equipment and are preparing to begin testing in early 1993. The procurement of the Russian TOPAZ-II unfueled thermionic space nuclear power system (SNP) provides a unique opportunity to understand a complete thermionic system and enhances the possibility for further study of this type of power conversion for space applications. This paper will describe the program and test article, facility and test article limitations, and how the government and industry are encouraged to be involved in the program

  9. Coupled optic-thermodynamic analysis of a novel wireless power transfer system using concentrated sunlight for space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Ming-Liang; Li, Yun-Ze; Mao, Yu-Feng; Liang, Yi-Hao; Liu, Jia

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel space wireless power transfer system is proposed. • Concentrated sunlight is used as the medium to avoid multiple conversions. • Fresnel lens and optical fiber bundle make the system compact and space-qualified. • Coupled optic-thermodynamic model is developed to analyze link efficiencies. • End-to-end efficiency achieved is as twice as that of microwave or laser system. - Abstract: The energy generation and supply for in-orbit spacecraft have become an urgent problem concerning efficient and economical utilization of spacecraft formation flying. To fill the gap between the requirement of inter-spacecraft energy transfer and the development of wireless power transfer, this paper presents a novel wireless power transfer system whose transmission medium is concentrated sunlight. The system concentrates sunlight using a Fresnel lens, and changes the direction of concentrated sunlight beam with optical fibers. The light energy is converted to thermal form by a heat collector, and then it is utilized to generate electricity by a Stirling engine integrated with linear alternator. Equipments employed on fractionated spacecraft shall be supported by this electric energy. A coupled optic-thermodynamic model was developed to analyze system link efficiencies. This system offers characteristics such as high flexibility, relatively low cost for launch and maintenance, and most importantly, high end-to-end efficiency. Simulation results show that the geometric concentration ratio and the temperature ratio of expansion and compression spaces are two key parameters of this system. Output power of 234.3 W was achieved on the distance of 100 m, and the end-to-end efficiency of the system was above 20%.

  10. Thulium heat sources for space power applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alderman, C.J.

    1992-05-01

    Reliable power supplies for use in transportation and remote systems will be an important part of space exploration terrestrial activities. A potential power source is available in the rare earth metal, thulium. Fuel sources can be produced by activating Tm-169 targets in the space station reactor. The resulting Tm-170 heat sources can be used in thermoelectric generators to power instrumentation and telecommunications located at remote sites such as weather stations. As the heat source in a dynamic Sterling or Brayton cycle system, the heat source can provide a lightweight power source for rovers or other terrestrial transportation systems

  11. Space-time wind speed forecasting for improved power system dispatch

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Xinxin; Genton, Marc G.; Gu, Yingzhong; Xie, Le

    2014-01-01

    direction and with the seasons, hence avoiding a subjective choice of regimes. Then, results from the wind forecasts are incorporated into a power system economic dispatch model, the cost of which is used as a loss measure of the quality of the forecast

  12. Component Selection, Accelerated Testing, and Improved Modeling of AMTEC Systems for Space Power (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R. M.; Jeffries-Nakamura, B.; Ryan, M. A.; Underwood, M. L.; Suitor, J.; O'Connor, D.

    1993-01-01

    Alkali metal thermal to electric converter (AMTEC) designs for space power are numerous, but selection of materials for construction of long-lived AMTEC devices has been limited to electrodes, current collectors, and the solid electrolyte. AMTEC devices with lifetimes greater than 5 years require careful selection and life testing of all hot-side components. The likely selection of a remote condensed design for initial flight test and probable use with a GPHS in AMTEC powered outer planet probes requires the device to be constructed to tolerate T greater than 1150K, as well as exposure to Na(sub (g)), and Na(sub (liq)) on the high pressure side. The temperatures involved make critical high strength and chemical resistance to Na containing Na(sub 2)O. Selection among materials which can be worked should not be driven by ease of fabricability, as high temperature stability is the critical issue. These concepts drive the selection of Mo alloys for Na(sub (liq)) containment in AMTEC cells for T to 1150K operation, as they are significantly stronger than comparable NB or Ta alloys, are less soluble in Na(sub (liq)) containing dissolved Na(sub 2)O, are workable compared to W alloys (which might be used for certain components), and are ductile at the T greater than 500K of proposed AMTEC modules in space applications.

  13. Space-based solar power conversion and delivery systems study. Volume 2: Engineering analysis of orbital systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Program plans, schedules, and costs are determined for a synchronous orbit-based power generation and relay system. Requirements for the satellite solar power station (SSPS) and the power relay satellite (PRS) are explored. Engineering analysis of large solar arrays, flight mechanics and control, transportation, assembly and maintenance, and microwave transmission are included.

  14. A preliminary feasibility study of passive in-core thermionic reactors for highly compact space nuclear power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parlos, A.G.; Khan, E.U.; Frymire, R.; Negron, S.; Thomas, J.K.; Peddicord, K.L.

    1991-01-01

    Results of a preliminary feasibility study on a new concept for a highly compact space reactor power systems are presented. Notwithstanding the preliminary nature of the present study, the results which include a new space reactor configuration and its associated technologies indicate promising avenues for the devleopment of highly compact space reactors. The calculations reported in this study include a neutronic design trade-off study using a two-dimensioinal neutron transport model, as well as a simplified one-dimensional thermal analysis of the reactor core. In arriving at the most desirable configuration, various options have been considered and analyzed, and their advantages/disadvantages have been compared. However, because of space limitation, only the most favorable reactor configuration is presented in this summary

  15. Impact of thermal energy storage properties on solar dynamic space power conversion system mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhasz, Albert J.; Coles-Hamilton, Carolyn E.; Lacy, Dovie E.

    1987-01-01

    A 16 parameter solar concentrator/heat receiver mass model is used in conjunction with Stirling and Brayton Power Conversion System (PCS) performance and mass computer codes to determine the effect of thermal energy storage (TES) material property changes on overall PCS mass as a function of steady state electrical power output. Included in the PCS mass model are component masses as a function of thermal power for: concentrator, heat receiver, heat exchangers (source unless integral with heat receiver, heat sink, regenerator), heat engine units with optional parallel redundancy, power conditioning and control (PC and C), PC and C radiator, main radiator, and structure. Critical TES properties are: melting temperature, heat of fusion, density of the liquid phase, and the ratio of solid-to-liquid density. Preliminary results indicate that even though overall system efficiency increases with TES melting temperature up to 1400 K for concentrator surface accuracies of 1 mrad or better, reductions in the overall system mass beyond that achievable with lithium fluoride (LiF) can be accomplished only if the heat of fusion is at least 800 kJ/kg and the liquid density is comparable to that of LiF (1800 kg/cu m).

  16. Technology Development Program for an Advanced Potassium Rankine Power Conversion System Compatible with Several Space Reactor Designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoder, G.L.

    2005-10-03

    This report documents the work performed during the first phase of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), National Research Announcement (NRA) Technology Development Program for an Advanced Potassium Rankine Power Conversion System Compatible with Several Space Reactor Designs. The document includes an optimization of both 100-kW{sub e} and 250-kW{sub e} (at the propulsion unit) Rankine cycle power conversion systems. In order to perform the mass optimization of these systems, several parametric evaluations of different design options were investigated. These options included feed and reheat, vapor superheat levels entering the turbine, three different material types, and multiple heat rejection system designs. The overall masses of these Nb-1%Zr systems are approximately 3100 kg and 6300 kg for the 100- kW{sub e} and 250-kW{sub e} systems, respectively, each with two totally redundant power conversion units, including the mass of the single reactor and shield. Initial conceptual designs for each of the components were developed in order to estimate component masses. In addition, an overall system concept was presented that was designed to fit within the launch envelope of a heavy lift vehicle. A technology development plan is presented in the report that describes the major efforts that are required to reach a technology readiness level of 6. A 10-year development plan was proposed.

  17. Powering the Space Exploration Initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, G.L.

    1991-01-01

    The Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) establishes the long-term goal of returning to the Moon and then exploring Mars. One of the prerequisites of SEI is the Exploration Technology Program which includes program elements on space nuclear power and surface solar power. These program elements in turn build upon the ongoing NASA research and technology base program in space energy conversion. There is a wide range of missions in NASA's strategic planning and most would benefit from power sources with improved efficiency, lighter weight and reduced cost

  18. Status of CEA design and simulation studies of 200 KWe turboelectric space power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carre, F.; Proust, E.; Gervaise, F.; Schwartz, J.P.; Tilliette, Z.; Vrillon, B.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents the updated design features of the reference 200 kWe turboelectric space generator studied in France, and comments some of the alternative options to be analyzed in the near future, concerning the reactor and the conversion system in particular. Also presented the major conclusions of the simulation studies, that have been performed to analyze the overall behavior of the reference generator, during the start up and the accidental transients

  19. On Space Warfare: A Space Power Doctrine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lupton, David

    1998-01-01

    .... Nevertheless, the speech was promptly dubbed "Star Wars" because the space environment seems to be the most likely place to deploy a ballistic missile defense system, and several administration...

  20. Reference ZrH reactor power system for NASA space station post-operational reentry analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, R.D.

    1970-01-01

    The flight dynamic and heating of a spent ZrH reactor power system returning from orbit at the end of its useful life are analyzed. The results of this analysis indicate that the reactor with a large portion of the lithium shield still surrounding it will impact the earth at a velocity of from 660 to 820 ft/sec, depending upon whether it tumbles or becomes stabilized during the latter part of its trajectory. (U.S.)

  1. New directions for space solar power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankins, John C.

    2009-07-01

    Several of the central issues associated with the eventual realization of the vision of solar power from space for terrestrial markets resolve around the expect costs associated with the assembly, inspection, maintenance and repair of future solar power satellite (SPS) stations. In past studies (for example, NASA's "Fresh Look Study", c. 1995-1997) efforts were made to reduce both the scale and mass of large, systems-level interfaces (e.g., the power management and distribution (PMAD) system) and on-orbit fixed infrastructures through the use of modular systems strategies. These efforts have had mixed success (as reflected in the projected on-orbit mass of various systems concepts. However, the author remains convinced of the importance of modular strategies for exceptionally large space systems in eventually realizing the vision of power from space. This paper will introduce some of the key issues associated with cost-competitive space solar power in terrestrial markets. It will examine some of the relevant SPS concepts and will assess the 'pros and cons' of each in terms of space assembly, maintenance and servicing (SAMS) requirements. The paper discusses at a high level some relevant concepts and technologies that may play r role in the eventual, successful resolution of these challenges. The paper concludes with an example of the kind of novel architectural approach for space solar power that is needed.

  2. Nuclear-electric power in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truscello, V.C.; Davis, H.S.

    1984-01-01

    Because direct-broadcast satellites, air-traffic-control radar satellites, industrial processing on subsequent versions of the space station, and long range excursions to other planets using nuclear-electric propulsion systems, all space missions for which current power-supply systems are not sufficient. NASA and the DOE therefore have formed a joint program to develop the technology required for nuclear-reactor space power plants. After investigating potential space missions in the given range, the project will develop the technology to build such systems. High temperatures pose problems, ''hot shoes'' and ''cold shoes'', a Stirling engine dynamic system, and critical heat-transfer problems are all discussed. The nuclear reactor system for space as now envisioned is schematicized

  3. AN LED-BASED SOLAR SIMULATOR FOR RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT, AND TESTING OF PHOTOVOLTAIC SPACE POWER SYSTEMS, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Solar cells are the critical power source for the majority of space missions. The advancement from single junction silicon cells to current, state-of-the-art, triple...

  4. New generation of reactors for space power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudreau, J.E.; Buden, D.

    1982-01-01

    Space nuclear reactor power is expected to enable many new space missions that will require several times to several orders of magnitude anything flown in space to date. Power in the 100-kW range may be required in high earth orbit spacecraft and planetary exploration. The technology for this power system range is under development for the Department of Energy with the Los Alamos National Laboratory responsible for the critical components in the nuclear subsystem. The baseline design for this particular nuclear sybsystem technology is described in this paper; additionally, reactor technology is reviewed from previous space power programs, a preliminary assessment is made of technology candidates covering an extended power spectrum, and the status is given of other reactor technologies

  5. SP-100 - The national space reactor power system program in response to future needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armijo, J. S.; Josloff, A. T.; Bailey, H. S.; Matteo, D. N.

    The SP-100 system has been designed to meet comprehensive and demanding NASA/DOD/DOE requirements. The key requirements include: nuclear safety for all mission phases, scalability from 10's to 100's of kWe, reliable performance at full power for seven years of partial power for ten years, survivability in civil or military threat environments, capability to operate autonomously for up to six months, capability to protect payloads from excessive radiation, and compatibility with shuttle and expendable launch vehicles. The authors address of major progress in terms of design, flexibility/scalability, survivability, and development. These areas, with the exception of survivability, are discussed in detail. There has been significant improvement in the generic flight system design with substantial mass savings and simplification that enhance performance and reliability. Design activity has confirmed the scalability and flexibility of the system and the ability to efficiently meet NASA, AF, and SDIO needs. SP-100 development continues to make significant progress in all key technology areas.

  6. Design of a Mechanical NaK Pump for Fission Space Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mireles, Omar R.; Bradley, David; Godfroy, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Alkali liquid metal cooled fission reactor concepts are under development for mid-range spaceflight power requirements. One such concept utilizes a sodium-potassium eutectic (NaK) as the primary loop working fluid. Traditionally, linear induction pumps have been used to provide the required flow and head conditions for liquid metal systems but can be limited in performance. This paper details the design, build, and check-out test of a mechanical NaK pump. The pump was designed to meet reactor cooling requirements using commercially available components modified for high temperature NaK service.

  7. Survivable pulse power space radiator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mims, James; Buden, David; Williams, Kenneth

    1989-01-01

    A thermal radiator system is described for use on an outer space vehicle, which must survive a long period of nonuse and then radiate large amounts of heat for a limited period of time. The radiator includes groups of radiator panels that are pivotally connected in tandem, so that they can be moved to deployed configuration wherein the panels lie largely coplanar, and to a stowed configuration wherein the panels lie in a stack to resist micrometeorite damage. The panels are mounted on a boom which separates a hot power source from a payload. While the panels are stowed, warm fluid passes through their arteries to keep them warm enough to maintain the coolant in a liquid state and avoid embrittlement of material. The panels can be stored in a largely cylindrical shell, with panels progressively further from the boom being of progressively shorter length.

  8. Autonomously managed electrical power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callis, Charles P.

    1986-01-01

    The electric power systems for future spacecraft such as the Space Station will necessarily be more sophisticated and will exhibit more nearly autonomous operation than earlier spacecraft. These new power systems will be more reliable and flexible than their predecessors offering greater utility to the users. Automation approaches implemented on various power system breadboards are investigated. These breadboards include the Hubble Space Telescope power system test bed, the Common Module Power Management and Distribution system breadboard, the Autonomusly Managed Power System (AMPS) breadboard, and the 20 kilohertz power system breadboard. Particular attention is given to the AMPS breadboard. Future plans for these breadboards including the employment of artificial intelligence techniques are addressed.

  9. Lightweight Metal Rubber Wire and Cable for Space Power Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this NASA STTR program is to produce ultra-lightweight electrical wire and cable harnesses to reduce the liftoff weight of future space flight...

  10. Impact of the use of low or medium enriched uranium on the masses of space nuclear reactor power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    The design process for determining the mass increase for the substitution of low-enriched uranium (LEU) for high-enriched uranium (HEU) in space nuclear reactor systems is an optimization process which must simultaneously consider several variables. This process becomes more complex whenever the reactor core operates on an in-core thermionic power conversion, in which the fissioning of the nuclear fuel is used to directly heat thermionic emitters, with the subsequent elimination of external power conversion equipment. The increased complexity of the optimization process for this type of system is reflected in the work reported herein, where considerably more information has been developed for the moderated in-core thermionic reactors

  11. Space Van system update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, Len

    1992-07-01

    The Space Van is a proposed commercial launch vehicle that is designed to carry 1150 kg to a space-station orbit for a price of $1,900,000 per flight in 1992 dollars. This price includes return on preoperational investment. Recurring costs are expected to be about $840,000 per flight. The Space Van is a fully reusable, assisted-single-stage-to orbit system. The most innovative new feature of the Space Van system is the assist-stage concept. The assist stage uses only airbreathing engines for vertical takeoff and vertical landing in the horizontal attitude and for launching the rocket-powered orbiter stage at mach 0.8 and an altitude of about 12 km. The primary version of the orbiter is designed for cargo-only without a crew. However, a passenger version of the Space Van should be able to carry a crew of two plus six passengers to a space-station orbit. Since the Space Van is nearly single-stage, performance to polar orbit drops off significantly. The cargo version should be capable of carrying 350 kg to a 400-km polar orbit. In the passenger version, the Space Van should be able to carry two crew members - or one crew member plus a passenger.

  12. Multiphysics Modeling of an Annular Linear Induction Pump With Applications to Space Nuclear Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbane, J.; Polzin, K. A.

    2014-01-01

    An annular linear induction pump (ALIP) that could be used for circulating liquid-metal coolant in a fission surface power reactor system is modeled in the present work using the computational COMSOL Multiphysics package. The pump is modeled using a two-dimensional, axisymmetric geometry and solved under conditions similar to those used during experimental pump testing. Real, nonlinear, temperature-dependent material properties can be incorporated into the model for both the electrically-conducting working fluid in the pump (NaK-78) and structural components of the pump. The intricate three-phase coil configuration of the pump is implemented in the model to produce an axially-traveling magnetic wave that is qualitatively similar to the measured magnetic wave. The model qualitatively captures the expected feature of a peak in efficiency as a function of flow rate.

  13. Robust, High Capacity, High Power Lithium Ion Batteries for Space Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lithium ion battery technology provides the highest energy density of all rechargeable battery technologies available today. However, the majority of the research...

  14. Thermal analysis of heat storage canisters for a solar dynamic, space power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichner, R. P.; Solomon, A. D.; Drake, J. B.; Williams, P. T.

    1988-01-01

    A thermal analysis was performed of a thermal energy storage canister of a type suggested for use in a solar receiver for an orbiting Brayton cycle power system. Energy storage for the eclipse portion of the cycle is provided by the latent heat of a eutectic mixture of LiF and CaF2 contained in the canister. The chief motivation for the study is the prediction of vapor void effects on temperature profiles and the identification of possible differences between ground test data and projected behavior in microgravity. The first phase of this study is based on a two-dimensional, cylindrical coordinates model using an interim procedure for describing void behavor in 1-g and microgravity. The thermal analysis includes the effects of solidification front behavior, conduction in liquid/solid salt and canister materials, void growth and shrinkage, radiant heat transfer across the void, and convection in the melt due to Marangoni-induced flow and, in 1-g, flow due to density gradients. A number of significant differences between 1-g and o-g behavior were found. This resulted from differences in void location relative to the maximum heat flux and a significantly smaller effective conductance in 0-g due to the absence of gravity-induced convection.

  15. Millimeterwave Space Power Grid architecture development 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komerath, Narayanan; Dessanti, Brendan; Shah, Shaan

    This is an update of the Space Power Grid architecture for space-based solar power with an improved design of the collector/converter link, the primary heater and the radiator of the active thermal control system. The Space Power Grid offers an evolutionary approach towards TeraWatt-level Space-based solar power. The use of millimeter wave frequencies (around 220GHz) and Low-Mid Earth Orbits shrinks the size of the space and ground infrastructure to manageable levels. In prior work we showed that using Brayton cycle conversion of solar power allows large economies of scale compared to the linear mass-power relationship of photovoltaic conversion. With high-temperature materials permitting 3600 K temperature in the primary heater, over 80 percent cycle efficiency was shown with a closed helium cycle for the 1GW converter satellite which formed the core element of the architecture. Work done since the last IEEE conference has shown that the use of waveguides incorporated into lighter-than-air antenna platforms, can overcome the difficulties in transmitting millimeter wave power through the moist, dense lower atmosphere. A graphene-based radiator design conservatively meets the mass budget for the waste heat rejection system needed for the compressor inlet temperature. Placing the ultralight Mirasol collectors in lower orbits overcomes the solar beam spot size problem of high-orbit collection. The architecture begins by establishing a power exchange with terrestrial renewable energy plants, creating an early revenue generation approach with low investment. The approach allows for technology development and demonstration of high power millimeter wave technology. A multinational experiment using the International Space Station and another power exchange satellite is proposed to gather required data and experience, thus reducing the technical and policy risks. The full-scale architecture deploys pairs of Mirasol sunlight collectors and Girasol 1 GW converter satellites t

  16. Science opportunities through nuclear power in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, H.M.

    1995-01-01

    With the downsizing or outright elimination of nuclear power capability in space in progress, it is important to understand what this means to science in therms of capability cost. This paper is a survey of the scientific possibilities inherent in the potential availability of between 15 to 30 kW through electrical nuclear power in space. The approach taken has been to interview scientists involved in space-research, especially those whose results are dependent or proportional to power availability and to survey previous work in high-power spacecraft and space-based science instruments. In addition high level studies were done to gather metrics about what kind and quantity of science could be achieved throughout the entire solar system assuming the availability in the power amounts quoted above. It is concluded that: (1) Sustained high power using a 10--30 kW reactor would allow the capture of an unprecedented amount of data on planetary objects through the entire solar system. (2) High power science means high qualtiy data through higher resolution of radars, optics and the sensitivity of many types of instruments. (3) In general, high power in the range of 10--30 kW provides for an order-of-magnitude increase of resolution of synthetic aperture radars over other planetary radars. (4) High power makes possible the use of particle accelerators to probe the atomic structure of planetary surface, particularly in the dim, outer regions of the solar system. (5) High power means active cooling is possible for devices that must operate at low temperature under adverse conditions. (6) High power with electric propulsion provides the mission flexibility to vary observational viewpoints and select targets of opportunity. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  17. Research in Support of the Use of Rankine Cycle Energy Conversion Systems for Space Power and Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahey, Richard T., Jr.; Dhir, Vijay

    2004-01-01

    This is the report of a Scientific Working Group (SWG) formed by NASA to determine the feasibility of using a liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor and Rankine energy conversion cycle for dual purpose power and propulsion in space. This is a high level technical report which is intended for use by NASA management in program planning. The SWG was composed of a team of specialists in nuclear energy and multiphase flow and heat transfer technology from academia, national laboratories, NASA and industry. The SWG has identified the key technology issues that need to be addressed and have recommended an integrated short term (approx. 2 years) and a long term (approx. 10 year) research and development (R&D) program to qualify a Rankine cycle power plant for use in space. This research is ultimately intended to give NASA and its contractors the ability to reliably predict both steady and transient multiphase flow and heat transfer phenomena at reduced gravity, so they can analyze and optimize designs and scale-up experimental data on Rankine cycle components and systems. In addition, some of these results should also be useful for the analysis and design of various multiphase life support and thermal management systems being considered by NASA.

  18. Waveform Developer's Guide for the Integrated Power, Avionics, and Software (iPAS) Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Radio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalkhauser, Mary Jo W.; Roche, Rigoberto

    2017-01-01

    The Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) provides a common, consistent framework for software defined radios (SDRs) to abstract the application software from the radio platform hardware. The STRS standard aims to reduce the cost and risk of using complex, configurable and reprogrammable radio systems across NASA missions. To promote the use of the STRS architecture for future NASA advanced exploration missions, NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) developed an STRS-compliant SDR on a radio platform used by the Advance Exploration System program at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) in their Integrated Power, Avionics, and Software (iPAS) laboratory. The iPAS STRS Radio was implemented on the Reconfigurable, Intelligently-Adaptive Communication System (RIACS) platform, currently being used for radio development at JSC. The platform consists of a Xilinx(Trademark) ML605 Virtex(Trademark)-6 FPGA board, an Analog Devices FMCOMMS1-EBZ RF transceiver board, and an Embedded PC (Axiomtek(Trademark) eBox 620-110-FL) running the Ubuntu 12.4 operating system. The result of this development is a very low cost STRS compliant platform that can be used for waveform developments for multiple applications. The purpose of this document is to describe how to develop a new waveform using the RIACS platform and the Very High Speed Integrated Circuits (VHSIC) Hardware Description Language (VHDL) FPGA wrapper code and the STRS implementation on the Axiomtek processor.

  19. Powered Explicit Guidance Modifications and Enhancements for Space Launch System Block-1 and Block-1B Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von der Porten, Paul; Ahmad, Naeem; Hawkins, Matt; Fill, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    NASA is currently building the Space Launch System (SLS) Block-1 launch vehicle for the Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) test flight. NASA is also currently designing the next evolution of SLS, the Block-1B. The Block-1 and Block-1B vehicles will use the Powered Explicit Guidance (PEG) algorithm (of Space Shuttle heritage) for closed loop guidance. To accommodate vehicle capabilities and design for future evolutions of SLS, modifications were made to PEG for Block-1 to handle multi-phase burns, provide PEG updated propulsion information, and react to a core stage engine out. In addition, due to the relatively low thrust-to-weight ratio of the Exploration Upper Stage (EUS) and EUS carrying out Lunar Vicinity and Earth Escape missions, certain enhancements to the Block-1 PEG algorithm are needed to perform Block-1B missions to account for long burn arcs and target translunar and hyperbolic orbits. This paper describes the design and implementation of modifications to the Block-1 PEG algorithm as compared to Space Shuttle. Furthermore, this paper illustrates challenges posed by the Block-1B vehicle and the required PEG enhancements. These improvements make PEG capable for use on the SLS Block-1B vehicle as part of the Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) System.

  20. State space model extraction of thermohydraulic systems – Part II: A linear graph approach applied to a Brayton cycle-based power conversion unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uren, Kenneth Richard; Schoor, George van

    2013-01-01

    This second paper in a two part series presents the application of a developed state space model extraction methodology applied to a Brayton cycle-based PCU (power conversion unit) of a PBMR (pebble bed modular reactor). The goal is to investigate if the state space extraction methodology can cope with larger and more complex thermohydraulic systems. In Part I the state space model extraction methodology for the purpose of control was described in detail and a state space representation was extracted for a U-tube system to illustrate the concept. In this paper a 25th order nonlinear state space representation in terms of the different energy domains is extracted. This state space representation is solved and the responses of a number of important states are compared with results obtained from a PBMR PCU Flownex ® model. Flownex ® is a validated thermo fluid simulation software package. The results show that the state space model closely resembles the dynamics of the PBMR PCU. This kind of model may be used for nonlinear MIMO (multi-input, multi-output) type of control strategies. However, there is still a need for linear state space models since many control system design and analysis techniques require a linear state space model. This issue is also addressed in this paper by showing how a linear state space model can be derived from the extracted nonlinear state space model. The linearised state space model is also validated by comparing the state space model to an existing linear Simulink ® model of the PBMR PCU system. - Highlights: • State space model extraction of a pebble bed modular reactor PCU (power conversion unit). • A 25th order nonlinear time varying state space model is obtained. • Linearisation of a nonlinear state space model for use in power output control. • Non-minimum phase characteristic that is challenging in terms of control. • Models derived are useful for MIMO control strategies

  1. Thermal analysis of a conceptual design for a 250 W(e) GPHS/FPSE space power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mccomas, T.J.; Dugan, E.T.

    1991-01-01

    A thermal analysis has been performed for a 250-W(e) space nuclear power system which combines the US Department of Energy's general purpose heat source (GPHS) modules with a state-of-the-art free-piston Stirling engine (FPSE). The focus of the analysis is on the temperature of the indium fuel clad within the GPHS modules. The thermal analysis results indicate fuel clad temperatures slightly higher than the design goal temperature of 1573 K. The results are considered favorable due to numerous conservative assumptions used. To demonstrate the effects of the conservatism, a brief sensitivity analysis is performed in which a few of the key system parameters are varied to determine their effect on the fuel clad temperatures. It is shown that thermal analysis of a more detailed thermal mode should yield fuel clad temperatures below 1573 K. 3 refs

  2. The development of test beds to support the definition and evolution of the Space Station Freedom power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeder, James F.; Frye, Robert J.; Phillips, Rudy L.

    1991-01-01

    Since the beginning of the Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP), the NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) and the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International have had extensive efforts underway to develop testbeds to support the definition of the detailed electrical power system design. Because of the extensive redirections that have taken place in the Space Station Freedom Program in the past several years, the test bed effort was forced to accommodate a large number of changes. A short history of these program changes and their impact on the LeRC test beds is presented to understand how the current test bed configuration has evolved. The current test objectives and the development approach for the current DC test bed are discussed. A description of the test bed configuration, along with its power and controller hardware and its software components, is presented. Next, the uses of the test bed during the mature design and verification phase of SSFP are examined. Finally, the uses of the test bed in the operation and evolution of the SSF are addressed.

  3. Advanced Space Power Systems (ASPS): High Specific Energy Li-ion Battery Cells

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this project element is to increase the specific energy of Li-ion battery cells to 265 Wh/kg and the energy density to 500 Wh/L at 10oC while maintaining...

  4. Network model and short circuit program for the Kennedy Space Center electric power distribution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Assumptions made and techniques used in modeling the power network to the 480 volt level are discussed. Basic computational techniques used in the short circuit program are described along with a flow diagram of the program and operational procedures. Procedures for incorporating network changes are included in this user's manual.

  5. Experimental and theoretical investigations of Cs-Ba vapor tacitron inverter for power conditioning in space power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Genk, M.; Murray, C.; Wernsman, B.

    1993-01-01

    The operation characteristics of the Cs-Ba tacitron as a switch are investigated experimentally in three modes: (a) breakdown mode, (b) I-V mode, and (c) current modulation mode. The switching frequency, grid potentials for ignition and extinguishing of discharge, and the Cs pressure and emission conditions (Ba pressure and emitter temperature) for stable current modulation are determined. The experimental data is also used to determine the off-time required for successful ignition, and the effects of the aforementioned operation parameters on the ignition duty cycle threshold for stable modulation. Operation parameters measured include switching frequency up to 20 kHz, hold-off voltage up to 180 V, current densities in excess of 15 A/cm 2 , switch power density of 1 kW/cm 2 . and a switching efficiency in excess of 90% at collector C: realer than 30 V. The voltage drop strongly depends on the Cs pressure and to a lesser extent on the emission conditions. Increasing the Cs pressure and/or the emission current lowers the voltage drop, however, for the same initial Cs pressure and emission conditions, the voltage drop in the I-V mode is usually lower than that during current modulation. As long as the discharge current is kept lower that the.emission current, the voltage drop during stable current modulation could be as low as 3 V

  6. Space Power Program, Instrumentation and Control System Architecture, Preconceptual Design, for Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JM Ross

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this letter is to forward the Prometheus preconceptual Instrumentation and Control (I and C) system architecture (Enclosure (1)) to NR for information as part of the Prometheus closeout work. The preconceptual 1 and C system architecture was considered a key planning document for development of the I and C system for Project Prometheus. This architecture was intended to set the technical approach for the entire I and C system. It defines interfaces to other spacecraft systems, defines hardware blocks for future development, and provides a basis for accurate cost and schedule estimates. Since the system requirements are not known at this time, it was anticipated that the architecture would evolve as the design of the reactor module was matured

  7. Space Power Program, Instrumentation and Control System Architecture, Pre-conceptual Design, for Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JM Ross

    2005-10-20

    The purpose of this letter is to forward the Prometheus preconceptual Instrumentation and Control (I&C) system architecture (Enclosure (1)) to NR for information as part of the Prometheus closeout work. The preconceptual 1&C system architecture was considered a key planning document for development of the I&C system for Project Prometheus. This architecture was intended to set the technical approach for the entire I&C system. It defines interfaces to other spacecraft systems, defines hardware blocks for future development, and provides a basis for accurate cost and schedule estimates. Since the system requirements are not known at this time, it was anticipated that the architecture would evolve as the design of the reactor module was matured.

  8. Space nuclear power system and the design of the nuclear electric propulsion OTV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buden, D.; Garrison, P.W.

    1984-01-01

    Payload increases of three to five times that of the Shuttle/Centaur can be achieved using nuclear electric propulsion. Various nuclear power plant options being pursued by the SP-100 Program are described. These concepts can grow from 100 kW/sub e/ to 1MW/sub e/ output. Spacecraft design aspects are addressed, including thermal interactions, plume interactions, and radiation fluences. A baseline configuration is described accounting for these issues. Safety aspects of starting the OTV transfer from an altitude of 300 km indicate no significant additional risk to the biosphere

  9. Space satellite power system. [conversion of solar energy by photovoltaic solar cell arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, P. E.

    1974-01-01

    The concept of a satellite solar power station was studied. It is shown that it offers the potential to meet a significant portion of future energy needs, is pollution free, and is sparing of irreplaceable earth resources. Solar energy is converted by photovoltaic solar cell arrays to dc energy which in turn is converted into microwave energy in a large active phased array. The microwave energy is beamed to earth with little attenuation and is converted back to dc energy on the earth. Economic factors are considered.

  10. Stockholm Power Tech. Power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The proceedings from this symposium is presented in six volumes: Invited speakers` sessions; Power systems; Power electronics; High-voltage technology; Electrical machines and drives; and Information and control systems. This report covers the power systems volume. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 141 of the 145 papers in this volume

  11. Stockholm Power Tech. Power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The proceedings from this symposium is presented in six volumes: Invited speakers' sessions; Power systems; Power electronics; High-voltage technology; Electrical machines and drives; and Information and control systems. This report covers the power systems volume. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 141 of the 145 papers in this volume

  12. Green Application for Space Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Most space vehicle auxiliary power units (APUs) use hydrazine propellant for generating power. Hydrazine is a toxic, hazardous fuel that requires special safety equipment and processes for handling and loading. In recent years, there has been development of two green propellants (less toxic) that could enable their use in APUs. The Swedish government, in concert with the Swedish Space Corporation, has developed a propellant based on ammonium dinitramide (LMP-103S) that was flown on the Prisma spacecraft in 2010. The United States Air Force (USAF) has been developing a propellant based on hydroxylammonium nitrate (AFM315E) that is scheduled to fly on the Green Propellant Infusion Mission in the spring of 2016 to demonstrate apogee and reaction control thrusters. However, no one else in the Agency is currently pursuing use of green propellants for application to the APUs. Per the TA-01 Launch Propulsion Roadmap, the Space Technology Mission Directorate had identified the need to have a green propellant APU by 2015. This is our motivation for continuing activities.

  13. A fresh look at space solar power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankins, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    Studies of systems to provide solar power from space for terrestrial use defined very large, geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) satellite concepts that--given massive initial government investments and extremely low cost space launch--might have led to power production at costs only somewhat higher than expected commercial prices. These studies of space solar power (SSP) succeeded in establishing technical feasibility. Shortly after the completion of the 1970s study, however, US funding came to an abrupt and seemingly permanent halt--in part because projected costs for the reference system were staggering: well in excess of $100B to achieve the first commercial kilowatt-hour of power. SSP has seen sporadic study and limited experimentation during the past decade (e.g., in Japan). Still, no existing SSP concept has engendered private development. New technologies now make possible concepts and approaches that suggest that SSP economic feasibility may be achievable early in the next century. In 1995, NASA's Advanced Concepts Office initiated a study taking a fresh look at innovative concepts for SSP that differ markedly from previously examined concepts, addressing innovative system architectures, markets and technologies that could radically reduce initial and operational costs. This paper will explore the issues associated with SSP and will summarize the results to date of NASA's recent fresh look at this important and increasingly timely field of space applications

  14. Solar Power Beaming: From Space to Earth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubenchik, A M; Parker, J M; Beach, R J; Yamamoto, R M

    2009-04-14

    Harvesting solar energy in space and power beaming the collected energy to a receiver station on Earth is a very attractive way to help solve mankind's current energy and environmental problems. However, the colossal and expensive 'first step' required in achieving this goal has to-date stifled its initiation. In this paper, we will demonstrate that recent advance advances in laser and optical technology now make it possible to deploy a space-based system capable of delivering 1 MW of energy to a terrestrial receiver station, via a single unmanned commercial launch into Low Earth Orbit (LEO). Figure 1 depicts the overall concept of our solar power beaming system, showing a large solar collector in space, beaming a coherent laser beam to a receiving station on Earth. We will describe all major subsystems and provide technical and economic discussion to support our conclusions.

  15. Wireless Power Transmission Options for Space Solar Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Seth; Davis, Dean; Born, Martin; Bayer, Martin; Howell, Joe; Mankins, John

    2008-01-01

    Space Solar Power (SSP), combined with Wireless Power Transmission (WPT), offers the far-term potential to solve major energy problems on Earth. In the long term, we aspire to beam energy to Earth from geostationary Earth orbit (GEO), or even further distances in space. In the near term, we can beam power over more moderate distances, but still stretch the limits of today s technology. In recent studies, a 100 kWe-class "Power Plug" Satellite and a 10 kWe-class Lunar Polar Solar Power outpost have been considered as the first steps in using these WPT options for SSP. Our current assessments include consideration of orbits, wavelengths, and structural designs to meet commercial, civilian government, and military needs. Notional transmitter and receiver sizes are considered for use in supplying 5 to 40 MW of power. In the longer term, lunar or asteroidal material can be used. By using SSP and WPT technology for near-term missions, we gain experience needed for sound decisions in designing and developing larger systems to send power from space to Earth.

  16. Power quality load management for large spacecraft electrical power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lollar, Louis F.

    1988-01-01

    In December, 1986, a Center Director's Discretionary Fund (CDDF) proposal was granted to study power system control techniques in large space electrical power systems. Presented are the accomplishments in the area of power system control by power quality load management. In addition, information concerning the distortion problems in a 20 kHz ac power system is presented.

  17. Mobile nuclear power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, B.

    1988-11-01

    This report is meant to present a general survey of the mobile nuclear power systems and not a detailed review of their technical accomplishments. It is based in published material mainly up to 1987. Mobile nuclear power systems are of two fundamentally different kinds: nuclear reactors and isotopic generators. In the reactors the energy comes from nuclear fission and in the isotopic generators from the radioactive decay of suitable isotopes. The reactors are primarily used as power sourves on board nuclear submarines and other warships but have also been used in the space and in remote places. Their thermal power has ranged from 30 kWth (in a satellite) to 175 MWth (on board an aircraft carrier). Isotopic generators are suitable only for small power demands and have been used on board satellites and spaceprobes, automatic weatherstations, lighthouses and marine installations for navigation and observation. (author)

  18. U.S. Department of Energy Space and Defense Power Systems Program Ten-Year Strategic Plan, Volume 1 and Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwight, Carla

    2013-06-01

    The Department of Energy's Space and Defense Power Systems program provides a unique capability for supplying power systems that function in remote or hostile environments. This capability has been functioning since the early 1960s and counts the National Aeronautics and Space Administration as one of its most prominent customers. This enabling technology has assisted the exploration of our solar system including the planets Jupiter, Saturn, Mars, Neptune, and soon Pluto. This capability is one-of-kind in the world in terms of its experience (over five decades), breadth of power systems flown (over two dozen to date) and range of power levels (watts to hundreds of watts). This document describes the various components of that infrastructure, work scope, funding needs, and its strategic plans going forward.

  19. Development of a thermionic-reactor space-power system. Final summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    Initial experimental work led to the award of the first AEC thermionic contract on May 1, 1962, for the development of fission heated thermionic cells with an operating life of 10,000 hours or more. Two types of converters were fabricated: (1) electrically heated, and (2) fission heated where the fuel was either uranium carbide or uranium oxide. Competition between GGA and GE was climaxed on July 1, 1970 by the award to GGA of a contract to develop an in-core thermionic reactor. This report is divided into the following: thermionic research, materials technology, thermionic fuel element development, reactor technology, and systems technology

  20. Concept, design approaches suited to space nuclear power systems in the range of 20 kWE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilliette, Z.P.; Carre, F.; Proust, E.

    1989-01-01

    Given the variety of possible missions and flight dates, it seems advisable to widen the basis for future technical choices within the French preliminary studies of 20-kWe space nuclear power systems. In addition to the fast spectrum, liquid metal-cooled reactor presently considered as a reference, shorter development term system, gas- and Na(K)-cooled thermal spectrum reactors are being investigated. The need for adequate ZrH moderator temperature conditions can be satisfied through a Brayton cycle conversion subsystem featuring two separate, high temperature-heat pipes and low temperature-pumped loop radiators. The penalty in efficiency and in radiator area, resulting from the wanted lower reactor inlet temperature, can be limited, particularly in the case of the higher temperature, gas-cooled reactor system. A multiple, pivoting tubes, low temperature radiator concept is proposed; it avoids an extension of the related structural support frame beyond the conversion subsystem region in flight configuration. Arrangements peculiar to small reactors and two-turbo-generator diagrams for reliability reasons are presented. Provisional, not yet optimized, thermal management mass estimates are evaluated

  1. Space Power Theory: Controlling the Medium Without Weapons in Space

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilkerson, Don L

    2008-01-01

    .... strategic space assets and the ability to negate enemy space systems is essential to U.S. space strategy in controlling the geographical environment of space, predominately in the Lower Earth Orbit (LEO...

  2. Wireless Power Transfer for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Gabriel Vazquez; Yuan, Jiann-Shiun

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces an implementation for magnetic resonance wireless power transfer for space applications. The analysis includes an equivalent impedance study, loop material characterization, source/load resonance coupling technique, and system response behavior due to loads variability. System characterization is accomplished by executing circuit design from analytical equations and simulations using Matlab and SPICE. The theory was validated by a combination of different experiments that includes loop material consideration, resonance coupling circuits considerations, electric loads considerations and a small scale proof-of-concept prototype. Experiment results shows successful wireless power transfer for all the cases studied. The prototype provided about 4.5 W of power to the load at a separation of -5 cm from the source using a power amplifier rated for 7 W.

  3. Modeling and analysis of the disk MHD generator component of a gas core reactor/MHD Rankine cycle space power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, G.E.; Dugan, E.T.; Lear, W.E. Jr.; Appelbaum, J.G.

    1990-01-01

    A gas core nuclear reactor (GCR)/disk magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator direct closed Rankine space power system concept is described. The GCR/disk MHD generator marriage facilitates efficient high electric power density system performance at relatively high operating temperatures. The system concept promises high specific power levels, on the order of 1 kW e /kg. An overview of the disk MHD generator component magnetofluiddynamic and plasma physics theoretical modeling is provided. Results from a parametric design analysis of the disk MHD generator are presented and discussed

  4. Nuclear Reactors for Space Power, Understanding the Atom Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corliss, William R.

    The historical development of rocketry and nuclear technology includes a specific description of Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power (SNAP) programs. Solar cells and fuel cells are considered as alternative power supplies for space use. Construction and operation of space power plants must include considerations of the transfer of heat energy to…

  5. Recent advances in nuclear powered electric propulsion for space exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassady, R. Joseph; Frisbee, Robert H.; Gilland, James H.; Houts, Michael G.; LaPointe, Michael R.; Maresse-Reading, Colleen M.; Oleson, Steven R.; Polk, James E.; Russell, Derrek; Sengupta, Anita

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear and radioisotope powered electric thrusters are being developed as primary in space propulsion systems for potential future robotic and piloted space missions. Possible applications for high-power nuclear electric propulsion include orbit raising and maneuvering of large space platforms, lunar and Mars cargo transport, asteroid rendezvous and sample return, and robotic and piloted planetary missions, while lower power radioisotope electric propulsion could significantly enhance or enable some future robotic deep space science missions. This paper provides an overview of recent US high-power electric thruster research programs, describing the operating principles, challenges, and status of each technology. Mission analysis is presented that compares the benefits and performance of each thruster type for high priority NASA missions. The status of space nuclear power systems for high-power electric propulsion is presented. The paper concludes with a discussion of power and thruster development strategies for future radioisotope electric propulsion systems

  6. Recent advances in nuclear powered electric propulsion for space exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassady, R. Joseph [Aerojet Corp., Redmond, CA (United States); Frisbee, Robert H. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA (United States); Gilland, James H. [Ohio Aerospace Institute, Cleveland, OH (United States); Houts, Michael G. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); LaPointe, Michael R. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States)], E-mail: michael.r.lapointe@nasa.gov; Maresse-Reading, Colleen M. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA (United States); Oleson, Steven R. [NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, OH (United States); Polk, James E. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA (United States); Russell, Derrek [Northrop Grumman Space Technology, Redondo Beach, CA (United States); Sengupta, Anita [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2008-03-15

    Nuclear and radioisotope powered electric thrusters are being developed as primary in space propulsion systems for potential future robotic and piloted space missions. Possible applications for high-power nuclear electric propulsion include orbit raising and maneuvering of large space platforms, lunar and Mars cargo transport, asteroid rendezvous and sample return, and robotic and piloted planetary missions, while lower power radioisotope electric propulsion could significantly enhance or enable some future robotic deep space science missions. This paper provides an overview of recent US high-power electric thruster research programs, describing the operating principles, challenges, and status of each technology. Mission analysis is presented that compares the benefits and performance of each thruster type for high priority NASA missions. The status of space nuclear power systems for high-power electric propulsion is presented. The paper concludes with a discussion of power and thruster development strategies for future radioisotope electric propulsion systems.

  7. Atomic power in space: A history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-03-01

    ''Atomic Power in Space,'' a history of the Space Isotope Power Program of the United States, covers the period from the program's inception in the mid-1950s through 1982. Written in non-technical language, the history is addressed to both the general public and those more specialized in nuclear and space technologies. 19 figs., 3 tabs

  8. UNISAT-3 Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoni, Fabio; Piergentili, Fabrizio; Bulgarelli, Fabio; Graziani, Filippo

    2005-05-01

    An overview of the UNISAT-3 microsatellite power subsystem is given. This is an educational, low weight and low cost microsatellite designed, built, launched and operated in space by students and professors of Scuola di Ingegneria Aerospaziale, at University of Rome "La Sapienza". The satellite power system is based on terrestrial technology solar arrays and NiCd batteries. The microsatellite hosts other solar arrays, including multi-junction solar cells and mono- crystalline silicon high efficiency solar cells, in order to compare their behaviour in orbit. Moreover a MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracking ) system has been designed and tested, and it is a technological payload of UNISAT-3. The MPPT design follows the studies performed in the field of solar powered racing cars, with modifications to make the system suitable for use in space. The system design, numerical simulation and hardware ground testing are described in the paper. The experiment and the performance evaluation criterion are described, together with the preliminary results of the first eight months of operation in orbit.

  9. Nuclear space power safety and facility guidelines study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehlman, W.F.

    1995-01-01

    This report addresses safety guidelines for space nuclear reactor power missions and was prepared by The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) under a Department of Energy grant, DE-FG01-94NE32180 dated 27 September 1994. This grant was based on a proposal submitted by the JHU/APL in response to an open-quotes Invitation for Proposals Designed to Support Federal Agencies and Commercial Interests in Meeting Special Power and Propulsion Needs for Future Space Missionsclose quotes. The United States has not launched a nuclear reactor since SNAP 10A in April 1965 although many Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) have been launched. An RTG powered system is planned for launch as part of the Cassini mission to Saturn in 1997. Recently the Ballistic Missile Defense Office (BMDO) sponsored the Nuclear Electric Propulsion Space Test Program (NEPSTP) which was to demonstrate and evaluate the Russian-built TOPAZ II nuclear reactor as a power source in space. As of late 1993 the flight portion of this program was canceled but work to investigate the attributes of the reactor were continued but at a reduced level. While the future of space nuclear power systems is uncertain there are potential space missions which would require space nuclear power systems. The differences between space nuclear power systems and RTG devices are sufficient that safety and facility requirements warrant a review in the context of the unique features of a space nuclear reactor power system

  10. Maturing Technologies for Stirling Space Power Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Scott D.; Nowlin, Brentley C.; Dobbs, Michael W.; Schmitz, Paul C.; Huth, James

    2016-01-01

    Stirling Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) are being developed as an option to provide power on future space science missions where robotic spacecraft will orbit, flyby, land or rove. A Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG) could offer space missions a more efficient power system that uses one fourth of the nuclear fuel and decreases the thermal footprint of the current state of the art. The RPS Program Office, working in collaboration with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), manages projects to develop thermoelectric and dynamic power systems, including Stirling Radioisotope Generators (SRGs). The Stirling Cycle Technology Development (SCTD) Project, located at Glenn Research Center (GRC), is developing Stirling-based subsystems, including convertors and controllers. The SCTD Project also performs research that focuses on a wide variety of objectives, including increasing convertor temperature capability to enable new environments, improving system reliability or fault tolerance, reducing mass or size, and developing advanced concepts that are mission enabling. Research activity includes maturing subsystems, assemblies, and components to prepare them for infusion into future convertor and generator designs. The status of several technology development efforts are described here. As part of the maturation process, technologies are assessed for readiness in higher-level subsystems. To assess the readiness level of the Dual Convertor Controller (DCC), a Technology Readiness Assessment (TRA) was performed and the process and results are shown. Stirling technology research is being performed by the SCTD Project for NASA's RPS Program Office, where tasks focus on maturation of Stirling-based systems and subsystems for future space science missions.

  11. Space nuclear power and man's extraterrestrial civilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelo, J.J.; Buden, D.

    1983-01-01

    This paper examines leading space nuclear power technology candidates. Particular emphasis is given the heat-pipe reactor technology currently under development at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. This program is aimed at developing a 10-100 kWe, 7-year lifetime space nuclear power plant. As the demand for space-based power reaches megawatt levels, other nuclear reactor designs including: solid core, fluidized bed, and gaseous core, are considered

  12. Mathematical model for the preliminary analysis of dual-mode space nuclear fission solid core power and propulsion systems, NUROC3A. AMS report No. 1239a

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grey, J.; Chow, S.

    1976-06-30

    The three-volume report describes a dual-mode nuclear space power and propulsion system concept that employs an advanced solid-core nuclear fission reactor coupled via heat pipes to one of several electric power conversion systems. Such a concept could be particularly useful for missions which require both relatively high acceleration (e.g., for planetocentric maneuvers) and high performance at low acceleration (e.g., on heliocentric trajectories or for trajectory shaping). The first volume develops the mathematical model of the system.

  13. Atomic Power in Space: A History

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    "Atomic Power in Space," a history of the Space Isotope Power Program of the United States, covers the period from the program's inception in the mid-1950s through 1982. Written in non-technical language, the history is addressed to both the general public and those more specialized in nuclear and space technologies. Interplanetary space exploration successes and achievements have been made possible by this technology, for which there is no known substitue.

  14. Radioisotope Power Systems Technology Development

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of the RPS's technology portfolio is to advance performance of radioisotope power systems through new and novel innovations being developed and transitioned...

  15. Thermionic reactors for space nuclear power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homeyer, W. G.; Merrill, M. H.; Holland, J. W.; Fisher, C. R.; Allen, D. T.

    1985-01-01

    Thermionic reactor designs for a variety of space power applications spanning the range from 5 kWe to 3 MWe are described. In all of these reactors, nuclear heat is converted directly to electrical energy in thermionic fuel elements (TFEs). A circulating reactor coolant carries heat from the core of TFEs directly to a heat rejection radiator system. The recent design of a thermionic reactor to meet the SP-100 requirements is emphasized. Design studies of reactors at other power levels show that the same TFE can be used over a broad range in power, and that design modifications can extend the range to many megawatts. The design of the SP-100 TFE is similar to that of TFEs operated successfully in test reactors, but with design improvements to extend the operating lifetime to seven years.

  16. CW 100MW microwave power transfer in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takayama, K.; Hiramatsu, S.; Shiho, M.

    1991-01-01

    A proposal is made for high-power microwave transfer in space. The concept consists in a microwave power station integrating a multistage microwave free-electron laser and asymmetric dual-reflector system. Its use in space is discussed. 9 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  17. Nuclear reactors for space electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buden, D.

    1978-06-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory is studying reactor power plants for space applications in the late 1980s and 1990s. The study is concentrating on high-temperature, compact, fast reactors that can be coupled with various radiation shielding systems and thermoelectric, dynamic, or thermionic electric power conversion systems, depending on the mission. Lifetimes of 7 to 10 yr at full power, at converter operating temperatures of 1275 to 1675 0 K, are being studied. The systems are being designed such that no single-failure modes exist that will cause a complete loss of power. In fact, to meet the long lifetimes, highly redundant design features are being emphasized. Questions have been raised about safety since the COSMOS 954 incident. ''Fail-safe'' means to prevent exposure of the population to radioactive material, meeting the environmental guidelines established by the U.S. Government have been and continue to be a necessary requirement for any space reactor program. The major safety feature to prevent prelaunch and launch radioactive material hazards is not operating the reactor before achieving the prescribed orbit. Design features in the reactor ensure that accidental criticality cannot occur. High orbits (above 400 to 500 nautical miles) have sufficient lifetimes to allow radioactive elements to decay to safe levels. The major proposed applications for satellites with reactors in Earth orbit are in geosynchronous orbit (19,400 nautical miles). In missions at geosynchronous orbit, where orbital lifetimes are practically indefinite, the safety considerations are negligible. Orbits below 400 to 500 nautical miles are the ones where a safety issue is involved in case of satellite malfunction. The potential missions, the question of why reactors are being considered as a prime power candidate, reactor features, and safety considerations will be discussed

  18. Commercialization of solar space power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Alok; Sera, Gary

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this research is to help U.S. companies commercialize renewable energy in India, with a special focus on solar energy. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Mid-Continent Technology Transfer Center (MCTTC) is working with ENTECH, Inc., a solar photovoltaic (SPV) systems manufacturer to form partnerships with Indian companies. MCTTC has conducted both secondary and primary market research and obtained travel funding to meet potential Indian partners face to face. MCTTC and ENTECH traveled to India during June 2-20, 1994, and visited New Delhi, Bombay, Pune and Calcutta. Meetings were held with several key government officials and premier Indian business houses and entrepreneurs in the area of solar energy. A firsthand knowledge of India's renewable energy industry was gained, and companies were qualified in terms of capabilities and commitment to the SPV business. The World Bank has awarded India with 280 million to commercialize renewable energies, including 55 million for SPV. There is a market in India for both small-scale (kW) and large SPV (MW) applications. Each U.S. company needs to form a joint venture with an Indian firm and let the latter identify the states and projects with the greatest business potential. Several big Indian companies and entrepreneurs are planning to enter the SPV business, and they currently are seeking foreign technology partners. Since the lager companies have adopted a more conservative approach, however, partnerships with entrepreneurs might offer the quickest route to market entry in India.

  19. Atomic power in space: A history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-03-01

    ''Atomic Power in Space,'' a history of the Space Isotope Power Program of the United States, covers the period from the program's inception in the mid-1950s through 1982. Written in non-technical language, the history is addressed to both the general public and those more specialized in nuclear and space technologies. 19 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Data acquisition for a real time fault monitoring and diagnosis knowledge-based system for space power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhite, Larry D.; Lee, S. C.; Lollar, Louis F.

    1989-01-01

    The design and implementation of the real-time data acquisition and processing system employed in the AMPERES project is described, including effective data structures for efficient storage and flexible manipulation of the data by the knowledge-based system (KBS), the interprocess communication mechanism required between the data acquisition system and the KBS, and the appropriate data acquisition protocols for collecting data from the sensors. Sensor data are categorized as critical or noncritical data on the basis of the inherent frequencies of the signals and the diagnostic requirements reflected in their values. The critical data set contains 30 analog values and 42 digital values and is collected every 10 ms. The noncritical data set contains 240 analog values and is collected every second. The collected critical and noncritical data are stored in separate circular buffers. Buffers are created in shared memory to enable other processes, i.e., the fault monitoring and diagnosis process and the user interface process, to freely access the data sets.

  1. Space structures, power, and power conditioning; Proceedings of the Meeting, Los Angeles, CA, Jan. 11-13, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askew, R.F.

    1988-01-01

    Various papers on space structures, power, and power conditioning are presented. Among the topics discussed are: heterogeneous gas core reaction for space nuclear power, pulsed gas core reactor for burst power, fundamental considerations of gas core reactor systems, oscillating thermionic conversion for high-density space power, thermoelectromagnetic pumps for space nuclear power systems, lightweight electrochemical converter for space power applications, ballistic acceleration by superheated hydrogen, laser-induced current switching in gaseous discharge, electron-beam-controlled semiconductor switches, laser-controlled semiconductor closing and opening switch. Also addressed are: semiconductor-metal eutectic composites for high-power switching, optical probes for the characterization of surface breakdown, 40 kV/20 kA pseudospark switch for laser applications, insulation direction for high-power space systems, state space simulation of spacecraft power systems, structural vibration of space power station systems, minimum-time control of large space structures, novel fusion reaction for space power and propulsion, repetition rate system evaluations, cryogenic silicon photoconductive switches for high-power lasers, multilevel diamondlike carbon capacitor structure, surface breakdown of prestressed insulators, C-Mo and C-Zr alloys for space power systems, magnetic insulation for the space environment

  2. Electrical power system WP-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nored, Donald L.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on Space Station Freedom Electrical Power System (EPS) WP-40 are presented. Topics covered include: key EPS technical requirements; photovoltaic power module systems; solar array assembly; blanket containment box and box positioning subassemblies; solar cell; bypass diode assembly; Kapton with atomic oxygen resistant coating; sequential shunt unit; gimbal assembly; energy storage subsystem; thermal control subsystem; direct current switching unit; integrated equipment assembly; PV cargo element; PMAD system; and PMC and AC architecture.

  3. Autonomously managed high power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeks, D.J.; Bechtel, R.T.

    1985-01-01

    The need for autonomous power management capabilities will increase as the power levels of spacecraft increase into the multi-100 kW range. The quantity of labor intensive ground and crew support consumed by the 9 kW Skylab cannot be afforded in support of a 75-300 kW Space Station or high power earth orbital and interplanetary spacecraft. Marshall Space Flight Center is managing a program to develop necessary technologies for high power system autonomous management. To date a reference electrical power system and automation approaches have been defined. A test facility for evaluation and verification of management algorithms and hardware has been designed with the first of the three power channel capability nearing completion

  4. Key issues in space nuclear power challenges for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandhorst, Henry W., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The future appears rich in missions that will extend the frontiers of knowledge, human presence in space, and opportunities for profitable commerce. Key to the success of these ventures is the availability of plentiful, cost effective electric power and assured, low cost access to space. While forecasts of space power needs are problematic, an assessment of future needs based on terrestrial experience has been made. These needs fall into three broad categories: survival, self sufficiency, and industrialization. The cost of delivering payloads to orbital locations from LEO to Mars has been determined and future launch cost reductions projected. From these factors, then, projections of the performance necessary for future solar and nuclear space power options has been made. These goals are largely dependent upon orbital location and energy storage needs. Finally the cost of present space power systems has been determined and projections made for future systems.

  5. WOMEN POWER IN SPACE SCIENCE

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TSC

    ❖Provides training in space field to personnel ... Work on next generation satellites to provide ... Women scientists are as good as every one else and .... service). (28%in 2002 increased to 33% in 2007). The scheme is useful for youngsters to ...

  6. Future NASA mission applications of space nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, G.L.; Mankins, J.; McConnell, D.G.; Reck, G.M.

    1990-01-01

    Recent studies sponsored by NASA show a continuing need for space nuclear power. A recently completed study considered missions such as a Jovian grand tour, a Uranus or Neptune orbiter and probe, and a Pluto flyby that can only be done with nuclear power. There are studies for missions beyond the outer boundaries of the solar system at distances of 100 to 1000 astronomical units. The NASA 90-day study on the space exploration initiative identified a need for nuclear reactors to power lunar surface bases and radioisotope power sources for use in lunar or Martian rovers, as well as considering options for advanced, nuclear propulsion systems for human missions to Mars

  7. A 3D-Space Vector Modulation Algorithm for Three Phase Four Wire Neutral Point Clamped Inverter Systems as Power Quality Compensator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palanisamy Ramasamy

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A Unified Power Quality Conditioner (UPQC is designed using a Neutral Point Clamped (NPC multilevel inverter to improve the power quality. When designed for high/medium voltage and power applications, the voltage stress across the switches and harmonic content in the output voltage are increased. A 3-phase 4-wire NPC inverter system is developed as Power Quality Conditioner using an effectual three dimensional Space Vector Modulation (3D-SVM technique. The proposed system behaves like a UPQC with shunt and series active filter under balanced and unbalanced loading conditions. In addition to the improvement of the power quality issues, it also balances the neutral point voltage and voltage balancing across the capacitors under unbalanced condition. The hardware and simulation results of proposed system are compared with 2D-SVM and 3D-SVM. The proposed system is stimulated using MATLAB and the hardware is designed using FPGA. From the results it is evident that effectual 3D-SVM technique gives better performance compared to other control methods.

  8. Deep Space Cryogenic Power Electronics, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Technology Application, Inc. (TAI) is proposing to demonstrate feasibility of implementing silicon germanium (SiGe) strained-gate technology in the power...

  9. Solar power satellite system; Uchu hatsuden system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, S [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-09-05

    The solar power satellite system is a system that converts solar energy into electric energy in the space, transmits power to earth through wireless resort such as microwave and supplies energy of new concept. In order to realize this system it is necessary to have new technologies such as space power transmission at low cost, construction of large space buildings and wireless high power transmission. In this paper, the principles, characteristics and the necessary technology of this system were explained. Besides Japan`s SPS2000 Plan (cooperative research by universities, government agencies and private corporations on the model of solar power satellite) the group of Europe, Russia and the United States has also proposed some ideas concerning the solar power satellite system. As far as the microwave power transmission, which is the key technology for solar power satellite system, is concerned, ground demonstration tests at the level of several tens of kW are discussed in Canada and France. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Missions and planning for nuclear space power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buden, D.

    1979-01-01

    Requirements for electrical and propulsion power for space are expected to increase dramatically in the 1980s. Nuclear power is probably the only source for some deep space missions and a major competitor for many orbital missions, especially those at geosynchronous orbit. Because of the potential requirements, a technology program on reactor components has been initiated by the Department of Energy. The missions that are foreseen, the current reactor concept, and the technology program plan are described

  11. Intelligent (Autonomous) Power Controller Development for Human Deep Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeder, James; Raitano, Paul; McNelis, Anne

    2016-01-01

    As NASAs Evolvable Mars Campaign and other exploration initiatives continue to mature they have identified the need for more autonomous operations of the power system. For current human space operations such as the International Space Station, the paradigm is to perform the planning, operation and fault diagnosis from the ground. However, the dual problems of communication lag as well as limited communication bandwidth beyond GEO synchronous orbit, underscore the need to change the operation methodology for human operation in deep space. To address this need, for the past several years the Glenn Research Center has had an effort to develop an autonomous power controller for human deep space vehicles. This presentation discusses the present roadmap for deep space exploration along with a description of conceptual power system architecture for exploration modules. It then contrasts the present ground centric control and management architecture with limited autonomy on-board the spacecraft with an advanced autonomous power control system that features ground based monitoring with a spacecraft mission manager with autonomous control of all core systems, including power. It then presents a functional breakdown of the autonomous power control system and examines its operation in both normal and fault modes. Finally, it discusses progress made in the development of a real-time power system model and how it is being used to evaluate the performance of the controller and well as using it for verification of the overall operation.

  12. A numerical simulation package for analysis of neutronics and thermal fluids of space nuclear power and propulsion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anghaie, S.; Feller, G.J.; Peery, S.D.; Parsley, R.C.

    1993-01-01

    A system of computer codes for engineering simulation and in-depth analysis of nuclear and thermal fluid design of nuclear thermal rockets is developed. The computational system includes a neutronic solver package, a thermal fluid solver package and a propellant and materials property package. The Rocket Engine Transient Simulation (ROCETS) system code is incorporated with computational modules specific to nuclear powered engines. ROCETS features a component based performance architecture that interfaces component modules into the user designed configuration, interprets user commands, creates an executable FORTRAN computer program, and executes the program to provide output to the user. Basic design features of the Pratt ampersand Whitney XNR2000 nuclear rocket concept and its operational performance are analyzed and simulated

  13. SP-100/Brayton power system concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, D.F.

    1989-01-01

    Use of closed Brayton cycle (CBC) power conversion technology has been investigated for use with SP-100 reactors for space power systems. The CBC power conversion technology is being developed by Rockwell International under the Dynamic Isotype Power System (DIPS) and Space Station Freedom solar dynamic power system programs to provide highly efficient power conversion with radioisotype and solar collector heat sources. Characteristics including mass, radiator area, thermal power, and operating temperatures for systems utilizing SP-100 reactor and CBC power conversion technology were determined for systems in the 10-to 100-kWe power range. Possible SP-100 reactor/CBC power system configurations are presented. Advantages of CBC power conversion technology with regard to reactor thermal power, operating temperature, and development status are discussed

  14. Electric power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Weedy, B M; Jenkins, N; Ekanayake, J B; Strbac, G

    2012-01-01

    The definitive textbook for Power Systems students, providing a grounding in essential power system theory while also focusing on practical power engineering applications. Electric Power Systems has been an essential book in power systems engineering for over thirty years. Bringing the content firmly up-to-date whilst still retaining the flavour of Weedy's extremely popular original, this Fifth Edition has been revised by experts Nick Jenkins, Janaka Ekanayake and Goran Strbac. This wide-ranging text still covers all of the fundamental power systems subjects but is now e

  15. Space Vehicle Valve System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Anthony R. (Inventor); Lindner, Jeffrey L. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention is a space vehicle valve system which controls the internal pressure of a space vehicle and the flow rate of purged gases at a given internal pressure and aperture site. A plurality of quasi-unique variable dimension peaked valve structures cover the purge apertures on a space vehicle. Interchangeable sheet guards configured to cover valve apertures on the peaked valve structure contain a pressure-activated surface on the inner surface. Sheet guards move outwardly from the peaked valve structure when in structural contact with a purge gas stream flowing through the apertures on the space vehicle. Changing the properties of the sheet guards changes the response of the sheet guards at a given internal pressure, providing control of the flow rate at a given aperture site.

  16. Space solar power - An energy alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    The space solar power concept is concerned with the use of a Space Power Satellite (SPS) which orbits the earth at geostationary altitude. Two large symmetrical solar collectors convert solar energy directly to electricity using photovoltaic cells woven into blankets. The dc electricity is directed to microwave generators incorporated in a transmitting antenna located between the solar collectors. The antenna directs the microwave beam to a receiving antenna on earth where the microwave energy is efficiently converted back to dc electricity. The SPS design promises 30-year and beyond lifetimes. The SPS is relatively pollution free as it promises earth-equivalence of 80-85% efficient ground-based thermal power plant.

  17. Manned spacecraft electrical power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, William E.; Nored, Donald L.

    1987-01-01

    A brief history of the development of electrical power systems from the earliest manned space flights illustrates a natural trend toward a growth of electrical power requirements and operational lifetimes with each succeeding space program. A review of the design philosophy and development experience associated with the Space Shuttle Orbiter electrical power system is presented, beginning with the state of technology at the conclusion of the Apollo Program. A discussion of prototype, verification, and qualification hardware is included, and several design improvements following the first Orbiter flight are described. The problems encountered, the scientific and engineering approaches used to meet the technological challenges, and the results obtained are stressed. Major technology barriers and their solutions are discussed, and a brief Orbiter flight experience summary of early Space Shuttle missions is included. A description of projected Space Station power requirements and candidate system concepts which could satisfy these anticipated needs is presented. Significant challenges different from Space Shuttle, innovative concepts and ideas, and station growth considerations are discussed. The Phase B Advanced Development hardware program is summarized and a status of Phase B preliminary tradeoff studies is presented.

  18. Limits to power system growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slater, S.M.; Klein, A.C.; Webb, B.J.; Pauley, K.A.

    1993-01-01

    In the design of space nuclear power systems a variety of conversion techniques may be used, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. A study was performed which analyzed over 120 proposed system designs. The designs were compared to identify the optimum conversion system as a function of power level and find limits to specific mass (kg/kWe) for each power cycle. Furthermore, the component masses were studied to determine which component of the overall design contributes the most to total system mass over a variety of power levels. The results can provide a focus for future research efforts by selecting the best conversion technology for the desired power range, and optimizing the system component which contributes most to the total mass

  19. Fracture-resistant ultralloys for space-power systems: nuclear-thermionic-conversion implications of W,27Re

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraga, N.O.; Jacobsen, D.L.; Morris, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    Rhenium (Re) added to tungsten (W) improves the creep strength, recrystallization resistance and ductility. W,27Re is a good workable ultra alloy for use in space nuclear reactor (SNR) systems and perhaps its most practical processing procedure is sintering. A promising SNR application for such ultralloys is very-high-temperature thermionic energy conversion. Therefore determinations of thermionic and thermal emissive characteristics for sintered W,27Re at temperatures near and above 2000 K in hard vacuum enable both scientific and pragmatic progress. Such research results comprise the data and interpretive presentations in this paper. These findings emphasize the fallacy of characterizing ultralloys similar to W,27Re with single-valued thermophysicochemical properties - such as the work function. They further stress the necessity for investigations of this type to determine and demonstrate effective prototypic ultralloy compositions and processing methods. (author)

  20. Computer code and users' guide for the preliminary analysis of dual-mode space nuclear fission solid core power and propulsion systems, NUROC3A. AMS report No. 1239b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, R.A.; Smith, W.W.

    1976-06-30

    The three-volume report describes a dual-mode nuclear space power and propulsion system concept that employs an advanced solid-core nuclear fission reactor coupled via heat pipes to one of several electric power conversion systems. The second volume describes the computer code and users' guide for the preliminary analysis of the system.

  1. Power system relaying

    CERN Document Server

    Horowitz, Stanley H; Niemira, James K

    2013-01-01

    The previous three editions of Power System Relaying offer comprehensive and accessible coverage of the theory and fundamentals of relaying and have been widely adopted on university and industry courses worldwide. With the third edition, the authors have added new and detailed descriptions of power system phenomena such as stability, system-wide protection concepts and discussion of historic outages. Power System Relaying, 4th Edition continues its role as an outstanding textbook on power system protection for senior and graduate students in the field of electric power engineering and a refer

  2. Conceptual Design Study of a Closed Brayton Cycle Turbogenerator for Space Power Thermal-To-Electric Conversion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Jeff L.

    2000-01-01

    A conceptual design study was completed for a 360 kW Helium-Xenon closed Brayton cycle turbogenerator. The selected configuration is comprised of a single-shaft gas turbine engine coupled directly to a high-speed generator. The engine turbomachinery includes a 2.5:1 pressure ratio compression system with an inlet corrected flow of 0.44 kg/sec. The single centrifugal stage impeller discharges into a scroll via a vaned diffuser. The scroll routes the air into the cold side sector of the recuperator. The hot gas exits a nuclear reactor radiator at 1300 K and enters the turbine via a single-vaned scroll. The hot gases are expanded through the turbine and then diffused before entering the hot side sector of the recuperator. The single shaft design is supported by air bearings. The high efficiency shaft mounted permanent magnet generator produces an output of 370 kW at a speed of 60,000 rpm. The total weight of the turbogenerator is estimated to be only 123 kg (less than 5% of the total power plant) and has a volume of approximately 0.11 cubic meters. This turbogenerator is a key element in achieving the 40 to 45% overall power plant thermal efficiency.

  3. Status of NASA's Stirling Space Power Converter Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudenhoefer, J.E.; Winter, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    An overview is presented of the NASA Lewis Research Center Free-Piston Stirling Space Power Converter Technology Program. This work is being conducted under NASA's Civil Space Technology Initiative. The goal of the CSTI High Capacity Power Element is to develop the technology base needed to meet the long duration, high capacity power requirements for future NASA space initiatives. Efforts are focused upon increasing system power output and system thermal and electric energy conversion efficiency at least fivefold over current SP-100 technology, and on achieving systems that are compatible with space nuclear reactors. This paper will discuss Stirling experience in Space Power Converters. Fabrication is nearly completed for the 1050 K Component Test Power Converter (CTPC); results of motoring tests of the cold end (525 K), are presented. The success of these and future designs is dependent upon supporting research and technology efforts including heat pipes, bearings, superalloy joining technologies, high efficiency alternators, life and reliability testing and predictive methodologies. This paper provides an update of progress in some of these technologies leading off with a discussion of free-piston Stirling experience in space

  4. Shipboard electrical power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Patel, Mukund R

    2011-01-01

    Shipboard Electrical Power Systems addresses new developments in this growing field. Focused on the trend toward electrification to power commercial shipping, naval, and passenger vessels, this book helps new or experienced engineers master cutting-edge methods for power system design, control, protection, and economic use of power. Provides Basic Transferable Skills for Managing Electrical Power on Ships or on LandThis groundbreaking book is the first volume of its kind to illustrate optimization of all aspects of shipboard electrical power systems. Applying author Mukund Patel's rare combina

  5. Probabilistic Fault Diagnosis in Electrical Power Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Electrical power systems play a critical role in spacecraft and aircraft. This paper discusses our development of a diagnostic capability for an electrical power...

  6. New vision solar system exploration missions study: Analysis of the use of biomodal space nuclear power systems to support outer solar system exploration missions. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-08

    This report presents the results of an analysis of the capability of nuclear bimodal systems to perform outer solar system exploration missions. Missions of interest include orbiter mission s to Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto. An initial technology baseline consisting of a NEBA 10 kWe, 1000 N thrust, 850 s, 1500 kg bimodal system was selected, and its performance examined against a data base for trajectories to outer solar system planetary destinations to select optimal direct and gravity assisted trajectories for study. A conceptual design for a common bimodal spacecraft capable of performing missions to all the planetary destinations was developed and made the basis of end to end mission designs for orbiter missions to Jupiter, Saturn, and Neptune. Concepts for microspacecraft capable of probing Jupiter`s atmosphere and exploring Titan were also developed. All mission designs considered use the Atlas 2AS for launch. It is shown that the bimodal nuclear power and propulsion system offers many attractive option for planetary missions, including both conventional planetary missions in which all instruments are carried by a single primary orbiting spacecraft, and unconventional missions in which the primary spacecraft acts as a carrier, relay, and mother ship for a fleet of micro spacecraft deployed at the planetary destination.

  7. Free-piston Stirling technology for space power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slaby, J.G.

    1994-01-01

    An overview is presented of the NASA Lewis Research Center free-piston Stirling engine activities directed toward space power. This work is being carried out under NASA's new Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The overall goal of CSTI's High Capacity Power element is to develop the technology base needed to meet the long duration, high capacity power requirements for future NASA space missions. The Stirling cycle offers an attractive power conversion concept for space power needs. Discussed in this paper is the completion of the Space Power Demonstrator Engine (SPDE) testing - culminating in the generation of 25 kW of engine power from a dynamically-balanced opposed-piston Stirling engine at a temperature ratio of 2.0. Engine efficiency was approximately 22 percent. The SPDE recently has been divided into two separate single-cylinder engines, called Space Power Research Engines (SPRE), that now serve as test beds for the evaluation of key technology disciplines. These disciplines include hydrodynamic gas bearings, high-efficiency linear alternators, space qualified heat pipe heat exchangers, oscillating flow code validation, and engine loss understanding. The success of the SPDE at 650 K has resulted in a more ambitious Stirling endeavor - the design, fabrication, test and evaluation of a designed-for-space 25 kW per cylinder Stirling Space Engine (SSE). The SSE will operate at a hot metal temperature of 1050 K using superalloy materials. This design is a low temperature confirmation of the 1300 K design. It is the 1300 K free-piston Stirling power conversion system that is the ultimate goal; to be used in conjunction with the SP-100 reactor. The approach to this goal is in three temperature steps. However, this paper concentrates on the first two phases of this program - the 650 K SPDE and the 1050 K SSE

  8. Opening up the future in space with nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buden, D.; Angelo, J. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Man's extraterrestrial development is dependent on abundant power. For example, space-based manufacturing facilities are projected to have a power demand of 300 kWe by the end of this Century, and several megawatts in the early part of next millennium. The development of the lunar resource base will result in power needs ranging from an initial 100 kW(e) to many megawatts. Human visits to Mars could be achieved using a multimegawatt nuclear electric propulsion system or high thrust nuclear rockets. Detailed exploration of the solar system will also be greatly enhanced by the availability of large nuclear electric propulsion systems. All of these activities will require substantial increases in space power - hundreds of kilowatts to many megawatts. The challenge is clear: how to effectively use nuclear energy to support humanity's expansion into space

  9. Nuclear space power and propulsion requirements and issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swerdling, M.; Isenberg, L.

    1995-01-01

    The use of nuclear power in space is going through a low point. The kinds of missions that would use nuclear power are expensive and there are few new expensive missions. Both NASA and DoD are in a mode of cheaper, faster, better, which means using what is available as much as possible and only incorporating new technology to reduce mission cost. NASA is performing Mission to Planet Earth and detailed exploration missions of Mars. These NASA missions can be done with solar-battery power subsystems and there is no need for nuclear power. The NASA mission to Pluto does require nuclear radioisotope power. Ways to reduce the power subsystem cost and the power level are being investigated. NASA is studying ways to explore beyond Mars with solar-battery power because of the cost and uncertainty in the availability and launchability of nuclear space power systems. The DoD missions are all in earth orbit and can be done with solar-battery systems. The major DoD requirement at present is to reduce costs of all their space missions. One way to do this is to develop highly efficient upper stage boosters that can be integrated with lower cost Earth to low orbit stages and still place their payloads in to higher orbits. One attractive upper stage is a nuclear bimodal (propulsion and power) engine to accomplished lower booster cost to place space assets in GEO. However this is not being pursued because of DOE's new policy not to fund nuclear space power research and development as well as the difficulty in obtaining launch approval for nuclear propulsion and power systems

  10. Deep Space Cryocooler System (DSCS), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As NASA missions continue to extend the horizon beyond near-Earth missions, higher performance systems must evolve to address the challenges of reduced power...

  11. Power system health analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billinton, Roy; Fotuhi-Firuzabad, Mahmud; Aboreshaid, Saleh

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a technique which combines both probabilistic indices and deterministic criteria to reflect the well-being of a power system. This technique permits power system planners, engineers and operators to maximize the probability of healthy operation as well as minimizing the probability of risky operation. The concept of system well-being is illustrated in this paper by application to the areas of operating reserve assessment and composite power system security evaluation

  12. Space photovoltaic power generation. Uchu taiyo hatsuden ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudo, I [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1993-07-20

    Introduction is made of space photovoltaic power generation which is the ultimate clean energy source. This is a system to obtain electric energy from the solar cells placed on a geostatic orbit and transmit the power onto the earth by microwave. The US formulates a plan of placing 60[times]5GW power generation satellites to obtain 300GW power on the earth in 2000. As for the scale of space structure, the array of solar cells is dimensionally 10km[times]5km and the power transmitting antenna is 1km in diameter. The electric energy is amplified to microwave and power-transmitted by wireless onto the earth. The ground rectenna which receives it is dimensionally 10km[times]13km. The biggest difficulty consists in transportation of construction materials onto the orbit. In Japan, activity comprises three matters, which are research committee organized three years ago by the Agency of Industrial Science and technology, 10MW class model conceptually designed by the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, and experiment conducted by Kyoto University on the power transmission by wireless. Pertaining to the research on the space power generation, the following two points are judged still unclarified: Reason for which the electric power companies did not apply the power transmission by wireless regarded as high in transmission efficiency. Influence of the microwave on the ionosphere and biosystem. 7 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Artificial Intelligence and Spacecraft Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugel-Whitehead, Norma R.

    1997-01-01

    This talk will present the work which has been done at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center involving the use of Artificial Intelligence to control the power system in a spacecraft. The presentation will include a brief history of power system automation, and some basic definitions of the types of artificial intelligence which have been investigated at MSFC for power system automation. A video tape of one of our autonomous power systems using co-operating expert systems, and advanced hardware will be presented.

  14. Initial tests of thermoacoustic space power engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backhaus, S.N.

    2002-01-01

    Future NASA deep-space missions will require radioisotope-powered electric generators that are just as reliable as current RTGs, but more efficient and of higher specific power (Wikg). Thennoacoustic engines at the -1-kW scale have converted high-temperature heat into acoustic, or PV, power without moving parts at 30% efficiency. Consisting of only tubes and a few heat exchangers, thennoacoustic engines are low mass and promise to be highly reliable. Coupling a thennoacoustic engine to a low mass, highly reliable and efficient linear alternator will create a heat-driven electric generator suitable for deep-space applications. Conversion efficiency data will be presented on a demonstration thennoacoustic engine designed for the 1 00-Watt power range.

  15. Space elevator systems level analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laubscher, B. E. (Bryan E.)

    2004-01-01

    The Space Elevator (SE) represents a major paradigm shift in space access. It involves new, untried technologies in most of its subsystems. Thus the successful construction of the SE requires a significant amount of development, This in turn implies a high level of risk for the SE. This paper will present a systems level analysis of the SE by subdividing its components into their subsystems to determine their level of technological maturity. such a high-risk endeavor is to follow a disciplined approach to the challenges. A systems level analysis informs this process and is the guide to where resources should be applied in the development processes. It is an efficient path that, if followed, minimizes the overall risk of the system's development. systems level analysis is that the overall system is divided naturally into its subsystems, and those subsystems are further subdivided as appropriate for the analysis. By dealing with the complex system in layers, the parameter space of decisions is kept manageable. Moreover, A rational way to manage One key aspect of a resources are not expended capriciously; rather, resources are put toward the biggest challenges and most promising solutions. This overall graded approach is a proven road to success. The analysis includes topics such as nanotube technology, deployment scenario, power beaming technology, ground-based hardware and operations, ribbon maintenance and repair and climber technology.

  16. Lightweight power bus for a baseload nuclear reactor in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberly, C.E.; Massie, L.D.; Hoffman, D.J.

    1989-01-01

    Space environmental interactions with the power distribution/power processing subsystem can become a serious problem for power systems rated at 10's to 100's of kilowatts. Utilization of ceramic superconductors at 1000 A/cm/sup 2/, which has already been demonstrated at 77 K in a conductor configuration may eliminate both bus mass and distribution voltage problems in a high power satellite. The analytical results presented here demonstrate that a superconducting coaxial power transmission bus offers significant benefits in reduced distribution voltage and mass

  17. Power unit-cargo space link in transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radmilović Zoran R.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with transportation technology regarding links between power unit and cargo space. These links can be divided into two groups: rigid and flexible. Rigid link, established between power unit and cargo space, is dominant in maritime and road transport (sea ships and trucks, and occasionally in transport on inland waterways (self- propelled barges. Flexible link is used in the railroad transport (systems with trailers and semi trailers, and in inland waterway transport (push - towing and pulling systems, and combinations of the systems. The main goal of this research is determination of possible link types and organization of the means of transportation.

  18. Power System Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Haruhito

    Electric power generation that relies on various sources as the primary sources of energy is expected to bring down CO2 emissions levels to support the overall strategy to curb global warming. Accordingly, utilities are moving towards integrating more renewable sources for generation, mostly dispersed, and adopting Smart Grid Technologies for system control. In order to construct, operate, and maintain power systems stably and economically in such background, thorough understanding about the characteristics of power systems and their components is essential. This paper presents modeling and simulation techniques available for the analysis of critical aspects such as thermal capacity, stability, voltage stability, and frequency dynamics, vital for the stable operation of power systems.

  19. Robust, Radiation Tolerant Command and Data Handling and Power System Electronics from NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hanson C.; Fraction, James; Ortiz-Acosta, Melyane; Dakermanji, George; Kercheval, Bradford P.; Hernandez-Pellerano, Amri; Kim, David S.; Jung, David S.; Meyer, Steven E.; Mallik, Udayan; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Goddard Modular Smallsat Architecture (GMSA) is developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) to address future reliability along with minimizing cost and schedule challenges for NASA Cubesat and Smallsat missions.

  20. Optimization in power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Geraldo R.M. da [Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia

    1994-12-31

    This paper discusses, partially, the advantages and the disadvantages of the optimal power flow. It shows some of the difficulties of implementation and proposes solutions. An analysis is made comparing the power flow, BIGPOWER/CESP, and the optimal power flow, FPO/SEL, developed by the author, when applied to the CEPEL-ELETRONORTE and CESP systems. (author) 8 refs., 5 tabs.

  1. 14 CFR 27.695 - Power boost and power-operated control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Systems § 27.695 Power boost and power-operated control system. (a) If a power boost or power-operated... failure of all engines. (b) Each alternate system may be a duplicate power portion or a manually operated... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Power boost and power-operated control...

  2. 14 CFR 29.695 - Power boost and power-operated control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Systems § 29.695 Power boost and power-operated control system. (a) If a power boost or power-operated... failure of all engines. (b) Each alternate system may be a duplicate power portion or a manually operated... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Power boost and power-operated control...

  3. A new concept of space solar power satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xun; Duan, Baoyan; Song, Liwei; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Yiqun; Wang, Dongxu

    2017-07-01

    Space solar power satellite (SSPS) is a tremendous energy system that collects and converts solar power to electric power in space, and then transmits the electric power to earth wirelessly. In this paper, a novel SSPS concept based on ε-near-zero (ENZ) metamaterial is proposed. A spherical condenser made of ENZ metamaterial is developed, by using the refractive property of the ENZ metamaterial sunlight can be captured and redirected to its center. To make the geometric concentration ratio of the PV array reasonable, a hemispherical one located at the center is used to collect and convert the normal-incidence sunlight to DC power, then through a phased array transmitting antenna the DC power is beamed down to the rectenna on the ground. Detailed design of the proposed concept is presented.

  4. Small high cooling power space cooler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, T. V.; Raab, J.; Durand, D.; Tward, E. [Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems Redondo Beach, Ca, 90278 (United States)

    2014-01-29

    The small High Efficiency pulse tube Cooler (HEC) cooler, that has been produced and flown on a number of space infrared instruments, was originally designed to provide cooling of 10 W @ 95 K. It achieved its goal with >50% margin when limited by the 180 W output ac power of its flight electronics. It has also been produced in 2 stage configurations, typically for simultaneously cooling of focal planes to temperatures as low as 35 K and optics at higher temperatures. The need for even higher cooling power in such a low mass cryocooler is motivated by the advent of large focal plane arrays. With the current availability at NGAS of much larger power cryocooler flight electronics, reliable long term operation in space with much larger cooling powers is now possible with the flight proven 4 kg HEC mechanical cooler. Even though the single stage cooler design can be re-qualified for those larger input powers without design change, we redesigned both the linear and coaxial version passive pulse tube cold heads to re-optimize them for high power cooling at temperatures above 130 K while rejecting heat to 300 K. Small changes to the regenerator packing, the re-optimization of the tuned inertance and no change to the compressor resulted in the increased performance at 150 K. The cooler operating at 290 W input power achieves 35 W@ 150 K corresponding to a specific cooling power at 150 K of 8.25 W/W and a very high specific power of 72.5 W/Kg. At these powers the cooler still maintains large stroke, thermal and current margins. In this paper we will present the measured data and the changes to this flight proven cooler that were made to achieve this increased performance.

  5. A High-power Electric Propulsion Test Platform in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petro, Andrew J.; Reed, Brian; Chavers, D. Greg; Sarmiento, Charles; Cenci, Susanna; Lemmons, Neil

    2005-01-01

    This paper will describe the results of the preliminary phase of a NASA design study for a facility to test high-power electric propulsion systems in space. The results of this design study are intended to provide a firm foundation for subsequent detailed design and development activities leading to the deployment of a valuable space facility. The NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate is sponsoring this design project. A team from the NASA Johnson Space Center, Glenn Research Center, the Marshall Space Flight Center and the International Space Station Program Office is conducting the project. The test facility is intended for a broad range of users including government, industry and universities. International participation is encouraged. The objectives for human and robotic exploration of space can be accomplished affordably, safely and effectively with high-power electric propulsion systems. But, as thruster power levels rise to the hundreds of kilowatts and up to megawatts, their testing will pose stringent and expensive demands on existing Earth-based vacuum facilities. These considerations and the human access to near-Earth space provided by the International Space Station (ISS) have led to a renewed interest in space testing. The ISS could provide an excellent platform for a space-based test facility with the continuous vacuum conditions of the natural space environment and no chamber walls to modify the open boundary conditions of the propulsion system exhaust. The test platform could take advantage of the continuous vacuum conditions of the natural space environment. Space testing would provide open boundary conditions without walls, micro-gravity and a realistic thermal environment. Testing on the ISS would allow for direct observation of the test unit, exhaust plume and space-plasma interactions. When necessary, intervention by on-board personnel and post-test inspection would be possible. The ISS can provide electrical power, a location for

  6. Space Station tethered elevator system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddock, Michael H.; Anderson, Loren A.; Hosterman, K.; Decresie, E.; Miranda, P.; Hamilton, R.

    1989-01-01

    The optimized conceptual engineering design of a space station tethered elevator is presented. The tethered elevator is an unmanned, mobile structure which operates on a ten-kilometer tether spanning the distance between Space Station Freedom and a platform. Its capabilities include providing access to residual gravity levels, remote servicing, and transportation to any point along a tether. The report discusses the potential uses, parameters, and evolution of the spacecraft design. Emphasis is placed on the elevator's structural configuration and three major subsystem designs. First, the design of elevator robotics used to aid in elevator operations and tethered experimentation is presented. Second, the design of drive mechanisms used to propel the vehicle is discussed. Third, the design of an onboard self-sufficient power generation and transmission system is addressed.

  7. Fusion of Built in Test (BIT) Technologies with Embeddable Fault Tolerant Techniques for Power System and Drives in Space Exploration, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As NASA develops next generation space exploration systems as part of the Constellation program, new prognostics and health management tools are needed to ensure...

  8. Space Solar Power Technology Demonstration for Lunar Polar Applications: Laser-Photovoltaic Wireless Power Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, M. W.; Fikes, J. C.; Howell, J.; Mankins, J. C.; Howell, Joe T. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Space Solar Power technology offers unique benefits for near-term NASA space science missions, which can mature this technology for other future applications. "Laser-Photo-Voltaic Wireless Power Transmission" (Laser-PV WPT) is a technology that uses a laser to beam power to a photovoltaic receiver, which converts the laser's light into electricity. Future Laser-PV WPT systems may beam power from Earth to satellites or large Space Solar Power satellites may beam power to Earth, perhaps supplementing terrestrial solar photo-voltaic receivers. In a near-term scientific mission to the moon, Laser-PV WPT can enable robotic operations in permanently shadowed lunar polar craters, which may contain ice. Ground-based technology demonstrations are proceeding, to mature the technology for this initial application, in the moon's polar regions.

  9. Large autonomous spacecraft electrical power system (LASEPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugal-Whitehead, Norma R.; Johnson, Yvette B.

    1992-01-01

    NASA - Marshall Space Flight Center is creating a large high voltage electrical power system testbed called LASEPS. This testbed is being developed to simulate an end-to-end power system from power generation and source to loads. When the system is completed it will have several power configurations, which will include several battery configurations. These configurations are: two 120 V batteries, one or two 150 V batteries, and one 250 to 270 V battery. This breadboard encompasses varying levels of autonomy from remote power converters to conventional software control to expert system control of the power system elements. In this paper, the construction and provisions of this breadboard are discussed.

  10. Applications of nuclear-powered thermoelectric generators in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, D.M.

    1991-01-01

    The source of electrical power which enables information to be transmitted from the space crafts Voyager 1 and 2 back to Earth after a time period of more than a decade and at a distance of more than a billion miles is known as an RTG (radioisotope thermoelectric generator). It utilises the Seebeck effect in producing electricity from heat. In essence it consists of a large number of semiconductor thermocouples connected electrically in series and thermally in parallel. A temperature difference is maintained across the thermocouples by providing a heat source, which in the case of an RTG is a radioactive isotope, and the heat sink is space. The combination of an energy-conversion system, free of moving parts and a long-life, high energy-density heat source, provides a supply of electrical power typically in the range of tens to hundred of watts and which operates reliably over extended periods of time. An electric power source, based upon thermoelectric conversion by which utilises a nuclear reactor as a heat source, has also been deployed in space and a 100-kW system is being developed to provide electrical power to a variety of commercial and military projects including SDI. Developments in thermoelectrics that have taken place in the western world during the past 30 years are primarily due to United States interest and involvement in the exploration of space. This paper reviews US applications of nuclear-powered thermoelectric generators in space. (author)

  11. Personal power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn-Rankin, Derek; Leal, Elisangela Martins; Walther, David C. [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States)

    2005-07-01

    The lack of compact, efficient, human compatible, lightweight power sources impedes the realization of machine-enhanced human endeavor. Electronic and communication devices, as well as mobile robotic devices, need new power sources that will allow them to operate autonomously for periods of hours. In this work, a personal power system implies an application of interest to an individual person. The human-compatible gravimetric energy density spans the range from 500 to 5000Wh/kg, with gravimetric power density requirements from 10 to 1000W/kg. These requirements are the primary goals for the systems presented here. The review examines the interesting and promising concepts in electrochemical, thermochemical, and biochemical approaches to small-scale power, as well as their technological and physical challenges and limitations. Often it is the limitations that dominate, so that while the technology to create personal autonomy for communications, information processing and mobility has accelerated, similar breakthroughs for the systems powering these devices have not yet occurred. Fuel cells, model airplane engines, and hummingbird metabolism, are three promising examples, respectively, of electrochemical, thermochemical, and biochemical power production strategies that are close to achieving personal power systems' power demands. Fuel cells show great promise as an energy source when relatively low power density is demanded, but they cannot yet deliver high peak powers nor respond quickly to variable loads. Current small-scale engines, while achieving extraordinary power densities, are too inefficient to achieve the energy density needed for long-duration autonomous operation. Metabolic processes of flying insects and hummingbirds are remarkable biological energy converters, but duplicating, accelerating, and harnessing such power for mobility applications is virtually unexplored. These challenges are significant, and they provide a fertile environment for

  12. Space-to-Space Power Beaming Enabling High Performance Rapid Geocentric Orbit Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankanich, John W.; Vassallo, Corinne; Tadge, Megan

    2015-01-01

    The use of electric propulsion is more prevalent than ever, with industry pursuing all electric orbit transfers. Electric propulsion provides high mass utilization through efficient propellant transfer. However, the transfer times become detrimental as the delta V transitions from near-impulsive to low-thrust. Increasing power and therefore thrust has diminishing returns as the increasing mass of the power system limits the potential acceleration of the spacecraft. By using space-to-space power beaming, the power system can be decoupled from the spacecraft and allow significantly higher spacecraft alpha (W/kg) and therefore enable significantly higher accelerations while maintaining high performance. This project assesses the efficacy of space-to-space power beaming to enable rapid orbit transfer while maintaining high mass utilization. Concept assessment requires integrated techniques for low-thrust orbit transfer steering laws, efficient large-scale rectenna systems, and satellite constellation configuration optimization. This project includes the development of an integrated tool with implementation of IPOPT, Q-Law, and power-beaming models. The results highlight the viability of the concept, limits and paths to infusion, and comparison to state-of-the-art capabilities. The results indicate the viability of power beaming for what may be the only approach for achieving the desired transit times with high specific impulse.

  13. Cermet Coatings for Solar Stirling Space Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworske, Donald A.; Raack, Taylor

    2004-01-01

    Cermet coatings, molecular mixtures of metal and ceramic are being considered for the heat inlet surface of a solar Stirling space power converter. This paper will discuss the solar absorption characteristics of as-deposited cermet coatings as well as the solar absorption characteristics of the coatings after heating. The role of diffusion and island formation, during the deposition process and during heating will also be discussed.

  14. Mobility and power in networked European space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richardson, Tim; Jensen, Ole B.

    This paper seeks to contribute to debates about how urban, social and critical theory can conceptualise the socio-technologies of connection, resilience, mobility, and collapse in contemporary urban space. The paper offers a theoretical frame for conceptualising this New Urban Condition, focusing...... on themes of mobility, power, flow, network and scale. The analysis suggests the importance of close atention to the knowledge claims which are deployed in multi-level struggles to assert smooth futures in face of dysfunction....

  15. Space Power Integration: Perspectives from Space Weapons Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    staff at Air University Press, Dr. Philip Adkins, Mrs. Sherry Terrell , and Mrs. Vivian O’Neal. Their creation of an integrated book from nine...Techniques of Complex Systems Science: An Overview ( Ann Arbor, MI: Center for the Study of Complex Sys- tems, University of Michigan, 9 July 2003), 34...Depart- ment of the Navy Space Policy, 26 August 1993. Shalizi, Cosma Rohilla. Methods and Techniques of Complex Systems Science: An Overview. Ann

  16. Nuclear power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yampolsky, J.S.; Cavallaro, L.; Paulovich, K.F.; Schleicher, R.W.

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes an inherently safe modular nuclear power system for producing electrical power at acceptable efficiency levels using working fluids at relatively low temperatures and pressures. The system comprising: a reactor module for heating a first fluid; a heat exchanger module for transferring heat from the first fluid to a second fluid; a first piping system effecting flow of the first fluid in a first fluid circuit successively through the reactor module and the heat exchanger module; a power conversion module comprising a turbogenerator driven by the second fluid, and means for cooling the second fluid upon emergence thereof from the turbogenerator; a second piping system comprising means for effecting flow of the second fluid in a second fluid circuit successively through the heat exchanger module and the power conversion module; and a plurality of pits for receiving the modules

  17. Thermionic integrated circuit technology for high power space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadavalli, S.R.

    1984-01-01

    Thermionic triode and integrated circuit technology is in its infancy and it is emerging. The Thermionic triode can operate at relatively high voltages (up to 2000V) and at least tens of amperes. These devices, including their use in integrated circuitry, operate at high temperatures (800 0 C) and are very tolerant to nuclear and other radiations. These properties can be very useful in large space power applications such as that represented by the SP-100 system which uses a nuclear reactor. This paper presents an assessment of the application of thermionic integrated circuitry with space nuclear power system technology. A comparison is made with conventional semiconductor circuitry considering a dissipative shunt regulator for SP-100 type nuclear power system rated at 100 kW. The particular advantages of thermionic circuitry are significant reductions in size and mass of heat dissipation and radiation shield subsystems

  18. NSTX Electrical Power Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A. Ilic; E. Baker; R. Hatcher; S. Ramakrishnan; et al

    1999-01-01

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) has been designed and installed in the existing facilities at Princeton Plasma Physic Laboratory (PPPL). Most of the hardware, plant facilities, auxiliary sub-systems, and power systems originally used for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) have been used with suitable modifications to reflect NSTX needs. The design of the NSTX electrical power system was tailored to suit the available infrastructure and electrical equipment on site. Components were analyzed to verify their suitability for use in NSTX. The total number of circuits and the location of the NSTX device drove the major changes in the Power system hardware. The NSTX has eleven (11) circuits to be fed as compared to the basic three power loops for TFTR. This required changes in cabling to insure that each cable tray system has the positive and negative leg of cables in the same tray. Also additional power cabling had to be installed to the new location. The hardware had to b e modified to address the need for eleven power loops. Power converters had to be reconnected and controlled in anti-parallel mode for the Ohmic heating and two of the Poloidal Field circuits. The circuit for the Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI) System had to be carefully developed to meet this special application. Additional Protection devices were designed and installed for the magnet coils and the CHI. The thrust was to making the changes in the most cost-effective manner without compromising technical requirements. This paper describes the changes and addition to the Electrical Power System components for the NSTX magnet systems

  19. Autonomous power networks based power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jokic, A.; Van den Bosch, P.P.J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presented the concept of autonomous networks to cope with this increased complexity in power systems while enhancing market-based operation. The operation of future power systems will be more challenging and demanding than present systems because of increased uncertainties, less inertia in the system, replacement of centralized coordinating activities by decentralized parties and the reliance on dynamic markets for both power balancing and system reliability. An autonomous network includes the aggregation of networked producers and consumers in a relatively small area with respect to the overall system. The operation of an autonomous network is coordinated and controlled with one central unit acting as an interface between internal producers/consumers and the rest of the power system. In this study, the power balance problem and system reliability through provision of ancillary services was formulated as an optimization problem for the overall autonomous networks based power system. This paper described the simulation of an optimal autonomous network dispatching in day ahead markets, based on predicted spot prices for real power, and two ancillary services. It was concluded that large changes occur in a power systems structure and operation, most of them adding to the uncertainty and complexity of the system. The introduced concept of an autonomous power network-based power system was shown to be a realistic and consistent approach to formulate and operate a market-based dispatch of both power and ancillary services. 9 refs., 4 figs

  20. Space Solar Power Satellite Technology Development at the Glenn Research Center: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudenhoefer, James E.; George, Patrick J.

    2000-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). is participating in the Space Solar Power Exploratory Research and Technology program (SERT) for the development of a solar power satellite concept. The aim of the program is to provide electrical power to Earth by converting the Sun's energy and beaming it to the surface. This paper will give an overall view of the technologies being pursued at GRC including thin film photovoltaics, solar dynamic power systems, space environmental effects, power management and distribution, and electric propulsion. The developmental path not only provides solutions to gigawatt sized space power systems for the future, but provides synergistic opportunities for contemporary space power architectures. More details of Space Solar Power can be found by reading the references sited in this paper and by connecting to the web site http://moonbase.msfc.nasa.gov/ and accessing the "Space Solar Power" section "Public Access" area.

  1. Green Applications for Space Power Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Joel (Principal Investigator)

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft propulsion and power for many decades has relied on Hydrazine monopropellant technology for auxiliary power units (APU), orbital circularization, orbit raising/lowering and attitude control. However, Hydrazine is toxic and therefore requires special ground handling procedures to ensure launch crew safety. The Swedish Company ECAPS has developed a technology based upon the propellant Ammonium Dinitramide (ADN) that offers higher performance, higher density and reduced ground handling support than Hydrazine. This blended propellant is called LMP-103S. Currently, the United States Air Force (USAF) is pursuing a technology based on Hydroxyl Ammonium Nitrate (HAN, otherwise known as AF-M315E) with industry partners Aerojet and Moog. Based on the advantages offered by these propellants, MSFC should explore powering APU's with these propellants. Due to the availability of space hardware, the principal investigator has found a collection of USAF hardware, that will act as a surrogate, which operates on a Hydrazine derivative. The F-16 fighter jet uses H-70 or 30% diluted Hydrazine for an Emergency Power Unit (EPU) which supplies power to the plane. The PI has acquired two EPU's from planes slated for destruction at the Davis Monthan AFB. This CIF will include a partnership with 2 other NASA Centers who are individually seeking seed funds from their respective organizations: Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC). KSC is preparing for future flights from their launch pads that will utilize green propellants and desire a low-cost testbed in which to test and calibrate new leak detection sensors. DFRC has access to F-16's which can be used by MSFC & KSC to perform a ground test that demonstrates emergency power supplied to the jet. Neither of the green propellant alternatives have been considered nor evaluated for an APU application. Work has already been accomplished to characterize and obtain the properties of these 2 propellants

  2. Middle Eastern power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Middle Eastern Power systems have evolved independently of each other over many decades. The region covers a wide geographical area of over 4 million square kilometers with an estimated population in 1990 of over 120 million people. This paper discusses the present status and future power system developments in the Middle East with emphasis on the Mashrequ Arab Countries (MAC). MAC consists of Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Yemen, and the six Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries, namely, Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Oman, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Interconnections within MAC and possible extensions to Turkey, Europe, and Central Africa are discussed. A common characteristic of the MAC power systems is that they are all operated by government or semi-government bodies. The energy resources in the region are varied. Countries such as Iraq, Egypt, and Syria have significant hydro power resources. On the other hand, the GCC countries and Iraq have abundant fossil fuel reserves

  3. Cermet-fueled reactors for multimegawatt space power applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, C.L.; Armijo, J.S.; Kruger, G.B.; Palmer, R.S.; Van Hoomisson, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    The cermet-fueled reactor has evolved as a potential power source for a broad range of multimegawatt space applications. In particular, the fast spectrum reactor concept can be used to deliver 10s of megawatts of electric power for continuous, long term, unattended operation, and 100s of megawatts of electric power for times exceeding several hundred seconds. The system can also be utilized with either a gas coolant in a Brayton power conversion cycle, or a liquid metal coolant in a Rankine power conversion cycle. Extensive testing of the cermet fuel element has demonstrated that the fuel is capable of operating at very high temperatures under repeated thermal cycling conditions, including transient conditions which approach the multimegawatt burst power requirements. The cermet fuel test performance is reviewed and an advanced cermet-fueled multimegawatt nuclear reactor is described in this paper

  4. Solar Powered Refrigeration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, Michael K. (Inventor); Bergeron, David J., III (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A solar powered vapor compression refrigeration system is made practicable with thermal storage and novel control techniques. In one embodiment, the refrigeration system includes a photovoltaic panel, a variable speed compressor, an insulated enclosure, and a thermal reservoir. The photovoltaic (PV) panel converts sunlight into DC (direct current) electrical power. The DC electrical power drives a compressor that circulates refrigerant through a vapor compression refrigeration loop to extract heat from the insulated enclosure. The thermal reservoir is situated inside the insulated enclosure and includes a phase change material. As heat is extracted from the insulated enclosure, the phase change material is frozen, and thereafter is able to act as a heat sink to maintain the temperature of the insulated enclosure in the absence of sunlight. The conversion of solar power into stored thermal energy is optimized by a compressor control method that effectively maximizes the compressor's usage of available energy. A capacitor is provided to smooth the power voltage and to provide additional current during compressor start-up. A controller monitors the rate of change of the smoothed power voltage to determine if the compressor is operating below or above the available power maximum, and adjusts the compressor speed accordingly. In this manner, the compressor operation is adjusted to convert substantially all available solar power into stored thermal energy.

  5. Photovoltaic-Concentrator Based Power Beaming For Space Elevator Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Daniel E.; Chiang, Richard; Keys, Catherine C.; Lyjak, Andrew W.; Starch, Michael D.; Nees, John A.

    2010-01-01

    The MClimber team, at the Student Space Systems Fabrication Laboratory of the University of Michigan, has developed a prototype robotic climber for competition in the NASA sponsored Power Beaming Challenge. This paper describes the development of the system that utilizes a simple telescope to deliver an 8 kW beam to a photovoltaic panel in order to power a one kilometer climb. Its unique approach utilizes a precision GPS signal to track the panel. Fundamental systems of the project were implemented using a design strategy focusing on robustness and modularity. Development of this design and its results are presented.

  6. Space stations systems and utilization

    CERN Document Server

    Messerschmid, Ernst

    1999-01-01

    The design of space stations like the recently launched ISS is a highly complex and interdisciplinary task. This book describes component technologies, system integration, and the potential usage of space stations in general and of the ISS in particular. It so adresses students and engineers in space technology. Ernst Messerschmid holds the chair of space systems at the University of Stuttgart and was one of the first German astronauts.

  7. Power Systems Development Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southern Company Services

    2009-01-31

    In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF), located in Wilsonville, Alabama, has routinely demonstrated gasification technologies using various types of coals. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device, advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high-pressure solids handling systems. This final report summarizes the results of the technology development work conducted at the PSDF through January 31, 2009. Twenty-one major gasification test campaigns were completed, for a total of more than 11,000 hours of gasification operation. This operational experience has led to significant advancements in gasification technologies.

  8. Validation of Autonomous Space Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — System validation addresses the question "Will the system do the right thing?" When system capability includes autonomy, the question becomes more pointed. As NASA...

  9. Wind power in modern power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, wind power is experiencing a rapid growth, and large-scale wind turbines/wind farms have been developed and connected to power systems. However, the traditional power system generation units are centralized located synchronous generators with different characteristics compared...... with wind turbines. This paper presents an overview of the issues about integrating large-scale wind power plants into modern power systems. Firstly, grid codes are introduced. Then, the main technical problems and challenges are presented. Finally, some possible technical solutions are discussed....

  10. Electric power system / emergency power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorn, P.G.

    1980-01-01

    One factor of reliability of reactor safety systems is the integrity of the power supply. The purpose of this paper is a review and a discussion of the safety objectives required for the planning, licensing, manufacture and erection of electrical power systems and components. The safety aspects and the technical background of the systems for - the electric auxiliary power supply system and - the emergency power supply system are outlined. These requirements result specially from the safety standards which are the framework for the studies of safety analysis. The overall and specific requirements for the electrical power supply of the safety systems are demonstrated on a 1300 MW standard nuclear power station with a pressurized water reactor. (orig.)

  11. Power system protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkata, S.S.; Damborg, M.J.; Jampala, A.K.

    1991-01-01

    Power systems of the 21st century will be more modern, and complex, utilizing the latest available technologies. At the same time, generating plants will have to operate with minimal spinning margins and energy transportation has to take place at critical levels due to environmental and economical constraints. These factors dictate that the power systems be protected with optimum sensitivity, selectivity and time of operation to assure maximum reliability, and security at minimal cost. With an increasing role played by digital computers in every aspect of protection, it is important to take a critical and fresh look at the art and science of relaying and protection. The main objective of this paper is to review the past, present and future of power system protection from a software point of view

  12. Emergency power systems at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This Guide applies to nuclear power plants for which the total power supply comprises normal power supply (which is electric) and emergency power supply (which may be electric or a combination of electric and non-electric). In its present form the Guide provides general guidance for all types of emergency power systems (EPS) - electric and non-electric, and specific guidance (see Appendix A) on the design principles and the features of the emergency electric power system (EEPS). Future editions will include a second appendix giving specific guidance on non-electric power systems. Section 3 of this Safety Guide covers information on considerations that should be taken into account relative to the electric grid, the transmission lines, the on-site electrical supply system, and other alternative power sources, in order to provide high overall reliability of the power supply to the EPS. Since the nuclear power plant operator does not usually control off-site facilities, the discussion of methods of improving off-site reliability does not include requirements for facilities not under the operator's control. Sections 4 to 11 of this Guide provide information, recommendations and requirements that would apply to any emergency power system, be it electric or non-electric

  13. Solar-pumped lasers for space power transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taussig, R.; Bruzzone, C.; Nelson, L.; Quimby, D.; Christiansen, W.

    1979-01-01

    Multi-Megawatt CW solar-pumped lasers appear to be technologically feasible for space power transmission in the 1990s time frame. A new concept for a solar-pumped laser is presented which utilizes an intermediate black body cavity to provide a uniform optical pumping environment for the lasant, either CO or CO2. Reradiation losses are minimized with resulting high efficiency operation. A 1 MW output laser may weigh as little as 8000 kg including solar collector, black body cavity, laser cavity and ducts, pumps, power systems and waste heat radiator. The efficiency of such a system will be on the order of 10 to 20%. Details of the new concept, laser design, comparison to competing solar-powered lasers and applications to a laser solar power satellite (SPS) concept are presented.

  14. Solar power from space: the worldwide grid of the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    Recent interest in the feasibility and prospects for generating large amounts of electricity from space-based solar power systems is reviewed. The interest is generated by reports which suggest that sun-surfacing solar arrays in stationary earth orbit at an altitude 22,300 miles would not only be unaffected by the Earth's day-night cycle, cloud cover and atmospheric dust, but would also receive some eight times as much sunlight as solar collectors at the Earth's surface. The prediction is that relevant technology will be perfected to the point where by the middle of the 21. century a large share of the world's demand for electricity will be met by a series of very large space-based solar photovoltaic arrays. Several billion watts of power could be beamed to the Earth at microwave radio frequencies for collection by wide area rectifying ground antennas for conversion to electricity via transmitters connected to the photovoltaic arrays. A chronological account of development of this concept of beaming solar power from space shows that the idea has been around since the 1880s, gaining more and more credibility with each advance in space science . The moon, too, has been suggested as an ideal site for developing large-scale solar power systems that beam microwave energy to Earth. The lunar soil could supply silicon to build solar arrays, and metals such as iron and aluminum, for support structures and electric wiring. NASA is actively pursuing this line of inquiry, especially since all the problems involved with solar energy generation on earth, are absent on the moon.While a breakthrough is not imminent, the significant progress achieved to date in demonstrating the feasibility of wireless power transmission from space provides good reason for continuing to pursue this line of investigation

  15. Applications of power beaming from space-based nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.R.; Botts, T.E.; Hertzberg, A.

    1981-01-01

    Power beaming from space-based reactor systems is examined using an advanced compact, lightweight Rotating Bed Reactor (RBR). Closed Brayton power conversion efficiencies in the range of 30 to 40% can be achieved with turbines, with reactor exit temperatures on the order of 2000 0 K and a liquid drop radiator to reject heat at temperatures of approx. 500 0 K. Higher RBR coolant temperatures (up to approx. 3000 0 K) are possible, but gains in power conversion efficiency are minimal, due to lower expander efficiency (e.g., a MHD generator). Two power beaming applications are examined - laser beaming to airplanes and microwave beaming to fixed ground receivers. Use of the RBR greatly reduces system weight and cost, as compared to solar power sources. Payback times are a few years at present prices for power and airplane fuel

  16. Power turbine ventilation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeman, Thomas G. (Inventor); Brown, Richard W. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Air control mechanism within a power turbine section of a gas turbine engine. The power turbine section includes a rotor and at least one variable pitch propulsor blade. The propulsor blade is coupled to and extends radially outwardly of the rotor. A first annular fairing is rotatable with the propulsor blade and interposed between the propulsor blade and the rotor. A second fairing is located longitudinally adjacent to the first fairing. The first fairing and the second fairing are differentially rotatable. The air control mechanism includes a platform fixedly coupled to a radially inner end of the propulsor blade. The platform is generally positioned in a first opening and a first fairing. The platform and the first fairing define an outer space. In a first position corresponding with a first propulsor blade pitch, the platform is substantially conformal with the first fairing. In a second position corresponding with the second propulsor blade pitch, an edge portion of the platform is displaced radially outwardly from the first fairing. When the blades are in the second position and rotating about the engine axis, the displacement of the edge portion with respect to the first fairing allows air to flow from the outer space to the annular cavity.

  17. Proceedings of the Tenth Symposium on Space Nuclear Power and Propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Genk, M.S.; Hoover, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    This symposium included topics on space nuclear power. Various aspectsof design of propulsion and power systems were presented. From theProceedings, two hundred and twelve papers were abstracted for the database

  18. Safety Framework for Nuclear Power Source Applications in Outer Space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear power sources (NPS) for use in outer space have been developed and used in space applications where unique mission requirements and constraints on electrical power and thermal management precluded the use of non-nuclear power sources. Such missions have included interplanetary missions to the outer limits of the Solar System, for which solar panels were not suitable as a source of electrical power because of the long duration of these missions at great distances from the Sun. According to current knowledge and capabilities, space NPS are the only viable energy option to power some space missions and significantly enhance others. Several ongoing and foreseeable missions would not be possible without the use of space NPS. Past, present and foreseeable space NPS applications include radioisotope power systems (for example, radioisotope thermoelectric generators and radioisotope heater units) and nuclear reactor systems for power and propulsion. The presence of radioactive materials or nuclear fuels in space NPS and their consequent potential for harm to people and the environment in Earth's biosphere due to an accident require that safety should always be an inherent part of the design and application of space NPS. NPS applications in outer space have unique safety considerations compared with terrestrial applications. Unlike many terrestrial nuclear applications, space applications tend to be used infrequently and their requirements can vary significantly depending upon the specific mission. Mission launch and outer space operational requirements impose size, mass and other space environment limitations not present for many terrestrial nuclear facilities. For some applications, space NPS must operate autonomously at great distances from Earth in harsh environments. Potential accident conditions resulting from launch failures and inadvertent re-entry could expose NPS to extreme physical conditions. These and other unique safety considerations for the use of

  19. Study of toluene rotary fluid management device and shear flow condenser performance for a space-based organic Rankine power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havens, Vance; Ragaller, Dana

    1988-01-01

    Management of two-phase fluid and control of the heat transfer process in microgravity is a technical challenge that must be addressed for an orbital Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) application. A test program was performed in 1-g that satisfactorily demonstrated the two-phase management capability of the rotating fluid management device (RFMD) and shear-flow condenser. Operational tests of the RFMD and shear flow condenser in adverse gravity orientations, confirmed that the centrifugal forces in the RFMD and the shear forces in the condenser were capable of overcoming gravity forces. In a microgravity environment, these same forces would not have to compete against gravity and would therefore be dominant. The specific test program covered the required operating range of the Space Station Solar Dynamic Rankine Cycle power system. Review of the test data verified that: fluid was pumped from the RFMD in all attitudes; subcooled states in the condenser were achieved; condensate was pushed uphill against gravity; and noncondensible gases were swept through the condenser.

  20. Spacecraft Electrical Power System (EPS) generic analysis tools and techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Gladys M.; Sheppard, Mark A.

    1992-01-01

    An overview is provided of the analysis tools and techiques used in modeling the Space Station Freedom electrical power system, as well as future space vehicle power systems. The analysis capabilities of the Electrical Power System (EPS) are described and the EPS analysis tools are surveyed.

  1. Cermet coatings for solar Stirling space power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaworske, Donald A.; Raack, Taylor

    2004-01-01

    Cermet coatings, molecular mixtures of metal and ceramic, are being considered for the heat inlet surface of a solar Stirling space power convertor. The role of the cermet coating is to absorb as much of the incident solar energy as possible. The ability to mix metal and ceramic at the atomic level offers the opportunity to tailor the composition and the solar absorptance of these coatings. Several candidate cermet coatings were created and their solar absorptance was characterized as-manufactured and after exposure to elevated temperatures. Coating composition was purposely varied through the thickness of the coating. As a consequence of changing composition, islands of metal are thought to form in the ceramic matrix. Computer modeling indicated that diffusion of the metal atoms played an important role in island formation while the ceramic was important in locking the islands in place. Much of the solar spectrum is absorbed as it passes through this labyrinth

  2. Wireless power transfer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hunter; Sealy, Kylee; Gilchrist, Aaron

    2016-02-23

    A system includes a first stage of an inductive power transfer system with an LCL load resonant converter with a switching section, an LCL tuning circuit, and a primary receiver pad. The IPT system includes a second stage with a secondary receiver pad, a secondary resonant circuit, a secondary rectification circuit, and a secondary decoupling converter. The secondary receiver pad connects to the secondary resonant circuit. The secondary resonant circuit connects to the secondary rectification circuit. The secondary rectification circuit connects to the secondary decoupling converter. The second stage connects to a load. The load includes an energy storage element. The second stage and load are located on a vehicle and the first stage is located at a fixed location. The primary receiver pad wirelessly transfers power to the secondary receiver pad across a gap when the vehicle positions the secondary receiver pad with respect to the primary receiver pad.

  3. Powering laser diode systems

    CERN Document Server

    Trestman, Grigoriy A

    2017-01-01

    This Tutorial Text discusses the competent design and skilled use of laser diode drivers (LDDs) and power supplies (PSs) for the electrical components of laser diode systems. It is intended to help power-electronic design engineers during the initial design stages: the choice of the best PS topology, the calculation of parameters and components of the PS circuit, and the computer simulation of the circuit. Readers who use laser diode systems for research, production, and other purposes will also benefit. The book will help readers avoid errors when creating laser systems from ready-made blocks, as well as understand the nature of the "mystical failures" of laser diodes (and possibly prevent them).

  4. CVD refractory metals and alloys for space nuclear power application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, L.; Gulden, T.D.; Watson, J.F.

    1984-01-01

    CVD technology has made significant contributions to the development of space nuclear power systems during the period 1962 to 1972. For the in-core thermionic concept, CVD technology is essential to the fabrication of the tungsten electron emitter. For the liquid metal cooled fuel pin using uranium nitride as fuel and T-111 and Nb-1 Zr as cladding, a tungsten barrier possibly produced by CVD methods is essential to the fuel-cladding compatibility at the designed operating temperature. Space power reactors may use heat pipes to transfer heat from the reactor core to the conversion system. CVD technology has been used for fabricating the heat pipe used as cross-flow heat exchanger, including the built-in channels on the condenser wall for liquid lithium return. 28 references, 17 figures

  5. Development of an autonomous power system testbed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, J.R.; Adams, T.; Liffring, M.E.

    1985-01-01

    A power system testbed has been assembled to advance the development of large autonomous electrical power systems required for the space station, spacecraft, and aircraft. The power system for this effort was designed to simulate single- or dual-bus autonomous power systems, or autonomous systems that reconfigure from a single bus to a dual bus following a severe fault. The approach taken was to provide a flexible power system design with two computer systems for control and management. One computer operates as the control system and performs basic control functions, data and command processing, charge control, and provides status to the second computer. The second computer contains expert system software for mission planning, load management, fault identification and recovery, and sends load and configuration commands to the control system

  6. Nuclear power systems for Lunar and Mars exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sovie, R.J.; Bozek, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    Initial studies of a variety of mission scenarios for the new Space Exploration Initiative, and the technologies necessary to enable or significantly enhance them, have identified the development of advanced space power systems - whether solar, chemical or nuclear - to be of prime importance. Lightweight, compact, reliable power systems for planetary rovers and a variety of surface vehicles, utility surface power, and power for advanced propulsion systems were identified as critical needs for these missions. This paper discusses these mission scenarios, the concomitant power system requirements; the power system options considered and identifies the significant potential benefits of nuclear power for meeting the power needs of the above applications

  7. Power conditioning for large dc motors for space flight applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veatch, Martin S.; Anderson, Paul M.; Eason, Douglas J.; Landis, David M.

    1988-01-01

    The design and performance of a prototype power-conditioning system for use with large brushless dc motors on NASA space missions are discussed in detail and illustrated with extensive diagrams, drawings, and graphs. The 5-kW 8-phase parallel module evaluated here would be suitable for use in the Space Shuttle Orbiter cargo bay. A current-balancing magnetic assembly with low distributed inductance permits high-speed current switching from a low-voltage bus as well as current balancing between parallel MOSFETs.

  8. The tribology of PS212 coatings and PM212 composites for the lubrication of titanium 6Al-4V components of a Stirling engine space power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliney, Harold E.; Lukaszewicz, Victor; Dellacorte, Christopher

    1994-01-01

    The Stirling space power machine incorporates a linear alternator to generate electrical power. The alternator is a reciprocating device that is driven by a solar or nuclear-powered Stirling engine. The power piston and cylinder are made of titanium 6Al-4V (Ti6-4) alloy, and are designed to be lubricated by a hydrodynamically-generated gas film. Rubbing occurs during starts and stops and there is the possibility of an occasional high speed rub. Since titanium is known to have a severe galling tendency in sliding contacts, a 'back-up', self-lubricating coating on the cylinder and/or the piston is needed. This report describes the results of a research program to study the lubrication of Ti6-4 with the following chromium carbide based materials: plasma-sprayed PS212 coatings and sintered PM212 counterfaces. Program objectives are to achieve adherent coatings on Ti6-4 and to measure the friction and wear characteristics of the following sliding combinations under conditions simulative of the Stirling-driven space power linear alternator: Ti6-4/Ti6-4 baseline, Ti6-4/PS212-coated Ti6-4, and PS212-coated Ti6-4/PM212.

  9. AC power supply systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, H.

    1987-01-01

    An ac power supply system includes a rectifier fed by a normal ac supply, and an inverter connected to the rectifier by a dc link, the inverter being effective to invert the dc output of the receiver at a required frequency to provide an ac output. A dc backup power supply of lower voltage than the normal dc output of the rectifier is connected across the dc link such that the ac output of the rectifier is derived from the backup supply if the voltage of the output of the inverter falls below that of the backup supply. The dc backup power may be derived from a backup ac supply. Use in pumping coolant in nuclear reactor is envisaged. (author)

  10. Power system optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdan, Zeljko; Cehil, Mislav

    2007-01-01

    Long-term gas purchase contracts usually determine delivery and payment for gas on the regular hourly basis, independently of demand side consumption. In order to use fuel gas in an economically viable way, optimization of gas distribution for covering consumption must be introduced. In this paper, a mathematical model of the electric utility system which is used for optimization of gas distribution over electric generators is presented. The utility system comprises installed capacity of 1500 MW of thermal power plants, 400 MW of combined heat and power plants, 330 MW of a nuclear power plant and 1600 MW of hydro power plants. Based on known demand curve the optimization model selects plants according to the prescribed criteria. Firstly it engages run-of-river hydro plants, then the public cogeneration plants, the nuclear plant and thermal power plants. Storage hydro plants are used for covering peak load consumption. In case of shortage of installed capacity, the cross-border purchase is allowed. Usage of dual fuel equipment (gas-oil), which is available in some thermal plants, is also controlled by the optimization procedure. It is shown that by using such a model it is possible to properly plan the amount of fuel gas which will be contracted. The contracted amount can easily be distributed over generators efficiently and without losses (no breaks in delivery). The model helps in optimizing of fuel gas-oil ratio for plants with combined burners and enables planning of power plants overhauls over a year in a viable and efficient way. (author)

  11. InfoSymbiotics/DDDAS - The power of Dynamic Data Driven Applications Systems for New Capabilities in Environmental -, Geo-, and Space- Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darema, F.

    2016-12-01

    InfoSymbiotics/DDDAS embodies the power of Dynamic Data Driven Applications Systems (DDDAS), a concept whereby an executing application model is dynamically integrated, in a feed-back loop, with the real-time data-acquisition and control components, as well as other data sources of the application system. Advanced capabilities can be created through such new computational approaches in modeling and simulations, and in instrumentation methods, and include: enhancing the accuracy of the application model; speeding-up the computation to allow faster and more comprehensive models of a system, and create decision support systems with the accuracy of full-scale simulations; in addition, the notion of controlling instrumentation processes by the executing application results in more efficient management of application-data and addresses challenges of how to architect and dynamically manage large sets of heterogeneous sensors and controllers, an advance over the static and ad-hoc ways of today - with DDDAS these sets of resources can be managed adaptively and in optimized ways. Large-Scale-Dynamic-Data encompasses the next wave of Big Data, and namely dynamic data arising from ubiquitous sensing and control in engineered, natural, and societal systems, through multitudes of heterogeneous sensors and controllers instrumenting these systems, and where opportunities and challenges at these "large-scales" relate not only to data size but the heterogeneity in data, data collection modalities, fidelities, and timescales, ranging from real-time data to archival data. In tandem with this important dimension of dynamic data, there is an extended view of Big Computing, which includes the collective computing by networked assemblies of multitudes of sensors and controllers, this range from the high-end to the real-time seamlessly integrated and unified, and comprising the Large-Scale-Big-Computing. InfoSymbiotics/DDDAS engenders transformative impact in many application domains

  12. Power Absorption by Closely Spaced Point Absorbers in Constrained Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Backer, G.; Vantorre, M.; Beels, C.

    2010-01-01

    The performance of an array of closely spaced point absorbers is numerically assessed in a frequency domain model Each point absorber is restricted to the heave mode and is assumed to have its own linear power take-off (PTO) system Unidirectional irregular incident waves are considered......, representing the wave climate at Westhinder on the Belgian Continental Shelf The impact of slamming, stroke and force restrictions on the power absorption is evaluated and optimal PTO parameters are determined For multiple bodies optimal control parameters (CP) are not only dependent on the incoming waves...

  13. The electric power engineering handbook power systems

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Power Systems, Third Edition (part of the five-volume set, The Electric Power Engineering Handbook) covers all aspects of power system protection, dynamics, stability, operation, and control. Under the editorial guidance of L.L. Grigsby, a respected and accomplished authority in power engineering, and section editors Andrew Hanson, Pritindra Chowdhuri, Gerry Sheble, and Mark Nelms, this carefully crafted reference includes substantial new and revised contributions from worldwide leaders in the field. This content provides convenient access to overviews and detailed information on a diverse arr

  14. Wind power plant system services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basit, Abdul; Altin, Müfit

    Traditionally, conventional power plants have the task to support the power system, by supplying power balancing services. These services are required by the power system operators in order to secure a safe and reliable operation of the power system. However, as in the future the wind power...... is going more and more to replace conventional power plants, the sources of conventional reserve available to the system will be reduced and fewer conventional plants will be available on-line to share the regulation burden. The reliable operation of highly wind power integrated power system might...... then beat risk unless the wind power plants (WPPs) are able to support and participate in power balancing services. The objective of this PhD project is to develop and analyse control strategies which can increase the WPPs capability to provide system services, such as active power balancing control...

  15. Power conditioning unit for photovoltaic power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beghin, G.; Nguyen Phuoc, V. T.

    Operational features and components of a power conditioning unit for interconnecting solar cell module powers with a utility grid are outlined. The two-stage unit first modifies the voltage to desired levels on an internal dc link, then inverts the current in 2 power transformers connected to a vector summation control to neutralize harmonic distortion up to the 11th harmonic. The system operates in parallel with the grid with extra inductors to absorb line-to-line voltage and phase differences, and permits peak power use from the PV array. Reactive power is gained internally, and a power system controller monitors voltages, frequencies, and currents. A booster preregulator adjusts the input voltage from the array to provide voltage regulation for the inverter, and can commutate 450 amps. A total harmonic distortion of less than 5 percent is claimed, with a rating of 5 kVA, 50/60 Hz, 3-phase, and 4-wire.

  16. Status report on nuclear reactors for space electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buden, D.

    1978-01-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory is studying reactor power plants for space applications in the late 1980s and 1990s. The study is concentrating on high-temperature, compact, fast reactors that can be coupled with various radiation shielding systems and thermoelectric, dynamic, or thermionic electric power conversion systems, depending on the mission. Increased questions have been raised about safety since the COSMOS 954 incident. High orbits (above 400 to 500 nautical miles) have sufficient lifetimes to allow radioactive elements to decay to safe levels. The major proposed applications for satellites with reactors in Earth orbit are in geosynchronous orbit (19,400 nautical miles). In missions at geosynchronous orbit where orbital lifetimes are practically indefinite, the safety considerations are negligible. The potential missions, why reactors are being considered as a prime power candidate, reactor features, and safety considerations are discussed

  17. Propulsion element requirements using electrical power system unscheduled power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Frank; Hodge, Kathy

    1989-01-01

    The suitability of using the electrical energy from the Space Station's Electrical Power System (EPS) during the periods of peak solar insolation which is currently not specifically allocated (unscheduled power) to produce propulsion propellants, gaseous hydrogen, and oxygen by electrolyzing water is investigated. Reboost propellant requirements are emphasized, but the results are more generally relevant because the balance of recurring propellant requirements are an order of magnitude smaller and the nonrecurring requirements are not significant on an average basis.

  18. Space Solar Power Technical Interchange Meeting 2: SSP TIM 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Jim; Hawk, Clark W.

    1998-01-01

    The 2nd Space Solar Power Technical Interchange Meeting (SSP TIM 2) was conducted September 21st through 24th with the first part consisting of a Plenary session. The summary results of this Plenary session are contained in part one of this report. The attendees were then organized into Working Breakout Sessions and Integrated Product Team (IPT) Sessions for the purpose of conducting in-depth discussions in specific topic areas and developing a consensus as to appropriate study plans and actions to be taken. The Second part covers the Plenary Summary Session, which contains the summary results of the Working Breakout Sessions and IPT Sessions. The appendix contains the list of attendees. The ob'jective was to provide an update for the study teams and develop plans for subsequent study activities. This SSP TIM 2 was initiated and the results reported electronically over the Internet. The International Space Station (ISS) could provide the following opportunities for conducting research and technology (R&T) which are applicable to SSP: (1) Automation and Robotics, (2) Advanced Power Generation, (3) Advanced Power Management & Distribution (PMAD), (4) Communications Systems and Networks, (5) Energy Storage, (6) In Space Propulsion (ISP), (7) Structural Dynamics and Control, and Assembly and (8) Wireless Power Transmission.

  19. Active Space Debris Removal System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele GUERRA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the start of the space era, more than 5000 launches have been carried out, each carrying satellites for many disparate uses, such as Earth observation or communication. Thus, the space environment has become congested and the problem of space debris is now generating some concerns in the space community due to our long-lived belief that “space is big”. In the last few years, solutions to this problem have been proposed, one of those is Active Space Debris Removal: this method will reduce the increasing debris growth and permit future sustainable space activities. The main idea of the method proposed below is a drag augmentation system: use a system capable of putting an expanded foam on a debris which will increase the area-to-mass ratio to increase the natural atmospheric drag and solar pressure. The drag augmentation system proposed here requires a docking system; the debris will be pushed to its release height and then, after un-docking, an uncontrolled re-entry takes place ending with a burn up of the object and the foam in the atmosphere within a given time frame. The method requires an efficient way to change the orbit between two debris. The present paper analyses such a system in combination with an Electric Propulsion system, and emphasizes the choice of using two satellites to remove five effective rockets bodies debris within a year.

  20. Concentrating Solar Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitz-Paal, R.

    2017-07-01

    Development of Concentrating Solar Power Systems has started about 40 years ago. A first commercial implementation was performed between 1985 and 1991 in California. However, a drop in gas prices caused a longer period without further deployment. It was overcome in 2007 when new incentive schemes for renewables in Spain and the US enabled a commercial restart. In 2016, almost 100 commercial CSP plants with more than 5GW are installed worldwide. This paper describes the physical background of CSP technology, its technical characteristics and concepts. Furthermore, it discusses system performances, cost structures and the expected advancement.

  1. Reactive Power Management in Electric Power Systems

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (Ferranti effect) would limit the power transfer and the transmission range in the absence of any compensation measures. Journal of EAEA, Vol 14, 1997. In this paper, the management of the reactive power is explored with the aim of improving the quality and the reliability of the supply in the EELPA's interconnected system ...

  2. Power System for Intelligent House

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Jahelka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Power supply of intelligent houses or house phones is possible to do with standard transformer with voltage stabilizer or with intelligent power supply. Standard solution can has as a result of failure fuse blown or fire occurrence. Intelligent power supply switch off power and tests with little current whether short circuit is removed. After it resume system power supply. At the same time it cares of system backup with accumulator, informs control system about short circuit or failure net power supply, or can switch off all system power after command from control system.

  3. Spaces of Dynamical Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Pilyugin, Sergei Yu

    2012-01-01

    Dynamical systems are abundant in theoretical physics and engineering. Their understanding, with sufficient mathematical rigor, is vital to solving many problems. This work conveys the modern theory of dynamical systems in a didactically developed fashion.In addition to topological dynamics, structural stability and chaotic dynamics, also generic properties and pseudotrajectories are covered, as well as nonlinearity. The author is an experienced book writer and his work is based on years of teaching.

  4. TOPEX electrical power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetty, P. R. K.; Roufberg, Lew; Costogue, Ernest

    1991-01-01

    The TOPEX mission requirements which impact the power requirements and analyses are presented. A description of the electrical power system (EPS), including energy management and battery charging methods that were conceived and developed to meet the identified satellite requirements, is included. Analysis of the TOPEX EPS confirms that all of its electrical performance and reliability requirements have been met. The TOPEX EPS employs the flight-proven modular power system (MPS) which is part of the Multimission Modular Spacecraft and provides high reliability, abbreviated development effort and schedule, and low cost. An energy balance equation, unique to TOPEX, has been derived to confirm that the batteries will be completely recharged following each eclipse, under worst-case conditions. TOPEX uses three NASA Standard 50AH Ni-Cd batteries, each with 22 cells in series. The MPS contains battery charge control and protection based on measurements of battery currents, voltages, temperatures, and computed depth-of-discharge. In case of impending battery depletion, the MPS automatically implements load shedding.

  5. Pellet bed reactor for multi-modal space power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buden, D.; Williams, K.; Mast, P.; Mims, J.

    1987-01-01

    A review of forthcoming space power needs for both civil and military missions indicates that power requirements will be in the tens of megawatts. The electrical power requirements are envisioned to be twofold: long-duration lower power levels will be needed for station keeping, communications, and/or surveillance; short-duration higher power levels will be required for pulsed power devices. These power characteristics led to the proposal of a multi-modal space power reactor using a pellet bed design. Characteristics desired for such a multimegawatt reactor power source are standby, alert, and pulsed power modes; high-thermal output heat source (approximately 1000 MWt peak power); long lifetime station keeping power (10 to 30 years); high temperature output (1500 K to 1800 K); rapid-burst power transition; high reliability (above 95 percent); and stringent safety standards compliance. The proposed pellet bed reactor is designed to satisfy these characteristics

  6. Solar dynamic power system definition study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, Wayne E.; Friefeld, Jerry M.

    1988-01-01

    The solar dynamic power system design and analysis study compared Brayton, alkali-metal Rankine, and free-piston Stirling cycles with silicon planar and GaAs concentrator photovoltaic power systems for application to missions beyond the Phase 2 Space Station level of technology for all power systems. Conceptual designs for Brayton and Stirling power systems were developed for 35 kWe and 7 kWe power levels. All power systems were designed for 7-year end-of-life conditions in low Earth orbit. LiF was selected for thermal energy storage for the solar dynamic systems. Results indicate that the Stirling cycle systems have the highest performance (lowest weight and area) followed by the Brayton cycle, with photovoltaic systems considerably lower in performance. For example, based on the performance assumptions used, the planar silicon power system weight was 55 to 75 percent higher than for the Stirling system. A technology program was developed to address areas wherein significant performance improvements could be realized relative to the current state-of-the-art as represented by Space Station. In addition, a preliminary evaluation of hardenability potential found that solar dynamic systems can be hardened beyond the hardness inherent in the conceptual designs of this study.

  7. Novel Space-based Solar Power Technologies and Architectures for Earth and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Joe T.; Fikes, John C.; O'Neill, Mark J.

    2005-01-01

    Research, development and studies of novel space-based solar power systems, technologies and architectures for Earth and beyond are needed to reduce the cost of clean electrical power for terrestrial use and to provide a stepping stone for providing an abundance of power in space, i.e., manufacturing facilities, tourist facilities, delivery of power between objects in space, and between space and surface sites. The architectures, technologies and systems needed for space to Earth applications may also be used for in-space applications. Advances in key technologies, i.e., power generation, power management and distribution, power beaming and conversion of beamed power are needed to achieve the objectives of both terrestrial and extraterrestrial applications. Power beaming or wireless power transmission (WPT) can involve lasers or microwaves along with the associated power interfaces. Microwave and laser transmission techniques have been studied with several promising approaches to safe and efficient WPT identified. These investigations have included microwave phased array transmitters, as well as laser transmission and associated optics. There is a need to produce "proof-of-concept" validation of critical WPT technologies for both the near-term, as well as far-term applications. Investments may be harvested in near-term beam safe demonstrations of commercial WPT applications. Receiving sites (users) include ground-based stations for terrestrial electrical power, orbital sites to provide power for satellites and other platforms, future space elevator systems, space vehicle propulsion, and space to surface sites. This paper briefly discusses achieving a promising approach to the solar power generation and beamed power conversion. The approach is based on a unique high-power solar concentrator array called Stretched Lens Array (SLA) for both solar power generation and beamed power conversion. Since both versions (solar and laser) of SLA use many identical components

  8. High Power Uplink Amplifier for Deep Space Communications, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Critical to the success of delivering on the promise of deep space optical communications is the creation of a stable and reliable high power multichannel optical...

  9. High Power Uplink Amplifier for Deep Space Communications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Critical to the success of delivering on the promise of deep space optical communications is the creation of a stable and reliable high power multichannel optical...

  10. Quantum systems and symmetric spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olshanetsky, M.A.; Perelomov, A.M.

    1978-01-01

    Certain class of quantum systems with Hamiltonians related to invariant operators on symmetric spaces has been investigated. A number of physical facts have been derived as a consequence. In the classical limit completely integrable systems related to root systems are obtained

  11. Refractory alloy technology for space nuclear power applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, R.H. Jr.; Hoffman, E.E.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose of this symposium is twofold: (1) to review and document the status of refractory alloy technology for structural and fuel-cladding applications in space nuclear power systems, and (2) to identify and document the refractory alloy research and development needs for the SP-100 Program in both the short and the long term. In this symposium, an effort was made to recapture the space reactor refractory alloy technology that was cut off in midstream around 1973 when the national space nuclear reactor program began in the early 1960s, was terminated. The six technical areas covered in the program are compatibility, processing and production, welding and component fabrication, mechanical and physical properties, effects of irradiation, and machinability. The refractory alloys considered are niobium, molybdenum, tantalum, and tungsten. Thirteen of the 14 pages have been abstracted separately. The remaining paper summarizes key needs for further R and D on refractory alloys

  12. Refractory alloy technology for space nuclear power applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, R.H. Jr.; Hoffman, E.E. (eds.)

    1984-01-01

    Purpose of this symposium is twofold: (1) to review and document the status of refractory alloy technology for structural and fuel-cladding applications in space nuclear power systems, and (2) to identify and document the refractory alloy research and development needs for the SP-100 Program in both the short and the long term. In this symposium, an effort was made to recapture the space reactor refractory alloy technology that was cut off in midstream around 1973 when the national space nuclear reactor program began in the early 1960s, was terminated. The six technical areas covered in the program are compatibility, processing and production, welding and component fabrication, mechanical and physical properties, effects of irradiation, and machinability. The refractory alloys considered are niobium, molybdenum, tantalum, and tungsten. Thirteen of the 14 pages have been abstracted separately. The remaining paper summarizes key needs for further R and D on refractory alloys. (DLC)

  13. Grid-Tied Photovoltaic Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2011-01-01

    A grid-tied photovoltaic (PV) power system is connected directly to the utility distribution grid. Facility power can be obtained from the utility system as normal. The PV system is synchronized with the utility system to provide power for the facility, and excess power is provided to the utility. Operating costs of a PV power system are low compared to conventional power technologies. This method can displace the highest-cost electricity during times of peak demand in most climatic regions, and thus reduce grid loading. Net metering is often used, in which independent power producers such as PV power systems are connected to the utility grid via the customers main service panels and meters. When the PV power system is generating more power than required at that location, the excess power is provided to the utility grid. The customer pays the net of the power purchased when the on-site power demand is greater than the onsite power production, and the excess power is returned to the utility grid. Power generated by the PV system reduces utility demand, and the surplus power aids the community. Modern PV panels are readily available, reliable, efficient, and economical, with a life expectancy of at least 25 years. Modern electronics have been the enabling technology behind grid-tied power systems, making them safe, reliable, efficient, and economical with a life expectancy equal to the modern PV panels. The grid-tied PV power system was successfully designed and developed, and this served to validate the basic principles developed, and the theoretical work that was performed. Grid-tied PV power systems are reliable, maintenance- free, long-life power systems, and are of significant value to NASA and the community. Of particular value are the analytical tools and capabilities that have been successfully developed. Performance predictions can be made confidently for grid-tied PV systems of various scales. The work was done under the NASA Hybrid Power Management (HPM

  14. Power Systems Development Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    The objective of the PSDF would be to provide a modular facility which would support the development of advanced, pilot-scale, coal-based power systems and hot gas clean-up components. These pilot-scale components would be designed to be large enough so that the results can be related and projected to commercial systems. The facility would use a modular approach to enhance the flexibility and capability for testing; consequently, overall capital and operating costs when compared with stand-alone facilities would be reduced by sharing resources common to different modules. The facility would identify and resolve technical barrier, as well as-provide a structure for long-term testing and performance assessment. It is also intended that the facility would evaluate the operational and performance characteristics of the advanced power systems with both bituminous and subbituminous coals. Five technology-based experimental modules are proposed for the PSDF: (1) an advanced gasifier module, (2) a fuel cell test module, (3) a PFBC module, (4) a combustion gas turbine module, and (5) a module comprised of five hot gas cleanup particulate control devices. The final module, the PCD, would capture coal-derived ash and particles from both the PFBC and advanced gasifier gas streams to provide for overall particulate emission control, as well as to protect the combustion turbine and the fuel cell

  15. Power Systems Development Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2003-07-01

    This report discusses Test Campaign TC12 of the Kellogg Brown & Root, Inc. (KBR) Transport Gasifier train with a Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (SW) particle filter system at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama. The Transport Gasifier is an advanced circulating fluidized-bed reactor designed to operate as either a combustor or a gasifier using a particulate control device (PCD). While operating as a gasifier, either air or oxygen can be used as the oxidant. Test run TC12 began on May 16, 2003, with the startup of the main air compressor and the lighting of the gasifier start-up burner. The Transport Gasifier operated until May 24, 2003, when a scheduled outage occurred to allow maintenance crews to install the fuel cell test unit and modify the gas clean-up system. On June 18, 2003, the test run resumed when operations relit the start-up burner, and testing continued until the scheduled end of the run on July 14, 2003. TC12 had a total of 733 hours using Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal. Over the course of the entire test run, gasifier temperatures varied between 1,675 and 1,850 F at pressures from 130 to 210 psig.

  16. Solid State Energy Conversion for Deep Space Power

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) devices employed in static radioisotope generators show great promise for highly efficient, reliable, and resilient power generation for...

  17. Is power-space a continuum? Distance effect during power judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tianjiao; Zhu, Lei

    2015-12-01

    Despite the increasing evidence suggesting that power processing can activate vertical space schema, it still remains unclear whether this power-space is dichotomic or continuous. Here we tested the nature of the power-space by the distance effect, a continuous property of space cognition. In two experiments, participants were required to judge the power of one single word (Experiment 1) or compare the power of two words presented in pairs (Experiment 2). The power distance was indexed by the absolute difference of power ratings. Results demonstrated that reaction time decreased with the power distance, whereas accuracy increased with the power distance. The findings indicated that different levels of power were presented as different vertical heights, implying that there was a common mechanism underlying space and power cognition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Space Solar Power Technology Demonstration for Lunar Polar Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, M. W.; Fikes, J. C.; Howell, J.; Mankins, J. C.; Howell, J.

    2002-01-01

    A solar power generation station on a mountaintop near the moon's North or South pole can receive sunlight 708 hours per lunar day, for continuous power generation. Power can be beamed from this station over long distances using a laser-based wireless power transmission system and a photo-voltaic receiver. This beamed energy can provide warmth, electricity, and illumination for a robotic rover to perform scientific experiments in cold, dark craters where no other power source is practical. Radio-frequency power transmission may also be demonstrated in lunar polar applications to locate and recover sub-surface deposits of volatile material, such as water ice. High circular polarization ratios observed in data from Clementine spacecraft and Arecibo radar reflections from the moon's South pole suggest that water ice is indeed present in certain lunar polar craters. Data from the Lunar Prospector spacecraft's epi-thermal neutron spectrometer also indicate that hydrogen is present at the moon's poles. Space Solar Power technology enables investigation of these craters, which may contain a billion-year-old stratigraphic record of tremendous scientific value. Layers of ice, preserved at the moon's poles, could help us determine the sequence and composition of comet impacts on the moon. Such ice deposits may even include distinct strata deposited by secondary ejecta following significant Earth (ocean) impacts, linked to major extinctions of life on Earth. Ice resources at the moon's poles could provide water and air for human exploration and development of space as well as rocket propellant for future space transportation. Technologies demonstrated and matured via lunar polar applications can also be used in other NASA science missions (Valles Marineris. Phobos, Deimos, Mercury's poles, asteroids, etc.) and in future large-scale SSP systems to beam energy from space to Earth. Ground-based technology demonstrations are proceeding to mature the technology for such a near

  19. Design of radioisotope power systems facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eschenbaum, R.C.; Wiemers, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    Radioisotope power systems currently produced for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Special Applications by the Mound Laboratory at Miamisburg, Ohio, have been used in a variety of configurations by the Department of Defense and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. A forecast of fugure radioisotope power systems requirements showed a need for an increased production rate beyond the capability of the existing Mound Laboratory. Westinghouse Hanford Company is modifying the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility on the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, to install the new Radioisotope Power Systems Facility for assembling future radioisotope power systems. The facility is currently being prepared to assemble the radioisotope thermoelectric generators required by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration missions for Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby in 1995 and Cassini, an investigation of Saturn and its moons, in 1996

  20. Nuclear reactor power as applied to a space-based radar mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, L.; Fujita, T.; Beatty, R.; Bhandari, P.; Chow, E.; Deininger, W.; Ewell, R.; Grossman, M.; Kia, T.; Nesmith, B.

    1988-01-01

    The SP-100 Project was established to develop and demonstrate feasibility of a space reactor power system (SRPS) at power levels of 10's of kilowatts to a megawatt. To help determine systems requirements for the SRPS, a mission and spacecraft were examined which utilize this power system for a space-based radar to observe moving objects. Aspects of the mission and spacecraft bearing on the power system were the primary objectives of this study; performance of the radar itself was not within the scope. The study was carried out by the Systems Design Audit Team of the SP-100 Project.

  1. The Layout of Power and Space in Jingdezhen Imperial Factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan Jia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper, by referring to the archaeological reports and local gazetteers and comparing images of porcelain wares, makes a comprehensive and in-depth analysis of the layout of power and space in Jingdezhen Imperial Factory according to its geography, geomancy, security management, space regulation, architectural features, production characteristics and production layout. It contends that the Imperial Factory which integrates porcelain making factory with local government is the embodiment of absolute monarchy in ceramic culture. The factory is located on Zhushan mountain, the center of Jingdezhen’s industry, business and transportation. Being at the center, it gives off an air of prestige and majesty, overlooking dominantly the surrounding private kilns. It has also turned the political system into power operation, setting up not only workshops but also administrative offices. By taking advantage of the best resources, it has produced porcelain for imperial family and court. Its specialized production has solved the contradiction between complicated technology and numerous procedures of production. The shape, color and pattern of the porcelain wares are strictly stipulated and the best of the best wares are demanded. Hence the porcelain production is featured with longest firing, largest scale, superb craftsmanship, and best kinds of wares. All of these reveal the process and rule power and space are intersected and different cultures overlapped.

  2. Evaluation of power control concepts using the PMAD systems test bed. [Power Management and Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, R. F.; Kimnach, G. L.; Jett, T. A.; Trash, L. M.

    1989-01-01

    The Lewis Research Center's Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) System testbed and its use in the evaluation of control concepts applicable to the NASA Space Station Freedom electric power system (EPS) are described. The facility was constructed to allow testing of control hardware and software in an environment functionally similar to the space station electric power system. Control hardware and software have been developed to allow operation of the testbed power system in a manner similar to a supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system employed by utility power systems for control. The system hardware and software are described.

  3. The unique safety challenges of space reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanes, S.J.; Marshall, A.C.

    1991-01-01

    Compact reactor systems can provide high levels of power for extended periods in space environments. Their relatively low mass and their ability to operate independently of their proximity to the sun make reactor power systems high desirable for many civilian and military space missions. The US Department of Energy is developing reactor system technologies to provide electrical power for space applications. In addition, reactors are now being considered to provide thermal power to a hydrogen propellant for nuclear thermal rocketry. Space reactor safety issues differ from commercial reactor issues, in some areas, because of very different operating requirements and environments. Accidents similar to those postulated for commercial reactors must be considered for space reactors during their operational phase. Safety strategies will need to be established that account for the consequences of the loss of essential power

  4. IECEC '91; Proceedings of the 26th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, Boston, MA, Aug. 4-9, 1991. Vol. 1 - Aerospace power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Various papers on aerospace power systems are presented. The general topics addressed are: advanced aerospace power concepts, aircraft power, analysis of PMAD performance, automation, burst and pulse power, environmental issues, power circuits, power components, simulation, solar dynamics, solar dynamics conversion cycles, space design of PMAD systems, space environmental effects, space high voltage environment, space nuclear systems, space power automation

  5. POWER SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2002-11-01

    This report discusses test campaign GCT4 of the Kellogg Brown & Root, Inc. (KBR) transport reactor train with a Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (Siemens Westinghouse) particle filter system at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama. The transport reactor is an advanced circulating fluidized-bed reactor designed to operate as either a combustor or a gasifier using one of two possible particulate control devices (PCDs). The transport reactor was operated as a pressurized gasifier during GCT4. GCT4 was planned as a 250-hour test run to continue characterization of the transport reactor using a blend of several Powder River Basin (PRB) coals and Bucyrus limestone from Ohio. The primary test objectives were: Operational Stability--Characterize reactor loop and PCD operations with short-term tests by varying coal-feed rate, air/coal ratio, riser velocity, solids-circulation rate, system pressure, and air distribution. Secondary objectives included the following: Reactor Operations--Study the devolatilization and tar cracking effects from transient conditions during transition from start-up burner to coal. Evaluate the effect of process operations on heat release, heat transfer, and accelerated fuel particle heat-up rates. Study the effect of changes in reactor conditions on transient temperature profiles, pressure balance, and product gas composition. Effects of Reactor Conditions on Synthesis Gas Composition--Evaluate the effect of air distribution, steam/coal ratio, solids-circulation rate, and reactor temperature on CO/CO{sub 2} ratio, synthesis gas Lower Heating Value (LHV), carbon conversion, and cold and hot gas efficiencies. Research Triangle Institute (RTI) Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP) Testing--Provide syngas in support of the DSRP commissioning. Loop Seal Operations--Optimize loop seal operations and investigate increases to previously achieved maximum solids-circulation rate.

  6. The space station tethered elevator system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Loren A.

    1989-01-01

    The optimized conceptual engineering design of a space station tethered elevator is presented. The elevator is an unmanned mobile structure which operates on a ten kilometer tether spanning the distance between the Space Station and a tethered platform. Elevator capabilities include providing access to residual gravity levels, remote servicing, and transportation to any point along a tether. The potential uses, parameters, and evolution of the spacecraft design are discussed. Engineering development of the tethered elevator is the result of work conducted in the following areas: structural configurations; robotics, drive mechanisms; and power generation and transmission systems. The structural configuration of the elevator is presented. The structure supports, houses, and protects all systems on board the elevator. The implementation of robotics on board the elevator is discussed. Elevator robotics allow for the deployment, retrieval, and manipulation of tethered objects. Robotic manipulators also aid in hooking the elevator on a tether. Critical to the operation of the tethered elevator is the design of its drive mechanisms, which are discussed. Two drivers, located internal to the elevator, propel the vehicle along a tether. These modular components consist of endless toothed belts, shunt-wound motors, regenerative power braking, and computer controlled linear actuators. The designs of self-sufficient power generation and transmission systems are reviewed. Thorough research indicates all components of the elevator will operate under power provided by fuel cells. The fuel cell systems will power the vehicle at seven kilowatts continuously and twelve kilowatts maximally. A set of secondary fuel cells provides redundancy in the unlikely event of a primary system failure. Power storage exists in the form of Nickel-Hydrogen batteries capable of powering the elevator under maximum loads.

  7. NASA Space Launch System Operations Outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefner, William Keith; Matisak, Brian P.; McElyea, Mark; Kunz, Jennifer; Weber, Philip; Cummings, Nicholas; Parsons, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), is working with the Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) Program, based at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), to deliver a new safe, affordable, and sustainable capability for human and scientific exploration beyond Earth's orbit (BEO). Larger than the Saturn V Moon rocket, SLS will provide 10 percent more thrust at liftoff in its initial 70 metric ton (t) configuration and 20 percent more in its evolved 130-t configuration. The primary mission of the SLS rocket will be to launch astronauts to deep space destinations in the Orion Multi- Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), also in development and managed by the Johnson Space Center. Several high-priority science missions also may benefit from the increased payload volume and reduced trip times offered by this powerful, versatile rocket. Reducing the lifecycle costs for NASA's space transportation flagship will maximize the exploration and scientific discovery returned from the taxpayer's investment. To that end, decisions made during development of SLS and associated systems will impact the nation's space exploration capabilities for decades. This paper will provide an update to the operations strategy presented at SpaceOps 2012. It will focus on: 1) Preparations to streamline the processing flow and infrastructure needed to produce and launch the world's largest rocket (i.e., through incorporation and modification of proven, heritage systems into the vehicle and ground systems); 2) Implementation of a lean approach to reach-back support of hardware manufacturing, green-run testing, and launch site processing and activities; and 3) Partnering between the vehicle design and operations communities on state-of-the-art predictive operations analysis techniques. An example of innovation is testing the integrated vehicle at the processing facility in parallel, rather than

  8. Advanced Radiative Emitters for Radioisotope Thermophotovoltaic Power Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) are critical for future flagship exploration missions in space and on planetary surfaces. Small improvements in the RPS performance,...

  9. A Compact, Low Power Pulsed Optical Communication System for Spacecraft

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this project is to reduce the power required for high bandwidth, deep space laser communications systems. Our concept will encode data in the time delay...

  10. Solar thermal power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2010-06-15

    A solar thermal power generator includes an inclined elongated boiler tube positioned in the focus of a solar concentrator for generating steam from water. The boiler tube is connected at one end to receive water from a pressure vessel as well as connected at an opposite end to return steam back to the vessel in a fluidic circuit arrangement that stores energy in the form of heated water in the pressure vessel. An expander, condenser, and reservoir are also connected in series to respectively produce work using the steam passed either directly (above a water line in the vessel) or indirectly (below a water line in the vessel) through the pressure vessel, condense the expanded steam, and collect the condensed water. The reservoir also supplies the collected water back to the pressure vessel at the end of a diurnal cycle when the vessel is sufficiently depressurized, so that the system is reset to repeat the cycle the following day. The circuital arrangement of the boiler tube and the pressure vessel operates to dampen flow instabilities in the boiler tube, damp out the effects of solar transients, and provide thermal energy storage which enables time shifting of power generation to better align with the higher demand for energy during peak energy usage periods.

  11. Nuclear power plant wastes in space?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gertsenshtejn, M.E.; Klavdiev, V.V.

    1992-01-01

    Project of radioactive waste disposal into space by electric gun is discussed. The basic disadvantages of the project should include contamination of the near-the-earth space with radioactive containers as well as physical and technical difficulties related to developing electrical gun the shell of which should have the velocity exceeding 5 km/s. Idea of actinide gas atomization in the faraway space by multiply usable apparatus is proposed as alternative solution for the problem of radioactive waste disposal

  12. Manager's assistant systems for space system planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bewley, William L.; Burnard, Robert; Edwards, Gary E.; Shoop, James

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a class of knowledge-based 'assistant' systems for space system planning. Derived from technology produced for the DARPA/USAF Pilot's Associate program, these assistant systems help the human planner by doing the bookkeeping to maintain plan data and executing the procedures and heuristics currently used by the human planner to define, assess, diagnose, and revise plans. Intelligent systems for Space Station Freedom assembly sequence planning and Advanced Launch System modeling will be presented as examples. Ongoing NASA-funded work on a framework supporting the development of such tools will also be described.

  13. Space Environment Information System (SPENVIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruglanski, Michel; de Donder, Erwin; Messios, Neophytos; Hetey, Laszlo; Calders, Stijn; Evans, Hugh; Daly, Eamonn

    SPENVIS is an ESA operational software developed and maintained at BIRA-IASB since 1996. It provides standardized access to most of the recent models of the hazardous space environment, through a user-friendly Web interface (http://www.spenvis.oma.be/). The system allows spacecraft engineers to perform a rapid analysis of environmental problems related to natural radiation belts, solar energetic particles, cosmic rays, plasmas, gases, magnetic fields and micro-particles. Various reporting and graphical utilities and extensive help facilities are included to allow engineers with relatively little familiarity to produce reliable results. SPENVIS also contains an active, integrated version of the ECSS Space Environment Standard and access to in-flight data on the space environment. Although SPENVIS in the first place is designed to help spacecraft designers, it is also used by technical universities in their educational programs. In the framework of the ESA Space Situational Awareness Preparatory Programme, SPENVIS will be part of the initial set of precursor services of the Space Weather segment. SPENVIS includes several engineering models to assess to effects of the space environment on spacecrafts such as surface and internal charging, energy deposition, solar cell damage and SEU rates. The presentation will review how such models could be connected to in situ measurements or forecasting models of the space environment in order to produce post event analysis or in orbit effects alert. The last developments and models implemented in SPENVIS will also be presented.

  14. Powersail High Power Propulsion System Design Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulczinski, Frank S., III

    2000-11-01

    A desire by the United States Air Force to exploit the space environment has led to a need for increased on-orbit electrical power availability. To enable this, the Air Force Research Laboratory Space Vehicles Directorate (AFRL/ VS) is developing Powersail: a two-phased program to demonstrate high power (100 kW to 1 MW) capability in space using a deployable, flexible solar array connected to the host spacecraft using a slack umbilical. The first phase will be a proof-of-concept demonstration at 50 kW, followed by the second phase, an operational system at full power. In support of this program, the AFRL propulsion Directorate's Spacecraft Propulsion Branch (AFRL/PRS ) at Edwards AFB has commissioned a design study of the Powersail High Power Propulsion System. The purpose of this study, the results of which are summarized in this paper, is to perform mission and design trades to identify potential full-power applications (both near-Earth and interplanetary) and the corresponding propulsion system requirements and design. The design study shall farther identify a suitable low power demonstration flight that maximizes risk reduction for the fully operational system. This propulsion system is expected to be threefold: (1) primary propulsion for moving the entire vehicle, (2) a propulsion unit that maintains the solar array position relative to the host spacecraft, and (3) control propulsion for maintaining proper orientation for the flexible solar array.

  15. Space Fission System Test Effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houts, Mike; Schmidt, Glen L.; Van Dyke, Melissa; Godfroy, Tom; Martin, James; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon; Dickens, Ricky; Salvail, Pat; Harper, Roger

    2004-01-01

    Space fission technology has the potential to enable rapid access to any point in the solar system. If fission propulsion systems are to be developed to their full potential, however, near-term customers need to be identified and initial fission systems successfully developed, launched, and utilized. One key to successful utilization is to develop reactor designs that are highly testable. Testable reactor designs have a much higher probability of being successfully converted from paper concepts to working space hardware than do designs which are difficult or impossible to realistically test. ''Test Effectiveness'' is one measure of the ability to realistically test a space reactor system. The objective of this paper is to discuss test effectiveness as applied to the design, development, flight qualification, and acceptance testing of space fission systems. The ability to perform highly effective testing would be particularly important to the success of any near-term mission, such as NASA's Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter, the first mission under study within NASA's Project Prometheus, the Nuclear Systems Program

  16. High power communication satellites power systems study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josloff, A.T.; Peterson, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses a DOE-funded study to evaluate the commercial attractiveness of high power communication satellites and assesses the attributes of both conventional photovoltaic and reactor power systems. This study brings together a preeminent US Industry/Russian team to cooperate on the role of high power communication satellites in the rapidly expanding communications revolution. These high power satellites play a vital role in assuring availability of universally accessible, wide bandwidth communications, for high definition TV, super computer networks and other services. Satellites are ideally suited to provide the wide bandwidths and data rates required and are unique in the ability to provide services directly to the users. As new or relocated markets arise, satellites offer a flexibility that conventional distribution services cannot match, and it is no longer necessary to be near population centers to take advantage of the telecommunication revolution. The geopolitical implications of these substantially enhanced communications capabilities will be significant

  17. Knowledge-based systems for power management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lollar, L. F.

    1992-01-01

    NASA-Marshall's Electrical Power Branch has undertaken the development of expert systems in support of further advancements in electrical power system automation. Attention is given to the features (1) of the Fault Recovery and Management Expert System, (2) a resource scheduler or Master of Automated Expert Scheduling Through Resource Orchestration, and (3) an adaptive load-priority manager, or Load Priority List Management System. The characteristics of an advisory battery manager for the Hubble Space Telescope, designated the 'nickel-hydrogen expert system', are also noted.

  18. Energy Systems Test Area (ESTA). Power Systems Test Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Situ, Cindy H.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides a detailed description of the Johnson Space Center's Power Systems Facility located in the Energy Systems Test Area (ESTA). Facilities and the resources used to support power and battery systems testing are also shown. The contents include: 1) Power Testing; 2) Power Test Equipment Capabilities Summary; 3) Source/Load; 4) Battery Facilities; 5) Battery Test Equipment Capabilities Summary; 6) Battery Testing; 7) Performance Test Equipment; 8) Battery Test Environments; 9) Battery Abuse Chambers; 10) Battery Abuse Capabilities; and 11) Battery Test Area Resources.

  19. Diagnosing Faults in Electrical Power Systems of Spacecraft and Aircraft

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Electrical power systems play a critical role in spacecraft and aircraft, and they exhibit a rich variety of failure modes. This paper discusses electrical power...

  20. Comprehensive report of aeropropulsion, space propulsion, space power, and space science applications of the Lewis Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    The research activities of the Lewis Research Center for 1988 are summarized. The projects included are within basic and applied technical disciplines essential to aeropropulsion, space propulsion, space power, and space science/applications. These disciplines are materials science and technology, structural mechanics, life prediction, internal computational fluid mechanics, heat transfer, instruments and controls, and space electronics.

  1. Solar energy thermally powered electrical generating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, William R. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A thermally powered electrical generating system for use in a space vehicle is disclosed. The rate of storage in a thermal energy storage medium is controlled by varying the rate of generation and dissipation of electrical energy in a thermally powered electrical generating system which is powered from heat stored in the thermal energy storage medium without exceeding a maximum quantity of heat. A control system (10) varies the rate at which electrical energy is generated by the electrical generating system and the rate at which electrical energy is consumed by a variable parasitic electrical load to cause storage of an amount of thermal energy in the thermal energy storage system at the end of a period of insolation which is sufficient to satisfy the scheduled demand for electrical power to be generated during the next period of eclipse. The control system is based upon Kalman filter theory.

  2. Free-piston Stirling technology for space power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaby, Jack G.

    1989-01-01

    An overview is presented of the NASA Lewis Research Center free-piston Stirling engine activities directed toward space power. This work is being carried out under NASA's new Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The overall goal of CSTI's High Capacity Power element is to develop the technology base needed to meet the long duration, high capacity power requirements for future NASA space missions. The Stirling cycle offers an attractive power conversion concept for space power needs. Discussed here is the completion of the Space Power Demonstrator Engine (SPDE) testing-culminating in the generation of 25 kW of engine power from a dynamically-balanced opposed-piston Stirling engine at a temperature ratio of 2.0. Engine efficiency was approximately 22 percent. The SPDE recently has been divided into two separate single-cylinder engines, called Space Power Research Engine (SPRE), that now serve as test beds for the evaluation of key technology disciplines. These disciplines include hydrodynamic gas bearings, high-efficiency linear alternators, space qualified heat pipe heat exchangers, oscillating flow code validation, and engine loss understanding.

  3. Nuclear power in space. Use of reactors and radioactive substances as power sources in satellites and space probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoestbaeck, Lars

    2008-11-01

    Today solar panels are the most common technique to supply power to satellites. Solar panels will work as long as the power demand of the satellite is limited and the satellite can be equipped with enough panels, and kept in an orbit that allows enough sunlight to hit the panels. There are various types of space missions that do not fulfil these criteria. With nuclear power these types of missions can be powered regardless of the sunlight and as early as 1961 the first satellite with a nuclear power source was placed in orbit. Out of seventy known space missions that has made use of nuclear power, ten have had some kind of failure. In no case has the failure been associated with the nuclear technology used. This report discusses to what degree satellites with nuclear power are a source for potential radioactive contamination of Swedish territory. It is not a discussion for or against nuclear power in space. Neither is it an assessment of consequences if radioactive material from a satellite would reach the earth's surface. Historically two different kinds of Nuclear Power Sources (NPS) have been used to generate electric power in space. The first is the reactor where the energy is derived from nuclear fission of 235 U and the second is the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) where electricity is generated from the heat of naturally decaying radionuclides. NPS has historically only been used in space by United States and the Soviet Union (and in one failing operation Russia). Nuclear Power Sources have been used in three types of space objects: satellites, space probes and moon/Mars vehicles. USA has launched one experimental reactor into orbit, all other use of NPS by the USA has been RTG:s. The Soviet Union, in contrast, only launched a few RTG:s but nearly forty reactors. The Soviet use of NPS is less transparent than the use in USA and some data published on Soviet systems are more or less well substantiated assessments. It is likely that also future

  4. Non-nuclear power sources for deep space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennel, E.B.; Tang, C.; Santarius, J.F.

    1998-07-01

    Electric propulsion and non-nuclear power can be used in tandem as a replacement for the current chemical booster and radioisotope thermoelectric generators now in use for deep space applications (i.e., to the asteroid belt and beyond). In current generation systems, electric propulsion is usually considered to be impractical because of the lack of high power for deep space, and non-nuclear power is thought to be impractical partly due to its high mass. However, when taken in combination, a solar powered electric upper stage can provide ample power and propulsion capability for use in deep space. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) systems have generally been selected for missions only when other systems are absolutely unavailable. The disadvantages of radioisotopes include the need for nuclear safety as another dimension of concern in payload integration; the lack of assured availability of plutonium in the post-cold-war world; the enormous cost of plutonium-238; and the system complexity introduced by the need to continuously cool the system during the pre-launch phase. A conservative estimate for the total power for the solar array at beginning of life (BOL) may be in the range of 25 kW in order to provide 500 W continuous power at Jupiter. The availability of {approximately} 25 kW(e) in earth orbit raises the interesting possibility of coupling electric propulsion units to this free electric power. If electric propulsion is used to raise the probe from low-earth-orbit to an earth-escape trajectory, the system could actually save on low-earth orbit mass. Electric propulsion could be used by itself in a spiral trajectory orbit raising maneuver to earth escape velocity, or it could be used in conjunction with a chemical upper stage (either solid rocket or liquid), which would boost the payload to an elliptical orbit. The concept is to begin the Earth-Jupiter trip with a swing-by near the Sun close to the orbit of Venus and perhaps even closer if thermal

  5. Quality assurance program for isotopic power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannigan, R.L.; Harnar, R.R.

    1982-12-01

    This report summarizes the Sandia National Laboratories Quality Assurance Program that applies to non-weapon (reimbursable) Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generators. The program has been implemented over the past 16 years on power supplies used in various space and terrestrial systems. The quality assurance (QA) activity of the program is in support of the Department of Energy, Office of Space Nuclear Projects. Basic elements of the program are described in the report and examples of program decumentation are presented.

  6. Quality assurance program for isotopic power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannigan, R.L.; Harnar, R.R.

    1982-12-01

    This report summarizes the Sandia National Laboratories Quality Assurance Program that applies to non-weapon (reimbursable) Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generators. The program has been implemented over the past 16 years on power supplies used in various space and terrestrial systems. The quality assurance (QA) activity of the program is in support of the Department of Energy, Office of Space Nuclear Projects. Basic elements of the program are described in the report and examples of program decumentation are presented

  7. Balancing modern Power System with large scale of wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basit, Abdul; Altin, Müfit; Hansen, Anca Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Power system operators must ensure robust, secure and reliable power system operation even with a large scale integration of wind power. Electricity generated from the intermittent wind in large propor-tion may impact on the control of power system balance and thus deviations in the power system...... frequency in small or islanded power systems or tie line power flows in interconnected power systems. Therefore, the large scale integration of wind power into the power system strongly concerns the secure and stable grid operation. To ensure the stable power system operation, the evolving power system has...... to be analysed with improved analytical tools and techniques. This paper proposes techniques for the active power balance control in future power systems with the large scale wind power integration, where power balancing model provides the hour-ahead dispatch plan with reduced planning horizon and the real time...

  8. Space construction base control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Aspects of an attitude control system were studied and developed for a large space base that is structurally flexible and whose mass properties change rather dramatically during its orbital lifetime. Topics of discussion include the following: (1) space base orbital pointing and maneuvering; (2) angular momentum sizing of actuators; (3) momentum desaturation selection and sizing; (4) multilevel control technique applied to configuration one; (5) one-dimensional model simulation; (6) N-body discrete coordinate simulation; (7) structural analysis math model formulation; and (8) discussion of control problems and control methods.

  9. Positioning Space Solar Power (SSP) as the Next Logical Step after the International Space Station (ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charania, A.

    2002-01-01

    At the end of the first decade of the 21st century, the International Space Station (ISS) will stand as a testament of the engineering capabilities of the international community. The choices for the next logical step for this community remain vast and conflicting: a Mars mission, moon colonization, Space Solar Power (SSP), etc. This examination focuses on positioning SSP as one such candidate for consideration. A marketing roadmap is presented that reveals the potential benefits of SSP to both the space community and the global populace at large. Recognizing that scientific efficiency itself has no constituency large enough to persuade entities to outlay funds for such projects, a holistic approach is taken to positioning SSP. This includes the scientific, engineering, exploratory, economic, political, and development capabilities of the system. SSP can be seen as both space exploration related and a resource project for undeveloped nations. Coupling these two non-traditional areas yields a broader constituency for the project that each one alone could generate. Space exploration is many times seen as irrelevant to the condition of the populace of the planet from which the money comes for such projects. When in this new century, billions of people on the planet still have never made a phone call or even have access to clean water, the origins of this skepticism can be understandable. An area of concern is the problem of not living up to the claims of overeager program marketers. Just as the ISS may never live up to the claims of its advocates in terms of space research, any SSP program must be careful in not promising utopian global solutions to any future energy starved world. Technically, SSP is a very difficult problem, even harder than creating the ISS, yet the promise it can hold for both space exploration and Earth development can lead to a renaissance of the relevance of space to the lives of the citizens of the world.

  10. Space station operating system study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Albert E.; Harwell, Morris C.

    1988-01-01

    The current phase of the Space Station Operating System study is based on the analysis, evaluation, and comparison of the operating systems implemented on the computer systems and workstations in the software development laboratory. Primary emphasis has been placed on the DEC MicroVMS operating system as implemented on the MicroVax II computer, with comparative analysis of the SUN UNIX system on the SUN 3/260 workstation computer, and to a limited extent, the IBM PC/AT microcomputer running PC-DOS. Some benchmark development and testing was also done for the Motorola MC68010 (VM03 system) before the system was taken from the laboratory. These systems were studied with the objective of determining their capability to support Space Station software development requirements, specifically for multi-tasking and real-time applications. The methodology utilized consisted of development, execution, and analysis of benchmark programs and test software, and the experimentation and analysis of specific features of the system or compilers in the study.

  11. High power communication satellites power systems study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josloff, Allan T.; Peterson, Jerry R.

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses a planned study to evaluate the commercial attractiveness of high power communication satellites and assesses the attributes of both conventional photovoltaic and reactor power systems. These high power satellites can play a vital role in assuring availability of universally accessible, wide bandwidth communications, for high definition TV, super computer networks and other services. Satellites are ideally suited to provide the wide bandwidths and data rates required and are unique in the ability to provide services directly to the users. As new or relocated markets arise, satellites offer a flexibility that conventional distribution services cannot match, and it is no longer necessary to be near population centers to take advantage of the telecommunication revolution. The geopolitical implications of these substantially enhanced communications capabilities can be significant.

  12. Safety considerations for the use of nuclear power in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sewell, D.C.

    1985-01-01

    A little over twenty years ago Norris Bradbury, then Director of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, gave a luncheon speech at the American Nuclear Society Meeting on Aerospace Nuclear Safety here in Albuquerque, New Mexico. His subject was Safety in Science. His opening statement is well worth recalling. He said, ''...science - by which I mean both science and technology - has historically generated new hazards and, equally historically, invented new safeties for mankind. It has produced a safer way of life, a lesser dependence on man's physical frailities.'' He went on to say, ''Wherever science has made an advance it has developed a new hazard, but in general the new hazards have been less overall than the hazards made obsolete by the new development.'' I think that these are excellent thoughts to keep in mind as we embark on a program for increased use of nuclear power in space. That does not mean that the safe operation of new nuclear space power systems will come automatically. It will not. We must work at it continually to make these new systems meet acceptable safety standards

  13. Nuclear reactor power as applied to a space-based radar mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, L.; Beatty, R.; Bhandari, P.; Chow, E.; Deininger, W.; Ewell, R.; Fujita, T.; Grossman, M.; Bloomfield, H.; Heller, J.

    1988-01-01

    A space-based radar mission and spacecraft are examined to determine system requirements for a 300 kWe space nuclear reactor power system. The spacecraft configuration and its orbit, launch vehicle, and propulsion are described. Mission profiles are addressed, and storage in assembly orbit is considered. Dynamics and attitude control and the problems of nuclear and thermal radiation are examined.

  14. Solar-powered hot-air system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Solar-powered air heater supplies part or all of space heating requirements of residential or commercial buildings and is interfaced with air to water heat exchanger to heat domestic hot water. System has potential application in drying agricultural products such as cotton, lumber, corn, grains, and peanuts.

  15. Interconnected power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fassina, E.

    2001-01-01

    The import of electric power from foreign countries at profitable prices is today a determinant factor to prime the competition in a national free trade. It is important to define the power transmission capacity and economic regulations for import forms in 2001 [it

  16. Skylab technology electrical power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woosley, A. P.; Smith, O. B.; Nassen, H. S.

    1974-01-01

    The solar array/battery power systems for the Skylab vehicle were designed to operate in a solar inertial pointing mode to provide power continuously to the Skylab. Questions of power management are considered, taking into account difficulties caused by the reduction in power system performance due to the effects of structural failure occurring during the launching process. The performance of the solar array of the Apollo Telescope Mount Power System is discussed along with the Orbital Workshop solar array performance and the Airlock Module power conditioning group performance. A list is presented of a number of items which have been identified during mission monitoring and are recommended for electrical power system concepts, designs, and operation for future spacecraft.

  17. Nuclear power plant diagnostic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokop, K.; Volavy, J.

    1982-01-01

    Basic information is presented on diagnostic systems used at nuclear power plants with PWR reactors. They include systems used at the Novovoronezh nuclear power plant in the USSR, at the Nord power plant in the GDR, the system developed at the Hungarian VEIKI institute, the system used at the V-1 nuclear power plant at Jaslovske Bohunice in Czechoslovakia and systems of the Rockwell International company used in US nuclear power plants. These diagnostic systems are basically founded on monitoring vibrations and noise, loose parts, pressure pulsations, neutron noise, coolant leaks and acoustic emissions. The Rockwell International system represents a complex unit whose advantage is the on-line evaluation of signals which gives certain instructions for the given situation directly to the operator. The other described systems process signals using similar methods. Digitized signals only serve off-line computer analyses. (Z.M.)

  18. Systems integration processes for space nuclear electric propulsion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, C.S.; Rice, J.W.; Stanley, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    The various components and subsystems that comprise a nuclear electric propulsion system should be developed and integrated so that each functions ideally and so that each is properly integrated with the other components and subsystems in the optimum way. This paper discusses how processes similar to those used in the development and intergration of the subsystems that comprise the Multimegawatt Space Nuclear Power System concepts can be and are being efficiently and effectively utilized for these purposes. The processes discussed include the development of functional and operational requirements at the system and subsystem level; the assessment of individual nuclear power supply and thruster concepts and their associated technologies; the conduct of systems integration efforts including the evaluation of the mission benefits for each system; the identification and resolution of concepts development, technology development, and systems integration feasibility issues; subsystem, system, and technology development and integration; and ground and flight subsystem and integrated system testing

  19. Passive Shielding Effect on Space Profile of Magnetic Field Emissions for Wireless Power Transfer to Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batra, Tushar; Schaltz, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic fields emitted by wireless power transfer systems are of high importance with respect to human safety and health. Aluminum and ferrite are used in the system to reduce the fields and are termed as passive shielding. In this paper, the influence of these materials on the space profile has...... fields for wireless power transfer for vehicle applications....

  20. Space-Based Solar Power: A Technical, Economic, and Operational Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    design concept for SBSP systems. Results from the research and develop- ment of individual components and subsystems could fill libraries , but from this...Solar Power System: A Business Plan to Make Space So- lar Power a Reality,” A Multicultural Team Project for Master of Business Administration in

  1. Reactor power control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomisawa, Teruaki.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To restore reactor-power condition in a minimum time after a termination of turbine bypass by reducing the throttling of the reactor power at the time of load-failure as low as possible. Constitution: The transient change of the internal pressure of condenser is continuously monitored. When a turbine is bypassed, a speed-control-command signal for a coolant recirculating pump is generated according as the internal pressure of the condenser. When the signal relating to the internal pressure of the condenser indicates insufficient power, a reactor-control-rod-drive signal is generated. (J.P.N.)

  2. Power system protection 3 application

    CERN Document Server

    1995-01-01

    The worldwide growth in demand for electricity has forced the pace of developments in electrical power system design to meet consumer needs for reliable, secure and cheap supplies. Power system protection, as a technology essential to high quality supply, is widely recognised as a specialism of growing and often critical importance, in which power system needs and technological progress have combined to result in rapid developments in policy and practice in recent years. In the United Kingdom, the need for appropriate training in power system protection was recognised in the early 1960s with t

  3. Power Aware Distributed Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schott, Brian

    2004-01-01

    The goal of PADS was to study power aware management techniques for wireless unattended ground sensor applications to extend their operational lifetime and overall capabilities in this battery-constrained environment...

  4. Water Powered Bioassay System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lin, Liwei

    2004-01-01

    ... of 0.2 1/hr without requiring electrical power. A low-leakage, hole-in-the-wall micro valve was demonstrated that provided fluidic resistance 255 times higher in the closed state than in the open state...

  5. A new method for power generation and distribution in outer space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bamberger, J.A.

    1989-09-01

    The power system is a major component of a space system's size, mass, technical complexity, and hence, cost. To date, space systems include the energy source as an integral part of the mission satellite. Potentially significant benefit could be realized by separating the energy source from the end-use system and transmitting the power via an energy beam (power beaming) (Coomes et al., 1989). This concept parallels the terrestrial central generating station and transmission grid. In this summary, the system components required for power beaming implementation are outlined and applied to a satellite for power beaming implementation are outlined and applied to a satellite constellation to demonstrate the feasibility of implementing power beaming in the next 20 years. 5 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  6. Advanced Power Sources for Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    alternators Pulsed alternators DC generator exciters MHD generator magnets Megawatt propulsion motor (DC) Power conditioning and energy storage Low...been successfully demon- strated in homopolar types of machines and in other stationary ap- plications, such as magnets for high-energy physics

  7. Striction-based Power Monitoring in Space Environment, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The program delivers a completely new technology solution to isolation and sensing of power flow (current and voltage). Based on striction materials technology,...

  8. Space Plastic Recycling System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Techshot's proposed Space Plastic Recycler (SPR) is an automated closed loop plastic recycling system that allows the automated conversion of disposable ISS...

  9. The Space of Aerospace Power: Why and How

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-05-01

    SSTO - MSP/SOV/SMV - TAV - Micro-SATs - Cryogenic Fuels - HYFLEX Control Missile Detection and Space Defense - MIDAS - Satellite Inspector...Missile System Center SMV Space Maneuvering Vehicle SOA State of the Art SOV Space Operations Vehicle SRD System Requirements Document SSTO

  10. Space power needs and forecasted technologies for the 1990s and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buden, D.; Albert, T.

    1987-01-01

    A new generation of reactors for electric power will be available for space missions to satisfy military and civilian needs in the 1990s and beyond. To ensure a useful product, nuclear power plant development must be cognizant of other space power technologies. Major advances in solar and chemical technologies need to be considered in establishing the goals of future nuclear power plants. In addition, the mission needs are evolving into new regimes. Civilian and military power needs are forecasted to exceed anything used in space to date. Technology trend forecasts have been mapped as a function of time for solar, nuclear, chemical, and storage systems to illustrate areas where each technology provides minimum mass. Other system characteristics may dominate the usefulness of a technology on a given mission. This paper will discuss some of these factors, as well as forecast future military and civilian power needs and the status of technologies for the 1990s and 2000s. 6 references

  11. Power conversion for a microreactor: a nuclear space application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, Lamartine N.F.; Camillo, Giannino P.; Nascimento, Jamil A.; Borges, Eduardo M.; Placco, Guilherme M.

    2009-01-01

    Generating nuclear power in space is of fundamental importance if it is desired to realize some aggressive type of exploration. Basically, at Earth orbit (either LEO or GEO) most applications tend to use solar panels, which are just fine, in spite of problems such as vibration, non optimal light incidence angle and non electricity generation due to Earth's shadow. For deep space exploration the nuclear power is been considered as a strong candidate and maybe the only one. The Institute for Advanced Studies is conducting the TERRA project that tracks the developments in the area and, also, intends to develop the key technologies that will allow such a machine to be build with indigenous technology. TERRA stands for TEcnologia de Reatores Rapidos Avancados. This project, at its first stage aims at the specification of the microreactor fuel element with its possible geometrical arrangements. Also for this stage a gas Brayton closed cycle is being considered as a heat conversion to electricity and/or propulsion effect. The basic idea is to adapt an open loop aeronautic gas turbine to operate as a closed loop gas Turbine. This arrangement will use heat pipes as a cold source, or a heat rejection passive system. Up to this point a lot has been done in terms of numerical and graphical development. It is expected that some built up will be happening during this year. An account of this work will be presented at the conference. (author)

  12. Overview of free-piston Stirling engine technology for space power application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slaby, J.G.

    1987-01-01

    An overview is presented of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Lewis Research Center (LeRC) free-piston Stirling engine activities directed toward space-power application. Free-piston Stirling technology is applicable for both solar and nuclear powered systems. As such, the NASA Lewis Research Center serves as the project office to manage the newly initiated SP-100 Advanced Technology program. This program provides the technology push for providing significant component and subsystem options for increased efficiency, reliability and survivability, and power output growth at reduced specific mass. One of the major elements of the program is the development of advanced power conversion of which the Stirling cycle is a viable candidate. Under this program the status of the 25 kWe opposed-piston Space Power Demonstrator Engine (SPDE) is presented. Included in the SPDE discussion are initial differences between predicted and experimental power outputs and power output influenced by variations in regenerators

  13. Advances in space power research and technology at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullin, J. P.; Randolph, L. P.; Hudson, W. R.; Ambrus, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    Progress and plans in various areas of the NASA Space Power Program are discussed. Solar cell research is narrowed to GaAs, multibandgap, and thin Si cells for arrays in planar and concentrator configurations, with further work to increase cell efficiency, radiation hardness, develop flexible encapsulants, and reduce cost. Electrochemical research is concentrating on increasing energy and power density, cycle and wet stand life, reliability and cost reduction of batteries. Further development of the Ni-H2 battery and O2-H2 fuel cell to multihundred kW with a 5 year life and 30,000 cycles is noted. Basic research is ongoing for alkali metal anodes for high energy density secondary cells. Nuclear thermoelectric propulsion is being developed for outer planets exploration propulsion systems, using Si-Ge generators, and studies with rare earth chalcogenides and sulfides are mentioned. Power Systems Management seeks to harmonize increasing power supply levels with inner and outer spacecraft environments, circuits, demands, and automatic monitoring. Concomitant development of bipolar transistors, an infrared rectenna, spacecraft charging measurement, and larger heat pipe transport capacity are noted.

  14. Advances in space power research and technology at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullin, J.P.; Randolph, L.P.; Hudson, W.R.; Ambrus, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    Progress and plans in various areas of the NASA Space Power Program are discussed. Solar cell research is narrowed to GaAs, multibandgap, and thin Si cells for arrays in planar and concentrator configurations, with further work to increase cell efficiency, radiation hardness, develop flexible encapsulants, and reduce cost. Electrochemical research is concentrating on increasing energy and power density, cycle and wet stand life, reliability and cost reduction of batteries. Further development of the Ni-H 2 battery and O 2 -H 2 fuel cell to multihundred kW with a 5 year life and 30,000 cycles is noted. Basic research is ongoing for alkali metal anodes for high energy density secondary cells. Nuclear thermoelectric propulsion is being developed for outer planets exploration propulsion systems, using Si-Ge generators, and studies with rare earth chalcogenides and sulfides are mentioned. Power Systems Management seeks to harmonize increasing power supply levels with inner and outer spacecraft environments, circuits, demands, and automatic monitoring. Concomitant development of bipolar transistors, an infrared rectenna, spacecraft charging measurement, and larger heat pipe transport capacity are noted

  15. Handbook of power systems I

    CERN Document Server

    Pardalos, P M; Pereira, Mario V; Iliadis, Niko A

    2010-01-01

    Energy is one of the world's most challenging problems, and power systems are an important aspect of energy-related issues. The Handbook of Power Systems contains state-of-the-art contributions on power systems modeling. In particular, it covers topics like operation planning, expansion planning, transmission and distribution modelling, computing technologies in energy systems, energy auctions, risk management, market regulation, stochastic programming in energy, and forecasting in energy. The book is separated into nine sections, which cover the most important areas of energy systems. The con

  16. Power systems engineering and mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, U G

    1972-01-01

    Power Systems Engineering and Mathematics investigates the application of mathematical aids, particularly the techniques of resource planning, to some of the technical-economic problems of power systems engineering. Topics covered include the process of engineering design and the use of computers in system design and operation; power system planning and operation; time scales and computation in system operation; and load prediction and generation capacity. This volume is comprised of 13 chapters and begins by outlining the stages in the synthesis of designs (or operating states) for engineerin

  17. Multimegawatt disk generator system for space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solbes, A.; Iwata, H.

    1988-01-01

    The conceptual design of a 100 megawatt - 500 seconds disk MHD generator system suitable as a burst power source for a space based neutral particle beam (NPB) is presented. The system features two disk generators operated in the magnetic field produced by a single circular superconducting magnet. Gelled reactants are used as the energy source. The oxidizer gel includes the alkali seed. The high heat flux areas of the power train are water cooled. Heat is rejected to a hydrogen stream which is also used for cooling of the exit section. The hydrogen is also used to mitigate the effects of the exhaust products of combustion on the platform. The two disk channels are operated in parallel. A dc to dc converter consolidates the channel's output into a single 100 kilovolt dc output

  18. Reactive power compensating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Timothy J. (Redondo Beach, CA); El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A. (Renton, WA); Venkata, Subrahmanyam S. (Seattle, WA)

    1987-01-01

    The reactive power of an induction machine is compensated by providing fixed capacitors on each phase line for the minimum compensation required, sensing the current on one line at the time its voltage crosses zero to determine the actual compensation required for each phase, and selecting switched capacitors on each line to provide the balance of the compensation required.

  19. Reactive Power Compensating System.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Timothy J.; El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A.; Venkata, Subrahmanyam S.

    1985-01-04

    The circuit was designed for the specific application of wind-driven induction generators. It has great potential for application in any situation where a varying reactive power load is present, such as with induction motors or generators, or for transmission network compensation.

  20. Power system protection 2 systems and methods

    CERN Document Server

    1995-01-01

    The worldwide growth in demand for electricity has forced the pace of developments in electrical power system design to meet consumer needs for reliable, secure and cheap supplies. Power system protection, as a technology essential to high quality supply, is widely recognised as a specialism of growing and often critical importance, in which power system needs and technological progress have combined to result in rapid developments in policy and practice in recent years. In the United Kingdom, the need for appropriate training in power system protection was recognised in the early 1960s with t