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Sample records for space planck distribution

  1. Space distribution and energy straggling of charged particles via Fokker-Planck equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manservisi, S.; Molinari, V.; Nespoli, A.

    1996-01-01

    The Fokker-Planck equation describing a beam of charged particles entering a homogeneous medium is solved here for a stationary case. Interactions are taken into account through Coulomb cross-section. Starting from the charged-particle distribution as a function of velocity and penetration depth, some important kinetic quantities are calculated, like mean velocity, range and the loss of energy per unit space. In such quantities the energy straggling is taken into account. This phenomenon is not considered in the continuous slowing-down approximation that is commonly used to obtain the range and the stopping power. Finally the well-know Bohr of Bethe formula is found as a first-order approximation of the Fokker-Planck equation

  2. Quantum magnification of classical sub-Planck phase space features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hensinger, W.K.; Heckenberg, N.; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, H.; Delande, D.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: To understand the relationship between quantum mechanics and classical physics a crucial question to be answered is how distinct classical dynamical phase space features translate into the quantum picture. This problem becomes even more interesting if these phase space features occupy a much smaller volume than ℎ in a phase space spanned by two non-commuting variables such as position and momentum. The question whether phase space structures in quantum mechanics associated with sub-Planck scales have physical signatures has recently evoked a lot of discussion. Here we will show that sub-Planck classical dynamical phase space structures, for example regions of regular motion, can give rise to states whose phase space representation is of size ℎ or larger. This is illustrated using period-1 regions of regular motion (modes of oscillatory motion of a particle in a modulated well) whose volume is distinctly smaller than Planck's constant. They are magnified in the quantum picture and appear as states whose phase space representation is of size h or larger. Cold atoms provide an ideal test bed to probe such fundamental aspects of quantum and classical dynamics. In the experiment a Bose-Einstein condensate is loaded into a far detuned optical lattice. The lattice depth is modulated resulting in the emergence of regions of regular motion surrounded by chaotic motion in the phase space spanned by position and momentum of the atoms along the standing wave. Sub-Planck scaled phase space features in the classical phase space are magnified and appear as distinct broad peaks in the atomic momentum distribution. The corresponding quantum analysis shows states of size Ti which can be associated with much smaller classical dynamical phase space features. This effect may considered as the dynamical equivalent of the Goldstone and Jaffe theorem which predicts the existence of at least one bound state at a bend in a two or three dimensional spatial potential

  3. Time-space limitations of Nernst-Planck equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellicer, J.; Aguilera, V.M.; Mafe, S.

    1988-01-01

    The nature and applicability of Nernst-Planck and Poisson equations are considered, concerning the problem of electrolyte transport in non-homogeneous solutions. Some approximations related to the model of transport are discussed, specially those referring to the electrodynamical aspects. Thus, the connection between the classical electrostatics approximations and the time-space limitations of the model is shown. A detailed analysis leads to conclude that some of the aspects of the charge separation process have not been completely understood. (Author)

  4. Kappa and other nonequilibrium distributions from the Fokker-Planck equation and the relationship to Tsallis entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shizgal, Bernie D.

    2018-05-01

    This paper considers two nonequilibrium model systems described by linear Fokker-Planck equations for the time-dependent velocity distribution functions that yield steady state Kappa distributions for specific system parameters. The first system describes the time evolution of a charged test particle in a constant temperature heat bath of a second charged particle. The time dependence of the distribution function of the test particle is given by a Fokker-Planck equation with drift and diffusion coefficients for Coulomb collisions as well as a diffusion coefficient for wave-particle interactions. A second system involves the Fokker-Planck equation for electrons dilutely dispersed in a constant temperature heat bath of atoms or ions and subject to an external time-independent uniform electric field. The momentum transfer cross section for collisions between the two components is assumed to be a power law in reduced speed. The time-dependent Fokker-Planck equations for both model systems are solved with a numerical finite difference method and the approach to equilibrium is rationalized with the Kullback-Leibler relative entropy. For particular choices of the system parameters for both models, the steady distribution is found to be a Kappa distribution. Kappa distributions were introduced as an empirical fitting function that well describe the nonequilibrium features of the distribution functions of electrons and ions in space science as measured by satellite instruments. The calculation of the Kappa distribution from the Fokker-Planck equations provides a direct physically based dynamical approach in contrast to the nonextensive entropy formalism by Tsallis [J. Stat. Phys. 53, 479 (1988), 10.1007/BF01016429].

  5. Complex Teichmüller Space below the Planck Length for the Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterberg, Friedwardt

    2014-03-01

    As Newton's mysterious action at a distance law of gravity was explained as a Riemannian geometry by Einstein, it is proposed that the likewise mysterious non-local quantum mechanics is explained by the analytic continuation below the Planck length into a complex Teichmüller space. Newton's theory worked extremely well, as does quantum mechanics, but no satisfactory explanation has been given for quantum mechanics. In one space dimension, sufficient to explain the EPR paradox, the Teichmüller space is reduced to a space of complex Riemann surfaces. Einstein's curved space-time theory of gravity was confirmed by a tiny departure from Newton's theory in the motion of the planet Mercury, and an experiment is proposed to demonstrate the possible existence of a Teichmüller space below the Planck length.

  6. Using Einstein's method to derive both the Planck and Fermi--Dirac distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, F.S.

    1988-01-01

    Many quantum mechanics textbooks give the remarkable argument of Einstein wherein he introduces his famous ''A and B coefficients'' and uses detailed balancing to derive the Planck distribution for thermal photons. But it seems to be not widely known that the same approach can yield the Fermi--Dirac distribution for thermal electrons

  7. Planck Early Results. XV. Spectral Energy Distributions and Radio Continuum Spectra of Northern Extragalactic Radio Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aatrokoski, J.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Aller, H. D.; Aller, M. F.; Angelakis, E.; Amaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and radio continuum spectra are presented for a northern sample of 104 extragalactic radio sources. based on the Planck Early Release Compact Source Catalogue (ERCSC) and simultaneous multi frequency data. The nine Planck frequencies, from 30 to 857 GHz, are complemented by a set of simultaneous observations ranging from radio to gamma-rays. This is the first extensive frequency coverage in the radio and millimetre domains for an essentially complete sample of extragalactic radio sources, and it shows how the individual shocks, each in their own phase of development, shape the radio spectra as they move in the relativistic jet. The SEDs presented in this paper were fitted with second and third degree polynomials to estimate the frequencies of the synchrotron and inverse Compton (IC) peaks, and the spectral indices of low and high frequency radio data, including the Planck ERCSC data, were calculated. SED modelling methods are discussed, with an emphasis on proper. physical modelling of the synchrotron bump using multiple components. Planck ERCSC data also suggest that the original accelerated electron energy spectrum could be much harder than commonly thought, with power-law index around 1.5 instead of the canonical 2.5. The implications of this are discussed for the acceleration mechanisms effective in blazar shock. Furthermore in many cases the Planck data indicate that gamma-ray emission must originate in the same shocks that produce the radio emission.

  8. Reconciling Planck with the local value of H0 in extended parameter space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Di Valentino

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The recent determination of the local value of the Hubble constant by Riess et al., 2016 (hereafter R16 is now 3.3 sigma higher than the value derived from the most recent CMB anisotropy data provided by the Planck satellite in a ΛCDM model. Here we perform a combined analysis of the Planck and R16 results in an extended parameter space, varying simultaneously 12 cosmological parameters instead of the usual 6. We find that a phantom-like dark energy component, with effective equation of state w=−1.29−0.12+0.15 at 68% c.l. can solve the current tension between the Planck dataset and the R16 prior in an extended ΛCDM scenario. On the other hand, the neutrino effective number is fully compatible with standard expectations. This result is confirmed when including cosmic shear data from the CFHTLenS survey and CMB lensing constraints from Planck. However, when BAO measurements are included we find that some of the tension with R16 remains, as also is the case when we include the supernova type Ia luminosity distances from the JLA catalog.

  9. Planck early results. XV. Spectral energy distributions and radio continuum spectra of northern extragalactic radio sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aatrokoski, J.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lavonen, N.

    2011-01-01

    Spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and radio continuum spectra are presented for a northern sample of 104 extragalactic radio sources, based on the Planck Early Release Compact Source Catalogue (ERCSC) and simultaneous multifrequency data. The nine Planck frequencies, from 30 to 857 GHz......, are complemented by a set of simultaneous observations ranging from radio to gamma-rays. This is the first extensive frequency coverage in the radio and millimetre domains for an essentially complete sample of extragalactic radio sources, and it shows how the individual shocks, each in their own phase...... of development, shape the radio spectra as they move in the relativistic jet. The SEDs presented in this paper were fitted with second and third degree polynomials to estimate the frequencies of the synchrotron and inverse Compton (IC) peaks, and the spectral indices of low and high frequency radio data...

  10. BICEP2, Planck, spinorial space-time, pre-Big Bang.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez-Mestres Luis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The field of Cosmology is currently undergoing a positive and constructive crisis. Controversies concerning inflation are not really new. But after the 2013-2014 Planck and BICEP2 announcements, and the more recent joint analysis by Planck, BICEP2 and the Keck Array (PBKA, the basic issues can involve more direct links between the Mathematical Physics aspects of cosmological patterns and the interpretation of experimental results. Open questions and new ideas on the foundations of Cosmology can emerge, while future experimental and observational programs look very promising. The BICEP2 result reporting an excess of B-mode polarization signal of the cosmic microwave background (CMB radiation was initially presented as a signature of primordial gravitational waves from cosmic inflation. But polarized dust emission can be at the origin of such a signal, and the evidence claimed by BICEP2 is no longer secure after the PBKA analysis. Furthermore, even assuming that significant CMB B-mode polarization has indeed been generated by the early Universe, its theoretical and cosmological interpretation would be far from obvious. Inflationary gravitational waves are not the only possible source of primordial CMB B-modes. Alternative cosmologies such as pre-Big Bang patterns and the spinorial space-time (SST we introduced in 1996-97 can naturally produce this polarization. Furthermore, the SST automatically generates for each comoving observer a local privileged space direction (PSD whose existence may have been confirmed by Planck data. If such a PSD exists, vector perturbations have most likely been strong in the early Universe and may have produced CMB B-modes. Pre-Big Bang cosmologies can also generate gravitational waves in the early Universe without inflation. After briefly describing detectors devoted to the study of the CMB polarization, we discuss the situation emerging from BICEP2 results, Planck results and the PBKA analysis. In particular, we

  11. Constraints on interacting dark energy models from Planck 2015 and redshift-space distortion data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, André A.; Abdalla, E. [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, C.P. 66318, 05315-970, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Xu, Xiao-Dong [Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, Cape Town (South Africa); Wang, Bin, E-mail: alencar@if.usp.br, E-mail: xiaodong.xu@uct.ac.za, E-mail: wang_b@sjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: eabdalla@usp.br [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200240 Shanghai (China)

    2017-01-01

    We investigate phenomenological interactions between dark matter and dark energy and constrain these models by employing the most recent cosmological data including the cosmic microwave background radiation anisotropies from Planck 2015, Type Ia supernovae, baryon acoustic oscillations, the Hubble constant and redshift-space distortions. We find that the interaction in the dark sector parameterized as an energy transfer from dark matter to dark energy is strongly suppressed by the whole updated cosmological data. On the other hand, an interaction between dark sectors with the energy flow from dark energy to dark matter is proved in better agreement with the available cosmological observations. This coupling between dark sectors is needed to alleviate the coincidence problem.

  12. Reduced Fokker-Planck models for fast particle distribution across a transition layer of disparate plasma temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xian-Zhu; Berk, H. L.; Guo, Zehua; McDevitt, C. J.

    2014-03-01

    Across a transition layer of disparate plasma temperatures, the high energy tail of the plasma distribution can have appreciable deviations from the local Maxwellian distribution due to the Knudson layer effect. The Fokker-Planck equation for the tail particle population can be simplified in a series of practically useful limiting cases. The first is the approximation of background Maxwellian distribution for linearizing the collision operator. The second is the supra-thermal particle speed ordering of vTi ≪ v ≪ vTe for the tail ions and vTi ≪ vTe ≪ v for the tail electrons. Keeping both the collisional drag and energy scattering is essential for the collision operator to produce a Maxwellian tail distribution. The Fokker-Planck model for following the tail ion distribution for a given background plasma profile is explicitly worked out for systems of one spatial dimension, in both slab and spherical geometry. A third simplification is an expansion of the tail particle distribution using the spherical harmonics, which are eigenfunctions of the pitch angle scattering operator. This produces a set of coupled Fokker-Planck equations that contain energy-dependent spatial diffusion terms in two coordinates (position and energy), which originate from pitch angle scattering in the original Fokker-Planck equation. It is shown that the well-known diffusive Fokker-Planck model is a poor approximation of the two-mode truncation model, which itself has fundamental deficiency compared with the three-mode truncation model. The cause is the lack of even-symmetry representation in pitch dependence in the two-mode truncation model.

  13. Distributed space-time coding

    CERN Document Server

    Jing, Yindi

    2014-01-01

    Distributed Space-Time Coding (DSTC) is a cooperative relaying scheme that enables high reliability in wireless networks. This brief presents the basic concept of DSTC, its achievable performance, generalizations, code design, and differential use. Recent results on training design and channel estimation for DSTC and the performance of training-based DSTC are also discussed.

  14. Planck 2010

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Grojean, Christophe

    2010-01-01

    Planck 2010 From the Planck Scale to the ElectroWeak Scale The conference will be the twelfth one in a series of meetings on physics beyond the Standard Model, organized jointly by several European groups: Bonn, CERN, Ecole Polytechnique, ICTP, Madrid, Oxford, Padua, Pisa, SISSA and Warsaw as part of activities in the framework of the European network UNILHC.Topics to be discussed: Supersymmetry Supergravity & string phenomenology Extra dimensions Electroweak symmetry breaking LHC and Tevatron Physics Collider physics Flavor & neutrinos physics Astroparticle & cosmology Gravity & holography Strongly coupled physics & CFT Registration: registration will be open until May 1st. Registration fees amount to 150 CHF and cover the cost of the coffee breaks and the social dinner. Payment has to be made online. The deadline for registration has been postponed to May 7th. However, after May 3th, we shall not accept any talk reques...

  15. Planck intermediate results: XLIII. Spectral energy distribution of dust in clusters of galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adam, R.; Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.

    2016-01-01

    Although infrared (IR) overall dust emission from clusters of galaxies has been statistically detected using data from the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS), it has not been possible to sample the spectral energy distribution (SED) of this emission over its peak, and thus to break the degene...

  16. A comparative study of the tail ion distribution with reduced Fokker-Planck models

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDevitt, C. J.; Tang, Xian-Zhu; Guo, Zehua; Berk, H. L.

    2014-03-01

    A series of reduced models are used to study the fast ion tail in the vicinity of a transition layer between plasmas at disparate temperatures and densities, which is typical of the gas and pusher interface in inertial confinement fusion targets. Emphasis is placed on utilizing progressively more comprehensive models in order to identify the essential physics for computing the fast ion tail at energies comparable to the Gamow peak. The resulting fast ion tail distribution is subsequently used to compute the fusion reactivity as a function of collisionality and temperature. While a significant reduction of the fusion reactivity in the hot spot compared to the nominal Maxwellian case is present, this reduction is found to be partially recovered by an increase of the fusion reactivity in the neighboring cold region.

  17. Fundamental issues on kappa-distributions in space plasmas and interplanetary proton distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leubner, M.P.

    2004-01-01

    Numerous in situ observations indicate clearly the presence of nonthermal electron and ion structures as ubiquitous and persistent feature in a variety of astrophysical plasma environments. In particular, the detected suprathermal particle populations are accurately represented by the family of κ-distributions, a power-law in particle speed. After clarifying the characteristics of high-energy tail distributions under various space plasma conditions, different generation mechanisms of energetic particles are introduced where numerical simulations of wave-particle interaction based on a Fokker-Planck approach demonstrate how Landau interaction ultimately leads to κ-like distributions. Because of lack of theoretical justification, the use of the analytical form of κ-functions was frequently criticized. It is shown that these distributions turn out as consequence of an entropy generalization favored by nonextensive thermo-statistics, thus providing the missing link for powerlaw models of suprathermal tails from fundamental physics, along with a physical interpretation of the structure parameter κ. Moreover, with regard to the full nonextensive formalism, compatible also with negative values of κ, it is demonstrated that core-halo distribution structures, as observed for instance under typical interplanetary plasma conditions, are a natural content of the pseudo-additive entropy concept. The significance of the complete κ-distribution family with regard to observed core-halo electron and double-humped ion velocity space characteristics is illuminated, where the observed peak separation scale of interplanetary proton distributions is compatible with a maximum entropy condition

  18. Stochastic reliability analysis using Fokker Planck equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hari Prasad, M.; Rami Reddy, G.; Srividya, A.; Verma, A.K.

    2011-01-01

    The Fokker-Planck equation describes the time evolution of the probability density function of the velocity of a particle, and can be generalized to other observables as well. It is also known as the Kolmogorov forward equation (diffusion). Hence, for any process, which evolves with time, the probability density function as a function of time can be represented with Fokker-Planck equation. In stochastic reliability analysis one is more interested in finding out the reliability or failure probability of the components or structures as a function of time rather than instantaneous failure probabilities. In this analysis the variables are represented with random processes instead of random variables. A random processes can be either stationary or non stationary. If the random process is stationary then the failure probability doesn't change with time where as in the case of non stationary processes the failure probability changes with time. In the present paper Fokker Planck equations have been used to find out the probability density function of the non stationary random processes. In this paper a flow chart has been provided which describes step by step process for carrying out stochastic reliability analysis using Fokker-Planck equations. As a first step one has to identify the failure function as a function of random processes. Then one has to solve the Fokker-Planck equation for each random process. In this paper the Fokker-Planck equation has been solved by using Finite difference method. As a result one gets the probability density values of the random process in the sample space as well as time space. Later at each time step appropriate probability distribution has to be identified based on the available probability density values. For checking the better fitness of the data Kolmogorov-Smirnov Goodness of fit test has been performed. In this way one can find out the distribution of the random process at each time step. Once one has the probability distribution

  19. Power spectra based Planck constraints on compensated isocurvature, and forecasts for LiteBIRD and CORE space missions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Väliviita, Jussi, E-mail: jussi.valiviita@helsinki.fi [University of Helsinki, Department of Physics and Helsinki Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 64, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2017-04-01

    Compensated isocurvature perturbations (CIP), where the primordial baryon and cold dark matter density perturbations cancel, do not cause total matter isocurvature perturbation. Consequently, at the linear order in the baryon density contrast Δ, a mixture of CIP and the adiabatic mode leads to the same CMB spectra as the pure adiabatic mode. Only recently, Muñoz et al. showed that at the second order CIP leaves an imprint in the observable CMB by smoothing the power spectra in a similar manner as lensing. This causes a strong degeneracy between the CIP variance Δ{sub rms}{sup 2} ≡ (Δ{sup 2}) and the phenomenological lensing parameter A {sub L}. We study several combinations of the Planck 2015 data and show that the measured lensing potential power spectrum C {sub ℓ}{sup φφ} breaks the degeneracy. Nested sampling of the ΛCDM+Δ{sub rms}{sup 2}(+ A {sub L}) model using the Planck 2015 temperature, polarization, and lensing data gives Δ{sub rms}{sup 2} = (6.9{sup +3.0}{sub −3.1}) × 10{sup −3} at 68% CL. A non-zero value is favoured at 2.3σ (or without the polarization data at 2.8σ). CIP with Δ{sub rms}{sup 2} ≈ 7 × 10{sup −3} improves the bestfit χ{sup 2} by 3.6 compared to the adiabatic ΛCDM model. In contrast, although the temperature data favour A {sub L} ≅ 1.22, allowing A {sub L} ≠ 1 does not improve the joint fit at all, since the lensing data disfavour A {sub L} ≠ 1. Indeed, CIP provides a rare example of a simple model, which is capable of reducing the Planck lensing anomaly significantly and fitting well simultaneously the high (and low) multipole temperature and lensing data, as well as the polarization data. Finally, we derive forecasts for two future satellite missions (LiteBIRD proposal to JAXA/NASA and Exploring Cosmic Origins with CORE proposal to ESA's M5 call) and compare these to simulated Planck data. Due to its coarse angular resolution, LiteBIRD is not able to improve the constraints on Δ{sub rms}{sup 2} or A

  20. Topological vector spaces and distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Horvath, John

    2012-01-01

    ""The most readable introduction to the theory of vector spaces available in English and possibly any other language.""-J. L. B. Cooper, MathSciNet ReviewMathematically rigorous but user-friendly, this classic treatise discusses major modern contributions to the field of topological vector spaces. The self-contained treatment includes complete proofs for all necessary results from algebra and topology. Suitable for undergraduate mathematics majors with a background in advanced calculus, this volume will also assist professional mathematicians, physicists, and engineers.The precise exposition o

  1. The Planck Telescope reflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stute, Thomas

    2004-09-01

    The mechanical division of EADS-Astrium GmbH, Friedrichshafen is currently engaged with the development, manufacturing and testing of the advanced dimensionally stable composite reflectors for the ESA satellite borne telescope Planck. The objective of the ESA mission Planck is to analyse the first light that filled the universe, the cosmic microwave background radiation. Under contract of the Danish Space Research Institute and ESA EADS-Astrium GmbH is developing the all CFRP primary and secondary reflectors for the 1.5-metre telescope which is the main instrument of the Planck satellite. The operational frequency ranges from to 25 GHz to 1000 GHz. The demanding high contour accuracy and surface roughness requirements are met. The design provides the extreme dimensional stability required by the cryogenic operational environment at around 40 K. The elliptical off-axis reflectors display a classical lightweight sandwich design with CFRP core and facesheets. Isostatic mounts provide the interfaces to the telescope structure. Protected VDA provides the reflecting surface. The manufacturing is performed at the Friedrichshafen premises of EADS-Space Transportation GmbH, the former Dornier composite workshops. Advanced manufacturing technologies like true angle lay-up by CNC fibre placement and filament winding are utilized. The protected coating is applied at the CAHA facilities at the Calar Alto Observatory, Spain. The exhaustive environmental testing is performed at the facilities of IABG, Munich (mechanical testing) and for the cryo-optical tests at CSL Liege. The project is in advanced state with both Qualification Models being under environmental testing. The flight models will be delivered in 2004. The paper gives an overview over the requirements and the main structural features how these requirements are met. Special production aspects and available test results are reported.

  2. Independence of the effective dielectric constant of an electrolytic solution on the ionic distribution in the linear Poisson-Nernst-Planck model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexe-Ionescu, A L; Barbero, G; Lelidis, I

    2014-08-28

    We consider the influence of the spatial dependence of the ions distribution on the effective dielectric constant of an electrolytic solution. We show that in the linear version of the Poisson-Nernst-Planck model, the effective dielectric constant of the solution has to be considered independent of any ionic distribution induced by the external field. This result follows from the fact that, in the linear approximation of the Poisson-Nernst-Planck model, the redistribution of the ions in the solvent due to the external field gives rise to a variation of the dielectric constant that is of the first order in the effective potential, and therefore it has to be neglected in the Poisson's equation that relates the actual electric potential across the electrolytic cell to the bulk density of ions. The analysis is performed in the case where the electrodes are perfectly blocking and the adsorption at the electrodes is negligible, and in the absence of any ion dissociation-recombination effect.

  3. Planck early results. XVI. The Planck view of nearby galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lähteenmäki, A.; Poutanen, T.; Natoli, P.

    2011-01-01

    they have been observed. We here present the first results on the properties of nearby galaxies using these data. We match the ERCSC catalogue to IRAS-detected galaxies in the Imperial IRAS Faint Source Redshift Catalogue (IIFSCz), so that we can measure the spectral energy distributions (SEDs......) of these objects from 60 to 850μm. This produces a list of 1717 galaxies with reliable associations between Planck and IRAS, from which we select a subset of 468 for SED studies, namely those with strong detections in the three highest frequency Planck bands and no evidence of cirrus contamination. The SEDs...

  4. FIFPC, a fast ion Fokker--Planck code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, R.H.; Callen, J.D.; Rome, J.A.; Smith, J.

    1976-07-01

    A computer code is described which solves the Fokker--Planck equation for the velocity space distribution of fast ions injected into a tokamak plasma. The numerical techniques are described and use of the code is outlined. The program is written in FORTRAN IV and is modularized in order to provide greater flexibility to the user. A program listing is provided and the results of sample cases are presented

  5. Resummation of transverse momentum distributions in distribution space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebert, Markus A.; Tackmann, Frank J.

    2016-11-01

    Differential spectra in observables that resolve additional soft or collinear QCD emissions exhibit Sudakov double logarithms in the form of logarithmic plus distributions. Important examples are the total transverse momentum q_T in color-singlet production, N-jettiness (with thrust or beam thrust as special cases), but also jet mass and more complicated jet substructure observables. The all-order logarithmic structure of such distributions is often fully encoded in differential equations, so-called (renormalization group) evolution equations. We introduce a well-defined technique of distributional scale setting, which allows one to treat logarithmic plus distributions like ordinary logarithms when solving these differential equations. In particular, this allows one (through canonical scale choices) to minimize logarithmic contributions in the boundary terms of the solution, and to obtain the full distributional logarithmic structure from the solution's evolution kernel directly in distribution space. We apply this technique to the q_T distribution, where the two-dimensional nature of convolutions leads to additional difficulties (compared to one-dimensional cases like thrust), and for which the resummation in distribution (or momentum) space has been a long-standing open question. For the first time, we show how to perform the RG evolution fully in momentum space, thereby directly resumming the logarithms [ln"n(q"2_T/Q"2)/q"2_T]_+ appearing in the physical q_T distribution. The resummation accuracy is then solely determined by the perturbative expansion of the associated anomalous dimensions.

  6. Probability Distribution for Flowing Interval Spacing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzio, S.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to develop a probability distribution for flowing interval spacing. A flowing interval is defined as a fractured zone that transmits flow in the Saturated Zone (SZ), as identified through borehole flow meter surveys (Figure 1). This analysis uses the term ''flowing interval spacing'' as opposed to fractured spacing, which is typically used in the literature. The term fracture spacing was not used in this analysis because the data used identify a zone (or a flowing interval) that contains fluid-conducting fractures but does not distinguish how many or which fractures comprise the flowing interval. The flowing interval spacing is measured between the midpoints of each flowing interval. Fracture spacing within the SZ is defined as the spacing between fractures, with no regard to which fractures are carrying flow. The Development Plan associated with this analysis is entitled, ''Probability Distribution for Flowing Interval Spacing'', (CRWMS M and O 2000a). The parameter from this analysis may be used in the TSPA SR/LA Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Work Direction and Planning Documents: (1) ''Abstraction of Matrix Diffusion for SZ Flow and Transport Analyses'' (CRWMS M and O 1999a) and (2) ''Incorporation of Heterogeneity in SZ Flow and Transport Analyses'', (CRWMS M and O 1999b). A limitation of this analysis is that the probability distribution of flowing interval spacing may underestimate the effect of incorporating matrix diffusion processes in the SZ transport model because of the possible overestimation of the flowing interval spacing. Larger flowing interval spacing results in a decrease in the matrix diffusion processes. This analysis may overestimate the flowing interval spacing because the number of fractures that contribute to a flowing interval cannot be determined from the data. Because each flowing interval probably has more than one fracture contributing to a flowing interval, the true flowing interval spacing could be

  7. Resummation of transverse momentum distributions in distribution space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, Markus A.; Tackmann, Frank J. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group

    2016-11-15

    Differential spectra in observables that resolve additional soft or collinear QCD emissions exhibit Sudakov double logarithms in the form of logarithmic plus distributions. Important examples are the total transverse momentum q{sub T} in color-singlet production, N-jettiness (with thrust or beam thrust as special cases), but also jet mass and more complicated jet substructure observables. The all-order logarithmic structure of such distributions is often fully encoded in differential equations, so-called (renormalization group) evolution equations. We introduce a well-defined technique of distributional scale setting, which allows one to treat logarithmic plus distributions like ordinary logarithms when solving these differential equations. In particular, this allows one (through canonical scale choices) to minimize logarithmic contributions in the boundary terms of the solution, and to obtain the full distributional logarithmic structure from the solution's evolution kernel directly in distribution space. We apply this technique to the q{sub T} distribution, where the two-dimensional nature of convolutions leads to additional difficulties (compared to one-dimensional cases like thrust), and for which the resummation in distribution (or momentum) space has been a long-standing open question. For the first time, we show how to perform the RG evolution fully in momentum space, thereby directly resumming the logarithms [ln{sup n}(q{sup 2}{sub T}/Q{sup 2})/q{sup 2}{sub T}]{sub +} appearing in the physical q{sub T} distribution. The resummation accuracy is then solely determined by the perturbative expansion of the associated anomalous dimensions.

  8. Resummation of transverse momentum distributions in distribution space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, Markus A.; Tackmann, Frank J. [Theory Group, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY),D-22607 Hamburg (Germany)

    2017-02-22

    Differential spectra in observables that resolve additional soft or collinear QCD emissions exhibit Sudakov double logarithms in the form of logarithmic plus distributions. Important examples are the total transverse momentum q{sub T} in color-singlet production, N-jettiness (with thrust or beam thrust as special cases), but also jet mass and more complicated jet substructure observables. The all-order logarithmic structure of such distributions is often fully encoded in differential equations, so-called (renormalization group) evolution equations. We introduce a well-defined technique of distributional scale setting, which allows one to treat logarithmic plus distributions like ordinary logarithms when solving these differential equations. In particular, this allows one (through canonical scale choices) to minimize logarithmic contributions in the boundary terms of the solution, and to obtain the full distributional logarithmic structure from the solution’s evolution kernel directly in distribution space. We apply this technique to the q{sub T} distribution, where the two-dimensional nature of convolutions leads to additional difficulties (compared to one-dimensional cases like thrust), and for which the resummation in distribution (or momentum) space has been a long-standing open question. For the first time, we show how to perform the RG evolution fully in momentum space, thereby directly resumming the logarithms [ln{sup n} (q{sub T}{sup 2}/Q{sup 2})/q{sub T}{sup 2}]{sub +} appearing in the physical q{sub T} distribution. The resummation accuracy is then solely determined by the perturbative expansion of the associated anomalous dimensions.

  9. A Planck Vacuum Cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daywitt W. C.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Both the big-bang and the quasi-steady-state cosmologies originate in some type of Planck state. This paper presents a new cosmological theory based on the Planck- vacuum negative-energy state, a state consisting of a degenerate collection of negative- energy Planck particles. A heuristic look at the Einstein field equation provides a con- vincing argument that such a vacuum state could provide a theoretical explanation for the visible universe.

  10. Distributed Graph-Based State Space Generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, Stefan; Kant, Gijs; Rensink, Arend; De Lara, J.; Varro, D.

    LTSMIN provides a framework in which state space generation can be distributed easily over many cores on a single compute node, as well as over multiple compute nodes. The tool works on the basis of a vector representation of the states; the individual cores are assigned the task of computing all

  11. Distributed Space Missions for Earth System Monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    A key addition to Springer's Space Technology Library series, this edited volume features the work of dozens of authors and offers a wealth of perspectives on distributed Earth observation missions. In sum, it is an eloquent synthesis of the fullest possible range of current approaches to a fast-developing field characterized by growing membership of the 'space club' to include nations formerly regarded as part of the Third World. The volume's four discrete sections focus on the topic's various aspects, including the key theoretical and technical issues arising from the division of payloads onto different satellites. The first is devoted to analyzing distributed synthetic aperture radars, with bi- and multi-static radars receiving separate treatment. This is followed by a full discussion of relative dynamics, guidance, navigation and control. Here, the separate topics of design; establishment, maintenance and control; and measurements are developed with relative trajectory as a reference point, while the dis...

  12. Longitudinal momentum distributions in transverse coordinate space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Narinder; Mondal, Chandan

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, we study the longitudinal momentum distributions in the transverse coordinate space in a light-front quark-diquark model inspired by soft-wall AdS/QCD. We take the phenomenological light-front quark-diquark model proposed by Gutsche et. al. In this model, the light-front wave functions (LFWFs) for the proton are constructed from the two particle wave functions obtained in soft-wall AdS/QCD

  13. Planck 2013 results. XXXI. Consistency of the Planck data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.

    2014-01-01

    The Planck design and scanning strategy provide many levels of redundancy that can be exploited to provide tests of internal consistency. One of the most important is the comparison of the 70 GHz (amplifier) and 100 GHz (bolometer) channels. Based on dierent instrument technologies, with feeds...... in the HFI channels would result in shifts in the posterior distributions of parameters of less than 0.3σ except for As, the amplitude of the primordial curvature perturbations at 0.05 Mpc-1, which changes by about 1.We extend these comparisons to include the sky maps from the complete nine-year mission...... located dierently in the focal plane, analysed independently by dierent teams using dierent software, and near∫ the minimum of diuse foreground emission, these channels are in eect two dierent experiments. The 143 GHz channel has the lowest noise level on Planck, and is near the minimum of unresolved...

  14. Probability Distribution for Flowing Interval Spacing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S. Kuzio

    2004-01-01

    Fracture spacing is a key hydrologic parameter in analyses of matrix diffusion. Although the individual fractures that transmit flow in the saturated zone (SZ) cannot be identified directly, it is possible to determine the fractured zones that transmit flow from flow meter survey observations. The fractured zones that transmit flow as identified through borehole flow meter surveys have been defined in this report as flowing intervals. The flowing interval spacing is measured between the midpoints of each flowing interval. The determination of flowing interval spacing is important because the flowing interval spacing parameter is a key hydrologic parameter in SZ transport modeling, which impacts the extent of matrix diffusion in the SZ volcanic matrix. The output of this report is input to the ''Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Model Abstraction'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170042]). Specifically, the analysis of data and development of a data distribution reported herein is used to develop the uncertainty distribution for the flowing interval spacing parameter for the SZ transport abstraction model. Figure 1-1 shows the relationship of this report to other model reports that also pertain to flow and transport in the SZ. Figure 1-1 also shows the flow of key information among the SZ reports. It should be noted that Figure 1-1 does not contain a complete representation of the data and parameter inputs and outputs of all SZ reports, nor does it show inputs external to this suite of SZ reports. Use of the developed flowing interval spacing probability distribution is subject to the limitations of the assumptions discussed in Sections 5 and 6 of this analysis report. The number of fractures in a flowing interval is not known. Therefore, the flowing intervals are assumed to be composed of one flowing zone in the transport simulations. This analysis may overestimate the flowing interval spacing because the number of fractures that contribute to a flowing interval cannot be

  15. Einstein and Planck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilbron, John

    2005-03-01

    As an editor of the Annalen der Physik, Max Planck published Einstein's early papers on thermodynamics and on special relativity, which Planck probably was the first major physicist to appreciate. They respected one another not only as physicists but also, for their inspired creation of world pictures, as artists. Planck helped to establish Einstein in a sinecure at the center of German physics, Berlin. Despite their differences in scientific style, social life, politics, and religion, they became fast friends. Their mutual admiration survived World War I, during which Einstein advocated pacifism and Planck signed the infamous Manifesto of the 93 Intellectuals supporting the German invasion of Belgium. It also survived the Weimar Republic, which Einstein favored and Planck disliked. Physics drew them together, as both opposed the Copenhagen Interpretation; so did common decency, as Planck helped to protect Einstein from anti-semitic attacks. Their friendship did not survive the Nazis. As a standing secretary of the Berlin Academy, Planck had to advise Einstein to resign from it before his colleagues, outraged at his criticism of the new Germany from the safety of California, expelled him. Einstein never forgave his old friend and former fellow artist for not protesting publicly against his expulsion and denigration, and other enormities of National Socialism. .

  16. Charge distributions in transverse coordinate space and in impact parameter space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Dae Sung [Department of Physics, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: dshwang@slac.stanford.edu; Kim, Dong Soo [Department of Physics, Kangnung National University, Kangnung 210-702 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jonghyun [Department of Physics, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-11-27

    We study the charge distributions of the valence quarks inside nucleon in the transverse coordinate space, which is conjugate to the transverse momentum space. We compare the results with the charge distributions in the impact parameter space.

  17. Charge distributions in transverse coordinate space and in impact parameter space

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Dae Sung; Kim, Dong Soo; Kim, Jonghyun

    2008-01-01

    We study the charge distributions of the valence quarks inside nucleon in the transverse coordinate space, which is conjugate to the transverse momentum space. We compare the results with the charge distributions in the impact parameter space.

  18. BICEP2, Planck, spinorial space-time, pre-Big Bang.. On the possible origin of primordial CMB B-modes and gravitational waves. Potentialities of alternative cosmologies and open questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Mestres, Luis

    2015-05-01

    The field of Cosmology is currently undergoing a positive and constructive crisis. Controversies concerning inflation are not really new. But after the 2013-2014 Planck and BICEP2 announcements, and the more recent joint analysis by Planck, BICEP2 and the Keck Array (PBKA), the basic issues can involve more direct links between the Mathematical Physics aspects of cosmological patterns and the interpretation of experimental results. Open questions and new ideas on the foundations of Cosmology can emerge, while future experimental and observational programs look very promising. The BICEP2 result reporting an excess of B-mode polarization signal of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation was initially presented as a signature of primordial gravitational waves from cosmic inflation. But polarized dust emission can be at the origin of such a signal, and the evidence claimed by BICEP2 is no longer secure after the PBKA analysis. Furthermore, even assuming that significant CMB B-mode polarization has indeed been generated by the early Universe, its theoretical and cosmological interpretation would be far from obvious. Inflationary gravitational waves are not the only possible source of primordial CMB B-modes. Alternative cosmologies such as pre-Big Bang patterns and the spinorial space-time (SST) we introduced in 1996-97 can naturally produce this polarization. Furthermore, the SST automatically generates for each comoving observer a local privileged space direction (PSD) whose existence may have been confirmed by Planck data. If such a PSD exists, vector perturbations have most likely been strong in the early Universe and may have produced CMB B-modes. Pre-Big Bang cosmologies can also generate gravitational waves in the early Universe without inflation. After briefly describing detectors devoted to the study of the CMB polarization, we discuss the situation emerging from BICEP2 results, Planck results and the PBKA analysis. In particular, we further analyze

  19. Discrete Planck spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlad, Valentin I.; Ionescu-Pallas, Nicholas

    2000-10-01

    The Planck radiation spectrum of ideal cubic and spherical cavities, in the region of small adiabatic invariance, γ = TV 1/3 , is shown to be discrete and strongly dependent on the cavity geometry and temperature. This behavior is the consequence of the random distribution of the state weights in the cubic cavity and of the random overlapping of the successive multiplet components, for the spherical cavity. The total energy (obtained by summing up the exact contributions of the eigenvalues and their weights, for low values of the adiabatic invariance) does not obey any longer Stefan-Boltzmann law. The new law includes a corrective factor depending on γ and imposes a faster decrease of the total energy to zero, for γ → 0. We have defined the double quantized regime both for cubic and spherical cavities by the superior and inferior limits put on the principal quantum numbers or the adiabatic invariance. The total energy of the double quantized cavities shows large differences from the classical calculations over unexpected large intervals, which are measurable and put in evidence important macroscopic quantum effects. (author)

  20. DUST SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS IN THE ERA OF HERSCHEL AND PLANCK: A HIERARCHICAL BAYESIAN-FITTING TECHNIQUE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, Brandon C.; Goodman, Alyssa A.; Shetty, Rahul; Stutz, Amelia M.; Launhardt, Ralf; Kauffmann, Jens

    2012-01-01

    We present a hierarchical Bayesian method for fitting infrared spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of dust emission to observed fluxes. Under the standard assumption of optically thin single temperature (T) sources, the dust SED as represented by a power-law-modified blackbody is subject to a strong degeneracy between T and the spectral index β. The traditional non-hierarchical approaches, typically based on χ 2 minimization, are severely limited by this degeneracy, as it produces an artificial anti-correlation between T and β even with modest levels of observational noise. The hierarchical Bayesian method rigorously and self-consistently treats measurement uncertainties, including calibration and noise, resulting in more precise SED fits. As a result, the Bayesian fits do not produce any spurious anti-correlations between the SED parameters due to measurement uncertainty. We demonstrate that the Bayesian method is substantially more accurate than the χ 2 fit in recovering the SED parameters, as well as the correlations between them. As an illustration, we apply our method to Herschel and submillimeter ground-based observations of the star-forming Bok globule CB244. This source is a small, nearby molecular cloud containing a single low-mass protostar and a starless core. We find that T and β are weakly positively correlated—in contradiction with the χ 2 fits, which indicate a T-β anti-correlation from the same data set. Additionally, in comparison to the χ 2 fits the Bayesian SED parameter estimates exhibit a reduced range in values.

  1. Planck intermediate results L. Evidence of spatial variation of the polarized thermal dust spectral energy distribution and implications for CMB B-mode analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aghanim, N.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.

    2017-01-01

    The characterization of the Galactic foregrounds has been shown to be the main obstacle in the challenging quest to detect primordial B-modes in the polarized microwave sky. We make use of the Planck-HFI 2015 data release at high frequencies to place new constraints on the properties of the polar......The characterization of the Galactic foregrounds has been shown to be the main obstacle in the challenging quest to detect primordial B-modes in the polarized microwave sky. We make use of the Planck-HFI 2015 data release at high frequencies to place new constraints on the properties...

  2. Planck Early Results: The thermal performance of Planck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.

    2011-01-01

    The performance of the Planck instruments in space is enabled by their low operating temperatures, 20K for LFI and 0.1K for HFI, achieved through a combination of passive radiative cooling and three active mechanical coolers. Active coolers were chosen to minimize straylight on the detectors...... and to maximize lifetime. The scientific requirement for very broad frequency led to two detector technologies with widely dierent temperature and cooling needs. This made use of a helium cryostat, as used by previous cryogenic space missions (IRAS, COBE, ISO, SPITZER, AKARI), infeasible. Radiative cooling...... is provided by three V-groove radiators and a large telescope bae. The active coolers are a hydrogen sorption cooler (cooled in space to operating conditions...

  3. Nongyrotropic particle distributions in space plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Motschmann

    Full Text Available In nonstationary, strong inhomogeneous or open plasmas particle orbits are rather complicated. If the nonstationary time scale is smaller than the gyration period, if the inhomogeneity scale is smaller than the gyration radius, i.e. at magnetic plasma boundaries, or if the plasma has sources and sinks in phase space, then nongyrotropic distribution functions occur. The stability of such plasma configurations is studied in the framework of linear dispersion theory. In an open plasma nongyrotropy drives unstable waves parallel and perpendicular to the background magnetic field, whereas in the gyrotropic limit the plasma is stable. In nonstationary plasmas nongyrotropy drives perpendicular unstable waves only. Temporal modulation couples a seed mode with its side lobes and thus it renders unstable wave growth more difficult. As an example of an inhomogeneous plasma a magnetic halfspace is discussed. In a layer with thickness of the thermal proton gyroradius a nongyrotropic distribution is formed which may excite unstable parallel and perpendicular propagating waves.

    Key words. Interplanetary physics (plasma waves and turbulence · Ionosphere (plasma waves and instabilities · Magnetospheric physics (plasma waves and instabilities

  4. Nongyrotropic particle distributions in space plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Motschmann

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available In nonstationary, strong inhomogeneous or open plasmas particle orbits are rather complicated. If the nonstationary time scale is smaller than the gyration period, if the inhomogeneity scale is smaller than the gyration radius, i.e. at magnetic plasma boundaries, or if the plasma has sources and sinks in phase space, then nongyrotropic distribution functions occur. The stability of such plasma configurations is studied in the framework of linear dispersion theory. In an open plasma nongyrotropy drives unstable waves parallel and perpendicular to the background magnetic field, whereas in the gyrotropic limit the plasma is stable. In nonstationary plasmas nongyrotropy drives perpendicular unstable waves only. Temporal modulation couples a seed mode with its side lobes and thus it renders unstable wave growth more difficult. As an example of an inhomogeneous plasma a magnetic halfspace is discussed. In a layer with thickness of the thermal proton gyroradius a nongyrotropic distribution is formed which may excite unstable parallel and perpendicular propagating waves.Key words. Interplanetary physics (plasma waves and turbulence · Ionosphere (plasma waves and instabilities · Magnetospheric physics (plasma waves and instabilities

  5. Kinematic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect with Projected Fields: A Novel Probe of the Baryon Distribution with Planck, WMAP, and WISE Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, J Colin; Ferraro, Simone; Battaglia, Nick; Liu, Jia; Spergel, David N

    2016-07-29

    The kinematic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (KSZ) effect-the Doppler boosting of cosmic microwave background (CMB) photons due to Compton scattering off free electrons with nonzero bulk velocity-probes the abundance and the distribution of baryons in the Universe. All KSZ measurements to date have explicitly required spectroscopic redshifts. Here, we implement a novel estimator for the KSZ-large-scale structure cross-correlation based on projected fields: it does not require redshift estimates for individual objects, allowing KSZ measurements from large-scale imaging surveys. We apply this estimator to cleaned CMB temperature maps constructed from Planck and WMAP data and a galaxy sample from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). We measure the KSZ effect at 3.8σ-4.5σ significance, depending on the use of additional WISE galaxy bias constraints. We verify that our measurements are robust to possible dust emission from the WISE galaxies. Assuming the standard Λ cold dark matter cosmology, we directly constrain (f_{b}/0.158)(f_{free}/1.0)=1.48±0.19 (statistical error only) at redshift z≈0.4, where f_{b} is the fraction of matter in baryonic form and f_{free} is the free electron fraction. This is the tightest KSZ-derived constraint reported to date on these parameters. Astronomers have long known that baryons do not trace dark matter on ∼ kiloparsec scales and there has been strong evidence that galaxies are baryon poor. The consistency between the f_{b} value found here and the values inferred from analyses of the primordial CMB and big bang nucleosynthesis verifies that baryons approximately trace the dark matter distribution down to ∼ megaparsec scales. While our projected-field estimator is already competitive with other KSZ approaches when applied to current data sets (because we are able to use the full-sky WISE photometric survey), it will yield enormous signal-to-noise ratios when applied to upcoming high-resolution, multifrequency CMB surveys.

  6. Semiempirical theory of level spacing distribution beyond the Berry-Robnik regime: modeling the localization and the tunneling effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batistic, Benjamin; Robnik, Marko

    2010-01-01

    In this work we study the level spacing distribution in the classically mixed-type quantum systems (which are generic), exhibiting regular motion on invariant tori for some initial conditions and chaotic motion for the complementary initial conditions. In the asymptotic regime of the sufficiently deep semiclassical limit (sufficiently small effective Planck constant) the Berry and Robnik (1984 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 17 2413) picture applies, which is very well established. We present a new quasi-universal semiempirical theory of the level spacing distribution in a regime away from the Berry-Robnik regime (the near semiclassical limit), by describing both the dynamical localization effects of chaotic eigenstates, and the tunneling effects which couple regular and chaotic eigenstates. The theory works extremely well in the 2D mixed-type billiard system introduced by Robnik (1983 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 16 3971) and is also tested in other systems (mushroom billiard and Prosen billiard).

  7. Cosmological constraints on neutrinos with Planck data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinelli, M.

    2015-01-01

    Neutrinos take part in the dance of the evolving Universe influencing its history from leptogenesis, to Big Bang nucleosynthesis, until late time structure formation. This makes cosmology, and in particular one of its primary observables the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), an unusual but valuable tool for testing Neutrino Physics. The best measurement to date of full-sky CMB anisotropies comes from the Planck satellite launched in 2009 by the European Space Agency (ESA) and successful follower of COBE and WMAP. Testing Planck data against precise theoretical predictions allow us to shed light on various interesting open questions such as the value of the absolute scale of neutrino masses or their energy density. We revise here the results concerning neutrinos obtained by the Planck Collaboration in the 2013 data release

  8. Cosmological constraints on neutrinos with Planck data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinelli, M. [Laboratoire de l’Accélérateur Linéaire, Bat.200, 91400 Orsay (France)

    2015-07-15

    Neutrinos take part in the dance of the evolving Universe influencing its history from leptogenesis, to Big Bang nucleosynthesis, until late time structure formation. This makes cosmology, and in particular one of its primary observables the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), an unusual but valuable tool for testing Neutrino Physics. The best measurement to date of full-sky CMB anisotropies comes from the Planck satellite launched in 2009 by the European Space Agency (ESA) and successful follower of COBE and WMAP. Testing Planck data against precise theoretical predictions allow us to shed light on various interesting open questions such as the value of the absolute scale of neutrino masses or their energy density. We revise here the results concerning neutrinos obtained by the Planck Collaboration in the 2013 data release.

  9. Cosmological constraints on neutrinos with Planck data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, M.

    2015-07-01

    Neutrinos take part in the dance of the evolving Universe influencing its history from leptogenesis, to Big Bang nucleosynthesis, until late time structure formation. This makes cosmology, and in particular one of its primary observables the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), an unusual but valuable tool for testing Neutrino Physics. The best measurement to date of full-sky CMB anisotropies comes from the Planck satellite launched in 2009 by the European Space Agency (ESA) and successful follower of COBE and WMAP. Testing Planck data against precise theoretical predictions allow us to shed light on various interesting open questions such as the value of the absolute scale of neutrino masses or their energy density. We revise here the results concerning neutrinos obtained by the Planck Collaboration in the 2013 data release.

  10. The Planck Legacy Archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupac, X.; Arviset, C.; Fernandez Barreiro, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Tauber, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Planck Collaboration has released in 2015 their second major dataset through the Planck Legacy Archive (PLA). It includes cosmological, Extragalactic and Galactic science data in temperature (intensity) and polarization. Full-sky maps are provided with unprecedented angular resolution and sensitivity, together with a large number of ancillary maps, catalogues (generic, SZ clusters and Galactic cold clumps), time-ordered data and other information. The extensive cosmological likelihood package allows cosmologists to fully explore the plausible parameters of the Universe. A new web-based PLA user interface is made public since Dec. 2014, allowing easier and faster access to all Planck data, and replacing the previous Java-based software. Numerous additional improvements to the PLA are also being developed through the so-called PLA Added-Value Interface, making use of an external contract with the Planetek Hellas and Expert Analytics software companies. This will allow users to process time-ordered data into sky maps, separate astrophysical components in existing maps, simulate the microwave and infrared sky through the Planck Sky Model, and use a number of other functionalities.

  11. Charged fluid distribution in higher dimensional spheroidal space-time

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A general solution of Einstein field equations corresponding to a charged fluid distribution on the background of higher dimensional spheroidal space-time is obtained. The solution generates several known solutions for superdense star having spheroidal space-time geometry.

  12. Integral propagator solvers for Vlasov-Fokker-Planck equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donoso, J M; Rio, E del

    2007-01-01

    We briefly discuss the use of short-time integral propagators on solving the so-called Vlasov-Fokker-Planck equation for the dynamics of a distribution function. For this equation, the diffusion tensor is singular and the usual Gaussian representation of the short-time propagator is no longer valid. However, we prove that the path-integral approach on solving the equation is, in fact, reliable by means of our generalized propagator, which is obtained through the construction of an auxiliary solvable Fokker-Planck equation. The new representation of the grid-free advancing scheme describes the inherent cross- and self-diffusion processes, in both velocity and configuration spaces, in a natural manner, although these processes are not explicitly depicted in the differential equation. We also show that some splitting methods, as well as some finite-difference schemes, could fail in describing the aforementioned diffusion processes, governed in the whole phase space only by the velocity diffusion tensor. The short-time transition probability offers a stable and robust numerical algorithm that preserves the distribution positiveness and its norm, ensuring the smoothness of the evolving solution at any time step. (fast track communication)

  13. Planck satellite to be presented to media

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Planck will make the most accurate maps yet of the microwave background radiation that fills space. It will be sensitive to temperature variations of a few millionths of a degree and will map the full sky in nine wavelengths. The immediate outcome of the Big Bang and the initial conditions for the evolution in the universe’s structure are the primary target of this important mission. From the results, a great deal more will be learnt not only about the nature and amount of dark matter, the ‘missing mass’ of the universe, but also about the nature of dark energy and the expansion of the universe itself. To address such challenging objectives, Planck will need to operate at very low, stable temperatures. Once in space, its detectors will have to be cooled to temperature levels close to absolute zero (-273.15ºC), ranging from -253ºC to only a few tenths of a degree above absolute zero. The Planck spacecraft thus has to be a marvel of cryotechnology. After integration, Planck will start a series of tests that will continue into early-2008. It will be launched by end-July 2008 in a dual-launch configuration with Herschel, ESA’s mission to study the formation of galaxies, stars and planetary systems in the infrared. Interested media are invited to fill in the reply form below. Note to editors The Planck spacecraft was built by AAS Cannes, the prime contractor, leading a consortium of industrial partners with the AAS industry branch in Turin, Italy, responsible for the satellite’s service module. ESA and the Danish National Space Centre (Copenhagen, Denmark) are responsible for the hardware provision of Planck’s telescope mirrors, manufactured by EADS Astrium (Friedrichshafen, Germany). AAS Cannes is also responsible for the payload module, the platform that hosts the telescope and the two onboard instruments, HFI and LFI. The instruments themselves are being supplied by a consortium of scientists and institutes led by the Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale

  14. Phase-space distributions and orbital angular momentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquini B.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We review the concept of Wigner distributions to describe the phase-space distributions of quarks in the nucleon, emphasizing the information encoded in these functions about the quark orbital angular momentum.

  15. Beyond the Planck Scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giddings, Steven B.

    2009-01-01

    I outline motivations for believing that important quantum gravity effects lie beyond the Planck scale at both higher energies and longer distances and times. These motivations arise in part from the study of ultra-high energy scattering, and also from considerations in cosmology. I briefly summarize some inferences about such ultra-planckian physics, and clues we might pursue towards the principles of a more fundamental theory addressing the known puzzles and paradoxes of quantum gravity.

  16. Planck-suppressed operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assassi, Valentin; Baumann, Daniel; Green, Daniel; McAllister, Liam

    2014-01-01

    We show that the recent Planck limits on primordial non-Gaussianity impose strong constraints on light hidden sector fields coupled to the inflaton via operators suppressed by a high mass scale Λ. We study a simple effective field theory in which a hidden sector field is coupled to a shift-symmetric inflaton via arbitrary operators up to dimension five. Self-interactions in the hidden sector lead to non-Gaussianity in the curvature perturbations. To be consistent with the Planck limit on local non-Gaussianity, the coupling to any hidden sector with light fields and natural cubic couplings must be suppressed by a very high scale Λ > 10 5 H. Even if the hidden sector has Gaussian correlations, nonlinearities in the mixing with the inflaton still lead to non-Gaussian curvature perturbations. In this case, the non-Gaussianity is of the equilateral or orthogonal type, and the Planck data requires Λ > 10 2 H

  17. Numerical Resolution of N-dimensional Fokker-Planck stochastic equations; Resolucion Numerica de Ecuaciones Estocasticas de tipo Fokker-Planck en Varias Dimensiones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Olivares, R A; Munoz Roldan, A

    1992-07-01

    This document describes the use of a library of programs able to solve stochastic Fokker-Planck equations in a N-dimensional space. The input data are essentially: (i) the initial distribution of the stochastic variable, (ii) the drift and fluctuation coefficients as a function of the state (which can be obtained from the transition probabilities between neighboring states) and (iii) some parameters controlling the run. A last version of the library accepts sources and sinks defined in the states space. The output is the temporal evolution of the probability distribution in the space defined by a N-dimensional grid. Some applications and readings in Synergetic, Self-Organization, transport phenomena, Ecology and other fields are suggested. If the probability distribution is interpreted as a distribution of particles then the codes can be used to solve the N-dimensional problem of advection-diffusion. (Author) 16 refs.

  18. Mathematical methods linear algebra normed spaces distributions integration

    CERN Document Server

    Korevaar, Jacob

    1968-01-01

    Mathematical Methods, Volume I: Linear Algebra, Normed Spaces, Distributions, Integration focuses on advanced mathematical tools used in applications and the basic concepts of algebra, normed spaces, integration, and distributions.The publication first offers information on algebraic theory of vector spaces and introduction to functional analysis. Discussions focus on linear transformations and functionals, rectangular matrices, systems of linear equations, eigenvalue problems, use of eigenvectors and generalized eigenvectors in the representation of linear operators, metric and normed vector

  19. Linear analysis of the momentum cooling Fokker-Planck equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenzweig, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    In order to optimize the extraction scheme used to take antiprotons out of the accumulator, it is necessary to understand the basic processes involved. At present, six antiproton bunches per Tevatron store are removed sequentially by RF unstacking from the accumulator. The phase space dynamics of this process, with its accompanying phase displacement deceleration and phase space dilution of portions of the stack, can be modelled by numerical solution of the longitudinal equations of motion for a large number of particles. We have employed the tracking code ESME for this purpose. In between RF extractions, however, the stochastic cooling system is turned on for a short time, and we must take into account the effect of momentum stochastic cooling on the antiproton energy spectrum. This process is described by the Fokker-Planck equation, which models the evolution of the antiproton stack energy distribution by accounting for the cooling through an applied coherent drag force and the competing heating of the stack due to diffusion, which can arise from intra-beam scattering, amplifier noise and coherent (Schottky) effects. In this note we examine the aspects of the Fokker-Planck in the regime where the nonlinear terms due to Schottky effects are small. This discussion ultimately leads to solution of the equation in terms of an orthonormal set of functions which are closely related to the quantum simple-harmonic oscillator wave-functions. 5 refs

  20. Fokker-Planck modeling of pitting corrosion in underground pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camacho, Eliana Nogueira [Risco Ambiental Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Melo, Paulo F. Frutuoso e [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Saldanha, Pedro Luiz C. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CGRC/CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao Geral de Reatores e Ciclo do Combustivel; Silva, Edson de Pinho da [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Physics

    2011-07-01

    Full text: The stochastic nature of pitting corrosion has been recognized since the 1930s. It has been learned that this damage retains no memory of its past. Instead, the future state is determined only by the knowledge of its present state. This Markovian property that underlies the stochastic process governing pitting corrosion has been explored as a discrete Markovian process by many authors since the beginning of the 1990s for underground pipelines of the oil and gas industries and nuclear power plants. Corrosion is a genuine continuous time and space state Markovian process, so to model it as a discrete time and/or state space is an approximation to the problem. Markovian chains approaches, with an increasing number of states, could involve a large number of parameters, the transition rates between states, to be experimentally determined. Besides, such an increase in the number of states produces matrices with huge dimensions leading to time-consuming computational solutions. Recent approaches involving Markovian discrete process have overcome those difficulties but, on the other hand, a large number of soil and pipe stochastic variables have to be known. In this work we propose a continuous time and space state approach to the evolution of pit corrosion depths in underground pipelines. In order to illustrate the application of the model for defect depth growth a combination of real life data and Monte Carlo simulation was used. The process is described by a Fokker-Planck equation. The Fokker-Planck equation is completely determined by the knowledge of two functions known as the drift and diffusion coefficients. In this work we also show that those functions can be estimated from corrosion depth data from in-line inspections. Some particular forms of drift and diffusion coefficients lead to particular Fokker-Planck equations for which analytical solutions are known, as is the case for the Wiener process, the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process and the Brownian motion

  1. Planck intermediate results XXXI. Microwave survey of Galactic supernova remnants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.

    2016-01-01

    The all-sky Planck survey in 9 frequency bands was used to search for emission from all 274 known Galactic supernova remnants. Of these, 16 were detected in at least two Planck frequencies. The radio-through-microwave spectral energy distributions were compiled to determine the mechanism for micr......The all-sky Planck survey in 9 frequency bands was used to search for emission from all 274 known Galactic supernova remnants. Of these, 16 were detected in at least two Planck frequencies. The radio-through-microwave spectral energy distributions were compiled to determine the mechanism...... for microwave emission. In only one case, IC 443, is there high-frequency emission clearly from dust associated with the supernova remnant. In all cases, the low-frequency emission is from synchrotron radiation. As predicted for a population of relativistic particles with energy distribution that extends...

  2. Localizability and the planck mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ne'eman, Y.; Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX

    1993-06-01

    The author combines the assumption of environmental decoherence, as the mechanism generating the classical (i.e. no quantum interferences) nature of spacetime, with the limit on its other classical feature, point-like continuity, namely Planck length. As a result, quantum extended objects with masses larger than Planck mass have to derive their quantum behavior from long-range correlations; objects with masses smaller than Planck mass cannot display classical behavior

  3. Exploiting differentiated tuple distribution in shared data spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Russello, G.; Chaudron, M.R.V.; Steen, van M.; Danelutto, M.; Vanneschi, M.

    2004-01-01

    The shared data space model has proven to be an effective paradigm for building distributed applications. However, building an efficient distributed implementation remains a challenge. A plethora of different implementations exists. Each of them has a specific policy for distributing data across

  4. Planck 2013 results. XXVIII. The Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Planck Collaboration,; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.

    2013-01-01

    The Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources (PCCS) is the catalogue of sources detected in the Planck nominal mission data. It consists of nine single-frequency catalogues of compact sources containing reliable sources, both Galactic and extragalactic, detected over the entire sky. The PCCS covers th...

  5. Planck intermediate results XXXIX. The Planck list of high-redshift source candidates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.

    2016-01-01

    on a component-separation procedure using a combination of Planck and IRAS data, has been validated and characterized on numerous simulations, and applied to select the most luminous cold submillimetre sources with spectral energy distributions peaking between 353 and 857 GHz at 5' resolution. A total of 2151......The Planck mission, thanks to its large frequency range and all-sky coverage, has a unique potential for systematically detecting the brightest, and rarest, submillimetre sources on the sky, including distant objects in the high-redshift Universe traced by their dust emission. A novel method, based...... Planck high-z source candidates (the PHZ) have been detected in the cleanest 26% of the sky, with flux density at 545 GHz above 500 mJy. Embedded in the cosmic infrared background close to the confusion limit, these high-z candidates exhibit colder colours than their surroundings, consistent...

  6. A distributed planning concept for Space Station payload operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagopian, Jeff; Maxwell, Theresa; Reed, Tracey

    1994-01-01

    The complex and diverse nature of the payload operations to be performed on the Space Station requires a robust and flexible planning approach. The planning approach for Space Station payload operations must support the phased development of the Space Station, as well as the geographically distributed users of the Space Station. To date, the planning approach for manned operations in space has been one of centralized planning to the n-th degree of detail. This approach, while valid for short duration flights, incurs high operations costs and is not conducive to long duration Space Station operations. The Space Station payload operations planning concept must reduce operations costs, accommodate phased station development, support distributed users, and provide flexibility. One way to meet these objectives is to distribute the planning functions across a hierarchy of payload planning organizations based on their particular needs and expertise. This paper presents a planning concept which satisfies all phases of the development of the Space Station (manned Shuttle flights, unmanned Station operations, and permanent manned operations), and the migration from centralized to distributed planning functions. Identified in this paper are the payload planning functions which can be distributed and the process by which these functions are performed.

  7. Interatomic spacing distribution in multicomponent alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toda-Caraballo, I.; Wróbel, J.S.; Dudarev, S.L.; Nguyen-Manh, D.; Rivera-Díaz-del-Castillo, P.E.J.

    2015-01-01

    A methodology to compute the distribution of interatomic distances in highly concentrated multicomponent alloys is proposed. By using the unit cell parameter and bulk modulus of the elements involved, the method accurately describes the distortion in the lattice produced by the interaction of the different atomic species. To prove this, density functional theory calculations have been used to provide the description of the lattice in a monophasic BCC MoNbTaVW high entropy alloy and its five sub-quaternary systems at different temperatures. Short-range order is also well described by the new methodology, where the mean error in the predicted atomic coordinates in comparison with the atomistic simulations is in the order of 1–2 pm over all the compositions and temperatures considered. The new method can be applied to tailor solid solution hardening, highly dependent on the distribution of interatomic distances, and guide the design of new high entropy alloys with enhanced properties

  8. Poisson-Nernst-Planck Equations for Simulating Biomolecular Diffusion-Reaction Processes II: Size Effects on Ionic Distributions and Diffusion-Reaction Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Benzhuo; Zhou, Y.C.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of finite particle size on electrostatics, density profiles, and diffusion have been a long existing topic in the study of ionic solution. The previous size-modified Poisson-Boltzmann and Poisson-Nernst-Planck models are revisited in this article. In contrast to many previous works that can only treat particle species with a single uniform size or two sizes, we generalize the Borukhov model to obtain a size-modified Poisson-Nernst-Planck (SMPNP) model that is able to treat nonuniform particle sizes. The numerical tractability of the model is demonstrated as well. The main contributions of this study are as follows. 1), We show that an (arbitrarily) size-modified PB model is indeed implied by the SMPNP equations under certain boundary/interface conditions, and can be reproduced through numerical solutions of the SMPNP. 2), The size effects in the SMPNP effectively reduce the densities of highly concentrated counterions around the biomolecule. 3), The SMPNP is applied to the diffusion-reaction process for the first time, to our knowledge. In the case of low substrate density near the enzyme reactive site, it is observed that the rate coefficients predicted by SMPNP model are considerably larger than those by the PNP model, suggesting both ions and substrates are subject to finite size effects. 4), An accurate finite element method and a convergent Gummel iteration are developed for the numerical solution of the completely coupled nonlinear system of SMPNP equations. PMID:21575582

  9. Space and energy. [space systems for energy generation, distribution and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekey, I.

    1976-01-01

    Potential contributions of space to energy-related activities are discussed. Advanced concepts presented include worldwide energy distribution to substation-sized users using low-altitude space reflectors; powering large numbers of large aircraft worldwide using laser beams reflected from space mirror complexes; providing night illumination via sunlight-reflecting space mirrors; fine-scale power programming and monitoring in transmission networks by monitoring millions of network points from space; prevention of undetected hijacking of nuclear reactor fuels by space tracking of signals from tagging transmitters on all such materials; and disposal of nuclear power plant radioactive wastes in space.

  10. Wigner distribution, partial coherence, and phase-space optics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaans, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    The Wigner distribution is presented as a perfect means to treat partially coherent optical signals and their propagation through first-order optical systems from a radiometric and phase-space optical perspective

  11. Distributed Space System Technology Demonstrations with the Emerald Nanosatellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twiggs, Robert

    2002-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation of Distributed Space System Technologies utilizing the Emerald Nanosatellite is shown. The topics include: 1) Structure Assembly; 2) Emerald Mission; 3) Payload and Mission Operations; 4) System and Subsystem Description; and 5) Safety Integration and Testing.

  12. A Database Approach to Distributed State Space Generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, Stefan; Lisser, Bert; van de Pol, Jan Cornelis; Weber, M.

    2007-01-01

    We study distributed state space generation on a cluster of workstations. It is explained why state space partitioning by a global hash function is problematic when states contain variables from unbounded domains, such as lists or other recursive datatypes. Our solution is to introduce a database

  13. A Database Approach to Distributed State Space Generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, Stefan; Lisser, Bert; van de Pol, Jan Cornelis; Weber, M.; Cerna, I.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    We study distributed state space generation on a cluster of workstations. It is explained why state space partitioning by a global hash function is problematic when states contain variables from unbounded domains, such as lists or other recursive datatypes. Our solution is to introduce a database

  14. Numerical Resolution of N-dimensional Fokker-Planck stochastic equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Olivares, R. A.; Munoz Roldan, A.

    1992-01-01

    This document describes the use of a library of programs able to solve stochastic Fokker-Planck equations in a N-dimensional space. The input data are essentially: (i) the initial distribution of the stochastic variable, (ii) the drift and fluctuation coefficients as a function of the state (which can be obtained from the transition probabilities between neighboring states) and (iii) some parameters controlling the run. A last version of the library accepts sources and sinks defined in the states space. The output is the temporal evolution of the probability distribution in the space defined by a N-dimensional grid. Some applications and readings in Synergetic, Self-Organization, transport phenomena, Ecology and other fields are suggested. If the probability distribution is interpreted as a distribution of particles then the codes can be used to solve the N-dimensional problem of advection-diffusion. (Author) 16 refs

  15. Distributed expert systems for ground and space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Brian; Wheatcraft, Louis

    1992-01-01

    Presented here is the Spacecraft Command Language (SCL) concept of the unification of ground and space operations using a distributed approach. SCL is a hybrid software environment borrowing from expert system technology, fifth generation language development, and multitasking operating system environments. Examples of potential uses for the system and current distributed applications of SCL are given.

  16. Massively parallel Fokker-Planck calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirin, A.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that the Fokker-Planck package FPPAC, which solves the complete nonlinear multispecies Fokker-Planck collision operator for a plasma in two-dimensional velocity space, has been rewritten for the Connection Machine 2. This has involved allocation of variables either to the front end or the CM2, minimization of data flow, and replacement of Cray-optimized algorithms with ones suitable for a massively parallel architecture. Calculations have been carried out on various Connection Machines throughout the country. Results and timings on these machines have been compared to each other and to those on the static memory Cray-2. For large problem size, the Connection Machine 2 is found to be cost-efficient

  17. Planck intermediate results: XLVII. Planck constraints on reionization history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adam, R.; Aghanim, N.; Ashdown, M.

    2016-01-01

    obtain a Thomson optical depth τ = 0.058 ± 0.012 for the commonly adopted instantaneous reionization model. This confirms, with data solely from CMB anisotropies, the low value suggested by combining Planck 2015 results with other data sets, and also reduces the uncertainties. We reconstruct the history......We investigate constraints on cosmic reionization extracted from the Planck cosmic microwave background (CMB) data. We combine the Planck CMB anisotropy data in temperature with the low-multipole polarization data to fit ΛCDM models with various parameterizations of the reionization history. We...

  18. A distributed data base management system. [for Deep Space Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, A. I.

    1975-01-01

    Major system design features of a distributed data management system for the NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) designed for continuous two-way deep space communications are described. The reasons for which the distributed data base utilizing third-generation minicomputers is selected as the optimum approach for the DSN are threefold: (1) with a distributed master data base, valid data is available in real-time to support DSN management activities at each location; (2) data base integrity is the responsibility of local management; and (3) the data acquisition/distribution and processing power of a third-generation computer enables the computer to function successfully as a data handler or as an on-line process controller. The concept of the distributed data base is discussed along with the software, data base integrity, and hardware used. The data analysis/update constraint is examined.

  19. The precise time-dependent solution of the Fokker–Planck equation with anomalous diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Ran; Du, Jiulin, E-mail: jiulindu@aliyun.com

    2015-08-15

    We study the time behavior of the Fokker–Planck equation in Zwanzig’s rule (the backward-Ito’s rule) based on the Langevin equation of Brownian motion with an anomalous diffusion in a complex medium. The diffusion coefficient is a function in momentum space and follows a generalized fluctuation–dissipation relation. We obtain the precise time-dependent analytical solution of the Fokker–Planck equation and at long time the solution approaches to a stationary power-law distribution in nonextensive statistics. As a test, numerically we have demonstrated the accuracy and validity of the time-dependent solution. - Highlights: • The precise time-dependent solution of the Fokker–Planck equation with anomalous diffusion is found. • The anomalous diffusion satisfies a generalized fluctuation–dissipation relation. • At long time the time-dependent solution approaches to a power-law distribution in nonextensive statistics. • Numerically we have demonstrated the accuracy and validity of the time-dependent solution.

  20. The precise time-dependent solution of the Fokker–Planck equation with anomalous diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Ran; Du, Jiulin

    2015-01-01

    We study the time behavior of the Fokker–Planck equation in Zwanzig’s rule (the backward-Ito’s rule) based on the Langevin equation of Brownian motion with an anomalous diffusion in a complex medium. The diffusion coefficient is a function in momentum space and follows a generalized fluctuation–dissipation relation. We obtain the precise time-dependent analytical solution of the Fokker–Planck equation and at long time the solution approaches to a stationary power-law distribution in nonextensive statistics. As a test, numerically we have demonstrated the accuracy and validity of the time-dependent solution. - Highlights: • The precise time-dependent solution of the Fokker–Planck equation with anomalous diffusion is found. • The anomalous diffusion satisfies a generalized fluctuation–dissipation relation. • At long time the time-dependent solution approaches to a power-law distribution in nonextensive statistics. • Numerically we have demonstrated the accuracy and validity of the time-dependent solution

  1. A new kind of droplet space distribution measuring method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Chao; Bo Hanliang

    2012-01-01

    A new kind of droplet space distribution measuring technique was introduced mainly, and the experimental device which was designed for the measuring the space distribution and traces of the flying film droplet produced by the bubble breaking up near the free surface of the water. This experiment was designed with a kind of water-sensitivity test paper (rice paper) which could record the position and size of the colored scattering droplets precisely. The rice papers were rolled into cylinders with different diameters by using tools. The bubbles broke up exactly in the center of the cylinder, and the space distribution and the traces of the droplets would be received by analysing all the positions of the droplets produced by the same size bubble on the rice papers. (authors)

  2. Fokker-Planck equation in mirror research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, R.F.

    1983-01-01

    Open confinement systems based on the magnetic mirror principle depend on the maintenance of particle distributions that may deviate substantially from Maxwellian distributions. Mirror research has therefore from the beginning relied on theoretical predictions of non-equilibrium rate processes obtained from solutions to the Fokker-Planck equation. The F-P equation plays three roles: Design of experiments, creation of classical standards against which to compare experiment, and predictions concerning mirror based fusion power systems. Analytical and computational approaches to solving the F-P equation for mirror systems will be reviewed, together with results and examples that apply to specific mirror systems, such as the tandem mirror

  3. Fourier Multipliers on Anisotropic Mixed-Norm Spaces of Distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleanthous, Galatia; Georgiadis, Athanasios; Nielsen, Morten

    2018-01-01

    A new general Hormander type condition involving anisotropies and mixed norms is introduced, and boundedness results for Fourier multi- pliers on anisotropic Besov and Triebel-Lizorkin spaces of distributions with mixed Lebesgue norms are obtained. As an application, the continuity of such operat......A new general Hormander type condition involving anisotropies and mixed norms is introduced, and boundedness results for Fourier multi- pliers on anisotropic Besov and Triebel-Lizorkin spaces of distributions with mixed Lebesgue norms are obtained. As an application, the continuity...

  4. A Process for Comparing Dynamics of Distributed Space Systems Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cures, Edwin Z.; Jackson, Albert A.; Morris, Jeffery C.

    2009-01-01

    The paper describes a process that was developed for comparing the primary orbital dynamics behavior between space systems distributed simulations. This process is used to characterize and understand the fundamental fidelities and compatibilities of the modeling of orbital dynamics between spacecraft simulations. This is required for high-latency distributed simulations such as NASA s Integrated Mission Simulation and must be understood when reporting results from simulation executions. This paper presents 10 principal comparison tests along with their rationale and examples of the results. The Integrated Mission Simulation (IMSim) (formerly know as the Distributed Space Exploration Simulation (DSES)) is a NASA research and development project focusing on the technologies and processes that are related to the collaborative simulation of complex space systems involved in the exploration of our solar system. Currently, the NASA centers that are actively participating in the IMSim project are the Ames Research Center, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), the Johnson Space Center (JSC), the Kennedy Space Center, the Langley Research Center and the Marshall Space Flight Center. In concept, each center participating in IMSim has its own set of simulation models and environment(s). These simulation tools are used to build the various simulation products that are used for scientific investigation, engineering analysis, system design, training, planning, operations and more. Working individually, these production simulations provide important data to various NASA projects.

  5. Brief review of Planck law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamora Carranza, M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a brief review of the scientific events which led to the determination of the law of radiation and the quantisation of energy by Max Planck. From the separation of sunlight by Newton to the reasons which led Planck to quantised the energy of an oscillator. I discuss the theoretical and experimental difficulties which scientists overcame to derive the law of heat radiation. (Author) 6 refs

  6. Planck 2015 results. XXVIII. The Planck Catalogue of Galactic Cold Clumps

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P.A.R.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Catalano, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Falgarone, E.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A.A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.L.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macías-Pérez, J.F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Mazzotta, P.; McGehee, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T.J.; Pelkonen, V.-M.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Pratt, G.W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J.P.; Reach, W.T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Stolyarov, V.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J.A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Wehus, I.K.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.

    2016-01-01

    We present the Planck Catalogue of Galactic Cold Clumps (PGCC), an all-sky catalogue of Galactic cold clump candidates detected by Planck. This catalogue is the full version of the Early Cold Core (ECC) catalogue, which was made available in 2011 with the Early Release Compact Source Catalogue (ERCSC) and contained 915 high S/N sources. It is based on the Planck 48 months mission data that are currently being released to the astronomical community. The PGCC catalogue is an observational catalogue consisting exclusively of Galactic cold sources. The three highest Planck bands (857, 545, 353 GHz) have been combined with IRAS data at 3 THz to perform a multi-frequency detection of sources colder than their local environment. After rejection of possible extragalactic contaminants, the PGCC catalogue contains 13188 Galactic sources spread across the whole sky, i.e., from the Galactic plane to high latitudes, following the spatial distribution of the main molecular cloud complexes. The median temperature of PGCC so...

  7. Distributed computing environments for future space control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viallefont, Pierre

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the results of a CNES research project on distributed computing systems. The purpose of this research was to study the impact of the use of new computer technologies in the design and development of future space applications. The first part of this study was a state-of-the-art review of distributed computing systems. One of the interesting ideas arising from this review is the concept of a 'virtual computer' allowing the distributed hardware architecture to be hidden from a software application. The 'virtual computer' can improve system performance by adapting the best architecture (addition of computers) to the software application without having to modify its source code. This concept can also decrease the cost and obsolescence of the hardware architecture. In order to verify the feasibility of the 'virtual computer' concept, a prototype representative of a distributed space application is being developed independently of the hardware architecture.

  8. Herschel and SCUBA-2 observations of dust emission in a sample of Planck cold clumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvela, Mika; He, Jinhua; Pattle, Katherine; Liu, Tie; Bendo, George; Eden, David J.; Fehér, Orsolya; Michel, Fich; Fuller, Gary; Hirano, Naomi; Kim, Kee-Tae; Li, Di; Liu, Sheng-Yuan; Malinen, Johanna; Marshall, Douglas J.; Paradis, Deborah; Parsons, Harriet; Pelkonen, Veli-Matti; Rawlings, Mark G.; Ristorcelli, Isabelle; Samal, Manash R.; Tatematsu, Ken'ichi; Thompson, Mark; Traficante, Alessio; Wang, Ke; Ward-Thompson, Derek; Wu, Yuefang; Yi, Hee-Weon; Yoo, Hyunju

    2018-04-01

    Context. Analysis of all-sky Planck submillimetre observations and the IRAS 100 μm data has led to the detection of a population of Galactic cold clumps. The clumps can be used to study star formation and dust properties in a wide range of Galactic environments. Aims: Our aim is to measure dust spectral energy distribution (SED) variations as a function of the spatial scale and the wavelength. Methods: We examined the SEDs at large scales using IRAS, Planck, and Herschel data. At smaller scales, we compared JCMT/SCUBA-2 850 μm maps with Herschel data that were filtered using the SCUBA-2 pipeline. Clumps were extracted using the Fellwalker method, and their spectra were modelled as modified blackbody functions. Results: According to IRAS and Planck data, most fields have dust colour temperatures TC 14-18 K and opacity spectral index values of β = 1.5-1.9. The clumps and cores identified in SCUBA-2 maps have T 13 K and similar β values. There are some indications of the dust emission spectrum becoming flatter at wavelengths longer than 500 μm. In fits involving Planck data, the significance is limited by the uncertainty of the corrections for CO line contamination. The fits to the SPIRE data give a median β value that is slightly above 1.8. In the joint SPIRE and SCUBA-2 850 μm fits, the value decreases to β 1.6. Most of the observed T-β anticorrelation can be explained by noise. Conclusions: The typical submillimetre opacity spectral index β of cold clumps is found to be 1.7. This is above the values of diffuse clouds, but lower than in some previous studies of dense clumps. There is only tentative evidence of a T-β anticorrelation and β decreasing at millimetre wavelengths. Planck (http://www.esa.int/Planck) is a project of the European Space Agency - ESA - with instruments provided by two scientific consortia funded by ESA member states (in particular the lead countries: France and Italy) with contributions from NASA (USA), and telescope reflectors

  9. Isotropy analyses of the Planck convergence map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, G. A.; Novaes, C. P.; Bernui, A.; Ferreira, I. S.

    2018-01-01

    The presence of matter in the path of relic photons causes distortions in the angular pattern of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature fluctuations, modifying their properties in a slight but measurable way. Recently, the Planck Collaboration released the estimated convergence map, an integrated measure of the large-scale matter distribution that produced the weak gravitational lensing (WL) phenomenon observed in Planck CMB data. We perform exhaustive analyses of this convergence map calculating the variance in small and large regions of the sky, but excluding the area masked due to Galactic contaminations, and compare them with the features expected in the set of simulated convergence maps, also released by the Planck Collaboration. Our goal is to search for sky directions or regions where the WL imprints anomalous signatures to the variance estimator revealed through a χ2 analyses at a statistically significant level. In the local analysis of the Planck convergence map, we identified eight patches of the sky in disagreement, in more than 2σ, with what is observed in the average of the simulations. In contrast, in the large regions analysis we found no statistically significant discrepancies, but, interestingly, the regions with the highest χ2 values are surrounding the ecliptic poles. Thus, our results show a good agreement with the features expected by the Λ cold dark matter concordance model, as given by the simulations. Yet, the outliers regions found here could suggest that the data still contain residual contamination, like noise, due to over- or underestimation of systematic effects in the simulation data set.

  10. Space division multiplexing chip-to-chip quantum key distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacco, Davide; Ding, Yunhong; Dalgaard, Kjeld

    2017-01-01

    nodes of the quantum keys to their respective destinations. In this paper we present an experimental demonstration of a photonic integrated silicon chip quantum key distribution protocols based on space division multiplexing (SDM), through multicore fiber technology. Parallel and independent quantum...

  11. Current distribution in triodes neglecting space charge and initial velocities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamaker, H.C.

    1950-01-01

    A theory of the current distribution in triodes with positive grid is developed on the assumption that space charge and the initial velocities of both primary and secondary electrons may be neglected. This theory, which is originally due to De Lussanct de la Sablonière, has been put in a more lucid

  12. Community Based Distribution of Child Spacing Methods at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    uses volunteer CBD agents. Mrs. E.F. Pelekamoyo. Service Delivery Officer. National Family Welfare Council of Malawi. Private Bag 308. Lilongwe 3. Malawi. Community Based Distribution of. Child Spacing Methods ... than us at the Hospital; male motivators by talking to their male counterparts help them to accept that their ...

  13. Surface water assessment on the influence of space distribution on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work, the influence of space distribution on physico-chemical parameters of refinery effluent discharge has been studied, using treated effluent water discharged from the Port Harcourt Refinery Company (PHRC) into the Ekerekana Creek in Okrika as reference. Samples were collected at surface level from the ...

  14. Man-systems distributed system for Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, J. L.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on man-systems distributed system for Space Station Freedom are presented. Topics addressed include: description of man-systems (definition, requirements, scope, subsystems, and topologies); implementation (approach, tools); man-systems interfaces (system to element and system to system); prime/supporting development relationship; selected accomplishments; and technical challenges.

  15. Astrochemical Properties of Planck Cold Clumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatematsu, Ken’ichi; Sanhueza, Patricio; Nguyễn Lu’o’ng, Quang; Hirota, Tomoya [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Liu, Tie; Choi, Minho; Kang, Miju; Kim, Kee-Tae [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daedeokdaero 776, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Ohashi, Satoshi [Department of Astronomy, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Liu, Sheng-Yuan; Hirano, Naomi [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 11F of Astronomy-Mathematics Building, AS/NTU. No.1, Section 4, Roosevelt Rd, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Thompson, Mark A. [Centre for Astrophysics Research, Science and Technology Research Institute, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Fuller, Gary [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Wu, Yuefang [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, 100871, Beijing (China); Li, Di [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100012 (China); Francesco, James Di [NRC Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Wang, Ke [European Southern Observatory (Germany); Ristorcelli, Isabelle [IRAP, CNRS (UMR5277), Universite Paul Sabatier, 9 avenue du Colonel Roche, BP 44346, F-31028, Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Juvela, Mika [Department of physics, University of Helsinki, FI-00014, Helsinki (Finland); Shinnaga, Hiroko, E-mail: k.tatematsu@nao.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Kagoshima University, 1-21-35, Korimoto, Kagoshima, 890-0065 (Japan); Collaboration: JCMT Large Program “SCOPE” collaboration; TRAO Key Science Program “TOP” collaboration; and others

    2017-02-01

    We observed 13 Planck cold clumps with the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope/SCUBA-2 and with the Nobeyama 45 m radio telescope. The N{sub 2}H{sup +} distribution obtained with the Nobeyama telescope is quite similar to SCUBA-2 dust distribution. The 82 GHz HC{sub 3}N, 82 GHz CCS, and 94 GHz CCS emission are often distributed differently with respect to the N{sub 2}H{sup +} emission. The CCS emission, which is known to be abundant in starless molecular cloud cores, is often very clumpy in the observed targets. We made deep single-pointing observations in DNC, HN{sup 13}C, N{sub 2}D{sup +}, and cyclic-C{sub 3}H{sub 2} toward nine clumps. The detection rate of N{sub 2}D{sup +} is 50%. Furthermore, we observed the NH{sub 3} emission toward 15 Planck cold clumps to estimate the kinetic temperature, and confirmed that most targets are cold (≲20 K). In two of the starless clumps we observed, the CCS emission is distributed as it surrounds the N{sub 2}H{sup +} core (chemically evolved gas), which resembles the case of L1544, a prestellar core showing collapse. In addition, we detected both DNC and N{sub 2}D{sup +}. These two clumps are most likely on the verge of star formation. We introduce the chemical evolution factor (CEF) for starless cores to describe the chemical evolutionary stage, and analyze the observed Planck cold clumps.

  16. Creating unstable velocity-space distributions with barium injections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pongratz, M.B.

    1983-01-01

    Large Debye lengths relative to detector dimensions and the absence of confining walls makes space an attractive laboratory for studying fundamental theories of plasma instabilities. However, natural space plasmas are rarely found displaced from equilibrium enough to permit isolation and diagnosis of the controlling parameters and driving conditions. Furthermore, any plasma or field response to the departure from equilibrium can be masked by noise in the natural system. Active experiments provide a technique for addressing the chicken or egg dilemma. Early thermite barium releases were generally conducted at low altitudes from sounding rockets to trace electric fields passively or to study configuration-space instabilities. One can also study velocity-space instabilities with barium releases. Neutral barium vapor releases wherein a typical speed greatly exceeds the thermal speed can be used to produce barium ion velocity-space distributions that should be subject to a number of microinstabilities. We examine the ion velocity-space distributions resulting from barium injections from orbiting spacecraft and shaped-charges

  17. Planck 2013 results. XXVIII. The Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P.A.R.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Cardoso, J.F.; Carvalho, P.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chen, X.; Chiang, L.Y.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clemens, M.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.M.; Desert, F.X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R.J.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leahy, J.P.; Leonardi, R.; Leon-Tavares, J.; Leroy, C.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Negrello, M.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I.J.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T.J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Reach, W.T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Schammel, M.P.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Starck, J.L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Turler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L.A.; Walter, B.; Wandelt, B.D.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-01-01

    The Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources (PCCS) is the catalogue of sources detected in the first 15 months of Planck operations, the "nominal" mission. It consists of nine single-frequency catalogues of compact sources, both Galactic and extragalactic, detected over the entire sky. The PCCS covers the frequency range 30--857\\,GHz with higher sensitivity (it is 90% complete at 180 mJy in the best channel) and better angular resolution (from ~33' to ~5') than previous all-sky surveys in this frequency band. By construction its reliability is >80% and more than 65% of the sources have been detected at least in two contiguous Planck channels. In this paper we present the construction and validation of the PCCS, its contents and its statistical characterization.

  18. Poisson-Boltzmann-Nernst-Planck model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Qiong; Wei Guowei

    2011-01-01

    The Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) model is based on a mean-field approximation of ion interactions and continuum descriptions of concentration and electrostatic potential. It provides qualitative explanation and increasingly quantitative predictions of experimental measurements for the ion transport problems in many areas such as semiconductor devices, nanofluidic systems, and biological systems, despite many limitations. While the PNP model gives a good prediction of the ion transport phenomenon for chemical, physical, and biological systems, the number of equations to be solved and the number of diffusion coefficient profiles to be determined for the calculation directly depend on the number of ion species in the system, since each ion species corresponds to one Nernst-Planck equation and one position-dependent diffusion coefficient profile. In a complex system with multiple ion species, the PNP can be computationally expensive and parameter demanding, as experimental measurements of diffusion coefficient profiles are generally quite limited for most confined regions such as ion channels, nanostructures and nanopores. We propose an alternative model to reduce number of Nernst-Planck equations to be solved in complex chemical and biological systems with multiple ion species by substituting Nernst-Planck equations with Boltzmann distributions of ion concentrations. As such, we solve the coupled Poisson-Boltzmann and Nernst-Planck (PBNP) equations, instead of the PNP equations. The proposed PBNP equations are derived from a total energy functional by using the variational principle. We design a number of computational techniques, including the Dirichlet to Neumann mapping, the matched interface and boundary, and relaxation based iterative procedure, to ensure efficient solution of the proposed PBNP equations. Two protein molecules, cytochrome c551 and Gramicidin A, are employed to validate the proposed model under a wide range of bulk ion concentrations and external

  19. Poisson–Boltzmann–Nernst–Planck model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Qiong; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2011-01-01

    The Poisson–Nernst–Planck (PNP) model is based on a mean-field approximation of ion interactions and continuum descriptions of concentration and electrostatic potential. It provides qualitative explanation and increasingly quantitative predictions of experimental measurements for the ion transport problems in many areas such as semiconductor devices, nanofluidic systems, and biological systems, despite many limitations. While the PNP model gives a good prediction of the ion transport phenomenon for chemical, physical, and biological systems, the number of equations to be solved and the number of diffusion coefficient profiles to be determined for the calculation directly depend on the number of ion species in the system, since each ion species corresponds to one Nernst–Planck equation and one position-dependent diffusion coefficient profile. In a complex system with multiple ion species, the PNP can be computationally expensive and parameter demanding, as experimental measurements of diffusion coefficient profiles are generally quite limited for most confined regions such as ion channels, nanostructures and nanopores. We propose an alternative model to reduce number of Nernst–Planck equations to be solved in complex chemical and biological systems with multiple ion species by substituting Nernst–Planck equations with Boltzmann distributions of ion concentrations. As such, we solve the coupled Poisson–Boltzmann and Nernst–Planck (PBNP) equations, instead of the PNP equations. The proposed PBNP equations are derived from a total energy functional by using the variational principle. We design a number of computational techniques, including the Dirichlet to Neumann mapping, the matched interface and boundary, and relaxation based iterative procedure, to ensure efficient solution of the proposed PBNP equations. Two protein molecules, cytochrome c551 and Gramicidin A, are employed to validate the proposed model under a wide range of bulk ion concentrations

  20. Poisson-Boltzmann-Nernst-Planck model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Qiong; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2011-05-21

    The Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) model is based on a mean-field approximation of ion interactions and continuum descriptions of concentration and electrostatic potential. It provides qualitative explanation and increasingly quantitative predictions of experimental measurements for the ion transport problems in many areas such as semiconductor devices, nanofluidic systems, and biological systems, despite many limitations. While the PNP model gives a good prediction of the ion transport phenomenon for chemical, physical, and biological systems, the number of equations to be solved and the number of diffusion coefficient profiles to be determined for the calculation directly depend on the number of ion species in the system, since each ion species corresponds to one Nernst-Planck equation and one position-dependent diffusion coefficient profile. In a complex system with multiple ion species, the PNP can be computationally expensive and parameter demanding, as experimental measurements of diffusion coefficient profiles are generally quite limited for most confined regions such as ion channels, nanostructures and nanopores. We propose an alternative model to reduce number of Nernst-Planck equations to be solved in complex chemical and biological systems with multiple ion species by substituting Nernst-Planck equations with Boltzmann distributions of ion concentrations. As such, we solve the coupled Poisson-Boltzmann and Nernst-Planck (PBNP) equations, instead of the PNP equations. The proposed PBNP equations are derived from a total energy functional by using the variational principle. We design a number of computational techniques, including the Dirichlet to Neumann mapping, the matched interface and boundary, and relaxation based iterative procedure, to ensure efficient solution of the proposed PBNP equations. Two protein molecules, cytochrome c551 and Gramicidin A, are employed to validate the proposed model under a wide range of bulk ion concentrations and external

  1. Probabilistic Q-function distributions in fermionic phase-space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosales-Zárate, Laura E C; Drummond, P D

    2015-01-01

    We obtain a positive probability distribution or Q-function for an arbitrary fermionic many-body system. This is different to previous Q-function proposals, which were either restricted to a subspace of the overall Hilbert space, or used Grassmann methods that do not give probabilities. The fermionic Q-function obtained here is constructed using normally ordered Gaussian operators, which include both non-interacting thermal density matrices and BCS states. We prove that the Q-function exists for any density matrix, is real and positive, and has moments that correspond to Fermi operator moments. It is defined on a finite symmetric phase-space equivalent to the space of real, antisymmetric matrices. This has the natural SO(2M) symmetry expected for Majorana fermion operators. We show that there is a physical interpretation of the Q-function: it is the relative probability for observing a given Gaussian density matrix. The distribution has a uniform probability across the space at infinite temperature, while for pure states it has a maximum value on the phase-space boundary. The advantage of probabilistic representations is that they can be used for computational sampling without a sign problem. (fast track communication)

  2. Thermal expansion of an amorphous alloy. Reciprocal-space versus real-space distribution functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louzguine-Luzgin, Dmitri V.; Inoue, Akihisa

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the relation between the change in the position of the first X-ray diffraction maximum in reciprocal space and the first maximum of the distribution function in real space for the Ge 50 Al 40 Cr 10 amorphous alloy. It is also shown that the first diffraction maximum of the interference function carries the most significant information about the interatomic distances in real space while the subsequent peaks of the interference function are responsible for the shoulders of the main peak of the real-space distribution function. The results are used to support validity of the method previously used to monitor thermal expansion of the glassy alloys using an X-ray diffraction profile

  3. Parity at the Planck scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzano, Michele; Gubitosi, Giulia; Magueijo, João

    2018-06-01

    We explore the possibility that well known properties of the parity operator, such as its idempotency and unitarity, might break down at the Planck scale. Parity might then do more than just swap right and left polarized states and reverse the sign of spatial momentum k: it might generate superpositions of right and left handed states, as well as mix momenta of different magnitudes. We lay down the general formalism, but also consider the concrete case of the Planck scale kinematics governed by κ-Poincaré symmetries, where some of the general features highlighted appear explicitly. We explore some of the observational implications for cosmological fluctuations. Different power spectra for right handed and left handed tensor modes might actually be a manifestation of deformed parity symmetry at the Planck scale. Moreover, scale-invariance and parity symmetry appear deeply interconnected.

  4. Max Planck and modern physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, Dieter

    2010-01-01

    Max Planck (1858-1947) is according to the words of Max von Laue the ''father of quantum physics''. This characteristic has until today continuance, although Planck stood for long time sceptically in front of his quantum hypothesis and so became a revolutionary in spite of his wishes. Eclipted by this pioneer role of the scholar for the foundation of the quantum theory are the numerous further works of the scholer, by which he has in many other fields provided eminent things. Starting with his fundamental contribution to thermodynamics, which make him to an excellent researcher of the field, until the works in the early history of relativity theory and the promotion of the young Einstein, which let him become also to a pioneer of the second central pillar of modern physics. The present collection attempts to show the whole spectrum of the physical works of Max Planck and his role in the formation of modern physics. [de

  5. Planck constraints on monodromy inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easther, Richard; Flauger, Raphael

    2014-01-01

    We use data from the nominal Planck mission to constrain modulations in the primordial power spectrum associated with monodromy inflation. The largest improvement in fit relative to the unmodulated model has Δχ 2 ≈ 10 and we find no evidence for a primordial signal, in contrast to a previous analysis of the WMAP9 dataset, for which Δχ 2 ≈ 20. The Planck and WMAP9 results are broadly consistent on angular scales where they are expected to agree as far as best-fit values are concerned. However, even on these scales the significance of the signal is reduced in Planck relative to WMAP, and is consistent with a fit to the ''noise'' associated with cosmic variance. Our results motivate both a detailed comparison between the two experiments and a more careful study of the theoretical predictions of monodromy inflation

  6. 100 years of Planck's quantum

    CERN Document Server

    Duck, Ian M

    2000-01-01

    This invaluable book takes the reader from Planck's discovery of the quantum in 1900 to the most recent interpretations and applications of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics.The introduction of the quantum idea leads off the prehistory of quantum mechanics, featuring Planck, Einstein, Bohr, Compton, and de Broglie's immortal contributions. Their original discovery papers are featured with explanatory notes and developments in Part 1.The invention of matrix mechanics and quantum mechanics by Heisenberg, Born, Jordan, Dirac, and Schrödinger is presented next, in Part 2.Following that, in Part 3,

  7. Charaterisation of function spaces via mollification; fractal quantities for distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Triebel

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is twofold. First we characterise elements f belonging to the Besov spaces Bpqs(ℝn with s∈ℝ,  0distributions generalising well-known corresponding quantities for Radon measures.

  8. Distributed Sensing and Processing Adaptive Collaboration Environment (D-SPACE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    RISC 525 Brooks Road Rome NY 13441-4505 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) AFRL/RI 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER AFRL-RI-RS-TR-2014-195 12...cloud” technologies are not appropriate for situation understanding in areas of denial, where computation resources are limited, data not easily...graph matching process. D-SPACE distributes graph exploitation among a network of autonomous computational resources, designs the collaboration policy

  9. Planck pre-launch status: The optical system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tauber, J. A.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, Hans Ulrik; Ade, P. A. R.

    2010-01-01

    Planck is a scientific satellite that represents the next milestone in space-based research related to the cosmic microwave background, and in many other astrophysical fields. Planck was launched on 14 May of 2009 and is now operational. The uncertainty in the optical response of its detectors......, based on the knowledge available at the time of launch. We also briefly describe the impact of the major systematic effects of optical origin, and the concept of in-flight optical calibration. Detailed discussions of related areas are provided in accompanying papers....

  10. Planck-scale sensitivity of CMB polarization data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubitosi, Giulia; Pagano, Luca [Physics Department, University of Rome ' La Sapienza' , and Sezione Roma1 INFN P.le Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Rome (Italy)

    2009-10-15

    We show that the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) polarization data gathered by the BOOMERanG 2003 flight and WMAP provide an opportunity to investigate in-vacuo birefringence, of a type expected in some quantum pictures of space-time, with a sensitivity that extends even beyond the desired Planck-scale energy. In order to render this constraint more transparent we rely on a well studied phenomenological model of quantum-gravity-induced birefringence, in which one easily establishes that effects introduced at the Planck scale would amount to values of a dimensionless parameter, denoted by xi, with respect to the Planck energy which are roughly of order 1. By combining BOOMERanG and WMAP data we estimate xiapprox =-0.097+-0.075 at the 68% c.l. Moreover, we forecast on the sensitivity to xi achievable by future CMB polarization experiments (PLANCK, Spider, EPIC), which, in the absence of systematics, will be at the 1-sigma confidence of 8.5x10{sup -4} (PLANCK), 6.1x10{sup -3} (Spider), and 1.0x10{sup -5} (EPIC) respectively. The cosmic variance-limited sensitivity from CMB is 6.1x10{sup -6}.

  11. Planck-scale sensitivity of CMB polarization data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubitosi, Giulia; Pagano, Luca

    2009-01-01

    We show that the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) polarization data gathered by the BOOMERanG 2003 flight and WMAP provide an opportunity to investigate in-vacuo birefringence, of a type expected in some quantum pictures of space-time, with a sensitivity that extends even beyond the desired Planck-scale energy. In order to render this constraint more transparent we rely on a well studied phenomenological model of quantum-gravity-induced birefringence, in which one easily establishes that effects introduced at the Planck scale would amount to values of a dimensionless parameter, denoted by ξ, with respect to the Planck energy which are roughly of order 1. By combining BOOMERanG and WMAP data we estimate ξ≅-0.097±0.075 at the 68% c.l. Moreover, we forecast on the sensitivity to ξ achievable by future CMB polarization experiments (PLANCK, Spider, EPIC), which, in the absence of systematics, will be at the 1-σ confidence of 8.5x10 -4 (PLANCK), 6.1x10 -3 (Spider), and 1.0x10 -5 (EPIC) respectively. The cosmic variance-limited sensitivity from CMB is 6.1x10 -6 .

  12. Planck 2015 results. I. Overview of products and scientific results

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, R.; Aghanim, N.; Akrami, Y.; Alves, M.I.R.; Arnaud, M.; Arroja, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Ballardini, M.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Bartolo, N.; Basak, S.; Battaglia, P.; Battaner, E.; Battye, R.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bertincourt, B.; Bielewicz, P.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.F.; Carvalho, P.; Casaponsa, B.; Castex, G.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.R.; Chiang, H.C.; Chluba, J.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clemens, M.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Combet, C.; Comis, B.; Contreras, D.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Cruz, M.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.M.; Desert, F.X.; Di Valentino, E.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Eisenhardt, P.R.M.; Elsner, F.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Falgarone, E.; Fantaye, Y.; Farhang, M.; Feeney, S.; Fergusson, J.; Fernandez-Cobos, R.; Feroz, F.; Finelli, F.; Florido, E.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A.A.; Franceschet, C.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Frolov, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Gauthier, C.; Genova-Santos, R.T.; Gerbino, M.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Giusarma, E.; Gjerlow, E.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Grainge, K.J.B.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hamann, J.; Handley, W.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.L.; Heavens, A.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huang, Z.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Ilic, S.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jin, T.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Karakci, A.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kiiveri, K.; Kim, J.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Krachmalnicoff, N.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lacasa, F.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Langer, M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C.R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leahy, J.P.; Lellouch, E.; Leonardi, R.; Leon-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Lewis, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lindholm, V.; Liu, H.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Ma, Y.Z.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maggio, G.; Mak, D.S.Y.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Marchini, A.; Marcos-Caballero, A.; Marinucci, D.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Mazzotta, P.; McEwen, J.D.; McGehee, P.; Mei, S.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.B.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mikkelsen, K.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Molinari, D.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Moreno, R.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Mottet, S.; Muenchmeyer, M.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Narimani, A.; Naselsky, P.; Nastasi, A.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Negrello, M.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Olamaie, M.; Oppermann, N.; Orlando, E.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Pandolfi, S.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T.J.; Peel, M.; Peiris, H.V.; Pelkonen, V.M.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrott, Y.C.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pogosyan, D.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Racine, B.; Reach, W.T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Roman, M.; Romelli, E.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Rotti, A.; Roudier, G.; d'Orfeuil, B.Rouille; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Ruiz-Granados, B.; Rumsey, C.; Rusholme, B.; Said, N.; Salvatelli, V.; Salvati, L.; Sandri, M.; Sanghera, H.S.; Santos, D.; Saunders, R.D.E.; Sauve, A.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Schaefer, B.M.; Schammel, M.P.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Serra, P.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Shimwell, T.W.; Shiraishi, M.; Smith, K.; Souradeep, T.; Spencer, L.D.; Spinelli, M.; Stanford, S.A.; Stern, D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Strong, A.W.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutter, P.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Texier, D.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tornikoski, M.; Tristram, M.; Troja, A.; Trombetti, T.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Turler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vassallo, T.; Vidal, M.; Viel, M.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L.A.; Walter, B.; Wandelt, B.D.; Watson, R.; Wehus, I.K.; Welikala, N.; Weller, J.; White, M.; White, S.D.M.; Wilkinson, A.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zibin, J.P.; Zonca, A.

    2016-01-01

    The European Space Agency's Planck satellite, dedicated to studying the early Universe and its subsequent evolution, was launched 14~May 2009 and scanned the microwave and submillimetre sky continuously between 12~August 2009 and 23~October 2013. In February~2015, ESA and the Planck Collaboration released the second set of cosmology products based on data from the entire Planck mission, including both temperature and polarization, along with a set of scientific and technical papers and a web-based explanatory supplement. This paper gives an overview of the main characteristics of the data and the data products in the release, as well as the associated cosmological and astrophysical science results and papers. The science products include maps of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect, and diffuse foregrounds in temperature and polarization, catalogues of compact Galactic and extragalactic sources (including separate catalogues of Sunyaev-Zeldovich clusters and Galactic col...

  13. Nonclassicality indicator for the real phase-space distribution functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghi, Parvin; Khademi, Siamak; Nasiri, Sadollah

    2010-01-01

    Benedict et al. and Kenfack et al. advocated nonclassicality indicators based on the measurement of negativity of the Wigner distribution functions. These indicators have some applications in quantum mechanics and quantum optics. In this paper we define a nonclassicality indicator in terms of the interference in phase space, which is applicable to some real distribution functions including those of Wigner. As a special case one may reproduce the previous results using our indicator for the Wigner distribution functions. This indicator is examined for cases of the Schroedinger cat state and the thermal states and the results are compared with those obtained by previous methods. It seems that the physical behavior of nonclassicality indicators originates in the uncertainty principle. This is shown by an onto correspondence between these indicators and the uncertainty principle.

  14. Time Synchronization and Distribution Mechanisms for Space Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Simon S.; Gao, Jay L.; Clare, Loren P.; Mills, David L.

    2011-01-01

    This work discusses research on the problems of synchronizing and distributing time information between spacecraft based on the Network Time Protocol (NTP), where NTP is a standard time synchronization protocol widely used in the terrestrial network. The Proximity-1 Space Link Interleaved Time Synchronization (PITS) Protocol was designed and developed for synchronizing spacecraft that are in proximity where proximity is less than 100,000 km distant. A particular application is synchronization between a Mars orbiter and rover. Lunar scenarios as well as outer-planet deep space mother-ship-probe missions may also apply. Spacecraft with more accurate time information functions as a time-server, and the other spacecraft functions as a time-client. PITS can be easily integrated and adaptable to the CCSDS Proximity-1 Space Link Protocol with minor modifications. In particular, PITS can take advantage of the timestamping strategy that underlying link layer functionality provides for accurate time offset calculation. The PITS algorithm achieves time synchronization with eight consecutive space network time packet exchanges between two spacecraft. PITS can detect and avoid possible errors from receiving duplicate and out-of-order packets by comparing with the current state variables and timestamps. Further, PITS is able to detect error events and autonomously recover from unexpected events that can possibly occur during the time synchronization and distribution process. This capability achieves an additional level of protocol protection on top of CRC or Error Correction Codes. PITS is a lightweight and efficient protocol, eliminating the needs for explicit frame sequence number and long buffer storage. The PITS protocol is capable of providing time synchronization and distribution services for a more general domain where multiple entities need to achieve time synchronization using a single point-to-point link.

  15. De Max-Planck medaille

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijmans, H.G.; van Woerkom, P.Th.L.M.; Ankersmit, W.; Hagman, R.; Heijmans, H.G.; Olsder, G.J.; van de Schootbrugge, G.

    2017-01-01

    De Max-Planck-Medaille is een onderscheiding die sinds 1929 jaarlijks wordt uitgereikt door de toentertijd grootste vereniging van natuurkundigen ter wereld: de Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft. Het is als het ware de Nobelprijs voor de theoretische natuurkunde, volgens de natuurkundigen zelf. In

  16. A general method for propagation of the phase space distribution, with application to the saw-tooth instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warnock, R.L.

    2000-01-01

    The authors propose and illustrate a general numerical method to follow the probability distribution in phase space as a function of time. It applies to any multiparticle system governed by Liouville, Vlasov or Vlasov-Fokker-Planck dynamics. The technique, based on discretization of the local Perron-Frobenius operator, is simple in concept, easy to implement, and numerically stable in examples studied to date. The authors illustrate by treating longitudinal dynamics in electron storage rings with realistic wake field. Applied to the SLC damping rings, the method gives the observed current threshold for bunch lengthening, and several aspects of observed behavior above threshold, including the presence of a bursting or sawtooth mode. In contrast to previous particle-in-cell simulations, the authors have very low numerical noise and the ability to follow the motion over several damping times. The method has also been applied to the coherent beam-beam interaction. It appears likely that this approach will be of interest for some of the central problems of this workshop, for instance matching of space-charge dominated beams to a focusing channel, and coherent synchrotron radiation with self-consistent charge/current density

  17. Calibrating the Planck cluster mass scale with CLASH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penna-Lima, M.; Bartlett, J. G.; Rozo, E.; Melin, J.-B.; Merten, J.; Evrard, A. E.; Postman, M.; Rykoff, E.

    2017-08-01

    We determine the mass scale of Planck galaxy clusters using gravitational lensing mass measurements from the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH). We have compared the lensing masses to the Planck Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) mass proxy for 21 clusters in common, employing a Bayesian analysis to simultaneously fit an idealized CLASH selection function and the distribution between the measured observables and true cluster mass. We used a tiered analysis strategy to explicitly demonstrate the importance of priors on weak lensing mass accuracy. In the case of an assumed constant bias, bSZ, between true cluster mass, M500, and the Planck mass proxy, MPL, our analysis constrains 1-bSZ = 0.73 ± 0.10 when moderate priors on weak lensing accuracy are used, including a zero-mean Gaussian with standard deviation of 8% to account for possible bias in lensing mass estimations. Our analysis explicitly accounts for possible selection bias effects in this calibration sourced by the CLASH selection function. Our constraint on the cluster mass scale is consistent with recent results from the Weighing the Giants program and the Canadian Cluster Comparison Project. It is also consistent, at 1.34σ, with the value needed to reconcile the Planck SZ cluster counts with Planck's base ΛCDM model fit to the primary cosmic microwave background anisotropies.

  18. Generalised partition functions: inferences on phase space distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Treumann

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available It is demonstrated that the statistical mechanical partition function can be used to construct various different forms of phase space distributions. This indicates that its structure is not restricted to the Gibbs–Boltzmann factor prescription which is based on counting statistics. With the widely used replacement of the Boltzmann factor by a generalised Lorentzian (also known as the q-deformed exponential function, where κ = 1∕|q − 1|, with κ, q ∈ R both the kappa-Bose and kappa-Fermi partition functions are obtained in quite a straightforward way, from which the conventional Bose and Fermi distributions follow for κ → ∞. For κ ≠ ∞ these are subject to the restrictions that they can be used only at temperatures far from zero. They thus, as shown earlier, have little value for quantum physics. This is reasonable, because physical κ systems imply strong correlations which are absent at zero temperature where apart from stochastics all dynamical interactions are frozen. In the classical large temperature limit one obtains physically reasonable κ distributions which depend on energy respectively momentum as well as on chemical potential. Looking for other functional dependencies, we examine Bessel functions whether they can be used for obtaining valid distributions. Again and for the same reason, no Fermi and Bose distributions exist in the low temperature limit. However, a classical Bessel–Boltzmann distribution can be constructed which is a Bessel-modified Lorentzian distribution. Whether it makes any physical sense remains an open question. This is not investigated here. The choice of Bessel functions is motivated solely by their convergence properties and not by reference to any physical demands. This result suggests that the Gibbs–Boltzmann partition function is fundamental not only to Gibbs–Boltzmann but also to a large class of generalised Lorentzian distributions as well as to the

  19. Multi-diffusive nonlinear Fokker–Planck equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Mauricio S; Casas, Gabriela A; Nobre, Fernando D

    2017-01-01

    Nonlinear Fokker–Planck equations, characterized by more than one diffusion term, have appeared recently in literature. Here, it is shown that these equations may be derived either from approximations in a master equation, or from a Langevin-type approach. An H-theorem is proven, relating these Fokker–Planck equations to an entropy composed by a sum of contributions, each of them associated with a given diffusion term. Moreover, the stationary state of the Fokker–Planck equation is shown to coincide with the equilibrium state, obtained by extremization of the entropy, in the sense that both procedures yield precisely the same equation. Due to the nonlinear character of this equation, the equilibrium probability may be obtained, in most cases, only by means of numerical approaches. Some examples are worked out, where the equilibrium probability distribution is computed for nonlinear Fokker–Planck equations presenting two diffusion terms, corresponding to an entropy characterized by a sum of two contributions. It is shown that the resulting equilibrium distribution, in general, presents a form that differs from a sum of the equilibrium distributions that maximizes each entropic contribution separately, although in some cases one may construct such a linear combination as a good approximation for the equilibrium distribution. (paper)

  20. Security for Multimedia Space Data Distribution over the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Thom; Picinich, Lou; Givens, John J. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Distribution of interactive multimedia to remote investigators will be required for high quality science on the International Space Station (ISS). The Internet with the World Wide Web (WWW) and the JAVA environment are a good match for distribution of data, video and voice to remote science centers. Utilizing the "open" Internet in a secure manner is the major hurdle in making use of this cost effective, off-the-shelf, universal resource. This paper examines the major security threats to an Internet distribution system for payload data and the mitigation of these threats. A proposed security environment for the Space Station Biological Research Facility (SSBRP) is presented with a short description of the tools that have been implemented or planned. Formulating and implementing a security policy, firewalls, host hardware and software security are also discussed in this paper. Security is a vast topic and this paper can only give an overview of important issues. This paper postulates that a structured approach is required and stresses that security must be built into a network from the start. Ignoring security issues or putting them off until late in the development cycle can be disastrous.

  1. Resolving runaway electron distributions in space, time, and energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-Soldan, C.; Cooper, C. M.; Aleynikov, P.; Eidietis, N. W.; Lvovskiy, A.; Pace, D. C.; Brennan, D. P.; Hollmann, E. M.; Liu, C.; Moyer, R. A.; Shiraki, D.

    2018-05-01

    Areas of agreement and disagreement with present-day models of runaway electron (RE) evolution are revealed by measuring MeV-level bremsstrahlung radiation from runaway electrons (REs) with a pinhole camera. Spatially resolved measurements localize the RE beam, reveal energy-dependent RE transport, and can be used to perform full two-dimensional (energy and pitch-angle) inversions of the RE phase-space distribution. Energy-resolved measurements find qualitative agreement with modeling on the role of collisional and synchrotron damping in modifying the RE distribution shape. Measurements are consistent with predictions of phase-space attractors that accumulate REs, with non-monotonic features observed in the distribution. Temporally resolved measurements find qualitative agreement with modeling on the impact of collisional and synchrotron damping in varying the RE growth and decay rate. Anomalous RE loss is observed and found to be largest at low energy. Possible roles for kinetic instability or spatial transport to resolve these anomalies are discussed.

  2. Cooperating expert systems for space station power distribution management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, T.A.; Chiou, W.C.

    1986-01-01

    In a complex system such as the manned Space Station, it is deemed necessary that many expert systems must perform tasks in a concurrent and cooperative manner. An important question to arise is: what cooperative-task-performing models are appropriate for multiple expert systems to jointly perform tasks. The solution to this question will provide a crucial automation design criteria for the Space Station complex systems architecture. Based on a client/server model for performing tasks, the authors have developed a system that acts as a front-end to support loosely-coupled communications between expert systems running on multiple Symbolics machines. As an example, they use the two ART*-based expert systems to demonstrate the concept of parallel symbolic manipulation for power distribution management and dynamic load planner/scheduler in the simulated Space Station environment. This on-going work will also explore other cooperative-task-performing models as alternatives which can evaluate inter and intra expert system communication mechanisms. It will serve as a testbed and a bench-marking tool for other Space Station expert subsystem communication and information exchange

  3. Cooperating Expert Systems For Space Station Power Distribution Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, T. A.; Chiou, W. C.

    1987-02-01

    In a complex system such as the manned Space Station, it is deem necessary that many expert systems must perform tasks in a concurrent and cooperative manner. An important question arise is: what cooperative-task-performing models are appropriate for multiple expert systems to jointly perform tasks. The solution to this question will provide a crucial automation design criteria for the Space Station complex systems architecture. Based on a client/server model for performing tasks, we have developed a system that acts as a front-end to support loosely-coupled communications between expert systems running on multiple Symbolics machines. As an example, we use two ART*-based expert systems to demonstrate the concept of parallel symbolic manipulation for power distribution management and dynamic load planner/scheduler in the simulated Space Station environment. This on-going work will also explore other cooperative-task-performing models as alternatives which can evaluate inter and intra expert system communication mechanisms. It will be served as a testbed and a bench-marking tool for other Space Station expert subsystem communication and information exchange.

  4. Generalized multivariate Fokker-Planck equations derived from kinetic transport theory and linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    We study many particle systems in the context of mean field forces, concentration-dependent diffusion coefficients, generalized equilibrium distributions, and quantum statistics. Using kinetic transport theory and linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics we derive for these systems a generalized multivariate Fokker-Planck equation. It is shown that this Fokker-Planck equation describes relaxation processes, has stationary maximum entropy distributions, can have multiple stationary solutions and stationary solutions that differ from Boltzmann distributions

  5. Implementing Distributed Operations: A Comparison of Two Deep Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishkin, Andrew; Larsen, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Two very different deep space exploration missions--Mars Exploration Rover and Cassini--have made use of distributed operations for their science teams. In the case of MER, the distributed operations capability was implemented only after the prime mission was completed, as the rovers continued to operate well in excess of their expected mission lifetimes; Cassini, designed for a mission of more than ten years, had planned for distributed operations from its inception. The rapid command turnaround timeline of MER, as well as many of the operations features implemented to support it, have proven to be conducive to distributed operations. These features include: a single science team leader during the tactical operations timeline, highly integrated science and engineering teams, processes and file structures designed to permit multiple team members to work in parallel to deliver sequencing products, web-based spacecraft status and planning reports for team-wide access, and near-elimination of paper products from the operations process. Additionally, MER has benefited from the initial co-location of its entire operations team, and from having a single Principal Investigator, while Cassini operations have had to reconcile multiple science teams distributed from before launch. Cassini has faced greater challenges in implementing effective distributed operations. Because extensive early planning is required to capture science opportunities on its tour and because sequence development takes significantly longer than sequence execution, multiple teams are contributing to multiple sequences concurrently. The complexity of integrating inputs from multiple teams is exacerbated by spacecraft operability issues and resource contention among the teams, each of which has their own Principal Investigator. Finally, much of the technology that MER has exploited to facilitate distributed operations was not available when the Cassini ground system was designed, although later adoption

  6. Planck 2015 results. XVIII. Background geometry & topology

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P.A.R.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartolo, N.; Basak, S.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; De Rosa, A.; De Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Désert, F.X.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Feeney, S.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A.A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.L.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macías-Pérez, J.F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Martin, P.G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; McEwen, J.D.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Peiris, H.V.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pogosyan, D.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G.W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Tent, F. Van; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Wehus, I.K.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2016-01-01

    Full-sky CMB maps from the 2015 Planck release allow us to detect departures from global isotropy on the largest scales. We present the first searches using CMB polarization for correlations induced by a non-trivial topology with a fundamental domain intersecting, or nearly intersecting, the last scattering surface (at comoving distance $\\chi_{rec}$). We specialize to flat spaces with toroidal and slab topologies, finding that explicit searches for the latter are sensitive to other topologies with antipodal symmetry. These searches yield no detection of a compact topology at a scale below the diameter of the last scattering surface. The limits on the radius $R_i$ of the largest sphere inscribed in the topological domain (at log-likelihood-ratio $\\Delta\\ln{L}>-5$ relative to a simply-connected flat Planck best-fit model) are $R_i>0.97\\chi_{rec}$ for the cubic torus and $R_i>0.56\\chi_{rec}$ for the slab. The limit for the cubic torus from the matched-circles search is numerically equivalent, $R_i>0.97\\chi_{rec}...

  7. Formation and distribution of international tourism flows in geographical space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Korol

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Properties of geographical space that are of key importance for international tourism, as length and discreteness, are analyzed in the article. Length makes tourists cover distances, whereas discreteness manifests itself in spatial heterogeneity. Tourism in conditions of homogeneous space is vain. That is, heterogeneity brings sense to travels as well as determines their direction. So, the effect of geographical space’s length and spatial heterogeneity on formation and distribution of tourism flows is assessed, international tourism’s geographical essence is disclosed also. Apperception of geographical space in usual environment and its effect on tourist’s original motives are described. Following the bases of behaviorism, the tourism original motives, in particular those for migration, comfort, contrast and aesthetics are substantiated. The motive for migration is a kind of “pushing” tourists outside their usual environment. To stop all fears that may cause anxiety in destination, the latter should guarantee satisfaction of those human needs which A. Maslow refers to as basic needs. The necessity to satisfy these needs forms in tourists the motive for comfort. Closely located destinations in neighboring countries can be of little difference form usual environment. Driven by the motive for contrast, tourists aspire to visit places that totally differ from their usual environment, and contrast (are exotic to it. Thus, the motive for contrast seemingly “pulls” the tourists up to certain (exotic destinations. Finally, following the considered spatial specificities of land surface and tourist-driving original motives, a conceptual model of formation and distribution of international tourism flows in geographical space is developed.

  8. A Coordinated Initialization Process for the Distributed Space Exploration Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crues, Edwin Z.; Phillips, Robert G.; Dexter, Dan; Hasan, David

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the federate initialization process for the Distributed Space Exploration Simulation (DSES) is described. The topics include: 1) Background: DSES; 2) Simulation requirements; 3) Nine Step Initialization; 4) Step 1: Create the Federation; 5) Step 2: Publish and Subscribe; 6) Step 3: Create Object Instances; 7) Step 4: Confirm All Federates Have Joined; 8) Step 5: Achieve initialize Synchronization Point; 9) Step 6: Update Object Instances With Initial Data; 10) Step 7: Wait for Object Reflections; 11) Step 8: Set Up Time Management; 12) Step 9: Achieve startup Synchronization Point; and 13) Conclusions

  9. Precision time distribution within a deep space communications complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtright, J. B.

    1972-01-01

    The Precision Time Distribution System (PTDS) at the Golstone Deep Space Communications Complex is a practical application of existing technology to the solution of a local problem. The problem was to synchronize four station timing systems to a master source with a relative accuracy consistently and significantly better than 10 microseconds. The solution involved combining a precision timing source, an automatic error detection assembly and a microwave distribution network into an operational system. Upon activation of the completed PTDS two years ago, synchronization accuracy at Goldstone (two station relative) was improved by an order of magnitude. It is felt that the validation of the PTDS mechanization is now completed. Other facilities which have site dispersion and synchronization accuracy requirements similar to Goldstone may find the PTDS mechanization useful in solving their problem. At present, the two station relative synchronization accuracy at Goldstone is better than one microsecond.

  10. Planck 2013 results. XXXI. Consistency of the Planck data

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P A R; Ashdown, M; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A.J; Barreiro, R.B; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoit-Levy, A; Bernard, J.P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bond, J.R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F.R; Burigana, C; Cardoso, J.F; Catalano, A; Challinor, A; Chamballu, A; Chiang, H.C; Christensen, P.R; Clements, D.L; Colombi, S; Colombo, L.P.L; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Crill, B.P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R.D; Davis, R.J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Desert, F.X; Dickinson, C; Diego, J.M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Dore, O; Douspis, M; Dupac, X; Ensslin, T.A; Eriksen, H.K; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Fraisse, A A; Franceschi, E; Galeotta, S; Ganga, K; Giard, M; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Gudmundsson, J E; Hansen, F.K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D; Henrot-Versille, S; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S.R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M; Jaffe, T.R; Jaffe, A.H; Jones, W.C; Keihanen, E; Keskitalo, R; Knoche, J; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lahteenmaki, A; Lamarre, J.M; Lasenby, A; Lawrence, C.R; Leonardi, R; Leon-Tavares, J; Lesgourgues, J; Liguori, M; Lilje, P.B; Linden-Vornle, M; Lopez-Caniego, M; Lubin, P.M; Macias-Perez, J.F; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Maris, M; Martin, P.G; Martinez-Gonzalez, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Mazzotta, P; Meinhold, P.R; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mitra, S; Miville-Deschenes, M.A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Moss, A; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Oxborrow, C.A; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paoletti, D; Partridge, B; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Pearson, D; Pearson, T.J; Perdereau, O; Perrotta, F; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Popa, L; Pratt, G.W; Prunet, S; Puget, J.L; Rachen, J.P; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Ricciardi, S.; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G.; Roudier, G; Rubino-Martin, J.A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Scott, D; Stolyarov, V; Sudiwala, R; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A.S; Sygnet, J.F; Tauber, J.A; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Wade, L.A; Wandelt, B.D; Wehus, I K; White, S D M; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2014-01-01

    The Planck design and scanning strategy provide many levels of redundancy that can be exploited to provide tests of internal consistency. One of the most important is the comparison of the 70 GHz (amplifier) and 100 GHz (bolometer) channels. Based on different instrument technologies, with feeds located differently in the focal plane, analysed independently by different teams using different software, and near the minimum of diffuse foreground emission, these channels are in effect two different experiments. The 143 GHz channel has the lowest noise level on Planck, and is near the minimum of unresolved foreground emission. In this paper, we analyse the level of consistency achieved in the 2013 Planck data. We concentrate on comparisons between the 70, 100, and 143 GHz channel maps and power spectra, particularly over the angular scales of the first and second acoustic peaks, on maps masked for diffuse Galactic emission and for strong unresolved sources. Difference maps covering angular scales from 8°...

  11. National Space Transportation System telemetry distribution and processing, NASA-JFK Space Center/Cape Canaveral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, George

    1986-01-01

    Prelaunch, launch, mission, and landing distribution of RF and hardline uplink/downlink information between Space Shuttle Orbiter/cargo elements, tracking antennas, and control centers at JSC, KSC, MSFC, GSFC, ESMC/RCC, and Sunnyvale are presented as functional block diagrams. Typical mismatch problems encountered during spacecraft-to-project control center telemetry transmissions are listed along with new items for future support enhancement.

  12. Cepheid space distribution and the structure of the galaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efremov, Yu N [Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR). Astronomical Inst.; Ivanov, G R; Nikolov, N S [Sofia Univ. (Bulgaria). Dept. of Astronomy

    1981-04-01

    On the basis of PLC relation or the PL relation by Van den Bergh and the PC relation by Dean et al. (1978), the distance of 284 galactic cepheids with photoelectric observations have been derived. The space distribution of these cepheids with 111 additional ones without photoelectric oberservations, is studied. In spite of the strong influence of the absorption matter, which makes a great number of distant cepheids unknown, a conclusion is drawn that the cepheids do not trace spiral arms with only one possible exception: the Carina arm. The cepheid z-coordinate distribution confirms the finding of Fernie (1968) that the cepheid layer is inclined towards the formal galactic plane. On the basis of cepheid space density, a number of vast star complexes are identified in which other young objects, together with cepheids fall. The existence of these complexes is explained by star formation in giant molecular clouds. The cepheid mean period increase towards the galactic centre is most probably connected with the existence of a ring between the Sun and the centre of Galaxy, with the highest density of hydrogen and the highest rate of star formation.

  13. Inflationary paradigm after Planck 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guth, Alan H., E-mail: guth@ctp.mit.edu [Center for Theoretical Physics, Laboratory for Nuclear Science, and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Kaiser, David I., E-mail: dikaiser@mit.edu [Center for Theoretical Physics, Laboratory for Nuclear Science, and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Nomura, Yasunori, E-mail: ynomura@berkeley.edu [Berkeley Center for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, and Theoretical Physics Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2014-06-02

    Models of cosmic inflation posit an early phase of accelerated expansion of the universe, driven by the dynamics of one or more scalar fields in curved spacetime. Though detailed assumptions about fields and couplings vary across models, inflation makes specific, quantitative predictions for several observable quantities, such as the flatness parameter (Ω{sub k}=1−Ω) and the spectral tilt of primordial curvature perturbations (n{sub s}−1=dlnP{sub R}/dlnk), among others—predictions that match the latest observations from the Planck satellite to very good precision. In the light of data from Planck as well as recent theoretical developments in the study of eternal inflation and the multiverse, we address recent criticisms of inflation by Ijjas, Steinhardt, and Loeb. We argue that their conclusions rest on several problematic assumptions, and we conclude that cosmic inflation is on a stronger footing than ever before.

  14. Inflationary paradigm after Planck 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guth, Alan H.; Kaiser, David I.; Nomura, Yasunori

    2014-01-01

    Models of cosmic inflation posit an early phase of accelerated expansion of the universe, driven by the dynamics of one or more scalar fields in curved spacetime. Though detailed assumptions about fields and couplings vary across models, inflation makes specific, quantitative predictions for several observable quantities, such as the flatness parameter (Ω k =1−Ω) and the spectral tilt of primordial curvature perturbations (n s −1=dlnP R /dlnk), among others—predictions that match the latest observations from the Planck satellite to very good precision. In the light of data from Planck as well as recent theoretical developments in the study of eternal inflation and the multiverse, we address recent criticisms of inflation by Ijjas, Steinhardt, and Loeb. We argue that their conclusions rest on several problematic assumptions, and we conclude that cosmic inflation is on a stronger footing than ever before.

  15. Distribution and mixing of a liquid bolus in pleural space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodega, Francesca; Tresoldi, Claudio; Porta, Cristina; Zocchi, Luciano; Agostoni, Emilio

    2006-02-28

    Distribution and mixing time of boluses with labeled albumin in pleural space of anesthetized, supine rabbits were determined by sampling pleural liquid at different times in various intercostal spaces (ics), and in cranial and caudal mediastinum. During sampling, lung and chest wall were kept apposed by lung inflation. This was not necessary in costo-phrenic sinus. Here, 10 min after injection, lung inflation increased concentration of labeled albumin by 50%. Lung inflation probably displaces some pleural liquid cranio-caudally, increasing labeled albumin concentration caudally to injection point (6th ics), and decreasing it cranially. Boluses of 0.1-1 ml did not preferentially reach mediastinal regions, as maintained by others. Time for an approximate mixing was approximately 1 h for 0.1 ml, and approximately 30 min for 1 ml. This relatively long mixing time does not substantially affect determination of contribution of lymphatic drainage through stomata to overall removal of labeled albumin from 0.3 ml hydrothoraces lasting 3 h [Bodega, F., Agostoni, E., 2004. Contribution of lymphatic drainage through stomata to albumin removal from pleural space. Respir. Physiol. Neurobiol. 142, 251-263].

  16. The Status of Cosmic Topology after Planck Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Luminet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, the study of the overall shape of the universe, called Cosmic Topology, has become testable by astronomical observations, especially the data from the Cosmic Microwave Background (hereafter CMB obtained by WMAP and Planck telescopes. Cosmic Topology involves both global topological features and more local geometrical properties such as curvature. It deals with questions such as whether space is finite or infinite, simply-connected or multi-connected, and smaller or greater than its observable counterpart. A striking feature of some relativistic, multi-connected small universe models is to create multiples images of faraway cosmic sources. While the last CMB (Planck data fit well the simplest model of a zero-curvature, infinite space model, they remain consistent with more complex shapes such as the spherical Poincaré Dodecahedral Space, the flat hypertorus or the hyperbolic Picard horn. We review the theoretical and observational status of the field.

  17. Max Planck et les quanta

    CERN Document Server

    Boudenot, Jean-Claude

    2016-01-01

    « Les atomes, dit Jean Perrin en 1913, ne sont pas ces éléments éternels et insécables dont l'irréductible simplicité donnait au possible une borne, et, dans leur inimaginable petitesse, nous commençons à pressentir un fourmillement prodigieux de mondes nouveaux ». C'est bien dans un monde totalement nouveau, le monde quantique, que nous a fait pénétrer la découverte des quanta par Max Planck. Son article de 1900 est le déclencheur de l'une des plus grandes révolutions scientifiques de tous les temps. Les trente années qui suivent sont les plus riches de la physique ; Planck, Einstein, Bohr, Sommerfeld, de Broglie, Schrödinger, Heisenberg, Dirac, Born, Pauli… reconstruisent la physique sur de nouvelles bases sur fond de conflit des générations. Le monde est par ailleurs secoué par la guerre, Max Planck est tourmenté et vit des épreuves personnelles dramatiques. C'est l'homme, aussi bien que l'oeuvre, que les auteurs ont tenté de dépeindre dans cet ouvrage. Ils ont également souhait�...

  18. Planck early results. XXIII. The first all-sky survey of Galactic cold clumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poutanen, T.; Natoli, P.; Polenta, G.

    2011-01-01

    We present the statistical properties of the Cold Clump Catalogue of Planck Objects (C3PO), the first all-sky catalogue of cold objects, in terms of their spatial distribution, dust temperature, distance, mass, and morphology. We have combined Planck and IRAS data to extract 10342 cold sources...... dark clouds where the latter have been catalogued. These cold clumps are not isolated but clustered in groups. Dust temperature and emissivity spectral index values are derived from their spectral energy distributions using both Planck and IRAS data. The temperatures range from 7K to 19K...

  19. Diffusion with space memory modelled with distributed order space fractional differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Caputo

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Distributed order fractional differential equations (Caputo, 1995, 2001; Bagley and Torvik, 2000a,b were fi rst used in the time domain; they are here considered in the space domain and introduced in the constitutive equation of diffusion. The solution of the classic problems are obtained, with closed form formulae. In general, the Green functions act as low pass fi lters in the frequency domain. The major difference with the case when a single space fractional derivative is present in the constitutive equations of diffusion (Caputo and Plastino, 2002 is that the solutions found here are potentially more fl exible to represent more complex media (Caputo, 2001a. The difference between the space memory medium and that with the time memory is that the former is more fl exible to represent local phenomena while the latter is more fl exible to represent variations in space. Concerning the boundary value problem, the difference with the solution of the classic diffusion medium, in the case when a constant boundary pressure is assigned and in the medium the pressure is initially nil, is that one also needs to assign the fi rst order space derivative at the boundary.

  20. Planck scale still safe from stellar images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coule, D H

    2003-01-01

    The recent paper of Lieu and Hillman (2003 Astrophys. J. Lett. 585 L77) suggesting that a possible (birefringence-like) phase difference ambiguity coming from Planck effects would alter stellar images of distant sources is questioned. Instead for division of wavefront interference and diffraction phenomena, initial (lateral) coherence is developed simply by propagation of rays (cf the van Cittert-Zernike theorem). This case is strongly immune to quantum gravity influences that could tend to reduce phase coherence. The phase ambiguity, if actually present, could reduce any underlying polarization of the light rays. However, we argue that, as expected since any inherent quantum discreteness of space should become increasingly negligible over larger distances, such a phase ambiguity is rapidly cancelled if a more realistic constantly fluctuating quantum 'buffeting' occurs

  1. A Noninformative Prior on a Space of Distribution Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Terenin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In a given problem, the Bayesian statistical paradigm requires the specification of a prior distribution that quantifies relevant information about the unknowns of main interest external to the data. In cases where little such information is available, the problem under study may possess an invariance under a transformation group that encodes a lack of information, leading to a unique prior—this idea was explored at length by E.T. Jaynes. Previous successful examples have included location-scale invariance under linear transformation, multiplicative invariance of the rate at which events in a counting process are observed, and the derivation of the Haldane prior for a Bernoulli success probability. In this paper we show that this method can be extended, by generalizing Jaynes, in two ways: (1 to yield families of approximately invariant priors; and (2 to the infinite-dimensional setting, yielding families of priors on spaces of distribution functions. Our results can be used to describe conditions under which a particular Dirichlet Process posterior arises from an optimal Bayesian analysis, in the sense that invariances in the prior and likelihood lead to one and only one posterior distribution.

  2. Constructing Common Information Space across Distributed Emergency Medical Teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhan; Sarcevic, Aleksandra; Bossen, Claus

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines coordination and real-time information sharing across four emergency medical teams in a high-risk and distributed setting as they provide care to critically injured patients within the first hour after injury. Through multiple field studies we explored how common understanding...... of critical patient data is established across these heterogeneous teams and what coordination mechanisms are being used to support information sharing and interpretation. To analyze the data, we drew on the concept of Common Information Spaces (CIS). Our results showed that teams faced many challenges...... in achieving efficient information sharing and coordination, including difficulties in locating and assembling team members, communicating and interpreting information from the field, and accommodating differences in team goals and information needs, all while having minimal technology support. We reflect...

  3. Spatial distribution of absorbed dose onboard of International Space Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jadrnickova, I.; Spumy, F.; Tateyama, R.; Yasuda, N.; Kawashima, H.; Kurano, M.; Uchihori, Y.; Kitamura, H.; Akatov, Yu.; Shurshakov, V.; Kobayashi, I.; Ohguchi, H.; Koguchi, Y.

    2009-01-01

    The passive detectors (LD and PNTD) were exposed onboard of Russian Service Module Qn the International Space Station (ISS) from August 2004 to October 2005 (425 days). The detectors were located at 6 different positions inside the Service Module and also in 32 pockets on the surface of the spherical tissue-equivalent phantom located in crew cabin. Distribution of absorbed doses and dose equivalents measured with passive detectors, as well as LET spectra of fluences of registered particles, are presented as the function of detectors' location. The variation of dose characteristics for different locations can be up to factor of 2. In some cases, data measured with passive detectors are also compared with the data obtained by means of active instruments. (authors)

  4. Equilibrium phase-space distributions and space charge limits in linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lysenko, W.P.

    1977-10-01

    Limits on beam current and emittance in proton and heavy ion linear accelerators resulting from space charge forces are calculated. The method involves determining equilibrium distributions in phase space using a continuous focusing, no acceleration, model in two degrees of freedom using the coordinates r and z. A nonlinear Poisson equation must be solved numerically. This procedure is a matching between the longitudinal and transverse directions to minimize the effect of longitudinal-transverse coupling which is believed to be the main problem in emittance growth due to space charge in linacs. Limits on the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) accelerator performance are calculated as an example. The beam physics is described by a few space charge parameters so that accelerators with different physical parameters can be compared in a natural way. The main result of this parameter study is that the requirement of a high-intensity beam is best fulfilled with a low-frequency accelerator whereas the requirement of a high-brightness beam is best fulfilled with a high-frequency accelerator

  5. Fokker-Planck equation resolution for N variables. Application examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz, A.; Garcia-Olivares, A.

    1994-01-01

    A set of problems which are reducible to Fokker-Planck equations are presented. Those problems have been solved by using the CHAPKOL library. This library of programs solves stochastic Fokker-Plank equations in one or several dimensions by using the Chapman- Kolmogorov integral. This method calculates the probability distribution at a time t + dt from a distribution given at time t through a convolution integral in which the integration is the product of the distribution function at time t and the Green function of the Fokker-Planck equation. The method have some numerical advantages when compared with finite differences algorithms. The accuracy of the method is analysed in several specific cases. (Author) 9 refs

  6. German science. Max Planck charts new path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, R

    2000-06-09

    Germany's premier basic research organization, the Max Planck Society, released a long-awaited blueprint for change during its annual meeting this week, recommending that the society's nearly 3000 scientists embrace more interdisciplinary and international projects in a range of new research priorities. The report, called Max Planck 2000-Plus, is the product of an 18-month-long internal review. Its recommendations were formulated by some two dozen Max Planck researchers and administrators, who sought input from every institute.

  7. Solution of the relativistic 2-D Fokker-Planck equation for LH current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hizanidis, K.; Hewett, D.W.; Bers, A.

    1984-03-01

    We solve numerically the steady-state two-dimensional relativistic Fokker-Planck equation with strong rf diffusion using spectra relevant to recent experiments in ALCATOR-C. The results (current generated, power dissipated, and the distribution of energetic electrons) are sensitive to the location of the spectrum in momentum space. Relativistic effects play an important role, especially for wide spectra. The dependence on the ionic charge number Z/sub i/ is also investigated. Particular attention is paid to the perpendicular temperature inside the resonant region and beyond, as well as to the angular energetic particle-temperature distribution, T/sub μ/, a function of the pitch angle parameter μ. The dependence of the perpendicular temperature on the location of the spectrum is also investigated analytically with a model based on the method of moments and the results compared with those found numerically

  8. Universe before Planck time: A quantum gravity model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padmanabhan, T.

    1983-01-01

    A model for quantum gravity can be constructed by treating the conformal degree of freedom of spacetime as a quantum variable. An isotropic, homogeneous cosmological solution in this quantum gravity model is presented. The spacetime is nonsingular for all the three possible values of three-space curvature, and agrees with the classical solution for time scales larger than the Planck time scale. A possibility of quantum fluctuations creating the matter in the universe is suggested

  9. Planck 2013 results. XXIX. Planck catalogue of Sunyaev-Zeldovich sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.

    2013-01-01

    We describe the all-sky Planck catalogue of clusters and cluster candidates derived from Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect detections using the first 15.5 months of Planck satellite observations. The catalogue contains 1227 entries, making it over six times the size of the Planck Early SZ (ESZ) sampl...

  10. A local analytic approach for the fast solution of the Fokker-Planck equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajjadi, S.G.; Nicholas, D.J.

    1987-11-01

    In this report we describe a method of obtaining a closed form for the Focker-Planck equation rendering it amenable to solution in time-step with a complete hydrodynamic treatment of a plasma. We present a local expression for the heat flux, by solving the Focker-Planck equation for electrons in one space and two velocity dimensions in the presence of a self consistent electronic field. (author)

  11. Long distance free-space quantum key distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt-Manderbach, T.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the presented experiment was to investigate the feasibility of satellite-based global quantum key distribution. In this context, a free-space quantum key distribution experiment over a real distance of 144 km was performed. The transmitter and the receiver were situated in 2500 m altitude on the Canary Islands of La Palma and Tenerife, respectively. The small and compact transmitter unit generated attenuated laser pulses, that were sent to the receiver via a 15-cm optical telescope. The receiver unit for polarisation analysis and detection of the sent pulses was integrated into an existing mirror telescope designed for classical optical satellite communications. To ensure the required stability and efficiency of the optical link in the presence of atmospheric turbulence, the two telescopes were equipped with a bi-directional automatic tracking system. Still, due to stray light and high optical attenuation, secure key exchange would not be possible using attenuated pulses in connection with the standard BB84 protocol. The photon number statistics of attenuated pulses follows a Poissonian distribution. Hence, by removing a photon from all pulses containing two or more photons, an eavesdropper could measure its polarisation without disturbing the polarisation state of the remaining pulse. In this way, he can gain information about the key without introducing detectable errors. To protect against such attacks, the presented experiment employed the recently developed method of using additional ''decoy'' states, i.e., the the intensity of the pulses created by the transmitter were varied in a random manner. By analysing the detection probabilities of the different pulses individually, a photon-number-splitting attack can be detected. Thanks to the decoy-state analysis, the secrecy of the resulting quantum key could be ensured despite the Poissonian nature of the emitted pulses. For a channel attenuation as high as 35 dB, a secret key rate of up to 250 bit

  12. Long distance free-space quantum key distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt-Manderbach, T.

    2007-10-16

    The aim of the presented experiment was to investigate the feasibility of satellite-based global quantum key distribution. In this context, a free-space quantum key distribution experiment over a real distance of 144 km was performed. The transmitter and the receiver were situated in 2500 m altitude on the Canary Islands of La Palma and Tenerife, respectively. The small and compact transmitter unit generated attenuated laser pulses, that were sent to the receiver via a 15-cm optical telescope. The receiver unit for polarisation analysis and detection of the sent pulses was integrated into an existing mirror telescope designed for classical optical satellite communications. To ensure the required stability and efficiency of the optical link in the presence of atmospheric turbulence, the two telescopes were equipped with a bi-directional automatic tracking system. Still, due to stray light and high optical attenuation, secure key exchange would not be possible using attenuated pulses in connection with the standard BB84 protocol. The photon number statistics of attenuated pulses follows a Poissonian distribution. Hence, by removing a photon from all pulses containing two or more photons, an eavesdropper could measure its polarisation without disturbing the polarisation state of the remaining pulse. In this way, he can gain information about the key without introducing detectable errors. To protect against such attacks, the presented experiment employed the recently developed method of using additional 'decoy' states, i.e., the the intensity of the pulses created by the transmitter were varied in a random manner. By analysing the detection probabilities of the different pulses individually, a photon-number-splitting attack can be detected. Thanks to the decoy-state analysis, the secrecy of the resulting quantum key could be ensured despite the Poissonian nature of the emitted pulses. For a channel attenuation as high as 35 dB, a secret key rate of up to 250

  13. Planck intermediate results. X. Physics of the hot gas in the Coma cluster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Planck Collaboration,; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.

    2013-01-01

    We present an analysis of Planck satellite data on the Coma Cluster observed via the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect. Planck is able, for the first time, to detect SZ emission up to r ~ 3 X R_500. We test previously proposed models for the pressure distribution in clusters against the azimuthally averaged...... data. We find that the Arnaud et al. universal pressure profile does not fit Coma, and that their pressure profile for merging systems provides a good fit of the data only at rR_500 than the mean pressure profile predicted by the simulations. The Planck image shows significant local steepening of the y...

  14. Planck-scale gravity test at PETRA. Letter of intent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gharibyan, V.; Balewski, K.

    2016-02-15

    Quantum or torsion gravity models predict unusual properties of space- time at very short distances. In particular, near the Planck length, around 10{sup -35} m, empty space may behave as a crystal, singly or doubly refractive. This hypothesis, however, remains uncheckable for any direct measurement since the smallest distance accessible in experiment is about 10{sup -19} m at the LHC. Here we propose a laboratory test to measure space birefringence or refractivity induced by gravity. A sensitivity 10{sup -31} m for doubly and 10{sup -28} m for singly refractive vacuum could be reached with PETRA 6 GeV beam exploring UV laser Compton scattering.

  15. Planck-scale gravity test at PETRA. Letter of intent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharibyan, V.; Balewski, K.

    2016-02-01

    Quantum or torsion gravity models predict unusual properties of space- time at very short distances. In particular, near the Planck length, around 10 -35 m, empty space may behave as a crystal, singly or doubly refractive. This hypothesis, however, remains uncheckable for any direct measurement since the smallest distance accessible in experiment is about 10 -19 m at the LHC. Here we propose a laboratory test to measure space birefringence or refractivity induced by gravity. A sensitivity 10 -31 m for doubly and 10 -28 m for singly refractive vacuum could be reached with PETRA 6 GeV beam exploring UV laser Compton scattering.

  16. Prediction of HAMR Debris Population Distribution Released from GEO Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosengren, A.; Scheeres, D.

    2012-09-01

    in inclination. When the nodal rate of the system is commensurate with the nodal rate of the Moon, the perturbations build up more effectively over long periods to produce significant effects on the orbit. Such resonances, which occurs for a class of HAMR objects that are not cleared out of orbit, gives rise to strongly changing dynamics over longer time periods. In this paper, we present the averaged model, and discuss its fundamental predictions and comparisons with explicit long-term numerical integrations of HAMR objects in GEO space. Using this tool, we study a range of HAMR objects, released in geostationary orbit, with various area-to-mass ratios, and predict the spatiotemporal distribution of the population. We identified a unique systematic structure associated with their distribution in inclination and ascending node phase space. Given that HAMR objects are the most difficult to target from an observational point of view, this work will have many implications for the space surveillance community, and will allow observers to implement better search strategies for this class of debris.

  17. Max Planck in the Social Context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, E.

    1983-01-01

    Planck was the founder of quantum theory, and therefore of modern physics. Moreover, because of the strength of his character and of his towering position in scientific life he had strong public influence. In respect to atomistics Planck went over from the negative position of Mach to the positive position of Boltzmann when he established his radiation law and introduced the quantum of action. Einstein was a supporter of atomistics all his life. From the beginning, Planck furthered the Theory of Relativity and Einstein. In the Weimar Republic he supported Einstein against the socalled 'German Physics'. Planck had the courage to praise Einstein in public even after Hitler came to power. Always interested in philosophy, Planck was initially under the influence of Mach's positivism, but later he turned, like Einstein, to realism. Boltzmann had always been arealist and materialist. Planck produced important ideas also on the problem of Free Will. In politics, Planck was a conventional, conservative, PrussianGerman patriot before the First War. However, under Hitler he became reserved towards the State. As well as he could, but with little success, Planck tried to prevent the worst. Planck was always religious, and he ascribed a strong role to religion also in public life. But he did not accept a personal, and therefore not a Christian, God. An attempt is made to interpret Planck's contradictory position in this respect. Planck's life was full of professional success, but it was tragically darkened by personal blows of fate. A relationship with the path of Germany and of her conservative intellectual leadership is sought. (author) [de

  18. Cosmology with the Planck Satellite

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Sketched out in 1992, selected by ESA in 1996, and launched in 2009, the Planck satellite was shut off in 2013, after a measuring mission that exceeded all expectations. The Planck collaboration delivered a first set of cosmological data and results in March 21st 2013, and the full set in February 2015. Part of the data delivery is a "definitive" map of the anisotropies of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), its angular power spectrum together with their full statistical characterisation. The 2015 delivery also includes pioneering polarisation data. The temperature anisotropy map displays minuscule variations as a function of the observing direction, of rms ~100microK, of the fossil radiation around its mean temperature of 2.725K. Other maps reveal the CMB polarisation. The anisotropies are the imprint of the primordial fluctuations which initiated the growth of the large scale structures of the Universe, as transformed by their evolution, in particular during the first 370 000 years, as well as finer e...

  19. Velocity distribution measurement in wire-spaced fuel pin bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuta, Hiroshi; Ohtake, Toshihide; Uruwashi, Shinichi; Takahashi, Keiichi

    1974-01-01

    Flow distribution measurement was made in the subchannels of a pin bundle in air flow. The present paper is interim because the target of this work is the decision of temperature of the pin surface in contact with wire spacers. The wire-spaced fuel pin bundle used for the experiment consists of 37 simulated fuel pins of stainless steel tubes, 3000 mm in length and 31.6 mm in diameter, which are wound spirally with 6 mm stainless steel wire. The bundle is wrapped with a hexagonal tube, 3500 mm in length and 293 mm in flat-to-flat distance. The bundle is fixed with knock-bar at the entrance of air flow in the hexagonal tube. The pitch of pins in the bundle is 37.6 mm (P/D=1.19) and the wrapping pitch of wire is 1100 mm (H/D=34.8). A pair of arrow-type 5-hole Pitot tubes are used to measure the flow velocity and the direction of air flow in the pin bundle. The measurement of flow distribution was made with the conditions of air flow rate of 0.33 m 3 /sec, air temperature of 45 0 C, and average Reynolds number of 15100 (average air velocity of 20.6 m/sec.). It was found that circular flow existed in the down stream of wire spacers, that axial flow velocity was slower in the subchannels, which contained wire spacers, than in those not affected by the wire, and that the flow angle to the axial velocity at the boundary of subchannels was two thirds smaller than wire wrapping angle. (Tai, I.)

  20. On the Nernst-Planck equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maex, Reinoud

    2017-01-01

    This review first discusses Nernst's and Planck's early papers on electro-diffusion, the brief priority conflict that followed, and the role these papers played in shaping the emerging concept of membrane excitability. The second part discusses in greater detail the constraints of the Nernst-Planck theory, and shows more recent examples of its applicability for neuronal modelling.

  1. Planck 2015 results: V. LFI calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.; Ashdown, M.

    2016-01-01

    We present a description of the pipeline used to calibrate the Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) timelines into thermodynamic temperatures for the Planck 2015 data release, covering four years of uninterrupted operations. As in the 2013 data release, our calibrator is provided by the spin-syn...

  2. Planck 2013 results. XXII. Constraints on inflation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.

    2014-01-01

    We analyse the implications of the Planck data for cosmic inflation. The Planck nominal mission temperature anisotropy measurements, combined with the WMAP large-angle polarization, constrain the scalar spectral index to be ns = 0.9603 ± 0:0073, ruling out exact scale invariance at over 5 sigma P...

  3. On the analytical demonstration of Planck-Einstein relation

    OpenAIRE

    Molina Morales, Eddy Luis

    2016-01-01

    In this paper a possible analytical demonstration of Planck's Law for the spectral distribution of the electromagnetic energy radiated by hot bodies is presented, but in this case, the solutions of Maxwell's equations for the electromagnetic radiation problem of Hertz’s dipole are used. The concepts of quantum energy and of photon are redefined from the classical point of view, relating them to the possible electronic nature of electromagnetic waves and the electromagnetic field in general. B...

  4. Grand Challenges in Space Technology: Distributed Satellite Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, David

    2001-01-01

    The MITIAFRL Distributed Satellite Systems program examines the motivation, analysis and development of technology associated with the distribution of assets and functionality over a number of cooperating satellites...

  5. Max Planck in the Social Context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broda, E.

    1983-07-01

    Planck was the founder of quantum theory, and therefore of modern physics. Moreover, because of the strength of his character and of his towering position in scientific life he had strong public influence. In respect to atomistics Planck went over from the negative position of Mach to the positive position of Boltzmann when he established his radiation law and introduced the quantum of action. Einstein was a supporter of atomistics all his life. From the beginning, Planck furthered the Theory of Relativity and Einstein. In the Weimar Republic he supported Einstein against the socalled 'German Physics'. Planck had the courage to praise Einstein in public even after Hitler came to power. Always interested in philosophy, Planck was initially under the influence of Mach's positivism, but later he turned, like Einstein, to realism. Boltzmann had always been arealist and materialist. Planck produced important ideas also on the problem of Free Will. In politics, Planck was a conventional, conservative, PrussianGerman patriot before the First War. However, under Hitler he became reserved towards the State. As well as he could, but with little success, Planck tried to prevent the worst. Planck was always religious, and he ascribed a strong role to religion also in public life. But he did not accept a personal, and therefore not a Christian, God. An attempt is made to interpret Planck's contradictory position in this respect. Planck's life was full of professional success, but it was tragically darkened by personal blows of fate. A relationship with the path of Germany and of her conservative intellectual leadership is sought. (author) [German] Planck war der Begründer der Quantentheorie und daher der modernen Physik. Außerdem hatte er sowohl durch die Kraft seines Charakters als auch durch seine überragenden Funktionen im wissenschaftlichen Leben starken öffentlichen Einfluß. In Bezug auf die Stellung zur Atomistik ging Planck, als er sein Strahlungsgesetz begr

  6. Planck 2013 Cosmology Results: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto Rubino-Martín

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This talk presents an overview of the cosmological results derived from the first 15.5 months of observations of the ESA’s Planck mission. These cosmological results are mainly based on the Planck measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB temperature and lensing-potential power spectra, although we also briefly discuss other aspects of the Planck data, as the statistical characterization of the reconstructed CMB maps, or the constraints on cosmological parameters using the number counts of galaxy clusters detected by means of the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect in the Planck maps. All these results are described in detail in a series of papers released by ESA and the Planck collaboration in March 2013.

  7. Charged fluid distribution in higher dimensional spheroidal space-time

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    associated 3-spaces obtained as hypersurfaces t = constant, 3-spheroids, are suit- ... pressure. Considering the Vaidya–Tikekar [12] spheroidal geometry, ... a relativistic star in hydrostatic equilibrium having the spheroidal geometry of the .... K = 1, the spheroidal 3-space degenerates into a flat 3-space and when K = 0 it.

  8. In-Space Distributed Fiber Optic Hydrogen Leak Sensor, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Broadband Photonics Inc. proposes development of a patent-pending distributed fiber optic sensor for in-space hydrogen leak detection. Reliable and fast detection of...

  9. A fractional Fokker-Planck model for anomalous diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Johan, E-mail: anderson.johan@gmail.com [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Göteborg (Sweden); Kim, Eun-jin [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Sheffield, Hicks Building, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Moradi, Sara [Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS UMR7648, LPP, F-91128 Palaiseau (France)

    2014-12-15

    In this paper, we present a study of anomalous diffusion using a Fokker-Planck description with fractional velocity derivatives. The distribution functions are found using numerical means for varying degree of fractionality of the stable Lévy distribution. The statistical properties of the distribution functions are assessed by a generalized normalized expectation measure and entropy in terms of Tsallis statistical mechanics. We find that the ratio of the generalized entropy and expectation is increasing with decreasing fractionality towards the well known so-called sub-diffusive domain, indicating a self-organising behavior.

  10. Space and space-time distributions of dengue in a hyper-endemic urban space: the case of Girardot, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Vallejo, Mauricio

    2017-07-24

    Dengue is a widely spread vector-borne disease. Dengue cases in the Americas have increased over the last few decades, affecting various urban spaces throughout these continents, including the tourism-oriented city of Girardot, Colombia. Interactions among mosquitoes, pathogens and humans have recently been examined using different temporal and spatial scales in attempts to determine the roles that social and ecological systems play in dengue transmission. The current work characterizes the spatial and temporal behaviours of dengue in Girardot and discusses the potential territorial dynamics related to the distribution of this disease. Based on officially reported dengue cases (2012-2015) corresponding to epidemic (2013) and inter-epidemic years (2012, 2014, 2015), space (Getis-Ord index) and space-time (Kulldorff's scan statistics) analyses were performed. Geocoded dengue cases (n = 2027) were slightly overrepresented by men (52.1%). As expected, the cases were concentrated in the 0- to 15-year-old age group according to the actual trends of Colombia. The incidence rates of dengue during the rainy and dry seasons as well as those for individual years (2012, 2013 and 2014) were significant using the global Getis-Ord index. Local clusters shifted across seasons and years; nevertheless, the incidence rates clustered towards the southwest region of the city under different residential conditions. Space-time clusters shifted from the northeast to the southwest of the city (2012-2014). These clusters represented only 4.25% of the total cases over the same period (n = 1623). A general trend was observed, in which dengue cases increased during the dry seasons, especially between December and February. Despite study limitations related to official dengue records and available fine-scale demographic information, the spatial analysis results were promising from a geography of health perspective. Dengue did not show linear association with poverty or with vulnerable

  11. Studies of parallel algorithms for the solution of a Fokker-Planck equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deck, D.; Samba, G.

    1995-11-01

    The study of laser-created plasmas often requires the use of a kinetic model rather than a hydrodynamic one. This model change occurs, for example, in the hot spot formation in an ICF experiment or during the relaxation of colliding plasmas. When the gradients scalelengths or the size of a given system are not small compared to the characteristic mean-free-path, we have to deal with non-equilibrium situations, which can be described by the distribution functions of every species in the system. We present here a numerical method in plane or spherical 1-D geometry, for the solution of a Fokker-Planck equation that describes the evolution of stich functions in the phase space. The size and the time scale of kinetic simulations require the use of Massively Parallel Computers (MPP). We have adopted a message-passing strategy using Parallel Virtual Machine (PVM)

  12. Derivation of a Fokker-Planck equation for bunched beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, A.G.

    1993-01-01

    This report investigates the derivation of the Fokker-Planck equation which is commonly used to evaluate the evolution with time of an ensemble of particles under the effect of external rf forces, cooling and forces of stochastic nature like intrabeam scattering. The conventional approach based on the classical work by Chandrasekhar is first exposed, where the phase delay and the momentum error of the particle are used. The method is then extended to the case the distribution function is expressed in terms of the amplitude of motion instead of the original rectilinear variables. The new Fokker-Planck equation is obtained with an averaging process over the phase distribution instead of the time-averaging as it was usually performed earlier, to avoid the appearance of a singularity behavior. The solution of the Fokker-Planck equation is chosen in the proper form which makes easier the evaluation of the beam lifetime in the presence of the separatrix of the rf buckets. Finally the numerical applications apply the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)

  13. Planck and the local Universe: quantifying the tension

    CERN Document Server

    Verde, Licia; Protopapas, Pavlos

    2013-01-01

    We use the latest Planck constraints, and in particular constraints on the derived parameters (Hubble constant and age of the Universe) for the local universe and compare them with local measurements of the same quantities. We propose a way to quantify whether cosmological parameters constraints from two different experiments are in tension or not. Our statistic, T, is an evidence ratio and therefore can be interpreted with the widely used Jeffrey's scale. We find that in the framework of the LCDM model, the Planck inferred two dimensional, joint, posterior distribution for the Hubble constant and age of the Universe is in "strong" tension with the local measurements; the odds being ~ 1:50. We explore several possibilities for explaining this tension and examine the consequences both in terms of unknown errors and deviations from the LCDM model. In some one-parameter LCDM model extensions, tension is reduced whereas in other extensions, tension is instead increased. In particular, small total neutrino masses ...

  14. Nearest neighbor spacing distributions of low-lying levels of vibrational nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abul-Magd, A.Y.; Simbel, M.H.

    1996-01-01

    Energy-level statistics are considered for nuclei whose Hamiltonian is divided into intrinsic and collective-vibrational terms. The levels are described as a random superposition of independent sequences, each corresponding to a given number of phonons. The intrinsic motion is assumed chaotic. The level spacing distribution is found to be intermediate between the Wigner and Poisson distributions and similar in form to the spacing distribution of a system with classical phase space divided into separate regular and chaotic domains. We have obtained approximate expressions for the nearest neighbor spacing and cumulative spacing distribution valid when the level density is described by a constant-temperature formula and not involving additional free parameters. These expressions have been able to achieve good agreement with the experimental spacing distributions. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  15. Dark radiation sterile neutrino candidates after Planck data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentino, Eleonora Di; Melchiorri, Alessandro [Physics Department and INFN, Università di Roma ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Ple Aldo Moro 2, 00185, Rome (Italy); Mena, Olga, E-mail: eleonora.divalentino@roma1.infn.it, E-mail: alessandro.melchiorri@roma1.infn.it, E-mail: omena@ific.uv.es [IFIC, Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, 46071, Valencia (Spain)

    2013-11-01

    Recent Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) results from the Planck satellite, combined with previous CMB data and Hubble constant measurements from the Hubble Space Telescope, provide a constraint on the effective number of relativistic degrees of freedom 3.62{sup +0.50}{sub −0.48} at 95% CL. New Planck data provide a unique opportunity to place limits on models containing relativistic species at the decoupling epoch. We present here the bounds on sterile neutrino models combining Planck data with galaxy clustering information. Assuming N{sub eff} active plus sterile massive neutrino species, in the case of a Planck+WP+HighL+HST analysis we find m{sub ν,} {sub sterile}{sup eff} < 0.36 eV and 3.14 < N{sub eff} < 4.15 at 95% CL, while using Planck+WP+HighL data in combination with the full shape of the galaxy power spectrum from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey BOSS Data Relase 9 measurements, we find that 3.30 < N{sub eff} < 4.43 and m{sub ν,} {sub sterile}{sup eff} < 0.33 eV both at 95% CL with the three active neutrinos having the minimum mass allowed in the normal hierarchy scheme, i.e. ∑m{sub ν} ∼ 0.06 eV. These values compromise the viability of the (3+2) massive sterile neutrino models for the parameter region indicated by global fits of neutrino oscillation data. Within the (3+1) massive sterile neutrino scenario, we find m{sub ν,} {sub sterile}{sup eff} < 0.34 eV at 95% CL. While the existence of one extra sterile massive neutrino state is compatible with current oscillation data, the values for the sterile neutrino mass preferred by oscillation analyses are significantly higher than the current cosmological bound. We review as well the bounds on extended dark sectors with additional light species based on the latest Planck CMB observations.

  16. Planck 2013 results. XIV. Zodiacal emission

    OpenAIRE

    Ade, PAR; Aghanim, N; Armitage-Caplan, C; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Atrio-Barandela, F; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, AJ; Barreiro, RB; Bartlett, JG; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Benoit-Lévy, A

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 ESO. The Planck satellite provides a set of all-sky maps at nine frequencies from 30GHz to 857GHz. Planets, minor bodies, and diffuse interplanetary dust emission (IPD) are all observed. The IPD can be separated from Galactic and other emissions because Planck views a given point on the celestial sphere multiple times, through different columns of IPD. We use the Planck data to investigate the behaviour of zodiacal emission over the whole sky at sub-millimetre and millimetre wavelength...

  17. Numerical simulation of electroosmotic flow in rough microchannels using the lattice Poisson-Nernst-Planck methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamali, Reza; Soloklou, Mohsen Nasiri; Hadidi, Hooman

    2018-05-01

    In this study, coupled Lattice Boltzmann method is applied to solve the dynamic model for an electroosmotic flow and investigate the effects of roughness in a 2-D flat microchannel. In the present model, the Poisson equation is solved for the electrical potential, the Nernst- Planck equation is solved for the ion concentration. In the analysis of electroosmotic flows, when the electric double layers fully overlap or the convective effects are not negligible, the Nernst-Planck equation must be used to find the ionic distribution throughout the microchannel. The effects of surface roughness height, roughness interval spacing and roughness surface potential on flow conditions are investigated for two different configurations of the roughness, when the EDL layers fully overlap through the microchannel. The results show that in both arrangements of roughness in homogeneously charged rough channels, the flow rate decreases by increasing the roughness height. A discrepancy in the mass flow rate is observed when the roughness height is about 0.15 of the channel width, which its average is higher for the asymmetric configuration and this difference grows by increasing the roughness height. In the symmetric roughness arrangement, the mass flow rate increases until the roughness interval space is almost 1.5 times the roughness width and it decreases for higher values of the roughness interval space. For the heterogeneously charged rough channel, when the roughness surface potential ψr is less than channel surface potential ψs , the net charge density increases by getting far from the roughness surface, while in the opposite situation, when ψs is more than ψr , the net charge density decreases from roughness surface to the microchannel middle center. Increasing the roughness surface potential induces stronger electric driving force on the fluid which results in larger velocities in the flow.

  18. THE WIGNER–FOKKER–PLANCK EQUATION: STATIONARY STATES AND LARGE TIME BEHAVIOR

    KAUST Repository

    ARNOLD, ANTON; GAMBA, IRENE M.; GUALDANI, MARIA PIA; MISCHLER, STÉ PHANE; MOUHOT, CLEMENT; SPARBER, CHRISTOF

    2012-01-01

    solution in a weighted Sobolev space. A key ingredient of the proof is a new result on the existence of spectral gaps for FokkerPlanck type operators in certain weighted L 2-spaces. In addition we show that the steady state corresponds to a positive density

  19. Planck intermediate results XXIX. All-sky dust modelling with Planck, IRAS, and WISE observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Alves, M. I. R.

    2016-01-01

    We present all-sky modelling of the high resolution Planck, IRAS, andWISE infrared (IR) observations using the physical dust model presented by Draine & Li in 2007 (DL, ApJ, 657, 810). We study the performance and results of this model, and discuss implications for future dust modelling....... The present work extends the DL dust modelling carried out on nearby galaxies using Herschel and Spitzer data to Galactic dust emission. We employ the DL dust model to generate maps of the dust mass surface density Sigma(Md), the dust optical extinction A(V), and the starlight intensity heating the bulk...... of the dust, parametrized by U-min. The DL model reproduces the observed spectral energy distribution (SED) satisfactorily over most of the sky, with small deviations in the inner Galactic disk and in low ecliptic latitude areas, presumably due to zodiacal light contamination. In the Andromeda galaxy (M31...

  20. Absolute nuclear material assay using count distribution (LAMBDA) space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2012-06-05

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  1. Fokker-Planck and quasilinear codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karney, C.F.F.

    1985-11-01

    The interaction of radio-frequency waves with a plasma is described by a Fokker-Planck equation with an added quasilinear term. Methods for solving this equation on a computer are discussed. 40 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs

  2. COSMOLOGY FROM GRAVITATIONAL LENS TIME DELAYS AND PLANCK DATA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suyu, S. H.; Treu, T.; Sonnenfeld, A.; Hilbert, S.; Spiniello, C.; Auger, M. W.; Collett, T.; Blandford, R. D.; Marshall, P. J.; Courbin, F.; Meylan, G.; Tewes, M.; Fassnacht, C. D.; Koopmans, L. V. E.

    2014-01-01

    Under the assumption of a flat ΛCDM cosmology, recent data from the Planck satellite point toward a Hubble constant that is in tension with that measured by gravitational lens time delays and by the local distance ladder. Prosaically, this difference could arise from unknown systematic uncertainties in some of the measurements. More interestingly—if systematics were ruled out—resolving the tension would require a departure from the flat ΛCDM cosmology, introducing, for example, a modest amount of spatial curvature, or a non-trivial dark energy equation of state. To begin to address these issues, we present an analysis of the gravitational lens RXJ1131–1231 that is improved in one particular regard: we examine the issue of systematic error introduced by an assumed lens model density profile. We use more flexible gravitational lens models with baryonic and dark matter components, and find that the exquisite Hubble Space Telescope image with thousands of intensity pixels in the Einstein ring and the stellar velocity dispersion of the lens contain sufficient information to constrain these more flexible models. The total uncertainty on the time-delay distance is 6.6% for a single system. We proceed to combine our improved time-delay distance measurement with the WMAP9 and Planck posteriors. In an open ΛCDM model, the data for RXJ1131–1231 in combination with Planck favor a flat universe with Ω k =0.00 −0.02 +0.01 (68% credible interval (CI)). In a flat wCDM model, the combination of RXJ1131–1231 and Planck yields w=−1.52 −0.20 +0.19 (68% CI)

  3. Negative running of the spectral index, hemispherical asymmetry and the consistency of Planck with large r

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, John

    2014-01-01

    Planck favours a negative running of the spectral index, with the likelihood being dominated by low multipoles l ∼< 50 and no preference for running at higher l. A negative spectral index is also necessary for the 2- Planck upper bound on the tensor-to-scalar ratio r to be consistent with values significantly larger than 0.1. Planck has also observed a hemispherical asymmetry of the CMB power spectrum, again mostly at low multipoles. Here we consider whether the physics responsible for the hemispherical asymmetry could also account for the negative running of the spectral index and the consistency of Planck with a large value of r. A negative running of the spectral index can be generated if the hemispherical asymmetry is due to a scale- and space-dependent modulation which suppresses the CMB power spectrum at low multipoles. We show that the observed hemispherical asymmetry at low l can be generated while satisfying constraints on the asymmetry at higher l and generating a negative spectral index of the right magnitude to account for the Planck observation and to allow Planck to be consistent with a large value of r

  4. Daris, a low-frequency distributed aperture array for radio astronomy in space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, A.J.; Saks, N.; Bentum, Marinus Jan; van 't Klooster, K.; Falcke, H.

    2010-01-01

    DARIS (Distributed Aperture Array for Radio Astronomy in Space) is a radio astronomy space mission concept aimed at observing the low-frequency radio sky in the range 1-10 MHz. Because of the Earth's ionospheric disturbances and opaqueness, this frequency range can only be observed from space. The

  5. Multiplicity distributions in small phase-space domains in central nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baechler, J.; Hoffmann, M.; Runge, K.; Schmoetten, E.; Bartke, J.; Gladysz, E.; Kowalski, M.; Stefanski, P.; Bialkowska, H.; Bock, R.; Brockmann, R.; Sandoval, A.; Buncic, P.; Ferenc, D.; Kadija, K.; Ljubicic, A. Jr.; Vranic, D.; Chase, S.I.; Harris, J.W.; Odyniec, G.; Pugh, H.G.; Rai, G.; Teitelbaum, L.; Tonse, S.; Derado, I.; Eckardt, V.; Gebauer, H.J.; Rauch, W.; Schmitz, N.; Seyboth, P.; Seyerlein, J.; Vesztergombi, G.; Eschke, J.; Heck, W.; Kabana, S.; Kuehmichel, A.; Lahanas, M.; Lee, Y.; Le Vine, M.; Margetis, S.; Renfordt, R.; Roehrich, D.; Rothard, H.; Schmidt, E.; Schneider, I.; Stock, R.; Stroebele, H.; Wenig, S.; Fleischmann, B.; Fuchs, M.; Gazdzicki, M.; Kosiec, J.; Skrzypczak, E.; Keidel, R.; Piper, A.; Puehlhofer, F.; Nappi, E.; Posa, F.; Paic, G.; Panagiotou, A.D.; Petridis, A.; Vassileiadis, G.; Pfenning, J.; Wosiek, B.

    1992-10-01

    Multiplicity distributions of negatively charged particles have been studied in restricted phase space intervals for central S + S, O + Au and S + Au collisions at 200 GeV/nucleon. It is shown that multiplicity distributions are well described by a negative binomial form irrespectively of the size and dimensionality of phase space domain. A clan structure analysis reveals interesting similarities between complex nuclear collisions and a simple partonic shower. The lognormal distribution agrees reasonably well with the multiplicity data in large domains, but fails in the case of small intervals. No universal scaling function was found to describe the shape of multiplicity distributions in phase space intervals of varying size. (orig.)

  6. Vectorized Fokker-Planck package for the CRAY-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCoy, M.G.; Mirin, A.A.; Killeen, J.

    1979-08-01

    A program for the solution of the time-dependent, two dimensional, nonlinear, multi-species Fokker-Planck equation is described. The programming is written such that the loop structure is highly vectorizable on the CRAY FORTRAN Compiler. A brief discussion of the Fokker-Planck equation itself is followed by a description of the procedure developed to solve the equation efficiently. The Fokker-Planck equation is a second order partial differential equation whose coefficients depend upon moments of the distribution functions. Both the procedure for the calculation of these coefficients and the procedure for the time advancement of the equation itself must be done efficiently if significant overall time saving is to result. The coefficients are calculated in a series of nested loops, while time advancement is accomplished by a choice of either a splitting or an ADI technique. Overall, timing tests show that the vectorized CRAY program realizes up to a factor of 12 advantage over an optimized CDC-7600 program and up to a factor of 365 over a non-vectorized version of the same program on the CRAY

  7. Numerical method for the nonlinear Fokker-Planck equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, D.S.; Wei, G.W.; Kouri, D.J.; Hoffman, D.K.

    1997-01-01

    A practical method based on distributed approximating functionals (DAFs) is proposed for numerically solving a general class of nonlinear time-dependent Fokker-Planck equations. The method relies on a numerical scheme that couples the usual path-integral concept to the DAF idea. The high accuracy and reliability of the method are illustrated by applying it to an exactly solvable nonlinear Fokker-Planck equation, and the method is compared with the accurate K-point Stirling interpolation formula finite-difference method. The approach is also used successfully to solve a nonlinear self-consistent dynamic mean-field problem for which both the cumulant expansion and scaling theory have been found by Drozdov and Morillo [Phys. Rev. E 54, 931 (1996)] to be inadequate to describe the occurrence of a long-lived transient bimodality. The standard interpretation of the transient bimodality in terms of the flat region in the kinetic potential fails for the present case. An alternative analysis based on the effective potential of the Schroedinger-like Fokker-Planck equation is suggested. Our analysis of the transient bimodality is strongly supported by two examples that are numerically much more challenging than other examples that have been previously reported for this problem. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  8. Fokker-Planck description of the scattering of radio frequency waves at the plasma edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hizanidis, Kyriakos; Kominis, Yannis; Tsironis, Christos; Ram, Abhay K.

    2010-01-01

    In magnetic fusion devices, radio frequency (rf) waves in the electron cyclotron (EC) and lower hybrid (LH) range of frequencies are being commonly used to modify the plasma current profile. In ITER, EC waves are expected to stabilize the neoclassical tearing mode (NTM) by providing current in the island region [R. Aymar et al., Nucl. Fusion 41, 1301 (2001)]. The appearance of NTMs severely limits the plasma pressure and leads to the degradation of plasma confinement. LH waves could be used in ITER to modify the current profile closer to the edge of the plasma. These rf waves propagate from the excitation structures to the core of the plasma through an edge region, which is characterized by turbulence--in particular, density fluctuations. These fluctuations, in the form of blobs, can modify the propagation properties of the waves by refraction. In this paper, the effect on rf due to randomly distributed blobs in the edge region is studied. The waves are represented as geometric optics rays and the refractive scattering from a distribution of blobs is formulated as a Fokker-Planck equation. The scattering can have two diffusive effects--one in real space and the other in wave vector space. The scattering can modify the trajectory of rays into the plasma and it can affect the wave vector spectrum. The refraction of EC waves, for example, could make them miss the intended target region where the NTMs occur. The broadening of the wave vector spectrum could broaden the wave generated current profile. The Fokker-Planck formalism for diffusion in real space and wave vector space is used to study the effect of density blobs on EC and LH waves in an ITER type of plasma environment. For EC waves the refractive effects become important since the distance of propagation from the edge to the core in ITER is of the order of a meter. The diffusion in wave vector space is small. For LH waves the refractive effects are insignificant but the diffusion in wave vector space is

  9. Ultrashort pulse energy distribution for propulsion in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergstue, Grant Jared

    This thesis effort focuses on the development of a novel, space-based ultrashort pulse transmission system for spacecraft. The goals of this research include: (1) ultrashort pulse transmission strategies for maximizing safety and efficiency; (2) optical transmission system requirements; (3) general system requirements including control techniques for stabilization; (4) optical system requirements for achieving effective ablative propulsion at the receiving spacecraft; and (5) ultrashort pulse transmission capabilities required for future missions in space. A key element of the research is the multiplexing device required for aligning the ultrashort pulses from multiple laser sources along a common optical axis for transmission. This strategy enables access to the higher average and peak powers required for useful missions in space.

  10. Incomplete Detection of Nonclassical Phase-Space Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohmann, M.; Tiedau, J.; Bartley, T.; Sperling, J.; Silberhorn, C.; Vogel, W.

    2018-02-01

    We implement the direct sampling of negative phase-space functions via unbalanced homodyne measurement using click-counting detectors. The negativities significantly certify nonclassical light in the high-loss regime using a small number of detectors which cannot resolve individual photons. We apply our method to heralded single-photon states and experimentally demonstrate the most significant certification of nonclassicality for only two detection bins. By contrast, the frequently applied Wigner function fails to directly indicate such quantum characteristics for the quantum efficiencies present in our setup without applying additional reconstruction algorithms. Therefore, we realize a robust and reliable approach to characterize nonclassical light in phase space under realistic conditions.

  11. Distributed Submodular Minimization And Motion Coordination Over Discrete State Space

    KAUST Repository

    Jaleel, Hassan; Shamma, Jeff S.

    2017-01-01

    Submodular set-functions are extensively used in large-scale combinatorial optimization problems arising in complex networks and machine learning. While there has been significant interest in distributed formulations of convex optimization

  12. Distributed Submodular Minimization And Motion Coordination Over Discrete State Space

    KAUST Repository

    Jaleel, Hassan

    2017-09-21

    Submodular set-functions are extensively used in large-scale combinatorial optimization problems arising in complex networks and machine learning. While there has been significant interest in distributed formulations of convex optimization, distributed minimization of submodular functions has not received significant attention. Thus, our main contribution is a framework for minimizing submodular functions in a distributed manner. The proposed framework is based on the ideas of Lovasz extension of submodular functions and distributed optimization of convex functions. The framework exploits a fundamental property of submodularity that the Lovasz extension of a submodular function is a convex function and can be computed efficiently. Moreover, a minimizer of a submodular function can be computed by computing the minimizer of its Lovasz extension. In the proposed framework, we employ a consensus based distributed optimization algorithm to minimize set-valued submodular functions as well as general submodular functions defined over set products. We also identify distributed motion coordination in multiagent systems as a new application domain for submodular function minimization. For demonstrating key ideas of the proposed framework, we select a complex setup of the capture the flag game, which offers a variety of challenges relevant to multiagent system. We formulate the problem as a submodular minimization problem and verify through extensive simulations that the proposed framework results in feasible policies for the agents.

  13. Estimating Functions of Distributions Defined over Spaces of Unknown Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David H. Wolpert

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We consider Bayesian estimation of information-theoretic quantities from data, using a Dirichlet prior. Acknowledging the uncertainty of the event space size m and the Dirichlet prior’s concentration parameter c, we treat both as random variables set by a hyperprior. We show that the associated hyperprior, P(c, m, obeys a simple “Irrelevance of Unseen Variables” (IUV desideratum iff P(c, m = P(cP(m. Thus, requiring IUV greatly reduces the number of degrees of freedom of the hyperprior. Some information-theoretic quantities can be expressed multiple ways, in terms of different event spaces, e.g., mutual information. With all hyperpriors (implicitly used in earlier work, different choices of this event space lead to different posterior expected values of these information-theoretic quantities. We show that there is no such dependence on the choice of event space for a hyperprior that obeys IUV. We also derive a result that allows us to exploit IUV to greatly simplify calculations, like the posterior expected mutual information or posterior expected multi-information. We also use computer experiments to favorably compare an IUV-based estimator of entropy to three alternative methods in common use. We end by discussing how seemingly innocuous changes to the formalization of an estimation problem can substantially affect the resultant estimates of posterior expectations.

  14. Fokker-Planck simulation of runaway electron generation in disruptions with the hot-tail effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuga, H., E-mail: nuga@p-grp.nucleng.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Fukuyama, A. [Department of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8540 (Japan); Yagi, M. [National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    To study runaway electron generation in disruptions, we have extended the three-dimensional (two-dimensional in momentum space; one-dimensional in the radial direction) Fokker-Planck code, which describes the evolution of the relativistic momentum distribution function of electrons and the induced toroidal electric field in a self-consistent manner. A particular focus is placed on the hot-tail effect in two-dimensional momentum space. The effect appears if the drop of the background plasma temperature is sufficiently rapid compared with the electron-electron slowing down time for a few times of the pre-quench thermal velocity. It contributes to not only the enhancement of the primary runaway electron generation but also the broadening of the runaway electron distribution in the pitch angle direction. If the thermal energy loss during the major disruption is assumed to be isotropic, there are hot-tail electrons that have sufficiently large perpendicular momentum, and the runaway electron distribution becomes broader in the pitch angle direction. In addition, the pitch angle scattering also yields the broadening. Since the electric field is reduced due to the burst of runaway electron generation, the time required for accelerating electrons to the runaway region becomes longer. The longer acceleration period makes the pitch-angle scattering more effective.

  15. Fokker-Planck equation resolution for N variables-Application examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz Roldan, A.; Garcia-Olivares, A.

    1994-01-01

    A set of problems which are reducible to Fokker-Planck equations are presented. Those problems have been solved by using the CHAPKOL library. This library of programs solves stochastic ''Fokker-Planck'' equations in one or several dimensions by using the Chapman-Kolmogorov integral. This method calculates the probability distribution at a time t+dt from a distribution given at time t through a convolution integral in which the integrant is the product of the distribution function at time t and the Green function of the Fokker-Planck equation. The method have some numerical advantages when compared with finite differences algorithms. The accuracy of the method is analysed in several specific cases

  16. Modelling of thermal transport using Fokker-Planck equations in laser produced plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakarmi, J.J.; Jha, L.N.

    1996-12-01

    The kinetic equation with Fokker-Planck collision term has been presented to obtain the distribution function in the corona of inertial confinement fusion, in the presence of the self generated magnetic field. The resulting distribution has non-local form with the convolution in Maxwellian. An expression for thermal flux with self generated magnetic field is obtained. (author). 22 refs

  17. Planck intermediate results. XXVI. Optical identification and redshifts of Planck clusters with the RTT150 telescope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of approximately three years of observations of Planck Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) sources with the Russian-Turkish 1.5m telescope (RTT150), as a part of the optical follow-up programme undertaken by the Planck collaboration. During this time period approximately 20% of all dark...

  18. Planck intermediate results: IV. the XMM-Newton validation programme for new Planck galaxy clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartlett, J.G.; Delabrouille, J.; Ganga, K.

    2013-01-01

    We present the final results from the XMM-Newton validation follow-up of new Planck galaxy cluster candidates. We observed 15 new candidates, detected with signal-to-noise ratios between 4.0 and 6.1 in the 15.5-month nominal Planck survey. The candidates were selected using ancillary data flags d...

  19. Planck intermediate results XXV. The Andromeda galaxy as seen by Planck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.

    2015-01-01

    The Andromeda galaxy (M 31) is one of a few galaxies that has sufficient angular size on the sky to be resolved by the Planck satellite. Planck has detected M 31 in all of its frequency bands, and has mapped out the dust emission with the High Frequency Instrument, clearly resolving multiple spir...

  20. Planck 2015 results: XXVI. The Second Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.; Arguëso, F.

    2016-01-01

    The Second Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources is a list of discrete objects detected in single-frequency maps from the full duration of the Planck mission and supersedes previous versions. It consists of compact sources, both Galactic and extragalactic, detected over the entire sky. Compact sour...

  1. Planck 2013 results. XXXII. The updated Planck catalogue of Sunyaev-Zeldovich sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.

    2015-01-01

    We update the all-sky Planck catalogue of 1227 clusters and cluster candidates (PSZ1) published in March 2013, derived from detections of the Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect using the first 15.5 months of Planck satellite observations. As an addendum, we deliver an updated version of the PSZ1 catal...

  2. The distribution function of a probability measure on a space with a fractal structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Granero, M.A.; Galvez-Rodriguez, J.F.

    2017-07-01

    In this work we show how to define a probability measure with the help of a fractal structure. One of the keys of this approach is to use the completion of the fractal structure. Then we use the theory of a cumulative distribution function on a Polish ultrametric space and describe it in this context. Finally, with the help of fractal structures, we prove that a function satisfying the properties of a cumulative distribution function on a Polish ultrametric space is a cumulative distribution function with respect to some probability measure on the space. (Author)

  3. Electrodiffusion Models of Neurons and Extracellular Space Using the Poisson-Nernst-Planck Equations—Numerical Simulation of the Intra- and Extracellular Potential for an Axon Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pods, Jurgis; Schönke, Johannes; Bastian, Peter

    2013-01-01

    In neurophysiology, extracellular signals—as measured by local field potentials (LFP) or electroencephalography—are of great significance. Their exact biophysical basis is, however, still not fully understood. We present a three-dimensional model exploiting the cylinder symmetry of a single axon in extracellular fluid based on the Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations of electrodiffusion. The propagation of an action potential along the axonal membrane is investigated by means of numerical simulations. Special attention is paid to the Debye layer, the region with strong concentration gradients close to the membrane, which is explicitly resolved by the computational mesh. We focus on the evolution of the extracellular electric potential. A characteristic up-down-up LFP waveform in the far-field is found. Close to the membrane, the potential shows a more intricate shape. A comparison with the widely used line source approximation reveals similarities and demonstrates the strong influence of membrane currents. However, the electrodiffusion model shows another signal component stemming directly from the intracellular electric field, called the action potential echo. Depending on the neuronal configuration, this might have a significant effect on the LFP. In these situations, electrodiffusion models should be used for quantitative comparisons with experimental data. PMID:23823244

  4. The geocentric particulate distribution: Cometary, asteroidal, or space debris?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdonnell, J. A. M.; Ratcliff, P. R.

    1992-01-01

    Definition of the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) particulate environment has been refined considerably with the analysis of data from NASA's Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). Measurements of the impact rates from particulates ranging from sub-micron to millimetres in dimension and, especially, information on their directionality has permitted new scrunity of the sources of the particulates. Modelling of the dynamics of both bound (Earth orbital) and unbound (hyperbolic interplanetary) particulates intercepting LDEF's faces leads to the conclusion that the source is dominantly interplanetary for particle dimensions of greater than some 5 microns diameter; however the anisotropy below this dimension demands lower velocities and is compatible with an orbital component. Characteristics of the LDEF interplanetary component are compatible with familiar meteoroid sources and deep space measurements. Understanding of the orbital component which exceeds the interplanetary flux by a factor of 4 is less clear; although the very small particulates in orbit have been associated with space debris (Lawrance and Brownlee, 1986) this data conflicts with other measurements (McDonnell, Carey and Dixon, 1984) at the same epoch. By analysis of trajectories approaching the Earth and its atmosphere, we have shown that a significant contribution could be captured by aerocapture, i.e., atmospheric drag, from either asteroidal or cometary sources; such enhancement is unlikely however to provide the temporal and spatial fluctuations observed by the LDEF Interplanetary Dust Experiment (Mullholland et al. 1992). A further new mechanism is also examined, that of aerofragmentation capture, where an atmospheric grazing trajectory, which would not normally lead to capture, leads to fragmentation by thermal or mechanical shock; the microparticulates thus created can be injected in large numbers, but only into short-lifetime orbits. The concentration in one particular orbit plane, could explain the

  5. Planck 2013 results. XVI. Cosmological parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P.A.R.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Cappellini, B.; Cardoso, J.F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.R.; Chen, X.; Chiang, L.Y.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.M.; Desert, F.X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A.A.; Franceschi, E.; Gaier, T.C.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gjerlow, E.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Haissinski, J.; Hamann, J.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hou, Z.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jewell, J.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Laureijs, R.J.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leach, S.; Leahy, J.P.; Leonardi, R.; Leon-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Lewis, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.B.; Mendes, L.; Menegoni, E.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Millea, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I.J.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, D.; Pearson, T.J.; Peiris, H.V.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Platania, P.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Reach, W.T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Starck, J.L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Turler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Wehus, I.K.; White, M.; White, S.D.M.; Wilkinson, A.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-10-29

    We present the first results based on Planck measurements of the CMB temperature and lensing-potential power spectra. The Planck spectra at high multipoles are extremely well described by the standard spatially-flat six-parameter LCDM cosmology. In this model Planck data determine the cosmological parameters to high precision. We find a low value of the Hubble constant, H0=67.3+/-1.2 km/s/Mpc and a high value of the matter density parameter, Omega_m=0.315+/-0.017 (+/-1 sigma errors) in excellent agreement with constraints from baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) surveys. Including curvature, we find that the Universe is consistent with spatial flatness to percent-level precision using Planck CMB data alone. We present results from an analysis of extensions to the standard cosmology, using astrophysical data sets in addition to Planck and high-resolution CMB data. None of these models are favoured significantly over standard LCDM. The deviation of the scalar spectral index from unity is insensitive to the additi...

  6. Planck 2015 results. XIII. Cosmological parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P.A.R.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Battye, R.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.R.; Chiang, H.C.; Chluba, J.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Combet, C.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Desert, F.X.; Di Valentino, E.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Farhang, M.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A.A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Gauthier, C.; Gerbino, M.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Giusarma, E.; Gjerlow, E.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hamann, J.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.L.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huang, Z.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leahy, J.P.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Lewis, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maggio, G.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Marchini, A.; Martin, P.G.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Mazzotta, P.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.B.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Millea, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T.J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Reach, W.T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; d'Orfeuil, B.Rouille; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Said, N.; Salvatelli, V.; Salvati, L.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Serra, P.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Spinelli, M.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Trombetti, T.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Turler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Wehus, I.K.; White, M.; White, S.D.M.; Wilkinson, A.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2016-01-01

    We present results based on full-mission Planck observations of temperature and polarization anisotropies of the CMB. These data are consistent with the six-parameter inflationary LCDM cosmology. From the Planck temperature and lensing data, for this cosmology we find a Hubble constant, H0= (67.8 +/- 0.9) km/s/Mpc, a matter density parameter Omega_m = 0.308 +/- 0.012 and a scalar spectral index with n_s = 0.968 +/- 0.006. (We quote 68% errors on measured parameters and 95% limits on other parameters.) Combined with Planck temperature and lensing data, Planck LFI polarization measurements lead to a reionization optical depth of tau = 0.066 +/- 0.016. Combining Planck with other astrophysical data we find N_ eff = 3.15 +/- 0.23 for the effective number of relativistic degrees of freedom and the sum of neutrino masses is constrained to < 0.23 eV. Spatial curvature is found to be |Omega_K| < 0.005. For LCDM we find a limit on the tensor-to-scalar ratio of r <0.11 consistent with the B-mode constraints fr...

  7. Planck driven by vision, broken by war

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Brandon R

    2015-01-01

    Planck's Law, an equation used by physicists to determine the radiation leaking from any object in the universe, was described by Albert Einstein as "the basis of all twentieth-century physics." Max Planck is credited with being the father of quantum theory, and his work laid the foundation for our modern understanding of matter and energetic processes. But Planck's story is not well known, especially in the United States. A German physicist working during the first half of the twentieth century, his library, personal journals, notebooks, and letters were all destroyed with his home in World War II. What remains, other than his contributions to science, are handwritten letters in German shorthand, and tributes from other scientists of the time, including his close friend Albert Einstein. In Planck: Driven by Vision, Broken by War, Brandon R. Brown interweaves the voices and writings of Planck, his family, and his contemporaries-with many passages appearing in English for the first time-to create a portrait of...

  8. Composite inflation confronts BICEP2 and PLANCK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karwan, Khamphee; Channuie, Phongpichit

    2014-01-01

    We examine observational constraints on single-field inflation in which the inflaton is a composite field stemming from a four-dimensional strongly interacting field theory. We confront the predictions with the Planck and very recent BICEP2 data. In the large non-minimal coupling regions, we discover for the minimal composite inflationary model that the predictions lie well inside the joint 68% CL for the Planck data, but is in tension with the recent BICEP2 observations. In the case of the glueball inflationary model, the predictions satisfy the Planck results. However, this model can produce a large tensor-to-scalar ratio consistent with the recent BICEP2 observations if the number of e-foldings is slightly smaller than the range commonly used. For a super Yang-Mills paradigm, we discover that the predictions satisfy the Planck data, and surprisingly a large tensor-to-scalar ratio consistent with the BICEP2 results can also be produced for an acceptable range of the number of e-foldings and of the confining scale. In the small non-minimal coupling regions, all of the models can satisfy the BICEP2 results. However, the predictions of the glueball and superglueball inflationary models cannot satisfy the observational bound on the amplitude of the curvature perturbation launched by Planck, and the techni-inflaton self-coupling in the minimal composite inflationary model is constrained to be extremely small

  9. Planck 2015. XX. Constraints on inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P.A.R.; Arnaud, M.; Arroja, F.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Ballardini, M.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.R.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Combet, C.; Contreras, D.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Desert, F.X.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A.A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Frolov, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Gauthier, C.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gjerlow, E.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hamann, J.; Handley, W.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.L.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huang, Z.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kim, J.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Lewis, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Ma, Y.Z.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Mazzotta, P.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Molinari, D.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munchmeyer, M.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Pandolfi, S.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T.J.; Peiris, H.V.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Reach, W.T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Shiraishi, M.; Spencer, L.D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Trombetti, T.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Wehus, I.K.; White, M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zibin, J.P.; Zonca, A.

    2016-09-20

    We present the implications for cosmic inflation of the Planck measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies in both temperature and polarization based on the full Planck survey. The Planck full mission temperature data and a first release of polarization data on large angular scales measure the spectral index of curvature perturbations to be $n_\\mathrm{s} = 0.968 \\pm 0.006$ and tightly constrain its scale dependence to $d n_s/d \\ln k =-0.003 \\pm 0.007$ when combined with the Planck lensing likelihood. When the high-$\\ell$ polarization data is included, the results are consistent and uncertainties are reduced. The upper bound on the tensor-to-scalar ratio is $r_{0.002} < 0.11$ (95% CL), consistent with the B-mode polarization constraint $r< 0.12$ (95% CL) obtained from a joint BICEP2/Keck Array and Planck analysis. These results imply that $V(\\phi) \\propto \\phi^2$ and natural inflation are now disfavoured compared to models predicting a smaller tensor-to-scalar ratio, such as $R^2$ ...

  10. Lorentz covariant tempered distributions in two-dimensional space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinov'ev, Yu.M.

    1989-01-01

    The problem of describing Lorentz covariant distributions without any spectral condition has hitherto remained unsolved even for two-dimensional space-time. Attempts to solve this problem have already been made. Zharinov obtained an integral representation for the Laplace transform of Lorentz invariant distributions with support in the product of two-dimensional future light cones. However, this integral representation does not make it possible to obtain a complete description of the corresponding Lorentz invariant distributions. In this paper the author gives a complete description of Lorentz covariant distributions for two-dimensional space-time. No spectral conditions is assumed

  11. Planck 2013 results. XVIII. Gravitational lensing-infrared background correlation

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P.A.R.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Basak, S.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bethermin, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Cardoso, J.F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, L.Y.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.M.; Desert, F.X.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lacasa, F.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R.J.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leonardi, R.; Leon-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Serra, P.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Starck, J.L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; White, S.D.M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-01-01

    The multi-frequency capability of the Planck satellite provides information both on the integrated history of star formation (via the cosmic infrared background, or CIB) and on the distribution of dark matter (via the lensing effect on the cosmic microwave background, or CMB). The conjunction of these two unique probes allows us to measure directly the connection between dark and luminous matter in the high redshift (1 1. We measure directly the SFR density with around 2 sigma significance for three redshift bins between z=1 and 7, thus opening a new window into the study of the formation of stars at early times.

  12. Spectral multipliers on spaces of distributions associated with non-negative self-adjoint operators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgiadis, Athanasios; Nielsen, Morten

    2018-01-01

    and Triebel–Lizorkin spaces with full range of indices is established too. As an application, we obtain equivalent norm characterizations for the spaces mentioned above. Non-classical spaces as well as Lebesgue, Hardy, (generalized) Sobolev and Lipschitz spaces are also covered by our approach.......We consider spaces of homogeneous type associated with a non-negative self-adjoint operator whose heat kernel satisfies certain upper Gaussian bounds. Spectral multipliers are introduced and studied on distributions associated with this operator. The boundedness of spectral multipliers on Besov...

  13. Surface behaviour of the phase-space distribution for heavy nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, M.

    1987-06-01

    A part of the oscillations of the phase space distribution function is shown to be a surface effect. A series expansion for this function is given, which takes partially into account this oscillatory structure

  14. idSpace Tooling and Training for collaborative distributed product innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutjens, Marjo; Bitter-Rijpkema, Marlies; Grube, Pascal; Heider, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Rutjens, M., Bitter-Rijpkema, M., Grube, P. P., & Heider, T. (2009). idSpace Tooling and Training for collaborative distributed product innovation. Workshop during the e-Learning Baltic conference. June, 17-19, 2009, Rostock, Germany.

  15. Planck 2013 results. XII. Diffuse component separation

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P A R; Armitage-Caplan, C; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Atrio-Barandela, F; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartlett, J G; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bobin, J; Bock, J J; Bonaldi, A; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Boulanger, F; Bridges, M; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Challinor, A; Chamballu, A; Chary, R -R; Chen, X; Chiang, L -Y; Chiang, H C; Christensen, P R; Church, S; Clements, D L; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Cruz, M; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Delouis, J -M; Désert, F -X; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Dunkley, J; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Falgarone, E; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Fraisse, A A; Franceschi, E; Galeotta, S; Ganga, K; Giard, M; Giardino, G; Giraud-Héraud, Y; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D; Helou, G; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huey, G; Huffenberger, K M; Jaffe, T R; Jaffe, A H; Jewell, J; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Kneissl, R; Knoche, J; Knox, L; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lähteenmäki, A; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Laureijs, R J; Lawrence, C R; Jeune, M Le; Leach, S; Leahy, J P; Leonardi, R; Lesgourgues, J; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maffei, B; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Marcos-Caballero, A; Maris, M; Marshall, D J; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Matthai, F; Mazzotta, P; Meinhold, P R; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mikkelsen, K; Mitra, S; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Moss, A; Munshi, D; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; O'Dwyer, I J; Osborne, S; Oxborrow, C A; Paci, F; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paladini, R; Paoletti, D; Partridge, B; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Pearson, T J; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Pettorino, V; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Platania, P; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Popa, L; Poutanen, T; Pratt, G W; Prézeau, G; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Reach, W T; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Renzi, A; Ricciardi, S; Riller, T; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Roudier, G; Rowan-Robinson, M; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Rusholme, B; Salerno, E; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Savini, G; Schiavon, F; Scott, D; Seiffert, M D; Shellard, E P S; Spencer, L D; Starck, J -L; Stompor, R; Sudiwala, R; Sunyaev, R; Sureau, F; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Tavagnacco, D; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Tuovinen, J; Türler, M; Umana, G; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Varis, J; Viel, M; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Vittorio, N; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Wehus, I K; Wilkinson, A; Xia, J -Q; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2014-01-01

    Planck has produced detailed all-sky observations over nine frequency bands between 30 and 857 GHz. These observations allow robust reconstruction of the primordial cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature fluctuations over nearly the full sky, as well as new constraints on Galactic foregrounds. This paper describes the component separation framework adopted by Planck. We test four foreground-cleaned CMB maps derived using qualitatively different component separation algorithms. The quality of our reconstructions is evaluated through detailed simulations and internal comparisons, and shown through various tests to be internally consistent and robust for CMB power spectrum and cosmological parameter estimation up to l = 2000. The parameter constraints on LambdaCDM cosmologies derived from these maps are consistent with those presented in the cross-spectrum based Planck likelihood analysis. We choose two of the CMB maps for specific scientific goals. We also present maps and frequency spectra of the Galact...

  16. Planck 2013 results. IX. HFI spectral response

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P A R; Armitage-Caplan, C; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Atrio-Barandela, F; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bobin, J; Bock, J J; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Boulanger, F; Bridges, M; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Challinor, A; Chamballu, A; Chary, R -R; Chen, X; Chiang, L -Y; Chiang, H C; Christensen, P R; Church, S; Clements, D L; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Combet, C; Comis, B; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Delouis, J -M; Désert, F -X; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Falgarone, E; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Franceschi, E; Galeotta, S; Ganga, K; Giard, M; Giraud-Héraud, Y; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Hurier, G; Jaffe, T R; Jaffe, A H; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Kneissl, R; Knoche, J; Knox, L; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Laureijs, R J; Lawrence, C R; Leahy, J P; Leonardi, R; Leroy, C; Lesgourgues, J; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maffei, B; Mandolesi, N; Maris, M; Marshall, D J; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Matthai, F; Mazzotta, P; McGehee, P; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mitra, S; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; North, C; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Osborne, S; Oxborrow, C A; Paci, F; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paoletti, D; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Popa, L; Poutanen, T; Pratt, G W; Prézeau, G; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Ricciardi, S; Riller, T; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Roudier, G; Rusholme, B; Santos, D; Savini, G; Shellard, E P S; Spencer, L D; Starck, J -L; Stolyarov, V; Stompor, R; Sudiwala, R; Sureau, F; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Tavagnacco, D; Terenzi, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Umana, G; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Vittorio, N; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2014-01-01

    The Planck High Frequency Instrument (HFI) spectral response was determined through a series of ground based tests conducted with the HFI focal plane in a cryogenic environment prior to launch. The main goal of the spectral transmission tests was to measure the relative spectral response (including out-of-band signal rejection) of all HFI detectors. This was determined by measuring the output of a continuously scanned Fourier transform spectrometer coupled with all HFI detectors. As there is no on-board spectrometer within HFI, the ground-based spectral response experiments provide the definitive data set for the relative spectral calibration of the HFI. The spectral response of the HFI is used in Planck data analysis and component separation, this includes extraction of CO emission observed within Planck bands, dust emission, Sunyaev-Zeldovich sources, and intensity to polarization leakage. The HFI spectral response data have also been used to provide unit conversion and colour correction analysis tools. Ver...

  17. Planck intermediate results - LII. Planet flux densities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akrami, Y.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of flux density are described for five planets, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, across the six Planck High Frequency Instrument frequency bands (100–857 GHz) and these are then compared with models and existing data. In our analysis, we have also included estimates...... of the brightness of Jupiter and Saturn at the three frequencies of the Planck Low Frequency Instrument (30, 44, and 70 GHz). The results provide constraints on the intrinsic brightness and the brightness time-variability of these planets. The majority of the planet flux density estimates are limited by systematic...... errors, but still yield better than 1% measurements in many cases. Applying data from Planck HFI, the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP), and the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) to a model that incorporates contributions from Saturn’s rings to the planet’s total flux density suggests a best...

  18. An alternative phase-space distribution to sample initial conditions for classical dynamics simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Vela, A.

    2002-01-01

    A new quantum-type phase-space distribution is proposed in order to sample initial conditions for classical trajectory simulations. The phase-space distribution is obtained as the modulus of a quantum phase-space state of the system, defined as the direct product of the coordinate and momentum representations of the quantum initial state. The distribution is tested by sampling initial conditions which reproduce the initial state of the Ar-HCl cluster prepared by ultraviolet excitation, and by simulating the photodissociation dynamics by classical trajectories. The results are compared with those of a wave packet calculation, and with a classical simulation using an initial phase-space distribution recently suggested. A better agreement is found between the classical and the quantum predictions with the present phase-space distribution, as compared with the previous one. This improvement is attributed to the fact that the phase-space distribution propagated classically in this work resembles more closely the shape of the wave packet propagated quantum mechanically

  19. Planck early results. II. The thermal performance of Planck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poutanen, T.; Natoli, P.; Polenta, G.

    2011-01-01

    detector technologies with widely different temperature and cooling needs. Active coolers could satisfy these needs; a helium cryostat, as used by previous cryogenic space missions (IRAS, COBE, ISO, Spitzer, AKARI), could not. Radiative cooling is provided by three V-groove radiators and a large telescope...

  20. Planck 2013 results. XIV. Zodiacal emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.

    2013-01-01

    , three asteroidal dust bands, a circumsolar ring, and an Earth-trailing feature. The emissivity of the diuse cloud decreases with increasing wavelength, as expected from earlier analyses. The emissivities of the dust bands, however, decrease less rapidly, indicating that the properties of the grains......The Planck satellite provides a set of all-sky maps at nine frequencies from 30 GHz to 857 GHz. Planets, minor bodies, and diuse interplanetary dust emission (IPD) are all observed. The IPD can be separated from Galactic and other emissions because Planck views a given point on the celestial sphere...

  1. Quantum black holes and Planck's constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, D.K.

    1987-01-01

    It is shown that the Planck-scale black holes of quantum gravity must obey a consistency condition relating Planck's constant to the integral of the mass of the black holes over time, if the usual path integral formulation of quantum mechanics is to make sense on physical spacetime. It is also shown, using time-dependent perturbation theory in ordinary quantum mechanics, that a massless particle will not propagate on physical spacetime with the black holes present unless the same condition is met. (author)

  2. Planck 2015 results: XIII. Cosmological parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.

    2016-01-01

    is constrained to w =-1.006 ± 0.045, consistent with the expected value for a cosmological constant. The standard big bang nucleosynthesis predictions for the helium and deuterium abundances for the best-fit Planck base ΛCDM cosmology are in excellent agreement with observations. We also constraints...... of the theory; for example, combining Planck observations with other astrophysical data we find Neff = 3.15 ± 0.23 for the effective number of relativistic degrees of freedom, consistent with the value Neff = 3.046 of the Standard Model of particle physics. The sum of neutrino masses is constrained to â'mν

  3. Planck 2015 results: XX. Constraints on inflation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.

    2016-01-01

    data are consistent with adiabatic primordial perturbations, and the estimated values for the parameters of the base Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) model are not significantly altered when more general initial conditions are admitted. In correlated mixed adiabatic and isocurvature models, the 95% CL upper...... are consistent with the Planck 2013 analysis based on the nominal mission data and further constrain slow-roll single-field inflationary models, as expected from the increased precision of Planck data using the full set of observations....

  4. Space distribution and physical properties of cool dwarf stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staller, R.F.A.

    1979-01-01

    A new study of the space density of red dwarfs based on a sample of red dwarfs in a field of 238 square degrees towards the South Galactic Pole is presented. A blink survey using red and blue copies of Mount Palomar Sky Survey plates of a six square degrees field centered on the South Galactic Pole was performed and the results (approximately 2500 red objects) and the discussion of these results are presented. The time that elapsed before a black dwarf becomes invisible is estimated and is suggested that low-velocity red dwarfs could be explained by contracting black dwarfs. Based on theoretical considerations it can be shown that the existence of a large number of low-velocity stars is in serious conflict with criteria for the stability of the galactic disk. It is shown that if one also takes into account all generations of black dwarfs that are already invisible and therfore old, the mean velocity of all black dwarfs is much higher so that there is no conflict with theory. Luminosity functions of red and black dwarfs in several photometric passbands are calculated. (Auth.)

  5. A transformed path integral approach for solution of the Fokker-Planck equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Gnana M.; Vedula, Prakash

    2017-10-01

    A novel path integral (PI) based method for solution of the Fokker-Planck equation is presented. The proposed method, termed the transformed path integral (TPI) method, utilizes a new formulation for the underlying short-time propagator to perform the evolution of the probability density function (PDF) in a transformed computational domain where a more accurate representation of the PDF can be ensured. The new formulation, based on a dynamic transformation of the original state space with the statistics of the PDF as parameters, preserves the non-negativity of the PDF and incorporates short-time properties of the underlying stochastic process. New update equations for the state PDF in a transformed space and the parameters of the transformation (including mean and covariance) that better accommodate nonlinearities in drift and non-Gaussian behavior in distributions are proposed (based on properties of the SDE). Owing to the choice of transformation considered, the proposed method maps a fixed grid in transformed space to a dynamically adaptive grid in the original state space. The TPI method, in contrast to conventional methods such as Monte Carlo simulations and fixed grid approaches, is able to better represent the distributions (especially the tail information) and better address challenges in processes with large diffusion, large drift and large concentration of PDF. Additionally, in the proposed TPI method, error bounds on the probability in the computational domain can be obtained using the Chebyshev's inequality. The benefits of the TPI method over conventional methods are illustrated through simulations of linear and nonlinear drift processes in one-dimensional and multidimensional state spaces. The effects of spatial and temporal grid resolutions as well as that of the diffusion coefficient on the error in the PDF are also characterized.

  6. Planck scale physics and topology change through an exactly solvable model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobo, Francisco S.N., E-mail: flobo@cii.fc.ul.pt [Centro de Astronomia e Astrofísica da Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, Ed. C8, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Martinez-Asencio, Jesus, E-mail: jesusmartinez@ua.es [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Fase II, Universidad de Alicante, Alicante E-03690 (Spain); Olmo, Gonzalo J., E-mail: gonzalo.olmo@csic.es [Departamento de Física Teórica and IFIC, Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia – CSIC, Universidad de Valencia, Burjassot, 46100, Valencia (Spain); Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, 58051-900 João Pessoa, Paraíba (Brazil); Rubiera-Garcia, D., E-mail: drubiera@fisica.ufpb.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, 58051-900 João Pessoa, Paraíba (Brazil)

    2014-04-04

    We consider the collapse of a charged radiation fluid in a Planck-suppressed quadratic extension of General Relativity (GR) formulated à la Palatini. We obtain exact analytical solutions that extend the charged Vaidya-type solution of GR, which allows to explore in detail new physics at the Planck scale. Starting from Minkowski space, we find that the collapsing fluid generates wormholes supported by the electric field. We discuss the relevance of our findings in relation to the quantum foam structure of space–time and the meaning of curvature divergences in this theory.

  7. Gravitation and Special Relativity from Compton Wave Interactions at the Planck Scale: An Algorithmic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, William C., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper space is modeled as a lattice of Compton wave oscillators (CWOs) of near- Planck size. It is shown that gravitation and special relativity emerge from the interaction between particles Compton waves. To develop this CWO model an algorithmic approach was taken, incorporating simple rules of interaction at the Planck-scale developed using well known physical laws. This technique naturally leads to Newton s law of gravitation and a new form of doubly special relativity. The model is in apparent agreement with the holographic principle, and it predicts a cutoff energy for ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays that is consistent with observational data.

  8. Planck scale physics and topology change through an exactly solvable model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo, Francisco S.N.; Martinez-Asencio, Jesus; Olmo, Gonzalo J.; Rubiera-Garcia, D.

    2014-01-01

    We consider the collapse of a charged radiation fluid in a Planck-suppressed quadratic extension of General Relativity (GR) formulated à la Palatini. We obtain exact analytical solutions that extend the charged Vaidya-type solution of GR, which allows to explore in detail new physics at the Planck scale. Starting from Minkowski space, we find that the collapsing fluid generates wormholes supported by the electric field. We discuss the relevance of our findings in relation to the quantum foam structure of space–time and the meaning of curvature divergences in this theory.

  9. The space distribution of neutrons generated in massive lead target by relativistic nuclear beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chultem, D.; Damdinsuren, Ts.; Enkh-Gin, L.; Lomova, L.; Perelygin, V.; Tolstov, K.

    1993-01-01

    The present paper is devoted to implementation of solid state nuclear track detectors in the research of the neutron generation in extended lead spallation target. Measured neutrons space distribution inside the lead target and neutron distribution in the thick water moderator are assessed. (Author)

  10. A constraint on Planck-scale modifications to electrodynamics with CMB polarization data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubitosi, Giulia; Pagano, Luca; Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Melchiorri, Alessandro [Physics Department, University of Rome ' ' La Sapienza' ' and Sezione Roma1 INFN, P.le Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Rome (Italy); Cooray, Asantha, E-mail: giulia.gubitosi@roma1.infn.it, E-mail: luca.pagano@roma1.infn.it, E-mail: giovanni.amelino-camelia@roma1.infn.it, E-mail: alessandro.melchiorri@roma1.infn.it, E-mail: acooray@uci.edu [Center for Cosmology, Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States)

    2009-08-01

    We show that the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) polarization data gathered by the BOOMERanG 2003 flight and WMAP provide an opportunity to investigate in-vacuo birefringence, of a type expected in some quantum pictures of space-time, with a sensitivity that extends even beyond the desired Planck-scale energy. In order to render this constraint more transparent we rely on a well studied phenomenological model of quantum-gravity-induced birefringence, in which one easily establishes that effects introduced at the Planck scale would amount to values of a dimensionless parameter, denoted by ξ, with respect to the Planck energy which are roughly of order 1. By combining BOOMERanG and WMAP data we estimate ξ ≅ −0.110±0.075 at the 68% c.l. Moreover, we forecast on the sensitivity to ξ achievable by future CMB polarization experiments (PLANCK, Spider, EPIC), which, in the absence of systematics, will be at the 1-σ confidence of 8.5 × 10{sup −4} (PLANCK), 6.1 × 10{sup −3} (Spider), and 1.0 × 10{sup −5} (EPIC) respectively. The cosmic variance-limited sensitivity from CMB is 6.1 × 10{sup −6}.

  11. A constraint on Planck-scale modifications to electrodynamics with CMB polarization data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubitosi, Giulia; Pagano, Luca; Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Cooray, Asantha

    2009-01-01

    We show that the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) polarization data gathered by the BOOMERanG 2003 flight and WMAP provide an opportunity to investigate in-vacuo birefringence, of a type expected in some quantum pictures of space-time, with a sensitivity that extends even beyond the desired Planck-scale energy. In order to render this constraint more transparent we rely on a well studied phenomenological model of quantum-gravity-induced birefringence, in which one easily establishes that effects introduced at the Planck scale would amount to values of a dimensionless parameter, denoted by ξ, with respect to the Planck energy which are roughly of order 1. By combining BOOMERanG and WMAP data we estimate ξ ≅ −0.110±0.075 at the 68% c.l. Moreover, we forecast on the sensitivity to ξ achievable by future CMB polarization experiments (PLANCK, Spider, EPIC), which, in the absence of systematics, will be at the 1-σ confidence of 8.5 × 10 −4 (PLANCK), 6.1 × 10 −3 (Spider), and 1.0 × 10 −5 (EPIC) respectively. The cosmic variance-limited sensitivity from CMB is 6.1 × 10 −6

  12. State-of-the art of dc components for secondary power distribution of Space Station Freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krauthamer, S.; Gangal, M.; Das, R.

    1991-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has selected 120-Vdc secondary power distribution for Space Station Freedom. Although this high voltage level is new for space applications, it is well within the bounds for components and subsystems being developed and in some cases being used in aerospace, defense, and terrestrial applications. In this paper state-of-the-art components and subsystems for Space Station Freedom in terms of performance, size, and topology are examined. One objective is to inform the users of Space Station Freedom about what is available in power supplies and power control devices. The other objective is to stimulate the interest in the component industry so that more focused product development can be started. Based on results of this study, it is estimated that, with some redesign, modifications, and space qualification, many of these components may be applied to Space Station Freedom needs

  13. Automatic mesh refinement and parallel load balancing for Fokker-Planck-DSMC algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küchlin, Stephan; Jenny, Patrick

    2018-06-01

    Recently, a parallel Fokker-Planck-DSMC algorithm for rarefied gas flow simulation in complex domains at all Knudsen numbers was developed by the authors. Fokker-Planck-DSMC (FP-DSMC) is an augmentation of the classical DSMC algorithm, which mitigates the near-continuum deficiencies in terms of computational cost of pure DSMC. At each time step, based on a local Knudsen number criterion, the discrete DSMC collision operator is dynamically switched to the Fokker-Planck operator, which is based on the integration of continuous stochastic processes in time, and has fixed computational cost per particle, rather than per collision. In this contribution, we present an extension of the previous implementation with automatic local mesh refinement and parallel load-balancing. In particular, we show how the properties of discrete approximations to space-filling curves enable an efficient implementation. Exemplary numerical studies highlight the capabilities of the new code.

  14. Parallel Fokker–Planck-DSMC algorithm for rarefied gas flow simulation in complex domains at all Knudsen numbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Küchlin, Stephan, E-mail: kuechlin@ifd.mavt.ethz.ch; Jenny, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    A major challenge for the conventional Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) technique lies in the fact that its computational cost becomes prohibitive in the near continuum regime, where the Knudsen number (Kn)—characterizing the degree of rarefaction—becomes small. In contrast, the Fokker–Planck (FP) based particle Monte Carlo scheme allows for computationally efficient simulations of rarefied gas flows in the low and intermediate Kn regime. The Fokker–Planck collision operator—instead of performing binary collisions employed by the DSMC method—integrates continuous stochastic processes for the phase space evolution in time. This allows for time step and grid cell sizes larger than the respective collisional scales required by DSMC. Dynamically switching between the FP and the DSMC collision operators in each computational cell is the basis of the combined FP-DSMC method, which has been proven successful in simulating flows covering the whole Kn range. Until recently, this algorithm had only been applied to two-dimensional test cases. In this contribution, we present the first general purpose implementation of the combined FP-DSMC method. Utilizing both shared- and distributed-memory parallelization, this implementation provides the capability for simulations involving many particles and complex geometries by exploiting state of the art computer cluster technologies.

  15. Feedback-induced bistability of an optically levitated nanoparticle: A Fokker-Planck treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Wenchao; Rodenburg, Brandon; Bhattacharya, M.

    2016-08-01

    Optically levitated nanoparticles have recently emerged as versatile platforms for investigating macroscopic quantum mechanics and enabling ultrasensitive metrology. In this paper we theoretically consider two damping regimes of an optically levitated nanoparticle cooled by cavityless parametric feedback. Our treatment is based on a generalized Fokker-Planck equation derived from the quantum master equation presented recently and shown to agree very well with experiment [B. Rodenburg, L. P. Neukirch, A. N. Vamivakas, and M. Bhattacharya, Quantum model of cooling and force sensing with an optically trapped nanoparticle, Optica 3, 318 (2016), 10.1364/OPTICA.3.000318]. For low damping, we find that the resulting Wigner function yields the single-peaked oscillator position distribution and recovers the appropriate energy distribution derived earlier using a classical theory and verified experimentally [J. Gieseler, R. Quidant, C. Dellago, and L. Novotny, Dynamic relaxation of a levitated nanoparticle from a non-equilibrium steady state, Nat. Nano. 9, 358 (2014), 10.1038/nnano.2014.40]. For high damping, in contrast, we predict a double-peaked position distribution, which we trace to an underlying bistability induced by feedback. Unlike in cavity-based optomechanics, stochastic processes play a major role in determining the bistable behavior. To support our conclusions, we present analytical expressions as well as numerical simulations using the truncated Wigner function approach. Our work opens up the prospect of developing bistability-based devices, characterization of phase-space dynamics, and investigation of the quantum-classical transition using levitated nanoparticles.

  16. Space Network Time Distribution and Synchronization Protocol Development for Mars Proximity Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Simon S.; Gao, Jay L.; Mills, David

    2010-01-01

    Time distribution and synchronization in deep space network are challenging due to long propagation delays, spacecraft movements, and relativistic effects. Further, the Network Time Protocol (NTP) designed for terrestrial networks may not work properly in space. In this work, we consider the time distribution protocol based on time message exchanges similar to Network Time Protocol (NTP). We present the Proximity-1 Space Link Interleaved Time Synchronization (PITS) algorithm that can work with the CCSDS Proximity-1 Space Data Link Protocol. The PITS algorithm provides faster time synchronization via two-way time transfer over proximity links, improves scalability as the number of spacecraft increase, lowers storage space requirement for collecting time samples, and is robust against packet loss and duplication which underlying protocol mechanisms provide.

  17. First Planck results and cosmological implications

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    The Planck satellite has measured CMB anisotropies over the full sky with unprecedented sensitivity. The collaboration has released its first CMB temperature maps and cosmological analysis on the 21st of March. I will present a summary of these new CMB results, focusing mainly on their implications for our understanding of the Universe.

  18. Planck 2013 results. XXII. Constraints on inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P.A.R.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, L.Y.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.M.; Desert, F.X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Gauthier, C.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hamann, J.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R.J.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leach, S.; Leahy, J.P.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I.J.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Pandolfi, S.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Peiris, H.V.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Starck, J.L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; White, M.; Wilkinson, A.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-01-01

    We analyse the implications of the Planck data for cosmic inflation. The Planck nominal mission temperature anisotropy measurements, combined with the WMAP large-angle polarization, constrain the scalar spectral index to $n_s = 0.9603 \\pm 0.0073$, ruling out exact scale invariance at over 5 $\\sigma$. Planck establishes an upper bound on the tensor-to-scalar ratio of r 2 do not provide a good fit to the data. Planck does not find statistically significant running of the scalar spectral index, obtaining $d n_s/d ln k = -0.0134 \\pm 0.0090$. Several analyses dropping the slow-roll approximation are carried out, including detailed model comparison and inflationary potential reconstruction. We also investigate whether the primordial power spectrum contains any features. We find that models with a parameterized oscillatory feature improve the fit $\\chi^2$ by ~ 10; however, Bayesian evidence does not prefer these models. We constrain several single-field inflation models with generalized Lagrangians by combining pow...

  19. Planck 2015 results: XV. Gravitational lensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.

    2016-01-01

    We present the most significant measurement of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) lensing potential to date (at a level of 40σ), using temperature and polarization data from the Planck 2015 full-mission release. Using a polarization-only estimator, we detect lensing at a significance of 5σ. We...

  20. Planck 2013 results. XIV. Zodiacal emission

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P A R; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Cardoso, J.F.; Catalano, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.-R.; Chen, X.; Chiang, L.Y.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colley, J.-M.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.M.; Desert, F.X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R.J.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Mottet, S.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; O'Sullivan, C.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polegre, A. M.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Reach, W.T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Smoot, G. F.; Spencer, L.D.; Starck, J.L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-01-01

    The Planck satellite provides a set of all-sky maps at nine frequencies from 30 GHz to 857 GHz. Planets, minor bodies, and diffuse interplanetary dust emission (IPD) are all observed. The IPD can be separated from Galactic and other emissions because Planck views a given point on the celestial sphere multiple times, through different columns of IPD. We use the Planck data to investigate the behaviour of zodiacal emission over the whole sky at sub-millimetre and millimetre wavelengths. We fit the Planck data to find the emissivities of the various components of the COBE zodiacal model -- a diffuse cloud, three asteroidal dust bands, a circumsolar ring, and an Earth-trailing feature. The emissivity of the diffuse cloud decreases with increasing wavelength, as expected from earlier analyses. The emissivities of the dust bands, however, decrease less rapidly, indicating that the properties of the grains in the bands are different from those in the diffuse cloud. We fit the small amount of Galactic emission seen t...

  1. Planck 2013 results. V. LFI calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Planck Collaboration,; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the methods employed to photometrically calibrate the data acquired by the Low Frequency Instrument on Planck. Our calibration is based on the Solar Dipole, caused by motion of the Solar System with respect to the CMB rest frame, which provides a signal of a few mK with the same spectr...

  2. Planck 2013 results. XII. Component separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Planck Collaboration,; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.

    2013-01-01

    Planck has produced detailed all-sky observations over nine frequency bands between 30 and 857 GHz. These observations allow robust reconstruction of the primordial cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature fluctuations over nearly the full sky, as well as new constraints on Galactic foregrou...

  3. Planck 2015 results: III. LFI systematic uncertainties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A R; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.

    2016-01-01

    We present the current accounting of systematic effect uncertainties for the Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) that are relevant to the 2015 release of the Planck cosmological results, showing the robustness and consistency of our data set, especially for polarization analysis. We use two complement...

  4. Baryon asymmetry from Planck-scale physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelmini, G.; Holman, R.; Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA

    1992-06-01

    It has been noted recently that Planck scale physics may induce the explicit breaking of global symmetries. We point out that in Majoron models, these explicit breakings, combined with sphaleron induced violation of B + L can give rise to the baryon asymmetry of the Universe

  5. Maps of the Southern Millimeter-wave Sky from Combined 2500 deg$^2$ SPT-SZ and Planck Temperature Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chown, R.; et al.

    2018-03-28

    We present three maps of the millimeter-wave sky created by combining data from the South Pole Telescope (SPT) and the Planck satellite. We use data from the SPT-SZ survey, a survey of 2540 deg$^2$ of the the sky with arcminute resolution in three bands centered at 95, 150, and 220 GHz, and the full-mission Planck temperature data in the 100, 143, and 217 GHz bands. A linear combination of the SPT-SZ and Planck data is computed in spherical harmonic space, with weights derived from the noise of both instruments. This weighting scheme results in Planck data providing most of the large-angular-scale information in the combined maps, with the smaller-scale information coming from SPT-SZ data. A number of tests have been done on the maps. We find their angular power spectra to agree very well with theoretically predicted spectra and previously published results.

  6. Single particle dynamics of many-body systems described by Vlasov-Fokker-Planck equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, T.D.

    2003-01-01

    Using Langevin equations we describe the random walk of single particles that belong to particle systems satisfying Vlasov-Fokker-Planck equations. In doing so, we show that Haissinski distributions of bunched particles in electron storage rings can be derived from a particle dynamics model

  7. Planck 2013 results. XVIII. The gravitational lensing-infrared background correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.

    2013-01-01

    The multi-frequency capability of the Planck satellite provides information both on the integrated history of star formation (via the cosmic infrared background, or CIB) and on the distribution of dark matter (via the lensing effect on the cosmic microwave background, or CMB). The conjunction of ...

  8. Quark imaging in the proton via quantum phase-space distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belitsky, A.V.; Ji Xiangdong; Yuan Feng

    2004-01-01

    We develop the concept of quantum phase-space (Wigner) distributions for quarks and gluons in the proton. To appreciate their physical content, we analyze the contraints from special relativity on the interpretation of elastic form factors, and examine the physics of the Feynman parton distributions in the proton's rest frame. We relate the quark Wigner functions to the transverse-momentum dependent parton distributions and generalized parton distributions, emphasizing the physical role of the skewness parameter. We show that the Wigner functions allow us to visualize quantum quarks and gluons using the language of classical phase space. We present two examples of the quark Wigner distributions and point out some model-independent features

  9. Fokker-Planck equation resolution for N variables. Application examples; Aplicaciones del programa CHAPKOL para la resolucion de ecuaciones Fokker-Planck en N variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz, A; Garcia-Olivares, A

    1993-07-01

    A set of problems which are reducible to Fokker-Planck equations are presented. Those problems have been solved by using the CHAPKOL library. This library of programs solves stochastic Fokker-Plank equations in one or several dimensions by using the Chapman- Kolmogorov integral. This method calculates the probability distribution at a time t + dt from a distribution given at time t through a convolution integral in which the integration is the product of the distribution function at time t and the Green function of the Fokker-Planck equation. The method have some numerical advantages when compared with finite differences algorithms. The accuracy of the method is analysed in several specific cases. (Author) 9 refs.

  10. Application of statistical distribution theory to launch-on-time for space construction logistic support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenthaler, George W.

    1989-01-01

    The ability to launch-on-time and to send payloads into space has progressed dramatically since the days of the earliest missile and space programs. Causes for delay during launch, i.e., unplanned 'holds', are attributable to several sources: weather, range activities, vehicle conditions, human performance, etc. Recent developments in space program, particularly the need for highly reliable logistic support of space construction and the subsequent planned operation of space stations, large unmanned space structures, lunar and Mars bases, and the necessity of providing 'guaranteed' commercial launches have placed increased emphasis on understanding and mastering every aspect of launch vehicle operations. The Center of Space Construction has acquired historical launch vehicle data and is applying these data to the analysis of space launch vehicle logistic support of space construction. This analysis will include development of a better understanding of launch-on-time capability and simulation of required support systems for vehicle assembly and launch which are necessary to support national space program construction schedules. In this paper, the author presents actual launch data on unscheduled 'hold' distributions of various launch vehicles. The data have been supplied by industrial associate companies of the Center for Space Construction. The paper seeks to determine suitable probability models which describe these historical data and that can be used for several purposes such as: inputs to broader simulations of launch vehicle logistic space construction support processes and the determination of which launch operations sources cause the majority of the unscheduled 'holds', and hence to suggest changes which might improve launch-on-time. In particular, the paper investigates the ability of a compound distribution probability model to fit actual data, versus alternative models, and recommends the most productive avenues for future statistical work.

  11. Three-dimensional space charge distribution measurement in electron beam irradiated PMMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaizumi, Yoichi; Suzuki, Ken; Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Takada, Tatsuo

    1996-01-01

    The localized space charge distribution in electron beam irradiated PMMA was investigated using pulsed electroacoustic method. Using a conventional space charge measurement system, the distribution only in the depth direction (Z) can be measured assuming the charges distributed uniformly in the horizontal (X-Y) plane. However, it is difficult to measure the distribution of space charge accumulated in small area. Therefore, we have developed the new system to measure the three-dimensional space charge distribution using pulsed electroacoustic method. The system has a small electrode with a diameter of 1mm and a motor-drive X-Y stage to move the sample. Using the data measured at many points, the three-dimensional distribution were obtained. To estimate the system performance, the electron beam irradiated PMMA was used. The electron beam was irradiated from transmission electron microscope (TEM). The depth of injected electron was controlled using the various metal masks. The measurement results were compared with theoretically calculated values of electron range. (author)

  12. From Planck Constant to Isomorphicity Through Justice Paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidajatullah-Maksoed, Widastra

    2015-05-01

    Robert E. Scott in his ``Chaos theory and the Justice Paradox'', William & Mary Law Review, v 35, I 1, 329 (1993) wrotes''...As we approach the 21-st Century, the signs of social disarray are everywhere. Social critics observe the breakdown of core structure - the nuclear family, schools, neighborhoods & political groups''. For completions for ``soliton'' first coined by Morikazu TODA, comparing the ``Soliton on Scott-Russell aqueduct on the Union Canal near Heriot-WATT University, July 12, 1995 to Michael Stock works: ``a Fine WATT-Balance: Determination of Planck constant & Redefinition of Kilogram'', January 2011, we can concludes the inherencies between `chaos' & `soliton'. Further through ``string theory'' from Michio KAKU sought statements from Peter Mayr: Stringy world brane & Exponential hierarchy'', JHEP 11 (2000): ``if the 5-brane is embedded in flat 10-D space time, the 6-D Planck mass on the brane is infinite'' who also describes the relation of isomorphicity & ``string theory'', from whom denotes the smart city. Replace this text with your abstract body. Incredible acknowledgments to HE. Mr. Drs. P. SWANTORO & HE. Mr. Dr-HC Jakob OETAMA.

  13. Highly accurate photogrammetric measurements of the Planck reflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri Parian, Jafar; Gruen, Armin; Cozzani, Alessandro

    2017-11-01

    The Planck mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) is designed to image the anisotropies of the Cosmic Background Radiation Field over the whole sky. To achieve this aim, sophisticated reflectors are used as part of the Planck telescope receiving system. The system consists of secondary and primary reflectors which are sections of two different ellipsoids of revolution with mean diameters of 1 and 1.6 meters. Deformations of the reflectors which influence the optical parameters and the gain of receiving signals are investigated in vacuum and at very low temperatures. For this investigation, among the various high accuracy measurement techniques, photogrammetry was selected. With respect to the photogrammetric measurements, special considerations had to be taken into account in design steps, measurement arrangement and data processing to achieve very high accuracies. The determinability of additional parameters of the camera under the given network configuration, datum definition, reliability and precision issues as well as workspace limits and propagating errors from different sources are considered. We have designed an optimal photogrammetric network by heuristic simulation for the flight model of the primary and the secondary reflectors with relative precisions better than 1:1000'000 and 1:400'000 to achieve the requested accuracies. A least squares best fit ellipsoid method was developed to determine the optical parameters of the reflectors. In this paper we will report about the procedures, the network design and the results of real measurements.

  14. Poisson-Nernst-Planck-Fermi theory for modeling biological ion channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jinn-Liang; Eisenberg, Bob

    2014-01-01

    A Poisson-Nernst-Planck-Fermi (PNPF) theory is developed for studying ionic transport through biological ion channels. Our goal is to deal with the finite size of particle using a Fermi like distribution without calculating the forces between the particles, because they are both expensive and tricky to compute. We include the steric effect of ions and water molecules with nonuniform sizes and interstitial voids, the correlation effect of crowded ions with different valences, and the screening effect of water molecules in an inhomogeneous aqueous electrolyte. Including the finite volume of water and the voids between particles is an important new part of the theory presented here. Fermi like distributions of all particle species are derived from the volume exclusion of classical particles. Volume exclusion and the resulting saturation phenomena are especially important to describe the binding and permeation mechanisms of ions in a narrow channel pore. The Gibbs free energy of the Fermi distribution reduces to that of a Boltzmann distribution when these effects are not considered. The classical Gibbs entropy is extended to a new entropy form — called Gibbs-Fermi entropy — that describes mixing configurations of all finite size particles and voids in a thermodynamic system where microstates do not have equal probabilities. The PNPF model describes the dynamic flow of ions, water molecules, as well as voids with electric fields and protein charges. The model also provides a quantitative mean-field description of the charge/space competition mechanism of particles within the highly charged and crowded channel pore. The PNPF results are in good accord with experimental currents recorded in a 10 8 -fold range of Ca 2+ concentrations. The results illustrate the anomalous mole fraction effect, a signature of L-type calcium channels. Moreover, numerical results concerning water density, dielectric permittivity, void volume, and steric energy provide useful details to

  15. Thermal pulse measurements of space charge distributions under an applied electric field in thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Feihu; An, Zhenlian; Zhang, Yewen; Liu, Chuandong; Lin, Chen; Lei, Qingquan

    2013-01-01

    The thermal pulse method is a powerful method to measure space charge and polarization distributions in thin dielectric films, but a complicated calibration procedure is necessary to obtain the real distribution. In addition, charge dynamic behaviour under an applied electric field cannot be observed by the classical thermal pulse method. In this work, an improved thermal pulse measuring system with a supplemental circuit for applying high voltage is proposed to realize the mapping of charge distribution in thin dielectric films under an applied field. The influence of the modified measuring system on the amplitude and phase of the thermal pulse response current are evaluated. Based on the new measuring system, an easy calibration approach is presented with some practical examples. The newly developed system can observe space charge evolution under an applied field, which would be very helpful in understanding space charge behaviour in thin films. (paper)

  16. Optical sectioning for optical scanning holography using phase-space filtering with Wigner distribution functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hwi; Min, Sung-Wook; Lee, Byoungho; Poon, Ting-Chung

    2008-07-01

    We propose a novel optical sectioning method for optical scanning holography, which is performed in phase space by using Wigner distribution functions together with the fractional Fourier transform. The principle of phase-space optical sectioning for one-dimensional signals, such as slit objects, and two-dimensional signals, such as rectangular objects, is first discussed. Computer simulation results are then presented to substantiate the proposed idea.

  17. Distributed Circumnavigation Control with Dynamic Spacings for a Heterogeneous Multi-robot System

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Weijia; Luo, Sha; Lu, Huimin; Xiao, Junhao

    2018-01-01

    Circumnavigation control is useful in real-world applications such as entrapping a hostile target. In this paper, we consider a heterogeneous multi-robot system where robots have different physical properties, such as maximum movement speeds. Instead of equal-spacings, dynamic spacings according to robots' properties, which are termed utilities in this paper, will be more desirable in a scenario such as target entrapment. A distributed circumnavigation control algorithm based on utilities is ...

  18. Fokker-Planck simulation study of Alfven eigenmode burst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todo, Y.; Watanabe, T.; Park, Hyoung-Bin; Sato, T.

    2001-01-01

    Recurrent bursts of toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes (TAEs) are reproduced with a Fokker-Planck-magnetohydrodynamic simulation where a fast-ion source and slowing down are incorporated self-consistently. The bursts take place at regular time intervals and the behaviors of all the TAEs are synchronized. The fast-ion transport due to TAE activity spatially broadens the classical fast-ion distribution and significantly reduces its peak value. Only a small change of the distribution takes place with each burst, leading to loss of a small fraction of the fast ions. The system stays close to the marginal stability state established through the interplay of the fast-ion source, slowing down, and TAE activity. (author)

  19. Benchmark experiments at ASTRA facility on definition of space distribution of 235U fission reaction rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobrov, A. A.; Boyarinov, V. F.; Glushkov, A. E.; Glushkov, E. S.; Kompaniets, G. V.; Moroz, N. P.; Nevinitsa, V. A.; Nosov, V. I.; Smirnov, O. N.; Fomichenko, P. A.; Zimin, A. A.

    2012-01-01

    Results of critical experiments performed at five ASTRA facility configurations modeling the high-temperature helium-cooled graphite-moderated reactors are presented. Results of experiments on definition of space distribution of 235 U fission reaction rate performed at four from these five configurations are presented more detail. Analysis of available information showed that all experiments on criticality at these five configurations are acceptable for use them as critical benchmark experiments. All experiments on definition of space distribution of 235 U fission reaction rate are acceptable for use them as physical benchmark experiments. (authors)

  20. Comment on "Wigner phase-space distribution function for the hydrogen atom"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Jens Peder; Springborg, Michael

    1999-01-01

    We object to the proposal that the mapping of the three-dimensional hydrogen atom into a four-dimensional harmonic oscillator can be readily used to determine the Wigner phase-space distribution function for the hydrogen atom. [S1050-2947(99)07005-5].......We object to the proposal that the mapping of the three-dimensional hydrogen atom into a four-dimensional harmonic oscillator can be readily used to determine the Wigner phase-space distribution function for the hydrogen atom. [S1050-2947(99)07005-5]....

  1. MAPS OF THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS FROM COMBINED SOUTH POLE TELESCOPE AND PLANCK DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, T. M.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Crites, A. T.; Hou, Z.; Keisler, R. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Chown, R.; Holder, G. P.; Haan, T. de; Dobbs, M. A. [Department of Physics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2T8 (Canada); Aird, K. A.; Hrubes, J. D. [University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Cho, H-M. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); George, E. M.; Harrington, N. L.; Holzapfel, W. L. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Halverson, N. W. [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences and Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Knox, L., E-mail: tcrawfor@kicp.uchicago.edu [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); and others

    2016-12-01

    We present maps of the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds from combined South Pole Telescope (SPT) and Planck data. The Planck satellite observes in nine bands, while the SPT data used in this work were taken with the three-band SPT-SZ camera, The SPT-SZ bands correspond closely to three of the nine Planck bands, namely those centered at 1.4, 2.1, and 3.0 mm. The angular resolution of the Planck data ranges from 5 to 10 arcmin, while the SPT resolution ranges from 1.0 to 1.7 arcmin. The combined maps take advantage of the high resolution of the SPT data and the long-timescale stability of the space-based Planck observations to deliver robust brightness measurements on scales from the size of the maps down to ∼1 arcmin. In each band, we first calibrate and color-correct the SPT data to match the Planck data, then we use noise estimates from each instrument and knowledge of each instrument’s beam to make the inverse-variance-weighted combination of the two instruments’ data as a function of angular scale. We create maps assuming a range of underlying emission spectra and at a range of final resolutions. We perform several consistency tests on the combined maps and estimate the expected noise in measurements of features in them. We compare maps from this work to those from the Herschel HERITAGE survey, finding general consistency between the data sets. All data products described in this paper are available for download from the NASA Legacy Archive for Microwave Background Data Analysis server.

  2. Hypersonic expansion of the Fokker--Planck equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Feria, R.

    1989-01-01

    A systematic study of the hypersonic limit of a heavy species diluted in a much lighter gas is made via the Fokker--Planck equation governing its velocity distribution function. In particular, two different hypersonic expansions of the Fokker--Planck equation are considered, differing from each other in the momentum equation of the heavy gas used as the basis of the expansion: in the first of them, the pressure tensor is neglected in that equation while, in the second expansion, the pressure tensor term is retained. The expansions are valid when the light gas Mach number is O(1) or larger and the difference between the mean velocities of light and heavy components is small compared to the light gas thermal speed. They can be applied away from regions where the spatial gradient of the distribution function is very large, but it is not restricted with respect to the temporal derivative of the distribution function. The hydrodynamic equations corresponding to the lowest order of both expansions constitute two different hypersonic closures of the moment equations. For the subsequent orders in the expansions, closed sets of moment equations (hydrodynamic equations) are given. Special emphasis is made on the order of magnitude of the errors of the lowest-order hydrodynamic quantities. It is shown that if the heat flux vanishes initially, these errors are smaller than one might have expected from the ordinary scaling of the hypersonic closure. Also it is found that the normal solution of both expansions is a Gaussian distribution at the lowest order

  3. Halo formation in three-dimensional bunches with various phase space distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Fedotov

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A realistic treatment of halo formation must take into account 3D beam bunches and 6D phase space distributions. We recently constructed, analytically and numerically, a new class of self-consistent 6D phase space stationary distributions, which allowed us to study the halo development mechanism without being obscured by the effect of beam redistribution. In this paper we consider nonstationary distributions and study how the halo characteristics compare with those obtained using the stationary distribution. We then discuss the effect of redistribution on the halo development mechanism. In contrast to bunches with a large aspect ratio, we find that the effect of coupling between the r and z planes is especially important as the bunch shape becomes more spherical.

  4. Investigation of unstable periodic space-time states in distributed active system with supercritical current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koronovskij, A.A.; Rempen, I.S.; Khramov, A.E.

    2003-01-01

    The set of the unstable periodic space-time states, characterizing the chaotic space-time dynamics of the electron beam with the supercritical current in the Pierce diode is discussed. The Lyapunov indicators of the revealed instable space-time states of the chaotic dynamics of the distributed self-excited system are calculated. It is shown that change in the set of the unstable periodic states in dependence on the Pierce parameter is determined by change in the various orbits stability, which is demonstrated by the values of senior Lyapunov unstable state index [ru

  5. A Distributed Wireless Camera System for the Management of Parking Spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vítek, Stanislav; Melničuk, Petr

    2017-12-28

    The importance of detection of parking space availability is still growing, particularly in major cities. This paper deals with the design of a distributed wireless camera system for the management of parking spaces, which can determine occupancy of the parking space based on the information from multiple cameras. The proposed system uses small camera modules based on Raspberry Pi Zero and computationally efficient algorithm for the occupancy detection based on the histogram of oriented gradients (HOG) feature descriptor and support vector machine (SVM) classifier. We have included information about the orientation of the vehicle as a supporting feature, which has enabled us to achieve better accuracy. The described solution can deliver occupancy information at the rate of 10 parking spaces per second with more than 90% accuracy in a wide range of conditions. Reliability of the implemented algorithm is evaluated with three different test sets which altogether contain over 700,000 samples of parking spaces.

  6. A Distributed Wireless Camera System for the Management of Parking Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Vítek

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of detection of parking space availability is still growing, particularly in major cities. This paper deals with the design of a distributed wireless camera system for the management of parking spaces, which can determine occupancy of the parking space based on the information from multiple cameras. The proposed system uses small camera modules based on Raspberry Pi Zero and computationally efficient algorithm for the occupancy detection based on the histogram of oriented gradients (HOG feature descriptor and support vector machine (SVM classifier. We have included information about the orientation of the vehicle as a supporting feature, which has enabled us to achieve better accuracy. The described solution can deliver occupancy information at the rate of 10 parking spaces per second with more than 90% accuracy in a wide range of conditions. Reliability of the implemented algorithm is evaluated with three different test sets which altogether contain over 700,000 samples of parking spaces.

  7. Distributed sensor management for space situational awareness via a negotiation game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Bin; Shen, Dan; Pham, Khanh; Blasch, Erik; Chen, Genshe

    2015-05-01

    Space situational awareness (SSA) is critical to many space missions serving weather analysis, communications, and navigation. However, the number of sensors used in space situational awareness is limited which hinders collision avoidance prediction, debris assessment, and efficient routing. Hence, it is critical to use such sensor resources efficiently. In addition, it is desired to develop the SSA sensor management algorithm in a distributed manner. In this paper, a distributed sensor management approach using the negotiation game (NG-DSM) is proposed for the SSA. Specifically, the proposed negotiation game is played by each sensor and its neighboring sensors. The bargaining strategies are developed for each sensor based on negotiating for accurately tracking desired targets (e.g., satellite, debris, etc.) . The proposed NG-DSM method is tested in a scenario which includes eight space objects and three different sensor modalities which include a space based optical sensor, a ground radar, or a ground Electro-Optic sensor. The geometric relation between the sensor, the Sun, and the space object is also considered. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed NG-DSM sensor management methods, which facilitates an application of multiple-sensor multiple-target tracking for space situational awareness.

  8. An optimal beam alignment method for large-scale distributed space surveillance radar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian; Wang, Dongya; Xia, Shuangzhi

    2018-06-01

    Large-scale distributed space surveillance radar is a very important ground-based equipment to maintain a complete catalogue for Low Earth Orbit (LEO) space debris. However, due to the thousands of kilometers distance between each sites of the distributed radar system, how to optimally implement the Transmitting/Receiving (T/R) beams alignment in a great space using the narrow beam, which proposed a special and considerable technical challenge in the space surveillance area. According to the common coordinate transformation model and the radar beam space model, we presented a two dimensional projection algorithm for T/R beam using the direction angles, which could visually describe and assess the beam alignment performance. Subsequently, the optimal mathematical models for the orientation angle of the antenna array, the site location and the T/R beam coverage are constructed, and also the beam alignment parameters are precisely solved. At last, we conducted the optimal beam alignment experiments base on the site parameters of Air Force Space Surveillance System (AFSSS). The simulation results demonstrate the correctness and effectiveness of our novel method, which can significantly stimulate the construction for the LEO space debris surveillance equipment.

  9. Planck 2013 results. III. LFI systematic uncertainties

    CERN Document Server

    Aghanim, N; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Atrio-Barandela, F; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bobin, J; Bock, J J; Bonaldi, A; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Bridges, M; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Chamballu, A; Chiang, L -Y; Christensen, P R; Church, S; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Crill, B P; Cruz, M; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Dick, J; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Franceschi, E; Gaier, T C; Galeotta, S; Ganga, K; Giard, M; Giraud-Héraud, Y; Gjerløw, E; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Jaffe, T R; Jaffe, A H; Jewell, J; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Kangaslahti, P; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kiiveri, K; Kisner, T S; Knoche, J; Knox, L; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lähteenmäki, A; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Laureijs, R J; Lawrence, C R; Leahy, J P; Leonardi, R; Lesgourgues, J; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Lindholm, V; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Maris, M; Marshall, D J; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Matthai, F; Mazzotta, P; Meinhold, P R; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mitra, S; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Moss, A; Munshi, D; Naselsky, P; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; O'Dwyer, I J; Osborne, S; Paci, F; Pagano, L; Paladini, R; Paoletti, D; Partridge, B; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Pearson, D; Peel, M; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Platania, P; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Popa, L; Poutanen, T; Pratt, G W; Prézeau, G; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Ricciardi, S; Riller, T; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Rossetti, M; Roudier, G; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Scott, D; Seiffert, M D; Shellard, E P S; Spencer, L D; Starck, J -L; Stolyarov, V; Stompor, R; Sureau, F; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Tavagnacco, D; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Tuovinen, J; Türler, M; Umana, G; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Varis, J; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Vittorio, N; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Watson, R; Wilkinson, A; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2014-01-01

    We present the current estimate of instrumental and systematic effect uncertainties for the Planck-Low Frequency Instrument relevant to the first release of the Planck cosmological results. We give an overview of the main effects and of the tools and methods applied to assess residuals in maps and power spectra. We also present an overall budget of known systematic effect uncertainties, which are dominated sidelobe straylight pick-up and imperfect calibration. However, even these two effects are at least two orders of magnitude weaker than the cosmic microwave background (CMB) fluctuations as measured in terms of the angular temperature power spectrum. A residual signal above the noise level is present in the multipole range $\\ell<20$, most notably at 30 GHz, and is likely caused by residual Galactic straylight contamination. Current analysis aims to further reduce the level of spurious signals in the data and to improve the systematic effects modelling, in particular with respect to straylight and calibra...

  10. Planck 2015 results. XV. Gravitational lensing

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P.A.R.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Bartolo, N.; Basak, S.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Désert, F.-X.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A.A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.L.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Lewis, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macías-Pérez, J.F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Martin, P.G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G.W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J.P.; Reach, W.T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J.A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Wehus, I.K.; White, M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.

    2016-01-01

    We present the most significant measurement of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) lensing potential to date (at a level of 40 sigma), using temperature and polarization data from the Planck 2015 full-mission release. Using a polarization-only estimator we detect lensing at a significance of 5 sigma. We cross-check the accuracy of our measurement using the wide frequency coverage and complementarity of the temperature and polarization measurements. Public products based on this measurement include an estimate of the lensing potential over approximately 70% of the sky, an estimate of the lensing potential power spectrum in bandpowers for the multipole range 40Planck temperature and polarization power spectra. Using the lensing likelihood alone we obtain a percent-level measurement of ...

  11. The Planck Vacuum and the Schwarzschild Metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daywitt W. C.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The Planck vacuum (PV is assumed to be the source of the visible universe. So under conditions of sufficient stress, there must exist a pathway through which energy from the PV can travel into this universe. Conversely, the passage of energy from the visible universe to the PV must also exist under the same stressful conditions. The following examines two versions of the Schwarzschild metric equation for compatability with this open-pathway idea.

  12. Quantum dynamics via Planck-scale-stepped action-carrying 'Graph Paths'

    CERN Document Server

    Chew, Geoffrey Foucar

    2003-01-01

    A divergence-free, parameter-free, path-based discrete-time quantum dynamics is designed to not only enlarge the achievements of general relativity and the standard particle model, by approximations at spacetime scales far above Planck scale while far below Hubble scale, but to allow tackling of hitherto inaccessible questions. ''Path space'' is larger than and precursor to Hilbert-space basis. The wave-function-propagating paths are action-carrying structured graphs-cubic and quartic structured vertices connected by structured ''fermionic'' or ''bosonic'' ''particle'' and ''nonparticle'' arcs. A Planck-scale path step determines the gravitational constant while controlling all graph structure. The basis of the theory's (zero-rest-mass) elementary-particle Hilbert space (which includes neither gravitons nor scalar bosons) resides in particle arcs. Nonparticle arcs within a path are responsible for energy and rest mass.

  13. Planck 2015 results. V. LFI calibration

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P.A.R.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartolo, N.; Battaglia, P.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.F.; Catalano, A.; Chamballu, A.; Christensen, P.R.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gjerlow, E.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.L.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jaffe, T.R.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Knoche, J.; Krachmalnicoff, N.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leahy, J.P.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T.J.; Peel, M.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renzi, A.; Rocha, G.; Romelli, E.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Stolyarov, V.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Turler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vassallo, T.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Watson, R.; Wehus, I.K.; Wilkinson, A.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2016-01-01

    We present a description of the pipeline used to calibrate the Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) timelines into thermodynamic temperatures for the Planck 2015 data release, covering 4 years of uninterrupted operations. As in the 2013 data release, our calibrator is provided by the spin-synchronous modulation of the CMB dipole, exploiting both the orbital and solar components. Our 2015 LFI analysis provides an independent Solar dipole estimate in excellent agreement with that of HFI and within $1\\sigma$ (0.3 % in amplitude) of the WMAP value. This 0.3 % shift in the peak-to-peak dipole temperature from WMAP and a global overhaul of the iterative calibration code increases the overall level of the LFI maps by 0.45 % (30 GHz), 0.64 % (44 GHz), and 0.82 % (70 GHz) in temperature with respect to the 2013 Planck data release, thus reducing the discrepancy with the power spectrum measured by WMAP. We estimate that the LFI calibration uncertainty is at the level of 0.20 % for the 70 GHz map, 0.26 % for the 44 GHz...

  14. Planck 2013 results. XXXII. The updated Planck catalogue of Sunyaev-Zeldovich sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Aussel, H.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Barrena, R.; Bartelmann, M.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bikmaev, I.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Böhringer, H.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burenin, R.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Carvalho, P.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.-R.; Chen, X.; Chiang, H. C.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Chon, G.; Christensen, P. R.; Churazov, E.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Comis, B.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Da Silva, A.; Dahle, H.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Démoclès, J.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Feroz, F.; Ferragamo, A.; Finelli, F.; Flores-Cacho, I.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Fromenteau, S.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Génova-Santos, R. T.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Gilfanov, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Grainge, K. J. B.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Groeneboom, N., E.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Hempel, A.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Hurley-Walker, N.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Khamitov, I.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; León-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Li, C.; Liddle, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; MacTavish, C. J.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Mei, S.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.-B.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mikkelsen, K.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nastasi, A.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Nesvadba, N. P. H.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I. J.; Olamaie, M.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T. J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrott, Y. C.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rumsey, C.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Saunders, R. D. E.; Savini, G.; Schammel, M. P.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Shimwell, T. W.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J.-L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Streblyanska, A.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tramonte, D.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Türler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vibert, L.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; White, M.; White, S. D. M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2015-09-01

    We update the all-sky Planck catalogue of 1227 clusters and cluster candidates (PSZ1) published in March 2013, derived from detections of the Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect using the first 15.5 months of Planck satellite observations. As an addendum, we deliver an updated version of the PSZ1 catalogue, reporting the further confirmation of 86 Planck-discovered clusters. In total, the PSZ1 now contains 947 confirmed clusters, of which 214 were confirmed as newly discovered clusters through follow-up observations undertaken by the Planck Collaboration. The updated PSZ1 contains redshifts for 913 systems, of which 736 (~ 80.6%) are spectroscopic, and associated mass estimates derived from the Yz mass proxy. We also provide a new SZ quality flag for the remaining 280 candidates. This flag was derived from a novel artificial neural-network classification of the SZ signal. Based on this assessment, the purity of the updated PSZ1 catalogue is estimated to be 94%. In this release, we provide the full updated catalogue and an additional readme file with further information on the Planck SZ detections. The catalogue is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/581/A14

  15. Contribution to the study of the Fokker-planck equation; Contribution a l'etude de l'equation de Fokker-planck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaquiere, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    In the first paragraphs of this report, the Fokker-Planck equation is presented using the presentation method due to S. Chandrasekhar. Certain conventional resolution methods are given, and then a consideration of the physical interpretation of its various terms leads to a new study method based on the use of Campbell's theorems. This gives a solution to the equation in an integral form. The integral kernel of the solution is a normal centred distribution. Finally, the use of the Laplace transformation leads to a simple determination of the parameters of this integral kernel and connects the present theory to the characteristic function method used in particular in the field of nuclear reactors. The method also makes it possible to calculate the moments of the different orders of the probability distribution without the necessity of solving the Fokker-Planck equation. (author) [French] Dans les premiers paragraphes de ce rapport, l'equation de FOKKER-PLANCK est introduite en utilisant le mode d'expose de S. CHANDRASEKHAR. Puis, apres avoir rappele certaines methodes classiques de resolution, l'interpretation physique de ses differents termes nous conduit a une nouvelle methode d'etude qui repose sur l'utilisation des theoremes de CAMPBELL. On est ainsi conduit a la solution de l'equation sous forme integrale. Le noyau integral de la solution est une distribution normale centree. Enfin l'emploi de la transformation de LAPLACE conduit a une determination simple des parametres de ce noyau integral, et relie la theorie actuelle a la methode de la fonction caracteristique associee, utilisee en particulier dans le domaine des reacteurs nucleaires. Finalement cette methode permet le calcul des moments des differents ordres de la distribution de probabilites, sans passer par la resolution souvent laborieuse de l'equation de FOKKER-PLANCK. (auteur)

  16. Planck 2015 results: XIV. Dark energy and modified gravity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.

    2016-01-01

    as principal component analysis and parameterizations related to the potential of a minimally coupled DE scalar field. When estimating the density of DE at early times, we significantly improve present constraints and find that it has to be below ∼2% (at 95% confidence) of the critical density, even when...... of state, early DE, general potentials in minimally-coupled scalar fields or principal component analysis) are in agreement with ΛCDM. When testing models that also change perturbations (even when the background is fixed to ΛCDM), some tensions appear in a few scenarios: the maximum one found is ∼2σ......-space distortions and weak gravitational lensing. These additional probes are important tools for testing MG models and for breaking degeneracies that are still present in the combination of Planck and background data sets. All results that include only background parameterizations (expansion of the equation...

  17. Computing generalized Langevin equations and generalized Fokker-Planck equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darve, Eric; Solomon, Jose; Kia, Amirali

    2009-07-07

    The Mori-Zwanzig formalism is an effective tool to derive differential equations describing the evolution of a small number of resolved variables. In this paper we present its application to the derivation of generalized Langevin equations and generalized non-Markovian Fokker-Planck equations. We show how long time scales rates and metastable basins can be extracted from these equations. Numerical algorithms are proposed to discretize these equations. An important aspect is the numerical solution of the orthogonal dynamics equation which is a partial differential equation in a high dimensional space. We propose efficient numerical methods to solve this orthogonal dynamics equation. In addition, we present a projection formalism of the Mori-Zwanzig type that is applicable to discrete maps. Numerical applications are presented from the field of Hamiltonian systems.

  18. The influence of row width and seed spacing on uniformity of plant spatial distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griepentrog, Hans W.; Olsen, Jannie Maj; Weiner, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    width and evenness of spacing within rows influences two-dimensional spatial quality. The results can be used to define new requirements for improved seeding technologies to achieve higher benefits in sustainable crop production systems. In general it can be concluded that more even plant distributions...... are expected to result in a better crop plant performance....

  19. The Space-, Time-, and Energy-distribution of Neutrons from a Pulsed Plane Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claesson, Arne

    1962-05-15

    The space-, time- and energy-distribution of neutrons from a pulsed, plane, high energy source in an infinite medium is determined in a diffusion approximation. For simplicity the moderator is first assumed to be hydrogen gas but it is also shown that the method can be used for a moderator of arbitrary mass.

  20. Quasilinear simulation of auroral kilometric radiation by a relativistic Fokker-Planck code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Y.

    1991-01-01

    An intense terrestrial radiation called the auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) is believed to be generated by cyclotron maser instability. We study a quasilinear evolution of this instability by means of a two-dimensional relativistic Fokker-Planck code which treats waves and distributions self-consistently, including radiation loss and electron source and sink. We compare the distributions and wave amplitude with spacecraft observations to elucidate physical processes involved. 3 refs., 1 fig

  1. Quantifying the distribution of paste-void spacing of hardened cement paste using X-ray computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Tae Sup, E-mail: taesup@yonsei.ac.kr [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kwang Yeom, E-mail: kimky@kict.re.kr [Korea Institute of Construction Technology, 283 Goyangdae-ro, Ilsanseo-gu, Goyang, 411-712 (Korea, Republic of); Choo, Jinhyun, E-mail: jinhyun@stanford.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Kang, Dong Hun, E-mail: timeriver@naver.com [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    The distribution of paste-void spacing in cement-based materials is an important feature related to the freeze-thaw durability of these materials, but its reliable estimation remains an unresolved problem. Herein, we evaluate the capability of X-ray computed tomography (CT) for reliable quantification of the distribution of paste-void spacing. Using X-ray CT images of three mortar specimens having different air-entrainment characteristics, we calculate the distributions of paste-void spacing of the specimens by applying previously suggested methods for deriving the exact spacing of air-void systems. This methodology is assessed by comparing the 95th percentile of the cumulative distribution function of the paste-void spacing with spacing factors computed by applying the linear-traverse method to 3D air-void system and reconstructing equivalent air-void distribution in 3D. Results show that the distributions of equivalent void diameter and paste-void spacing follow lognormal and normal distributions, respectively, and the ratios between the 95th percentile paste-void spacing value and the spacing factors reside within the ranges reported by previous numerical studies. This experimental finding indicates that the distribution of paste-void spacing quantified using X-ray CT has the potential to be the basis for a statistical assessment of the freeze-thaw durability of cement-based materials. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The paste-void spacing in 3D can be quantified by X-ray CT. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The distribution of the paste-void spacing follows normal distribution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The spacing factor and 95th percentile of CDF of paste-void spacing are correlated.

  2. Velocity-space tomography of the fast-ion distribution function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Asger Schou; Salewski, Mirko; Geiger, Benedikt

    2013-01-01

    probes certain regions in velocity-space, determined by the geometry of the set-up. Exploiting this, the fast-ion distribution function can be inferred using a velocity-space tomography method. This poster contains a tomography calculated from measured spectra from three different FIDA views at ASDEX......Fast ions play an important role in heating the plasma in a magnetic confinement fusion device. Fast-ion Dα(FIDA) spectroscopy diagnoses fast ions in small measurement volumes. Spectra measured by a FIDA diagnostic can be related to the 2D fast-ion velocity distribution function. A single FIDA view...... Upgrade. The quality of the tomography improves with the number of FIDA views simultaneously measuring the same volume. To investigate the potential benefits of including additional views (up to 18), tomographies are inferred from synthetic spectra calculated from a simulated distribution function...

  3. EVOLUTION OF DARK MATTER PHASE-SPACE DENSITY DISTRIBUTIONS IN EQUAL-MASS HALO MERGERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vass, Ileana M.; Kazanzidis, Stelios; Valluri, Monica; Kravtsov, Andrey V.

    2009-01-01

    We use dissipationless N-body simulations to investigate the evolution of the true coarse-grained phase-space density distribution f(x, v) in equal-mass mergers between dark matter (DM) halos. The halo models are constructed with various asymptotic power-law indices ρ ∝ r -γ ranging from steep cusps to core-like profiles and we employ the phase-space density estimator 'EnBid' developed by Sharma and Steinmetz to compute f(x, v). The adopted force resolution allows robust phase-space density profile estimates in the inner ∼1% of the virial radii of the simulated systems. We confirm that merger events result in a decrease of the coarse-grained phase-space density in accordance with expectations from Mixing Theorems for collisionless systems. We demonstrate that binary mergers between identical DM halos produce remnants that retain excellent memories of the inner slopes and overall shapes of the phase-space density distribution of their progenitors. The robustness of the phase-space density profiles holds for a range of orbital energies, and a variety of encounter configurations including sequences of several consecutive merger events, designed to mimic hierarchical merging, and collisions occurring at different cosmological epochs. If the progenitor halos are constructed with appreciably different asymptotic power-law indices, we find that the inner slope and overall shape of the phase-space density distribution of the remnant are substantially closer to that of the initial system with the steepest central density cusp. These results explicitly demonstrate that mixing is incomplete in equal-mass mergers between DM halos, as it does not erase memory of the progenitor properties. Our results also confirm the recent analytical predictions of Dehnen regarding the preservation of merging self-gravitating central density cusps.

  4. High energy ion range and deposited energy calculation using the Boltzmann-Fokker-Planck splitting of the Boltzmann transport equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozolevski, I.E.

    2001-01-01

    We consider the splitting of the straight-ahead Boltzmann transport equation in the Boltzmann-Fokker-Planck equation, decomposing the differential cross-section into a singular part, corresponding to small energy transfer events, and in a regular one, which corresponds to large energy transfer. The convergence of implantation profile, nuclear and electronic energy depositions, calculated from the Boltzmann-Fokker-Planck equation, to the respective exact distributions, calculated from Monte-Carlo method, was exanimate in a large-energy interval for various values of splitting parameter and for different ion-target mass relations. It is shown that for the universal potential there exists an optimal value of splitting parameter, for which range and deposited energy distributions, calculated from the Boltzmann-Fokker-Planck equation, accurately approximate the exact distributions and which minimizes the computational expenses

  5. A Screen Space GPGPU Surface LIC Algorithm for Distributed Memory Data Parallel Sort Last Rendering Infrastructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loring, Burlen; Karimabadi, Homa; Rortershteyn, Vadim

    2014-07-01

    The surface line integral convolution(LIC) visualization technique produces dense visualization of vector fields on arbitrary surfaces. We present a screen space surface LIC algorithm for use in distributed memory data parallel sort last rendering infrastructures. The motivations for our work are to support analysis of datasets that are too large to fit in the main memory of a single computer and compatibility with prevalent parallel scientific visualization tools such as ParaView and VisIt. By working in screen space using OpenGL we can leverage the computational power of GPUs when they are available and run without them when they are not. We address efficiency and performance issues that arise from the transformation of data from physical to screen space by selecting an alternate screen space domain decomposition. We analyze the algorithm's scaling behavior with and without GPUs on two high performance computing systems using data from turbulent plasma simulations.

  6. THE WIGNER–FOKKER–PLANCK EQUATION: STATIONARY STATES AND LARGE TIME BEHAVIOR

    KAUST Repository

    ARNOLD, ANTON

    2012-11-01

    We consider the linear WignerFokkerPlanck equation subject to confining potentials which are smooth perturbations of the harmonic oscillator potential. For a certain class of perturbations we prove that the equation admits a unique stationary solution in a weighted Sobolev space. A key ingredient of the proof is a new result on the existence of spectral gaps for FokkerPlanck type operators in certain weighted L 2-spaces. In addition we show that the steady state corresponds to a positive density matrix operator with unit trace and that the solutions of the time-dependent problem converge towards the steady state with an exponential rate. © 2012 World Scientific Publishing Company.

  7. Generalized conditions for the distributional zero-mass limit of renormalized Feynman amplitudes in Minkowski space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manoukian, E.B.

    1986-01-01

    Generalized conditions (rules) are set up for the existence of the distributional zero-mass limit of renormalized Feynman amplitudes in Minkowski space. These rules are generalizations of rules that have been set up earlier by us and hence are applicable to a larger class of graphs. The study is very general as the vanishing masses are led to vanish at different rates. All subtractions of renormalization are carried out directly in momentum space, about the origin, with the degree of divergence of a subtraction coinciding with the dimensionality of the corresponding subdiagram

  8. Galactic Subsystems on the Basis of Cumulative Distribution of Space Velocities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidojević, S.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A sample containing $4,614$ stars with available space velocities and high-quality kinematical data from the Arihip Catalogue is formed. For the purpose of distinguishing galactic subsystems the cumulative distribution of space velocities is studied. The fractions of the three subsystems are found to be: thin disc 92\\%, thick disc 6\\% and halo 2\\%. These results are verified by analysing the elements of velocity ellipsoids and the shape and size of the galactocentric orbits of the sample stars, i.e. the planar and vertical eccentricities of the orbits.

  9. Constraint based scheduling for the Goddard Space Flight Center distributed Active Archive Center's data archive and distribution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Nick, Jr.; Bedet, Jean-Jacques; Bodden, Lee; Boddy, Mark; White, Jim; Beane, John

    1994-01-01

    The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) has been operational since October 1, 1993. Its mission is to support the Earth Observing System (EOS) by providing rapid access to EOS data and analysis products, and to test Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) design concepts. One of the challenges is to ensure quick and easy retrieval of any data archived within the DAAC's Data Archive and Distributed System (DADS). Over the 15-year life of EOS project, an estimated several Petabytes (10(exp 15)) of data will be permanently stored. Accessing that amount of information is a formidable task that will require innovative approaches. As a precursor of the full EOS system, the GSFC DAAC with a few Terabits of storage, has implemented a prototype of a constraint-based task and resource scheduler to improve the performance of the DADS. This Honeywell Task and Resource Scheduler (HTRS), developed by Honeywell Technology Center in cooperation the Information Science and Technology Branch/935, the Code X Operations Technology Program, and the GSFC DAAC, makes better use of limited resources, prevents backlog of data, provides information about resources bottlenecks and performance characteristics. The prototype which is developed concurrently with the GSFC Version 0 (V0) DADS, models DADS activities such as ingestion and distribution with priority, precedence, resource requirements (disk and network bandwidth) and temporal constraints. HTRS supports schedule updates, insertions, and retrieval of task information via an Application Program Interface (API). The prototype has demonstrated with a few examples, the substantial advantages of using HTRS over scheduling algorithms such as a First In First Out (FIFO) queue. The kernel scheduling engine for HTRS, called Kronos, has been successfully applied to several other domains such as space shuttle mission scheduling, demand flow manufacturing, and avionics communications

  10. Maximum Path Information and Fokker Planck Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Wang A., Q.; LeMehaute, A.

    2008-04-01

    We present a rigorous method to derive the nonlinear Fokker-Planck (FP) equation of anomalous diffusion directly from a generalization of the principle of least action of Maupertuis proposed by Wang [Chaos, Solitons & Fractals 23 (2005) 1253] for smooth or quasi-smooth irregular dynamics evolving in Markovian process. The FP equation obtained may take two different but equivalent forms. It was also found that the diffusion constant may depend on both q (the index of Tsallis entropy [J. Stat. Phys. 52 (1988) 479] and the time t.

  11. Planck 2015 results: VI. LFI mapmaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.; Ashdown, M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the mapmaking procedure applied to Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) data. The mapmaking step takes as input the calibrated timelines and pointing information. The main products are sky maps of I, Q, and U Stokes components. For the first time, we present polarization maps...... at LFI frequencies. The mapmaking algorithm is based on a destriping technique, which is enhanced with a noise prior. The Galactic region is masked to reduce errors arising from bandpass mismatch and high signal gradients. We apply horn-uniform radiometer weights to reduce the effects of beam...

  12. Planck 2013 results. IX. HFI spectral response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Planck Collaboration,; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.

    2013-01-01

    -of-band signal rejection) of all HFI detectors to a known source of electromagnetic radiation individually. This was determined by measuring the output of all detection channels for radiation propagated through a continuously scanned polarizing Fourier transform spectrometer. As there is no on-board spectrometer......, dust emission, Sunyaev Zeldovich sources, and intensity to polarization leakage. The HFI spectral response data have also been used to provide unit conversion and colour correction analysis tools. While previous papers have already described the pre-flight experiments conducted on the Planck HFI...

  13. Massively parallel Fokker-Planck code ALLAp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batishcheva, A.A.; Krasheninnikov, S.I.; Craddock, G.G.; Djordjevic, V.

    1996-01-01

    The recently developed for workstations Fokker-Planck code ALLA simulates the temporal evolution of 1V, 2V and 1D2V collisional edge plasmas. In this work we present the results of code parallelization on the CRI T3D massively parallel platform (ALLAp version). Simultaneously we benchmark the 1D2V parallel vesion against an analytic self-similar solution of the collisional kinetic equation. This test is not trivial as it demands a very strong spatial temperature and density variation within the simulation domain. (orig.)

  14. Planck early results. IX. XMM-Newton follow-up for validation of Planck cluster candidates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poutanen, T.; Natoli, P.; Polenta, G.

    2011-01-01

    We present the XMM-Newton follow-up for confirmation of Planck cluster candidates. Twenty-five candidates have been observed to date using snapshot (∼10 ks) exposures, ten as part of a pilot programme to sample a low range of signal-to-noise ratios (4

  15. Planck Intermediate Results. IX. Detection of the Galactic haze with Planck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Planck Collaboration,; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.

    2013-01-01

    Using precise full-sky observations from Planck, and applying several methods of component separation, we identify and characterize the emission from the Galactic "haze" at microwave wavelengths. The haze is a distinct component of diffuse Galactic emission, roughly centered on the Galactic centre...

  16. Planck 2015 results: XXVII. The second Planck catalogue of Sunyaev-Zeldovich sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.

    2016-01-01

    We present the all-sky Planck catalogue of Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) sources detected from the 29 month full-mission data. The catalogue (PSZ2) is the largest SZ-selected sample of galaxy clusters yet produced and the deepest systematic all-sky surveyof galaxy clusters. It contains 1653 detections, ...

  17. Planck 2013 results. XXIX. Planck catalogue of Sunyaev-Zeldovich sources

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P.A.R.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Aussel, H.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Barrena, R.; Bartelmann, M.; Bartlett, J.G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bikmaev, I.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J.J.; Bohringer, H.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burenin, R.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Cardoso, J.F.; Carvalho, P.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.R.; Chen, X.; Chiang, L.Y.; Chiang, H.C.; Chon, G.; Christensen, P.R.; Churazov, E.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Comis, B.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Da Silva, A.; Dahle, H.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.M.; Democles, J.; Desert, F.X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Feroz, F.; Finelli, F.; Flores-Cacho, I.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Fromenteau, S.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Genova-Santos, R.T.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Gilfanov, M.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Grainge, K.J.B.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; N, E.Groeneboom; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Hempel, A.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Hurley-Walker, N.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Khamitov, I.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R.J.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leahy, J.P.; Leonardi, R.; Leon-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Li, C.; Liddle, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; MacTavish, C.J.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Mei, S.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.B.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Nesvadba, N.P.H.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I.J.; Olamaie, M.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T.J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrott, Y.C.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Reach, W.T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rumsey, C.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Saunders, R.D.E.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Shimwell, T.W.; Spencer, L.D.; Starck, J.L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Turler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vibert, L.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; White, M.; White, S.D.M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-01-01

    We describe the all-sky Planck catalogue of clusters and cluster candidates derived from Sunyaev--Zeldovich (SZ) effect detections using the first 15.5 months of Planck satellite observations. The catalogue contains 1227 entries, making it over six times the size of the Planck Early SZ (ESZ) sample and the largest SZ-selected catalogue to date. It contains 861 confirmed clusters, of which 178 have been confirmed as clusters, mostly through follow-up observations, and a further 683 are previously-known clusters. The remaining 366 have the status of cluster candidates, and we divide them into three classes according to the quality of evidence that they are likely to be true clusters. The Planck SZ catalogue is the deepest all-sky cluster catalogue, with redshifts up to about one, and spans the broadest cluster mass range from (0.1 to 1.6) 10^{15}Msun. Confirmation of cluster candidates through comparison with existing surveys or cluster catalogues is extensively described, as is the statistical characterization...

  18. In-flight calibration and verification of the Planck-LFI instrument

    OpenAIRE

    Gregorio, Anna; Cuttaia, Francesco; Mennella, Aniello; Bersanelli, Marco; Maris, Michele; Meinhold, Peter; Sandri, Maura; Terenzi, Luca; Tomasi, Maurizio; Villa, Fabrizio; Frailis, Marco; Morgante, Gianluca; Pearson, Dave; Zacchei, Andrea; Battaglia, Paola

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the Planck-LFI in-flight calibration campaign. After a brief overview of the ground test campaigns, we describe in detail the calibration and performance verification (CPV) phase, carried out in space during and just after the cool-down of LFI. We discuss in detail the functionality verification, the tuning of the front-end and warm electronics, the preliminary performance assessment and the thermal susceptibility tests. The logic, sequence, goals and results of the i...

  19. Effect of electron irradiation on defect distribution in solar cells for space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles, J.P.; Bruguier, G.; Mialhe, P.; Ruas, R.

    1989-01-01

    The distribution of the recombination centers in the spacecharge region was highly dissymetrical before irradiation. After irradiation by a high density electron beam of 10 15 cm -2 with an energy of 1 MeV, the recombination process predominates in the whole bias range. The irradiation yields both an increase in density of the recombination centers and a more homogeneous distribution of traps in the space charge region with an improvement in the behaviour of cells (via the fill factor). This effect is counterbalanced by poor operation in the base and the emitter with a decrease in the efficiency of the device by 20% [fr

  20. Online Distributed Learning Over Networks in RKH Spaces Using Random Fourier Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouboulis, Pantelis; Chouvardas, Symeon; Theodoridis, Sergios

    2018-04-01

    We present a novel diffusion scheme for online kernel-based learning over networks. So far, a major drawback of any online learning algorithm, operating in a reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS), is the need for updating a growing number of parameters as time iterations evolve. Besides complexity, this leads to an increased need of communication resources, in a distributed setting. In contrast, the proposed method approximates the solution as a fixed-size vector (of larger dimension than the input space) using Random Fourier Features. This paves the way to use standard linear combine-then-adapt techniques. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that a complete protocol for distributed online learning in RKHS is presented. Conditions for asymptotic convergence and boundness of the networkwise regret are also provided. The simulated tests illustrate the performance of the proposed scheme.

  1. A Coordinated Initialization Process for the Distributed Space Exploration Simulation (DSES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Robert; Dexter, Dan; Hasan, David; Crues, Edwin Z.

    2007-01-01

    This document describes the federate initialization process that was developed at the NASA Johnson Space Center with the HIIA Transfer Vehicle Flight Controller Trainer (HTV FCT) simulations and refined in the Distributed Space Exploration Simulation (DSES). These simulations use the High Level Architecture (HLA) IEEE 1516 to provide the communication and coordination between the distributed parts of the simulation. The purpose of the paper is to describe a generic initialization sequence that can be used to create a federate that can: 1. Properly initialize all HLA objects, object instances, interactions, and time management 2. Check for the presence of all federates 3. Coordinate startup with other federates 4. Robustly initialize and share initial object instance data with other federates.

  2. Long-distance free-space distribution of quantum entanglement over Vienna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindenthal, M.; Resch, K.; Blauensteiner, B.; Boehm, H.; Fedrizzi, A.; Kurtsiefer, C.; Poppe, A.; Schmitt-Manderbach, T.; Taraba, M.; Ursin, R.; Walther, P.; Weier, H.; Weinfurter, H.; Zeilinger, A.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: We have established a real-world free-space quantum channel over 7.8 km and demonstrate the distribution of entangled photons. The transmitter is placed at an observatory and the receiver on the 46th floor of an office skyscraper in Vienna, Austria. Using locally recorded time stamps and a public internet channel, coincident counts from correlated photons are demonstrated to violate a Bell inequality by 14 standard deviations. This confirms the high quality of the shared entanglement. In this experiment the horizontal freespace distance is chosen, so that the attenuation the light undergoes corresponds approximately to the attenuation from space to earth. This work is an encouraging step towards satellite-based distribution of quantum entanglement and future intra-city quantum networks. (author)

  3. New limits on coupled dark energy model after Planck 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hang; Yang, Weiqiang; Wu, Yabo; Jiang, Ying

    2018-06-01

    We used the Planck 2015 cosmic microwave background anisotropy, baryon acoustic oscillation, type-Ia supernovae, redshift-space distortions, and weak gravitational lensing to test the model parameter space of coupled dark energy. We assumed the constant and time-varying equation of state parameter for dark energy, and treated dark matter and dark energy as the fluids whose energy transfer was proportional to the combined term of the energy densities and equation of state, such as Q = 3 Hξ(1 +wx) ρx and Q = 3 Hξ [ 1 +w0 +w1(1 - a) ] ρx, the full space of equation of state could be measured when we considered the term (1 +wx) in the energy exchange. According to the joint observational constraint, the results showed that wx = - 1.006-0.027+0.047 and ξ = 0.098-0.098>+0.026 for coupled dark energy with a constant equation of state, w0 = -1.076-0.076+0.085, w1 = - 0.069-0.319+0.361, and ξ = 0.210-0.210+0.048 for a variable equation of state. We did not get any clear evidence for the coupling in the dark fluids at 1 σ region.

  4. Quantum teleportation and entanglement distribution over 100-kilometre free-space channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Juan; Ren, Ji-Gang; Lu, He; Cao, Yuan; Yong, Hai-Lin; Wu, Yu-Ping; Liu, Chang; Liao, Sheng-Kai; Zhou, Fei; Jiang, Yan; Cai, Xin-Dong; Xu, Ping; Pan, Ge-Sheng; Jia, Jian-Jun; Huang, Yong-Mei; Yin, Hao; Wang, Jian-Yu; Chen, Yu-Ao; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2012-08-09

    Transferring an unknown quantum state over arbitrary distances is essential for large-scale quantum communication and distributed quantum networks. It can be achieved with the help of long-distance quantum teleportation and entanglement distribution. The latter is also important for fundamental tests of the laws of quantum mechanics. Although quantum teleportation and entanglement distribution over moderate distances have been realized using optical fibre links, the huge photon loss and decoherence in fibres necessitate the use of quantum repeaters for larger distances. However, the practical realization of quantum repeaters remains experimentally challenging. Free-space channels, first used for quantum key distribution, offer a more promising approach because photon loss and decoherence are almost negligible in the atmosphere. Furthermore, by using satellites, ultra-long-distance quantum communication and tests of quantum foundations could be achieved on a global scale. Previous experiments have achieved free-space distribution of entangled photon pairs over distances of 600 metres (ref. 14) and 13 kilometres (ref. 15), and transfer of triggered single photons over a 144-kilometre one-link free-space channel. Most recently, following a modified scheme, free-space quantum teleportation over 16 kilometres was demonstrated with a single pair of entangled photons. Here we report quantum teleportation of independent qubits over a 97-kilometre one-link free-space channel with multi-photon entanglement. An average fidelity of 80.4 ± 0.9 per cent is achieved for six distinct states. Furthermore, we demonstrate entanglement distribution over a two-link channel, in which the entangled photons are separated by 101.8 kilometres. Violation of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality is observed without the locality loophole. Besides being of fundamental interest, our results represent an important step towards a global quantum network. Moreover, the high

  5. Distribution of flux vacua around singular points in Calabi-Yau moduli space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eguchi, Tohru; Tachikawa, Yuji

    2006-01-01

    We study the distribution of type-IIB flux vacua in the moduli space near various singular loci, e.g. conifolds, ADE singularities on P 1 , Argyres-Douglas point etc, using the Ashok-Douglas density det (R+ω). We find that the vacuum density is integrable around each of them, irrespective of the type of the singularities. We study in detail an explicit example of an Argyres-Douglas point embedded in a compact Calabi-Yau manifold

  6. Daylight operation of a free space, entanglement-based quantum key distribution system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peloso, Matthew P; Gerhardt, Ilja; Ho, Caleb; Lamas-Linares, AntIa; Kurtsiefer, Christian [Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, Singapore 117543 (Singapore)], E-mail: christian.kurtsiefer@gmail.com

    2009-04-15

    Many quantum key distribution (QKD) implementations using a free space transmission path are restricted to operation at night time in order to distinguish the signal photons used for a secure key establishment from the background light. Here, we present a lean entanglement-based QKD system overcoming that limitation. By implementing spectral, spatial and temporal filtering techniques, we establish a secure key continuously over several days under varying light and weather conditions.

  7. Limit distribution function of inhomogeneities in regions with random boundary in the Hilbert space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasulova, M.Yu.; Tashpulatov, S.M.

    2004-10-01

    The interaction of charged particle systems with a membrane consisting of nonhomogeneities which are randomly distributed by the same law in the vicinity of appropriate sites of a planax crystal lattice is studied. A system of equations for the self-consistent potential U 1 (x,ξ 0 ,..., ξ N ,...) and the density of induced charges σ(x,ξ 0 ,...,ξ N ,...) is solved on Hilbert space. (author)

  8. Approaches in the determination of plant nutrient uptake and distribution in space flight conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyenga, A. G.; Forsman, A.; Stodieck, L. S.; Hoehn, A.; Kliss, M.

    2000-01-01

    The effective growth and development of vascular plants rely on the adequate availability of water and nutrients. Inefficiency in either the initial absorption, transportation, or distribution of these elements are factors which impinge on plant structure and metabolic integrity. The potential effect of space flight and microgravity conditions on the efficiency of these processes is unclear. Limitations in the available quantity of space-grown plant material and the sensitivity of routine analytical techniques have made an evaluation of these processes impractical. However, the recent introduction of new plant cultivating methodologies supporting the application of radionuclide elements and subsequent autoradiography techniques provides a highly sensitive investigative approach amenable to space flight studies. Experiments involving the use of gel based 'nutrient packs' and the radionuclides calcium-45 and iron-59 were conducted on the Shuttle mission STS-94. Uptake rates of the radionuclides between ground and flight plant material appeared comparable.

  9. An environmental testing facility for Space Station Freedom power management and distribution hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackola, Arthur S.; Hartjen, Gary L.

    1992-01-01

    The plans for a new test facility, including new environmental test systems, which are presently under construction, and the major environmental Test Support Equipment (TSE) used therein are addressed. This all-new Rocketdyne facility will perform space simulation environmental tests on Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) hardware to Space Station Freedom (SSF) at the Engineering Model, Qualification Model, and Flight Model levels of fidelity. Testing will include Random Vibration in three axes - Thermal Vacuum, Thermal Cycling and Thermal Burn-in - as well as numerous electrical functional tests. The facility is designed to support a relatively high throughput of hardware under test, while maintaining the high standards required for a man-rated space program.

  10. Charge collection and space charge distribution in neutron-irradiated epitaxial silicon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poehlsen, Thomas

    2010-04-15

    In this work epitaxial n-type silicon diodes with a thickness of 100 {mu}m and 150 {mu}m are investigated. After neutron irradiation with fluences between 10{sup 14} cm{sup -2} and 4 x 10{sup 15} cm{sup -2} annealing studies were performed. CV-IV curves were taken and the depletion voltage was determined for different annealing times. All investigated diodes with neutron fluences greater than 2 x 10{sup 14} cm{sup -2} showed type inversion due to irradiation. Measurements with the transient current technique (TCT) using a pulsed laser were performed to investigate charge collection effects for temperatures of -40 C, -10 C and 20 C. The charge correction method was used to determine the effective trapping time {tau}{sub eff}. Inconsistencies of the results could be explained by assuming field dependent trapping times. A simulation of charge collection could be used to determine the field dependent trapping time {tau}{sub eff}(E) and the space charge distribution in the detector bulk. Assuming a linear field dependence of the trapping times and a linear space charge distribution the data could be described. Indications of charge multiplication were seen in the irradiated 100 {mu}m thick diodes for all investigated fluences at voltages above 800 V. The space charge distribution extracted from TCT measurements was compared to the results of the CV measurements and showed good agreement. (orig.)

  11. Charge collection and space charge distribution in neutron-irradiated epitaxial silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poehlsen, Thomas

    2010-04-01

    In this work epitaxial n-type silicon diodes with a thickness of 100 μm and 150 μm are investigated. After neutron irradiation with fluences between 10 14 cm -2 and 4 x 10 15 cm -2 annealing studies were performed. CV-IV curves were taken and the depletion voltage was determined for different annealing times. All investigated diodes with neutron fluences greater than 2 x 10 14 cm -2 showed type inversion due to irradiation. Measurements with the transient current technique (TCT) using a pulsed laser were performed to investigate charge collection effects for temperatures of -40 C, -10 C and 20 C. The charge correction method was used to determine the effective trapping time τ eff . Inconsistencies of the results could be explained by assuming field dependent trapping times. A simulation of charge collection could be used to determine the field dependent trapping time τ eff (E) and the space charge distribution in the detector bulk. Assuming a linear field dependence of the trapping times and a linear space charge distribution the data could be described. Indications of charge multiplication were seen in the irradiated 100 μm thick diodes for all investigated fluences at voltages above 800 V. The space charge distribution extracted from TCT measurements was compared to the results of the CV measurements and showed good agreement. (orig.)

  12. Optical design of transmitter lens for asymmetric distributed free space optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtanowski, Jacek; Traczyk, Maciej

    2018-05-01

    We present a method of transmitter lens design dedicated for light distribution shaping on a curved and asymmetric target. In this context, target is understood as a surface determined by hypothetical optical detectors locations. In the proposed method, ribbon-like surfaces of arbitrary shape are considered. The designed lens has the task to transform collimated and generally non-uniform input beam into desired irradiance distribution on such irregular targets. Desired irradiance is associated with space-dependant efficiency of power flow between the source and receivers distributed on the target surface. This unconventional nonimaging task is different from most illumination or beam shaping objectives, where constant or prescribed irradiance has to be produced on a flat target screen. The discussed optical challenge comes from the applications where single transmitter cooperates with multitude of receivers located in various positions in space and oriented in various directions. The proposed approach is not limited to optical networks, but can be applied in a variety of other applications where nonconventional irradiance distribution has to be engineered. The described method of lens design is based on geometrical optics, radiometry and ray mapping philosophy. Rays are processed as a vector field, each of them carrying a certain amount of power. Having the target surface shape and orientation of receivers distribution, the rays-surface crossings map is calculated. It corresponds to the output rays vector field, which is referred to the calculated input rays spatial distribution on the designed optical surface. The application of Snell's law in a vector form allows one to obtain surface local normal vector and calculate lens profile. In the paper, we also present the case study dealing with exemplary optical network. The designed freeform lens is implemented in commercially available optical design software and irradiance three-dimensional spatial distribution is

  13. Longitudinal motion in high current ion beams: a self-consistent phase space distribution with an envelope equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuffer, D.

    1979-03-01

    Many applications of particle acceleration, such as heavy ion fusion, require longitudinal bunching of a high intensity particle beam to extremely high particle currents with correspondingly high space charge forces. This requires a precise analysis of longitudinal motion including stability analysis. Previous papers have treated the longitudinal space charge force as strictly linear, and have not been self-consistent; that is, they have not displayed a phase space distribution consistent with this linear force so that the transport of the phase space distribution could be followed, and departures from linearity could be analyzed. This is unlike the situation for transverse phase space where the Kapchinskij--Vladimirskij (K--V) distribution can be used as the basis of an analysis of transverse motion. In this paper a self-consistent particle distribution in longitudinal phase space is derived which is a solution of the Vlasov equation and an envelope equation for this solution is derived

  14. Space weather and human deaths distribution: 25 years' observation (Lithuania, 1989-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoupel, Eliyahu G; Petrauskiene, Jadvyga; Kalediene, Ramune; Sauliune, Skirmante; Abramson, Evgeny; Shochat, Tzippy

    2015-09-01

    Human health is affected by space weather component [solar (SA), geomagnetic (GMA), cosmic ray (CRA) - neutrons, space proton flux] activity levels. The aim of this study was to check possible links between timing of human (both genders) monthly deaths distribution and space weather activity. Human deaths distribution in the Republic of Lithuania from 1989 to 2013 (25 years, i.e., 300 consecutive months) was studied, which included 1,050,503 deaths (549,764 male, 500,739 female). Pearson correlation coefficients (r) and their probabilities (p) were obtained for years: months 1-12, sunspot number, smoothed sunspot number, solar flux (2800 MGH, 10.7 cm), adjusted solar flux for SA; A, C indices of GMA; neutron activity at the earth's surface (imp/min) for CRA. The cosmophysical data were obtained from space science institutions in the USA, Russia and Finland. The mentioned physical parameters were compared with the total number of deaths, deaths from ischemic heart disease (n=376,074), stroke (n=132,020), non-cardiovascular causes (n=542,409), accidents (n=98,805), traffic accidents (n=21,261), oncology (n=193,017), diabetes mellitus (n=6631) and suicide (n=33,072). Space factors were interrelated as follows for the considered period: CRA was inversely related to SA and GMA, CRA/SA (r=-0.86, p>0.0001), CRA/GMA (r=-0.70, pweather component activity. Extreme levels of activities of both groups (SA, GMA, and opposite CRA - neutron) are related to some health risks. In the considered period, there were relatively few GMA storms and low GMA was dominating, accompanied by higher CRA (neutron) activity. The ways of action of the components of space weather on the human body need additional studies. There is a special need for the prevention of rising cerebral vascular accidents and oncology malignancies as the causes of death.

  15. Planck 2013 results. V. LFI calibration

    CERN Document Server

    Aghanim, N; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Atrio-Barandela, F; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bobin, J; Bock, J J; Bonaldi, A; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Bridges, M; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Cappellini, B; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Chamballu, A; Chen, X; Chiang, L -Y; Christensen, P R; Church, S; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Franceschi, E; Gaier, T C; Galeotta, S; Ganga, K; Giard, M; Giardino, G; Giraud-Héraud, Y; Gjerløw, E; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Jaffe, T R; Jaffe, A H; Jewell, J; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Kangaslahti, P; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Knoche, J; Knox, L; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lähteenmäki, A; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Laureijs, R J; Lawrence, C R; Leach, S; Leahy, J P; Leonardi, R; Lesgourgues, J; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Maris, M; Marshall, D J; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Matthai, F; Mazzotta, P; Meinhold, P R; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mitra, S; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Moss, A; Munshi, D; Naselsky, P; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; O'Dwyer, I J; Osborne, S; Paci, F; Pagano, L; Paladini, R; Paoletti, D; Partridge, B; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Pearson, D; Peel, M; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Popa, L; Poutanen, T; Pratt, G W; Prézeau, G; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Ricciardi, S; Riller, T; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Rossetti, M; Roudier, G; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Scott, D; Seiffert, M D; Shellard, E P S; Spencer, L D; Starck, J -L; Stolyarov, V; Stompor, R; Sureau, F; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Tavagnacco, D; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Tuovinen, J; Türler, M; Umana, G; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Varis, J; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Vittorio, N; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Watson, R; Wilkinson, A; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the methods employed to photometrically calibrate the data acquired by the Low Frequency Instrument on Planck. Our calibration is based on a combination of the Orbital Dipole plus the Solar Dipole, caused respectively by the motion of the Planck spacecraft with respect to the Sun and by motion of the Solar System with respect to the CMB rest frame. The latter provides a signal of a few mK with the same spectrum as the CMB anisotropies and is visible throughout the mission. In this data release we rely on the characterization of the Solar Dipole as measured by WMAP. We also present preliminary results (at 44GHz only) on the study of the Orbital Dipole, which agree with the WMAP value of the Solar System speed within our uncertainties. We compute the calibration constant for each radiometer roughly once per hour, in order to keep track of changes in the detectors' gain. Since non-idealities in the optical response of the beams proved to be important, we implemented a fast convolution algorithm which ...

  16. Planck 2013 results. XIII. Galactic CO emission

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P.A.R.; Alves, M.I.R.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J. -P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Cardoso, J. -F.; Catalano, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R. -R.; Chen, X.; Chiang, L. -Y; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J. -M.; Dempsey, J.T.; Desert, F. -X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enblin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Falgarone, E.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Fukui, Y.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Handa, T.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hily-Blant, P.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jewell, J.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J. -M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R.J.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leonardi, R.; Leon-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maffei, B.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; McGehee, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M. -A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Moore, T.J.T.; Morgante, G.; Morino, J.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Nakajima, T.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Okuda, T.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G.W.; Preezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J. -L.; Rachen, J.P.; Reach, W.T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Starck, J. -L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A. -S.; Sygnet, J. -F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Thomas, H.S.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Torii, K.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Wehus, I.K.; Yoda, H. Yamamoto T.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-10-29

    Rotational transition lines of CO play a major role in molecular radio astronomy and in particular in the study of star formation and the Galactic structure. Although a wealth of data exists in the Galactic plane and some well-known molecular clouds, there is no available CO high sensitivity all-sky survey to date. Such all-sky surveys can be constructed using the \\Planck\\ HFI data because the three lowest CO rotational transition lines at 115, 230 and 345 GHz significantly contribute to the signal of the 100, 217 and 353 GHz HFI channels respectively. Two different component separation methods are used to extract the CO maps from Planck HFI data. The maps obtained are then compared to one another and to existing external CO surveys. From these quality checks the best CO maps in terms of signal to noise and/or residual foreground contamination are selected. Three sets of velocity-integrated CO emission maps are produced: Type 1 maps of the CO (1-0), (2-1), and (3-2) rotational transitions with low foreground ...

  17. Inflationary paradigm in trouble after Planck2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ijjas, Anna, E-mail: aijjas@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); University Observatory Munich, 81679 Munich (Germany); Steinhardt, Paul J., E-mail: steinh@princeton.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Princeton Center for Theoretical Science, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Loeb, Abraham, E-mail: aloeb@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-06-25

    Recent results from the Planck satellite combined with earlier observations from WMAP, ACT, SPT and other experiments eliminate a wide spectrum of more complex inflationary models and favor models with a single scalar field, as reported by the Planck Collaboration. More important, though, is that all the simplest inflaton models are disfavored statistically relative to those with plateau-like potentials. We discuss how a restriction to plateau-like models has three independent serious drawbacks: it exacerbates both the initial conditions problem and the multiverse-unpredictability problem and it creates a new difficulty that we call the inflationary “unlikeliness problem.” Finally, we comment on problems reconciling inflation with a standard model Higgs, as suggested by recent LHC results. In sum, we find that recent experimental data disfavors all the best-motivated inflationary scenarios and introduces new, serious difficulties that cut to the core of the inflationary paradigm. Forthcoming searches for B-modes, non-Gaussianity and new particles should be decisive.

  18. Optimising Boltzmann codes for the PLANCK era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamann, Jan; Lesgourgues, Julien; Balbi, Amedeo; Quercellini, Claudia

    2009-01-01

    High precision measurements of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropies, as can be expected from the PLANCK satellite, will require high-accuracy theoretical predictions as well. One possible source of theoretical uncertainty is the numerical error in the output of the Boltzmann codes used to calculate angular power spectra. In this work, we carry out an extensive study of the numerical accuracy of the public Boltzmann code CAMB, and identify a set of parameters which determine the error of its output. We show that at the current default settings, the cosmological parameters extracted from data of future experiments like Planck can be biased by several tenths of a standard deviation for the six parameters of the standard ΛCDM model, and potentially more seriously for extended models. We perform an optimisation procedure that leads the code to achieve sufficient precision while at the same time keeping the computation time within reasonable limits. Our conclusion is that the contribution of numerical errors to the theoretical uncertainty of model predictions is well under control—the main challenges for more accurate calculations of CMB spectra will be of an astrophysical nature instead

  19. Planck Constant Determination from Power Equivalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, David B.

    2000-04-01

    Equating mechanical to electrical power links the kilogram, the meter, and the second to the practical realizations of the ohm and the volt derived from the quantum Hall and the Josephson effects, yielding an SI determination of the Planck constant. The NIST watt balance uses this power equivalence principle, and in 1998 measured the Planck constant with a combined relative standard uncertainty of 8.7 x 10-8, the most accurate determination to date. The next generation of the NIST watt balance is now being assembled. Modification to the experimental facilities have been made to reduce the uncertainty components from vibrations and electromagnetic interference. A vacuum chamber has been installed to reduce the uncertainty components associated with performing the experiment in air. Most of the apparatus is in place and diagnostic testing of the balance should begin this year. Once a combined relative standard uncertainty of one part in 10-8 has been reached, the power equivalence principle can be used to monitor the possible drift in the artifact mass standard, the kilogram, and provide an accurate alternative definition of mass in terms of fundamental constants. *Electricity Division, Electronics and Electrical Engineering Laboratory, Technology Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. Contribution of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, not subject to copyright in the U.S.

  20. The Planck Length and the Constancy of the Speed of Light in Five Dimensional Spacetime Parametrized with Two Time Coordinates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köhn, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    of additional time dimensions, we observe the existence of a minimal length scale, which we identify as the Planck scale. We derive an expression for the speed of light as a function of space and time and observe the constancy of the vacuum speed of light in the observable universe....

  1. Power Management and Distribution Trades Studies for a Deep-Space Mission Scientific Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimnach, Greg L.; Soltis, James V.

    2004-01-01

    As part of NASA's Project Prometheus, the Nuclear Systems Program, NASA GRC performed trade studies on the various Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) options for a deep-space scientific spacecraft which would have a nominal electrical power requirement of 100 kWe. These options included AC (1000Hz and 1500Hz and DC primary distribution at various voltages. The distribution system efficiency, reliability, mass, thermal, corona, space radiation levels and technology readiness of devices and components were considered. The final proposed system consisted of two independent power distribution channels, sourced by two 3-phase, 110 kVA alternators nominally operating at half-rated power. Each alternator nominally supplies 50kWe to one half of the ion thrusters and science modules but is capable of supplying the total power re3quirements in the event of loss of one alternator. This paper is an introduction to the methodology for the trades done to arrive at the proposed PMAD architecture. Any opinions expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of Project Prometheus.

  2. Distributed consensus for metamorphic systems using a gossip algorithm for CAT(0) metric spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellachehab, Anass; Jakubowicz, Jérémie

    2015-01-01

    We present an application of distributed consensus algorithms to metamorphic systems. A metamorphic system is a set of identical units that can self-assemble to form a rigid structure. For instance, one can think of a robotic arm composed of multiple links connected by joints. The system can change its shape in order to adapt to different environments via reconfiguration of its constituting units. We assume in this work that several metamorphic systems form a network: two systems are connected whenever they are able to communicate with each other. The aim of this paper is to propose a distributed algorithm that synchronizes all the systems in the network. Synchronizing means that all the systems should end up having the same configuration. This aim is achieved in two steps: (i) we cast the problem as a consensus problem on a metric space and (ii) we use a recent distributed consensus algorithm that only make use of metrical notions.

  3. Combining Static Analysis and Runtime Checking in Security Aspects for Distributed Tuple Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fan; Aotani, Tomoyuki; Masuhara, Hidehiko

    2011-01-01

    Enforcing security policies to distributed systems is difficult, in particular, to a system containing untrusted components. We designed AspectKE*, an aspect-oriented programming language based on distributed tuple spaces to tackle this issue. One of the key features in AspectKE* is the program...... analysis predicates and functions that provide information on future behavior of a program. With a dual value evaluation mechanism that handles results of static analysis and runtime values at the same time, those functions and predicates enable the users to specify security policies in a uniform manner....... Our two-staged implementation strategy gathers fundamental static analysis information at load-time, so as to avoid performing all analysis at runtime. We built a compiler for AspectKE*, and successfully implemented security aspects for a distributed chat system and an electronic healthcare record...

  4. Mathematical methods in physics distributions, Hilbert space operators, variational methods, and applications in quantum physics

    CERN Document Server

    Blanchard, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    The second edition of this textbook presents the basic mathematical knowledge and skills that are needed for courses on modern theoretical physics, such as those on quantum mechanics, classical and quantum field theory, and related areas.  The authors stress that learning mathematical physics is not a passive process and include numerous detailed proofs, examples, and over 200 exercises, as well as hints linking mathematical concepts and results to the relevant physical concepts and theories.  All of the material from the first edition has been updated, and five new chapters have been added on such topics as distributions, Hilbert space operators, and variational methods.   The text is divided into three main parts. Part I is a brief introduction to distribution theory, in which elements from the theories of ultradistributions and hyperfunctions are considered in addition to some deeper results for Schwartz distributions, thus providing a comprehensive introduction to the theory of generalized functions. P...

  5. Extending the Generalised Pareto Distribution for Novelty Detection in High-Dimensional Spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, David A; Clifton, Lei; Hugueny, Samuel; Tarassenko, Lionel

    2014-01-01

    Novelty detection involves the construction of a "model of normality", and then classifies test data as being either "normal" or "abnormal" with respect to that model. For this reason, it is often termed one-class classification. The approach is suitable for cases in which examples of "normal" behaviour are commonly available, but in which cases of "abnormal" data are comparatively rare. When performing novelty detection, we are typically most interested in the tails of the normal model, because it is in these tails that a decision boundary between "normal" and "abnormal" areas of data space usually lies. Extreme value statistics provides an appropriate theoretical framework for modelling the tails of univariate (or low-dimensional) distributions, using the generalised Pareto distribution (GPD), which can be demonstrated to be the limiting distribution for data occurring within the tails of most practically-encountered probability distributions. This paper provides an extension of the GPD, allowing the modelling of probability distributions of arbitrarily high dimension, such as occurs when using complex, multimodel, multivariate distributions for performing novelty detection in most real-life cases. We demonstrate our extension to the GPD using examples from patient physiological monitoring, in which we have acquired data from hospital patients in large clinical studies of high-acuity wards, and in which we wish to determine "abnormal" patient data, such that early warning of patient physiological deterioration may be provided.

  6. Planck early results. XIV. ERCSC validation and extreme radio sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lähteenmäki, A.; Lavonen, N.; León-Tavares, J.

    2011-01-01

    Planck's all-sky surveys at 30-857 GHz provide an unprecedented opportunity to follow the radio spectra of a large sample of extragalactic sources to frequencies 2-20 times higher than allowed by past, large-area, ground-based surveys. We combine the results of the Planck Early Release Compact So...

  7. Herschel-ATLAS : Planck sources in the phase 1 fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herranz, D.; González-Nuevo, J.; Clements, D.; De, Zotti G.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lapi, A.; Rodighiero, G.; Danese, L.; Fu, H.; Cooray, A.; Baes, M.; Bendo, G.; Bonavera, L.; Carrera, F.; Dole, H.; Eales, S.; Ivison, R.; Jarvis, M.; Lagache, G.; Massardi, M.; Michalowski, M.; Negrello, M.; Rigby, E.E.; Scott, D.; Valiante, E.; Valtchanov, I.; Werf, van der P.P.; Auld, R.; Buttiglione, S.; Dariush, A.; Dunne, L.; Hopwood, R.; Hoyos, C.; Ibar, E.; Maddox, S.

    2013-01-01

    We present the results of a cross-correlation of the Planck Early Release Compact Source catalogue (ERCSC) with the catalogue of Herschel-ATLAS sources detected in the phase 1 fields, covering 134.55{deg}$^{2}$. There are 28 ERCSC sources detected by Planck at 857 GHz in this area. As many as 16 of

  8. Redefining Planck Mass: Unlocking the Fundamental Quantum of the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laubenstein, John

    2008-04-01

    The large value of the Planck Mass relative to the quantum scale raises unanswered questions as to the source of mass itself. While we wait for experimental verification of the elusive Higgs boson, it may be worth recognizing that Planck Mass is not the result of rigorous mathematics -- but rather derived from an intuitive manipulation of physical constants. Recent findings reported by IWPD suggest a quantum scale Planck Mass as small as 10 (-73) kg. At this scale, the Planck Mass joins Planck Length and Time as a truly fundamental quantum entity. This presentation will provide evidence supporting the fundamental quantum nature of a dramatically smaller Planck Mass while discussing the impact of this finding on both the quantum and cosmic scale. A quantum scale Planck Mass will require an accelerating expansion of the universe at an age of 14.2 billion years. No initial conditions are imposed at the earliest Planck Time of 10 (-44) s allowing the universe to evolve as a background free field propagating at the speed of light with a local degree of freedom. This model provides the basis for a quantum theory of gravity and provides a conceptual pathway for the unification of GR and QM.

  9. Fermi-Dirac-Fokker-Planck equation : well-posedness & long-time asymptotics

    OpenAIRE

    Carrillo , José A.; Laurençot , Philippe; Rosado , Jesús

    2009-01-01

    International audience; A Fokker-Planck type equation for interacting particles with exclusion principle is analysed. The nonlinear drift gives rise to mathematical difficulties in controlling moments of the distribution function. Assuming enough initial moments are finite, we can show the global existence of weak solutions for this problem. The natural associated entropy of the equation is the main tool to derive uniform in time a priori estimates for the kinetic energy and entropy. As a con...

  10. Fermi-Dirac-Fokker-Planck equation: well-posedness and long-time asymptotics

    OpenAIRE

    Carrillo, José A.; Laurençot, Philippe; Rosado, Jesús

    2008-01-01

    A Fokker-Planck type equation for interacting particles with exclusion principle is analysed. The nonlinear drift gives rise to mathematical difficulties in controlling moments of the distribution function. Assuming enough initial moments are finite, we can show the global existence of weak solutions for this problem. The natural associated entropy of the equation is the main tool to derive uniform in time a priori estimates for the kinetic energy and entropy. As a consequence, long-time asym...

  11. Time dependent solutions of the Fokker-Planck equation for fast fusion ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnavi, G.; Gratton, F.T.; Heyn, M.

    1990-01-01

    Approximate time dependent solutions for the Fokker-Planck equation for fast fusion ions from an isotropic, monoenergetic source are presented, for the problem of D - T - He 3 reactions. The equations include the effect of diffusion, which is particularly noticeable in the distribution of particles of lower energy and in the formation of a tail of particles with energy higher than that of the source. (Author)

  12. Perspectives for Distributed Observations of Near-Earth Space Using a Russian-Cuban Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisikalo, D. V.; Savanov, I. S.; Naroenkov, S. A.; Nalivkin, M. A.; Shugarov, A. S.; Bakhtigaraev, N. S.; Levkina, P. A.; Ibragimov, M. A.; Kil'pio, E. Yu.; Sachkov, M. E.; Kartashova, A. P.; Fateeva, A. M.; Uratsuka, Marta R. Rodriguez; Estrada, Ramses Zaldivar; Diaz, Antonio Alonsa; Rodríguez, Omar Pons; Figuera, Fidel Hernandes; Garcia, Maritza Garcia

    2018-06-01

    The creation of a specialized network of large, wide-angle telescopes for distributed observations of near-Earth space using a Russian-Cuban Observatory is considered. An extremely important goal of routine monitoring of near-Earth and near-Sun space is warding off threats with both natural and technogenic origins. Natural threats are associated with asteroids or comets, and technogenic threats with man-made debris in near-Earth space. A modern network of ground-based optical instruments designed to ward off such threats must: (a) have a global and, if possible, uniform geographic distribution, (b) be suitable for wide-angle, high-accuracy precision survey observations, and (c) be created and operated within a single network-oriented framework. Experience at the Institute of Astronomy on the development of one-meter-class wide-angle telescopes and elements of a super-wide-angle telescope cluster is applied to determine preferences for the composition of each node of such a network. The efficiency of distributed observations in attaining maximally accurate predictions of the motions of potentially dangerous celestial bodies as they approach the Earth and in observations of space debris and man-made satellites is estimated. The first estimates of astroclimatic conditions at the proposed site of the future Russian-Cuban Observatory in the mountains of the Sierra del Rosario Biosphere Reserve are obtained. Special attention is given to the possible use of the network to carry out a wide range of astrophysical studies, including optical support for the localization of gravitational waves and other transient events.

  13. Decoupling of the nernst-planck and poisson equations. Application to a membrane system at overlimiting currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urtenov, Mahamet A-Kh; Kirillova, Evgeniya V; Seidova, Natalia M; Nikonenko, Victor V

    2007-12-27

    This paper deals with one-dimensional stationary Nernst-Planck and Poisson (NPP) equations describing ion electrodiffusion in multicomponent solution/electrode or ion-conductive membrane systems. A general method for resolving ordinary and singularly perturbed problems with these equations is developed. This method is based on the decoupling of NPP equations that results in deduction of an equation containing only the terms with different powers of the electrical field and its derivatives. Then, the solution of this equation, analytical in several cases or numerical, is substituted into the Nernst-Planck equations for calculating the concentration profile for each ion present in the system. Different ionic species are grouped in valency classes that allows one to reduce the dimension of the original set of equations and leads to a relatively easy treatment of multi-ion systems. When applying the method developed, the main attention is paid to ion transfer at limiting and overlimiting currents, where a significant deviation from local electroneutrality occurs. The boundary conditions and different approximations are examined: the local electroneutrality (LEN) assumption and the original assumption of quasi-uniform distribution of the space charge density (QCD). The relations between the ion fluxes at limiting and overlimiting currents are discussed. In particular, attention is paid to the "exaltation" of counterion transfer toward an ion-exchange membrane by co-ion flux leaking through the membrane or generated at the membrane/solution interface. The structure of the multi-ion concentration field in a depleted diffusion boundary layer (DBL) near an ion-exchange membrane at overlimiting currents is analyzed. The presence of salt ions and hydrogen and hydroxyl ions generated in the course of the water "splitting" reaction is considered. The thickness of the DBL and its different zones, as functions of applied current density, are found by fitting experimental current

  14. Interfacing Space Communications and Navigation Network Simulation with Distributed System Integration Laboratories (DSIL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Esther H.; Nguyen, Sam P.; Wang, Shin-Ywan; Woo, Simon S.

    2008-01-01

    NASA's planned Lunar missions will involve multiple NASA centers where each participating center has a specific role and specialization. In this vision, the Constellation program (CxP)'s Distributed System Integration Laboratories (DSIL) architecture consist of multiple System Integration Labs (SILs), with simulators, emulators, testlabs and control centers interacting with each other over a broadband network to perform test and verification for mission scenarios. To support the end-to-end simulation and emulation effort of NASA' exploration initiatives, different NASA centers are interconnected to participate in distributed simulations. Currently, DSIL has interconnections among the following NASA centers: Johnson Space Center (JSC), Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Through interconnections and interactions among different NASA centers, critical resources and data can be shared, while independent simulations can be performed simultaneously at different NASA locations, to effectively utilize the simulation and emulation capabilities at each center. Furthermore, the development of DSIL can maximally leverage the existing project simulation and testing plans. In this work, we describe the specific role and development activities at JPL for Space Communications and Navigation Network (SCaN) simulator using the Multi-mission Advanced Communications Hybrid Environment for Test and Evaluation (MACHETE) tool to simulate communications effects among mission assets. Using MACHETE, different space network configurations among spacecrafts and ground systems of various parameter sets can be simulated. Data that is necessary for tracking, navigation, and guidance of spacecrafts such as Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV), and Lunar Relay Satellite (LRS) and orbit calculation data are disseminated to different NASA centers and updated periodically using the High Level Architecture (HLA). In

  15. Proceedings of the Workshop on Applications of Distributed System Theory to the Control of Large Space Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, G. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    Two general themes in the control of large space structures are addressed: control theory for distributed parameter systems and distributed control for systems requiring spatially-distributed multipoint sensing and actuation. Topics include modeling and control, stabilization, and estimation and identification.

  16. Quantum gravity fluctuations flatten the Planck-scale Higgs potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhorn, Astrid; Hamada, Yuta; Lumma, Johannes; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2018-04-01

    We investigate asymptotic safety of a toy model of a singlet-scalar extension of the Higgs sector including two real scalar fields under the impact of quantum-gravity fluctuations. Employing functional renormalization group techniques, we search for fixed points of the system which provide a tentative ultraviolet completion of the system. We find that in a particular regime of the gravitational parameter space the canonically marginal and relevant couplings in the scalar sector—including the mass parameters—become irrelevant at the ultraviolet fixed point. The infrared potential for the two scalars that can be reached from that fixed point is fully predicted and features no free parameters. In the remainder of the gravitational parameter space, the values of the quartic couplings in our model are predicted. In light of these results, we discuss whether the singlet-scalar could be a dark-matter candidate. Furthermore, we highlight how "classical scale invariance" in the sense of a flat potential of the scalar sector at the Planck scale could arise as a consequence of asymptotic safety.

  17. Power Allocation Strategies for Distributed Space-Time Codes in Amplify-and-Forward Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Are Hjørungnes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a wireless relay network with Rayleigh fading channels and apply distributed space-time coding (DSTC in amplify-and-forward (AF mode. It is assumed that the relays have statistical channel state information (CSI of the local source-relay channels, while the destination has full instantaneous CSI of the channels. It turns out that, combined with the minimum SNR based power allocation in the relays, AF DSTC results in a new opportunistic relaying scheme, in which the best relay is selected to retransmit the source's signal. Furthermore, we have derived the optimum power allocation between two cooperative transmission phases by maximizing the average received SNR at the destination. Next, assuming M-PSK and M-QAM modulations, we analyze the performance of cooperative diversity wireless networks using AF opportunistic relaying. We also derive an approximate formula for the symbol error rate (SER of AF DSTC. Assuming the use of full-diversity space-time codes, we derive two power allocation strategies minimizing the approximate SER expressions, for constrained transmit power. Our analytical results have been confirmed by simulation results, using full-rate, full-diversity distributed space-time codes.

  18. The Space Station Module Power Management and Distribution automation test bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lollar, Louis F.

    1991-01-01

    The Space Station Module Power Management And Distribution (SSM/PMAD) automation test bed project was begun at NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in the mid-1980s to develop an autonomous, user-supportive power management and distribution test bed simulating the Space Station Freedom Hab/Lab modules. As the test bed has matured, many new technologies and projects have been added. The author focuses on three primary areas. The first area is the overall accomplishments of the test bed itself. These include a much-improved user interface, a more efficient expert system scheduler, improved communication among the three expert systems, and initial work on adding intermediate levels of autonomy. The second area is the addition of a more realistic power source to the SSM/PMAD test bed; this project is called the Large Autonomous Spacecraft Electrical Power System (LASEPS). The third area is the completion of a virtual link between the SSM/PMAD test bed at MSFC and the Autonomous Power Expert at Lewis Research Center.

  19. Generation of initial kinetic distributions for simulation of long-pulse charged particle beams with high space-charge intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M. Lund

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Self-consistent Vlasov-Poisson simulations of beams with high space-charge intensity often require specification of initial phase-space distributions that reflect properties of a beam that is well adapted to the transport channel—both in terms of low-order rms (envelope properties as well as the higher-order phase-space structure. Here, we first review broad classes of kinetic distributions commonly in use as initial Vlasov distributions in simulations of unbunched or weakly bunched beams with intense space-charge fields including the following: the Kapchinskij-Vladimirskij (KV equilibrium, continuous-focusing equilibria with specific detailed examples, and various nonequilibrium distributions, such as the semi-Gaussian distribution and distributions formed from specified functions of linear-field Courant-Snyder invariants. Important practical details necessary to specify these distributions in terms of standard accelerator inputs are presented in a unified format. Building on this presentation, a new class of approximate initial kinetic distributions are constructed using transformations that preserve linear focusing, single-particle Courant-Snyder invariants to map initial continuous-focusing equilibrium distributions to a form more appropriate for noncontinuous focusing channels. Self-consistent particle-in-cell simulations are employed to show that the approximate initial distributions generated in this manner are better adapted to the focusing channels for beams with high space-charge intensity. This improved capability enables simulations that more precisely probe intrinsic stability properties and machine performance.

  20. Planck 2015 results: XXVIII. The Planck Catalogue of Galactic cold clumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.

    2016-01-01

    We present the Planck Catalogue of Galactic Cold Clumps (PGCC), an all-sky catalogue of Galactic cold clump candidates detected by Planck. This catalogue is the full version of the Early Cold Core (ECC) catalogue, which was made available in 2011 with the Early Release Compact Source Catalogue (E...

  1. Planck intermediate results XXXVI. Optical identification and redshifts of Planck SZ sources with telescopes at the Canary Islands observatories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of approximately three years of observations of Planck Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) sources with telescopes at the Canary Islands observatories as part of the general optical follow-up programme undertaken by the Planck Collaboration. In total, 78 SZ sources are discussed. Deep-i...

  2. Analysis of the space, time and energy distribution of Vrancea earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radulian, M.; Popa, M.

    1995-01-01

    Statistical analysis of fractal properties of space, time and energy distributions of Vrancea intermediate-depth earthquakes is performed on a homogeneous and complete data set. All events with magnitudes M L >2.5 which occurred from 1974 to 1992 are considered. The 19-year time interval includes the major earthquakes of March 4, 1977, August 26, 1986 and May 30, 1990. The subducted plate, lying between 60 km and 180 km depth, is divided into four active zones with characteristic seismic activities. The correlations between the parameters defining the seismic activities in these zones are studied. The predictive properties of the parameters related to the stress distribution on the fault are analysed. The significant anomalies in time and size distributions of earthquakes are emphasized. The correlations between spatial distribution (fractal dimension), the frequency-magnitude distribution (b slope value) and the high-frequency energy radiated by the source (fall off of the displacement spectra) are studied both at the scale of the whole seismogenic volume and the scale of a specific active zone. The results of this study for the Vrancea earthquakes bring evidence in favour of the seismic source model with hierarchical inhomogeneities (Frankel, 1991) (Author) 8 Figs., 2 Tabs., 5 Refs

  3. Space station electrical power distribution analysis using a load flow approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, Ervin M.

    1987-01-01

    The space station's electrical power system will evolve and grow in a manner much similar to the present terrestrial electrical power system utilities. The initial baseline reference configuration will contain more than 50 nodes or busses, inverters, transformers, overcurrent protection devices, distribution lines, solar arrays, and/or solar dynamic power generating sources. The system is designed to manage and distribute 75 KW of power single phase or three phase at 20 KHz, and grow to a level of 300 KW steady state, and must be capable of operating at a peak of 450 KW for 5 to 10 min. In order to plan far into the future and keep pace with load growth, a load flow power system analysis approach must be developed and utilized. This method is a well known energy assessment and management tool that is widely used throughout the Electrical Power Utility Industry. The results of a comprehensive evaluation and assessment of an Electrical Distribution System Analysis Program (EDSA) is discussed. Its potential use as an analysis and design tool for the 20 KHz space station electrical power system is addressed.

  4. Evidence of codon usage in the nearest neighbor spacing distribution of bases in bacterial genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higareda, M. F.; Geiger, O.; Mendoza, L.; Méndez-Sánchez, R. A.

    2012-02-01

    Statistical analysis of whole genomic sequences usually assumes a homogeneous nucleotide density throughout the genome, an assumption that has been proved incorrect for several organisms since the nucleotide density is only locally homogeneous. To avoid giving a single numerical value to this variable property, we propose the use of spectral statistics, which characterizes the density of nucleotides as a function of its position in the genome. We show that the cumulative density of bases in bacterial genomes can be separated into an average (or secular) plus a fluctuating part. Bacterial genomes can be divided into two groups according to the qualitative description of their secular part: linear and piecewise linear. These two groups of genomes show different properties when their nucleotide spacing distribution is studied. In order to analyze genomes having a variable nucleotide density, statistically, the use of unfolding is necessary, i.e., to get a separation between the secular part and the fluctuations. The unfolding allows an adequate comparison with the statistical properties of other genomes. With this methodology, four genomes were analyzed Burkholderia, Bacillus, Clostridium and Corynebacterium. Interestingly, the nearest neighbor spacing distributions or detrended distance distributions are very similar for species within the same genus but they are very different for species from different genera. This difference can be attributed to the difference in the codon usage.

  5. Intensity Distribution of the Three-Wave Diffraction from Dislocation Epitaxial Layers in the Reciprocal Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyutt, R. N.

    2018-04-01

    The three-wave X-ray diffraction in strongly disordered epitaxial layers of GaN and ZnO is experimentally investigated. The charts of the intensity distribution in the reciprocal space are plotted in coordinates q θ and q ϕ for the most intensive three-wave combination (1010)/(1011) by means of subsequent θ- and ϕ-scanning. A nontrivial shape of the θ-sections of these contours at a distance from the ϕ center of reflection is revealed; it is different for different samples. For the θ-curves at the center of reflection, we observed a common peak that may be approximated by the Voigt function with a power-low decrease in the intensity at the wings; the decrease law (from-4.5 to-5.0) is found to be considerably greater than that for the similar curves of two-wave diffraction and not depending on the dislocation density and distribution in layers. In some films we observed a coarse-block structure; in addition, it follows from the distribution in the reciprocal space that these blocks are turned with respect to each other around a normal to the surface, which allows us to suggest the existence of low-angle boundaries between them, consisting exclusively of edge dislocations.

  6. Planck scale effects in neutrino physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhmedov, E.K.; Berezhiani, Z.G.; Senjanovic, G.; Tao, Z.

    1993-01-01

    We study the phenomenology and cosmology of the Majoron (flavon) models of three active and one inert neutrino paying special attention to the possible (almost) conserved generalization of the Zeldovich-Konopinski-Mahmoud lepton charge. Using Planck scale physics effects which provide the breaking of the lepton charge, we show how in this picture one can incorporate the solutions to some of the central issues in neutrino physics such as the solar and atmospheric neutrino puzzles and the dark matter problem with the possible existence of a heavy (1--10 keV) neutrino. These gravitational effects induce tiny Majorana mass terms for neutrinos and considerable masses for flavons. The cosmological demand for the sufficiently fast decay of flavons implies a lower limit on the electron-neutrino mass in the range of 0.1--1 eV

  7. Planck 2015 results. VI. LFI mapmaking

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P.A.R.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.-R.; Christensen, P.R.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.L.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jaffe, T.R.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen}, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kiiveri, K.; Kisner, T.S.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leahy, J.P.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; Lindholm, V.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macías-Pérez, J.F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Martin, P.G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Mazzotta, P.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T.J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Pratt, G.W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J.P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renzi, A.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J.A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vassallo, T.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Watson, R.; Wehus, I.K.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the mapmaking procedure applied to Planck LFI (Low Frequency Instrument) data. The mapmaking step takes as input the calibrated timelines and pointing information. The main products are sky maps of $I,Q$, and $U$ Stokes components. For the first time, we present polarization maps at LFI frequencies. The mapmaking algorithm is based on a destriping technique, enhanced with a noise prior. The Galactic region is masked to reduce errors arising from bandpass mismatch and high signal gradients. We apply horn-uniform radiometer weights to reduce effects of beam shape mismatch. The algorithm is the same as used for the 2013 release, apart from small changes in parameter settings. We validate the procedure through simulations. Special emphasis is put on the control of systematics, which is particularly important for accurate polarization analysis. We also produce low-resolution versions of the maps, and corresponding noise covariance matrices. These serve as input in later analysis steps and para...

  8. Bayesian component separation: The Planck experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehus, Ingunn Kathrine; Eriksen, Hans Kristian

    2018-05-01

    Bayesian component separation techniques have played a central role in the data reduction process of Planck. The most important strength of this approach is its global nature, in which a parametric and physical model is fitted to the data. Such physical modeling allows the user to constrain very general data models, and jointly probe cosmological, astrophysical and instrumental parameters. This approach also supports statistically robust goodness-of-fit tests in terms of data-minus-model residual maps, which are essential for identifying residual systematic effects in the data. The main challenges are high code complexity and computational cost. Whether or not these costs are justified for a given experiment depends on its final uncertainty budget. We therefore predict that the importance of Bayesian component separation techniques is likely to increase with time for intensity mapping experiments, similar to what has happened in the CMB field, as observational techniques mature, and their overall sensitivity improves.

  9. Planck scale effects in neutrino physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhmedov, E.Kh.; Senjanovic, G.; Tao Zhijan; Berezhiani, Z.G.

    1992-08-01

    We study the phenomenology and cosmology of the Majoron (flavon) models of three active and one inert neutrino paying special attention to the possible (almost) conserved generalization of the Zeldovich-Konopinski-Mahmoud lepton charge. Using Planck scale physics effects which provide the breaking of the lepton charge, we show how in this picture one can incorporate the solutions to some of the central issues in neutrino physics such as the solar and atmospheric neutrino puzzles, dark matter and a 17 keV neutrino. These gravitation effects induce tiny Majorana mass terms for neutrinos and considerable masses for flavons. The cosmological demand for the sufficiently fast decay of flavons implies a lower limit on the electron neutrino mass in the range of 0.1-1 eV. (author). 32 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  10. From Planck's quanta to phonon in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez- Duart, J. M; Melo, O. de

    2008-01-01

    Planck's 1900 published results on the black body radiation had the first application in the quantification of radiation. This quantum hypothesis explained several noteworthy light- matter interaction effects in 1905. These were the electron emission, Stokes law and gas ionization. As soon as two years later, A. Einstein derived an expression for the specific heat of solids, applying the quantum hypothesis to the mechanical oscillation of the atoms. In the present work, the main ideas which led to the concept of phonon are discussed. From an historical point of view, the developments due to Einstein, Born, Debye, among others are analyzed and most important properties of the phonons are presented. Finally, the importance of this entity in the theory of solids is explained, in particular regarding the thermal and optical properties as well as the electrical conductivity

  11. General quadrupolar statistical anisotropy: Planck limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramazanov, S. [Gran Sasso Science Institute (INFN), Viale Francesco Crispi 7, I-67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Rubtsov, G. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Prospect of the 60th Anniversary of October 7a, 117312 Moscow (Russian Federation); Thorsrud, M. [Faculty of Engineering, Østfold University College, P.O. Box 700, 1757 Halden (Norway); Urban, F.R., E-mail: sabir.ramazanov@gssi.infn.it, E-mail: grisha@ms2.inr.ac.ru, E-mail: mikjel.thorsrud@hiof.no, E-mail: federico.urban@kbfi.ee [National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Rävala 10, 10143 Tallinn (Estonia)

    2017-03-01

    Several early Universe scenarios predict a direction-dependent spectrum of primordial curvature perturbations. This translates into the violation of the statistical isotropy of cosmic microwave background radiation. Previous searches for statistical anisotropy mainly focussed on a quadrupolar direction-dependence characterised by a single multipole vector and an overall amplitude g {sub *}. Generically, however, the quadrupole has a more complicated geometry described by two multipole vectors and g {sub *}. This is the subject of the present work. In particular, we limit the amplitude g {sub *} for different shapes of the quadrupole by making use of Planck 2015 maps. We also constrain certain inflationary scenarios which predict this kind of more general quadrupolar statistical anisotropy.

  12. Understanding the distribution of activities of urban dwellers using the Space Time Cube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kveladze, Irma; Kraak, Menno-Jan; Ahas, Rein

    2012-01-01

    Urban geographers study the development of cities, and seek to understand the fac-tors that influence human movements over space and time. New communication tech-nologies are significantly impacting these studies, especially in field of data collec-tion. The use case presented here is based...... with a typical temporal nature: ‘Is there a difference in distribution of activi-ties between weekdays and weekends?’ and ‘Are there differences during the day?’ To answer these questions a visual problem solving approach was followed where different graphic representations of the data were used. The choice...... of the maps and diagrams is based on the questions to be answered, for instance a map for the domi-nant where-questions, and the Space Time Cube (STC) for the dominant when-questions. All graphics were integrated in a single multiple coordinated view envi-ronment which allows one to see the impact...

  13. Effect of nonuniform radial density distribution on the space charge dominated beam bunching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sing Babu, P.; Goswami, A.; Pandit, V. S.

    2011-01-01

    Beam dynamics of a space charge dominated beam during the bunch compression is studied self consistently for the case of fixed shape non-uniform bell shape and hollow shape density distributions in the transverse direction. We have used thick slices at different parts of the beam to account for variation in the beam radius in the study of the transverse dynamics. The longitudinal dynamics has been studied using the disc model. The axial variation of the radius of the slices and emittance growth arising from the phase dependence of the transverse rf forces are also included in the simulation. We have modified the beam envelope equation to take into account the longitudinal space charge effect on the transverse motion which arises due to the finite bunch size. To demonstrate the application of the theoretical formulations developed, we have studied a sinusoidal beam bunching system and presented detailed numerical results.

  14. Experimental analysis of bidirectional reflectance distribution function cross section conversion term in direction cosine space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Samuel D; Nauyoks, Stephen E; Marciniak, Michael A

    2015-06-01

    Of the many classes of bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) models, two popular classes of models are the microfacet model and the linear systems diffraction model. The microfacet model has the benefit of speed and simplicity, as it uses geometric optics approximations, while linear systems theory uses a diffraction approach to compute the BRDF, at the expense of greater computational complexity. In this Letter, nongrazing BRDF measurements of rough and polished surface-reflecting materials at multiple incident angles are scaled by the microfacet cross section conversion term, but in the linear systems direction cosine space, resulting in great alignment of BRDF data at various incident angles in this space. This results in a predictive BRDF model for surface-reflecting materials at nongrazing angles, while avoiding some of the computational complexities in the linear systems diffraction model.

  15. Planck 2015 results. XXVI. The Second Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P.A.R.; Argueso, F.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Beichman, C.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J.J.; Bohringer, H.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.F.; Carvalho, P.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.R.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Clemens, M.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Desert, F.X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Falgarone, E.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A.A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gjerlow, E.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.L.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leahy, J.P.; Leonardi, R.; Leon-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Negrello, M.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T.J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Reach, W.T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Sanghera, H.S.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Stolyarov, V.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tornikoski, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Turler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L.A.; Walter, B.; Wandelt, B.D.; Wehus, I.K.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2016-01-01

    The Second Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources is a catalogue of sources detected in single-frequency maps from the full duration of the Planck mission and supersedes previous versions of the Planck compact source catalogues. It consists of compact sources, both Galactic and extragalactic, detected over the entire sky. Compact sources detected in the lower frequency channels are assigned to the PCCS2, while at higher frequencies they are assigned to one of two sub-catalogues, the PCCS2 or PCCS2E, depending on their location on the sky. The first of these catalogues covers most of the sky and allows the user to produce subsamples at higher reliabilities than the target 80% integral reliability of the catalogue. The PCCS2E contains sources detected in sky regions where the diffuse emission makes it difficult to quantify the reliability of the detections. Both the PCCS2 and PCCS2E include polarization measurements, in the form of polarized flux densities, or upper limits, and orientation angles for all seven pol...

  16. Linking Time and Space Scales in Distributed Hydrological Modelling - a case study for the VIC model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melsen, Lieke; Teuling, Adriaan; Torfs, Paul; Zappa, Massimiliano; Mizukami, Naoki; Clark, Martyn; Uijlenhoet, Remko

    2015-04-01

    /24 degree, if in the end you only look at monthly runoff? In this study an attempt is made to link time and space scales in the VIC model, to study the added value of a higher spatial resolution-model for different time steps. In order to do this, four different VIC models were constructed for the Thur basin in North-Eastern Switzerland (1700 km²), a tributary of the Rhine: one lumped model, and three spatially distributed models with a resolution of respectively 1x1 km, 5x5 km, and 10x10 km. All models are run at an hourly time step and aggregated and calibrated for different time steps (hourly, daily, monthly, yearly) using a novel Hierarchical Latin Hypercube Sampling Technique (Vořechovský, 2014). For each time and space scale, several diagnostics like Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency, Kling-Gupta efficiency, all the quantiles of the discharge etc., are calculated in order to compare model performance over different time and space scales for extreme events like floods and droughts. Next to that, the effect of time and space scale on the parameter distribution can be studied. In the end we hope to find a link for optimal time and space scale combinations.

  17. Green function of the double-fractional Fokker-Planck equation: Path integral and stochastic differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinert, H.; Zatloukal, V.

    2013-11-01

    The statistics of rare events, the so-called black-swan events, is governed by non-Gaussian distributions with heavy power-like tails. We calculate the Green functions of the associated Fokker-Planck equations and solve the related stochastic differential equations. We also discuss the subject in the framework of path integration.

  18. Visualising the equilibrium distribution and mobility of organic contaminants in soil using the chemical partitioning space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Fiona; Wania, Frank

    2011-06-01

    Assessing the behaviour of organic chemicals in soil is a complex task as it is governed by the physical chemical properties of the chemicals, the characteristics of the soil as well as the ambient conditions of the environment. The chemical partitioning space, defined by the air-water partition coefficient (K(AW)) and the soil organic carbon-water partition coefficient (K(OC)), was employed to visualize the equilibrium distribution of organic contaminants between the air-filled pores, the pore water and the solid phases of the bulk soil and the relative importance of the three transport processes removing contaminants from soil (evaporation, leaching and particle erosion). The partitioning properties of twenty neutral organic chemicals (i.e. herbicides, pharmaceuticals, polychlorinated biphenyls and volatile chemicals) were estimated using poly-parameter linear free energy relationships and superimposed onto these maps. This allows instantaneous estimation of the equilibrium phase distribution and mobility of neutral organic chemicals in soil. Although there is a link between the major phase and the dominant transport process, such that chemicals found in air-filled pore space are subject to evaporation, those in water-filled pore space undergo leaching and those in the sorbed phase are associated with particle erosion, the partitioning coefficient thresholds for distribution and mobility can often deviate by many orders of magnitude. In particular, even a small fraction of chemical in pore water or pore air allows for evaporation and leaching to dominate over solid phase transport. Multiple maps that represent soils that differ in the amount and type of soil organic matter, water saturation, temperature, depth of surface soil horizon, and mineral matters were evaluated.

  19. Voltage profile program for the Kennedy Space Center electric power distribution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The Kennedy Space Center voltage profile program computes voltages at all busses greater than 1 Kv in the network under various conditions of load. The computation is based upon power flow principles and utilizes a Newton-Raphson iterative load flow algorithm. Power flow conditions throughout the network are also provided. The computer program is designed for both steady state and transient operation. In the steady state mode, automatic tap changing of primary distribution transformers is incorporated. Under transient conditions, such as motor starts etc., it is assumed that tap changing is not accomplished so that transformer secondary voltage is allowed to sag.

  20. Probability calculus of fractional order and fractional Taylor's series application to Fokker-Planck equation and information of non-random functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jumarie, Guy

    2009-01-01

    A probability distribution of fractional (or fractal) order is defined by the measure μ{dx} = p(x)(dx) α , 0 α (D x α h α )f(x) provided by the modified Riemann Liouville definition, one can expand a probability calculus parallel to the standard one. A Fourier's transform of fractional order using the Mittag-Leffler function is introduced, together with its inversion formula; and it provides a suitable generalization of the characteristic function of fractal random variables. It appears that the state moments of fractional order are more especially relevant. The main properties of this fractional probability calculus are outlined, it is shown that it provides a sound approach to Fokker-Planck equation which are fractional in both space and time, and it provides new results in the information theory of non-random functions.

  1. Distribution of high-dimensional entanglement via an intra-city free-space link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinlechner, Fabian; Ecker, Sebastian; Fink, Matthias; Liu, Bo; Bavaresco, Jessica; Huber, Marcus; Scheidl, Thomas; Ursin, Rupert

    2017-07-24

    Quantum entanglement is a fundamental resource in quantum information processing and its distribution between distant parties is a key challenge in quantum communications. Increasing the dimensionality of entanglement has been shown to improve robustness and channel capacities in secure quantum communications. Here we report on the distribution of genuine high-dimensional entanglement via a 1.2-km-long free-space link across Vienna. We exploit hyperentanglement, that is, simultaneous entanglement in polarization and energy-time bases, to encode quantum information, and observe high-visibility interference for successive correlation measurements in each degree of freedom. These visibilities impose lower bounds on entanglement in each subspace individually and certify four-dimensional entanglement for the hyperentangled system. The high-fidelity transmission of high-dimensional entanglement under real-world atmospheric link conditions represents an important step towards long-distance quantum communications with more complex quantum systems and the implementation of advanced quantum experiments with satellite links.

  2. Space-to-Ground Quantum Key Distribution Using a Small-Sized Payload on Tiangong-2 Space Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Sheng-Kai; Lin, Jin; Ren, Ji-Gang; Liu, Wei-Yue; Qiang, Jia; Yin, Juan; Li, Yang; Shen, Qi; Zhang, Liang; Liang, Xue-Feng; Yong, Hai-Lin; Li, Feng-Zhi; Yin, Ya-Yun; Cao, Yuan; Cai, Wen-Qi; Zhang, Wen-Zhuo; Jia, Jian-Jun; Wu, Jin-Cai; Chen, Xiao-Wen; Zhang, Shan-Cong; Jiang, Xiao-Jun; Wang, Jian-Feng; Huang, Yong-Mei; Wang, Qiang; Ma, Lu; Li, Li; Pan, Ge-Sheng; Zhang, Qiang; Chen, Yu-Ao; Lu, Chao-Yang; Liu, Nai-Le; Ma, Xiongfeng; Shu, Rong; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Wang, Jian-Yu; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2017-08-01

    Not Available Supported by China Manned Space Program, Technology and Engineering Center for Space Utilization Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and the National Natural Science Foundation of China.

  3. Quantum Gravity corrections and entropy at the Planck time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basilakos, Spyros; Vagenas, Elias C.; Das, Saurya

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the effects of Quantum Gravity on the Planck era of the universe. In particular, using different versions of the Generalized Uncertainty Principle and under specific conditions we find that the main Planck quantities such as the Planck time, length, mass and energy become larger by a factor of order 10−10 4 compared to those quantities which result from the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. However, we prove that the dimensionless entropy enclosed in the cosmological horizon at the Planck time remains unchanged. These results, though preliminary, indicate that we should anticipate modifications in the set-up of cosmology since changes in the Planck era will be inherited even to the late universe through the framework of Quantum Gravity (or Quantum Field Theory) which utilizes the Planck scale as a fundamental one. More importantly, these corrections will not affect the entropic content of the universe at the Planck time which is a crucial element for one of the basic principles of Quantum Gravity named Holographic Principle

  4. On the Fokker-Planck theory of electron three-body recombination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayasov, Yu. S.

    1977-01-01

    The Fokker-Planck theory of electron three-body recombination based on the concept of electron diffusion along the energy scale in the excited hydrogen-like atoms formed in the recombining plasmas, is extended in several respects. 1) An universal formula for population distribution of the excited atoms in strongly ionized plasmas was found under a sole assumption, that the cross-sections for the inelastic atom-electron collisions are governed by the classical impulse approximation. 2) A general Fokker-Planck theory of the recombination in a slightly ionized, two-temperature plasmas was formulated. The recombination coefficients for such plasmas were shown to possess some peculiar properties in case the electronic temperature differs appreciable from the atomic one. A few limitations of the existing schemas for calculation of the recombination kinetics are briefly discussed. (orig.) [de

  5. Planck 2013 results. XVII. Gravitational lensing by large-scale structure

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P.A.R.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Basak, S.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Cardoso, J.F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, L.Y.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Dechelette, T.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.M.; Desert, F.X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Ho, S.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R.J.; Lavabre, A.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leahy, J.P.; Leonardi, R.; Leon-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Lewis, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Pullen, A.R.; Rachen, J.P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Starck, J.L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; White, M.; White, S.D.M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-01-01

    On the arcminute angular scales probed by Planck, the CMB anisotropies are gently perturbed by gravitational lensing. Here we present a detailed study of this effect, detecting lensing independently in the 100, 143, and 217GHz frequency bands with an overall significance of greater than 25sigma. We use the temperature-gradient correlations induced by lensing to reconstruct a (noisy) map of the CMB lensing potential, which provides an integrated measure of the mass distribution back to the CMB last-scattering surface. Our lensing potential map is significantly correlated with other tracers of mass, a fact which we demonstrate using several representative tracers of large-scale structure. We estimate the power spectrum of the lensing potential, finding generally good agreement with expectations from the best-fitting LCDM model for the Planck temperature power spectrum, showing that this measurement at z=1100 correctly predicts the properties of the lower-redshift, later-time structures which source the lensing ...

  6. Planck 2015 results. XI. CMB power spectra, likelihoods, and robustness of parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Aghanim, N.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Clements, D.L.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Combet, C.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Desert, F.X.; Di Valentino, E.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A.A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Gauthier, C.; Gerbino, M.; Giard, M.; Gjerlow, E.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hamann, J.; Hansen, F.K.; Harrison, D.L.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kiiveri, K.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C.R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Lewis, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Lilley, M.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lindholm, V.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maffei, B.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Millea, M.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Narimani, A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T.J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Pratt, G.W.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; d'Orfeuil, B.Rouille; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Salvati, L.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Serra, P.; Spencer, L.D.; Spinelli, M.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Trombetti, T.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Wehus, I.K.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the Planck 2015 likelihoods, statistical descriptions of the 2-point correlation functions of CMB temperature and polarization. They use the hybrid approach employed previously: pixel-based at low multipoles, $\\ell$, and a Gaussian approximation to the distribution of cross-power spectra at higher $\\ell$. The main improvements are the use of more and better processed data and of Planck polarization data, and more detailed foreground and instrumental models. More than doubling the data allows further checks and enhanced immunity to systematics. Progress in foreground modelling enables a larger sky fraction, contributing to enhanced precision. Improvements in processing and instrumental models further reduce uncertainties. Extensive tests establish robustness and accuracy, from temperature, from polarization, and from their combination, and show that the {\\Lambda}CDM model continues to offer a very good fit. We further validate the likelihood against specific extensions to this baseline, suc...

  7. Distributed Space-Time Block Coded Transmission with Imperfect Channel Estimation: Achievable Rate and Power Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Aïssa

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effects of channel estimation error at the receiver on the achievable rate of distributed space-time block coded transmission. We consider that multiple transmitters cooperate to send the signal to the receiver and derive lower and upper bounds on the mutual information of distributed space-time block codes (D-STBCs when the channel gains and channel estimation error variances pertaining to different transmitter-receiver links are unequal. Then, assessing the gap between these two bounds, we provide a limiting value that upper bounds the latter at any input transmit powers, and also show that the gap is minimum if the receiver can estimate the channels of different transmitters with the same accuracy. We further investigate positioning the receiving node such that the mutual information bounds of D-STBCs and their robustness to the variations of the subchannel gains are maximum, as long as the summation of these gains is constant. Furthermore, we derive the optimum power transmission strategy to achieve the outage capacity lower bound of D-STBCs under arbitrary numbers of transmit and receive antennas, and provide closed-form expressions for this capacity metric. Numerical simulations are conducted to corroborate our analysis and quantify the effects of imperfect channel estimation.

  8. Using Distributed Operations to Enable Science Research on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathew, Ann S.; Dudley, Stephanie R. B.; Lochmaier, Geoff D.; Rodriquez, Rick C.; Simpson, Donna

    2011-01-01

    In the early days of the International Space Station (ISS) program, and as the organization structure was being internationally agreed upon and documented, one of the principal tenets of the science program was to allow customer-friendly operations. One important aspect of this was to allow payload developers and principle investigators the flexibility to operate their experiments from either their home sites or distributed telescience centers. This telescience concept was developed such that investigators had several options for ISS utilization support. They could operate from their home site, the closest telescience center, or use the payload operations facilities at the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. The Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC) processes and structures were put into place to allow these different options to its customers, while at the same time maintain its centralized authority over NASA payload operations and integration. For a long duration space program with many scientists, researchers, and universities expected to participate, it was imperative that the program structure be in place to successfully facilitate this concept of telescience support. From a payload control center perspective, payload science operations require two major elements in order to make telescience successful within the scope of the ISS program. The first element is decentralized control which allows the remote participants the freedom and flexibility to operate their payloads within their scope of authority. The second element is a strong ground infrastructure, which includes voice communications, video, telemetry, and commanding between the POIC and the payload remote site. Both of these elements are important to telescience success, and both must be balanced by the ISS program s documented requirements for POIC to maintain its authority as an integration and control center. This paper describes both elements of distributed payload

  9. Mandolesi, Reno (INAF IASF Bologna) give a talk about the Planck Mission at CERN. Photo taken in the CCC.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2009-01-01

    The European Space Agency’s Planck satellite, launched the 14th of May 2009, is the next-generation space experiment in the field of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) research. It will image the anisotropies of the CMB over the whole sky, with unprecedented sensitivity and angular resolution. Planck will provide a major source of information relevant to many fundamental cosmological problems and will test current theories of the early evolution of the universe and the origin of structure. It will also address a wide range of areas of astrophysical research related to the our Galaxy as well as external galaxies and clusters of galaxies. The ability of Planck to measure polarization across a wide frequency range (30-350 GHz), with high precision and accuracy, and over the whole sky, will provide unique insight not only into specific cosmological questions, but also into the properties of the interstellar medium. This paper is part of a larger package which describes the technical capabilities of the Planck sc...

  10. Development of parallel Fokker-Planck code ALLAp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batishcheva, A.A.; Sigmar, D.J.; Koniges, A.E.

    1996-01-01

    We report on our ongoing development of the 3D Fokker-Planck code ALLA for a highly collisional scrape-off-layer (SOL) plasma. A SOL with strong gradients of density and temperature in the spatial dimension is modeled. Our method is based on a 3-D adaptive grid (in space, magnitude of the velocity, and cosine of the pitch angle) and a second order conservative scheme. Note that the grid size is typically 100 x 257 x 65 nodes. It was shown in our previous work that only these capabilities make it possible to benchmark a 3D code against a spatially-dependent self-similar solution of a kinetic equation with the Landau collision term. In the present work we show results of a more precise benchmarking against the exact solutions of the kinetic equation using a new parallel code ALLAp with an improved method of parallelization and a modified boundary condition at the plasma edge. We also report first results from the code parallelization using Message Passing Interface for a Massively Parallel CRI T3D platform. We evaluate the ALLAp code performance versus the number of T3D processors used and compare its efficiency against a Work/Data Sharing parallelization scheme and a workstation version

  11. Cosmological evidence for leptonic asymmetry after Planck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caramete, A.; Popa, L.A., E-mail: acaramete@spacescience.ro, E-mail: lpopa@spacescience.ro [Institute of Space Science, 409 Atomistilor Street, Magurele, Ilfov 077125 (Romania)

    2014-02-01

    Recently, the PLANCK satellite found a larger and most precise value of the matter energy density, that impacts on the present values of other cosmological parameters such as the Hubble constant H{sub 0}, the present cluster abundances S{sub 8}, and the age of the Universe t{sub U}. The existing tension between PLANCK determination of these parameters in the frame of the base ΛCDM model and their determination from other measurements generated lively discussions, one possible interpretation being that some sources of systematic errors in cosmological measurements are not completely understood. An alternative interpretation is related to the fact that the CMB observations, that probe the high redshift Universe are interpreted in terms of cosmological parameters at present time by extrapolation within the base ΛCDM model that can be inadequate or incomplete. In this paper we quantify this tension by exploring several extensions of the base ΛCDM model that include the leptonic asymmetry. We set bounds on the radiation content of the Universe and neutrino properties by using the latest cosmological measurements, imposing also self-consistent BBN constraints on the primordial helium abundance. For all asymmetric cosmological models we find the preference of cosmological data for smaller values of active and sterile neutrino masses. This increases the tension between cosmological and short baseline neutrino oscillation data that favors a sterile neutrino with the mass of around 1 eV. For the case of degenerate massive neutrinos, we find that the discrepancies with the local determinations of H{sub 0}, and t{sub U} are alleviated at ∼ 1.3σ level while S{sub 8} is in agreement with its determination from CFHTLenS survey data at ∼ 1σ and with the prediction of cluster mass-observation relation at ∼ 0.5σ. We also find 2σ statistical preference of the cosmological data for the leptonic asymmetric models involving three massive neutrino species and neutrino direct

  12. Distributed BOLD-response in association cortex vector state space predicts reaction time during selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musso, Francesco; Konrad, Andreas; Vucurevic, Goran; Schäffner, Cornelius; Friedrich, Britta; Frech, Peter; Stoeter, Peter; Winterer, Georg

    2006-02-15

    Human cortical information processing is thought to be dominated by distributed activity in vector state space (Churchland, P.S., Sejnowski, T.J., 1992. The Computational Brain. MIT Press, Cambridge.). In principle, it should be possible to quantify distributed brain activation with independent component analysis (ICA) through vector-based decomposition, i.e., through a separation of a mixture of sources. Using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a selective attention-requiring task (visual oddball), we explored how the number of independent components within activated cortical areas is related to reaction time. Prior to ICA, the activated cortical areas were determined on the basis of a General linear model (GLM) voxel-by-voxel analysis of the target stimuli (checkerboard reversal). Two activated cortical areas (temporoparietal cortex, medial prefrontal cortex) were further investigated as these cortical regions are known to be the sites of simultaneously active electromagnetic generators which give rise to the compound event-related potential P300 during oddball task conditions. We found that the number of independent components more strongly predicted reaction time than the overall level of "activation" (GLM BOLD-response) in the left temporoparietal area whereas in the medial prefrontal cortex both ICA and GLM predicted reaction time equally well. Comparable correlations were not seen when principle components were used instead of independent components. These results indicate that the number of independently activated components, i.e., a high level of cortical activation complexity in cortical vector state space, may index particularly efficient information processing during selective attention-requiring tasks. To our best knowledge, this is the first report describing a potential relationship between neuronal generators of cognitive processes, the associated electrophysiological evidence for the existence of distributed networks

  13. Space Weather Monitors -- Preparing to Distribute Scientific Devices and Classroom Materials Worldwide for the IHY 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherrer, D. K.; Burress, B.

    2006-05-01

    Stanford's Solar Center, in conjunction with the Space, Telecommunications and Radioscience Laboratory and local educators, have developed inexpensive Space Weather Monitors that students around the world can use to track solar-induced changes to the Earth's ionosphere. Through the United Nations Basic Space Science Initiative (UNBSSI) and the IHY Education and Public Outreach Program, our Monitors have been designated for deployment to 191 countries for the International Heliophysical Year, 2007. In partnership with Chabot Space and Science Center, we are designing and developing classroom and educator support materials to accompany distribution of the monitors worldwide. Earth's ionosphere reacts strongly to the intense x-ray and ultraviolet radiation released by the Sun during solar events and by lightning during thunderstorms. Students anywhere in the world can directly monitor and track these sudden ionospheric disturbances (SIDs) by using a VLF radio receiver to monitor the signal strength from distant VLF transmitters and noting unusual changes as the waves bounce off the ionosphere. High school students "buy in" to the project by building their own antenna, a simple structure costing little and taking a couple hours to assemble. Data collection and analysis are handled by a local PC. Stanford is providing a centralized data repository where students and researchers can exchange and discuss data. Chabot Space & Science Center is an innovative teaching and learning center focusing on astronomy and the space sciences. Formed as a Joint Powers Agency with the City of Oakland (California), the Oakland Unified School District, the East Bay Regional Park District, and in collaboration with the Eastbay Astronomical Society, Chabot addresses the critical issue of broad access to the specialized information and facilities needed to improve K-12 science education and public science literacy. Up to 2,000 K-12 teachers annually take part in Chabot's professional

  14. Using Citizen Science Observations to Model Species Distributions Over Space, Through Time, and Across Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelling, S.

    2017-12-01

    The goal of Biodiversity research is to identify, explain, and predict why a species' distribution and abundance vary through time, space, and with features of the environment. Measuring these patterns and predicting their responses to change are not exercises in curiosity. Today, they are essential tasks for understanding the profound effects that humans have on earth's natural systems, and for developing science-based environmental policies. To gain insight about species' distribution patterns requires studying natural systems at appropriate scales, yet studies of ecological processes continue to be compromised by inadequate attention to scale issues. How spatial and temporal patterns in nature change with scale often reflects fundamental laws of physics, chemistry, or biology, and we can identify such basic, governing laws only by comparing patterns over a wide range of scales. This presentation will provide several examples that integrate bird observations made by volunteers, with NASA Earth Imagery using Big Data analysis techniques to analyze the temporal patterns of bird occurrence across scales—from hemisphere-wide views of bird distributions to the impact of powerful city lights on bird migration.

  15. Long-distance quantum teleportation assisted with free-space entanglement distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji-Gang, Ren; Zhen-Huan, Yi; Fei, Zhou; Cheng-Zhi, Peng; Jian-Wei, Pan; Bin, Yang; Kai, Chen

    2009-01-01

    Faithful long-distance quantum teleportation necessitates prior entanglement distribution between two communicated locations. The particle carrying on the unknown quantum information is then combined with one particle of the entangled states for Bell-state measurements, which leads to a transfer of the original quantum information onto the other particle of the entangled states. However in most of the implemented teleportation experiments nowadays, the Bell-state measurements are performed even before successful distribution of entanglement. This leads to an instant collapse of the quantum state for the transmitted particle, which is actually a single-particle transmission thereafter. Thus the true distance for quantum teleportation is, in fact, only in a level of meters. In the present experiment we design a novel scheme which has overcome this limit by utilizing fiber as quantum memory. A complete quantum teleportation is achieved upon successful entanglement distribution over 967 meters in public free space. Active feed-forward control techniques are developed for real-time transfer of quantum information. The overall experimental fidelities for teleported states are better than 89.6%, which signify high-quality teleportation. (rapid communications)

  16. Sentinel phenotype for rubella embryopathy: time-space distribution in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iêda Maria Orioli

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The dyad comprising eye anomalies and congenital heart defects in the same newborn has been proposed as the best sentinel phenotype for the early detection of rubella embryopathy. Time-space birth prevalence distributions of the eye-heart dyad were described in 36 Brazilian hospitals from the Latin-American Collaborative Study of Congenital Anomalies - ECLAMC network, for the period 1994-2008. Seventy dyad cases observed among 554,531 births showed seasonal variation (Χ2 = 5.84; p < 0.05, suggesting an environmental etiology, with an increase in cases in October-March and acrophase in December. The secular distribution of dyad prevalence rates was consistent with the distribution of rubella cases in Brazil, showing a decrease from 1994 to 2004, followed by an increase until 2008. Two geographic clusters were identified, one with high and the other with low dyad prevalence. In the high prevalence cluster, a secular increase was observed, starting in 1999, matching the rubella epidemic waves observed in Brazil in 1998-2000 and 2006.

  17. Optimization of Planck-LFI on-board data handling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maris, M; Galeotta, S; Frailis, M; Zacchei, A; Fogliani, S; Gasparo, F [INAF-OATs, Via G.B. Tiepolo 11, 34131 Trieste (Italy); Tomasi, M; Bersanelli, M [Universita di Milano, Dipartimento di Fisica, Via G. Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Miccolis, M [Thales Alenia Space Italia S.p.A., S.S. Padana Superiore 290, 20090 Vimodrone (Italy); Hildebrandt, S; Chulani, H; Gomez, F [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), C/o Via Lactea, s/n E38205 - La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Rohlfs, R; Morisset, N; Binko, P [ISDC Data Centre for Astrophysics, University of Geneva, ch. d' Ecogia 16, 1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Cuttaia, F; Franceschi, E [INAF-IASF Bologna, Via P. Gobetti, 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); D' Arcangelo, O, E-mail: maris@oats.inaf.i [IFP-CNR, via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy)

    2009-12-15

    To asses stability against 1/f noise, the Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) on-board the Planck mission will acquire data at a rate much higher than the data rate allowed by the science telemetry bandwith of 35.5 Kbps. The data are processed by an on-board pipeline, followed on-ground by a decoding and reconstruction step, to reduce the volume of data to a level compatible with the bandwidth while minimizing the loss of information. This paper illustrates the on-board processing of the scientific data used by Planck/LFI to fit the allowed data-rate, an intrinsecally lossy process which distorts the signal in a manner which depends on a set of five free parameters (N{sub aver}, r{sub 1}, r{sub 2}, q, O) for each of the 44 LFI detectors. The paper quantifies the level of distortion introduced by the on-board processing as a function of these parameters. It describes the method of tuning the on-board processing chain to cope with the limited bandwidth while keeping to a minimum the signal distortion. Tuning is sensitive to the statistics of the signal and has to be constantly adapted during flight. The tuning procedure is based on a optimization algorithm applied to unprocessed and uncompressed raw data provided either by simulations, pre-launch tests or data taken in flight from LFI operating in a special diagnostic acquisition mode. All the needed optimization steps are performed by an automated tool, OCA2, which simulates the on-board processing, explores the space of possible combinations of parameters, and produces a set of statistical indicators, among them: the compression rate C{sub r} and the processing noise epsilon{sub Q}. For Planck/LFI it is required that C{sub r} = 2.4 while, as for other systematics, epsilon{sub Q} would have to be less than 10% of rms of the instrumental white noise. An analytical model is developed that is able to extract most of the relevant information on the processing errors and the compression rate as a function of the signal

  18. Planck 2013 results. I. Overview of products and scientific results

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P.A.R.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartelmann, M.; Bartlett, J.G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bowyer, J.W.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Cappellini, B.; Cardoso, J.F.; Carr, R.; Casale, M.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.R.; Chen, X.; Chiang, L.Y.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.M.; Desert, F.X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Falgarone, E.; Finelli, F.; Foley, S.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Freschi, M.; Fromenteau, S.; Gaier, T.C.; Galeotta, S.; Gallegos, J.; Gandolfo, B.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Haissinski, J.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jewell, J.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Kangaslahti, P.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R.J.; Lawrence, C.R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leach, S.; Leahy, J.P.; Leonardi, R.; Leon-Tavares, J.; Leroy, C.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lowe, S.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; McDonald, A.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.B.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Miniscalco, R.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; North, C.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I.J.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, D.; Pearson, T.J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Platania, P.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Reach, W.T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ringeval, C.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Salerno, E.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Smoot, G.F.; Spencer, L.D.; Starck, J.L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Taylor, D.; Terenzi, L.; Texier, D.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Turler, M.; Tuttlebee, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Vibert, L.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Watson, R.; Watson, C.; White, M.; White, S.D.M.; Wilkinson, A.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-01-01

    The ESA's Planck satellite, dedicated to studying the early universe, was launched on May 2009 and has been surveying the microwave and submillimetre sky since August 2009. In March 2013, ESA and the Planck Collaboration publicly released the initial cosmology products based on the first 15.5 months of Planck operations, along with a set of scientific and technical papers and a web-based explanatory supplement. This paper describes the mission and its performance, and gives an overview of the processing and analysis of the data, the characteristics of the data, the main scientific results, and the science data products and papers in the release. Scientific results include robust support for the standard, six parameter LCDM model of cosmology and improved measurements for the parameters that define this model, including a highly significant deviation from scale invariance of the primordial power spectrum. The Planck values for some of these parameters and others derived from them are significantly different fr...

  19. Excess B‐modes extracted from the Planck polarization maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard-Nielsen, Hans Ulrik

    2016-01-01

    on both temperature and polarization data obtained by the WMAP satellite. The main goal of this paper is to demonstrate the feasibility of neural networks for extracting the CMB signal from the Planck polarization data with high precision. Both auto‐correlation and cross‐correlation power spectra within...... a mask covering about 63 % of the sky have been used together with a “high pass filter” in order to minimize the influence of the remaining systematic errors in the Planck Q and U maps. Using the Planck 2015 released polarization maps, a BB power spectrum have been extracted by Multilayer Perceptron...... tensor to scalar ratios). The feasibility of the neural network to remove the residual systematics from the available Planck polarization data to a high level has been demonstrated. (© 2016 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)...

  20. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: cross correlation with Planck maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louis, Thibaut; Calabrese, Erminia; Dunkley, Joanna; Næss, Sigurd [Department of Astrophysics, Oxford University, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Addison, Graeme E.; Hincks, Adam D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Hasselfield, Matthew; Hlozek, Renée [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Peyton Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Bond, J. Richard; Hajian, Amir [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Das, Sudeep [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave., Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Devlin, Mark J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, U.S.A (United States); Dünner, Rolando; Infante, Leopoldo [Departamento de Astronomía y Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Gralla, Megan; Marriage, Tobias A. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N. Charles St., Baltimore, MD 21218-2686 (United States); Huffenberger, Kevin [Department of Physics, Florida State University, Keen Physics Building, 77 Chieftan Way, Tallahassee, Florida (United States); Kosowsky, Arthur [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, 15260 (United States); Moodley, Kavilan [Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematical Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, 4041 (South Africa); Niemack, Michael D., E-mail: Thibaut.Louis@astro.ox.ac.uk [Joseph Henry Laboratories of Physics, Jadwin Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); and others

    2014-07-01

    We present the temperature power spectrum of the Cosmic Microwave Background obtained by cross-correlating maps from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) at 148 and 218 GHz with maps from the Planck satellite at 143 and 217 GHz, in two overlapping regions covering 592 square degrees. We find excellent agreement between the two datasets at both frequencies, quantified using the variance of the residuals between the ACT power spectra and the ACT × Planck cross-spectra. We use these cross-correlations to measure the calibration of the ACT data at 148 and 218 GHz relative to Planck, to 0.7% and 2% precision respectively. We find no evidence for anisotropy in the calibration parameter. We compare the Planck 353 GHz power spectrum with the measured amplitudes of dust and cosmic infrared background (CIB) of ACT data at 148 and 218 GHz. We also compare planet and point source measurements from the two experiments.

  1. Collisional relaxation of electron tail distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagiwa, Mitsuru; Okamoto, Masao.

    1985-05-01

    Relaxation due to the Coulomb collisions of the electron velocity distribution function with a high energy tail is investigated in detail. In the course of the relaxation, a 'saddle' point can be created in velocity space owing to upsilon -3 dependence of the deflection rate and a positive slope or a 'dip' appears in the tail direction. The time evolution of the electron tail is studied analytically. A comparison is made with numerical results by using a Fokker-Planck code. Also discussed is the kinetic instability concerned with the positive slope during the relaxation. (author)

  2. Physics Meets Philosophy at the Planck Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callender, Craig; Huggett, Nick

    2001-04-01

    Preface; 1. Introduction Craig Callendar and Nick Huggett; Part I. Theories of Quantum Gravity and their Philosophical Dimensions: 2. Spacetime and the philosophical challenge of quantum gravity Jeremy Butterfield and Christopher Isham; 3. Naive quantum gravity Steven Weinstein; 4. Quantum spacetime: what do we know? Carlo Rovelli; Part II. Strings: 5. Reflections on the fate of spacetime Edward Witten; 6. A philosopher looks at string theory Robert Weingard; 7. Black holes, dumb holes, and entropy William G. Unruh; Part III. Topological Quantum Field Theory: 8. Higher-dimensional algebra and Planck scale physics John C. Baez; Part IV. Quantum Gravity and the Interpretation of General Relativity: 9. On general covariance and best matching Julian B. Barbour; 10. Pre-Socratic quantum gravity Gordon Belot and John Earman; 11. The origin of the spacetime metric: Bell's 'Lorentzian Pedagogy' and its significance in general relativity Harvey R. Brown and Oliver Pooley; Part IV. Quantum Gravity and the Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics: 12. Quantum spacetime without observers: ontological clarity and the conceptual foundations of quantum gravity Sheldon Goldstein and Stefan Teufel; 13. On gravity's role in quantum state reduction Roger Penrose; 14. Why the quantum must yield to gravity Joy Christian.

  3. Dynamically induced Planck scale and inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kannike, Kristjan [NICPB,Rävala 10, 10143 Tallinn (Estonia); Hütsi, Gert [Tartu Observatory,Observatooriumi 1, 61602 Tõravere (Estonia); Pizza, Liberato [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa and INFN,Largo Bruno Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Racioppi, Antonio [NICPB,Rävala 10, 10143 Tallinn (Estonia); Raidal, Martti [NICPB,Rävala 10, 10143 Tallinn (Estonia); Institute of Physics, University of Tartu,Ravila 14c, 50411 Tartu (Estonia); Salvio, Alberto [Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid andInstituto de Física Teórica IFT-UAM/CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Strumia, Alessandro [NICPB,Rävala 10, 10143 Tallinn (Estonia); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa and INFN,Largo Bruno Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy)

    2015-05-13

    Theories where the Planck scale is dynamically generated from dimensionless interactions provide predictive inflationary potentials and super-Planckian field variations. We first study the minimal single field realisation in the low-energy effective field theory limit, finding the predictions n{sub s}≈0.96 for the spectral index and r≈0.13 for the tensor-to-scalar ratio, which can be reduced down to ≈0.04 in presence of large couplings. Next we consider agravity as a dimensionless quantum gravity theory finding a multifield inflation that converges towards an attractor trajectory and predicts n{sub s}≈0.96 and 0.003

  4. An empirical model for trip distribution of commuters in the Netherlands: Transferability in time and space reconsidered.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, Tom; Tutert, Bas

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the distribution of commute trips in The Netherlands, to assess its transferability in space and time. We used Dutch Travel Surveys from 1995 and 2004–2008 to estimate the empirical distribution from a spatial interaction model as function of travel time and distance. We

  5. Planck absolute entropy of a rotating BTZ black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, S. M. Jawwad

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, the Planck absolute entropy and the Bekenstein-Smarr formula of the rotating Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole are presented via a complex thermodynamical system contributed by its inner and outer horizons. The redefined entropy approaches zero as the temperature of the rotating BTZ black hole tends to absolute zero, satisfying the Nernst formulation of a black hole. Hence, it can be regarded as the Planck absolute entropy of the rotating BTZ black hole.

  6. Biparametric complexities and generalized Planck radiation law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puertas-Centeno, David; Toranzo, I. V.; Dehesa, J. S.

    2017-12-01

    Complexity theory embodies some of the hardest, most fundamental and most challenging open problems in modern science. The very term complexity is very elusive, so the main goal of this theory is to find meaningful quantifiers for it. In fact, we need various measures to take into account the multiple facets of this term. Here, some biparametric Crámer-Rao and Heisenberg-Rényi measures of complexity of continuous probability distributions are defined and discussed. Then, they are applied to blackbody radiation at temperature T in a d-dimensional universe. It is found that these dimensionless quantities do not depend on T nor on any physical constants. So, they have a universal character in the sense that they only depend on spatial dimensionality. To determine these complexity quantifiers, we have calculated their dispersion (typical deviations) and entropy (Rényi entropies and the generalized Fisher information) constituents. They are found to have a temperature-dependent behavior similar to the celebrated Wien’s displacement law of the dominant frequency ν_max at which the spectrum reaches its maximum. Moreover, they allow us to gain insights into new aspects of the d-dimensional blackbody spectrum and the quantification of quantum effects associated with space dimensionality.

  7. Asteroid age distributions determined by space weathering and collisional evolution models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willman, Mark; Jedicke, Robert

    2011-01-01

    We provide evidence of consistency between the dynamical evolution of main belt asteroids and their color evolution due to space weathering. The dynamical age of an asteroid's surface (Bottke, W.F., Durda, D.D., Nesvorný, D., Jedicke, R., Morbidelli, A., Vokrouhlický, D., Levison, H. [2005]. Icarus 175 (1), 111-140; Nesvorný, D., Jedicke, R., Whiteley, R.J., Ivezić, Ž. [2005]. Icarus 173, 132-152) is the time since its last catastrophic disruption event which is a function of the object's diameter. The age of an S-complex asteroid's surface may also be determined from its color using a space weathering model (e.g. Willman, M., Jedicke, R., Moskovitz, N., Nesvorný, D., Vokrouhlický, D., Mothé-Diniz, T. [2010]. Icarus 208, 758-772; Jedicke, R., Nesvorný, D., Whiteley, R.J., Ivezić, Ž., Jurić, M. [2004]. Nature 429, 275-277; Willman, M., Jedicke, R., Nesvorny, D., Moskovitz, N., Ivezić, Ž., Fevig, R. [2008]. Icarus 195, 663-673. We used a sample of 95 S-complex asteroids from SMASS and obtained their absolute magnitudes and u, g, r, i, z filter magnitudes from SDSS. The absolute magnitudes yield a size-derived age distribution. The u, g, r, i, z filter magnitudes lead to the principal component color which yields a color-derived age distribution by inverting our color-age relationship, an enhanced version of the 'dual τ' space weathering model of Willman et al. (2010). We fit the size-age distribution to the enhanced dual τ model and found characteristic weathering and gardening times of τw = 2050 ± 80 Myr and τg=4400-500+700Myr respectively. The fit also suggests an initial principal component color of -0.05 ± 0.01 for fresh asteroid surface with a maximum possible change of the probable color due to weathering of Δ PC = 1.34 ± 0.04. Our predicted color of fresh asteroid surface matches the color of fresh ordinary chondritic surface of PC1 = 0.17 ± 0.39.

  8. Analyticity spaces of self-adjoint operators subjected to perturbations with applications to Hankel invariant distribution spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijndhoven, van S.J.L.; Graaf, de J.

    1986-01-01

    A new theory of generalized functions has been developed by one of the authors (de Graaf). In this theory the analyticity domain of each positive self-adjoint unbounded operator $\\mathcal{A}$ in a Hilbert space $X$ is regarded as a test space denoted by $\\mathcal{S}_{x,\\mathcal{A}} $. In the first

  9. Possible cosmogenic neutrino constraints on Planck-scale Lorentz violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattingly, David M.; Maccione, Luca; Galaverni, Matteo; Liberati, Stefano; Sigl, Günter

    2010-01-01

    We study, within an effective field theory framework, O(E 2 M Pl 2 ) Planck-scale suppressed Lorentz invariance violation (LV) effects in the neutrino sector, whose size we parameterize by a dimensionless parameter η ν . We find deviations from predictions of Lorentz invariant physics in the cosmogenic neutrino spectrum. For positive O(1) coefficients no neutrino will survive above 10 19 eV. The existence of this cutoff generates a bump in the neutrino spectrum at energies of 10 17 eV. Although at present no constraint can be cast, as current experiments do not have enough sensitivity to detect ultra-high-energy neutrinos, we show that experiments in construction or being planned have the potential to cast limits as strong as η ν ∼ −4 on the neutrino LV parameter, depending on how LV is distributed among neutrino mass states. Constraints on η ν < 0 can in principle be obtained with this strategy, but they require a more detailed modeling of how LV affects the neutrino sector

  10. Possible cosmogenic neutrino constraints on Planck-scale Lorentz violation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattingly, David M. [New Hamshire Univ., Durham, NH (United States); Maccione, Luca [DESY Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Galaverni, Matteo [INAF-IASF Bologna (Italy); Liberati, Stefano [INFN, Trieste (Italy); SISSA, Trieste (Italy); Sigl, Guenter [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). II. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2009-11-15

    We study, within an effective field theory framework, O(E{sup 2}/M{sup 2}{sub Pl}) Planck-scale suppressed Lorentz invariance violation (LV) effects in the neutrino sector, whose size we parameterize by a dimensionless parameter {eta}{sub {nu}}. We find deviations from predictions of Lorentz invariant physics in the cosmogenic neutrino spectrum. For positive O(1) coefficients no neutrino will survive above 10{sup 19} eV. The existence of this cutoff generates a bump in the neutrino spectrum at energies of 10{sup 17} eV. Although at present no constraint can be cast, as current experiments do not have enough sensitivity to detect ultra-high-energy neutrinos, we show that experiments in construction or being planned have the potential to cast limits as strong as {eta}{sub {nu}} distributed among neutrino mass states. Constraints on {eta}{sub {nu}}<0 can in principle be obtained with this strategy, but they require a more detailed modeling of how LV affects the neutrino sector. (orig.)

  11. The intellectual quadrangle: Mach-Boltzmann-Planck-Einstein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, E.

    1981-01-01

    These four men were influential in the transition from classical to modern physics. They interacted as scientists, often antagonistically. Thus Boltzmann was the greatest champion of the atom, while Mach remained unconvinced all his life. As a aphysicist, Einstein was greatly influenced by both Mach and Boltzmann, although Mach in the end rejected relativity as well. Because of his work on statistical mechanics, fluctuations, and quantum theory, Einstein has been called the natural successor to Boltzmann. Planck also was influenced by Mach at first. Hence he and Boltzmann were adversaries antil Planck converted to atomistics in 1900 and used the statistical interpretation of entropy to establish his radiation law. Planck accepted relativity early, but in quantum theory he was for a long time partly opposed to Einstein, and vice versa - Einstein considered Planck's derivation of his radiation law as unsound, while Planck could not accept the light quantum. In the case of all four physicists, science was interwoven with philosophy. Boltzmann consistently fought Mach's positivism, while Planck and Einstein moved from positivism to realism. All were also, though in very different ways, actively interested in public affairs. (orig.)

  12. Calibrating the Planck Cluster Mass Scale with Cluster Velocity Dispersions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amodeo, Stefania; Mei, Simona; Stanford, Spencer A.; Bartlett, James G.; Melin, Jean-Baptiste; Lawrence, Charles R.; Chary, Ranga-Ram; Shim, Hyunjin; Marleau, Francine; Stern, Daniel

    2017-08-01

    We measure the Planck cluster mass bias using dynamical mass measurements based on velocity dispersions of a subsample of 17 Planck-detected clusters. The velocity dispersions were calculated using redshifts determined from spectra that were obtained at the Gemini observatory with the GMOS multi-object spectrograph. We correct our estimates for effects due to finite aperture, Eddington bias, and correlated scatter between velocity dispersion and the Planck mass proxy. The result for the mass bias parameter, (1-b), depends on the value of the galaxy velocity bias, {b}{{v}}, adopted from simulations: (1-b)=(0.51+/- 0.09){b}{{v}}3. Using a velocity bias of {b}{{v}}=1.08 from Munari et al., we obtain (1-b)=0.64+/- 0.11, I.e., an error of 17% on the mass bias measurement with 17 clusters. This mass bias value is consistent with most previous weak-lensing determinations. It lies within 1σ of the value that is needed to reconcile the Planck cluster counts with the Planck primary cosmic microwave background constraints. We emphasize that uncertainty in the velocity bias severely hampers the precision of the measurements of the mass bias using velocity dispersions. On the other hand, when we fix the Planck mass bias using the constraints from Penna-Lima et al., based on weak-lensing measurements, we obtain a positive velocity bias of {b}{{v}}≳ 0.9 at 3σ .

  13. Fractional Poisson-Nernst-Planck Model for Ion Channels I: Basic Formulations and Algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Duan

    2017-11-01

    In this work, we propose a fractional Poisson-Nernst-Planck model to describe ion permeation in gated ion channels. Due to the intrinsic conformational changes, crowdedness in narrow channel pores, binding and trapping introduced by functioning units of channel proteins, ionic transport in the channel exhibits a power-law-like anomalous diffusion dynamics. We start from continuous-time random walk model for a single ion and use a long-tailed density distribution function for the particle jump waiting time, to derive the fractional Fokker-Planck equation. Then, it is generalized to the macroscopic fractional Poisson-Nernst-Planck model for ionic concentrations. Necessary computational algorithms are designed to implement numerical simulations for the proposed model, and the dynamics of gating current is investigated. Numerical simulations show that the fractional PNP model provides a more qualitatively reasonable match to the profile of gating currents from experimental observations. Meanwhile, the proposed model motivates new challenges in terms of mathematical modeling and computations.

  14. KiDS-450: tomographic cross-correlation of galaxy shear with Planck lensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnois-Déraps, Joachim; Tröster, Tilman; Chisari, Nora Elisa; Heymans, Catherine; van Waerbeke, Ludovic; Asgari, Marika; Bilicki, Maciej; Choi, Ami; Erben, Thomas; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Hoekstra, Henk; Joudaki, Shahab; Kuijken, Konrad; Merten, Julian; Miller, Lance; Robertson, Naomi; Schneider, Peter; Viola, Massimo

    2017-10-01

    We present the tomographic cross-correlation between galaxy lensing measured in the Kilo Degree Survey (KiDS-450) with overlapping lensing measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), as detected by Planck 2015. We compare our joint probe measurement to the theoretical expectation for a flat Λ cold dark matter cosmology, assuming the best-fitting cosmological parameters from the KiDS-450 cosmic shear and Planck CMB analyses. We find that our results are consistent within 1σ with the KiDS-450 cosmology, with an amplitude re-scaling parameter AKiDS = 0.86 ± 0.19. Adopting a Planck cosmology, we find our results are consistent within 2σ, with APlanck = 0.68 ± 0.15. We show that the agreement is improved in both cases when the contamination to the signal by intrinsic galaxy alignments is accounted for, increasing A by ∼0.1. This is the first tomographic analysis of the galaxy lensing - CMB lensing cross-correlation signal, and is based on five photometric redshift bins. We use this measurement as an independent validation of the multiplicative shear calibration and of the calibrated source redshift distribution at high redshifts. We find that constraints on these two quantities are strongly correlated when obtained from this technique, which should therefore not be considered as a stand-alone competitive calibration tool.

  15. Electric space heating scheduling for real-time explicit power control in active distribution networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costanzo, Giuseppe Tommaso; Bernstein, Andrey; Chamorro, Lorenzo Reyes

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic approach for abstracting the flexibility of a building space heating system and using it within a composable framework for real-time explicit power control of microgrids and, more in general, active distribution networks. In particular, the proposed approach...... is developed within the context of a previously defined microgrid control framework, called COMMELEC, conceived for the explicit and real-time control of these specific networks. The designed control algorithm is totally independent from the need of a building model and allows exploiting the intrinsic thermal...... inertia for real-time control. The paper first discusses the general approach, then it proves its validity via dedicated simulations performed on specific case study composed by the CIGRE LV microgrid benchmark proposed by the Cigré TF C6.04.02....

  16. Space distribution of a weed seedbank in a bean cultivation area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Luis Meirelles Coimbra

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to elucidate the characteristics of space distribution of a weed seedbank in order to assist in decision-making for the adoption of management techniques applied to an area under bean monoculture. Agricultural precision tools, as well as techniques of geostatistic analysis, were utilized. The samples were composed of 24 soil samples from georeferenced points, within a quadratic mesh consisting of 20x20 meter cells. The samples of soil were conditioned in plastic trays to provide ideal conditions for seed germination. Some samples presented a potential weed infestation of about 8000 plants m-2 constituting a problem for bean cultivation, disfavoring its development and grain yield.

  17. Search of wormholes in different dimensional non-commutative inspired space-times with Lorentzian distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhar, Piyali; Rahaman, Farook [Jadavpur University, Department of Mathematics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India)

    2014-12-01

    In this paper we ask whether the wormhole solutions exist in different dimensional noncommutativity-inspired spacetimes. It is well known that the noncommutativity of the space is an outcome of string theory and it replaced the usual point-like object by a smeared object. Here we have chosen the Lorentzian distribution as the density function in the noncommutativity-inspired spacetime. We have observed that the wormhole solutions exist only in four and five dimensions; however, in higher than five dimensions no wormhole exists. For five dimensional spacetime, we get a wormhole for a restricted region. In the usual four dimensional spacetime, we get a stable wormhole which is asymptotically flat. (orig.)

  18. Nonclassicality of Photon-Added Displaced Thermal State via Quantum Phase-Space Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ran; Meng, Xiang-Guo; Du, Chuan-Xun; Wang, Ji-Suo

    2018-02-01

    We introduce a new kind of nonclassical mixed state generated by adding arbitrary photons to a displaced thermal state, i.e., the photon-added displaced thermal state (PADTS), and obtain the normalization factor, which is simply related to two-variable Hermite polynomials. We also discuss the nonclassicality of the PADTS by considering quantum phase-space distributions. The results indicate that the value of the photon count statistics is maximum when the number of detected photons is equal to the number of added photons, and that the photon-added operation has a similar modulation effect with increasing displacement. Moreover, the negative volume of the Wigner function for the PADTS takes a maximal value for a specific photon-added number.

  19. Distributed Space Mission Design for Earth Observation Using Model-Based Performance Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Sreeja; LeMoigne-Stewart, Jacqueline; Cervantes, Ben; DeWeck, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Distributed Space Missions (DSMs) are gaining momentum in their application to earth observation missions owing to their unique ability to increase observation sampling in multiple dimensions. DSM design is a complex problem with many design variables, multiple objectives determining performance and cost and emergent, often unexpected, behaviors. There are very few open-access tools available to explore the tradespace of variables, minimize cost and maximize performance for pre-defined science goals, and therefore select the most optimal design. This paper presents a software tool that can multiple DSM architectures based on pre-defined design variable ranges and size those architectures in terms of predefined science and cost metrics. The tool will help a user select Pareto optimal DSM designs based on design of experiments techniques. The tool will be applied to some earth observation examples to demonstrate its applicability in making some key decisions between different performance metrics and cost metrics early in the design lifecycle.

  20. Demonstration of free-space reference frame independent quantum key distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wabnig, J; Bitauld, D; Li, H W; Niskanen, A O; Laing, A; O'Brien, J L

    2013-01-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) is moving from research laboratories towards applications. As computing becomes more mobile, cashless as well as cardless payment solutions are introduced. A possible route to increase the security of wireless communications is to incorporate QKD in a mobile device. Handheld devices present a particular challenge as the orientation and the phase of a qubit will depend on device motion. This problem is addressed by the reference frame independent (RFI) QKD scheme. The scheme tolerates an unknown phase between logical states that vary slowly compared to the rate of particle repetition. Here we experimentally demonstrate the feasibility of RFI QKD over a free-space link in a prepare and measure scheme using polarization encoding. We extend the security analysis of the RFI QKD scheme to be able to deal with uncalibrated devices and a finite number of measurements. Together these advances are an important step towards mass production of handheld QKD devices. (paper)

  1. Mean-field approximation for spacing distribution functions in classical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Diego Luis; Pimpinelli, Alberto; Einstein, T. L.

    2012-01-01

    We propose a mean-field method to calculate approximately the spacing distribution functions p(n)(s) in one-dimensional classical many-particle systems. We compare our method with two other commonly used methods, the independent interval approximation and the extended Wigner surmise. In our mean-field approach, p(n)(s) is calculated from a set of Langevin equations, which are decoupled by using a mean-field approximation. We find that in spite of its simplicity, the mean-field approximation provides good results in several systems. We offer many examples illustrating that the three previously mentioned methods give a reasonable description of the statistical behavior of the system. The physical interpretation of each method is also discussed.

  2. Leak Signature Space: An Original Representation for Robust Leak Location in Water Distribution Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrna V. Casillas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an original model-based scheme for leak location using pressure sensors in water distribution networks is introduced. The proposed approach is based on a new representation called the Leak Signature Space (LSS that associates a specific signature to each leak location being minimally affected by leak magnitude. The LSS considers a linear model approximation of the relation between pressure residuals and leaks that is projected onto a selected hyperplane. This new approach allows to infer the location of a given leak by comparing the position of its signature with other leak signatures. Moreover, two ways of improving the method’s robustness are proposed. First, by associating a domain of influence to each signature and second, through a time horizon analysis. The efficiency of the method is highlighted by means of a real network using several scenarios involving different number of sensors and considering the presence of noise in the measurements.

  3. Mapping the continuous reciprocal space intensity distribution of X-ray serial crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yefanov, Oleksandr; Gati, Cornelius; Bourenkov, Gleb; Kirian, Richard A; White, Thomas A; Spence, John C H; Chapman, Henry N; Barty, Anton

    2014-07-17

    Serial crystallography using X-ray free-electron lasers enables the collection of tens of thousands of measurements from an equal number of individual crystals, each of which can be smaller than 1 µm in size. This manuscript describes an alternative way of handling diffraction data recorded by serial femtosecond crystallography, by mapping the diffracted intensities into three-dimensional reciprocal space rather than integrating each image in two dimensions as in the classical approach. We call this procedure 'three-dimensional merging'. This procedure retains information about asymmetry in Bragg peaks and diffracted intensities between Bragg spots. This intensity distribution can be used to extract reflection intensities for structure determination and opens up novel avenues for post-refinement, while observed intensity between Bragg peaks and peak asymmetry are of potential use in novel direct phasing strategies.

  4. Lustre Distributed Name Space (DNE) Evaluation at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, James S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Computational Sciences; Leverman, Dustin B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Computational Sciences; Hanley, Jesse A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Computational Sciences; Oral, Sarp [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Computational Sciences

    2016-08-22

    This document describes the Lustre Distributed Name Space (DNE) evaluation carried at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF) between 2014 and 2015. DNE is a development project funded by the OpenSFS, to improve Lustre metadata performance and scalability. The development effort has been split into two parts, the first part (DNE P1) providing support for remote directories over remote Lustre Metadata Server (MDS) nodes and Metadata Target (MDT) devices, while the second phase (DNE P2) addressed split directories over multiple remote MDS nodes and MDT devices. The OLCF have been actively evaluating the performance, reliability, and the functionality of both DNE phases. For these tests, internal OLCF testbed were used. Results are promising and OLCF is planning on a full DNE deployment by mid-2016 timeframe on production systems.

  5. The physicist. Max Planck and the decay of the world; Der Physiker. Max Planck und das Zerfallen der Welt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Ernst Peter

    2010-06-15

    The live of the physicist Max Planck was as exciting, conflicting, and rich on catastrophes as the epoch, in which he lived. Ernst Peter Fischer draws in this fascinatingly told biography the eventful history of the Nobel-price bearer and illustrates simultaneously the unique attainment of Planck, the quantum theory of whom not only revolted the science but also changed fundamentally our picture of the world.

  6. Optimization method of star tracker orientation for sun-synchronous orbit based on space light distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Geng; Xing, Fei; Wei, Minsong; Sun, Ting; You, Zheng

    2017-05-20

    Star trackers, optical attitude sensors with high precision, are susceptible to space light from the Sun and the Earth albedo. Until now, research in this field has lacked systematic analysis. In this paper, we propose an installation orientation method for a star tracker onboard sun-synchronous-orbit spacecraft and analyze the space light distribution by transforming the complicated relative motion among the Sun, Earth, and the satellite to the body coordinate system of the satellite. Meanwhile, the boundary-curve equations of the areas exposed to the stray light from the Sun and the Earth albedo were calculated by the coordinate-transformation matrix under different maneuver attitudes, and the installation orientation of the star tracker was optimized based on the boundary equations instead of the traditional iterative simulation method. The simulation and verification experiment indicate that this installation orientation method is effective and precise and can provide a reference for the installation of sun-synchronous orbit star trackers free from the stray light.

  7. Use of projectional phase space data to infer a 4D particle distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, A.; Grote, D.P.; Celata, C.M.; Staples, J.W.

    2002-01-01

    We consider beams which are described by a 4D transverse distribution f(x, y, x(prime), y(prime)), where x(prime) (triple b ond) p x /p z and z is the axial coordinate. A two-slit scanner is commonly employed to measure, over a sequence of shots, a 2D projection of such a beam's phase space, e.g., f(x, x(prime)). Another scanner might yield f(y, y(prime)) or, using crossed slits, f(x, y). A small set of such 2D scans does not uniquely specify f(x, y, x(prime), y(prime)). We have developed ''tomographic'' techniques to synthesize a ''reasonable'' set of particles in a 4D phase space having 2D densities consistent with the experimental data. These techniques are described in a separate document [A. Friedman, et. al., submitted to Phys. Rev. ST-AB, 2002]. Here we briefly summarize one method and describe progress in validating it, using simulations of the High Current Experiment at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

  8. Bidirectional reflectance distribution function /BRDF/ measurements of stray light suppression coatings for the Space Telescope /ST/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griner, D. B.

    1979-01-01

    The paper considers the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) of black coatings used on stray light suppression systems for the Space Telescope (ST). The ST stray light suppression requirement is to reduce earth, moon, and sun light in the focal plane to a level equivalent to one 23 Mv star per square arcsecond, an attenuation of 14 orders of magnitude. It is impractical to verify the performance of a proposed baffle system design by full scale tests because of the large size of the ST, so that a computer analysis is used to select the design. Accurate computer analysis requires a knowledge of the diffuse scatter at all angles from the surface of the coatings, for all angles of incident light. During the early phases of the ST program a BRDF scanner was built at the Marshall Space Flight Center to study the scatter from black materials; the measurement system is described and the results of measurements on samples proposed for use on the ST are presented.

  9. Cosmic Microwave Background: cosmology from the Planck perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Zotti, Gianfranco

    2017-08-01

    The Planck mission has measured the angular anisotropies in the temperature of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) with an accuracy set by fundamental limits. These data have allowed the determination of the cosmological parameters with extraordinary precision. These lecture notes present an overview of the mission and of its cosmological results. After a short history of the project, the Planck instruments and their performances are introduced and compared with those of the WMAP satellite. Next the approach to data analysis adopted by the Planck collaboration is described. This includes the techniques for dealing with the contamination of the CMB signal by astrophysical foreground emissions and for determining cosmological parameters from the analysis of the CMB power spectrum. The power spectra measured by Planck were found to be very well described by the standard spatially flat six-parameter ΛCDM cosmology with a power-law spectrum of adiabatic scalar perturbations. This is a remarkable result, considering that the six parameters account for the about 2500 independent power spectrum values measured by Planck (the power was measured for about 2500 multipoles), not to mention the about one trillion science samples produced. A large grid of cosmological models was also explored, using a range of additional astrophysical data sets in addition to Planck and high-resolution CMB data from ground-based experiments. On the whole, the Planck analysis of the CMB power spectrum allowed to vary and determined 16 parameters. Many other interesting parameters were derived from them. Although Planck was not initially designed to carry out high accuracy measurements of the CMB polarization anisotropies, its capabilities in this respect were significantly enhanced during its development. The quality of its polarization measurements have exceeded all original expectations. Planck's polarisation data confirmed and improved the understanding of the details of the cosmological

  10. Non-thermal Power-Law Distributions in Solar and Space Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, M.; Battaglia, M.; Birn, J.; Chaston, C. C.; Effenberger, F.; Eriksson, E.; Fletcher, L.; Hatch, S.; Imada, S.; Khotyaintsev, Y. V.; Kuhar, M.; Livadiotis, G.; Miyoshi, Y.; Retino, A.

    2017-12-01

    Particles are accelerated to very high, non-thermal energies in solar and space plasma environments. While energy spectra of accelerated particles often exhibit a power-law and are characterized by the power-law index δ, it remains unclear how particles are accelerated to high energies and how δ is determined. Here, we review previous observations of the power-law index δ in a variety of different plasma environments with a particular focus on sub-relativistic electrons. It appears that in regions more closely related to magnetic reconnection (such as the "above-the-looptop" solar hard X-ray source and the plasma sheet in Earth's magnetotail), the spectra are typically soft (δ> 4). This is in contrast to the typically hard spectra (δuniform in the plasma sheet, while power-law distributions still exist even in quiet times. The role of magnetotail reconnection in the electron power-law formation could therefore be confounded with these background conditions. Because different regions have been studied with different instrumentations and methodologies, we point out a need for more systematic and coordinated studies of power-law distributions for a better understanding of possible scaling laws in particle acceleration as well as their universality.

  11. Microfracture spacing distributions and the evolution of fracture patterns in sandstones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, J. N.; Laubach, S. E.; Marrett, R.

    2018-03-01

    Natural fracture patterns in sandstone were sampled using scanning electron microscope-based cathodoluminescence (SEM-CL) imaging. All fractures are opening-mode and are fully or partially sealed by quartz cement. Most sampled fractures are too small to be height-restricted by sedimentary layers. At very low strains ( 100) datasets show spacings that are best fit by log-normal size distributions, compared to exponential, power law, or normal distributions. The clustering of fractures suggests that the locations of natural factures are not determined by a random process. To investigate natural fracture localization, we reconstructed the opening history of a cluster of fractures within the Huizachal Group in northeastern Mexico, using fluid inclusions from synkinematic cements and thermal-history constraints. The largest fracture, which is the only fracture in the cluster visible to the naked eye, among 101 present, opened relatively late in the sequence. This result suggests that the growth of sets of fractures is a self-organized process, in which small, initially isolated fractures grow and progressively interact, with preferential growth of a subset of fractures developing at the expense of growth of the rest. Size-dependent sealing of fractures within sets suggests that synkinematic cementation may contribute to fracture clustering.

  12. Sharing the space: distribution, habitat segregation and delimitation of a new sympatric area of subterranean rodents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Busnello Kubiak

    Full Text Available Subterranean rodents of the genus Ctenomys usually present an allopatric or parapatric distribution. Currently, two cases of sympatry have been recognized for the genus in the coastal dunes of southern Argentina and southern Brazil. In this context, they are ideal models to test hypotheses about the factors that delimit the patterns of space use and to understand interspecific interactions in small mammals. We investigated the vegetation structure, plant biomass and soil hardness selected by two species of subterranean rodents (Ctenomys flamarioni and C. minutus when distributed in sympatry and allopatry from nine different areas along the line of coastal dunes in southern Brazil. In addition, our work presents a new record of a third area of sympatry for the genus Ctenomys. Ctenomys flamarioni and C. minutus show habitat segregation in the area where they occur in sympatry. These species show segregation in their selection of microhabitats, differing in relation to soil hardness, plant biomass, and plant cover. Ctenomys flamarioni showed a distinction in habitat selection when occurring in allopatry and sympatry, whereas C. minutus selected the same habitat characteristics under both conditions. A possible explanation to the observed pattern is that these species have acquired different adaptations over time which allows them the ability to exploit different resources and thus avoid competitive interactions all together.

  13. Determining space-energy distribution of thermal neutrons in heterogeneous cylindrically symmetric reactor cell, Master Thesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matausek, M. V.

    1966-06-01

    A combination of multigroup method and P 3 approximation of spherical harmonics method was chosen for calculating space-energy distribution of thermal neutron flux in elementary reactor cell. Application of these methods reduced solution of complicated transport equation to the problem of solving an inhomogeneous system of six ordinary firs-order differential equations. A procedure is proposed which avoids numerical solution and enables analytical solution when applying certain approximations. Based on this approach, computer codes were written for ZUSE-Z-23 computer: SIGMA code for calculating group constants for a given material; MULTI code which uses results of SIGMA code as input and calculates spatial ana energy distribution of thermal neutron flux in a reactor cell. Calculations of thermal neutron spectra for a number of reactor cells were compared to results available from literature. Agreement was satisfactory in all the cases, which proved the correctness of the applied method. Some possibilities for improving the precision and acceleration of the calculation process were found during calculation. (author)

  14. Preparation of ring-shaped composite bonded magnets with continuously controlled anisotropy distribution for internal space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, F; Yamada, O; Ohya, S; Kobayashi, O; Nakano, M; Fukunaga, H

    2010-01-01

    We have already reported an advanced method for producing a radially-anisotropic rare earth composite bonded magnet with continuously controlled direction of anisotropy. The magnet has been applied to an inner rotor as a practical usage. In this study, the outstanding preparation method was adopted into the preparation of a magnet applied for an outer rotor. An optimized condition of extrusion and compaction at an elevated temperature could be obtained. In addition, a low pressure configuration to the ring-shaped magnet from plural preformed magnets was carried out, which had specific distribution of magnetic anisotropy for internal space for a small motor, by using self recoverability based on the viscous deformation without an alignment field. No deterioration of magnetic properties was detected through the process even if those magnets were miniaturized. Resultantly, the (BH) max of a ring-shaped magnet with the continuously controlled direction of magnetic anisotropy attained the value of 186 kJ/m 3 , and we obtained sine-wave magnetic anisotropy distribution, even if those magnets were miniaturized.

  15. A 2500 deg2 CMB Lensing Map from Combined South Pole Telescope and Planck Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omori, Y.; Chown, R.; Simard, G.; Story, K. T.; University of Chicago, IL

    2017-01-01

    Here, we present a cosmic microwave background (CMB) lensing map produced from a linear combination of South Pole Telescope (SPT) and Planck temperature data. The 150 GHz temperature data from the 2500 deg 2 SPT-SZ survey is combined with the Planck 143 GHz data in harmonic space to obtain a temperature map that has a broader ℓ coverage and less noise than either individual map. Using a quadratic estimator technique on this combined temperature map, we produce a map of the gravitational lensing potential projected along the line of sight. We measure the auto-spectrum of the lensing potential C L ϕϕ , and compare it to the theoretical prediction for a ΛCDM cosmology consistent with the Planck 2015 data set, finding a best-fit amplitude of 0.95 −0.06 +0.06 (stat.) −0.01 +0.01 (sys.). The null hypothesis of no lensing is rejected at a significance of 24σ. One important use of such a lensing potential map is in cross-correlations with other dark matter tracers. We demonstrate this cross-correlation in practice by calculating the cross-spectrum, C L ϕG , between the SPT+Planck lensing map and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) galaxies. We fit C L ϕG to a power law of the form p L =a(L/L 0 ) −b with a, L 0, and b fixed, and find η ϕG =C L ϕG /p L =0.94 −0.04 +0.04 , which is marginally lower, but in good agreement with η ϕG =1.00 −0.01 +0.02 , the best-fit amplitude for the cross-correlation of Planck-2015 CMB lensing and WISE galaxies over ~67% of the sky. Finally, the lensing potential map presented here will be used for cross-correlation studies with the Dark Energy Survey, whose footprint nearly completely covers the SPT 2500 deg 2 field.

  16. Paying attention to working memory: Similarities in the spatial distribution of attention in mental and physical space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahan, Muhammet Ikbal; Verguts, Tom; Boehler, Carsten Nicolas; Pourtois, Gilles; Fias, Wim

    2016-08-01

    Selective attention is not limited to information that is physically present in the external world, but can also operate on mental representations in the internal world. However, it is not known whether the mechanisms of attentional selection operate in similar fashions in physical and mental space. We studied the spatial distributions of attention for items in physical and mental space by comparing how successfully distractors were rejected at varying distances from the attended location. The results indicated very similar distribution characteristics of spatial attention in physical and mental space. Specifically, we found that performance monotonically improved with increasing distractor distance relative to the attended location, suggesting that distractor confusability is particularly pronounced for nearby distractors, relative to distractors farther away. The present findings suggest that mental representations preserve their spatial configuration in working memory, and that similar mechanistic principles underlie selective attention in physical and in mental space.

  17. Local multipoint distribution system (LDMS) versus free-space optical (FSO) networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willebrand, Heinz A.; Clark, Gerald R.; Willson, Bryan; Andreu von Euw, Christian G.; Roy, Joe; Mayhew, Laurel M.

    2001-11-01

    This paper compares two emerging broadband access methodologies, Free Space Optics (FSO) and Local Multipoint Distribution System (LMDS) and the atmospheric propagation characteristics of each when exposed to a dynamically changing channel. The comparison focuses on bandwidth, availability, and distance requirements for the new broadband market and how LMDS and FSO can be used to meet these requirements. Possible network topologies and their associated costs are examined. This comparison takes into account the total cost of deployment, including equipment costs, installation fees, access fees, and spectrum licensing fees. LMDS and FSO are compared on speed of deployment, scalability, aggregate bandwidth, and bandwidth per customer. Present and projected capabilities of each technology are considered for their suitability in different locations in the network, from the Wide Area Network (WAN), to the Metropolitan Area Network (MAN), all the way to Last Mile Access. There is a discussion on the relative performance of LMDS and FSO, focusing on the different factors that can affect link availability. Since network design is a large factor in assuring overall reliability, the flexibility of each technology with regard to network design is compared. LMDS and FSO are both line of sight, space-propagated technologies, and as such, they are both susceptible to path impediments and atmospheric attenuation, dispersion, scattering, and absorption. LMDS and FSO are affected very differently by different meteorological phenomena. Problematic atmospheric conditions are, specifically scintillation, rainfall, and fog, are examined. In addition to a discussion of these conditions, various techniques for minimizing atmospheric and environmental effects are investigated. The paper concludes with a summary of findings and recommendations for a number of broadband wireless applications.

  18. Spectroscopic techniques for measuring ion diode space-charge distributions and ion source properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filuk, A B; Bailey, J E; Adams, R G [Sandia Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); and others

    1997-12-31

    The authors are using time- and space-resolved visible spectroscopy to measure applied-B ion diode dynamics on the 20 TW Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator II. Doppler broadening of fast Li atoms, as viewed parallel to the anode, is used in a charge-exchange model to obtain the Li{sup +} ion divergence within 100 {mu}m of the anode surface. The characteristic Stark/Zeeman shifts in spectra of alkali neutrals or singly-ionized alkaline-earths are used to measure the strong electric (10{sup 9} V/m) an magnetic ({approx} 6 T) fields in the diode gap. Large Stark shifts within 0.5 mm of the anode indicate the LiF emits with a finite field threshold rather than with Child-Langmuir-type emission, and the small slope in the electric field indicates an unexpected build-up of electrons near the anode. In the diode gap, the authors aim to unfold fields to quantify the time-dependent ion and electron space-charge distributions that determine the ion beam properties. Observed electric field non-uniformities give local beam deflections that can be comparable to the total beam microdivergence. The authors are implementing active laser absorption and laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy on low-density Na atoms injected into the diode gap prior to the power pulse. The small Doppler broadening in the Na spectra should allow simultaneous electric and magnetic field mapping with improved spatial resolution. (author). 4 figs., 13 refs.

  19. SPLET - A program for calculating the space-lethargy distribution of epithermal neutrons in a reactor lattice cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matausek, M.V.; Zmijatevic, I.

    1981-01-01

    A procedure to solve the space-single-lethargy dependent transport equation for epithermal neutrons in a cylindricised multi-region reactor lattice cell has been developed and proposed in the earlier papers. Here, the computational algorithm is comprised and the computing program SPLET, which calculates the space-lethargy distribution of the spherical harmonics neutron flux moments, as well as the related integral quantities as reaction rates and resonance integrals, is described. (author)

  20. Space- and time-resolved measurements of ion energy distributions by neutral beam injection in TORTUR II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brocken, H.J.B.M.

    1981-10-01

    A method is described for the space- and time-resolved analysis of ion energy distributions in a plasma. A well-collimated neutral hydrogen beam is used to enhance the charge-exchange processes. The method is used in the TORTUR II tokamak to study the space and time evolution of the ion temperature profile of the plasma. The analytical background and the technique are described in detail. Examples of measurements on TORTUR II are presented

  1. Planck 2015 results. XXI. The integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P.A.R.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartolo, N.; Basak, S.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Casaponsa, B.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Désert, F.-X.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Fergusson, J.; Fernandez-Cobos, R.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A.A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Génova-Santos, R.T.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.L.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Ilić, S.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Langer, M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Ma, Y.-Z.; Macías-Pérez, J.F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Marcos-Caballero, A.; Maris, M.; Martin, P.G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G.W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J.P.; Reach, W.T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Schaefer, B.M.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J.A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, F.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Wehus, I.K.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the ISW effect from the Planck 2015 temperature and polarization data release. The CMB is cross-correlated with different LSS tracers: the NVSS, SDSS and WISE catalogues, and the Planck 2015 convergence lensing map. This cross-correlation yields a detection at $4\\,\\sigma$, where most of the signal-to-noise is due to the Planck lensing and NVSS. In fact, the ISW effect is detected only from the Planck data (through the ISW-lensing bispectrum) at $\\approx 3\\,\\sigma$, which is similar to the detection level achieved by combining the cross-correlation signal coming from all the catalogues. This cross-correlation analysis is performed only with the Planck temperature data, since the polarization scales available in the 2015 release do not permit significant improvement of the CMB-LSS cross-correlation detectability. Nevertheless, polarization data is used to study the anomalously large ISW signal previously reported through the aperture photometry on stacked CMB features at the locat...

  2. Planck Visualization Project: Seeing and Hearing the Cosmic Microwave Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Veen, J.

    2010-08-01

    The Planck Mission, launched May 14, 2009, will measure the sky over nine frequency channels, with temperature sensitivity of a few microKelvin, and angular resolution of up to 5 arc minutes. Planck is expected to provide the data needed to set tight constraints on cosmological parameters, study the ionization history of the Universe, probe the dynamics of the inflationary era, and test fundamental physics. The Planck Education and Public Outreach collaborators at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the University of California, Santa Barbara and Purdue University are preparing a variety of materials to present the science goals of the Planck Mission to the public. Two products currently under development are an interactive simulation of the mission which can be run in a virtual reality environment, and an interactive presentation on interpreting the power spectrum of the Cosmic Microwave Background with music. In this paper we present a brief overview of CMB research and the Planck Mission, and discuss how to explain, to non-technical audiences, the theory of how we derive information about the early universe from the power spectrum of the CMB by using the physics of music.

  3. Planck-scale-modified dispersion relations in FRW spacetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Giacomo; Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Marcianò, Antonino; Matassa, Marco

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, Planck-scale modifications of the dispersion relation have been attracting increasing interest also from the viewpoint of possible applications in astrophysics and cosmology, where spacetime curvature cannot be neglected. Nonetheless, the interplay between Planck-scale effects and spacetime curvature is still poorly understood, particularly in cases where curvature is not constant. These challenges have been so far postponed by relying on an ansatz, first introduced by Jacob and Piran. We propose here a general strategy of analysis of the effects of modifications of the dispersion relation in Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spacetimes, applicable both to cases where the relativistic equivalence of frames is spoiled ("preferred-frame scenarios") and to the alternative possibility of "DSR-relativistic theories," theories that are fully relativistic but with relativistic laws deformed so that the modified dispersion relation is observer independent. We show that the Jacob-Piran ansatz implicitly assumes that spacetime translations are not affected by the Planck scale, while under rather general conditions, the same Planck-scale quantum-spacetime structures producing modifications of the dispersion relation also affect translations. Through the explicit analysis of one of the effects produced by modifications of the dispersion relation, an effect amounting to Planck-scale corrections to travel times, we show that our concerns are not merely conceptual but rather can have significant quantitative implications.

  4. Planck Scale Effects in Astrophysics and Cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padmanabhan, Thanu [Astrophysics (IUCAA), Poona University Campus, Post Bag No. 4, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India)

    2007-08-07

    reading through the articles in this book and it must have been an exciting conference. (The book under review is based on the lectures given at the 40th Karpacz Winter School.) This is a valuable addition to any library and will serve as a useful source of information for any graduate student or researcher who wants to enter or appreciate this field. (Book review of Planck Scale Effects in Astrophysics and Cosmology, G Amelino-Camelia and J Kowalski-Gilkman (eds), 2005 Berlin: Springer, ISBN: 978-3-540-25263-4)

  5. Impacts of mesquite distribution on seasonal space use of lesser prairie-chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggie, Matthew A.; Strong, Cody R.; Lusk, Daniel; Carleton, Scott A.; Gould, William R.; Howard, Randy L.; Nichols, Clay T.; Falkowski, Michael J.; Hagen, Christian A.

    2017-01-01

    Loss of native grasslands by anthropogenic disturbances has reduced availability and connectivity of habitat for many grassland species. A primary threat to contiguous grasslands is the encroachment of woody vegetation, which is spurred by disturbances that take on many forms from energy development, fire suppression, and grazing. These disturbances are exacerbated by natural- and human-driven cycles of changes in climate punctuated by drought and desertification conditions. Encroachment of honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa) into the prairies of southeastern New Mexico has potentially limited habitat for numerous grassland species, including lesser prairie-chickens (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus). To determine the magnitude of impacts of distribution of mesquite and how lesser prairie-chickens respond to mesquite presence on the landscape in southeastern New Mexico, we evaluated seasonal space use of lesser prairie-chickens in the breeding and nonbreeding seasons. We derived several remotely sensed spatial metrics to characterize the distribution of mesquite. We then used these data to create population-level resource utilization functions and predict intensity of use of lesser prairie-chickens across our study area. Home ranges were smaller in the breeding season compared with the nonbreeding season; however, habitat use was similar across seasons. During both seasons, lesser prairie-chickens used areas closer to leks and largely avoided areas with mesquite. Relative to the breeding season, during the nonbreeding season habitat use suggested a marginal increase in mesquite within areas of low intensity of use, yet aversion to mesquite was strong in areas of medium to high intensity of use. To our knowledge, our study is the first to demonstrate a negative behavioral response by lesser prairie-chickens to woody encroachment in native grasslands. To mitigate one of the possible limiting factors for lesser prairie-chickens, we suggest future conservation

  6. Observability and Estimation of Distributed Space Systems via Local Information-Exchange Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathpour, Nanaz; Hadaegh, Fred Y.; Mesbahi, Mehran; Rahmani, Amirreza

    2011-01-01

    Spacecraft formation flying involves the coordination of states among multiple spacecraft through relative sensing, inter-spacecraft communication, and control. Most existing formation-flying estimation algorithms can only be supported via highly centralized, all-to-all, static relative sensing. New algorithms are proposed that are scalable, modular, and robust to variations in the topology and link characteristics of the formation exchange network. These distributed algorithms rely on a local information exchange network, relaxing the assumptions on existing algorithms. Distributed space systems rely on a signal transmission network among multiple spacecraft for their operation. Control and coordination among multiple spacecraft in a formation is facilitated via a network of relative sensing and interspacecraft communications. Guidance, navigation, and control rely on the sensing network. This network becomes more complex the more spacecraft are added, or as mission requirements become more complex. The observability of a formation state was observed by a set of local observations from a particular node in the formation. Formation observability can be parameterized in terms of the matrices appearing in the formation dynamics and observation matrices. An agreement protocol was used as a mechanism for observing formation states from local measurements. An agreement protocol is essentially an unforced dynamic system whose trajectory is governed by the interconnection geometry and initial condition of each node, with a goal of reaching a common value of interest. The observability of the interconnected system depends on the geometry of the network, as well as the position of the observer relative to the topology. For the first time, critical GN&C (guidance, navigation, and control estimation) subsystems are synthesized by bringing the contribution of the spacecraft information-exchange network to the forefront of algorithmic analysis and design. The result is a

  7. FOKN: a relativistic Fokker-Planck code with large angle scattering and radiation losses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, G.; Scharlemann, T.; Wood, L.; Weaver, T.; Chu, T.; Lee, G.

    1976-07-01

    FOKN is a computer code which employs a relativistic Fokker-Planck algorithm to evolve the distribution functions of the various mutually interacting components of a multi-species plasma forward in time, with the optional addition of high angle, large energy and momentum transfer interactions between the various charged species of the plasma. As a computational expediency, the latter processes are handled by transfer matrices which are generated separately by another code, RNUX, so that once specific transfer matrices are generated, they can be used over and over by FOKN provided the group structures are compatible

  8. Diffusion coefficients of Fokker-Planck equation for rotating dust grains in a fusion plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtiyari-Ramezani, M.; Mahmoodi, J.; Alinejad, N.

    2015-11-01

    In the fusion devices, ions, H atoms, and H2 molecules collide with dust grains and exert stochastic torques which lead to small variations in angular momentum of the grain. By considering adsorption of the colliding particles, thermal desorption of H atoms and normal H2 molecules, and desorption of the recombined H2 molecules from the surface of an oblate spheroidal grain, we obtain diffusion coefficients of the Fokker-Planck equation for the distribution function of fluctuating angular momentum. Torque coefficients corresponding to the recombination mechanism show that the nonspherical dust grains may rotate with a suprathermal angular velocity.

  9. Observation and simulation of space-charge effects in a radio-frequency photoinjector using a transverse multibeamlet distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rihaoui

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We report on an experimental study of space-charge effects in a radio-frequency (rf photoinjector. A 5 MeV electron bunch, consisting of a number of beamlets separated transversely, was generated in an rf photocathode gun and propagated in the succeeding drift space. The collective interaction of these beamlets was studied for different experimental conditions. The experiment allowed the exploration of space-charge effects and its comparison with 3D particle-in-cell simulations. Our observations also suggest the possible use of a multibeam configuration to tailor the transverse distribution of an electron beam.

  10. Quantal Brownian Motion from RPA dynamics: The master and Fokker-Planck equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yannouleas, C.

    1984-05-01

    From the purely quantal RPA description of the damped harmonic oscillator and of the corresponding Brownian Motion within the full space (phonon subspace plus reservoir), a master equation (as well as a Fokker-Planck equation) for the reduced density matrix (for the reduced Wigner function, respectively) within the phonon subspace is extracted. The RPA master equation agrees with the master equation derived by the time-dependent perturbative approaches which utilize Tamm-Dancoff Hilbert spaces and invoke the rotating wave approximation. Since the RPA yields a full, as well as a contracted description, it can account for both the kinetic and the unperturbed oscillator momenta. The RPA description of the quantal Brownian Motion contrasts with the descriptions provided by the time perturbative approaches whether they invoke or not the rotating wave approximation. The RPA description also contrasts with the phenomenological phase space quantization. (orig.)

  11. U.S. Geological Survey distribution of European Space Agency's Sentinel-2 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieschke, Renee L.

    2017-03-31

    A partnership established between the European Space Agency (ESA) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) allows for USGS storage and redistribution of images acquired by the MultiSpectral Instrument (MSI) on the European Union's Sentinel-2 satellite mission. The MSI data are acquired from a pair of satellites, Sentinel-2A and Sentinel-2B, which are part of a larger set of ESA missions focusing on different aspects of Earth observation. The primary purpose of the Sentinel-2 series is to collect multispectral imagery over the Earth’s land surfaces, large islands, and inland and coastal waters. Sentinel-2A was launched in 2015 and Sentinel-2B launched in 2017.The collaborative effort between ESA and USGS provides for public access and redistribution of global acquisitions of Sentinel-2 data at no cost, which allows users to download the MSI imagery from USGS access systems such as Earth- Explorer, in addition to the ESA Sentinels Scientific Data Hub. The MSI sensor acquires 13 spectral bands that are highly complementary to data acquired by the USGS Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+). The product options from USGS include a Full-Resolution Browse (FRB) image product generated by USGS, along with a 100-kilometer (km) by 100-km tile-based Level-1C top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance product that is very similar (but not identical) to the currently (2017) distributed ESA Level 1C product.

  12. World mineral energy resources and their distribution in time and space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toens, P.D.; Camisani-Calzolari, F.A.G.M.; Van der Merwe, P.J.; Andreoli, M.A.G.

    1985-01-01

    If the estimated total geological potential of the world mineral energy resources is reduced to a common denominator, then the total resources are estimated at 20 600 terawatt years (TWyr). Assuming that all these resources are recoverable, and applying today's technology, they would suffice for 1 700 years under no-growth conditions and approximately 130 years assuming an annual growth rate of 3%. It should, however, be borne in mind that only about 15% (or 3 100 TWry) of the world's resources can be regarded as proved or partly proved and recoverable at current price levels and with current technology. Assuming a no-growth scenario, these resources will meet future energy requirements for a period of approximately 260 years. At a 3% annual growth rate resources will last for about 70 years. From these figures it is clear that the known mineral energy resources will be depleted in the near future. The challenge to the geologist to locate additional energy potential is enormous and in order to do so, the distribution of known resources in time and space was reappraised. The present investigation confirms the time-bound character of the mineralising processes. These took place in a series of clearly defined rhythms ranging from the early Proterozoic to the Recent. Uranium and thorium constitute the only energy resources of the Proterozoic. In contrast, the Phanerozoiceon contains the totality of fossil fuels and at least 60% of the nuclear resources; strata younger than 600 Ma therefore represent the most favourable target areas for prospecting

  13. Exploiting Molecular Weight Distribution Shape to Tune Domain Spacing in Block Copolymer Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentekos, Dillon T; Jia, Junteng; Tirado, Erika S; Barteau, Katherine P; Smilgies, Detlef-M; DiStasio, Robert A; Fors, Brett P

    2018-04-04

    We report a method for tuning the domain spacing ( D sp ) of self-assembled block copolymer thin films of poly(styrene- block-methyl methacrylate) (PS- b-PMMA) over a large range of lamellar periods. By modifying the molecular weight distribution (MWD) shape (including both the breadth and skew) of the PS block via temporal control of polymer chain initiation in anionic polymerization, we observe increases of up to 41% in D sp for polymers with the same overall molecular weight ( M n ≈ 125 kg mol -1 ) without significantly changing the overall morphology or chemical composition of the final material. In conjunction with our experimental efforts, we have utilized concepts from population statistics and least-squares analysis to develop a model for predicting D sp based on the first three moments of the MWDs. This statistical model reproduces experimental D sp values with high fidelity (with mean absolute errors of 1.2 nm or 1.8%) and provides novel physical insight into the individual and collective roles played by the MWD moments in determining this property of interest. This work demonstrates that both MWD breadth and skew have a profound influence over D sp , thereby providing an experimental and conceptual platform for exploiting MWD shape as a simple and modular handle for fine-tuning D sp in block copolymer thin films.

  14. Distribution function approach to redshift space distortions. Part V: perturbation theory applied to dark matter halos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlah, Zvonimir; Seljak, Uroš [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Zürich, Zürich (Switzerland); Okumura, Teppei [Institute for the Early Universe, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, S. Korea (Korea, Republic of); Desjacques, Vincent, E-mail: zvlah@physik.uzh.ch, E-mail: seljak@physik.uzh.ch, E-mail: teppei@ewha.ac.kr, E-mail: Vincent.Desjacques@unige.ch [Département de Physique Théorique and Center for Astroparticle Physics (CAP) Université de Genéve, Genéve (Switzerland)

    2013-10-01

    Numerical simulations show that redshift space distortions (RSD) introduce strong scale dependence in the power spectra of halos, with ten percent deviations relative to linear theory predictions even on relatively large scales (k < 0.1h/Mpc) and even in the absence of satellites (which induce Fingers-of-God, FoG, effects). If unmodeled these effects prevent one from extracting cosmological information from RSD surveys. In this paper we use Eulerian perturbation theory (PT) and Eulerian halo biasing model and apply it to the distribution function approach to RSD, in which RSD is decomposed into several correlators of density weighted velocity moments. We model each of these correlators using PT and compare the results to simulations over a wide range of halo masses and redshifts. We find that with an introduction of a physically motivated halo biasing, and using dark matter power spectra from simulations, we can reproduce the simulation results at a percent level on scales up to k ∼ 0.15h/Mpc at z = 0, without the need to have free FoG parameters in the model.

  15. NCU-SWIP Space Weather Instrumentation Payload - Intelligent Sensors On Efficient Real-Time Distributed LUTOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Tse-Liang; Dmitriev, Alexei; Chu, Yen-Hsyang; Jiang, Shyh-Biau; Chen, Li-Wu

    The NCU-SWIP - Space Weather Instrumentation Payload is developed for simultaneous in-situ and remote measurement of space weather parameters for cross verifications. The measurements include in-situ electron density, electron temperature, magnetic field, the deceleration of satellite due to neutral wind, and remotely the linear cumulative intensities of oxygen ion air-glows at 135.6nm and 630.0nm along the flight path in forward, nader, and backward directions for tomographic reconstruction of the electron density distribution underneath. This instrument package is suitable for micro satellite constellation to establish nominal space weather profiles and, thus, to detect abnormal variations as the signs of ionospheric disturbances induced by severe atmospheric weather, or earth quake - mantle movement through their Lithosphere-Atmosphere-Ionosphere Coupling Mechanism. NCU-SWIP is constructed with intelligent sensor modules connected by common bus with their functionalities managed by an efficient distributed real-time system LUTOS. The same hierarchy can be applied to the level of satellite constellation. For example SWIP's in a constellation in coordination with the GNSS Occultation Experiment TriG planned for the Formosa-7 constellation, data can be cross correlated for verification and refinement for real-time, stable and reliable measurements. A SWIP will be contributed to the construction of a MAI Micro Satellite for verification. The SWIP consists of two separate modules: the SWIP main control module and the SWIP-PMTomo sensor module. They are respectively a 1.5kg W120xL120xH100 (in mm) box with forward facing 120mmPhi circular disk probe on a boom top edged at 470mm height and a 7.2kg W126xL590x372H (in mm) slab containing 3 legs looking downwards along the flight path, while consuming the maximum electricity of 10W and 12W. The sensors are 1) ETPEDP measuring 16bits floating potentials for electron temperature range of 1000K to 3000K and 24bits electron

  16. Preliminary Planck constant measurements via UME oscillating magnet Kibble balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmedov, H.; Babayiğit Aşkın, N.; Korutlu, B.; Orhan, R.

    2018-06-01

    The UME Kibble balance project was initiated in the second half of 2014. During this period we have studied the theoretical aspects of Kibble balances, in which an oscillating magnet generates AC Faraday’s voltage in a stationary coil, and constructed a trial version to implement this idea. The remarkable feature of this approach is that it can establish the link between the Planck constant and a macroscopic mass by one single experiment in the most natural way. Weak dependences on variations of environmental and experimental conditions, small size, and other useful features offered by this novel approach reduce the complexity of the experimental set-up. This paper describes the principles of the oscillating magnet Kibble balance and gives details of the preliminary Planck constant measurements. The value of the Planck constant determined with our apparatus is \\boldsymbol{h}/{{\\boldsymbol{h}}\\boldsymbol 90}={1}{.000} {004}~ , with a relative standard uncertainty of 6 ppm.

  17. Nonlinear Fokker-Planck Equations Fundamentals and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Frank, Till Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Providing an introduction to the theory of nonlinear Fokker-Planck equations, this book discusses fundamental properties of transient and stationary solutions, emphasizing the stability analysis of stationary solutions by means of self-consistency equations, linear stability analysis, and Lyapunov's direct method. Also treated are Langevin equations and correlation functions. Nonlinear Fokker-Planck Equations addresses various phenomena such as phase transitions, multistability of systems, synchronization, anomalous diffusion, cut-off solutions, travelling-wave solutions and the emergence of power law solutions. A nonlinear Fokker-Planck perspective to quantum statistics, generalized thermodynamics, and linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics is given. Theoretical concepts are illustrated where possible by simple examples. The book also reviews several applications in the fields of condensed matter physics, the physics of porous media and liquid crystals, accelerator physics, neurophysics, social sciences, popul...

  18. Statistical measures of Planck scale signal correlations in interferometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogan, Craig J. [Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Kwon, Ohkyung [Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2015-06-22

    A model-independent statistical framework is presented to interpret data from systems where the mean time derivative of positional cross correlation between world lines, a measure of spreading in a quantum geometrical wave function, is measured with a precision smaller than the Planck time. The framework provides a general way to constrain possible departures from perfect independence of classical world lines, associated with Planck scale bounds on positional information. A parametrized candidate set of possible correlation functions is shown to be consistent with the known causal structure of the classical geometry measured by an apparatus, and the holographic scaling of information suggested by gravity. Frequency-domain power spectra are derived that can be compared with interferometer data. As a result, simple projections of sensitivity for specific experimental set-ups suggests that measurements will directly yield constraints on a universal time derivative of the correlation function, and thereby confirm or rule out a class of Planck scale departures from classical geometry.

  19. Planck 2015 results. XVI. Isotropy and statistics of the CMB

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P.A.R.; Akrami, Y.; Aluri, P.K.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartolo, N.; Basak, S.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.F.; Casaponsa, B.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Combet, C.; Contreras, D.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Cruz, M.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Desert, F.X.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Fantaye, Y.; Fergusson, J.; Fernandez-Cobos, R.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A.A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Frolov, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Gauthier, C.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gjerlow, E.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.L.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huang, Z.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kim, J.; Kisner, T.S.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Liu, H.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Marinucci, D.; Maris, M.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mikkelsen, K.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Molinari, D.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Pant, N.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T.J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Rotti, A.; Roudier, G.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Souradeep, T.; Spencer, L.D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Trombetti, T.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Wehus, I.K.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zibin, J.P.; Zonca, A.

    2016-01-01

    We test the statistical isotropy and Gaussianity of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies using observations made by the Planck satellite. Our results are based mainly on the full Planck mission for temperature, but also include some polarization measurements. In particular, we consider the CMB anisotropy maps derived from the multi-frequency Planck data by several component-separation methods. For the temperature anisotropies, we find excellent agreement between results based on these sky maps over both a very large fraction of the sky and a broad range of angular scales, establishing that potential foreground residuals do not affect our studies. Tests of skewness, kurtosis, multi-normality, N-point functions, and Minkowski functionals indicate consistency with Gaussianity, while a power deficit at large angular scales is manifested in several ways, for example low map variance. The results of a peak statistics analysis are consistent with the expectations of a Gaussian random field. The "Cold S...

  20. Planck 2013 results. I. Overview of products and scientific results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Planck Collaboration,; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.

    2013-01-01

    , and the science data products and papers in the release. Scientific results include robust support for the standard, six parameter LCDM model of cosmology and improved measurements for the parameters that define this model, including a highly significant deviation from scale invariance of the primordial power......The ESA's Planck satellite, dedicated to studying the early universe, was launched on May 2009 and has been surveying the microwave and submillimetre sky since August 2009. In March 2013, ESA and the Planck Collaboration publicly released the initial cosmology products based on the first 15.......5 months of Planck operations, along with a set of scientific and technical papers and a web-based explanatory supplement. This paper describes the mission and its performance, and gives an overview of the processing and analysis of the data, the characteristics of the data, the main scientific results...

  1. Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck (1858-1947

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robitaille P.-M.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available October 4th, 2007 marks the 60th anniversary of Planck’s death. Planck was not only the father of Quantum Theory. He was also a man of profound moral and ethical values, with far reaching philosophical views. Though he lived a life of public acclaim for his discovery of the Blackbody radiation formula which bares his name, his personal life was beset with tragedy. Yet, Planck never lost his deep faith and belief in a personal God. He was admired by Einstein, not so much for his contributions to physics, but rather, for the ideals which he embodied as a person. In this work, a brief synopsis is provided on Planck, his life, and his philosophical writings. It is hoped that this will serve as an invitation to revisit the philosophical works of the man who, more than any other, helped set the course of early 20th century physics.

  2. Planck 2015 results IX. Diffuse component separation: CMB maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adam, R.; Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.

    2016-01-01

    We present foreground-reduced cosmic microwave background (CMB) maps derived from the full Planck data set in both temperature and polarization. Compared to the corresponding Planck 2013 temperature sky maps, the total data volume is larger by a factor of 3.2 for frequencies between 30 and 70 GHz......, and between 4.5 and 6.1μK averaged over pixels. The cosmological parameters derived from the analysis of temperature power spectra are in agreement at the 1σ level with the Planck 2015 likelihood. Unresolved mismatches between the noise properties of the data and simulations prevent a satisfactory description...... of the higher-order statistical properties of the polarization maps. Thus, the primary applications of these polarization maps are those that do not require massive simulations for accurate estimation of uncertainties, for instance estimation of cross-spectra and cross-correlations, or stacking analyses...

  3. Fully non-linear multi-species Fokker-Planck-Landau collisions for gyrokinetic particle-in-cell simulations of fusion plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Robert; Yoon, E. S.; Ku, S.; D'Azevedo, E. F.; Worley, P. H.; Chang, C. S.

    2015-11-01

    We describe the implementation, and application of a time-dependent, fully nonlinear multi-species Fokker-Planck-Landau collision operator based on the single-species work of Yoon and Chang [Phys. Plasmas 21, 032503 (2014)] in the full-function gyrokinetic particle-in-cell codes XGC1 [Ku et al., Nucl. Fusion 49, 115021 (2009)] and XGCa. XGC simulations include the pedestal and scrape-off layer, where significant deviations of the particle distribution function from a Maxwellian can occur. Thus, in order to describe collisional effects on neoclassical and turbulence physics accurately, the use of a non-linear collision operator is a necessity. Our collision operator is based on a finite volume method using the velocity-space distribution functions sampled from the marker particles. Since the same fine configuration space mesh is used for collisions and the Poisson solver, the workload due to collisions can be comparable to or larger than the workload due to particle motion. We demonstrate that computing time spent on collisions can be kept affordable by applying advanced parallelization strategies while conserving mass, momentum, and energy to reasonable accuracy. We also show results of production scale XGCa simulations in the H-mode pedestal and compare to conventional theory. Work supported by US DOE OFES and OASCR.

  4. Expansion of the relativistic Fokker-Planck equation including non-linear terms and a non-Maxwellian background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shkarofsky, I.P.

    1997-01-01

    The relativistic Fokker-Planck collision term in Braams and Karney [Phys. Fluids B 1, 1355 (1989)] is expanded using Cartesian tensors (equivalent to associated Legendre spherical harmonics) retaining all non-linear terms and an arbitrary zeroth order distribution background. Expressions are given for collision terms between all harmonics and the background distribution in terms of the j and y functions in Braams and Karney. The results reduce to Braams and Karney for the first order harmonic term with a Maxwellian background and to those given by Shkarofsky [Can. J. Phys. 41, 1753 (1963)] in the non-relativistic limit. Expressions for the energy and momentum transfer associated with relativistic Coulomb collisions are given. The fast two dimensional Fokker-Planck solver in Shoucri and Shkarofsky [Comput. Phys. Commun. 82, 287 (1994)] has been extended to include the second order harmonic term. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  5. Planck 2015 results: XXI. The integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.

    2016-01-01

    Here, this paper presents a study of the integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect from the Planck 2015 temperature and polarization data release. This secondary cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy caused by the large-scale time-evolving gravitational potential is probed from different perspectives. The CMB is cross-correlated with different large-scale structure (LSS) tracers: radio sources from the NVSS catalogue; galaxies from the optical SDSS and the infrared WISE surveys; and the Planck 2015 convergence lensing map. The joint cross-correlation of the CMB with the tracers yields a detection at 4σ where most of the signal-to-noise is due to the Planck lensing and the NVSS radio catalogue. In fact, the ISW effect is detected from the Planck data only at ≈3σ (through the ISW-lensing bispectrum), which is similar to the detection level achieved by combining the cross-correlation signal coming from all the galaxy catalogues mentioned above. We study the ability of the ISW effect to place constraints on the dark-energy parameters; in particular, we show that Ω Λ is detected at more than 3σ. This cross-correlation analysis is performed only with the Planck temperature data, since the polarization scales available in the 2015 release do not permit significant improvement of the CMB-LSS cross-correlation detectability. Nevertheless, the Planck polarization data are used to study the anomalously large ISW signal previously reported through the aperture photometry on stacked CMB features at the locations of known superclusters and supervoids, which is in conflict with ΛCDM expectations. We find that the current Planck polarization data do not exclude that this signal could be caused by the ISW effect. In addition, the stacking of the Planck lensing map on the locations of superstructures exhibits a positive cross-correlation with these large-scale structures. Finally, we have improved our previous reconstruction of the ISW temperature fluctuations by combining

  6. Planck 2013 results. II. The Low Frequency Instrument data processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.

    2013-01-01

    We describe the data processing pipeline of the Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) data processing centre (DPC) to create and characterize full-sky maps based on the first 15.5 months of operations at 30, 44, and 70 GHz. In particular, we discuss the various steps involved in reducing the data......) is employed to combine radiometric data and pointing information into sky maps, minimizing the variance of correlated noise. Noise covariance matrices, required to compute statistical uncertainties on LFI and Planck products, are also produced. Main beams are estimated down to the approximate to-20 dB level...

  7. Planck early results. V. The Low Frequency Instrument data processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poutanen, T.; Lähteenmäki, A.; León-Tavares, J.

    2011-01-01

    We describe the processing of data from the Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) used in production of the Planck Early Release Compact Source Catalogue (ERCSC). In particular, we discuss the steps involved in reducing the data from telemetry packets to cleaned, calibrated, time-ordered data (TOD) and ...... statistical uncertainties on LFI and Planck products are also produced. Main beams are estimated down to the ≈ -10dB level using Jupiter transits, which are also used for geometrical calibration of the focal plane. © ESO, 2011....

  8. Planck 2015 results: XIX. Constraints on primordial magnetic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.

    2016-01-01

    of the CMB angular power spectra, using the Planck likelihood, are B1 Mpc 4.4 nG (where B1 Mpc is the comoving field amplitude at a scale of 1 Mpc) at 95% confidence level, assuming zero helicity. By considering the Planck likelihood, based only on parity-even angular power spectra, we obtain B1 Mpc ... to three applied methods, all below 5 nG. The constraint from the magnetically-induced passive-tensor bispectrum is B1 Mpc Mpc 4.5 nG, whereas the compensated-scalar bispectrum gives B1 Mpc

  9. Generalized Fokker-Planck equations for coloured, multiplicative Gaussian noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetto, A.M.; Pena, L. de la; Velasco, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    With the help of Novikov's theorem, it is possible to derive a master equation for a coloured, multiplicative, Gaussian random process; the coefficients of this master equation satisfy a complicated auxiliary integro-differential equation. For small values of the Kubo number, the master equation reduces to an approximate generalized Fokker-Planck equation. The diffusion coefficient is explicitly written in terms of correlation functions. Finally, a straightforward and elementary second order perturbative treatment is proposed to derive the same approximate Fokker-Planck equation. (author)

  10. Two-dimensional T2 distribution mapping in rock core plugs with optimal k-space sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Dan; Balcom, Bruce J

    2012-07-01

    Spin-echo single point imaging has been employed for 1D T(2) distribution mapping, but a simple extension to 2D is challenging since the time increase is n fold, where n is the number of pixels in the second dimension. Nevertheless 2D T(2) mapping in fluid saturated rock core plugs is highly desirable because the bedding plane structure in rocks often results in different pore properties within the sample. The acquisition time can be improved by undersampling k-space. The cylindrical shape of rock core plugs yields well defined intensity distributions in k-space that may be efficiently determined by new k-space sampling patterns that are developed in this work. These patterns acquire 22.2% and 11.7% of the k-space data points. Companion density images may be employed, in a keyhole imaging sense, to improve image quality. T(2) weighted images are fit to extract T(2) distributions, pixel by pixel, employing an inverse Laplace transform. Images reconstructed with compressed sensing, with similar acceleration factors, are also presented. The results show that restricted k-space sampling, in this application, provides high quality results. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Electric field and space-charge distribution in SI GaAs: effect of high-energy proton irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Castaldini, A; Polenta, L; Canali, C; Nava, F

    1999-01-01

    The effect of irradiation on semi-insulating gallium arsenide Schottky diodes has been investigated by means of surface potential measurements and spectroscopic techniques. Before and after irradiation the electric field exhibits a Mott barrier-like distribution, and the box-shaped space charge modifies its distribution with irradiation. The increase in density or the generation of some traps changes the compensation ratio producing a deeper active region and a more homogeneous distribution of the electric field. The latter phenomenon is also observed by EBIC images of edge-mounted diodes.

  12. Changes in the Fine Structure of Stochastic Distributions as a Consequence of Space-Time Fluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shnoll S. E.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available This is a survey of the fine structure stochastic distributions in measurements obtained by me over 50 years. It is shown: (1 The forms of the histograms obtained at each geographic point (at each given moment of time are similar with high probability, even if we register phenomena of completely different nature --- from biochemical reactions to the noise in a gravitational antenna, or alpha-decay. (2 The forms of the histograms change with time. The iterations of the same form have the periods of the stellar day (1.436 min, the solar day (1.440 min, the calendar year (365 solar days, and the sidereal year (365 solar days plus 6 hours and 9 min. (3 At the same instants of the local time, at different geographic points, the forms of the histograms are the same, with high probability. (4 The forms of the histograms depend on the locations of the Moon and the Sun with respect to the horizon. (5 All the facts are proof of the dependance of the form of the histograms on the location of the measured objects with respect to stars, the Sun, and the Moon. (6 At the instants of New Moon and the maxima of solar eclipses there are specific forms of the histograms. (7 It is probable that the observed correlations are not connected to flow power changes (the changes of the gravity force --- we did not find the appropriate periods in changes in histogram form. (8 A sharp anisotropy of space was discovered, registered by alpha-decay detectors armed with collimators. Observations at 54 North (the collimator was pointed at the Pole Star showed no day-long periods, as was also the case for observations at 82 North, near the Pole. Histograms obtained by observations with an Easterly-directed collimator were determined every 718 minutes (half stellar day and with observations using a Westerly-directed collimator. (9 Collimators rotating counter-clockwise, in parallel with the celestial equator, gave the probability of changes in histograms as the number of the

  13. Changes in the Fine Structure of Stochastic Distributions as a Consequence of Space-Time Fluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shnoll S. E.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available This is a survey of the fine structure stochastic distributions in measurements obtained by me over 50 years. It is shown: (1 The forms of the histograms obtained at each geographic point (at each given moment of time are similar with high probability, even if we register phenomena of completely different nature — from biochemical reactions to the noise in a gravitational antenna, or α-decay. (2 The forms of the histograms change with time. The iterations of the same form have the periods of the stellar day (1.436 min, the solar day (1.440 min, the calendar year (365 solar days, and the sidereal year (365 solar days plus 6 hours and 9 min. (3 At the same instants of the local time, at different geographic points, the forms of the histograms are the same, with high probability. (4 The forms of the histograms depend on the locations of the Moon and the Sun with respect to the horizon. (5 All the facts are proof of the dependance of the form of the histograms on the location of the measured objects with respect to stars, the Sun, and the Moon. (6 At the instants of New Moon and the maxima of solar eclipses there are specific forms of the histograms. (7 It is probable that the observed correlations are not connected to flow power changes (the changes of the gravity force — we did not find the appropriate periods in changes in histogram form. (8 A sharp anisotropy of space was discovered, registered by α-decay detectors armed with collimators. Observations at 54◦ North (the collimator was pointed at the Pole Star showed no day-long periods, as was also the case for observations at 82◦ North, near the Pole. Histograms obtained by observations with an Easterly-directed collimator were determined every 718 minutes (half stellar day and with observations using a Westerly-directed collimator. (9 Collimators rotating counter-clockwise, in parallel with the celestial equator, gave the probability of changes in histograms as the number of the

  14. Predicting temperature and moisture distributions in conditioned spaces using the zonal approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendonca, K.C. [Parana Pontifical Catholic Univ., Curitiba (Brazil); Wurtz, E.; Inard, C. [La Rochelle Univ., La Rochelle, Cedex (France). LEPTAB

    2005-07-01

    Moisture interacts with building elements in a number of different ways that impact upon building performance, causing deterioration of building materials, as well as contributing to poor indoor air quality. In humid climates, moisture represents one of the major loads in conditioned spaces. It is therefore important to understand and model moisture transport accurately. This paper discussed an intermediate zonal approach to building a library of data in order to predict whole hygrothermal behavior in conditioned rooms. The zonal library included 2 models in order to consider building envelope moisture buffering effects as well as taking into account the dynamic aspect of jet airflow in the zonal method. The zonal library was then applied to a case study to show the impact of external humidity on the whole hygrothermal performance of a room equipped with a vertical fan-coil unit. The proposed theory was structured into 3 groups representing 3 building domains: indoor air; envelope; and heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. The indoor air sub-model related to indoor air space, where airflow speed was considered to be low. The envelope sub-model related to the radiation exchanges between the envelope and its environment as well as to the heat and mass transfers through the envelope material. The HVAC system sub-model referred to the whole system including equipment, control and specific airflow from the equipment. All the models were coupled into SPARK, where the resulting set of non-linear equations were solved simultaneously. A case study of a large office conditioned by a vertical fan-coil unit with a rectangular air supply diffuser was presented. Details of the building's external and internal environment were provided, as well as convective heat and mass transfer coefficients and temperature distributions versus time. Results of the study indicated that understanding building material moisture buffering effects is as important as

  15. Steady state solution of the Fokker-Planck equation combined with unidirectional quasilinear diffusion under detailed balance conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hizanidis, K.

    1984-04-01

    The relativistic collisional Fokker-Planck equation combined with an externally imposed unidirectional quasilinear (rf) diffusion is solved for arbitrary values of rf diffusion coefficient under conditions of detailed balance of the staionary joint distribution involved. The detailed balance condition imposes a restriction on the functional form of the quasilinear diffusion coefficient which might be associated with the existence of a saturated spectrum of fluctuation in a quasilinearly rf-driven plasma

  16. Distributing learning over time: the spacing effect in children's acquisition and generalization of science concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlach, Haley A; Sandhofer, Catherine M

    2012-01-01

    The spacing effect describes the robust finding that long-term learning is promoted when learning events are spaced out in time rather than presented in immediate succession. Studies of the spacing effect have focused on memory processes rather than for other types of learning, such as the acquisition and generalization of new concepts. In this study, early elementary school children (5- to 7-year-olds; N = 36) were presented with science lessons on 1 of 3 schedules: massed, clumped, and spaced. The results revealed that spacing lessons out in time resulted in higher generalization performance for both simple and complex concepts. Spaced learning schedules promote several types of learning, strengthening the implications of the spacing effect for educational practices and curriculum. © 2012 The Authors. Child Development © 2012 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  17. New Method for Shallow and Deep Trap Distribution Analysis in Oil Impregnated Insulation Paper Based on the Space Charge Detrapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Hao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Space charge has close relation with the trap distribution in the insulation material. The phenomenon of charges trapping and detrapping has attracted significant attention in recent years. Space charge and trap parameters are effective parameters for assessing the ageing condition of the insulation material qualitatively. In this paper, a new method for calculating trap distribution based on the double exponential fitting analysis of charge decay process and its application on characterizing the trap distribution of oil impregnated insulation paper was investigated. When compared with the common first order exponential fitting analysis method, the improved dual-level trap method could obtain the energy level range and density of both shallow traps and deep traps, simultaneously. Space charge decay process analysis of the insulation paper immersed with new oil and aged oil shows that the improved trap distribution calculation method can distinguish the physical defects and chemical defects. The trap density shows an increasing trend with the oil ageing, especially for the deep traps mainly related to chemical defects. The greater the energy could be filled by the traps, the larger amount of charges could be trapped, especially under higher electric field strength. The deep trap energy level and trap density could be used to characterize ageing. When one evaluates the ageing condition of oil-paper insulation using trap distribution parameters, the influence of oil performance should not be ignored.

  18. A Framework for Orbital Performance Evaluation in Distributed Space Missions for Earth Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Sreeja; LeMoigne-Stewart, Jacqueline; Miller, David W.; de Weck, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Distributed Space Missions (DSMs) are gaining momentum in their application to earth science missions owing to their unique ability to increase observation sampling in spatial, spectral and temporal dimensions simultaneously. DSM architectures have a large number of design variables and since they are expected to increase mission flexibility, scalability, evolvability and robustness, their design is a complex problem with many variables and objectives affecting performance. There are very few open-access tools available to explore the tradespace of variables which allow performance assessment and are easy to plug into science goals, and therefore select the most optimal design. This paper presents a software tool developed on the MATLAB engine interfacing with STK, for DSM orbit design and selection. It is capable of generating thousands of homogeneous constellation or formation flight architectures based on pre-defined design variable ranges and sizing those architectures in terms of predefined performance metrics. The metrics can be input into observing system simulation experiments, as available from the science teams, allowing dynamic coupling of science and engineering designs. Design variables include but are not restricted to constellation type, formation flight type, FOV of instrument, altitude and inclination of chief orbits, differential orbital elements, leader satellites, latitudes or regions of interest, planes and satellite numbers. Intermediate performance metrics include angular coverage, number of accesses, revisit coverage, access deterioration over time at every point of the Earth's grid. The orbit design process can be streamlined and variables more bounded along the way, owing to the availability of low fidelity and low complexity models such as corrected HCW equations up to high precision STK models with J2 and drag. The tool can thus help any scientist or program manager select pre-Phase A, Pareto optimal DSM designs for a variety of science

  19. Dropouts, spreading, and squeezing of solar particle distributions and space weather variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthaeus, W. H.; Ruffolo, D. J.; Seripienlert, A.; Tooprakai, P.; Chuychai, P.

    2015-12-01

    In the past 15 years, observations and theories concerning dropouts of solar energetic particles have made it clear that the lateral spread of field lines and particles from a given location near the Sun is not a purely diffusive process. Particles of low energy from impulsive solar events exhibit abrupt changes in flux (dropouts) due to filamentation of magnetic connection from the Sun, indicating that magnetic flux tube-like structures at least partially persist to Earth orbit. Our simulations based on a corresponding spherical two-component model of Alfvénic (slab) and 2D magnetic fluctuations indicate that such particles mostly follow field lines, which spread over ˜25° at Earth orbit, and exhibit dropout features. On the other hand, gradual solar events are of practical interest because they can produce greatly enhanced high-energy ion fluxes, which can cause radiation damage to satellites, spacecraft, and astronauts. While gradual events do not exhibit dropouts in the above sense, we show that the distribution of high-energy (E≥1 GeV) protons is squeezed toward magnetic flux tube-like structures with a specific polarity due to the structures' conical shape. Since it is difficult to observationally determine what polarity of flux structure the Earth is in at a given time, this transport phenomenon contributes to event-to-event variability in ground level enhancements of GeV-range ions from solar storms, presenting a fundamental uncertainty in space weather prediction. Partially supported by the Thailand Research Fund (Grant BRG5880009), a Postdoctoral Fellowship from the Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, a Research Fellowship from the Faculty of Science at Mahidol University, the U.S. NSF (AGS-1063439 and SHINE AGS-1156094), NASA (Heliophysics Theory NNX14AI63G, and LWS NNX15AB88G), and the Solar Probe Plus/ISIS project (D99031L).

  20. Socio-economics effect of the use of space distribution in the coastal of Kampung Nelayan Belawan Medan

    Science.gov (United States)

    O. Y Marpaung, Beny; Widyasari, Mutiara

    2018-03-01

    Kampung Nelayan Belawan Medan is one of the unplanned settlements located in the coastal area. The social life of society such as livelihood, activity, and behavior can be said still traditional. It is also supported by the lack of public facilities in this area. In addition, the economic life of people in this region is far below standard. This is seen from the low-income people, so it can affect the use of space in coastal areas. This study aims to examine and find socio economic impacts on communities on the distribution of land use and dissemination of activities in coastal areas. This research uses quantitative and qualitative descriptive method. Researchers collected data by observation and distributed questionnaires. Then, the researchers relate the theory of the interpreted data. This study finds the social and economic situation and its effect on the distribution of space usage in Kampung Nelayan Belawan Medan.

  1. Responses of Cloud Type Distributions to the Large-Scale Dynamical Circulation: Water Budget-Related Dynamical Phase Space and Dynamical Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Sun; Del Genio, Anthony; Wang, Tao; Kahn, Brian; Fetzer, Eric J.; L'Ecuyer, Tristan S.

    2015-01-01

    Goals: Water budget-related dynamical phase space; Connect large-scale dynamical conditions to atmospheric water budget (including precipitation); Connect atmospheric water budget to cloud type distributions.

  2. Fokker-Planck theory of electron cyclotron assisted startup and breakdown in Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fidone, I.; Granata, G.

    1993-04-01

    The kinetic theory of plasma startup in a tokamak in the presence of electron cyclotron resonance heating is discussed. The linear theory of the X-mode and the upper-hybrid converted mode damping in low density and temperature plasmas are first reviewed. Then, the kinetic equation for the electron velocity distribution is considered, which is determined by the perpendicular electron cyclotron quasilinear diffusion operator, the parallel electric field, elastic and inelastic electron-neutral collisions and various losses. Two different time scales, namely the elastic electron-neutral collision time and the much longer ionization time, are identified. Thus a two time scale ordering procedure is legitimated for which the velocity distribution is determined by the quasilinear diffusion and the electron-neutral collision frequency; the ionization rate is computed using the Fokker-Planck solution for the electron velocity distribution

  3. A nonlinear Fokker-Planck equation approach for interacting systems: Anomalous diffusion and Tsallis statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, D.; Ribeiro, M. A.; Ribeiro, H. V.; Lenzi, E. K.

    2018-07-01

    We investigate the solutions for a set of coupled nonlinear Fokker-Planck equations coupled by the diffusion coefficient in presence of external forces. The coupling by the diffusion coefficient implies that the diffusion of each species is influenced by the other and vice versa due to this term, which represents an interaction among them. The solutions for the stationary case are given in terms of the Tsallis distributions, when arbitrary external forces are considered. We also use the Tsallis distributions to obtain a time dependent solution for a linear external force. The results obtained from this analysis show a rich class of behavior related to anomalous diffusion, which can be characterized by compact or long-tailed distributions.

  4. Cosmological texture is incompatible with Planck-scale physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holman, R.; Watkins, R.; Widrow, L.M.; Toronto Univ., ON

    1992-01-01

    Nambu-Goldstone modes are sensitive to the effects of physics at energies comparable to the scale of spontaneous symmetry breaking. We show that as a consequence of this the global texture proposal for structure formation requires rather severe assumptions about the nature of physics at the Planck scale

  5. Fokker-Planck transport in solid state accelerator concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newberger, B.; Tajima, T.

    1989-01-01

    Particle transport in a crystalline solid under channeling conditions is considered by means of a Fokker-Planck description. The model includes electron multiple scattering, radiation damping and an accelerating electric field. Analytic solutions have been obtained using a harmonic potential model to describe the channeling forces. These solutions will be described

  6. Steady state solution of the Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovnev, A.; Trimper, S.

    2010-01-01

    The exact steady state solution of the Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations (PNP) is given in terms of Jacobi elliptic functions. A more tractable approximate solution is derived which can be used to compare the results with experimental observations in binary electrolytes. The breakdown of the PNP for high concentration and high applied voltage is discussed.

  7. Newton's 'Principia Mathematica Philosophia' and Planck's elementary constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rompe, R.; Treder, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    Together with Planck's elementary constants Newton's principles prove a guaranteed basis of physics and 'exact' sciences of all directions. The conceptions in physics are competent at all physical problems as well as technology too. Classical physics was founded in such a way to reach far beyond the physics of macroscopic bodies. (author)

  8. Planck 2013 results. XV. CMB power spectra and likelihood

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P.A.R.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, L.Y.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.M.; Desert, F.X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A.A.; Franceschi, E.; Gaier, T.C.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gjerlow, E.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jewell, J.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kiiveri, K.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Laureijs, R.J.; Lawrence, C.R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leach, S.; Leahy, J.P.; Leonardi, R.; Leon-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Lindholm, V.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Marinucci, D.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Menegoni, E.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Millea, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Molinari, D.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I.J.; Orieux, F.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Paykari, P.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Rahlin, A.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ringeval, C.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Sanselme, L.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Starck, J.L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Turler, M.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Wehus, I.K.; White, M.; White, S.D.M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-01-01

    We present the Planck likelihood, a complete statistical description of the two-point correlation function of the CMB temperature fluctuations. We use this likelihood to derive the Planck CMB power spectrum over three decades in l, covering 2 = 50, we employ a correlated Gaussian likelihood approximation based on angular cross-spectra derived from the 100, 143 and 217 GHz channels. We validate our likelihood through an extensive suite of consistency tests, and assess the impact of residual foreground and instrumental uncertainties on cosmological parameters. We find good internal agreement among the high-l cross-spectra with residuals of a few uK^2 at l <= 1000. We compare our results with foreground-cleaned CMB maps, and with cross-spectra derived from the 70 GHz Planck map, and find broad agreement in terms of spectrum residuals and cosmological parameters. The best-fit LCDM cosmology is in excellent agreement with preliminary Planck polarisation spectra. The standard LCDM cosmology is well constrained b...

  9. Planck 2015 results: XXI. The integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect from the Planck 2015 temperature and polarization data release. This secondary cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy caused by the large-scale time-evolving gravitational potential is probed from different perspectives....

  10. IPP Max Planck Institute of Plasma of Physics at Garching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The cost accounting system of the IPP Max Planck Institute of Plasma Physics at Garching is described with all details as there are cost class accounting, cost centers, cost units and resulting overall cost summary. Detailed instructions are given about the implementation of this cost accounting system into the organisational structure of the IPP. (A.N.)

  11. Planck intermediate results: VIII. Filaments between interacting clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartlett, J.G.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Castex, G.

    2013-01-01

    of a fraction of these missing baryons between pairs of galaxy clusters. Methods. Cluster pairs are good candidates for searching for the hotter and denser phase of the intergalactic medium (which is more easily observed through the SZ effect). Using an X-ray catalogue of clusters and the Planck data, we...

  12. Chaotic inflation in supergravity after Planck and BICEP2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallosh, Renata; Linde, Andrei

    2014-05-01

    We discuss the general structure and observational consequences of some of the simplest versions of chaotic inflation in supergravity in relation to the data by Planck 2013 and BICEP2. We show that minimal modifications to the simplest quadratic potential are sufficient to provide a controllable tensor mode signal and a suppression of CMB power at large angular scales.

  13. Planck 2015 results: II. Low Frequency Instrument data processings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.; Ashdown, M.

    2016-01-01

    We present an updated description of the Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) data processing pipeline, associated with the 2015 data release. We point out the places where our results and methods have remained unchanged since the 2013 paper and we highlight the changes made for the 2015 release...

  14. Planck 2013 results. XXIII. Isotropy and Statistics of the CMB

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Planck Collaboration,; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.

    2013-01-01

    The two fundamental assumptions of the standard cosmological model - that the initial fluctuations are statistically isotropic and Gaussian - are rigorously tested using maps of the CMB anisotropy from the \\Planck\\ satellite. The detailed results are based on studies of four independent estimates...

  15. Planck 2013 Results. XXIV. Constraints on primordial non-Gaussianity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.

    2013-01-01

    The Planck nominal mission cosmic microwave background (CMB) maps yield unprecedented constraints on primordial non-Gaussianity (NG).Using three optimal bispectrum estimators, separable template-fitting (KSW), binned, and modal, we obtain consistent values for the primordiallocal, equilateral, an...

  16. Planck 2013 results. VII. HFI time response and beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Planck Collaboration,; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper characterizes the effective beams, the effective beam window functions (EBWF) and the associated errors for the Planck High Frequency Instrument (HFI) detectors. The effective beam is the angular response including the effect of the optics, detectors, data processing and the scan strat...

  17. Planck intermediate results: XVI. Profile likelihoods for cosmological parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartlett, J.G.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Delabrouille, J.

    2014-01-01

    We explore the 2013 Planck likelihood function with a high-precision multi-dimensional minimizer (Minuit). This allows a refinement of the CDM best-fit solution with respect to previously-released results, and the construction of frequentist confidence intervals using profile likelihoods. The agr...

  18. Excess B-modes extracted from the Planck polarization maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.

    2016-06-01

    One of the main obstacles for extracting the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) from mm/submm observations is the pollution from the main Galactic components: synchrotron, free-free and thermal dust emission. The feasibility of using simple neural networks to extract CMB has been demonstrated on both temperature and polarization data obtained by the WMAP satellite. The main goal of this paper is to demonstrate the feasibility of neural networks for extracting the CMB signal from the Planck polarization data with high precision. Both auto-correlation and cross-correlation power spectra within a mask covering about 63 % of the sky have been used together with a ``high pass filter'' in order to minimize the influence of the remaining systematic errors in the Planck Q and U maps. Using the Planck 2015 released polarization maps, a BB power spectrum have been extracted by Multilayer Perceptron neural networks. This spectrum contains a bright feature with signal to noise ratios ≃ 4.5 within 200 ≤ l ≤ 250. The spectrum is significantly brighter than the BICEP2 2015 spectrum, with a spectral behaviour quite different from the ``canonical'' models (weak lensing plus B-modes spectra with different tensor to scalar ratios). The feasibility of the neural network to remove the residual systematics from the available Planck polarization data to a high level has been demonstrated.

  19. Planck early results. XXV. Thermal dust in nearby molecular clouds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poutanen, T.; Natoli, P.; Polenta, G.

    2011-01-01

    spectrum measured by Planck and IRAS can be fitted pixel by pixel using a single modified blackbody. Some systematic residuals are detected at 353 GHz and 143 GHz, with amplitudes around -7% and +13%, respectively, indicating that the measured spectra are likely more complex than a simple modified...

  20. Planck 2013 results. XV. CMB power spectra and likelihood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tauber, Jan; Bartlett, J.G.; Bucher, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the Planck 2013 likelihood, a complete statistical description of the two-point correlation function of the CMB temperature fluctuations that accounts for all known relevant uncertainties, both instrumental and astrophysical in nature. We use this likelihood to derive our best...

  1. Large Scale Anomalies of the Cosmic Microwave Background with Planck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frejsel, Anne Mette

    This thesis focuses on the large scale anomalies of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) and their possible origins. The investigations consist of two main parts. The first part is on statistical tests of the CMB, and the consistency of both maps and power spectrum. We find that the Planck data...

  2. Inflation in the light of BICEP2 and PLANCK

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-13

    Jan 13, 2016 ... The BICEP2/Keck+PLANCK joint analysis of the -model polarization and polarization by foreground dust sets an upper bound on the tensor-to-scalar ratio of 0.05 < 0.12 at 95% CL. The popular Starorbinsky model Higgs-inflation or the conformally equivalent Higgs-inflation model allow low values ...

  3. Planck 2013 results. XIX. The integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.

    2014-01-01

    they can be compared, these measurements are compatible with previous work using data from WMAP, where these scales have been mapped to the limits of cosmic variance. Planck's broader frequency coverage allows for better foreground cleaning and confirms that the signal is achromatic, which makes...

  4. Planck intermediate results: XIII. Constraints on peculiar velocities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardoso, J.-F.; Delabrouille, J.; Ganga, K.

    2014-01-01

    Using Planck data combined with the Meta Catalogue of X-ray detected Clusters of galaxies (MCXC), we address the study of peculiar motions by searching for evidence of the kinetic Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect (kSZ). By implementing various filters designed to extract the kSZ generated at the position...

  5. The Study of Environmental Crisis and Local Distribution of Green Space in Tehran City

    OpenAIRE

    K. zayyari; L. Vahedian Beiky; Z. Parnoon

    2012-01-01

    Extended abstract1-IntroductionUncontrolled development of large cities due to the increase in population and migration has led to a massive environmental destruction and pollution, and the latter has destroyed green spaces within the city and changed the land use. Therefore, the need for green space and connection with nature has an important role in human life. The best way to reduce the destructive effects of environmental hazards is the development of green space. Due to its wide range of...

  6. Fractional Fokker-Planck equation and oscillatory behavior of cumulant moments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, N.; Biyajima, M.

    2002-01-01

    The Fokker-Planck equation is considered, which is connected to the birth and death process with immigration by the Poisson transform. The fractional derivative in time variable is introduced into the Fokker-Planck equation in order to investigate an origin of oscillatory behavior of cumulant moments. From its solution (the probability density function), the generating function (GF) for the corresponding probability distribution is derived. We consider the case when the GF reduces to that of the negative binomial distribution (NBD), if the fractional derivative is replaced to the ordinary one. The H j moment derived from the GF of the NBD decreases monotonically as the rank j increases. However, the H j moment derived in our approach oscillates, which is contrasted with the case of the NBD. Calculated H j moments are compared with those of charged multiplicities observed in pp-bar, e + e - , and e + p collisions. A phenomenological meaning of introducing the fractional derivative in time variable is discussed

  7. Transient finite element analysis of electric double layer using Nernst-Planck-Poisson equations with a modified Stern layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jongil; Whitcomb, John; Boyd, James; Varghese, Julian

    2007-01-01

    A finite element implementation of the transient nonlinear Nernst-Planck-Poisson (NPP) and Nernst-Planck-Poisson-modified Stern (NPPMS) models is presented. The NPPMS model uses multipoint constraints to account for finite ion size, resulting in realistic ion concentrations even at high surface potential. The Poisson-Boltzmann equation is used to provide a limited check of the transient models for low surface potential and dilute bulk solutions. The effects of the surface potential and bulk molarity on the electric potential and ion concentrations as functions of space and time are studied. The ability of the models to predict realistic energy storage capacity is investigated. The predicted energy is much more sensitive to surface potential than to bulk solution molarity.

  8. On-Line Detection of Distributed Attacks from Space-Time Network Flow Patterns

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baras, J. S; Cardenas, A. A; Ramezani, V

    2003-01-01

    .... The directionality of the change in a network flow is assumed to have an objective or target. The particular problem of detecting distributed denial of service attacks from distributed observations is presented as a working framework...

  9. Planck 2013 results. XV. CMB power spectra and likelihood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Gaier, T. C.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jewell, J.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kiiveri, K.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leach, S.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; León-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; Lindholm, V.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Marinucci, D.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Menegoni, E.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Millea, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Molinari, D.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I. J.; Orieux, F.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Paykari, P.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Rahlin, A.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ringeval, C.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Sanselme, L.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J.-L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Türler, M.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; White, M.; White, S. D. M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents the Planck 2013 likelihood, a complete statistical description of the two-point correlation function of the CMB temperature fluctuations that accounts for all known relevant uncertainties, both instrumental and astrophysical in nature. We use this likelihood to derive our best estimate of the CMB angular power spectrum from Planck over three decades in multipole moment, ℓ, covering 2 ≤ ℓ ≤ 2500. The main source of uncertainty at ℓ ≲ 1500 is cosmic variance. Uncertainties in small-scale foreground modelling and instrumental noise dominate the error budget at higher ℓs. For ℓ impact of residual foreground and instrumental uncertainties on the final cosmological parameters. We find good internal agreement among the high-ℓ cross-spectra with residuals below a few μK2 at ℓ ≲ 1000, in agreement with estimated calibration uncertainties. We compare our results with foreground-cleaned CMB maps derived from all Planck frequencies, as well as with cross-spectra derived from the 70 GHz Planck map, and find broad agreement in terms of spectrum residuals and cosmological parameters. We further show that the best-fit ΛCDM cosmology is in excellent agreement with preliminary PlanckEE and TE polarisation spectra. We find that the standard ΛCDM cosmology is well constrained by Planck from the measurements at ℓ ≲ 1500. One specific example is the spectral index of scalar perturbations, for which we report a 5.4σ deviation from scale invariance, ns = 1. Increasing the multipole range beyond ℓ ≃ 1500 does not increase our accuracy for the ΛCDM parameters, but instead allows us to study extensions beyond the standard model. We find no indication of significant departures from the ΛCDM framework. Finally, we report a tension between the Planck best-fit ΛCDM model and the low-ℓ spectrum in the form of a power deficit of 5-10% at ℓ ≲ 40, with a statistical significance of 2.5-3σ. Without a theoretically motivated model for

  10. Constraints on modified gravity from Planck 2015: when the health of your theory makes the difference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvatelli, Valentina; Piazza, Federico; Marinoni, Christian, E-mail: Valentina.Salvatelli@cpt.univ-mrs.fr, E-mail: Federico.Piazza@cpt.univ-mrs.fr, E-mail: Christian.Marinoni@cpt.univ-mrs.fr [CPT—Centre du Physique Théorique—UMR 7332, Aix Marseille Univ., Université de Toulon, CNRS #8232, 163 avenue de Luminy, 13288 Marseille (France)

    2016-09-01

    We use the effective field theory of dark energy (EFT of DE) formalism to constrain dark energy models belonging to the Horndeski class with the recent Planck 2015 CMB data. The space of theories is spanned by a certain number of parameters determining the linear cosmological perturbations, while the expansion history is set to that of a standard ΛCDM model. We always demand that the theories be free of fatal instabilities. Additionally, we consider two optional conditions, namely that scalar and tensor perturbations propagate with subliminal speed. Such criteria severely restrict the allowed parameter space and are thus very effective in shaping the posteriors. As a result, we confirm that no theory performs better than ΛCDM when CMB data alone are analysed. Indeed, the healthy dark energy models considered here are not able to reproduce those phenomenological behaviours of the effective Newton constant and gravitational slip parameters that, according to previous studies, best fit the data.

  11. On self-consistent ray-tracing and Fokker-Planck modeling of the hard X-ray emission during lower-hybrid current driven in Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bizarro, J.P.; Peysson, Y.; Bonoli, P.T.; Carrasco, J.; Dudok de Wit, T.; Fuchs, V.; Hoang, G.T.; Litaudon, X.; Moreau, D.; Pocheau, C.; Shkarofsky, I.P.

    1993-04-01

    A detailed investigation is presented on the ability of combined ray-tracing and Fokker-Planck calculations to predict the hard x-ray (HXR) emission during lower-hybrid (LH) current drive in tokamaks when toroidally induced-ray-stochasticity is important. A large number of rays is used and the electron distribution function is obtained by self-consistently iterating the appropriate LH power deposition and Fokker-Planck calculations. Most of the experimentally observed features of the HXR emission are correctly predicted. It is found that corrections due to radial diffusion of suprathermal electrons and to radiation scattering by the inner wall can be significant

  12. Planck 2015 results: XXVII. The second Planck catalogue of Sunyaev-Zeldovich sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we present the all-sky Planck catalogue of Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) sources detected from the 29 month full-mission data. The catalogue (PSZ2) is the largest SZ-selected sample of galaxy clusters yet produced and the deepest systematic all-sky surveyof galaxy clusters. It contains 1653 detections, of which 1203 are confirmed clusters with identified counterparts in external data sets, and is the first SZ-selected cluster survey containing >103 confirmed clusters. We present a detailed analysis of the survey selection function in terms of its completeness and statistical reliability, placing a lower limit of 83% on the purity. Using simulations, we find that the estimates of the SZ strength parameter Y5R500are robust to pressure-profile variation and beam systematics, but accurate conversion to Y500 requires the use of prior information on the cluster extent. We describe the multi-wavelength search for counterparts in ancillary data, which makes use of radio, microwave, infra-red, optical, and X-ray data sets, and which places emphasis on the robustness of the counterpart match. We discuss the physical properties of the new sample and identify a population of low-redshift X-ray under-luminous clusters revealed by SZ selection. These objects appear in optical and SZ surveys with consistent properties for their mass, but are almost absent from ROSAT X-ray selected samples.

  13. EDF: Computing electron number probability distribution functions in real space from molecular wave functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, E.; Pendás, A. Martín; Blanco, M. A.

    2008-04-01

    Given an N-electron molecule and an exhaustive partition of the real space ( R) into m arbitrary regions Ω,Ω,…,Ω ( ⋃i=1mΩ=R), the edf program computes all the probabilities P(n,n,…,n) of having exactly n electrons in Ω, n electrons in Ω,…, and n electrons ( n+n+⋯+n=N) in Ω. Each Ω may correspond to a single basin (atomic domain) or several such basins (functional group). In the later case, each atomic domain must belong to a single Ω. The program can manage both single- and multi-determinant wave functions which are read in from an aimpac-like wave function description ( .wfn) file (T.A. Keith et al., The AIMPAC95 programs, http://www.chemistry.mcmaster.ca/aimpac, 1995). For multi-determinantal wave functions a generalization of the original .wfn file has been introduced. The new format is completely backwards compatible, adding to the previous structure a description of the configuration interaction (CI) coefficients and the determinants of correlated wave functions. Besides the .wfn file, edf only needs the overlap integrals over all the atomic domains between the molecular orbitals (MO). After the P(n,n,…,n) probabilities are computed, edf obtains from them several magnitudes relevant to chemical bonding theory, such as average electronic populations and localization/delocalization indices. Regarding spin, edf may be used in two ways: with or without a splitting of the P(n,n,…,n) probabilities into α and β spin components. Program summaryProgram title: edf Catalogue identifier: AEAJ_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEAJ_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 5387 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 52 381 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 77 Computer

  14. Distribution of green open space in Malang City based on multispectral data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasyim, A. W.; Hernawan, F. P.

    2017-06-01

    Green open space is one of the land that its existence is quite important in urban areas where the minimum area is set to reach 30% of the total area of the city. Malang which has an area of 110,6 square kilometers, is one of the major cities in East Java Province that is prone to over-land conversion due to development needs. In support of the green space program, calculation of green space is needed precisely so that remote sensing which has high accuracy is now used for measurement of green space. This study aims to analyze the area of green open space in Malang by using Landsat 8 image in 2015. The method used was the vegetation index that is Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). From the study obtained the calculation of green open space was better to use the vegetation index method to avoid the occurrence of misclassification of other types of land use. The results of the calculation of green open space using NDVI found that the area of green open space in Malang City in 2015 reached 39% of the total area.

  15. Dielectric sample with two-layer charge distribution for space charge calibration purposes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbøll, Joachim; Henriksen, Mogens; Rasmussen, C.

    2002-01-01

    In the present paper is described a dielectric test sample with two very narrow concentrations of bulk charges, achieved by two internal electrodes not affecting the acoustical properties of the sample, a fact important for optimal application of most space charge measuring systems. Space charge...

  16. Planck 2015 results. XVIII. Background geometry and topology of the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartolo, N.; Basak, S.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Désert, F.-X.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Feeney, S.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D. L.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; McEwen, J. D.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Peiris, H. V.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pogosyan, D.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, F.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2016-09-01

    Maps of cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and polarization from the 2015 release of Planck data provide the highestquality full-sky view of the surface of last scattering available to date. This enables us to detect possible departures from a globally isotropic cosmology. We present the first searches using CMB polarization for correlations induced by a possible non-trivial topology with a fundamental domain that intersects, or nearly intersects, the last-scattering surface (at comoving distance χrec), both via a direct scan for matched circular patterns at the intersections and by an optimal likelihood calculation for specific topologies. We specialize to flat spaces with cubic toroidal (T3) and slab (T1) topologies, finding that explicit searches for the latter are sensitive to other topologies with antipodal symmetry. These searches yield no detection of a compact topology with a scale below the diameter of the last-scattering surface. The limits on the radius ℛI of the largest sphere inscribed in the fundamental domain (at log-likelihood ratio Δlnℒ > -5 relative to a simply-connected flat Planck best-fit model) are: ℛI > 0.97 χrec for the T3 cubic torus; and ℛI > 0.56 χrec for the T1 slab. The limit for the T3 cubic torus from the matched-circles search is numerically equivalent, ℛI > 0.97 χrec at 99% confidence level from polarization data alone. We also perform a Bayesian search for an anisotropic global Bianchi VIIh geometry. In the non-physical setting, where the Bianchi cosmology is decoupled from the standard cosmology, Planck temperature data favour the inclusion of a Bianchi component with a Bayes factor of at least 2.3 units of log-evidence. However, the cosmological parameters that generate this pattern are in strong disagreement with those found from CMB anisotropy data alone. Fitting the induced polarization pattern for this model to the Planck data requires an amplitude of -0.10 ± 0.04 compared to the value of + 1 if the

  17. Planck 2015 results: XVIII. Background geometry and topology of the Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.

    2016-01-01

    We report that maps of cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and polarization from the 2015 release of Planck data provide the highestquality full-sky view of the surface of last scattering available to date. This enables us to detect possible departures from a globally isotropic cosmology. We present the first searches using CMB polarization for correlations induced by a possible non-trivial topology with a fundamental domain that intersects, or nearly intersects, the last-scattering surface (at comoving distance χ rec ), both via a direct scan for matched circular patterns at the intersections and by an optimal likelihood calculation for specific topologies. We specialize to flat spaces with cubic toroidal (T3) and slab (T1) topologies, finding that explicit searches for the latter are sensitive to other topologies with antipodal symmetry. These searches yield no detection of a compact topology with a scale below the diameter of the last-scattering surface. The limits on the radius R i of the largest sphere inscribed in the fundamental domain (at log-likelihood ratio ΔlnL > -5 relative to a simply-connected flat Planck best-fit model) are: R i > 0.97 χ rec for the T3 cubic torus; and R i > 0.56 χ rec for the T1 slab. The limit for the T3 cubic torus from the matched-circles search is numerically equivalent, R i > 0.97 χ rec at 99% confidence level from polarization data alone. We also perform a Bayesian search for an anisotropic global Bianchi VII h geometry. In the non-physical setting, where the Bianchi cosmology is decoupled from the standard cosmology, Planck temperature data favour the inclusion of a Bianchi component with a Bayes factor of at least 2.3 units of log-evidence. However, the cosmological parameters that generate this pattern are in strong disagreement with those found from CMB anisotropy data alone. Fitting the induced polarization pattern for this model to the Planck data requires an amplitude of -0.10 ± 0.04 compared to the

  18. Distribution function approach to redshift space distortions. Part II: N-body simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumura, Teppei; Seljak, Uroš; McDonald, Patrick; Desjacques, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Measurement of redshift-space distortions (RSD) offers an attractive method to directly probe the cosmic growth history of density perturbations. A distribution function approach where RSD can be written as a sum over density weighted velocity moment correlators has recently been developed. In this paper we use results of N-body simulations to investigate the individual contributions and convergence of this expansion for dark matter. If the series is expanded as a function of powers of μ, cosine of the angle between the Fourier mode and line of sight, then there are a finite number of terms contributing at each order. We present these terms and investigate their contribution to the total as a function of wavevector k. For μ 2 the correlation between density and momentum dominates on large scales. Higher order corrections, which act as a Finger-of-God (FoG) term, contribute 1% at k ∼ 0.015hMpc −1 , 10% at k ∼ 0.05hMpc −1 at z = 0, while for k > 0.15hMpc −1 they dominate and make the total negative. These higher order terms are dominated by density-energy density correlations which contributes negatively to the power, while the contribution from vorticity part of momentum density auto-correlation adds to the total power, but is an order of magnitude lower. For μ 4 term the dominant term on large scales is the scalar part of momentum density auto-correlation, while higher order terms dominate for k > 0.15hMpc −1 . For μ 6 and μ 8 we find it has very little power for k −1 , shooting up by 2–3 orders of magnitude between k −1 and k −1 . We also compare the expansion to the full 2-d P ss (k,μ), as well as to the monopole, quadrupole, and hexadecapole integrals of P ss (k,μ). For these statistics an infinite number of terms contribute and we find that the expansion achieves percent level accuracy for kμ −1 at 6-th order, but breaks down on smaller scales because the series is no longer perturbative. We explore resummation of the terms into Fo

  19. Planck early results. XIII. Statistical properties of extragalactic radio sources in the Planck Early Release Compact Source Catalogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lähteenmäki, A.; Poutanen, T.; Natoli, P.

    2011-01-01

    The data reported in Planck's Early Release Compact Source Catalogue (ERCSC) are exploited to measure the number counts (dN/dS) of extragalactic radio sources at 30, 44, 70, 100, 143 and 217 GHz. Due to the full-sky nature of the catalogue, this measurement extends to the rarest and brightest sou...

  20. Planck intermediate results XXIII. Galactic plane emission components derived from Planck with ancillary data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.

    2015-01-01

    Planck data when combined with ancillary data provide a unique opportunity to separate the diuse emission components of the inner Galaxy.The purpose of the paper is to elucidate the morphology of the various emission components in the strong star-formation region lying inside thesolar radius and ...