WorldWideScience

Sample records for space physics community

  1. Logic for physical space

    Aiello, Marco; Bezhanishvili, Guram; Bloch, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    Since the early days of physics, space has called for means to represent, experiment, and reason about it. Apart from physicists, the concept of space has intrigued also philosophers, mathematicians and, more recently, computer scientists. This longstanding interest has left us with a plethora...

  2. The User Community and a Multi-Mission Data Project: Services, Experiences and Directions of the Space Physics Data Facility

    Fung, Shing F.; Bilitza, D.; Candey, R.; Chimiak, R.; Cooper, John; Fung, Shing; Harris, B.; Johnson R.; King, J.; Kovalick, T.; hide

    2008-01-01

    From a user's perspective, the multi-mission data and orbit services of NASA's Space Physics Data Facility (SPDF) project offer a unique range of important data and services highly complementary to other services presently available or now evolving in the international heliophysics data environment. The VSP (Virtual Space Physics Observatory) service is an active portal to a wide range of distributed data sources. CDAWeb (Coordinate Data Analysis Web) enables plots, listings and file downloads for current data cross the boundaries of missions and instrument types (and now including data from THEMIS and STEREO). SSCWeb, Helioweb and our 3D Animated Orbit Viewer (TIPSOD) provide position data and query logic for most missions currently important to heliophysics science. OMNIWeb with its new extension to 1- and 5-minute resolution provides interplanetary parameters at the Earth's bow shock as a unique value-added data product. SPDF also maintains NASA's CDF (common Data Format) standard and a range of associated tools including translation services. These capabilities are all now available through webservices-based APIs as well as through our direct user interfaces. In this paper, we will demonstrate the latest data and capabilities now supported in these multi-mission services, review the lessons we continue to learn in what science users need and value in this class of services, and discuss out current thinking to the future role and appropriate focus of the SPDF effort in the evolving and increasingly distributed heliophysics data environment.

  3. Space Weather- Physics and Effects

    Bothmer, Volker

    2007-01-01

    This book is a state-of-the-art review on the physics of space weather and on space weather impacts on human technology, including manned spaceflight. With contributions from a team of international experts, this comprehensive work covers all aspects of space weather physical processes, and all known aspects of space hazards from humans, both in space and on Earth. Space Weather - Physics and Effects provides the first comprehensive, scientific background of space storms caused by the sun and its impact on geospace focuses on weather issues that have become vital for the development of nationwide technological infrastructures explains magnetic storms on Earth, including the effects of EUV radiation on the atmosphere is an invaluable aid in establishing real-time weather forecasts details the threat that solar effects might have on modern telecommunication systems, including national power grid systems, aircraft and manned spaceflight.

  4. Learning physical space

    Hasse, Cathrine

    2002-01-01

    The article argues that cultural learning is a useful concept in analysing how neophytes learn from reactions and other forms of social designation. Through the newcomers learning process a concrete physical place takes on new cultural meaning. The specific example deals with first year students...... who have to learn that certain physical places, acts and objects are imbued with a cultural significance as the act of sitting on a chair or wearing a short dress takes on a new symbolic meaning in a cultural context where inclusion and exclusion are a constant concern. By following and analysing what...... is involved in the process of becoming ? in this case the becoming of physicist students ? the moral cultural logic behind in- and exclusion from physical places are established....

  5. Physics of the Space Environment

    Vasyliünas, Vytenis M.

    This book, one in the Cambridge Atmospheric and Space Science Series, joins a growing list of advanced-level textbooks in a field of study and research known under a variety of names: space plasma physics, solar-terrestrial or solar-planetary relations, space weather, or (the official name of the relevant AGU section) space physics and aeronomy. On the basis of graduate courses taught by the author in various departments at the University of Michigan, complete with problems and with appendices of physical constants and mathematical identities, this is indeed a textbook, systematic and severe in its approach. The book is divided into three parts, in length ratios of roughly 6:4:5. Part I, “Theoretical Description of Gases and Plasmas,” starts by writing down Maxwell's equations and the Lorentz transformation (no nonsense about any introductory material of a descriptive or historical nature) and proceeds through particle orbit theory, kinetics, and plasma physics with fluid and MHD approximations to waves, shocks, and energetic particle transport. Part II, “The Upper Atmosphere,” features chapters on the terrestrial upper atmosphere, airglow and aurora, and the ionosphere. Part III, “Sun-Earth Connection,” deals with the Sun, the solar wind, cosmic rays, and the terrestrial magnetosphere. The book thus covers, with two exceptions, just about all the topics of interest to Space Physics and Aeronomy scientists, and then some (the chapter on the Sun, for instance, briefly discusses also topics of the solar interior: thermonuclear energy generation, equilibrium structure, energy transfer, with a page or two on each). One exception reflects a strong geocentric bias: there is not one word in the main text on magnetospheres and ionospheres of other planets and their interaction with the solar wind (they are mentioned in a few problems). The other exception: the chapter on the terrestrial magnetosphere lacks a systematic exposition of the theory of

  6. Cosmic perspectives in space physics

    Biswas, Sukumar

    2000-01-01

    In the early years of the twentieth century, Victor Hess of Germany flew instruments in balloons and so discovered in 1912 that an extra-~errestial radiation of unknown origin is incident on the earth with an almost constant intensity at all times. These penetrating non­ solar radiations which were called Cosmic Rays by Millikan, USA, opened the new frontier of space physics and many leading scientists were attracted to it. At the end of World War II a number of space vehicles, e.g. stratospheric balloons, rockets and satellites were developed. In 1950 and onwards, these vehicles enabled spectacular advances in space physics and space astrophysics. New horizons were opened in the explorations of cosmic rays, the earth's magnetosphere, the Sun and the heliosphere, the moon and the planets. Using space-borne instruments, exciting discoveries were made of stars, and galaxies in the infra-red, ultra violet, x-ray and gamma-ray wavelengths. In this text book these fascinating new findings are presented in depth a...

  7. Space plasma physics stationary processes

    Hasegawa, Akira

    1989-01-01

    During the 30 years of space exploration, important discoveries in the near-earth environment such as the Van Allen belts, the plasmapause, the magnetotail and the bow shock, to name a few, have been made. Coupling between the solar wind and the magnetosphere and energy transfer processes between them are being identified. Space physics is clearly approaching a new era, where the emphasis is being shifted from discoveries to understanding. One way of identifying the new direction may be found in the recent contribution of atmospheric science and oceanography to the development of fluid dynamics. Hydrodynamics is a branch of classical physics in which important discoveries have been made in the era of Rayleigh, Taylor, Kelvin and Helmholtz. However, recent progress in global measurements using man-made satellites and in large scale computer simulations carried out by scientists in the fields of atmospheric science and oceanography have created new activities in hydrodynamics and produced important new discover...

  8. Physics of Space Plasma Activity

    Cramer, N F

    2007-01-01

    This book provides a timely review of our present understanding of plasma phenomena in magnetized terrestrial and solar space plasmas. The author's emphasis is on the fluid and particle modeling and interpretation of observed active processes in space plasmas, i.e. 'the physical background of large plasma eruptions in space'. It is somewhat alarming for a plasma physicist to read that an emphasis on processes in spatially inhomogeneous plasmas means that the work '... excludes a considerable fraction of the available methods in space plasma physics, such as the theory of waves, instabilities and wave particle interactions on a homogeneous background', particularly in light of the fact that much of our knowledge of these plasmas is derived from observations of such waves. However, it is clear on reading the book that such a restriction is not a disadvantage, but allows the author to concentrate on the main theme of the book, namely the use of fluid and particle pictures to model the equilibrium and active states of space plasmas. There are many other books which cover the wave aspects of space plasmas, and would complement this book. The book's coverage is based on the extensive and profound research of the author and his colleagues in the area of fluid and particle modeling of space plasma structures. After an introduction to the physical setting of active plasmas, and a necessarily concise, but effective, discussion of the fluid and particle models to be used, the steady states of the magnetized plasmas of interest are treated, including the magnetosphere, solar plasmas and current sheets. Next the dynamics of unstable states is covered, including MHD and tearing instabilities, and nonlinear aspects, with a detailed discussion of magnetic reconnection. Finally, the models are applied to magnetospheric and solar observations. The book is attractively written and produced, and this reviewer managed to find a minimum number of errors. A particularly attractive

  9. Ongoing Space Physics - Astrophysics Connections

    Eichler, David

    2005-01-01

    I review several ongoing connections between space physics and astrophysics: a) Measurements of energetic particle spectra have confirmed theoretical prediction of the highest energy to which shocks can accelerate particles, and this has direct bearing on the origin of the highest energy cosmic rays. b) Mass ejection in solar flares may help us understand photon ejection in the giant flares of magnetar outbursts. c) Measurements of electron heat fluxes in the solar wind can help us understand...

  10. Exploring Engaged Spaces in Community-University Partnership

    Davies, Ceri; Gant, Nick; Millican, Juliet; Wolff, David; Prosser, Bethan; Laing, Stuart; Hart, Angie

    2016-01-01

    The Community University Partnership Programme (CUPP) has been operating at the University of Brighton for the past 10 years. This article explores the different types of space we think need to exist to support a variety of partnership and engaged work. We therefore explore our understandings of shared or "engaged" spaces as a physical,…

  11. The Physical Activity and Redesigned Community Spaces (PARCS Study: Protocol of a natural experiment to investigate the impact of citywide park redesign and renovation

    Terry T. K. Huang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The built environment plays a critical role in promoting physical activity and health. The association between parks, as a key attribute of the built environment, and physical activity, however, remains inconclusive. This project leverages a natural experiment opportunity to assess the impact of the Community Parks Initiative (CPI, a citywide park redesign and renovation effort in New York City, on physical activity, park usage, psychosocial and mental health, and community wellbeing. Methods The project will use a longitudinal design with matched controls. Thirty intervention park neighborhoods are socio-demographically matched to 20 control park neighborhoods. The study will investigate whether improvements in physical activity, park usage, psychosocial and mental health, and community wellbeing are observed from baseline to 3 years post-renovation among residents in intervention vs. control neighborhoods. Discussion This study represents a rare opportunity to provide robust evidence to further our understanding of the complex relationship between parks and health. Findings will inform future investments in health-oriented urban design policies and offer evidence for addressing health disparities through built environment strategies.

  12. Community Factors Influencing Birth Spacing among Married ...

    The significance of community-level demographic and fertility norms, gender norms, economic prosperity, and family planning behaviors demonstrate the broad influence of community variables on birth spacing outcomes. This analysis highlights the importance of moving beyond individual and household-level ...

  13. Book Review: Physics of the Space Environment

    Holman, Gordon D.

    1998-01-01

    Space physics, narrowly defined as the study of Earth's plasma environment, has had an identity crisis throughout its relatively brief existence as a discipline. - The limited and often serendipitous nature of the data requires the research style of an astrophysicist. However, the in situ observations and instrumentation that are central to the field are quite different from the remote observations and instrumentation of astronomy. Compared to neutral gases, the wealth of additional phenomena and the complexity associated with magnetized plasmas and their interaction leaves little in common with the atmospheric scientist. Although the phenomena studied in space physics are ultimately important to astrophysics, the intimate measurements of plasma properties provide a greater commonality with the plasma physicist. Space physics has experienced something of a renaissance in the past few years. The interdisciplinary umbrella "Solar-Terrestrial Physics" or "Sun-Earth Connection" has stimulated an increasing interaction of space physicists, solar physicists and atmospheric scientists. Spectacular images of the Sun from Yohkoh and SOHO and solar-activity-related damage to communications satellites have increased the public's awareness of and interest in "space weather". The dangers of energetic particles and currents in space to technological systems and to future space exploration have elevated space physics observations from interesting scientific measurements that can be included on a space probe to critically important measurements that must be made.

  14. Transport processes in space physics and astrophysics

    Zank, Gary P

    2014-01-01

    Transport Processes in Space Physics and Astrophysics' is aimed at graduate level students to provide the necessary mathematical and physics background to understand the transport of gases, charged particle gases, energetic charged particles, turbulence, and radiation in an astrophysical and space physics context. Subjects emphasized in the work include collisional and collisionless processes in gases (neutral or plasma), analogous processes in turbulence fields and radiation fields, and allows for a simplified treatment of the statistical description of the system. A systematic study that addresses the common tools at a graduate level allows students to progress to a point where they can begin their research in a variety of fields within space physics and astrophysics. This book is for graduate students who expect to complete their research in an area of plasma space physics or plasma astrophysics. By providing a broad synthesis in several areas of transport theory and modeling, the work also benefits resear...

  15. Hearts, Minds, and the Library's Physical Space

    Huwe, Terence K.

    2010-01-01

    The digital era has revolutionized society's perception of space. Even so, against this backdrop, the struggle to preserve and enhance library space is a battle for the hearts and minds of the communities. It is ongoing, and it will never end. In this article, the author explores two characteristics of successful drives to revitalize physical…

  16. Transforming community access to space science models

    MacNeice, Peter; Hesse, Michael; Kuznetsova, Maria; Maddox, Marlo; Rastaetter, Lutz; Berrios, David; Pulkkinen, Antti

    2012-04-01

    Researching and forecasting the ever changing space environment (often referred to as space weather) and its influence on humans and their activities are model-intensive disciplines. This is true because the physical processes involved are complex, but, in contrast to terrestrial weather, the supporting observations are typically sparse. Models play a vital role in establishing a physically meaningful context for interpreting limited observations, testing theory, and producing both nowcasts and forecasts. For example, with accurate forecasting of hazardous space weather conditions, spacecraft operators can place sensitive systems in safe modes, and power utilities can protect critical network components from damage caused by large currents induced in transmission lines by geomagnetic storms.

  17. Flat space physics from holography

    Bousso, Raphael

    2004-01-01

    We point out that aspects of quantum mechanics can be derived from the holographic principle, using only a perturbative limit of classical general relativity. In flat space, the covariant entropy bound reduces to the Bekenstein bound. The latter does not contain Newton's constant and cannot operate via gravitational back reaction. Instead, it is protected by - and in this sense, predicts - the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. (author)

  18. Physical Fock space of tensionless strings

    Antoniadis, Ignatios; Antoniadis, Ignatios; Savvidy, George

    2004-01-01

    We study the physical Fock space of the tensionless string theory with perimeter action which has pure massless spectrum. The states are classified by the Wigner's little group for massless particles. The ground state contains infinite many massless fields of fixed helicity, the excitation levels realize CSR representations. We demonstrate that the first and the second excitation levels are physical null states.

  19. Philosophy of physics space and time

    Maudlin, Tim

    2012-01-01

    This concise book introduces nonphysicists to the core philosophical issues surrounding the nature and structure of space and time, and is also an ideal resource for physicists interested in the conceptual foundations of space-time theory. Tim Maudlin's broad historical overview examines Aristotelian and Newtonian accounts of space and time, and traces how Galileo's conceptions of relativity and space-time led to Einstein's special and general theories of relativity. Maudlin explains special relativity using a geometrical approach, emphasizing intrinsic space-time structure rather than coordinate systems or reference frames. He gives readers enough detail about special relativity to solve concrete physical problems while presenting general relativity in a more qualitative way, with an informative discussion of the geometrization of gravity, the bending of light, and black holes. Additional topics include the Twins Paradox, the physical aspects of the Lorentz-FitzGerald contraction, the constancy of the speed...

  20. Physical Origins of Space Weather Impacts: Open Physics Questions

    Lanzerotti, L. J.

    2011-12-01

    Beginning with the era of development of electrical telegraph systems in the early 19th century, physical processes in the space environment on the Sun, in the interplanetary medium, and around Earth have influenced the design and operations of ever-increasing and sophisticated technical systems, both in space and on the ground. Understanding of Earth's space environment has increased enormously in the last century and one-half. Nevertheless, many of the physical processes that produced effects on early cable and wireless technologies continue to plague modern-day systems. And as new technologies are developed for improved communications, surveillance, navigation, and conditions for human space flight, the solar-terrestrial environment often offers surprises to their safe, secure and uninterrupted operations. This talk will address some of the challenges that I see to the successful operations of some modern-day technical systems that are posed by significant deficiencies of understanding of physical processes operating from the Sun to the Earth.

  1. Space Matters: Physical-Digital and Physical-Virtual Codesign in inSpace

    Reilly, D.; Voida, S.; McKeon, M.

    2010-01-01

    The physical and social cues on which we rely during collaboration can vanish in the digital realm. inSpace focuses on physical-digital codesign, leveraging an approach grounded in social behavior patterns.......The physical and social cues on which we rely during collaboration can vanish in the digital realm. inSpace focuses on physical-digital codesign, leveraging an approach grounded in social behavior patterns....

  2. Dual Vector Spaces and Physical Singularities

    Rowlands, Peter

    Though we often refer to 3-D vector space as constructed from points, there is no mechanism from within its definition for doing this. In particular, space, on its own, cannot accommodate the singularities that we call fundamental particles. This requires a commutative combination of space as we know it with another 3-D vector space, which is dual to the first (in a physical sense). The combination of the two spaces generates a nilpotent quantum mechanics/quantum field theory, which incorporates exact supersymmetry and ultimately removes the anomalies due to self-interaction. Among the many natural consequences of the dual space formalism are half-integral spin for fermions, zitterbewegung, Berry phase and a zero norm Berwald-Moor metric for fermionic states.

  3. RTEMP: Exploring an end-to-end, agnostic platform for multidisciplinary real-time analytics in the space physics community and beyond

    Chaddock, D.; Donovan, E.; Spanswick, E.; Jackel, B. J.

    2014-12-01

    Large-scale, real-time, sensor-driven analytics are a highly effective set of tools in many research environments; however, the barrier to entry is expensive and the learning curve is steep. These systems need to operate efficiently from end to end, with the key aspects being data transmission, acquisition, management and organization, and retrieval. When building a generic multidisciplinary platform, acquisition and data management needs to be designed with scalability and flexibility as the primary focus. Additionally, in order to leverage current sensor web technologies, the integration of common sensor data standards (ie. SensorML and SWE Services) should be supported. Perhaps most important, researchers should be able to get started and integrate the platform into their set of research tools as easily and quickly as possible. The largest issue with current platforms is that the sensor data must be formed and described using the previously mentioned standards. As useful as these standards are for organizing data, they are cumbersome to adopt, often restrictive, and are required to be geospatially-driven. Our solution, RTEMP (Real-time Environment Monitoring Platform), is a real-time analytics platform with over ten years and an estimated two million dollars of investment. It has been developed for our continuously expanding requirements of operating and building remote sensors and supporting equipment for space physics research. A key benefit of our approach is RTEMP's ability to manage agnostic data. This allows data that flows through the system to be structured in any way that best addresses the needs of the sensor operators and data users, enabling extensive flexibility and streamlined development and research. Here we begin with an overview of RTEMP and how it is structured. Additionally, we will showcase the ways that we are using RTEMP and how it is being adopted by researchers in an increasingly broad range of other research fields. We will lay out a

  4. On the structure of physical space

    Wisnivesky, D

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we develop a theory based on the postulate that the environment where physical phenomena take place is the space of four complex parameters of the linear group of transformations. Using these parameters as fundamental building blocks we construct ordinary space-time and the internal space. Lorentz invariance is built in the definition of external space, while the symmetry of the internal space, S(1)*SU(2) results as a consequence of the identification of the external coordinates. Thus, special relativity and the electroweak interaction symmetry ensue from the properties of the basic building blocks of physical space. Since internal and external space are derived from a common structure, there is no need to bring into the theory any additional hypothesis to account for the microscopic nature of the internal space, nor to introduce symmetry breaking mechanisms that would normally be required to force a splitting of the internal and external symmetries. As an outcome of the existence of a basic str...

  5. Particle physics software aids space and medicine

    Pia, M G

    2002-01-01

    Geant4 is a showcase example of technology transfer from particle physics to other fields such as space and medical science. Geant4 was first used for space applications by ESA in 1999, when ESA and NASA each launched an X-ray telescope. Geant4's extended set of physics models, which handle both electromagnetic and hadronic interactions, can be used to address a range of medical applications from conventional photon-beam radiotherapy to brachytherapy (using radioactive sources), hadron therapy and boron neutron capture therapy. The tools for describing geometries, materials and electromagnetic fields can precisely model diverse real-life configurations.

  6. Physics parameter space of tokamak ignition devices

    Selcow, E.C.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Uckan, N.A.; Houlberg, W.A.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a study to explore the physics parameter space of tokamak ignition experiments. A new physics systems code has been developed to perform the study. This code performs a global plasma analysis using steady-state, two-fluid, energy-transport models. In this paper, we discuss the models used in the code and their application to the analysis of compact ignition experiments. 8 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  7. Network Community Detection on Metric Space

    Suman Saha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Community detection in a complex network is an important problem of much interest in recent years. In general, a community detection algorithm chooses an objective function and captures the communities of the network by optimizing the objective function, and then, one uses various heuristics to solve the optimization problem to extract the interesting communities for the user. In this article, we demonstrate the procedure to transform a graph into points of a metric space and develop the methods of community detection with the help of a metric defined for a pair of points. We have also studied and analyzed the community structure of the network therein. The results obtained with our approach are very competitive with most of the well-known algorithms in the literature, and this is justified over the large collection of datasets. On the other hand, it can be observed that time taken by our algorithm is quite less compared to other methods and justifies the theoretical findings.

  8. Is physical space unique or optional

    Ekstein, H.; Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 13 - Marseille

    1975-02-01

    There are two concepts of the physical space-time. One, S(F), is that of a fixed arena in which events take place. The other S(D), is that of a space-time shaped by events. The second depends on the state (initial conditions) or on the external field, the first does not. The main assertions of the present paper are: 1) the fixed space-time S(F) is neither incompatibles with nor made superfluous, by Einstein's theory. S(F) is experimentally explorable, unique, and probably identical with Minkowski space M. 2) The dynamical space S(D) is largely optional. It can be chosen to be M, but the natural choice is Einstein's pseudo-Riemanian manifold [fr

  9. Physical education and physical culture in the coloured community ...

    A scienti fic-historical li terature review was undertaken in order to place the history of physical education and physical culture in the Coloured community at the epicenter of research. This review was extracted and adapted from research done in preparation for a doctoral dissertation. A broad range of approaches, from ...

  10. Aligning Pedagogy with Physical Learning Spaces

    van Merriënboer, Jeroen J. G.; McKenney, Susan; Cullinan, Dominic; Heuer, Jos

    2017-01-01

    The quality of education suffers when pedagogies are not aligned with physical learning spaces. For example, the architecture of the triple-decker Victorian schools across England fits the information transmission model that was dominant in the industrial age, but makes it more difficult to implement student-centred pedagogies that better fit a…

  11. Physical models on discrete space and time

    Lorente, M.

    1986-01-01

    The idea of space and time quantum operators with a discrete spectrum has been proposed frequently since the discovery that some physical quantities exhibit measured values that are multiples of fundamental units. This paper first reviews a number of these physical models. They are: the method of finite elements proposed by Bender et al; the quantum field theory model on discrete space-time proposed by Yamamoto; the finite dimensional quantum mechanics approach proposed by Santhanam et al; the idea of space-time as lattices of n-simplices proposed by Kaplunovsky et al; and the theory of elementary processes proposed by Weizsaecker and his colleagues. The paper then presents a model proposed by the authors and based on the (n+1)-dimensional space-time lattice where fundamental entities interact among themselves 1 to 2n in order to build up a n-dimensional cubic lattice as a ground field where the physical interactions take place. The space-time coordinates are nothing more than the labelling of the ground field and take only discrete values. 11 references

  12. Physical Activity among Community College Students

    Young, Sarah J.; Sturts, Jill R.; Ross, Craig M.

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study provides insight into the perceived physical activity levels of students attending a Midwestern 2-year community college. Over 60% of respondents were classified as overweight or obese based on a BMI measurement. The majority of respondents were not participating regularly in physical activity to gain any health benefits,…

  13. Strategy for the Explorer program for solar and space physics

    1984-01-01

    Contents include: executive summary; the Explorer program - background and current status; strategy - level of activity; solar-terrestrial research (solar physics, space plasma physics, and upper atmospheric physics)

  14. Cyberspace Versus Citizenship: IT and emerging non space communities

    S.E. Little

    1993-11-01

    Full Text Available In 1964 Melvin Webber challenged the notions of community and centrality used in urban studies by demonstrating that "community without propinquity" was emerging within certain social networks. He argued that individuals were enmeshed in an overlapping range of groups, and that increasingly these social networks were not limited by physical or geographical location. His definition of community acknowledges a differentiated range of "non-place" cultures. It reflects a change to a process, rather than product oriented view of urban form, triggered in part by the influence of general systems theory. Webber influenced and was influenced by the emergence of an orientation towards non-physical aspects of community, and a participatory approach to design which emerged strongly during the seventies. Reexamination of Webber's work in the light of current information technology offers some insight into the nature of the globalisation of the world economy, and consequent impacts on nationality and sovereignty. The technologies that will be commonplace by the end of the century can both empower and disempower and it will be necessary to reconsider our current notions of both citizenship and of access to and control of such crucial resources. Opportunities offered by IT for marginalised or peripheral groups, whether at the level of nation, region or local community, will challenge existing definitions of centre and periphery. The moral panics surrounding such activities as "hacking" and its supporting "cyberpunk" sub culture demonstrate a growing awareness of the importance of emerging non-space communities.

  15. Physics Research on the International Space Station

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is orbiting Earth at an altitude of around 400 km. It has been manned since November 2000 and currently has a permanent crew of six. On-board ISS science is done in a wide field of sciences, from fundamental physics to biology and human physiology. Many of the experiments utilize the unique conditions of weightlessness, but also the views of space and the Earth are exploited. ESA’s (European Space Agency) ELIPS (European Programme Life and Physical sciences in Space) manages some 150 on-going and planned experiments for ISS, which is expected to be utilized at least to 2020. This presentation will give a short introduction to ISS, followed by an overview of the science field within ELIPS and some resent results. The emphasis, however, will be on ISS experiments which are close to the research performed at CERN. Silicon strip detectors like ALTEA are measuring the flux of ions inside the station. ACES (Atomic Clock Ensemble in Space) will provide unprecedented global ti...

  16. Space Drive Physics: Introduction and Next Steps

    Millis, M. G.

    Research toward the visionary goal of propellantless ``space drives'' is introduced, covering key physics issues and a listing of roughly 2-dozen approaches. The targeted advantage of a space drive is to circumvent the propellant constraints of rockets and the maneuvering limits of light sails by using the interactions between the spacecraft and its surrounding space for propulsion. At present, the scientific foundations from which to engineer a space drive have not been discovered and, objectively, might be impossible. Although no propulsion breakthroughs appear imminent, the subject has matured to where the relevant questions have been broached and are beginning to be answered. The critical make-break issues include; conservation of momentum, uncertain sources of reaction mass, and the net-external thrusting requirement. Note: space drives are not necessarily faster- than-light devices. Speed limits are a separate, unanswered issue. Relevant unsolved physics includes; the sources and mechanisms of inertial frames, coupling of gravitation and electromagnetism, and the nature of the quantum vacuum. The propulsion approaches span mostly stages 1 through 3 of the scientific method (defining the problem, collecting data, and articulating hypotheses), while some have matured to stage 4 (testing hypotheses). Nonviable approaches include `stiction drives,' `gyroscopic antigravity,' and `lifters.' No attempt is made to gauge the prospects of the remaining approaches. Instead, a list of next-step research questions is derived from the examination of these goals, unknowns, and concepts.

  17. Laboratory space physics: Investigating the physics of space plasmas in the laboratory

    Howes, Gregory G.

    2018-05-01

    Laboratory experiments provide a valuable complement to explore the fundamental physics of space plasmas without the limitations inherent to spacecraft measurements. Specifically, experiments overcome the restriction that spacecraft measurements are made at only one (or a few) points in space, enable greater control of the plasma conditions and applied perturbations, can be reproducible, and are orders of magnitude less expensive than launching spacecraft. Here, I highlight key open questions about the physics of space plasmas and identify the aspects of these problems that can potentially be tackled in laboratory experiments. Several past successes in laboratory space physics provide concrete examples of how complementary experiments can contribute to our understanding of physical processes at play in the solar corona, solar wind, planetary magnetospheres, and the outer boundary of the heliosphere. I present developments on the horizon of laboratory space physics, identifying velocity space as a key new frontier, highlighting new and enhanced experimental facilities, and showcasing anticipated developments to produce improved diagnostics and innovative analysis methods. A strategy for future laboratory space physics investigations will be outlined, with explicit connections to specific fundamental plasma phenomena of interest.

  18. High-Latitude Space Plasma Physics

    Hultqvist, B.; Hagfors, T.

    1983-01-01

    This book constitutes the proceedings of the Nobel Symposium No. 54 on High Latitude Magnetospheric/Ionospheric Plasma Physics. The main purpose of the symposium was to prepare for the European research effort in space plasma physics in the mid-1980's, in which two major constituents are the European Incoherent Scatter Association (EISCAT) facilities and the Swedish satellite Viking. The physics of the high-latitude ionosphere and how this part of near space is affected by the properties of the solar wind and the interplanetary magnetic field are explored. A detailed discussion is provided on high-latitude magnetospheric physics at altitudes of 1-2 earth radii, the main focus of the Viking project. Specific topics considered include the role of the auroral ionosphere in magnetospheric substorms, the low altitude cleft, ionospheric modification and stimulated emissions, plasma physics on auroral field lines, solar wind-magnetosphere energy coupling, cold plasma distribution above a few thousand kilometers at high latitudes, hot electrons in and above the auroral ionosphere, the correlation of auroral kilometric radiation with visual auroras and with Birkeland currents, electrostatic waves in the topside ionosphere, solitary waves and double layers, and an Alfven wave model of auroral arcs

  19. Drawing minority students into the physics community

    Gueye, Paul

    2013-03-01

    In the past few years, the number of African-American undergraduate physics students in the US had a steady decrease with dramatic consequences at many physics departments within Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs). A similar trend seems to also appear at the graduate level. HBCUs have been known to graduate more than 50% of undergraduate physics majors within this community for many years, a role that is now evaporating. The US African-American community cannot lose the historical and sometimes unnoticed impact of HBCUs in the physics community. The ability for these institutions to recruit, maintain and graduate students with the highest degree has turned a corner and is endangered with the recent closings of many programs. We not only must reverse this trend but also implement a sustainable growth for the future. This is an enormous task for the education community. While there are many outstanding and successful programs that have been developed over the years to target particular areas ranging from early K-12 exposure to producing MS and PhD students, each community/culture is different: one cannot transport someone else's experience and/or program and infuse it into another community. Moreover, the focus must now be comprehensive and not anymore single-centered. This talk will outline some ongoing efforts within the National Society of Black Physicists aimed at infusing a global approach to this problem that targets school districts (K-12) and after school programs, undergraduate and graduate programs within HBCUs, and the larger physic and scientific community.

  20. Towards testing quantum physics in deep space

    Kaltenbaek, Rainer

    2016-07-01

    MAQRO is a proposal for a medium-sized space mission to use the unique environment of deep space in combination with novel developments in space technology and quantum technology to test the foundations of physics. The goal is to perform matter-wave interferometry with dielectric particles of up to 10^{11} atomic mass units and testing for deviations from the predictions of quantum theory. Novel techniques from quantum optomechanics with optically trapped particles are to be used for preparing the test particles for these experiments. The core elements of the instrument are placed outside the spacecraft and insulated from the hot spacecraft via multiple thermal shields allowing to achieve cryogenic temperatures via passive cooling and ultra-high vacuum levels by venting to deep space. In combination with low force-noise microthrusters and inertial sensors, this allows realizing an environment well suited for long coherence times of macroscopic quantum superpositions and long integration times. Since the original proposal in 2010, significant progress has been made in terms of technology development and in refining the instrument design. Based on these new developments, we submitted/will submit updated versions of the MAQRO proposal in 2015 and 2016 in response to Cosmic-Vision calls of ESA for a medium-sized mission. A central goal has been to address and overcome potentially critical issues regarding the readiness of core technologies and to provide realistic concepts for further technology development. We present the progress on the road towards realizing this ground-breaking mission harnessing deep space in novel ways for testing the foundations of physics, a technology pathfinder for macroscopic quantum technology and quantum optomechanics in space.

  1. Improving standard C++ for the physics community

    Paterno, M.; Brown, W.E.; /Fermilab

    2004-12-01

    As Fermilab's representatives to the C++ standardization effort, we have been promoting directions of special interest to the physics community. We here report on selected recent developments toward the next revision, informally denoted C++0x , of the C++ Standard.

  2. News Workshop: Getting the measure of space Conference: Respecting the evidence receives a great response Event: Communities meet to stimulate science in Wales Teachers: A day to polish up on A-level practicals Development: Exhilarating physics CPD day is a hit in London Lecture: The universe as a classroom

    2013-07-01

    Workshop: Getting the measure of space Conference: Respecting the evidence receives a great response Event: Communities meet to stimulate science in Wales Teachers: A day to polish up on A-level practicals Development: Exhilarating physics CPD day is a hit in London Lecture: The universe as a classroom

  3. Space instrumentation: physics and astronomy in harmony?

    Aderin, M

    2008-01-01

    Surrey Satellite Technology Limited was formed as a company in 1985 and has been involved in 23 small satellite missions, making it the most successful and experienced small satellite supplier in the world. The challenge of getting a satellite into space takes a dedicated multidisciplinary team of physicists and engineers working together to achieve a common goal. In this paper the author will look at the breakdown of the teams for a number of space projects including NigeriaSAT1; one of the satellites that make up the Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC), which produces high quality commercial images for monitoring agriculture and the environment as well as dedicating a proportion of it's time to disaster monitoring. Commercial projects like this will be contrasted to instruments such as the Integral Field Unit (IFU) for the NIRSpec instrument on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST is the replacement for the Hubble Space telescope). Although both projects have been running through commercial contracts at SSTL, how does the final goal of the instrument influence the synergy between the physics and the engineering needed to make it, and what, if any, economic differences are seen?

  4. Space charge physics for particle accelerators

    Hofmann, Ingo

    2017-01-01

    Understanding and controlling the physics of space charge effects in linear and circular proton and ion accelerators are essential to their operation, and to future high-intensity facilities. This book presents the status quo of this field from a theoretical perspective, compares analytical approaches with multi-particle computer simulations and – where available – with experiments. It discusses fundamental concepts of phase space motion, matched beams and modes of perturbation, along with mathematical models of analysis – from envelope to Vlasov-Poisson equations. The main emphasis is on providing a systematic description of incoherent and coherent resonance phenomena; parametric instabilities and sum modes; mismatch and halo; error driven resonances; and emittance exchange due to anisotropy, as well as the role of Landau damping. Their distinctive features are elaborated in the context of numerous sample simulations, and their potential impacts on beam quality degradation and beam loss are discussed....

  5. Physics of untied rotating space elevators

    Knudsen, Steven; Golubović, Leonardo

    2015-12-01

    We explore fundamental aspects of the physics of a novel class of dynamical systems, Rotating Space Elevators (RSE) (L. Golubović, S. Knudsen, Europhys. Lett. 86, 34001 (2009) and S. Knudsen, L. Golubović, Eur. Phys. J. Plus 129, 242 (2014)). An RSE is a loopy string reaching deep into outer space. The floppy RSE loop executes a double rotating motion due to which the objects sliding along the RSE string (climbers) can be transported far away from the Earth's surface without using internal engines or propulsion. By extensive numerical simulations and analytic calculations, this study addresses an interesting and provocative question at the very heart of the RSE physics: What will happen if one unties the rotating space elevator from the Earth? We find that the untied RSE exhibits rich nonlinear dynamics. In particular, strikingly, we find that the untied RSE may still behave as if it were tied to the planet. Such a quasi-tied yet untied RSE remains close to the Earth and exhibits persistent shape and enduring double rotating motion. Moreover, the climbers sliding along such a quasi-tied RSE move in much the same way as they do along a tied RSE. Under some conditions however we find that the untied RSE may undergo an instability leading it to a dynamical state in which the RSE hops well above the Earth surface. By changing the untied RSE parameters, the maximum height reached during hopping may be made to diverge. Such an untied RSE unbinds from the Earth to infinity, i.e., to interplanetary space.

  6. Appreciation of the 2015 JGR Space Physics Peer Reviewers

    Liemohn, Michael W.; Balikhin, Michael; Kepko, Larry; Rodger, Alan; Wang, Yuming

    2016-01-01

    The Editors of the Journal of Geophysical Research Space Physics are deeply indebted to the many people among the research community that serve this journal through peer review. The journal could not exist without the time and effort invested by the community through this voluntary activity, providing expert evaluations and thoughtful assessments of the work of others. In 2015, the journal had 1506 scientists contribute to the process with at least one peer review, for a total of 3575 reviews completed, including additional reviews of resubmitted manuscripts. There were 277 reviewers that contributed four or more reports in 2015. The average number of reviews per referee in 2015 was, therefore, 2.4. Note that the total number of manuscript final decisions (i.e., accept or reject) for Journal of Geophysical Research (JGR) Space Physics was 1147 in 2015. Of this, 774 were accepted and 373 were declined, for an acceptance rate of 67% last year. If the 1334 "revision" decisions are included in the tally, then the total number of decisions made in 2015 was 2481. Working out the arithmetic, it means that on average, a manuscript gets about 1.2 revision decisions before a final accept-or-reject decision. This explains the 3.1 average number of reviews per manuscript throughout each paper's lifetime in the submission-revision editorial process. We are pleased and happy that the research community is willing and able to devote their resources toward this service endeavor. We appreciate each and every one of you that helped maintain the high quality of papers in JGR Space Physics last year. We look forward to another excellent year working with all of you through the year ahead.

  7. Community wide interventions for increasing physical activity.

    Baker, Philip R A; Francis, Daniel P; Soares, Jesus; Weightman, Alison L; Foster, Charles

    2015-01-05

    Multi-strategic community wide interventions for physical activity are increasingly popular but their ability to achieve population level improvements is unknown. To evaluate the effects of community wide, multi-strategic interventions upon population levels of physical activity. We searched the Cochrane Public Health Group Segment of the Cochrane Register of Studies,The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, MEDLINE in Process, EMBASE, CINAHL, LILACS, PsycINFO, ASSIA, the British Nursing Index, Chinese CNKI databases, EPPI Centre (DoPHER, TRoPHI), ERIC, HMIC, Sociological Abstracts, SPORT Discus, Transport Database and Web of Science (Science Citation Index, Social Sciences Citation Index, Conference Proceedings Citation Index). We also scanned websites of the EU Platform on Diet, Physical Activity and Health; Health-Evidence.org; the International Union for Health Promotion and Education; the NIHR Coordinating Centre for Health Technology (NCCHTA); the US Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and NICE and SIGN guidelines. Reference lists of all relevant systematic reviews, guidelines and primary studies were searched and we contacted experts in the field. The searches were updated to 16 January 2014, unrestricted by language or publication status. Cluster randomised controlled trials, randomised controlled trials, quasi-experimental designs which used a control population for comparison, interrupted time-series studies, and prospective controlled cohort studies were included. Only studies with a minimum six-month follow up from the start of the intervention to measurement of outcomes were included. Community wide interventions had to comprise at least two broad strategies aimed at physical activity for the whole population. Studies which randomised individuals from the same community were excluded. At least two review authors independently extracted the data and assessed the risk of bias. Each study was assessed for the setting, the number of included components

  8. Sacred Space in Community settlement of Kudus Kulon, Central Java, Indonesia

    Budi Sardjono, Agung; Rochma Harani, Arnis

    2017-12-01

    The sacred space becomes an important part of the spatial layout of Javanese society, as well as in most houses of the archipelago. This space is related to religious activities, highly respected and usually located in the main place. Kudus Kulon community is a part of Javanese culture in the northern coastal area of Java. Known as a devout Muslim society, sacred space in Kudus Kulon community house becomes an important thing to understand the culture of living in society. The research was conducted by looking at the religious activities of the community and how the space of activity is realized. The research was conducted by qualitative research method. In the Kudus Kulon community, sacred spaces are available in the house itself, in the community grup of houses, and around Kudus Kulon area. In every house, the sacred space can be found in Gedongan and extends to Dalem. In the community group of houses, the sacred space can be found in the neighbourhood praying area, while In Kudus Kulon area, it can be found in Mosque complex and Tower tomb. Physically sacred space is realized by raising the floor height of the space around it. In architectural view, the sacred space is seen on the elevation of the roof or roof angle. Spatially the sacred space occupies a central position and visually represented by a vertical orientation.

  9. Space Physics Data Facility Web Services

    Candey, Robert M.; Harris, Bernard T.; Chimiak, Reine A.

    2005-01-01

    The Space Physics Data Facility (SPDF) Web services provides a distributed programming interface to a portion of the SPDF software. (A general description of Web services is available at http://www.w3.org/ and in many current software-engineering texts and articles focused on distributed programming.) The SPDF Web services distributed programming interface enables additional collaboration and integration of the SPDF software system with other software systems, in furtherance of the SPDF mission to lead collaborative efforts in the collection and utilization of space physics data and mathematical models. This programming interface conforms to all applicable Web services specifications of the World Wide Web Consortium. The interface is specified by a Web Services Description Language (WSDL) file. The SPDF Web services software consists of the following components: 1) A server program for implementation of the Web services; and 2) A software developer s kit that consists of a WSDL file, a less formal description of the interface, a Java class library (which further eases development of Java-based client software), and Java source code for an example client program that illustrates the use of the interface.

  10. Girls InSpace project: A new space physics outreach initiative.

    Abe Pacini, A.; Tegbaru, D.; Max, A., Sr.

    2017-12-01

    We present here the concept and state-of-art of the new space physics youth education and outreach initiative called "Girls InSpace project". The project goal is to spread quality scientific information to underrepresented groups, motivate girls in STEM and promote gender equality in the Space Physics area. Initially, the "Girls InSpace project" will be available in two languages (Portuguese and English) aiming to reach out to the youth of Brazil, United States, Nigeria, South Africa, Ethiopia and Angola. Eventually, the material will be translated to French and Spanish, focusing on French-speaking countries in Africa and Latin America. The project spans a collection of four books about a group of young girls and their adventures (always related to the sky and simultaneously introducing earth and space science concepts). Ancillary content such as a webpage, mobile applications and lesson plans are also in development. The books were written by a Space Physicist PhD woman, illustrated by a Brazilian young artist and commented by senior female scientists, creating positive role models for the next generation of girls in STEM. The story lines were drawn around the selected topics of astronomy and space physics, introducing scientific information to the target readers (girls from 8-13 years old) and enhancing their curiosity and critical thinking. The books instill the readers to explore the available extra web-content (with images, videos, interviews with scientists, real space data, coding and deeper scientific information) and game apps (with Virtual Reality components and real space images). Moreover, for teachers K-12, a collection of lesson plans will be made available, aiming to facilitate scientific content discussed in the books and inside classroom environments. Gender bias in STEM reported earlier this year in Nature and based on a study of the American Geophysical Union's member database showed a competitive disadvantage for women in the Earth and Space

  11. A Preliminary Study on Connectivity and Perceived Values of Community Green Spaces

    Sohyun Park

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Green spaces in residential communities are important yet understudied features of the urban ecological system. While large urban parks and remnant wildlands in urban areas tend to receive public attention from conservation and management perspectives, less is known about the importance of spatial and ecological characteristics of the community-scale green space. This study investigates natural elements in four planned communities in the Phoenix metropolitan area, Arizona; two of which represent conventional types of neighborhoods and two which exemplify community development type with a proclaimed vision of sustainability. These distinct types of communities, which illustrate variations in age, location, open space type, and a cross-section of housing density, are compared with regard to landscape connectivity as a means of gauging the ecological condition for community sustainability. Using Geographical Information Systems and landscape connectivity indices, a community’s green space features were examined including size, physical connectedness, and ecological potential. Furthermore, a questionnaire survey was designed and implemented to examine the perceptional differences between the two types of community residents. The findings demonstrate that the green spaces in conventional communities are more physically connected than their counterparts, but the naturalness and ecological qualities manifested in the amount of the land that may serve as potential urban desert habitats were higher in the sustainable communities. The results of the survey indicated that the respondents inhabiting sustainable communities possess a higher level of satisfaction than the people in conventional types of communities. This is due mainly to the amount of easy access to, and the perceived ecological values of the green spaces in their neighborhoods and surrounding areas. The study concludes that careful community design with ecological consideration can help

  12. Physical Heterogeneity and Aquatic Community Function in ...

    The geomorphological character of a river network provides the template upon which evolution acts to create unique biological communities. Deciphering commonly observed patterns and processes within riverine landscapes resulting from the interplay between physical and biological components is a central tenet for the interdisciplinary field of river science. Relationships between the physical heterogeneity and food web character of functional process zones (FPZs) – large tracts of river with a similar geomorphic character - in the Kanawha River (West Virginia, USA) are examined in this study. Food web character was measured as food chain length (FCL), which reflects ecological community structure and ecosystem function. Our results show the same basal resources were present throughout the Kanawha River but their assimilation into the aquatic food web by primary consumers differed between FPZs. Differences in the trophic position of secondary consumers – fish - were also recorded between FPZs. Overall, both the morphological heterogeneity and heterogeneity of the river bed sediment of FPZs were significantly correlated with FCL. Specifically, FCL increases with greater FPZ physical heterogeneity, supporting tenet 8 of the river ecosystem synthesis. In previous research efforts, we delineated the functional process zones (FPZs) of the Kanawha River. In this study, we examined the relationship between the hydrogeomorphically-derived zones with food webs.

  13. Community Factors Influencing Birth Spacing among Married ...

    AJRH Managing Editor

    level factors on birth spacing behaviour in Uganda and Zimbabwe, to ... environments as potential influences on birth spacing ..... health: multivariable cross-country analysis, MACRO ... Equity monitoring for social marketing: Use of wealth.

  14. Community wide interventions for increasing physical activity.

    Baker, Philip Ra; Francis, Daniel P; Soares, Jesus; Weightman, Alison L; Foster, Charles

    2011-04-13

    Multi-strategic community wide interventions for physical activity are increasingly popular but their ability to achieve population level improvements is unknown. To evaluate the effects of community wide, multi-strategic interventions upon population levels of physical activity. We searched the Cochrane Public Health Group Specialised Register, The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, MEDLINE in Process, EMBASE, CINAHL, LILACS, PsycINFO, ASSIA, The British Nursing Index, Chinese CNKI databases, EPPI Centre (DoPHER, TRoPHI), ERIC, HMIC, Sociological Abstracts, SPORTDiscus, Transport Database and Web of Science (Science Citation Index, Social Sciences Citation Index, Conference Proceedings Citation Index). We also scanned websites of the EU Platform on Diet, Physical Activity and Health; Health-Evidence.ca; the International Union for Health Promotion and Education; the NIHR Coordinating Centre for Health Technology (NCCHTA) and NICE and SIGN guidelines. Reference lists of all relevant systematic reviews, guidelines and primary studies were followed up. We contacted experts in the field from the National Obesity Observatory Oxford, Oxford University; Queensland Health, Queensland University of Technology, the University of Central Queensland; the University of Tennessee and Washington University; and handsearched six relevant journals. The searches were last updated to the end of November 2009 and were not restricted by language or publication status. Cluster randomised controlled trials, randomised controlled trials (RCT), quasi-experimental designs which used a control population for comparison, interrupted time-series (ITS) studies, and prospective controlled cohort studies (PCCS) were included. Only studies with a minimum six-month follow up from the start of the intervention to measurement of outcomes were included. Community wide interventions had to comprise at least two broad strategies aimed at physical activity for the whole population. Studies which randomised

  15. Latest Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) services and innovative tools supporting the space weather research and operational communities.

    Mendoza, A. M. M.; Rastaetter, L.; Kuznetsova, M. M.; Mays, M. L.; Chulaki, A.; Shim, J. S.; MacNeice, P. J.; Taktakishvili, A.; Collado-Vega, Y. M.; Weigand, C.; Zheng, Y.; Mullinix, R.; Patel, K.; Pembroke, A. D.; Pulkkinen, A. A.; Boblitt, J. M.; Bakshi, S. S.; Tsui, T.

    2017-12-01

    The Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC), with the fundamental goal of aiding the transition of modern space science models into space weather forecasting while supporting space science research, has been serving as an integral hub for over 15 years, providing invaluable resources to both space weather scientific and operational communities. CCMC has developed and provided innovative web-based point of access tools varying from: Runs-On-Request System - providing unprecedented global access to the largest collection of state-of-the-art solar and space physics models, Integrated Space Weather Analysis (iSWA) - a powerful dissemination system for space weather information, Advanced Online Visualization and Analysis tools for more accurate interpretation of model results, Standard Data formats for Simulation Data downloads, and Mobile apps to view space weather data anywhere to the scientific community. In addition to supporting research and performing model evaluations, CCMC also supports space science education by hosting summer students through local universities. In this poster, we will showcase CCMC's latest innovative tools and services, and CCMC's tools that revolutionized the way we do research and improve our operational space weather capabilities. CCMC's free tools and resources are all publicly available online (http://ccmc.gsfc.nasa.gov).

  16. Space research and cosmic plasma physics

    Alfven, H.

    1983-08-01

    Scientific progress depends on the development of new instruments. The change from Ptolemaic to Copernican cosmology was to a large extent caused by the introduction of telescopes. Similarly, space research has changed our possibilities to explore our large scale environment so drastically that a thorough revision of cosmic physics is now taking place. A list is given of a large number of fields in which this revision is in progress or is just starting. The new view are based on in situ measurements in the magnetospheres. By extrapolating these measurments to more distant regions, also plasma astrophysics in general has to be reconsidered. In certain important fields the basic approach has to be changed. This applies to cosmogony (origin and evolution of the solar system) and to cosmology. New results from laboratory and magnetospheric measurements extrapolated to cosmogonic conditions give an increased reliability to our treatment of the origin and evolution of the Solar system. Especially the Voyager observations of the saturnian rings give us the hope that we may transfer cosmogony from a playground for more or less crazy ideas into a respectable science. (author)

  17. Space, body, time and relationship experiences of recess physical activity

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Andersen, Henriette Bondo; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increasing recess physical activity has been the aim of several interventions, as this setting can provide numerous physical activity opportunities. However, it is unclear if these interventions are equally effective for all children, or if they only appeal to children who are already...... the classroom as a space for physical activity, designing schoolyards with smaller secluded spaces and varied facilities, improving children's self-esteem and body image, e.g., during physical education, and creating teacher organised play activities during recess....

  18. Biological and Physical Space Research Laboratory 2002 Science Review

    Curreri, P. A. (Editor); Robinson, M. B. (Editor); Murphy, K. L. (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    With the International Space Station Program approaching core complete, our NASA Headquarters sponsor, the new Code U Enterprise, Biological and Physical Research, is shifting its research emphasis from purely fundamental microgravity and biological sciences to strategic research aimed at enabling human missions beyond Earth orbit. Although we anticipate supporting microgravity research on the ISS for some time to come, our laboratory has been vigorously engaged in developing these new strategic research areas.This Technical Memorandum documents the internal science research at our laboratory as presented in a review to Dr. Ann Whitaker, MSFC Science Director, in July 2002. These presentations have been revised and updated as appropriate for this report. It provides a snapshot of the internal science capability of our laboratory as an aid to other NASA organizations and the external scientific community.

  19. SPASE: The Connection Among Solar and Space Physics Data Centers

    Thieman, James R.; King, Todd A.; Roberts, D. Aaron

    2011-01-01

    The Space Physics Archive Search and Extract (SPASE) project is an international collaboration among Heliophysics (solar and space physics) groups concerned with data acquisition and archiving. Within this community there are a variety of old and new data centers, resident archives, "virtual observatories", etc. acquiring, holding, and distributing data. A researcher interested in finding data of value for his or her study faces a complex data environment. The SPASE group has simplified the search for data through the development of the SPASE Data Model as a common method to describe data sets in the various archives. The data model is an XML-based schema and is now in operational use. There are both positives and negatives to this approach. The advantage is the common metadata language enabling wide-ranging searches across the archives, but it is difficult to inspire the data holders to spend the time necessary to describe their data using the Model. Software tools have helped, but the main motivational factor is wide-ranging use of the standard by the community. The use is expanding, but there are still other groups who could benefit from adopting SPASE. The SPASE Data Model is also being expanded in the sense of providing the means for more detailed description of data sets with the aim of enabling more automated ingestion and use of the data through detailed format descriptions. We will discuss the present state of SPASE usage and how we foresee development in the future. The evolution is based on a number of lessons learned - some unique to Heliophysics, but many common to the various data disciplines.

  20. PREFACE: International Symposium on Physical Sciences in Space

    Meyer, Andreas; Egry, Ivan

    2011-12-01

    ISPS is the major international scientific forum for researchers in physics utilizing the space environment, in particular microgravity. It is intended to inspire and encourage cross-cutting discussions between different scientific communities working in the same environment. Contributions discussing results of experiments carried out on drop towers, parabolic aircraft flights, sounding rockets, unmanned recoverable capsules and, last but not least, the International Space Station ISS, are the backbone of this conference series, complemented by preparatory ground-based work, both experimentally and theoretically. The first International Symposium on Physical Sciences in Space (ISPS) sponsored by the International Microgravity Strategic Planning Group (IMSPG) took place in 2000 in Sorrento, Italy. IMSPG seeks to coordinate the planning of space for research in physical sciences by space agencies worldwide. AEB (Brazil), ASI (Italy), CNES (France), CSA (Canada), DLR (Germany), ESA (Europe), JAXA (Japan), NASA (USA), NSAU (Ukraine) and RSA (Russia) are members, and CNSA (China) and ISRO (India) are also invited to join IMSPG meetings. ISPS-4 was the fourth symposium in that series, following ISPS-2 organized by CSA in 2004 in Toronto, Canada, and ISPS-3 organized in 2007 by JAXA in Nara, Japan. ISPS-4 was jointly organized by ESA and DLR on behalf of the IMSPG and was held in Bonn from 11-15 July 2011. 230 participants from 17 different countries attended ISPS-4. Recent microgravity experiments were presented, analysed, and set in context to results from Earth bound experiments in 16 plenary and 68 topical talks. Lively discussions continued during two dedicated poster sessions and at the exhibition booths of space industry and research centers with new flight hardware on display. The oral presentations at ISPS4 were selected exclusively on the basis of scientific merit, as evidenced through the submitted abstracts. The selection was performed by the International

  1. How to upload a physical quantum state into correlation space

    Morimae, Tomoyuki

    2011-01-01

    In the framework of the computational tensor network [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 220503 (2007)], the quantum computation is performed in a virtual linear space called the correlation space. It was recently shown [Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 050503 (2009)] that a state in a correlation space can be downloaded to the real physical space. In this paper, conversely, we study how to upload a state from a real physical space to the correlation space. After showing the impossibility of cloning a state between a real physical space and the correlation space, we propose a simple teleportation-like method of uploading. This method also enables the Gottesman-Chuang gate teleportation trick and entanglement swapping in the virtual-real hybrid setting. Furthermore, compared with the inverse of the downloading method by Cai et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 050503 (2009)], which also works to upload, the proposed uploading method has several advantages.

  2. Green space definition affects associations of green space with overweight and physical activity

    Klompmaker, Jochem O.; Hoek, Gerard; Bloemsma, Lizan D.; Gehring, Ulrike; Strak, Maciej; Wijga, Alet H.; van den Brink, Carolien; Brunekreef, Bert; Lebret, Erik; Janssen, Nicole A.H.

    Introduction In epidemiological studies, exposure to green space is inconsistently associated with being overweight and physical activity, possibly because studies differ widely in their definition of green space exposure, inclusion of important confounders, study population and data

  3. CERN and ESA examine future fundamental physics research in space

    CERN Press Office. Geneva

    2000-01-01

    A special workshop on Fundamental Physics in Space and related topics will be held at CERN in Geneva from 5 to 7 April 2000. Remarkable advances in technology and progress made in reliability and cost effectiveness of European space missions in recent years have opened up exciting new directions for such research. The workshop provides a forum for sharing expertise gained in high energy physics research with colleagues working in research in space.

  4. User community development for the space transportation system/Skylab

    Archer, J. L.; Beauchamp, N. A.

    1974-01-01

    The New User Function plan for identifying beneficial uses of space is described. Critical issues such as funding, manpower, and protection of user proprietary rights are discussed along with common barriers which impede the development of a user community. Studies for developing methodologies of identifying new users and uses of the space transportation system are included.

  5. Collaborative Capability in Coworking Spaces: Convenience Sharing or Community Building?

    Marcelo F. Castilho

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the development of collaborative capability in coworking spaces. It is based on the perception of collaboration among 31 coworking founders, community managers, and coworkers of those spaces. In-depth interviews around the meaning of collaboration and its challenges were conducted in 14 coworking spaces located in six Asian countries. A set of factors was identified and a model was proposed based on a set of four dimensions: enabling knowledge sharing, enhancing a creative field, enhancing an individual action for the collective, and supporting a collective action to an effective execution. The “Convenience Sharing” and “Community Building” coworking types based on Capdevila (2014 suggest different conditions under which collaborative capability develops. Convenience Sharing coworking spaces tend to foster collaborative capability through knowledge sharing and effective execution, whereas Community Building coworking spaces tend to foster collaborative capability by enhancing a creative field and individual action for the collective. Overall, this study contributes to a theoretical model for coworking spaces to help coworking founders and community managers make strategic decisions. The findings suggest that collaborative capability in coworking spaces depends on the interlacing of a set of factors along four dimensions that relate in varying degrees of intensity to a two-fold coworking space typology.

  6. Community Coordinated Modeling Center: A Powerful Resource in Space Science and Space Weather Education

    Chulaki, A.; Kuznetsova, M. M.; Rastaetter, L.; MacNeice, P. J.; Shim, J. S.; Pulkkinen, A. A.; Taktakishvili, A.; Mays, M. L.; Mendoza, A. M. M.; Zheng, Y.; Mullinix, R.; Collado-Vega, Y. M.; Maddox, M. M.; Pembroke, A. D.; Wiegand, C.

    2015-12-01

    Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) is a NASA affiliated interagency partnership with the primary goal of aiding the transition of modern space science models into space weather forecasting while supporting space science research. Additionally, over the past ten years it has established itself as a global space science education resource supporting undergraduate and graduate education and research, and spreading space weather awareness worldwide. A unique combination of assets, capabilities and close ties to the scientific and educational communities enable this small group to serve as a hub for raising generations of young space scientists and engineers. CCMC resources are publicly available online, providing unprecedented global access to the largest collection of modern space science models (developed by the international research community). CCMC has revolutionized the way simulations are utilized in classrooms settings, student projects, and scientific labs and serves hundreds of educators, students and researchers every year. Another major CCMC asset is an expert space weather prototyping team primarily serving NASA's interplanetary space weather needs. Capitalizing on its unrivaled capabilities and experiences, the team provides in-depth space weather training to students and professionals worldwide, and offers an amazing opportunity for undergraduates to engage in real-time space weather monitoring, analysis, forecasting and research. In-house development of state-of-the-art space weather tools and applications provides exciting opportunities to students majoring in computer science and computer engineering fields to intern with the software engineers at the CCMC while also learning about the space weather from the NASA scientists.

  7. Space ecoliteracy- five informal education models for community empowerment

    Venkataramaiah, Jagannatha; Jagannath, Sahana; J, Spandana; J, Sadhana; Jagannath, Shobha

    Space ecoliteracy is a historical necessity and vital aspect of space age.Space Situational Awareness has taught lessons for mankind to look inward while stretching beyond cradle in human endeavours. Quality of life for every one on the only home of mankind-TERRA shall be a feasibility only after realizing Space ecoliteracy amongst all stakeholders in space quest. Objectives of Informal Environmental Education(UNESCO/UNEP/IEEP,1977) mandates awareness, attitude, knowledge, skill and participation at Individual and Community domains. Application of Space Technology at both Telecommunications and Remote Sensing domain have started making the fact that mankind has a challenge to learn and affirm earthmanship. Community empowerment focus after Earth Summit 1992 mandate of Sustainable Development has demonstrated a deluge of best practices in Agriculture,Urban, Industries and service sectors all over the globe. Further, deployment of Space technologies have proved the immense potential only after pre-empting the participatory approach at individual and community levels.Indian Space Programme with its 44th year of space service to national development has demonstrated self reliance in space technology for human development. Space technology for the most underdeveloped is a success story both in communication and information tools for quality of life. In this presentation Five Space Ecoliteracy models designed and validated since 1985 till date on informal environmental education namely 1) Ecological Environmental Studies by Students-EESS (1988): cited as one of the 20 best eco -education models by Earth Day Network,2)Community Eco Literacy Campaign-CEL,(2000): cited as a partner under Clean Up the World Campaign,UN, 3) Space Eco Literacy(2011)-an informa 8 week space eco literacy training reported at 39th COSPAR 12 assembly and 4) Space Eco Literacy by Practice(2014)- interface with formal education at institutions and 5) Space Ecoliteracy Mission as a space out reach in

  8. Making media work in space: an interdisciplinary perspective on media and communication requirements for current and future space communities

    Babidge, S.; Cokley, J.; Gordon, F.; Louw, E.

    2005-10-01

    As humans expand into space communities will form. These have already begun to form in small ways, such as long-duration missions on the International Space Station and the space shuttle, and small-scale tourist excursions into space. Social, behavioural and communications data emerging from such existing communities in space suggest that the physically-bounded, work-oriented and traditionally male-dominated nature of these extremely remote groups present specific problems for the resident astronauts, groups of them viewed as ‘communities’, and their associated groups who remain on Earth, including mission controllers, management and astronauts’ families. Notionally feminine group attributes such as adaptive competence, social adaptation skills and social sensitivity will be crucial to the viability of space communities and in the absence of gender equity, ‘staying in touch’ by means of ‘news from home’ becomes more important than ever. A template of news and media forms and technologies is suggested to service those needs and enhance the social viability of future terraforming activities.

  9. Highlights from the First Ever Demographic Study of Solar Physics, Space Physics, and Upper Atmospheric Physics

    Moldwin, M.; Morrow, C. A.; White, S. C.; Ivie, R.

    2014-12-01

    Members of the Education & Workforce Working Group and the American Institute of Physics (AIP) conducted the first ever National Demographic Survey of working professionals for the 2012 National Academy of Sciences Solar and Space Physics Decadal Survey to learn about the demographics of this sub-field of space science. The instrument contained questions for participants on: the type of workplace; basic demographic information regarding gender and minority status, educational pathways (discipline of undergrad degree, field of their PhD), how their undergraduate and graduate student researchers are funded, participation in NSF and NASA funded spaceflight missions and suborbital programs, and barriers to career advancement. Using contact data bases from AGU, the American Astronomical Society's Solar Physics Division (AAS-SPD), attendees of NOAA's Space Weather Week and proposal submissions to NSF's Atmospheric, Geospace Science Division, the AIP's Statistical Research Center cross correlated and culled these data bases resulting in 2776 unique email addresses of US based working professionals. The survey received 1305 responses (51%) and generated 125 pages of single space answers to a number of open-ended questions. This talk will summarize the highlights of this first-ever demographic survey including findings extracted from the open-ended responses regarding barriers to career advancement which showed significant gender differences.

  10. CSSP implementation plan for space plasma physics programs

    Baker, D.N.; Williams, D.J.; Johns Hopkins Univ., Laurel, MD)

    1985-01-01

    The Committee on Solar and Space Physics (CSSP) has provided NASA with guidance in the areas of solar, heliospheric, magnetospheric, and upper atmospheric research. The budgetary sitation confronted by NASA has called for a prioritized plane for the implementation of solar and space plasma physics programs. CSSP has developed the following recommendations: (1) continue implementation of both the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite and Solar Optical Telescope programs; (2) initiate the International Solar Terrestrial Physics program; (3) plan for later major free-flying missions and carry out the technology development they require; (4) launch an average of one solar and space physics Explorer per yr beginning in 1990; (5) enhance current Shuttle/Spacelab programs; (6) develop facility-class instrumentation; (7) augment the solar terrestrial theory program by FY 1990; (8) support a compute modeling program; (9) strengthen the research and analysis program; and (10) maintain a stable suborbital program for flexible science objectives in upper atmosphere and space plasma physics

  11. Audiovisual Aids for Astronomy and Space Physics at an Urban College

    Moche, Dinah L.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the use of easily available audiovisual aids to teach a one semester course in astronomy and space physics to liberal arts students of both sexes at Queensborough Community College. Included is a list of teaching aids for use in astronomy instruction. (CC)

  12. Life space and mental health: a study of older community-dwelling persons in Australia.

    Byles, Julie E; Leigh, Lucy; Vo, Kha; Forder, Peta; Curryer, Cassie

    2015-01-01

    The ability of older people to mobilise within and outside their community is dependent on a number of factors. This study explored the relationship between spatial mobility and psychological health among older adults living in Australia. The survey sample consisted of 260 community-dwelling men and women aged 75-80 years, who returned a postal survey measuring spatial mobility (using the Life Space Questionnaire) and psychological health (using the SF36 Health Related Quality of Life Profile). From the Life Space Questionnaire, participants were given a life-space score and multinomial regression was used to explore the potential effect of mental health on life-space score. The study found a significant association between mental health and life space. However, gender, physical functioning, and ability to drive were most strongly associated with the extent of life space and spatial mobility. Compared to men, older women are more likely to experience less spatial mobility and restricted life space, and hence are more vulnerable to social isolation. Mental health and life space were associated for the older people in this study. These findings have important implications for health policy and highlight the need to support older persons to maintain independence and social networks, and to successfully age in place within their community. This study also highlights the utility of the Life Space Questionnaire in terms of identifying older persons at risk of poorer mental health.

  13. Space physics strategy-implementation study. Volume 1: Goals, objectives, strategy. A report to the Space Physics Subcommittee of the Space Science and Applications Advisory Committee

    1991-01-01

    Space physics is defined as the study of the heliosphere as one system; that is, of the Sun and solar wind, and their interactions with the upper atmospheres, ionospheres, and magnetospheres of the planets and comets, with energetic particles, and with the interstellar medium. This report contains a number of reports by different panels on the major topics in the space physics program including: (1) the cosmic and heliospheric physics program for the years 1995 to 2010; (2) ionosphere, thermosphere, and mesosphere studies; (3) magnetospheric physics; (4) solar physics; and (5) space physics theory.

  14. Space- and ground-based particle physics meet at CERN

    CERN Bulletin

    2012-01-01

    The fourth international conference on Particle and Fundamental Physics in Space (SpacePart12) will take place at CERN from 5 to 7 November. The conference will bring together scientists working on particle and fundamental physics in space and on ground, as well as space policy makers from around the world.   One hundred years after Victor Hess discovered cosmic rays using hot air balloons, the experimental study of particle and fundamental physics is still being pursued today with extremely sophisticated techniques: on the ground, with state-of-the-art accelerators like the LHC; and in space, with powerful observatories that probe, with amazing accuracy, the various forms of cosmic radiation, charged and neutral, which are messengers of the most extreme conditions of matter and energy. SpacePart12 will be the opportunity for participants to exchange views on the progress of space-related science and technology programmes in the field of particle and fundamental physics in space. SpacePar...

  15. Shared Space, Liminal Space: Five Years into a Community-University Place-Based Experiment

    Barajas, Heidi Lasley; Martin, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    This article explores shared space at the University of Minnesota's Robert J. Jones Urban Research and Outreach Engagement Center (UROC), located four miles off campus in a community strong in assets, but facing inequality, disinvestment and racism. UROC's mission promotes university-community collaboration to solve critical urban challenges. We…

  16. Playful Interactions Stimulating Physical Activity in Public Spaces

    Sturm, Janienke; Bekker, Tilde; Vanden Abeele, Vero

    In this position paper we describe our vision on designing playful interactions to persuade people to be physically active in public spaces. Social embeddedness and playful interaction are the core elements of this vision. We illustrate how our design vision is incorporated into innovative concepts...... to motivate each other to be physically active by creating challenges for each other. Designing playful solutions for public spaces asks for low-threshold solutions that support easy stepping in and stepping out solutions....

  17. Workshop on Research for Space Exploration: Physical Sciences and Process Technology

    Singh, Bhim S.

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of a workshop sponsored by the Microgravity Research Division of NASA to define contributions the microgravity research community can provide to advance the human exploration of space. Invited speakers and attendees participated in an exchange of ideas to identify issues of interest in physical sciences and process technologies. This workshop was part of a continuing effort to broaden the contribution of the microgravity research community toward achieving the goals of the space agency in human exploration, as identified in the NASA Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) strategic plan. The Microgravity program is one of NASA'a major links to academic and industrial basic research in the physical and engineering sciences. At present, it supports close to 400 principal investigators, who represent many of the nation's leading researchers in the physical and engineering sciences and biotechnology. The intent of the workshop provided a dialogue between NASA and this large, influential research community, mission planners and industry technical experts with the goal of defining enabling research for the Human Exploration and Development of Space activities to which the microgravity research community can contribute.

  18. Learning From Critical Collective Spaces: Reflections on the Community-Diversity Dialectic in Safe Spaces

    Wallin-Ruschman, Jennifer; Patka, Mazna

    2016-01-01

    Safe spaces have the potential to become prefigurative groups that aim to create social change. The idea of a safe space as a place separate and sheltered from dominant culture to mobilize for social change has gained traction in a number of academic and practical areas. However, safe spaces have the ability to be both progressive and regressive. To guide our discussion we utilize the concept of community-diversity dialectic to address the tension between these forces within two settings. Fir...

  19. Ad Hoc Physical Hilbert Spaces in Quantum Mechanics

    Fernandez, F. M.; Garcia, J.; Semorádová, Iveta; Znojil, Miloslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 12 (2015), s. 4187-4203 ISSN 0020-7748 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : quantum mechanics * physical Hilbert spaces * ad hoc inner product * singular potentials regularized * low lying energies Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.041, year: 2015

  20. Classical-physics applications for Finsler b space

    Foster, Joshua [Physics Department, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Lehnert, Ralf, E-mail: ralehner@indiana.edu [Indiana University Center for Spacetime Symmetries, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States)

    2015-06-30

    The classical propagation of certain Lorentz-violating fermions is known to be governed by geodesics of a four-dimensional pseudo-Finsler b space parametrized by a prescribed background covector field. This work identifies systems in classical physics that are governed by the three-dimensional version of Finsler b space and constructs a geodesic for a sample non-constant choice for the background covector. The existence of these classical analogues demonstrates that Finsler b spaces possess applications in conventional physics, which may yield insight into the propagation of SME fermions on curved manifolds.

  1. 77 FR 8801 - Request for Applications: The Community Forest and Open Space Conservation Program

    2012-02-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Request for Applications: The Community Forest and Open Space Conservation Program AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Request for applications. SUMMARY: The..., requests applications for the Community Forest and Open Space Conservation Program (Community Forest...

  2. Physical collaborative play in public spaces

    Mosleh, Sara Said; Schmidt, Nele; Teisanu, Tudor

    2015-01-01

    As technology is developing rather quickly and taking up permanent roles in the everyday lives of people, it has led to a decreased social interaction between people, away from the physical worlds. Through ethnographical and design anthropological approaches, this paper seeks to present how people...... can be motivated to socially interact in environments that otherwise are antisocial. The main findings in this research show how people need a very clear reason for interaction and hold back despite the wish to interact due to unwritten cultural constraints. The outcome of the research is though...... limited to Danish socio-cultural environments and has potential to support similar studies in further western societies. When designing for the public it is crucial to consider the existing behaviour in the specific context in order to design means that do not vary too significantly from what is socially...

  3. Community Based Distribution of Child Spacing Methods at ...

    uses volunteer CBD agents. Mrs. E.F. Pelekamoyo. Service Delivery Officer. National Family Welfare Council of Malawi. Private Bag 308. Lilongwe 3. Malawi. Community Based Distribution of. Child Spacing Methods ... than us at the Hospital; male motivators by talking to their male counterparts help them to accept that their ...

  4. Why NASA and the Space Electronics Community Cares About Cyclotrons

    LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2017-01-01

    NASA and the space community are faced with the harsh reality of operating electronic systems in the space radiation environment. Systems need to work reliably (as expected for as long as expected) and be available during critical operations such as docking or firing a thruster. This talk will provide a snapshot of the import of ground-based research on the radiation performance of electronics. Discussion topics include: 1) The space radiation environment hazard, 2) Radiation effects on electronics, 3) Simulation of effects with cyclotrons (and other sources), 4) Risk prediction for space missions, and, 5) Real-life examples of both ground-based testing and space-based anomalies and electronics performance. The talk will conclude with a discussion of the current state of radiation facilities in North America for ground-based electronics testing.

  5. The Impact of Green Open Space on Community Attachment—A Case Study of Three Communities in Beijing

    Yuemei Zhu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available With the development of urbanization in China, the quality of urban life and community attachment have attracted increasing attention of the governments and society. Existing research on community attachment has mainly examined how individual characteristics affect community attachment, such as their length of residence and socioeconomic status. However, some scholars have become interested in exploring the effects of green open space on community attachment. This research examined whether the distribution of green open space in communities had significant effects on community attachment, and both the impact and path were also investigated. Through a questionnaire survey, relevant data in three communities of Beijing were collected. The impact of green open space layout on community attachment was evaluated by using hierarchical regression, and the impact path was examined by using a structural equation model. The results showed that green open space in a community had significant effects on the community attachment, with centralized green open space layout having a greater effect than that of dispersed green open space. Moreover, the more complex the shape of green open space is, the greater the impact is. The degree of satisfaction with the green open space had direct effects on the community attachment. The accessibility and perceived area of green open space could indirectly have an impact on the community attachment by affecting the degree of satisfaction with the green open space. Nevertheless, residents’ perceived importance of green open space could affect the community attachment directly and indirectly, as it affects the degree of satisfaction.

  6. Centralising Space: The Physical Education and Physical Activity Experiences of South Asian, Muslim Girls

    Stride, Annette

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the physical education (PE) and physical activity experiences of a group of South Asian, Muslim girls, a group typically marginalised in PE and physical activity research. The study responds to ongoing calls for research to explore across different spaces in young people's lives. Specifically, I draw on a…

  7. Promoting physical activity through the shared use of school recreational spaces: a policy statement from the American Heart Association.

    Young, Deborah R; Spengler, John O; Frost, Natasha; Evenson, Kelly R; Vincent, Jeffrey M; Whitsel, Laurie

    2014-09-01

    Most Americans are not sufficiently physically active, even though regular physical activity improves health and reduces the risk of many chronic diseases. Those living in rural, non-White, and lower-income communities often have insufficient access to places to be active, which can contribute to their lower level of physical activity. The shared use of school recreational facilities can provide safe and affordable places for communities. Studies suggest that challenges to shared use include additional cost, liability protection, communication among constituencies interested in sharing space, and decision-making about scheduling and space allocation. This American Heart Association policy statement has provided recommendations for federal, state, and local decision-makers to support and expand opportunities for physical activity in communities through the shared use of school spaces.

  8. Time and space: undergraduate Mexican physics in motion

    Candela, Antonia

    2010-09-01

    This is an ethnographic study of the trajectories and itineraries of undergraduate physics students at a Mexican university. In this work learning is understood as being able to move oneself and, other things (cultural tools), through the space-time networks of a discipline (Nespor in Knowledge in motion: space, time and curriculum in undergraduate physics and management. Routledge Farmer, London, 1994). The potential of this socio-cultural perspective allows an analysis of how students are connected through extended spaces and times with an international core discipline as well as with cultural features related to local networks of power and construction. Through an example, I show that, from an actor-network-theory (Latour in Science in action. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1987), that in order to understand the complexities of undergraduate physics processes of learning you have to break classroom walls and take into account students' movements through complex spatial and temporal traces of the discipline of physics. Mexican professors do not give classes following one textbook but in a moment-to-moment open dynamism tending to include undergraduate students as actors in classroom events extending the teaching space-time of the classroom to the disciplinary research work of physics. I also find that Mexican undergraduate students show initiative and display some autonomy and power in the construction of their itineraries as they are encouraged to examine a variety of sources including contemporary research articles, unsolved physics problems, and even to participate in several physicists' spaces, as for example being speakers at the national congresses of physics. Their itineraries also open up new spaces of cultural and social practices, creating more extensive networks beyond those associated with a discipline. Some economic, historical and cultural contextual features of this school of sciences are analyzed in order to help understanding the particular

  9. Green space definition affects associations of green space with overweight and physical activity.

    Klompmaker, Jochem O; Hoek, Gerard; Bloemsma, Lizan D; Gehring, Ulrike; Strak, Maciej; Wijga, Alet H; van den Brink, Carolien; Brunekreef, Bert; Lebret, Erik; Janssen, Nicole A H

    2018-01-01

    In epidemiological studies, exposure to green space is inconsistently associated with being overweight and physical activity, possibly because studies differ widely in their definition of green space exposure, inclusion of important confounders, study population and data analysis. We evaluated whether the association of green space with being overweight and physical activity depended upon definition of greenspace. We conducted a cross-sectional study using data from a Dutch national health survey of 387,195 adults. Distance to the nearest park entrance and surrounding green space, based on the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) or a detailed Dutch land-use database (TOP10NL), was calculated for each residential address. We used logistic regression analyses to study the association of green space exposure with being overweight and being moderately or vigorously physically active outdoors at least 150min/week (self-reported). To study the shape of the association, we specified natural splines and quintiles. The distance to the nearest park entrance was not associated with being overweight or outdoor physical activity. Associations of surrounding green space with being overweight or outdoor physical activity were highly non-linear. For NDVI surrounding greenness, we observed significantly decreased odds of being overweight [300m buffer, odds ratio (OR) = 0.88; 95% CI: 0.86, 0.91] and increased odds for outdoor physical activity [300m buffer, OR = 1.14; 95% CI: 1.10, 1.17] in the highest quintile compared to the lowest quintile. For TOP10NL surrounding green space, associations were mostly non-significant. Associations were generally stronger for subjects living in less urban areas and for the smaller buffers. Associations of green space with being overweight and outdoor physical activity differed considerably between different green space definitions. Associations were strongest for NDVI surrounding greenness. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by

  10. On the physics of electron beams in space plasmas

    Krafft, C.; Volokitin, A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the main physical processes related to the injection, the propagation and the radiation of electron beams in space plasmas as the Earth's ionosphere. The physical mechanisms are shortly explained and illustrated with several examples of experimental results provided by various space missions. In a first part, we discuss important physical processes connected with the response of the ambient space plasma to the beam injection, and in particular, with the mechanisms of electric charge neutralization of the electron beam and of the payload carrying the injector, with the widely studied phenomenon of beam-plasma discharge as well as with the physical features of the spatio-temporal evolution and the dynamic structure of the beam in its interaction with the plasma and the emitted waves. In a second part, the main processes governing the wave emission by electron beams in space are examined; in particular, we focus on the physical linear and nonlinear mechanisms involved in the generation, the stabilization and the saturation of the electromagnetic waves excited by the beams in wide frequency ranges. and the radiation of electron beams in space plasmas as the Earth's ionosphere. The physical mechanisms are shortly explained and illustrated with several examples of experimental results provided by various space missions. In a first part, we discuss important physical processes connected with the response of the ambient space plasma to the beam injection, and in particular, with the mechanisms of electric charge neutralization of the electron beam and of the payload carrying the injector, with the widely studied phenomenon of beam-plasma discharge as well as with the physical features of the spatio-temporal evolution and the dynamic structure of the beam in its interaction with the plasma and the emitted waves. In a second part, the main processes governing the wave emission by electron beams in space are examined; in particular, we focus on the

  11. Reduced Pseudoneglect for Physical Space, but Not Mental Representations of Space, for Adults with Autistic Traits

    English, Michael C.; Maybery, Murray T.; Visser, Troy A.

    2017-01-01

    Neurotypical individuals display a leftward attentional bias, called pseudoneglect, for physical space (e.g. landmark task) and mental representations of space (e.g. mental number line bisection). However, leftward bias is reduced in autistic individuals viewing faces, and neurotypical individuals with autistic traits viewing "greyscale"…

  12. A methodology for selecting optimum organizations for space communities

    Ragusa, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    This paper suggests that a methodology exists for selecting optimum organizations for future space communities of various sizes and purposes. Results of an exploratory study to identify an optimum hypothetical organizational structure for a large earth-orbiting multidisciplinary research and applications (R&A) Space Base manned by a mixed crew of technologists are presented. Since such a facility does not presently exist, in situ empirical testing was not possible. Study activity was, therefore, concerned with the identification of a desired organizational structural model rather than the empirical testing of it. The principal finding of this research was that a four-level project type 'total matrix' model will optimize the effectiveness of Space Base technologists. An overall conclusion which can be reached from the research is that application of this methodology, or portions of it, may provide planning insights for the formal organizations which will be needed during the Space Industrialization Age.

  13. Creating Inclusive Physical Activity Spaces: The Case of Body-Positive Yoga.

    Pickett, Andrew C; Cunningham, George B

    2017-09-01

    Within the modern cultural climate, those in larger bodies face high levels of weight stigma, particularly in sport and physical activity spaces, which serves as a strong barrier to their participation. However, given the strong link between physical activity and general health and well-being for participants, it is important to explore strategies that encourage participation of these individuals. Thus, the current research examined strategies that physical activity instructors use to develop inclusive exercise spaces for all body sizes. This study employed a series of semistructured qualitative interviews (n = 9) with instructors of body-inclusive yoga classes to explore the ways in which they encourage participation for those in larger bodies. Emergent themes from the current study suggested support for 6 factors for creating body-inclusive physical activity spaces: authentic leadership, a culture of inclusion, a focus on health, inclusive language, leader social activism, and a sense of community. This study revealed that leaders must intentionally cultivate inclusion in their spaces to encourage those in nonconforming bodies to participate. These findings have important health and management implications for the sport and physical activity context and provide a basic outline of practical strategies that practitioners can use to foster inclusion in their spaces.

  14. INSPIRE - Premission. [Interactive NASA Space Physics Ionosphere Radio Experiment

    Taylor, William W. L.; Mideke, Michael; Pine, William E.; Ericson, James D.

    1992-01-01

    The Interactive NASA Space Physics Ionosphere Radio Experiment (INSPIRE) designed to assist in a Space Experiments with Particle Accelerators (SEPAC) project is discussed. INSPIRE is aimed at recording data from a large number of receivers on the ground to determine the exact propagation paths and absorption of radio waves at frequencies between 50 Hz and 7 kHz. It is indicated how to participate in the experiment that will involve high school classes, colleges, and amateur radio operators.

  15. Making space: Jennifer Camper, LGBTQ anthologies, and queer comics communities.

    Galvan, Margaret

    2018-05-04

    This article examines the career of lesbian cartoonist Jennifer Camper and how she has fostered queer community both in her comics and in real life. Archival research in LGBTQ archives and in Camper's own personal papers evidences how Camper begins developing her comics in the 1980s by participating in various grassroots LGBTQ publication spaces. From this foundation of support, she engages in comics activism with her representations of these communities during the midst of the AIDS crisis. Through these analyses, this article theorizes how Camper foregrounds intersectionality and counterpublics in her work on and off the page.

  16. Learning From Critical Collective Spaces: Reflections on the Community-Diversity Dialectic in Safe Spaces

    Jennifer Wallin-Ruschman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Safe spaces have the potential to become prefigurative groups that aim to create social change. The idea of a safe space as a place separate and sheltered from dominant culture to mobilize for social change has gained traction in a number of academic and practical areas. However, safe spaces have the ability to be both progressive and regressive. To guide our discussion we utilize the concept of community-diversity dialectic to address the tension between these forces within two settings. First we discuss research in an upper level college course rooted in feminist praxis. Then we discuss a faith community’s use of adaptive liturgy with parishioners with intellectual disabilities. Following this discussion, we offer a new term, “critical collective spaces”, to better capture the work done in these spaces. We offer this alternative label to move popular and academic discourse away from debating about how “safe” these spaces are (or are not and toward a more nuanced discussion of the community-diversity dialectic and other tensions within these spaces. Our overall intention is to generate dialogue on the regressive and progressive aspects of these locations and to inform the activism and community building process within prefigurative politics more broadly.

  17. Semantic e-Science in Space Physics - A Case Study

    Narock, T.; Yoon, V.; Merka, J.; Szabo, A.

    2009-05-01

    Several search and retrieval systems for space physics data are currently under development in NASA's heliophysics data environment. We present a case study of two such systems, and describe our efforts in implementing an ontology to aid in data discovery. In doing so we highlight the various aspects of knowledge representation and show how they led to our ontology design, creation, and implementation. We discuss advantages that scientific reasoning allows, as well as difficulties encountered in current tools and standards. Finally, we present a space physics research project conducted with and without e-Science and contrast the two approaches.

  18. Space-time structure and the origin of physical law

    Green, M.A.

    1980-01-01

    In the first part of this theses the author adopts a traditional world view, with space-time a topologically simple geometrical manifold, matter being represented by smooth classical fields, and space a Riemannian submanifold of space-time. It is shown how to characterize the space-time geometry in terms of fields defined on three-dimensional space. Accepting a finite number of the fields induced on space as independent initial data, a procedure is given for constructing dynamical and constraint equations which will propagate these fields forward in time. When the initial data are restricted to include only the hypersurface metric and the extrinsic curvature, the resulting equations combine to form the Einstein gravitational field equations with the cosmological term. The synthesis of gravitational and quantum physics is approached by proposing that the objective world underlying the perceived world is a four-dimensional topological manifold w, with no physically significant field structure and an unconstrianed and complex global topology. Conventional space-time is then a topologically simple replacement manifold for w. A preliminary outline of the correspondence is presented, based on a similarity between a natural graphical representation of 2 and the Feynman graphs of quantum field theory

  19. A journey from particle physics to outer space

    2006-01-01

    Particle physics can take you a long way - even into space! Astronaut Christer Fuglesang recently jetted into orbit on his first space mission, 14 years after he left CERN to join the European Space Agency. Christer Fuglesang near the launch pad area at NASA's Kennedy Space Center, Florida, in preparation for the STS-116 mission. (photo: ESA, S.Corvaja)Christer Fuglesang in space (photo: NASA). In CERN's years of efforts to explore the fundamentals of the Universe, it has not yet sent anyone beyond planet Earth. On 10 December 2006, Christer Fuglesang boldly went where no CERN scientist had ever gone before. The 49-year-old ex-CERN physicist-turned-astronaut embarked on his first mission on board space shuttle Discovery. Originally from Stockholm, he also had the honour of being the first Swedish national in space. Christer Fuglesang is an astronaut with the European Space Agency (ESA), a partner of the International Space Station (ISS) - a research facility that is being assembled in orbit around the Earth...

  20. Physical activity support community togetheractive - architecture, implementation and evaluation

    Elloumi, Lamia; van Beijnum, Bernhard J.F.; Hermens, Hermanus J.

    Reducing sedentary lifestyle and physical inactivity is getting an increased attention of researchers and health organizations due to its significant benefits on health. In the same direction we are proposing a virtual community system, TogetherActive, which supports people in their daily physical

  1. Solar and Space Physics: A Science for a Technological Society

    2013-01-01

    From the interior of the Sun, to the upper atmosphere and near-space environment of Earth, and outward to a region far beyond Pluto where the Sun's influence wanes, advances during the past decade in space physics and solar physics the disciplines NASA refers to as heliophysics have yielded spectacular insights into the phenomena that affect our home in space. This report, from the National Research Council's (NRC's) Committee for a Decadal Strategy in Solar and Space Physics, is the second NRC decadal survey in heliophysics. Building on the research accomplishments realized over the past decade, the report presents a program of basic and applied research for the period 2013-2022 that will improve scientific understanding of the mechanisms that drive the Sun's activity and the fundamental physical processes underlying near-Earth plasma dynamics, determine the physical interactions of Earth's atmospheric layers in the context of the connected Sun-Earth system, and enhance greatly the capability to provide realistic and specific forecasts of Earth's space environment that will better serve the needs of society. Although the recommended program is directed primarily to NASA (Science Mission Directorate -- Heliophysics Division) and the National Science Foundation (NSF) (Directorate for Geosciences -- Atmospheric and Geospace Sciences) for action, the report also recommends actions by other federal agencies, especially the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) those parts of NOAA charged with the day-to-day (operational) forecast of space weather. In addition to the recommendations included in this summary, related recommendations are presented in the main text of the report.

  2. Bloggers Behavior and Emergent Communities in Blog Space

    Mitrović, Marija; Tadić, Bosiljka

    2009-01-01

    Interactions between users in cyberspace may lead to phenomena different from those observed in common social networks. Here we analyse large data sets about users and Blogs which they write and comment, mapped onto a bipartite graph. In such enlarged Blog space we trace user activity over time, which results in robust temporal patterns of user--Blog behavior and the emergence of communities. With the spectral methods applied to the projection on weighted user network we detect clusters of us...

  3. Belonging in a Videogame Space: Bridging Affinity Spaces and Communities of Practice

    Abrams, Sandra Schamroth; Lammers, Jayne C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Focusing on ways a common endeavor brings people together, Gee offered the concept of affinity spaces, which suggests that open participation without exclusion or membership is possible. This theory contrasts with Lave and Wenger's communities of practice, which called attention to situated, hierarchical participatory practices.…

  4. Design and implementation of space physics multi-model application integration based on web

    Jiang, Wenping; Zou, Ziming

    With the development of research on space environment and space science, how to develop network online computing environment of space weather, space environment and space physics models for Chinese scientific community is becoming more and more important in recent years. Currently, There are two software modes on space physics multi-model application integrated system (SPMAIS) such as C/S and B/S. the C/S mode which is traditional and stand-alone, demands a team or workshop from many disciplines and specialties to build their own multi-model application integrated system, that requires the client must be deployed in different physical regions when user visits the integrated system. Thus, this requirement brings two shortcomings: reducing the efficiency of researchers who use the models to compute; inconvenience of accessing the data. Therefore, it is necessary to create a shared network resource access environment which could help users to visit the computing resources of space physics models through the terminal quickly for conducting space science research and forecasting spatial environment. The SPMAIS develops high-performance, first-principles in B/S mode based on computational models of the space environment and uses these models to predict "Space Weather", to understand space mission data and to further our understanding of the solar system. the main goal of space physics multi-model application integration system (SPMAIS) is to provide an easily and convenient user-driven online models operating environment. up to now, the SPMAIS have contained dozens of space environment models , including international AP8/AE8 IGRF T96 models and solar proton prediction model geomagnetic transmission model etc. which are developed by Chinese scientists. another function of SPMAIS is to integrate space observation data sets which offers input data for models online high-speed computing. In this paper, service-oriented architecture (SOA) concept that divides system into

  5. Essential Biodiversity Variables: A framework for communication between the biodiversity community and space agencies

    Leidner, A. K.; Skidmore, A. K.; Turner, W. W.; Geller, G. N.

    2017-12-01

    The biodiversity community is working towards developing a consensus on a set of Essential Biodiversity Variables (EBVs) that can be used to measure and monitor biodiversity change over time. These EBVs will inform research, modeling, policy, and assessment efforts. The synoptic coverage provided by satellite data make remote sensing a particularly important observation tool to inform many EBVs. Biodiversity is a relatively new subject matter for space agencies, and thus the definition, description, and requirements of EBVs with a significant remote sensing component can foster ways for the biodiversity community to clearly and concisely communicate observational needs to space agencies and the Committee on Earth Observing Satellites (CEOS, the international coordinating body for civilian space agencies). Here, we present an overview of EBVs with a particular emphasis on those for which remote sensing will play a significant role and also report on the results of recent workshops to prioritize and refine EBVs. Our goal is to provide a framework for the biodiversity community to coalesce around a set of observational needs to convey to space agencies. Compared to many physical science disciplines, the biodiversity community represents a wide range of sub-disciplines and organizations (academia, non-governmental organizations, research institutes, national and local natural resource management agencies, etc.), which creates additional challenges when communicating needs to space agencies unfamiliar with the topic. EBVs thus offer a communication pathway that could increase awareness within space agencies of the uses of remote sensing for biodiversity research and applications, which in turn could foster greater use of remote sensing in the broader biodiversity community.

  6. Space, Time, Matter, and Form Essays on Aristotle's Physics

    Bostock, David

    2006-01-01

    Space, Time, Matter, and Form collects ten of David Bostock's essays on themes from Aristotle's Physics, four of them published here for the first time. The first five papers look at issues raised in the first two books of the Physics, centred on notions of matter and form, and the idea of substance as what persists through change. They also range over other of Aristotle's scientific works, such as his biology and psychology and the account of change in his De Generatione et Corruptione. The volume's remaining essays examine themes in later books of the Physics, including infinity, place, time

  7. The NASA Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) Next Generation Space Weather Data Warehouse

    Maddox, M. M.; Kuznetsova, M. M.; Pulkkinen, A. A.; Zheng, Y.; Rastaetter, L.; Chulaki, A.; Pembroke, A. D.; Wiegand, C.; Mullinix, R.; Boblitt, J.; Mendoza, A. M. M.; Swindell, M. J., IV; Bakshi, S. S.; Mays, M. L.; Shim, J. S.; Hesse, M.; Collado-Vega, Y. M.; Taktakishvili, A.; MacNeice, P. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables, supports, and performs research and development for next generation space science and space weather models. The CCMC currently hosts a large and expanding collection of state-or-the-art, physics-based space weather models that have been developed by the international research community. There are many tools and services provided by the CCMC that are currently available world-wide, along with the ongoing development of new innovative systems and software for research, discovery, validation, visualization, and forecasting. Over the history of the CCMC's existence, there has been one constant engineering challenge - describing, managing, and disseminating data. To address the challenges that accompany an ever-expanding number of models to support, along with a growing catalog of simulation output - the CCMC is currently developing a flexible and extensible space weather data warehouse to support both internal and external systems and applications. This paper intends to chronicle the evolution and future of the CCMC's data infrastructure, and the current infrastructure re-engineering activities that seek to leverage existing community data model standards like SPASE and the IMPEx Simulation Data Model.

  8. Who Manages Space? Eco-DRR and the Local Community

    Syarifah Aini Dalimunthe

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The notion of ecosystem-based disaster risk reduction (DRR has only recently emerged in Indonesia. The Indonesian central government now adopts some policies related to ecosystem-based DRR with formal commitments from local administrations. At the implementation level, various activities have taken place, such as mangrove planting and restoration along the coastline to address the rising sea level and the “one billion trees” program to address the urgent issue of deforestation. These governmental activities have involved local communities that reside in the high-risk area, while nonlocal actors, particularly from the private and the nongovernmental sectors, have contributed as a third element to development. This paper examines space management in the context of Eco-DRR, paying special attention to uncertainty and anxiety in the local communities as the government and private sectors engage in development activities that have significant impacts on their present and future lives. The present study pursues this purpose by means of in-depth interview and focus group discussions (FGD with local leaders in mangrove planting and restoration programs. The study took place in a small island community in a part of the Jakarta Megapolitan Region, Indonesia. The results point out that the community feels left behind due to lack of trust in managing the conservation space. Another issue to be addressed is how to improve the democratization of environment management and livelihood base of the local community. Therefore, building confidence and ameliorating relationships between actors within/without the local community should lead to a better Eco-DRR initiative.

  9. Renormalization group in statistical physics - momentum and real spaces

    Yukalov, V.I.

    1988-01-01

    Two variants of the renormalization group approach in statistical physics are considered, the renormalization group in the momentum and the renormalization group in the real spaces. Common properties of these methods and their differences are cleared up. A simple model for investigating the crossover between different universality classes is suggested. 27 refs

  10. Augmenting Phase Space Quantization to Introduce Additional Physical Effects

    Robbins, Matthew P. G.

    Quantum mechanics can be done using classical phase space functions and a star product. The state of the system is described by a quasi-probability distribution. A classical system can be quantized in phase space in different ways with different quasi-probability distributions and star products. A transition differential operator relates different phase space quantizations. The objective of this thesis is to introduce additional physical effects into the process of quantization by using the transition operator. As prototypical examples, we first look at the coarse-graining of the Wigner function and the damped simple harmonic oscillator. By generalizing the transition operator and star product to also be functions of the position and momentum, we show that additional physical features beyond damping and coarse-graining can be introduced into a quantum system, including the generalized uncertainty principle of quantum gravity phenomenology, driving forces, and decoherence.

  11. Aligning physical learning spaces with the curriculum: AMEE Guide No. 107.

    Nordquist, Jonas; Sundberg, Kristina; Laing, Andrew

    2016-08-01

    This Guide explores emerging issues on the alignment of learning spaces with the changing curriculum in medical education. As technology and new teaching methods have altered the nature of learning in medical education, it is necessary to re-think how physical learning spaces are aligned with the curriculum. The better alignment of learning spaces with the curriculum depends on more directly engaged leadership from faculty and the community of medical education for briefing the requirements for the design of all kinds of learning spaces. However, there is a lack of precedent and well-established processes as to how new kinds of learning spaces should be programmed. Such programmes are essential aspects of optimizing the intended experience of the curriculum. Faculty and the learning community need better tools and instruments to support their leadership role in briefing and programming. A Guide to critical concepts for exploring the alignment of curriculum and learning spaces is provided. The idea of a networked learning landscape is introduced as a way of assessing and evaluating the alignment of physical spaces to the emerging curriculum. The concept is used to explore how technology has widened the range of spaces and places in which learning happens as well as enabling new styles of learning. The networked learning landscaped is explored through four different scales within which learning is accommodated: the classroom, the building, the campus, and the city. High-level guidance on the process of briefing for the networked learning landscape is provided, to take into account the wider scale of learning spaces and the impact of technology. Key to a successful measurement process is argued to be the involvement of relevant academic stakeholders who can identify the strategic direction and purpose for the design of the learning environments in relation to the emerging demands of the curriculum.

  12. The physics origin of the hierarchy of bodies in space

    Bejan, A.; Wagstaff, R. W.

    2016-03-01

    Here we show that bodies of the same size suspended uniformly in space constitute a system (a "suspension") in a state of uniform volumetric tension because of mass-to-mass forces of attraction. The system "snaps" hierarchically, and evolves faster to a state of reduced tension when the bodies coalesce spontaneously nonuniformly, i.e., hierarchically, into few large and many small bodies suspended in the same space. Hierarchy, not uniformity, is the design that emerges, and it is in accord with the constructal law. The implications of this principle of physics in natural organization and evolution are discussed.

  13. Application of nuclear-physics methods in space materials science

    Novikov, L. S.; Voronina, E. N.; Galanina, L. I.; Chirskaya, N. P.

    2017-07-01

    The brief history of the development of investigations at the Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University (SINP MSU) in the field of space materials science is outlined. A generalized scheme of a numerical simulation of the radiation impact on spacecraft materials and elements of spacecraft equipment is examined. The results obtained by solving some of the most important problems that modern space materials science should address in studying nuclear processes, the interaction of charged particles with matter, particle detection, the protection from ionizing radiation, and the impact of particles on nanostructures and nanomaterials are presented.

  14. Mitigating Stress and Supporting Health in Deprived Urban Communities: The Importance of Green Space and the Social Environment.

    Ward Thompson, Catharine; Aspinall, Peter; Roe, Jenny; Robertson, Lynette; Miller, David

    2016-04-22

    Environment-health research has shown significant relationships between the quantity of green space in deprived urban neighbourhoods and people's stress levels. The focus of this paper is the nature of access to green space (i.e., its quantity or use) necessary before any health benefit is found. It draws on a cross-sectional survey of 406 adults in four communities of high urban deprivation in Scotland, United Kingdom. Self-reported measures of stress and general health were primary outcomes; physical activity and social wellbeing were also measured. A comprehensive, objective measure of green space quantity around each participant's home was also used, alongside self-report measures of use of local green space. Correlated Component Regression identified the optimal predictors for primary outcome variables in the different communities surveyed. Social isolation and place belonging were the strongest predictors of stress in three out of four communities sampled, and of poor general health in the fourth, least healthy, community. The amount of green space in the neighbourhood, and in particular access to a garden or allotment, were significant predictors of stress. Physical activity, frequency of visits to green space in winter months, and views from the home were predictors of general health. The findings have implications for public health and for planning of green infrastructure, gardens and public open space in urban environments.

  15. Mitigating Stress and Supporting Health in Deprived Urban Communities: The Importance of Green Space and the Social Environment

    Catharine Ward Thompson

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Environment-health research has shown significant relationships between the quantity of green space in deprived urban neighbourhoods and people’s stress levels. The focus of this paper is the nature of access to green space (i.e., its quantity or use necessary before any health benefit is found. It draws on a cross-sectional survey of 406 adults in four communities of high urban deprivation in Scotland, United Kingdom. Self-reported measures of stress and general health were primary outcomes; physical activity and social wellbeing were also measured. A comprehensive, objective measure of green space quantity around each participant’s home was also used, alongside self-report measures of use of local green space. Correlated Component Regression identified the optimal predictors for primary outcome variables in the different communities surveyed. Social isolation and place belonging were the strongest predictors of stress in three out of four communities sampled, and of poor general health in the fourth, least healthy, community. The amount of green space in the neighbourhood, and in particular access to a garden or allotment, were significant predictors of stress. Physical activity, frequency of visits to green space in winter months, and views from the home were predictors of general health. The findings have implications for public health and for planning of green infrastructure, gardens and public open space in urban environments.

  16. Mitigating Stress and Supporting Health in Deprived Urban Communities: The Importance of Green Space and the Social Environment

    Ward Thompson, Catharine; Aspinall, Peter; Roe, Jenny; Robertson, Lynette; Miller, David

    2016-01-01

    Environment-health research has shown significant relationships between the quantity of green space in deprived urban neighbourhoods and people’s stress levels. The focus of this paper is the nature of access to green space (i.e., its quantity or use) necessary before any health benefit is found. It draws on a cross-sectional survey of 406 adults in four communities of high urban deprivation in Scotland, United Kingdom. Self-reported measures of stress and general health were primary outcomes; physical activity and social wellbeing were also measured. A comprehensive, objective measure of green space quantity around each participant’s home was also used, alongside self-report measures of use of local green space. Correlated Component Regression identified the optimal predictors for primary outcome variables in the different communities surveyed. Social isolation and place belonging were the strongest predictors of stress in three out of four communities sampled, and of poor general health in the fourth, least healthy, community. The amount of green space in the neighbourhood, and in particular access to a garden or allotment, were significant predictors of stress. Physical activity, frequency of visits to green space in winter months, and views from the home were predictors of general health. The findings have implications for public health and for planning of green infrastructure, gardens and public open space in urban environments. PMID:27110803

  17. The Space Physics of Life: Searching for Biosignatures on Habitable Icy Worlds Affected by Space Weathering

    Cooper, John F.

    2006-01-01

    Accessible surfaces of the most likely astrobiological habitats (Mars, Europa, Titan) in the solar system beyond Earth are exposed to various chemical and hydrologic weathering processes directly or indirectly induced by interaction with the overlying space environment. These processes can be both beneficial, through provision of chemical compounds and energy, and destructive, through chemical dissociation or burial, to detectable presence of biosignatures. Orbital, suborbital, and surface platforms carrying astrobiological instrumentation must survive, and preferably exploit, space environment interactions to reach these habitats and search for evidence of life or its precursors. Experience from Mars suggests that any detection of biosignatures must be accompanied by characterization of the local chemical environment and energy sources including irradiation by solar ultraviolet photons and energetic particles from the space environment. Orbital and suborbital surveys of surface chemistry and astrobiological potential in the context of the space environment should precede targeted in-situ measurements to maximize probability of biosignature detection through site selection. The Space Physics of Life (SPOL) investigation has recently been proposed to the NASA Astrobiology Institute and is briefly described in this presentation. SPOL is the astrobiologically relevant study of the interactions and relationships of potentially? or previously inhabited, bodies of the solar system with the surrounding environments. This requires an interdisciplinary effort in space physics, planetary science, and radiation biology. The proposed investigation addresses the search for habitable environments, chemical resources to support life, and techniques for detection of organic and inorganic signs of life in the context of the space environment.

  18. Competition for space and the structure of ecological communities

    Yodzis, Peter

    1978-01-01

    This volume is an investigation of interspecific competition for space, particularly among sessile organisms, both plant and animal, and its consequences for community structure. While my own contribu­ tion ----and the bulk of this volume --- lies in mathematical analysis of the phenomenon, I have also tried to summarize the most important natural historical aspects of these communities, and have devoted much effort to relating the mathematical results to observations of the natural world. Thus, the volume has both a synthetic and an analytic aspect. On the one hand, I have been struck by certain similarities among many communities, from forests to mussel beds, in which spatial com­ petition is important. On the other hand, I have analyzed this pheno­ menon by means of reaction-dispersal models. Finally, the mathematical analysis has suggested a conceptual framework for these communities which, I believe, further unifies and illuminates the field data. A focal perception of this work is that, just as niche...

  19. Plasma Physics An Introduction to Laboratory, Space, and Fusion Plasmas

    Piel, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Plasma Physics gives a comprehensive introduction to the basic processes in plasmas and demonstrates that the same fundamental concepts describe cold gas-discharge plasmas, space plasmas, and hot fusion plasmas. Starting from particle drifts in magnetic fields, the principles of magnetic confinement fusion are explained and compared with laser fusion. Collective processes are discussed in terms of plasma waves and instabilities. The concepts of plasma description by magnetohydrodynamics, kinetic theory, and particle simulation are stepwise introduced. Space charge effects in sheath regions, double layers and plasma diodes are given the necessary attention. The new fundamental mechanisms of dusty plasmas are explored and integrated into the framework of conventional plasmas. The book concludes with a brief introduction to plasma discharges. Written by an internationally renowned researcher in experimental plasma physics, the text keeps the mathematical apparatus simple and emphasizes the underlying concepts. T...

  20. Parallelization of the Physical-Space Statistical Analysis System (PSAS)

    Larson, J. W.; Guo, J.; Lyster, P. M.

    1999-01-01

    Atmospheric data assimilation is a method of combining observations with model forecasts to produce a more accurate description of the atmosphere than the observations or forecast alone can provide. Data assimilation plays an increasingly important role in the study of climate and atmospheric chemistry. The NASA Data Assimilation Office (DAO) has developed the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (GEOS DAS) to create assimilated datasets. The core computational components of the GEOS DAS include the GEOS General Circulation Model (GCM) and the Physical-space Statistical Analysis System (PSAS). The need for timely validation of scientific enhancements to the data assimilation system poses computational demands that are best met by distributed parallel software. PSAS is implemented in Fortran 90 using object-based design principles. The analysis portions of the code solve two equations. The first of these is the "innovation" equation, which is solved on the unstructured observation grid using a preconditioned conjugate gradient (CG) method. The "analysis" equation is a transformation from the observation grid back to a structured grid, and is solved by a direct matrix-vector multiplication. Use of a factored-operator formulation reduces the computational complexity of both the CG solver and the matrix-vector multiplication, rendering the matrix-vector multiplications as a successive product of operators on a vector. Sparsity is introduced to these operators by partitioning the observations using an icosahedral decomposition scheme. PSAS builds a large (approx. 128MB) run-time database of parameters used in the calculation of these operators. Implementing a message passing parallel computing paradigm into an existing yet developing computational system as complex as PSAS is nontrivial. One of the technical challenges is balancing the requirements for computational reproducibility with the need for high performance. The problem of computational

  1. Information Theoretic Characterization of Physical Theories with Projective State Space

    Zaopo, Marco

    2015-08-01

    Probabilistic theories are a natural framework to investigate the foundations of quantum theory and possible alternative or deeper theories. In a generic probabilistic theory, states of a physical system are represented as vectors of outcomes probabilities and state spaces are convex cones. In this picture the physics of a given theory is related to the geometric shape of the cone of states. In quantum theory, for instance, the shape of the cone of states corresponds to a projective space over complex numbers. In this paper we investigate geometric constraints on the state space of a generic theory imposed by the following information theoretic requirements: every non completely mixed state of a system is perfectly distinguishable from some other state in a single shot measurement; information capacity of physical systems is conserved under making mixtures of states. These assumptions guarantee that a generic physical system satisfies a natural principle asserting that the more a state of the system is mixed the less information can be stored in the system using that state as logical value. We show that all theories satisfying the above assumptions are such that the shape of their cones of states is that of a projective space over a generic field of numbers. Remarkably, these theories constitute generalizations of quantum theory where superposition principle holds with coefficients pertaining to a generic field of numbers in place of complex numbers. If the field of numbers is trivial and contains only one element we obtain classical theory. This result tells that superposition principle is quite common among probabilistic theories while its absence gives evidence of either classical theory or an implausible theory.

  2. Lessons Learned to Date in Developing the Virtual Space Physics Observatory

    Cornwell, C.; Roberts, D. A.; King, J.; Smith, A.

    2005-12-01

    We now have an operational Virtual Space Physics Observatory that provides users the ability to search for and retrieve data from hundreds of space and solar physics data products based on specific terms or a Google-like interface. Lessons learned in building VSPO include: (a) A very close and highly interactive collaboration between scientists and information technologists in the definition and development of services is essential. (b) Constructing a Data Model acceptable to a broad community is very important but very difficult. Variations in usage are inevitable and must be dealt with through translations; this is especially true for the description of variables within data products. (c) Higher-order queries (searches based on events, positions, comparisons of measurements, etc.) are possible, and have been implemented in various systems; currently we see these as being separate from the basic data finding and retrieval services. (d) Building a Virtual Observatory is often more a matter of the tedious details of product descriptions than an exercise in implementing fancy middleware. Paying a knowledgeable third party to build registries can be more efficient than working directly with providers, and automated tools can help but do not solve all the problems. (e) The success of the VO effort in space and solar physics, as elsewhere, will depend on whether the scientific communities involved use and critique the services so that they will come to meet a real need for the integration of resources to solve new scientific problems of perceived importance.

  3. Swedish Institute of Space Physics. Annual report 1987

    1988-01-01

    The main task of the institute is to conduct research and perform observatory measurements in the field of space physics. It shall also provide postgraduate education in space physics. IRF consists of four divisions. The largest division as well as the main office is situated in Kiruna. The other divisions are the Laboratory of Mechanical Waves in Soerfors, the Umeaa Division and the Uppsala Division. Lycksele Ionospheric Observatory belongs to the Kiruna Division. The different divisions have independent research programmes and separate research grants. The field of study taking up most resources at IRF in Kiruna today is the in situ hot plasma investigations. We develop and build various types of plasma spectrometers for the energy range from 1 eV to several hundred keV. To date instruments constructed in Kiruna have been flown on eight satellites and more than 40 sounding rockets. We have also developed ground support equipment for a plasma experiment on board the Giotto spacecraft. (authors) The laboratory of Mechanical Waves concentrates on applied and basic research concerning infrasound and low frequency vibration; Development of methods for detection and signal processing of mechanical waves, and Investigation of the middle atmosphere through measurements of the propagation of infra-acoustic waves. The Umeaa and Uppsala divisions have their main interests in the areas of space plasma physics, e.g. wave-particle interactions and high latitude ionospheric phenomena. (L.E.)

  4. An Absolute Phase Space for the Physicality of Matter

    Valentine, John S.

    2010-01-01

    We define an abstract and absolute phase space (''APS'') for sub-quantum intrinsic wave states, in three axes, each mapping directly to a duality having fundamental ontological basis. Many aspects of quantum physics emerge from the interaction algebra and a model deduced from principles of 'unique solvability' and 'identifiable entity', and we reconstruct previously abstract fundamental principles and phenomena from these new foundations. The physical model defines bosons as virtual continuous waves pairs in the APS, and fermions as real self-quantizing snapshots of those waves when simple conditions are met. The abstraction and physical model define a template for the constitution of all fermions, a template for all the standard fundamental bosons and their local interactions, in a common framework and compactified phase space for all forms of real matter and virtual vacuum energy, and a distinct algebra for observables and unobservables. To illustrate our scheme's potential, we provide examples of slit experiment variations (where the model finds theoretical basis for interference only occurring between two final sources), QCD (where we may model most attributes known to QCD, and a new view on entanglement), and we suggest approaches for other varied applications. We believe this is a viable candidate for further exploration as a foundational proposition for physics.

  5. Between Community Spaces: Squares of Minor Centers of Calabria

    Mauro Francini

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The theme of open “community spaces” in recent years has to the development of important interdisci­plinary issues. Nevertheless, the reading of smaller towns, in urbanistic, historical-anthropological and geographical terms appears less extended, considering the declination of public spaces as "squares." Starting from this declension we would like to introduce the first results of a research. The research had the aim of (reinterpreting the particular characteristics of these areas in specific areas such as small towns, using the region of Calabria for the case of analytic application. These communities have diverse and stratified living cultures, altered by settlement processes that have triggered two different types of urban contexts. The former often lead either to urban areas in depopulated decay or, in contrast, in places of memories: empty containers of relationships, sterile and crystallized museum objects, reduced to scenarios on which passing groups of visitors move necessarily from those realities. The latter often encircle primitive nuclei, asphyxiating them, or characterizing the so-called "dual" or "satellites" towns, completely detached from the original urban center in which all public functions are decentralized. The applied methodology is based on the reading of the historical-functional evolution of squares by the identification of codified compositional criteria. Through this research we seek to verify how urban planning, in synergy with other disciplines, can define processes of regeneration aimed at restoring the meaning of "center", and thus of an urban-community reference center.

  6. Course Notes: United States Particle Accelerator School Beam Physics with Intense Space-Charge

    Barnard, J.J.; Lund, S.M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this course is to provide a comprehensive introduction to the physics of beams with intense space charge. This course is suitable for graduate students and researchers interested in accelerator systems that require sufficient high intensity where mutual particle interactions in the beam can no longer be neglected. This course is intended to give the student a broad overview of the dynamics of beams with strong space charge. The emphasis is on theoretical and analytical methods of describing the acceleration and transport of beams. Some aspects of numerical and experimental methods will also be covered. Students will become familiar with standard methods employed to understand the transverse and longitudinal evolution of beams with strong space charge. The material covered will provide a foundation to design practical architectures. In this course, we will introduce you to the physics of intense charged particle beams, focusing on the role of space charge. The topics include: particle equations of motion, the paraxial ray equation, and the Vlasov equation; 4-D and 2-D equilibrium distribution functions (such as the Kapchinskij-Vladimirskij, thermal equilibrium, and Neuffer distributions), reduced moment and envelope equation formulations of beam evolution; transport limits and focusing methods; the concept of emittance and the calculation of its growth from mismatches in beam envelope and from space-charge non-uniformities using system conservation constraints; the role of space-charge in producing beam halos; longitudinal space-charge effects including small amplitude and rarefaction waves; stable and unstable oscillation modes of beams (including envelope and kinetic modes); the role of space charge in the injector; and algorithms to calculate space-charge effects in particle codes. Examples of intense beams will be given primarily from the ion and proton accelerator communities with applications from, for example, heavy-ion fusion, spallation

  7. Plasma physics and the 2013-2022 decadal survey in solar and space physics

    Baker, Daniel N.

    2016-11-01

    The U.S. National Academies established in 2011 a steering committee to develop a comprehensive strategy for solar and space physics research. This updated and extended the first (2003) solar and space physics decadal survey. The latest decadal study implemented a 2008 Congressional directive to NASA for the fields of solar and space physics, but also addressed research in other federal agencies. The new survey broadly canvassed the fields of research to determine the current state of the discipline, identified the most important open scientific questions, and proposed the measurements and means to obtain them so as to advance the state of knowledge during the years 2013-2022. Research in this field has sought to understand: dynamical behaviour of the Sun and its heliosphere; properties of the space environments of the Earth and other solar system bodies; multiscale interaction between solar system plasmas and the interstellar medium; and energy transport throughout the solar system and its impact on the Earth and other solar system bodies. Research in solar and space plasma processes using observation, theory, laboratory studies, and numerical models has offered the prospect of understanding this interconnected system well enough to develop a predictive capability for operational support of civil and military space systems. We here describe the recommendations and strategic plans laid out in the 2013-2022 decadal survey as they relate to measurement capabilities and plasma physical research. We assess progress to date. We also identify further steps to achieve the Survey goals with an emphasis on plasma physical aspects of the program.

  8. Understanding space weather with new physical, mathematical and philosophical approaches

    Mateev, Lachezar; Velinov, Peter; Tassev, Yordan

    2016-07-01

    The actual problems of solar-terrestrial physics, in particular of space weather are related to the prediction of the space environment state and are solved by means of different analyses and models. The development of these investigations can be considered also from another side. This is the philosophical and mathematical approach towards this physical reality. What does it constitute? We have a set of physical processes which occur in the Sun and interplanetary space. All these processes interact with each other and simultaneously participate in the general process which forms the space weather. Let us now consider the Leibniz's monads (G.W. von Leibniz, 1714, Monadologie, Wien; Id., 1710, Théodicée, Amsterdam) and use some of their properties. There are total 90 theses for monads in the Leibniz's work (1714), f.e. "(1) The Monad, of which we shall here speak, is nothing but a simple substance, which enters into compounds. By 'simple' is meant 'without parts'. (Theod. 10.); … (56) Now this connexion or adaptation of all created things to each and of each to all, means that each simple substance has relations which express all the others, and, consequently, that it is a perpetual living mirror of the universe. (Theod. 130, 360.); (59) … this universal harmony, according to which every substance exactly expresses all others through the relations it has with them. (63) … every Monad is, in its own way, a mirror of the universe, and the universe is ruled according to a perfect order. (Theod. 403.)", etc. Let us introduce in the properties of monads instead of the word "monad" the word "process". We obtain the following statement: Each process reflects all other processes and all other processes reflect this process. This analogy is not formal at all, it reflects accurately the relation between the physical processes and their unity. The category monad which in the Leibniz's Monadology reflects generally the philosophical sense is fully identical with the

  9. Space, Time, and Spacetime Physical and Philosophical Implications of Minkowski's Unification of Space and Time

    Petkov, Vesselin

    2010-01-01

    This volume is dedicated to the centennial anniversary of Minkowski's discovery of spacetime. It contains selected papers by physicists and philosophers on the Nature and Ontology of Spacetime. The first six papers, comprising Part I of the book, provide examples of the impact of Minkowski's spacetime representation of special relativity on the twentieth century physics. Part II also contains six papers which deal with implications of Minkowski's ideas for the philosophy of space and time. The last part is represented by two papers which explore the influence of Minkowski's ideas beyond the philosophy of space and time.

  10. When do plant radiations influence community assembly? The importance of historical contingency in the race for niche space.

    Tanentzap, Andrew J; Brandt, Angela J; Smissen, Rob D; Heenan, Peter B; Fukami, Tadashi; Lee, William G

    2015-07-01

    Plant radiations are widespread but their influence on community assembly has rarely been investigated. Theory and some evidence suggest that radiations can allow lineages to monopolize niche space when founding species arrive early into new bioclimatic regions and exploit ecological opportunities. These early radiations may subsequently reduce niche availability and dampen diversification of later arrivals. We tested this hypothesis of time-dependent lineage diversification and community dominance using the alpine flora of New Zealand. We estimated ages of 16 genera from published phylogenies and determined their relative occurrence across climatic and physical gradients in the alpine zone. We used these data to reconstruct occupancy of environmental space through time, integrating palaeoclimatic and palaeogeological changes. Our analysis suggested that earlier-colonizing lineages encountered a greater availability of environmental space, which promoted greater species diversity and occupancy of niche space. Genera that occupied broader niches were subsequently more dominant in local communities. An earlier time of arrival also contributed to greater diversity independently of its influence in accessing niche space. We suggest that plant radiations influence community assembly when they arise early in the occupancy of environmental space, allowing them to exclude later-arriving colonists from ecological communities by niche preemption. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  11. Investigating student communities with network analysis of interactions in a physics learning center

    Eric Brewe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Developing a sense of community among students is one of the three pillars of an overall reform effort to increase participation in physics, and the sciences more broadly, at Florida International University. The emergence of a research and learning community, embedded within a course reform effort, has contributed to increased recruitment and retention of physics majors. We utilize social network analysis to quantify interactions in Florida International University’s Physics Learning Center (PLC that support the development of academic and social integration. The tools of social network analysis allow us to visualize and quantify student interactions and characterize the roles of students within a social network. After providing a brief introduction to social network analysis, we use sequential multiple regression modeling to evaluate factors that contribute to participation in the learning community. Results of the sequential multiple regression indicate that the PLC learning community is an equitable environment as we find that gender and ethnicity are not significant predictors of participation in the PLC. We find that providing students space for collaboration provides a vital element in the formation of a supportive learning community.

  12. Investigating student communities with network analysis of interactions in a physics learning center

    Brewe, Eric; Kramer, Laird; Sawtelle, Vashti

    2012-06-01

    Developing a sense of community among students is one of the three pillars of an overall reform effort to increase participation in physics, and the sciences more broadly, at Florida International University. The emergence of a research and learning community, embedded within a course reform effort, has contributed to increased recruitment and retention of physics majors. We utilize social network analysis to quantify interactions in Florida International University’s Physics Learning Center (PLC) that support the development of academic and social integration. The tools of social network analysis allow us to visualize and quantify student interactions and characterize the roles of students within a social network. After providing a brief introduction to social network analysis, we use sequential multiple regression modeling to evaluate factors that contribute to participation in the learning community. Results of the sequential multiple regression indicate that the PLC learning community is an equitable environment as we find that gender and ethnicity are not significant predictors of participation in the PLC. We find that providing students space for collaboration provides a vital element in the formation of a supportive learning community.

  13. Towards augmented reality: The dialectics of physical and virtual space

    Guga Jelena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spaces generated by new media technologies, no matter how abstract they may be, represent a qualitatively new form of the media environment. Moreover, they are integrated into everyday life in a way that they have become the constituents of social reality. Based on dualistic Cartesian understanding of real and virtual space, virtuality still carries a connotation of 'other' world, which is ontologically and phenomenologically different from 'reality'. However, virtuality as a characteristic of new media technologies should neither be equated with illusion, deception or fiction nor set in opposition to reality, given that it embodies real interactions. Instead, we could say that there are different types or levels of reality and that the virtual exists as reality qualitatively different from that of physical reality. Today, when every place on the planet, as well as social, political, and cultural activities, have their digital manifestations, can we still talk about virtual space as an isolated phenomenon? The ubiquitous use of new media technologies such as smartphones or wearables has profoundly transformed the experience of modern man. It is more and more determined by technologically mediated reality, i.e. augmented reality. In this regard, the key issues that will be addressed in this article are the ways technologically mediated spaces redefine not only the social relationships, but also the notions of identity, embodiment, and the self.

  14. Establishing the Common Community Physics Package by Transitioning the GFS Physics to a Collaborative Software Framework

    Xue, L.; Firl, G.; Zhang, M.; Jimenez, P. A.; Gill, D.; Carson, L.; Bernardet, L.; Brown, T.; Dudhia, J.; Nance, L. B.; Stark, D. R.

    2017-12-01

    The Global Model Test Bed (GMTB) has been established to support the evolution of atmospheric physical parameterizations in NCEP global modeling applications. To accelerate the transition to the Next Generation Global Prediction System (NGGPS), a collaborative model development framework known as the Common Community Physics Package (CCPP) is created within the GMTB to facilitate engagement from the broad community on physics experimentation and development. A key component to this Research to Operation (R2O) software framework is the Interoperable Physics Driver (IPD) that hooks the physics parameterizations from one end to the dynamical cores on the other end with minimum implementation effort. To initiate the CCPP, scientists and engineers from the GMTB separated and refactored the GFS physics. This exercise demonstrated the process of creating IPD-compliant code and can serve as an example for other physics schemes to do the same and be considered for inclusion into the CCPP. Further benefits to this process include run-time physics suite configuration and considerably reduced effort for testing modifications to physics suites through GMTB's physics test harness. The implementation will be described and the preliminary results will be presented at the conference.

  15. Physical sciences research plans for the International Space Station

    Trinh, E. H.

    2003-01-01

    The restructuring of the research capabilities of the International Space Station has forced a reassessment of the Physical Sciences research plans and a re-targeting of the major scientific thrusts. The combination of already selected peer-reviewed flight investigations with the initiation of new research and technology programs will allow the maximization of the ISS scientific and technological potential. Fundamental and applied research will use a combination of ISS-based facilities, ground-based activities, and other experimental platforms to address issues impacting fundamental knowledge, industrial and medical applications on Earth, and the technology required for human space exploration. The current flight investigation research plan shows a large number of principal investigators selected to use the remaining planned research facilities. c2003 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Plasma physics an introduction to laboratory, space, and fusion plasmas

    Piel, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    The enlarged new edition of this textbook provides a comprehensive introduction to the basic processes in plasmas and demonstrates that the same fundamental concepts describe cold gas-discharge plasmas, space plasmas, and hot fusion plasmas. Starting from particle drifts in magnetic fields, the principles of magnetic confinement fusion are explained and compared with laser fusion. Collective processes are discussed in terms of plasma waves and instabilities. The concepts of plasma description by magnetohydrodynamics, kinetic theory, and particle simulation are stepwise introduced. Space charge effects in sheath regions, double layers and plasma diodes are given the necessary attention. The novel fundamental mechanisms of dusty plasmas are explored and integrated into the framework of conventional plasmas. The book concludes with a concise description of modern plasma discharges. Written by an internationally renowned researcher in experimental plasma physics, the text keeps the mathematical apparatus simple a...

  17. Using observational methods to evaluate public open spaces and physical activity in Brazil.

    Hino A A, F; Reis, Rodrigo S; Ribeiro, Isabela C; Parra, Diana C; Brownson, Ross C; Fermino, Rogerio C

    2010-07-01

    Open public spaces have been identified as important facilities to promote physical activity (PA) at the community level. The main goals of this study are to describe open public spaces user's characteristics and to explore to what extent these characteristics are associated with PA behavior. A system of direct observation was used to evaluate the PA levels on parks and squares (smaller parks) and users's characteristics (gender and age). The 4 parks and 4 squares observed were selected from neighborhoods with different socioeconomic status and environmental characteristics. The settings were observed 3 times a day, 6 days per week, during 2 weeks. More men than women were observed in parks (63.1%) and squares (70.0%) as well as more adults and adolescents than older adults and children. Users were more physically active in parks (men = 34.1%, women = 36.1%) than in squares (men = 25.5%, women 22.8%). The characteristics of public open spaces may affect PA in the observed places. Initiatives to improve PA levels in community settings should consider users' characteristics and preferences to be more effective and reach a larger number of people.

  18. The role of physical space in labour–management cooperation

    Ilsøe, Anna; Felbo-Kolding, Jonas

    2018-01-01

    Many studies on labour–management relations have focused on formal cooperation in manufacturing. This calls for further research and theory development on labour–management interactions in private service companies, where cooperation practices appear to be less formal. In this article, a typology...... of cooperation between managers and employees is developed, based on a microsociological study conducted in the Danish retail trade in 2013. Drawing on six indepth case studies, the article identifies four different physical spaces of labour–management cooperation: open collective, closed collective, open...

  19. InfoGallery: Informative Arts Services for Physical Library Spaces

    Grønbæk, Kaj; Rohde, Anne; Sundararajah, Balasuthas

    2006-01-01

    Much focus in digital libraries research has been devoted to new online services rather than services for the visitors in the physical library. This paper describes InfoGallery, which is a web-based infrastructure for enriching the physical library space with informative art "exhibitions......" of digital library material and other relevant information, such as RSS news streams, event announcements etc. InfoGallery presents information in an aesthetically attractive manner on a variety of surfaces in the library, including cylindrical displays and floors. The infrastructure consists of a server...... structure, an editor application and a variety of display clients. The paper discusses the design of the infrastructure and its utilization of RSS, podcasts and manually edited news. Applications in the library domain are described and the experiences are discussed....

  20. Data management, archiving, visualization and analysis of space physics data

    Russell, C. T.

    1995-01-01

    A series of programs for the visualization and analysis of space physics data has been developed at UCLA. In the course of those developments, a number of lessons have been learned regarding data management and data archiving, as well as data analysis. The issues now facing those wishing to develop such software, as well as the lessons learned, are reviewed. Modern media have eased many of the earlier problems of the physical volume required to store data, the speed of access, and the permanence of the records. However, the ultimate longevity of these media is still a question of debate. Finally, while software development has become easier, cost is still a limiting factor in developing visualization and analysis software.

  1. Prevention Research Matters-Communities Working to Improve Physical Activity

    2018-02-15

    We know that children who are physically active every day are less likely to develop chronic diseases as adults, including obesity. Dr. Sandy Slater, a researcher with the University of Illinois, Chicago Prevention Research Center, discusses how a park improvement project in Chicago helped engage communities to improve areas for play and activity.  Created: 2/15/2018 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 2/15/2018.

  2. 14th ICATPP Conference on Astroparticle, Particle, Space Physics and Detectors for Physics Applications

    Leroy, Claude; Price, Lawrence; Rancoita, Pier-Giorgio; Ruchti, Randy; ICATPP 2013; International Conference on Advanced Technology and Particle Physics

    2014-01-01

    The exploration of the subnuclear world is done through increasingly complex experiments covering a wide range of energy and performed in a large variety of environments ranging from particle accelerators, underground detectors to satellites and the space laboratory. The achievement of these research programs calls for novel techniques, new materials and instrumentation to be used in detectors, often of large scale. Therefore, fundamental physics is at the forefront of technological advance and also leads to many applications. Among these, are the progresses from space experiments whose results allow the understanding of the cosmic environment, of the origin and evolution of the universe after the Big Bang.

  3. What Attracts People to Visit Community Open Spaces? A Case Study of the Overseas Chinese Town Community in Shenzhen, China

    Yiyong Chen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A well-designed open space that encourages outdoor activity and social communication is a community asset that could potentially contribute to the health of local residents and social harmony of the community. Numerous factors may influence the use of each single space and may result in a variety of visitors. Compared with previous studies that focused on accessibility, this study highlights the relationship between the utilization and characteristics of community open spaces in China. The Overseas Chinese Town community in Shenzhen is regarded as an example. The association between the number of visitors and space characteristics is examined with multivariate regression models. Results show that large areas with accessible lawns, well-maintained footpaths, seats, commercial facilities, and water landscapes are important characteristics that could increase the use of community open spaces. However, adding green vegetation, sculptures, and landscape accessories in open spaces has limited effects on increasing the outdoor activities of residents. Thus, to increase the use of community open spaces, landscape designers should focus more on creating user-oriented spaces with facilities that encourage active use than on improving ornamental vegetation and accessories.

  4. What Attracts People to Visit Community Open Spaces? A Case Study of the Overseas Chinese Town Community in Shenzhen, China

    Chen, Yiyong; Liu, Tao; Xie, Xiaohuan; Marušić, Barbara Goličnik

    2016-01-01

    A well-designed open space that encourages outdoor activity and social communication is a community asset that could potentially contribute to the health of local residents and social harmony of the community. Numerous factors may influence the use of each single space and may result in a variety of visitors. Compared with previous studies that focused on accessibility, this study highlights the relationship between the utilization and characteristics of community open spaces in China. The Overseas Chinese Town community in Shenzhen is regarded as an example. The association between the number of visitors and space characteristics is examined with multivariate regression models. Results show that large areas with accessible lawns, well-maintained footpaths, seats, commercial facilities, and water landscapes are important characteristics that could increase the use of community open spaces. However, adding green vegetation, sculptures, and landscape accessories in open spaces has limited effects on increasing the outdoor activities of residents. Thus, to increase the use of community open spaces, landscape designers should focus more on creating user-oriented spaces with facilities that encourage active use than on improving ornamental vegetation and accessories. PMID:27367713

  5. Physical Activity Measures in the Healthy Communities Study.

    Pate, Russell R; McIver, Kerry L; Colabianchi, Natalie; Troiano, Richard P; Reis, Jared P; Carroll, Dianna D; Fulton, Janet E

    2015-10-01

    The risk of obesity is reduced when youth engage in recommended levels of physical activity (PA). For that reason, public health organizations in the U.S. have encouraged communities to implement programs and policies designed to increase PA in youth, and many communities have taken on that challenge. However, the long-term effects of those programs and policies on obesity are largely unknown. The Healthy Communities Study is a large-scale observational study of U.S. communities that is examining the characteristics of programs and policies designed to promote healthy behaviors (e.g., increase PA and improve diet) and determining their association with obesity-related outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to describe the methods used to measure PA in children and the personal and community factors that may influence it. The study used both self-reported and objective measures of PA, and measured personal, family, and home influences on PA via three constructs: (1) PA self-schema; (2) parental support; and (3) parental rules regarding PA. Neighborhood and community factors related to PA were assessed using three measures: (1) child perceptions of the neighborhood environment; (2) availability of PA equipment; and (3) attributes of the child's street segment via direct observation. School influences on children's PA were assessed via three constructs: (1) school PA policies; (2) child perceptions of the school PA environment; and (3) school outdoor PA environment. These measures will enable examination of the associations between characteristics of community PA programs and policies and obesity-related outcomes in children and youth. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  6. Start small, dream big: Experiences of physical activity in public spaces in Colombia.

    Díaz Del Castillo, Adriana; González, Silvia Alejandra; Ríos, Ana Paola; Páez, Diana C; Torres, Andrea; Díaz, María Paula; Pratt, Michael; Sarmiento, Olga L

    2017-10-01

    Multi-sectoral strategies to promote active recreation and physical activity in public spaces are crucial to building a "culture of health". However, studies on the sustainability and scalability of these strategies are limited. This paper identifies the factors related to the sustainability and scaling up of two community-based programs offering physical activity classes in public spaces in Colombia: Bogotá's Recreovía and Colombia's "Healthy Habits and Lifestyles Program-HEVS". Both programs have been sustained for more than 10years, and have benefited 1455 communities. We used a mixed-methods approach including semi-structured interviews, document review and an analysis of data regarding the programs' history, characteristics, funding, capacity building and challenges. Interviews were conducted between May-October 2015. Based on the sustainability frameworks of Shediac-Rizkallah and Bone and Scheirer, we developed categories to independently code each interview. All information was independently analyzed by four of the authors and cross-compared between programs. Findings showed that these programs underwent adaptation processes to address the challenges that threatened their continuation and growth. The primary strategies included flexibility/adaptability, investing in the working conditions and training of instructors, allocating public funds and requesting accountability, diversifying resources, having community support and champions at different levels and positions, and carrying out continuous advocacy to include physical activity in public policies. Recreovía and HEVS illustrate sustainability as an incremental, multi-level process at different levels. Lessons learned for similar initiatives include the importance of individual actions and small events, a willingness to start small while dreaming big, being flexible, and prioritizing the human factor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The extensions of space-time. Physics in the 8-dimensional homogeneous space D = SU(2,2)/K

    Barut, A.O.

    1993-07-01

    The Minkowski space-time is only a boundary of a bigger homogeneous space of the conformal group. The conformal group is the symmetry group of our most fundamental massless wave equations. These extended groups and spaces have many remarkable properties and physical implications. (author). 36 refs

  8. Introduction to plasma physics with space, laboratory and astrophysical applications

    Gurnett, Donald A

    2017-01-01

    Introducing basic principles of plasma physics and their applications to space, laboratory and astrophysical plasmas, this new edition provides updated material throughout. Topics covered include single-particle motions, kinetic theory, magnetohydrodynamics, small amplitude waves in hot and cold plasmas, and collisional effects. New additions include the ponderomotive force, tearing instabilities in resistive plasmas and the magnetorotational instability in accretion disks, charged particle acceleration by shocks, and a more in-depth look at nonlinear phenomena. A broad range of applications are explored: planetary magnetospheres and radiation belts, the confinement and stability of plasmas in fusion devices, the propagation of discontinuities and shock waves in the solar wind, and analysis of various types of plasma waves and instabilities that can occur in planetary magnetospheres and laboratory plasma devices. With step-by-step derivations and self-contained introductions to mathematical methods, this book...

  9. Unitary quantum physics with time-space non-commutativity

    Balachandran, A P; Govindarajan, T R; Martins, A G; Molina, C; Teotonio-Sobrinho, P

    2005-01-01

    In these lectures 4 quantum physics in noncommutative spacetime is developed. It is based on the work of Doplicher et al. which allows for time-space noncommutativity. In the context of noncommutative quantum mechanics, some important points are explored, such as the formal construction of the theory, symmetries, causality, simultaneity and observables. The dynamics generated by a noncommutative Schroedinger equation is studied. The theory is further extended to certain noncommutative versions of the cylinder, R 3 and R x S 3 . In all these models, only discrete time translations are possible. One striking consequence of quantised time translations is that even though a time independent Hamiltonian is an observable, in scattering processes, it is conserved only modulo 2π/θ, where θ is the noncommutative parameter. Scattering theory is formulated and an approach to quantumfield theory is outlined

  10. Fast Magnetic Reconnection: Bridging Laboratory and Space Plasma Physics

    Bhattacharjee, Amitava [University New Hampshire- Durham

    2012-02-16

    Recent developments in experimental and theoretical studies of magnetic reconnection hold promise for providing solutions to outstanding problems in laboratory and space plasma physics. Examples include sawtooth crashes in tokamaks, substorms in the Earth’s Magnetosphere, eruptive solar flares, and more recently, fast reconnection in laser-produced high energy density plasmas. In each of these examples, a common and long-standing challenge has been to explain why fast reconnection proceeds rapidly from a relatively quiescent state. In this talk, we demonstrate the advantages of viewing these problems and their solutions from a common perspective. We focus on some recent, surprising discoveries regarding the role of secondary plasmoid instabilities of thin current sheets. Nonlinearly, these instabilities lead to fast reconnection rates that are very weakly dependent on the Lundquist number of the plasma.

  11. Hamiltonian and physical Hilbert space in polymer quantum mechanics

    Corichi, Alejandro; Vukasinac, Tatjana; Zapata, Jose A

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a version of polymer quantum mechanics, which is inspired by loop quantum gravity, is considered and shown to be equivalent, in a precise sense, to the standard, experimentally tested Schroedinger quantum mechanics. The kinematical cornerstone of our framework is the so-called polymer representation of the Heisenberg-Weyl (HW) algebra, which is the starting point of the construction. The dynamics is constructed as a continuum limit of effective theories characterized by a scale, and requires a renormalization of the inner product. The result is a physical Hilbert space in which the continuum Hamiltonian can be represented and that is unitarily equivalent to the Schroedinger representation of quantum mechanics. As a concrete implementation of our formalism, the simple harmonic oscillator is fully developed

  12. Relativity Based on Physical Processes Rather Than Space-Time

    Giese, Albrecht

    2013-09-01

    Physicists' understanding of relativity and the way it is handled is at present dominated by the interpretation of Albert Einstein, who related relativity to specific properties of space and time. The principal alternative to Einstein's interpretation is based on a concept proposed by Hendrik A. Lorentz, which uses knowledge of classical physics to explain relativistic phenomena. In this paper, we will show that on the one hand the Lorentz-based interpretation provides a simpler mathematical way of arriving at the known results for both Special and General Relativity. On the other hand, it is able to solve problems which have remained open to this day. Furthermore, a particle model will be presented, based on Lorentzian relativity, which explains the origin of mass without the use of the Higgs mechanism, based on the finiteness of the speed of light, and which provides the classical results for particle properties that are currently only accessible through quantum mechanics.

  13. Mathematical methods in physics distributions, Hilbert space operators, variational methods, and applications in quantum physics

    Blanchard, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    The second edition of this textbook presents the basic mathematical knowledge and skills that are needed for courses on modern theoretical physics, such as those on quantum mechanics, classical and quantum field theory, and related areas.  The authors stress that learning mathematical physics is not a passive process and include numerous detailed proofs, examples, and over 200 exercises, as well as hints linking mathematical concepts and results to the relevant physical concepts and theories.  All of the material from the first edition has been updated, and five new chapters have been added on such topics as distributions, Hilbert space operators, and variational methods.   The text is divided into three main parts. Part I is a brief introduction to distribution theory, in which elements from the theories of ultradistributions and hyperfunctions are considered in addition to some deeper results for Schwartz distributions, thus providing a comprehensive introduction to the theory of generalized functions. P...

  14. Introduction to Plasma Physics: With Space and Laboratory Applications

    Browning, P K

    2005-01-01

    A new textbook on plasma physics must be very welcome, as this will encourage the teaching of courses on the subject. This book is written by two experts in their fields, and is aimed at advanced undergraduate and postgraduate courses. There are of course many other plasma physics textbooks available. The niche which this particular book fills is really defined by its subtitle: that is, 'with space and laboratory applications'. This differs from most other books which tend to emphasise either space or fusion applications (but not both) or to concentrate only on general theory. Essentially, the emphasis here is on fundamental plasma physics theory, but applications are given from time to time. For example, after developing Alfven wave theory, observations of Alfven waves in the solar wind and in the Jovian magnetosphere are presented; whilst ion acoustic cylcotron waves are illustrated by data from a laboratory Q machine. It is fair to say that examples from space seem to predominate. Nevertheless, the approach of including a broad range of applications is very good from an educational point of view, and this should help to train a generation of students with a grasp of fundamental plasma physics who can work in a variety of research fields. The subject coverage of the book is fairly conventional and there are no great surprises. It begins, inevitably, with a discussion of plasma parameters (Debye length etc) and of single particle motions. Both kinetic theory and magnetohydrodynamics are introduced. Waves are quite extensively discussed in several chapters, including both cold and hot plasmas, magnetised and unmagnetised. Nonlinear effects - a large subject! - are briefly discussed. A final chapter deals with collisions in fully ionised plasmas. The choice of contents of a textbook is always something of a matter of personal choice. It is easy to complain about what has been left out, and everyone has their own favourite topics. With that caveat, I would question

  15. Low Cost Balloon programme of Indian Centre for Space Physics

    Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Indian Centre for Space Physics has launched 89 Missions to near space using single or multiple weather balloons or very light plastic balloons. Basic goal was to capitalize miniaturization of equipments in modern ages. Our typical payload of less than 4kg weight consists of GPS, video camera, cosmic ray detectors, Attitude measurement unit, sunsensor and most importantly a 50-100sqcm X-ray/Gamma-ray detector (usually a scintillator type). The main purpose of the latter is to study spectra of secondary cosmic ray spectra (till our ceiling altitude of 36-42km) over the years and their seasonal variation or variation with solar cycle. We also study solar X-ray spectra, especially of solar flares. We have detected a Gamma Ray Burst (GRB) and pulsars. Our observation of black hole candidates did not yield satisfactory result yet mainly because of poor collimation (~ 10 deg x 10 deg) by lead collimator which introduces strong background also. Our effort with multiple balloon flights enabled us to have long duration flights. We believe that our procedure is very futuristic and yet at an affordable cost.

  16. Fluid Physical and Transport Phenomena Studies aboard the International Space Station: Planned Experiments

    Singh, Bhim S.

    1999-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the microgravity fluid physics and transport phenomena experiments planned for the International Spare Station. NASA's Office of Life and Microgravity Science and Applications has established a world-class research program in fluid physics and transport phenomena. This program combines the vast expertise of the world research community with NASA's unique microgravity facilities with the objectives of gaining new insight into fluid phenomena by removing the confounding effect of gravity. Due to its criticality to many terrestrial and space-based processes and phenomena, fluid physics and transport phenomena play a central role in the NASA's Microgravity Program. Through widely publicized research announcement and well established peer-reviews, the program has been able to attract a number of world-class researchers and acquired a critical mass of investigations that is now adding rapidly to this field. Currently there arc a total of 106 ground-based and 20 candidate flight principal investigators conducting research in four major thrust areas in the program: complex flows, multiphase flow and phase change, interfacial phenomena, and dynamics and instabilities. The International Space Station (ISS) to be launched in 1998, provides the microgravity research community with a unprecedented opportunity to conduct long-duration microgravity experiments which can be controlled and operated from the Principal Investigators' own laboratory. Frequent planned shuttle flights to the Station will provide opportunities to conduct many more experiments than were previously possible. NASA Lewis Research Center is in the process of designing a Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) to be located in the Laboratory Module of the ISS that will not only accommodate multiple users but, allow a broad range of fluid physics and transport phenomena experiments to be conducted in a cost effective manner.

  17. Energetic particle physics with applications in fusion and space plasmas

    Cheng, C.Z.

    1997-01-01

    Energetic particle physics is the study of the effects of energetic particles on collective electromagnetic (EM) instabilities and energetic particle transport in plasmas. Anomalously large energetic particle transport is often caused by low frequency MHD instabilities, which are driven by these energetic particles in the presence of a much denser background of thermal particles. The theory of collective energetic particle phenomena studies complex wave-particle interactions in which particle kinetic physics involving small spatial and fast temporal scales can strongly affect the MHD structure and long-time behavior of plasmas. The difficulty of modeling kinetic-MHD multiscale coupling processes stems from the disparate scales which are traditionally analyzed separately: the macroscale MHD phenomena are studied using the fluid MHD framework, while microscale kinetic phenomena are best described by complicated kinetic theories. The authors have developed a kinetic-MHD model that properly incorporates major particle kinetic effects into the MHD fluid description. For tokamak plasmas a nonvariational kinetic-MHD stability code, the NOVA-K code, has been successfully developed and applied to study problems such as the excitation of fishbone and Toroidal Alfven Eigenmodes (TAE) and the sawtooth stabilization by energetic ions in tokamaks. In space plasmas the authors have employed the kinetic-MHD model to study the energetic particle effects on the ballooning-mirror instability which explains the multisatellite observation of the stability and field-aligned structure of compressional Pc 5 waves in the magnetospheric ring current plasma

  18. Online space physics data services at SINP MSU

    Kalegaev, V.; Bobrovnikov, S.; Alexeev, I.

    A WWW-based online space physics data services are developed at Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics of Moscow State University (SINP MSU). These services provide fast access to data, images and information on the Earth's environment collected at SINP MSU. Data available on the Internet using anonymous ftp (dbserv.sinp.msu.ru) and WWW (http://alpha.sinp.msu.ru/datasets.html is the data archive, and http://alpha.sinp.msu.ru/dataintr.html is data retrieval forms). All the data have been loaded into the Oracle database. They were carefully organized for the fastest access and search capabilities. WWW interface is based on the Apache Webserver software and PHP scripting language. PHP-based scripts have the direct access to the tables of data in the Oracle database. HTML-based self-explanatory forms provide a simple mechanism of data selection for an appropriate period of time. They enable unified access to all datasets independent on the structure of the data. Using available tools user can browse and download data.

  19. Dusty Plasma Physics Facility for the International Space Station

    Goree, John; Hahn, Inseob

    2015-09-01

    The Dusty Plasma Physics Facility (DPPF) is an instrument planned for the International Space Station (ISS). If approved by NASA, JPL will build and operate the facility, and NASA will issue calls for proposals allowing investigators outside JPL to carry out research, public education, and outreach. Microgravity conditions on the ISS will be useful for eliminating two unwanted effects of gravity: sedimentation of dust particles to the bottom of a plasma chamber, and masking weak forces such as the ion drag force that act on dust particles. The DPPF facility is expected to support multiple scientific users. It will have a modular design, with a scientific locker, or insert, that can be exchanged without removing the entire facility. The first insert will use a parallel-plate radio-frequency discharge, polymer microspheres, and high-speed video cameras. This first insert will be designed for fundamental physics experiments. Possible future inserts could be designed for other purposes, such as engineering applications, and experimental simulations of astrophysical or geophysical conditions. The design of the facility will allow remote operation from ground-based laboratories, using telescience.

  20. The physical space as a barrier to school inclusion

    Kênnea Martins Almeida

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The architecture and organization of school buildings can be facilitators or barriers in implementing the process of school inclusion, and the assessment for their suitability composes an important part of the role that the rehabilitation team plays in this process. The aim of the present study was to assess the physical accessibility of public schools in a municipality of Minas Gerais state, Brazil. We conducted a descriptive, cross-sectional study with evaluation of the physical spaces of 14 schools, especially the areas of access, circulation, furniture, restrooms and parking, according to the criteria described in the Brazilian Standard 9050/2004. The results were presented in the form of descriptive statistics. Of the 493 items evaluated, 85.6% were considered inadequate. In the sector of access, circulation and furniture, 81.4% of the items were inadequate. In the health sector, 94.6% of the items were inadequate, and no restrooms contemplating all accessibility standards were found. In the parking sector, 83.4% of the items were inadequate. It was possible to identify that none of the state schools assessed in the municipality studied is prepared to make the inclusion of children with special needs with regard to accessibility.

  1. Learning in a Physics Classroom Community: Physics Learning Identity Construct Development, Measurement and Validation

    Li, Sissi L.

    At the university level, introductory science courses usually have high student to teacher ratios which increases the challenge to meaningfully connect with students. Various curricula have been developed in physics education to actively engage students in learning through social interactions with peers and instructors in class. This learning environment demands not only conceptual understanding but also learning to be a scientist. However, the success of student learning is typically measured in test performance and course grades while assessment of student development as science learners is largely ignored. This dissertation addresses this issue with the development of an instrument towards a measure of physics learning identity (PLI) which is used to guide and complement case studies through student interviews and in class observations. Using the conceptual framework based on Etienne Wenger's communities of practice (1998), I examine the relationship between science learning and learning identity from a situated perspective in the context of a large enrollment science class as a community of practice. This conceptual framework emphasizes the central role of identity in the practices negotiated in the classroom community and in the way students figure out their trajectory as members. Using this framework, I seek to understand how the changes in student learning identity are supported by active engagement based instruction. In turn, this understanding can better facilitate the building of a productive learning community and provide a measure for achievement of the curricular learning goals in active engagement strategies. Based on the conceptual framework, I developed and validated an instrument for measuring physics learning identity in terms of student learning preferences, self-efficacy for learning physics, and self-image as a physics learner. The instrument was pilot tested with a population of Oregon State University students taking calculus based

  2. On public space design for Chinese urban residential area based on integrated architectural physics environment evaluation

    Dong, J. Y.; Cheng, W.; Ma, C. P.; Tan, Y. T.; Xin, L. S.

    2017-04-01

    The residential public space is an important part in designing the ecological residence, and a proper physics environment of public space is of greater significance to urban residence in China. Actually, the measure to apply computer aided design software into residential design can effectively avoid an inconformity of design intent with actual using condition, and a negative impact on users due to bad architectural physics environment of buildings, etc. The paper largely adopts a design method of analyzing architectural physics environment of residential public space. By analyzing and evaluating various physics environments, a suitability assessment is obtained for residential public space, thereby guiding the space design.

  3. History of Physics Education Research as a Model for Geoscience Education Research Community Progress

    Slater, T. F.

    2011-12-01

    Discipline-based Education Research (DBER) is a research field richly combining a deep understanding of how to teach a particular discipline with an evolving understanding how people learn that discipline. At its center, DBER has an overarching goal of improving the teaching and learning of a discipline by focusing on understanding the underlying mental mechanisms learners use as they develop expertise. Geoscience Education Research, or GER, is a young but rapidly advancing field which is poised to make important contributions to the teaching and learning of earth and space science. Nascent geoscience education researchers could accelerate their community's progress by learning some of the lessons from the more mature field of Physics Education Research, PER. For the past three decades, the PER community has been on the cutting edge of DBER. PER started purely as an effort among traditionally trained physicists to overcome students' tenaciously held misconceptions about force, motion, and electricity. Over the years, PER has wrestled with the extent to which they included the faculty from the College of Education, the value placed on interpretive and qualitative research methods, the most appropriate involvement of professional societies, the nature of its PhD programs in the College of Science, and how to best disseminate the results of PER to the wider physics teaching community. Decades later, as a more fully mature field, PER still struggles with some of these aspects, but has learned important lessons in how its community progresses and evolves to be successful, valuable, and pertinent.

  4. Teaching solar physics in an informal educational space

    Aroca, S. C.

    2009-02-01

    Observatories and planetariums offer the possibility of developing contextualized astronomy teaching by fostering educational activities that provide access to a more authentic school science. Thus, this research consisted in developing, applying and evaluating courses about the Sun for middle, junior high school students and solar physics for high school students in an informal educational space, the CDCC/USP Astronomical Observatory. Topics of chemical composition, temperature and stellar evolution were taught in a room totally dedicated to the study of the Sun, a Solar Room, designed with simple and inexpensive equipment. The course strongly emphasized practical, observational and inquirybased activities, such as estimation of the solar surface temperature, observation of the visible solar spectrum, identication of solar absorption lines, understanding how they are produced, and what kind of information can be extracted from the observed spectral lines. Some of the course goals were to foster the comprehension of the key role played by spectroscopy in astrophysics, to contextualize contents with practical activities, and to allow interdisciplinary approaches including modern physics and chemistry in physics teaching. The research methodology consisted of a qualitative approach by fillming the whole course and performing written questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Before the courses were applied most students conceived the Sun as a hot sphere composed of fire, sunspots as holes in the Sun and solar prominences as magma expelled by volcanoes. After the courses students presented ideas about the Sun and solar physics more closely related to the ones accepted by contemporary science. This research was not restricted to students' cognitive gains after concluding the courses, since it considered the interaction of different contexts responsible for learning in science museums. This was possible due to the theoretical framework adopted: The Contextual Model

  5. A Walk in the Park: The Influence of Urban Parks and Community Violence on Physical Activity in Chelsea, MA

    Judy Y. Ou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Proximity to a park does not necessarily imply access or use, and the social environment may positively or negatively influence the positive intentions of the built environment. To investigate parks, park use and physical activity, and their associations with exposure to community violence, we interviewed residents (n = 354 of a densely populated urban community. Our findings indicate that proximity to any park is not associated with physical activity. However, proximity to the preferred park reported by residents to be conducive for physical activity (with walking paths, large fields, playgrounds for children and tennis courts was associated with physical activity. Conversely, knowledge of sexual assault or rape in the neighborhood is inversely associated with every type of physical activity (park-based, outdoor, and indoor. Our findings suggest that improvements to the built environment (parks, green spaces may be hindered by adverse social environments and both are necessary for consideration in the design of public health interventions.

  6. Identity, Physical Space, and Stigma Among African American Men Living with HIV in Chicago and Seattle.

    Singleton, Judith L; Raunig, Manuela; Brunsteter, Halley; Desmond, Michelle; Rao, Deepa

    2015-12-01

    African American men have the highest rates of HIV in the USA, and research has shown that stigma, mistrust of health care, and other psychosocial factors interfere with optimal engagement in care with this population. In order to further understand reducing stigma and other psychosocial issues among African American men, we conducted qualitative interviews and focus groups with African American men in two metropolitan areas in the USA: Chicago and Seattle. We examined transcripts for relationships across variables of stigma, anonymity, self-identity, and space within the context of HIV. Our analysis pointed to similarities between experiences of stigma across the two cities and illustrated the relationships between space, isolation, and preferred anonymity related to living with HIV. The men in our study often preferred that their HIV-linked identities remain invisible and anonymous, associated with perceived and created isolation from physical community spaces. This article suggests that our health care and housing institutions may influence preferences for anonymity. We make recommendations in key areas to create safer spaces for African American men living with HIV and reduce feelings of stigma and isolation.

  7. Critical success factors for physical activity promotion through community partnerships.

    Lucidarme, Steffie; Marlier, Mathieu; Cardon, Greet; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Willem, Annick

    2014-02-01

    To define key factors of effective evidence-based policy implementation for physical activity promotion by use of a partnership approach. Using Parent and Harvey's model for sport and physical activity community-based partnerships, we defined determinants of implementation based on 13 face-to-face interviews with network organisations and 39 telephone interviews with partner organisations. Furthermore, two quantitative data-sets (n = 991 and n = 965) were used to measure implementation. In total, nine variables were found to influence implementation. Personal contact was the most powerful variable since its presence contributed to success while its absence led to a negative outcome. Four contributed directly to success: political motive, absence of a metropolis, high commitment and more qualified staff. Four others resulted in a less successful implementation: absence of positive merger effects, exposure motive and governance, and dispersed leadership. Community networks are a promising instrument for the implementation of evidence-based policies. However, determinants of both formation and management of partnerships influence the implementation success. During partnership formation, special attention should be given to partnership motives while social skills are of utmost importance for the management.

  8. Neighborhoods on the move: a community-based participatory research approach to promoting physical activity.

    Suminski, Richard R; Petosa, Rick L; Jones, Larry; Hall, Lisa; Poston, Carlos W

    2009-01-01

    There is a scientific and practical need for high-quality effectiveness studies of physical activity interventions in "real-world" settings. To use a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach to develop, implement, operate, and evaluate an intervention for promoting physical activity called Neighborhoods on the Move. Two communities with similar physical and social characteristics participated in this study. One community was involved in Neighborhoods on the Move; the other (comparison community) participated only in the assessments. Academic personnel and residents/organizations in the Neighborhoods on the Move community worked together to create a community environment that was more conducive for physical activity. Pre- and posttest data on new initiatives promoting physical activity, existing physical activity initiatives, and business policies supporting physical activity were collected simultaneously in both communities. The success of the CBPR approach was evidenced by several developments, including substantial resident involvement and the formation of a leadership committee, marketing campaign, and numerous community partnerships. The number of businesses with policies promoting physical activity and breadth of existing physical activity initiatives (participants, activities, hours) increased substantially more in the Neighborhoods on the Move community than in the comparison community. A total of sixty new initiatives promoting physical activity were implemented in the Neighborhoods on the Move community during the intervention. The CBPR approach is an effective strategy for inducing environmental changes that promote physical activity. Additional research is needed to assess the portability and sustainability of Neighborhoods on the Move.

  9. Community members’ initiatives in public open spaces: two case studies from Slovenia

    Sabina Jelenc Krašovec

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with public spaces as open, everyday arenas where people share experiences beyond their immediate circle of friends, family and age group. Public space is understood as a forum for social and personal change (Harvey, 2011; Lefebvre, 2013; Arendt, 1996; Habermas, 1989; 2001. Questions are analysed from the point of view of community members, who are strongly attached to the space and who are interested in belonging and in proactive changes in their living environment (Iecovich, 2014; Kohn 2004; Mean and Tims, 2005. The paper is based on the presumptions that public space has an important role in generating ideas and activities of community members and that it is an important venue for community members’ informal learning. Ethnomethodological research in two public spaces (the Tabor community in Ljubljana and a small community in the coastal town of Izola show that there are differences between both public spaces regarding top-down initiatives and bottom-up, self-organized activities. However, although the activity initiators were in one case different associations rooted in the community, and in the other the local people themselves, most of the activities were conducted by people living in the selected communities/public spaces themselves as is typical of grassroots activities. It was confirmed that learning was not often mentioned by members of either community and was mostly a hidden activity, resulting in tacit knowledge.

  10. Physical structure of artificial seagrass affects macrozoobenthic community recruitment

    Ambo-Rappe, R.; Rani, C.

    2018-03-01

    Seagrass ecosystems are important in supporting marine biodiversity. However, the worldwide decline in seagrass areas due to anthropogenic factors leads to a decrease in the marine biodiversity they can support. There is growing awareness of the need for concepts to conserve and/or rehabilitate seagrass ecosystems. One option is to create artificial seagrass to provide a physical structure for the marine organisms to colonize. The objective of this research was to analyze the effect of some artificial seagrasses and seagrass transplants on marine biodiversity, with a focus on the macrozoobenthic community. The experimental design compared two types of artificial seagrass (polypropylene ribbons and shrub-shaped plastic leaves), and seagrass transplants from nearby seagrass meadows. The experimental plots were 4 x 4 m2 with 3 replicates. Macrozoobenthic communities were sampled fortnightly for 3.5 months. At the end of the experiment, makrozoobenthos were also sampled from a natural seagrass bed nearby. Of 116 macrozoobenthic species in the artificial seagrass plots, 91 were gastropods. The density of the macrobenthic fauna increased from the beginning to the end of the study in all treatments, but the increase was only significant for the artificial seagrass treatment (i.e. shrub-like plastic leaves). There was a distinct separation between the macrozoobenthic community structure found in the restoration plots (artificial seagrass and transplanted seagrass) compared to natural seagrass beds.

  11. The Evaluation of Physical Space Quality in Education Buildings in Regard to User Satisfaction

    Filiz ŞENKAL SEZER

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, physical space quality of two different engineering department buildings in Uludag University Gorukle Campus, Bursa, Turkey are analyzed in regard to user evaluations about the physical space quality. In the analysis of these evaluations, criteria about physical space quality are predetermined by the authors. In the method of the study, the below phases are implemented. In first, the literature review about the physical space quality is done and then a questionnaire is prepared with regard to the key themes in literature review in order to evaluate the user satisfaction. The  key themes in user satisfaction questionnaire is accessibility, ergonomics, thermal comfort, audible comfort, visual comfort, inner space air quality, service spaces, socialization. The aim of this study is first to understand which criteria are important for the students and then to improve the physical space quality in regard to the dissatisfaction.

  12. The Spark of Disruptive Innovation for Space Physics and Aeronomy

    MacDonald, E.

    2017-12-01

    What is disruptive innovation and why does it matter for Space Physics and Aeronomy (SPA)? This presentation will define disruptive innovation and present several examples relevant to SPA. These examples range from Cubesats to Citizen Science. Disruptive innovation requires not just an idea but also execution. Why do we need disruptive innovation? Simply put, we need to break out of our comfortable rut to solve bigger problems and evolve as a field for the future. These opportunities are exciting and they are difficult. SPA is well-suited to these types of interdisciplinary applications, due to its dual fundamental and applied nature that dovetails with many other fields. Challenges are that we do not incentivize disruptive innovation, we do not recognize it, and we typically do not fund it. As a result we are risk averse and we suffer from the "Matthew effect" of accumulated advantage. We do not allow ourselves to learn from new and uncomfortable angles and recognize the innovation that comes from there. The strength of having a more diverse and inclusive field is that a range of more diverse ideas and perspectives will be promoted. The next big innovations for SPA may come from the outside, and the best way to capture such ideas may be to promote diversity and inclusion at all levels.

  13. Augmentation of Virtual Space Physics Observatory Services to Expand Data Access Capabilities, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aquilent, Inc. proposes to support the effort of Virtual Space Physics Observatory (VSPO) by developing services to expand the VSPO search capabilities, developing...

  14. Understanding on-line community: the affordances of virtual space

    Karen Ruhleder

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing numbers of on-line venues for learning are emerging as virtual communities become more accessible and commonplace. This paper looks at one particular virtual community, an on-line degree programme at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, which offers an M.S. in Library and Information Science (called LEEP. It draws on a framework presented by Mynatt, et al. (1998, which provides a lens for talking about on-line community as a set of affordances. This framework is applied to illustrate the interactions, artefacts, and expectations that shape this community.

  15. Association of day length and weather conditions with physical activity levels in older community dwelling people.

    Miles D Witham

    Full Text Available Weather is a potentially important determinant of physical activity. Little work has been done examining the relationship between weather and physical activity, and potential modifiers of any relationship in older people. We therefore examined the relationship between weather and physical activity in a cohort of older community-dwelling people.We analysed prospectively collected cross-sectional activity data from community-dwelling people aged 65 and over in the Physical Activity Cohort Scotland. We correlated seven day triaxial accelerometry data with daily weather data (temperature, day length, sunshine, snow, rain, and a series of potential effect modifiers were tested in mixed models: environmental variables (urban vs rural dwelling, percentage of green space, psychological variables (anxiety, depression, perceived behavioural control, social variables (number of close contacts and health status measured using the SF-36 questionnaire.547 participants, mean age 78.5 years, were included in this analysis. Higher minimum daily temperature and longer day length were associated with higher activity levels; these associations remained robust to adjustment for other significant associates of activity: age, perceived behavioural control, number of social contacts and physical function. Of the potential effect modifier variables, only urban vs rural dwelling and the SF-36 measure of social functioning enhanced the association between day length and activity; no variable modified the association between minimum temperature and activity.In older community dwelling people, minimum temperature and day length were associated with objectively measured activity. There was little evidence for moderation of these associations through potentially modifiable health, environmental, social or psychological variables.

  16. Distance to green space and physical activity: a danish national representative survey

    Toftager, Mette; Ekholm, Ola; Schipperijn, Jasper

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between distance to green space and the level of physical activity among the population of Denmark. In addition, the relationship between distance to green space and obesity is investigated.......This study examines the relationship between distance to green space and the level of physical activity among the population of Denmark. In addition, the relationship between distance to green space and obesity is investigated....

  17. Community and School Gardens as Spaces for Learning Social Resilience

    Reis, Kimberley; Ferreira, Jo-Anne

    2015-01-01

    Can community and school gardens help people learn to build social resilience to potential food shortages? We seek to address this question through an examination of the ways in which gardens can teach individual and community resiliency in times of emergency, pockets of food insecurity, and the challenges presented by climate change. We focus on…

  18. High Energy Astrophysics and Cosmology from Space: NASA's Physics of the Cosmos Program

    Hornschemeier, Ann

    2016-03-01

    We summarize currently-funded NASA activities in high energy astrophysics and cosmology, embodied in the NASA Physics of the Cosmos program, including updates on technology development and mission studies. The portfolio includes development of a space mission for measuring gravitational waves from merging supermassive black holes, currently envisioned as a collaboration with the European Space Agency (ESA) on its L3 mission and development of an X-ray observatory that will measure X-ray emission from the final stages of accretion onto black holes, currently envisioned as a NASA collaboration on ESA's Athena observatory. The portfolio also includes the study of cosmic rays and gamma ray photons resulting from a range of processes, of the physical process of inflation associated with the birth of the universe and of the nature of the dark energy that dominates the mass-energy of the modern universe. The program is supported by an analysis group called the PhysPAG that serves as a forum for community input and analysis and the talk will include a description of activities of this group.

  19. Space for innovation for sustainable community-based biofuel production and use: Lessons learned for policy from Nhambita community, Mozambique

    Schut, Marc; Paassen, Annemarie van; Leeuwis, Cees; Bos, Sandra; Leonardo, Wilson; Lerner, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides insights and recommendations for policy on the opportunities and constrains that influence the space for innovation for sustainable community-based biofuel production and use. Promoted by the Mozambican government, Nhambita community established jatropha trials in 2005. Initial results were promising, but crop failure and the absence of organized markets led to scepticism amongst farmers. We start from the idea that the promotion of community-based biofuel production and use requires taking interactions between social-cultural, biophysical, economic, political and legal subsystems across different scales and levels of analysis through time into account. Our analysis demonstrates that heterogeneous farming strategies and their synergies at community level should be carefully assessed. Furthermore, national and international political and legal developments, such as the development of biofuel sustainability criteria, influence the local space in which community-based biofuel developments take place. We conclude that ex-ante integrated assessment and creating an enabling environment can enhance space for sustainable community-based biofuel production and use. It may provide insights into the opportunities and constraints for different types of smallholders, and promote the development of adequate policy mechanisms to prevent biofuels from becoming a threat rather than an opportunity for smallholders. - Highlights: → This paper explores space for innovation for community-based biofuel production and use. → Heterogeneous farming strategies and their synergies at community level are key. → Farmers have little trust in jatropha due to crop failure and absence of markets. → (Inter)national biofuel policies influence space for local biofuel production and use. → Policies should focus on ex-ante integrated assessment and creating an enabling environment.

  20. Data Citation Services in the High-Energy Physics Community

    Herterich, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    A paradigm change in scholarly communication is underway. Supporting Open Science, an effort to make scientific research data accessible to all interested parties by openly publishing research and encouraging others to do the same thereby making it easier to communicate scientific knowledge, is a part of the change that has become increasingly important for (digital) libraries. Digital libraries are able to play a significant role in enabling Open Science by facilitating data sharing, discovery and re-use. Because data citation is often mentioned as one incentive for data sharing, enabling data citation is a crucial feature of research data services. In this article we present a case study of data citation services for the High-Energy Physics (HEP) community using digital library technology. Our example shows how the concept of data citation is implemented for the complete research workflow, covering data production, publishing, citation and tracking of data reuse. We also describe challenges faced and distil...

  1. Public open space, physical activity, urban design and public health: Concepts, methods and research agenda.

    Koohsari, Mohammad Javad; Mavoa, Suzanne; Villanueva, Karen; Sugiyama, Takemi; Badland, Hannah; Kaczynski, Andrew T; Owen, Neville; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2015-05-01

    Public open spaces such as parks and green spaces are key built environment elements within neighbourhoods for encouraging a variety of physical activity behaviours. Over the past decade, there has been a burgeoning number of active living research studies examining the influence of public open space on physical activity. However, the evidence shows mixed associations between different aspects of public open space (e.g., proximity, size, quality) and physical activity. These inconsistencies hinder the development of specific evidence-based guidelines for urban designers and policy-makers for (re)designing public open space to encourage physical activity. This paper aims to move this research agenda forward, by identifying key conceptual and methodological issues that may contribute to inconsistencies in research examining relations between public open space and physical activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Challenges in Teaching Space Physics to Different Target Groups From Space Weather Forecasters to Heavy-weight Theorists

    Koskinen, H. E.

    2008-12-01

    Plasma physics as the backbone of space physics is difficult and thus the space physics students need to have strong foundations in general physics, in particular in classical electrodynamics and thermodynamics, and master the basic mathematical tools for physicists. In many universities the number of students specializing in space physics at Master's and Doctoral levels is rather small and the students may have quite different preferences ranging from experimental approach to hard-core space plasma theory. This poses challenges in building up a study program that has both the variety and depth needed to motivate the best students to choose this field. At the University of Helsinki we require all beginning space physics students, regardless whether they enter the field as Master's or Doctoral degree students, to take a one-semester package consisting of plasma physics and its space applications. However, some compromises are necessary. For example, it is not at all clear, how thoroughly Landau damping should be taught at the first run or how deeply should the intricacies of collisionless reconnection be discussed. In both cases we have left the details to an optional course in advanced space physics, even with the risk that the student's appreciation of, e.g., reconnection may remain at the level of a magic wand. For learning experimental work, data analysis or computer simulations we have actively pursued arrangements for the Master's degree students to get a summer employments in active research groups, which usually lead to the Master's theses. All doctoral students are members of research groups and participate in experimental work, data analysis, simulation studies or theory development, or any combination of these. We emphasize strongly "learning by doing" all the way from the weekly home exercises during the lecture courses to the PhD theses which in Finland consist typically of 4-6 peer-reviewed articles with a comprehensive introductory part.

  3. INSPIRE: Interactive NASA Space Physics Ionosphere Radio Experiment

    Franzen, K. A.; Garcia, L. N.; Webb, P. A.; Green, J. L.

    2007-12-01

    The INSPIRE Project is a non-profit scientific and educational corporation whose objective is to bring the excitement of observing very low frequency (VLF) natural radio waves to high school students. Underlying this objective is the conviction that science and technology are the underpinnings of our modern society, and that only with an understanding of these disciplines can people make correct decisions in their lives. Since 1989, the INSPIRE Project has provided specially designed radio receiver kits to over 2,500 students and other groups to make observations of signals in the VLF frequency range. These kits provide an innovative and unique opportunity for students to actively gather data that can be used in a basic research project. Natural VLF emissions that can be studied with the INSPIRE receiver kits include sferics, tweeks, whistlers, and chorus, which originate from phenomena such as lightning. These emissions can either come from the local atmospheric environment within a few tens of kilometers of the receiver or from outer space thousands of kilometers from the Earth. VLF emissions are at such low frequencies that they can be received, amplified and turned into sound that we can hear, with each emission producing in a distinctive sound. In 2006 INSPIRE was re-branded and its mission has expanded to developing new partnerships with multiple science projects. Links to magnetospheric physics, astronomy, and meteorology are being identified. This presentation will introduce the INSPIRE project, display the INSPIRE receiver kits, show examples of the types of VLF emissions that can be collected and provide information on scholarship programs being offered.

  4. Prevalence of Physical Activity Policies and Environmental Strategies in Communities and Worksites: The Iowa Community Transformation Grant.

    Lillehoj, Catherine J; Daniel-Ulloa, Jason D; Nothwehr, Faryle

    2016-01-01

    This study describes results of community and worksite assessments of physical activity policies and environmental strategies in 26 Iowa counties. Community coalition members completed the Community Health Assessment and Group Evaluation tool. The study explored findings using descriptive statistics and examined rural-urban differences in two of the five assessed sectors: community and worksites. Lower community scores (ie, needing improvement) were found for complete streets, bicycle use, and street calming. Higher scores (ie, identified strengths) were found for land use plans, maintain parks, and sidewalks Americans with Disabilities Act compliant. Worksites scored lower on promote stairwells, encourage non-motorized commuting, and implement activity breaks but higher on subsidize gym membership and provide area for physical activity. No rural-urban differences were found. Results identify opportunities to enhance community and worksite policies and environmental strategies to increase physical activity.

  5. Fluid Physics Experiments onboard International Space Station: Through the Eyes of a Scientist.

    Shevtsova, Valentina

    Fluids are present everywhere in everyday life. They are also present as fuel, in support systems or as consumable in rockets and onboard of satellites and space stations. Everyone experiences every day that fluids are very sensitive to gravity: on Earth liquids flow downwards and gases mostly rise. Nowadays much of the interest of the scientific community is on studying the phenomena at microscales in so-called microfluidic systems. However, at smaller scales the experimental investigation of convective flows becomes increasingly difficult as the control parameter Ra scales with g L (3) (g; acceleration level, L: length scale). A unique alternative to the difficulty of investigating systems with small length scale on the ground is to reduce the gravity level g. In systems with interfaces, buoyancy forces are proportional to the volume of the liquid, while capillary forces act solely on the liquid surface. The importance of buoyancy diminishes either at very small scales or with reducing the acceleration level. Under the weightless conditions of space where buoyancy is virtually eliminated, other mechanisms such as capillary forces, diffusion, vibration, shear forces, electrostatic and electromagnetic forces are dominating in the fluid behaviour. This is why research in space represents a powerful tool for scientific research in this field. Understanding how fluids work really matters and so does measuring their properties accurately. Presently, a number of scientific laboratories, as usual goes with multi-user instruments, are involved in fluid research on the ISS. The programme of fluid physics experiments on-board deals with capillary flows, diffusion, dynamics in complex fluids (foams, emulsions and granular matter), heat transfer processes with phase change, physics and physico-chemistry near or beyond the critical point and it also extends to combustion physics. The top-level objectives of fluid research in space are as follows: (i) to investigate fluid

  6. Quantum physics of an elementary system in de Sitter space

    Rabeie, A.

    2012-01-01

    We present the coherent states of a scalar massive particle on 1+3-de Sitter space. These states are vectors in Hilbert space, and they are labeled by points in the associated phase space. To do this, we use the fact that the phase space of a scalar massive particle on 1+3-de Sitter space is a cotangent bundle T * (S 3 ) which is isomorphic with the complex sphere S C 3 . Then by using the heat kernel on '' S C 3 '' that was presented by Hall-Mitchell, we construct our coherent states. At the end, by these states we quantize the classical kinetic energy on de Sitter space. (orig.)

  7. Proceedings of the 2003 NASA/JPL Workshop on Fundamental Physics in Space

    Strayer, Don (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    The 2003 Fundamental Physics workshop included presentations ranging from forces acting on RNA to properties of clouds of degenerate Fermi atoms, to techniques to probe for a added space-time dimensions, and to flight hardware for low temperature experiments, amongst others. Mark Lee from NASA Headquarters described the new strategic plan that NASA has developed under Administrator Sean O'Keefe's leadership. Mark explained that the Fundamental Physics community now needs to align its research program and the roadmap describing the long-term goals of the program with the NASA plan. Ulf Israelsson of JPL discussed how the rewrite of the roadmap will be implemented under the leadership of the Fundamental Physics Discipline Working Group (DWG). Nick Bigelow, chair of the DWG, outlined how investigators can contribute to the writing of the roadmap. Results of measurements on very cold clouds of Fermi atoms near a Feshbach resonance were described by three investigators. Also, new measurements relating to tests of Einstein equivalence were discussed. Investigators also described methods to test other aspects of Einstein's relativity theories.

  8. Neighbouring green space and mortality in community-dwelling elderly Hong Kong Chinese: a cohort study.

    Wang, Dan; Lau, Kevin Ka-Lun; Yu, Ruby; Wong, Samuel Y S; Kwok, Timothy T Y; Woo, Jean

    2017-08-01

    Green space has been shown to be beneficial for human wellness through multiple pathways. This study aimed to explore the contributions of neighbouring green space to cause-specific mortality. Data from 3544 Chinese men and women (aged ≥65 years at baseline) in a community-based cohort study were analysed. Outcome measures, identified from the death registry, were death from all-cause, respiratory system disease, circulatory system disease. The quantity of green space (%) within a 300 m radius buffer was calculated for each subject from a map created based on the Normalised Difference Vegetation Index. Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for demographics, socioeconomics, lifestyle, health conditions and housing type were used to estimate the HRs and 95% CIs. During a mean of 10.3 years of follow-up, 795 deaths were identified. Our findings showed that a 10% increase in coverage of green space was significantly associated with a reduction in all-cause mortality (HR 0.963, 95% CI 0.930 to 0.998), circulatory system-caused mortality (HR 0.887, 95% CI 0.817 to 0.963) and stroke-caused mortality (HR 0.661, 95% CI 0.524 to 0.835), independent of age, sex, marital status, years lived in Hong Kong, education level, socioeconomic ladder, smoking, alcohol intake, diet quality, self-rated health and housing type. The inverse associations between coverage of green space with all-cause mortality (HR 0.964, 95% CI 0.931 to 0.999) and circulatory system disease-caused mortality (HR 0.888, 95% CI 0.817 to 0.964) were attenuated when the models were further adjusted for physical activity and cognitive function. The effects of green space on all-cause and circulatory system-caused mortality tended to be stronger in females than in males. Higher coverage of green space was associated with reduced risks of all-cause mortality, circulatory system-caused mortality and stroke-caused mortality in Chinese older people living in a highly urbanised city. © Article author(s) (or their

  9. Space, body, time and relationship experiences of recess physical activity: a qualitative case study among the least physical active schoolchildren.

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Andersen, Henriette Bondo; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Troelsen, Jens; Schipperijn, Jasper

    2016-01-06

    Increasing recess physical activity has been the aim of several interventions, as this setting can provide numerous physical activity opportunities. However, it is unclear if these interventions are equally effective for all children, or if they only appeal to children who are already physically active. This study was conducted to explore the least physically active children's "lived experiences" within four existential lifeworlds linked to physical activity during recess: space, body, time, and relations. The study builds on ethnographic fieldwork in a public school in Denmark using a combination of participatory photo interviews and participant observation. Thirty-seven grade five children (11-12 years old) were grouped in quartiles based on their objectively measured daily physical activity levels. Eight children in the lowest activity quartile (six girls) were selected to participate in the study. To avoid stigmatising and to make generalisations more reliable we further recruited eight children from the two highest activity quartiles (four girls) to participate. An analysis of the least physically active children's "lived experiences" of space, body, time and relations revealed several key factors influencing their recess physical activity: perceived classroom safety, indoor cosiness, lack of attractive outdoor facilities, bodily dissatisfaction, bodily complaints, tiredness, feeling bored, and peer influence. We found that the four existential lifeworlds provided an in-depth understanding of the least physically active children's "lived experiences" of recess physical activity. Our findings imply that specific intervention strategies might be needed to increase the least physically active children's physical activity level. For example, rethinking the classroom as a space for physical activity, designing schoolyards with smaller secluded spaces and varied facilities, improving children's self-esteem and body image, e.g., during physical education, and

  10. Connecting the physical and psychosocial space to Sandia's mission

    Emmanuel, Glory Ruth [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Silva, Austin Ray [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Sandia Labs has corporate, lab-wide efforts to enhance the research environment as well as improve physical space. However, these two efforts are usually done in isolation. The integration of physical space design with the nurturing of what we call psychosocial space can foster more efficient and effective creativity, innovation, collaboration, and performance. This paper presents a brief literature review on how academia and industry are studying the integration of physical and psychosocial space and focuses on the efforts that we, the authors, have made to improve the research environment in the Cyber Engineering Research Lab (CERL), home to Group 1460. Interviews with subject matter experts from Silicon Valley and the University of New Mexico plus changes to actual spaces in CERL provided us with six lessons learned when integrating physical and psychosocial space. We describe these six key takeaways in hopes that Sandia will see this area as an evolving research capability that Sandia can both contribute to and benefit from.

  11. Crystal Growth and Other Materials Physical Researches in Space Environment

    Pan, Mingxiang

    Material science researches in space environment are based on reducing the effects of buoyancy driven transport, the effects of atomic oxygen, radiation, extremes of heat and cold and the ultrahigh vacuum, so as to unveil the underlying fundamental phenomena, lead maybe to new potential materials or new industrial processes and develop space techniques. Currently, research program on materials sciences in Chinese Manned Space Engineering (CMSE) is going on. More than ten projects related to crystal growth and materials processes are selected as candidates to be executed in Shenzhou spacecraft, Tiangong Space Laboratory and Chinese Space Station. In this talk, we will present some examples of the projects, which are being prepared and executed in the near future flight tasks. They are both basic and applied research, from discovery to technology.

  12. Access to public spaces and physical activity for Mexican adult women

    Ietza Bojorquez

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article was to explore the association between access to public spaces and physical activity for adult women, controlling and testing interactions with sociodemographic and public spaces characteristics. We combined sociodemographic data from a survey with the adult (18-65 years of age women population of Tijuana, Mexico, conducted in 2014 (N = 2,345; with data from a 2013 study on public spaces in the same city. We evaluated access to public spaces by the presence and total area of public spaces in buffers of 400, 800, 1,000 and 1,600m around the participants’ homes. We measured physical activity with the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ-short. We employed multinomial logistic models to evaluate the association between access to public spaces and physical activity, and tested for interactions between access to public spaces and public spaces quality and sociodemographic characteristics. We observed no interaction between access to public spaces and public spaces quality in their effect on physical activity. There was an association between the presence of public spaces in the 400m buffer, and higher odds of being in the low physical activity level (as opposed to being in the moderate level (coefficient: 0.50; 95%CI: 0.13; 0.87. Participants who used public transport were less likely to be in the low physical activity level (coefficient: -0.57; 95%CI: -0.97; -0.17. We suggest that, in this population, the access to public spaces might be less relevant for physical activity than other elements of the urban environment and sociodemographic characteristics.

  13. Community History as a Male-Constructed Space: Challenging Gendered Memories among South African Muslim Women

    Daniels, Doria

    2009-01-01

    The post-Apartheid community history is a male-constructed space, narrated into present-day consciousness by male community leaders and history writers. The patriarchal worldview disparages women's contributions and activisms. This article reports on how Muslim women from a small fishing village in South Africa in the early 1900s strategized to…

  14. Community-Based Field Experiences in Teacher Education: Possibilities for a Pedagogical Third Space

    Hallman, Heidi L.

    2012-01-01

    The present article discusses the importance of community-based field experiences as a feature of teacher education programs. Through a qualitative case study, prospective teachers' work with homeless youth in an after-school initiative is presented. Framing community-based field experiences in teacher education through "third space" theory, the…

  15. Space, time, and quanta an introduction to contemporary physics

    Mills, Robert

    1994-01-01

    This is the ideal supplement for courses emphasizing modern physics. Part I covers special relativity and the meaning of time, Part II discusses quantum physics, Part III looks at elementary particles and force fields. The three self-contained parts can be used separately or in combination. Familiarity with calculus and classical physics, while helpful, is not necessary as the pertinent ideas of these fields are introduced as needed.

  16. 76 FR 744 - Community Forest and Open Space Conservation Program

    2011-01-06

    ... landowners; (5) Recreational benefits, such as hiking, hunting and fishing; and (6) Public access. Community...) Recreational benefits, such as hiking, hunting and fishing; and (vi) Public access. (2) Extent and nature of... recreation, environmental and economic benefits, and forest-based educational programs, and to protect...

  17. Perceived community environment and physical activity involvement in a northern-rural Aboriginal community

    Lévesque Lucie

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Type 2 diabetes disproportionately affects Aboriginal peoples in Canada. Ample evidence shows that regular physical activity (PA plays an important role in the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. Evidence is beginning to emerge linking PA to the physical environment but little is known about the relationship between remote rural environments and PA involvement in Aboriginal peoples. This study's purpose was to investigate the relationship between perceptions of the environment and PA and walking patterns in Aboriginal adults in order to inform the planning and implementation of community-relevant PA interventions. Methods Two hundred and sixty three residents (133 women, mean age = 35.6 years, SD = 12.3 and 130 men, mean age = 37.2 years, SD = 13.1 from Moose Factory, Ontario were asked about environmental factors related to walking and PA involvement. Survey items were drawn from standardized, validated questionnaires. Descriptive statistics (means, standard deviations, percentages were calculated. A series of hierarchical multiple regressions were performed to determine associations between walking and overall PA with perceived environmental variables. Results Hierarchical multiple regression to predict walking revealed significant associations between walking and perceived safety and aesthetics. Owning home exercise equipment predicted strenuous PA. Different aspects of the physical environment appear to influence different types of physical activities. The significant amount of variance in behaviour accounted for by perceived environmental variables (5.3% walking included safety, aesthetics, convenience, owning home exercise equipment and comfortable shoes for walking. Conclusion Results suggest that a supportive physical environment is important for PA involvement and that walking and activities of different intensity appear to be mediated by different perceived environmental variables. Implications for PA

  18. Concepts of space the history of theories of space in physics

    Jammer, Max

    1993-01-01

    Historical surveys consider Judeo-Christian notions of space, Newtonian absolute space, perceptions from 18th century to the present, more. Numerous quotations and references. "Admirably compact and swiftly paced style." - Philosophy of Science.

  19. Overcoming the physical barriers to urban green spaces in Kumasi

    To enhance the sustainability of urban green spaces, the study recommends that there .... city was built on the garden city model, which supports the incorporation of .... express their organization's views on the management and ownership of ...

  20. Creative Network Communities in the Translocal Space of Digital Networks

    Rasa Smite

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available What should sociological research be in the age of Web 2.0? Considering that the task of “network sociology” is not only empirical research but also the interpretation of tendencies of the network culture, this research explores the rise of network communities within Eastern and Western Europe in the early Internet era. I coined the term creative networks to distinguish these early creative and social activities from today’s popular social networking. Thus I aimed to interpret the meaning of social action; the motivation of creative community actors, their main fields of activities and social organization forms; and the potential that these early developments contain for the future sustainability of networks. Data comprise interviews with networking experts and founders and members of various networks. Investigating respondents’ motivations for creating online networks and communities, and interpreting those terms, allows for comparing the creative networks of the 1990s with today’s social networks and for drawing conclusions.

  1. The Critical Role of the Research Community in Space Weather Planning and Execution

    Robinson, Robert M.; Behnke, Richard A.; Moretto, Therese

    2018-03-01

    The explosion of interest in space weather in the last 25 years has been due to a confluence of efforts all over the globe, motivated by the recognition that events on the Sun and the consequent conditions in interplanetary space and Earth's magnetosphere, ionosphere, and thermosphere can have serious impacts on vital technological systems. The fundamental research conducted at universities, government laboratories, and in the private sector has led to tremendous improvements in the ability to forecast space weather events and predict their impacts on human technology and health. The mobilization of the research community that made this progress possible was the result of a series of actions taken by the National Science Foundation (NSF) to build a national program aimed at space weather. The path forward for space weather is to build on those successes through continued involvement of the research community and support for programs aimed at strengthening basic research and education in academia, the private sector, and government laboratories. Investments in space weather are most effective when applied at the intersection of research and applications. Thus, to achieve the goals set forth originally by the National Space Weather Program, the research community must be fully engaged in the planning, implementation, and execution of space weather activities, currently being coordinated by the Space Weather Operations, Research, and Mitigation Subcommittee under the National Science and Technology Council.

  2. Initial Efforts in Characterizing Radiation and Plasma Effects on Space Assets: Bridging the Space Environment, Engineering and User Community

    Zheng, Y.; Ganushkina, N. Y.; Guild, T. B.; Jiggens, P.; Jun, I.; Mazur, J. E.; Meier, M. M.; Minow, J. I.; Pitchford, D. A.; O'Brien, T. P., III; Shprits, Y.; Tobiska, W. K.; Xapsos, M.; Rastaetter, L.; Jordanova, V. K.; Kellerman, A. C.; Fok, M. C. H.

    2017-12-01

    The Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) has been leading the community-wide model validation projects for many years. Such effort has been broadened and extended via the newly-launched International Forum for Space Weather Modeling Capabilities Assessment (https://ccmc.gsfc.nasa.gov/assessment/), Its objective is to track space weather models' progress and performance over time, which is critically needed in space weather operations. The Radiation and Plasma Effects Working Team is working on one of the many focused evaluation topics and deals with five different subtopics: Surface Charging from 10s eV to 40 keV electrons, Internal Charging due to energetic electrons from hundreds keV to several MeVs. Single Event Effects from solar energetic particles (SEPs) and galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) (several MeV to TeVs), Total Dose due to accumulation of doses from electrons (>100 KeV) and protons (> 1 MeV) in a broad energy range, and Radiation Effects from SEPs and GCRs at aviation altitudes. A unique aspect of the Radiation and Plasma Effects focus area is that it bridges the space environments, engineering and user community. This presentation will summarize the working team's progress in metrics discussion/definition and the CCMC web interface/tools to facilitate the validation efforts. As an example, tools in the areas of surface charging/internal charging will be demoed.

  3. Geochemical and physical drivers of microbial community structure in hot spring ecosystems

    Havig, J. R.; Hamilton, T. L.; Boyd, E. S.; Meyer-Dombard, D. R.; Shock, E.

    2012-12-01

    Microbial communities in natural systems are typically characterized using samples collected from a single time point, thereby neglecting the temporal dynamics that characterize natural systems. The composition of these communities obtained from single point samples is then related to the geochemistry and physical parameters of the environment. Since most microbial life is adapted to a relatively narrow ecological niche (multiplicity of physical and chemical parameters that characterize a local habitat), these assessments provide only modest insight into the controls on community composition. Temporal variation in temperature or geochemical composition would be expected to add another dimension to the complexity of niche space available to support microbial diversity, with systems that experience greater variation supporting a greater biodiversity until a point where the variability is too extreme. . Hot springs often exhibit significant temporal variation, both in physical as well as chemical characteristics. This is a result of subsurface processes including boiling, phase separation, and differential mixing of liquid and vapor phase constituents. These characteristics of geothermal systems, which vary significantly over short periods of time, provide ideal natural laboratories for investigating how i) the extent of microbial community biodiversity and ii) the composition of those communities are shaped by temporal fluctuations in geochemistry. Geochemical and molecular samples were collected from 17 temporally variable hot springs across Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. Temperature measurements using data-logging thermocouples, allowing accurate determination of temperature maximums, minimums, and ranges for each collection site, were collected in parallel, along with multiple geochemical characterizations as conditions varied. There were significant variations in temperature maxima (54.5 to 90.5°C), minima (12.5 to 82.5°C), and range (3.5 to 77.5°C) for

  4. Learning in third spaces: community art studio as storefront university classroom.

    Timm-Bottos, Janis; Reilly, Rosemary C

    2015-03-01

    Third spaces are in-between places where teacher-student scripts intersect, creating the potential for authentic interaction and a shift in what counts as knowledge. This paper describes a unique community-university initiative: a third space storefront classroom for postsecondary students in professional education programs, which also functions as a community art studio for the surrounding neighborhood. This approach to professional education requires an innovative combination of theory, methods, and materials as enacted by the professionals involved and performed by the students. This storefront classroom utilizes collaborative and inclusive instructional practices that promote human and community development. It facilitates the use of innovative instructional strategies including art making and participatory dialogue to create a liminal learning space that reconfigures professional education. In researching the effectiveness of this storefront classroom, we share the voices of students who have participated in this third space as part of their coursework to underscore these principles and practices.

  5. Space technology, sustainable development and community applications: Internet as a facilitator

    Peter, Nicolas; Afrin, Nadia; Goh, Gérardine; Chester, Ed

    2006-07-01

    Among other approaches, space technologies are currently being deployed for disaster management, environmental monitoring, urban planning, health applications, communications, etc. Although space-based applications have tremendous potential for socioeconomic development, they are primarily technology driven and the requirements from the end-users (i.e. the development community) are rarely taken into consideration during the initial development stages. This communication gap between the "space" and "development" communities can be bridged with the help of the web-based knowledge sharing portal focused on space applications for development. This online community uses the development gateway foundation's sophisticated content management system. It is modeled after the development gateway's knowledge sharing portals ( http://topics.developmentgateway.org) and draws from their expertise in knowledge management, partnership building and marketing. These types of portal are known to facilitate broad-based partnerships across sectors, regions and the various stakeholders but also to facilitate North-South and South-South cooperation. This paper describes the initiative "Space for Development" ( http://topics.developmentgateway.org/space) started in 2004 which aims to demonstrate how such a web-based portal can be structured to facilitate knowledge sharing in order to bridge the gap between the "space" and "development" communities in an innovative and global manner.

  6. Review of Nuclear Physics Experiments for Space Radiation

    Norbury, John W.; Miller, Jack; Adamczyk, Anne M.; Heilbronn, Lawrence H.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Blattnig, Steve R.; Norman, Ryan B.; Guetersloh, Stephen B.; Zeitlin, Cary J.

    2011-01-01

    Human space flight requires protecting astronauts from the harmful effects of space radiation. The availability of measured nuclear cross section data needed for these studies is reviewed in the present paper. The energy range of interest for radiation protection is approximately 100 MeV/n to 10 GeV/n. The majority of data are for projectile fragmentation partial and total cross sections, including both charge changing and isotopic cross sections. The cross section data are organized into categories which include charge changing, elemental, isotopic for total, single and double differential with respect to momentum, energy and angle. Gaps in the data relevant to space radiation protection are discussed and recommendations for future experiments are made.

  7. Health Physics Innovations Developed During Cassini for Future Space Applications

    Nickell, Rodney E.; Rutherford, Theresa M.; Marmaro, George M.

    1999-01-01

    The long history of space flight includes missions that used Space Nuclear Auxiliary Power devices, starting with the Transit 4A Spacecraft (1961), continuing through the Apollo, Pioneer, Viking, Voyager, Galileo, Ulysses, Mars Pathfinder, and most recently, Cassini (1997). All Major Radiological Source (MRS) missions were processed at Kennedy Space Center/Cape Canaveral Air Station (KSC/CCAS) Launch Site in full compliance with program and regulatory requirements. The cumulative experience gained supporting these past missions has led to significant innovations which will be useful for benchmarking future MRS mission ground processing. Innovations developed during ground support for the Cassini mission include official declaration of sealed-source classifications, utilization of a mobile analytical laboratory, employment of a computerized dosimetry record management system, and cross-utilization of personnel from related disciplines.

  8. QIPS: quantum information and quantum physics in space

    Schmitt-Manderbach, Tobias; Scheidl, Thomas; Ursin, Rupert; Tiefenbacher, Felix; Weier, Henning; Fürst, Martin; Jennewein, T.; Perdigues, J.; Sodnik, Z.; Rarity, J.; Zeilinger, Anton; Weinfurter, Harald

    2017-11-01

    The aim of the QIPS project (financed by ESA) is to explore quantum phenomena and to demonstrate quantum communication over long distances. Based on the current state-of-the-art a first study investigating the feasibility of space based quantum communication has to establish goals for mid-term and long-term missions, but also has to test the feasibility of key issues in a long distance ground-to-ground experiment. We have therefore designed a proof-of-concept demonstration for establishing single photon links over a distance of 144 km between the Canary Islands of La Palma and Tenerife to evaluate main limitations for future space experiments. Here we report on the progress of this project and present first measurements of crucial parameters of the optical free space link.

  9. Enhancing community capacity to support physical activity: the development of a community-based indoor-outdoor walking program.

    Riley-Jacome, Mary; Gallant, Mary P; Fisher, Brian D; Gotcsik, Frances S; Strogatz, David S

    2010-04-01

    The University at Albany Prevention Research Center, guided by a needs assessment in two underserved communities (one urban, one rural), initiated a pilot project that opened a public school for community walking in a rural setting. This study examined a 9-week program for potential barriers, benefits, influential factors, and the physical activity levels of program participants. Evaluation was based on daily logs, pedometer diaries, participant surveys, and focus groups. Results indicated that rural schools provide a useful resource for residents and increase participants' physical activity levels. A more comprehensive rural community walking program has been implemented as a result of these findings.

  10. Patterns of Intergroup Contact in Public Spaces: Micro-Ecology of Segregation in Australian Communities

    Naomi Priest

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of public spaces can promote social cohesion and facilitate interpersonal interactions within the community. However, the ways racial and ethnic groups interact in public spaces can also reflect and influence informal segregation in the wider community. The present study aimed to examine patterns of intergroup contact within public spaces in Victoria, Australia through short-term observation in four localities. Data were collected on within-group, intergroup and absence of contact for people from minority and majority groups. A total of 974 contacts were observed. Findings indicate that in the observed public spaces, people from visible minority groups tended to have no contact with others or to interact with people from other ethnic/racial groups. In contrast, those from the majority group tended to interact predominately with other majority group members. This suggests that majority group members are more likely to ‘self-segregate’ in public spaces than those from minority groups.

  11. Curricular, Relational, and Physical Spaces in the Japanese Hoikuen

    Ferguson, Daniel E.; Kuby, Candace R.

    2015-01-01

    Recent scholarship looks at the relationship of learning to space and place within educational research. The purpose of this article was to put data produced from teaching in four Japanese preschools into conversation with spatial theory and Ma, a Japanese spatial esthetic. We seek to understand "how" and "what" spaces…

  12. Planning for high-energy physics in space

    1971-01-01

    NASA has drawn up a proposal for a space observatory to study X-rays, gamma rays and the cosmic ray spectrum. The spacecraft would have a payload of six tons and could go into a 250-mile-high orbit in 1974 (1/2 page).

  13. Gendered Communities of Practice and the Construction of Masculinities in Turkish Physical Education

    Atencio, Matthew; Koca, Canan

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the construction of masculinities in Turkish physical education through Carrie Paechter's conceptualisation of gendered communities of practice. According to Paechter, educational communities of practice operate as sites of gendered activity. Membership within these communities contributes to the construction of a gendered…

  14. Resistance of Terrestrial Microbial Communities to Impack of Physical Conditinos of Subsurface Layers of Martian Regolith

    Cheptsov, V. S.; Vorobyova, E. A.

    2017-05-01

    Currently, astrobiology is focused on Mars as one of the most perspective objects in the Solar System to search for microbial life. It was assumed that the putative biosphere of Mars could be cryopreserved and had been stored for billions of years in anabiotic state like microbial communities of Arctic and Antarctic permafrost deposits have been preserved till now for millions of years. In this case microbial cells should be not able to repair the damages or these processes have to be significantly depressed, and the main factor causing cell's death should be ionizing radiation. In a series of experiments we simulated the effects of combination of physical factors known as characteristics of the Martian regolith (and close to the space environment) on the natural microbial communities inhabiting xerophytic harsh habitats with extreme temperature conditions: polar permafrost and desert soils. The aim of the study was to examine the cumulative effect of factors (gamma radiation, low temperature, low pressure) to assess the possibility of metabolic reactions, and to find limits of the viability of natural microbial communities after exposure to the given conditions. It was found that microbial biomarkers could be reliably detected in soil samples after radiation dose accumulation up to 1 MGy (not further investigated) in combination with exposure to low temperature and low pressure. Resistance to extremely high doses of radiation in simulated conditions proves that if there was an Earth-like biosphere on the early Mars microorganisms could survive in the surface or subsurface layers of the Martian regolith for more than tens of millions of years after climate change. The study gives also some new grounds for the approval of transfer of viable microorganisms in space.

  15. The Physical Rehabilitation: a therapeutically field that links the Faculty of Physical Culture with the community

    Deisy Milhet Cruz

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The research project stands for a new glance to the integration school-community, this one is aimed at providing the theoretical-practical contents to the rehabilitation of individuals in the territory called Capitán San Luis based on a therapeutically field, it also contributes to the academic process in the faculty by facilitating the unit theory-practice. On behalf of the subjects comprising the discipline physical Culture and prophylactic taught by the members of the project. In this field are duly attended students, professors of the faculty, also members of the community nearby, by using equipment and means showed and validated in some scientific events. In brief this rehabilitation resource improves the quality of life of everyone who undergoes any of the treatments put into practice. Different methods were carried out just as observation, surveys and interviews. The expert criterion based on Delphi method, the pre experiment which means served for the diagnosis and the feasibility confirmation of the research.

  16. On How physics Could impact on the Metaphysics of Space and Time

    Alireza Mansouri

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to illustrate the mutual inter-relation of physics and metaphysics in the context of the philosophy of space and time. We especially emphasize, in this paper, that scientific development could impact on our position regarding the reality of space and time. To illustrate this point, we investigate the mutual inter-relation of physics and metaphysics in the modern developments of physics, i.e. neo-Newtonian structure, special and general relativity (GR. This paper ends up anticipating that it is likely, by considering modern physics, especially GR, that substantivalism to be a more defensible position.

  17. Understanding Relationships between Health, Ethnicity, Place and the Role of Urban Green Space in Deprived Urban Communities.

    Roe, Jenny; Aspinall, Peter A; Ward Thompson, Catharine

    2016-07-05

    Very little is known about how differences in use and perceptions of urban green space impact on the general health of black and minority ethnic (BME) groups. BME groups in the UK suffer from poorer health and a wide range of environmental inequalities that include poorer access to urban green space and poorer quality of green space provision. This study used a household questionnaire (n = 523) to explore the relationship between general health and a range of individual, social and physical environmental predictors in deprived white British and BME groups living in ethnically diverse cities in England. Results from Chi-Squared Automatic Interaction Detection (CHAID) segmentation analyses identified three distinct general health segments in our sample ranging from "very good" health (people of Indian origin), to "good" health (white British), and "poor" health (people of African-Caribbean, Bangladeshi, Pakistani origin and other BME groups), labelled "Mixed BME" in the analyses. Correlated Component Regression analyses explored predictors of general health for each group. Common predictors of general health across all groups were age, disability, and levels of physical activity. However, social and environmental predictors of general health-including use and perceptions of urban green space-varied among the three groups. For white British people, social characteristics of place (i.e., place belonging, levels of neighbourhood trust, loneliness) ranked most highly as predictors of general health, whilst the quality of, access to and the use of urban green space was a significant predictor of general health for the poorest health group only, i.e., in "Mixed BME". Results are discussed from the perspective of differences in use and perceptions of urban green space amongst ethnic groups. We conclude that health and recreation policy in the UK needs to give greater attention to the provision of local green space amongst poor BME communities since this can play an

  18. The Space Vehicle--Teaching Physics through Astronomy.

    Kibble, Bob

    1991-01-01

    Discussed are some areas of overlap between physics and astronomy. Topics include solar power, fusion reactions, atmospheric refraction, solar spectrum, Doppler effects, Hubble constant, quasars, redshift and the expanding universe, sunspots, sundial construction, solar spectroscopes, the moon, optics, wave theory, the history of science,…

  19. Historical epistemology of space from primate cognition to spacetime physics

    Schemmel, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    This monograph investigates the development of human spatial knowledge by analyzing its elementary structures and studying how it is further shaped by various societal conditions. By taking a thoroughly historical perspective on knowledge and integrating results from various disciplines, this work throws new light on long-standing problems in epistemology such as the relation between experience and preformed structures of cognition. What do the orientation of apes and the theory of relativity have to do with each other? Readers will learn how different forms of spatial thinking are related in a long-term history of knowledge. Scientific concepts of space such as Newton’s absolute space or Einstein’s curved spacetime are shown to be rooted in pre-scientific structures of knowledge, while at the same time enabling the integration of an ever expanding corpus of experiential knowledge. This work addresses all readers interested in questions of epistemology, in particular philosophers and historians of scie...

  20. Physics in space-time with scale-dependent metrics

    Balankin, Alexander S.

    2013-10-01

    We construct three-dimensional space Rγ3 with the scale-dependent metric and the corresponding Minkowski space-time Mγ,β4 with the scale-dependent fractal (DH) and spectral (DS) dimensions. The local derivatives based on scale-dependent metrics are defined and differential vector calculus in Rγ3 is developed. We state that Mγ,β4 provides a unified phenomenological framework for dimensional flow observed in quite different models of quantum gravity. Nevertheless, the main attention is focused on the special case of flat space-time M1/3,14 with the scale-dependent Cantor-dust-like distribution of admissible states, such that DH increases from DH=2 on the scale ≪ℓ0 to DH=4 in the infrared limit ≫ℓ0, where ℓ0 is the characteristic length (e.g. the Planck length, or characteristic size of multi-fractal features in heterogeneous medium), whereas DS≡4 in all scales. Possible applications of approach based on the scale-dependent metric to systems of different nature are briefly discussed.

  1. The benefits of community-managed open space: community gardening in New York City

    Edie Stone

    2009-01-01

    One of 18 articles inspired by the Meristem 2007 Forum, "Restorative Commons for Community Health." The articles include interviews, case studies, thought pieces, and interdisciplinary theoretical works that explore the relationship between human health and the urban...

  2. Activating Public Space: How to Promote Physical Activity in Urban Environment

    Kostrzewska, Małgorzata

    2017-10-01

    Physical activity is an essential component of a healthy lifestyle. The quality and equipment of urban public space plays an important role in promoting physical activity among people (residents, tourists). In order for recreation and sports activities to be undertaken willingly, in a safe and comprehensive manner, certain spatial conditions and requirements must be met. The distinctive feature of contemporary large cities is the disappearance of local, neighbourly relations, and the consequent loneliness, alienation, and atomization of the residents. Thus, the design of public spaces should be an expression of the values of social inclusion and integration. A properly designed urban space would encourage people to leave their homes and integrate, also by undertaking different forms of physical activities. This, in turn, can lead to raising the quality of the space, especially in the context of its “familiarization” and “domestication”. The aim of the research was to identify the architectural and urban features of the public spaces of contemporary cities that can contribute to the promotion of physical activity. The paper presents the research results and the case studies of such spatial solutions and examples of good practices, which invite residents to undertake different forms of physical activities in public spaces. The issue of the integrating, inclusionary, and social function of physical recreation and sport is discussed as well, and so are the possibilities of translating these values into physical characteristics of an urban space. The main conclusions are that taking into account the diverse needs of different social groups, participation in the design and construction process, aesthetic and interesting design, vicinity of the residence, open access for all age groups and the disabled would be the most important spatial determinants of a properly designed, physically activating public space. Strategies of planning the sports and recreation

  3. Narrating Developmental Disability: Researchers, Advocates, and the Creation of an Interview Space in the Context of University-Community Partnerships

    Niamh Mulcahy

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the narration of developmental disability through interviews between participants, researchers, and members of community organizations serving the disabled population, in the context of university-community collaborations. These kinds of collaborations are extremely important for researching vulnerable or hard-to-reach populations, which often face lower levels of physical, mental, and social well-being as a consequence of shame, stigma, or discrimination. Community collaboration can thus be invaluable for reaching members of marginalized populations, who may be difficult to locate or otherwise avoid contact with outsiders, because it provides members of a research team with local knowledge of a population, a means of accessing possible participants, and legitimation for the project. I suggest, however, that although the researcher's externality may initially invite skepticism toward the investigation from participants, it can also benefit them by providing a forum for catharsis. Based on a pilot study I conducted with a community advocacy organization for the disabled, I note that some participants expressed an appreciation for being able to discuss certain emotions and experiences during interviews with an outsider who was not involved as a caseworker. I conclude that the presence of a trusted community advocate and a researcher at an interview affects a participant's narrative by providing a safe space for participants to voice their stories to outsiders.

  4. Space Weather Forecasting and Research at the Community Coordinated Modeling Center

    Aronne, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Space Weather Research Center (SWRC), within the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC), provides experimental research forecasts and analysis for NASA's robotic mission operators. Space weather conditions are monitored to provide advance warning and forecasts based on observations and modeling using the integrated Space Weather Analysis Network (iSWA). Space weather forecasters come from a variety of backgrounds, ranging from modelers to astrophysicists to undergraduate students. This presentation will discuss space weather operations and research from an undergraduate perspective. The Space Weather Research, Education, and Development Initiative (SW REDI) is the starting point for many undergraduate opportunities in space weather forecasting and research. Space weather analyst interns play an active role year-round as entry-level space weather analysts. Students develop the technical and professional skills to forecast space weather through a summer internship that includes a two week long space weather boot camp, mentorship, poster session, and research opportunities. My unique development of research projects includes studying high speed stream events as well as a study of 20 historic, high-impact solar energetic particle events. This unique opportunity to combine daily real-time analysis with related research prepares students for future careers in Heliophysics.

  5. Promoting youth physical activity in rural southern communities: practitioner perceptions of environmental opportunities and barriers.

    Edwards, Michael B; Theriault, Daniel S; Shores, Kindal A; Melton, Karen M

    2014-01-01

    Research on youth physical activity has focused on urban areas. Rural adolescents are more likely to be physically inactive than urban youth, contributing to higher risk of obesity and chronic diseases. Study objectives were to: (1) identify perceived opportunities and barriers to youth physical activity within a rural area and (2) identify rural community characteristics that facilitate or inhibit efforts to promote youth physical activity. Thirty in-depth interviews were conducted with expert informants in 2 rural southern US counties. Interviewees were recruited from diverse positions across multiple sectors based on their expert knowledge of community policies and programs for youth physical activity. Informants saw ball fields, natural amenities, and school sports as primary resources for youth physical activity, but they were divided on whether opportunities were abundant or scarce. Physical distance, social isolation, lack of community offerings, and transportation were identified as key barriers. Local social networks facilitated political action and volunteer recruitment to support programs. However, communities often lacked human capital to sustain initiatives. Racial divisions influenced perceptions of opportunities. Despite divisions, there were also examples of pooling resources to create and sustain physical activity opportunities. Developing partnerships and leveraging local resources may be essential to overcoming barriers for physical activity promotion in rural areas. Involvement of church leaders, school officials, health care workers, and cooperative extension is likely needed to establish and sustain youth rural physical activity programs. Allocating resources to existing community personnel and volunteers for continuing education may be valuable. © 2014 National Rural Health Association.

  6. New calorimeters for space experiments: physics requirements and technological challenges

    Marrocchesi, Pier Simone

    2015-07-01

    Direct measurements of charged cosmic radiation with instruments in Low Earth Orbit (LEO), or flying on balloons above the atmosphere, require the identification of the incident particle, the measurement of its energy and possibly the determination of its sign-of-charge. The latter information can be provided by a magnetic spectrometer together with a measurement of momentum. However, magnetic deflection in space experiments is at present limited to values of the Maximum Detectable Rigidity (MDR) hardly exceeding a few TV. Advanced calorimetric techniques are, at present, the only way to measure charged and neutral radiation at higher energies in the multi-TeV range. Despite their mass limitation, calorimeters may achieve a large geometric factor and provide an adequate proton background rejection factor, taking advantage of a fine granularity and imaging capabilities. In this lecture, after a brief introduction on electromagnetic and hadronic calorimetry, an innovative approach to the design of a space-borne, large acceptance, homogeneous calorimeter for the detection of high energy cosmic rays will be described.

  7. The relationship between physical inactivity and mental wellbeing: Findings from a gamification-based community-wide physical activity intervention.

    Harris, Marc Ashley

    2018-01-01

    Mental ill health accounts for 13 per cent of total global disease burden with predictions that depression alone will be the leading cause of disease burden globally by 2030. Poor mental health is consistently associated with deprivation, low income, unemployment, poor education, poorer physical health and increased health-risk behaviour. A plethora of research has examined the relationship between physical activity and mental wellbeing; however, the influence of community-wide gamification-based physical activity interventions on mental wellbeing, to the authors' knowledge, is yet to be explored. In view of this paucity of attention, the current study examined the relationship between physical activity and mental wellbeing pre/post a community-wide, gamification-based intervention. The findings revealed that increases in mental wellbeing were significantly greater for the least active prior to the intervention, and a strong, positive correlation between increase in physical activity and increase in mental wellbeing was observed.

  8. The relationship between physical inactivity and mental wellbeing: Findings from a gamification-based community-wide physical activity intervention

    Marc Ashley Harris

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Mental ill health accounts for 13 per cent of total global disease burden with predictions that depression alone will be the leading cause of disease burden globally by 2030. Poor mental health is consistently associated with deprivation, low income, unemployment, poor education, poorer physical health and increased health-risk behaviour. A plethora of research has examined the relationship between physical activity and mental wellbeing; however, the influence of community-wide gamification-based physical activity interventions on mental wellbeing, to the authors’ knowledge, is yet to be explored. In view of this paucity of attention, the current study examined the relationship between physical activity and mental wellbeing pre/post a community-wide, gamification-based intervention. The findings revealed that increases in mental wellbeing were significantly greater for the least active prior to the intervention, and a strong, positive correlation between increase in physical activity and increase in mental wellbeing was observed.

  9. Life-space mobility and dimensions of depressive symptoms among community-dwelling older adults.

    Polku, Hannele; Mikkola, Tuija M; Portegijs, Erja; Rantakokko, Merja; Kokko, Katja; Kauppinen, Markku; Rantanen, Taina; Viljanen, Anne

    2015-01-01

    To examine the association between life-space mobility and different dimensions of depressive symptoms among older community-dwelling people. Cross-sectional analyses of baseline data of the 'Life-Space Mobility in Old Age' cohort study were carried out. The participants were community-dwelling women and men aged 75-90 years (N = 848). Data were gathered via structured interviews in participants' home. Life-space mobility (the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) Life-Space Assessment - questionnaire) and depressive symptoms (Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, CES-D) were assessed. Other factors examined included sociodemographic factors, difficulties walking 500 m, number of chronic diseases and the sense of autonomy in participation outdoors (subscale of Impact on Participation and Autonomy questionnaire). Poorer life-space mobility was associated with higher prevalence of different dimensions of depressive symptoms. The associations were partially mediated through walking difficulties, health and the sense of autonomy in participation outdoor activities. Poorer life-space mobility interrelates with higher probability for depressive symptoms, thus compromising older adults' mental wellbeing. A focus on older adults' life-space mobility may assist early identification of persons, who have elevated risk for depressive symptoms. The association between life-space mobility and depressive symptoms should be studied further utilizing longitudinal study designs to examine temporality and potential causality.

  10. Physical relativity. Space-time structure from a dynamical perspective

    Brown, Harvey R.

    Physical Relativity explores the nature of the distinction at the heart of Einstein's 1905 formulation of his special theory of relativity: that between kinematics and dynamics. Einstein himself became increasingly uncomfortable with this distinction, and with the limitations of what he called the 'principle theory' approach inspired by the logic of thermodynamics. A handful of physicists and philosophers have over the last century likewise expressed doubts about Einstein's treatment of the relativistic behaviour of rigid bodies and clocks in motion in the kinematical part of his great paper, and suggested that the dynamical understanding of length contraction and time dilation intimated by the immediate precursors of Einstein is more fundamental. Harvey Brown both examines and extends these arguments (which support a more 'constructive' approach to relativistic effects in Einstein's terminology), after giving a careful analysis of key features of the pre-history of relativity theory. He argues furthermore that the geometrization of the theory by Minkowski in 1908 brought illumination, but not a causal explanation of relativistic effects. Finally, Brown tries to show that the dynamical interpretation of special relativity defended in the book is consistent with the role this theory must play as a limiting case of Einstein's 1915 theory of gravity: the general theory of relativity. Appearing in the centennial year of Einstein's celebrated paper on special relativity, Physical Relativity is an unusual, critical examination of the way Einstein formulated his theory. It also examines in detail certain specific historical and conceptual issues that have long given rise to debate in both special and general relativity theory, such as the conventionality of simultaneity, the principle of general covariance, and the consistency or otherwise of the special theory with quantum mechanics. Harvey Brown's new interpretation of relativity theory will interest anyone working on

  11. Physical and biomedical countermeasures for space radiation risk

    Durante, Marco

    2008-01-01

    Radiation exposure represents a serious hindrance for long-term interplanetary missions because of the high uncertainty on risk coefficients, and to the lack of simple countermeasures. Even if uncertainties in risk assessment will he reduced in the next few years, there is little doubt that appropriate countermeasures have to be taken to reduce the exposure or the biological damage produced by cosmic radiation. In addition, it is necessary to provide effective countermeasures against solar particle events, which can produce acute effects, even life threatening, for inadequately protected crews. Strategies that may prove to he effective in reducing exposure, or the effects of the irradiation, include shielding, administration of drugs or dietary supplements to reduce the radiation effects, crew selection based on a screening of individual radiation sensitivity. It is foreseeable that research in passive and active radiation shielding, radioprotective chemicals, and individual susceptibility will boost in the next years to provide efficient countermeasures to the space radiation threat. (orig.)

  12. Physics of Collisionless Shocks Space Plasma Shock Waves

    Balogh, André

    2013-01-01

    The present book provides a contemporary systematic treatment of shock waves in high-temperature collisionless plasmas as are encountered in near Earth space and in Astrophysics. It consists of two parts. Part I develops the complete theory of shocks in dilute hot plasmas under the assumption of absence of collisions among the charged particles when the interaction is mediated solely by the self-consistent electromagnetic fields. Such shocks are naturally magnetised implying that the magnetic field plays an important role in their evolution and dynamics. This part treats both subcritical shocks, which dissipate flow energy by generating anomalous resistance or viscosity, and supercritical shocks. The main emphasis is, however, on super-critical shocks where the anomalous dissipation is insufficient to retard the upstream flow. These shocks, depending on the direction of the upstream magnetic field, are distinguished as quasi-perpendicular and quasi-parallel shocks which exhibit different behaviours, reflecti...

  13. Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity - American Community Survey

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes select data from the U.S. Census Bureau's American Community Survey (ACS) on the percent of adults who bike or walk to work. This data is used...

  14. Plasmas: from space to laboratory. 'Introduction to plasma physics' course

    Savoini, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    This course addresses the different basic concepts of plasma physics. After an introduction which addresses the plasma state, basic equations, the different theoretical approaches (orbitals, kinetic, multi-fluid, magnetohydrodynamics), and the different characteristic scales, waves are addressed and presented as a disordered electromagnetism: existence of plasma waves, generalities on waves, relationship of formal dispersion of plasmas, plasma without magnetic field (longitudinal, transverse, or low frequency wave), plasma with magnetic field (parallel, perpendicular, or arbitrary propagation). The next parts present various approaches: the particle-based approach (case of constant and uniform magnetic fields, case of non-uniform magnetic fields), the statistical approach (elements of kinetic theory, the collision phenomenon, the equilibrium state), and the fluid approach (fluid equations according to the multi-fluid theory, comparison with the particle-based approach, presentation of magnetohydrodynamics as the single-fluid model, validity of MHD)

  15. The NASA Heliophysics Active Final Archive at the Space Physics Data Facility

    McGuire, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    The 2009 NASA Heliophysics Science Data Management Policy re-defined and extended the responsibilities of the Space Physics Data Facility (SPDF) project. Building on SPDF's established capabilities, the new policy assigned the role of active "Final Archive" for non-solar NASA Heliophysics data to SPDF. The policy also recognized and formalized the responsibilities of SPDF as a source for critical infrastructure services such as VSPO to the overall Heliophysics Data Environment (HpDE) and as a Center of Excellence for existing SPDF science-enabling services and software including CDAWeb, SSCWeb/4D Orbit Viewer, OMNIweb and CDF. We will focus this talk to the principles, strategies and planned SPDF architecture to effectively and efficiently perform these roles, with special emphasis on how SPDF will ensure the long-term preservation and ongoing online community access to all the data entrusted to SPDF. We will layout our archival philosophy and what we are advocating in our work with NASA missions both current and future, with potential providers of NASA and NASA-relevant archival data, and to make the data and metadata held by SPDF accessible to other systems and services within the overall HpOE. We will also briefly review our current services, their metrics and our current plans and priorities for their evolution.

  16. Application of the idea of morphism in solar-terrestrial physics and space weather

    Mateev, Lachezar; Tassev, Yordan; Velinov, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The actual problems of solar-terrestrial physics, in particular of space weather are related to the prediction of the space environment state and are solved by means of different analyses and models. In the present work we introduce a new mathematical approach to the study of physical processes in the system Sun-Earth. For example, in the ionization of the ionosphere and atmosphere under the influence of cosmic rays a model is used that applies the principle of homomorphism. When calculating the parameters of space weather such as solar wind, interplanetary magnetic fields, Earth’s magnetosphere, geomagnetic storms and others, the introduction and application of mathematical objects is appropriate: morphisms, groups, categories, monads, functors, natural transformations and others. Such an approach takes into account the general laws of physical processes in the system Sun – Earth and helps in their testing and calculation. It is useful for such complex systems and processes as these in the solar-terrestrial physics and space weather. Some methods for algebraic structures can be introduced. These methods give the possibility for axiomatization of the physical data reality and the application of algebraic methods for their processing. Here we give the base for the transformation from the algebraic theory of categories and morphisms to the physical structure of concepts and data. Such problems are principally considered in the proposed work. Key words: pace weather, space radiation environment, solar effects, forecasting, energetic solar particles, cosmic rays

  17. Reconstructing community assembly in time and space reveals enemy escape in a Western Palearctic insect community.

    Stone, Graham N; Lohse, Konrad; Nicholls, James A; Fuentes-Utrilla, Pablo; Sinclair, Frazer; Schönrogge, Karsten; Csóka, György; Melika, George; Nieves-Aldrey, Jose-Luis; Pujade-Villar, Juli; Tavakoli, Majide; Askew, Richard R; Hickerson, Michael J

    2012-03-20

    How geographically widespread biological communities assemble remains a major question in ecology. Do parallel population histories allow sustained interactions (such as host-parasite or plant-pollinator) among species, or do discordant histories necessarily interrupt them? Though few empirical data exist, these issues are central to our understanding of multispecies evolutionary dynamics. Here we use hierarchical approximate Bayesian analysis of DNA sequence data for 12 herbivores and 19 parasitoids to reconstruct the assembly of an insect community spanning the Western Palearctic and assess the support for alternative host tracking and ecological sorting hypotheses. We show that assembly occurred primarily by delayed host tracking from a shared eastern origin. Herbivores escaped their enemies for millennia before parasitoid pursuit restored initial associations, with generalist parasitoids no better able to track their hosts than specialists. In contrast, ecological sorting played only a minor role. Substantial turnover in host-parasitoid associations means that coevolution must have been diffuse, probably contributing to the parasitoid generalism seen in this and similar systems. Reintegration of parasitoids after host escape shows these communities to have been unsaturated throughout their history, arguing against major roles for parasitoid niche evolution or competition during community assembly. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. COMPASS, the COMmunity Petascale project for Accelerator Science and Simulation, a board computational accelerator physics initiative

    Cary, J.R.; Spentzouris, P.; Amundson, J.; McInnes, L.; Borland, M.; Mustapha, B.; Ostroumov, P.; Wang, Y.; Fischer, W.; Fedotov, A.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Ryne, R.; Esarey, E.; Geddes, C.; Qiang, J.; Ng, E.; Li, S.; Ng, C.; Lee, R.; Merminga, L.; Wang, H.; Bruhwiler, D.L.; Dechow, D.; Mullowney, P.; Messmer, P.; Nieter, C.; Ovtchinnikov, S.; Paul, K.; Stoltz, P.; Wade-Stein, D.; Mori, W.B.; Decyk, V.; Huang, C.K.; Lu, W.; Tzoufras, M.; Tsung, F.; Zhou, M.; Werner, G.R.; Antonsen, T.; Katsouleas, T.; Morris, B.

    2007-01-01

    Accelerators are the largest and most costly scientific instruments of the Department of Energy, with uses across a broad range of science, including colliders for particle physics and nuclear science and light sources and neutron sources for materials studies. COMPASS, the Community Petascale Project for Accelerator Science and Simulation, is a broad, four-office (HEP, NP, BES, ASCR) effort to develop computational tools for the prediction and performance enhancement of accelerators. The tools being developed can be used to predict the dynamics of beams in the presence of optical elements and space charge forces, the calculation of electromagnetic modes and wake fields of cavities, the cooling induced by comoving beams, and the acceleration of beams by intense fields in plasmas generated by beams or lasers. In SciDAC-1, the computational tools had multiple successes in predicting the dynamics of beams and beam generation. In SciDAC-2 these tools will be petascale enabled to allow the inclusion of an unprecedented level of physics for detailed prediction

  19. Natural world physical, brain operational, and mind phenomenal space-time

    Fingelkurts, Andrew A.; Fingelkurts, Alexander A.; Neves, Carlos F. H.

    2010-06-01

    Concepts of space and time are widely developed in physics. However, there is a considerable lack of biologically plausible theoretical frameworks that can demonstrate how space and time dimensions are implemented in the activity of the most complex life-system - the brain with a mind. Brain activity is organized both temporally and spatially, thus representing space-time in the brain. Critical analysis of recent research on the space-time organization of the brain's activity pointed to the existence of so-called operational space-time in the brain. This space-time is limited to the execution of brain operations of differing complexity. During each such brain operation a particular short-term spatio-temporal pattern of integrated activity of different brain areas emerges within related operational space-time. At the same time, to have a fully functional human brain one needs to have a subjective mental experience. Current research on the subjective mental experience offers detailed analysis of space-time organization of the mind. According to this research, subjective mental experience (subjective virtual world) has definitive spatial and temporal properties similar to many physical phenomena. Based on systematic review of the propositions and tenets of brain and mind space-time descriptions, our aim in this review essay is to explore the relations between the two. To be precise, we would like to discuss the hypothesis that via the brain operational space-time the mind subjective space-time is connected to otherwise distant physical space-time reality.

  20. AMS-02 in space: physics results, overview, and challenges

    Tomassetti, Nicola; AMS Collaboration

    2015-08-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS-02) is a state of the art particle detector measuring cosmic rays (CRs) on the International Space Station (ISS) since May 19th 2011. AMS-02 identifies CR leptons and nuclei in the energy range from hundreds MeV to few TeV per nucleon. Several sub-detector systems allow for redundant particle identification with unprecedented precision, a powerful lepton-hadron separation, and a high purity of the antimatter signal. The new AMS-02 leptonic data from 1 to 500 GeV are presented and discussed. These new data indicate that new sources of CR leptons need to be included to describe the observed spectra at high energies. Explanations of this anomaly may be found either in dark-matter particles annihilation or in the existence of nearby astrophysical sources of e±. Future data at higher energies and forthcoming measurements on the antiproton spectrum and the boron-to-carbon ratio will be crucial in providing the discrimination among the different scenario.

  1. Space distribution and physical properties of cool dwarf stars

    Staller, R.F.A.

    1979-01-01

    A new study of the space density of red dwarfs based on a sample of red dwarfs in a field of 238 square degrees towards the South Galactic Pole is presented. A blink survey using red and blue copies of Mount Palomar Sky Survey plates of a six square degrees field centered on the South Galactic Pole was performed and the results (approximately 2500 red objects) and the discussion of these results are presented. The time that elapsed before a black dwarf becomes invisible is estimated and is suggested that low-velocity red dwarfs could be explained by contracting black dwarfs. Based on theoretical considerations it can be shown that the existence of a large number of low-velocity stars is in serious conflict with criteria for the stability of the galactic disk. It is shown that if one also takes into account all generations of black dwarfs that are already invisible and therfore old, the mean velocity of all black dwarfs is much higher so that there is no conflict with theory. Luminosity functions of red and black dwarfs in several photometric passbands are calculated. (Auth.)

  2. Physical and mental health-related correlates of physical function in community dwelling older adults: a cross sectional study

    Burbank Patricia A

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical function is the ability to perform both basic and instrumental activities of daily living, and the ability of older adults to reside in the community depends to a large extent on their level of physical function. Multiple physical and health-related variables may differentially affect physical function, but they have not been well characterized. The purpose of this investigation was to identify and examine physical and mental health-related correlates of physical function in a sample of community-dwelling older adults. Methods Nine hundred and four community dwelling older men (n = 263 and women (n = 641 with a mean (95% Confidence Interval age of 76.6 (76.1, 77.1 years underwent tests of physical function (Timed Up and Go; TUG, Body Mass Index (BMI was calculated from measured height and weight, and data were collected on self-reported health quality of life (SF-36, falls during the past 6 months, number of medications per day, depression (Geriatric Depression Scale; GDS, social support, and sociodemographic variables. Results Subjects completed the TUG in 8.7 (8.2, 9.2 seconds and expended 6,976 (6,669, 7,284 Kcal.wk-1 in physical activity. The older persons had a mean BMI of 27. 6 (27.2, 28.0, 62% took 3 or more medications per day, and14.4% had fallen one or more times over the last 6 months. Mean scores on the Mental Component Summary (MCS was 50.6 (50.2, 51,0 and the Physical Component Summary (PCS was 41.3 (40.8, 41.8. Multiple sequential regression analysis showed that, after adjustment for TUG floor surface correlates of physical function included age, sex, education, physical activity (weekly energy expenditure, general health, bodily pain, number of medications taken per day, depression and Body Mass Index. Further, there is a dose response relationship such that greater degree of physical function impairment is associated with poorer scores on physical health-related variables. Conclusions Physical

  3. Promoting physical activity among children and youth in disadvantaged South Australian CALD communities through alternative community sport opportunities.

    Rosso, Edoardo; McGrath, Richard

    2016-02-29

    Issue addressed: Recently arrived migrants and refugees from a culturally and linguistically diverse background (CALD) may be particularly vulnerable to social exclusion. Participation in sport is endorsed as a vehicle to ease the resettlement process; however, in Australia, this is often thought as a simple matter of integration into existing sport structures (e.g. clubs). This approach fails to place actual community needs at the centre of sport engagement efforts. Methods: A consultation framework was established with South Australian CALD community leaders and organisations to scope needs for community-based alternatives to participation in traditional sport (e.g. clubs), co-design a suitable community sport program and pilot it in five communities. Interviews and questionnaire surveys were conducted with participants, community representatives, stakeholders and volunteers. Results: Regular, free soccer activities engaged 263 young people from a great variety of nationalities, including over 50% refugees, in secondary state school and community-based sites. Conclusion: Alternative community sport programs can provide a basic but valuable forum to promote physical activity and associated well being in CALD and refugee communities. So what?: Alternative approaches can extend the health benefits of sport participation to disadvantaged children and youth who are excluded from traditional sport participation opportunities.

  4. Effects of space-dependent cross sections on core physics parameters for compact fast spectrum space power reactors

    Lell, R.M.; Hanan, N.A.

    1987-01-01

    Effects of multigroup neutron cross section generation procedures on core physics parameters for compact fast spectrum reactors have been examined. Homogeneous and space-dependent multigroup cross section sets were generated in 11 and 27 groups for a representative fast reactor core. These cross sections were used to compute various reactor physics parameters for the reference core. Coarse group structure and neglect of space-dependence in the generation procedure resulted in inaccurate computations of reactor flux and power distributions and in significant errors regarding estimates of core reactivity and control system worth. Delayed neutron fraction was insensitive to cross section treatment, and computed reactivity coefficients were only slightly sensitive. However, neutron lifetime was found to be very sensitive to cross section treatment. Deficiencies in multigroup cross sections are reflected in core nuclear design and, consequently, in system mechanical design

  5. "Space on Earth:" A Learning Community Integrating English, Math, and Science

    Fortna, Joanna; Sullivan, Jim

    2010-01-01

    Imagine a mathematics instructor and English instructor sharing an office; scribbled equations litter one desk, snatches of poetry the other. Our learning community, "Space on Earth," grew from conversations in just such an office where we bridged our own disciplinary gap and discovered a shared passion for helping students apply the concepts and…

  6. 77 FR 13261 - Request for Applications: The Community Forest and Open Space Conservation Program

    2012-03-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Request for Applications: The Community Forest and Open Space Conservation Program AGENCY: Forest Service. ACTION: Notice; Correction. SUMMARY: The Department..., published a document in the Federal Register of February 15, 2011, concerning requests for applications for...

  7. With Their Help: How Community Members Construct a Congruent Third Space in an Urban Kindergarten Classroom

    Quigley, Cassie F.

    2013-01-01

    Through the use of narrative enquiry, this paper tells the story of how a kindergarten teacher in an all-girls' school incorporates family and community members' involvement to the construction of the congruent Third Space present in the classroom, and the ways the girls respond to this involvement, thereby providing a successful model for other…

  8. Modern education of future teacher of physical culture in the conditions of informatization of educational space

    Dragnev Y.V.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The informatization of the educational space is determined by the organizational, scientific-technical, educational processes, which update the creation of the unified information and educational space for the comprehensive use of information technologies in educational process of a future teacher of physical culture at the higher school. Stated that the integration and expansion of the educational space of the orients the higher school not only in the preparation of the literate student on the issues of information culture, but also to help the younger generation in the mastery of basic social abilities and skills in conditions of informatization of the educational space.

  9. Physical environment and job satisfaction in a community mental health center.

    Folkins, C; O'Reilly, C; Roberts, K; Miller, S

    1977-01-01

    Relocation of professional staff in a community mental health center provided a setting in which to evaluate the effects of physical environment on job satisfaction. Two mental health teams moved from an old, drab central clinic building to new satellite clinics while a third team remained in the old building. Relocated staff reported significant increase in satisfaction with physical surroundings as compared to staff that did not move. Furthermore, satisfaction with physical surroundings had some impact on overall satisfaction ratings. Physical surroundings in a community mental health center may be a mediating variable for staff morale and effectiveness.

  10. How community environment shapes physical activity: perceptions revealed through the PhotoVoice method.

    Belon, Ana Paula; Nieuwendyk, Laura M; Vallianatos, Helen; Nykiforuk, Candace I J

    2014-09-01

    A growing body of evidence shows that community environment plays an important role in individuals' physical activity engagement. However, while attributes of the physical environment are widely investigated, sociocultural, political, and economic aspects of the environment are often neglected. This article helps to fill these knowledge gaps by providing a more comprehensive understanding of multiple dimensions of the community environment relative to physical activity. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively explore how people's experiences and perceptions of their community environments affect their abilities to engage in physical activity. A PhotoVoice method was used to identify barriers to and opportunities for physical activity among residents in four communities in the province of Alberta, Canada, in 2009. After taking pictures, the thirty-five participants shared their perceptions of those opportunities and barriers in their community environments during individual interviews. Using the Analysis Grid for Environments Linked to Obesity (ANGELO) framework, themes emerging from these photo-elicited interviews were organized in four environment types: physical, sociocultural, economic, and political. The data show that themes linked to the physical (56.6%) and sociocultural (31.4%) environments were discussed more frequently than the themes of the economic (5.9%) and political (6.1%) environments. Participants identified nuanced barriers and opportunities for physical activity, which are illustrated by their quotes and photographs. The findings suggest that a myriad of factors from physical, sociocultural, economic, and political environments influence people's abilities to be physically active in their communities. Therefore, adoption of a broad, ecological perspective is needed to address the barriers and build upon the opportunities described by participants to make communities more healthy and active. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  11. ULF wave index and its possible applications in space physics

    Romanova, N.; Pilipenko, V.; Khabarova, O.; Crosby, N.

    2007-01-01

    The solar wind-magnetosphere interaction has a turbulent character, which is not accounted for by commonly used geomagnetic indices and OMNI parameters. To quantify the level of low-frequency turbulence/variability of the geomagnetic field, IMP, and solar wind plasma, we have introduced ULP wave power indices. These simple hourly indices are based on the integrated spectral power in the band 2-7 mHz or wavelet power with time scales∼10-100 min. The ground wave index has been produced from the data of global magnetometer arrays in the Northern Hemisphere. The interplanetary and geostationary wave indices have been calculated using magnetometer and plasma data from interplanetary and geosynchronous satellites. These indices have turned out to be useful for statistical analysis of various space weather problems. These indices enable one to examine easily the statistical correspondence between the ULP activity and interplanetary conditions. For example, the enhancements of relativistic electrons at the geosynchronous orbit were not directly related to the intensity of magnetic storms, but they correlated well with intervals of elevated ground ULP wave index. This fact confirmed the importance of magnetospheric ULP turbulence in energising electrons up to relativistic energies. The interplanetary index has revealed statistically the role of the interplanetary turbulence in driving the magnetosphere by the IMP/solar wind. The application of this index to the analysis of conditions in the solar wind before magnetic storm onsets has shown that a weak irregular increase of the solar wind density is observed on average 2 days prior to storm commencement. The ULP index database for the period since 1991 is freely available via anonymous FTP for all interested researchers for further validation and statistical studies. (authors)

  12. Battle Mound: Exploring space, place, and history of a Red River Caddo community in southwest Arkansas

    McKinnon, Duncan Paul

    This research is a synthesis of archaeogeophysical and archaeohistorical data collected from the Battle Mound site (3LA1). Using these data, this research seeks to understand how the site is organized in terms of architectural variability and how differential use areas, such as domestic or community space, can be compared to ethnographic and archaeological data concerning Caddo community structure and landscape use. The research is formulated around three research questions related to spatial organization and settlement patterning, intrasite behavioral practices, and Caddo culture history. Results show that an examination at multiple scales of resolution can inform about the spatial organization and settlement patterning of Caddo communities and how these underlying principles that define space have endured or been modified over time. It also proposes a new intrasite model that can be productively tested with geophysical methods and the mapping of the distribution of features within large village areas.

  13. Spatial Analysis in Determining Physical Factors of Pedestrian Space Livability, Case Study: Pedestrian Space on Jalan Kemasan, Yogyakarta

    Fauzi, A. F.; Aditianata, A.

    2018-02-01

    The existence of street as a place to perform various human activities becomes an important issue nowadays. In the last few decades, cars and motorcycles dominate streets in various cities in the world. On the other hand, human activity on the street is the determinant of the city livability. Previous research has pointed out that if there is lots of human activity in the street, then the city will be interesting. Otherwise, if the street has no activity, then the city will be boring. Learning from that statement, now various cities in the world are developing the concept of livable streets. Livable streets shown by diversity of human activities conducted in the streets’ pedestrian space. In Yogyakarta, one of the streets shown diversity of human activities is Jalan Kemasan. This study attempts to determine the physical factors of pedestrian space affecting the livability in Jalan Kemasan Yogyakarta through spatial analysis. Spatial analysis was performed by overlay technique between liveable point (activity diversity) distribution map and variable distribution map. Those physical pedestrian space research variable included element of shading, street vendors, building setback, seat location, divider between street and pedestrian way, and mixed use building function. More diverse the activity of one variable, then those variable are more affected then others. Overlay result then strengthened by field observation to qualitatively ensure the deduction. In the end, this research will provide valuable input for street and pedestrian space planning that is comfortable for human activities.

  14. Secure space-to-space interferometric communications and its nexus to the physics of quantum entanglement

    Duarte, F. J.

    2016-12-01

    The history of the probability amplitude equation | ψ > = ( | x , y > - | y , x > ) applicable to quanta pairs, propagating in different directions with entangled polarizations, is reviewed and traced back to the 1947-1949 period. The interferometric Dirac foundations common to | ψ > = ( | x , y > - | y , x > ) and the generalized N-slit interferometric equation, for indistinguishable quanta, are also described. The results from a series of experiments on N-slit laser interferometers, with intra interferometric propagation paths up to 527 m, are reviewed. Particular attention is given to explain the generation of interferometric characters, for secure space-to-space communications, which immediately collapse on attempts of interception. The design of a low divergence N-slit laser interferometer for low Earth orbit-low Earth orbit (LEO-LEO), and LEO-geostationary Earth orbit (LEO-GEO), secure interferometric communications is described and a weight assessment is provided.

  15. Creating "communicative spaces": a case of NGO community organizing for HIV/AIDS prevention.

    de Souza, Rebecca

    2009-12-01

    This study uses the case study method to investigate the processes used by a local nongovernmental organization called the Society for People's Action for Development to organize sex workers in the slums of Bangalore, India, for HIV/AIDS prevention. The nongovernmental organization-facilitated HIV/AIDS program is based on the new paradigm of community organizing that encourages community participation and capacity building. Grounded in the culture-centered approach, this study documents the processes used to organize the women, while highlighting the role of communication in these processes. The study identifies 4 primary processes used to mobilize the community, namely collectivization, community awareness and sensitization, capacity building, and providing legal education and support. Each of these processes highlights the importance of attending to the economic, social, and political realities that shape the health of women. The common thread linking these processes together is the notion of "voice." More specifically, each process serves as a catalyst to produce discursive practices that enable women to provide support to each other, increase awareness in the community about the problems that they face, build self-reliance through financial skills training and communication training, and defend their legal rights. In addition, the study suggests that the primary role of nongovernmental organizations should be the creation of "communicative spaces," which are discursive and material spaces within marginalized communities and mainstream society where cultural participants can identify problems (oftentimes beyond the realm of health), manage solutions to those problems, and advocate for health and social change.

  16. Robust online belief space planning in changing environments: Application to physical mobile robots

    Agha-mohammadi, Ali-akbar

    2014-05-01

    © 2014 IEEE. Motion planning in belief space (under motion and sensing uncertainty) is a challenging problem due to the computational intractability of its exact solution. The Feedback-based Information RoadMap (FIRM) framework made an important theoretical step toward enabling roadmap-based planning in belief space and provided a computationally tractable version of belief space planning. However, there are still challenges in applying belief space planners to physical systems, such as the discrepancy between computational models and real physical models. In this paper, we propose a dynamic replanning scheme in belief space to address such challenges. Moreover, we present techniques to cope with changes in the environment (e.g., changes in the obstacle map), as well as unforeseen large deviations in the robot\\'s location (e.g., the kidnapped robot problem). We then utilize these techniques to implement the first online replanning scheme in belief space on a physical mobile robot that is robust to changes in the environment and large disturbances. This method demonstrates that belief space planning is a practical tool for robot motion planning.

  17. Technique for forcing high Reynolds number isotropic turbulence in physical space

    Palmore, John A.; Desjardins, Olivier

    2018-03-01

    Many common engineering problems involve the study of turbulence interaction with other physical processes. For many such physical processes, solutions are expressed most naturally in physical space, necessitating the use of physical space solutions. For simulating isotropic turbulence in physical space, linear forcing is a commonly used strategy because it produces realistic turbulence in an easy-to-implement formulation. However, the method resolves a smaller range of scales on the same mesh than spectral forcing. We propose an alternative approach for turbulence forcing in physical space that uses the low-pass filtered velocity field as the basis of the forcing term. This method is shown to double the range of scales captured by linear forcing while maintaining the flexibility and low computational cost of the original method. This translates to a 60% increase of the Taylor microscale Reynolds number on the same mesh. An extension is made to scalar mixing wherein a scalar field is forced to have an arbitrarily chosen, constant variance. Filtered linear forcing of the scalar field allows for control over the length scale of scalar injection, which could be important when simulating scalar mixing.

  18. Life-Space Predicts Health Care Utilization in Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    Kennedy, Richard E; Williams, Courtney P; Sawyer, Patricia; Lo, Alexander X; Connelly, Kay; Nassel, Ariann; Brown, Cynthia J

    2017-09-01

    To determine whether decline in life-space mobility predicts increased health care utilization among community-dwelling older adults. Health care utilization (number of emergency department [ED] visits and hospitalizations) was self-reported during monthly interviews among 419 community-dwelling African American and non-Hispanic White adults aged 75 years and older in The University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) Study of Aging II. Life-space was measured using the UAB Life-Space Assessment. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine associations of life-space at the beginning of each interval with health care utilization over the 1-month interval. Overall, 400 participants were followed for 36 months. A 10-point decrease in life-space was associated with 14% increased odds of an ED visit and/or hospitalization over the next month, adjusting for demographics, transportation difficulty, comorbidity, and having a doctor visit in the last month. Life-space is a practical alternative in predicting future health care utilization to performance-based measures, which can be difficult to incorporate into clinical or public health practice.

  19. Community mobility among older adults with reduced kidney function: a study of life-space.

    Bowling, C Barrett; Muntner, Paul; Sawyer, Patricia; Sanders, Paul W; Kutner, Nancy; Kennedy, Richard; Allman, Richard M

    2014-03-01

    Life-Space Assessment captures community mobility and social participation and quantifies the distance, frequency, and independence obtained as an older adult moves through his or her environment. Reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) is associated with decline in activities of daily living among older adults, but less is known about the association of eGFR with restrictions in mobility. Prospective observational cohort study. Community-dwelling Medicare beneficiaries from the University of Alabama at Birmingham Study of Aging who had serum creatinine measured during a baseline in-home study visit and completed at least one telephone follow-up (N = 390). eGFR ≥ 60, 45-59, and space mobility trajectory. Life-space mobility was evaluated by telephone every 6 months for up to 4.5 years using the previously validated Life-Space Assessment. Scores using this tool range from 0-120 (higher scores indicate greater mobility). Mean age of the 390 participants was 77.6 ± 5.8 (SD) years, 41% were African American, 50.5% were women; 30.0% had eGFR of 45-59 mL/min/1.73 m(2), and 20.2% had eGFR space mobility scores were 64.8(95% CI, 62.0-67.6), 63.8 (95% CI, 60.3-67.4), and 58.3 (95% CI, 53.8-62.7) among those with eGFR categories ≥ 60, 45-59, and space mobility was found among those with eGFRs space mobility among community-dwelling older adults. Findings should be confirmed in a larger population. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Physics, Physicists and Revolutionary Capabilities for the Intelligence Community

    Porter, Lisa

    2009-05-01

    Over the past several decades, physicists have made seminal contributions to technological capabilities that have enabled the U.S. intelligence community to provide unexpected and unparalleled information to our nation's decision makers and help dispel the cloud of uncertainty they face in dealing with crises and challenges around the world. As we look to the future, we recognize that the ever-quickening pace of changes in the world and the threats we must confront demand continued innovation and improvement in the capabilities needed to provide the information on which our leaders depend. This talk will focus on some of the major technological challenges that the intelligence community faces in the coming years, and the many ways that physicists can help to overcome those challenges. The potential impact of physicists on the future capabilities of the US intelligence community is huge. In addition to the more obvious and direct impact through research in areas ranging from novel sensors to quantum information science, the unique approach physicists bring to a problem can also have an indirect but important effect by influencing how challenges in areas ranging from cybersecurity to advanced analytics are approached and solved. Several examples will be given.

  1. Barriers Affecting Physical Activity in Rural Communities: Perceptions of Parents and Children

    McWhinney, Sharon; McDonald, Andrea; Dawkins-Moultin, Lenna; Outley, Corliss; McKyer, E. Lisako; Thomas, Audrene

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the barriers inhibiting physical activity among children is critical in the fight against childhood obesity. This qualitative interview study examined parents' and children's perceptions of the barriers to physical activity in rural communities of low socioeconomic status. Parents and children concurred that the…

  2. Multifractal characteristics of NDVI maps in space and time in the Community of Madrid (Spain)

    Sotoca, Juan J. Martin; Saa-Requejo, Antonio; Grau, Juan B.; Tarquis, Ana M.

    2015-04-01

    Satellite information has contributed to improve our understanding of the spatial variability of hydro-climatic and ecological processes. Vegetation activity is tightly coupled with climate, hydro-ecological fluxes, and terrain dynamics in river basins at a wide range of space-time scales (Scheuring and Riedi, 1994). Indices of vegetation activity are constructed using satellite information of reflectance of the relevant spectral bands which enhance the contribution of vegetation being Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) widely used. How can we study such a complex system? Multifractals and fractals are related techniques mainly used in physics to characterize the scaling behaviour of a system; they differ in that fractals look at the geometry of presence/absence patterns, while multifractals look at the arrangement of quantities such as population or biomass densities (Saravia et al., 2012). Scaling laws are an emergent general feature of ecological systems; they reflect constraints in their organization that can provide tracks about the underlying mechanisms (Solé and Bascompte, 2006). In this work, we have applied these techniques to study the spatial pattern through one year of NDVI maps. A rectangular area that includes the Community of Madrid and part of the surroundings, consisting of 300 x 280 pixels with a resolution of 500 x 500 m2 has been selected and monthly NDVI maps analyzed using the multifractal spectrum and the map of singularities (Cheng and Agterberg, 1996). The results show a cyclical pattern in the multifractal behaviour and singularity points related to river basin networks (Martín-Sotoca, 2014). References Cheng, Q. and Agterberg, F.P. (1996). Multifractal modeling and spatial statistics. Math. Geol. Vol 28, 1-16. Martín-Sotoca, J.J. (2014) Estructura Espacial de la Sequía en Pastos y sus Aplicaciones en el Seguro Agrario. Master Thesis, UPM (In Spanish). Saravia LA, Giorgi A, Momo F.: Multifractal growth in periphyton

  3. Instrumental support in the physical activity community - premilinary results

    Elloumi, Lamia; Zhang, Qiwen; van Beijnum, Bernhard J.F.; Hermens, Hermanus J.

    Currently, we witness the growth of ICT-mediated solutions for chronic diseases management, especially to assist and support patients in lifestyle changes in order to improve their health condition. Being physically active is one the recommended lifestyle changes for patients with chronic diseases.

  4. Climate change and physical disturbance cause similar community shifts in biological soil crusts

    Ferrenberg, Scott; Reed, Sasha C.; Belnap, Jayne

    2015-01-01

    Biological soil crusts (biocrusts)—communities of mosses, lichens, cyanobacteria, and heterotrophs living at the soil surface—are fundamental components of drylands worldwide, and destruction of biocrusts dramatically alters biogeochemical processes, hydrology, surface energy balance, and vegetation cover. While there has been long-standing concern over impacts of 5 physical disturbances on biocrusts (e.g., trampling by livestock, damage from vehicles), there is also increasing concern over the potential for climate change to alter biocrust community structure. Using long-term data from the Colorado Plateau, USA, we examined the effects of 10 years of experimental warming and altered precipitation (in full-factorial design) on biocrust communities, and compared the effects of altered climate with those of long-term physical 10 disturbance (>10 years of replicated human trampling). Surprisingly, altered climate and physical disturbance treatments had similar effects on biocrust community structure. Warming, altered precipitation frequency [an increase of small (1.2 mm) summer rainfall events], and physical disturbance from trampling all promoted early successional community states marked by dramatic declines in moss cover and increased cyanobacteria cover, with more variable effects 15 on lichens. While the pace of community change varied significantly among treatments, our results suggest that multiple aspects of climate change will affect biocrusts to the same degree as physical disturbance. This is particularly disconcerting in the context of warming, as temperatures for drylands are projected to increase beyond those imposed by the climate treatments used in our study.

  5. Gender equity in the Brazilian physics community at the present time

    Saitovitch, Elisa Maria Baggio; Barbosa, Marcia Cristina; Funchal, Renata Zukanovich; de Pinho, Suani Tavares Rubim; de Santana, Ademir Eugênio

    2015-12-01

    We present an overview of the advances and difficulties in gender equity in the Brazilian physics community at the present time. Recognizing that in some cases the level of gender equity has remained unchanged for a decade, the Commission for Relations and Gender of the Brazilian Physical Society plans not only to continue current activities but also seek new ways to address the issue, which will be discussed at the 2nd Brazilian Conference for Women in Physics, to be organized for 2015.

  6. No Space for Girliness in Physics: Understanding and Overcoming the Masculinity of Physics

    Götschel, Helene

    2014-01-01

    Allison Gonsalves' article on "women doctoral students' positioning around discourses of gender and competence in physics" explores narratives of Canadian women physicists concerning their strategies to gain recognition as physicists. In my response to her rewarding and inspiring analysis I will reflect on her findings and arguments and…

  7. Birth spacing of pregnant women in Nepal: A community-based study

    Rajendra Karkee

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundOptimal birth spacing has health advantages for both mother and child. In developing countries, shorter birth intervals are common and associated with social, cultural and economic factors, as well as a lack of family planning. This study investigated the first birth interval after marriage and preceding interbirth interval in Nepal.MethodsA community-based prospective cohort study was conducted in the Kaski district of Nepal. Information on birth spacing, demographic and obstetric characteristics was obtained from 701 pregnant women using a structured questionnaire. Logistic regression analyses were performed to ascertain factors associated with short birth spacing.ResultsAbout 39% of primiparous women gave their first child birth within one year of marriage and 23% of multiparous women had short preceding interbirth intervals (<24 months. The average birth spacing among the multiparous group was 44.9 (SD 21.8 months. Overall, short birth spacing appeared to be inversely associated with advancing maternal age.For the multiparous group, Janajati and lower caste women, and those whose newborn was female, were more likely to have short birth spacing.ConclusionsThe preceding interbirth interval was relatively long in the Kaski district of Nepal and tended to be associated with maternal age, caste, and sex of newborn infant. Optimal birth spacing programs should target Janajati and lower caste women, along with promotion of gender equality in society.

  8. How adolescents perceive their communities: a qualitative study that explores the relationship between health and the physical environment.

    Mmari, Kristin; Lantos, Hannah; Brahmbhatt, Heena; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Lou, Chaohua; Acharya, Rajib; Sangowawa, Adesola

    2014-04-12

    The Well-Being of Adolescents in Vulnerable Environments (WAVE) study was conducted among adolescents aged 15-19 years in Baltimore, Ibadan, Johannesburg, New Delhi, and Shanghai to examine perceived factors related to their health. A preliminary analysis of the data, unexpectedly, revealed that the influence of the physical environment on adolescent health was a dominant theme across every site examined. To explore this further, this paper analyzed the specific components of the physical environment that were perceived to influence health, and how they contributed to various health outcomes across sites. Researchers in each site conducted in-depth interviews among adolescents; community mapping and focus groups among adolescents; a Photovoice methodology, in which adolescents were trained in photography and took photos of the meaning of 'health' in their communities; and key informant interviews among adults who work with young people. A total 529 participants from across the sites were included in the analysis. Findings showed that while there was surprising uniformity in how adolescents characterized their physical environment, perceived health outcomes related to the physical environment varied by site and gender. In Baltimore and Johannesburg, vacant homes and the lack of recreation facilities were perceived to impact on sexual and reproductive health problems for girls, while among boys they contributed to drugs and violence. In Shanghai, New Delhi, and Ibadan, garbage and trash observed in their communities were perceived to have a higher impact on infectious and chronic diseases. As the world continues to urbanize, our study points to a strong need to examine how the physical aspects of a living environment contribute to the health of adolescents. Specific aspects, such as housing, safety, garbage, and recreational spaces must all be examined as possible pathways for making improvements to health of adolescents, particularly among those living in poor urban

  9. Understanding Relationships between Health, Ethnicity, Place and the Role of Urban Green Space in Deprived Urban Communities

    Jenny Roe

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Very little is known about how differences in use and perceptions of urban green space impact on the general health of black and minority ethnic (BME groups. BME groups in the UK suffer from poorer health and a wide range of environmental inequalities that include poorer access to urban green space and poorer quality of green space provision. This study used a household questionnaire (n = 523 to explore the relationship between general health and a range of individual, social and physical environmental predictors in deprived white British and BME groups living in ethnically diverse cities in England. Results from Chi-Squared Automatic Interaction Detection (CHAID segmentation analyses identified three distinct general health segments in our sample ranging from “very good” health (people of Indian origin, to ”good” health (white British, and ”poor” health (people of African-Caribbean, Bangladeshi, Pakistani origin and other BME groups, labelled ”Mixed BME” in the analyses. Correlated Component Regression analyses explored predictors of general health for each group. Common predictors of general health across all groups were age, disability, and levels of physical activity. However, social and environmental predictors of general health-including use and perceptions of urban green space-varied among the three groups. For white British people, social characteristics of place (i.e., place belonging, levels of neighbourhood trust, loneliness ranked most highly as predictors of general health, whilst the quality of, access to and the use of urban green space was a significant predictor of general health for the poorest health group only, i.e., in ”Mixed BME”. Results are discussed from the perspective of differences in use and perceptions of urban green space amongst ethnic groups. We conclude that health and recreation policy in the UK needs to give greater attention to the provision of local green space amongst poor BME

  10. Understanding Relationships between Health, Ethnicity, Place and the Role of Urban Green Space in Deprived Urban Communities

    Roe, Jenny; Aspinall, Peter A.; Ward Thompson, Catharine

    2016-01-01

    Very little is known about how differences in use and perceptions of urban green space impact on the general health of black and minority ethnic (BME) groups. BME groups in the UK suffer from poorer health and a wide range of environmental inequalities that include poorer access to urban green space and poorer quality of green space provision. This study used a household questionnaire (n = 523) to explore the relationship between general health and a range of individual, social and physical environmental predictors in deprived white British and BME groups living in ethnically diverse cities in England. Results from Chi-Squared Automatic Interaction Detection (CHAID) segmentation analyses identified three distinct general health segments in our sample ranging from “very good” health (people of Indian origin), to ”good” health (white British), and ”poor” health (people of African-Caribbean, Bangladeshi, Pakistani origin and other BME groups), labelled ”Mixed BME” in the analyses. Correlated Component Regression analyses explored predictors of general health for each group. Common predictors of general health across all groups were age, disability, and levels of physical activity. However, social and environmental predictors of general health-including use and perceptions of urban green space-varied among the three groups. For white British people, social characteristics of place (i.e., place belonging, levels of neighbourhood trust, loneliness) ranked most highly as predictors of general health, whilst the quality of, access to and the use of urban green space was a significant predictor of general health for the poorest health group only, i.e., in ”Mixed BME”. Results are discussed from the perspective of differences in use and perceptions of urban green space amongst ethnic groups. We conclude that health and recreation policy in the UK needs to give greater attention to the provision of local green space amongst poor BME communities since this

  11. Benefits of Enterprise Social Networking Systems for High Energy Physics community

    Silva de Sousa, B.; Wagner, A.; Ormancey, E.; Grzywaczewski, P.

    2015-12-01

    The emergence of social media platforms in the consumer space unlocked new ways of interaction between individuals on the Web. People develop now their social networks and relations based on common interests and activities with the choice to opt-in or opt-out on content of their interest. This kind of platforms have also an important place to fill inside large organizations and enterprises where communication and collaborators interaction are keys for development. Enterprise Social Networking Systems (ESN) add value to an organization by encouraging information sharing, capturing knowledge, enabling action and empowering people. CERN is currently rolling out an ESN which aims to unify and provide a single point of access to the multitude of information sources in the organization. It also implements social features that can be added on top of existing communication channels. While the deployment of this kind of platforms is not without risks we firmly believe that they are of the best interest for our community, opening the opportunity to evaluate a global social network for High Energy Physics (HEP).

  12. Curricular Space Allocated for Dance Content in Physical Education Teacher Education Programs: A Literature Review

    Marquis, Jenée Marie; Metzler, Mike

    2017-01-01

    This literature review examines curricular space allocated to activity based/movement content courses in Physical Education Teacher Education (PETE) pre-service programs, specifically focusing on how dance content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge are addressed within those programs. This review includes original empirical research…

  13. Robust online belief space planning in changing environments: Application to physical mobile robots

    Agha-mohammadi, Ali-akbar; Agarwal, Saurav; Mahadevan, Aditya; Chakravorty, Suman; Tomkins, Daniel; Denny, Jory; Amato, Nancy M.

    2014-01-01

    , such as the discrepancy between computational models and real physical models. In this paper, we propose a dynamic replanning scheme in belief space to address such challenges. Moreover, we present techniques to cope with changes in the environment (e.g., changes

  14. The duality in the topological vector spaces and the linear physical system theory

    Oliveira Castro, F.M. de.

    1980-01-01

    The excitation-response relation in a linear, passive, and causal physical system who has the property of this relation be invariant for a time translation is univocally determined by the general form of the linear and continuous functionals defined on the linear topological space chosen for the representation of the excitations. (L.C.) [pt

  15. From Sanctuaries to Prefigurative Social Change: Creating Health-Enabling Spaces in East London Community Gardens

    Madeleine A. Guerlain

    2016-05-01

    for effective community mobilization. AIDS Care, 22(Suppl. 2, 1569-1579; and a discussion of how creating these spaces is an act of prefigurative social change. Our findings suggest that in East London, participation in community gardens is not based on a common political intention or self-conscious motive to prefigure a new society, but instead on the shared practice of gardening. This results in unintended benefits that often address participants’ personal adversities in ways that contribute to the material, relational and symbolic deprivation of their daily lives – opening up new possibilities for being, seeing and doing. In this sense, community gardens in East London offer an alternative to traditional notions of prefigurative social action that are predicated on strategic intention. We argue for an understanding of prefiguration that better accounts for what participants themselves would like to achieve in their own lives, rather than in relation to externally imposed notions of what counts as political change.

  16. Promoting physical activity among youth through community-based prevention marketing.

    Bryant, Carol A; Courtney, Anita H; McDermott, Robert J; Alfonso, Moya L; Baldwin, Julie A; Nickelson, Jen; McCormack Brown, Kelli R; Debate, Rita D; Phillips, Leah M; Thompson, Zachary; Zhu, Yiliang

    2010-05-01

    Community-based prevention marketing (CBPM) is a program planning framework that blends community-organizing principles with a social marketing mind-set to design, implement, and evaluate public health interventions. A community coalition used CBPM to create a physical activity promotion program for tweens (youth 9-13 years of age) called VERB Summer Scorecard. Based on the national VERB media campaign, the program offered opportunities for tweens to try new types of physical activity during the summer months. The VERB Summer Scorecard was implemented and monitored between 2004 and 2007 using the 9-step CBPM framework. Program performance was assessed through in-depth interviews and a school-based survey of youth. The CBPM process and principles used by school and community personnel to promote physical activity among tweens are presented. Observed declines may become less steep if school officials adopt a marketing mind-set to encourage youth physical activity: deemphasizing health benefits but promoting activity as something fun that fosters spending time with friends while trying and mastering new skills. Community-based programs can augment and provide continuity to school-based prevention programs to increase physical activity among tweens.

  17. Determinants of Perceived Physical Environment Barriers among Community-Dwelling Elderly in Taiwan.

    Lien, W-C; Chang, J-H; Guo, N-W; Lin, Y-C; Hsieh, P-C; Kuan, T-S

    2015-05-01

    To test the hypothesis that mobility, activities of daily living, and the interaction between them can play a key role in determining perceived physical environment barriers among community-dwelling elderly. Cross-sectional. Community. One hundred and ninety-seven community-dwelling elderly with more than 7 points on the Short Portable Mental State Questionnaire and less than 7 points on the Geriatric Depression Scale (15 items). None. Time Get-up and Go test (TUG), the subscales of basic activity of daily living (BADL)/instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) of the Hierarchy of Care Required (HCR), and the physical/structural subscale of the Craig Hospital Inventory of Environmental Factors in Community-dwelling Elderly in Taiwan were used to measure mobility, activities of daily living and perceived physical environment barriers, respectively. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were used to test the study hypothesis. Significant and positive relations were found to exist between perceived physical environment barriers and (1) the TUG time (β=.300, pdwelling elderly under consideration. Strategies targeting the enhancement of mobility among community-dwelling elderly are suggested to lead to improvements in the degree to which physical environment barriers are perceived. This beneficial effect could be greater in the case of elderly individuals with better IADL function.

  18. The Community-based Organizations Working Group of the Space Science Education Support Network

    Lutz, J. H.; Lowes, L. L.; Asplund, S.

    2004-12-01

    The NASA Space Science Support Network Community-based Organizations Working Group (CBOWG) has been working for the past two years on issues surrounding afterschool programs and programs for youth (e.g., Girl Scouts, Boy Scouts, Boys and Girls Clubs, 4-H, summer camps, afterschool and weekend programs for various ages, programs with emphases on minority youth). In this session the co-leaders of the CBOWG will discuss the challenges of working with community-based organizations on a regional or national level. We will highlight some ties that we have forged with the National Institute for Out of School Time (NIOST) and the National Afterschool Association (NAA). We will also talk about efforts to coordinate how various entities within NASA cooperate with community-based organizations to serve the best interests of these groups. We will give a couple of examples of how NASA space science organizations have partnered with community-based organizations. The session will include some handouts of information and resources that the CBOWG has found useful in developing an understanding of this segment of informal education groups. We would like to thank NASA for providing resources to support the work of the CBOWG.

  19. Towards science educational spaces as dynamic and coauthored communities of practice

    Dhingra, Koshi

    2008-04-01

    In this essay review, four studies around the themes of identity and globalization are summarized and analyzed. The researchers' perspectives are generally grounded in Brown and Campione's ideas on situated knowledge ( Classroom lessons: Integrating cognitive theory and classroom practice (pp. 229-270). Cambridge: The MIT Press/Bradford Books, 1994) and Lave and Wenger's definition of learning as an activity fostered through participation in communities of practice ( Situated learning. Legitimate peripheral participation. Cambridge: University of Cambridge Press, 1991). Questions about the goals of science education spaces, the nature of globalization in relation to practices in schools, the role of identities-in-practice in relation to participation in communities of practice such as classrooms are explored. Recommendations for key design features in effective science educational spaces, based upon the findings presented in the collection of four studies, are offered. School, it is suggested here, functions best as a clearing house for the myriad science-related stories student participants generate in their various communities of practice (e.g., within popular culture, family, community, informal educational sites). In this way, school has the potential to construct bridges between multiple student experiences and identities-in-practice.

  20. "This is My Community": Reproducing and Resisting Boundaries of Exclusion in Contested Public Spaces.

    Toolis, Erin E; Hammack, Phillip L

    2015-12-01

    The way that public space is structured has significant implications for identity, social interaction, and participation in society. For those experiencing homelessness, with no or limited private space, survival hinges on the accessibility and livability of public space. However, the increasing privatization of public space in the United States has contributed to the implementation of anti-homeless ordinances in cities, restricting sitting, standing, panhandling, and sleeping in public. This study analyzes data from interviews with housed and unhoused community members, text from a local policy document, and ethnographic observations to explore how boundaries between "insiders" and "outsiders" are drawn in public space and mediated through individual discourse. Our findings suggest that boundaries of exclusion are constructed through dominant narratives that portray the unhoused as a threat to safety and economic vitality, thus justifying the need for regulation and punishment through the criminalization of homelessness. Yet, informants also demonstrate resistance to this narrative by discussing how criminalization of homelessness perpetuates dehumanization, violence, and economic inequality. Policy implications for the regulation of public space are discussed.

  1. Role of physical activity, physical fitness, and chronic health conditions on the physical independence of community-dwelling older adults over a 5-year period.

    Pereira, Catarina; Baptista, Fátima; Cruz-Ferreira, Ana

    2016-01-01

    The variability in the individual characteristics and habits could help determine how older adults maintain independence. The impact of the variability in physical activity, physical fitness, body composition, and chronic health conditions (co-morbidities) on the independence of older adults, especially over time, is seldom examined. This study aims to analyze quantitatively the impact of baseline values and changes in physical activity, physical fitness, body composition, and co-morbidities on the physical independence of community-dwelling, older adults over a 5-year period. Data from 106 and 85 community-dwelling adults (≥60 years) were collected at baseline and after five years, respectively. Linear regression selected the main predictors of changes in physical independence as follows: the baseline physical independence (β=0.032, R(2)=9.9%) and co-morbidities (β=-0.191, R(2)=6.3%) and the changes in co-morbidities (β=-0.244, R(2)=10.8%), agility (β=-0.288, R(2)=6.7%), aerobic endurance (β=0.007, R(2)=3.2%), and walking expenditure (β=0.001, R(2)=5.1%) (page and gender. Gains of up to 8.3% in physical independence were associated with improvements in these variables, which corresponds to regaining independence for performing one or two activities of daily living. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  2. Birth Spacing of Pregnant Women in Nepal: A Community-Based Study.

    Karkee, Rajendra; Lee, Andy H

    2016-01-01

    Optimal birth spacing has health advantages for both mother and child. In developing countries, shorter birth intervals are common and associated with social, cultural, and economic factors, as well as a lack of family planning. This study investigated the first birth interval after marriage and preceding interbirth interval in Nepal. A community-based prospective cohort study was conducted in the Kaski district of Nepal. Information on birth spacing, demographic, and obstetric characteristics was obtained from 701 pregnant women using a structured questionnaire. Logistic regression analyses were performed to ascertain factors associated with short birth spacing. About 39% of primiparous women gave their first child birth within 1 year of marriage and 23% of multiparous women had short preceding interbirth intervals (gender equality in society.

  3. Move the Neighborhood: study design of a community-based participatory public open space intervention

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Winge, Laura; Carroll, Sidse

    evaluation will be used to gain knowledge of the intervention processes. DISCUSSION: The study presents new methods and approaches in the field of public open space interventions through interdisciplinary collaboration, participatory co-design approach and combination of measurements. Using both effect......BACKGROUND: A limited amount of research has examined the effect of changing public open spaces on active living. This abstract presents the study protocol of an intervention study designed in an interdisciplinary collaboration built on principles of Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR...... and process evaluations the study will provide unique insights in the role and importance of the interdisciplinary collaboration, participatory processes, tailoring changes in public open space to local needs and wishes. These results can be used to guide urban renewal projects in deprived neighbourhoods...

  4. Challenges in Physical Characterization of Dim Space Objects: What Can We Learn from NEOs

    Reddy, V.; Sanchez, J.; Thirouin, A.; Rivera-Valentin, E.; Ryan, W.; Ryan, E.; Mokovitz, N.; Tegler, S.

    2016-09-01

    Physical characterization of dim space objects in cis-lunar space can be a challenging task. Of particular interest to both natural and artificial space object behavior scientists are the properties beyond orbital parameters that can uniquely identify them. These properties include rotational state, size, shape, density and composition. A wide range of observational and non-observational factors affect our ability to characterize dim objects in cis-lunar space. For example, phase angle (angle between Sun-Target-Observer), temperature, rotational variations, temperature, and particle size (for natural dim objects). Over the last two decades, space object behavior scientists studying natural dim objects have attempted to quantify and correct for a majority of these factors to enhance our situational awareness. These efforts have been primarily focused on developing laboratory spectral calibrations in a space-like environment. Calibrations developed correcting spectral observations of natural dim objects could be applied to characterizing artificial objects, as the underlying physics is the same. The paper will summarize our current understanding of these observational and non-observational factors and present a case study showcasing the state of the art in characterization of natural dim objects.

  5. Physical activity level and fall risk among community-dwelling older adults.

    Low, Sok Teng; Balaraman, Thirumalaya

    2017-07-01

    [Purpose] To find the physical activity level and fall risk among the community-dwelling Malaysian older adults and determine the correlation between them. [Subjects and Methods] A cross-sectional study was conducted in which, the physical activity level was evaluated using the Rapid Assessment of Physical Activity questionnaire and fall risk with Fall Risk Assessment Tool. Subjects recruited were 132 community-dwelling Malaysian older adults using the convenience sampling method. [Results] The majority of the participants were under the category of under-active regular light-activities and most of them reported low fall risk. The statistical analysis using Fisher's exact test did not show a significant correlation between physical activity level and fall risk. [Conclusion] The majority of community-dwelling Malaysian older adults are performing some form of physical activity and in low fall risk category. But this study did not find any significant correlation between physical activity level and fall risk among community-dwelling older adults in Malaysia.

  6. Technologies and Methods Used at the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP) to Serve Solar Irradiance Data

    Pankratz, Chris; Beland, Stephane; Craft, James; Baltzer, Thomas; Wilson, Anne; Lindholm, Doug; Snow, Martin; Woods, Thomas; Woodraska, Don

    2018-01-01

    The Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP) at the University of Colorado in Boulder, USA operates the Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) NASA mission, as well as several other NASA spacecraft and instruments. Dozens of Solar Irradiance data sets are produced, managed, and disseminated to the science community. Data are made freely available to the scientific immediately after they are produced using a variety of data access interfaces, including the LASP Interactive Solar Irradiance Datacenter (LISIRD), which provides centralized access to a variety of solar irradiance data sets using both interactive and scriptable/programmatic methods. This poster highlights the key technological elements used for the NASA SORCE mission ground system to produce, manage, and disseminate data to the scientific community and facilitate long-term data stewardship. The poster presentation will convey designs, technological elements, practices and procedures, and software management processes used for SORCE and their relationship to data quality and data management standards, interoperability, NASA data policy, and community expectations.

  7. Space Rocks Tell Their Secrets: Space Science Applications of Physics and Chemistry for High School and College Classes

    Lindstrom, M. M.; Tobola, K. W.; Stocco, K.; Henry, M.; Allen, J. S.

    2003-01-01

    As the scientific community studies Mars remotely for signs of life and uses Martian meteorites as its only available samples, teachers, students, and the general public continue to ask, "How do we know these meteorites are from Mars?" This question sets the stage for a three-lesson instructional package Space Rocks Tell Their Secrets. Expanding on the short answer "It's the chemistry of the rock", students are introduced to the research that reveals the true identities of the rocks. Since few high school or beginning college students have the opportunity to participate in this level of research, a slide presentation introduces them to the labs, samples, and people involved with the research. As they work through the lessons and interpret real data, students realize that the research is an application of basic science concepts they should know, the electromagnetic spectrum and isotopes. They can understand the results without knowing how to do the research or operate the instruments.

  8. Space Rocks Tell Their Secrets: Space Science Applications of Physics and Chemistry for High School and College Classes. Update.

    Lindstrom, M. M.; Tobola, K. W.; Allen, J. S.; Stocco, K.; Henry, M.; Allen, J. S.; McReynolds, Julie; Porter, T. Todd; Veile, Jeri

    2005-01-01

    As the scientific community studies Mars remotely for signs of life and uses Martian meteorites as its only available samples, teachers, students, and the general public continue to ask, "How do we know these meteorites are from Mars?" This question sets the stage for a six-lesson instructional package Space Rocks Tell Their Secrets. Expanding on the short answer "It's the chemistry of the rock", students are introduced to the research that reveals the true identities of the rocks. Since few high school or beginning college students have the opportunity to participate in this level of research, a slide presentation introduces them to the labs, samples, and people involved with the research. As they work through the lessons and interpret authentic data, students realize that the research is an application of two basic science concepts taught in the classroom, the electromagnetic spectrum and isotopes. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  9. Space Rocks Tell Their Secrets: Space Science Applications of Physics and Chemistry for High School and College Classes: Update

    Lindstrom, M. M.; Tobola, K. W.; Stocco, K.; Henry, M.; Allen, J. S.; McReynolds, Julie; Porter, T. Todd; Veile, Jeri

    2004-01-01

    As the scientific community studies Mars remotely for signs of life and uses Martian meteorites as its only available samples, teachers, students, and the general public continue to ask, How do we know these meteorites are from Mars? This question sets the stage for a six-lesson instructional package Space Rocks Tell Their Secrets. Expanding on the short answer It s the chemistry of the rock , students are introduced to the research that reveals the true identities of the rocks. Since few high school or beginning college students have the opportunity to participate in this level of research, a slide presentation introduces them to the labs, samples, and people involved with the research. As they work through the lessons and interpret authentic data, students realize that the research is an application of two basic science concepts taught in the classroom, the electromagnetic spectrum and isotopes.

  10. Bacterial communities of disease vectors sampled across time, space, and species.

    Jones, Ryan T; Knight, Rob; Martin, Andrew P

    2010-02-01

    A common strategy of pathogenic bacteria is to form close associations with parasitic insects that feed on animals and to use these insects as vectors for their own transmission. Pathogens interact closely with other coexisting bacteria within the insect, and interactions between co-occurring bacteria may influence the vector competency of the parasite. Interactions between particular lineages can be explored through measures of alpha-diversity. Furthermore, general patterns of bacterial community assembly can be explored through measures of beta-diversity. Here, we use pyrosequencing (n=115,924 16S rRNA gene sequences) to describe the bacterial communities of 230 prairie dog fleas sampled across space and time. We use these communinty characterizations to assess interactions between dominant community members and to explore general patterns of bacterial community assembly in fleas. An analysis of co-occurrence patterns suggests non-neutral negative interactions between dominant community members (Pspace (phylotype-based: R=0.418, Pspace and time.

  11. Grassland communities of urban open spaces in Bloemfontein, Free State, South Africa

    Mamokete N.V. Dingaan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Natural vegetation in urban environments is greatly impacted by human activities and it is in constant threat of degradation and destruction as a result of urbanisation. This vegetation, although fragmented, serves an important ecological function and needs to be properly managed and conserved. Studies on urban vegetation are lacking in South Africa, with only a handful having been carried out since the end of the last century. This study was initiated to identify, classify and describe the grassland communities of the urban open spaces in Bloemfontein. Relevés were compiled in 61 sample plots, where species present and habitat information were recorded. Care was taken to restrict sample plots to vegetation in pristine condition, wherever possible, and severely degraded stands were avoided. A two-way indicator species analysis (TWINSPAN classification, refined by Braun-Blanquet procedures, revealed two distinct major communities, seven communities and four sub-communities. Both detrended and canonical correspondence analyses indicated the vegetation units to be associated with soil texture and pH, although biotic factors such as overgrazing, burning and mowing also influence the composition of the vegetation. The proper management and conservation of urban open spaces requires in-depth knowledge of the spatial distribution, floristic, structural and functional compositions within the major vegetation types in this environment. The present study further contributed towards formulating ways for the proper management, utilisation and functioning of the open spaces within the Bloemfontein area.Conservation implications: The Grassland Biome of South Africa is poorly conserved, mainly because of its status as an agricultural hub of the country. The preservation of natural and semi-natural forms of urban vegetation is important because such vegetation, although often disturbed and degraded, could form dispersal corridors between peri-urban and rural

  12. Improving Physical Activity Resource Guides to Bridge the Divide Between the Clinic and the Community

    Seligman, Hilary K.; Grossman, Melanie D.; Bera, Nathalie; Stewart, Anita L.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Primary care providers have limited time for physical activity counseling. They can optimize counseling time by referring patients to community resources for more comprehensive support. To facilitate referrals, resource guides (lists of community opportunities with descriptive information) are often created but seldom used. We elicited the detailed opinions of providers about how to make resource guides more useful for them. Methods We asked a convenience sample of health care pr...

  13. Multilevel analysis of the physical health perception of employees: community and individual factors.

    Sathyanarayanan, Sudhakar; Brooks, Ambyr J; Hagen, Susan E; Edington, Dee W

    2012-01-01

    To investigate whether the communities where employees reside are associated with employee perception of overall physical health after adjusting for individual factors. Retrospective cross-sectional. Active employees from a large manufacturing company representing 157 zip code tabulation areas (ZCTAs) in Michigan. 22,012 active employees who completed at least one voluntary health risk appraisal (HRA) during 1999-2001. Community deprivation and racial segregation at the ZCTA level were obtained using indices created from 2000 U.S. Census data. Demographics and HRA-related data (health-related behaviors, medical history, and quality of life indicators) at the individual level were used as independent variables. A two-level logistic regression model (employees nested in ZCTA) was used to model the probability of better self-rated health perception (SRH) (better health: 89.1% versus poor health: 10.9%). Relative to those living in highly deprived communities, employees residing in less-deprived communities showed 2.06 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.57-2.72) and those living in moderately deprived communities showed 1.83 (95% CI, 1.42-2.35) increased odds of better SRH. After adjusting for individual-level variables, employees living in less-deprived communities had increased odds (1.31 [95% CI, 1.07-1.60]) and those living in moderately deprived communities had increased odds (1.33 [95% CI, 1.11-1.59]) of better SRH compared with individuals from highly deprived communities. The association of racial segregation with employees' SRH was mediated after adjusting for other variables. Individual-level variables showed significant statistical associations with SRH. Communities do have a modest association with SRH of the employees living there. After adjusting for individual-level and demographic variables, employees living in less/moderately deprived communities are more likely to perceive better physical health relative to those who live in highly deprived communities.

  14. Impact of habitual physical activity and type of exercise on physical performance across ages in community-living people.

    Francesco Landi

    Full Text Available The maintenance of muscle function into late life protects against various negative health outcomes. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of habitual physical activity and exercise types on physical performance across ages in community-living adults. The Longevity check-up 7+ (Lookup 7+ project is an ongoing cross-sectional survey conducted in unconventional settings (e.g., exhibitions, malls, and health promotion campaigns across Italy that began on June 1st 2015. The project was designed to raise awareness in the general population on major lifestyle behaviors and risk factors for chronic diseases. Candidate participants are eligible for enrolment if they are at least 18 years of age and provide written informed consent. Physical performance is evaluated through the 5-repetition chair stand test. Analyses were conducted in 6,242 community-living adults enrolled between June 1st 2015 and June 30th 2017, after excluding 81 participants for missing values of the variables of interest. The mean age of the 6,242 participants was 54.4 years (standard deviation 15.2, range 18-98 years, and 3552 (57% were women. The time to complete the chair stand test was similar from 18 to 40-44 years, and declined progressively across subsequent age groups. Overall, the performance on the chair stand test was better in physically active participants, who completed the test with a mean of 0.5 s less than sedentary enrollees (p < .001. After adjusting for potential confounders, a different distribution of physical performance across exercise intensities was observed, with better performance being recorded in participants engaged in more vigorous activities. Our findings suggest that regular physical activity modifies the age-related pattern of decline in physical performance, with greater benefits observed for more intensive activities. Efforts are needed from health authorities and healthcare providers to promote the large-scale adoption of an

  15. Panel Discussion: Common Themes Across ``Bringing Newcomers Into The Physics Community''

    Little, Angela

    2014-03-01

    I will be facilitating a discussion between the audience and the four speakers in this session: Dimitri Dounas-Frazer, Catherine Good, Casey Miller, and Katie Hinko. They will all be speaking on the same general topic of supporting newcomers to the physics community at critical transition points but come from a set of diverse contexts and perspectives. Their work spans a wide age range of STEM students and they approach their work through many different lenses: as physics faculty, program directors, education and psychology researchers, and combinations thereof. Broad themes across these contexts and perspectives will be explored such as the role of growth mindset, community, and professional development.

  16. Kindness as a collective wish to co-design with communities using physical installation

    Chueng-Nainby, P.; Lin, X.; Hu, J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports a co-design intervention experimented with ‘kindness’ as a community value for social innovation during Dutch Design Week 2014. We discuss the insights gathered from the practice-based research aimed to envision and enact community’s creative imagery as a shared space for

  17. Leisure-time physical activities for community older people with chronic diseases.

    Lin, Yen-Chun; Huang, Lian-Hua; Yeh, Mei Chang; Tai, John Jen

    2011-04-01

    (1) To explore the types and three components (frequency, duration and caloric expenditure) of leisure-time physical activity in community older people with chronic diseases. (2) To identify leisure-time physical activity-related factors in these community older people. Previous research has focused primarily on measuring the actual physiological or psychological benefits of exercise or leisure-time physical activity, little is known about the factors that determine the frequency, intensity and duration of exercise or leisure-time physical activity. The identification of reliable predictors of the various components of leisure-time physical activity will enable healthcare providers to intervene and change the patterns of leisure-time physical activity in the sedentary older people more effectively. A cross-sectional design was used for this study. Participants were recruited from the Xinyi District in Taipei, Taiwan. A total of 206 older people were recruited and were asked to complete three questionnaires during a face-to-face interview with a researcher at the activity setting. The results showed that walking leisurely was the most frequent leisure-time physical activity for participants. The age, gender, living arrangement, affective feeling and environmental control were significant variables of leisure-time physical activity. The study constructs accounted for moderate amounts of variance (22% for leisure-time physical activity frequency, 27% for leisure-time physical activity duration and 24% for leisure-time physical activity caloric expenditure). This study also showed that different variables play different influential roles in the different components of LTPA. An effective intervention strategy for improving leisure-time physical activity of older people may involve tailoring the type, format, intensity, frequency and duration of a physical activity according to an individual's needs. This study described some environmental barriers to LTPA and

  18. Public Relations for Physics Departments: Convincing the Community that Quarks are Cool

    Levine, Alaina G.

    2002-03-01

    A strong public relations program can be of great importance to a physics department. Not only can effective PR improve the reputation of an individual department, but it can also serve the greater physics community by convincing the public that quarks, quantum dots, and nanostructures are cool. Building a solid reputation with the many constituents that a physics department serves can lead to greater media exposure, improved quality of student applicants, community and industrial partnerships, and even financial support. It isn’t difficult to create a strategic PR program, but it does take planning and commitment of resources. I will discuss the techniques and tactics of effective media, community, alumni, and internal relations, with special emphasis placed on establishing connections with media outlets, creating and publicizing outreach programs for the community, initiating a newsletter, organizing an external board of advisors, and developing an effective alumni relations program. The University of Arizona Physics Department serves as a case study, but other physics departments with similar communications programs will also be incorporated.

  19. Modeling microbial community structure and functional diversity across time and space.

    Larsen, Peter E; Gibbons, Sean M; Gilbert, Jack A

    2012-07-01

    Microbial communities exhibit exquisitely complex structure. Many aspects of this complexity, from the number of species to the total number of interactions, are currently very difficult to examine directly. However, extraordinary efforts are being made to make these systems accessible to scientific investigation. While recent advances in high-throughput sequencing technologies have improved accessibility to the taxonomic and functional diversity of complex communities, monitoring the dynamics of these systems over time and space - using appropriate experimental design - is still expensive. Fortunately, modeling can be used as a lens to focus low-resolution observations of community dynamics to enable mathematical abstractions of functional and taxonomic dynamics across space and time. Here, we review the approaches for modeling bacterial diversity at both the very large and the very small scales at which microbial systems interact with their environments. We show that modeling can help to connect biogeochemical processes to specific microbial metabolic pathways. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. REXUS/BEXUS: launching student experiments -a step towards a stronger space science community

    Fittock, Mark; Stamminger, Andreas; Maria, Roth; Dannenberg, Kristine; Page, Helen

    The REXUS/BEXUS (Rocket/Balloon Experiments for University Students) programme pro-vides opportunities to teams of European student scientists and engineers to fly experiments on sounding rockets and high altitude balloons. This is an opportunity for students and the scientific community to benefit from encouragement and support for experiments. An important feature of the programme is that the students experience a full project life-cycle which is typically not a part of their university education and which helps to prepare them for further scientific work. They have to plan, organize, and control their project in order to develop and build up an experiment but must also work on the scientic aspects. Many of the students continue to work in the field on which they focused in the programme and can often build upon both the experience and the results from flight. Within the REXUS/BEXUS project cycle, they are encouraged to write and present papers about their experiments and results; increasing amounts of scientific output are seen from the students who participate. Not only do the students learn and develop from REXUS/BEXUS but the scientific community also reaps significant benefits. Another major benefit of the programme is the promotion that the students are able to bring to the whole space community. Not only are the public made more aware of advanced science and technical concepts but an advantage is present in the contact that the students who participate have to other university level students. Students are less restricted in their publicity and attract large public followings online as well as presenting themselves in more traditional media outlets. Many teams' creative approach to outreach is astonishing. The benefits are not only for the space science community as a whole; institutes, universities and departments can see increased interest following the support of participating students in the programme. The programme is realized under a bilateral Agency

  1. Factors Associated with Physical Activity among Macedonian Adolescents in Albanian Ethnic Community

    GONTAREV, Seryozha; KALAC, Ruzdija; AMETI, Vullnet; REDJEPI, Agim

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of demographic, psychological, social and environmental factors with physical activity and to determine whether indicators of physical activity differ by gender among Macedonian adolescents from Albanian ethnic community from 11 to 14 yr (N = 886). Methods: Research were conducted in 2014 in several primary schools randomly selected from Tetovo and Gostivar region of the R. Macedonia. Students completed a questionnaire wh...

  2. Impact of habitual physical activity and type of exercise on physical performance across ages in community-living people.

    Landi, Francesco; Calvani, Riccardo; Picca, Anna; Tosato, Matteo; Martone, Anna Maria; D'Angelo, Emanuela; Serafini, Elisabetta; Bernabei, Roberto; Marzetti, Emanuele

    2018-01-01

    The maintenance of muscle function into late life protects against various negative health outcomes. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of habitual physical activity and exercise types on physical performance across ages in community-living adults. The Longevity check-up 7+ (Lookup 7+) project is an ongoing cross-sectional survey conducted in unconventional settings (e.g., exhibitions, malls, and health promotion campaigns across Italy) that began on June 1st 2015. The project was designed to raise awareness in the general population on major lifestyle behaviors and risk factors for chronic diseases. Candidate participants are eligible for enrolment if they are at least 18 years of age and provide written informed consent. Physical performance is evaluated through the 5-repetition chair stand test. Analyses were conducted in 6,242 community-living adults enrolled between June 1st 2015 and June 30th 2017, after excluding 81 participants for missing values of the variables of interest. The mean age of the 6,242 participants was 54.4 years (standard deviation 15.2, range 18-98 years), and 3552 (57%) were women. The time to complete the chair stand test was similar from 18 to 40-44 years, and declined progressively across subsequent age groups. Overall, the performance on the chair stand test was better in physically active participants, who completed the test with a mean of 0.5 s less than sedentary enrollees (p performance across exercise intensities was observed, with better performance being recorded in participants engaged in more vigorous activities. Our findings suggest that regular physical activity modifies the age-related pattern of decline in physical performance, with greater benefits observed for more intensive activities. Efforts are needed from health authorities and healthcare providers to promote the large-scale adoption of an active lifestyle throughout the life course.

  3. Physical and Leisure Activity in Older Community-Dwelling Canadians Who Use Wheelchairs: A Population Study

    Krista L. Best

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Physical and leisure activities are proven health promotion modalities and have not been examined in older wheelchair users. Main Objectives. Examine physical and leisure activity in older wheelchair users and explore associations between wheelchair use and participation in physical and leisure activity, and wheelchair use, physical and leisure activity, and perceived health. Methods. 8301 Canadians ≥60 years of age were selected from the Canadian Community Health Survey. Sociodemographic, health-related, mobility-related, and physical and leisure activity variables were analysed using logistic regression to determine, the likelihood of participation in physical and leisure activity, and whether participation in physical and leisure activities mediates the relationship between wheelchair use and perceived health. Results. 8.3% and 41.3% older wheelchair users were physically and leisurely active. Wheelchair use was a risk factor for reduced participation in physical (OR=44.71 and leisure activity (OR=10.83. Wheelchair use was a risk factor for poor perceived health (OR=10.56 and physical and leisure activity negatively mediated the relationship between wheelchair user and perceived health. Conclusion. There is a need for the development of suitable physical and leisure activity interventions for older wheelchair users. Participation in such interventions may have associations with health benefits.

  4. Physical and leisure activity in older community-dwelling canadians who use wheelchairs: a population study.

    Best, Krista L; Miller, William C

    2011-04-13

    Background. Physical and leisure activities are proven health promotion modalities and have not been examined in older wheelchair users. Main Objectives. Examine physical and leisure activity in older wheelchair users and explore associations between wheelchair use and participation in physical and leisure activity, and wheelchair use, physical and leisure activity, and perceived health. Methods. 8301 Canadians ≥60 years of age were selected from the Canadian Community Health Survey. Sociodemographic, health-related, mobility-related, and physical and leisure activity variables were analysed using logistic regression to determine, the likelihood of participation in physical and leisure activity, and whether participation in physical and leisure activities mediates the relationship between wheelchair use and perceived health. Results. 8.3% and 41.3% older wheelchair users were physically and leisurely active. Wheelchair use was a risk factor for reduced participation in physical (OR = 44.71) and leisure activity (OR = 10.83). Wheelchair use was a risk factor for poor perceived health (OR = 10.56) and physical and leisure activity negatively mediated the relationship between wheelchair user and perceived health. Conclusion. There is a need for the development of suitable physical and leisure activity interventions for older wheelchair users. Participation in such interventions may have associations with health benefits.

  5. Municipal Officials’ Perceived Barriers to Consideration of Physical Activity in Community Design Decision Making

    Goins, Karin Valentine; Schneider, Kristin L.; Brownson, Ross; Carnoske, Cheryl; Evenson, Kelly; Eyler, Amy; Heinrich, Katie; Litt, Jill; Lyn, Rodney; Maddock, Jay; Reed, Hannah; Tompkins, Nancy O’Hara; Lemon, Stephenie C.

    2016-01-01

    Context Built environment-focused interventions and policies are recommended as sustainable approaches for promoting physical activity. Physical activity has not traditionally been considered in land use and transportation decision making. Effective collaboration with non-public health partners requires knowledge of their perceived barriers to consideration of physical activity in decision making. Objective This study aimed to 1) identify barriers to the consideration of physical activity in community design and planning decisions among municipal decision makers and 2) explore differences in these barriers among a wide range of job functions and departments in a geographically diverse sample. Design A web-based survey was conducted among municipal officials in 94 cities and towns with populations of at least 50,000 residents in eight states. Participants 453 municipal officials from public health, planning, transportation/public works, community and economic development, parks and recreation, city management, and municipal legislatures responded to the survey. Main Outcome Measures Five barriers to consideration of physical activity in community design and layout were assessed. Results The most common barriers included lack of political will (23.5%), limited staff (20.4%) and lack of collaboration across municipal departments (16.2%). Fewer participants reported opposition from the business community or residents as barriers. Compared to other professionals, public health department personnel were more likely to report the barriers of limited staff and lack of collaboration across municipal departments. They were also more likely to report lack of political will compared to city managers or mayors and municipal legislators. Conclusions Barriers to increasing consideration of physical activity in decision making about community design and layout are encouragingly low. Implications for public health practice include the need to strategically increase political will

  6. Life-Space Assessment questionnaire: Novel measurement properties for Brazilian community-dwelling older adults.

    Simões, Maria do Socorro Mp; Garcia, Isabel Ff; Costa, Lucíola da Cm; Lunardi, Adriana C

    2018-05-01

    The Life-Space Assessment (LSA) assesses mobility from the spaces that older adults go, and how often and how independent they move. Despite its increased use, LSA measurement properties remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to analyze the content validity, reliability, construct validity and interpretability of the LSA for Brazilian community-dwelling older adults. In this clinimetric study we analyzed the measurement properties (content validity, reliability, construct validity and interpretability) of the LSA administered to 80 Brazilian community-dwelling older adults. Reliability was analyzed by Cronbach's alpha (internal consistency), intraclass correlation coefficients and 95% confidence interval (reproducibility), and standard error of measurement (measurement error). Construct validity was analyzed by Pearson's correlations between the LSA and accelerometry (time in inactivity and moderate-to-vigorous activities), and interpretability was analyzed by determination of the minimal detectable change, and floor and ceiling effects. The LSA met the criteria for content validity. The Cronbach's alpha was 0.92, intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.97 (95% confidence interval 0.95-0.98) and standard error of measurement was 4.12. The LSA showed convergence with accelerometry (negative correlation with time in inactivity and positive correlation with time in moderate to vigorous activities), the minimal detectable change was 0.36 and we observed no floor or ceiling effects. The LSA showed adequate reliability, validity and interpretability for life-space mobility assessment of Brazilian community-dwelling older adults. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018; 18: 783-789. © 2018 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  7. Novel reconfigurable wide-beam radio interferometer for space physics instrumentation

    Dekoulis, George; Honary, Farideh

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes the instrumentation design of a novel wide-beam interferometer system for radio astronomy studies. The system measures the Earth's or another planet's atmospheric layers attenuation of the highly energetic galactic electron emissions superimposed on the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) and other last scattering surface galactic and extragalactic radio astronomical background emissions. Right ascension coordinates are surveyed in a unique manner in terms of digital signal processing flexibility, compared to existing wide-beam instrumentations, allowing higher resolution analysis of the captured Space Physics events. The system provides a prototyping platform for other Space Physics projects, since a modular software and hardware design approach has been followed. The system is reconfigurable to meet a variety of testing scenarios.

  8. Features of public open spaces and physical activity among children: findings from the CLAN study.

    Timperio, Anna; Giles-Corti, Billie; Crawford, David; Andrianopoulos, Nick; Ball, Kylie; Salmon, Jo; Hume, Clare

    2008-11-01

    To examine associations between features of public open spaces, and children's physical activity. 163 children aged 8-9 years and 334 adolescents aged 13-15 years from Melbourne, Australia participated in 2004. A Geographic Information System was used to identify all public open spaces (POS) within 800 m of participants' homes and their closest POS. The features of all POS identified were audited in 2004/5. Accelerometers measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) after school and on weekends. Linear regression analyses examined associations between features of the closest POS and participants' MVPA. Most participants had a POS within 800 m of their home. The presence of playgrounds was positively associated with younger boys' weekend MVPA (B=24.9 min/day; pPOS were associated with participants' MVPA, although mixed associations were evident. Further research is required to clarify these complex relationships.

  9. Physics constraints on tokamak edge operational space and extrapolation to ITER

    Igitkhanov, Yu.; Janeschitz, G.; Sugihara, M.; Pacher, H.D.; Post, D.E.; Pacher, G.W.; Pogutse, O.P.

    1998-01-01

    This paper emphasises the theoretical understanding of the physical processes in the edge tokamak plasma and their attendant uncertainties and constraints. The various operational boundaries are represented in the edge operational space (EOS) diagram, the space of edge density and temperature, defined at the top of the H-mode transport barrier. The EOS is governed by four boundaries representing physical constraints for the edge plasma parameters. The first boundary represents the onset of type I ELM instabilities in terms of a critical pressure gradient for MHD stability at the edge which defines the maximum pedestal temperature for a given density once the width of the H-mode transport barrier at the edge (pedestal width) is known. The ideal ballooning mode is a candidate for this instability. The second boundary defines the boundary between type III ELM's, which are probably resistive MHD modes, and the ELM-free region. (orig.)

  10. SmallSat Missions Traveling to Planetary Targets from Near-Earth-Space: Applications for Space Physics

    Espley, J. R.; Folta, D.

    2017-12-01

    Recent advances in propulsion technology and interplanetary navigation theoretically allow very small spacecraft to travel directly to planetary destinations from near-Earth-space. Because there are currently many launches with excess mass capability (NASA, military, and even commercial), we anticipate a dramatic increase in the number of opportunities for missions to planetary targets. Spacecraft as small as 12U CubeSats can use solar electric propulsion to travel from Earth-orbit to Mars-orbit in approximately 2-3 years. Space physics missions are particularly well suited for such mission architectures since state-of-the-art instrumentation to answer fundamental science questions can be accommodated in relatively small payload packages. For example, multi-point measurements of the martian magnetosphere, ionosphere, and crustal magnetic fields would yield important new science results regarding atmospheric escape and the geophysical history of the martian surface. These measurements could be accomplished by a pair of 12U CubeSats with world-class instruments that require only modest mass, power, and telemetry resources (e.g. Goddard's mini-fluxgate vector magnetometer).

  11. The Dynamic Family Home: a qualitative exploration of physical environmental influences on children's sedentary behaviour and physical activity within the home space.

    Maitland, Clover; Stratton, Gareth; Foster, Sarah; Braham, Rebecca; Rosenberg, Michael

    2014-12-24

    Recent changes in home physical environments, such as decreasing outdoor space and increasing electronic media, may negatively affect health by facilitating sedentariness and reducing physical activity. As children spend much of their time at home they are particularly vulnerable. This study qualitatively explored family perceptions of physical environmental influences on sedentary behaviour and physical activity within the home space. Home based interviews were conducted with 28 families with children aged 9-13 years (total n = 74 individuals), living in Perth, Australia. Families were stratified by socioeconomic status and selected to provide variation in housing. Qualitative methods included a family interview, observation and home tour where families guided the researcher through their home, enabling discussion while in the physical home space. Audio recordings were transcribed verbatim and thematically analysed. Emergent themes related to children's sedentariness and physical activity included overall size, space and design of the home; allocation of home space; equipment within the home space; perceived safety of the home space; and the changing nature of the home space. Families reported that children's activity options were limited when houses and yards were small. In larger homes, multiple indoor living rooms usually housed additional sedentary entertainment options, although parents reported that open plan home layouts could facilitate monitoring of children's electronic media use. Most families reported changing the allocation and contents of their home space in response to changing priorities and circumstances. The physical home environment can enhance or limit opportunities for children's sedentary behaviour and physical activity. However, the home space is a dynamic ecological setting that is amenable to change and is largely shaped by the family living within it, thus differentiating it from other settings. While size and space were considered

  12. Theaters of time and space: The American planetarium community, 1930-1970

    Marche, Jordan Dale, II

    American astronomy education was transformed by the introduction of a remarkable teaching tool---the projection planetarium. Conceived at the Carl Zeiss firm of Jena, Germany, the first prototype was exhibited at the Deutsches Museum, Munich, in 1923. Between 1930 and 1970, more than 700 planetaria were completed or remained under construction in the Unite States, Canada, and Mexico. Members of the American planetarium community united to form the first continent-wide professional association and to launch its quarterly journal, signifying that disciplinary maturity had been achieved. Social developments in the American planetarium community are examined in light of three principal issues (along with the role of gender): patronage, professionalization, and popularization. The analytical narrative is supplemented by quantitative analysis of North American planetaria and their personnel. Utilizing methods employed in collective biography, the Appendix contains further assessments derived from five professional traits of the community's 919 known planetarium directors. On the basis of technological developments and the changing nature of patronage, three distinct periods of historical development are recognized. In the formative stage (1930--1946), the community was dominated by Zeiss-equipped facilities installed at five metropolitan cities. During the second period (1947--1957), inexpensive pinhole-style projectors, marketed by Philadelphia entrepreneur Armand N. Spitz, revolutionized the availability of 'artificial skies'. In response to the "crisis of confidence" triggered by Sputnik's launch, a third developmental period (1958--1970) ensued. The necessity of offering a space science education to rapidly growing numbers of young people justified the construction of hundreds of new planetaria through the 1960s. Originally created for teaching the confirmation of scientific theories, planetaria became important tools for researching other biological and educational

  13. Heterogeneity in physical, chemical and plankton-community structures in Lake Tanganyika

    Langenberg, V.T.; Tumba, J.M.; Tshibangu, K.; Lukwesa, C.; Chitamwebwa, D.; Bwebwa, D.; Makasa, L.; Roijackers, R.M.M.

    2008-01-01

    From 28 August to 6 September 1995, we monitored the lake-wide physical, chemical and biological properties of the pelagic waters in Lake Tanganyika. The aim of this study was to examine the spatial environmental variability and its relation to fluctuations in plankton abundance and community

  14. Best Practices in University-Community Partnerships: Lessons Learned from a Physical-Activity-Based Program

    Walsh, David

    2006-01-01

    Universities have the potential to make significant contributions to their neighboring schools and youth agencies through university-community partnerships and the programs they spawn. However, even with proven goals, trained staff, and eager students, collaborative physical-activity-based youth development programs can fail despite the best…

  15. An Analytical Study of the Preparation of Community College Physics Teachers.

    Ohm, Kenneth Ronald

    Reported is a study of the type and nature of course offerings, student teaching practices, internships, and industrial experiences for the purpose of developing a curriculum necessary for adequate preparation of community college physics teachers. Similar questionnaires were submitted to participants of the 1968 and 1971 summer institutes held at…

  16. Knowledge and Attitudes regarding Cervical Cancer Screening among Women with Physical Disabilities Living in the Community

    Wu, Li-Wei; Lin, Lan-Ping; Chen, Si-Fan; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Loh, Ching-Hui; Wu, Chia-Ling; Lin, Jin-Ding

    2012-01-01

    The study aims to explore knowledge and attitudeSs regarding cervical cancer screening and to examine its determinants based on the perspectives of Taiwanese women with physical disabilities living in the community. A cross-sectional survey was employed in the study, and we recruited 498 women aged more than 15 years who were officially registered…

  17. The Physics of Imaging with Remote Sensors : Photon State Space & Radiative Transfer

    Davis, Anthony B.

    2012-01-01

    Standard (mono-pixel/steady-source) retrieval methodology is reaching its fundamental limit with access to multi-angle/multi-spectral photo- polarimetry. Next... Two emerging new classes of retrieval algorithm worth nurturing: multi-pixel time-domain Wave-radiometry transition regimes, and more... Cross-fertilization with bio-medical imaging. Physics-based remote sensing: - What is "photon state space?" - What is "radiative transfer?" - Is "the end" in sight? Two wide-open frontiers! center dot Examples (with variations.

  18. Physical activity and exercise priorities in community dwelling people with multiple sclerosis: a Delphi study.

    Stennett, Andrea; De Souza, Lorraine; Norris, Meriel

    2018-07-01

    Exercise and physical activity have been found to be beneficial in managing disabilities caused by multiple sclerosis. Despite the known benefits, many people with multiple sclerosis are inactive. This study aimed to identify the prioritised exercise and physical activity practices of people with multiple sclerosis living in the community and the reasons why they are engaged in these activities. A four Round Delphi questionnaire scoped and determined consensus of priorities for the top 10 exercise and physical activities and the reasons why people with multiple sclerosis (n = 101) are engaged in these activities. Data were analysed using content analysis, descriptive statistics, and non-parametric tests. The top 10 exercise and physical activity practices and the top 10 reasons why people with multiple sclerosis (n = 70) engaged in these activities were identified and prioritised. Consensus was achieved for the exercise and physical activities (W = 0.744, p multiple sclerosis engaged in exercise and physical activity were diverse. These self-selected activities and reasons highlighted that people with multiple sclerosis might conceptualise exercise and physical activity in ways that may not be fully appreciated or understood by health professionals. Considerations of the views of people with multiple sclerosis may be essential if the goal of increasing physical activity in this population is to be achieved. Implications for Rehabilitation Health professionals should work collaboratively with people with multiple sclerosis to understand how they prioritise activities, the underlying reasons for their prioritisations and embed these into rehabilitation programmes. Health professionals should utilise activities prioritised by people with multiple sclerosis in the community as a way to support, promote, and sustain exercise and physical activity in this population. Rehabilitation interventions should include both the activities people with multiple

  19. The importance of community building for establishing data management and curation practices for physical samples

    Ramdeen, S.; Hangsterfer, A.; Stanley, V. L.

    2017-12-01

    There is growing enthusiasm for curation of physical samples in the Earth Science community (see sessions at AGU, GSA, ESIP). Multiple federally funded efforts aim to develop best practices for curation of physical samples; however, these efforts have not yet been consolidated. Harmonizing these concurrent efforts would enable the community as a whole to build the necessary tools and community standards to move forward together. Preliminary research indicate the various groups focused on this topic are working in isolation, and the development of standards needs to come from the broadest view of `community'. We will investigate the gaps between communities by collecting information about preservation policies and practices from curators, who can provide a diverse cross-section of the grand challenges to the overall community. We will look at existing reports and study results to identify example cases, then develop a survey to gather large scale data to reinforce or clarify the example cases. We will be targeting the various community groups which are working on similar issues, and use the survey to improve the visibility of developed best practices. Given that preservation and digital collection management for physical samples are both important and difficult at present (GMRWG, 2015; NRC, 2002), barriers to both need to be addressed in order to achieve open science goals for the entire community. To address these challenges, EarthCube's iSamples, a research coordination network established to advance discoverability, access, and curation of physical samples using cyberinfrastructure, has formed a working group to collect use cases to examine the breadth of earth scientists' work with physical samples. This research team includes curators of state survey and oceanographic geological collections, and a researcher from information science. In our presentation, we will share our research and the design of the proposed survey. Our goal is to engage the audience in a

  20. The geometry of higher-order Lagrange spaces applications to mechanics and physics

    Miron, Radu

    1997-01-01

    This monograph is devoted to the problem of the geometrizing of Lagrangians which depend on higher-order accelerations It presents a construction of the geometry of the total space of the bundle of the accelerations of order k>=1 A geometrical study of the notion of the higher-order Lagrange space is conducted, and the old problem of prolongation of Riemannian spaces to k-osculator manifolds is solved Also, the geometrical ground for variational calculus on the integral of actions involving higher-order Lagrangians is dealt with Applications to higher-order analytical mechanics and theoretical physics are included as well Audience This volume will be of interest to scientists whose work involves differential geometry, mechanics of particles and systems, calculus of variation and optimal control, optimization, optics, electromagnetic theory, and biology

  1. The Virtual Space Physics Observatory: Quick Access to Data and Tools

    Cornwell, Carl; Roberts, D. Aaron; McGuire, Robert E.

    2006-01-01

    The Virtual Space Physics Observatory (VSPO; see http://vspo.gsfc.nasa.gov) has grown to provide a way to find and access about 375 data products and services from over 100 spacecraft/observatories in space and solar physics. The datasets are mainly chosen to be the most requested, and include most of the publicly available data products from operating NASA Heliophysics spacecraft as well as from solar observatories measuring across the frequency spectrum. Service links include a "quick orbits" page that uses SSCWeb Web Services to provide a rapid answer to questions such as "What spacecraft were in orbit in July 1992?" and "Where were Geotail, Cluster, and Polar on 2 June 2001?" These queries are linked back to the data search page. The VSPO interface provides many ways of looking for data based on terms used in a registry of resources using the SPASE Data Model that will be the standard for Heliophysics Virtual Observatories. VSPO itself is accessible via an API that allows other applications to use it as a Web Service; this has been implemented in one instance using the ViSBARD visualization program. The VSPO will become part of the Space Physics Data Facility, and will continue to expand its access to data. A challenge for all VOs will be to provide uniform access to data at the variable level, and we will be addressing this question in a number of ways.

  2. Community Lenses Revealing the Role of Sociocultural Environment on Physical Activity

    Belon, Ana Paula; Nieuwendyk, Laura M.; Vallianatos, Helen; Nykiforuk, Candace I. J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To identify perceptions of how sociocultural environment enabled and hindered physical activity (PA) participation. Design Community-based participatory research. Setting Two semirural and two urban communities located in Alberta, Canada. Participants Thirty-five people (74.3% females, 71.4% aged 25–64 years) across the four communities. Method PhotoVoice activities occurred over 3 months during the spring of 2009. Participants were asked to document perceived environmental attributes that might foster or inhibit PA in their community. Photographs and narratives were shared in one-on-one interviews. Line-by-line coding of the transcripts was independently conducted by two researchers using an inductive approach. Codes were arranged into themes and subthemes, which were then organized into the Analysis Grid for Environments Linked to Obesity (ANGELO) framework. Results Six main themes (accompanied by subthemes) emerged: sociocultural aesthetics, safety, social involvement, PA motivation, cultural ideas of recreation, and car culture. Representative quotes and photographs illustrate enablers and obstacles identified by participants. Conclusion This PhotoVoice study revealed how aspects of participants’ sociocultural environments shaped their decisions to be physically active. Providing more PA resources is only one step in the promotion of supportive environments. Strategies should also account for the beautification and maintenance of communities, increasing feelings of safety, enhancement of social support among community members, popularization of PA, and mitigating car culture, among others. PMID:25973966

  3. Conditions for building a community of practice in an advanced physics laboratory

    Irving, Paul W.; Sayre, Eleanor C.

    2014-06-01

    We use the theory of communities of practice and the concept of accountable disciplinary knowledge to describe how a learning community develops in the context of an upper-division physics laboratory course. The change in accountable disciplinary knowledge motivates students' enculturation into a community of practice. The enculturation process is facilitated by four specific structural features of the course and supported by a primary instructional choice. The four structural features are "paucity of instructor time," "all in a room together," "long and difficult experiments," and "same experiments at different times." The instructional choice is the encouragement of the sharing and development of knowledge and understanding by the instructor. The combination of the instructional choice and structural features promotes the development of the learning community in which students engage in authentic practices of a physicist. This results in a classroom community that can provide students with the opportunity to have an accelerated trajectory towards being a more central participant of the community of a practice of physicists. We support our claims with video-based observations of laboratory classroom interactions and individual, semistructured interviews with students about their laboratory experiences and physics identity.

  4. Community Lenses Revealing the Role of Sociocultural Environment on Physical Activity.

    Belon, Ana Paula; Nieuwendyk, Laura M; Vallianatos, Helen; Nykiforuk, Candace I J

    2016-01-01

    To identify perceptions of how sociocultural environment enabled and hindered physical activity (PA) participation. Community-based participatory research. Two semirural and two urban communities located in Alberta, Canada. Thirty-five people (74.3% females, 71.4% aged 25-64 years) across the four communities. PhotoVoice activities occurred over 3 months during the spring of 2009. Participants were asked to document perceived environmental attributes that might foster or inhibit PA in their community. Photographs and narratives were shared in one-on-one interviews. Line-by-line coding of the transcripts was independently conducted by two researchers using an inductive approach. Codes were arranged into themes and subthemes, which were then organized into the Analysis Grid for Environments Linked to Obesity (ANGELO) framework. Six main themes (accompanied by subthemes) emerged: sociocultural aesthetics, safety, social involvement, PA motivation, cultural ideas of recreation, and car culture. Representative quotes and photographs illustrate enablers and obstacles identified by participants. This PhotoVoice study revealed how aspects of participants' sociocultural environments shaped their decisions to be physically active. Providing more PA resources is only one step in the promotion of supportive environments. Strategies should also account for the beautification and maintenance of communities, increasing feelings of safety, enhancement of social support among community members, popularization of PA, and mitigating car culture, among others.

  5. Measuring physical and mental health using the SF-12: implications for community surveys of mental health.

    Windsor, Timothy D; Rodgers, Bryan; Butterworth, Peter; Anstey, Kaarin J; Jorm, Anthony F

    2006-09-01

    The effects of using different approaches to scoring the SF-12 summary scales of physical and mental health were examined with a view to informing the design and interpretation of community-based survey research. Data from a population-based study of 7485 participants in three cohorts aged 20-24, 40-44 and 60-64 years were used to examine relationships among measures of physical and mental health calculated from the same items using the SF-12 and RAND-12 approaches to scoring, and other measures of chronic physical conditions and psychological distress. A measure of physical health constructed using the RAND-12 scoring showed a monotonic negative association with psychological distress as measured by the Goldberg depression and anxiety scales. However, a non-monotonic association was evident in the relationship between SF-12 physical health scores and distress, with very high SF-12 physical health scores corresponding with high levels of distress. These relationships highlight difficulties in interpretation that can arise when using the SF-12 summary scales in some analytical contexts. It is recommended that community surveys that measure physical and mental functioning using the SF-12 items generate summary scores using the RAND-12 protocol in addition to the SF-12 approach. In general, researchers should be wary of using factor scores based on orthogonal rotation, which assumes that measures are uncorrelated, to represent constructs that have an actual association.

  6. SENSE OF COMMUNITY AND RESIDENTIAL SPACE: CONTEXTUALIZING NEW URBANISM WITHIN A BROADER THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

    Mohamad Kashef

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This study engages the planning and urban design literature as well as social theory to develop a nuanced understanding of issues related to neighborhood form and sense of community. The study analyzes the meaning of community from economic, social, and cultural perspectives. It contextualizes the New Urbanism use of physical design as a subtext for community within a broader theoretical context. The study revisits the New Urbanism design principle regarding the interface between the private and public realm and its relationship to the idea of place and social attachment. While questioning the relevance of the New Urbanism planning agenda to U.S. metropolitan formations, the study discussions underline the value of its design formula for the social life of residential neighborhoods. The multidisciplinary approach of this study unravels some of the confusion over sociospatial dialectics in general, and community and built environment in particular. It opens the door for further cross-disciplinary research aimed at understanding and potentially optimizing the relationship between people and their built environments.

  7. Municipal officials' perceived barriers to consideration of physical activity in community design decision making.

    Goins, Karin Valentine; Schneider, Kristin L; Brownson, Ross; Carnoske, Cheryl; Evenson, Kelly R; Eyler, Amy; Heinrich, Katie; Litt, Jill; Lyn, Rodney; Maddock, Jay; Reed, Hannah; Tompkins, Nancy Oʼhara; Lemon, Stephenie C

    2013-01-01

    Built environment-focused interventions and policies are recommended as sustainable approaches for promoting physical activity. Physical activity has not traditionally been considered in land use and transportation decision making. Effective collaboration with non-public health partners requires knowledge of their perceived barriers to such consideration. This analysis sought to (a) establish prevalence estimates of selected barriers to the consideration of physical activity in community design and layout decisions and (b) describe how barrier reporting by public health officials differs from other municipal officials among a wide range of job functions and departments in a geographically diverse sample. A Web-based survey was conducted among municipal officials in 94 cities and towns with populations of at least 50 000 residents in 8 states. A total of 453 municipal officials from public health, planning, transportation/public works, community and economic development, parks and recreation, city management, and municipal legislatures in 83 cities and towns responded to the survey. Five barriers to consideration of physical activity in community design and layout were assessed. The most common barriers included lack of political will (23.5%), limited staff (20.4%), and lack of collaboration across municipal departments (16.2%). Fewer participants reported opposition from the business community or residents as barriers. Public health department personnel were more likely to report the barriers of limited staff and lack of collaboration across municipal departments than other professionals. They were also more likely to report lack of political will than city managers or mayors and municipal legislators. Barriers to increasing consideration of physical activity in decision making about community design and layout are encouragingly low. Implications for public health practice include the need to strategically increase political will despite public health staffing

  8. Y2K+1: Technology, Community-College Students, the Millennium, and Stanley Kubrick's "2001: A Space Odyssey."

    Haspel, Paul

    2002-01-01

    Considers how screening Stanley Kubrick's "2001: A Space Odyssey" in a sophomore film class shows modern community-college students that millennial anxiety existed well before late 1999, the time of "Y2K" fears. Presents an assignment that examines "2001: A Space Odyssey" in the context of its time and in 2001. (SG)

  9. Impacts of a Temporary Urban Pop-Up Park on Physical Activity and Other Individual- and Community-Level Outcomes.

    Salvo, Deborah; Banda, Jorge A; Sheats, Jylana L; Winter, Sandra J; Lopes Dos Santos, Daniela; King, Abby C

    2017-08-01

    Physical inactivity is a known risk factor for obesity and a number of chronic diseases. Modifying the physical features of neighborhoods to provide residents with equitable and convenient access to spaces for physical activity (PA) is a promising strategy for promoting PA. Public urban recreation spaces (e.g., parks) play an important role in promoting PA and are potentially an important neighborhood element for optimizing social capital and liveability in cities. Most studies examining the effects of park availability and use on PA have focused on traditional, permanent parks. The aims of this study were to (1) document patterns of park use and park-based PA at a temporary urban pop-up park implemented in the downtown business district of Los Altos, California during July-August 2013 and May-June 2014, (2) identify factors associated with park-based PA in 2014, and (3) examine the effects of the 2014 pop-up park on additional outcomes of potential benefit for park users and the Los Altos community at large. Park use remained high during most hours of the day in 2013 and 2014. Although the park attracted a multigenerational group of users, children and adolescents were most likely to engage in walking or more vigorous PA at the park. Park presence was significantly associated with potentially beneficial changes in time-allocation patterns among users, including a reduction in screen-time and an increase in overall park-time and time spent outdoors. Park implementation resulted in notable use among people who would otherwise not be spending time at a park (85% of surveyed users would not be spending time at any other park if the pop-up park was not there-2014 data analysis). Our results (significantly higher odds of spending time in downtown Los Altos due to park presence) suggest that urban pop-up parks may also have broader community benefits, such as attracting people to visit downtown business districts. Pending larger, confirmatory studies, our results suggest

  10. The Effect of Online Collaboration on Adolescent Sense of Community in Eighth-Grade Physical Science

    Wendt, Jillian L.; Rockinson-Szapkiw, Amanda J.

    2015-10-01

    Using a quasi-experimental, nonequivalent pretest/posttest control group design, the researchers examined the effects of online collaborative learning on eighth-grade student's sense of community in a physical science class. For a 9-week period, students in the control group participated in collaborative activities in a face-to-face learning environment, whereas students in the experimental group participated in online collaborative activities using the Edmodo educational platform in a hybrid learning environment. Students completed the Classroom Community Scale survey as a pretest and posttest. Results indicated that the students who participated in the face-to-face classroom had higher overall sense of community and learning community than students who participated in collaborative activities in the online environment. Results and implications are discussed and suggestions for future research are provided.

  11. The impact of interventions to promote physical activity in urban green space

    Hunter, Ruth F; Christian, Hayley; Veitch, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    positive effect) to support built environment only interventions for encouraging use and increasing PA in urban green space. There was more promising evidence (3/3 studies showed positive effect) to support PAprograms or PA programs combined with a physical change to the built environment, for increasing...... in this area. Interventions that involve the use of PA programs combined with a physical change to the built environment are likely to have a positive effect on PA. Robust evaluations of such interventions are urgently required. The findings provide a platform to inform the design, implementation......Evidence is mounting on the association between the built environment and physical activity (PA) with a call for intervention research. A broader approach which recognizes the role of supportive environments that can make healthy choices easier is required. A systematic review was undertaken...

  12. Association between statin use and physical function among community-dwelling older Japanese adults.

    Kawai, Hisashi; Ihara, Kazushige; Kera, Takeshi; Hirano, Hirohiko; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Masashi; Kojima, Motonaga; Obuchi, Shuichi

    2018-04-01

    Statin-associated muscle symptoms (SAMS) are the muscle-related side-effects of statins, but the association between statin use and physical function among community-dwelling older adults is unclear. The objective of the present study was to examine the association between statin use and physical function among community-dwelling older Japanese adults by considering the risk factors of statin-associated muscle symptoms. The participants were 1022 community-dwelling older adults aged 65-88 years, who participated in comprehensive health checkups from 2013 to 2015. Statin use in the participants (381 men and 559 women) was verified by using data from their medicine notebooks. The differences between statin use (users and non-users) and physical functions (grip strength, knee extension torque, normal and maximum gait speed, Timed Up & Go test, one-legged stance, quadriceps muscle thickness and echo intensity) were analyzed using the t-test. Multiple regression analyses were also carried out to examine the association between statin use and physical function. A total of 93 men (24.4%) and 154 women (27.5%) were statin users. Grip strength, normal gait speed and one-legged stance declined significantly in statin users compared with the non-users. In multiple regression analysis while controlling for the risk factors of statin-associated muscle symptoms, including age, sex, body mass index and number of medicines, no independent association, between statin use and the reduction of physical functions, was observed. Statin use was not associated with the decline of physical function in community-dwelling older Japanese adults. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018; 18: 623-630. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  13. Community wildlife sites in Oxfordshire: an exploration of ecological and social meanings for green spaces

    Anna Lawrence

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the experiences and meanings that participants attribute to community wildlife sites, a new kind of space created through the initiative and commitment of local residents, often without any wider organisational involvement. The study focuses on six case studies in Oxfordshire, England. It is exploratory and discusses the findings as points of departure for further research. In all the sites, community was an important part of the motivation for starting the work, social relations a rewarding aspect of engaging in it, and personal connection with the site and its experiences of nature, a widely and emotionally expressed outcome. The sites offer spaces for the active enactment of participation in nature. While access is essential, property rights appear to be less important than the sense of ownership generated through interaction with the site. Likewise, formal organisation and governance is less important to the participants, than the social interactions of the group, and new friendships. The primary purpose in each case, is to give people more access to ‘the countryside’ or ‘nature’ or ‘orchids’. In doing so, however, the participants have given themselves experiences that are personally meaningful. There is potential for contribution to resilient landscapes through networks of habitats, and to wider social objectives of government policy, but these will have to be balanced carefully with the important of local initiative in contributing to the sites’ meanings.

  14. Designing flexible instructional space for teaching introductory physics with emphasis on inquiry and collaborative active learning

    Bykov, Tikhon

    2010-03-01

    In recent years McMurry University's introductory physics curriculum has gone through a series of significant changes to achieve better integration of traditional course components (lecture/lab/discussion) by means of instructional design and technology. A system of flexible curriculum modules with emphasis on inquiry-based teaching and collaborative active learning has been introduced. To unify module elements, a technology suite has been used that consists of Tablet PC's and software applications including Physlets, tablet-adapted personal response system, PASCO data acquisition systems, and MS One-note collaborative writing software. Adoption of the new teaching model resulted in reevaluation of existing instructional spaces. The new teaching space will be created during the renovation of the McMurry Science Building. This space will allow for easy transitions between lecture and laboratory modes. Movable partitions will be used to accommodate student groups of different sizes. The space will be supportive of small peer-group activities with easy-to-reconfigure furniture, multiple white and black board surfaces and multiple projection screens. The new space will be highly flexible to account for different teaching functions, different teaching modes and learning styles.

  15. Reinventing the Arcade: Computer Game Mediated Play Spaces for Physical Interaction

    A. M. Connor

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper suggests that recent developments in video game technology have occurred in parallel to play being moved from public into private spaces, which has had impact on the way people interact with games. The paper also argues and that there is potentially value in the creation of public play spaces to create opportunities to utilise both technology and body for the benefit of community culture and experiences through gaming. Co-located social gaming coupled with tangible interfaces offer alternative possibilities for the local video game scene. This paper includes a descriptive account of Rabble Room Arcade, an experimental social event combining custom-built tangible interface devices and multiplayer video games. The event was designed around games that promoted a return to simplicity through the use of unique tangible controllers to allow casual gamers to connect to the game and to each other, whilst also transforming the event into a spectacle.

  16. Opened athletic-educational space - the condition of professional development of future teacher of physical culture is needed

    Dragnev Y.V.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that the opening of the sports and educational space is determined by the whole space, where the interaction of the activity of the pedagogical university with different educational institutions on the basis of integration, continuity of the educational process, aimed at physical education, the development of children and young people take place. It is revealed the importance of awareness of such concepts as the world educational space, the international educational space, the European higher education area, European space of higher education and educational space of the CIS countries.

  17. Paying attention to working memory: Similarities in the spatial distribution of attention in mental and physical space.

    Sahan, Muhammet Ikbal; Verguts, Tom; Boehler, Carsten Nicolas; Pourtois, Gilles; Fias, Wim

    2016-08-01

    Selective attention is not limited to information that is physically present in the external world, but can also operate on mental representations in the internal world. However, it is not known whether the mechanisms of attentional selection operate in similar fashions in physical and mental space. We studied the spatial distributions of attention for items in physical and mental space by comparing how successfully distractors were rejected at varying distances from the attended location. The results indicated very similar distribution characteristics of spatial attention in physical and mental space. Specifically, we found that performance monotonically improved with increasing distractor distance relative to the attended location, suggesting that distractor confusability is particularly pronounced for nearby distractors, relative to distractors farther away. The present findings suggest that mental representations preserve their spatial configuration in working memory, and that similar mechanistic principles underlie selective attention in physical and in mental space.

  18. Spaces of hope? Youth perspectives on health and wellness in indigenous communities.

    Wood, Lydia; Kamper, David; Swanson, Kate

    2018-03-01

    This article addresses an apparent paradox between academic and policy depictions of American Indian reservations as "broken" and "unhealthy" places, and Indigenous youth perceptions of reservations as spaces of "health" and "wellness." Public health literature often frames reservations as damaged, health-denying places, chronicling the extraordinarily high rates of suicide, substance abuse, as well as vast health disparities. Despite these dire statistics, our research with Native youth in San Diego County found that young people chose to primarily emphasize their positive experiences with, and attachments to, their reservations. In this article, we share strength- and desire-based narratives to explore how reservations can serve as spaces of wellness for Indigenous youth, despite ongoing settler colonial harm. We seek to expand the discussion on the unintended consequences of deficit-centered scholarship by arguing that health research should also engage with the narratives of hope and desire that are reflective of the way many Native youth feel about their communities. In this article, we urge scholars and practitioners to rethink how we conduct health research to include methodologies that listen to the narratives and experiences of those who, day in and day out, navigate settler colonial landscapes, while continuing to create spaces of hope and healing. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Community Capacity Building for Physical Activity Promotion among Older Adults-A Literature Review.

    Ubert, Tobias; Forberger, Sarah; Gansefort, Dirk; Zeeb, Hajo; Brand, Tilman

    2017-09-13

    Community-based interventions to promote physical activity (PA) among older adults are of high interest in health promotion since they promise to be effective strategies to reach this population group. Community capacity building, that is, the local promotion of knowledge, skills, commitment, structures, and leadership, is among the recommended core strategies. However, little guidance is provided on how to achieve a high degree of community capacity. This study aims to identify practical strategies to enhance community capacities for PA promotion among older adults (50 years or older) and to evaluate their success. A literature review was conducted using scientific databases (PsycInfo and Web of Sciences) and grey literature (national and international project databases), and 14 studies (16 articles) were identified. Five groups of capacity building strategies emerged from the literature: (1) building community coalitions and networks, (2) training of professionals, (3) training of laypersons, (4) strengthening competence and awareness in the target population, and (5) allocation of financial resources. All studies used more than one strategy. Coalition building and strengthening competence and awareness were most frequently used. Feasibility and acceptability of the capacity building strategies were demonstrated. However, intervention effects on PA behavior and other relevant outcomes were inconsistent. The one study that systematically compared different capacity building approaches did not find any evidence for beneficial effects of intensified capacity building. More rigorous research evaluating the efficacy of specific strategies to enhance community capacities for PA promotion is needed.

  20. The association between physical activity and social isolation in community-dwelling older adults.

    Robins, Lauren M; Hill, Keith D; Finch, Caroline F; Clemson, Lindy; Haines, Terry

    2018-02-01

    Social isolation is an increasing concern in older community-dwelling adults. There is growing need to determine effective interventions addressing social isolation. This study aimed to determine whether a relationship exists between physical activity (recreational and/or household-based) and social isolation. An examination was conducted for whether group- or home-based falls prevention exercise was associated with social isolation. Cross-sectional analysis of telephone survey data was used to investigate relationships between physical activity, health, age, gender, living arrangements, ethnicity and participation in group- or home-based falls prevention exercise on social isolation. Univariable and multivariable ordered logistic regression analyses were conducted. Factors found to be significantly associated with reduced social isolation in multivariable analysis included living with a partner/spouse, reporting better general health, higher levels of household-based physical activity (OR = 1.03, CI = 1.01-1.05) and feeling less downhearted/depressed. Being more socially isolated was associated with symptoms of depression and a diagnosis of congestive heart failure (pseudo R 2 = 0.104). Findings suggest that household-based physical activity is related to social isolation in community-dwelling older adults. Further research is required to determine the nature of this relationship and to investigate the impact of group physical activity interventions on social isolation.

  1. Unique Programme of Indian Centre for Space Physics using large rubber Balloons

    Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar; Sarkar, Ritabrata; Bhowmick, Debashis; Chakraborty, Subhankar

    Indian Centre for Space Physics (ICSP) has developed a unique capability to pursue space based studies at a very low cost. Here, large rubber balloons are sent to near space (~ 40km) with payloads of less than 4kg weight. These payloads can be cosmic ray detectors, X-ray detectors, muon detectors apart from communication device, GPS, and nine degrees of freedom measuring capabilities. With two balloons in orbiter-launcher configuration, ICSP has been able to conduct long duration flights upto 12 hours. ICSP has so far sent 56 Dignity missions to near space and obtained Cosmic Ray and muon variation on a regular basis, dynamical spectrum of solar flares and gamma ray burst apart from other usual parameters such as wind velocity components, temperature and pressure variations etc. Since all the payloads are retrieved by parachutes, the cost per mission remains very low, typically around USD1000.00. The preparation time is low. Furthermore, no special launching area is required. In principle, such experiments can be conducted on a daily basis, if need be. Presently, we are also incorporating studies relating to earth system science such as Ozone, aerosols, micro-meteorites etc.

  2. UWALK: the development of a multi-strategy, community-wide physical activity program

    Jennings, Cally A.; Berry, Tanya R.; Carson, Valerie; Culos-Reed, S. Nicole; Duncan, Mitch J.; Loitz, Christina C.; McCormack, Gavin R.; McHugh, Tara-Leigh F.; Spence, John C.; Vallance, Jeff K.; Mummery, W. Kerry

    2016-01-01

    UWALK is a multi-strategy, multi-sector, theory-informed, community-wide approach using e and mHealth to promote physical activity in Alberta, Canada. The aim of UWALK is to promote physical activity, primarily via the accumulation of steps and flights of stairs, through a single over-arching brand. This paper describes the development of the UWALK program. A social ecological model and the social cognitive theory guided the development of key strategies, including the marketing and communica...

  3. How does mental-physical multimorbidity express itself in lived time and space? A phenomenological analysis of encounters with depression and chronic physical illness.

    Coventry, Peter A; Dickens, Chris; Todd, Chris

    2014-10-01

    Mental-physical multimorbidity (the co-existence of mental and physical ill health) is highly prevalent and associated with significant impairments and high healthcare costs. While the sociology of chronic illness has developed a mature discourse on coping with long term physical illness the impact of mental and physical health have remained analytically separated, highlighting the need for a better understanding of the day-to-day complexities encountered by people living with mental-physical multimorbidity. We used the phenomenological paradigm of the lived body to elucidate how the experience of mental-physical multimorbidity shapes people's lifeworlds. Nineteen people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and depression (defined as a score ≥8 on depression scale of Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) were recruited from secondary NHS care and interviewed at their homes. Data were analysed phenomenologically using van Manen's lifeworld existential framework of the lived body, lived time, lived space, lived relations. Additionally, we re-analysed data (using the same framework) collected from 13 people recruited from secondary NHS care with either COPD, rheumatoid arthritis, heart disease, or type 1 or type 2 diabetes and depression. The phenomenology of mental-physical multimorbidity was articulated through embodied and emotional encounters with day-to-day life in four ways: [a] participants' perception of lived time and lived space contracted; [b] time and [c] space were experienced as liminal categories, enforcing negative mood and temporal and spatial contraction; and [d] time and space could also be customised to reinstate agency and self-determination. Mental-physical multimorbidity negatively impacts on individuals' perceptions of lived time and lived space, leading to a loss of agency, heightened uncertainty, and poor well-being. Harnessing people's capacity to modify their experience of time and space may be a novel way to support people

  4. Estimating saturated hydraulic conductivity and air permeability from soil physical properties using state-space analysis

    Poulsen, Tjalfe; Møldrup, Per; Nielsen, Don

    2003-01-01

    and gaseous chemicals in the vadose zone. In this study, three modeling approaches were used to identify the dependence of saturated hydraulic conductivity (K-S) and air permeability at -100 cm H2O soil-water potential (k(a100)) on soil physical properties in undisturbed soil: (i) Multiple regression, (ii......) ARIMA (autoregressive integrated moving average) modeling, and (iii) State-space modeling. In addition to actual soil property values, ARIMA and state-space models account for effects of spatial correlation in soil properties. Measured data along two 70-m-long transects at a 20-year old constructed......Estimates of soil hydraulic conductivity (K) and air permeability (k(a)) at given soil-water potentials are often used as reference points in constitutive models for K and k(a) as functions of moisture content and are, therefore, a prerequisite for predicting migration of water, air, and dissolved...

  5. The coronas-F space mission key results for solar terrestrial physics

    2014-01-01

    This volume is the updated and extended translation of the Russian original. It presents the results of observations of solar activity and its effects in the Earth space environment carried out from July 2001 to December 2005 on board the CORONAS-F space mission. The general characteristics of the CORONAS-F scientific payload are provided with a description of the principal experiments. The main results focus on the global oscillations of the Sun (p-modes), solar corona, solar flares, solar cosmic rays, Earth’s radiation belts, and upper atmosphere. The book will be welcomed by students, post-graduates, and scientists working in the field of solar and solar-terrestrial physics. This English edition is supplemented by sections presenting new results of the SPIRIT and TESIS experiments under the CORONAS solar program, as well as from the SONG experiment onboard the CORONAS-F satellite.

  6. Physical interpretation and geometrical representation of constant curvature surfaces in Euclidean and pseudo-Euclidean spaces

    Catoni, Francesco; Cannata, Roberto; Zampetti, Paolo

    2005-08-01

    The Riemann and Lorentz constant curvature surfaces are investigated from an Euclidean point of view. The four surfaces (constant positive and constant negative curvatures with definite and non-definite fine elements) are represented as surfaces in a Riemannian or in a particular semi-Riemannian flat space and it is shown that the complex and the hyperbolic numbers allow to obtain the same equations for the corresponding Riemann and Lorentz surfaces, respectively. Moreover it is shown that the geodesics on the Lorentz surfaces states, from a physical point of view, a link between curvature and fields. This result is obtained just as a consequence of the space-time geometrical symmetry, without invoking the famous Einstein general relativity postulate [it

  7. New models to support the professional education of health visitors: A qualitative study of the role of space and place in creating 'community of learning hubs'.

    Donetto, Sara; Malone, Mary; Sayer, Lynn; Robert, Glenn

    2017-07-01

    In response to a policy-driven workforce expansion in England new models of preparing health visitors for practice have been implemented. 'Community of Learning hubs' (COLHs) are one such model, involving different possible approaches to student support in clinical practice placements (for example, 'long arm mentoring' or 'action learning set' sessions). Such models present opportunities for studying the possible effects of spatiality on the learning experiences of students and newly qualified health visitors, and on team relationships more broadly. To explore a 'community of learning hub' model in health visitor education and reflect on the role of space and place in the learning experience and professional identity development of student health visitors. Qualitative research conducted during first year of implementation. Three 'community of learning hub' projects based in two NHS community Trusts in London during the period 2013-2015. Managers and leads (n=7), practice teachers and mentors (n=6) and newly qualified and student health visitors (n=16). Semi-structured, audio-recorded interviews analysed thematically. Participants had differing views as to what constituted a 'hub' in their projects. Two themes emerged around the spaces that shape the learning experience of student and newly qualified health visitors. Firstly, a generalised need for a 'quiet place' which allows pause for reflection but also for sharing experiences and relieving common anxieties. Secondly, the role of physical arrangements in open-plan spaces to promote access to support from more experienced practitioners. Attention to spatiality can shed light on important aspects of teaching and learning practices, and on the professional identities these practices shape and support. New configurations of time and space as part of educational initiatives can surface new insights into existing practices and learning models. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Programme of Indian Centre for Space Physics using Very Low Frequency Radio Waves

    Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar; Sasmal, Sudipta; Pal, Sujay; Kanta Maji, Surya; Ray, Suman

    Indian Centre for Space Physics conducted two major VLF campaigns all over Indian Sub-continent to study the propagation effects of VLF radio waves. It made multi-receiver observations during solar eclipse. ICSP not only recorded multitudes of solar flares, it also reproduced VLF observation from ab initio calculation. ICSP extended its study to the field of earthquake predictions using signal anomalies and using case by case studies as well as statistical analysis, showed that anomalies are real and more studies are required to understand them. Using earth as a gigantic detector, it detected ionospheric perturbations due to soft gamma-ray repeaters and gamma-ray bursts.

  9. On knottings in the physical Hilbert space of LQG as given by the EPRL model

    Bahr, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    We consider the EPRL spin foam amplitude for arbitrary embedded two-complexes. Choosing a definition of the face- and edge amplitudes which lead to spin foam amplitudes invariant under trivial subdivisions, we investigate invariance properties of the amplitude under consistent deformations, which are deformations of the embedded two-complex where faces are allowed to pass through each other in a controlled way. Using this surprising invariance, we are able to show that the physical Hilbert space, as defined by the sum over all spin foams, contains no information about knotting classes of graphs anymore.

  10. Success Stories of Undergraduate Retention: A Pathways Study of Graduate Students in Solar and Space Physics

    Morrow, C. A.; Stoll, W.; Moldwin, M.; Gross, N. A.

    2012-12-01

    This presentation describes results from an NSF-funded study of the pathways students in solar and space physics have taken to arrive in graduate school. Our Pathways study has documented results from structured interviews conducted with graduate students attending two, week-long, NSF-sponsored scientific workshops during the summer of 2011. Our research team interviewed 48 solar and space physics students (29 males and 19 females currently in graduate programs at US institutions,) in small group settings regarding what attracted and retained them along their pathways leading to grad school. This presentation addresses what these students revealed about the attributes and influences that supported completion of their undergraduate experience and focused their aspirations toward graduate school. In advance of the interview process, we collected 125 on-line survey responses from students at the two workshops. This 20-item survey included questions about high school and undergraduate education, as well as about research and graduate experience. A subset of the 125 students who completed this on-line survey volunteered to be interviewed. Two types of interview data were collected from the 48 interviewees: 1) written answers to a pre-interview questionnaire; and 2) detailed notes taken by researchers during group interviews. On the pre-interview questionnaire, we posed the question: "How did you come to be a graduate student in your field?" Our findings to date are based on an analysis of responses to this question, cross correlated with the corresponding on-line survey data. Our analysis reveals the importance of early research experiences. About 80% of the students participating in the Pathways study cited formative undergraduate research experiences. Moreover, about 50% of participants reported undergraduate research experiences that were in the field of their current graduate studies. Graduate students interviewed frequently cited a childhood interest in science

  11. Optimization of professional preparation of future teacher of physical culture in informatively-educational space

    Dragnev Y. V.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available It is marked that reformation of higher education is an objective necessity. It is marked that the educational system of Ukraine answers the new requirements of informative society not fully. It is certain that optimization of professional education of future teacher of physical culture must be characterized the choice of the most favourable variant of terms and teaching facilities. It is set that transitions within the limits of one informative space have an influence on professional development of future teacher during his studies. The followings terms of optimization of professional education of teacher are selected: system use of active and interactive methods; bringing in to the advanced study; the increase of role is informative of communication technologies in an educational process. The concordance of maintenance of curriculum of education of teachers of physical culture with the programs of education of the European countries and standardization is recommended them within the limits of Ukraine.

  12. Supportive Environments for Physical Activity, Community Action and Policy in Eight EU Member States

    Ruetten, Alfred; Frahsa, Annika; Engbers, Luuk

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A multi-level theoretical framework of physical activity (PA) promotion that addresses supportive environments, PA behavior, community action and PA promoting policies is related to research and development in an international comparative study. METHODS: Most-different and most...... on the interplay of environment, PA behavior, community action and policies appears to be working across most different countries. Comprehensive systems of PA infrastructures are interlinked with relatively high levels of PA prevalence. These countries implement comprehensive national policies on PA promotion...... and show a positive perception of related local governments' engagement. Less comprehensive systems of infrastructures interplay with lower levels of PA prevalence, less community action and fewer policies. Differences between similar cases are linked to country-specific contexts. CONCLUSIONS: Framework...

  13. UWALK: the development of a multi-strategy, community-wide physical activity program.

    Jennings, Cally A; Berry, Tanya R; Carson, Valerie; Culos-Reed, S Nicole; Duncan, Mitch J; Loitz, Christina C; McCormack, Gavin R; McHugh, Tara-Leigh F; Spence, John C; Vallance, Jeff K; Mummery, W Kerry

    2017-03-01

    UWALK is a multi-strategy, multi-sector, theory-informed, community-wide approach using e and mHealth to promote physical activity in Alberta, Canada. The aim of UWALK is to promote physical activity, primarily via the accumulation of steps and flights of stairs, through a single over-arching brand. This paper describes the development of the UWALK program. A social ecological model and the social cognitive theory guided the development of key strategies, including the marketing and communication activities, establishing partnerships with key stakeholders, and e and mHealth programs. The program promotes the use of physical activity monitoring devices to self-monitor physical activity. This includes pedometers, electronic devices, and smartphone applications. In addition to entering physical activity data manually, the e and mHealth program provides the function for objective data to be automatically uploaded from select electronic devices (Fitbit®, Garmin and the smartphone application Moves) The RE-AIM framework is used to guide the evaluation of UWALK. Funding for the program commenced in February 2013. The UWALK brand was introduced on April 12, 2013 with the official launch, including the UWALK website on September 20, 2013. This paper describes the development and evaluation framework of a physical activity promotion program. This program has the potential for population level dissemination and uptake of an ecologically valid physical activity promotion program that is evidence-based and theoretically framed.

  14. Can a Community of Practice Improve Physical Therapists' Self-Perceived Practice in Developmental Coordination Disorder?

    Camden, Chantal; Rivard, Lisa M; Hurtubise, Karen; Héguy, Léa; Berbari, Jade

    2017-07-01

    Communities of practice (CoPs) are useful knowledge translation (KT) strategies, but little is known about their impact on physical therapists' self-perceived practice. The impact of a CoP on physical therapists' self-perceived practice was evaluated, and factors influencing changes in self-perceived knowledge, skills, and practice related to developmental coordination disorder (DCD) were explored. An explanatory sequential mixed-methods design was used, guided by the Theory of Reasoned Action and Theory of Planned Behavior. Physical therapists participated in a DCD physical therapist CoP, which included 2 full-day, face-to-face workshops, with access to a 5-month online forum between the workshops, and completed questionnaires at 3 time-points: before the first workshop, before accessing the online forum, and following the second workshop. Measures completed before and after the CoP included closed-ended questions providing global scores on therapists' self-perceived knowledge, skills, and practice. Physical therapists' sociodemographic characteristics, information-seeking style, use of the online forum, and behavioral change goals were also collected. Paired t-tests, ANCOVAs, and linear regression models were used to analyze the data. Forty-one physical therapists completed all questionnaires. Their self-perceived knowledge, skills, and practice change scores were significantly higher (+0.47, +1.23, and +2.61, respectively; P behavioral changes influence patient outcomes. © 2017 American Physical Therapy Association

  15. Reach and Effectiveness of an Integrated Community-Based Intervention on Physical Activity and Healthy Eating of Older Adults in a Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Community

    Luten, Karla A.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Dijkstra, Arie; de Winter, Andrea F.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the reach and effectiveness of an integrated community-based intervention designed to promote physical activity and healthy eating among older adults in a socioeconomically disadvantaged community in the Netherlands. The intervention was evaluated with a controlled pre-post quasi-experimental design, with 430…

  16. Reach and effectiveness of an integrated community-based intervention on physical activity and healthy eating of older adults in a socioeconomically disadvantaged community

    Luten, Karla A; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Dijkstra, Arie; de Winter, Andrea F

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the reach and effectiveness of an integrated community-based intervention designed to promote physical activity and healthy eating among older adults in a socioeconomically disadvantaged community in the Netherlands. The intervention was evaluated with a controlled

  17. The impact and process of a community-led intervention on reducing environmental inequalities related to physical activity and healthy eating - a pilot study

    Grogan Sarah C

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing recognition that a sedentary lifestyle is being driven, at least in part, by environmental factors that affect individuals' physical activity choices and health behaviours. In other words, the environments in which we live, and with which we interact, have become ones that encourage lifestyle choices that decrease physical activity and encourage over-consumption of foods. However, evidence from community-led interventions to change local neighbourhood environments to support physical activity and healthy eating is lacking. This article summarises the research protocol developed to evaluate a community-led intervention "My Health Matters" aimed at reducing health inequalities relating to increasing physical activity and healthy eating as defined by community members themselves. Methods/Design This study includes three of the most deprived electoral wards in Stoke-on-Trent. In each of these areas, environmental factors including proximity of physical activity spaces, greenspace and leisure facilities, neighbourhood connectivity and walkability, land-use-mix and population density, traffic, safety and crime, and food outlets will be mapped using Geographical Information Systems (GIS. A community postal survey of randomly selected addresses assessing environmental characteristics relating to physical activity, perceived health status, social capital, fruit and vegetable consumption and levels of physical activity will be undertaken (baseline and at 2 year follow-up. Based on baseline findings an intervention will be designed and implemented over a 2 year period that includes the following; use of community participatory research to build effective community partnerships; use of partnership consensus to identify, prioritise and design intervention(s related to specific health disparities; recruitment of local residents to help with the delivery and sustainability of target intervention(s; and the development of

  18. The impact and process of a community-led intervention on reducing environmental inequalities related to physical activity and healthy eating - a pilot study.

    Davey, Rachel C; Hurst, Gemma L; Smith, Graham R; Grogan, Sarah C; Kurth, Judy

    2011-09-12

    There is growing recognition that a sedentary lifestyle is being driven, at least in part, by environmental factors that affect individuals' physical activity choices and health behaviours. In other words, the environments in which we live, and with which we interact, have become ones that encourage lifestyle choices that decrease physical activity and encourage over-consumption of foods. However, evidence from community-led interventions to change local neighbourhood environments to support physical activity and healthy eating is lacking. This article summarises the research protocol developed to evaluate a community-led intervention "My Health Matters" aimed at reducing health inequalities relating to increasing physical activity and healthy eating as defined by community members themselves. This study includes three of the most deprived electoral wards in Stoke-on-Trent. In each of these areas, environmental factors including proximity of physical activity spaces, greenspace and leisure facilities, neighbourhood connectivity and walkability, land-use-mix and population density, traffic, safety and crime, and food outlets will be mapped using Geographical Information Systems (GIS). A community postal survey of randomly selected addresses assessing environmental characteristics relating to physical activity, perceived health status, social capital, fruit and vegetable consumption and levels of physical activity will be undertaken (baseline and at 2 year follow-up). Based on baseline findings an intervention will be designed and implemented over a 2 year period that includes the following; use of community participatory research to build effective community partnerships; use of partnership consensus to identify, prioritise and design intervention(s) related to specific health disparities; recruitment of local residents to help with the delivery and sustainability of target intervention(s); and the development of local systems for ongoing monitoring and evaluation

  19. Health-related physical fitness assessment in a community-based cancer rehabilitation setting.

    Kirkham, Amy A; Neil-Sztramko, Sarah E; Morgan, Joanne; Hodson, Sara; Weller, Sarah; McRae, Tasha; Campbell, Kristin L

    2015-09-01

    Assessment of physical fitness is important in order to set goals, appropriately prescribe exercise, and monitor change over time. This study aimed to determine the utility of a standardized physical fitness assessment for use in cancer-specific, community-based exercise programs. Tests anticipated to be feasible and suitable for a community setting and a wide range of ages and physical function were chosen to measure body composition, aerobic fitness, strength, flexibility, and balance. Cancer Exercise Trainers/Specialists at cancer-specific, community-based exercise programs assessed new clients (n = 60) at enrollment, designed individualized exercise programs, and then performed a re-assessment 3-6 months later (n = 34). Resting heart rate, blood pressure, body mass index, waist circumference, handgrip strength, chair stands, sit-and-reach, back scratch, single-leg standing, and timed up-and-go tests were considered suitable and feasible tests/measures, as they were performed in most (≥88 %) participants. The ability to capture change was also noted for resting blood pressure (-7/-5 mmHg, p = 0.02), chair stands (+4, p exercise program setting. However, a shorter treadmill protocol and more sensitive balance and upper body flexibility tests should be investigated.

  20. Improved physical fitness among older female participants in a nationally disseminated, community-based exercise program.

    Seguin, Rebecca A; Heidkamp-Young, Eleanor; Kuder, Julia; Nelson, Miriam E

    2012-04-01

    Strength training (ST) is an important health behavior for aging women; it helps maintain strength and function and reduces risk for chronic diseases. This study assessed change in physical fitness following participation in a ST program implemented and evaluated by community leaders. The StrongWomen Program is a nationally disseminated, research-based, community ST program active in 40 states. The Senior Fitness Test is used to assess upper and lower body strength, upper and lower body flexibility, aerobic fitness, and agility; data are collected prior to and following program participation. For these analyses, five states provided deidentified data for 367 female participants, mean age 63 (±11) years. Attendance in approximately 10 weeks of twice-weekly classes was 69.4%. Paired t tests were used to analyze pre-post change. Significant improvements were observed (p age-group and compared with published, age-based norms. This study demonstrates that it is feasible for community leaders to conduct pre-post physical fitness evaluations with participants and that participants experienced improvements across several important domains of physical fitness.

  1. Implementing a Nutrition and Physical Activity Curriculum in Head Start Through an Academic-Community Partnership.

    Zahnd, Whitney E; Smith, Tracey; Ryherd, Susan J; Cleer, Melissa; Rogers, Valerie; Steward, David E

    2017-06-01

    Schools may be an effective avenue for interventions that prevent childhood obesity. I am Moving I am Learning/Choosy Kids © (IMIL/CK) is a curriculum recommended by Head Start (HS) for education in nutrition, physical activity, and healthy lifestyle habits. We formed an academic-community partnership (ACP), the Springfield Collaborative for Active Child Health, to promote prevention of childhood obesity, in part, to implement the IMIL/CK curriculum in local HS sites. The ACP included a medical school, HS program, public school district, and state health department. Community-based participatory research principles helped identify and organize important implementation activities: community engagement, curriculum support, professional teacher training, and evaluation. IMIL/CK was piloted in 1 school then implemented in all local HS sites. All sites were engaged in IMIL/CK professional teacher training, classroom curriculum delivery, and child physical activity assessments. Local HS policy changed to include IMIL/CK in lesson plans and additional avenues of collaboration were initiated. Furthermore, improvements in physical activity and/or maintenance or improvement of healthy weight prevalence was seen in 4 of the 5 years evaluated. An ACP is an effective vehicle to implement and evaluate childhood obesity prevention programming in HS sites. © 2017, American School Health Association.

  2. Correlation indices physical space of soil and productivity of fruit tomato industry

    Danilo Gomes de Oliveira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available With mechanization at all stages of crop management, the soil began to receive a higher surface load, which causes changes in its physical properties with possible production impacts. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the variability and spatial correlation of the physical attributes of a Red Latosol with the productivity of industrial tomatoes. For this, a sample mesh was assembled using a global receiver positioning system (GPS, with 84 pairs of spaced apart 80 x 80 m points. After the mesh construction, samples in the 0.00-0.20 m layer were collected in the field to measure the physical attributes of the soil and plant data. The variables measured were: soil density (Ds, soil penetration resistance (PR, soil texture and tomato productivity. The values obtained were analyzed using geostatistics, and were classified according to the degree of spatial dependence. Then, using the ordinary kriging interpolation method and ordinary cokriging, the values for nonsampled sites were estimated, allowing the mapping of isovalues and the definition of management zones in the field. The spatial correlation of the physical attributes with the production components by the ordinary Cokriging method verified spatial correlation only between attributes (soil x soil density and sand content. The use of geostatistics and the construction of the maps by means of kriging and ordinary cokrigation allowed to identify different management zones, that is, the variability of soil attributes and productivity.

  3. Association between participation in social activity and physical fitness in community-dwelling older Japanese adults.

    Haeuchi, Yuka; Honda, Takanori; Chen, Tao; Narazaki, Kenji; Chen, Sanmei; Kumagai, Shuzo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to examine the relationship between participation in social activity and both, composite and individual measures of physical fitness in community-dwelling older adults.Methods This study was conducted using baseline data from the Sasaguri Genkimon Study (SGS), a longitudinal cohort study conducted in 2011. Participants were 1,365 community-dwelling men and women aged 65 years or above, who did not require certified nursing care and who resided in Sasaguri, a town located east of the Fukuoka metropolitan area. Participation in social activity was assessed by asking participants whether they engaged in any of eight social activities. Physical fitness tests assessed participants' handgrip strength and knee extension strength as measures of muscle strength, and their one-leg standing time, 5-m maximum gait speed, and 5-repetition sit-to-stand rate as measures of their physical performance. Multiple linear regression and logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the relationship between participation in social activity and each measure of physical fitness, adjusting for sex; age; body mass index; socioeconomic status; solitary living; exercise, habitual drinking and smoking; accelerometer-measured, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity; cognitive function; instrumental activities of daily living; distress; social network; and comorbidities.Results A total of 83.6% of the participants were engaged in at least one social activity. After adjusting for potential confounders, engagement in social activity was positively associated with a higher composite physical fitness score, faster gait speed and 5-repetition sit-to-stand rate, and longer one-leg standing time (P=0.008, P=0.030, P=0.034, and P=0.009, respectively).Conclusion Participation in social activity was significantly associated with physical fitness, specifically those related to locomotive function. These associations were independent of various confounders including

  4. News Teaching: The epiSTEMe project: KS3 maths and science improvement Field trip: Pupils learn physics in a stately home Conference: ShowPhysics welcomes fun in Europe Student numbers: Physics numbers increase in UK Tournament: Physics tournament travels to Singapore Particle physics: Hadron Collider sets new record Astronomy: Take your classroom into space Forthcoming Events

    2010-05-01

    Teaching: The epiSTEMe project: KS3 maths and science improvement Field trip: Pupils learn physics in a stately home Conference: ShowPhysics welcomes fun in Europe Student numbers: Physics numbers increase in UK Tournament: Physics tournament travels to Singapore Particle physics: Hadron Collider sets new record Astronomy: Take your classroom into space Forthcoming Events

  5. Some Thermodynamic Considerations on the Physical and Quantum Nature of Space and Time

    Sohrab, Siavash H.; Piltch, Nancy (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    It is suggested that the Planck h = m(sub k)c Lambda(sub k) and the Boltzmann k = m(sub k)c nu(sub k)Constants have stochastic foundation. It is further suggested that a body of fluid at equilibrium is composed of a spectrum of molecular clusters (energy levels) the size of which are governed by the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution function. Brownian motions are attributed to equilibrium between suspensions and molecular clusters. Atomic (molecular) transition between different size atomic- (molecular-) clusters (energy levels) is shown to result in emission/absorption of energy in accordance with Bohr's theory of atomic spectra. Physical space is identified as a tachyonic fluid that is Dirac's stochastic ether or de Broglie's hidden thermostat. Compressibility of physical space, in accordance with Planck's compressible ether, is shown to result in the Lorentz-Fitzgerald contraction, thus providing a causal explanation of relativistic effect in accordance with the perceptions of Poincare and Lorentz. The invariant Schrodinger equation is derived from the invariant Bernoulli equation for incompressible potential flow. Following Heisenberg a temporal uncertainty relation is introduced as Delta(nu(sub Beta)) Delta(Rho(sub Beta)) > = k.

  6. Translation of lifestyle modification programs focused on physical activity and dietary habits delivered in community settings.

    Stoutenberg, Mark; Stanzilis, Katie; Falcon, Ashley

    2015-06-01

    Lifestyle modification programs (LMPs) can provide individuals with behavioral skills to sustain long-term changes to their physical activity (PA) levels and dietary habits. Yet, there is much work to be done in the translation of these programs to community settings. This review identified LMPs that focused on changing both PA and dietary behaviors and examined common features and barriers faced in their translation to community settings. A search of multiple online databases was conducted to identify LMPs that included participants over the age of 18 who enrolled in LMPs, offered in community settings, and had the goal of improving both PA and dietary behaviors. Data were extracted on participant demographics, study design characteristics, and study outcome variables including changes in PA, dietary habits, body weight, and clinical outcomes. We identified 27 studies that met inclusion criteria. Despite high levels of retention and adherence to the interventions, varying levels of success were observed in increasing PA levels, improving dietary habits, reducing body weight, and improving clinic outcomes. LMPs addressing issues of PA and dietary habits can be successfully implemented in a community setting. However, inconsistent reporting of key components in the translation of these studies (participant recruitment, utilization of behavioral strategies) may limit their replication and advancement of future programs. Future efforts should better address issues such as identifying barriers to participation and program implementation, utilization of community resources, and evaluating changes across multiple health behaviors.

  7. Active living : the impact of renovating urban open spaces on increasing the level of physical activity among social groups

    Wiggers, Hiske; Shokoohi, Roya

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The provision of active parks/public open space is the key factor in promoting active living, because people and specially low-income and elderlies are being more interested in doing non-organized/informal, and no-cost sports/physical activities in outdoor spaces in recent decades

  8. Applications of Robust, Radiation Hard AlGaN Optoelectronic Devices in Space Exploration and High Energy Density Physics

    Sun, K.

    2011-05-04

    This slide show presents: space exploration applications; high energy density physics applications; UV LED and photodiode radiation hardness; UV LED and photodiode space qualification; UV LED AC charge management; and UV LED satellite payload instruments. A UV LED satellite will be launched 2nd half 2012.

  9. Comparison of adult physical activity levels in three Swiss alpine communities with varying access to motorized transportation.

    Dombois, Oliver Thommen; Braun-Fahrländer, Charlotte; Martin-Diener, Eva

    2007-09-01

    To compare physical activity levels of residents of three Swiss alpine communities with varying access to motorized transport and to investigate whether socio-demographic factors, the settlement structure or means of transport affect these levels. Between January and February 2004 a computer assisted telephone interview was conducted with 901 randomly selected adults aged 18 years or older living in three Swiss alpine communities. In particular, information on moderate and vigorous intensity physical activities and on transport behaviour was collected. Respondents were categorized as 'sufficiently active' or 'insufficiently active' according to self-reported physical activity. People living in community 1 without access to motorized traffic were significantly more likely to be sufficiently active (Sex- and age-adjusted prevalences of sufficient total physical activity, 43.9% 95% CI: 38.3%-49.8%) compared to individuals living in the other two communities (community 2: 35.9%, 95% CI: 30.6%-41.6%, community 3: 32.7%, 95% CI: 27.5%-38.3%). The differences were due to higher levels of moderate physical activities. Vigorous physical activity levels did not differ between the communities. Community differences were explained by passive means of transport to work and for leisure time activities. Although the environment encountered in the three alpine communities is generally conducive to physical activity the majority of the participants did not achieve recommended activity levels. Passive mode of transport to work and during leisure time was strongly associated with insufficient total physical activity. Walking and cycling for transportation is thus a promising approach to promote health enhancing physical activity.

  10. Job Satisfaction of a Physical Education Teacher as Seen by School Community

    Rutkowska Katarzyna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In A high level of satisfaction with a job influences the effectiveness and increases the quality of performed tasks. In the case of physical education teachers it is connected not only with a higher commitment to passing knowledge and skills but also with instilling passion in their students. The aim of the study was to analyse how school community perceives job satisfaction of physical education teachers. The research included 148 teachers and 171 students who were divided into three groups by means of random-purposive sampling. The groups were as follows: physical education teachers (n=22, teachers of other subjects (n=22 and students (n=22. The results obtained from these respondents (n=66 were subjected to further analysis. In the study a modified Polish version of the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS prepared by Juczyński (2001 was used. It made it possible to diagnose the job satisfaction of physical education teachers. The analyses revealed that the subjects assess the job satisfaction of a physical education teacher at an average or low level. This assessment showed significant differences between physical education teachers and teachers of other subjects. The study also revealed differences between groups with regard to two out of five scores in the SWLS.

  11. [Relationship between cognitive function and physical activities: a longitudinal study among community-dwelling elderly].

    Konagaya, Yoko; Watanabe, Tomoyuki; Ohta, Toshiki

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether physical activities reduce the risk of cognitive decline in community-dwelling elderly. We investigated correlations between cognitive functions at baseline and physical activities, correlations between cognitive functions at baseline and cognitive decline over 4 years, as well as correlations between physical activity at baseline and cognitive decline over 4 years. At baseline, 2,431 community-dwelling elderly completed the cognitive screening by telephone (TICS-J), and answered the questionnaires about physical activities. Of these, 1,040 subjects again completed the TICS-J over 4 years. Physical activities contained moving ability, walking frequency, walking speed, the exercise frequency. At baseline, 870 elderly (age 75.87±4.96 (mean±SD) years, duration of education 11.05±2.41) showed normal cognitive functions and 170 (79.19±6.22, 9.61±2.23) showed cognitive impairment. The total TICS-J score was significantly higher in cognitive normal subjects compared with that of cognitive impaired subjects (36.02±1.89, 30.19±2.25, respectively, p<0.001). Logistic regression analyses showed that moving ability significantly reduced the risk of cognitive impairment in an unadjusted model, and walking speed also reduced the risk of cognitive impairment at baseline even in an adjusted model. Cognitive function at baseline might be a predictor of cognitive function over 4 years. The longitudinal study revealed that walking speed and exercise frequency significantly correlate with maintenance of cognitive function over 4 years. This study provides that physical activities, especially walking speed have significant correlation with cognitive function.

  12. Astrophysics and particle physics in space with the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer

    Lamanna, G

    2003-01-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer is a high energy particle physics experiment in space scheduled to be installed on the International Space Station (ISS) by 2006 for a three-year mission. After a precursor flight of a prototype detector on board of the NASA Space Shuttle in June 1998, the construction of the detector in its final configuration is started and it will be completed by 2004. The purpose of this experiment is to provide a high statistics measurement of charged particles and nuclei in rigidity range 0.5 GV to few TV and to explore the high-energy (>1 GeV) gamma-ray sky. In this paper we describe the detector layout and present an overview of the main scientific goals both in the domain of astrophysics: cosmic- ray origin, age and propagation and the exploration of the most energetic gamma-ray sources; and in the domain of astroparticle: the antimatter and the dark matter searches. (53 refs).

  13. An Interdisciplinary Undergraduate Space Physics Course: Understanding the Process of Science Through One Field's Colorful History

    Lopez, Ramon E.

    1996-01-01

    Science education in this country is in its greatest period of ferment since the post-Sputnik frenzy a generation ago. In that earlier time, however, educators' emphasis was on producing more scientists and engineers. Today we recognize that all Americans need a good science background. The ability to observe, measure, think quantitatively, and reach logical conclusions based on available evidence is a set of skills that everyone entering the workforce needs to acquire if our country is to be competitive in a global economy. Moreover, as public policy increasingly crystallizes around scientific issues, it is critical that citizens be educated in science so that they may provide informed debate and on these issues. In order to develop this idea more fully, I proposed to teach a historically based course about space physics as an honors course at the University of Maryland-College Park (UMCP). The honors program at UMCP was established to foster broad-based undergraduate courses that utilize innovative teaching techniques to provide exemplary education to a select group of students. I designed an introductory course that would have four basic goals: to acquaint students with geomagnetic and auroral phenomena and their relationship to the space environment; to examine issues related to the history of science using the evolution of the field as an example; to develop familiarity with basic skills such as describing and interpreting observations, analyzing scientific papers, and communicating the results of their own research; and to provide some understanding of basic physics, especially those aspect that play a role in the near-earth space environment.

  14. News Conference: Physics brings the community together Training: CERN trains physics teachers Education: World conference fosters physics collaborations Lecture: Physics education live at ASE Prize: Physics teacher wins first Moore medal Festival: European presidents patronize Science on Stage festival Videoconference: Videoconference brings Durban closer to the classroom

    2012-03-01

    Conference: Physics brings the community together Training: CERN trains physics teachers Education: World conference fosters physics collaborations Lecture: Physics education live at ASE Prize: Physics teacher wins first Moore medal Festival: European presidents patronize Science on Stage festival Videoconference: Videoconference brings Durban closer to the classroom

  15. Designed to deter. Community barriers to physical activity for people with visual or motor impairments.

    Kirchner, Corinne E; Gerber, Elaine G; Smith, Brooke C

    2008-04-01

    People with disabilities are more likely to be obese, in poor health, and get less physical activity than the general population. However, research on community factors for physical activity has generally either excluded most people with disabilities, or overlooked relevant factors of community accessibility. This exploratory study investigated environmental factors affecting people with motor impairments and people with visual impairments in urban neighborhoods. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used with a nonrandom sample (n=134) of users of four types of assistive mobility technologies: guide dogs, long canes, and motorized and manual wheelchairs. From July 2005 to August 2006, the sample participated in two telephone surveys. Between the surveys, a stratified random subsample (n =32) engaged in an ethnographic phase of observation and interviews. Most participants in all groups using assistive mobility technologies rated their neighborhoods as accessible, although they also reported many specific barriers. Users of assistive mobility technologies differed in the amount of reported physical activity and on specific barriers. Problems with sidewalk pavement and puddles/poor drainage were the most frequently mentioned environmental barriers, by 90% and 80%, respectively. Users of assistive mobility technologies were more similar on main strategies for dealing with barriers. All groups reported having to plan routes for outings, to alter planned routes, to go more slowly than planned, or to wait for a different time. Despite legislative requirements for accommodation, people with disabilities face barriers to physical activity, both in the built and social environments. Determined people with disabilities were able to overcome barriers, but required additional expenditure of resources to do so. Community design that can include people with disabilities requires detailed understanding of barriers specific both to types of impairments and to different types

  16. Physical disturbance to ecological niches created by soil structure alters community composition of methanotrophs.

    Kumaresan, Deepak; Stralis-Pavese, Nancy; Abell, Guy C J; Bodrossy, Levente; Murrell, J Colin

    2011-10-01

    Aggregates of different sizes and stability in soil create a composite of ecological niches differing in terms of physico-chemical and structural characteristics. The aim of this study was to identify, using DNA-SIP and mRNA-based microarray analysis, whether shifts in activity and community composition of methanotrophs occur when ecological niches created by soil structure are physically perturbed. Landfill cover soil was subject to three treatments termed: 'control' (minimal structural disruption), 'sieved' (sieved soil using 2 mm mesh) and 'ground' (grinding using mortar and pestle). 'Sieved' and 'ground' soil treatments exhibited higher methane oxidation potentials compared with the 'control' soil treatment. Analysis of the active community composition revealed an effect of physical disruption on active methanotrophs. Type I methanotrophs were the most active methanotrophs in 'sieved' and 'ground' soil treatments, whereas both Type I and Type II methanotrophs were active in the 'control' soil treatment. The result emphasize that changes to a particular ecological niche may not result in an immediate change to the active bacterial composition and change in composition will depend on the ability of the bacterial communities to respond to the perturbation. © 2011 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. A local-community-level, physically-based model of end-use energy consumption by Australian housing stock

    Ren Zhengen; Paevere, Phillip; McNamara, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    We developed a physics based bottom-up model to estimate annual housing stock energy consumption at a local community level (Census Collection District—CCD) with an hourly resolution. Total energy consumption, including space heating and cooling, water heating, lighting and other household appliances, was simulated by considering building construction and materials, equipment and appliances, local climates and occupancy patterns. The model was used to analyse energy use by private dwellings in more than five thousand CCDs in the state of New South Wales (NSW), Australia. The predicted results focus on electricity consumption (natural gas and other fuel sources were excluded as the data are not available) and track the actual electricity consumption at CCD level with an error of 9.2% when summed to state level. For NSW and Victoria 2006, the predicted state electricity consumption is close to the published model (within 6%) and statistical data (within 10%). A key feature of the model is that it can be used to predict hourly electricity consumption and peak demand at fine geographic scales, which is important for grid planning and designing local energy efficiency or demand response strategies. - Highlights: ► We developed a physics-based model to estimate housing stock energy consumption. ► House type and vintage, family type and occupancy time were considered. ► The model results are close to actual energy consumption at local community level. ► Its’ results agree well with the published model and statistical data at state level. ► It shows the model could provide from hourly to annual residential energy consumption.

  18. A prehabilitation program for physically frail community-living older persons.

    Gill, Thomas M; Baker, Dorothy I; Gottschalk, Margaret; Gahbauer, Evelyne A; Charpentier, Peter A; de Regt, Paul T; Wallace, Sarah J

    2003-03-01

    To describe the development and implementation of a preventive, home-based physical therapy program (PREHAB) and to provide evidence for the safety and interrater reliability of the PREHAB protocol. Demonstration study. General community. Ninety-four physically frail, community-living persons, aged 75 years or older, who were randomized to the PREHAB program in a clinical trial. The PREHAB program built on the physical therapy component of 2 previous home-based protocols. A total of 223 assessment items were linked to 28 possible interventions, including progressive balance and conditioning exercises, by using detailed algorithms and decisions rules that were automated on notebook computers. The percentages of participants who were eligible for and who completed each intervention, the extent of progress noted in the balance and conditioning exercises, adherence to the training program, and adverse events. Participants who completed the PREHAB program and those who ended it prematurely received an average of 9.7 and 7.2 interventions during an average of 14.9 and 9.5 home visits, respectively. With few exceptions, the completion rate and interrater reliability for the specific interventions were high. Despite high self-reported adherence to the training program, the majority of participants did not advance beyond the initial Thera-Band level for the upper- and lower-extremity conditioning exercises, and only about a third advanced to the highest 2 levels of the balance exercises. Adverse events were no more common in the PREHAB group than in the educational control group. Our results support the feasibility and safety of the PREHAB program, but also show the special challenges and pitfalls of such a strategy when it is implemented among persons of advanced age and physical frailty. Copyright 2003 by the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine and the American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

  19. Crosswalking near-Earth and space physics ontologies in SPASE and ESPAS

    Galkin, I. A.; Fung, S. F.; Benson, R. F.; Heynderickx, D.; Ritschel, B.; King, T. A.; Roberts, D. A.; Hapgood, M. A.; Belehaki, A.

    2015-12-01

    In order to support scientific discoveries in Heliophysics (HP), with modern data systems, the HP Data Centers actively pursue harmonization of available metadata that allows crossing boundaries between existing data models, conventions, and resource interfaces. The discoverability of HP observations is improved when associated metadata describes their physical content in agreed terms as a part of the resource registration. One of the great challenges of enabling such content-targeted data search capability is the harmonization of domain ontology across data providers. Ontologies are the cornerstones of the content-aware data systems: they define an agreed vocabulary of keywords that capture the essence of domain-specific concepts and their relationships. With the introduction of the Virtual Wave Observatory (VWO), as part of NASA's Virtual System Observatory in 2008, the task of formulating the HP ontology became yet more complicated. Definitions of the wave domain concepts required several layers of specifications that described the generation, propagation, and interaction of the waves with the underlying medium in addition to the observation itself. Simple keyword lists could not provide a sufficiently information-rich description, given the complexity of the wave domain, and the development of a more powerful schema was required. The ontology research at the VWO eventually resulted in a suitable multi-hierarchical design that found its first implementation in 2015 at one of the European space physics data repositories, the near-Earth Space Data Infrastructure for e-Science (ESPAS). Similar to many other European geoscience projects, ESPAS is based on the ISO 19156 Observation and Measurements standard. In cooperation with the NASA VWO, the ESPAS project has deployed a space physics ontology design for all data registration purposes. The VWO science team is now uniquely positioned to establish a crosswalk between the ESPAS ontology based on ISO 19156 and the VWO

  20. Principle of minimum distance in space of states as new principle in quantum physics

    Ion, D. B.; Ion, M. L. D.

    2007-01-01

    The mathematician Leonhard Euler (1707-1783) appears to have been a philosophical optimist having written: 'Since the fabric of universe is the most perfect and is the work of the most wise Creator, nothing whatsoever take place in this universe in which some relation of maximum or minimum does not appear. Wherefore, there is absolutely no doubt that every effect in universe can be explained as satisfactory from final causes themselves the aid of the method of Maxima and Minima, as can from the effective causes'. Having in mind this kind of optimism in the papers mentioned in this work we introduced and investigated the possibility to construct a predictive analytic theory of the elementary particle interaction based on the principle of minimum distance in the space of quantum states (PMD-SQS). So, choosing the partial transition amplitudes as the system variational variables and the distance in the space of the quantum states as a measure of the system effectiveness, we obtained the results presented in this paper. These results proved that the principle of minimum distance in space of quantum states (PMD-SQS) can be chosen as variational principle by which we can find the analytic expressions of the partial transition amplitudes. In this paper we present a description of hadron-hadron scattering via principle of minimum distance PMD-SQS when the distance in space of states is minimized with two directional constraints: dσ/dΩ(±1) = fixed. Then by using the available experimental (pion-nucleon and kaon-nucleon) phase shifts we obtained not only consistent experimental tests of the PMD-SQS optimality, but also strong experimental evidences for new principles in hadronic physics such as: Principle of nonextensivity conjugation via the Riesz-Thorin relation (1/2p + 1/2q = 1) and a new Principle of limited uncertainty in nonextensive quantum physics. The strong experimental evidence obtained here for the nonextensive statistical behavior of the [J,

  1. Physical structure and algae community of summer upwelling off eastern Hainan

    Xu, H.; Liu, S.; Xie, Q.; Hong, B.; Long, T.

    2017-12-01

    The upwelling system is the most productive ecosystem along the continental shelf of the northern South China Sea Shelf. It brings nutrient from bottom to surface and blooms biotic community driven by summer monsoon. In this study, we present observed results of physical and biotic community structures during August, 2015 in the upwelling system along Hainan eastern coast, which is one the strongest upwelling systems in the northern South China Sea. By using hydrological data collected by CTD, we found a significant cold water tongue with high salinity which extended from offshore to 100 m isobaths. However, dissolved oxygen (DO) showed a sandwich structure in which high core of DO concentration appeared at the layer from 5 m to 30 m. It possibly was caused by the advection transport of high DO from adjacent area. Basically, this upwelling system was constrained at northern area of 18.8ºN in horizontal due to the weakening summer monsoon in August. In addition, we collected water sample at the upwelling area and measured algae categories and concentration by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results show the biotic community was dominated by five types of algae mainly, they were diatoms, dinoflagellates, green algae, prokaryotes and prochlorococcus. And different patterns of different algae were demonstrated. In the upwelling area, diatoms and prokaryotes show opposite structures, and more complex pattern for the rest three algae indicating an active biotic community in the upwelling system.

  2. Psychological well-being of adolescents with physical disabilities in Zimbabwean inclusive community settings: An exploratory study

    Jabulani Mpofu

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion: The findings of this study should enable inclusive communities’ policy-makers and researchers to better understand the psychological well-being of adolescents with physical disabilities living in inclusive communities.

  3. Analysis of the effectiveness of physical rehabilitation according spirographic indicators in community-acquired pneumonia during convalescence

    Y. S. Kalmykova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : to make a program of physical rehabilitation for convalescents after community-acquired pneumonia, promotes normalization of respiratory function. The objectives of the study was to evaluate the dynamics spirographic indicators during convalescence community-acquired pneumonia. Material: the study involved 28 women aged 19 to 24 years with a diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia after convalescent. Results: the positive influence of physiotherapy based dance aerobics; morning hygienic gymnastics; therapeutic massage and physical therapy on indicators of lung volumes, ventilation and bronchial patency according spirographic research. Conclusion: in community-acquired pneumonia during the convalescence period recommended physical rehabilitation, which includes curative gymnastics based on dance aerobics, morning hygienic gymnastics, massage therapy, physiotherapy. It improves the functionality of the cardiorespiratory system, nonspecific immunity and overall physical performance level.

  4. Oral Frailty as a Risk Factor for Physical Frailty and Mortality in Community-Dwelling Elderly.

    Tanaka, Tomoki; Takahashi, Kyo; Hirano, Hirohiko; Kikutani, Takeshi; Watanabe, Yutaka; Ohara, Yuki; Furuya, Hiroyasu; Tsuji, Tetsuo; Akishita, Masahiro; Iijima, Katsuya

    2017-11-17

    Oral health is important for maintaining general health among the elderly. However, a longitudinal association between poor oral health and general health has not been reported. We investigated whether poor oral status can predict physical weakening (physical frailty, sarcopenia, subsequent disability) and identified the longitudinal impact of the accumulated poor oral health (i.e., oral frailty) on adverse health outcomes, including mortality. A total of 2,011 elderly individuals (aged ≥65 years) participated in the baseline survey of the Kashiwa study in 2012. At baseline, 16 oral status measures and covariates such as demographic characteristics were assessed. As outcomes, physical frailty and sarcopenia were assessed at baseline and at follow-up in 2013 and 2014. Physical independence and survival were assessed from 2012 to 2016 at the time of long-term care certification and time of death. Poor oral status as determined by the number of natural teeth, chewing ability, articulatory oral motor skill, tongue pressure, and subjective difficulties in eating and swallowing significantly predicted future physical weakening (new-onsets of physical frailty, sarcopenia, and disability). Oral frailty was defined as co-existing poor status in ≥3 of the 6 measures. Sixteen percent of participants had oral frailty at baseline, which was significantly associated with 2.4-, 2.2-, 2.3-, and 2.2-fold increased risk of physical frailty, sarcopenia, disability, and mortality, respectively. Accumulated poor oral status strongly predicted the onset of adverse health outcomes, including mortality among the community-dwelling elderly. Prevention of oral frailty at an earlier stage is essential for healthy aging. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. The Learning Exchange: A Shared Space for the University of British Columbia and Vancouver's Downtown Eastside Communities

    Towle, Angela; Leahy, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    The Learning Exchange was established by the University of British Columbia (UBC) in 1999 in Vancouver's Downtown Eastside (DTES). The challenge has been to create a shared space for learning exchanges between two very different communities: a research-intensive university and an inner city area most commonly depicted as a place of hopelessness.…

  6. Talk in Blended-Space Speech Communities: An Exploration of Discursive Practices of a Professional Development Group

    Garvin, Tabitha Ann

    2011-01-01

    This study is an exploration of alternative teacher professional development. While using symbolic interactionism for a research lens, it characterizes the discursive practices commonly found in formal, informal, and blended-space speech communities based on the talk within a leadership-development program comprised of five female, church-based…

  7. Evaluation of Nutrition and Physical Activity Policies and Practices in Child Care Centers within Rural Communities.

    Foster, Jaime S; Contreras, Dawn; Gold, Abby; Keim, Ann; Oscarson, Renee; Peters, Paula; Procter, Sandra; Remig, Valentina; Smathers, Carol; Mobley, Amy R

    2015-10-01

    Although some researchers have examined nutrition and physical activity policies within urban child care centers, little is known about the potentially unique needs of rural communities. Child care centers serving preschool children located within low-income rural communities (n = 29) from seven states (Indiana, Kansas, Michigan, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin) were assessed to determine current nutrition and physical activity (PA) practices and policies. As part of a large-scale childhood obesity prevention project, the Community Healthy Living Index's previously validated Early Childhood Program Assessment Tool was used to collect data. Descriptive statistical analysis was conducted to identify high-priority areas. Healthy People 2020 and the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics' recommendations for nutrition and PA policies in child care centers were used as benchmarks. Reports of not fully implementing (nutrition-related policies or practices within rural early child care centers were identified. Centers not consistently serving a variety of fruits (48%), vegetables (45%), whole grains (41%), limiting saturated fat intake (31%), implementing healthy celebration guidelines (41%), involving children in mealtime (62%), and referring families to nutrition assistance programs (24%) were identified. More than one third of centers also had limited structured PA opportunities. Although eligible, only 48% of the centers participated in the Child and Adult Care Food Program. Overall, centers lacked parental outreach, staff training, and funding/resources to support nutrition and PA. These results provide insight into where child care centers within low-income, rural communities may need assistance to help prevent childhood obesity.

  8. METRIC: A Dedicated Earth-Orbiting Spacecraft for Investigating Gravitational Physics and the Space Environment

    Roberto Peron

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A dedicated mission in low Earth orbit is proposed to test predictions of gravitational interaction theories and to directly measure the atmospheric density in a relevant altitude range, as well as to provide a metrological platform able to tie different space geodesy techniques. The concept foresees a small spacecraft to be placed in a dawn-dusk eccentric orbit between 450 and 1200 km of altitude. The spacecraft will be tracked from the ground with high precision, and a three-axis accelerometer package on-board will measure the non-gravitational accelerations acting on its surface. Estimates of parameters related to fundamental physics and geophysics should be obtained by a precise orbit determination, while the accelerometer data will be instrumental in constraining the atmospheric density. Along with the mission scientific objectives, a conceptual configuration is described together with an analysis of the dynamical environment experienced by the spacecraft and the accelerometer.

  9. Modern Physics in High School: Space time in Einstein’s comic strips

    Francisco Caruso

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A   brief   summary   of   the  impact  of   Einstein's   contribution  concerning  concepts  like  space,  time,  simultaneity,  mass  and  energy is presented. Some of the main purposes of an education project through comics are sketched. The present work is inserted in this project and it shows a set of seven original comic strips which can be used by High School teachers to talk about one of Einstein’s  revolutionary  contributions  to  Modern  Physics:  Relativity.

  10. Target population's requirements on a community-based intervention for stimulating physical activity in hard-to-reach physically disabled people: an interview study.

    Krops, Leonie A; Folkertsma, Nienke; Hols, Doortje H J; Geertzen, Jan H B; Dijkstra, Pieter U; Dekker, Rienk

    2018-05-31

    To explore ideas of the target population about a community-based intervention to stimulate physical activity in hard-to-reach physically disabled people. Semi-structured interviews were performed with 21 physically disabled people, and analyzed using thematic analyses. Findings were interpreted using the integrated Physical Activity for People with a Disability and Intervention Mapping model. The intervention should aim to stimulate intrinsic motivation and raise awareness for the health effects of physical activity. It should provide diverse activities, increase visibility of these activities, and improve image of physical activity for physically disabled people. Participants suggested to provide individual coaching sessions, increase marketing, present role models, and assign buddies. Potential users should be approached personally through intermediate organizations, or via social media and word of mouth promotion. Participants suggested that users, government, sponsors, and health insurers should finance the intervention. Self-responsibility for being physically active was strongly emphasized by participants. An intervention to stimulate physical activity in hard-to-reach physically disabled people should be individualized, include personal support, and should include marketing to improve image of physical activity of physically disabled people. The intervention that fulfills these requirements should be developed and tested for effects in future research. Implications for rehabilitation An intervention to stimulate physical activity in physically disabled people should aim to raise awareness for the health effects of physical activity, stimulate intrinsic motivation, offer diverse activities, increase the visibility of the possible activities, and improve the image of physical activity for physically disabled people. An intervention should include both individual- and environmental-level intervention methods. Physically disabled people most emphasized

  11. Toward a community ecology of landscapes: predicting multiple predator-prey interactions across geographic space.

    Schmitz, Oswald J; Miller, Jennifer R B; Trainor, Anne M; Abrahms, Briana

    2017-09-01

    Community ecology was traditionally an integrative science devoted to studying interactions between species and their abiotic environments in order to predict species' geographic distributions and abundances. Yet for philosophical and methodological reasons, it has become divided into two enterprises: one devoted to local experimentation on species interactions to predict community dynamics; the other devoted to statistical analyses of abiotic and biotic information to describe geographic distribution. Our goal here is to instigate thinking about ways to reconnect the two enterprises and thereby return to a tradition to do integrative science. We focus specifically on the community ecology of predators and prey, which is ripe for integration. This is because there is active, simultaneous interest in experimentally resolving the nature and strength of predator-prey interactions as well as explaining patterns across landscapes and seascapes. We begin by describing a conceptual theory rooted in classical analyses of non-spatial food web modules used to predict species interactions. We show how such modules can be extended to consideration of spatial context using the concept of habitat domain. Habitat domain describes the spatial extent of habitat space that predators and prey use while foraging, which differs from home range, the spatial extent used by an animal to meet all of its daily needs. This conceptual theory can be used to predict how different spatial relations of predators and prey could lead to different emergent multiple predator-prey interactions such as whether predator consumptive or non-consumptive effects should dominate, and whether intraguild predation, predator interference or predator complementarity are expected. We then review the literature on studies of large predator-prey interactions that make conclusions about the nature of multiple predator-prey interactions. This analysis reveals that while many studies provide sufficient information

  12. BOOK REVIEW: Introduction to Plasma Physics: With Space and Laboratory Applications

    Browning, P. K.

    2005-07-01

    A new textbook on plasma physics must be very welcome, as this will encourage the teaching of courses on the subject. This book is written by two experts in their fields, and is aimed at advanced undergraduate and postgraduate courses. There are of course many other plasma physics textbooks available. The niche which this particular book fills is really defined by its subtitle: that is, `with space and laboratory applications'. This differs from most other books which tend to emphasise either space or fusion applications (but not both) or to concentrate only on general theory. Essentially, the emphasis here is on fundamental plasma physics theory, but applications are given from time to time. For example, after developing Alfvén wave theory, observations of Alfvén waves in the solar wind and in the Jovian magnetosphere are presented; whilst ion acoustic cylcotron waves are illustrated by data from a laboratory Q machine. It is fair to say that examples from space seem to predominate. Nevertheless, the approach of including a broad range of applications is very good from an educational point of view, and this should help to train a generation of students with a grasp of fundamental plasma physics who can work in a variety of research fields. The subject coverage of the book is fairly conventional and there are no great surprises. It begins, inevitably, with a discussion of plasma parameters (Debye length etc) and of single particle motions. Both kinetic theory and magnetohydrodynamics are introduced. Waves are quite extensively discussed in several chapters, including both cold and hot plasmas, magnetised and unmagnetised. Nonlinear effects—a large subject!—are briefly discussed. A final chapter deals with collisions in fully ionised plasmas. The choice of contents of a textbook is always something of a matter of personal choice. It is easy to complain about what has been left out, and everyone has their own favourite topics. With that caveat, I would question

  13. Physics education of Japanese national colleges of technology in local community of Hokkaido

    Kushino, Akihiro; Matsui, Hidenori

    2014-03-01

    The national colleges of technology in Japan, called KOSEN, were established about 50 years ago aiming to educate 15 to 20 years old students to become engineers who were necessary in period of high economic growth of Japan. In present, environment surrounding us has changed. Examples are low birth rate in Japan and the great earthquake in Tohoku area. There are 4 KOSENs in Hokkaido and we jointly make many efforts to contribute to local community in science. We present our efforts in physics education.

  14. Impact of a Community-Based Prevention Marketing Intervention to Promote Physical Activity among Middle-Aged Women

    Sharpe, Patricia A.; Burroughs, Ericka L.; Granner, Michelle L.; Wilcox, Sara; Hutto, Brent E.; Bryant, Carol A.; Peck, Lara; Pekuri, Linda

    2010-01-01

    A physical activity intervention applied principles of community-based participatory research, the community-based prevention marketing framework, and social cognitive theory. A nonrandomized design included women ages 35 to 54 in the southeastern United States. Women (n = 430 preprogram, n = 217 postprogram) enrolled in a 24-week behavioral…

  15. Physical activity as a possible mechanism behind the relationship between green space and health: A multilevel analysis

    Spreeuwenberg Peter

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate whether physical activity (in general, and more specifically, walking and cycling during leisure time and for commuting purposes, sports and gardening is an underlying mechanism in the relationship between the amount of green space in people's direct living environment and self-perceived health. To study this, we first investigated whether the amount of green space in the living environment is related to the level of physical activity. When an association between green space and physical activity was found, we analysed whether this could explain the relationship between green space and health. Methods The study includes 4.899 Dutch people who were interviewed about physical activity, self-perceived health and demographic and socioeconomic background. The amount of green space within a one-kilometre and a three-kilometre radius around the postal code coordinates was calculated for each individual. Multivariate multilevel analyses and multilevel logistic regression analyses were performed at two levels and with controls for socio-demographic characteristics and urbanicity. Results No relationship was found between the amount of green space in the living environment and whether or not people meet the Dutch public health recommendations for physical activity, sports and walking for commuting purposes. People with more green space in their living environment walked and cycled less often and fewer minutes during leisure time; people with more green space garden more often and spend more time on gardening. Furthermore, if people cycle for commuting purposes they spend more time on this if they live in a greener living environment. Whether or not people garden, the time spent on gardening and time spent on cycling for commuting purposes did not explain the relationship between green space and health. Conclusion Our study indicates that the amount of green space in the living environment is

  16. Modeling the Physics of Sliding Objects on Rotating Space Elevators and Other Non-relativistic Strings

    Golubovic, Leonardo; Knudsen, Steven

    2017-01-01

    We consider general problem of modeling the dynamics of objects sliding on moving strings. We introduce a powerful computational algorithm that can be used to investigate the dynamics of objects sliding along non-relativistic strings. We use the algorithm to numerically explore fundamental physics of sliding climbers on a unique class of dynamical systems, Rotating Space Elevators (RSE). Objects sliding along RSE strings do not require internal engines or propulsion to be transported from the Earth's surface into outer space. By extensive numerical simulations, we find that sliding climbers may display interesting non-linear dynamics exhibiting both quasi-periodic and chaotic states of motion. While our main interest in this study is in the climber dynamics on RSEs, our results for the dynamics of sliding object are of more general interest. In particular, we designed tools capable of dealing with strongly nonlinear phenomena involving moving strings of any kind, such as the chaotic dynamics of sliding climbers observed in our simulations.

  17. Investigating plasma-rotation methods for the Space-Plasma Physics Campaign at UCLA's BAPSF.

    Finnegan, S. M.; Koepke, M. E.; Reynolds, E. W.

    2006-10-01

    In D'Angelo et al., JGR 79, 4747 (1974), rigid-body ExB plasma flow was inferred from parabolic floating-potential profiles produced by a spiral ionizing surface. Here, taking a different approach, we report effects on barium-ion azimuthal-flow profiles using either a non-emissive or emissive spiral end-electrode in the WVU Q-machine. Neither electrode produced a radially-parabolic space-potential profile. The emissive spiral, however, generated controllable, radially-parabolic structure in the floating potential, consistent with a second population of electrons having a radially-parabolic parallel-energy profile. Laser-induced-fluorescence measurements of spatially resolved, azimuthal-velocity distribution functions show that, for a given flow profile, the diamagnetic drift of hot (>>0.2eV) ions overwhelms the ExB-drift contribution. Our experiments constitute a first attempt at producing controllable, rigid-body, ExB plasma flow for future experiments on the LArge-Plasma-Device (LAPD), as part of the Space-Plasma Physics Campaign (at UCLA's BAPSF).

  18. Meeting Classroom Needs: Designing Space Physics Educational Outreach for Science Education Standards

    Urquhart, M. L.; Hairston, M.

    2008-12-01

    As with all NASA missions, the Coupled Ion Neutral Dynamics Investigation (CINDI) is required to have an education and public outreach program (E/PO). Through our partnership between the University of Texas at Dallas William B. Hanson Center for Space Sciences and Department of Science/Mathematics Education, the decision was made early on to design our educational outreach around the needs of teachers. In the era of high-stakes testing and No Child Left Behind, materials that do not meet the content and process standards teachers must teach cannot be expected to be integrated into classroom instruction. Science standards, both state and National, were the fundamental drivers behind the designs of our curricular materials, professional development opportunities for teachers, our target grade levels, and even our popular informal educational resource, the "Cindi in Space" comic book. The National Science Education Standards include much more than content standards, and our E/PO program was designed with this knowledge in mind as well. In our presentation we will describe how we came to our approach for CINDI E/PO, and how we have been successful in our efforts to have CINDI materials and key concepts make the transition into middle school classrooms. We will also present on our newest materials and high school physics students and professional development for their teachers.

  19. Gender differences in physical disability among older adults in underprivileged communities in Lebanon.

    Zeki Al Hazzouri, Adina; Mehio Sibai, Abla; Chaaya, Monique; Mahfoud, Ziyad; Yount, Kathryn M

    2011-03-01

    To examine the role of health conditions, socioeconomic, and socioenvironmental factors in explaining gender differences in physical disability among older adults. We compared 412 women and 328 men residing in underprivileged communities in Lebanon on their activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), and physical tasks (PT). Binary logistic regression analyses adjusting for possible explanatory covariates were conducted sequentially. Women showed higher prevalence rates of ADL, IADL, and PT compared to men. Gender disparities in ADL disability were explained by chronic-disease risk factors and health conditions (OR = 1.46; 95% CI = 0.94-2.25). The odds of disability in IADL and PT remained significantly higher for women compared to men after accounting for all available covariates. These results suggest underlying differences in functional status between women and men, yet, may have been influenced by the sensitivity of the measures to the social context and gendered environment surrounding daily activities.

  20. Characteristics of personal space during obstacle circumvention in physical and virtual environments.

    Gérin-Lajoie, Martin; Richards, Carol L; Fung, Joyce; McFadyen, Bradford J

    2008-02-01

    It is not known how the flexible protective zone maintained around oneself during locomotion (personal space or PS; see [Gérin-Lajoie M, Richards CL, McFadyen BJ. The negotiation of stationary and moving obstructions during walking: anticipatory locomotor adaptations and preservation of personal space. Motor Control 2005;9:242-69]) is modulated with walking speed, whether both sides of the PS are symmetrical, and whether the circumvention of physical and virtual obstructions elicit the same use of such PS. Personal space was measured in ten adults as they circumvented a cylindrical obstacle that was stationary within their path. Both left and right passes were performed at natural self-selected, slow and fast walking speeds. The same circumvention task was also performed at natural speeds in an immersive virtual environment (VE) replicating the same obstruction scenario. The shape and size of PS were maintained across walking speeds, and a smaller PS was generally observed on the dominant side. The general shape and lateral bias of the PS were preserved in the VE while its size was slightly increased. The systematic behavior across walking speeds and types of environment and the lateral bias suggest that PS is used to control navigation. This study deepens our understanding of normal adaptive walking behavior and has implications for the development of better tools for the assessment and retraining of locomotor capacity in different populations, from people with walking deficits to elite athletes. Since the PS behavior was shown to be robust in the VE used for this study, the virtual reality technology is proposed as a promising platform for the development of such assessment and retraining applications.

  1. Associations between television viewing and physical activity and low back pain in community-based adults

    Hussain, Sultana Monira; Urquhart, Donna M.; Wang, Yuanyuan; Dunstan, David; Shaw, Jonathan E.; Magliano, Dianna J.; Wluka, Anita E.; Cicuttini, Flavia M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Two systematic reviews concluded that there was limited evidence to support an association between physical activity and sedentary behavior and developing low back pain (LBP). The aim of this study was to examine the associations of physical activity and television viewing time with LBP intensity and disability in community-based adults. Five thousand fifty-eight participants (44% men) of the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study had physical activity and television viewing time measured in 1999 to 2000, 2004 to 2005, and 2011 to 2012, and LBP intensity and disability assessed in 2013 to 2014 using the Chronic Pain Grade Questionnaire. Multinomial logistic regressions were used to estimate the odds ratio for LBP intensity and disability associated with physical activity and television viewing time. Analyses were adjusted for age, education, smoking, dietary guideline index score, body mass index, and mental component summary score. To test whether associations of physical activity or television viewing time with LBP intensity and disability were modified by sex, obesity, or age, interactions were tested using the likelihood ratio test. As gender modified the associations between physical activity and television viewing time and LBP disability (P = 0.05), men and women were examined separately. A total of 81.7% men and 82.1% women had LBP. Most men (63.6%) and women (60.2%) had low intensity LBP with fewer having high intensity LBP (18.1% men, 21.5% women). Most participants had no LBP disability (74.5% men, 71.8% women) with the remainder reporting low (15.8% men, 15.3% women) or high (9.7% men, 12.9% women) LBP disability. Insufficient physical activity (television viewing time (≥2 hours/day) was associated with greater prevalence of LBP disability in women (low disability OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.04–1.73; high disability OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.01–1.72). Although it needs to be confirmed in RCTs our findings suggest that targeting time spent

  2. Assessing the Associations Between Types of Green Space, Physical Activity, and Health Indicators Using GIS and Participatory Survey

    Akpinar, A.

    2017-11-01

    This study explores whether specific types of green spaces (i.e. urban green spaces, forests, agricultural lands, rangelands, and wetlands) are associated with physical activity, quality of life, and cardiovascular disease prevalence. A sample of 8,976 respondents from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, conducted in 2006 in Washington State across 291 zip-codes, was analyzed. Measures included physical activity status, quality of life, and cardiovascular disease prevalence (i.e. heart attack, angina, and stroke). Percentage of green spaces was derived from the National Land Cover Dataset and measured with Geographical Information System. Multilevel regression analyses were conducted to analyze the data while controlling for age, sex, race, weight, marital status, occupation, income, education level, and zip-code population and socio-economic situation. Regression results reveal that no green space types were associated with physical activity, quality of life, and cardiovascular disease prevalence. On the other hand, the analysis shows that physical activity was associated with general health, quality of life, and cardiovascular disease prevalence. The findings suggest that other factors such as size, structure and distribution (sprawled or concentrated, large or small), quality, and characteristics of green space might be important in general health, quality of life, and cardiovascular disease prevalence rather than green space types. Therefore, further investigations are needed.

  3. ASSESSING THE ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN TYPES OF GREEN SPACE, PHYSICAL ACTIVITY, AND HEALTH INDICATORS USING GIS AND PARTICIPATORY SURVEY

    A. Akpinar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study explores whether specific types of green spaces (i.e. urban green spaces, forests, agricultural lands, rangelands, and wetlands are associated with physical activity, quality of life, and cardiovascular disease prevalence. A sample of 8,976 respondents from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, conducted in 2006 in Washington State across 291 zip-codes, was analyzed. Measures included physical activity status, quality of life, and cardiovascular disease prevalence (i.e. heart attack, angina, and stroke. Percentage of green spaces was derived from the National Land Cover Dataset and measured with Geographical Information System. Multilevel regression analyses were conducted to analyze the data while controlling for age, sex, race, weight, marital status, occupation, income, education level, and zip-code population and socio-economic situation. Regression results reveal that no green space types were associated with physical activity, quality of life, and cardiovascular disease prevalence. On the other hand, the analysis shows that physical activity was associated with general health, quality of life, and cardiovascular disease prevalence. The findings suggest that other factors such as size, structure and distribution (sprawled or concentrated, large or small, quality, and characteristics of green space might be important in general health, quality of life, and cardiovascular disease prevalence rather than green space types. Therefore, further investigations are needed.

  4. Assessing the effect of physical activity classes in public spaces on leisure-time physical activity: "Al Ritmo de las Comunidades" A natural experiment in Bogota, Colombia.

    Torres, Andrea; Díaz, María Paula; Hayat, Matthew J; Lyn, Rodney; Pratt, Michael; Salvo, Deborah; Sarmiento, Olga L

    2017-10-01

    The Recreovia program provides free physical activity (PA) classes in public spaces in Bogota, Colombia. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the Recreovia program in increasing PA among users of nine parks in Bogota. This study was a natural experiment conducted between 2013 and 2015 in Bogota. Community members and park users living nearby three groups of parks were compared: Group 1 were parks implementing new Recreovias (n=3), Group 2 were control parks (n=3) without Recreovias, and Group 3 were parks with existing Recreovías. Individuals in the "intervention" group were exposed to newly implemented Recreovia programs in parks near their homes. Measurements were collected at baseline and 6-8months after the intervention started. A total of 1533 participants were enrolled in the study: 501 for the existing Recreovias (included in a cross-sectional assessment) and 1032 participants (from the new Recreovias and control parks) included in the cross-sectional and pre-post study. Most participants were low income females. Twenty-three percent of the intervention group started participating in the program. Users of existing Recreovias were significantly more active and less likely to be overweight/obese compared to new Recreovia users at baseline. No changes on PA were found when comparing the intervention and control groups. Recreovias may have potential for increasing PA at the population level in urban areas given their rapid scalability, the higher levels of PA observed among program users, and its potential to reach women, low-income, less educated populations, and the overweight and obese. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Reconsidering the Geddesian Concepts of Community and Space through the Paradigm of Smart Cities

    Chiara Garau

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The 100th anniversary of Geddes’ book “Cities in Evolution” has just passed, and the authors of this paper present a contribution towards understanding “how” Geddes might address the paradigm of the “smart city”. Geddesian concepts have greatly revolutionized the design and building of modern cities around the world. As a botanist and a scientist, Geddes incorporated the concept of the appearance of gardens when designing towns. His success in pioneering the planning of his city of residence in Scotland inspired further involvement in designing towns and the renovation of old structures and buildings. His concepts regarding the planning and development of towns and cities have created a foundation of interest in research, professionalism, and educational development. This study analyses the concepts of space, communities, and smart cities, and repositions Geddesian ideas in contemporary learning strategies in relation to the wider political spectrum associated with the paradigm of smart cities. The authors explore the relevance of his thoughts and perspectives in the current design environment geared towards the creation of smart cities. The study also evaluates the challenges of developing smart cities in relation to Patrick Geddes’s ideas.

  6. The impact of interventions to promote physical activity in urban green space: a systematic review and recommendations for future research.

    Hunter, Ruth F; Christian, Hayley; Veitch, Jenny; Astell-Burt, Thomas; Hipp, J Aaron; Schipperijn, Jasper

    2015-01-01

    Evidence is mounting on the association between the built environment and physical activity (PA) with a call for intervention research. A broader approach which recognizes the role of supportive environments that can make healthy choices easier is required. A systematic review was undertaken to assess the effectiveness of interventions to encourage PA in urban green space. Five databases were searched independently by two reviewers using search terms relating to 'physical activity', 'urban green space' and 'intervention' in July 2014. Eligibility criteria included: (i) intervention to encourage PA in urban green space which involved either a physical change to the urban green space or a PA intervention to promote use of urban green space or a combination of both; and (ii) primary outcome of PA. Of the 2405 studies identified, 12 were included. There was some evidence (4/9 studies showed positive effect) to support built environment only interventions for encouraging use and increasing PA in urban green space. There was more promising evidence (3/3 studies showed positive effect) to support PAprograms or PA programs combined with a physical change to the built environment, for increasing urban green space use and PA of users. Recommendations for future research include the need for longer term follow-up post-intervention, adequate control groups, sufficiently powered studies, and consideration of the social environment, which was identified as a significantly under-utilized resource in this area. Interventions that involve the use of PA programs combined with a physical change to the built environment are likely to have a positive effect on PA. Robust evaluations of such interventions are urgently required. The findings provide a platform to inform the design, implementation and evaluation of future urban green space and PAintervention research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A framework for evaluating community-based physical activity promotion programmes in Latin America.

    Schmid, Thomas L; Librett, John; Neiman, Andrea; Pratt, Michael; Salmon, Art

    2006-01-01

    A growing interest in promoting physical activity through multi-sectoral community-based programmes has highlighted the need for effective programme evaluation. Meeting in Rio de Janeiro, an international workgroup of behavioural, medical, public health and other scientists and practitioners endorsed the principle of careful evaluation of all programmes and in a consensus process developed the Rio de Janeiro Recommendations for Evaluation of Physical Activity Interventions". Among these recommendations and principles were that when possible, evaluation should 'built into' the programme from the beginning. The workgroup also called for adequate funding for evaluation, setting a goal of about 10% of programme resources for evaluation. The group also determined that evaluations should be developed in conjunction with and the results shared with all appropriate stakeholders in the programme; evaluations should be guided by ethical standards such as those proposed by the American Evaluation Association and should assess programme processes as well as outcomes; evaluation outcomes should be used to revise and refine ongoing programmes and guide decisions about programme continuation or expansion. It was also recognised that additional training in programme evaluation is needed and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Physical Activity Evaluation Handbook could be easily adapted for use in culturally diverse communities, especially in Latin America. This paper describes a 6-step evaluation process and provides the full set of recommendations from the Rio de Janeiro Workgroup. The handbook has been translated and additional case studies from Colombia and Brazil have been added. Spanish and Portuguese language editions of the Evaluation Handbook are available from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Physical Activity and Health Branch.

  8. A model for the development of virtual communities for people with long-term, severe physical disabilities

    C.M. Tilley

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This paper reports results of an investigation into the needs of persons with disabilities wanting to participate in the use of virtual communities. The aim was to investigate 'how virtual communities for persons with long-term, severe physical disabilities can best be facilitated'? Method. A Grounded Theory approach was adopted to inform the investigation. In- depth interviews were conducted with twelve persons with paraplegia, quadriplegia or other severe, long-term physical or mobility disabilities and six health care professionals, service providers, information personnel and policy advisers who were involved in their well-being. Analysis. Rich explanations were derived about the information and communication technology (ICT usage and the technologies' contributions towards restoration of sense of control over their lives. Results. The primary outcome of the investigation is a theory regarding the character of virtual communities for the disabled. The theory is represented as a Virtual Community Model. The model identifies: the need for 'a sense of control' as the foundation element of virtual communities for the disabled; the key domains in which disabled people participate in virtual communities; and the barriers and enablers to their participation. Conclusion. The model provides a framework which can be used by interest groups and other organizations to facilitate the development of virtual communities for persons with severe physical disabilities. The six key types of community need to be represented in such virtual communities if a full 'sense of control' is to be achieved by disabled persons.

  9. The path to active living: physical activity through community design in Somerville, Massachusetts.

    Burke, Noreen M; Chomitz, Virginia R; Rioles, Nicole A; Winslow, Stephen P; Brukilacchio, Lisa B; Baker, Jessie C

    2009-12-01

    Somerville, Massachusetts, an ethnically diverse, urban community northwest of Boston, presents opportunities and challenges for active living. With a dense street grid, well-maintained sidewalks, neighborhood parks, and existing Community Path, Somerville is very walkable. However, two major surface arteries traverse and bisect neighborhoods, creating pedestrian safety and environmental justice issues. Major goals included promoting increased collaboration and communication among existing active-living efforts; managing the Community Path extension project; encouraging Portuguese-speaking adults to incorporate daily physical activity; leveraging existing urban planning work to establish secure, attractive walking/biking corridors; and embedding active-living messages in everyday life. The Somerville Active Living by Design Partnership (ALbD) successfully created a robust task force that was integrated with citywide active-living efforts, secured resources to increase infrastructure and support for active living, including city-level coordinator positions, and changed decision-making practices that led to incorporation of pedestrian and bicycle transportation priorities into city planning and that influenced the extension of the Community Path. Partnerships must employ sustainability planning early on, utilize skilled facilitative leaders to manage leadership transitions, and engage new partners. Identifying, cultivating, and celebrating champions, especially those with political power, are critical. Working closely with research partners leads to rich data sources for planning and evaluation. Changing the built environment is difficult; working toward smaller wins is realistic and achievable. The synergy of ALbD and other community interventions created a foundation for short-term successes and accelerated political-cultural changes already underway with respect to active living.

  10. Community-wide intervention and population-level physical activity: a 5-year cluster randomized trial

    Kamada, Masamitsu; Kitayuguchi, Jun; Abe, Takafumi; Taguri, Masataka; Inoue, Shigeru; Ishikawa, Yoshiki; Bauman, Adrian; Lee, I-Min; Miyachi, Motohiko; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background Evidence from a limited number of short-term trials indicates the difficulty in achieving population-level improvements in physical activity (PA) through community-wide interventions (CWIs). We sought to evaluate the effectiveness of a 5-year CWI for promoting PA in middle-aged and older adults using a cluster randomized design. Methods We randomized 12 communities in Unnan, Japan, to either intervention (9) or control (3). Additionally, intervention communities were randomly allocated to three subgroups by different PA types promoted. Randomly sampled residents aged 40–79 years responded to the baseline survey (n = 4414; 74%) and were followed at 1, 3 and 5 years (78–83% response rate). The intervention was a 5-year CWI using social marketing to promote PA. The primary outcome was a change in recommended levels of PA. Results Compared with control communities, adults achieving recommended levels of PA increased in intervention communities [adjusted change difference = 4.6 percentage points (95% confidence interval: 0.4, 8.8)]. The intervention was effective for promoting all types of recommended PAs, i.e. aerobic (walking, 6.4%), flexibility (6.1%) and muscle-strengthening activities (5.7%). However, a bundled approach, which attempted to promote all forms of PAs above simultaneously, was not effective (1.3–3.4%, P ≥ 0.138). Linear dose–response relationships between the CWI awareness and changes in PA were observed (P ≤ 0.02). Pain intensity decreased in shoulder (intervention and control) and lower back (intervention only) but there was little change difference in all musculoskeletal pain outcomes between the groups. Conclusions The 5-year CWI using the focused social marketing strategy increased the population-level of PA. PMID:29228255

  11. Effect of cold indoor environment on physical performance of older women living in the community.

    Lindemann, Ulrich; Oksa, Juha; Skelton, Dawn A; Beyer, Nina; Klenk, Jochen; Zscheile, Julia; Becker, Clemens

    2014-07-01

    the effects of cold on older persons' body and mind are not well documented, but with an increased number of older people with decreasing physical performance, these possible effects need to be understood. to investigate the effect of cold indoor environment on physical performance of older women. cross-sectional experimental study with two test conditions. movement laboratory in a climate chamber. eighty-eight community-dwelling, cognitively unimpaired older women (mean age 78 years). participants were exposed to moderately cold (15°C) and warm/normal (25°C) temperature in a climate chamber in random order with an interval of 1 week. The assessment protocol included leg extensor power (Nottingham Power Rig), sit-to-stand performance velocity (linear encoder), gait speed, walk-ratio (i.e. step length/cadence on an instrumented walk way), maximal quadriceps and hand grip strength. physical performance was lower in 15°C room temperature compared with 25°C room temperature for leg extensor power (P environment decreased important physical performance measures necessary for independent living. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Examination of community and consumer nutrition, tobacco and physical activity environments at food and tobacco retail stores in three diverse North Carolina communities

    Heather D'Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To advance our understanding of multiple health-related dimensions of the built environment, this study examined associations among nutrition, tobacco, and physical activity community and consumer environments. Community environment measures included supermarket access, tobacco outlet density, and physical activity resource density in store neighborhoods. Cross-sectional observations of the nutrition, tobacco and physical activity environments were conducted in 2011 at and around 303 food stores that sold tobacco products in three North Carolina counties. Pearson correlation coefficients and multiple linear regression were used to examine associations between community and consumer environments. Correlations between community nutrition, tobacco, and physical activity environments ranged from slight to fair (−0.35 to 0.20 and from poor to fair (−0.01 to −0.38 between consumer environments. Significant relationships between consumer tobacco and nutrition environments were found after controlling for store and neighborhood characteristics. For example, stores with higher amounts of interior tobacco marketing had higher healthy food availability (p = 0.001, while stores with higher amounts of exterior tobacco marketing had lower healthy food availability (p = 0.02. Community and consumer environments for nutrition, tobacco, and physical activity were interrelated. Measures that assess single aspects of community or consumer environments could miss characteristics that may influence customer purchasing. Even chain supermarkets, typically regarded as healthful food sources compared to smaller food stores, may expose customers to tobacco marketing inside. Future research could explore combining efforts to reduce obesity and tobacco use by addressing tobacco marketing, healthy food availability and physical activity opportunities at retail food outlets.

  13. Child Physical and Sexual Abuse in a Community Sample of Young Adults: Results from the Ontario Child Health Study

    MacMillan, Harriet L.; Tanaka, Masako; Duku, Eric; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Boyle, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Exposure to child maltreatment is associated with physical, emotional, and social impairment, yet in Canada there is a paucity of community-based information about the extent of this problem and its determinants. We examined the prevalence of child physical and sexual abuse and the associations of child abuse with early contextual,…

  14. Statistical physics of community ecology: a cavity solution to MacArthur’s consumer resource model

    Advani, Madhu; Bunin, Guy; Mehta, Pankaj

    2018-03-01

    A central question in ecology is to understand the ecological processes that shape community structure. Niche-based theories have emphasized the important role played by competition for maintaining species diversity. Many of these insights have been derived using MacArthur’s consumer resource model (MCRM) or its generalizations. Most theoretical work on the MCRM has focused on small ecosystems with a few species and resources. However theoretical insights derived from small ecosystems many not scale up to large ecosystems with many resources and species because large systems with many interacting components often display new emergent behaviors that cannot be understood or deduced from analyzing smaller systems. To address these shortcomings, we develop a statistical physics inspired cavity method to analyze MCRM when both the number of species and the number of resources is large. Unlike previous work in this limit, our theory addresses resource dynamics and resource depletion and demonstrates that species generically and consistently perturb their environments and significantly modify available ecological niches. We show how our cavity approach naturally generalizes niche theory to large ecosystems by accounting for the effect of collective phenomena on species invasion and ecological stability. Our theory suggests that such phenomena are a generic feature of large, natural ecosystems and must be taken into account when analyzing and interpreting community structure. It also highlights the important role that statistical-physics inspired approaches can play in furthering our understanding of ecology.

  15. Social marketing: approach to cultural and contextual relevance in a community-based physical activity intervention

    Keller, Colleen; Vega-López, Sonia; Ainsworth, Barbara; Nagle-Williams, Allison; Records, Kathie; Permana, Paska; Coonrod, Dean

    2014-01-01

    We report the social marketing strategies used for the design, recruitment and retention of participants in a community-based physical activity (PA) intervention, Madres para la Salud (Mothers for Health). The study example used to illustrate the use of social marketing is a 48-week prescribed walking program, Madres para la Salud (Mothers for Health), which tests a social support intervention to explore the effectiveness of a culturally specific program using ‘bouts’ of PA to effect the changes in body fat, fat tissue inflammation and postpartum depression symptoms in sedentary Hispanic women. Using the guidelines from the National Benchmark Criteria, we developed intervention, recruitment and retention strategies that reflect efforts to draw on community values, traditions and customs in intervention design, through partnership with community members. Most of the women enrolled in Madres para la Salud were born in Mexico, largely never or unemployed and resided among the highest crime neighborhoods with poor access to resources. We developed recruitment and retention strategies that characterized social marketing strategies that employed a culturally relevant, consumer driven and problem-specific design. Cost and benefit of program participation, consumer-derived motivation and segmentation strategies considered the development transition of the young Latinas as well as cultural and neighborhood barriers that impacted retention are described. PMID:23002252

  16. Social marketing: approach to cultural and contextual relevance in a community-based physical activity intervention.

    Keller, Colleen; Vega-López, Sonia; Ainsworth, Barbara; Nagle-Williams, Allison; Records, Kathie; Permana, Paska; Coonrod, Dean

    2014-03-01

    We report the social marketing strategies used for the design, recruitment and retention of participants in a community-based physical activity (PA) intervention, Madres para la Salud (Mothers for Health). The study example used to illustrate the use of social marketing is a 48-week prescribed walking program, Madres para la Salud (Mothers for Health), which tests a social support intervention to explore the effectiveness of a culturally specific program using 'bouts' of PA to effect the changes in body fat, fat tissue inflammation and postpartum depression symptoms in sedentary Hispanic women. Using the guidelines from the National Benchmark Criteria, we developed intervention, recruitment and retention strategies that reflect efforts to draw on community values, traditions and customs in intervention design, through partnership with community members. Most of the women enrolled in Madres para la Salud were born in Mexico, largely never or unemployed and resided among the highest crime neighborhoods with poor access to resources. We developed recruitment and retention strategies that characterized social marketing strategies that employed a culturally relevant, consumer driven and problem-specific design. Cost and benefit of program participation, consumer-derived motivation and segmentation strategies considered the development transition of the young Latinas as well as cultural and neighborhood barriers that impacted retention are described.

  17. SU-E-E-03: Shared Space Fosters Didactic and Professional Learning Across Professions for Medical and Physics Residents

    Dieterich, S; Perks, J; Fragoso, R

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Medical Physicists and Radiation Oncologists are two professions who should be working as a team for optimal patient care, yet lack of mutual understanding about each others respective role and work environment creates barriers To improve collaboration and learning, we designed a shared didactic and work space for physics and radiation oncology residents to maximize interaction throughout their professional training. Methods: Physician and Physics residents are required to take the same didactic classes, including journal clubs and respective seminars. The residents also share an office environment among the seven physician and two physic residents. Results: By maximizing didactic overlap and sharing office space, the two resident groups have developed a close professional relationship and supportive work environment. Several joint research projects have been initiated by the residents. Awareness of physics tasks in the clinic has led to a request by the physician residents to change physics didactics, converting the physics short course into a lab-oriented course for the medical residents which is in part taught by the physics residents. The physics seminar is given by both residency groups; increased motivation and interest in learning about physics has led to several medical resident-initiated topic selections which generated lively discussion. The physics long course has changed toward including more discussion among residents to delve deeper into topics and study beyond what passing the boards would require. A supportive work environment has developed, embedding the two physics residents into a larger residents group, allowing them to find mentor and peers more easily. Conclusion: By creating a shared work and didactic environment, physician and physics residents have improved their understanding of respective professional practice. Resident-initiated changes in didactic practice have led to improved learning and joint research. A strong social

  18. SU-E-E-03: Shared Space Fosters Didactic and Professional Learning Across Professions for Medical and Physics Residents

    Dieterich, S; Perks, J; Fragoso, R [UC Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Medical Physicists and Radiation Oncologists are two professions who should be working as a team for optimal patient care, yet lack of mutual understanding about each others respective role and work environment creates barriers To improve collaboration and learning, we designed a shared didactic and work space for physics and radiation oncology residents to maximize interaction throughout their professional training. Methods: Physician and Physics residents are required to take the same didactic classes, including journal clubs and respective seminars. The residents also share an office environment among the seven physician and two physic residents. Results: By maximizing didactic overlap and sharing office space, the two resident groups have developed a close professional relationship and supportive work environment. Several joint research projects have been initiated by the residents. Awareness of physics tasks in the clinic has led to a request by the physician residents to change physics didactics, converting the physics short course into a lab-oriented course for the medical residents which is in part taught by the physics residents. The physics seminar is given by both residency groups; increased motivation and interest in learning about physics has led to several medical resident-initiated topic selections which generated lively discussion. The physics long course has changed toward including more discussion among residents to delve deeper into topics and study beyond what passing the boards would require. A supportive work environment has developed, embedding the two physics residents into a larger residents group, allowing them to find mentor and peers more easily. Conclusion: By creating a shared work and didactic environment, physician and physics residents have improved their understanding of respective professional practice. Resident-initiated changes in didactic practice have led to improved learning and joint research. A strong social

  19. Space Time Physics and Fractality: Festschrift in honour of Mohamed El Naschie on the occasion of his 60th birthday

    Weibel, Peter; Ord, Garnet; Rössler, Otto

    2005-01-01

    Space and Time are the prison bars of reality. Space Time Physics and Fractality is an attempt to tunnel through the rigidity of it all -- by turning everything into dust or smoke. These two ancient traditions are brought together here for the first time -- in the spirit of Democritus and Anaxagoras. Mohamed El Naschie, the sexagenarian, is the "dust dragon". The book contains papers by people who are infected by the same virus of desperately wanting to understand, and represents an incomparable breakthrough.

  20. Efforts of a Kansas foundation to increase physical activity and improve health by funding community trails, 2012.

    Heinrich, Katie M; Lightner, Joseph; Oestman, Katherine B; Hughey, S Morgan; Kaczynski, Andrew T

    2014-11-26

    Trails are associated with increased physical activity; however, little is known about the process of building trails by various types of organizations. From 2005 through 2012 the Sunflower Foundation: Health Care for Kansans (Sunflower) funded multiple organizations to construct 70 trails of varying lengths and surfaces in municipalities, schools, and communities across Kansas. The purpose of this study was to assess the process of developing and implementing community trail projects across Kansas with funding from a public foundation. In 2012, we stratified funded organizations by type and conducted proportional random sampling to select 20 key informants from those organizations to participate in structured telephone interviews. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Two researchers coded interview transcripts according to issues identified by participants. Issues associated with trail-building identified as important were collaboration among groups, unexpected construction costs, champions for the project, and level of difficulty of construction. Participants indicated that trails facilitated physical activity. Trails were integrated into communities through events such as walking events and other promotional efforts; these efforts were thought to increase trail use. The perceived outcomes of building the trails included providing the community with a physical activity resource, inspiring the community to start additional trail projects, and increasing the physical activity of local residents. Sunflower's funding was instrumental in developing trail projects to provide new physical activity resources across Kansas. Public health practitioners seeking to increase physical activity should seek funding from foundations that focus on health.

  1. Determinants of meeting the public health recommendations for physical activity among community-dwelling elderly Japanese.

    Oka, Koichiro; Shibata, Ai

    2012-02-01

    Although regular physical activity can facilitate healthy aging, improve functional capacity, and prevent chronic diseases in the elderly, many of the Japanese elderly are not sufficiently active. Thus, examining the determinants is an important prerequisite for designing effective programs. The present study investigated the demographic, behavioral, psychosocial, and environmental determinants of meeting the national pedometer-determined physical activity recommendations for the elderly Japanese. Data were analyzed for 137 community-dwelling elderly Japanese aged 70 to 89 years (47% male, mean age = 74.5 years), who completed a questionnaire and wore a pedometer. Demographic (gender, age, marital status), behavioral (BMI, smoking, alcohol consumption), psychosocial (self-efficacy, social support, health professional advice), and environmental (perceived neighborhood environment) variables were self-reported. Averaged daily steps were obtained using 1-year pedometer measurements. Based on the national physical activity recommendations in Japan (males: 6700 steps; females: 5900 steps), the participants were divided into two categories - sufficiently active and insufficiently active. An adjusted logistic regression model was utilized. Totally, 47.4% of the participants (males: 51.5%; females: 43.8%) met the national recommendations. When adjusting for all other variables, a higher self-efficacy for exercise (AOR = 1.16; 95% CI: 1.04-1.28) and positive perception of the neighborhood environment (AOR = 1.43; 95% CI: 1.03-1.98) significantly influenced the meeting of the national recommendations. The findings clarified the need to identify effective intervention strategies to promote physical activity and suggest that an intervention design that accounts for these determinants may more effectively promote physical activity among the elderly Japanese.

  2. Nurses' experiences providing palliative care to individuals living in rural communities: aspects of the physical residential setting.

    Kaasalainen, S; Brazil, K; Williams, A; Wilson, D; Willison, K; Marshall, D; Taniguchi, A; Phillips, C

    2014-01-01

    Efforts are needed to improve palliative care in rural communities, given the unique characteristics and inherent challenges with respect to working within the physical aspects of residential settings. Nurses who work in rural communities play a key role in the delivery of palliative care services. Hence, the purpose of this study was to explore nurses' experiences of providing palliative care in rural communities, with a particular focus on the impact of the physical residential setting. This study was grounded in a qualitative approach utilizing an exploratory descriptive design. Individual telephone interviews were conducted with 21 community nurses. Data were analyzed by thematic content analysis. Nurses described the characteristics of working in a rural community and how it influences their perception of their role, highlighting the strong sense of community that exists but how system changes over the past decade have changed the way they provide care. They also described the key role that they play, which was often termed a 'jack of all trades', but focused on providing emotional, physical, and spiritual care while trying to manage many challenges related to transitioning and working with other healthcare providers. Finally, nurses described how the challenges of working within the physical constraints of a rural residential setting impeded their care provision to clients who are dying in the community, specifically related to the long distances that they travel while dealing with bad weather. These study findings contribute to our understanding of the experiences of nurses working in rural communities in terms of the provision of palliative care and the influence of the physical residential setting that surrounds them. These findings are important since nurses play a major role in caring for community-dwelling clients who are dying, but they are confronted with many obstacles. As such, these results may help inform future decisions about how to best improve

  3. Community Readiness for the Promotion of Physical Activity in Older Adults—A Cross-Sectional Comparison of Rural and Urban Communities

    Brand, Tilman; Princk, Christina; Zeeb, Hajo

    2018-01-01

    Communities can play an important role in delivering public health programs to older adults, but they differ in the provision of local structures and resources. The community readiness (CR) approach applies a stage model of change to the community level and analyzes structures and the degree of willingness to take action on a health issue. This study compared the CR regarding the promotion of physical activity as part of healthy ageing for older adults among urban and rural communities in North-West Germany. A cross-sectional CR assessment with key respondents in 23 municipalities (11 urban and 12 rural communities) was conducted using a semi-structured interview. Interviews were scored across the five CR dimensions and global CR score was calculated (scores between 1 = no awareness and 9 = professionalization). Wilcoxon rank-sum test and hierarchical regression models were used to compare urban and rural communities. In total, 118 interviews were conducted (response rate 69.8%). On average, the communities showed moderate CR scores (4.9 ± 0.3; Range: 4.3–5.4; preplanning or preparation phase). The global CR score was slightly higher in rural than in urban communities (regression coefficient = 0.29, 95% confidence interval (CI): −0.02–0.59). The rural communities showed significantly higher CR scores in the ‘Knowledge of efforts’ dimension (0.70, 95% CI: 0.26–1.14) and in the ‘Knowledge of the issue’ (0.37, 95% CI: 0.04–0.70). Rural communities display a slightly higher CR level than urban communities. In the next step, targeted capacity building activities will be initiated among communities with low CR levels. PMID:29509675

  4. Community Readiness for the Promotion of Physical Activity in Older Adults-A Cross-Sectional Comparison of Rural and Urban Communities.

    Gansefort, Dirk; Brand, Tilman; Princk, Christina; Zeeb, Hajo

    2018-03-06

    Communities can play an important role in delivering public health programs to older adults, but they differ in the provision of local structures and resources. The community readiness (CR) approach applies a stage model of change to the community level and analyzes structures and the degree of willingness to take action on a health issue. This study compared the CR regarding the promotion of physical activity as part of healthy ageing for older adults among urban and rural communities in North-West Germany. A cross-sectional CR assessment with key respondents in 23 municipalities (11 urban and 12 rural communities) was conducted using a semi-structured interview. Interviews were scored across the five CR dimensions and global CR score was calculated (scores between 1 = no awareness and 9 = professionalization). Wilcoxon rank-sum test and hierarchical regression models were used to compare urban and rural communities. In total, 118 interviews were conducted (response rate 69.8%). On average, the communities showed moderate CR scores (4.9 ± 0.3; Range: 4.3-5.4; preplanning or preparation phase). The global CR score was slightly higher in rural than in urban communities (regression coefficient = 0.29, 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.02-0.59). The rural communities showed significantly higher CR scores in the 'Knowledge of efforts' dimension (0.70, 95% CI: 0.26-1.14) and in the 'Knowledge of the issue' (0.37, 95% CI: 0.04-0.70). Rural communities display a slightly higher CR level than urban communities. In the next step, targeted capacity building activities will be initiated among communities with low CR levels.

  5. Lower cumulative stress is associated with better health for physically active adults in the community

    Stults-Kolehmainen, Matthew A.; Tuit, Keri; Sinha, Rajita

    2015-01-01

    Both cumulative adversity, an individual's lifetime exposure to stressors, and insufficient exercise are associated with poor health outcomes. The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether exercise buffers the association of cumulative adverse life events (CALE) with health in a community-wide sample of healthy adults (ages 18–50 years; women: n 219, 29.5 ± 9.2 years; men: n = 176, 29.4 ± 8.7 years, mean ± standard deviation). Participants underwent the Cumulative Adversity Interview, which divides life events into three subsets: major life events (MLE), recent life events (RLE) and traumatic experiences (TLE). These individuals also completed the Cornell Medical Index and a short assessment for moderate or greater intensity exercise behavior, modified from the Nurses’ Health Study. Results indicated that higher CALE was associated with greater total health problems (r = 0.431, pstress and exercise were not apparent for RLE and TLE. However, at low levels of MLE, greater exercise was related to fewer total, physical, cardiovascular and psychological health problems (p valuestress. Increased levels of exercise were related to better physical health in men, at all levels of CALE. Only women who reported both low levels of CALE and high levels of exercise had more favorable physical health outcomes. A similar pattern of results emerged for RLE. Together, these data suggest that increased exercise is related to better health, but these effects may vary by cumulative stress exposure and sex. PMID:24392966

  6. Physical Activity in Relation to Sleep Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults in China.

    Li, Junxin; Yang, Binbin; Varrasse, Miranda; Ji, Xiaopeng; Wu, MaoChun; Li, Manman; Li, Kun

    2018-02-27

    This cross-sectional study was conducted to describe physical activity and sleep in 290 community-dwelling Chinese older adults and to examine the association between physical activity and poor sleep outcomes. Almost half of the sample were poor sleepers. The majority of the sample regularly participated in walking, some household activity and light sports; yet, only a small portion were involved in work-related activity or in strenuous sports. A greater level of overall physical activity [Odds Ratio (OR) =0.79, 95% confidence interval (CI) = (0.73,0.86)], leisure-time exercise [OR=0.77, 95%CI=(0.68,0.85)], and household activity [OR=0.66, 95%CI= (0.56,0.78)] were associated with reduced likelihood of being poor sleepers and other poor sleep outcomes, independent of covariates including age, sex, education, family income, the number of children, drinking, and sleep hygiene. Future larger scale studies that incorporate both objective and subjective measures are needed to further examine the association and to explore the effects of different types of activity on sleep and other well-beings in older adults.

  7. BFS, a Legacy to the International Reactor Physics, Criticality Safety, and Nuclear Data Communities

    Briggs, J. Blair; Tsibulya, Anatoly; Rozhikhin, Yevgeniy

    2012-01-01

    Interest in high-quality integral benchmark data is increasing as efforts to quantify and reduce calculational uncertainties accelerate to meet the demands of next generation reactor and advanced fuel cycle concepts. Two Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) activities, the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP), initiated in 1992, and the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP), initiated in 2003, have been identifying existing integral experiment data, evaluating those data, and providing integral benchmark specifications for methods and data validation for nearly two decades. Thus far, 14 countries have contributed to the IRPhEP, and 20 have contributed to the ICSBEP. Data provided by these two projects will be of use to the international reactor physics, criticality safety, and nuclear data communities for future decades The Russian Federation has been a major contributor to both projects with the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE) as the major contributor from the Russian Federation. Included in the benchmark specifications from the BFS facilities are 34 critical configurations from BFS-49, 61, 62, 73, 79, 81, 97, 99, and 101; spectral characteristics measurements from BFS-31, 42, 57, 59, 61, 62, 73, 97, 99, and 101; reactivity effects measurements from BFS-62-3A; reactivity coefficients and kinetics measurements from BFS-73; and reaction rate measurements from BFS-42, 61, 62, 73, 97, 99, and 101.

  8. Associations Between Parental BMI and the Family Nutrition and Physical Activity Environment in a Community Sample.

    Williams, Joel E; Helsel, Brian; Griffin, Sarah F; Liang, Jessica

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between parental BMI and the family environment and determine if differences exist in child diet and physical activity related parenting behaviors by parental BMI in a community sample of families recruited through elementary schools in a local school district. We found an association between parental BMI category and family nutrition and physical activity (FNPA) score. Families with an underweight or normal weight parent had a larger proportion (64.3%) of high (indicating a healthier family environment) FNPA scores and families with an overweight or obese parent had a smaller proportion (45.2%) of high FNPA scores (χ 2  = 5.247, P = 0.022). Families with a parent who was overweight or obese had 2.18 times the odds (95% CI 1.11-4.27) of being in the low FNPA ("less healthy" environment) group. Further, underweight/normal weight parents reported higher levels of monitoring of child diet (Z = -3.652, P authoritative parenting behaviors were associated with a less obesogenic home environment and a positive parenting style related to child eating and physical activity behaviors.

  9. Social and Physical Environmental Factors Influencing Adolescents’ Physical Activity in Urban Public Open Spaces: A Qualitative Study Using Walk-Along Interviews

    Van Hecke, Linde; Deforche, Benedicte; Van Dyck, Delfien; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Veitch, Jenny; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle

    2016-01-01

    Most previous studies examining physical activity in Public Open Spaces (POS) focused solely on the physical environment. However, according to socio-ecological models the social environment is important as well. The aim of this study was to determine which social and physical environmental factors affect adolescents’ visitation and physical activity in POS in low-income neighbourhoods. Since current knowledge on this topic is limited, especially in Europe, qualitative walk-along interviews were used to obtain detailed and context-specific information. Participants (n = 30, aged 12–16 years, 64% boys) were recruited in POS in low-income neighbourhoods in Brussels, Ghent and Antwerp (Belgium). Participants were interviewed while walking in the POS with the interviewer. Using this method, the interviewer could observe and ask questions while the participant was actually experiencing the environment. All audio-recorded interviews were transcribed and analysed using Nvivo 10 software and thematic analysis was used to derive categories and subcategories using a grounded theory approach. The most important subcategories that were supportive of visiting POS and performing physical activity in POS were; accessibility by foot/bicycle/public transport, located close to home/school, presence of (active) friends and family, cleanliness of the POS and features, availability of sport and play facilities, large open spaces and beautiful sceneries. The most important subcategories that were unsupportive of visiting POS and physical activity in POS were; presence of undesirable users (drug users, gangs and homeless people), the behaviour of other users and the cleanliness of the POS and features. Social factors appeared often more influential than physical factors, however, it was the combination of social and physical factors that affected adolescents’ behaviour in POS. Easily accessible POS with high quality features in the proximity of adolescents’ home or school may

  10. Social and Physical Environmental Factors Influencing Adolescents' Physical Activity in Urban Public Open Spaces: A Qualitative Study Using Walk-Along Interviews.

    Linde Van Hecke

    Full Text Available Most previous studies examining physical activity in Public Open Spaces (POS focused solely on the physical environment. However, according to socio-ecological models the social environment is important as well. The aim of this study was to determine which social and physical environmental factors affect adolescents' visitation and physical activity in POS in low-income neighbourhoods. Since current knowledge on this topic is limited, especially in Europe, qualitative walk-along interviews were used to obtain detailed and context-specific information. Participants (n = 30, aged 12-16 years, 64% boys were recruited in POS in low-income neighbourhoods in Brussels, Ghent and Antwerp (Belgium. Participants were interviewed while walking in the POS with the interviewer. Using this method, the interviewer could observe and ask questions while the participant was actually experiencing the environment. All audio-recorded interviews were transcribed and analysed using Nvivo 10 software and thematic analysis was used to derive categories and subcategories using a grounded theory approach. The most important subcategories that were supportive of visiting POS and performing physical activity in POS were; accessibility by foot/bicycle/public transport, located close to home/school, presence of (active friends and family, cleanliness of the POS and features, availability of sport and play facilities, large open spaces and beautiful sceneries. The most important subcategories that were unsupportive of visiting POS and physical activity in POS were; presence of undesirable users (drug users, gangs and homeless people, the behaviour of other users and the cleanliness of the POS and features. Social factors appeared often more influential than physical factors, however, it was the combination of social and physical factors that affected adolescents' behaviour in POS. Easily accessible POS with high quality features in the proximity of adolescents' home or school

  11. Social and Physical Environmental Factors Influencing Adolescents' Physical Activity in Urban Public Open Spaces: A Qualitative Study Using Walk-Along Interviews.

    Van Hecke, Linde; Deforche, Benedicte; Van Dyck, Delfien; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Veitch, Jenny; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle

    2016-01-01

    Most previous studies examining physical activity in Public Open Spaces (POS) focused solely on the physical environment. However, according to socio-ecological models the social environment is important as well. The aim of this study was to determine which social and physical environmental factors affect adolescents' visitation and physical activity in POS in low-income neighbourhoods. Since current knowledge on this topic is limited, especially in Europe, qualitative walk-along interviews were used to obtain detailed and context-specific information. Participants (n = 30, aged 12-16 years, 64% boys) were recruited in POS in low-income neighbourhoods in Brussels, Ghent and Antwerp (Belgium). Participants were interviewed while walking in the POS with the interviewer. Using this method, the interviewer could observe and ask questions while the participant was actually experiencing the environment. All audio-recorded interviews were transcribed and analysed using Nvivo 10 software and thematic analysis was used to derive categories and subcategories using a grounded theory approach. The most important subcategories that were supportive of visiting POS and performing physical activity in POS were; accessibility by foot/bicycle/public transport, located close to home/school, presence of (active) friends and family, cleanliness of the POS and features, availability of sport and play facilities, large open spaces and beautiful sceneries. The most important subcategories that were unsupportive of visiting POS and physical activity in POS were; presence of undesirable users (drug users, gangs and homeless people), the behaviour of other users and the cleanliness of the POS and features. Social factors appeared often more influential than physical factors, however, it was the combination of social and physical factors that affected adolescents' behaviour in POS. Easily accessible POS with high quality features in the proximity of adolescents' home or school may stimulate

  12. Cross-sectional interactions between quality of the physical and social environment and self-reported physical activity in adults living in income-deprived communities.

    Sawyer, Alexia D M; Jones, Russell; Ucci, Marcella; Smith, Lee; Kearns, Ade; Fisher, Abi

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the environmental determinants of physical activity in populations at high risk of inactivity could contribute to the development of effective interventions. Socioecological models of activity propose that environmental factors have independent and interactive effects of physical activity but there is a lack of research into interactive effects. This study aimed to explore independent and interactive effects of social and physical environmental factors on self-reported physical activity in income-deprived communities. Participants were 5,923 adults in Glasgow, United Kingdom. Features of the social environment were self-reported. Quality of the physical environment was objectively-measured. Neighbourhood walking and participation in moderate physical activity [MPA] on ≥5 days/week was self-reported. Multilevel multivariate logistic regression models tested independent and interactive effects of environmental factors on activity. 'Social support' (walking: OR:1.22,95%CI = 1.06-1.41,psocial interaction' (walking: OR:1.25,95%CI = 1.10-1.42,pInteractive effects of social and physical factors on walking and MPA were revealed. Findings suggest that intervening to create activity-supportive environments in deprived communities may be most effective when simultaneously targeting the social and physical neighbourhood environment.

  13. Microbial communities of the Lemon Creek Glacier show subtle structural variation yet stable phylogenetic composition over space and time

    Cody Springer Sheik

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Glaciers are geologically important yet transient ecosystems that support diverse, biogeochemically significant microbial communities. During the melt season glaciers undergo dramatic physical, geochemical and biological changes that exert great influence on downstream biogeochemical cycles. Thus, we sought to understand the temporal melt-season dynamics of microbial communities and associated geochemistry at the terminus of Lemon Creek Glacier (LCG in coastal southern Alaska. Due to late season snowfall, sampling of LCG occurred in three interconnected areas: proglacial Lake Thomas, the lower glacial outflow stream and the glacier’s terminus. LCG associated microbial communities were phylogenetically diverse and varied by sampling location. However, Betaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes dominated communities at all sampling locations. Strict anaerobic groups such as methanogens, SR1, and OP11 were also recovered from glacier outflows, indicating anoxic conditions in at least some portions of the LCG subglacial environment. Microbial community structure was significantly correlated with sampling location and sodium concentrations. Microbial communities sampled from terminus outflow waters exhibited day-to-day fluctuation in taxonomy and phylogenetic similarity. However, these communities were not significantly different from randomly constructed communities from all three sites. These results indicate that glacial outflows share a large proportion of phylogenetic overlap with downstream environments and that the observed significant shifts in community structure are driven by changes in relative abundance of different taxa, and not complete restructuring of communities. We conclude that LCG glacial discharge hosts a diverse and relatively stable microbiome that shifts at fine taxonomic scales in response to geochemistry and likely water residence time.

  14. Space: A new frontier

    Cutolo, Mona; Miranda, Denis M.

    1986-08-01

    The challenges and the promises of space colonization present an exciting opportunity for exploring and analyzing the values, the institutions and the physical environments we have created on Earth. Here we describe an interdisciplinary course, team-taught, that examines the current state of space exploration and the innovative technologies spawned by space research. The course also explores the possible social, economic, political and international impacts of migration to space of people and industries. A course project is to design a space colony for a community of 10,000 people. Given the technical design parameters and other details, the students are to engineer socially an ideal community, bearing in mind the short lifetimes of utopian communities of the past. The process is intended to help the students gain a fair understanding of the dynamics of human societies and of the technologies we have developed that enable us to change our world and to design new worlds.

  15. A Continuation of Base-Line Studies for Environmentally Monitoring Space Transportation System (STS) at John F. Kennedy Space Center. Volume 1; Terrestrial Community Analysis

    Stout, I. J.

    1979-01-01

    Vegetation and small mammal populations in or around the Merritt Island area were studied. Thirty sites were selected from plant communities which were relatively free of logging, grazing, and clearing operations. The vegetative analysis was designed to yield a quantitative description and ecological explanation of the major types of upland vegetation in order to determine the possible future effects of NASA space activities on them. Changes in the relative abundance of small mammal populations, species diversity, standing crop biomass, reproductive activity, and other demographic features were documented in order to gather sufficient information on these populations so that it would be possible to detect even the smaller nonnatural behavior changes in the mammals which might be attributable to NASA space activities.

  16. Community-level and individual-level influences of intimate partner violence on birth spacing in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Hung, Kristin J; Scott, Jennifer; Ricciotti, Hope A; Johnson, Timothy R; Tsai, Alexander C

    2012-05-01

    To estimate the extent to which intimate partner violence (IPV), at the levels of the individual and the community, is associated with shortened interbirth intervals among women in sub-Saharan Africa. We analyzed demographic and health survey data from 11 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Only multiparous women were included in the analysis. Interbirth interval was the primary outcome. Personal history of IPV was measured using a modified Conflict Tactics Scale. Community prevalence of IPV was measured as the proportion of women in each village reporting a personal history of IPV. We used multilevel modeling to account for the hierarchical structure of the data, allowing us to partition the variation in birth intervals to the four different levels (births, individuals, villages, and countries). Among the 46,697 women in the sample, 11,730 (25.1%) reported a personal history of physical violence and 4,935 (10.6%) reported a personal history of sexual violence. In the multivariable regression model, interbirth intervals were inversely associated with personal history of physical violence (regression coefficient b=-0.60, 95% confidence interval -0.91 to -0.28) and the community prevalence of physical violence (b=-1.41, 95% confidence interval -2.41 to -0.40). Estimated associations with sexual violence were of similar statistical significance and magnitude. Both personal history of IPV and the community prevalence of IPV have independent and statistically significant associations with shorter interbirth intervals. II.

  17. Associations of low-intensity light physical activity with physical performance in community-dwelling elderly Japanese: A cross-sectional study.

    Kazuhiro P Izawa

    Full Text Available Physical activity and physical performance relate to quality of life, mortality, and morbidity in elderly people. However, little is known about differences in physical performance related to low-intensity light physical activity (LLPA, high-intensity light physical activity (HLPA, and moderate-intensity physical activity (MPA and how they are separated by sex in elderly populations.This study aimed to determine differences in LLPA, HLPA, MPA, and physical performance, and associations between these measures in community-dwelling elderly men and women.Physical activity and physical performance such as timed-up-and-go test, one-leg standing time, and maximum gait speed were measured in 181 community-dwelling elderly men (mean age, 75.1 ± 5.3 years and 109 women (mean age, 73.4 ± 4.8 years in 2013. Physical activity was classified as LLPA (1.6~1.9 METs of physical activity, HLPA (2.0~2.9 METs of physical activity, and MPA (over 3 METs of physical activity. The association between the values of these three intensities of physical activity in the participants was assessed by Pearson's correlation coefficients. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to assess the association of physical performance values with the three groups defined by accelerometer-measured physical activity intensity adjusted for sociographic, behavioral, and multiple diseases in the participants.MPA was beneficially associated with all physical performance indicators in the men (all P<0.05 and women (all P<0.05. Only HLPA showed significant associations with the timed-up-and-go test (P = 0.001 and maximum gait speed (P = 0.006 in women.These results may support the notion that not only HLPA in women but MPA in both sexes appears to improve physical performance in elderly populations.The present study findings provide novel epidemiological evidence for the potential benefits of HLPA in women and also reinforce the potential benefits of MPA in both sexes, which is the

  18. Geometric constraints on the space of N = 2 SCFTs. Part I: physical constraints on relevant deformations

    Argyres, Philip; Lotito, Matteo; Lü, Yongchao; Martone, Mario

    2018-02-01

    We initiate a systematic study of four dimensional N = 2 superconformal field theories (SCFTs) based on the analysis of their Coulomb branch geometries. Because these SCFTs are not uniquely characterized by their scale-invariant Coulomb branch geometries we also need information on their deformations. We construct all inequivalent such deformations preserving N = 2 supersymmetry and additional physical consistency conditions in the rank 1 case. These not only include all the ones previously predicted by S-duality, but also 16 additional deformations satisfying all the known N = 2 low energy consistency conditions. All but two of these additonal deformations have recently been identified with new rank 1 SCFTs; these identifications are briefly reviewed. Some novel ingredients which are important for this study include: a discussion of RG-flows in the presence of a moduli space of vacua; a classification of local N = 2 supersymmetry-preserving deformations of unitary N = 2 SCFTs; and an analysis of charge normalizations and the Dirac quantization condition on Coulomb branches. This paper is the first in a series of three. The second paper [1] gives the details of the explicit construction of the Coulomb branch geometries discussed here, while the third [2] discusses the computation of central charges of the associated SCFTs.

  19. An Overview of SBIR Phase 2 Physical Sciences and Biomedical Technologies in Space

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.

    2015-01-01

    Technological innovation is the overall focus of NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. The program invests in the development of innovative concepts and technologies to help NASA's mission directorates address critical research and development needs for agency projects. This report highlights innovative SBIR Phase II projects from 2007-2012 specifically addressing areas in physical sciences and biomedical technologies in space, which is one of six core competencies at NASA Glenn Research Center. There are twenty two technologies featured with emphasis on a wide spectrum of applications such as reusable handheld electrolyte, sensor for bone markers, wideband single crystal transducer, mini treadmill for musculoskeletal, and much more. Each article in this report describes an innovation, technical objective, and highlights NASA commercial and industrial applications. This report serves as an opportunity for NASA personnel including engineers, researchers, and program managers to learn of NASA SBIR's capabilities that might be crosscutting into this technology area. As the result, it would cause collaborations and partnerships between the small companies and NASA Programs and Projects resulting in benefit to both SBIR companies and NASA.

  20. Odyssey in the zepto-space. A voyage in the physics of the LHC

    Giudice, Gian Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Since end of 2009 the mostly ambitioned scientific experiment of all times runs with record energy - and however its goals are scarcely understandable for the generality. This book puts everyone in the position to consecute and reproduce the immediately imminent discoveries in the particle-accelerator project of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. It invites the reader to consider the theory of particle physics with the eyes of an insider, and gives him the tool in the hand in order to comprehend the importance of the mental revolution, the witnesses of which we are at time. To the mostly impressive aspects of this scientific eventure belong the technological innovations in the construction of the LHC. As part of the project history they are described here too. Furthermore this book gives a survey about the scientific goals and expectations connected with the LHC: Does the mysterious Higgs particle really exist? Hides the space a supersymmetry or extends to additional dimensions? How the protons colliding in the LHC ring can give away the mysteries of the origin of our universe? All these questions are explained in the present book by a proved expert. Without any cuts in the exactness the exceedingly technical matter is here presented in a pleasant, accessible style. This books wants not only informate, but also mediate to the reader, which respect and which excitation a physicist feels, when he stands at the threshold to a new era in the understanding of our world.

  1. Space Launch System Base Heating Test: Environments and Base Flow Physics

    Mehta, Manish; Knox, Kyle S.; Seaford, C. Mark; Dufrene, Aaron T.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Space Launch System (SLS) vehicle is composed of four RS-25 liquid oxygen- hydrogen rocket engines in the core-stage and two 5-segment solid rocket boosters and as a result six hot supersonic plumes interact within the aft section of the vehicle during ight. Due to the complex nature of rocket plume-induced ows within the launch vehicle base during ascent and a new vehicle con guration, sub-scale wind tunnel testing is required to reduce SLS base convective environment uncertainty and design risk levels. This hot- re test program was conducted at the CUBRC Large Energy National Shock (LENS) II short-duration test facility to simulate ight from altitudes of 50 kft to 210 kft. The test program is a challenging and innovative e ort that has not been attempted in 40+ years for a NASA vehicle. This presentation discusses the various trends of base convective heat ux and pressure as a function of altitude at various locations within the core-stage and booster base regions of the two-percent SLS wind tunnel model. In-depth understanding of the base ow physics is presented using the test data, infrared high-speed imaging and theory. The normalized test design environments are compared to various NASA semi- empirical numerical models to determine exceedance and conservatism of the ight scaled test-derived base design environments. Brief discussion of thermal impact to the launch vehicle base components is also presented.

  2. The association between sleep duration and physical performance in Chinese community-dwelling elderly.

    Fu, Liyuan; Jia, Liye; Zhang, Wen; Han, Peipei; Kang, Li; Ma, Yixuan; Yu, Hairui; Zhai, Tianqi; Chen, Xiaoyu; Guo, Qi

    2017-01-01

    Physical performance is an important healthy factor in elder people. Good living habits, which include sleep, can maintain physical strength and physical performance. The aim of the present study was to conduct a cross-sectional study to determine the association between total sleep duration and physical performance. Our study population comprised residents of the township central hospital in the suburban of Tianjin, China. We measured muscle strength, walk speed and balance function by grip, 4-m walk test and timed up and go test (TUGT). We divided sleep duration into four groups 8-9h, >9h. A total 898 participants had completed data (392 men and 506 women, mean age 67.71 years). In man, adjusted sleep duration was associated with lower grip in > 9 h group, the mean value (95% CI) was 0.429 (0.409, 0.448), and longer TUGT time was also associated with long sleep duration, 10.46s (9.97 s, 10.95 s). In women, adjusted slower 4-m walk speed present an inverse U-shaped relation with sleep duration, by 0.93 m/s (0.86 m/s, 0.98 m/s), 0.97 m/s (0.96 m/s, 1.00 m/s), 0.97 m/s (0.95 m/s, 0.99 m/s) and 0.92 m/s (0.89 m/s, 0.96 m/s); longer TUGT time were associated with long sleep duration (> 9 h), by 11.23 s (10.70 s, 11.77 s). In Chinese community-dwelling elderly, lower muscle strength and lower balance function were associated with long sleep duration in men. Slower walk speed and lower balance function were associated with long sleep duration in women.

  3. Independent and combined influence of homeownership, occupation, education, income, and community poverty on physical health in persons with arthritis.

    Callahan, Leigh F; Martin, Kathryn Remmes; Shreffler, Jack; Kumar, Deepak; Schoster, Britta; Kaufman, Jay S; Schwartz, Todd A

    2011-05-01

    To examine the independent and combined influence of individual- and community-level socioeconomic status (SES) measures on physical health status outcomes in people with self-reported arthritis. From 2004-2005, 968 participants completed a telephone survey assessing health status, chronic conditions, community characteristics, and sociodemographic variables. Individual-level SES measures used included homeownership, occupation (professional or not), educational attainment (less than high school, high school degree, and more than high school), and income ($45,000). Community poverty (2000 US Census block group percentage of individuals living below the poverty line [low, medium, and high]) was used as a community-level SES measure. Outcomes were physical functioning (Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 12 version 2 physical component summary [PCS]), functional disability (Health Assessment Questionnaire [HAQ]), and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) Healthy Days physical and limited activity days, and were analyzed via multivariable regressions. When entered separately, all individual-level SES variables were significantly (P income, specifically poverty. The magnitude of effect for education is reduced and marginally significant for the PCS and number of physically unhealthy days. No effects were seen for occupation, homeownership, and community poverty. Findings confirm that after adjusting for important covariates, lower individual- and community-level SES measures are associated with poorer physical health outcomes, while household income is the strongest predictor (as measured by both significance and effect) of poorer health status in final models. Studies not having participant-reported income available should make use of other SES measures, as they do independently predict physical health. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  4. Recruitment strategies and costs for a community-based physical activity program.

    Peck, Lara E; Sharpe, Patricia A; Burroughs, Ericka L; Granner, Michelle L

    2008-04-01

    A community-based participatory research project using social marketing strategies was implemented to promote physical activity among women aged 35 to 54 who were insufficiently active or completely inactive. A variety of media were used to disseminate messages about how to enroll in Step Up. Step Out! This article describes the effectiveness and cost of the recruitment strategies and lessons learned in recruiting the women. Of the total inquiries (n = 691), 430 women were eligible and enrolled in the program. Based on data from questionnaires, the most effective method of recruiting women into Step Up. Step Out! was word of mouth (36%). Newspaper ads accounted for 29% of the women's responses. The least effective method was billboards. Mass media was not as effective in recruiting women for the program as interpersonal efforts such as word of mouth. Interpersonal efforts are a valuable and possibly underrated recruitment and promotion tool.

  5. The California active aging community grant program: translating science into practice to promote physical activity in older adults.

    Hooker, Steven P; Seavey, William; Weidmer, Curtiss E; Harvey, Danielle J; Stewart, Anita L; Gillis, Dawn E; Nicholl, Katrina Lennea; King, Abby C

    2005-06-01

    Attempts to study the translation of evidence-based physical activity interventions in community settings are scarce. This project was an investigation of whether 13 diverse local lead agencies could effectively implement a choice-based, telephone-assisted physical activity promotion program for older adults based on intervention models proven efficacious in research settings. At baseline, participants developed their own physical activity programs through an individualized planning session based on preference, health status, readiness to change, and available community resources. Thereafter, participants received regular telephone calls over a 1-year period from a trained staff member or volunteer support buddy. Additional program components consisted of health education workshops, newsletters, and group-based physical activities. Self-report data on caloric expenditure due to all and moderate or greater intensity physical activities were collected from 447 participants (M age = 68 +/- 8.6 years). A significant increase (p activity duration and frequency. These changes were observed in participants across all sites. The increases in weekly caloric expenditure were commensurate with findings from several previous randomized clinical trials. The utilization of community agency staff and volunteers receiving basic training to implement essential program components proved feasible. Very favorable levels of program satisfaction expressed by community staff, volunteer support buddies, and participants, combined with the significant increases in physical activity, warrant further dissemination of the intervention model.

  6. Physical activity as a possible mechanism behind the relationship between green space and health: a multilevel analysis.

    Maas, J.; Verheij, R.A.; Spreeuwenberg, P.; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to investigate whether physical activity (in general, and more specifically, walking and cycling during leisure time and for commuting purposes, sports and gardening) is an underlying mechanism in the relationship between the amount of green space in people's

  7. Assessing participation in community-based physical activity programs in Brazil.

    Reis, Rodrigo S; Yan, Yan; Parra, Diana C; Brownson, Ross C

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to develop and validate a risk prediction model to examine the characteristics that are associated with participation in community-based physical activity programs in Brazil. We used pooled data from three surveys conducted from 2007 to 2009 in state capitals of Brazil with 6166 adults. A risk prediction model was built considering program participation as an outcome. The predictive accuracy of the model was quantified through discrimination (C statistic) and calibration (Brier score) properties. Bootstrapping methods were used to validate the predictive accuracy of the final model. The final model showed sex (women: odds ratio [OR] = 3.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.14-4.71), having less than high school degree (OR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.16-2.53), reporting a good health (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.02-2.24) or very good/excellent health (OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.05-2.51), having any comorbidity (OR = 1.74, 95% CI = 1.26-2.39), and perceiving the environment as safe to walk at night (OR = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.18-2.15) as predictors of participation in physical activity programs. Accuracy indices were adequate (C index = 0.778, Brier score = 0.031) and similar to those obtained from bootstrapping (C index = 0.792, Brier score = 0.030). Sociodemographic and health characteristics as well as perceptions of the environment are strong predictors of participation in community-based programs in selected cities of Brazil.

  8. Community-based physical activity intervention using principles of social marketing: a demonstration project in Southern India.

    Subitha, L; Soudarssanane, M Bala; Murugesan, R

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to study the development and implementation of promotion of physical activity in a rural community by applying the principles of social marketing and to determine participation behaviour in a physical activity programme in a community setting. The intervention targeted 485 people, 20-49 years of age, residents of Periakattupalayam and Rangareddipalayam villages, Tamil Nadu. This community-based participatory research was based on the principles of 'social marketing'. Health education by one-to-one counselling, written materials and community events were used to popularize moderate intensity physical activity (brisk walking for 30 minutes on 4 days/week). We formed 30 walking groups under four coordinators, in a home-based setting with professional supervision and guidance. A log of physical activity sessions for the 10-week intervention period was maintained in the form of group attendance record. Village leaders, self-help groups and youth clubs were involved in promoting physical activity. Of the 485 subjects, 265 people (54.6%) engaged in brisk walking >4 days a week, while 156 subjects (32.2%) performed walking on 1-4 days per week during the intervention. The drop-out rate was 13.2% (64 subjects). Age, occupation and educational status were important determinants of participation and adherence to the physical activity programme. Application of social marketing techniques in an intervention to promote physical activity was successful in a rural Indian community. Studying the determinants of adoption of a physical activity programme and addressing the barriers to behaviour change are essential for designing relevant policies and effective programmes. Copyright 2012, NMJI.

  9. Interests diffusion on a semantic multiplex. Comparing Computer Science and American Physical Society communities

    D'Agostino, Gregorio; De Nicola, Antonio

    2016-10-01

    Exploiting the information about members of a Social Network (SN) represents one of the most attractive and dwelling subjects for both academic and applied scientists. The community of Complexity Science and especially those researchers working on multiplex social systems are devoting increasing efforts to outline general laws, models, and theories, to the purpose of predicting emergent phenomena in SN's (e.g. success of a product). On the other side the semantic web community aims at engineering a new generation of advanced services tailored to specific people needs. This implies defining constructs, models and methods for handling the semantic layer of SNs. We combined models and techniques from both the former fields to provide a hybrid approach to understand a basic (yet complex) phenomenon: the propagation of individual interests along the social networks. Since information may move along different social networks, one should take into account a multiplex structure. Therefore we introduced the notion of "Semantic Multiplex". In this paper we analyse two different semantic social networks represented by authors publishing in the Computer Science and those in the American Physical Society Journals. The comparison allows to outline common and specific features.

  10. Creating Community Resilience Through Elder-Led Physical and Social Infrastructure.

    Aldrich, Daniel P; Kyota, Emi

    2017-02-01

    Natural disasters and rapidly aging populations are chronic problems for societies worldwide. We investigated the effects of an intervention in Japan known as Ibasho, which embeds elderly residents in vulnerable areas within larger social networks and encourages them to participate in leadership activities. This project sought to deepen the connections of these elderly residents to society and to build elderly leadership and community capacity for future crises. We carried out surveys of participants and nonparticipant residents across the city of Ofunato in Tohoku, Japan, 1 year after the intervention began. Our surveys included questions assessing participation levels in Ibasho, demographic characteristics, efficacy, social networks, and a sense of belonging. Regression analysis and propensity score matching of more than 1100 respondents showed that regular participation in the Ibasho project had a statistically significant and positive connection with various measures of social capital. Given its relatively low cost and focus on deepening cohesion, we suggest that this community-based project could be replicated and scaled up in other countries to deepen resilience, elder health, and social capital. Moving away from an emphasis on investing in physical infrastructure, we believe that disaster risk reduction strategies should center on social infrastructure. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:120-126).

  11. Pasung: Physical restraint and confinement of the mentally ill in the community

    Diatri Hervita

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical restraint and confinement (pasung by families of people with mental illness is known to occur in many parts of the world but has attracted limited investigation. This preliminary observational study was carried out on Samosir Island in Sumatra, Indonesia, to investigate the nature of such restraint and confinement, the clinical characteristics of people restrained, and the reasons given by families and communities for applying such restraint. Methods The research method was cross-sectional observational research in a natural setting, carried out during a six-month period of working as the only psychiatrist in a remote district. Results Fifteen cases of pasung, approximately even numbers of males and females and almost all with a diagnosis of schizophrenia were identified. Duration of restraint ranged from two to 21 years. Discussion and Conclusion The provision of basic community mental health services, where there were none before, enabled the majority of the people who had been restrained to receive psychiatric treatment and to be released from pasung.

  12. Sport facility proximity and physical activity: Results from the Study of Community Sports in China.

    Guo, Xiujin; Dai, Jian; Xun, Pengcheng; Jamieson, Lynn M; He, Ka

    2015-01-01

    Increased sport facility proximity is associated with higher likelihood of meeting physical activity (PA) recommendations in western studies, but it is uncertain whether the findings can be generalized to the Chinese population. From September 2012 to December 2012, 3926 participants drawn from China using a multi-stage sampling strategy were invited to participate in the Study of Community Sports in China. Participants' demographics, commuting time to the nearest sport facility and PA levels were assessed. Among 3926 participants included (51.2% female) in the final analysis, 878 (22.4%) of them met the PA recommendation. Participants who spent ≥30 minutes in commuting time had 80% odds [odds ratio (OR): 0.80 (95% CI: 0.65-0.98)] of meeting the PA recommendation compared to those who spent less than 10 minutes. For every 10-minute increment in commuting time, the odds reduced by 6% [OR = 0.94 (0.88-0.99)]. The observed associations were not appreciably modified by age, gender or education level. In this cross-sectional community-based study, we found that residents in China were less likely to meet the PA recommendation if they needed more commuting time to the nearest sport facility. Increasing sport facility proximity may be effective in improving the PA levels in the Chinese population.

  13. Health Impacts of Increased Physical Activity from Changes in Transportation Infrastructure: Quantitative Estimates for Three Communities

    2015-01-01

    Recently, two quantitative tools have emerged for predicting the health impacts of projects that change population physical activity: the Health Economic Assessment Tool (HEAT) and Dynamic Modeling for Health Impact Assessment (DYNAMO-HIA). HEAT has been used to support health impact assessments of transportation infrastructure projects, but DYNAMO-HIA has not been previously employed for this purpose nor have the two tools been compared. To demonstrate the use of DYNAMO-HIA for supporting health impact assessments of transportation infrastructure projects, we employed the model in three communities (urban, suburban, and rural) in North Carolina. We also compared DYNAMO-HIA and HEAT predictions in the urban community. Using DYNAMO-HIA, we estimated benefit-cost ratios of 20.2 (95% C.I.: 8.7–30.6), 0.6 (0.3–0.9), and 4.7 (2.1–7.1) for the urban, suburban, and rural projects, respectively. For a 40-year time period, the HEAT predictions of deaths avoided by the urban infrastructure project were three times as high as DYNAMO-HIA's predictions due to HEAT's inability to account for changing population health characteristics over time. Quantitative health impact assessment coupled with economic valuation is a powerful tool for integrating health considerations into transportation decision-making. However, to avoid overestimating benefits, such quantitative HIAs should use dynamic, rather than static, approaches. PMID:26504832

  14. Investigating fundamental physics and space environment with a dedicated Earth-orbiting spacecraft

    Peron, Roberto

    The near-Earth environment is a place of first choice for performing fundamental physics experiments, given its proximity to Earth and at the same time being relatively quiet dynamically for particular orbital arrangements. This environment also sees a rich phenomenology for what concerns gravitation. In fact, the general theory of relativity is an incredibly accurate description of gravitational phenomenology. However, its overall validity is being questioned by the theories that aim at reconciling it with the microscopic domain. Challenges come also from the ‘mysteries’ of Dark Matter and Dark Energy, though mainly at scales from the galactic up to the cosmological. It is therefore important to precisely test the consequences of the theory -- as well as those of competing ones -- at all the accessible scales. At the same time, the development of high-precision experimental space techniques, which are needed for tests in fundamental physics, opens the way to complementary applications. The growth of the (man-made) orbital debris population is creating problems to the future development of space. The year 2009 witnessed the first accidental collision between two satellites in orbit (Iridium and Cosmos) that led to the creation of more debris. International and national agencies are intervening by issuing and/or adopting guidelines to mitigate the growth of orbital debris. A central tenet of these guidelines requires a presence in space shorter than 25 years to satellites in low Earth orbit (LEO) after the conclusion of their operational lives. However, the determination of the natural lifetime of a satellite in LEO is very uncertain due to a large extent to the short-term and long-term variability of the atmospheric density in LEO and the comparatively low-accuracy of atmospheric density models. Many satellites orbiting in the 500-1200 km region with circular or elliptical orbits will be hard pressed to establish before flight whether or not they meet the 25

  15. Impact of Driving Cessation on Trajectories of Life-Space Scores Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    Huisingh, Carrie; Levitan, Emily B; Sawyer, Patricia; Kennedy, Richard; Brown, Cynthia J; McGwin, Gerald

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the trajectories of life-space before and after the transition to driving cessation among a diverse sample of community-dwelling older adults. Life-space scores and self-reported driving cessation were assessed at annual visits from baseline through Year 6 among participants in the University of Alabama at Birmingham Study of Aging. Approximately 58% of older adults reported having stopped driving during the 6 years of follow-up. After adjusting for potential confounders, results from a random intercept model indicate that mean life-space scores decreased about 1 to 2 points every year ( p = .0011) and approximately 28 points at the time of driving cessation ( p space decline post driving cessation was not significantly different from the rate of decline prior to driving cessation. Driving cessation was associated with a precipitous decline in life-space score; however, the driving cessation event did not accelerate the rate of life-space decline.

  16. Traumatic physical health consequences of intimate partner violence against women: what is the role of community-level factors?

    Antai Diddy

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV against women is a serious public health issue with recognizable direct health consequences. This study assessed the association between IPV and traumatic physical health consequences on women in Nigeria, given that communities exert significant influence on the individuals that are embedded within them, with the nature of influence varying between communities. Methods Cross-sectional nationally-representative data of women aged 15 - 49 years in the 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey was used in this study. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between IPV and several forms of physical health consequences. Results Bruises were the most common form of traumatic physical health consequences. In the adjusted models, the likelihood of sustaining bruises (OR = 1.91, 95% CI = 1.05 - 3.46, wounds (OR = 2.54, 95% CI = 1.31 - 4.95, and severe burns (OR = 3.20, 95% CI = 1.63 - 6.28 was significantly higher for women exposed to IPV compared to those not exposed to IPV. However, after adjusting for individual- and community-level factors, women with husbands/partners with controlling behavior, those with primary or no education, and those resident in communities with high tolerance for wife beating had a higher likelihood of experiencing IPV, whilst mean community-level education and women 24 years or younger were at lower likelihood of experiencing IPV. Conclusions Evidence from this study shows that exposure to IPV is associated with increased likelihood of traumatic physical consequences for women in Nigeria. Education and justification of wife beating were significant community-level factors associated with traumatic physical consequences, suggesting the importance of increasing women's levels of education and changing community norms that justify controlling behavior and IPV.

  17. A retrospective study on changes in residents' physical activities, social interactions, and neighborhood cohesion after moving to a walkable community.

    Zhu, Xuemei; Yu, Chia-Yuan; Lee, Chanam; Lu, Zhipeng; Mann, George

    2014-12-01

    This study is to examine changes in residents' physical activities, social interactions, and neighborhood cohesion after they moved to a walkable community in Austin, Texas. Retrospective surveys (N=449) were administered in 2013-2014 to collect pre- and post-move data about the outcome variables and relevant personal, social, and physical environmental factors. Walkability of each resident's pre-move community was measured using the Walk Score. T tests were used to examine the pre-post move differences in the outcomes in the whole sample and across sub-groups with different physical activity levels, neighborhood conditions, and neighborhood preferences before the move. After the move, total physical activity increased significantly in the whole sample and all sub-groups except those who were previously sufficiently active; lived in communities with high walkability, social interactions, or neighborhood cohesion; or had moderate preference for walkable neighborhoods. Walking in the community increased in the whole sample and all subgroups except those who were previously sufficiently active, moved from high-walkability communities, or had little to no preference for walkable neighborhoods. Social interactions and neighborhood cohesion increased significantly after the move in the whole sample and all sub-groups. This study explored potential health benefits of a walkable community in promoting physically and socially active lifestyles, especially for populations at higher risk of obesity. The initial result is promising, suggesting the need for more work to further examine the relationships between health and community design using pre-post assessments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Did augmenting the VERB campaign advertising in select communities have an effect on awareness, attitudes, and physical activity?

    Berkowitz, Judy M; Huhman, Marian; Nolin, Mary Jo

    2008-06-01

    Although VERB was designed as a national media campaign, funding and donated media time enabled more-intensive advertising and marketing in certain communities. To investigate the effect of increased advertising on physical activity outcomes, six "high-dose" communities were selected to receive more hours of advertising and additional promotional activities. Longitudinal quasi-experimental design comparing outcomes in six communities that received additional VERB marketing activities with outcomes in a comparison group that received only the national dose of advertising. Two cohorts of dyads of youth aged 9-13 years (tweens) and one parent at baseline (2002), followed for 2 years. During the first year of the VERB campaign, each of the six high-dose communities received 50% more advertising and conducted special campaign activities. During the second year, only four of the six communities received the larger dose of advertising and additional promotional activities because of reduced funding. Awareness and understanding of VERB messages; attitudes about physical activity (self-efficacy, social influences, and outcome expectations); and physical activity behaviors. After 1 year, tweens in the high-dose communities reported higher levels of awareness and understanding of VERB and scored higher on the social influences scale than did tweens in a comparison group in areas that received only the national dose of advertising. After 2 years, tweens in the high-dose communities reported higher awareness and understanding of VERB, greater self-efficacy, more sessions of free-time physical activity per week, and were more active on the day before being surveyed than tweens in the comparison group who received the average national dose. Providing communities with a higher dose of marketing activities and sustaining those activities over time yields more positive outcomes.

  19. Interrelation of Sport Participation, Physical Activity, Social Capital and Mental Health in Disadvantaged Communities: A SEM-Analysis.

    Marlier, Mathieu; Van Dyck, Delfien; Cardon, Greet; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Babiak, Kathy; Willem, Annick

    2015-01-01

    The Health through Sport conceptual model links sport participation with physical, social and psychological outcomes and stresses the need for more understanding between these outcomes. The present study aims to uncover how sport participation, physical activity, social capital and mental health are interrelated by examining these outcomes in one model. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in nine disadvantaged communities in Antwerp (Belgium). Two hundred adults (aged 18-56) per community were randomly selected and visited at home to fill out a questionnaire on socio-demographics, sport participation, physical activity, social capital and mental health. A sample of 414 adults participated in the study. Structural Equation Modeling analysis showed that sport participation (β = .095) and not total physical activity (β = .027) was associated with better mental health. No association was found between sport participation and community social capital (β = .009) or individual social capital (β = .045). Furthermore, only community social capital was linked with physical activity (β = .114), individual social capital was not (β = -.013). In contrast, only individual social capital was directly associated with mental health (β = .152), community social capital was not (β = .070). This study emphasizes the importance of sport participation and individual social capital to improve mental health in disadvantaged communities. It further gives a unique insight into the functionalities of how sport participation, physical activity, social capital and mental health are interrelated. Implications for policy are that cross-sector initiatives between the sport, social and health sector need to be supported as their outcomes are directly linked to one another.

  20. Interrelation of Sport Participation, Physical Activity, Social Capital and Mental Health in Disadvantaged Communities: A SEM-Analysis

    Marlier, Mathieu; Van Dyck, Delfien; Cardon, Greet; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Babiak, Kathy; Willem, Annick

    2015-01-01

    Background The Health through Sport conceptual model links sport participation with physical, social and psychological outcomes and stresses the need for more understanding between these outcomes. The present study aims to uncover how sport participation, physical activity, social capital and mental health are interrelated by examining these outcomes in one model. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in nine disadvantaged communities in Antwerp (Belgium). Two hundred adults (aged 18–56) per community were randomly selected and visited at home to fill out a questionnaire on socio-demographics, sport participation, physical activity, social capital and mental health. A sample of 414 adults participated in the study. Results Structural Equation Modeling analysis showed that sport participation (β = .095) and not total physical activity (β = .027) was associated with better mental health. No association was found between sport participation and community social capital (β = .009) or individual social capital (β = .045). Furthermore, only community social capital was linked with physical activity (β = .114), individual social capital was not (β = -.013). In contrast, only individual social capital was directly associated with mental health (β = .152), community social capital was not (β = .070). Conclusion This study emphasizes the importance of sport participation and individual social capital to improve mental health in disadvantaged communities. It further gives a unique insight into the functionalities of how sport participation, physical activity, social capital and mental health are interrelated. Implications for policy are that cross-sector initiatives between the sport, social and health sector need to be supported as their outcomes are directly linked to one another. PMID:26451731

  1. Yoga Communities and Eating Disorders: Creating Safe Space for Positive Embodiment.

    Cook-Cottone, Catherine; Douglass, Laura Lee

    2017-11-01

    With adequate education and guidance, yoga communities, as part of the therapeutic landscape in the 21st century, can play a significant role promoting positive embodiment for those with, and at-risk for, eating disorders (EDs). To do this, yoga teachers need to know how to create a body-positive community and be able to recognize and respond to those at risk and struggling with EDs in their communities. In order to address yoga teaching methods associated with EDs and ED risk, broader conceptual approaches and specific practices associated with positive embodiment are offered. These include the broader conceptual approaches of: intentional inclusion and acceptance, experiential emphasis, supporting positive embodiment and inquiry. Studio pragmatics are also detailed as related to the body, breath, emotions, and community. Assessment, referral, and community engagement are also addressed.

  2. Physical activity, obesity, weight change, and risk of atrial fibrillation: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study.

    Huxley, Rachel R; Misialek, Jeffrey R; Agarwal, Sunil K; Loehr, Laura R; Soliman, Elsayed Z; Chen, Lin Y; Alonso, Alvaro

    2014-08-01

    Physical activity (PA) has previously been suggested to attenuate the risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) conferred by excess body weight and weight gain. We prospectively examined the relationship between body size, weight change, and level of PA in a biracial cohort of middle-aged men and women. Baseline characteristics on risk factor levels were obtained on 14 219 participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. AF incidence was ascertained from 1987 to 2009. Adjusted Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the associations between body mass index, waist circumference, relative weight change, and PA level with incident AF. During follow-up, there were 1775 cases of incident AF. Body mass index and waist circumference were positively associated with AF as was weight loss/gain of >5% initial body weight. An ideal level of PA had a small protective effect on AF risk and partially attenuated the risk of AF associated with excess weight in men but not women: compared with men with a normal body mass index, the risk of AF in obese men with an ideal, intermediate, and poor level of PA at baseline was increased by 37%, 129%, and 156% (Pinteraction=0.04). During follow-up, PA did not modify the association between weight gain and risk of AF. Obesity and extreme weight change are risk factors for incident AF, whereas being physically active is associated with a small reduction in risk. In men only, being physically active offset some, but not all, of the risk incurred with excess body weight. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. A Community Based Study to Test the Reliability and Validity of Physical Activity Measurement Techniques

    Puneet Misra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Physical activity (PA is protective against non-communicable diseases and it can reduce premature mortality. However, it is difficult to assess the frequency, duration, type and intensity of PA. The global physical activity questionnaire (GPAQ has been developed by World Health Organization with the aim of having valid and reliable estimates of PA. The primary aim of this study is to assess the repeatability of the GPAQ instrument and the secondary aim is to validate it against International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ and against an objective measure of PA (i.e., using pedometers in both rural and peri-urban areas of North India. Methods: A total of 262 subjects were recruited by random selection from Ballabgarh Block of Haryana State in India. For test retest repeatability of GPAQ and IPAQ, the instruments were administered on two occasions separated by at least 3 days. For concurrent validity, both questionnaires were administered in random order and for criterion validity step counters were used. Spearman′s correlation coefficient, intra-class correlation (ICC and Cohen′s kappa was used in the analysis. Results: For GPAQ validity, the spearman′s Rho ranged from 0.40 to 0.59 and ICC ranged from 0.43 to 0.81 while for IPAQ validity, spearman correlation coefficient ranged from 0.42 to 0.43 and ICC ranged from 0.56 to 0.68. The observed concurrent validity coefficients suggested that both the questionnaires had reasonable agreement (Spearman Rho of >0.90; P < 0.0001; ICC: 0.76-0.91, P < 0.05. Conclusions: GPAQ is similar to IPAQ in measuring PA and can be used for measurement of PA in community settings.

  4. The Efforts of the American Geophysical Union Space Physics and Aeronomy Section Education and Public Outreach Committee to Use NASA Research in Education and Outreach

    Bering, E. A., III; Dusenbery, P.; Gross, N. A.; Johnson, R.; Lopez, R. E.; Lysak, R. L.; Moldwin, M.; Morrow, C. A.; Nichols-Yehling, M.; Peticolas, L. M.; Reiff, P. H.; Scherrer, D. K.; Thieman, J.; Wawro, M.; Wood, E. L.

    2017-12-01

    The American Geophysical Union Space Physics and Aeronomy Section Education and Public Outreach Committee (AGU SPA-EPO Committee) was established in 1990 to foster the growth of a culture of outreach and community engagement within the SPA Section of the AGU. The SPA was the first AGU Section to establish an EPO Committee. The Committee has initiated several key Section EPO programs that have grown to become Union programs. NASA sponsored research is central to the mission of the SPE-EPO. Programs highlighting NASA research include the Student Paper Competition, Exploration Station, a precursor to the GIFT workshops, the Student mixer, and more. The Committee played a key role in coordinating the AGU's outreach activities relating to the International Heliophysical Year in 2007-2008. This paper will review the triumphs, the failures, and the lessons learned about recruiting colleagues to join with us from the last quarter century of effort.

  5. Advancing Space Sciences through Undergraduate Research Experiences at UC Berkeley's Space Sciences Laboratory - a novel approach to undergraduate internships for first generation community college students

    Raftery, C. L.; Davis, H. B.; Peticolas, L. M.; Paglierani, R.

    2015-12-01

    The Space Sciences Laboratory at UC Berkeley launched an NSF-funded Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) program in the summer of 2015. The "Advancing Space Sciences through Undergraduate Research Experiences" (ASSURE) program recruited heavily from local community colleges and universities, and provided a multi-tiered mentorship program for students in the fields of space science and engineering. The program was focussed on providing a supportive environment for 2nd and 3rd year undergraduates, many of whom were first generation and underrepresented students. This model provides three levels of mentorship support for the participating interns: 1) the primary research advisor provides academic and professional support. 2) The program coordinator, who meets with the interns multiple times per week, provides personal support and helps the interns to assimilate into the highly competitive environment of the research laboratory. 3) Returning undergraduate interns provided peer support and guidance to the new cohort of students. The impacts of this program on the first generation students and the research mentors, as well as the lessons learned will be discussed.

  6. A qualitative study of advanced nurse practitioners’ use of physical assessment skills in the community: shifting skills across professional boundaries

    Raleigh, Mary; Allan, Helen T.

    2017-01-01

    Aim\\ud To explore multiple perspectives on the use of physical assessment skills by Advanced Nurse Practitioners in the UK\\ud Background \\ud Physical assessment skills practices are embedded in advanced nursing practice roles in the UK. There is little evidence on how these skills are used by Advanced Nurse Practitioners' on the community.\\ud Design \\ud Case study\\ud Methodology and methods. \\ud A qualitative interpretative single-embedded case study of 22 participants from South of England. ...

  7. Physics-based Space Weather Forecasting in the Project for Solar-Terrestrial Environment Prediction (PSTEP) in Japan

    Kusano, K.

    2016-12-01

    Project for Solar-Terrestrial Environment Prediction (PSTEP) is a Japanese nation-wide research collaboration, which was recently launched. PSTEP aims to develop a synergistic interaction between predictive and scientific studies of the solar-terrestrial environment and to establish the basis for next-generation space weather forecasting using the state-of-the-art observation systems and the physics-based models. For this project, we coordinate the four research groups, which develop (1) the integration of space weather forecast system, (2) the physics-based solar storm prediction, (3) the predictive models of magnetosphere and ionosphere dynamics, and (4) the model of solar cycle activity and its impact on climate, respectively. In this project, we will build the coordinated physics-based model to answer the fundamental questions concerning the onset of solar eruptions and the mechanism for radiation belt dynamics in the Earth's magnetosphere. In this paper, we will show the strategy of PSTEP, and discuss about the role and prospect of the physics-based space weather forecasting system being developed by PSTEP.

  8. An analysis of the suitability of public spaces to physical activity practice in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Vieira, Marcelo Carvalho; Sperandei, Sandro; Reis, Arianne; da Silva, Cláudia Gonçalves Thaumaturgo

    2013-09-01

    To assess the physical characteristics of public spaces designed for sport/physical activity/leisure in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and their relationship to the socioeconomic indicators. Public spaces (n = 38) spread across the city were evaluated between December 2011 and January 2012 using the Physical Activity Resource Assessment (PARA) instrument. Based on PARA results, a Quality Indicator (QI) was prepared and the sample was grouped into "High QI" and "Low QI" using a k-means clustering algorithm. The association between QI and the local Social Development Index (SDI) was tested using a Chi-square test. The average QI was 13.6 ± 4.91 and the median was equal to 13 points. The High QI group, composed of sites with a QI above median, reached 17.9 ± 2.35 points, while the Low QI group reached 9.3 ± 2.16 points. Pearson's Chi-square tests identified a significant association between QI and SDI when the value of SDI 0.7 was used as a criterion for separation (χ(2) = 17.84, p public spaces usually had a lower QI. Policies to encourage physical activity need to focus attention on the built environment also, particularly in socially vulnerable areas. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. CORRELATIONS BETWEEN MUSCLE MASS, MUSCLE STRENGTH, PHYSICAL PERFORMANCE, AND MUSCLE FATIGUE RESISTANCE IN COMMUNITY-DWELLING ELDERLY SUBJECTS

    Elizabeth

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the correlations between muscle mass, muscle strength, physical performance, and muscle fatigue resistance in community-dwelling elderly people in order to elucidate factors which contribute to elderly’s performance of daily activities. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on community-dwelling elderly in Bandung from September to December 2014. One hundred and thirty elderly, 60 years old or above, were evaluated using bioelectrical impedance analysis to measure muscle mass; grip strength to measure muscle strength and muscle fatigue resistance; habitual gait speed to measure physical performance; and Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ to assess physical activity. Results: There were significant positive correlations between muscle mass (r=0,27, p=0,0019, muscle strength (r=0,26, p=0,0024, and physical performance (r=0,32, p=0,0002 with muscle fatigue resistance. Physical performance has the highest correlation based on multiple regression test (p=0,0025. In association with muscle mass, the physical activity showed a significant positive correlation (r=0,42, p=0,0000. Sarcopenia was identified in 19 (14.61% of 130 subjects. Conclusions: It is suggested that muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical performance influence muscle fatigue resistance.

  10. [Association of the physical activity of community-dwelling older adults with transportation modes, depression and social networks].

    Tsunoda, Kenji; Mitsuishi, Yasuhiro; Tsuji, Taishi; Yoon, Ji-Yeong; Muraki, Toshiaki; Hotta, Kazushi; Okura, Tomohiro

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to cross-sectionally examine the relationships among leisure, household and occupational physical activity with the frequency of going out by various transportation modes, depression and social networks in older adults. We randomly selected a total of 2,100 community-dwelling adults aged 65 to 85 years of age from the Basic Resident Register. Of these, 340 people were the subjects of this study. The scales of measurement used were the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly, the Lubben Social Network Scale (LSNS) and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). In a regression model, leisure-time physical activity significantly correlated with frequency of going out by bicycle (β=0.17) and LSNS score (β=0.17). Household physical activity and occupational physical activity were significantly correlated with LSNS score (β=0.21) and frequency of going out by motor vehicle (β=0.25), respectively. For total physical activity, in the 3 above-mentioned activities a significant correlation was observed among frequency of going out by bicycle (β=0.10), by motor vehicle (β=0.23), GDS score (β=-0.16) and LSNS score (β=0.23). These results indicate that the frequency of going out by bicycle and by motor vehicle were significant factors to predict leisure and occupational physical activity. Furthermore, social networks appear to be important determiners in leisure and household physical activity in community-dwelling older adults.

  11. Spinorial space-time and the origin of Quantum Mechanics. The dynamical role of the physical vacuum

    Gonzalez-Mestres, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Is Quantum Mechanics really and ultimate principle of Physics described by a set of intrinsic exact laws? Are standard particles the ultimate constituents of matter? The two questions appear to be closely related, as a preonic structure of the physical vacuum would have an influence on the properties of quantum particles. Although the first preon models were just « quark-like » and assumed preons to be direct constituents of the conventional « elementary » particles, we suggested in 1995 that preons could instead be constituents of the physical vacuum (the superbradyon hypothesis). Standard particles would then be excitations of the preonic vacuum and have substantially different properties from those of preons themselves (critical speed…). The standard laws of Particle Physics would be approximate expressions generated from basic preon dynamics. In parallel, the mathematical properties of space-time structures such as the spinoral space-time (SST) we introduced in 1996-97 can have strong implications for Quantum Mechanics and even be its real origin. We complete here our recent discussion of the subject by pointing out that: i) Quantum Mechanics corresponds to a natural set of properties of vacuum excitations in the presence of a SST geometry ; ii) the recently observed entanglement at long distances would be a logical property if preons are superluminal (superbradyons), so that superluminal signals and correlations can propagate in vacuum ; iii) in a specific description, the function of space-time associated to the extended internal structure of a spin-1/2 particle at very small distances may be incompatible with a continuous motion at space and time scales where the internal structure of vacuum can be felt. In the dynamics associated to iii), and using the SST approach to space-time, a contradiction can appear between macroscopic and microscopic space-times due to an overlap in the time variable directly related to the fact that a spinorial function takes

  12. Toddler physical activity study: laboratory and community studies to evaluate accelerometer validity and correlates

    Erin R. Hager

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toddlerhood is an important age for physical activity (PA promotion to prevent obesity and support a physically active lifestyle throughout childhood. Accurate assessment of PA is needed to determine trends/correlates of PA, time spent in sedentary, light, or moderate-vigorous PA (MVPA, and the effectiveness of PA promotion programs. Due to the limited availability of objective measures that have been validated and evaluated for feasibility in community studies, it is unclear which subgroups of toddlers are at the highest risk for inactivity. Using Actical ankle accelerometry, the objectives of this study are to develop valid thresholds, examine feasibility, and examine demographic/ anthropometric PA correlates of MVPA among toddlers from low-income families. Methods Two studies were conducted with toddlers (12–36 months. Laboratory Study (n = 24- Two Actical accelerometers were placed on the ankle. PA was observed using the Child Activity Rating Scale (CARS, prescribed activities. Analyses included device equivalence reliability (correlation: activity counts of two Acticals, criterion-related validity (correlation: activity counts and CARS ratings, and sensitivity/specificity for thresholds. Community Study (n = 277, low-income mother-toddler dyads recruited- An Actical was worn on the ankle for > 7 days (goal >5, 24-h days. Height/weight was measured. Mothers reported demographics. Analyses included frequencies (feasibility and stepwise multiple linear regression (sMLR. Results Laboratory Study- Acticals demonstrated reliability (r = 0.980 and validity (r = 0.75. Thresholds demonstrated sensitivity (86 % and specificity (88 %. Community Study- 86 % wore accelerometer, 69 % had valid data (mean = 5.2 days. Primary reasons for missing/invalid data: refusal (14 % and wear-time ≤2 days (11 %. The MVPA threshold (>2200 cpm yielded 54 min/day. In sMLR, MVPA was associated with age (older

  13. Solving kinetic equations with adaptive mesh in phase space for rarefied gas dynamics and plasma physics (Invited)

    Kolobov, Vladimir; Arslanbekov, Robert; Frolova, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The paper describes an Adaptive Mesh in Phase Space (AMPS) technique for solving kinetic equations with deterministic mesh-based methods. The AMPS technique allows automatic generation of adaptive Cartesian mesh in both physical and velocity spaces using a Tree-of-Trees data structure. We illustrate advantages of AMPS for simulations of rarefied gas dynamics and electron kinetics on low temperature plasmas. In particular, we consider formation of the velocity distribution functions in hypersonic flows, particle kinetics near oscillating boundaries, and electron kinetics in a radio-frequency sheath. AMPS provide substantial savings in computational cost and increased efficiency of the mesh-based kinetic solvers

  14. Solving kinetic equations with adaptive mesh in phase space for rarefied gas dynamics and plasma physics (Invited)

    Kolobov, Vladimir [CFD Research Corporation, Huntsville, AL 35805, USA and The University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Arslanbekov, Robert [CFD Research Corporation, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Frolova, Anna [Computing Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 119333 (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-09

    The paper describes an Adaptive Mesh in Phase Space (AMPS) technique for solving kinetic equations with deterministic mesh-based methods. The AMPS technique allows automatic generation of adaptive Cartesian mesh in both physical and velocity spaces using a Tree-of-Trees data structure. We illustrate advantages of AMPS for simulations of rarefied gas dynamics and electron kinetics on low temperature plasmas. In particular, we consider formation of the velocity distribution functions in hypersonic flows, particle kinetics near oscillating boundaries, and electron kinetics in a radio-frequency sheath. AMPS provide substantial savings in computational cost and increased efficiency of the mesh-based kinetic solvers.

  15. Makerspace in STEM for Girls: A Physical Space to Develop Twenty-First-Century Skills

    Sheffield, Rachel; Koul, Rekha; Blackley, Susan; Maynard, Nicoleta

    2017-01-01

    "Makerspace" has been lauded as a new way forward to create communities, empower students and bring together enthusiasts of all ages and skill levels "to tinker" and create. Makerspace education has been touted as having the potential to empower young people to become agents of change in their communities. This paper examines…

  16. Integrating ISHM with Flight Avionics Architectures for Cyber-Physical Space Systems, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Autonomous, avionic and robotic systems are used in a variety of applications including launch vehicles, robotic precursor platforms, etc. Most avionic innovations...

  17. Community

    stability Science & Innovation Collaboration Careers Community Environment Science & Innovation Recruitment Events Community Commitment Giving Campaigns, Drives Economic Development Employee Funded neighbor pledge: contribute to quality of life in Northern New Mexico through economic development

  18. A Coupled Community-Level Assessment of Social and Physical Vulnerability to Hurricane Disasters

    Kim, J. H.; Sutley, E. J.; Chowdhury, A. G.; Hamideh, S.

    2017-12-01

    A significant portion of the U.S. building inventory exists in hurricane- and flood-prone regions. The accompanying storm surge and rising water levels often result in the inundation of residential homes, particularly those occupied by low income households and forcing displacement. In order to mitigate potential damages, a popular design technique is to elevate the structure using piers or piles to above the base flood elevation. This is observed for single-family and multi-family homes, including manufactured homes and post-disaster temporary housing, albeit at lower elevations. Although this design alleviates potential flood damage, it affects the wind-structure interaction by subjecting the structure to higher wind speeds due to its increased height and also having a path for the wind to pass underneath the structure potentially creating new vulnerabilities to wind loading. The current ASCE 7 Standard (2016) does not include a methodology for addressing the modified aerodynamics and estimating wind loads for elevated structures, and thus the potential vulnerability during high wind events is unaccounted for in design. Using experimentally measured wind pressures on elevated and non-elevated residential building models, tax data, and census data, a coupled vulnerability assessment is performed at the community-level. Galveston, Texas is selected as the case study community. Using the coupled assessment model, a hindcast of 2008 Hurricane Ike is used for predicting physical damage and household dislocation. The predicted results are compared with the actual outcomes of the 2008 hurricane disaster. Recommendations are made (1) for code adoption based on the experimentally measured wind loads, and (2) for mitigation actions and policies that would could decrease population dislocation and promote recovery.

  19. Internet end-to-end performance monitoring for the High Energy Nuclear and Particle Physics community

    Matthews, W.

    2000-02-22

    Modern High Energy Nuclear and Particle Physics (HENP) experiments at Laboratories around the world present a significant challenge to wide area networks. Petabytes (1015) or exabytes (1018) of data will be generated during the lifetime of the experiment. Much of this data will be distributed via the Internet to the experiment's collaborators at Universities and Institutes throughout the world for analysis. In order to assess the feasibility of the computing goals of these and future experiments, the HENP networking community is actively monitoring performance across a large part of the Internet used by its collaborators. Since 1995, the pingER project has been collecting data on ping packet loss and round trip times. In January 2000, there are 28 monitoring sites in 15 countries gathering data on over 2,000 end-to-end pairs. HENP labs such as SLAC, Fermi Lab and CERN are using Advanced Network's Surveyor project and monitoring performance from one-way delay of UDP packets. More recently several HENP sites have become involved with NLANR's active measurement program (AMP). In addition SLAC and CERN are part of the RIPE test-traffic project and SLAC is home for a NIMI machine. The large End-to-end performance monitoring infrastructure allows the HENP networking community to chart long term trends and closely examine short term glitches across a wide range of networks and connections. The different methodologies provide opportunities to compare results based on different protocols and statistical samples. Understanding agreement and discrepancies between results provides particular insight into the nature of the network. This paper will highlight the practical side of monitoring by reviewing the special needs of High Energy Nuclear and Particle Physics experiments and provide an overview of the experience of measuring performance across a large number of interconnected networks throughout the world with various methodologies. In particular, results

  20. Internet end-to-end performance monitoring for the High Energy Nuclear and Particle Physics community

    Matthews, W.

    2000-01-01

    Modern High Energy Nuclear and Particle Physics (HENP) experiments at Laboratories around the world present a significant challenge to wide area networks. Petabytes (1015) or exabytes (1018) of data will be generated during the lifetime of the experiment. Much of this data will be distributed via the Internet to the experiment's collaborators at Universities and Institutes throughout the world for analysis. In order to assess the feasibility of the computing goals of these and future experiments, the HENP networking community is actively monitoring performance across a large part of the Internet used by its collaborators. Since 1995, the pingER project has been collecting data on ping packet loss and round trip times. In January 2000, there are 28 monitoring sites in 15 countries gathering data on over 2,000 end-to-end pairs. HENP labs such as SLAC, Fermi Lab and CERN are using Advanced Network's Surveyor project and monitoring performance from one-way delay of UDP packets. More recently several HENP sites have become involved with NLANR's active measurement program (AMP). In addition SLAC and CERN are part of the RIPE test-traffic project and SLAC is home for a NIMI machine. The large End-to-end performance monitoring infrastructure allows the HENP networking community to chart long term trends and closely examine short term glitches across a wide range of networks and connections. The different methodologies provide opportunities to compare results based on different protocols and statistical samples. Understanding agreement and discrepancies between results provides particular insight into the nature of the network. This paper will highlight the practical side of monitoring by reviewing the special needs of High Energy Nuclear and Particle Physics experiments and provide an overview of the experience of measuring performance across a large number of interconnected networks throughout the world with various methodologies. In particular, results from each project

  1. Future In-Space Operations (FISO): A Working Group and Community Engagement

    Thronson, Harley; Lester, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Long-duration human capabilities beyond low Earth orbit (LEO), either in support of or as an alternative to lunar surface operations, have been assessed at least since the late 1960s. Over the next few months, we will present short histories of concepts for long-duration, free-space human habitation beyond LEO from the end of the Apollo program to the Decadal Planning Team (DPT)/NASA Exploration Team (NExT), which was active in 1999 2000 (see Forging a vision: NASA s Decadal Planning Team and the origins of the Vision for Space Exploration , The Space Review, December 19, 2005). Here we summarize the brief existence of the Future In-Space Operations (FISO) working group in 2005 2006 and its successor, a telecon-based colloquium series, which we co-moderate.

  2. SPACE for physical activity - a multicomponent intervention study: study design and baseline findings from a cluster randomized controlled trial

    Kristensen Peter L

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the School site, Play Spot, Active transport, Club fitness and Environment (SPACE Study was to develop, document, and assess a comprehensive intervention in local school districts that promote everyday physical activity (PA among 11-15-year-old adolescents. The study is based on a social ecological framework, and is designed to implement organizational and structural changes in the physical environment. Methods/design The SPACE Study used a cluster randomized controlled study design. Twenty-one eligible schools in the Region of Southern Denmark were matched and randomized in seven pairs according to eight matching variables summarized in an audit tool (crow-fly distance from residence to school for 5-6th graders; area household income; area education level; area ethnicity distribution; school district urbanity; condition and characteristics of school outdoor areas; school health policy; and active transport in the local area. Baseline measurements with accelerometers, questionnaires, diaries, and physical fitness tests were obtained in Spring 2010 in 5-6th grade in 7 intervention and 7 control schools, with follow-up measurements to be taken in Spring 2012 in 7-8th grade. The primary outcome measure is objective average daily physical activity and will be supported by analyses of time spent in moderate to vigorous activity and time spent sedentary. Other secondary outcome measures will be obtained, such as, overweight, physical fitness, active commuting to/from school and physical activity in recess periods. Discussion A total of 1348 adolescents in 5-6th grade in the Region of Southern Denmark participated at baseline (n = 14 schools. The response rate was high in all type of measurements (72.6-97.4%. There were no significant differences between intervention and control groups at baseline according to selected background variables and outcome measures: gender (p = .54, age (p = .17, BMI (p = .59, waist

  3. The Recreovía of Bogotá, a Community-Based Physical Activity Program to Promote Physical Activity among Women: Baseline Results of the Natural Experiment Al Ritmo de las Comunidades.

    Sarmiento, Olga L; Rios, Ana Paola; Paez, Diana C; Quijano, Karoll; Fermino, Rogério César

    2017-06-13

    Community-based physical activity (PA) programs in Latin America have been recognized because of the use of available environmental resources to offer PA classes. Yet, the evaluation of programs focused on PA classes involving dancing in public spaces is limited. The aim of this study was to assess the physical activity levels, park use, and the contextual characteristics of public parks with and without the Recreovía in Bogotá in Colombia. Al Ritmo de las Comunidades is a natural experiment conducted in nine parks (3 parks implementing new Recreovías, 3 control parks and 3 parks with existing Recreovías) during 2013. We used the System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities to evaluate park use (gender, age, and physical activity level) and target areas. A total of 4925 people were observed during 702 observation visits to parks. The percentage of women was higher in parks with Recreovía, compared to parks without Recreovía (53% vs. 40% vs. 33%; p < 0.001). Women using parks with Recreovía compared to women in parks without Recreovía were less likely to be sedentary (25% vs. 39%; p < 0.0001) and more likely to engage in moderate-to-vigorous activity (75% vs. 61%; p < 0.0001). Among men, the activity pattern was the opposite. The Recreovía is a promising strategy to promote park use and PA, especially among women who are less likely to meet PA recommendations during their leisure time. The provision of a cost-free community program may be an effective approach and a good investment for health.

  4. A Preliminary Study on the Efficacy of a Community-Based Physical Activity Intervention on Physical Function-Related Risk Factors for Falls Among Breast Cancer Survivors.

    Lee, C Ellen; Warden, Stuart J; Szuck, Beth; Lau, Y K James

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a 6-week community-based physical activity (PA) intervention on physical function-related risk factors for falls among 56 breast cancer survivors (BCS) who had completed treatments. This was a single-group longitudinal study. The multimodal PA intervention included aerobic, strengthening, and balance components. Physical function outcomes based on the 4-meter walk, chair stand, one-leg stance, tandem walk, and dynamic muscular endurance tests were assessed at 6-week pre-intervention (T1), baseline (T2), and post-intervention (T3). T1 to T2 and T2 to T3 were the control and intervention periods, respectively. All outcomes, except the tandem walk test, significantly improved after the intervention period (P control period (P > 0.05). Based on the falls risk criterion in the one-leg stance test, the proportion at risk for falls was significantly lower after the intervention period (P = 0.04), but not after the control period. A community-based multimodal PA intervention for BCS may be efficacious in improving physical function-related risk factors for falls, and lowering the proportion of BCS at risk for falls based on specific physical function-related falls criteria. Further larger trials are needed to confirm these preliminary findings.

  5. A Preliminary Study on the Efficacy of a Community-Based Physical Activity Intervention on Physical Function-Related Risk Factors for Falls among Breast Cancer Survivors

    Lee, C. Ellen; Warden, Stuart J.; Szuck, Beth; Lau, Y.K. James

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a 6-week community-based physical activity (PA) intervention on physical function-related risk factors for falls among 56 breast cancer survivors (BCS) who had completed treatments. Design This was a single-group longitudinal study. The multimodal PA intervention included aerobic, strengthening and balance components. Physical function outcomes based on the 4-meter walk, chair stand, one-leg stance, tandem walk, and dynamic muscular endurance tests were assessed at 6-week pre-intervention (T1), baseline (T2), and post-intervention (T3). T1-T2 and T2-T3 were the control and intervention periods, respectively. Results All outcomes, except the tandem walk test, significantly improved after the intervention period (p 0.05). Based on the falls risk criterion in the one-leg stance test, the proportion at risk for falls was significantly lower after the intervention period (p = 0.04), but not after the control period. Conclusions A community-based multimodal PA intervention for BCS may be efficacious in improving physical function-related risk factors for falls, and lowering the proportion of BCS at risk for falls based on specific physical function-related falls criteria. Further larger trials are needed to confirm these preliminary findings. PMID:26829081

  6. 3rd International Conference on Particle Physics Beyond the Standard Model : Accelerator, Non-Accelerator and Space Approaches

    Beyond The Desert 2002

    2003-01-01

    The third conference on particle physics beyond the Standard Model (BEYOND THE DESERT'02 - Accelerator, Non-accelerator and Space Approaches) was held during 2--7 June, 2002 at the Finish town of Oulu, almost at the northern Arctic Circle. It was the first of the BEYOND conference series held outside Germany (CERN Courier March 2003, pp. 29-30). Traditionally the Scientific Programme of BEYOND conferences, brought into life in 1997 (see CERN Courier, November 1997, pp.16-18), covers almost all topics of modern particle physics (see contents).

  7. Shared use of school facilities with community organizations and afterschool physical activity program participation: a cost-benefit assessment.

    Kanters, Michael A; Bocarro, Jason N; Filardo, Mary; Edwards, Michael B; McKenzie, Thomas L; Floyd, Myron F

    2014-05-01

    Partnerships between school districts and community-based organizations to share school facilities during afterschool hours can be an effective strategy for increasing physical activity. However, the perceived cost of shared use has been noted as an important reason for restricting community access to schools. This study examined shared use of middle school facilities, the amount and type of afterschool physical activity programs provided at middle schools together with the costs of operating the facilities. Afterschool programs were assessed for frequency, duration, and type of structured physical activity programs provided and the number of boys and girls in each program. School operating costs were used to calculate a cost per student and cost per building square foot measure. Data were collected at all 30 middle schools in a large school district over 12 months in 2010-2011. Policies that permitted more use of school facilities for community-sponsored programs increased participation in afterschool programs without a significant increase in operating expenses. These results suggest partnerships between schools and other community agencies to share facilities and create new opportunities for afterschool physical activity programs are a promising health promotion strategy. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  8. Coping with pain in the hip or knee in relation to physical disability in community-living elderly people

    Hopman-Rock, M.; Kraaimaat, F. W.; Odding, E.; Bijlsma, J. W.

    1998-01-01

    To investigate the use of pain coping strategies by community-living older people with pain in the hip or knee and the mediating role of coping with pain in the relationship between the chronicity of pain and physical disability. A group of 157 people with pain "in the last month" was identified.

  9. Technology-Enhanced Physics Programme for Community-Based Science Learning: Innovative Design and Programme Evaluation in a Theme Park

    Tho, Siew Wei; Chan, Ka Wing; Yeung, Yau Yuen

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a new physics education programme is specifically developed for a famous theme park in Hong Kong to provide community-based science learning to her visitors, involving her three newly constructed rides. We make innovative use of digital technologies in this programme and incorporate a rigorous evaluation of the learning…

  10. Mapping Physical Education Teachers' Professional Learning and Impacts on Pupil Learning in a Community of Practice in South Korea

    Yoon, Keejoon; Armour, Kathleen M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: A new national physical education (PE) curriculum has been developed in South Korea and PE teachers have been challenged to deliver new transferable educational outcomes in character development through PE. In one geographical area, in order to support teachers to make required changes, a Communities of Practice (CoP) approach to…

  11. Physical activity levels of community-dwelling older adults are influenced by winter weather variables.

    Jones, G R; Brandon, C; Gill, D P

    2017-07-01

    Winter weather conditions may negatively influence participation of older adults in daily physical activity (PA). Assess the influence of winter meteorological variables, day-time peak ambient temperature, windchill, humidity, and snow accumulation on the ground to accelerometer measured PA values in older adults. 50 community-dwelling older adults (77.4±4.7yrs; range 71-89; 12 females) living in Southwestern Ontario (Latitude 42.9°N Longitude 81.2° W) Canada, wore a waist-borne accelerometer during active waking hours (12h) for 7 consecutive days between February and April 2007. Hourly temperature, windchill, humidity, and snowfall accumulation were obtained from meteorological records and time locked to hourly accelerometer PA values. Regression analysis revealed significant relationships between time of day, ambient daytime high temperature and a humidity for participation in PA. Windchill temperature added no additional influence over PA acclamation already influenced by ambient day-time temperature and the observed variability in PA patterns relative to snow accumulation over the study period was too great to warrant its inclusion in the model. Most PA was completed in the morning hours and increased as the winter month's transitioned to spring (February through April). An equation was developed to adjust for winter weather conditions using temperature, humidity and time of day. Accurate PA assessment during the winter months must account for the ambient daytime high temperatures, humidity, and time of day. These older adults were more physically active during the morning hours and became more active as the winter season transitioned to spring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Physical Space and the Resource-Based View of the College

    Fugazzotto, Sam J.

    2010-01-01

    Space serves as a key resource for colleges and universities, and institutions exchange information about it with each other and with prospective students. Using content analysis to examine several widely circulated publications, this study looked for differences in the value attributed to space when institutional leaders present it to students…

  13. Parallel field line and stream line tracing algorithms for space physics applications

    Toth, G.; de Zeeuw, D.; Monostori, G.

    2004-05-01

    Field line and stream line tracing is required in various space physics applications, such as the coupling of the global magnetosphere and inner magnetosphere models, the coupling of the solar energetic particle and heliosphere models, or the modeling of comets, where the multispecies chemical equations are solved along stream lines of a steady state solution obtained with single fluid MHD model. Tracing a vector field is an inherently serial process, which is difficult to parallelize. This is especially true when the data corresponding to the vector field is distributed over a large number of processors. We designed algorithms for the various applications, which scale well to a large number of processors. In the first algorithm the computational domain is divided into blocks. Each block is on a single processor. The algorithm folows the vector field inside the blocks, and calculates a mapping of the block surfaces. The blocks communicate the values at the coinciding surfaces, and the results are interpolated. Finally all block surfaces are defined and values inside the blocks are obtained. In the second algorithm all processors start integrating along the vector field inside the accessible volume. When the field line leaves the local subdomain, the position and other information is stored in a buffer. Periodically the processors exchange the buffers, and continue integration of the field lines until they reach a boundary. At that point the results are sent back to the originating processor. Efficiency is achieved by a careful phasing of computation and communication. In the third algorithm the results of a steady state simulation are stored on a hard drive. The vector field is contained in blocks. All processors read in all the grid and vector field data and the stream lines are integrated in parallel. If a stream line enters a block, which has already been integrated, the results can be interpolated. By a clever ordering of the blocks the execution speed can be

  14. Connecting physical and social dimensions of place attachment: What can we learn from attachment to urban recreational spaces?

    Madgin, Rebecca; Bradley, Lisa; Hastings, Annette

    2016-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the ways in which people form attachments to recreational spaces. More specifically it examines the relationship between recreational spaces associated with sporting activity in urban neighbourhoods and place attachment. The focus is on the ways in which changes to these spaces exposes the affective bonds between people and their surroundings. The paper applies a qualitative methodology, namely focus groups and photo elicitation, to the case study of Parkhead, a neighbourhood in the East End of Glasgow. Parkhead has historically been subjected to successive waves of redevelopment as a result of deindustrialization in the late twentieth century. More recently redevelopment associated with the 2014 Commonwealth Games involved further changes to neighbourhood recreational spaces, including refurbishing of existing sports facilities and building new ones. This paper reflects on the cumulative impacts of this redevelopment to conclude (a) that recreational sports spaces provoke multi-layered and complex attachments that are inextricably connected to both temporal and spatial narratives and (b) that research on neighbourhood recreational spaces can develop our understanding of the intricate relationship between the social and physical dimensions of place attachment.

  15. Using a SWOT analysis to inform healthy eating and physical activity strategies for a remote First Nations community in Canada.

    Skinner, Kelly; Hanning, Rhona M; Sutherland, Celine; Edwards-Wheesk, Ruby; Tsuji, Leonard J S

    2012-01-01

    To plan community-driven health promotion strategies based on a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis of the healthy eating and physical activity patterns of First Nation (FN) youth. Cross-sectional qualitative and quantitative data used to develop SWOT themes and strategies. Remote, subarctic FN community of Fort Albany, Ontario, Canada. Adult (n  =  25) and youth (n  =  66, grades 6-11) community members. Qualitative data were collected using five focus groups with adults (two focus groups) and youth (three focus groups), seven individual interviews with adults, and an environmental scan of 13 direct observations of events/locations (e.g., the grocery store). Quantitative data on food/physical activity behaviors were collected using a validated Web-based survey with youth. Themes were identified from qualitative and quantitative data and were analyzed and interpreted within a SWOT matrix. Thirty-two SWOT themes were identified (e.g., accessibility of existing facilities, such as the gymnasium). The SWOT analysis showed how these themes could be combined and transformed into 12 strategies (e.g., expanding and enhancing the school snack/breakfast program) while integrating suggestions from the community. SWOT analysis was a beneficial tool that facilitated the combination of local data and community ideas in the development of targeted health promotion strategies for the FN community of Fort Albany.

  16. A qualitative study of advanced nurse practitioners' use of physical assessment skills in the community: shifting skills across professional boundaries.

    Raleigh, Mary; Allan, Helen

    2017-07-01

    To explore multiple perspectives on the use of physical assessment skills by advanced nurse practitioners in the UK. Physical assessment skills practices are embedded in advanced nursing practice roles in the UK. There is little evidence on how these skills are used by advanced nurse practitioners in the community. Case study. A qualitative interpretative single-embedded case study of 22 participants from South of England. A framework method analysed interview data collected by the researcher between March-August 2013. Participants included nurses, doctors, nurse educators and managers. Physical assessment skills education at universities is part of a policy shift to develop a flexible workforce in the UK. Shared physical assessment practices are less to do with role substitution and more about preparing practitioners with skills that are fit for purpose. Competence, capability and performance with physical assessment skills are an expectation of advanced nursing practice. These skills are used successfully by community advanced nurse practitioners to deliver a wide range of services in response to changing patient need. The introduction of physical assessment skills education to undergraduate professional preparation would create a firm foundation to develop these skills in postgraduate education. Physical assessment education prepares nurses with the clinical competencies to carry out healthcare reforms in the UK. Shared sets of clinical assessment competencies between disciplines have better outcomes for patients. Levels of assessment competence can depend on the professional attributes of individual practitioners. Unsupportive learning cultures can hinder professional development of advanced nursing practice. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Evaluation of a community-based participatory physical activity promotion project: effect on cardiovascular disease risk profiles of school employees

    Kobza Cee E

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The efficacy of physical activity in improving cardiovascular disease (CVD risk profiles has been well established. However, the effectiveness of health promotion programs implemented at the community level remains controversial. This study evaluated a school-based work-site physical activity program. Methods Using a community-based participatory research model, a work-site wellness intervention was implemented in a rural public school system in Southwestern Oklahoma. During the 2005-2006 school year, 187 participants (mean age 45 years completed a pre intervention screening for CVD risk factors followed by a physical activity promotion program. Post intervention screening was conducted after a 6 month period. During both screening sessions, body composition, blood pressure, lipids, glucose and self-reported physical activity levels were assessed. The focus of the intervention was on promoting physical activity. Opportunities for in school physical activity were created by marking hallways, adding a treadmill in each school, and allowing teachers to use planning periods for physical activity. Results During the post intervention screening, compared to pre intervention levels, participants had lower total, low, and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (t = 5.9, p Conclusions A successful participatory program was associated with improvements in several CVD risk factors among school employees. Limitations of this study such as seasonal variation in the outcome variables and lack of a control group limit our ability to draw solid conclusions about the effectiveness of the intervention.

  18. Professional Learning in Unlikely Spaces: Social M