WorldWideScience

Sample records for space optics fy2000

  1. Money Market Operations in FY2000

    OpenAIRE

    Open Market Operations Division

    2001-01-01

    In FY2000, the Bank of Japan changed the level of its interest rate target on two occasions, and switched its operating target from the overnight call rate to the aggregate balance of current account deposits held at the Bank. Furthermore, facing a major change to the settlement system with the introduction of RTGS (real-time gross settlement) for current accounts at the Bank and JGSs, the Bank realized the importance for the Bank's market operations to be both timely and flexible as ever bef...

  2. Disability Compensation and Patient Expenditures: FY2000 to FY2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This report contains FY2000 through FY2013 data on disability compensation expenditures and recipients and on VA healthcare system patients and patient expenditures.

  3. Laboratory Directed Research and Development FY 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, Todd; Levy, Karin

    2001-01-01

    The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab or LBNL) is a multi-program national research facility operated by the University of California for the Department of Energy (DOE). As an integral element of DOE's National Laboratory System, Berkeley Lab supports DOE's missions in fundamental science, energy resources, and environmental quality. Berkeley Lab programs advance four distinct goals for DOE and the nation: (1) To perform leading multidisciplinary research in the computing sciences, physical sciences, energy sciences, biosciences, and general sciences in a manner that ensures employee and public safety and protection of the environment. (2) To develop and operate unique national experimental facilities for qualified investigators. (3) To educate and train future generations of scientists and engineers to promote national science and education goals. (4) To transfer knowledge and technological innovations and to foster productive relationships among Berkeley Lab's research programs, universities, and industry in order to promote national economic competitiveness. Annual report on Laboratory Directed Research and Development for FY2000

  4. Laboratory Directed Research and Development FY 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Todd; Levy, Karin

    2001-02-27

    The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab or LBNL) is a multi-program national research facility operated by the University of California for the Department of Energy (DOE). As an integral element of DOE's National Laboratory System, Berkeley Lab supports DOE's missions in fundamental science, energy resources, and environmental quality. Berkeley Lab programs advance four distinct goals for DOE and the nation: (1) To perform leading multidisciplinary research in the computing sciences, physical sciences, energy sciences, biosciences, and general sciences in a manner that ensures employee and public safety and protection of the environment. (2) To develop and operate unique national experimental facilities for qualified investigators. (3) To educate and train future generations of scientists and engineers to promote national science and education goals. (4) To transfer knowledge and technological innovations and to foster productive relationships among Berkeley Lab's research programs, universities, and industry in order to promote national economic competitiveness. Annual report on Laboratory Directed Research and Development for FY2000.

  5. Federal Geothermal Research Program Update, FY 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renner, Joel Lawrence

    2001-08-01

    The Department of Energy's Geothermal Program serves two broad purposes: 1) to assist industry in overcoming near-term barriers by conducting cost-shared research and field verification that allows geothermal energy to compete in today's aggressive energy markets; and 2) to undertake fundamental research with potentially large economic payoffs. The four categories of work used to distinguish the research activities of the Geothermal Program during FY 2000 reflect the main components of real-world geothermal projects. These categories form the main sections of the project descriptions in this Research Update. Exploration Technology research focuses on developing instruments and techniques to discover hidden hydrothermal systems and to explore the deep portions of known systems. Research in geophysical and geochemical methods is expected to yield increased knowledge of hidden geothermal systems. Reservoir Technology research combines laboratory and analytical investigations with equipment development and field testing to establish practical tools for resource development and management for both hydrothermal reservoirs and enhanced geothermal systems. Research in various reservoir analysis techniques is generating a wide range of information that facilitates development of improved reservoir management tools. Drilling Technology focuses on developing improved, economic drilling and completion technology for geothermal wells. Ongoing research to avert lost circulation episodes in geothermal drilling is yielding positive results. Conversion Technology research focuses on reducing costs and improving binary conversion cycle efficiency, to permit greater use of the more abundant moderate-temperature geothermal resource, and on the development of materials that will improve the operating characteristics of many types of geothermal energy equipment. Increased output and improved performance of binary cycles will result from investigations in heat cycle research.

  6. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Institutional Plan FY 2000-2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, Erik W.

    2000-03-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Institutional Plan for FY 2000-2004 sets forth the laboratory's mission, roles, technical capabilities, and laboratory strategic plan. In the plan, major initiatives also are proposed and the transitioning initiatives are discussed. The Programmatic Strategy section details our strategic intent, roles, and research thrusts in each of the U.S. Department of Energy's mission areas. The Operations/Infrastructure Strategic Plan section includes information on the laboratory's human resources; environment, safety, and health management; safeguards and security; site and facilities management; information resources management; management practices and standards; and communications and trust.

  7. Inspector General, DOD, Oversight of the Audit of the FY 2000 Military Retirement Fund Financial Statements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-02-28

    statements and to report on the adequacy of internal controls and compliance with laws and regulations. We contracted the audit of the FY 2000 Military...performed on the oversight of the audit of the FY 2000 Military Retirement Fund Financial Statements.

  8. FY2000 Hanford Technology Deployment Accomplishments Fact Sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WIBLE, R.A.

    2001-01-01

    Cleaning up the Hanford Site is one of the top priorities for the U. S. Department of Energy. The department is continually looking for ways to expedite cleanup and reduce costs. During Fiscal Year (FY) 2000. Hanford Site staff deployed 24 new technologies, which produced an estimated lifecycle cost savings of 479 million dollars. This is a clear indicator of the impacts new technology has had and will have on the cleanup efforts. The Hanford Site cleanup is focused on the following: Restoring the Columbia River Corridor; Building and operating the tank waste treatment complex to complete the cleanup of highly radioactive tank waste at Hanford; and Transitioning the Central Plateau. Applying innovative science and technology from national laboratories, universities, and private industry is critical to our complex cleanup mission. The 24 new technologies deployed in FY 2000 are significantly higher than our goal of 14 technological deployments. Eleven of these technologies supported restoring the Columbia River Corridor, and seven were involved with the remediation of radioactive tank waste. These deployments produced valuable information to determine the effectiveness of the new technologies in the field and the efficiencies gained over existing cleanup methods. In several cases, the technology deployed presented a solution to a problem where a clear path of remediation had not yet been determined. New and innovative technologies will play a significant role in the cleanup of the Hanford Site and enable remediation to be done more efficiently. Technology is being developed at a staggering pace. This requires excellent communication throughout the scientific and industry arenas. To effect this communication, we have implemented a technology needs process in conjunction with the multi-year work planning process. Through the combination of these two processes, technology developments and deployments address the near-term technology needs and enable us to plan for the

  9. Environmental Systems Research and Analysis FY 2000 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David L. Miller; Castle, Peter Myer; Steven J. Piet

    2001-01-01

    The Environmental Systems Research (ESR) Program, a part of the Environmental Systems Research and Analysis (ESRA) Program, was implemented to enhance and augment the technical capabilities of the INEEL. Strengthening the Technical capabilities of the INEEL will provide the technical base to serve effectively as the Environmental Management Laboratory for the Office of Environmental Management (EM). This is a progress report for the third year of the ESR Program (FY 2000). A report of activities is presented for the five ESR research investment areas: (1) Transport Aspects of Selective Mass Transport Agents, (2) Chemistry of Environmental Surfaces, (3) Materials Dynamics, (4) Characterization Science, and (5) Computational Simulation of Mechanical and Chemical Systems. In addition to the five technical areas, the report describes activities in the Science and Technology Foundations element of the program, e.g., interfaces between ESR and the EM Science Program (EMSP) and the EM Focus Areas. The five research areas are subdivided into 18 research projects. FY 2000 research in these 18 projects has resulted in more than 50 technical papers that are in print, in press, in review, or in preparation. Additionally, more than 100 presentations were made at professional society meetings nationally and internationally. Work supported by this program was in part responsible for one of our researchers, Dr. Mason Harrup, receiving the Department of Energy’s “Bright Light” and “Energy at 23” awards. Significant accomplishments were achieved. Non-Destructive Assay hardware and software was deployed at the INEEL, enhancing the quality and efficiency of TRU waste characterization for shipment. The advanced tensiometer has been employed at numerous sites around the complex to determine hydrologic gradients in variably saturated vadose zones. An ion trap, secondary ion mass spectrometer (IT-SIMS) was designed and fabricated to deploy at the INEEL site to measure the

  10. Journal Vouchers for FY 2000 Department of the Navy General Fund Financial Reporting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    ...) General Fund Financial Statements. The previous reports discuss accounting entries supporting Marine Corps reporting and our endorsement of he Naval Audit Service disclaimer of opinion on the FY 2000 Navy General Fund financial statements...

  11. Accounting Entries Made in Compiling the FY 2000 Air Force General Funds Financial Statements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    ... to the Office of Management and Budget. This audit is one in a series of audits of accounting entries made by the Defense Finance and Accounting Service in preparing the FY 2000 financial statements for DoD...

  12. Compilation of the FY 2000 Navy Working Capital Fund Financial Statements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Granetto, Paul

    2001-01-01

    ... to the Office of Management and Budget. This is the fifth and final report on our audit work on the FY 2000 Navy Working Capital Fund Financial Statements and related controls and supporting financial data...

  13. FY 2000 Saltcake Dissolution and Feed Stability Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, R.D.; McGinnis, C.P.; Weber, C.F.; Welch, T.D.; Jewett, J.R.

    2000-01-01

    The Tanks Focus Area (TFA) continues to work closely with the Office of River Protection (ORP) to better understand the chemistry involved with the retrieval, transport, and pretreatment of nuclear wastes at Hanford. Since a private contractor is currently responsible for the pretreatment and immobilization activities in this remediation effort, the TFA has concentrated on saltcake dissolution and waste transport at the request of the ORP. Researchers at Hanford have performed a series of dissolution experiments on actual saltcake samples. Staff members at Mississippi State University (MSU) continue to model the dissolution results with the Environmental Simulation Program (ESP), which is used extensively by ORP personnel. Several ways to improve the predictive capabilities of the ESP were identified. Since several transfer lines at Hanford have become plugged, TFA tasks at AEA Technologies, Florida International University (FIU), MSU, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are investigating the behavior of the supernatants and slurries during transport. A combination of experimental and theoretical techniques is used to study the transport chemistry. This effort is expected to develop process control tools for waste transfer. The results from these TFA tasks were presented to ORP personnel during the FY 2000 Saltcake Dissolution and Feed Stability Workshop, which was held on May 16-17 in Richland, Washington. The minutes from this workshop are provided in this report

  14. Pappus in optical space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenderink, Jan J.; van Doorn, Andrea J.; Kappers, Astrid M L; Todd, James T.

    Optical space differs from physical space. The structure of optical space has generally been assumed to be metrical. In contradistinction, we do not assume any metric, but only incidence relations (i.e., we assume that optical points and lines exist and that two points define a unique line, and two

  15. Pappus in optical space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenderink, J.J.; Doorn, A.J. van; Kappers, A.M.L.; Todd, J.T.

    2002-01-01

    Optical space differs from physical space. The structure of optical space has generallybeen assumed to be metrical. In contradistinction,we do not assume anymetric, but only incidence relations (i.e., we assume that optical points and lines exist and that two points define a unique line, and two

  16. Environmental Systems Research Candidates Program--FY2000 Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piet, Steven James

    2001-01-01

    The Environmental Systems Research Candidates (ESRC) Program, which is scheduled to end September 2001, was established in April 2000 as part of the Environmental Systems Research and Analysis Program at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to provide key science and technology to meet the clean-up mission of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management, and perform research and development that will help solve current legacy problems and enhance the INEEL’s scientific and technical capability for solving longer-term challenges. This report documents the progress and accomplishments of the ESRC Program from April through September 2000. The ESRC Program consists of 24 tasks subdivided within four research areas: A. Environmental Characterization Science and Technology. This research explores new data acquisition, processing, and interpretation methods that support cleanup and long-term stewardship decisions. B. Subsurface Understanding. This research expands understanding of the biology, chemistry, physics, hydrology, and geology needed to improve models of contamination problems in the earth’s subsurface. C. Environmental Computational Modeling. This research develops INEEL computing capability for modeling subsurface contaminants and contaminated facilities. D. Environmental Systems Science and Technology. This research explores novel processes to treat waste and decontaminate facilities. Our accomplishments during FY 2000 include the following: • We determined, through analysis of samples taken in and around the INEEL site, that mercury emissions from the INEEL calciner have not raised regional off-INEEL mercury contamination levels above normal background. • We have initially demonstrated the use of x-ray fluorescence to image uranium and heavy metal concentrations in soil samples. • We increased our understanding of the subsurface environment; applying mathematical complexity theory to the problem of

  17. Laboratory Directed Research and Development FY 2000 Annual Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2001-05-01

    This is the FY00 Annual Progress report for the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program at Los Alamos National Laboratory. It gives an overview of the LDRD Program, summarizes progress on each project conducted during FY00, characterizes the projects according to their relevance to major funding sources, and provides an index to principal investigators. Project summaries are grouped by LDRD component: Directed Research and Exploratory Research. Within each component, they are further grouped into the ten technical categories: (1) atomic, molecular, optical, and plasma physics, fluids, and beams, (2) bioscience, (3) chemistry, (4) computer science and software engineering, (5) engineering science, (6) geoscience, space science, and astrophysics, (7) instrumentation and diagnostics, (8) materials science, (9) mathematics, simulation, and modeling, and (10) nuclear and particle physics.

  18. Annual report of JMTR, No.15. FY2000. April 1, 2000-March 31, 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-02-01

    During the FY2000 (April 2000 to March 2001), the JMTR (Japan Materials Testing Reactor) was operated in 6 operation cycles (130 days) for irradiation studies on the IASCC of the LWR materials, development of actinide contained uranium-hydride fuels, development of fusion blanket materials, and so on. The total number of capsules and hydraulic rabbis irradiated were 132 and 79, respectively. Technology development programs were conducted in the following fields. As concerning to the utilization of JMTR, a irradiation facility for the IASCC studies, irradiation capsules for RPV surveillance specimen and automatic temperature control system for irradiation capsules were developed. New efficient production process was developed for pebble type tritium breeder material for fusion reactor blanket, and tritium generation/recovery behavior under irradiation was investigated using pebble packed test piece. This report summarizes these activities performed in the department of JMTR during the FY2000. (author)

  19. Free space optical communication

    CERN Document Server

    Kaushal, Hemani; Kar, Subrat

    2017-01-01

    This book provides an in-depth understanding of free space optical (FSO) communication with a particular emphasis on optical beam propagation through atmospheric turbulence. The book is structured in such a way that it provides a basic framework for the beginners and also gives a concise description from a designer’s perspective. The book provides an exposure to FSO technology, fundamental limitations, design methodologies, system trade-offs, acquisition, tracking and pointing (ATP) techniques and link-feasibility analysis. The contents of this book will be of interest to professionals and researchers alike. The book may also be used as a textbook for engineering coursework and professional training.

  20. FY 2000 report on the results of the regional consortium R and D project - Regional consortium energy R and D. Development of new vacuum ultraviolet area optical materials realizing next generation short wavelength optical lithography; 2000 nendo chiiki consortium kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo - chiiki consortium energy kenkyu kaihatsu. Jisedai tanhacho hikari lithography wo jitsugensuru shinku shigaiiki kogaku zairyo no kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    As materials for next generation lithography use optical device using short wavelength light sources such as F{sub 2} and Ar{sub 2}, the development was proceeded with of fluoride monocrystal materials and 12-inch class large/high quality monocrystal production technology. Studies were made in the following five fields: 1) proposal/design of new materials and the heightening of performance: 2) establishment of the large/high quality crystal production method; 3) evaluation of optical properties and elucidation of micro-defect formation mechanism; 4) comprehensive investigational research; 5) study of the evaluation technology by vacuum ultraviolet area pulse light. In 1), for the development of the optimum materials, a lot of materials were tried to be monocrystallized, and the permeability was estimated by measuring the reflectance in the vacuum ultraviolet area. As to LiCaAlF{sub 6}, monocrystal with 1-inch diameter was made by the Bridgman method. In 2), studies were made of conditions for large crystal growth by the pull method, large crystal growth by the Bridgman method, and the structure of production equipment for crystals with larger diameter. (NEDO)

  1. GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH NEWS #8: OUR CHANGING PLANET: THE FY2000 U.S. GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    This edition of Global Change Research News focuses on the publication of the new OurChanging Planet: The FY2000 U.S. Global Change Research Program. This annual report to the Congress was prepared under the auspices ofthe President's National Science and Technology Council. It...

  2. FY2000 Annual Self-Evaluation Report for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RR Labarge

    2000-11-15

    This self-evaluation report offers a summary of results from FY2000 actions to achieve Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's strategy and provides an analysis of the state of their self-assessment process. The result of their integrated planning and assessment process identifies Laboratory strengths and opportunities for improvement. Critical elements of that process are included in this report; namely, a high-level summary of external oversight activities, progress against Operations Improvement Initiatives, and a summary of Laboratory strengths and areas for improvement developed by management from across the laboratory. Some key areas targeted for improvement in FY2001 are: systems approach to resource management; information protection; integrated safety management flow-down to the benchtop; cost management; integrated assessment; Price Anderson Amendments Act (PAAA) Program; and travel risk mitigation.

  3. Optical space communication: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, V.K.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, importance of the optical space communication has been highlighted. Its merits and demerits over the conventional microwave system has been presented. In contrast to coherent systems, use of an optical preamplifier in direct detection system has been emphasized. Status of some of the ongoing/future space communication projects has been given. (author). 9 refs, 5 figs

  4. Optical Computers and Space Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdeldayem, Hossin A.; Frazier, Donald O.; Penn, Benjamin; Paley, Mark S.; Witherow, William K.; Banks, Curtis; Hicks, Rosilen; Shields, Angela

    1995-01-01

    The rapidly increasing demand for greater speed and efficiency on the information superhighway requires significant improvements over conventional electronic logic circuits. Optical interconnections and optical integrated circuits are strong candidates to provide the way out of the extreme limitations imposed on the growth of speed and complexity of nowadays computations by the conventional electronic logic circuits. The new optical technology has increased the demand for high quality optical materials. NASA's recent involvement in processing optical materials in space has demonstrated that a new and unique class of high quality optical materials are processible in a microgravity environment. Microgravity processing can induce improved orders in these materials and could have a significant impact on the development of optical computers. We will discuss NASA's role in processing these materials and report on some of the associated nonlinear optical properties which are quite useful for optical computers technology.

  5. FY 2000 Immediate-effect type project for research and development for international standards supporting information technology industries. Standardization of the machine monitoring technologies of the next generation for protecting safety of personnel; 2000 nendo joho sangyo shien sokkogata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Hito no anzen wo mamoru jisedai kikai kanshi gijutsu no hyojunka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    This project is aimed at establishing the international standards for the mechanical safety area. Described herein are the FY 2000 results of the developmental research on the machine monitoring devices of the next generation in which the image processing technologies are applied. The developed image sensors are the video camera and optical radar type sensor capable of scanning the three-dimensional space. The video camera functions self-confirmation that it is functioning without failure by the aid of the background reference pattern, and detects a person and machine when the pattern is hidden by them. The optical radar type sensor works to continuously confirm its performance by monitoring light reflected from the standard reflection body. The machine monitoring algorithms with the aid of the two-value images are also studied for e.g., judgment of stopping a machine by predicting that it will enter a closed space. The prototype monitor developed is subjected to various tests, including the tests of the individual device and assemblies in which it is incorporated, and the field tests in which it is incorporated in a machine in a commercial production line, to confirm that it can exhibit all of its required functions. (NEDO)

  6. Inspector General, DoD, Oversight of the Army Audit Agency Audit of the FY 2000 Army Working Capital Fund Financial Statements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    Our objectives were to oversee the Army Audit Agency audit of the FY 2000 Department of the Army Working Capital Fund financial statements to verify whether we can rely on their work and to determine...

  7. Accounting Entries Made in Compiling the FY 2000 Financial Statements for the Working Capital Funds of the Air Force and Other Defense Organizations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    .... This audit is one in a series of audits of department-level accounting entries made by the Defense Finance and Accounting Service in preparing the FY 2000 financial statements for DoD reporting entities...

  8. Analysis of Well ER-EC-2a Testing, Western Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley FY 2000 Testing Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-09-30

    This report documents the analysis of the data collected for Well ER-EC-2a during the Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley (WPM-OV) well development and testing program that was conducted during fiscal year (FY) 2000. The data collection for that program is documented in Appendix A, Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley, Well ER-EC-2a Data Report for Development and Hydraulic Testing.

  9. Analysis of well ER-18-2 testing, Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley FY 2000 testing program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-09-30

    This report documents the analysis of the data collected for Well ER-18-2 during the Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley (WPM-OV) well development and testing program that was conducted during fiscal year (FY) 2000. The data collection for that program is documented in Appendix A, Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley, Well ER-18-2 Data Report for Development and Hydraulic Testing.

  10. Analysis of Well ER-EC-7 Testing, Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley FY 2000 Testing Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-09-30

    This report documents the analysis of the data collected for Well ER-EC-7 during the Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley (WPM-OV) well development and testing program that was conducted during fiscal year (FY) 2000. The data collection for that program was documented in Appendix A, Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley, Well ER-EC-7 Data Report for Development and Hydraulic Testing.

  11. Analysis of Well ER-EC-8 testing, Western Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley FY 2000 testing program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-09-30

    This report documents the analysis of the data collected for Well ER-EC-8 during the Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley (WPM-OV) well development and testing program that was conducted during fiscal year (FY) 2000. The data collection for that program is documented in Appendix A, Western Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley, Well ER-EC-8 Data Report for development and Hydraulic Testing.

  12. Analysis of Well ER-EC-4 Testing, Western Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley FY 2000 Testing Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-09-30

    This report documents the analysis of the data collected for Well ER-EC-4 during the Western Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley (WPM-OV) well development and testing program that was conducted during fiscal year (FY) 2000. The data collection for that program is documented in Appendix A, Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley, Well ER-EC-4 Data Report for Development and Hydraulic Testing.

  13. Analysis of Well ER-EC-5 Testing, Western Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley FY 2000 Testing Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-09-30

    This report documents the analysis of the data collected for Well ER-EC-5 during the Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley (WPM-OV) well development and testing program that was conducted during fiscal year (FY) 2000. The data collection for that program is documented in Appendix A, Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley, Well ER-EC-5 Data Report for Development and Hydraulic Testing.

  14. Analysis of Well ER-EC-6 Testing, Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley FY 2000 Testing Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-09-30

    This report documents the analysis of the data collected for Well ER-EC-6 during the Western Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley (WPM-OV) well development and testing program that was conducted during fiscal year (FY) 2000. The data collection for that program is documented in Appendix A, Western Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley, Well ER-EC-6 Data Report for Development and Hydraulic Testing.

  15. Analysis of Well ER-EC-1 Testing, Western Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley FY 2000 Testing Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-09-30

    This report documents the analysis of the data collected for Well ER-EC-1 during the Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley (WPM-OV) well development and testing program that was conducted during fiscal year (FY) 2000. The data collection for that program is documented in Appendix A, Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley, Well ER-EC-1 Data Report for Development and Hydraulic Testing.

  16. Quantum Optics in Phase Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleich, Wolfgang P.

    2001-04-01

    Quantum Optics in Phase Space provides a concise introduction to the rapidly moving field of quantum optics from the point of view of phase space. Modern in style and didactically skillful, Quantum Optics in Phase Space prepares students for their own research by presenting detailed derivations, many illustrations and a large set of workable problems at the end of each chapter. Often, the theoretical treatments are accompanied by the corresponding experiments. An exhaustive list of references provides a guide to the literature. Quantum Optics in Phase Space also serves advanced researchers as a comprehensive reference book. Starting with an extensive review of the experiments that define quantum optics and a brief summary of the foundations of quantum mechanics the author Wolfgang P. Schleich illustrates the properties of quantum states with the help of the Wigner phase space distribution function. His description of waves ala WKB connects semi-classical phase space with the Berry phase. These semi-classical techniques provide deeper insight into the timely topics of wave packet dynamics, fractional revivals and the Talbot effect. Whereas the first half of the book deals with mechanical oscillators such as ions in a trap or atoms in a standing wave the second half addresses problems where the quantization of the radiation field is of importance. Such topics extensively discussed include optical interferometry, the atom-field interaction, quantum state preparation and measurement, entanglement, decoherence, the one-atom maser and atom optics in quantized light fields. Quantum Optics in Phase Space presents the subject of quantum optics as transparently as possible. Giving wide-ranging references, it enables students to study and solve problems with modern scientific literature. The result is a remarkably concise yet comprehensive and accessible text- and reference book - an inspiring source of information and insight for students, teachers and researchers alike.

  17. Plutonium stabilization and disposition focus area, FY 1999 and FY 2000 multi-year program plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Consistent with the Environmental Management`s (EM`s) plan titled, ``Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure``, and ongoing efforts within the Executive Branch and Congress, this Multi-Year Program Plan (MYPP) for the Plutonium Focus Area was written to ensure that technical gap projects are effectively managed and measured. The Plutonium Focus Area (PFA) defines and manages technology development programs that contribute to the effective stabilization of nuclear materials and their subsequent safe storage and final disposition. The scope of PFA activities includes the complete spectrum of plutonium materials, special isotopes, and other fissile materials. The PFA enables solutions to site-specific and complex-wide technology issues associated with plutonium remediation, stabilization, and preparation for disposition. The report describes the current technical activities, namely: Plutonium stabilization (9 studies); Highly enriched uranium stabilization (2 studies); Russian collaboration program (2 studies); Packaging and storage technologies (6 studies); and PFA management work package/product line (3 studies). Budget information for FY 1999 and FY 2000 is provided.

  18. FY 2000 research cooperation project on plastic processing technology/quality inspection technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of improving the production technology of plastic products in Saudi Arabia, the joint development was made of the formation technology/quality inspection technology of agricultural use and food packaging use polyolefin film optimum to environmental conditions of the site, in the light of the needs there, and the FY 2000 results were reported. In the field survey/joint study, for the xenon type weather resistant testing machine and the extruder of the inflation film forming machine which were transported from Japan, the following were carried out: confirmation of the situation of accepting them on the site, functional test of computer of the extruder, installation of the machine testing weather resistance, and the trial operation. In the domestic support study, the extrusion test at laboratory was conducted using the polyethylene resin produced on the site to acquire the basic data for formation stability. Further, the film formation test was made using the equipment with the same specifications as those of the equipment introduced to the site to study the performance of screw extrusion and the formation stability of film. Also conducted were the analytical test/quality evaluation of resin materials/film. (NEDO)

  19. Plutonium stabilization and disposition focus area, FY 1999 and FY 2000 multi-year program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-03-01

    Consistent with the Environmental Management's (EM's) plan titled, ''Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure'', and ongoing efforts within the Executive Branch and Congress, this Multi-Year Program Plan (MYPP) for the Plutonium Focus Area was written to ensure that technical gap projects are effectively managed and measured. The Plutonium Focus Area (PFA) defines and manages technology development programs that contribute to the effective stabilization of nuclear materials and their subsequent safe storage and final disposition. The scope of PFA activities includes the complete spectrum of plutonium materials, special isotopes, and other fissile materials. The PFA enables solutions to site-specific and complex-wide technology issues associated with plutonium remediation, stabilization, and preparation for disposition. The report describes the current technical activities, namely: Plutonium stabilization (9 studies); Highly enriched uranium stabilization (2 studies); Russian collaboration program (2 studies); Packaging and storage technologies (6 studies); and PFA management work package/product line (3 studies). Budget information for FY 1999 and FY 2000 is provided

  20. FY 2000 Project of international clean energy network using hydrogen conversion (WE-NET)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Described herein are the FY 2000 results of the research and development project aimed at construction of the international clean energy network using hydrogen conversion (WE-NET). The projects include 12 tasks; system evaluation for, e.g., optimum scenario for introduction of hydrogen energy; experiments for hydrogen safety; study on the international cooperation for WE-NET; development of power generation technology using a 100kW cogeneration system including hydrogen-firing diesel engine; developmental research on vehicles driven by a hydrogen fuel cell system; developmental research on the basic technologies for PEFC utilizing pure hydrogen; developmental research on a 30Nm{sup 3}/hour hydrogen refueling station for vehicles; developmental research on hydrogen production technology; developmental research on hydrogen transportation and storage technology, e.g., liquid hydrogen pump; research and development of the databases of and processing technology for cryogenic materials exposed to liquid hydrogen; developmental research on hydrogen absorbing alloys for small-scale hydrogen transportation and storage systems; and study on innovative and leading technologies. (NEDO)

  1. Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Institutional Plan FY 2000-2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chartock, Mike (ed.); Hansen, Todd (ed.)

    1999-08-01

    The FY 2000-2004 Institutional Plan provides an overview of the Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab, the Laboratory) mission, strategic plan, initiatives, and the resources required to fulfill its role in support of national needs in fundamental science and technology, energy resources, and environmental quality. To advance the Department of Energy's ongoing efforts to define the Integrated Laboratory System, the Berkeley Lab Institutional Plan reflects the strategic elements of our planning efforts. The Institutional Plan is a management report that supports the Department of Energy's mission and programs and is an element of the Department of Energy's strategic management planning activities, developed through an annual planning process. The Plan supports the Government Performance and Results Act of 1993 and complements the performance-based contract between the Department of Energy and the Regents of the University of California. It identifies technical and administrative directions in the context of the national energy policy and research needs and the Department of Energy's program planning initiatives. Preparation of the plan is coordinated by the Office of Planning and Communications from information contributed by Berkeley Lab's scientific and support divisions.

  2. Tank Waste Transport Stability: Summaries of Hanford Slurry and Salt-Solution Studies in FY 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, T.D.

    2002-07-08

    This report is a collection of summary articles on FY 2000 studies of slurry transport and salt-well pumping related to Hanford tank waste transfers. These studies are concerned with the stability (steady, uninterrupted flow) of tank waste transfers, a subset of the Department of Energy (DOE) Tanks Focus Area Tank (TFA) Waste Chemistry effort. This work is a collaborative effort of AEA Technology plc, the Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory at Mississippi State University (DIAL-MSU), the Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology at Florida International University (HCET-FIU), Numatec Hanford Corporation (NHC), and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The purpose of this report is to provide, in a single document, an overview of these studies to help the reader identify contacts and resources for obtaining more detailed information and to help promote useful interchanges between researchers and users. Despite over 50 years of experience in transporting radioactive tank wastes to and from equipment and tanks at the Department of Energy's Hanford, Savannah River, and Oak Ridge sites, waste slurry transfer pipelines and process piping become plugged on occasion. At Hanford, several tank farm pipelines are no longer in service because of plugs. At Savannah River, solid deposits in the outlet line of the 2H evaporator have resulted in an unplanned extended downtime. Although waste transfer criteria and guidelines intended to prevent pipeline plugging are in place, they are not always adequate. To avoid pipeline plugging in the future, other factors that are not currently embodied in the transfer criteria may need to be considered. The work summarized here is being conducted to develop a better understanding of the chemical and waste flow dynamics during waste transfer. The goal is to eliminate pipeline plugs by improving analysis and engineering tools in the field that incorporate this understanding.

  3. Tucannon River spring chinook salmon captive brood program, FY 2000 annual report; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bumgarner, Joseph D.; Gallinat, Michael P.

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes the objectives, tasks, and accomplishments of the Tucannon River spring chinook captive brood program from program inception (1997) through April 2001. The WDFW initiated a captive broodstock program in 1997. The overall goal of the Tucannon River captive broodstock program is for the short-term, and eventually long-term, rebuilding of the Tucannon River spring chinook salmon run, with the hope that natural production will eventually sustain itself. The project goal is to rear captive salmon to adults, spawn them, rear their progeny, and release approximately 150,000 smolts annually into the Tucannon River between 2003-2007. These smolt releases, in combination with the current hatchery supplementation program (132,000 smolts), and wild production, is expected to produce 600-700 returning adult spring chinook to the Tucannon River each year from 2005-2010. The Master Plan, Environmental Assessment, and most facility modifications at LFH were completed for the Tucannon River spring chinook captive broodstock program during FY2000 and FY2001. DNA samples collected since 1997 have been sent to the WDFW genetics lab in Olympia for baseline DNA analysis. Results from the genetic analysis are not available at this time. The captive broodstock program is planned to collect fish from five (1997-2001) brood years (BY). The captive broodstock program was initiated with 1997 BY juveniles, and the 2000 BY fish have been selected. As of April 30, 2001, WDFW has 172 BY 1997, 262 BY 1998, 407 BY 1999, and approximately 1,190 BY 2000 fish on hand at LFH. Twelve of 13 mature 97 BY females were spawned in 2000. Total eggtake was 14,813. Mean fecundity was 1,298 eggs/female based on 11 fully spawned females. Egg survival to eye-up was 47.3%. This low survival was expected for three year old captive broodstock females. As of April 30, 2001, WDFW has 4,211 captive broodstock progeny on hand. These fish will be tagged with blank wire tag without fin clips and

  4. Tucannon River Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Brood Program, FY 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bumgarner, Joseph D.; Gallinat, Michael P.

    2001-06-01

    This report summarizes the objectives, tasks, and accomplishments of the Tucannon River spring chinook captive brood program from program inception (1997) through April 2001. The WDFW initiated a captive broodstock program in 1997. The overall goal of the Tucannon River captive broodstock program is for the short-term, and eventually long-term, rebuilding of the Tucannon River spring chinook salmon run, with the hope that natural production will eventually sustain itself. The project goal is to rear captive salmon to adults, spawn them, rear their progeny, and release approximately 150,000 smolts annually into the Tucannon River between 2003-2007. These smolt releases, in combination with the current hatchery supplementation program (132,000 smolts), and wild production, is expected to produce 600-700 returning adult spring chinook to the Tucannon River each year from 2005-2010. The Master Plan, Environmental Assessment, and most facility modifications at LFH were completed for the Tucannon River spring chinook captive broodstock program during FY2000 and FY2001. DNA samples collected since 1997 have been sent to the WDFW genetics lab in Olympia for baseline DNA analysis. Results from the genetic analysis are not available at this time. The captive broodstock program is planned to collect fish from five (1997-2001) brood years (BY). The captive broodstock program was initiated with 1997 BY juveniles, and the 2000 BY fish have been selected. As of April 30, 2001, WDFW has 172 BY 1997, 262 BY 1998, 407 BY 1999, and approximately 1,190 BY 2000 fish on hand at LFH. Twelve of 13 mature 97 BY females were spawned in 2000. Total eggtake was 14,813. Mean fecundity was 1,298 eggs/female based on 11 fully spawned females. Egg survival to eye-up was 47.3%. This low survival was expected for three year old captive broodstock females. As of April 30, 2001, WDFW has 4,211 captive broodstock progeny on hand. These fish will be tagged with blank wire tag without fin clips and

  5. Classical optics and curved spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailyn, M.; Ragusa, S.

    1976-01-01

    In the eikonal approximation of classical optics, the unit polarization 3-vector of light satisfies an equation that depends only on the index, n, of refraction. It is known that if the original 3-space line element is d sigma 2 , then this polarization direction propagates parallely in the fictitious space n 2 d sigma 2 . Since the equation depends only on n, it is possible to invent a fictitious curved 4-space in which the light performs a null geodesic, and the polarization 3-vector behaves as the 'shadow' of a parallely propagated 4-vector. The inverse, namely, the reduction of Maxwell's equation, on a curve 'dielectric free) space, to a classical space with dielectric constant n=(-g 00 ) -1 / 2 is well known, but in the latter the dielectric constant epsilon and permeability μ must also equal (-g 00 ) -1 / 2 . The rotation of polarization as light bends around the sun by utilizing the reduction to the classical space, is calculated. This (non-) rotation may then be interpreted as parallel transport in the 3-space n 2 d sigma 2 [pt

  6. U.S. Transportation Command's Reporting of Property, Plant, and Equipment Assets on the FY 2000 DoD Agency-Wide Financial Statements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Granetto, Paul

    2001-01-01

    .... The accuracy of the $78 billion of property, plant, and equipment reported on the FY 2000 DoD Agency-Wide Financial Statements is essential to DoD receiving favorable audit opinions on its financial statements. The U.S...

  7. Richland Operations (DOE-RL) Environmental Safety Health (ES and H) FY 2000 and FY 2001 Execution Commitment Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    REEP, I.E.

    2000-12-01

    All sites in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Complex prepare this report annually for the DOE Office of Environment, Safety and Health (EH). The purpose of this report is to provide a summary of the previous and current year's Environment, Safety and Health (ES&H) execution commitments and the Safety and Health (S&H) resources that support these activities. The fiscal year (FY) 2000 and 2001 information and data contained in the Richland Operations Environment, Safefy and Health Fiscal Year 2002 Budget-Risk Management Summary (RL 2000a) were the basis for preparing this report. Fiscal year 2001 activities are based on the President's Amended Congressional Budget Request of $689.6 million for funding Ofice of Environmental Management (EM) $44.0 million for Fast Flux Test Facility standby less $7.0 million in anticipated DOE, Headquarters holdbacks for Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology (NE); and $55.3 million for Safeguards and Security (SAS). Any funding changes as a result of the Congressional appropriation process will be reflected in the Fiscal Year 2003 ES&H Budget-Risk Management Summary to be issued in May 2001. This report provides the end-of-year status of FY 2000 ES&H execution commitments, including actual S&H expenditures, and describes planned FY 2001 ES&H execution commitments and the S&H resources needed to support those activities. This requirement is included in the ES&H guidance contained in the FY 2002 Field Budget Call (DOE 2000).

  8. Atmospheric free-space coherent optical communications with adaptive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Chueh; Zhang, Chengyu; Yang, Zikai

    2017-02-01

    Free-space coherent optical communications have a potential application to offer last mile bottleneck solution in future local area networks (LAN) because of their information carrier, information security and license-free status. Coherent optical communication systems using orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) digital modulation are successfully demonstrated in a long-haul tens Giga bits via optical fiber, but they are not yet available in free space due to atmospheric turbulence-induced channel fading. Adaptive optics is recognized as a promising technology to mitigate the effects of atmospheric turbulence in free-space optics. In this paper, a free-space coherent optical communication system using an OFDM digital modulation scheme and adaptive optics (FSO OFDM AO) is proposed, a Gamma-Gamma distribution statistical channel fading model for the FSO OFDM AO system is examined, and FSO OFDM AO system performance is evaluated in terms of bit error rate (BER) versus various propagation distances.

  9. Deep space optical communication via relay satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolinar, S.; Vilnrotter, V.; Gagliardi, R.

    1981-01-01

    The application of optical communications for a deep space link via an earth-orbiting relay satellite is discussed. The system uses optical frequencies for the free-space channel and RF links for atmospheric transmission. The relay satellite is in geostationary orbit and contains the optics necessary for data processing and formatting. It returns the data to earth through the RF terrestrial link and also transmits an optical beacon to the satellite for spacecraft return pointing and for the alignment of the transmitting optics. Future work will turn to modulation and coding, pointing and tracking, and optical-RF interfacing.

  10. Analysis of Free-Space Optics Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikołajczyk Janusz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents state of work in technology of free-space optical communications (Free Space Optics − FSO. Both commercially available optical data links and their further development are described. The main elements and operation limiting factors of FSO systems have been identified. Additionally, analyses of FSO/RF hybrid systems application are included. The main aspects of LasBITer project related to such hybrid technology for security and defence applications are presented.

  11. Report of the review committee on evaluation of the research subjects in the field of advanced science research (FY2000)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-10-01

    On the basis of the JAERI's Basic Guidelines for the Research Evaluation Methods and the Practices Manuals of the Institution Evaluation Committee, the Ad Hoc Review Committee composed of eight experts was set up under the Research Evaluation Committee of the JAERI in order to review the research themes completed in FY1999, those to be ended through FY2000, and those planned for five years starting in FY2001 in the Advanced Science Research Center. The Ad Hoc Review Committee meeting was held on July 17, 2000. According to the review methods including review items, points of review and review criteria, determined by the Research Evaluation Committee, the review was conducted based on the research result/plan documents submitted in advance and presentations by the Research Group Leaders. The review report was submitted to the Research Evaluation Committee for further review and discussions in its meeting held on August 31, 2000. The Research Evaluation Committee recognized the review results as appropriate. This report describes the review results. (author)

  12. Free Space Optical Communication for Tactical Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    higher energy level to a lower energy level. The photons are focused to optical lenses before transmission into the air medium. The primary purpose...Security of a free space optical transmission . (n.d.). SONA Optical Wireless , [Online]. Available: http://htcbn.com/HTC_Profile_CD/fSONA/APPNOTE...almost always require on-the-move wireless communications. Radio frequency (RF) communication is used to fill the gap, but RF systems are hard pressed to

  13. The LAM space active optics facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, C.; Ferrari, M.; Hugot, E.; Escolle, C.; Bonnefois, A.; Bernot, M.; Bret-Dibat, T.; Carlavan, M.; Falzon, F.; Fusco, T.; Laubier, D.; Liotard, A.; Michau, V.; Mugnier, L.

    2017-11-01

    The next generation of large lightweight space telescopes will require the use of active optics systems to enhance the performance and increase the spatial resolution. Since almost 10 years now, LAM, CNES, THALES and ONERA conjugate their experience and efforts for the development of space active optics through the validation of key technological building blocks: correcting devices, metrology components and control strategies. This article presents the work done so far on active correcting mirrors and wave front sensing, as well as all the facilities implemented. The last part of this paper focuses on the merging of the MADRAS and RASCASSE test-set up. This unique combination will provide to the active optics community an automated, flexible and versatile facility able to feed and characterise space active optics components.

  14. Hanford Site Environment Safety and Health (ES and H) FY 1999 and FY 2000 Execution Commitment Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    REEP, I.E.

    1999-12-01

    All sites in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Complex prepare this report annually for the DOE Office of Environment, Safety and Health (EH). The purpose of this report is to provide a summary of the previous and current year's Environment, Safety and Health (ES&H) execution commitments and the S&H resources that support these activities. The fiscal year (FY) 1999 and 2000 information (Sieracki 1999) and data contained in the ''Hanford Site Environment, Safety and Health Fiscal Year 2001 Budget-Risk Management Summary'' (RL 1999) were the basis for preparing this report. Fiscal year 2000 finding of Office of Environmental Management (EM) and Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology (NE) activities is based on the President's budget of $1,065.1 million and $28.0 million, plus $2.7 million carryover finding, respectively, as of October 31, 1999. Any funding changes as a result of the Congressional appropriation process will be reflected in the Fiscal Year 2002 ES&H Budget-Risk Management Summary to be issued in May 2000. This report provides the end-of-year status of FY 1999 ES&H execution commitments, including actual S&H expenditures, and describes planned FY 2000 ES&H execution commitments and the S&H resources needed to support those activities. This requirement is included in the ES&H ''Guidance for FY200l Budget Formulations and Execution'' (DOE 1999).

  15. Fibre optic gyroscopes for space use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faussot, Nicolas; Cottreau, Yann; Hardy, Guillaume; Simonpietri, Pascal; Gaiffe, Thierry

    2017-11-01

    Among the technologies available for gyroscopes usable in space, the Fibre Optic Gyroscope (FOG) technology appears to be the most suitable: no moving parts, very good lifetime, low power consumption, very low random walk, arbitrarily low angular resolution and very good behaviour in radiations and vacuum. Benefiting from more than ten years of experience with this technology, Ixsea (formerly the Navigation Division of Photonetics) is developing space FOG under both CNES and ESA contracts since many years. In the 1996-1998 period, two space FOG demonstrators in the 0,01°/h class were manufactured, including an optical head (optic and optoelectronic part) designed for space use and a standard ground electronics. Beyond the demonstration of the specified FOG performances, the behaviour of the optical head has been validated for use in typical space environment: vibrations, shocks, radiations (up to 50 krad) and thermal vacuum. Since the beginning of 1999, Ixsea is developing a space electronics in order to manufacture two complete space FOG. The first one entered in qualification in October. The second one will be delivered beginning of next year, it will be used in a CNES attitude measurement experiment (MAGI) onboard the FrenchBrazilian Microsatellite (FBM) partly dedicated to technology evaluation.

  16. From space qualified fiber optic gyroscope to generic fiber optic solutions available for space application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buret, Thomas; Ramecourt, David; Napolitano, Fabien

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this article is to present how the qualification of the Fiber Optic Gyroscope technology from IXSEA has been achieved through the qualification of a large range of optical devices and related manufacturing processes. These qualified optical devices and processes, that are now fully mastered by IXSEA through vertical integration of the technology, can be used for other space optical sensors. The example of the SWARM project will be discussed.

  17. Phase space treatment of optical beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemes, G.; Teodorescu, I.E.; Nemes, M.

    1984-01-01

    The lecture reveals the possibility of treating optical beams and systems using the PS concept. In the first part some well-known concepts and results of charged particle optics are applied to optical beam and systems. Attention is paid to the PSE concept as to beina a beam invariant according to Liouville's theorem. In the second part some simple optical sources, their PSE and their transforms through simple optical elements are theoretically presented. An experimental method and a device for PSE measurements are presented in the third part. In the fourth part the main problems of the linear system theory which were applied to electrical circuits in the time (or freo.uency) domain and to optical systems in the bidimensional space of spatial coordinates (or spatial frequencies) are applied to stigmatic optical systems in the bidimensional PS (spatial coordinate, angle). Some examples of applying PS concepts in optics are presented in the fifth part. The lecture is mainly based on original results some of them being previously unpublished. (authors)

  18. German activities in optical space instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, G.

    2018-04-01

    In the years of space exploration since the mid-sixties, a wide experience in optical space instrumentation has developed in Germany. This experience ranges from large telescopes in the 1 m and larger category with the accompanying focal plane detectors and spectrometers for all regimes of the electromagnetic spectrum (infrared, visible, ultraviolet, x-rays), to miniature cameras for cometary and planetary explorations. The technologies originally developed for space science. are now also utilized in the fields of earth observation and even optical telecommunication. The presentation will cover all these areas, with examples for specific technological or scientific highlights. Special emphasis will be given to the current state-of-the-art instrumentation technologies in scientific institutions and industry, and to the future perspective in approved and planned projects.

  19. Commercial Optics for Space Surveillance and Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, M.; Kopit, E.; McGraw, J.; Zimmer, P.

    Since the first days of the space program, there have been both amateur and government satellite watchers. Large, expensive government systems with custom optics are still the most capable, but with modern sensors and high speed computers, amateur trackers are easily pushing the limits of what government systems achieved only a decade ago. A very recent trend in the space world is the emergence of commercial space operations centers. Once the exclusive purview of governments, corporations are now providing orbital environment awareness services to the operators of commercial satellites. The requirement for synoptic satellite observations has led to corporations developing world-wide observing networks. A problem facing both amateur and corporate observers is the limited availability of suitable optical systems. Most observing efforts rely on long focus (f/8 or greater) optical systems with focal reducers, and a somewhat limited field of view. Often, the cameras in use are not ideally matched to the optical system. While there are a few exceptions, the choices are not many. Celestron recently introduced the C-11 RASA optical system, with an 11-inch aperture and an f/2.2 focal ratio. This optical system is designed for dedicated imaging and is ideally suited for both wide-field astronomy and the detection and tracking of satellites. The larger C-14 RASA, to be introduced later this year, was specifically designed for wide-field imaging with large commercial CCDs. It offers greater sensitivity and a wider field of view than the smaller C-11 RASA and should prove to be the instrument of choice for both amateur and corporate satellite observers. We present data from satellite observations with a production model C-11 RASA and estimated performance for the new C-14 RASA.

  20. NASA's current activities in free space optical communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Bernard L.

    2017-11-01

    NASA and other space agencies around the world are currently developing free space optical communication systems for both space-to-ground links and space-to-space links. This paper provides an overview of NASA's current activities in free space optical communications with a focus on Near Earth applications. Activities to be discussed include the Lunar Laser Communication Demonstration, the Laser Communications Relay Demonstration, and the commercialization of the underlying technology. The paper will also briefly discuss ongoing efforts and studies for Deep Space optical communications. Finally the paper will discuss the development of international optical communication standards within the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems.

  1. Wigner distribution, partial coherence, and phase-space optics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaans, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    The Wigner distribution is presented as a perfect means to treat partially coherent optical signals and their propagation through first-order optical systems from a radiometric and phase-space optical perspective

  2. Discovery deep space optical communications (DSOC) transceiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, W. Thomas

    2017-02-01

    NASA's 22 cm diameter Deep Space Optical Communications (DSOC) Transceiver is designed to provide a bidirectional optical link between a spacecraft in the inner solar system and an Earth-based optical ground station. This design, optimized for operation across a wide range of illumination conditions, is focused on minimizing blinding from stray light, and providing reliable, accurate attitude information to point its narrow communication beam accurately to the future location of the ground terminal. Though our transceiver will transmit in the 1550 nm waveband and receive in the 1064 nm waveband, the system design relies heavily on reflective optical elements, extending flexibility to be modified for use at different wavebands. The design makes use of common path propagation among transmit, receive and pointing verification optical channels to maintain precise alignment among its components, and to naturally correct for element misalignment resulting from launch or thermal element perturbations. This paper presents the results of trade studies showing the evolution of the design, unique operational characteristics of the design, elements that help to maintain minimal stray light contamination, and preliminary results from development and initial testing of a functional aluminum test model.

  3. Optical Axis Identification Technique for Free Space Optics Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Tashiro

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes optical axis adjustment technique for an active free space optics transmission system. This system precisely controls the direction of a collimated thin laser beam using a motor driven laser emitting mechanism and positioning photodiodes. Before beginning laser beam feedback control, it is required to guide the laser beam within the range of the positioning photodiodes for initial laser beam alignment. This paper proposes an arrival position presumption method of laser beam traveling along the long distance from transmitter. A positioning sensor containing several photodiodes measures laser luminescence distribution, and analytically calculates the optical axis of laser beam according to the modified Gaussian beam optics based on four or five distributed local intensity of laser luminescence. Experiments are conducted to evaluate the accuracy of the presumption, and results reveal that the method is effective in leading the laser beam onto a distant receiver.

  4. Advanced lightweight optics development for space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilbro, James W.

    1998-01-01

    A considerable amount of effort over the past year has been devoted to exploring ultra-lightweight optics for two specific NASA programs, the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST), and the High Throughput X-ray Spectrometer (HTXS). Experimental investigations have been undertaken in a variety of materials including glass, composites, nickel, beryllium, Carbon fiber reinforced Silicon Carbide (CSiC), Reaction Bonded Silicon Carbide, Chemical Vapor Deposited Silicon Carbide, and Silicon. Overall results of these investigations will be summarized, and specific details will be provided concerning the in-house development of ultra-lightweight nickel replication for both grazing incidence and normal incidence optics. This will include x-ray test results of the grazing incidence optic and cryogenic test results of the normal incidence optic. The status of two 1.5 meter diameter demonstration mirrors for NGST will also be presented. These two demonstrations are aimed at establishing the capability to manufacture and test mirrors that have an areal density of 15 kilograms per square meter. Efforts in thin membrane mirrors and Fresnel lenses will also be briefly discussed

  5. Space optical materials and space qualification of optics; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Mar. 30, 31, 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Robert R.

    1989-10-01

    The present conference on space optical materials discusses current metals and nonmetals-related processing R&D efforts, investigations of space optical effects, and the spaceborne qualification of optical components and systems. Attention is given to CVD SiC for optical applications, optical materials for space-based lasers, the high-efficiency acoustooptic and optoelectronic crystalline material Tl3AsSe3, HIPed Be for low-scatter cryogenic optics, durable solar-reflective surfacing for Be optics, thermal effects on Be mirrors, contamination effects on optical surfaces in the monolayer regime, and IR background signature survey experiment results. Also discussed are the contamination-control program for the EUE instrument, an optical multipass radiation system for the heating of levitated samples, optical sample-position sensing for electrostatic levitation, and the qualification of space lighting systems.

  6. Systems and methods for free space optical communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Warren W [Benton City, WA; Aker, Pamela M [Richland, WA; Pratt, Richard M [Richland, WA

    2011-05-10

    Free space optical communication methods and systems, according to various aspects are described. The methods and systems are characterized by transmission of data through free space with a digitized optical signal acquired using wavelength modulation, and by discrimination between bit states in the digitized optical signal using a spectroscopic absorption feature of a chemical substance.

  7. New Cryogenic Optical Test Capability at Marshall Space Flight Center's Space Optics Manufacturing Technology Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegley, Jeff; Burdine, Robert V. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A new cryogenic optical testing capability exists at Marshall Space Flight Center's Space Optics Manufacturing Technology Center (SOMTC). SOMTC has been performing optical wavefront testing at cryogenic temperatures since 1999 in the X-ray Cryogenic Test Facility's (XRCF's) large vacuum chamber. Recently the cryogenic optical testing capability has been extended to a smaller vacuum chamber. This smaller horizontal cylindrical vacuum chamber has been outfitted with a helium-cooled liner that can be connected to the facility's helium refrigeration system bringing the existing kilowatt of refrigeration capacity to bear on a 1 meter diameter x 2 meter long test envelope. Cryogenic environments to less than 20 Kelvin are now possible in only a few hours. SOMTC's existing instruments (the Instantaneous Phase-shifting Interferometer (IPI) from ADE Phase-Shift Technologies and the PhaseCam from 4D Vision Technologies) view the optic under test through a 150 mm clear aperture BK-7 window. Since activation and chamber characterization tests in September 2001, the new chamber has been used to perform a cryogenic (less than 30 Kelvin) optical test of a 22.5 cm diameter x 127 cm radius of curvature Si02 mirror, a cryogenic survival (less than 30 Kelvin) test of an adhesive, and a cryogenic cycle (less than 20 Kelvin) test of a ULE mirror. A vibration survey has also been performed on the test chamber. Chamber specifications and performance data, vibration environment data, and limited test results will be presented.

  8. Optical/Infrared Signatures for Space-Based Remote Sensing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Picard, R. H; Dewan, E. M; Winick, J. R; O'Neil, R. R

    2007-01-01

    This report describes work carried out under the Air Force Research Laboratory's basic research task in optical remote-sensing signatures, entitled Optical / Infrared Signatures for Space-Based Remote Sensing...

  9. Exotic Optical Beam Classes for Free-Space Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-24

    wandering of an optical vortex is one of the significant problems with the application of vortex beams to FSO applications. From a geometrical optics ...AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0131 Exotic optical beam classes for free-space communication Greg Gbur UNIVERSITY OF NOTH CAROLINA AT CHARLOTTE Final Report...12-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Exotic optical beam classes for free-space communication 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-13-1-0009 5c

  10. Free space optical networks for ultra-broad band services

    CERN Document Server

    Kartalopoulos, Stamatios V

    2011-01-01

    "Free Space Optical Network is a next generation communication network which uses optical waves instead of microwaves, potentially offering faster communication with ultra band width, meaning more complex communication services can be simultaneously offered. This book describes the network concepts in simple language starting with point-to-point free space optics basics and discusses networking, interoperability with existing communication network, and security. An ideal resource for communication professionals just entering the free space optical communication field and graduate students majoring in optical communications"--Provided by publisher.

  11. 3rd Symposium on Space Optical Instruments and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Guangjun

    2017-01-01

    This volume contains selected and expanded contributions presented at the 3rd Symposium on Space Optical Instruments and Applications in Beijing, China June 28 – 29, 2016. This conference series is organised by the Sino-Holland Space Optical Instruments Laboratory, a cooperation platform between China and the Netherlands. The symposium focused on key technological problems of optical instruments and their applications in a space context. It covered the latest developments, experiments and results regarding theory, instrumentation and applications in space optics. The book is split across five topical sections. The first section covers space optical remote sensing system design, the second advanced optical system design, the third remote sensor calibration and measurement. Remote sensing data processing and information extraction is then presented, followed by a final section on remote sensing data applications. .

  12. Annual report of STACY operation in FY.2000. Experiments on neutron-interacting systems with two slab-shaped core tanks and 10% enriched uranyl nitrate solution. 2. Contract research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onodera, Seiji; Hirose, Hideyuki; Izawa, Kazuhiko [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] [and others

    2001-09-01

    Criticality experiments on neutron-interacting systems have been performed since FY.1999 at STACY (Static Experiment Critical Facility) in NUCEF (Nuclear Fuel Cycle Safety Engineering Research Facility). In the experiments two slab-shaped core tanks and 10% enriched uranyl nitrate solution were used. The dimension of the core tanks is 35 cm in thickness, 70 cm in width and 150 cm in height. In FY.2000, the reactivity effect of neutron-isolating materials, such as polyethylene and concrete, and neutron absorbers made of hafnium and cadmium, which were placed between those two core tanks, was determined by the experiments. This report summarizes the data on the operation and the fuel management for the 57 experiments conducted in FY.2000. (author)

  13. FY 2000 Project of developing international standards for supporting new industries. 'Standardization of multicolor measurement'; 2000 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Multicolor no sokushoku no hyojunka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Described herein are the FY 2000 results of the study on and research and development of the testing methods for tones of anisotropic color materials (multi-colors) for proposing the international standard. USA has proposed the triangle colorimetry, based on the results of the visual tests with metallic paints, which is being incorporated in the ASTM standards. Germany seems to adopt the multi-angle colorimetery in the DIN standards. The FY 2000 efforts are directed to measurement of the reflection characteristics of the metallic and pearl-mica samples by a variable-angle spectrophotometer. The solid color and metallic color are being evaluated by a weather resistance tester QUV and outdoor tests, because of the anticipated different mechanisms by which they are aged. The functional test and analysis are also required to correlate the multi-color measurement results with visual evaluation results, and the preliminary tests are conducted to improve skill of the panelists. (NEDO)

  14. Space Object Radiometric Modeling for Hardbody Optical Signature Database Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    Introduction This presentation summarizes recent activity in monitoring spacecraft health status using passive remote optical nonimaging ...Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Space Object Radiometric Modeling for Hardbody Optical Signature Database Generation...It is beneficial to the observer/analyst to understand the fundamental optical signature variability associated with these detection and

  15. FY 2000 report on the results of the R and D of fundamental technologies for semi conductivity applications; 2000 nendo chodendo oyo kiban gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-05-01

    In relation to the project on the R and D of fundamental technologies for semi conductivity applications, the FY 2000 results were summed up. As to the study of the high temperature superconductivity mechanism, it was found out that a theoretical model of the strong scattering limit in d-wave superconductor can be used for the breaking of superconductivity due to Zn impurities. Concerning the study of the critical current mechanism, the elucidation was proceeded with of the magnetic flux pinning and grain-boundary conduction mechanism. Relating to the development of element technology of bulks with great electromagnetic force, the mechanical strength of superconducting bulk materials was raised to 100MPa or more by the epoxy resin impregnation method. As to the development of the basic technology for fabrication of high next-generation current conductors, the expansion was confirmed of conditions for growing single grains in the zone-melt process for very fine filaments. About the development of technology of single crystal substrates, in the development of the pseudo single crystalline film growth process by LPE method, a yield ratio of high quality crystal of 63% was achieved. Concerning the development of technology of thin film/multi-layer, the area of uniform composition/thickness of NdBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} MOCVD films was enlarged up to 20mm square. (NEDO)

  16. FY 2000 report on the demonstrative research for photovoltaic power generation system in Thailand. Demonstrative study on photovoltaic power generation grid-connected system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-01

    In relation to the demonstrative study of the photovoltaic power system that is planned in Libong island, Thailand, the FY 2000 results were reported. In this R and D, construction/demonstrative operation were planned for a photovoltaic power station with a generation output of 100kW, photovoltaic power system in school facilities, and system for transmitting/distributing power to houses by connecting the power station and power system. In this fiscal year, the field survey was conducted together with the alteration from Yao Yai island, for which the demonstrative study was planned at first, to Libong island. The electric equipment was selected which met the requests from Thailand and the results of the field survey, and the basic design of the photovoltaic power generation/transmission/distribution system was completed. Based on this, the design/manufacture of photovoltaic power generation modules, power control equipment, measuring equipment, etc. were made. At the construction site of photovoltaic power station, construction work such as land formation was conducted. Further, Thai engineers who visited Japan did the following: discussions about power system, presence at test/inspection of photovoltaic power generation modules, visits to photovoltaic power stations, wind power stations, etc. (NEDO)

  17. FY 2000 report on the results of the development of the next generation chemical process technology; 2000 nendo jisedai kagaku process gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The R and D were conducted on the next generation chemical process by which no energy losses are produced and the amount of the waste is made extremely small by the new catalytic reaction, the reaction using next generation separation/reaction membrane, etc., and the FY 2000 results were summed up. As to the development of the selective oxidation technology of saturated hydrocarbon, the basic knowledge/information were obtained on the following: construction of the catalytic principle toward the highly selective catalytic partial oxidation, elucidation of the reaction mechanism in alkane oxidation and design of the high functional catalyst, functional design in butane oxidation, characterization of the alkane oxidation catalyst and the application to the catalytic development, synthesis of the alkane selective oxidation catalyst, etc. Relating to the development of the process technology using the new reaction mechanism, a target value of equilibrium conversion of 10% or more was achieved using membrane reactor in the dehydrogenation of ethyl benzene. Further, as to the high performance selective membrane and low temperature active catalyst that are indispensable to the element technology, the continuous study was made, and at the same time themes in this study were arranged. (NEDO)

  18. FY 2000 report on the results of the R and D of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC); 2000 nendo kotai denkaishitsugata nenryo denchi no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-05-01

    Development of fuel cell power generation technology and R and D of solid oxide fuel cells were carried out, and reports of the FY 2000 results of companies were summed up. As to the R and D of the cell module, the R and D on the wet type cylinder module were made jointly by Toto Ltd., Kyushu Electric Power Co. and Nippon Steel Corp. As to the R and D of materials/basic technology, the following were conducted: evaluation of reliability of the cell module (evaluation of thermal cycle characteristics, etc.) by Chubu Electric Power Co., evaluation of reliability of the cell module (cell characteristics/stress evaluation) by Tokyo Gas Co. Ltd., cost reduction of cell materials (evaluation of chemical characteristics) by Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, and cost reduction of cell materials (evaluation of mechanical/thermal characteristics) by Japan Fine Ceramics Center. Concerning the system study, study of the system (adaptation fields of the small system and the optimization) was conducted by Nippon Steel Corp. (NEDO)

  19. FY 2000 research and development on DSRC/ITS application systems for vehicles; 2000 nendo DSRC/ITS shasaiki no oyo gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Described herein are the FY 2000 results of the research and development project aimed at application of the large-capacity, high-speed, bilateral dedicated short-range communication (DSRC) techniques, used for communication between running vehicles for electronic toll collection (ETC), to various types of ITS. The current ETC data alone is useful to apply the tollgate passage histories to the management of the vehicle operation. For practical application of the ETC tollgate passage data by transportation companies, developing the IC card readers installed at their offices and examining methods of interconnecting the DSRC-based vehicle operation management systems and ETC are effective. The field demonstration tests are conducted for DSRC-based onboard ETC equipment in real environments. The standards or guidelines are drafted for the four research items studied for application of DSRC/ITS onboard equipment, based on the onboard system architectures. More concretely, the standard specifications are drafted for the two items of the DSRC-applied platforms and functional diversification of the onboard ITS equipment, and the guidelines are drafted for the other two items of application of the DSRC systems for paying various fees and application of the DSRC systems for vehicle operation management. (NEDO)

  20. FY 2000 report on the results of the research study of environmental information network; 2000 nendo kankyo joho network ni kansuru chosa kenkyu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Described herein are the FY 2000 results of the research study on environmental information network formation. The Internet is experiencing an explosive increase in volume of information distributed therethrough. This is accompanied by increased problems related to information searches, information exchange security and information-reliability guarantees. First in demand are excellent portal sites, and second are sites that can be relied on to responsibly provide information. Cooperation with the real world off the Net is of particular importance, because the operating organizations, e.g., sites, will lose their raison deter, unless they clarify their unique abilities and characteristics under the tendencies towards broadened bands and ubiquity. The public sector, on the other hand, is highly reliable, accumulates a large volume of information, and has high network capacity. It has various functions, e.g., supporting the activities pertaining to ISO standards, and promoting the activities, e.g., those for educational programs, interdisciplinary exchanges by researchers, and matching of various organizations. The international cooperation for environmental information needs construction and operation of the networks, and construction of the infrastructures in the developing countries. If information becomes more ubiquitous, a chaotic sea of information will result. NEDO is strongly obliged to serve as the beacon, because it has established a huge volume of environment-related technologies, information, and networks. (NEDO)

  1. FY 2000 report on the measuring/analytical survey of petroleum substituting energy; 2000 nendo sekiyu daitai energy keiryo bunseki chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Looking for effective policy on petroleum substituting energy, measuring models were made for analyzing relations between changes in social structure and energy supply/demand structure. Through the simulation using these models, effects of difference in energy policy on economy and energy supply/demand were studied. Countries for survey were Thailand, the Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia, China and Korea. The measuring model is composed of the macroeconomic model and the energy supply/demand model. In the case of Korea, the interindustry-relations model was added. Using the macroeconomic model, asked were fluctuations in various economic activities/industrial structure/price/trade balance such as GDP and crude steel production by inputting overseas indices, population indices and financial indices such as the world trade, crude oil price and exchange rates. In FY 2000, for ASEAN countries, data were collected for analysis of relations between changes in economical/social structure and energy supply/demand structure. Using the pilot model constructed, the simulation was made on the standard case. (NEDO)

  2. FY 2000 research cooperation project on plastic processing technology/quality inspection technology; 2000 nendo kenkyu kyoryoku jigyo. Plastic kako gijutsu hinshitsukensa gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of improving the production technology of plastic products in Saudi Arabia, the joint development was made of the formation technology/quality inspection technology of agricultural use and food packaging use polyolefin film optimum to environmental conditions of the site, in the light of the needs there, and the FY 2000 results were reported. In the field survey/joint study, for the xenon type weather resistant testing machine and the extruder of the inflation film forming machine which were transported from Japan, the following were carried out: confirmation of the situation of accepting them on the site, functional test of computer of the extruder, installation of the machine testing weather resistance, and the trial operation. In the domestic support study, the extrusion test at laboratory was conducted using the polyethylene resin produced on the site to acquire the basic data for formation stability. Further, the film formation test was made using the equipment with the same specifications as those of the equipment introduced to the site to study the performance of screw extrusion and the formation stability of film. Also conducted were the analytical test/quality evaluation of resin materials/film. (NEDO)

  3. FY 2000 report on the results of the research and development project for the photon-aided instrumentation and processing technologies. R and D of the high-performance maintenance technologies for power generation plants; 2000 nendo photon keisoku kako gijutsu seika hokokusho. Hatsuden shisetsuyo kokino maintenance gijutsu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Described herein are the FY 2000 results of development of the photon-aided instrumentation and processing technologies, as part of the R and D of the high-performance maintenance technologies for power generation plants. Production of the fine, functional circuits is studied for microscopic processing technology. The light source with variable wavelength-in a range of 2 to 5{mu}m for the solid-state laser, to measure concentration and composition of gases by the infrared absorption laser. The photon wave front compensator is being developed, to prevent disturbance-induced sensitivity deterioration for measurement of high temperature by the laser-aided ultrasonic instrumentation. The prototype of superconducting X-ray detector is developed, for high-sensitivity detection of impurities by measuring fluorescent X-ray. Development of the 10kW-class solid-state, rod-type laser is started for high-speed, high-precision laser-aided welding and cutting, and output of 11.3kW and electrical/optical conversion efficiency of 21.5% are achieved. An electrical/optical conversion efficiency of 17% is also achieved with the slab-type laser. An all-solid-state laser is being developed. It will produce high-energy pulses and high-quality beams capable of generating the beams which are converged very finely on the work with an average output power of 1KW (fundamental wave) and electrical/optical conversion efficiency of at least 20%. (NEDO)

  4. Diffractive optical elements for space communication terminals

    OpenAIRE

    Herzig, Hans-Peter; Ehbets, Peter; Teijido, Juan M.; Weible, Kenneth J.; Heimbeck, Hans-Joerg

    2007-01-01

    The potential of diffractive optical elements for advanced laser communication terminals has been investigated. Applications include beam shaping of high- power laser diode arrays, optical filter elements for position detection and hybrid (refractive/diffractive) elements. In addition, we present a design example of a miniaturized terminal including diffractive optics.

  5. Space Flight Applications of Optical Fiber; 30 Years of Space Flight Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Melanie N.

    2010-01-01

    For over thirty years NASA has had success with space flight missions that utilize optical fiber component technology. One of the early environmental characterization experiments that included optical fiber was launched as the Long Duration Exposure Facility in 1978. Since then, multiple missions have launched with optical fiber components that functioned as expected, without failure throughout the mission life. The use of optical fiber in NASA space flight communications links and exploration and science instrumentation is reviewed.

  6. Two mode optical fiber in space optics communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampl, Martin

    2017-11-01

    In our contribution we propose to use of a two-mode optical fiber as a primary source in a transmitting optical head instead of the laser diode. The distribution of the optical intensity and the complex degree of the coherence on the output aperture of the lens that is irradiated by a step-index weakly guiding optical fiber is investigated. In our treatment we take into account weakly guided modes with polarization corrections to the propagation constant and unified theory of second order coherence and polarization of electromagnetic beams.

  7. Fiber-Optic Sensing for In-Space Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, Francisco; Richards, W. Lance; Piazza, Anthony; Parker, Allen R.; Hudson, Larry D.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation provides examples of fiber optic sensing technology development activities performed at NASA Armstrong. Examples of current and previous work that support in-space inspection techniques and methodologies are highlighted.

  8. Optical sectioning for optical scanning holography using phase-space filtering with Wigner distribution functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hwi; Min, Sung-Wook; Lee, Byoungho; Poon, Ting-Chung

    2008-07-01

    We propose a novel optical sectioning method for optical scanning holography, which is performed in phase space by using Wigner distribution functions together with the fractional Fourier transform. The principle of phase-space optical sectioning for one-dimensional signals, such as slit objects, and two-dimensional signals, such as rectangular objects, is first discussed. Computer simulation results are then presented to substantiate the proposed idea.

  9. FY 2000 report on the results of the research and development project for new industry creation type industrial science technologies. R and D of the intellectual material and structural systems (R and D of the intellectual material and structural systems); 2000 nendo shinki sangyo soshutsugata sangyo kagaku gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Chiteki kozo system no kenkyu kaihatsu (chiteki kozo system no kenkyu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Described herein are the FY 2000 results of the R and D project for development of intellectual materials and structural systems, where the fibrous or leafy sensor material or element (muscle) is integrated with a structure of an advanced material (skeleton) to process and control information (brain). The program for development of the health monitoring technologies successfully improves the fine FRG (Fiber Bragg Grating) as the high-performance sensor, equipped with a connector which allows the sensor to be easily connected to the normal diameter one, and develops various prototype sensors. The program for self-diagnosis of structural soundness and controlling damages verifies detection effectiveness of the embedded fine FRG sensor. The impact-related characteristics and damages of the reinforced flat plate are detected by embedding the optical fiber sensor. The program for developing the actuator materials and elements prepares the 20{mu}m thick piezoelectric sheet of adequate strength and toughness by dispersing the PNN-PZT system with partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ). The program for the function-gradient systems prepares the FGM driven at normal temperature, characterized by its structure of more evenly distributed stress, to evaluate its characteristics. It is proved to have high durability. The results of the comprehensive survey are also described. (NEDO)

  10. FY2000 report of the research results of medical/engineering cooperative research project, basic research on systems for minimally invasive diagnostic/treatment of circulatory system diseases, including prognostic diagnosis; 2000 nendo igaku kogaku renkeigata kenkyu jigyo, junkankikei shikkan ni taisuru yogo shindan wo fukumu teishinshu shindan chiryo system ni kansuru kiso kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The basic researches on minimally invasive diagnostic/treatment systems are conducted for circulatory system diseases, and the FY 2000 results are reported. The program for developing the heart surgery supporting manipulator includes development of the manipulator of 7 degree of freedom and fail-safe mechanisms to be incorporated in the patient-side system, and research and development of the heart motion compensation type robot system. The program for developing the diagnosis/treatment system aided by intravascular optical analysis includes development of intravascular endoscopy by the aid of LED emitting blue color of high brightness, and automatic analyzer for the in vivo vascular endothelial cell functions. The program for the minimally invasive diagnostic system includes development of superimposing system for integrating the images by the NOGA system and cine-coronary angiography. The other R and D items include artificial vascular systems to be put in the blood vessels, adhesives for a living body, suture instruments for fine blood vessels, heart surgery supporting system, based on the infrared spectroscopy, endoscopic system for the cranical bones, arterialization method, and gene-aided treatment. (NEDO)

  11. FY 2000 report on the results of the technology development of energy use reduced machine tools, etc. Development of the linear motor system for realization of energy conservation and commercialization; 2000 nendo energy shiyo gorika kosaku kiki nado gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Shoeneka to jitsuyoka wo jitsugensuru linear motor system no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    In relation to the drive system of machine tools widely used as production facilities for automobiles, home electric appliances, etc., the R and D were made of a high efficiency linear motor system of which attention was paid to energy rationalization and environmental loads, and the FY 2000 results were summed up. In the study of the development of the system, studies were made not only on the lowering of heating, cost reduction and heightening of speed, but on the mechanism and control by which machine natural vibration can relatively be cut off, technology of damping for cutting vibration, technology to meet the deformation, etc. by cutting loads, sliding loads, and acceleration of accelerating/decelerating, technology to reduce the machine weight, etc. In the study of the basic technology of linear motor, the finite element method analysis was conducted on the typical linear motor. Concerning the control system, specs were studied which can deal with natural vibration and cutting vibration of the machine system. As to the development of the steel scale type linear encoder, scale sample for evaluation of basic characteristics was designed/trially manufactured. In the study of the detection optical system, the design/trial manufacture of photodiode array were made. (NEDO)

  12. FY 2000 report on the results of the research and development project for new industry creation type industrial science technologies. R and D of the intellectual material and structural systems (Development of technologies for rational use of energy); 2000 nendo shinki sangyo soshutsugata sangyo kagaku gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Chiteki zairyo kozo system no kenkyu kaihatsu (energy shiyo gorika gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Described herein are the FY 2000 results of the R and D project for development of intellectual materials and structural systems, as part of development of technologies for rational use of energy. The program for development of health monitoring technologies produces the bright prospects for commercialization of the fine FBG (Fiber Bragg Grating) sensor which can be embedded in a CFRP prepreg, and establishes the crack detecting method. The program for development of smart manufacturing technologies describes the dielectric constant sensor capable of monitoring the curing process, detection of the cured conditions by the optical fiber sensor, and development of the performs by RTM (Resin Transfer Molding). The program for technological development of the active-adaptive structures conducts the vibration- and noise-controlling tests for the small-size structural elements, confirming that the damping coefficient is improved by at least 20% and acoustic power is reduced by at least 30%. The program for developing the actuator materials and elements improves the piezoelectric characteristics of the PZT-based materials by hybrid sintering, and develops the actuators of high-durability FGM (Function-Gradient Materials). It also develops the foil- and belt-shaped shape memory alloys by arc-aided dissolution and rapid solidification of Ti-Ni-Cu-based alloys. (NEDO)

  13. FY 2000 report on the results of the technology development of energy use reduced machine tools, etc. R and D of the environment-friendly grinding machine system; 2000 nendo energy shiyo gorika kosaku kiki nado gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kankyo taiogata kensaku kako system no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The R and D were conducted of a grinding machine system of an environmental-friendly type in which no coolant is used or the amount of coolant is reduced, and the FY 2000 results were summed up. As to the ECOLOG grinding newly thought up, the roles were divided: the lubrication into a trace of the vegetable oil supplied onto the grindstone surface, cooling into a trace of the cooling water supplied to the structure, discharge of chips to the cooling water for bed table cleaning. By this, the amount of the cooling water becomes approximately 1/3 of that in the conventional grinding. Concerning the ECOLOG grinding using the usual grindstone, the grinding performance equal to that in the conventional grinding was confirmed. In the study for making the cooling water non-pollutant, the chlorine/sulfur free coolant was developed which includes no chemical substances designated by the PRTR law at all. It was confirmed that the grinding performance was almost the same level as the existing coolant which includes sulfur. In the study of the supply of coolant applied with ultrasonic waves, the result was obtained that in the optical glass grinding, the number of scratches decreased and the surface roughness improved even at the flow rate of coolant which is less than in the conventional grinding. (NEDO)

  14. Research progress of free space coherent optical communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zhenkun; Ke, Xizheng

    2018-02-01

    This paper mainly introduces the research progress of free space coherent optical communication in Xi'an University of Technology. In recent years, the research on the outer modulation technology of the laser, free-space-to-fiber coupling technique, the design of transmitting and receiving optical antenna, adaptive optical technology with or without wave-front sensor, automatic polarization control technology, frequency stabilization technology, heterodyne detection technology and high speed signal processing technology. Based on the above related research, the digital signal modulation, transmission, detection and data recovery are realized by the heterodyne detection technology in the free space optical communication system, and finally the function of smooth viewing high-definition video is realized.

  15. Free-space wavelength-multiplexed optical scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaqoob, Z; Rizvi, A A; Riza, N A

    2001-12-10

    A wavelength-multiplexed optical scanning scheme is proposed for deflecting a free-space optical beam by selection of the wavelength of the light incident on a wavelength-dispersive optical element. With fast tunable lasers or optical filters, this scanner features microsecond domain scan setting speeds and large- diameter apertures of several centimeters or more for subdegree angular scans. Analysis performed indicates an optimum scan range for a given diffraction order and grating period. Limitations include beam-spreading effects based on the varying scanner aperture sizes and the instantaneous information bandwidth of the data-carrying laser beam.

  16. Silicon carbide optics for space and ground based astronomical telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robichaud, Joseph; Sampath, Deepak; Wainer, Chris; Schwartz, Jay; Peton, Craig; Mix, Steve; Heller, Court

    2012-09-01

    Silicon Carbide (SiC) optical materials are being applied widely for both space based and ground based optical telescopes. The material provides a superior weight to stiffness ratio, which is an important metric for the design and fabrication of lightweight space telescopes. The material also has superior thermal properties with a low coefficient of thermal expansion, and a high thermal conductivity. The thermal properties advantages are important for both space based and ground based systems, which typically need to operate under stressing thermal conditions. The paper will review L-3 Integrated Optical Systems - SSG’s (L-3 SSG) work in developing SiC optics and SiC optical systems for astronomical observing systems. L-3 SSG has been fielding SiC optical components and systems for over 25 years. Space systems described will emphasize the recently launched Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) developed for JHU-APL and NASA-GSFC. Review of ground based applications of SiC will include supporting L-3 IOS-Brashear’s current contract to provide the 0.65 meter diameter, aspheric SiC secondary mirror for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST).

  17. NASA FY 2000 Accountability Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This Accountability Report consolidates reports required by various statutes and summarizes NASA's program accomplishments and its stewardship over budget and financial resources. It is a culmination of NASA's management process, which begins with mission definition and program planning, continues with the formulation and justification of budgets for the President and Congress, and ends with scientific and engineering program accomplishments. The report covers activities from October 1, 1999, through September 30, 2000. Achievements are highlighted in the Statement of the Administrator and summarized in the Report.

  18. The JPL optical communications telescope laboratory (OCTL) test bed for the future optical Deep Space Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, K. E.; Page, N.; Wu, J.; Srinivasan, M.

    2003-01-01

    Relative to RF, the lower power-consumption and lower mass of high bandwidth optical telecommunications make this technology extremely attractive for returning data from future NASA/JPL deep space probes.

  19. Beaconless Pointing for Deep-Space Optical Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swank, Aaron J.; Aretskin-Hariton, Eliot; Le, Dzu K.; Sands, Obed S.; Wroblewski, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Free space optical communication is of interest to NASA as a complement to existing radio frequency communication methods. The potential for an increase in science data return capability over current radio-frequency communications is the primary objective. Deep space optical communication requires laser beam pointing accuracy on the order of a few microradians. The laser beam pointing approach discussed here operates without the aid of a terrestrial uplink beacon. Precision pointing is obtained from an on-board star tracker in combination with inertial rate sensors and an outgoing beam reference vector. The beaconless optical pointing system presented in this work is the current approach for the Integrated Radio and Optical Communication (iROC) project.

  20. Space Surveillance Network (SSN) Optical Augmentation (SOA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-04-01

    physical characteristics, and the geocentric and topocentric positions of each satellite in the deep space object catalog. The SKYMAP propagator...maintains the geocentric and topocentric positions and recomputes the position of each object several times a minute. For each scheduling...AINTENANCE Mission Personnel ( Staffing ) Officers 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 $90K/person (0) Enlisted 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 $45K/person (0) Contractor 20.0

  1. Universality in level spacing fluctuations of a chaotic optical billiard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laprise, J.F.; Hosseinizadeh, A.; Lamy-Poirier, J. [Departement de Physique, Universite Laval, Quebec, Quebec G1V 0A6 (Canada); Zomorrodi, R. [Departement de Physique, Universite Laval, Quebec, Quebec G1V 0A6 (Canada)] [Centre de Recherche Universite Laval Robert Giffard, Quebec, Quebec G1J 2G3 (Canada); Kroeger, J. [Physics Department and Center for Physics of Materials, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2T8 (Canada)] [Department of Physiology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1Y6 (Canada); Kroeger, H., E-mail: hkroger@phy.ulaval.c [Departement de Physique, Universite Laval, Quebec, Quebec G1V 0A6 (Canada)] [Functional Neurobiology, University of Utrecht, 3584 CH Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2010-04-19

    We study chaotic behavior of a classical optical stadium billiard model. We construct a matrix of time-of-travel along trajectories corresponding to a set of boundary points. We carry out a level spacing fluctuation analysis and compute the Dyson-Mehta spectral rigidity. The distribution of time-of-travel is approximately described by a Gaussian. The results for level spacing distribution and spectral rigidity show universal behavior.

  2. Linear ray and wave optics in phase space bridging ray and wave optics via the Wigner phase-space picture

    CERN Document Server

    Torre, Amalia

    2005-01-01

    Ray, wave and quantum concepts are central to diverse and seemingly incompatible models of light. Each model particularizes a specific ''manifestation'' of light, and then corresponds to adequate physical assumptions and formal approximations, whose domains of applicability are well-established. Accordingly each model comprises its own set of geometric and dynamic postulates with the pertinent mathematical means.At a basic level, the book is a complete introduction to the Wigner optics, which bridges between ray and wave optics, offering the optical phase space as the ambience and the Wigner f

  3. Optical overview and qualification of the LLCD space terminal

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVoe, C. E.; Pillsbury, A. D.; Khatri, F.; Burnside, J. M.; Raudenbush, A. C.; Petrilli, L. J.; Williams, T.

    2017-11-01

    In October 2013 the Lunar Laser Communications Demonstration (LLCD) made communications history by successfully demonstrating 622 megabits per second laser communication from the moon's orbit to earth. The LLCD consisted of the Lunar Laser Communication Space Terminal (LLST), developed by MIT Lincoln Laboratory, mounted on NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft and a primary ground terminal located in New Mexico, the Lunar Laser Communications Ground Terminal (LLGT), and two alternate ground terminals. This paper presents the optical layout of the LLST, the approach for testing the optical subsystems, and the results of the optical qualification of the LLST. Also described is the optical test set used to qualify the LLST. The architecture philosophy for the optics was to keep a small, simple optical backend that provided excellent boresighting and high isolation between the optical paths, high quality wavefront on axis, with minimal throughput losses on all paths. The front end large optics consisted of a Cassegrain 107mm telescope with an f/0.7 parabolic primary mirror and a solar window to reduce the thermal load on the telescope and to minimize background light received at the sensors.

  4. Effects of thermal deformation on optical instruments for space application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segato, E.; Da Deppo, V.; Debei, S.; Cremonese, G.

    2017-11-01

    Optical instruments for space missions work in hostile environment, it's thus necessary to accurately study the effects of ambient parameters variations on the equipment. In particular optical instruments are very sensitive to ambient conditions, especially temperature. This variable can cause dilatations and misalignments of the optical elements, and can also lead to rise of dangerous stresses in the optics. Their displacements and the deformations degrade the quality of the sampled images. In this work a method for studying the effects of the temperature variations on the performance of imaging instrument is presented. The optics and their mountings are modeled and processed by a thermo-mechanical Finite Element Model (FEM) analysis, then the output data, which describe the deformations of the optical element surfaces, are elaborated using an ad hoc MATLAB routine: a non-linear least square optimization algorithm is adopted to determine the surface equations (plane, spherical, nth polynomial) which best fit the data. The obtained mathematical surface representations are then directly imported into ZEMAX for sequential raytracing analysis. The results are the variations of the Spot Diagrams, of the MTF curves and of the Diffraction Ensquared Energy due to simulated thermal loads. This method has been successfully applied to the Stereo Camera for the BepiColombo mission reproducing expected operative conditions. The results help to design and compare different optical housing systems for a feasible solution and show that it is preferable to use kinematic constraints on prisms and lenses to minimize the variation of the optical performance of the Stereo Camera.

  5. Free Space Optics Communication for Mobile Military Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    Federal Communications Commission FDA Food and Drug Administration FOV Field-of-View FSO Free Space Optics FWHM Full Width at Half Maximum Gbps...Physique et de Métrologie des Oscillateurs (LPMO) du CNRS UPR3203, associé à l’Université de Franche -Comté, 15 March 2002 [Schenk 2000] H. Schenk

  6. Replicated x-ray optics for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudec, René; Pína, Ladislav; Inneman, Adolf

    2017-11-01

    We report on the program of design and development of X-ray optics for space applications in the Czech Republic. Having more than 30 years background in X-ray optics development for space applications (for use in astronomical X-ray telescopes onboard spacecrafts, before 1989 mostly for Soviet and East European INTERKOSMOS program), we focus nowadays on novel technologies and approaches, thin shell replicated mirrors, as well as studies of light-weight mirrors based on innovative materials such as ceramics. The collaboration includes teams from the Academy of Sciences, Universities, and industry. We will describe and discuss both the history of the development of Xray optics in the Czech Republic and the developed technologies and approaches (with focus on replication technology) as well as recent activities and developments including our participation on the ESA XEUS mirror technology development based on the Agreement between ESA and Czech Government.

  7. Active x-ray optics for high resolution space telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doel, Peter; Atkins, Carolyn; Brooks, D.; Feldman, Charlotte; Willingale, Richard; Button, Tim; Rodriguez Sanmartin, Daniel; Meggs, Carl; James, Ady; Willis, Graham; Smith, Andy

    2017-11-01

    The Smart X-ray Optics (SXO) Basic Technology project started in April 2006 and will end in October 2010. The aim is to develop new technologies in the field of X-ray focusing, in particular the application of active and adaptive optics. While very major advances have been made in active/adaptive astronomical optics for visible light, little was previously achieved for X-ray optics where the technological challenges differ because of the much shorter wavelengths involved. The field of X-ray astronomy has been characterized by the development and launch of ever larger observatories with the culmination in the European Space Agency's XMM-Newton and NASA's Chandra missions which are currently operational. XMM-Newton uses a multi-nested structure to provide modest angular resolution ( 10 arcsec) but large effective area, while Chandra sacrifices effective area to achieve the optical stability necessary to provide sub-arc second resolution. Currently the European Space Agency (ESA) is engaged in studies of the next generation of X-ray space observatories, with the aim of producing telescopes with increased sensitivity and resolution. To achieve these aims several telescopes have been proposed, for example ESA and NASA's combined International X-ray Observatory (IXO), aimed at spectroscopy, and NASA's Generation-X. In the field of X-ray astronomy sub 0.2 arcsecond resolution with high efficiency would be very exciting. Such resolution is unlikely to be achieved by anything other than an active system. The benefits of a such a high resolution would be important for a range of astrophysics subjects, for example the potential angular resolution offered by active X-ray optics could provide unprecedented structural imaging detail of the Solar Wind bowshock interaction of comets, planets and similar objects and auroral phenomena throughout the Solar system using an observing platform in low Earth orbit. A major aim of the SXO project was to investigate the production of thin

  8. Overview of fiber optics in the natural space environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, C.; Dorsky, L.; Johnston, A.; Bergman, L.; Stassinopoulos, E.

    1991-01-01

    The potential applications of fiber-optic (FO) systems in spacecraft which will be exposed to the space radiation environment are discussed in view of tests conducted aboard the Long-Duration Exposure Facility and the Comet Rendezvous and Asteroid Flyby spacecraft. Attention is given to anticipated trends in the use of FO in spacecraft communications systems. The natural space radiation environment is noted to be far more benign than the military space environment, which encompasses displacement-damage effects due to significant neutron influences

  9. Holographic analysis of dispersive pupils in space--time optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calatroni, J.; Vienot, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    Extension of space--time optics to objects whose transparency is a function of the temporal frequency v = c/lambda is examined. Considering the effects of such stationary pupils on white light waves, they are called temporal pupils. It is shown that simultaneous encoding both in the space and time frequency domains is required to record pupil parameters. The space-time impulse response and transfer functions are calculated for a dispersive nonabsorbent material. An experimental method providing holographic recording of the dispersion curve of any transparent material is presented

  10. Holographic analysis of dispersive pupils in space--time optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calatroni, J.; Vienot, J.C.

    1981-06-01

    Extension of space--time optics to objects whose transparency is a function of the temporal frequency v = c/lambda is examined. Considering the effects of such stationary pupils on white light waves, they are called temporal pupils. It is shown that simultaneous encoding both in the space and time frequency domains is required to record pupil parameters. The space-time impulse response and transfer functions are calculated for a dispersive nonabsorbent material. An experimental method providing holographic recording of the dispersion curve of any transparent material is presented.

  11. Architectural Options for a Future Deep Space Optical Communications Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, B. L.; Benjamin, T.; Scozzafava, J.; Khatri, F.; Sharma, J.; Parvin, B.; Liebrecht, P. E.; Fitzgerald, R. J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of different options at Earth to provide Deep Space optical communication services. It is based mainly on work done for the Mars Laser Communications Demonstration (MLCD) Project, a joint project between NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology (JPL), and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Laboratory (MIT/LL). It also reports preliminary conclusions from the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System Continuation Study at GSFC. A lasercom flight terminal will be flown on the Mars Telecommunications Orbiter (MTO) to be launched by NASA in 2009, and will be the first high rate deep space demonstration of this revolutionary technology.

  12. Indoor Free Space Optic: a new prototype, realization and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchet, Olivier; Besnard, Pascal; Mihaescu, Adrian

    2008-08-01

    The Free Space Optic (FSO) communication is a daily reality used by an increasing number of companies. For indoor environment, optical wireless communication becomes a good alternative with respect to radio proposals. For both technologies, the architecture is similar: emission/reception base station (Gateway or Bridge) are installed to cover zones, which are defined to ensure a quality of service. The customers may be connected to the Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) with an adapter or module that emits and receives on this network. But due to its specific characteristics, wireless optical technology could present important advantages such as: Transmitted data security, medical immunity, high data rate, etc... Nevertheless, the optical system may have a limit on the network management aspect and link budget. The scope of this paper is to present a proposal at crossroads between optical fibre telecom system and data processing. In this document, we will present a prototype developed in Brittany during a regional collaborative project (Techim@ges). In order to answer to the management aspect and the link budget, this prototype uses an optical multiplexing technique in 1550 nm band: the Wavelength Division Multiple Access (WDMA). Moreover it also proposes a new class 1 high power emission solution. This full duplex system transmits these various wavelengths in free space, by using optical Multiplexer/Demultiplexer and optical modules. Each module has a defined and personal wavelength associated to the terminal identification (addresses MAC or IP). This approach permits a data rate at a minimum of a ten's Mbit/s per customer and potentially hundred Mbps for a line of sight system. The application field for the achieved and proposed prototype is potentially investigated from WLAN to WPAN.

  13. Last results of MADRAS, a space active optics demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laslandes, Marie; Hourtoule, Claire; Hugot, Emmanuel; Ferrari, Marc; Devilliers, Christophe; Liotard, Arnaud; Lopez, Céline; Chazallet, Frédéric

    2017-11-01

    The goal of the MADRAS project (Mirror Active, Deformable and Regulated for Applications in Space) is to highlight the interest of Active Optics for the next generation of space telescope and instrumentation. Wave-front errors in future space telescopes will mainly come from thermal dilatation and zero gravity, inducing large lightweight primary mirrors deformation. To compensate for these effects, a 24 actuators, 100 mm diameter deformable mirror has been designed to be inserted in a pupil relay. Within the project, such a system has been optimized, integrated and experimentally characterized. The system is designed considering wave-front errors expected in 3m-class primary mirrors, and taking into account space constraints such as compactness, low weight, low power consumption and mechanical strength. Finite Element Analysis allowed an optimization of the system in order to reach a precision of correction better than 10 nm rms. A dedicated test-bed has been designed to fully characterize the integrated mirror performance in representative conditions. The test set up is made of three main parts: a telescope aberrations generator, a correction loop with the MADRAS mirror and a Shack-Hartman wave-front sensor, and PSF imaging. In addition, Fizeau interferometry monitors the optical surface shape. We have developed and characterized an active optics system with a limited number of actuators and a design fitting space requirements. All the conducted tests tend to demonstrate the efficiency of such a system for a real-time, in situ wave-front. It would allow a significant improvement for future space telescopes optical performance while relaxing the specifications on the others components.

  14. Optical Fiber Assemblies for Space Flight from the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Photonics Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Melanie N.; Thoma, William Joe; LaRocca, Frank; Chuska, Richard; Switzer, Robert; Day, Lance

    2009-01-01

    The Photonics Group at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in the Electrical Engineering Division of the Advanced Engineering and Technologies Directorate has been involved in the design, development, characterization, qualification, manufacturing, integration and anomaly analysis of optical fiber subsystems for over a decade. The group supports a variety of instrumentation across NASA and outside entities that build flight systems. Among the projects currently supported are: The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, the Mars Science Laboratory, the James Webb Space Telescope, the Express Logistics Carrier for the International Space Station and the NASA Electronic Parts. and Packaging Program. A collection of the most pertinent information gathered during project support over the past year in regards to space flight performance of optical fiber components is presented here. The objective is to provide guidance for future space flight designs of instrumentation and communication systems.

  15. Research on Retro-reflecting Modulation in Space Optical Communication System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yifeng; Wang, Guannan

    2018-01-01

    Retro-reflecting modulation space optical communication is a new type of free space optical communication technology. Unlike traditional free space optical communication system, it applys asymmetric optical systems to reduce the size, weight and power consumption of the system and can effectively solve the limits of traditional free space optical communication system application, so it can achieve the information transmission. This paper introduces the composition and working principle of retro-reflecting modulation optical communication system, analyzes the link budget of this system, reviews the types of optical system and optical modulator, summarizes this technology future research direction and application prospects.

  16. Research on optic antenna of space laser communication networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Li-Xin; Li, Long; Zhang, Li-zhong; Zhao, Shan-shan; Jiang, Hui-lin

    2013-08-01

    With the highlights of the high transmission rate, large capacity, strong anti-interference and anti-capture ability, good security and small light, space laser communication becomes an important hotspot. At present, the focus of research of the laser communication system is point to point communication structure. However, from the application point of view, both the realization of space laser communication among multiple points and the establishment of the information transmission network can really have the practical value. Aiming at the problem of space laser communication network, this article puts forward the general idea about optical antenna to achieve multiple tracking goals at the same time. Through the analysis of the optical antenna, and the comparing of the current commonly used mirror driving mechanism, a new mirror driving mechanism is designed. The azimuth motion, containing circular grating feedback, is driven by torque motor,voice coil motor of fan produces pitch motion that has fan-shaped grating feedback, so that compression of the structure size to improve the efficiency of the reflector assembly. Through the establishment of the driving mechanism and the kinematic model of 3D entity, the relationship between the single drive azimuth and pitch angle following the angle of incident light is explained. The biggest ideal view area affecting the optical antenna is obtained by the simulation analysis of the kinematics model using MATLAB. The several factors of field overlap area and blind area offers a theoretical basis for structure optimization and control system for the subsequent optical antenna design.

  17. Optical power allocation for adaptive transmissions in wavelength-division multiplexing free space optical networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhou

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Attracting increasing attention in recent years, the Free Space Optics (FSO technology has been recognized as a cost-effective wireless access technology for multi-Gigabit rate wireless networks. Radio on Free Space Optics (RoFSO provides a new approach to support various bandwidth-intensive wireless services in an optical wireless link. In an RoFSO system using wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM, it is possible to concurrently transmit multiple data streams consisting of various wireless services at very high rate. In this paper, we investigate the problem of optical power allocation under power budget and eye safety constraints for adaptive WDM transmission in RoFSO networks. We develop power allocation schemes for adaptive WDM transmissions to combat the effect of weather turbulence on RoFSO links. Simulation results show that WDM RoFSO can support high data rates even over long distance or under bad weather conditions with an adequate system design.

  18. Passive Optical Link Budget for LEO Space Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, P.; Hasenohr, T.; Hampf, D.; Sproll, F.; Humbert, L.; Rodmann, J.; Riede, W.

    The rising space debris population is becoming an increasing risk for space assets. Even objects with the size of 10mm can cause major damages to active spacecraft. Especially the orbits around 800km high are densely populated with space debris objects. To assess the risk of collisions with active satellites, the Earth orbits need to be surveyed permanently. Space debris laser ranging systems for example can deliver highly accurate positional data for precise orbit determination. Therefor a priori information about the objects coarse trajectory is needed. Such initial orbit information can be provided by wide angle optical sensors. The Institute of Technical Physics at the German Aerospace Center in Stuttgart runs an observatory to perform passive as well as laser optical measurements to LEO objects. In order to detect unknown objects, a wide-angle imaging system with a field of view in the range of 5° to 15° equipped with an astronomical CCD camera and a commercial off the shelf (COTS) lens was designed to continuously observe the night sky for LEO objects. This paper presents the passive optical link budget for observing LEO objects to show the benefits and limits of the physical performance of an optical surveillance system. A compact COTS system is able to detect objects with a couple of decimeters in size while a large aperture telescope can detect objects with diameters below 10cm. Additionally, data captured by a passive optical staring system with a 10 cm aperture was analyzed. It is shown that 90% of all objects with a radar cross section larger than 2m² are detected with such a system during twilight conditions. The smallest detected LEO object with this system has a size of 0.32m x 0.32m x 0.26m. These measurements are compared to the developed link budget which allows an estimation of the performance of larger systems.

  19. Adhesive Bonding for Optical Metrology Systems in Space Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gohlke, Martin; Schuldt, Thilo; Braxmaier, Claus; Döringshoff, Klaus; Peters, Achim; Johann, Ulrich; Weise, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Laser based metrology systems become more and more attractive for space applications and are the core elements of planned missions such as LISA (NGO, eLISA) or NGGM where laser interferometry is used for distance measurements between satellites. The GRACE-FO mission will for the first time demonstrate a Laser Ranging Instrument (LRI) in space, starting 2017. Laser based metrology also includes optical clocks/references, either as ultra-stable light source for high sensitivity interferometry or as scientific payload e.g. proposed in fundamental physics missions such as mSTAR (mini SpaceTime Asymmetry Research), a mission dedicated to perform a Kennedy-Thorndike experiment on a satellite in a low-Earth orbit. To enable the use of existing optical laboratory setups, optimization with respect to power consumption, weight and dimensions is necessary. At the same time the thermal and structural stability must be increased. Over the last few years we investigated adhesive bonding of optical components to thermally highly stable glass ceramics as an easy-to-handle assembly integration technology. Several setups were implemented and tested for potential later use in space applications. We realized a heterodyne LISA related interferometer with demonstrated noise levels in the pm-range for translation measurement and nano-radiant-range for tilt measurements and two iodine frequency references on Elegant Breadboard (EBB) and Engineering Model (EM) level with frequency stabilities in the 10 -15 range for longer integration times. The EM setup was thermally cycled and vibration tested. (paper)

  20. Video semaphore decoding for free-space optical communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Last, Matthew; Fisher, Brian; Ezekwe, Chinwuba; Hubert, Sean M.; Patel, Sheetal; Hollar, Seth; Leibowitz, Brian S.; Pister, Kristofer S. J.

    2001-04-01

    Using teal-time image processing we have demonstrated a low bit-rate free-space optical communication system at a range of more than 20km with an average optical transmission power of less than 2mW. The transmitter is an autonomous one cubic inch microprocessor-controlled sensor node with a laser diode output. The receiver is a standard CCD camera with a 1-inch aperture lens, and both hardware and software implementations of the video semaphore decoding algorithm. With this system sensor data can be reliably transmitted 21 km form San Francisco to Berkeley.

  1. Estimation of optical attenuation in reduced visibility conditions in different environments across free space optics link

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dev, K.; Nebuloni, R.; Capsoni, C.; Fišer, Ondřej; Brázda, V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 12 (2017), s. 1708-1713 ISSN 1751-8725 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : light attenuation * optical sensors * free-space optical communication Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology OBOR OECD: Meteorology and atmospheric sciences Impact factor: 1.187, year: 2016 http://digital-library.theiet.org/content/journals/10.1049/iet-map.2016.0872

  2. An Array of Optical Receivers for Deep-Space Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilnrotter, Chi-Wung; Srinivasan, Meera; Andrews, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    An array of small optical receivers is proposed as an alternative to a single large optical receiver for high-data-rate communications in NASA s Deep Space Network (DSN). Because the telescope for a single receiver capable of satisfying DSN requirements must be greater than 10 m in diameter, the design, building, and testing of the telescope would be very difficult and expensive. The proposed array would utilize commercially available telescopes of 1-m or smaller diameter and, therefore, could be developed and verified with considerably less difficulty and expense. The essential difference between a single-aperture optical-communications receiver and an optical-array receiver is that a single-aperture receiver focuses all of the light energy it collects onto the surface of an optical detector, whereas an array receiver focuses portions of the total collected energy onto separate detectors, optically detects each fractional energy component, then combines the electrical signal from the array of detector outputs to form the observable, or "decision statistic," used to decode the transmitted data. A conceptual block diagram identifying the key components of the optical-array receiver suitable for deep-space telemetry reception is shown in the figure. The most conspicuous feature of the receiver is the large number of small- to medium-size telescopes, with individual apertures and number of telescopes selected to make up the desired total collecting area. This array of telescopes is envisioned to be fully computer- controlled via the user interface and prediction-driven to achieve rough pointing and tracking of the desired spacecraft. Fine-pointing and tracking functions then take over to keep each telescope pointed toward the source, despite imperfect pointing predictions, telescope-drive errors, and vibration caused by wind.

  3. FY 2000 report on the results of the model project on facilities for the effective utilization of industrial waste from industrial complex. Separate Volume 3; 2000 nendo Kogyo danchi sangyo haikibutsu yuko riyo setsubi model jigyo. Dai 3 Bunsatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    For the purpose of promoting the effective utilization of industrial waste as petroleum substitution energy resource and reducing the consumption of fossil fuels in Thailand, a model project on facilities for the effective utilization of industrial waste from industrial complex was worked on, and the FY 2000 results were reported. In Separate Volume 3, drawings of the following were included: furnace, free board spray nozzle, dispersion air nozzle, secondary burner, sand make-up conveyor, sand discharge gate, boiler, silencer for boiler safety valve, steam header, steam accumulator, gas cooling tower, refuse drainage storage tank, small sized drainage pump, pressure tank, flue gas duct, air damper, incombustible conveyor 2, sand circulation system bag filter, weighing bridge, fan starter panel, control panel, control panel, local switch box, distributed control system, field instrument, flue gas analyzer. (NEDO)

  4. Optical subnet concepts for the deep space network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaik, K.; Wonica, D.; Wilhelm, M.

    1993-01-01

    This article describes potential enhancements to the Deep Space Network, based on a subnet of receiving stations that will utilize optical communications technology in the post-2010 era. Two optical subnet concepts are presented that provide full line-of-sight coverage of the ecliptic, 24 hours a day, with high weather availability. The technical characteristics of the optical station and the user terminal are presented, as well as the effects of cloud cover, transmittance through the atmosphere, and background noise during daytime or nighttime operation on the communications link. In addition, this article identifies candidate geographic sites for the two network concepts and includes a link design for a hypothetical Pluto mission in 2015.

  5. Initial alignment method for free space optics laser beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Yuta; Tashiro, Yuki; Izumi, Kiyotaka; Yoshida, Koichi; Tsujimura, Takeshi

    2016-08-01

    The authors have newly proposed and constructed an active free space optics transmission system. It is equipped with a motor driven laser emitting mechanism and positioning photodiodes, and it transmits a collimated thin laser beam and accurately steers the laser beam direction. It is necessary to introduce the laser beam within sensible range of the receiver in advance of laser beam tracking control. This paper studies an estimation method of laser reaching point for initial laser beam alignment. Distributed photodiodes detect laser luminescence at respective position, and the optical axis of laser beam is analytically presumed based on the Gaussian beam optics. Computer simulation evaluates the accuracy of the proposed estimation methods, and results disclose that the methods help us to guide the laser beam to a distant receiver.

  6. Performance of Cat's Eye Modulating Retro-Reflectors for Free-Space Optical Communications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rabinovich, W. S; Goetz, P. G; Mahon, R; Swingen, L; Murphy, J; Gilbreath, G. C; Binari, S; Waluschka, E

    2004-01-01

    Modulating retro-reflectors (MRR) couple passive optical retro-reflectors with electro-optic modulators to allow free-space optical communication with a laser and pointing/acquisition/tracking system required on only one end of the link...

  7. Optical system for object detection and delineation in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handelman, Amir; Shwartz, Shoam; Donitza, Liad; Chaplanov, Loran

    2018-01-01

    Object recognition and delineation is an important task in many environments, such as in crime scenes and operating rooms. Marking evidence or surgical tools and attracting the attention of the surrounding staff to the marked objects can affect people's lives. We present an optical system comprising a camera, computer, and small laser projector that can detect and delineate objects in the environment. To prove the optical system's concept, we show that it can operate in a hypothetical crime scene in which a pistol is present and automatically recognize and segment it by various computer-vision algorithms. Based on such segmentation, the laser projector illuminates the actual boundaries of the pistol and thus allows the persons in the scene to comfortably locate and measure the pistol without holding any intermediator device, such as an augmented reality handheld device, glasses, or screens. Using additional optical devices, such as diffraction grating and a cylinder lens, the pistol size can be estimated. The exact location of the pistol in space remains static, even after its removal. Our optical system can be fixed or dynamically moved, making it suitable for various applications that require marking of objects in space.

  8. Free space optics: a viable last-mile alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willebrand, Heinz A.; Clark, Gerald R.

    2001-10-01

    This paper explores Free Space Optics (FSO) as an access technology in the last mile of metropolitan area networks (MANs). These networks are based in part on fiber-optic telecommunications infrastructure, including network architectures of Synchronous Optical Network (commonly referred to as SONET), the North American standard for synchronous data transmission; and Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (commonly referred to as SDH), the international standard and equivalent of SONET. Several converging forces have moved FSO beyond a niche technology for use only in local area networks (LANs) as a bridge connecting two facilities. FSO now allows service providers to cost effectively provide optical bandwidth for access networks and accelerate the extension of metro optical networks bridging what has been termed by industry experts as the optical dead zone. The optical dead zone refers to both the slowdown in capital investment in the short-term future and the actual connectivity gap that exists today between core metro optical networks and the access optical networks. Service providers have built extensive core and minimal metro networks but have not yet provided optical bandwidth to the access market largely due to the non-compelling economics to bridge the dead zone with fiber. Historically, such infrastructure build-out slowdowns have been blamed on a combination of economics, time-to-market constraints and limited technology options. However, new technology developments and market acceptance of FSO give service providers a new cost-effective alternative to provide high-bandwidth services with optical bandwidth in the access networks. Merrill Lynch predicts FSO will grow into a $2 billion market by 2005. The drivers for this market are a mere 5%- 6% penetration of fiber to business buildings; cost effective solution versus RF or fiber; and significant capacity which can only be matched by a physical fiber link, Merrill Lynch reports. This paper will describe FSO

  9. Laser guide stars for optical free-space communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata-Calvo, Ramon; Bonaccini Calia, Domenico; Barrios, Ricardo; Centrone, Mauro; Giggenbach, Dirk; Lombardi, Gianluca; Becker, Peter; Zayer, Igor

    2017-02-01

    The German Aerospace Center (DLR) and the European Southern Observatory (ESO) performed a measurement campaign together in April and July 2016 at Teide-Observatory (Tenerife), with the support of the European Space Agency (ESA), to investigate the use of laser guide stars (LGS) in ground to space optical communications. Atmospheric turbulence causes strong signal fluctuations in the uplink, due to scintillation and beam wander. In space communications, the use of the downlink channel as reference for pointing and for pre-distortion adaptive optics is limited by the size of the isokinetic and isoplanatic angle in relation to the required point-ahead angle. Pointing and phase errors due to the decorrelation between downward and upward beam due to the point-ahead angle may have a severe impact on the required transmit power and the stability of the communications link. LGSs provide a self-tailored reference to any optical ground-to-space link, independently of turbulence conditions and required point-ahead angle. In photon-starved links, typically in deep-space scenarios, LGSs allow dedicating all downlink received signal to communications purposes, increasing the available link margin. The scope of the joint DLR-ESO measurement campaign was, first, to measure the absolute value of the beam wander (uplink-tilt) using a LGS, taking a natural star as a reference, and, second, to characterize the decrease of correlation between uplink-tilt and downlink-tilt with respect to the angular separation between both sources. This paper describes the experiments performed during the measurement campaigns, providing an overview of the measured data and the first outcomes of the data post-processing.

  10. Threshold-Based Multiple Optical Signal Selection Scheme for Free-Space Optical Wavelength Division Multiplexing Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Sung Sik; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Zhang, Lin; Ko, Young-Chai

    2017-01-01

    We propose a threshold-based multiple optical signal selection scheme (TMOS) for free-space optical wavelength division multiplexing systems. With this scheme, we can obtain higher spectral efficiency while reducing the possible complexity

  11. Free-space wavelength-multiplexed optical scanner demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaqoob, Zahid; Riza, Nabeel A

    2002-09-10

    Experimental demonstration of a no-moving-parts free-space wavelength-multiplexed optical scanner (W-MOS) is presented. With fast tunable lasers or optical filters and planar wavelength dispersive elements such as diffraction gratings, this microsecond-speed scanner enables large several-centimeter apertures for subdegree angular scans. The proposed W-MOS design incorporates a unique optical amplifier and variable optical attenuator combination that enables the calibration and modulation of the scanner response, leading to any desired scanned laser beam power shaping. The experimental setup uses a tunable laser centered at 1560 nm and a 600-grooves/mm blazed reflection grating to accomplish an angular scan of 12.92 degrees as the source is tuned over an 80-nm bandwidth. The values for calculated maximum optical beam divergance, required wavelength resolution, beam-pointing accuracy, and measured scanner insertion loss are 1.076 mrad, 0.172 nm, 0.06 mrad, and 4.88 dB, respectively.

  12. New trends in space x-ray optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudec, R.; Maršíková, V.; Pína, L.; Inneman, A.; Skulinová, M.

    2017-11-01

    The X-ray optics is a key element of various X-ray telescopes, X-ray microscopes, as well as other X-ray imaging instruments. The grazing incidence X-ray lenses represent the important class of X-ray optics. Most of grazing incidence (reflective) X-ray imaging systems used in astronomy but also in other (laboratory) applications are based on the Wolter 1 (or modified) arrangement. But there are also other designs and configurations proposed, used and considered for future applications both in space and in laboratory. The Kirkpatrick-Baez (K-B) lenses as well as various types of Lobster-Eye optics and MCP/Micropore optics serve as an example. Analogously to Wolter lenses, the X-rays are mostly reflected twice in these systems to create focal images. Various future projects in X-ray astronomy and astrophysics will require large segments with multiple thin shells or foils. The large Kirkpatrick-Baez modules, as well as the large Lobster-Eye X-ray telescope modules in Schmidt arrangement may serve as examples. All these space projects will require high quality and light segmented shells (bent or flat foils) with high X-ray reflectivity and excellent mechanical stability. The Multi Foil Optics (MFO) approach represent a promising alternative for both LE and K-B X-ray optical modules. Several types of reflecting substrates may be considered for these applications, with emphasis on thin float glass sheets and, more recently, high quality silicon wafers. This confirms the importance of non- Wolter X-ray optics designs for the future. Future large space X-ray telescopes (such as IXO) require precise and light-weight X-ray optics based on numerous thin reflecting shells. Novel approaches and advanced technologies are to be exploited and developed. In this contribution, we refer on results of tested X-ray mirror shells produced by glass thermal forming (GTF) and by shaping Si wafers. Both glass foils and Si wafers are commercially available, have excellent surface

  13. Optomechanical stability design of space optical mapping camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fuqiang; Cai, Weijun; Zhang, Fengqin; Li, Na; Fan, Junjie

    2018-01-01

    According to the interior orientation elements and imaging quality requirements of mapping application to mapping camera and combined with off-axis three-mirror anastigmat(TMA) system, high optomechanical stability design of a space optical mapping camera is introduced in this paper. The configuration is a coaxial TMA system used in off-axis situation. Firstly, the overall optical arrangement is described., and an overview of the optomechanical packaging is provided. Zerodurglass, carbon fiber composite and carbon-fiber reinforced silicon carbon (C/SiC) are widely used in the optomechanical structure, because their low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) can reduce the thermal sensitivity of the mirrors and focal plane. Flexible and unloading support are used in reflector and camera supporting structure. Epoxy structural adhesives is used for bonding optics to metal structure is also introduced in this paper. The primary mirror is mounted by means of three-point ball joint flexures system, which is attach to the back of the mirror. Then, In order to predict flexural displacements due to gravity, static finite element analysis (FEA) is performed on the primary mirror. The optical performance peak-to-valley (PV) and root-mean-square (RMS) wavefront errors are detected before and after assemble. Also, the dynamic finite element analysis(FEA) of the whole optical arrangement is carried out as to investigate the performance of optomechanical. Finally, in order to evaluate the stability of the design, the thermal vacuum test and vibration test are carried out and the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) and elements of interior orientation are presented as the evaluation index. Before and after the thermal vacuum test and vibration test, the MTF, focal distance and position of the principal point of optical system are measured and the result is as expected.

  14. Optical design of transmitter lens for asymmetric distributed free space optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtanowski, Jacek; Traczyk, Maciej

    2018-05-01

    We present a method of transmitter lens design dedicated for light distribution shaping on a curved and asymmetric target. In this context, target is understood as a surface determined by hypothetical optical detectors locations. In the proposed method, ribbon-like surfaces of arbitrary shape are considered. The designed lens has the task to transform collimated and generally non-uniform input beam into desired irradiance distribution on such irregular targets. Desired irradiance is associated with space-dependant efficiency of power flow between the source and receivers distributed on the target surface. This unconventional nonimaging task is different from most illumination or beam shaping objectives, where constant or prescribed irradiance has to be produced on a flat target screen. The discussed optical challenge comes from the applications where single transmitter cooperates with multitude of receivers located in various positions in space and oriented in various directions. The proposed approach is not limited to optical networks, but can be applied in a variety of other applications where nonconventional irradiance distribution has to be engineered. The described method of lens design is based on geometrical optics, radiometry and ray mapping philosophy. Rays are processed as a vector field, each of them carrying a certain amount of power. Having the target surface shape and orientation of receivers distribution, the rays-surface crossings map is calculated. It corresponds to the output rays vector field, which is referred to the calculated input rays spatial distribution on the designed optical surface. The application of Snell's law in a vector form allows one to obtain surface local normal vector and calculate lens profile. In the paper, we also present the case study dealing with exemplary optical network. The designed freeform lens is implemented in commercially available optical design software and irradiance three-dimensional spatial distribution is

  15. Superconducting Nanowire Single Photon Detectors for High-Data-Rate Deep-Space Optical Communication

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High data rate deep space optical communication (DSOC) links for manned and unmanned space exploration have been identified by NASA as a critical future capability,...

  16. Micro-satellite for space debris observation by optical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thillot, Marc; Brenière, Xavier; Midavaine, Thierry

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this theoretical study carried out under CNES contract is to analyze the feasibility of small space debris detection and classification with an optical sensor on-board micro-satellite. Technical solutions based on active and passive sensors are analyzed and compared. For the most appropriated concept an optimization was made and theoretical performances in terms of number of detection versus class of diameter were calculated. Finally we give some preliminary physical sensor features to illustrate the concept (weight, volume, consumption,…).

  17. Planets as background noise sources in free space optical communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, J.

    1986-01-01

    Background noise generated by planets is the dominant noise source in most deep space direct detection optical communications systems. Earlier approximate analyses of this problem are based on simplified blackbody calculations and can yield results that may be inaccurate by up to an order of magnitude. Various other factors that need to be taken into consideration, such as the phase angle and the actual spectral dependence of the planet albedo, in order to obtain a more accurate estimate of the noise magnitude are examined.

  18. An Introduction to Free-space Optical Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Henniger

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades free-space optical communication (FSO has become more and more interesting as an adjunct or alternative to radio frequency communication. This article gives an overview of the challenges a system designer has to consider while implementing an FSO system. Typical gains and losses along the path from the transmitter through the medium to the receiver are introduced in this article. Detailed discussions of these topics can be found in this special issue of the Radioengineering Journal.

  19. Contamination control research activities for space optics in JAXA RANDD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimoto, Y.

    2017-11-01

    Contamination control research activities for space optics projects in JAXA R&D are described. More accurate contamination control techniques are requested because of intensified recent science mission requirements. One approach to control the contamination effects is analysis by software. JAXA has been developing a contamination analytical tool "J-SPICE" (Japanese Spacecraft Induced Contamination analysis software) as well as experiment facilities to improve the J-SPICE. A reflection model in J-SPICE has been experimentally verified and outgassing model data has been acquired by a facility. JAXA has developed a facility which could determine the influence of the contamination at a specific wavelength by combining a vacuum chamber with an I-R spectrometer and performed an experiment to inspect the effect of baking. Space material exposure experiment results reveal the actual thickness of the contamination layer in ISS orbit.

  20. Space imaging infrared optical guidance for autonomous ground vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Akira; Kobayashi, Nobuaki; Mutoh, Eiichiro; Kumagai, Hideo; Yamada, Hirofumi; Ishii, Hiromitsu

    2008-08-01

    We have developed the Space Imaging Infrared Optical Guidance for Autonomous Ground Vehicle based on the uncooled infrared camera and focusing technique to detect the objects to be evaded and to set the drive path. For this purpose we made servomotor drive system to control the focus function of the infrared camera lens. To determine the best focus position we use the auto focus image processing of Daubechies wavelet transform technique with 4 terms. From the determined best focus position we transformed it to the distance of the object. We made the aluminum frame ground vehicle to mount the auto focus infrared unit. Its size is 900mm long and 800mm wide. This vehicle mounted Ackerman front steering system and the rear motor drive system. To confirm the guidance ability of the Space Imaging Infrared Optical Guidance for Autonomous Ground Vehicle we had the experiments for the detection ability of the infrared auto focus unit to the actual car on the road and the roadside wall. As a result the auto focus image processing based on the Daubechies wavelet transform technique detects the best focus image clearly and give the depth of the object from the infrared camera unit.

  1. Improved optical ranging for space based gravitational wave detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, Andrew J; Shaddock, Daniel A; McKenzie, Kirk; Ware, Brent; De Vine, Glenn; Spero, Robert E; Klipstein, W

    2013-01-01

    The operation of 10 6  km scale laser interferometers in space will permit the detection of gravitational waves at previously unaccessible frequency regions. Multi-spacecraft missions, such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), will use time delay interferometry to suppress the otherwise dominant laser frequency noise from their measurements. This is accomplished by performing sub-sample interpolation of the optical phase measurements recorded at each spacecraft for synchronization and cancellation of the otherwise dominant laser frequency noise. These sub-sample interpolation time shifts are dependent upon the inter-spacecraft range and will be measured using a pseudo-random noise ranging modulation upon the science laser. One limit to the ranging performance is mutual interference between the outgoing and incoming ranging signals upon each spacecraft. This paper reports on the demonstration of a noise cancellation algorithm which is shown to providing a factor of ∼8 suppression of the mutual interference noise. Demonstration of the algorithm in an optical test bed showed an rms ranging error of 0.06 m, improved from 0.19 m in previous results, surpassing the 1 m RMS LISA specification and potentially improving the cancellation of laser frequency noise. (paper)

  2. Quantum cascade lasers as metrological tools for space optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartalini, S.; Borri, S.; Galli, I.; Mazzotti, D.; Cancio Pastor, P.; Giusfredi, G.; De Natale, P.

    2017-11-01

    A distributed-feedback quantum-cascade laser working in the 4.3÷4.4 mm range has been frequency stabilized to the Lamb-dip center of a CO2 ro-vibrational transition by means of first-derivative locking to the saturated absorption signal, and its absolute frequency counted with a kHz-level precision and an overall uncertainty of 75 kHz. This has been made possible by an optical link between the QCL and a near-IR Optical Frequency Comb Synthesizer, thanks to a non-linear sum-frequency generation process with a fiber-amplified Nd:YAG laser. The implementation of a new spectroscopic technique, known as polarization spectroscopy, provides an improved signal for the locking loop, and will lead to a narrower laser emission and a drastic improvement in the frequency stability, that in principle is limited only by the stability of the optical frequency comb synthesizer (few parts in 1013). These results confirm quantum cascade lasers as reliable sources not only for high-sensitivity, but also for highprecision measurements, ranking them as optimal laser sources for space applications.

  3. A novel DC Magnetron sputtering facility for space research and synchrotron radiation optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, A.M.; Christensen, Finn Erland; Pareschi, G.

    1998-01-01

    A new DC magnetron sputtering facility has been build up at the Danish Space Research Institute (DSRI), specially designed to enable uniform coatings of large area curved optics, such as Wolter-I mirror optics used in space telescopes and curved optics used in synchrotron radiation facilities...

  4. Editorial: Special issue on smart optical instruments and systems for space applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XING; Fei

    2015-01-01

    Optical systems are playing more and more important roles for space applications,such as high accurate attitude determination and remote sensing systems etc.Innovations in optical systems have brought great advantages,some even revolutionary for the space applications.Accordingly,in this special issue of Smart Optical systems and instruments

  5. An ultra-stable optical frequency reference for space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuldt, T.; Döringshoff, K.; Kovalchuk, E.; Pahl, J.; Gohlke, M.; Weise, D.; Johann, U.; Peters, A.; Braxmaier, C.

    2017-11-01

    We realized ultra-stable optical frequency references on elegant breadboard (EBB) and engineering model (EM) level utilizing Doppler-free spectroscopy of molecular iodine near 532nm. A frequency stability of about 1•10-14 at an integration time of 1 s and below 5•10-15 at integration times between 10 s and 100 s was achieved. These values are comparable to the currently best laboratory setups. Both setups use a baseplate made of glass material where the optical components are joint using a specific assembly-integration technology. Compared to the EBB setup, the EM setup is further developed with respect to compactness and mechanical and thermal stability. The EM setup uses a baseplate made of fused silica with dimensions of 380 x 180 x 40 mm3 and a specifically designed 100 x 100 x 30 mm3 rectangular iodine cell in nine-pass configuration with a specific robust cold finger design. The EM setup was subjected to thermal cycling and vibrational testing. Applications of such an optical frequency reference in space can be found in fundamental physics, geoscience, Earth observation, and navigation & ranging. One example is the proposed mSTAR (mini SpaceTime Asymmetry Research) mission, dedicated to perform a Kennedy-Thorndike experiment on a satellite in a sunsynchronous low-Earth orbit. By comparing an iodine standard to a cavity-based frequency reference and integration over 2 year mission lifetime, the Kennedy-Thorndike coefficient will be determined with up to two orders of magnitude higher accuracy than the current best ground experiment. In a current study, the compatibility of the payload with the SaudiSat-4 host vehicle is investigated.

  6. UniSat-5: a space-based optical system for space debris monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Roberto, Riccardo; Cappelletti, Chantal

    2012-07-01

    Micro-satellite missions, thanks to the miniaturization process of electronic components, now have a broader range of applications. Gauss Group at School of Aerospace Engineering has been a pioneer in educational micro-satellites, namely with UNISAT and EDUSAT missions. Moreover it has been long involved in space debris related studies, such as optical observations as well as mitigation. A new project is under development for a compact digital imaging system. The purpose will be in situ observation of space debris on board Unisat-5 micro-satellite. One of the key elements of observing on orbit is that many atmospheric phenomena would be avoided, such as diffraction and EM absorption. Hence images would gain more contrast and solar spectral irradiance would be higher for the whole visible spectrum Earlier limitations of power and instrument size prevented the inclusion of these payloads in educational satellite missions. The system is composed of an optical tube, a camera, C band and S band transceivers and two antennas. The system is independent from the rest of the spacecraft. The optical tube is a Schmidt-Cassegrain reflector, and the magnitude limit is 13. The camera is equipped with a panchromatic 5Mpix sensor, capable of direct video streaming, as well as local storage of recorded images. The transceivers operate on ISM 2.4GHz and 5 GHz Wi-Fi bands, and they provide stand-alone communication capabilities to the payload, and Unisat-5 OBDH can switch between the two. Both transceivers are connected to their respective custom-designed patch antenna. The ground segment is constituted of a high gain antenna dish, which will use the same transceiver on board the spacecraft as the feed, in order to establish a TCP/IP wireless link. Every component of this system is a consumer grade product. Therefore price reduction of cutting edge imaging technology now allows the use of professional instruments, that combined with the new wireless technology developed for

  7. Optical observations on critical ionization velocity experiments in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenbaek-Nielsen, H.C.

    1993-01-01

    A number of Critical Ionization Velocity (CIV) experiments have been performed in space. CIV has been observed in laboratory experiments, but experiments in space have been inconclusive. Most space experiments have used barium which ionizes easily, and with emission lines from both neutrals and ions in the visible optical observations can be made from the ground. Also other elements, such as xenon, strontium and calcium, have been used. High initial ionization in some barium release experiments has been claimed due to CIV. However, a number of reactions between barium and the ambient plasma have been suggested as more likely processes. Currently the most popular process in this debate is charge exchange with O + . This process has a large cross section, but is it large enough? The cross section for charge exchange with calcium should be even larger, but in a double release of barium and calcium (part of the NASA CRRES release experiments) most ionization was observed from the barium release. Moreover, if charge exchange is the dominant process, the amount of ionization should relate to the oxygen ion density, and that does not appear to be the case. Other processes, such as associative ionization, have also been proposed, but yields are uncertain because the reaction rates are very poorly known

  8. 3 x 3 free-space optical router based on crossbar network and its control algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Peipei; Sun, Jianfeng; Yu, Zhou; Lu, Wei; Wang, Lijuan; Liu, Liren

    2015-08-01

    A 3 × 3 free-space optical router, which comprises optical switches and polarizing beam splitter (PBS) and based on crossbar network, is proposed in this paper. A control algorithm for the 3 × 3 free-space optical router is also developed to achieve rapid control without rearrangement. In order to test the performance of the network based on 3 × 3 free-space optical router and that of the algorithm developed for the optical router, experiments are designed. The experiment results show that the interconnection network based on the 3 × 3 free-space optical router has low cross talk, fast connection speed. Under the control of the algorithm developed, a non-block and real free interconnection network is obtained based on the 3 × 3 free-space optical router we proposed.

  9. Development of the Free-space Optical Communications Analysis Software (FOCAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeganathan, M.; Mecherle, G.; Lesh, J.

    1998-01-01

    The Free-space Optical Communications Analysis Software (FOCAS) was developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to provide mission planners, systems engineers and communications engineers with an easy to use tool to analyze optical communications link.

  10. Capture into resonance and phase space dynamics in optical centrifuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armon, Tsafrir; Friedland, Lazar

    2016-05-01

    The process of capture of a molecular enesemble into rotational resonance in the optical centrifuge is investigated. The adiabaticity and phase space incompressibility are used to find the resonant capture probability in terms of two dimensionless parameters P1 , 2 characterising the driving strength and the nonlinearity, and related to three characteristic time scales in the problem. The analysis is based on the transformation to action-angle variables and the single resonance approximation, yielding reduction of the three-dimensional rotation problem to one degree of freedom. The analytic results for capture probability are in a good agreement with simulations. The existing experiments satisfy the validity conditions of the theory. This work was supported by the Israel Science Foundation Grant 30/14.

  11. Advanced free space optics (FSO) a systems approach

    CERN Document Server

    Majumdar, Arun K

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive, unified tutorial covering the most recent advances in the technology of free-space optics (FSO). It is an all-inclusive source of information on the fundamentals of FSO as well as up-to-date information on the state-of-the-art in technologies available today. This text is intended for graduate students, and will also be useful for research scientists and engineers with an interest in the field. FSO communication is a practical solution for creating a three dimensional global broadband communications grid, offering bandwidths far beyond what is possible in the Radio Frequency (RF) range. However, the attributes of atmospheric turbulence and scattering impose perennial limitations on availability and reliability of FSO links. From a systems point-of-view, this groundbreaking book provides a thorough understanding of channel behavior, which can be used to design and evaluate optimum transmission techniques that operate under realistic atmospheric conditions. Topics addressed...

  12. Precision Optical Coatings for Large Space Telescope Mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, David

    This proposal “Precision Optical Coatings for Large Space Telescope Mirrors” addresses the need to develop and advance the state-of-the-art in optical coating technology. NASA is considering large monolithic mirrors 1 to 8-meters in diameter for future telescopes such as HabEx and LUVOIR. Improved large area coating processes are needed to meet the future requirements of large astronomical mirrors. In this project, we will demonstrate a broadband reflective coating process for achieving high reflectivity from 90-nm to 2500-nm over a 2.3-meter diameter coating area. The coating process is scalable to larger mirrors, 6+ meters in diameter. We will use a battery-driven coating process to make an aluminum reflector, and a motion-controlled coating technology for depositing protective layers. We will advance the state-of-the-art for coating technology and manufacturing infrastructure, to meet the reflectance and wavefront requirements of both HabEx and LUVOIR. Specifically, we will combine the broadband reflective coating designs and processes developed at GSFC and JPL with large area manufacturing technologies developed at ZeCoat Corporation. Our primary objectives are to: Demonstrate an aluminum coating process to create uniform coatings over large areas with near-theoretical aluminum reflectance Demonstrate a motion-controlled coating process to apply very precise 2-nm to 5- nm thick protective/interference layers to large areas, Demonstrate a broadband coating system (90-nm to 2500-nm) over a 2.3-meter coating area and test it against the current coating specifications for LUVOIR/HabEx. We will perform simulated space-environment testing, and we expect to advance the TRL from 3 to >5 in 3-years.

  13. X-Ray Optics at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Atkins, Carolyn; Broadway, David M.; Elsner, Ronald F.; Gaskin, Jessica A.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Kilaru, Kiranmayee; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery J.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Roche, Jacqueline M.; hide

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) engages in research, development, design, fabrication, coating, assembly, and testing of grazing-incidence optics (primarily) for x-ray telescope systems. Over the past two decades, MSFC has refined processes for electroformed-nickel replication of grazing-incidence optics, in order to produce high-strength, thin-walled, full-cylinder x-ray mirrors. In recent years, MSFC has used this technology to fabricate numerous x-ray mirror assemblies for several flight (balloon, rocket, and satellite) programs. Additionally, MSFC has demonstrated the suitability of this technology for ground-based laboratory applications-namely, x-ray microscopes and cold-neutron microscopes and concentrators. This mature technology enables the production, at moderately low cost, of reasonably lightweight x-ray telescopes with good (15-30 arcsecond) angular resolution. However, achieving arcsecond imaging for a lightweight x-ray telescope likely requires development of other technologies. Accordingly, MSFC is conducting a multi-faceted research program toward enabling cost-effective production of lightweight high-resolution x-ray mirror assemblies. Relevant research topics currently under investigation include differential deposition for post-fabrication figure correction, in-situ monitoring and control of coating stress, and direct fabrication of thin-walled full-cylinder grazing-incidence mirrors.

  14. FY 2000 project on the research cooperation for the environmental response type water resource effective utilization system; 2000 nendo kenkyu kyoryoku jigyo. Kankyo taiogata mizu shigen yuko riyo system ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of prevention of water pollution, stable water supply in the Philippines, etc., developmental study was made of a waste water treatment/water recycling system, and the FY 2000 results were summed up. In the operational study of Pilot Plant 1, for the waste water in the papermaking process of used paper recycling plant, development was studied of a waste water treatment/water recycling system. There occurred problems on minuteness, outflow, etc. of anaerobic granules, but those were caused by malfunction of SS removal equipment at plant side. The problems were solved by increasing flocculation/precipitation facilities. As to Pilot Plant 2 of which the R and D are planned to be started in April 2001, the food processing plant was surveyed for study, and SYSCORE was selected. Relating to the waste water treatment test of Pilot Plant 2, researchers of the Industrial Technology Development Institute (ITDI) of the Philippines conducted it under the guidance of the experimental data analysis. Besides, the paper carried out the training for technology spread/acceptance, technology spread seminar, support study in Japan, etc. (NEDO)

  15. FY 2000 report on the results of the R and D of the fusion domain. Volume 3. Biomolecular mechanism and design; 2000 nendo yugo ryoiki kenkyu kaihatsu. 3. Biomolecular mechanism and design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of creating cells/tissue assemblies and the molecular machine that substitute for self-organizing and self-repairing functions of a living body outside the body, the basic technology research was conducted, and the FY 2000 results were reported. In the study of 3D cell and tissue module engineering, the following were conducted: study of the surface modification and functional expression of biomaterials, study of the mechanical stress to cartilaginous cells and the response, development of the production method of biodegradable synthetic polymer porous materials, study of organism hard tissue materials/bone remodeling and cultured bone transportation, development of zinc-releasing calcium phosphate ceramics. In the study of biomolecular mechanism and design, 1D unidirectional movement of microtubules by applying microlithography technology, structural study of kinesin-family molecular motor by low temperature microscope, ribozyme and the application to leukemia, basic study on assessment of chemical substances by human cultured cells, study of a low molecule detection system using nucleic acid and peptide. (NEDO)

  16. FY 2000 research cooperation project on the research cooperation for the preservation, sustainable utilization, etc. of the biological diversification. Follow-up; 2000 nendo kenkyu kyoryoku jigyo. Seibutsu tayosei hozen to zizokuteki riyo to ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku (Follow up)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of contributing to developing countries' preserving biological resources in the tropical region, etc. and making the sustainable utilization of biological resources using biotechnology, etc. possible, research cooperation for strengthening the base of international research cooperation was given, and the FY 2000 results were outlined. In this fiscal year, visits were paid to research institutes in Indonesia, Thailand and Malaysia for survey of the present situation. In Indonesia, conducted were the study of information system and culture collection, study of plant utilization technology, study of utilization technology of bacteria, etc., and improvement in personnel, facilities and maintenance management power of research cooperation institutes was confirmed. In Thailand and Malaysia, conducted were the study of information system and culture collection, study of rule making of the access profit distribution to genetic resource, and management of the biological resource sampled and study of the route to the industrial utilization. Taking advantage of this project, the contract for the genetic resource search for commercial purpose was agreed between a Japanese company and a Malaysian institute. (NEDO)

  17. FY 2000 Project of developing international standards for supporting new industries. Standardization of systems for detecting gene recombination products; 2000 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojunka kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Idenshi kumikae seihin kenshutsu system no hyojunka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Described herein are the FY 2000 results of the studies on the basic conditions for gene recombination products, and methods of determining content of the purchased gene recombination products in agricultural products, conducted to promote the standardization of the gene recombination product detection systems. Soybean is taken up as the gene recombination product to be studied, in which the samples containing the gene recombination product at 5, 0.5, 0.1 and 0% are prepared, and qualitatively analyzed by the DNA extraction and PCR method. No band is detected. For the quantitative examination by the real-time PCR method, the SYBRGeen, Taqman and hybridization probe methods are used to study the PCR conditions. The sample DNA extracted by the DNA Extraction kit for GMO Detection Ver.2 from the sample containing the RoundupReady{sup TM} soybean is quantitatively analyzed by the real-time PCR method for GMO content, which has produced the results for promotion of the standardization. (NEDO)

  18. FY 2000 report on the results of the project to promote the comprehensive management of petroleum products. Development of a risk assessment system; 2000 nendo sekiyu seihin sogo kanri suishin jigyo seika hokokusho. Risk hyoka system kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The R and D were conducted on the system to assess risk of chemicals which considers the human health, environment, etc., and the FY 2000 results were reported. In this fiscal year, the goal of the study was to establish a system of user-friendly interface, easy-to-use system components and data access methodology. As to the details of the system, additional assessment items on the human health were found and surveyed, and the development of a new system for the assessment of acute exposure was started. Relating to the handling of various data on toxicity, physical properties, etc., reference is to be made to the database of National Institute of Technology and Evaluation, MITI, as a base. Concerning the simple assessment corresponding to the PRTR method, almost all 435 chemicals designated by the PRTR act were to be included in the internal database. As to the development of the system, the simple assessment system corresponding to the PRTR method was developed, and a testing system, {beta} version, was completed. Further, the development of a 'site-specific assessment system' was started which considers the geological/meteorological situation of the site. (NEDO)

  19. FY 2000 report on the results of the survey of the project for implementation of 'The New Earth 21'; 2000 nendo 'chikyu saisei keikaku' no jisshi keikaku sakusei ni kansuru chosa jigyo hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    As the research study contributing to implementation of 'The New Earth 21' proposed by Japan at the Houston Summit in 1990, a DNE21 model was developed as a quantitative assessment model for global warming preventive technology, heightening of efficiency of the global energy supply/demand system, conversion to energy sources of low carbon emissions, etc. In the project of 'The New Earth 21,' economy and environment can be compatible centering on developed countries' technical development and technology transfer to developing countries. In FY 2000, for heightening applicability of the DNE21 model, the world, which was used to be divided into 10 regions, was divided into 54. At the same time, a prototype model was constructed in which cities in the region were divided into three cities: large; medium; small. Using the DNE21 model, evaluation was made of effects of uncertainties such as population, economic growth, final energy demand and cost as preconditions of the model on the optimization of global warming preventive measures. Further, technologies which are expected to be important for global environmental policy in the ultra-long term were listed up to estimate the potentiality. (NEDO)

  20. FY 2000 Project of developing international standards for supporting new industries. Standardization of the fine bioceramics testing/evaluation methods; 2000 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Seitaiyo fine ceramics no shiken hyoka hoho no hyojunka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Described herein are the FY 2000 results of the research and development of the fatigue characteristics of the bioceramics, fatigue and impact-resistance characteristics of the members of these materials, and methods of evaluating their compatibility with a living body, for proposing the international standards. The test results of alumina and zirconia as the bioceramics indicate that their bending fatigue characteristics greatly depend on environmental conditions and frequency, suggesting necessity for the evaluation in the environments which simulate the living body inside. The compression and impact tests are conducted for the artificial femoral heads with a taper. It is found that the simulated body fluid, having the dissociated ion concentration adjusted at the level in the human blood plasma, remains unchanged in the concentration at 36.5 degrees C for 4 weeks; the ion concentration is unaffected by filtration with the aid of the microfilter useful for, e.g., removal of bacteria; and the synthetic apatite has almost the same composition as that for the bones in a living body. It is also suggested that activity of the bioactive ceramics can be evaluated by their ability for forming apatite in the simulated body fluid. (NEDO)

  1. FY 2000 report on the results of the data processing in the geothermal development promotion survey. Tertiary. No.B-7 Kuwanosawa area; 2000 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa data shori hokokusho. No. B-7 Kuwanosawa chiiki (Dai 3 ji)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-01-01

    The comprehensive analysis was conducted of various data obtained in the geothermal development promotion survey conducted in the Kuwanosawa area, Yuzawa city, Akita prefecture, from FY 1998 to FY 2000. The geology of the Kuwanosawa area consists of the Pretertiary system and Quarternary system, through which intrusive rocks are recognized. Basement rocks are composed of the Paleozoic-origin crystalline schist and the Cretaceous-period granites which intruded into the schist. In the Kuwanosawa area, there were recognized no clear geothermal signs such as the discharge of geothermal fluids like hot spring, fumarolic gas, etc., places of high temperature and new geothermal alteration zones. The geothermal water of borehole N11-KN-1 is a low temperature/low CL concentration geothermal water which was stored in basement rocks, which is supposed to be the one conductively heated in the process of the meteoric water penetrating deep-underground. The geothermal system heat source in the Kuwanosawa area and the periphery is regarded as the relic magma which spewed out the volcanic rocks of Mt. Takamatsu-dake in the Quaternary period. However, the geothermal fluid included no components originating in high temperature volcanic emissions, and therefore, it is considered that the geothermal fluid was formed by the meteoric water conductively heated by volcanic heat source. (NEDO)

  2. FY 2000 report on the results of the project to promote the comprehensive management of petroleum products. Development of a risk assessment system; 2000 nendo sekiyu seihin sogo kanri suishin jigyo seika hokokusho. Risk hyoka system kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The R and D were conducted on the system to assess risk of chemicals which considers the human health, environment, etc., and the FY 2000 results were reported. In this fiscal year, the goal of the study was to establish a system of user-friendly interface, easy-to-use system components and data access methodology. As to the details of the system, additional assessment items on the human health were found and surveyed, and the development of a new system for the assessment of acute exposure was started. Relating to the handling of various data on toxicity, physical properties, etc., reference is to be made to the database of National Institute of Technology and Evaluation, MITI, as a base. Concerning the simple assessment corresponding to the PRTR method, almost all 435 chemicals designated by the PRTR act were to be included in the internal database. As to the development of the system, the simple assessment system corresponding to the PRTR method was developed, and a testing system, {beta} version, was completed. Further, the development of a 'site-specific assessment system' was started which considers the geological/meteorological situation of the site. (NEDO)

  3. FY 2000 report on the survey of a potentiality of the environmental harmony type coal utilization system. Dispatch of engineers; 2000 nendo kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa hokokusho. Senmonka haken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of contributing to improvement in coal utilization technology and environmental conservation in developing countries, a survey project on the dispatch of engineers was carried out, and the FY 2000 results were summed up. The survey was conducted in terms of the operational state of the model project already finished in China, the present state of the model project on the circulating fluidized bed boiler in Indonesia, and the strategy to be worked out for spread of clean coal technology (CCT). In China, it was confirmed that 10 sites where the project had been finished are in a state of the appropriate operation. Further, problems on each model were grasped/analyzed by questionnaire survey. The model project on the circulating fluidized bed boiler in Banyuwangi, Indonesia, has been suspended about three years, affected by the serious economic crisis. Survey was made and advice was given for the state of facility/equipment maintenance so that the facility/equipment can be used at the time of resuming the project. As to the strategy to be worked out for CCT spread, questionnaire survey and hearing were carried out for Japan-side makers. Study/analysis of subjects/important points for the spread were made. (NEDO)

  4. FY 2000 report on the results of the joint research - Field test project on the photovoltaic power generation for public facility use; 2000 nendo kyodokenkyu gyomu seika hokokusho. Kokyo shisetsu you taiyoko hatsuden field test jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-05-01

    The paper arranged the FY 2000 results of the field test on the photovoltaic power generation for public facility use, etc. This report described in detail the results obtained at 237 places including the following: Social Welfare Corp. Seimei-kai, Kobe City (Hyogo Prefecture), Iitaka Town of Iinan County (Mie Prefecture), Kyushu Electric Safety Association, Educational Corp. Kongo Gakuen, Social Welfare Corp. Izumi-kai, Educational Corp. Shiobara Ikuei-kai, Educational Corp. Aiko Gakuen, Social Welfare Corp. Tachibana-kai, Cooperative Association Co-op Kobe, Social Welfare Corp. Hoshizuki-no-sato, Tochigi-Fuji Industrial Co., Hirabayashi Section of Gamo Town of Gamo County (Shiga Prefecture), Yanagawa City (Fukuoka Prefecture), Imadate City of Imadate County (Fukui Prefecture), Osaka Prefecture, Yamanashi Prefecture, Utazu Town of Ayauta County (Kagawa Prefecture), Educational Corp. Fukuyama Gakuen, New Energy Business Cooperative Association, Meitec Corp., Shikoku Medicom Co., Shizen Kobo Co., Educational Corp. Horikoshi Gakuen, Matama Town of Nishi-Kunisaki County (Oita Prefecture), Nio Town of Mitoyo County (Kagawa Prefecture), Educational Corp. Koshien Gakuin, Sansei Giken Co., Mitsui Greenland Co., AWI Mach Co., Nagoya City and Educational Corp. Kibogaoka Gakuen. (NEDO)

  5. FY 2000 report on the promotion projects by Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth. Study on possibility of research exchanges; 2000 nendo chikyu kankyo sangyo gijutsu kaihatsu suishin jigyo seika hokokusho. Kenkyu koryu kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Described herein are the results of the study on possibility of research exchanges, conducted by Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth (RITE) in FY 2000. For development of thin-film catalysts, HTE, a venture developing combinatorial chemistry application to catalysts, is a potential partner for the exchanges. One of the technical problems involved in underground sequestration of CO2 relates to evaluation of the reactions between CO2 injected under pressure and the surrounding rocks. It is a less site-specific theme, and preferably pursued through international networks. The RITE delegates have visited the British Geological Survey, Canada's Alberta Research Council, and US's Pennsylvania State University, Rice University and Chevron Petroleum, finding research exchange possibilities in all of these organizations for broad technical themes related to underground sequestration of CO2. For energy conversion technologies using biomass resources as the source materials, the potential partners for the research exchanges include Swedish Royal Institute of Technology, Belgium's Catholic University of Louvain and Spain's University of Zaragona which leads researches in production of gases from wastes and biomass. (NEDO)

  6. FY 2000 report on the results of development of the technologies for recovering and utilizing carbon dioxide using coal and natural gas; 2000 nendo sekitan tennen gas katsuyogata nisanka tanso kaishu riyo gijutsu no kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    Described herein are the FY 2000 results of the research and development project for converting the gas, produced by reacting carbon dioxide and water with coal and natural gas using solar ray and heat, into methanol. A solar furnace operating with solar energy, composed of a simulated solar ray collector (5kW), CPC (Compound Parabolic Concentrator), molten salt furnace and coal gasifier, is designed, fabricated and installed. The motion in the molten salt furnace is simulated to analyze the heat flux. The wet and dry type coal gasification processes are simulated with Taiheiyo-coal as the basis. For the natural gas reforming solar furnace, various types of technical information on methane reforming and oxidation catalysts are pigeonholed. The catalytic reaction testing system is fabricated. The information of carbon dioxide separation technologies, e.g., membrane-aided separation, absorption, and membrane/absorption hybrid, is collected. The treatment test with the polyimide-based separation membrane is conducted. The information is pigeonholed and evaluated for development of the elementary techniques and optimization of the total system. The preliminary study on economic viability indicates that methanol production cost is 30 yen/kg-methanol or less, on the basis of releasing no carbon dioxide in the production step. (NEDO)

  7. FY 2000 research cooperation project on the research cooperation for the development of an advanced multimedia information system. Results of the research; 2000 nendo Senshinteki multimedia joho system no kaihatsu ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of developing an information system that has the hi-tech technology useful for China and high diffusion, joint research was conducted on the development of the model system and the demonstrative test, and the FY 2000 results were summed up. As to the synthetic materials flow information system, FIT/GAP analysis was made for improvement of the materials flow system and research development of additional functions. Relating to the education/culture/information system, made were the structural design of the remote education realtime system, development of the control use program, etc. Concerning the agricultural information system, it finished the stage of the investigational analysis/basic design and reached the stage of the detailed design/manufacture/initial experiment. About the forest fire-prevention information system, conducted were the design of the work application/technical support for the development in the department of forestry. As to the medical information system, image database and software of high speed image processing were developed. In relation to the environmental monitoring/flood monitoring information system, application software was developed for the forecast of disaster, assessment of disaster, relief decision-making support, etc. (NEDO)

  8. FY 2000 research cooperation project on the research cooperation for the development of an advanced multimedia information system. Results of the research; 2000 nendo kenkyu kyoryoku jigyo. Senshinteki multimedia joho system no kaihatsu ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku (Kenkyu seika)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of developing an information system that has the hi-tech technology useful for China and high diffusion, joint research was conducted on the development of the model system and the demonstrative test, and the FY 2000 results were summed up. As to the synthetic materials flow information system, FIT/GAP analysis was made for improvement of the materials flow system and research development of additional functions. Relating to the education/culture/information system, made were the structural design of the remote education realtime system, development of the control use program, etc. Concerning the agricultural information system, it finished the stage of the investigational analysis/basic design and reached the stage of the detailed design/manufacture/initial experiment. About the forest fire-prevention information system, conducted were the design of the work application/technical support for the development in the department of forestry. As to the medical information system, image database and software of high speed image processing were developed. In relation to the environmental monitoring/flood monitoring information system, application software was developed for the forecast of disaster, assessment of disaster, relief decision-making support, etc. (NEDO)

  9. FY 2000 report on research and development of combustion technology utilizing microgravity conditions for fuel diversification; 2000 nendo bisho juryoku kankyo wo riyoshita nenryo tayoka nensho gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    This project is aimed at development of optimum combustion technology with diversified fuels, e.g., naphtha and LCO, for gas turbines and others as power sources for topographical energy supply. The combustion under the microgravity is also investigated using the underground facilities at Japan Microgravity Center. Described herein are the FY 2000 results. For construction of combustion model and simulation, the combustion reactions for various liquid fuels are simplified to calculate ignition delay, adiabatic flame temperature and laminar burning velocity with an error less than about 3%. The microgravity combustion experiments are conducted for spray dispersed into a cylinder, to find flame propagation velocities changing with the vaporization characteristics of liquid fuels, and also to construct the combustion models. The premixed turbulent combustion simulation program is developed using a probability density function and analyzed. Development of new combustion technologies includes the study themes of flame propagation and combustion of the air mixture of the multi-component fuel in which the spray exists, combustion characteristics of the droplets of diversified fuels, and combustion of gas turbines with diversified fuels. A propane/air mixture shows different flame propagation characteristics whether it contains kerosene or LCO droplets. The effects of electrical field intensity in the combustion zone on combustion of fuel droplets are elucidated. (NEDO)

  10. FY 2000 report on the geothermal development promotion survey - No.C-4 Shiro-mizukoshi area. Resource survey (Primary); 2000 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. No. C-4 Shiromizukoshi chiiki shigen chosa hokokusho (Dai 1 ji)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-01-01

    As a part of the FY 2000 geothermal development promotion survey, survey was conducted in the Shiro-mizukoshi area (about 10km{sup 2}), Kagoshima prefecture, the gradually-inclined area located at the southwest foot of Volcano Kirishima, and the results were summed up. In the survey, the following were carried out: surface survey such as geology/alteration zone/fracture system, high-density gravity exploration, electromagnetic exploration, geochemical fluid survey, core test by drilling three exploration boreholes, temperature log, temperature recovery test, water injection test, short-term jetting test, etc. N12-SZ-1 came across the reservoir associated with the ENE-WSW system fault at a depth of 1,085m. The result of the temperature log and the geochemical temperature indicated that the temperature of the reservoir was between 230 and 240 degrees C. However, the reservoir was regarded as the vapor heating reservoir heated by the high-temperature vapor which is thought to be the shallow ground water separated from the deep reservoir. N12-SZ-2 was a large lost circulation zone at a depth between 1,325 and 1,486m, which indicated that N12-SZ-2 came across the ENE-WSW system Shiro-mizukoshi fault. N12-SZ-3 seems to be the area into which ground water flows. (NEDO)

  11. FY 2000 report on the results of the leading research and development of the carburetion technology using sensible heat of coke oven gas; 2000 nendo seika hokokusho. Kokusuro gas kennetsu riyo zonetsu gijutsu sendo kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of recovering sensible heat of coke oven gas (COG), the paper conducted a potential study of 'the carburetion technology using COG sensible heat,' of which the basic design is to give the endothermic catalyst reforming hydrogen production reaction directly to the components mainly including methane, and the R and D for establishing it as an industrial technology. In the R and D, the optimum process was studied in terms mainly of the dry pretreatment technology and the catalyst reformation reaction of hydrocarbons such as methane. As a result, the inhibition of the progress of the reforming reaction, which was a difficult problem at first because of the catalyst poison of associated components, could be avoided by making conditions for development/reaction of solid solution appropriate. Further, as to the associated coal tar which was regarded as carbon deposition source, a possibility of the process for converting it into the light chemical energy was recognized. Further, in FY 2000, survey was made on the solid electrolyte oxygen separation technology to which attention was paid as a chemical energy conversion technology for heat energy and which is closely related also to the energy structure of iron making plant. (NEDO)

  12. FY 2000 report on development of the infrastructure to promote use of fuel cells for automobiles. For safety and environmental factors; 2000 nendo jidoshayo nenryo denchi no fukyu kiban seibi seika hokokusho. Anzensei shuhen kankyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Described herein are the results of the FY 2000 activities for safety and environmental factors involved in fuel cell powdered vehicles. The current technical standards and specifications for CNG and LPG fueled vehicles are investigated, to extract the factors necessary to establish the safety evaluation guidelines when these fuels are replaced by hydrogen fuel. The rules extracted and studied include those related to collision and resultant fuel leakage, removal of spark and hot sources, leakage in the fuel system, leakage into containers and passenger rooms, and materials. For the rules on test methods of fuel tanks, the investigated items include fire resistance, impact resistance and permeation loss of fuel from the tanks. For system safety, the investigated items include possible unusual situations, leakage of the electrolytes and electrical shock. The basic data are collected for destruction of the fuel tanks, spout of hydrogen from and electrification of the hydrogen-occluding alloys, flame retardancy of high-voltage wires for automobiles, and hydrogen diffusion simulation. The safety-related technical trends are followed by hearing the related organizations, including automakers. Literature survey and hearing are conducted to investigate the environmental effects of radio wave interference and noise. (NEDO)

  13. FY 2000 report on development of the infrastructure to promote use of fuel cells for automobiles. Standardization of FCEVs; 2000 nendo nenryo denchi fukyu kiban seibi jigyo jidoshayo nenryo denchi fukyu kiban seibi seika hokokusho. FCEV hyojunka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Described herein are the results of the FY 2000 activities for standardization of fuel cell powered vehicles and development of the infrastructures related to participation in ISO. Fuel cell powdered vehicles are believed to be the most favored vehicles of the next generation for their low emissions and fuel efficiency. The world leading automakers, including Japanese makers, have announced plans to commercialize these vehicles in 2003 to 2004. Under these situations, the discussion has been initiated to move forward standardization of the fuel cell powdered vehicles at the international conferences, e.g., ISO (International Standardization Organization) and IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission). At ISO/TC22/SC21 (Electric Vehicles) for which the Japan Electric Vehicle Association (JEVA) is in charge as the domestic council, the proposal has been made and approved to begin working towards the standardization at the conference in November 1999. Consequently, FCEV special subcommittee consisting of public organizations (including academic organizations and Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry), automakers, automotive parts manufacturers and other organizations related to the automotive industry has been established in February 2000 under the JEVA standardization section and started the activities. The Japanese proposals for safety and fuel cell vehicle terminology will be presented to the ISO meetings to be held in May 2001 in Tokyo. (NEDO)

  14. FY 2000 report on the survey of the development of high efficiency photoelectric conversion compounds. Plan on the Light for the 21st Century; 2000 nendo kokoritsu denko henkan kagobutsu handotai kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 21 seiki no akari keikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The paper described the results of the FY 2000 R and D on the Plan on the Light for the 21st Century. For the purpose of developing the white light emitting diode lighting technology, the results were obtained in the following four items: 1) basic study on the light emitting mechanism; 2) epitaxial growth in blue light/ultra violet LED and evaluation of LED characteristics; 3) substrates and characteristics for homo-epitaxial growth; 4) basic characteristics of phosphor and white light LED lighting use light source. In 1), for the purpose of clarifying the light emitting mechanism in InGaN mixed crystal semiconductor and InGaN/GaN quantum well structure, temperature dependency of time resolved light emitting spectroscopy and selective excitation light emitting spectroscopy was measured to get information/knowledge. In 2), evaluated were characteristics of multi-quantum well UV-LED composed of AlGaN/InGaN. In 3), in the GaN crystal growth by the pressure control solution growth method, studied were effects of the increasing speed of nitrogen pressure on the size of GaN monocrystal and the surface state. In 4), verified were the measuring method of quantum efficiency of three primary color phosphor materials and problems on the measured values. (NEDO)

  15. FY 2000 study report on the study on technological development of the chemical processes of the next generation; 2000 nendo jisedai kagaku process gijutsu kaihatsu ni kansuru chosa kenkyu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The technological development of the innovative chemical reaction processes is studied, in order to accomplish further energy saving, and reduction of resource consumption and environmental loads. Described herein are the FY 2000 study results. The program for systematization of the next-generation chemical processes systematically pigeonholes the undergoing projects and subjects to be studied, based on the principles of simplification, and sets the study fields of organic bulk chemicals, organic fine chemicals, highpolymer materials and inorganic materials. The program for investigation on next-generation chemical processes reviews creation and technological use of tailor-made biocatalysts, polymer materials which utilize wood resources, tailor-made reaction process engineering for handling fine particles in high-temperature reaction fields, production and processing of materials for high-performance polymer batteries, and extreme energy saving process for polyolefins, and proposes the revisions. The newly proposed study themes include novel C1 catalytic processes toward minimal wastes, and high utilization of biotechnology for novel processes to create materials. (NEDO)

  16. Promotion of the formation of environmentally friendly energy community (FY 2000). Demonstration of the gas turbine repowering waste combined power generation technology; 2000 nendo kankyo chowagata energy community keisei sokushin seika hokokusho. Gas turbine repowering haikibutsu fukugo hatsuden gijutsu jissho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Demonstrative operation was conducted of the super waste power generation system in which the low temperature steam generated in waste incinerator is raised in temperature using the combustion exhaust gas emitted after the power generation using another gas turbine for conducting the steam turbine power generation with high efficiency. The FY 2000 results were summed up. In the demonstrative operation, operation and data acquisition/analysis were conducted following the previous fiscal year by 25MW class gas turbine repowering waste combined power generation facilities (Takahama power plant). Further, four years after the start of operation, the secular variation was studied by disassembly/inspection of equipment. As a result of the operation, the thermal efficiency was approximately 35%, much higher than the existing waste power generation. It was verified that the power system was maintained by the same maintenance as that of the ordinary power system. Moreover, the important point of this system is that no special corrosion resistant materials are used and that the high-efficiency waste power generation was demonstrated by combining the existing equipment. It can be said that the super waste power system has high qualities for forming energy community as a regionally dispersed stabilized power source. (NEDO)

  17. FY 2000 report on the results of the leading R and D on MGC ultra high efficiency turbine system technology; 2000 nendo MGC chokokoritsu turbine system gijutsu sendo kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The R and D were conducted with the aim of using melt-growth composite materials (MGC) as structural members of the gas turbine system for power generation, etc., and the results of the FY 2000 results were summed up. As to the heightening of performance of MGC materials, improvement in high temperature strength, fracture toughness and thermal shock resistance was obtained by making the material structure minute by increasing the mold descending speed in ternary system MGC materials. Concerning the enlarging technology, trially manufactured were a large sample of 53mm diameter and a thin plate of 40mm width x 80mm height x 6mm thickness. In the study of evaluation of mechanical/physical characteristics of MGC materials, the following were indicated: AYZ ternary system MGC materials were twice higher in bending strength than Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/YAG binary system, and were equal in creep characteristics at 1,700 degrees C to Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/YAG. The applicability to turbine stationary blade was shown. In the system study, by applying MGC materials to gas turbine stationary blade, small- and medium-size gas turbine cycles were set up which have plant gross thermal efficiency of 38% at turbine inlet temperature of 1,700 degrees C. (NEDO)

  18. Analysis of large optical ground stations for deep-space optical communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Talavera, M. Reyes; Rivera, C.; Murga, G.; Montilla, I.; Alonso, A.

    2017-11-01

    Inter-satellite and ground to satellite optical communications have been successfully demonstrated over more than a decade with several experiments, the most recent being NASA's lunar mission Lunar Atmospheric Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE). The technology is in a mature stage that allows to consider optical communications as a high-capacity solution for future deep-space communications [1][2], where there is an increasing demand on downlink data rate to improve science return. To serve these deep-space missions, suitable optical ground stations (OGS) have to be developed providing large collecting areas. The design of such OGSs must face both technical and cost constraints in order to achieve an optimum implementation. To that end, different approaches have already been proposed and analyzed, namely, a large telescope based on a segmented primary mirror, telescope arrays, and even the combination of RF and optical receivers in modified versions of existing Deep-Space Network (DSN) antennas [3][4][5]. Array architectures have been proposed to relax some requirements, acting as one of the key drivers of the present study. The advantages offered by the array approach are attained at the expense of adding subsystems. Critical issues identified for each implementation include their inherent efficiency and losses, as well as its performance under high-background conditions, and the acquisition, pointing, tracking, and synchronization capabilities. It is worth noticing that, due to the photon-counting nature of detection, the system performance is not solely given by the signal-to-noise ratio parameter. To start with the analysis, first the main implications of the deep space scenarios are summarized, since they are the driving requirements to establish the technical specifications for the large OGS. Next, both the main characteristics of the OGS and the potential configuration approaches are presented, getting deeper in key subsystems with strong impact in the

  19. Robust free-space optical communication for indoor information environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakada, Toyohisa; Itoh, Hideo; Kunifuji, Susumu; Nakashima, Hideyuki

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of our study is to establish a robust communication, while keeping security and privacy, between a handheld communicator and the surrounding information environment. From the viewpoint of low power consumption, we have been developing a reflectivity modulating communication module composed of a liquid crystal light modulator and a corner-reflecting mirror sheet. We installed a corner-reflecting sheet instead of light scattering sheet in a handheld videogame machine with a display screen with a reflection-type liquid crystal. Infrared (IR) LED illuminator attached next to the IR camera of a base station illuminates all the room, and the terminal send their data to the base station by switching ON and OFF of the reflected IR beam. Intensity of reflected light differs with the position and the direction of the terminal, and sometimes the intensity of OFF signal at a certain condition is brighter than that of ON signal at another condition. To improve the communication quality, use of machine learning technique is a possibility of the solution. In this paper, we compare various machine learning techniques for the purpose of free space optical communication, and propose a new algorithm that improves the robustness of the data link. Evaluation using an actual free-space communication system is also described.

  20. Highly Sensitive Photon Counting Detectors for Deep Space Optical Communications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A new type of a photon-counting photodetector is proposed to advance the state-of the-art in deep space optical communications technology. The proposed detector...

  1. In-Space Distributed Fiber Optic Hydrogen Leak Sensor, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Broadband Photonics Inc. proposes development of a patent-pending distributed fiber optic sensor for in-space hydrogen leak detection. Reliable and fast detection of...

  2. Catalogue Creation for Space Situational Awareness with Optical Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, T.; Clarkson, I.; Bessell, T.; Rutten, M.; Gordon, N.; Moretti, N.; Morreale, B.

    2016-09-01

    In order to safeguard the continued use of space-based technologies, effective monitoring and tracking of man-made resident space objects (RSOs) is paramount. The diverse characteristics, behaviours and trajectories of RSOs make space surveillance a challenging application of the discipline that is tracking and surveillance. When surveillance systems are faced with non-canonical scenarios, it is common for human operators to intervene while researchers adapt and extend traditional tracking techniques in search of a solution. A complementary strategy for improving the robustness of space surveillance systems is to place greater emphasis on the anticipation of uncertainty. Namely, give the system the intelligence necessary to autonomously react to unforeseen events and to intelligently and appropriately act on tenuous information rather than discard it. In this paper we build from our 2015 campaign and describe the progression of a low-cost intelligent space surveillance system capable of autonomously cataloguing and maintaining track of RSOs. It currently exploits robotic electro-optical sensors, high-fidelity state-estimation and propagation as well as constrained initial orbit determination (IOD) to intelligently and adaptively manage its sensors in order to maintain an accurate catalogue of RSOs. In a step towards fully autonomous cataloguing, the system has been tasked with maintaining surveillance of a portion of the geosynchronous (GEO) belt. Using a combination of survey and track-refinement modes, the system is capable of maintaining a track of known RSOs and initiating tracks on previously unknown objects. Uniquely, due to the use of high-fidelity representations of a target's state uncertainty, as few as two images of previously unknown RSOs may be used to subsequently initiate autonomous search and reacquisition. To achieve this capability, particularly within the congested environment of the GEO-belt, we use a constrained admissible region (CAR) to

  3. Digital adaptive optics for achieving space-invariant lateral resolution in optical coherence tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, A.

    2015-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive optical interferometric imaging technique that provides reflectivity profiles of the sample structures with high axial resolution. The high axial resolution is due to the use of low coherence (broad-band) light source. However, the lateral resolution in OCT depends on the numerical aperture (NA) of the focusing/imaging optics and it is affected by defocus and other higher order optical aberrations induced by the imperfect optics, or by the sample itself.Hardware based adaptive optics (AO) has been successfully combined with OCT to achieve high lateral resolution in combination with high axial resolution provided by OCT. AO, which conventionally uses Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SH WFS) and deformable mirror for wavefront sensing and correction respectively, can compensate for optical aberration and can enable diffraction-limited resolution in OCT. Visualization of cone photoreceptors in 3-D has been successfully demonstrated using AO-OCT. However, OCT being an interferometric imaging technique can provide access to phase information.This phase information can be exploited by digital adaptive optics (DAO) techniques to correct optical aberration in the post-processing step to obtain diffraction-limited space invariant lateral resolution throughout the image volume. Thus, the need for hardware based AO can be eliminated, which in turn can reduce the system complexity and economical cost. In the first paper of this thesis, a novel DAO method based on sub-aperture correlation is presented which is the digital equivalent of SH WFS. The advantage of this method is that it is non-iterative in nature and it does not require a priori knowledge of any system parameters such wavelength, focal length, NA or detector pixel size. For experimental proof, a FF SS OCT system was used and the sample consisted of resolution test target and a plastic plate that introduced random optical aberration. Experimental results show that

  4. Spectral space-time coding for optical communications through a multimode fiber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alonso, A.; Berghmans, F.; Thienpont, H.; Danckaert, J.; Desmet, L.

    2001-01-01

    We propose a method for coding the mode structure of a multimode optical fiber by spectral coding mixed with space-time modulation. With this system we can improve the data carrying capacity of a multimode fiber for optical communications and optical interconnects, and encode and decode the

  5. Opto-mechanical design for transmission optics in cryogenic space instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroes, Gabby; Venema, Lars; Navarro, Ramón

    2017-11-01

    NOVA is involved in the development and realization of various optical astronomical instruments for groundbased as well as space telescopes, with a focus on nearand mid-infrared instrumentation. NOVA has developed a suite of scientific instruments with cryogenic optics for the ESO VLT and VLTI instruments: VISIR, MIDI, the SPIFFI 2Kcamera for SINFONI, X-shooter and MATISSE. Other projects include the cryogenic optics for MIRI for the James Webb Space Telescope and several E-ELT instruments. Mounting optics is always a compromise between firmly fixing the optics and preventing stresses within the optics. The fixing should ensure mechanical stability and thus accurate positioning in various gravity orientations, temperature ranges, during launch, transport or earthquake. On the other hand, the fixings can induce deformations and sometimes birefringence in the optics and thus cause optical errors. Even cracking or breaking of the optics is a risk, especially when using brittle infrared optical materials at the cryogenic temperatures required in instruments for infrared astronomy, where differential expansion of various materials amounts easily to several millimeters per meter. Special kinematic mounts are therefore needed to ensure both accurate positioning and low stress. This paper concentrates on the opto-mechanical design of optics mountings, especially for large transmission optics in cryogenic circumstances in space instruments. It describes the development of temperature-invariant ("a-thermal") kinematic designs, their implementation in ground based instrumentation and ways to make them suitable for space instruments.

  6. Evaluation of space environmental effects on metals and optical thin films on EOIM-3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughn, J.A.; Linton, R.C.; Finckenor, M.M.; Kamenetzky, R.R.

    1995-02-01

    Metals and optical thin films exposed to the space environment on the Third Flight of the Evaluation of Oxygen Interactions with Materials (EOIM-3) payload, onboard Space Shuttle mission STS-46 were evaluated. The materials effects described in this paper include the effects of space exposure on various pure metals, optical thin films, and optical thin film metals. The changes induced by exposure to the space environment in the material properties were evaluated using bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF), specular reflectance (250 nm to 2500 nm), ESCA, VUV reflectance (120 nm to 200 nm), ellipsometry, FTIR and optical properties. Using these analysis techniques gold optically thin film metal mirrors with nickel undercoats were observed to darken due to nickel diffusion through the gold to the surface. Also, thin film nickel mirrors formed nickel oxide due to exposure to both the atmosphere and space.

  7. Evaluation of space environmental effects on metals and optical thin films on EOIM-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Jason A.; Linton, Roger C.; Finckenor, Miria M.; Kamenetzky, Rachel R.

    1995-01-01

    Metals and optical thin films exposed to the space environment on the Third Flight of the Evaluation of Oxygen Interactions with Materials (EOIM-3) payload, onboard Space Shuttle mission STS-46 were evaluated. The materials effects described in this paper include the effects of space exposure on various pure metals, optical thin films, and optical thin film metals. The changes induced by exposure to the space environment in the material properties were evaluated using bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF), specular reflectance (250 nm to 2500 nm), ESCA, VUV reflectance (120 nm to 200 nm), ellipsometry, FTIR and optical properties. Using these analysis techniques gold optically thin film metal mirrors with nickel undercoats were observed to darken due to nickel diffusion through the gold to the surface. Also, thin film nickel mirrors formed nickel oxide due to exposure to both the atmosphere and space.

  8. Quantum Limits of Space-to-Ground Optical Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmati, H.; Dolinar, S.

    2012-01-01

    For a pure loss channel, the ultimate capacity can be achieved with classical coherent states (i.e., ideal laser light): (1) Capacity-achieving receiver (measurement) is yet to be determined. (2) Heterodyne detection approaches the ultimate capacity at high mean photon numbers. (3) Photon-counting approaches the ultimate capacity at low mean photon numbers. A number of current technology limits drive the achievable performance of free-space communication links. Approaching fundamental limits in the bandwidth-limited regime: (1) Heterodyne detection with high-order coherent-state modulation approaches ultimate limits. SOA improvements to laser phase noise, adaptive optics systems for atmospheric transmission would help. (2) High-order intensity modulation and photon-counting can approach heterodyne detection within approximately a factor of 2. This may have advantages over coherent detection in the presence of turbulence. Approaching fundamental limits in the photon-limited regime (1) Low-duty cycle binary coherent-state modulation (OOK, PPM) approaches ultimate limits. SOA improvements to laser extinction ratio, receiver dark noise, jitter, and blocking would help. (2) In some link geometries (near field links) number-state transmission could improve over coherent-state transmission

  9. Information Theoretical Limits of Free-Space Optical Links

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Imran Shafique

    2016-08-25

    Generalized fading has been an imminent part and parcel of wireless communications. It not only characterizes the wireless channel appropriately but also allows its utilization for further performance analysis of various types of wireless communication systems. Under the umbrella of generalized fading channels, a unified ergodic capacity analysis of a free-space optical (FSO) link under both types of detection techniques (i.e., intensity modulation/direct detection (IM/DD) as well as heterodyne detection) over generalized atmospheric turbulence channels that account for generalized pointing errors is presented. Specifically, unified exact closed-form expressions for the moments of the end-to-end signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of a single link FSO transmission system are presented. Subsequently, capitalizing on these unified statistics, unified exact closed-form expressions for ergodic capacity performance metric of FSO link transmission systems is offered. Additionally, for scenarios wherein the exact closed-form solution is not possible to obtain, some asymptotic results are derived in the high SNR regime. All the presented results are verified via computer-based Monte-Carlo simulations.

  10. Space Density of Optically Selected Type 2 Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Reinabelle; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Strauss, Michael A.; Green, Joshua; Krolik, Julian H.; Shen, Yue; Richards, Gordon T.; Anderson, Scott F.; Schneider, Donald P.

    2008-12-01

    Type 2 quasars are luminous active galactic nuclei whose central regions are obscured by large amounts of gas and dust. In this paper, we present a catalog of type 2 quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, selected based on their optical emission lines. The catalog contains 887 objects with redshifts z < 0.83; this is 6 times larger than the previous version and is by far the largest sample of type 2 quasars in the literature. We derive the [O III]5007 luminosity function (LF) for 108.3 L sun < L [O III] < 1010 L sun (corresponding to intrinsic luminosities up to M[2500 Å] ~= -28 mag or bolometric luminosities up to 4 × 1047 erg s-1). This LF provides robust lower limits to the actual space density of obscured quasars due to our selection criteria, the details of the spectroscopic target selection, and other effects. We derive the equivalent LF for the complete sample of type 1 (unobscured) quasars and determine the ratio of type 2 to type 1 quasar number densities. Our data constrain this ratio to be at least ~1.5:1 for 108.3 L sun < L [O III] < 109.5 L sun at z < 0.3, and at least ~1.2:1 for L [O III] ~ 1010 L sun at 0.3 < z < 0.83. Type 2 quasars are at least as abundant as type 1 quasars in the relatively nearby universe (z <~ 0.8) for the highest luminosities.

  11. Free Space Optics – Monitoring Setup for Experimental Link

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Tóth

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with advanced Free Space Optics communication technology. Two FSO nodes are needed in order to make a connection. Laser diodes are used as light sources. Simple OOK modulation is involved in this technology. FSO system offers multiple advantages indeed. However, a direct visibility is required in order to set up a communication link. This fact yields perhaps the most significant weakness of this technology. Obviously, there is no a chance to fight the weather phenomena like fog, heavy rain, dust and many other particles which are naturally present in the atmosphere. That’s why there is a key task to find a suitable solution to keep FSO link working with high reliability and availability. It turns out that it’s necessary to have knowledge about weather situation when FSO link operates (liquid water content - LWC, geographical location, particle size distribution, average particle diameter, temperature, humidity, wind conditions, pressure and many other variable weather parameters. It’s obvious that having most of mentioned parameter’s values stored in database (implicitly in charts would be really beneficial. This paper presents some of mentioned indicators continuously gathered from several sensors located close to one of FSO nodes.

  12. Free-space optical channel characterization in a coastal environment

    KAUST Repository

    Alheadary, Wael Ghazy

    2017-12-28

    Recently, FSO (Free-Space Optical Communication) has received a lot of attention thanks to its high data-rate transmission via unbounded unlicensed bandwidth. However, some weather conditions lead to significant degradation of the FSO link performance. Based on this context and in order to have a better understanding of the capabilities of FSO communication in a coastal environment, the effects of temperature and humidity on an FSO system are investigated in this study. An experiment is conducted using an open source FSO system that achieves a transmission rate of 1 Gbit/s at a distance of 70 m. Two new mathematical models are proposed to represent the effects of temperature and humidity on our developed FSO system operating at a wavelength of 1 550 nm. The first model links the FSO attenuation coeffcient to the air temperature in coastal regions, while the second model links the FSO attenuation coeffcient to the humidity and the dew-point temperature. The key finding of this study is that FSO links can achieve maximum availability in a coastal city with normal variations in temperature and humidity.

  13. Optical spacing effect in organic photovoltaic cells incorporating a dilute acceptor layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menke, S. Matthew; Lindsay, Christopher D.; Holmes, Russell J. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)

    2014-06-16

    The addition of spacing layers in organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) can enhance light absorption by optimizing the spatial distribution of the incident optical field in the multilayer structure. We explore the optical spacing effect in OPVs achieved using a diluted electron acceptor layer of C{sub 60}. While optical spacing is often realized by optimizing buffer layer thickness, we find that optical spacing via dilution leads to cells with similar or enhanced photocurrent. This is observed despite a smaller quantity of absorbing molecules, suggesting a more efficient use of absorbed photons. In fact, dilution is found to concentrate optical absorption near the electron donor-acceptor interface, resulting in a marked increase in the exciton diffusion efficiency. Contrasting the use of changes in thickness to engineer optical absorption, the use of dilution does not significantly alter the overall thickness of the OPV. Optical spacing via dilution is shown to be a viable alternative to more traditional optical spacing techniques and may be especially useful in the continued optimization of next-generation, tandem OPVs where it is important to minimize competition for optical absorption between individual sub-cells.

  14. Optical spacing effect in organic photovoltaic cells incorporating a dilute acceptor layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menke, S. Matthew; Lindsay, Christopher D.; Holmes, Russell J.

    2014-01-01

    The addition of spacing layers in organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) can enhance light absorption by optimizing the spatial distribution of the incident optical field in the multilayer structure. We explore the optical spacing effect in OPVs achieved using a diluted electron acceptor layer of C 60 . While optical spacing is often realized by optimizing buffer layer thickness, we find that optical spacing via dilution leads to cells with similar or enhanced photocurrent. This is observed despite a smaller quantity of absorbing molecules, suggesting a more efficient use of absorbed photons. In fact, dilution is found to concentrate optical absorption near the electron donor-acceptor interface, resulting in a marked increase in the exciton diffusion efficiency. Contrasting the use of changes in thickness to engineer optical absorption, the use of dilution does not significantly alter the overall thickness of the OPV. Optical spacing via dilution is shown to be a viable alternative to more traditional optical spacing techniques and may be especially useful in the continued optimization of next-generation, tandem OPVs where it is important to minimize competition for optical absorption between individual sub-cells.

  15. Free Space Optical Communication in the Military Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Charles River [6]. Even much earlier than Paul Revere’s ride, optical communication had developed into the semaphore or optical telegraph. The...forms of basic optical communication that are still commonplace today include semaphore flags and signal lamps utilized by navies around the world

  16. FY 2000 Drawing new energy vision for Town of Setana. Report on results of the survey for construction of floating windmill; 2000 nendo Setanacho shin energy vision sakutei hokokusho. Yojo fusha kensetsu jigyoka chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-02-01

    The survey/study is conducted for the project of constructing floating windmill as the new energy vision for the Town of Setana district, Hokkaido, and the FY 2000 results are reported. Wind power density is 581.7W/m{sup 2}, as revealed by the surveys on wind conditions, which by far exceeds the manual standard of 215W/m{sup 2} at a height of 20m, suggesting that the site is very promising. The windmill capacities investigated are 600 and 1,200kW class for the unit to be connected to the distribution system, and 1,500kW class for the one to be connected to the special, high-voltage transmission system. The 1,200kW class unit can annually produce power of 4,780MWh, based on the average wind velocity, which corresponds to 34.1% of the annual consumption in the town. The economic studies indicate that construction of 2-600kW class windmill units on the dolphin base at the immediately back of the breakwater is most economically advantageous, at a construction cost of 575 thousand yen/kW, which translates into a power production cost of 13.24 yen/kWh, based on interest rate of 4%/y and service life of 17 years. The project will be feasible when NEDO supports half of the project expenses, because the cost would be reduced to 7.16 yen/kWh, which is below the price. (NEDO)

  17. FY 2000 report on the basic study/survey on the policy mix for reducing the greenhouse gas emissions; 2000 nendo onshitsu koka gas haishutsu sakugen no policy mix ni kansuru kisoteki kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Described herein are the FY 2000 results of the survey on policies for reducing the greenhouse gas emissions. For Japan to meet the emission reduction targets stated in the Kyoto Protocol, it is necessary to examine in detail what the most desirable policy measures should be for each sector. In this context, it is also essential to determine particular features of the various policies that may include action plans, environment taxes, and emission trading in addition to conventional regulations and subsidy measures, and to assess their anticipated effects and problems. After examining the policies adopted by various countries to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, this study has attempted to identify the merits and demerits of the various emission reduction policies and to present a systematic account of progress achieved in Japan during basic investigations into this issue. This reports provides a systematic overview of the action plans adopted by the other major countries to prevent global warming and makes a comparative study of the contents of the policies that have been introduced by these countries; identifies the arguments raised in the overseas debates on the effects and problems of global warming prevention policies, and attempts to put the arguments into some systematic order; examines the statuses of the current progress made by various countries with regard to methane and N{sub 2}O emission reduction policies, and discusses the related problems; gives a systematic account of how the policy options are being scrutinized by the government as the base for studying the policy mix for Japan; and examines statuses of the current progress made by Japan with regard to methane and N{sub 2}O emission reduction policies. (NEDO)

  18. Free Space Optics for Next Generation Cellular Backhaul

    KAUST Repository

    Zedini, Emna

    2016-11-01

    The exponential increase in the number of mobile users, coupled with the strong demand for high-speed data services results in a significant growth in the required cellular backhaul capacity. Optimizing the cost efficiency while increasing the capacity is becoming a key challenge to the cellular backhaul. It refers to connections between base stations and mobile switching nodes over a variety of transport technologies such as copper, optical fibers, and radio links. These traditional transmission technologies are either expensive, or cannot provide high data rates. This work is focused on the opportunities of free-space-optical (FSO) technology in next generation cellular back- haul. FSO is a cost effective and wide bandwidth solution as compared with the traditional radio-frequency (RF) transmission. Moreover, due to its ease of deployment, license-free operation, high transmission security, and insensitivity to interference, FSO links are becoming an attractive solution for next generation cellular networks. However, the widespread deployment of FSO links is hampered by the atmospheric turbulence-induced fading, weather conditions, and pointing errors. Increasing the reliability of FSO systems, while still exploiting their high data rate communications, is a key requirement in the deployment of an FSO-based backhaul. Therefore, the aim of this work is to provide different approaches to address these technical challenges. In this context, investigation of hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) protocols from an information-theoretic perspective is undertaken. Moreover, performance analysis of asymmetric RF/FSO dual-hop systems is studied. In such system models, multiple RF users can be multiplexed and sent over the FSO link. More specifically, the end-to-end performance metrics are presented in closed-form. This also has increased the interest to study the performance of dual-hop mixed FSO/RF systems, where the FSO link is used as a multicast channel that serves

  19. Design of free space optical omnidirectional transceivers for indoor applications using non-imaging optical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Navik; Davis, Christopher C.

    2008-08-01

    Omnidirectional free space optical communication receivers can employ multiple non-imaging collectors, such as compound parabolic concentrators (CPCs), in an array-like fashion to increase the amount of possible light collection. CPCs can effectively channel light collected over a large aperture to a small area photodiode. The aperture to length ratio of such devices can increase the overall size of the transceiver unit, which may limit the practicality of such systems, especially when small size is desired. New non-imaging collector designs with smaller sizes, larger field of view (FOV), and comparable transmission curves to CPCs, offer alternative transceiver designs. This paper examines how transceiver performance is affected by the use of different non-imaging collector shapes that are designed for wide FOV with reduced efficiency compared with shapes such as the CPC that are designed for small FOV with optimal efficiency. Theoretical results provide evidence indicating that array-like transceiver designs using various non-imaging collector shapes with less efficient transmission curves, but a larger FOV will be an effective means for the design of omnidirectional optical transceiver units. The results also incorporate the effects of Fresnel loss at the collector exit aperture-photodiode interface, which is an important consideration for indoor omnidirectional FSO systems.

  20. Performance analysis of an adaptive optics system for free-space optics communication through atmospheric turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yukun; Xu, Huanyu; Li, Dayu; Wang, Rui; Jin, Chengbin; Yin, Xianghui; Gao, Shijie; Mu, Quanquan; Xuan, Li; Cao, Zhaoliang

    2018-01-18

    The performance of free-space optics communication (FSOC) is greatly degraded by atmospheric turbulence. Adaptive optics (AO) is an effective method for attenuating the influence. In this paper, the influence of the spatial and temporal characteristics of turbulence on the performance of AO in a FSOC system is investigated. Based on the Greenwood frequency (GF) and the ratio of receiver aperture diameter to atmospheric coherent length (D/r 0 ), the relationship between FSOC performance (CE) and AO parameters (corrected Zernike modes number and bandwidth) is derived for the first time. Then, simulations and experiments are conducted to analyze the influence of AO parameters on FSOC performance under different GF and D/r 0 . The simulation and experimental results show that, for common turbulence conditions, the number of corrected Zernike modes can be fixed at 35 and the bandwidth of the AO system should be larger than the GF. Measurements of the bit error rate (BER) for moderate turbulence conditions (D/r 0  = 10, f G  = 60 Hz) show that when the bandwidth is two times that of GF, the average BER is decreased by two orders of magnitude compared with f G /f 3dB  = 1. These results and conclusions can provide important guidance in the design of an AO system for FSOC.

  1. Controlling lightwave in Riemann space by merging geometrical optics with transformation optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yichao; Sun, Fei; He, Sailing

    2018-01-11

    In geometrical optical design, we only need to choose a suitable combination of lenses, prims, and mirrors to design an optical path. It is a simple and classic method for engineers. However, people cannot design fantastical optical devices such as invisibility cloaks, optical wormholes, etc. by geometrical optics. Transformation optics has paved the way for these complicated designs. However, controlling the propagation of light by transformation optics is not a direct design process like geometrical optics. In this study, a novel mixed method for optical design is proposed which has both the simplicity of classic geometrical optics and the flexibility of transformation optics. This mixed method overcomes the limitations of classic optical design; at the same time, it gives intuitive guidance for optical design by transformation optics. Three novel optical devices with fantastic functions have been designed using this mixed method, including asymmetrical transmissions, bidirectional focusing, and bidirectional cloaking. These optical devices cannot be implemented by classic optics alone and are also too complicated to be designed by pure transformation optics. Numerical simulations based on both the ray tracing method and full-wave simulation method are carried out to verify the performance of these three optical devices.

  2. Fast QC-LDPC code for free space optical communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Zhang, Qi; Udeh, Chinonso Paschal; Wu, Rangzhong

    2017-02-01

    Free Space Optical (FSO) Communication systems use the atmosphere as a propagation medium. Hence the atmospheric turbulence effects lead to multiplicative noise related with signal intensity. In order to suppress the signal fading induced by multiplicative noise, we propose a fast Quasi-Cyclic (QC) Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC) code for FSO Communication systems. As a linear block code based on sparse matrix, the performances of QC-LDPC is extremely near to the Shannon limit. Currently, the studies on LDPC code in FSO Communications is mainly focused on Gauss-channel and Rayleigh-channel, respectively. In this study, the LDPC code design over atmospheric turbulence channel which is nether Gauss-channel nor Rayleigh-channel is closer to the practical situation. Based on the characteristics of atmospheric channel, which is modeled as logarithmic-normal distribution and K-distribution, we designed a special QC-LDPC code, and deduced the log-likelihood ratio (LLR). An irregular QC-LDPC code for fast coding, of which the rates are variable, is proposed in this paper. The proposed code achieves excellent performance of LDPC codes and can present the characteristics of high efficiency in low rate, stable in high rate and less number of iteration. The result of belief propagation (BP) decoding shows that the bit error rate (BER) obviously reduced as the Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) increased. Therefore, the LDPC channel coding technology can effectively improve the performance of FSO. At the same time, the BER, after decoding reduces with the increase of SNR arbitrarily, and not having error limitation platform phenomenon with error rate slowing down.

  3. Energy Pooling Upconversion in Free Space and Optical Cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaCount, Michael D.

    energy pooling rate efficiency of 99%. This demonstrates that the energy pooling rate can be made faster than its competing processes. Based on the results of this study, a set of design rules was developed to optimize the rate efficiency of energy pooling. Prior to this research, no attempt had been made to determine if energy pooling could be made to out-pace competing processes--i.e. whether or not a molecular system could be designed to utilize energy pooling as an efficient means of upconversion. This initial investigation was part of a larger effort involving a team of researchers at the University of Colorado, Boulder and at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. After establishing our computational proof-of-concept, we collectively used the new design rules to select an improved system for energy pooling. This consisted of rhodamine 6G and stilbene-420. These molecules were fabricated into a thin film, and the maximum internal quantum yield was measured to be 36% under sufficiently high intensity light. To further increase the efficiency of energy pooling, encapsulation within optical cavities was considered as a way of changing the rate of processes characterized by electric dipole-dipole coupling. This was carried out using a combination of classical electromagnetism, quantum electrodynamics, and perturbation theory. It was found that, in the near field, if the distance of the energy transfer is smaller than the distance from the energy transfer site and the cavity wall, then the electric dipole-dipole coupling tensor is not influenced by the cavity environment and the rates of energy transfer processes are the same as those in free space. Any increase in energy transfer efficiencies that are experimentally measured must therefore be caused by changing the rate of light absorption and emission. This is an important finding because earlier, less rigorous studies had concluded otherwise. It has been previously demonstrated that an optical cavity can be used to

  4. Application of spinal code for performance improvement in free-space optical communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, Naoya; Okamoto, Eiji; Takenaka, Hideki; Toyoshima, Morio

    2017-09-01

    In recent years, the demand for high-capacity communication has grown, and fiber-optic transmission is being used in wired communications to meet this demand. Similarly, free-space optics (FSO), which is an optical wireless communication technology that uses laser light, has attracted much attention and has been considered as a suitable alternative to satisfy this demand in wireless communications. Free-space optical communication uses a hundred THz frequency band and allows for high-speed and radio-regulation free transmission, which may provide a solution for the current shortage of radio frequency bands.

  5. Electro-optical and Magneto-optical Sensing Apparatus and Method for Characterizing Free-space Electromagnetic Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi-Cheng; Riordan, Jenifer Ann; Sun, Feng-Guo

    2000-08-29

    Apparatus and methods for characterizing free-space electromagnetic energy, and in particular, apparatus/method suitable for real-time two-dimensional far-infrared imaging applications are presented. The sensing technique is based on a non-linear coupling between a low-frequency electric (or magnetic) field and a laser beam in an electro-optic (or magnetic-optic) crystal. In addition to a practical counter-propagating sensing technique, a co-linear approach is described which provides longer radiated field-optical beam interaction length, thereby making imaging applications practical.

  6. Characterization of the Marine Atmosphere for Free-Space Optical Communication

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thomas, Linda M. Wasiczko; Moore, Christopher I; Burris, Harris R; Suite, Michele; Stell, Mena; Murphy, James; Gilbreath, G. C; Rabinovich, William; Scharpf, William

    2006-01-01

    The Chesapeake Bay Detachment of the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL-CBD) provides an ideal environment for characterizing the effects of the marine atmosphere on free space optical communication links...

  7. On the performance of free-space optical communication systems with multiuser diversity

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Liang; Gao, Xiqi; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2014-01-01

    Free space optical (FSO) communication has become a cost-effective method to provide high data rates. However, the turbulence-induced fading limits its application to short range applications. To address this, we propose a multiuser diversity (MD

  8. Efficient characterization of phase space mapping in axially symmetric optical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbero, Sergio; Portilla, Javier

    2018-01-01

    Phase space mapping, typically between an object and image plane, characterizes an optical system within a geometrical optics framework. We propose a novel conceptual frame to characterize the phase mapping in axially symmetric optical systems for arbitrary object locations, not restricted to a specific object plane. The idea is based on decomposing the phase mapping into a set of bivariate equations corresponding to different values of the radial coordinate on a specific object surface (most likely the entrance pupil). These equations are then approximated through bivariate Chebyshev interpolation at Chebyshev nodes, which guarantees uniform convergence. Additionally, we propose the use of a new concept (effective object phase space), defined as the set of points of the phase space at the first optical element (typically the entrance pupil) that are effectively mapped onto the image surface. The effective object phase space provides, by means of an inclusion test, a way to avoid tracing rays that do not reach the image surface.

  9. High-Speed Fiber Optic Micromultiplexer for Space and Airborne Lidar, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address the NASA Earth Science Division need for high-speed fiber optic multiplexers for next generation lidar systems, Luminit proposes to develop a new Fiber...

  10. Resilient backhaul network design using hybrid radio/free-space optical technology

    KAUST Repository

    Douik, Ahmed; Dahrouj, Hayssam; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    The radio-frequency (RF) technology is a scalable solution for the backhaul planning. However, its performance is limited in terms of data rate and latency. Free Space Optical (FSO) backhaul, on the other hand, offers a higher data rate

  11. Stokes Space-Based Optical Modulation Format Recognition for Digital Coherent Receivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borkowski, Robert; Zibar, Darko; Caballero Jambrina, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    We present a technique for modulation format recognition for heterogeneous reconfigurable optical networks. The method is based on Stokes space signal representation and uses a variational Bayesian expectation maximization machine learning algorithm. Differentiation between diverse common coheren...

  12. Ergodic Capacity Analysis of Free-Space Optical Links with Nonzero Boresight Pointing Errors

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Imran Shafique; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Cheng, Julian

    2015-01-01

    A unified capacity analysis of a free-space optical (FSO) link that accounts for nonzero boresight pointing errors and both types of detection techniques (i.e. intensity modulation/ direct detection as well as heterodyne detection) is addressed

  13. Unified performance analysis of hybrid-ARQ with incremental redundancy over free-space optical channels

    KAUST Repository

    Zedini, Emna; Chelli, Ali; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we carry out a unified performance analysis of hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) with incremental redundancy (IR) from an information theoretic perspective over a point-to-point free-space optical (FSO) system. First, we

  14. Correlation of free-space optics link attenuation with sonic temperature

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chládová, Zuzana; Fišer, Ondřej; Brázda, Vladimír; Svoboda, Jaroslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 3 (2013) ISSN 0091-3286 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP102/11/1376 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : free-space optics * atmospheric attenuation * water vapor * free-space optics design Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 0.958, year: 2013 http://opticalengineering.spiedigitallibrary.org/article.aspx?articleid=1667062

  15. Role of transverse-momentum currents in the optical Magnus effect in free space

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Hailu; Wen, Shuangchun; Shu, Weixing; Fan, Dianyuan

    2010-01-01

    We establish a general vector field model to describe the role of transverse-momentum currents in the optical Magnus effect in free space. As an analogy of the mechanical Magnus effect, the circularly polarized wave packet in our model acts as the rotating ball, and its rotation direction depends on the polarization state. Based on this model, we demonstrate the existence of an optical polarization-dependent Magnus effect which is significantly different from the conventional optical Magnus e...

  16. Free Space Optical (FSO) Communications, Towards the Speeds of Wireline Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2015-01-01

    in the recent past, is not anymore a viable solution to fulfill the demand for more wireless applications and higher data rates. Among the many proposed solutions, optical wireless communication or free-space optical (FSO) systems have gained an increasing

  17. Saltcake Dissolution FY 2000 Status Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HERTING, D.L.

    2000-01-01

    Laboratory tests were completed on the dissolution characteristics of Hanford saltcake waste from single-shell waste tanks 241-TX- 113, 241-BY-102, 241-BY-106, 241-A-101, and 241-S-102 (henceforth referred to as TX-113, BY-102, BY-106, A-101, and S-102, respectively). This work was funded by the Tanks Focus Area (EM-50) under Technical Task Plan Number RL0-8-WT-41, ''PHMC Pretreatment--Saltcake Dissolution''. The tests performed on saltcake from tank TX-113 were similar in scope to those completed in previous years on waste from tanks BY-102, BY-106, B-106, A-101, and S-102 (Herting 1998, 1999). In addition to the ''standard'' dissolution tests, new types of tests were performed this year related to feed stability and radionuclide distribution. The River Protection Project (RPP) is tasked with retrieving waste from double-shell and single-shell tanks to provide feed for vitrification. The RPP organization needs chemical and physical data to evaluate technologies for retrieving the waste. Little significant laboratory testing has been done to evaluate in-tank dissolution parameters for the various types of saltcake wastes that exist in single-shell tanks. A computer modeling program known as the Environmental Simulation Program (ESP), produced by OLI Systems, Inc of Morris Plains, New Jersey, is being used by the RPP organization to predict solubilities during dilution and retrieval of all tank waste types. Data from this task are provided to ESP users to support evaluation, refinement, and validation of the ESP model

  18. Tanks Focus Area annual report FY2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) continues to face a major radioactive waste tank remediation effort with tanks containing hazardous and radioactive waste resulting from the production of nuclear materials. With some 90 million gallons of waste in the form of solid, sludge, liquid, and gas stored in 287 tanks across the DOE complex, containing approximately 650 million curies, radioactive waste storage tank remediation is the nation's highest cleanup priority. Differing waste types and unique technical issues require specialized science and technology to achieve tank cleanup in an environmentally acceptable manner. Some of the waste has been stored for over 50 years in tanks that have exceeded their design lives. The challenge is to characterize and maintain these contents in a safe condition and continue to remediate and close each tank to minimize the risks of waste migration and exposure to workers, the public, and the environment. In 1994, the DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM) created a group of integrated, multiorganizational teams focusing on specific areas of the EM cleanup mission. These teams have evolved into five focus areas managed within EM's Office of Science and Technology (OST): Tanks Focus Area (TFA); Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area; Nuclear Materials Focus Area; Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area; and Transuranic and Mixed Waste Focus Area

  19. INEEL Institutional Plan - FY 2000-2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enge, Ray Stevenson

    1999-11-01

    In this first Institutional Plan prepared by Bechtel BWXT Idaho, LLC, for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, the INEEL will focus it's efforts on three strategic thrusts; (1) Environmental Management stewardship for DOE-EM, (2) Nuclear reactor technology for DOE-Nuclear Energy (NE), and (3) Energy R&D, demonstration, and deployment (initial focus on biofuels and chemical from biomass). The first strategic thrust focuses on meeting DOE-EM's environmental cleanup and long-term stewardship needs in a manner that is safe, cost-effective, science-based, and approved by key stakeholders. The science base at the INEEL will be further used to address a grand challenge for the INEEL and the DOE complex - the development of a fundamental scientific understanding of the migration of subsurface contaminants. The second strategic thrust is directed at DOE-NE's needs for safe, economical, waste-minimized, and proliferation-resistant nuclear technologies. As NE lead laboratories, the INEEL and ANL will pursue specific priorities. The third strategic thrust focuses on DOE's needs for clean, efficient, and renewable energy technology. As an initial effort, the INEEL will enhance its capability in biofuels, bioprocessing, and biochemicals. The content of this Institutional Plan is designed to meet basic DOE requirements for content and structure and reflect the key INEEL strategic thrusts. Updates to this Institutional Plan will offer additional content and resource refinements.

  20. Tanks Focus Area annual report FY2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) continues to face a major radioactive waste tank remediation effort with tanks containing hazardous and radioactive waste resulting from the production of nuclear materials. With some 90 million gallons of waste in the form of solid, sludge, liquid, and gas stored in 287 tanks across the DOE complex, containing approximately 650 million curies, radioactive waste storage tank remediation is the nation's highest cleanup priority. Differing waste types and unique technical issues require specialized science and technology to achieve tank cleanup in an environmentally acceptable manner. Some of the waste has been stored for over 50 years in tanks that have exceeded their design lives. The challenge is to characterize and maintain these contents in a safe condition and continue to remediate and close each tank to minimize the risks of waste migration and exposure to workers, the public, and the environment. In 1994, the DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM) created a group of integrated, multiorganizational teams focusing on specific areas of the EM cleanup mission. These teams have evolved into five focus areas managed within EM's Office of Science and Technology (OST): Tanks Focus Area (TFA); Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area; Nuclear Materials Focus Area; Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area; and Transuranic and Mixed Waste Focus Area.

  1. INEEL Institutional Plan - FY 2000-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enge, Ray Stevenson

    1999-01-01

    In this first Institutional Plan prepared by Bechtel BWXT Idaho, LLC, for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, the INEEL will focus it's efforts on three strategic thrusts; (1) Environmental Management stewardship for DOE-EM, (2) Nuclear reactor technology for DOE-Nuclear Energy (NE), and (3) Energy R and D, demonstration, and deployment (initial focus on biofuels and chemical from biomass). The first strategic thrust focuses on meeting DOE-EM's environmental cleanup and long-term stewardship needs in a manner that is safe, cost-effective, science-based, and approved by key stakeholders. The science base at the INEEL will be further used to address a grand challenge for the INEEL and the DOE complex--the development of a fundamental scientific understanding of the migration of subsurface contaminants. The second strategic thrust is directed at DOE-NE's needs for safe, economical, waste-minimized, and proliferation-resistant nuclear technologies. As NE lead laboratories, the INEEL and ANL will pursue specific priorities. The third strategic thrust focuses on DOE's needs for clean, efficient, and renewable energy technology. As an initial effort, the INEEL will enhance its capability in biofuels, bioprocessing, and biochemicals. The content of this Institutional Plan is designed to meet basic DOE requirements for content and structure and reflect the key INEEL strategic thrusts. Updates to this Institutional Plan will offer additional content and resource refinements

  2. T-SDN architecture for space and ground integrated optical transport network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Kunkun; Hu, Wenjing; Gao, Shenghua; Chang, Chengwu

    2015-11-01

    Integrated optical transport network is the development trend of the future space information backbone network. The space and ground integrated optical transport network(SGIOTN) may contain a variety of equipment and systems. Changing the network or meeting some innovation missions in the network will be an expensive implement. Software Defined Network(SDN) provides a good solution to flexibly adding process logic, timely control states and resources of the whole network, as well as shielding the differences of heterogeneous equipment and so on. According to the characteristics of SGIOTN, we propose an transport SDN architecture for it, with hierarchical control plane and data plane composed of packet networks and optical transport networks.

  3. Optical asymmetric cryptography using a three-dimensional space-based model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Wen; Chen, Xudong

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present optical asymmetric cryptography combined with a three-dimensional (3D) space-based model. An optical multiple-random-phase-mask encoding system is developed in the Fresnel domain, and one random phase-only mask and the plaintext are combined as a series of particles. Subsequently, the series of particles is translated along an axial direction, and is distributed in a 3D space. During image decryption, the robustness and security of the proposed method are further analyzed. Numerical simulation results are presented to show the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed optical image encryption method

  4. Aperture Averaging of Scintillation for Space-to-Ground Optical Communication Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-15

    SCINTILLATION FOR SPACE-TO-GROUND OPTICAL COMUNICATION APPLICATIONS ........................ 5 REFERENCES...theoretical investigations necessary for the evaluation and applica- tion of scientific advances to now military space systems. Versatility and flexibility...systems. Expertise in the latest scientific developments is vital to the accomplishment of tasks related to these problems. The laboratories that con

  5. A study of ultra-stable optical clocks, frequency sources and standards for space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, H.A.; Knight, D.J.E.

    1999-01-01

    Optical or laser-based communication systems are expected to supplement microwave based systems for satellite-to-satellite and spacecraft-to-satellite communications early in the next millennium. Optical systems can carry far more traffic than microwave and address the need to increase communication bandwidths to meet the demands of commerce and the entertainment industry. There is already significant research and commercial interest in this area (now driven particularly by the multi-media and Internet services delivery sector) and there is a strong need to establish which are the best choices of optical sources to develop for space based optical communications. In addition to communication requirements there are strong arguments for developing ultra-stable optical frequency sources and detectors in space for at least two other purposes. At present the microwave radiation that is used for communications is also used for other purposes, for example navigation or tracking, and 'space science' experiments. With the switch from the microwave to the optical for communications it may well be convenient to switch to the optical for these and other functions. This study has examined the potential stable laser requirements for a range of space applications. An interim report was presented in the form of a conference paper summarising our initial findings (see Appendix 5). This final report gives our conclusions in more detail and recommends areas for further study

  6. Extending the possibilities in phase space analysis of synchrotron radiation x-ray optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Claudio; Smilgies, Detlef-Matthias; Riekel, Christian; Gatta, Gilles; Daly, Peter

    2008-08-01

    A simple analytical approach to phase space analysis of the performance of x-ray optical setups (beamlines) combining several elements in position-angle-wavelength space is presented. The mathematical description of a large class of optical elements commonly used on synchrotron beamlines has been reviewed and extended with respect to the existing literature and is reported in a revised form. Novel features are introduced, in particular, the possibility to account for imperfections on mirror surfaces and to incorporate nanofocusing devices like refractive lenses in advanced beamline setups using the same analytical framework. Phase space analysis results of the simulation of an undulator beamline with focusing optics at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility compare favorably with results obtained by geometric ray-tracing methods and, more importantly, with experimental measurements. This approach has been implemented into a simple and easy-to-use program toolkit for optical calculations based on the Mathematica software package.

  7. FY 2000 Medical/engineering cooperative research project. Basic research on high-sensitivity gene-aided diagnostic systems for cancers, based on free DNA in blood; 2000 nendo kecchu yuri DNA ni yoru gan no kokando idenshi shindan system ni kansuru kiban kenkyu jisseki hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The research and development project is conducted to develop new methods directly related to early discovery of potential cancer patients, and the FY 2000 results are reported. The FY 2000 efforts are directed to improvement of intra-Alu-PCR method as the superhigh-sensitivity quantitative method, almost established in the previous fiscal year, to have higher reliability and simplicity suitable for automatic diagnosis. It is concluded that (there is no difference of significance between normal persons and cancer patients in free DNA concentration in the blood, determined by the Boyle/intra-Alu-PCR method), but this method is confirmed to be useful for prognostic monitoring of the patients who have the marrow or peripheral vessel cell transplant. Detection of qualitative gene abnormality of DNA in the peripheral vessels is investigated using the K-ras, p53 gene. Certain results are obtained by the MSA method for the former, and by the newly introduced WAVE DNA fragment analysis system for the latter. However, there are still a number of problems to be solved before these methods are applicable to screening for general medical examinations. The research on the (analysis of gene abnormality of cancer itself) has made a notable progress. (NEDO)

  8. FY 2000 Development of international standard supporting new industries. Standardization of the test method for performance evaluation for polymer products under critical environment; 2000 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Kakoku kankyoka ni okeru kobunshi seihin no seino hyoka shiken hoho no hyojunka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    This project is aimed at development of the testing methods which can adequately predict resistance of polymer products to weather in various areas of largely different environmental conditions. Described herein are the FY 2000 results of the outdoor exposure tests, and the tests in which the samples are exposed to light from a laboratory source and to a solar light-concentrating test unit. The FY 2000 project include the exposure of the samples directly to the outdoor conditions and glass-filtered light, which are continued from the previous year; solar light-concentrating type exposure tests conducted in Arizona, USA, started in this year; and reproduction tests for the exposure to a xenon lamp light, review of short exposure time areas and spectral degradation tests, among others. The program for evaluating the reference materials includes measurement of cumulative property changes of 4 types of plastic and 10 types of rubber materials by the exposure tests. The tests of resistance of plastics to weather have been exposing the samples, stabilized and not stabilized, for 16 months. For the reference candidate samples, the data of exposure for 1 month are collected 16 times. The tests of resistance of the rubber materials to weather reveal that each sample is deteriorated by hardening and deterioration proceeds with time. (NEDO)

  9. FY 2000 report on the survey of geological structures overseas, etc. Volume 1. 'Tanjung Enim IV Coal Exploration Project between Japan and Indonesia'; 2000 nendo kaigai chishitsu kozo nado chosa hokokusho. 1. Nippon Indonesia sekitan kyodo tansa Tanjung Enim project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The paper summarized the results of the surveys in the final fiscal year (FY 2000) and in the past five years of the Tanjung Enim IV Coal Exploration Project between Japan and Indonesia. In FY 2000, conducted in the South Arahan area were the surface reconnaissance (50km+ACI-2), boring survey (11 holes, 1,847m), borehole physical logging (11 holes), reflection method seismic survey (3 traverse lines), pumping test, coal analysis (112 specimens), etc. As a result of the exploration/study made during 5 years, coal reserves in the South Arahan area were 223 million tons in north block (proved coal reserves: 213 million tons) and 332 million tons (proved coal reserves: 303 million tons) in south block. The coal in the area is in the depth of {+-}0m from surface, and the coal reserve is enough for large scale open pit mining. Further, coal reserves in the Banjarsari area were 442 million tons (proved coal reserves: 330 million tons) in the whole area and 223 million tons (proved coal reserves: 214 million tons) in the syncline part. About the syncline part promising as that for open pit mining, the overburden ratio was divided into three for calculation: 2:1, 3:1 and 4:1 or below. (NEDO)

  10. FY 2000 report on the promotion projects by Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth. Projects for international research exchanges and international seminars; 2000 nendo chikyu kankyo sangyo gijutsu kaihatsu suishin jigyo chosa hokokusho. Kokusai kenkyu koryu jigyo / kokusai seminar kaisai jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Described herein are the results of the international research exchange projects promoted by Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth (RITE) in FY 2000. The international research exchanges are important for creation of new research areas and technological systems for solving the global environmental problems. In order to promote these activities, RITE invites and dispatches researchers to international conferences and symposiums, promotes research exchanges with major foreign research institutes and academic organizations, and invites and dispatches researchers for medium to long periods. These projects promote exchanges of the latest researches with various institutes, both domestic and foreign, and confirm that the research and development projects now RITE is promoting are closely related to those promoted by various organizations. In the FY 2000, RITE invites 5 foreign researchers for joint researches, and invites 3 foreign researchers to international conferences. RITE also dispatches 3 Japanese researchers to American and European universities, and 12 Japanese researchers to international conferences and the like, to effectively promote the domestic researches and grasp development tendencies at institutes of various countries. RITE holds 5 international seminars for exchanging and discussing broad topics over advanced researches related to global environmental technologies by researchers, both domestic and foreign. (NEDO)

  11. FY 2000 research cooperation project on the research cooperation for the commercialization of the waste water treatment technology for global warming prevention. Final report on subsidy work; NEDO kenkyu kyoryoku jigyo. Chikyu ondanka boshi haisui shori gijutsu no jitsuyoka ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku jose gyomu (Saishu hokokusho)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    As to the commercialization of the waste water treatment technology for food plant, the research cooperation with Thailand was carried out from FY 1998 to FY 2000, and the results were summed up. In this project, the R and D were made for the following purposes: treatment of organic matters in waste water for reduction in water pollutants, recovery of the methane gas emitted in the atmosphere for the effective use, reduction in sludge generation in the anaerobic + aerobic treatment system, simplification of operation/maintenance of the system, reduction in running cost. In FY 1998, conducted were the design of the total process and the manufacture/construction of a part of the anaerobic treatment process. In FY 1999, conducted was the manufacture/construction of the total process including the aerobic treatment process. After the completion of the construction work, operational study was made. In FY 2000, the demonstrative operation was conducted at the demonstrative plant, and the technology transfer was made in terms of analysis of operational data, maintenance of equipment, operational management, etc. Further, the technical explanatory meeting such as seminar was held as activities for the spread of this technology. (NEDO)

  12. FY 2000 Project of developing international standards for supporting new industries. SMIL tag standard of the three-dimensional image data, based on MXL; 2000 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. XML wo base to shita rittai eizo data SMIL tag tsuke kikaku no hyojunka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    This project is aimed at proposals of the standards for utilizing three-dimensional images for multimedia presentation on the Internet. Described herein are the FY 2000 results for proposal of SMIL (synchronized multimedia integration language) tag standard of the three-dimensional image data, based on XML which is the next generation standard of HTML, and research and development of the generated editor of tag data for the three-dimensional images, three-dimensional QuickTimeVR player and three-dimensional MPEG player. The FY 2000 efforts are directed to the examination/proposal of the tags for three-dimensional images which are not defined by the present XML and SMIL, based on which the tag editor is developed. The other efforts include survey on the latest situations around the standards and trends of the Web and three-dimensional data; and development of the player and browser of SMIL tags, both for three-dimensional images. The efforts for the international standardization include preparation of the three-dimensional standard drafts for displaying various media data in the three-dimensional world, which are submitted to the W3C members to sound their opinions, and collection of related information. (NEDO)

  13. Optical Real-Time Space Radiation Monitor, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Real-time dosimetry is needed to provide immediate feedback, so astronauts can minimize their exposure to ionizing radiation during periods of high solar activity....

  14. Identified state-space prediction model for aero-optical wavefronts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihi, Azin; Tesch, Jonathan; Gibson, Steve

    2013-07-01

    A state-space disturbance model and associated prediction filter for aero-optical wavefronts are described. The model is computed by system identification from a sequence of wavefronts measured in an airborne laboratory. Estimates of the statistics and flow velocity of the wavefront data are shown and can be computed from the matrices in the state-space model without returning to the original data. Numerical results compare velocity values and power spectra computed from the identified state-space model with those computed from the aero-optical data.

  15. Free-Space Optical Interconnect Employing VCSEL Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Savich, Gregory R.; Torres, Heidi

    2009-01-01

    Sensor signal processing is widely used on aircraft and spacecraft. The scheme employs multiple input/output nodes for data acquisition and CPU (central processing unit) nodes for data processing. To connect 110 nodes and CPU nodes, scalable interconnections such as backplanes are desired because the number of nodes depends on requirements of each mission. An optical backplane consisting of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs), VCSEL drivers, photodetectors, and transimpedance amplifiers is the preferred approach since it can handle several hundred megabits per second data throughput.The next generation of satellite-borne systems will require transceivers and processors that can handle several Gb/s of data. Optical interconnects have been praised for both their speed and functionality with hopes that light can relieve the electrical bottleneck predicted for the near future. Optoelectronic interconnects provide a factor of ten improvement over electrical interconnects.

  16. On Applications of Disruption Tolerant Networking to Optical Networking in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hylton, Alan Guy; Raible, Daniel E.; Juergens, Jeffrey; Iannicca, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    The integration of optical communication links into space networks via Disruption Tolerant Networking (DTN) is a largely unexplored area of research. Building on successful foundational work accomplished at JPL, we discuss a multi-hop multi-path network featuring optical links. The experimental test bed is constructed at the NASA Glenn Research Center featuring multiple Ethernet-to-fiber converters coupled with free space optical (FSO) communication channels. The test bed architecture models communication paths from deployed Mars assets to the deep space network (DSN) and finally to the mission operations center (MOC). Reliable versus unreliable communication methods are investigated and discussed; including reliable transport protocols, custody transfer, and fragmentation. Potential commercial applications may include an optical communications infrastructure deployment to support developing nations and remote areas, which are unburdened with supporting an existing heritage means of telecommunications. Narrow laser beam widths and control of polarization states offer inherent physical layer security benefits with optical communications over RF solutions. This paper explores whether or not DTN is appropriate for space-based optical networks, optimal payload sizes, reliability, and a discussion on security.

  17. Preface to the special issue on ;Optical Communications Exploiting the Space Domain;

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Yu, Siyuan; Li, Guifang

    2018-02-01

    The demand for high capacity optical communications will continue to be driven by the exponential growth of global internet traffic. Optical communications are about the exploitation of different physical dimensions of light waves, including complex amplitude, frequency (or wavelength), time, polarization, etc. Conventional techniques such as wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM), time-division multiplexing (TDM) and polarization-division multiplexing (PDM) have almost reached their scalability limits. Space domain is the only known physical dimension left and space-division multiplexing (SDM) seems the only option to further scale the transmission capacity and spectral efficiency of optical communications. In recent years, few-mode fiber (FMF), multi-mode fiber (MMF), multi-core fiber (MCF) and few-mode multi-core fiber (FM-MCF) have been widely explored as promising candidates for fiber-based SDM. The challenges for SDM include efficient (de)multiplexer, amplifiers, and multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) digital signal processing (DSP) techniques. Photonic integration will also be a key technology to SDM. Meanwhile, free-space and underwater optical communications have also exploited the space domain to increase the transmission capacity and spectral efficiency. The challenges include long-distance transmission limited by propagation loss, divergence, scattering and turbulence. Very recently, helically phased light beams carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) have also seen potential applications both in free-space, underwater and fiber-based optical communications. Actually, different mode bases such as linearly polarized (LP) modes and OAM modes can be employed for SDM. Additionally, SDM could be used in chip-scale photonic interconnects and data center optical interconnects. Quantum processing exploiting the space domain is of great interest. The information capacity limit and physical layer security in SDM optical communications systems are important

  18. Optical/Infrared Signatures for Space-Based Remote Sensing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Picard, R. H; Dewan, E. M; Winick, J. R; O'Neil, R. R

    2007-01-01

    ... (mesosphere and thermosphere) in terms of the structure of the underlying medium. Advances in non-LTE radiative transfer and atmospheric waves and localized excitations are detailed, as well as analysis and modeling of the databases resulting from two groundbreaking space infrared experiments, DoD MSX/SPIRIT III and NASA TIMED/SABER.

  19. Space-time reference with an optical link

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berceau, P; Hollberg, L; Taylor, M; Kahn, J

    2016-01-01

    We describe a concept for realizing a high performance space-time reference using a stable atomic clock in a precisely defined orbit and synchronizing the orbiting clock to high-accuracy atomic clocks on the ground. The synchronization would be accomplished using a two-way lasercom link between ground and space. The basic approach is to take advantage of the highest-performance cold-atom atomic clocks at national standards laboratories on the ground and to transfer that performance to an orbiting clock that has good stability and that serves as a ‘frequency-flywheel’ over time-scales of a few hours. The two-way lasercom link would also provide precise range information and thus precise orbit determination. With a well-defined orbit and a synchronized clock, the satellite could serve as a high-accuracy space-time reference, providing precise time worldwide, a valuable reference frame for geodesy, and independent high-accuracy measurements of GNSS clocks. Under reasonable assumptions, a practical system would be able to deliver picosecond timing worldwide and millimeter orbit determination, and could serve as an enabling subsystem for other proposed space-gravity missions, which are briefly reviewed. (paper)

  20. Space density of optically-selected type 2 quasars

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes, Reinabelle; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Strauss, Michael A.; Green, Joshua; Krolik, Julian H.; Shen, Yue; Richards, Gordon; Anderson, Scott; Schneider, Donald

    2008-01-01

    Type 2 quasars are luminous active galactic nuclei (AGN) whose central regions are obscured by large amounts of gas and dust. In this paper, we present a catalog of type 2 quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), selected based on their optical emission lines. The catalog contains 887 objects with redshifts z < 0.83; this is six times larger than the previous version and is by far the largest sample of type 2 quasars in the literature. We derive the [OIII]5008 luminosity function for...

  1. From the Snell-Descartes refraction law, to the Hamilton equations in the phase space of geometrical optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Moreno, E.; Wolf, K.B.

    1989-01-01

    Starting from the Snell-Descartes' refraction law, we obtain in a brief and direct way the Hamilton equations of Geometrical Optics. We show the global structure of phase space and compare it with that used in paraxial optics. (Author)

  2. Real-time validation of receiver state information in optical space-time block code systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamia, John; Kurzweg, Timothy

    2014-06-15

    Free space optical interconnect (FSOI) systems are a promising solution to interconnect bottlenecks in high-speed systems. To overcome some sources of diminished FSOI performance caused by close proximity of multiple optical channels, multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems implementing encoding schemes such as space-time block coding (STBC) have been developed. These schemes utilize information pertaining to the optical channel to reconstruct transmitted data. The STBC system is dependent on accurate channel state information (CSI) for optimal system performance. As a result of dynamic changes in optical channels, a system in operation will need to have updated CSI. Therefore, validation of the CSI during operation is a necessary tool to ensure FSOI systems operate efficiently. In this Letter, we demonstrate a method of validating CSI, in real time, through the use of moving averages of the maximum likelihood decoder data, and its capacity to predict the bit error rate (BER) of the system.

  3. Optical Properties of Quantum Vacuum. Space-Time Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gevorkyan, A. S.; Gevorkyan, A. A.

    2011-01-01

    The propagation of electromagnetic waves in the vacuum is considered taking into account quantum fluctuations in the limits of Maxwell-Langevin (ML) type stochastic differential equations. For a model of fluctuations, type of 'white noise', using ML equations a partial differential equation of second order is obtained which describes the quantum distribution of virtual particles in vacuum. It is proved that in order to satisfy observed facts, the Lamb Shift etc, the virtual particles should be quantized in unperturbed vacuum. It is shown that the quantized virtual particles in toto (approximately 86 percent) are condensed on the 'ground state' energy level. It is proved that the extension of Maxwell electrodynamics with inclusion of quantum vacuum fluctuations may be constructed on a 6D space-time continuum, where 4D is Minkowski space-time and 2D is a compactified subspace. In detail is studied of vacuum's refraction indexes under the influence of external electromagnetic fields.

  4. Multi-Element Free-Space Optical (FSO) Modules for Mobile-Opportunistic Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-14

    due to license-free spectrum, containment of beams, inherent security, energy efficient communications, and high transmission rates. We leveraged the... wireless spectrum bands in both military and civilian settings. Recent research has shown that free- space-optical (FSO), a.k.a. optical wireless ...communications is a promising complementary approach to address the exploding mobile wireless traffic demand. The major impediment for using FSO in a

  5. Study of Lateral Misalignment Tolerance of a Symmetric Free-Space Optical Link for Intra International Space Station Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedder, Sarah; Schoenholz, Bryan; Suddath, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the study of lateral misalignment tolerance of a symmetric high-rate free-space optical link (FSOL) for use between International Space Station (ISS) payload sites and the main cabin. The link will enable gigabit per second (Gbps) transmission of data, which is up to three orders of magnitude greater than the current capabilities. This application includes 10-20 meter links and requires minimum size, weight, and power (SWaP). The optical power must not present an eye hazard and must be easily integrated into the existing ISS infrastructure. On the ISS, rapid thermal changes and astronaut movement will cause flexure of the structure which will potentially misalign the free space transmit and receive optics 9 cm laterally and 0.2 degrees angularly. If this misalignment is not accounted for, a loss of the link or degradation of link performance will occur. Power measurements were collected to better understand the effect of various system design parameters on lateral misalignment. Parameters that were varied include: the type of small form pluggable (SFP) transceivers, type of fiber, and transmitted power level. A potential solution was identified that can reach the lateral misalignment tolerance (decenter span) required to create an FSOL on the ISS by using 105 m core fibers, a duplex SFP, two channels of light, and two fiber amplifiers.

  6. Space-qualified optical thin films by ion-beam-assisted deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsiao, C.N.; Chen, H.P.; Chiu, P.K.; Lin, Y.W.; Chen, F.Z.; Tsai, D.P.

    2013-01-01

    Optical interference coatings designed for use in a space-grade multispectral assembly in a complementary metal-oxide‐semiconductor sensor were deposited on glass by ion-beam-assisted deposition for a Cassegrain-type space-based remote-sensing platform. The patterned multispectral assembly containing blue, green, red, near infrared, and panchromatic multilayer high/low alternated dielectric band-pass filter arrays in a single chip was fabricated by a mechanical mask and the photolithography process. The corresponding properties of the films were investigated by in situ optical monitoring and spectrometry. It was found that the optical properties were significantly improved by employing ion-beam-assisted deposition. The average transmittances were above 88% for the multispectral assembly, with a rejection transmittance of less than 1% in the spectral range 350–1100 nm. To estimate the optical stability of optical coatings for aerospace applications, a space environment assuming a satellite orbiting the Earth at an altitude of near 800 km was simulated by a Co 60 gamma (γ) radiation test. - Highlights: ►Parameters of optical filters were optimized by using admittance loci analysis. ►Higher index of refraction of films prepared by ion beam assisted deposition. ►The dielectric filters have acceptable resistance after γ radiation exposure

  7. The effect of jitter on the performance of space coherent optical communication system with Costas loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Hong, Yifeng; Wang, Jinfang; Liu, Yang; Sun, Xun; Li, Mi

    2018-01-01

    Numerous communication techniques and optical devices successfully applied in space optical communication system indicates a good portability of it. With this good portability, typical coherent demodulation technique of Costas loop can be easily adopted in space optical communication system. As one of the components of pointing error, the effect of jitter plays an important role in the communication quality of such system. Here, we obtain the probability density functions (PDF) of different jitter degrees and explain their essential effect on the bit error rate (BER) space optical communication system. Also, under the effect of jitter, we research the bit error rate of space coherent optical communication system using Costas loop with different system parameters of transmission power, divergence angle, receiving diameter, avalanche photodiode (APD) gain, and phase deviation caused by Costas loop. Through a numerical simulation of this kind of communication system, we demonstrate the relationship between the BER and these system parameters, and some corresponding methods of system optimization are presented to enhance the communication quality.

  8. Optical isolation based on space-time engineered asymmetric photonic band gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamanara, Nima; Taravati, Sajjad; Deck-Léger, Zoé-Lise; Caloz, Christophe

    2017-10-01

    Nonreciprocal electromagnetic devices play a crucial role in modern microwave and optical technologies. Conventional methods for realizing such systems are incompatible with integrated circuits. With recent advances in integrated photonics, the need for efficient on-chip magnetless nonreciprocal devices has become more pressing than ever. This paper leverages space-time engineered asymmetric photonic band gaps to generate optical isolation. It shows that a properly designed space-time modulated slab is highly reflective/transparent for opposite directions of propagation. The corresponding design is magnetless, accommodates low modulation frequencies, and can achieve very high isolation levels. An experimental proof of concept at microwave frequencies is provided.

  9. Optical Characteristics of the Marshall Space Flight Center Solar Ultraviolet Magnetograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, E. A.; Porter, J. G.; Davis, J. M.; Gary, G. A.; Adams, M.; Smith, S.; Hraba, J. F.

    2001-01-01

    This paper will describe the scientific objectives of the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Solar Ultraviolet Magnetograph Investigation (SUMI) and the optical components that have been developed to meet those objectives. In order to test the scientific feasibility of measuring magnetic fields in the UV, a sounding rocket payload is being developed. This paper will discuss: (1) the scientific measurements that will be made by the SUMI sounding rocket program, (2) how the optics have been optimized for simultaneous measurements of two magnetic lines CIV (1550 Angstroms) and MgII (2800 Angstroms), and (3) the optical, reflectance, transmission and polarization measurements that have been made on the SUMI telescope mirror and polarimeter.

  10. REFINED MODEL OF THE OPTICAL SYSTEM FOR SPACE MINI-VEHICLES WITH LASER PROPULSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Egorov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Simulation results for on-board optical system of a space mini-vehicle with laser propulsion are presented. This system gives the possibility for receiving theremote laser radiation power independently of a system telescope mutual orientation to the vehicle orbiting direction. The on-board optical system is designed with the use of such optical elements as optical hinges and turrets. The system incorporates the optical switch that is a special optical system adapting optically both receiving telescope and laser propulsion engines. Modeling and numerical simulation of the system have been performed with the use of ZEMAX software (Radiant Ltd. The object matter of calculations lied in size definition of system optical elements, requirements to accuracy of their manufacturing and reciprocal adjusting to achieve an efficient radiation energy delivery to laser propulsion engine. Calculations have been performed with account to the limitations on the mini-vehicle mass, its overall dimensions, and radiation threshold density of the optical elements utilized. The requirements to the laser beam quality at the entrance aperture of laser propulsion engine have been considered too. State-of-the-art optical technologies make it possible to manufacture space reflectors made of CO-115M glassceramics with weight-reducing coefficient of 0.72 and the radiation threshold of 5 J/cm2 for the radiation with a 1.064 microns wavelength at 10-20 ns pulse duration. The optimal diameter of a receiving telescope primary mirror has been 0.5 m when a coordinated transmitting telescope diameter is equal to 1 m. This provides the reception of at least 84% of laser energy. The main losses of radiation energy are caused by improper installation of receiving telescope mirrors and by in-process errors arising at manufacturing the telescope mirrors with a parabolic surface. It is shown that requirements to the in-process admissible errors for the on-board optical system elements

  11. Design and simulation of a planar micro-optic free-space receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadler, Brett R.; Hallas, Justin M.; Karp, Jason H.; Ford, Joseph E.

    2017-11-01

    We propose a compact directional optical receiver for free-space communications, where a microlens array and micro-optic structures selectively couple light from a narrow incidence angle into a thin slab waveguide and then to an edge-mounted detector. A small lateral translation of the lenslet array controls the coupled input angle, enabling the receiver to select the transmitter source direction. We present the optical design and simulation of a 10mm x 10mm aperture receiver using a 30μm thick silicon waveguide able to couple up to 2.5Gbps modulated input to a 10mm x 30μm wide detector.

  12. Spontaneous emergence of free-space optical and atomic patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmittberger, Bonnie L; Gauthier, Daniel J

    2016-01-01

    The spontaneous formation of patterns in dynamical systems is a rich phenomenon that transcends scientific boundaries. Here, we report our observation of coupled optical–atomic pattern formation, which results in the creation of self-organized, multimode structures in free-space laser-driven cold atoms. We show that this process gives rise to spontaneous three-dimensional Sisyphus cooling even at very low light intensities and the emergence of self-organized structures on both sub- and super-wavelength scales. (paper)

  13. Retroreflector field tracker. [noncontact optical position sensor for space application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wargocki, F. E.; Ray, A. J.; Hall, G. E.

    1984-01-01

    An electrooptical position-measuring instrument, the Retroreflector Field Tracker or RFT, is described. It is part of the Dynamic Augmentation Experiment - a part of the payload of Space Shuttle flight 41-D in Summer 1984. The tracker measures and outputs the position of 23 reflective targets placed on a 32-m solar array to provide data for determination of the dynamics of the lightweight structure. The sensor uses a 256 x 256 pixel CID detector; the processor electronics include three Z-80 microprocessors. A pulsed laser diode illuminator is used.

  14. Modeling a space-based quantum link that includes an adaptive optics system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchane, Alexander W.; Hodson, Douglas D.; Mailloux, Logan O.

    2017-10-01

    Quantum Key Distribution uses optical pulses to generate shared random bit strings between two locations. If a high percentage of the optical pulses are comprised of single photons, then the statistical nature of light and information theory can be used to generate secure shared random bit strings which can then be converted to keys for encryption systems. When these keys are incorporated along with symmetric encryption techniques such as a one-time pad, then this method of key generation and encryption is resistant to future advances in quantum computing which will significantly degrade the effectiveness of current asymmetric key sharing techniques. This research first reviews the transition of Quantum Key Distribution free-space experiments from the laboratory environment to field experiments, and finally, ongoing space experiments. Next, a propagation model for an optical pulse from low-earth orbit to ground and the effects of turbulence on the transmitted optical pulse is described. An Adaptive Optics system is modeled to correct for the aberrations caused by the atmosphere. The long-term point spread function of the completed low-earth orbit to ground optical system is explored in the results section. Finally, the impact of this optical system and its point spread function on an overall quantum key distribution system as well as the future work necessary to show this impact is described.

  15. A review on channel models in free space optical communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbarasi, K.; Hemanth, C.; Sangeetha, R. G.

    2017-12-01

    Free Space Optical communication (FSO) is a wireless communication technology which uses light to transmit the data in free space. FSO has advantages like unlicensed spectrum and higher bandwidth. In this paper FSO system merits and demerits, challenges in FSO, and various channel models are discussed. To mitigate the turbulence in FSO the mitigation techniques like relaying, diversity schemes and adopting different modulation techniques used in different channels are discussed and its performance comparison is given.

  16. Porous silicon based micro-opto-electro-mechanical-systems (MOEMS) components for free space optical interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Da

    2008-02-01

    One of the major challenges confronting the current integrated circuits (IC) industry is the metal "interconnect bottleneck". To overcome this obstacle, free space optical interconnects (FSOIs) can be used to address the demand for high speed data transmission, multi-functionality and multi-dimensional integration for the next generation IC. One of the crucial elements in FSOIs system is to develop a high performance and flexible optical network to transform the incoming optical signal into a distributed set of optical signals whose direction, alignment and power can be independently controlled. Among all the optical materials for the realization of FSOI components, porous silicon (PSi) is one of the most promising candidates because of its unique optical properties, flexible fabrication methods and integration with conventional IC material sets. PSi-based Distributed Bragg Reflector (DBR) and Fabry-Perot (F-P) structures with unique optical properties are realized by electrochemical etching of silicon. By incorporating PSi optical structures with Micro-Opto-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MOEMS), several components required for FSOI have been developed. The first type of component is the out-of-plane freestanding optical switch. Implementing a PSi DBR structure as an optically active region, the device can realize channel selection by changing the tilting angle of the micromirror supported by the thermal bimorph actuator. All the fabricated optical switches have reached kHz working frequency and life time of millions of cycles. The second type of component is the in-plane tunable optical filter. By introducing PSi F-P structure into the in-plane PSi film, a thermally tunable optical filter with a sensitivity of 7.9nm/V has been realized for add/drop optical signal selection. Also, for the first time, a new type of PSi based reconfigurable diffractive optical element (DOE) has been developed. By using patterned photoresist as a protective mask for electrochemical

  17. Holographic Optical Element-Based Laser Diode Source System for Direct Metal Deposition in Space, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To meet the challenges of rapid prototyping, direct hardware fabrication, and on-the-spot repairs on the ground and on NASA space platforms, Physical Optics...

  18. Characterizing exoplanets atmospheres with space photometry at optical wavelengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmentier Vivien

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Space photometry such as performed by Kepler and CoRoT provides exoplanets radius and phase curves with an exquisite precision. The phase curve constrains the longitudinal variation of the albedo and shed light on the horizontal distribution of clouds. The planet radius constraints thermal evolution of the planet, potentially unveiling its atmospheric composition. We present how the atmospheric circulation can affect the cloud distribution of three different planets, HD209458b, Kepler-7b and HD189733b based on three-dimensional models and analytical calculations. Then we use an analytical atmospheric model coupled to a state-of-the-art interior evolution code to study the role of TiO in shaping the thermal evolution and final radius of the planet.

  19. PIPIT: a momentum space optical potential code for pions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenstein, R A [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, Pa. (USA). Dept. of Physics; Tabakin, F [Pittsburgh Univ., Pa. (USA). Dept. of Physics

    1976-11-01

    Angular distributions for the elastic scattering of pions are generated by summing a partial wave series. The elastic T-matrix elements for each partial wave are obtained by solving a relativistic Lippmann-Schwinger equation in momentum space using a matrix inversion technique. Basically the Coulomb interaction is included exactly using the method of Vincent and Phatak. The ..pi..N amplitude is obtained from phase shift information on-shell and incorporates a separable off-shell form factor to ensure a physically reasonable off-shell extrapolation. The ..pi..N interaction is of finite range and a kinematic transformation procedure is used to express the ..pi..N amplitude in the ..pi.. nucleus frame. A maximum of 30 partial waves can be used in the present version of the program to calculate the cross section. The Lippmann-Schwinger equation is presently solved for each partial wave by inverting a 34x34 supermatrix. At very high energies, larger dimensions may be required. The present version of the code uses a separable non-local ..pi..N potential of finite range; other types of non-localities, or non-separable potentials, may be of physical interest.

  20. Optical transmission for the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightsey, Paul A.; Gallagher, Benjamin B.; Nickles, Neal; Copp, Tracy

    2012-09-01

    The fabrication and coating of the mirrors for the James Webb Space Telescope has been completed. The spectral reflectivity of the protected gold coated beryllium mirrors has been measured. The predicted end-of-life transmission through the telescope builds from these values. The additional phenomena that have been analyzed are contamination effects and effects of the environment for the JWST operation about the Earth-Sun L2 Lagrange libration point. The L2 environment analysis has been based on radiation testing of mirror samples and hypervelocity testing to assess the micrometeoroid impact effects. The mirror showed no change in reflectance over the VIS-SWIR wavelengths after exposure to 6-9 Grad (Si) that simulated 6 years orbiting the L2 Lagrange point. The effects of hypervelocity particle impacts on the mirrors from test data has been extrapolated to the to the anticipated flux characteristics for micrometeoroids at the L2 environment. The results show that the micrometeoroid effects are orders of magnitude below the particulate contamination effects. The final end-of-life transmission for the mirrors including all of these phenomena will meet the performance requirements for JWST.

  1. Performance Analysis of Free-Space Optical Communication Systems With Multiuser Diversity Over Atmospheric Turbulence Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Liang; Gao, Xiqi; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2014-01-01

    Free-space optical (FSO) communication has become a cost-effective method to provide high data rates. However, the turbulence-induced fading limits its application to short-range applications. To address this, we propose a multiuser diversity (MD

  2. Optical Correction Of Space-Based Telescopes Using A Deformable Mirror System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    492 DM. The quarter wave plates polarize the light so that as it reflects off the DM, the light is then redirected at the beam splitter to the one...1  II.  SPACE-BASED TELESCOPE DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS .......................3  A.  ADAPTIVE OPTICS...3  B.  DESIGN CONSTRAINTS

  3. Space and frequency-multiplexed optical linear algebra processor - Fabrication and initial tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasent, D.; Jackson, J.

    1986-01-01

    A new optical linear algebra processor architecture is described. Space and frequency-multiplexing are used to accommodate bipolar and complex-valued data. A fabricated laboratory version of this processor is described, the electronic support system used is discussed, and initial test data obtained on it are presented.

  4. All-optical two-way relaying free-space optical communications for HAP-based broadband backhaul networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Minh Q.; Nguyen, Nga T. T.; Pham, Hien T. T.; Dang, Ngoc T.

    2018-03-01

    High-altitude platforms (HAPs) are flexible, non-pollutant and cost-effective infrastructures compared to satellite or old terrestrial systems. They are being researched and developed widely in Europe, USA, Japan, Korea, and so on. However, the current limited data rates and the overload of radio frequency (RF) spectrum are problems which the developers for HAPs are confronting because most of them use RF links to communicate with the ground stations (GSs) or each other. In this paper, we propose an all-optical two-way half-duplex relaying free-space optical (FSO) communication for HAP-based backhaul networks, which connect the base transceiver station (BTS) to the core network (CN) via a single HAP. Our proposed backhaul solution can be deployed quickly and flexibly for disaster relief and for serving users in both urban environments and remote areas. The key subsystem of HAP is an optical regenerate-and-forward (ORF) equipped with an optical hard-limiter (OHL) and an optical XOR gate to perform all-optical processing and help mitigate the background noise. In addition, two-way half-duplex relaying can be provided thanks to the use of network coding scheme. The closed-form expression for the bit error rate (BER) of our proposed system under the effect of path loss, atmospheric turbulence, and noise induced by the background light is formulated. The numerical results are demonstrated to prove the feasibility of our proposed system with the verification by using Monte-Carlo (M-C) simulations.

  5. Analysis of the optical scattering characteristics of different types of space targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Yi; Sun, Huayan; Feng, Jianguang; Li, Liang

    2014-01-01

    This paper mainly focused on the measurement, evaluation and potential identification methods of the unresolved space target's photometric characteristics. The bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) measurement system was introduced first, and then the measurement error of BRDF and its influence on target's optical cross section (OCS) and magnitude were analyzed. Then, different space targets’ OCS and magnitude changing with different factors, such as surface materials and shapes, flying conditions and working states, were analyzed respectively, and some general inclusions of variation laws were deduced. This research can provide references for future studies on space target classification and identification based on the photometric measurement data. (paper)

  6. FY 2000 report on the results of the project for the promotion of industrial technology development for the global environment. Project on the investigational research of high technology; 2000 nendo NEDO seika hokokusho. Chikyu kankyo sangyo gijutsu kaihatsu suishin jigyo - Sentan gijutsu chosa kenkyu jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    High-tech study was conducted for fields of CO2 fixation/effective utilization, technical development of low environmental load substances and technical development of environmentally friendly type production process, and the FY 2000 results were summarized. Out of the proposals for research projects collected in FY 1999, 25 projects that were recognized to be excellent were consigned to contract research. Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth also selected 4 projects for research. Through research activities, 179 projects were made public, and 2 patents were applied for. The number of research themes was 29 including the following themes: development of food resource resistant to the future global environment, study on new circulation type polymer chemical recycling by bio-process, development of dioxin decomposition technology using artificial enzyme and absorption resin, design of rare metal free cathode substance for large lithium ion secondary battery, and reforming of carbon circulation system in the Australian desert by natural humus supply. (NEDO)

  7. FY 2000 Project of developing international standards for supporting new industries. Standardization of the crushed, recycled CFRPs (carbon-fiber reinforced plastics); 2000 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Recycle CFRP (tanso sen'i kyoka plastic) funsaihin no hyojunka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Described herein are the FY 2000 results of development of the basic technologies for, e.g., recycling CFRPs by crushing/screening them and also recycling carbon fibers by removing the matrices; development of the methods of measuring characteristics of the recycled stock materials; and standardization of the specifications, for proposing the international standards. The program for methods of crushing CFRPs tests the cylindrical CFRP samples (thickness: approximately 7mm) composed of high-strength carbon fibers and epoxy resin, to confirm feasibility of crushing by a shear type crusher. The program for removing the CFRP matrices studies epoxy resin as the representative thermosetting resin matrix material, to confirm that the matrix can be removed basically without greatly deteriorating strength of the carbon fibers by selecting an adequate catalyst and treating conditions. The program for studying the international standards finds neither international standard dedicated only for recycling CFRPs nor movement for establishing them. (NEDO)

  8. Shared protection based virtual network mapping in space division multiplexing optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huibin; Wang, Wei; Zhao, Yongli; Zhang, Jie

    2018-05-01

    Space Division Multiplexing (SDM) has been introduced to improve the capacity of optical networks. In SDM optical networks, there are multiple cores/modes in each fiber link, and spectrum resources are multiplexed in both frequency and core/modes dimensions. Enabled by network virtualization technology, one SDM optical network substrate can be shared by several virtual networks operators. Similar with point-to-point connection services, virtual networks (VN) also need certain survivability to guard against network failures. Based on customers' heterogeneous requirements on the survivability of their virtual networks, this paper studies the shared protection based VN mapping problem and proposes a Minimum Free Frequency Slots (MFFS) mapping algorithm to improve spectrum efficiency. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can optimize SDM optical networks significantly in terms of blocking probability and spectrum utilization.

  9. Data transmission with twisted light through a free-space to fiber optical communication link

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brüning, Robert; Duparré, Michael; Ndagano, Bienvenu; McLaren, Melanie; Forbes, Andrew; Schröter, Siegmund; Kobelke, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Mode division multiplexing (MDM), where information is transmitted in the spatial modes of light, is mooted as a future technology with which to transmit large bits of information. However, one of the key issues in optical communication lies in connecting free-space to optical fiber networks, otherwise known as the ‘last mile’ problem. This is particularly problematic for MDM as the eigenmodes of free-space and fibers are in general not the same. Here we demonstrate a data transmission scheme across a free-space and fiber link using twisted light in the form of Laguerre–Gaussian (LG) azimuthal modes. As a proof-of-principle we design and implement a custom fiber where the supported LG modes can be grouped into five non-degenerate sets, and successfully transmit a gray-scale image across the composite link using one mode from each group, thereby ensuring minimal crosstalk. (letter)

  10. Threshold-Based Multiple Optical Signal Selection Scheme for Free-Space Optical Wavelength Division Multiplexing Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Sung Sik

    2017-11-13

    We propose a threshold-based multiple optical signal selection scheme (TMOS) for free-space optical wavelength division multiplexing systems. With this scheme, we can obtain higher spectral efficiency while reducing the possible complexity of implementation caused by the beam-selection scheme and without a considerable performance loss. To characterize the performance of our scheme, we statistically analyze the operation characteristics under conventional detection conditions (i.e., heterodyne detection and intensity modulation/direct detection techniques) with log-normal turbulence while taking into consideration the impact of pointing error. More specifically, we derive exact closed-form expressions for the outage probability, the average bit error rate, and the average spectral efficiency while adopting an adaptive modulation. Some selected results show that TMOS increases the average spectral efficiency while maintaining a minimum average bit error rate requirement.

  11. Group-velocity dispersion effects on quantum noise of a fiber optical soliton in phase space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, Heongkyu; Lee, Euncheol

    2010-01-01

    Group-velocity dispersion (GVD) effects on quantum noise of ultrashort pulsed light are theoretically investigated at the soliton energy level, using Gaussian-weighted pseudo-random distribution of phasors in phase space for the modeling of quantum noise properties including phase noise, photon number noise, and quantum noise shape in phase space. We present the effects of GVD that mixes the different spectral components in time, on the self-phase modulation(SPM)-induced quantum noise properties in phase space such as quadrature squeezing, photon-number noise, and tilting/distortion of quantum noise shape in phase space, for the soliton that propagates a distance of the nonlinear length η NL = 1/( γP 0 ) (P 0 is the pulse peak power and γ is the SPM parameter). The propagation dependence of phase space quantum noise properties for an optical soliton is also provided.

  12. Space grating optical structure of the retina and RGB-color vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauinger, Norbert

    2017-02-01

    Diffraction of light at the spatial cellular phase grating outer nuclear layer of the retina could produce Fresnel near-field interferences in three RGB diffraction orders accessible to photoreceptors (cones/rods). At perpendicular light incidence the wavelengths of the RGB diffraction orders in photopic vision-a fundamental R-wave with two G+B-harmonics-correspond to the peak wavelengths of the spectral brightness sensitivity curves of the cones at 559 nmR, 537 nmG, and 447 nmB. In scotopic vision the R+G diffraction orders optically fuse at 512 nm, the peak value of the rod's spectral brightness sensitivity curve. The diffractive-optical transmission system with sender (resonator), space waves, and receiver antennae converts the spectral light components involved in imaging into RGB space. The colors seen at objects are diffractive-optical products in the eye, as the German philosopher A. Schopenhauer predicted. They are second related to the overall illumination in object space. The RGB transmission system is the missing link optically managing the spectral tuning of the RGB photopigments.

  13. Narrow linewidth diode laser modules for quantum optical sensor applications in the field and in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicht, A.; Bawamia, A.; Krüger, M.; Kürbis, Ch.; Schiemangk, M.; Smol, R.; Peters, A.; Tränkle, G.

    2017-02-01

    We present the status of our efforts to develop very compact and robust diode laser modules specifically suited for quantum optics experiments in the field and in space. The paper describes why hybrid micro-integration and GaAs-diode laser technology is best suited to meet the needs of such applications. The electro-optical performance achieved with hybrid micro-integrated, medium linewidth, high power distributed-feedback master-oscillator-power-amplifier modules and with medium power, narrow linewidth extended cavity diode lasers emitting at 767 nm and 780 nm are briefly described and the status of space relevant stress tests and space heritage is summarized. We also describe the performance of an ECDL operating at 1070 nm. Further, a novel and versatile technology platform is introduced that allows for integration of any type of laser system or electro-optical module that can be constructed from two GaAs chips. This facilitates, for the first time, hybrid micro-integration, e.g. of extended cavity diode laser master-oscillator-poweramplifier modules, of dual-stage optical amplifiers, or of lasers with integrated, chip-based phase modulator. As an example we describe the implementation of an ECDL-MOPA designed for experiments on ultra-cold rubidium and potassium atoms on board a sounding rocket and give basic performance parameters.

  14. Role of transverse-momentum currents in the optical Magnus effect in free space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Hailu; Wen Shuangchun; Shu Weixing; Fan Dianyuan

    2010-01-01

    We establish a general vector field model to describe the role of transverse-momentum currents in the optical Magnus effect in free space. As an analogy of the mechanical Magnus effect, the circularly polarized wave packet in our model acts as the rotating ball, and its rotation direction depends on the polarization state. Based on this model, we demonstrate the existence of an optical polarization-dependent Magnus effect which is significantly different from the conventional optical Magnus effect in that light-matter interaction is not required. Further, we reveal the relation between transverse-momentum currents and the optical Magnus effect, and find that such a polarization-dependent rotation is unavoidable when the wave packet possesses transverse-momentum currents. The physics underlying this intriguing effect is the combined contributions of transverse spin and orbital currents. We predict that this effect may be observed experimentally even in the propagation direction. These findings provide further evidence for the optical Magnus effect in free space and can be extrapolated to other physical systems.

  15. PDSM characterization for fabrication of free-space OXC optical components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argueta, Victor; Fitzpatrick, Brianna

    2017-11-01

    In 2007 Dr Khine et al published a paper where they presented a technique using thermoplastics and PDMS to create microfluidic patterns1. Their technique involves printing a pattern in a polystyrene sheet using a laser printer. Once the pattern is transfer the polystyrene sheets they are heated to reduce their size. By printing the same pattern of the plastic sheets before heating, it is possible to control the height up to 80 μm and the width as thin as 65 μm1, 2. This technique is attractive to be used in optical fabrication due to its versatility, low cost and fast prototyping. However, in order to fabricate optical systems, we will need to control the refractive index of PDMS to allow design of basic optical components like waveguides, beam splitter, or diffuse reflectors; or more complex structures like interferometers, optical microfluidic lab-on-chip, micro-lens arrays. Several techniques exist to control the refractive index for PDMS either by controlling the curing temperature, the ratio between the base and curing agent, or by curing using UV light3-5. In this paper, we present the changes on refractive index by changing the curing temperature for different base/reaction agent ratios. We then apply these results to fabricate an optical component for a free-space optical cross-connect (OXC). Optical cross-connects are an important network element for constructing the next generation of optical networks, where provisioning (reconfiguration), scalability, and fast restoration will be needed6-8. The main attraction of all-optical switching is that it enables routing of optical data signals without the need for conversion to electrical signals, and therefore, is independent of data rate and data protocols. We have proposed previously9, 11 a new approach for an OXC. Our architecture is a free-space 3-D while still using digital MEMS. Our system is based on the optical White cell12, which consists of three spherical mirrors among which light can circulate. In

  16. Space evaluation of optical modulators for microwave photonic on-board applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Kernec, A.; Sotom, M.; Bénazet, B.; Barbero, J.; Peñate, L.; Maignan, M.; Esquivias, I.; Lopez, F.; Karafolas, N.

    2017-11-01

    Since several years, perspectives and assets offered by photonic technologies compared with their traditional RF counterparts (mass and volume reduction, transparency to RF frequency, RF isolation), make them particularly attractive for space applications [1] and, in particular, telecommunication satellites [2]. However, the development of photonic payload concepts have concurrently risen and made the problem of the ability of optoelectronic components to withstand space environment more and more pressing. Indeed, photonic components used in such photonic payloads architectures come from terrestrial networks applications in order to benefit from research and development in this field. This paper presents some results obtained in the frame of an ESA-funded project, carried out by Thales Alenia Space France, as prime contractor, and Alter Technology Group Spain (ATG) and Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (UPM), as subcontractors, one objective of which was to assess commercial high frequency optical intensity modulators for space use through a functional and environmental test campaign. Their potential applications in microwave photonic sub-systems of telecom satellite payloads are identified and related requirements are presented. Optical modulator technologies are reviewed and compared through, but not limited to, a specific figure of merit, taking into account two key features of these components : optical insertion loss and RF half-wave voltage. Some conclusions on these different technologies are given, on the basis of the test results, and their suitability for the targeted applications and environment is highlighted.

  17. Electro-Optical Sensing Apparatus and Method for Characterizing Free-Space Electromagnetic Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi-Cheng; Libelo, Louis Francis; Wu, Qi

    1999-09-14

    Apparatus and methods for characterizing free-space electromagnetic energy, and in particular, apparatus/method suitable for real-time two-dimensional far-infrared imaging applications are presented. The sensing technique is based on a non-linear coupling between a low-frequency electric field and a laser beam in an electro-optic crystal. In addition to a practical counter-propagating sensing technique, a co-linear approach is described which provides longer radiated field--optical beam interaction length, thereby making imaging applications practical.

  18. Recent developments of advanced structures for space optics at Astrium, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stute, Thomas; Wulz, Georg; Scheulen, Dietmar

    2003-12-01

    The mechanical division of EADS Astrium GmbH, Friedrichshafen Germany, the former Dornier Satellitensystem GmbH is currently engaged with the development, manufacturing and testing of three different advanced dimensionally stable composite and ceramic material structures for satellite borne optics: -CFRP Camera Structure -Planck Telescope Reflectors -NIRSpec Optical Bench Breadboard for James Web Space Telescope The paper gives an overview over the requirements and the main structural features how these requirements are met. Special production aspects and available test results are reported.

  19. The Fiber Optic Subsystem Components on Express Logistics Carrier for International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Melanie N.; Switzer, Robert; Thomes, William Joe; Chuska, Richard; LaRocca, Frank; Day, Lance

    2009-01-01

    ISS SSP 50184 HRDL optical fiber communication subsystem, has system level requirements that were changed to accommodate large loss optical fiber links previously installed. SSQ22680 design is difficult to implement, no metal shell over socket/pin combination to protect the weak part of the pin. Additions to ISS are planned for the future. AVIM still used for interconnection in space flight applications without incident. Thermal cycling resulted in less than 0.25 dB max change in Insertion Loss for all types during cycling, nominal as compared to the AVIM. Vibration testing results conclusion; no significant changes, nominal as compared to AVIM.

  20. Experimental demonstration of free-space optical vortex transmutation with polygonal lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Nan; Xie, Changqing

    2012-08-01

    Vortex transmutation was predicted to take place when vortices interact with systems possessing discrete rotational symmetries of finite order [Phys. Rev. Lett.95, 123901 (2005)]. Here we report what is believed to be the first experimental demonstration of vortex transmutation. We show that in free space, by simply inserting polygonal lenses into the optical path, the central vorticity of a coaxially incident optical vortex can be changed following the modular transmutation rule. We generate the wavefront at the exit face of the lenses with computer generated holograms and measure the output vorticity using the interference patterns at the focal plane. The results agree well with theoretical predictions.

  1. Adaptive optics correction into single mode fiber for a low Earth orbiting space to ground optical communication link using the OPALS downlink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Malcolm W; Morris, Jeffery F; Kovalik, Joseph M; Andrews, Kenneth S; Abrahamson, Matthew J; Biswas, Abhijit

    2015-12-28

    An adaptive optics (AO) testbed was integrated to the Optical PAyload for Lasercomm Science (OPALS) ground station telescope at the Optical Communications Telescope Laboratory (OCTL) as part of the free space laser communications experiment with the flight system on board the International Space Station (ISS). Atmospheric turbulence induced aberrations on the optical downlink were adaptively corrected during an overflight of the ISS so that the transmitted laser signal could be efficiently coupled into a single mode fiber continuously. A stable output Strehl ratio of around 0.6 was demonstrated along with the recovery of a 50 Mbps encoded high definition (HD) video transmission from the ISS at the output of the single mode fiber. This proof of concept demonstration validates multi-Gbps optical downlinks from fast slewing low-Earth orbiting (LEO) spacecraft to ground assets in a manner that potentially allows seamless space to ground connectivity for future high data-rates network.

  2. Hartmann wavefront sensing of the corrective optics for the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila, Pam S.; Eichhorn, William L.; Wilson, Mark E.

    1994-06-01

    There is no doubt that astronomy with the `new, improved' Hubble Space Telescope will significantly advance our knowledge and understanding of the universe for years to come. The Corrective Optics Space Telescope Axial Replacement (COSTAR) was designed to restore the image quality to nearly diffraction limited performance for three of the first generation instruments; the faint object camera, the faint object spectrograph, and the Goddard high resolution spectrograph. Spectacular images have been obtained from the faint object camera after the installation of the corrective optics during the first servicing mission in December of 1993. About 85% of the light in the central core of the corrected image is contained within a circle with a diameter of 0.2 arcsec. This is a vast improvement over the previous 15 to 17% encircled energies obtained before COSTAR. Clearly COSTAR is a success. One reason for the overwhelming success of COSTAR was the ambitious and comprehensive test program conducted by various groups throughout the program. For optical testing of COSTAR on the ground, engineers at Ball Aerospace designed and built the refractive Hubble simulator to produce known amounts of spherical aberration and astigmatism at specific points in the field of view. The design goal for this refractive aberrated simulator (RAS) was to match the aberrations of the Hubble Space Telescope to within (lambda) /20 rms over the field at a wavelength of 632.8 nm. When the COSTAR optics were combined with the RAS optics, the corrected COSTAR output images were produced. These COSTAR images were recorded with a high resolution 1024 by 1024 array CCD camera, the Ball image analyzer (BIA). The image quality criteria used for assessment of COSTAR performance was encircled energy in the COSTAR focal plane. This test with the BIA was very important because it was a direct measurement of the point spread function. But it was difficult with this test to say anything quantitative about the

  3. Reflective and refractive optical materials for earth and space applications; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 4, 5, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedl, Max J.; Hale, Robert R.; Parsonage, Thomas B.

    The present conference discusses beryllium mirror design and fabrication, production of aspheric beryllium optical surfaces by HIP consolidation, the control of thermally induced porosity for the fabrication of beryllium optics, fine-grained beryllium optical coatings, light-absorbing beryllium baffle materials, and advanced broadband baffle materials. Also discussed are radiation-resistant optical glasses, a catalog of IR and cryooptical properties of selected materials, durable metal-dielectric mirror coatings, the optical stability of diffuse reflectance materials, and optical filters for space applications.

  4. Modified optical fiber daylighting system with sunlight transportation in free space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Ngoc-Hai; Pham, Thanh-Tuan; Shin, Seoyong

    2016-12-26

    We present the design, optical simulation, and experiment of a modified optical fiber daylighting system (M-OFDS) for indoor lighting. The M-OFDS is comprised of three sub-systems: concentration, collimation, and distribution. The concentration part is formed by coupling a Fresnel lens with a large-core plastic optical fiber. The sunlight collected by the concentration sub-system is propagated in a plastic optical fiber and then collimated by the collimator, which is a combination of a parabolic mirror and a convex lens. The collimated beam of sunlight travels in free space and is guided to the interior by directing flat mirrors, where it is diffused uniformly by a distributor. All parameters of the system are calculated theoretically. Based on the designed system, our simulation results demonstrated a maximum optical efficiency of 71%. The simulation results also showed that sunlight could be delivered to the illumination destination at distance of 30 m. A prototype of the M-OFDS was fabricated, and preliminary experiments were performed outdoors. The simulation results and experimental results confirmed that the M-OFDS was designed effectively. A large-scale system constructed by several M-OFDSs is also proposed. The results showed that the presented optical fiber daylighting system is a strong candidate for an inexpensive and highly efficient application of solar energy in buildings.

  5. The Effects of Optical Illusions in Perception and Action in Peripersonal and Extrapersonal Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jaeho; van der Kamp, John

    2017-09-01

    While the two visual system hypothesis tells a fairly compelling story about perception and action in peripersonal space (i.e., within arm's reach), its validity for extrapersonal space is very limited and highly controversial. Hence, the present purpose was to assess whether perception and action differences in peripersonal space hold in extrapersonal space and are modulated by the same factors. To this end, the effects of an optic illusion in perception and action in both peripersonal and extrapersonal space were compared in three groups that threw balls toward a target at a distance under different target eccentricity (i.e., with the target fixated and in peripheral field), viewing (i.e., binocular and monocular viewing), and delay conditions (i.e., immediate and delayed action). The illusory bias was smaller in action than in perception in peripersonal space, but this difference was significantly reduced in extrapersonal space, primarily because of a weakening bias in perception. No systematic modulation of target eccentricity, viewing, and delay arose. The findings suggest that the two visual system hypothesis is also valid for extra personal space.

  6. Applications of telecommunication technology for optical instrumentation with an emphasis on space-time duality

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Howe, James William

    -speed operation, and electronic control of signals. Finally, we devote much attention to the paradigm of space-time duality and temporal imaging which allows the electro-optic phase modulators used in our instrumentation to be framed as temporal analogs of diffractive optical elements such as lenses and prisms. We show how the concepts of "time-lenses" and "time-prisms" give an intuitive understanding of our work as well as insight for the general development of optical instrumentation.

  7. Near Earth Architectural Options for a Future Deep Space Optical Communications Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, B. L.; Liebrecht, P. E.; Fitzgerald, R. J.

    2004-01-01

    In the near future the National Aeronautics and Space Administration anticipates a significant increase in demand for long-haul communications services from deep space to Earth. Distances will range from 0.1 to 40 AU, with data rate requirements in the 1's to 1000's of Mbits/second. The near term demand is driven by NASA's Space Science Enterprise which wishes to deploy more capable instruments onboard spacecraft and increase the number of deep space missions. The long term demand is driven by missions with extreme communications challenges such as very high data rates from the outer planets, supporting sub-surface exploration, or supporting NASA's Human Exploration and Development of Space Enterprise beyond Earth orbit. Laser communications is a revolutionary communications technology that will dramatically increase NASA's ability to transmit information across the solar system. Lasercom sends information using beams of light and optical elements, such as telescopes and optical amplifiers, rather than RF signals, amplifiers, and antennas. This paper provides an overview of different network options at Earth to meet NASA's deep space lasercom requirements. It is based mainly on work done for the Mars Laser Communications Demonstration Project, a joint project between NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology (JPL), and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Laboratory (MIT/LL). It reports preliminary conclusions from the Mars Lasercom Study conducted at MIT/LL and on additional work done for the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System Continuation Study at GSFC. A lasercom flight terminal will be flown on the Mars Telesat Orbiter (MTO) to be launched by NASA in 2009, and will be the first high rate deep space demonstration of this revolutionary technology.

  8. Optical method for mapping the transverse phase space of a charged particle beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorito, R.B.; Shkvarunets, A.G.; O'Shea, P.G.

    2002-01-01

    We are developing an all optical method to map the transverse phase space map of a charged particle beam. Our technique employs OTR interferometry (OTRI) in combination with a scanning pinhole to make local orthogonal (x,y) divergence and trajectory angle measurements as function of position within the transverse profile of the beam. The localized data allows a reconstruction of the horizontal and vertical phase spaces of the beam. We have also demonstrated how single and multiple pinholes can in principle be used to make such measurements simultaneously

  9. James Webb Space Telescope Optical Telescope Element Mirror Development History and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinber, Lee D.; Clampin, Mark; Keski-Kuha, Ritva; Atkinson, Charlie; Texter, Scott; Bergeland, Mark; Gallagher, Benjamin B.

    2012-01-01

    In a little under a decade, the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) program has designed, manufactured, assembled and tested 21 flight beryllium mirrors for the James Webb Space Telescope Optical Telescope Element. This paper will summarize the mirror development history starting with the selection of beryllium as the mirror material and ending with the final test results. It will provide an overview of the technological roadmap and schedules and the key challenges that were overcome. It will also provide a summary or the key tests that were performed and the results of these tests.

  10. Fiber-Coupled Wide Field of View Optical Receiver for High Speed Space Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suddath, Shannon N.

    Research groups at NASA Glenn Research Center are interested in improving data rates on the International Space Station (ISS) using a free-space optical (FSO) link. However, known flexure of the ISS structure is expected to cause misalignment of the FSO link. Passive-control designs for mitigating misalignment are under investigation, including using a fiber-bundle for improved field of view. The designs must overcome the obstacle of coupling directly to fiber, rather than a photodetector, as NASA will maintain the use of small form-factor pluggable optical transceivers (SFPs) in the ISS network. In this thesis, a bundle-based receiver capable of coupling directly to fiber is designed, simulated, and tested in lab. Two 3-lens systems were evaluated for power performance in the lab, one with a 20 mm focal length aspheric lens and the other with a 50 mm focal length aspheric lens. The maximum output power achieved was 8 muW.

  11. Optical authentication based on moiré effect of nonlinear gratings in phase space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Meihua; He, Wenqi; Wu, Jiachen; Lu, Dajiang; Liu, Xiaoli; Peng, Xiang

    2015-01-01

    An optical authentication scheme based on the moiré effect of nonlinear gratings in phase space is proposed. According to the phase function relationship of the moiré effect in phase space, an arbitrary authentication image can be encoded into two nonlinear gratings which serve as the authentication lock (AL) and the authentication key (AK). The AL is stored in the authentication system while the AK is assigned to the authorized user. The authentication procedure can be performed using an optoelectronic approach, while the design process is accomplished by a digital approach. Furthermore, this optical authentication scheme can be extended for multiple users with different security levels. The proposed scheme can not only verify the legality of a user identity, but can also discriminate and control the security levels of legal users. Theoretical analysis and simulation experiments are provided to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed scheme. (paper)

  12. Hodoscope read-out with space-time mapping through an optical pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamberger, A.; Boehler, E.; Kroeger, W.; Soeldner-Rembold, S.

    1993-09-01

    This note describes a new read-out scheme for fine grained hodoscopes with possible applications for a Small Angle Rear Tracking Detector (SRTD) or a pre-sampler in front of the ZEUS Uranium Calorimeter. Several hodoscope strips are read out by one phototube using optical fibres of different lengths. Optical delays of equal increments ensure a linear mapping of the space coordinate onto the time coordinate. A first prototype has been built and first test measurements are being presented. In addition, Monte Carlo simulations were performed to study the effects of showering electrons on the position resolution of the detector. The results of the test measurements, especially those related to the properties of the light guides, and the results of the simulation are of general importance for the SRTD design beyond the optical delay read-out scheme presented here. (orig.)

  13. Optical Performance of Breadboard Amon-Ra Imaging Channel Instrument for Deep Space Albedo Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Hyun Park

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The AmonRa instrument, the primary payload of the international EARTHSHINE mission, is designed for measurement of deep space albedo from L1 halo orbit. We report the optical design, tolerance analysis and the optical performance of the breadborad AmonRa imaging channel instrument optimized for the mission science requirements. In particular, an advanced wavefront feedback process control technique was used for the instrumentation process including part fabrication, system alignment and integration. The measured performances for the complete breadboard system are the RMS 0.091 wave(test wavelength: 632.8 nm in wavefront error, the ensquared energy of 61.7%(in 14 μ m and the MTF of 35.3%(Nyquist frequency: 35.7 mm^{-1} at the center field. These resulting optical system performances prove that the breadboard AmonRa instrument, as built, satisfies the science requirements of the EARTHSHINE mission.

  14. Main-Reflector Manufacturing Technology for the Deep Space Optical Communications Ground Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britcliffe, M. J.; Hoppe, D. J.

    2001-01-01

    The Deep Space Network (DSN) has plans to develop a 10-m-diameter optical communications receiving station. The system uses the direct detection technique, which has much different requirements from a typical astronomical telescope. The receiver must operate in daylight and nighttime conditions. This imposes special requirements on the optical system to reject stray light from the Sun and other sources. One of the biggest challenges is designing a main-reflector surface that meets these requirements and can be produced at a reasonable cost. The requirements for the performance of the reflector are presented. To date, an aspherical primary reflector has been assumed. A reflector with a spherical reflector has a major cost advantage over an aspherical design, with no sacrifice in performance. A survey of current manufacturing techniques for optical mirrors of this type was performed. Techniques including solid glass, lightweight glass, diamond-turned aluminum, and composite mirrors were investigated.

  15. Optical Nano-antennae as Compact and Efficient Couplers from Free-space to Waveguide Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zenin, Vladimir A.; Malureanu, Radu; Volkov, Valentyn

    2015-01-01

    Optical nano-antennae are one of the possible solutions for coupling free-space radiation into subwavelength waveguides. Our efforts were concentrated on coupling between an optical fibre and a plasmonic slot waveguide. Such coupling is still an issue to be solved in order to advance the use...... of plasmonic waveguides for optical interconnects. During the talk, we will present our modelling optimisation, fabrication and measurement of the nano-antennae functionality. For the modelling part, we used CST Microwave studio for optimising the antenna geometry. Various antennae were modelled and fabricated....... The fabrication was based on electron beam lithography and lift-off processes. The measurements were performed with scattering scanning near-field microscope and allowed the retrieval of both amplitude and phase of the propagating plasmon. The obtained values agree very well with the theoretically predicted ones...

  16. Optical monitoring of QSO in the framework of the Gaia space mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taris, F.; Damljanovic, G.; Andrei, A.; Klotz, A.; Vachier, F.

    2015-08-01

    The Gaia astrometric mission of the European Space Agency has been launched the 19th December 2013. It will provide an astrometric catalogue of 500 000 extragalactic sources that could be the basis of a new optical reference frame. On the other hand, the current International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) is based on the observations of extragalactic sources at radio wavelength. The astrometric coordinates of sources in these two reference systems will have roughly the same uncertainty. It is then mandatory to observe a set of common targets at both optical and radio wavelength to link the ICRF with what could be called the GCRF (Gaia Celestial Reference Frame). We will show in this paper some results obtained with the TJO, Telescopi Juan Oro, from Observatori Astronomic del Montsec in Spain. It also presents some results obtained with the Lomb-Scargle and CLEAN algorithm methods applied to optical magnitude obtained with the TAROT telescopes.

  17. Babinet-Inverted Optical Yagi-Uda Antenna for Unidirectional Radiation to Free Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jineun; Roh, Young-Geun; Cheon, Sangmo; Choe, Jong-Ho; Lee, Jongcheon; Lee, Jaesoong; Jeong, Heejeong; Kim, Un Jeong; Park, Yeonsang; Song, In Yong; Park, Q.-Han; Hwang, Sung Woo; Kim, Kinam; Lee, Chang-Won

    2014-06-01

    Plasmonic nanoantennas are key elements in nanophotonics capable of directing radiation or enhancing the transition rate of a quantum emitter. Slot-type magnetic-dipole nanoantennas, which are complementary structures of typical electric-dipole-type antennas, have received little attention, leaving their antenna properties largely unexplored. Here we present a novel magnetic-dipole-fed multi-slot optical Yagi-Uda antenna. By engineering the relative phase of the interacting surface plasmon polaritons between the slot elements, we demonstrate that the optical antenna exhibits highly unidirectional radiation to free space. The unique features of the slot-based magnetic nanoantenna provide a new possibility of achieving integrated features such as energy transfer from one waveguide to another by working as a future optical via.

  18. Obstacle evasion in free-space optical communications utilizing Airy beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guoxuan; Wen, Yuanhui; Wu, Xiong; Chen, Yujie; Liu, Jie; Yu, Siyuan

    2018-03-01

    A high speed free-space optical communication system capable of self-bending signal transmission around line-of-sight obstacles is proposed and demonstrated. Airy beams are generated and controlled to achieve different propagating trajectories, and the signal transmission characteristics of these beams around the obstacle are investigated. Our results confirm that, by optimising their ballistic trajectories, Airy beams are able to bypass obstacles with more signal energy and thus improve the communication performance compared with normal Gaussian beams.

  19. Gaps of free-space optics beams with the Beer-Lambert law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacaze, Bernard

    2009-05-10

    Lasers used in free-space optics propagate a beam within a truncated cone. Because of this shape, the intensity cannot follow the Beer-Lambert law. In the case of a homogeneous atmosphere, we calculate the gap from the cylinder case. We will see that the gap exists but is generally very weak and, therefore, that the use of the Beer-Lambert law is a justified approximation.

  20. On the Performance Analysis of Free-Space Optical Links under Generalized Turbulence and Misalignment Models

    KAUST Repository

    AlQuwaiee, Hessa

    2016-11-01

    One of the potential solutions to the radio frequency (RF) spectrum scarcity problem is optical wireless communications (OWC), which utilizes the unlicensed optical spectrum. Long-range outdoor OWC are usually referred to in the literature as free-space optical (FSO) communications. Unlike RF systems, FSO is immune to interference and multi-path fading. Also, the deployment of FSO systems is flexible and much faster than optical fibers. These attractive features make FSO applicable for broadband wireless transmission such as optical fiber backup, metropolitan area network, and last mile access. Although FSO communication is a promising technology, it is negatively affected by two physical phenomenon, namely, scintillation due to atmospheric turbulence and pointing errors. These two critical issues have prompted intensive research in the last decade. To quantify the effect of these two factors on FSO system performance, we need effective mathematical models. In this work, we propose and study a generalized pointing error model based on the Beckmann distribution. Then, we aim to generalize the FSO channel model to span all turbulence conditions from weak to strong while taking pointing errors into consideration. Since scintillation in FSO is analogous to the fading phenomena in RF, diversity has been proposed too to overcome the effect of irradiance fluctuations. Thus, several combining techniques of not necessarily independent dual-branch free-space optical links were investigated over both weak and strong turbulence channels in the presence of pointing errors. On another front, improving the performance, enhancing the capacity and reducing the delay of the communication link has been the motivation of any newly developed schemes, especially for backhauling. Recently, there has been a growing interest in practical systems to integrate RF and FSO technologies to solve the last mile bottleneck. As such, we also study in this thesis asymmetric an RF-FSO dual-hop relay

  1. Architectural design of a ground-based deep-space optical reception antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, E. L.

    1989-01-01

    An architectural design of a ground-based antenna (telescope) for receiving optical communications from deep space is presented. Physical and optical parameters, and their effect on the performance and cost considerations, are described. The channel capacity of the antenna is 100 kbits/s from Saturn and 5 Mbits/s from Mars. A novel sunshade is designed to permit optical communication even when the deep-space laser source is as close to the sun as 12 deg. Inserts in the tubes of the sunshade permit operations at solar elongations as small as 6 or 3 deg. The Nd:YAG source laser and the Fraunhofer filter (a narrow-band predetection optical filter) are tuned to match the Doppler shifts of the source and background. A typical Saturn-to-earth data link can reduce its source power requirement from 8.2 W to 2 W of laser output by employing a Fraunhofer filter instead of a conventional multilayer dielectric filter.

  2. Transverse phase space mapping of relativistic electron beams using optical transition radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Le Sage

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Optical transition radiation (OTR has proven to be a versatile and effective diagnostic for measuring the profile, divergence, and emittance of relativistic electron beams with a wide range of parameters. Diagnosis of the divergence of modern high brightness beams is especially well suited to OTR interference (OTRI techniques, where multiple dielectric or metal foils are used to generate a spatially coherent interference pattern. Theoretical analysis of measured OTR and OTRI patterns allows precise measurement of electron beam emittance characteristics. Here we describe an extension of this technique to allow mapping of divergence characteristics as a function of transverse coordinates within a measured beam. We present the first experimental analysis of the transverse phase space of an electron beam using all optical techniques. Comparing an optically masked portion of the beam to the entire beam, we measure different angular spread and average direction of the particles. Direct measurement of the phase-space ellipse tilt angle has been demonstrated using this optical masking technique.

  3. Development of reaction-sintered SiC mirror for space-borne optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yui, Yukari Y.; Kimura, Toshiyoshi; Tange, Yoshio

    2017-11-01

    We are developing high-strength reaction-sintered silicon carbide (RS-SiC) mirror as one of the new promising candidates for large-diameter space-borne optics. In order to observe earth surface or atmosphere with high spatial resolution from geostationary orbit, larger diameter primary mirrors of 1-2 m are required. One of the difficult problems to be solved to realize such optical system is to obtain as flat mirror surface as possible that ensures imaging performance in infrared - visible - ultraviolet wavelength region. This means that homogeneous nano-order surface flatness/roughness is required for the mirror. The high-strength RS-SiC developed and manufactured by TOSHIBA is one of the most excellent and feasible candidates for such purpose. Small RS-SiC plane sample mirrors have been manufactured and basic physical parameters and optical performances of them have been measured. We show the current state of the art of the RS-SiC mirror and the feasibility of a large-diameter RS-SiC mirror for space-borne optics.

  4. High-dimensional free-space optical communications based on orbital angular momentum coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Li; Gu, Xiaofan; Wang, Le

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a high-dimensional free-space optical communication scheme using orbital angular momentum (OAM) coding. In the scheme, the transmitter encodes N-bits information by using a spatial light modulator to convert a Gaussian beam to a superposition mode of N OAM modes and a Gaussian mode; The receiver decodes the information through an OAM mode analyser which consists of a MZ interferometer with a rotating Dove prism, a photoelectric detector and a computer carrying out the fast Fourier transform. The scheme could realize a high-dimensional free-space optical communication, and decodes the information much fast and accurately. We have verified the feasibility of the scheme by exploiting 8 (4) OAM modes and a Gaussian mode to implement a 256-ary (16-ary) coding free-space optical communication to transmit a 256-gray-scale (16-gray-scale) picture. The results show that a zero bit error rate performance has been achieved.

  5. Copper Disk Manufactured at the Space Optics Manufacturing and Technology Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This photograph shows Wes Brown, Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) lead diamond tuner, an expert in the science of using diamond-tipped tools to cut metal, inspecting the mold's physical characteristics to ensure the uniformity of its more than 6,000 grooves. This king-size copper disk, manufactured at the Space Optics Manufacturing and Technology Center (SOMTC) at MSFC, is a special mold for making high resolution monitor screens. This master mold will be used to make several other molds, each capable of forming hundreds of screens that have a type of lens called a fresnel lens. Weighing much less than conventional optics, fresnel lenses have multiple concentric grooves, each formed to a precise angle, that together create the curvature needed to focus and project images. The MSFC leads NASA's space optics manufacturing technology development as a technology leader for diamond turning. The machine used to manufacture this mold is among many one-of-a-kind pieces of equipment of MSFC's SOMTC.

  6. James Webb Space Telescope Optical Simulation Testbed: Segmented Mirror Phase Retrieval Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laginja, Iva; Egron, Sylvain; Brady, Greg; Soummer, Remi; Lajoie, Charles-Philippe; Bonnefois, Aurélie; Long, Joseph; Michau, Vincent; Choquet, Elodie; Ferrari, Marc; Leboulleux, Lucie; Mazoyer, Johan; N’Diaye, Mamadou; Perrin, Marshall; Petrone, Peter; Pueyo, Laurent; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand

    2018-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Optical Simulation Testbed (JOST) is a hardware simulator designed to produce JWST-like images. A model of the JWST three mirror anastigmat is realized with three lenses in form of a Cooke Triplet, which provides JWST-like optical quality over a field equivalent to a NIRCam module, and an Iris AO segmented mirror with hexagonal elements is standing in for the JWST segmented primary. This setup successfully produces images extremely similar to NIRCam images from cryotesting in terms of the PSF morphology and sampling relative to the diffraction limit.The testbed is used for staff training of the wavefront sensing and control (WFS&C) team and for independent analysis of WFS&C scenarios of the JWST. Algorithms like geometric phase retrieval (GPR) that may be used in flight and potential upgrades to JWST WFS&C will be explored. We report on the current status of the testbed after alignment, implementation of the segmented mirror, and testing of phase retrieval techniques.This optical bench complements other work at the Makidon laboratory at the Space Telescope Science Institute, including the investigation of coronagraphy for segmented aperture telescopes. Beyond JWST we intend to use JOST for WFS&C studies for future large segmented space telescopes such as LUVOIR.

  7. ESCC standards, evaluation and qualification of optical fiber connectors for space application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taugwalder, Frédéric

    2017-11-01

    Optical fiber connectors have been used for the past fifteen years in space application. Reviewing the heritage left from past and current mission, the status of ESCC standards for these components and assemblies will help future use of fiber in space applications. In the frame of the ESA ECI program, Diamond has evaluated and is currently qualifying according to ESCC standards the AVIM and Mini-AVIM connectors. The configuration retained to qualify the connector sets is using a polarization maintaining fiber at 1550nm with a loose tube in PEEK as cable structure. The evaluation has been used to step-stress specific characteristics of the optical fiber connectors with a particular aim at possible failure modes to establish a safety factor for the qualification. The evaluation results presented can be used on a case by case to evaluate special applications that would require to extend the specification. The qualification components can be extended further and a structure for assemblies is proposed in order to simplify fiber optics implementation in space projects.

  8. Interferometric and nonlinear-optical spectral-imaging techniques for outer space and live cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Kazuyoshi

    2015-12-01

    Multidimensional signals such as the spectral images allow us to have deeper insights into the natures of objects. In this paper the spectral imaging techniques that are based on optical interferometry and nonlinear optics are presented. The interferometric imaging technique is based on the unified theory of Van Cittert-Zernike and Wiener-Khintchine theorems and allows us to retrieve a spectral image of an object in the far zone from the 3D spatial coherence function. The retrieval principle is explained using a very simple object. The promising applications to space interferometers for astronomy that are currently in progress will also be briefly touched on. An interesting extension of interferometric spectral imaging is a 3D and spectral imaging technique that records 4D information of objects where the 3D and spectral information is retrieved from the cross-spectral density function of optical field. The 3D imaging is realized via the numerical inverse propagation of the cross-spectral density. A few techniques suggested recently are introduced. The nonlinear optical technique that utilizes stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) for spectral imaging of biomedical targets is presented lastly. The strong signals of SRS permit us to get vibrational information of molecules in the live cell or tissue in real time. The vibrational information of unstained or unlabeled molecules is crucial especially for medical applications. The 3D information due to the optical nonlinearity is also the attractive feature of SRS spectral microscopy.

  9. Dobson space telescope: development of an optical payload of the next generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segert, Tom; Danziger, Björn; Gork, Daniel; Lieder, Matthias

    2017-11-01

    The Dobson Space Telescope (DST) is a research project of the Department of Astronautics at the TUBerlin. For Development and commercialisation there is a close cooperation with the network of the Berlin Space Industry (RIBB). Major Partner is the Astro- und Feinwerktechnik Adlershof GmbH a specialist for space structures and head of the industry consortia which built the DLR BIRD micro satellite. The aim of the project is to develop a new type of deployable telescope that can overcome the mass and volume limitations of small satellites. With the DST payload micro satellites of the 100kg class will be able to carry 50cm main mirror diameter optics (→ 1m GSD). Basis of this technology is the fact that a telescope is mainly empty space between the optical elements. To fold down the telescope during launch and to undfold it after the satellite reached its orbit can save 70% of payload volume and 50% of payload mass. Since these advantages continue along the value added chain DST is of highest priority for the next generation of commercial EO micro satellites. Since 2002 the key technologies for DST have been developed in test benches in Labs of TU-Berlin and were tested on board a ESA parabolic flight campaign in 2005. The development team at TU-Berlin currently prepares the foundation of a start-up company for further development and commercialisation of DST.

  10. System performances of optical space code-division multiple-access-based fiber-optic two-dimensional parallel data link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, M; Kitayama, K

    1998-05-10

    Optical space code-division multiple access is a scheme to multiplex and link data between two-dimensional processors such as smart pixels and spatial light modulators or arrays of optical sources like vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers. We examine the multiplexing characteristics of optical space code-division multiple access by using optical orthogonal signature patterns. The probability density function of interference noise in interfering optical orthogonal signature patterns is calculated. The bit-error rate is derived from the result and plotted as a function of receiver threshold, code length, code weight, and number of users. Furthermore, we propose a prethresholding method to suppress the interference noise, and we experimentally verify that the method works effectively in improving system performance.

  11. Multi-aperture digital coherent combining for free-space optical communication receivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, David J; Yarnall, Timothy M; Stevens, Mark L; Schieler, Curt M; Robinson, Bryan S; Hamilton, Scott A

    2016-06-13

    Space-to-ground optical communication systems can benefit from reducing the size, weight, and power profiles of space terminals. One way of reducing the required power-aperture product on a space platform is to implement effective, but costly, single-aperture ground terminals with large collection areas. In contrast, we present a ground terminal receiver architecture in which many small less-expensive apertures are efficiently combined to create a large effective aperture while maintaining excellent receiver sensitivity. This is accomplished via coherent detection behind each aperture followed by digitization. The digitized signals are then combined in a digital signal processing chain. Experimental results demonstrate lossless coherent combining of four lasercom signals, at power levels below 0.1 photons/bit/aperture.

  12. Adaptive matching of the iota ring linear optics for space charge compensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanov, A. [Fermilab; Bruhwiler, D. L. [RadiaSoft, Boulder; Cook, N. [RadiaSoft, Boulder; Hall, C. [RadiaSoft, Boulder

    2016-10-09

    Many present and future accelerators must operate with high intensity beams when distortions induced by space charge forces are among major limiting factors. Betatron tune depression of above approximately 0.1 per cell leads to significant distortions of linear optics. Many aspects of machine operation depend on proper relations between lattice functions and phase advances, and can be i proved with proper treatment of space charge effects. We implement an adaptive algorithm for linear lattice re matching with full account of space charge in the linear approximation for the case of Fermilab’s IOTA ring. The method is based on a search for initial second moments that give closed solution and, at the same predefined set of goals for emittances, beta functions, dispersions and phase advances at and between points of interest. Iterative singular value decomposition based technique is used to search for optimum by varying wide array of model parameters

  13. Non-Mechanical Beam Steering in Free-Space Optical Communication Transceivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortt, Kevin

    Free-space optical communications systems are a rapidly growing field as they carry many of the advantages of traditional fibre-based communications systems without the added investment of installing complex infrastructure. Moreover, these systems are finding key niches in mobile platforms in order to take advantage of the increased bandwidth over traditional RF systems. Of course, the inevitable problem of tracking arises when dealing with mobile stations. To compound the problem in the case of communications to low Earth or geosynchronous orbits, FSOC systems typically operate with tightly confined beams over great distances often requiring pointing accuracies on the order of micro-radians or smaller. Mechanisms such as gimbal mounts and fine-steering mirrors are the usual candidates for platform stabilization, however, these clearly have substantial power requirements and inflate the mass of the system. Spatial light modulators (also known as optical phased arrays), on the other hand, offer a suitable alternative for beam-pointing stabilization. Some of the advantages of spatial light modulators over fine-steering mirrors include programmable multiple simultaneous beams, dynamic focus/defocus and moderate to excellent optical power handling capability. This thesis serves as an investigation into the implementation of spatial light modulators as a replacement for traditional fine-steering mirrors in the fine-pointing subsystem. In particular, pointing accuracy and scanning ability will be highlighted as performance metrics in the context of a variety of communication scenarios. Keywords: Free-space optical communications, beam steering, fine-steering mirror, spatial light modulator, optical phased array.

  14. Performance Improvement of Near Earth Space Survey (NESS Wide-Field Telescope (NESS-2 Optics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Yeol Yu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We modified the optical system of 500 mm wide-field telescope of which point spread function showed an irregularity. The telescope has been operated for Near Earth Space Survey (NESS located at Siding Spring Observatory (SSO in Australia, and the optical system was brought back to Korea in January 2008. After performing a numerical simulation with the tested value of surface figure error of the primary mirror using optical design program, we found that the surface figure error of the mirror should be fabricated less than root mean square (RMS λ/10 in order to obtain a stellar full width at half maximum (FWHM below 28 μm. However, we started to figure the mirror for the target value of RMS λ/20, because system surface figure error would be increased by the error induced by the optical axis adjustment, mirror cell installation, and others. The radius of curvature of the primary mirror was 1,946 mm after the correction. Its measured surface figure error was less than RMS λ/20 on the table of polishing machine, and RMS λ/15 after installation in the primary mirror cell. A test observation performed at Daeduk Observatory at Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute by utilizing the exiting mount, and resulted in 39.8 μm of stellar FWHM. It was larger than the value from numerical simulation, and showed wing-shaped stellar image. It turned out that the measured-curvature of the secondary mirror, 1,820 mm, was not the same as the designed one, 1,795.977 mm. We fabricated the secondary mirror to the designed value, and finally obtained a stellar FWHM of 27 μm after re-installation of the optical system into SSO NESS Observatory in Australia.

  15. NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP): Space Qualification Guidelines of Optoelectronic and Photonic Devices for Optical Communication Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Quiesup

    2001-01-01

    Key elements of space qualification of opto-electric and photonic optical devices were overviewed. Efforts were concentrated on the reliability concerns of the devices needed for potential applications in space environments. The ultimate goal for this effort is to gradually establish enough data to develop a space qualification plan of newly developed specific photonic parts using empirical and numerical models to assess the life-time and degradation of the devices for potential long term space missions.

  16. Streak detection and analysis pipeline for space-debris optical images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Jenni; Poikonen, Jonne; Säntti, Tero; Komulainen, Tuomo; Torppa, Johanna; Granvik, Mikael; Muinonen, Karri; Pentikäinen, Hanna; Martikainen, Julia; Näränen, Jyri; Lehti, Jussi; Flohrer, Tim

    2016-04-01

    We describe a novel data-processing and analysis pipeline for optical observations of moving objects, either of natural (asteroids, meteors) or artificial origin (satellites, space debris). The monitoring of the space object populations requires reliable acquisition of observational data, to support the development and validation of population models and to build and maintain catalogues of orbital elements. The orbital catalogues are, in turn, needed for the assessment of close approaches (for asteroids, with the Earth; for satellites, with each other) and for the support of contingency situations or launches. For both types of populations, there is also increasing interest to detect fainter objects corresponding to the small end of the size distribution. The ESA-funded StreakDet (streak detection and astrometric reduction) activity has aimed at formulating and discussing suitable approaches for the detection and astrometric reduction of object trails, or streaks, in optical observations. Our two main focuses are objects in lower altitudes and space-based observations (i.e., high angular velocities), resulting in long (potentially curved) and faint streaks in the optical images. In particular, we concentrate on single-image (as compared to consecutive frames of the same field) and low-SNR detection of objects. Particular attention has been paid to the process of extraction of all necessary information from one image (segmentation), and subsequently, to efficient reduction of the extracted data (classification). We have developed an automated streak detection and processing pipeline and demonstrated its performance with an extensive database of semisynthetic images simulating streak observations both from ground-based and space-based observing platforms. The average processing time per image is about 13 s for a typical 2k-by-2k image. For long streaks (length >100 pixels), primary targets of the pipeline, the detection sensitivity (true positives) is about 90% for

  17. Free-Space Optical Communications Link at 1550-nm using Multiple-Quantum-Well Modulating Retroreflectors in a Marine Environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rabinovich, W. S; Mahon, R; Burris, H. R; Gilbreath, G. C; Goetz, P. G; Moore, C. I; Stell, M. F; Vilcheck, M. J; Witkowsky, J. L; Swingen, L

    2005-01-01

    A 1550-nm eye-safe, free-space optical communications link is demonstrated at rates up to 5 Mbits/s over a distance of 2 km in the Chesapeake Bay, using quantum-well-based modulating retroreflectors...

  18. High Quality, Low-Scatter SiC Optics Suitable for Space-based UV & EUV Applications, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SSG Precision Optronics proposes the development and demonstration of a new optical fabrication process for the production of EUV quality Silicon Carbide (SiC)...

  19. Characterization of a Reconfigurable Free-Space Optical Channel for Embedded Computer Applications with Experimental Validation Using Rapid Prototyping Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Gil-Otero

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Free-space optical interconnects (FSOIs are widely seen as a potential solution to current and future bandwidth bottlenecks for parallel processors. In this paper, an FSOI system called optical highway (OH is proposed. The OH uses polarizing beam splitter-liquid crystal plate (PBS/LC assemblies to perform reconfigurable beam combination functions. The properties of the OH make it suitable for embedding complex network topologies such as completed connected mesh or hypercube. This paper proposes the use of rapid prototyping technology for implementing an optomechanical system suitable for studying the reconfigurable characteristics of a free-space optical channel. Additionally, it reports how the limited contrast ratio of the optical components can affect the attenuation of the optical signal and the crosstalk caused by misdirected signals. Different techniques are also proposed in order to increase the optical modulation amplitude (OMA of the system.

  20. Characterization of a Reconfigurable Free-Space Optical Channel for Embedded Computer Applications with Experimental Validation Using Rapid Prototyping Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Theodore

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Free-space optical interconnects (FSOIs are widely seen as a potential solution to current and future bandwidth bottlenecks for parallel processors. In this paper, an FSOI system called optical highway (OH is proposed. The OH uses polarizing beam splitter-liquid crystal plate (PBS/LC assemblies to perform reconfigurable beam combination functions. The properties of the OH make it suitable for embedding complex network topologies such as completed connected mesh or hypercube. This paper proposes the use of rapid prototyping technology for implementing an optomechanical system suitable for studying the reconfigurable characteristics of a free-space optical channel. Additionally, it reports how the limited contrast ratio of the optical components can affect the attenuation of the optical signal and the crosstalk caused by misdirected signals. Different techniques are also proposed in order to increase the optical modulation amplitude (OMA of the system.

  1. Space Active Optics: toward optimized correcting mirrors for future large spaceborne observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laslandes, Marie; Hugot, Emmanuel; Ferrari, Marc; Lemaitre, Gérard; Liotard, Arnaud

    2011-10-01

    Wave-front correction in optical instruments is often needed, either to compensate Optical Path Differences, off-axis aberrations or mirrors deformations. Active optics techniques are developed to allow efficient corrections with deformable mirrors. In this paper, we will present the conception of particular deformation systems which could be used in space telescopes and instruments in order to improve their performances while allowing relaxing specifications on the global system stability. A first section will be dedicated to the design and performance analysis of an active mirror specifically designed to compensate for aberrations that might appear in future 3m-class space telescopes, due to lightweight primary mirrors, thermal variations or weightless conditions. A second section will be dedicated to a brand new design of active mirror, able to compensate for given combinations of aberrations with a single actuator. If the aberrations to be corrected in an instrument and their evolutions are known in advance, an optimal system geometry can be determined thanks to the elasticity theory and Finite Element Analysis.

  2. Microscopic kinetic analysis of space-charge induced optical microbunching in a relativistic electron beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agostino Marinelli

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Longitudinal space-charge forces from density fluctuations generated by shot noise can be a major source of microbunching instability in relativistic high brightness electron beams. The gain in microbunching due to this effect is broadband, extending at least up to optical frequencies, where the induced structure on the beam distribution gives rise to effects such as coherent optical transition radiation. In the high-frequency regime, theoretical and computational analyses of microbunching formation require a full three-dimensional treatment. In this paper we address the problem of space-charge induced optical microbunching formation in the high-frequency limit when transverse thermal motion due to finite emittance is included for the first time. We derive an analytical description of this process based on the beam’s plasma dielectric function. We discuss the effect of transverse temperature on the angular distribution of microbunching gain and its connection to the physics of Landau damping in longitudinal plasma oscillations. Application of the theory to a relevant experimental scenario is discussed. The analytical results obtained are then compared to the predictions arising from high resolution three-dimensional molecular dynamics simulations.

  3. Realization of a free-space 2 × 4 90° optical hybrid based on the birefringence and electro-optic effects of crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, Lingyu; Zhou, Yu; Liu, Liren; Sun, Jianfeng

    2013-01-01

    A free-space 2 × 4 90° optical hybrid with electro-optic modulation is presented. The hybrid principally consists of two pairs of electro-optic crystal plates coated with gold electrodes and a polarization analyzer. The optical hybrid uses the birefringence effect of a crystal to split and combine a signal beam and a local oscillator beam, uses the electro-optic effect to introduce a phase modulation and produce a phase shift, and outputs four-channel signal/local oscillator mixed beams whose phase difference can be adjusted continuously. A LiNbO 3 crystal is used to design and manufacture the space optical hybrid, and an experimental system is used to verify its performance. The results show that the output phase of the hybrid is continuously adjustable, enabling the hybrid to function perfectly as a 2 × 4 90° space optical hybrid under an appropriate electric field, and that the phase error can be compensated for by an electric field adjustment. (paper)

  4. Quasi-optical analysis of a far-infrared spatio-spectral space interferometer concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, C.; O'Sullivan, C.; Murphy, J. A.; Donohoe, A.; Savini, G.; Lightfoot, J.; Juanola-Parramon, R.; Fisica Consortium

    2016-07-01

    FISICA (Far-Infrared Space Interferometer Critical Assessment) was a three year study of a far-infrared spatio-spectral double-Fourier interferometer concept. One of the aims of the FISICA study was to set-out a baseline optical design for such a system, and to use a model of the system to simulate realistic telescope beams for use with an end-to-end instrument simulator. This paper describes a two-telescope (and hub) baseline optical design that fulfils the requirements of the FISICA science case, while minimising the optical mass of the system. A number of different modelling techniques were required for the analysis: fast approximate simulation tools such as ray tracing and Gaussian beam methods were employed for initial analysis, with GRASP physical optics used for higher accuracy in the final analysis. Results are shown for the predicted far-field patterns of the telescope primary mirrors under illumination by smooth walled rectangular feed horns. Far-field patterns for both on-axis and off-axis detectors are presented and discussed.

  5. Heating of large format filters in sub-mm and fir space optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccichet, N.; Savini, G.

    2017-11-01

    Most FIR and sub-mm space borne observatories use polymer-based quasi-optical elements like filters and lenses, due to their high transparency and low absorption in such wavelength ranges. Nevertheless, data from those missions have proven that thermal imbalances in the instrument (not caused by filters) can complicate the data analysis. Consequently, for future, higher precision instrumentation, further investigation is required on any thermal imbalances embedded in such polymer-based filters. Particularly, in this paper the heating of polymers when operating at cryogenic temperature in space will be studied. Such phenomenon is an important aspect of their functioning since the transient emission of unwanted thermal radiation may affect the scientific measurements. To assess this effect, a computer model was developed for polypropylene based filters and PTFE-based coatings. Specifically, a theoretical model of their thermal properties was created and used into a multi-physics simulation that accounts for conductive and radiative heating effects of large optical elements, the geometry of which was suggested by the large format array instruments designed for future space missions. It was found that in the simulated conditions, the filters temperature was characterized by a time-dependent behaviour, modulated by a small scale fluctuation. Moreover, it was noticed that thermalization was reached only when a low power input was present.

  6. System and method that suppresses intensity fluctuations for free space high-speed optical communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Gennady P [Los Alamos, NM; Bishop, Alan R [Los Alamos, NM; Nguyen, Dinh C [Los Alamos, NM; Chernobrod, Boris M [Santa Fe, NM; Gorshkov, Vacheslav N [Kiev, UA

    2009-10-13

    A high-speed (Gbps), free space optical communication system is based on spectral encoding of radiation from a wide band light source, such as a laser. By using partially coherent laser beams in combination with a relatively slow photosensor, scintillations can be suppressed by orders of magnitude for distances of more than 10 km. To suppress the intensity fluctuations due to atmospheric turbulence, a source with partial transverse coherence in combination with slow response time photodetector is used. Information is encoded in the spectral domain of a wideband optical source by modulation of spectral amplitudes. A non-coherent light source with wide spectrum (an LED, for example) may be used for high-speed communication over short (less than about a mile) distances.

  7. Mobile free-space optical communications: a feasibility study of various battlefield scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Alan; Al-Akkoumi, Mouhammad K.; Sluss, James J., Jr.

    2012-06-01

    Free Space Optics (FSO) technology was originally envisioned to be a viable solution for the provision of high bandwidth optical connectivity in the last mile of today's telecommunications infrastructure. Due to atmospheric limitations inherent to FSO technology, FSO is now widely envisioned as a solution for the provision of high bandwidth, temporary mobile communications links. The need for FSO communications links will increase as mobility is introduced to this technology. In this paper, a theoretical solution for adding mobility to FSO communication links is introduced. Three-dimensional power estimation studies are presented to represent mobile FSO transmission under various weather conditions. Three wavelengths, 0.85, 1.55 and 10 um, are tested and compared to illustrate the pros and cons of each source wavelength used for transmission, depending on prevalent weather conditions and atmospheric turbulence conditions. A simulation analysis of the transmission properties of the source wavelengths used in the study is shown.

  8. Tests of lobster eye optics for small space X-ray telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tichy, Vladimir; Barbera, Marco; Collura, Alfonso; Hromcik, Martin; Hudec, Rene; Inneman, Adolf; Jakubek, Jan; Marsik, Jiri; Marsikova, Veronika; Pina, Ladislav; Varisco, Salvatore

    2011-01-01

    The Lobster eye design for a grazing incidence X-ray optics provides wide field of view of the order of many degrees, for this reason it can be a convenient approach for the construction of space all-sky X-ray monitors. We present preliminary results of tests of prototype lobster eye X-ray optics in quasi parallel beam full imaging mode conducted using the 35 m long X-ray beam-line of INAF-OAPA in Palermo (Italy). X-ray images at the focal plane have been taken with a microchannel plate (MCP) detector at several energy values from 0.3 to 8 keV. The gain, the field of view and the angular resolution have been measured and compared with theoretical values.

  9. 850-nm hybrid fiber/free-space optical communications using orbital angular momentum modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurado-Navas, Antonio; Tatarczak, Anna; Lu, Xiaofeng

    2015-01-01

    Light beams can carry orbital angular momentum (OAM) associated to the helicity of their phasefronts. These OAM modes can be employed to encode information onto a laser beam for transmitting not only in a fiber link but also in a free-space optical (FSO) one. Regarding this latter scenario, FSO...... communications are considered as an alternative and promising mean complementing the traditional optical communications in many applications where the use of fiber cable is not justified. This next generation FSO communication systems have attracted much interest recently, and the inclusion of beams carrying OAM...... modes can be seen as an efficient solution to increase the capacity and the security in the link. In this paper, we discuss an experimental demonstration of a proposal for next generation FSO communication system where a light beam carrying different OAM modes and affected by M turbulence is coupled...

  10. An optical flow-based state-space model of the vocal folds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granados, Alba; Brunskog, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    High-speed movies of the vocal fold vibration are valuable data to reveal vocal fold features for voice pathology diagnosis. This work presents a suitable Bayesian model and a purely theoretical discussion for further development of a framework for continuum biomechanical features estimation. A l...... to capture different deformation patterns between the computed optical flow and the finite element deformation, controlled by the choice of the model tissue parameters........ A linear and Gaussian nonstationary state-space model is proposed and thoroughly discussed. The evolution model is based on a self-sustained three-dimensional finite element model of the vocal folds, and the observation model involves a dense optical flow algorithm. The results show that the method is able...

  11. Digital chaos-masked optical encryption scheme enhanced by two-dimensional key space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ling; Xiao, Shilin; Zhang, Lu; Bi, Meihua; Zhang, Yunhao; Fang, Jiafei; Hu, Weisheng

    2017-09-01

    A digital chaos-masked optical encryption scheme is proposed and demonstrated. The transmitted signal is completely masked by interference chaotic noise in both bandwidth and amplitude with analog method via dual-drive Mach-Zehnder modulator (DDMZM), making the encrypted signal analog, noise-like and unrecoverable by post-processing techniques. The decryption process requires precise matches of both the amplitude and phase between the cancellation and interference chaotic noises, which provide a large two-dimensional key space with the help of optical interference cancellation technology. For 10-Gb/s 16-quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signal over the maximum transmission distance of 80 km without dispersion compensation or inline amplifier, the tolerable mismatch ranges of amplitude and phase/delay at the forward error correction (FEC) threshold of 3.8×10-3 are 0.44 dB and 0.08 ns respectively.

  12. Design of free-space optical transmission system in computer tomography equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Fu, Weiwei; Zhang, Tao

    2018-04-01

    Traditional computer tomography (CT) based on capacitive coupling cannot satisfy the high data rate transmission requirement. We design and experimentally demonstrate a free-space optical transmission system for CT equipment at a data rate of 10 Gb / s. Two interchangeable sections of 12 pieces of fiber with equal length is fabricated and tested by our designed laser phase distance measurement system. By locating the 12 collimators in the edge of the circle wheel evenly, the optical propagation characteristics for the 12 wired and wireless paths are similar, which can satisfy the requirement of high-speed CT transmission system. After bit error rate (BER) measurement in several conditions, the BER performances are below the value of 10 - 11, which has the potential in the future application scenario of CT equipment.

  13. An optical flow-based state-space model of the vocal folds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados, Alba; Brunskog, Jonas

    2017-06-01

    High-speed movies of the vocal fold vibration are valuable data to reveal vocal fold features for voice pathology diagnosis. This work presents a suitable Bayesian model and a purely theoretical discussion for further development of a framework for continuum biomechanical features estimation. A linear and Gaussian nonstationary state-space model is proposed and thoroughly discussed. The evolution model is based on a self-sustained three-dimensional finite element model of the vocal folds, and the observation model involves a dense optical flow algorithm. The results show that the method is able to capture different deformation patterns between the computed optical flow and the finite element deformation, controlled by the choice of the model tissue parameters.

  14. Patulous Subarachnoid Space of the Optic Nerve Associated with X-Linked Hypophosphatemic Rickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvez-Ruiz, Alberto; Chaudhry, Imtiaz

    2013-01-01

    Although the deficiency forms are the most common manifestations of rickets, there are other forms of rickets that are resistant to vitamin D. Of these, the most common is X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets. Rickets represents a group of multiple cranial bone disorders-craniosynostosis and the presence of Chari I malformation being the most notable-that explain the increase in intracranial pressure. We present a 4-year-old patient with an unusual association of X-linked hypophosphataemic rickets, bilateral proptosis, and prominent bilateral widening of the optic nerve sheaths. Although the association between intracranial hypertension and rickets is known, to the best of our knowledge, such a prominent distention of the subarachnoid space of the optic nerve without papilloedema has not been previously described.

  15. Radiation hardening of optical fibers and fiber sensors for space applications: recent advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, S.; Ouerdane, Y.; Pinsard, E.; Laurent, A.; Ladaci, A.; Robin, T.; Cadier, B.; Mescia, L.; Boukenter, A.

    2017-11-01

    In these ICSO proceedings, we review recent advances from our group concerning the radiation hardening of optical fiber and fiber-based sensors for space applications and compare their benefits to state-of-the-art results. We focus on the various approaches we developed to enhance the radiation tolerance of two classes of optical fibers doped with rare-earths: the erbium (Er)-doped ones and the ytterbium/erbium (Er/Yb)-doped ones. As a first approach, we work at the component level, optimizing the fiber structure and composition to reduce their intrinsically high radiation sensitivities. For the Erbium-doped fibers, this has been achieved using a new structure for the fiber that is called Hole-Assisted Carbon Coated (HACC) optical fibers whereas for the Er/Ybdoped optical fibers, their hardening was successfully achieved adding to the fiber, the Cerium element, that prevents the formation of the radiation-induced point defects responsible for the radiation induced attenuation in the infrared part of the spectrum. These fibers are used as part of more complex systems like amplifiers (Erbium-doped Fiber Amplifier, EDFA or Yb-EDFA) or source (Erbium-doped Fiber Source, EDFS or Yb- EDFS), we discuss the impact of using radiation-hardened fibers on the system radiation vulnerability and demonstrate the resistance of these systems to radiation constraints associated with today and future space missions. Finally, we will discuss another radiation hardening approach build in our group and based on a hardening-by-system strategy in which the amplifier is optimized during its elaboration for its future mission considering the radiation effects and not in-lab.

  16. Theoretical Models of Optical Transients. I. A Broad Exploration of the Duration-Luminosity Phase Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, V. Ashley; Berger, Edo; Metzger, Brian D.; Guillochon, James

    2017-11-01

    The duration-luminosity phase space (DLPS) of optical transients is used, mostly heuristically, to compare various classes of transient events, to explore the origin of new transients, and to influence optical survey observing strategies. For example, several observational searches have been guided by intriguing voids and gaps in this phase space. However, we should ask, do we expect to find transients in these voids given our understanding of the various heating sources operating in astrophysical transients? In this work, we explore a broad range of theoretical models and empirical relations to generate optical light curves and to populate the DLPS. We explore transients powered by adiabatic expansion, radioactive decay, magnetar spin-down, and circumstellar interaction. For each heating source, we provide a concise summary of the basic physical processes, a physically motivated choice of model parameter ranges, an overall summary of the resulting light curves and their occupied range in the DLPS, and how the various model input parameters affect the light curves. We specifically explore the key voids discussed in the literature: the intermediate-luminosity gap between classical novae and supernovae, and short-duration transients (≲ 10 days). We find that few physical models lead to transients that occupy these voids. Moreover, we find that only relativistic expansion can produce fast and luminous transients, while for all other heating sources events with durations ≲ 10 days are dim ({M}{{R}}≳ -15 mag). Finally, we explore the detection potential of optical surveys (e.g., Large Synoptic Survey Telescope) in the DLPS and quantify the notion that short-duration and dim transients are exponentially more difficult to discover in untargeted surveys.

  17. Dember effect photodetectors and the effects of turbulence on free-space optical communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikmelik, Yamac

    High-speed free-space optical communication systems have recently utilized components that have been developed for fiber-optic communication systems. The received laser beam in such a system must be coupled into a single-mode fiber at the input of a commercially available receiver module or a wavelength division demultiplexer. However, one effect of propagation through atmospheric turbulence is that the spatial coherence of a laser beam is degraded and the percentage of the available power that can be coupled into the single-mode fiber is limited. This dissertation presents a numerical evaluation of fiber coupling efficiency for laser light distorted by atmospheric turbulence. The results for weak fluctuation conditions provide the level of coupling efficiency that can be expected for a given turbulence strength. In addition, the results show that the link distance must be limited to 400 m under moderate turbulence conditions if the link budget requires a coupling efficiency of 0.1. We also investigate the use of a coherent fiber array as a receiver structure to improve the fiber coupling efficiency of a free-space optical communication system. Our numerical results show that a coherent fiber array that consists of seven subapertures would increase fiber coupling efficiency by a significant amount for representative turbulence conditions and link distances. The use of photo-emf detectors as elements of a wavefront sensor for an adaptive optics system is also considered as an alternative method of reducing the effects of turbulence on a free-space optical communication system. Dember and photo-emf currents are investigated in silicon photoconductive detectors both theoretically and experimentally. Our results show that Dember photocurrents dominate the response of high-purity silicon samples with top surface electrodes to a moving interference pattern. The use of surface electrodes leads to shadowed regions beneath the electrodes and Dember photocurrents appear

  18. Capture into resonance and phase-space dynamics in an optical centrifuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armon, Tsafrir; Friedland, Lazar

    2016-04-01

    The process of capture of a molecular ensemble into rotational resonance in the optical centrifuge is investigated. The adiabaticity and phase-space incompressibility are used to find the resonant capture probability in terms of two dimensionless parameters P1 ,2 characterizing the driving strength and the nonlinearity, and related to three characteristic time scales in the problem. The analysis is based on the transformation to action-angle variables and the single resonance approximation, yielding reduction of the three-dimensional rotation problem to one degree of freedom. The analytic results for capture probability are in good agreement with simulations. The existing experiments satisfy the validity conditions of the theory.

  19. Characterization of dual-polarization LTE radio over a free-space optical turbulence channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohata, J; Zvanovec, S; Korinek, T; Mansour Abadi, M; Ghassemlooy, Z

    2015-08-10

    A dual polarization (DP) radio over a free-space optical (FSO) communication link using a long-term evolution (LTE) radio signal is proposed and analyzed under different turbulence channel conditions. Radio signal transmission over the DP FSO channel is experimentally verified by means of error vector magnitude (EVM) statistics. We demonstrate that such a system, employing a 64 quadrature amplitude modulation at the frequency bands of 800 MHz and 2.6 GHz, evinces reliability with LTE signal over the FSO channel is a potential solution for last-mile access or backbone networks, when using multiple-input multiple-output based DP signals.

  20. On the performance of free-space optical communication systems with multiuser diversity

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Liang

    2014-09-01

    Free space optical (FSO) communication has become a cost-effective method to provide high data rates. However, the turbulence-induced fading limits its application to short range applications. To address this, we propose a multiuser diversity (MD) FSO scheme in which the Nth best user is selected and the channel fluctuations can be effectively exploited to produce a selection diversity gain. More specifically, we first present the statistics analysis for the considered system over weak atmospheric turbulence channels. Based on these statistics, the outage probability, bit-error rate performance, and coverage are analyzed.

  1. Increased-accuracy numerical modeling of electron-optical systems with space-charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sveshnikov, V.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a method for improving the accuracy of space-charge computation for electron-optical systems. The method proposes to divide the computational region into two parts: a near-cathode region in which analytical solutions are used and a basic one in which numerical methods compute the field distribution and trace electron ray paths. A numerical method is used for calculating the potential along the interface, which involves solving a non-linear equation. Preliminary results illustrating the improvement of accuracy and the convergence of the method for a simple test example are presented.

  2. Modeling of Fog and Smoke Attenuation in Free Space Optical Communications Link Under Controlled Laboratory Conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ijaz, M.; Ghassemlooy, Z.; Pešek, J.; Fišer, Ondřej; Le Minh, H.; Bentley, E.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 11 (2013), s. 1720-1726 ISSN 0733-8724 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP102/11/1376 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : Fog attenuation * free space optics * smoke attenuation * visibility Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 2.862, year: 2013 http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/login.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6497447&url=http%3A%2F%2Fieeexplore.ieee.org%2Fxpls%2Fabs_all.jsp%3Farnumber%3D6497447

  3. Space radiation effects in high performance fiber optic data links for satellite data management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, P.W.; Dale, C.J.; LaBel, K.A.

    1996-01-01

    Fiber optic based technologies are relatively new to satellite applications, and are receiving considerable attention for planned applications in NASA, DOD, and commercial space sectors. The authors review various activities in recent years aimed at understanding and mitigating radiation related risk in deploying fiber based data handling systems on orbit. Before concluding that there are no critical barriers to designing survivable and reliable systems, the authors analyze several possible types of radiation effects. Particular attention is given to the subject of particle-induced bit errors in InGaAs p-i-n photodiodes, including a discussion of error mitigation and upset rate prediction methods

  4. Optical Fiber Array Assemblies for Space Flight on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Jelanie; Matuszeski, Adam

    2011-01-01

    Custom fiber optic bundle array assemblies developed by the Photonics Group at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center were an enabling technology for both the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) and the Laser Ranging (LR) Investigation on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) currently in operation. The unique assembly array designs provided considerable decrease in size and weight and met stringent system level requirements. This is the first time optical fiber array bundle assemblies were used in a high performance space flight application. This innovation was achieved using customized Diamond Switzerland AVIM optical connectors. For LOLA, a five fiber array was developed for the receiver telescope to maintain precise alignment for each of the 200/220 micron optical fibers collecting 1,064 nm wavelength light being reflected back from the moon. The array splits to five separate detectors replacing the need for multiple telescopes. An image illustration of the LOLA instrument can be found at the top of the figure. For the laser ranging, a seven-optical-fiber array of 400/440 micron fibers was developed to transmit light from behind the LR receiver telescope located on the end of the high gain antenna system (HGAS). The bundle was routed across two moving gimbals, down the HGAS boom arm, over a deployable mandrel and across the spacecraft to a detector on the LOLA instrument. The routing of the optical fiber bundle and its end locations is identified in the figure. The Laser Ranging array and bundle is currently accepting light at a wavelength of 532 nm sent to the moon from laser stations at Greenbelt MD and other stations around the world to gather precision ranging information from the Earth to the LRO spacecraft. The LR bundle assembly is capable of withstanding temperatures down to -55 C at the connectors, and 20,000 mechanical gimbal cycles at temperatures as cold as -20 C along the length of the seven-fiber bundle (that is packaged into the gimbals). The total

  5. Composite optical vortices in noncollinear Laguerre–Gaussian beams and their propagation in free space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Ke; Liu Pusheng; Lü Baida

    2008-01-01

    Taking two Laguerre—Gaussian beams with topological charge l = ± 1 as an example, this paper studies the composite optical vortices formed by two noncollinear Laguerre—Gaussian beams with different phases, amplitudes, waist widths, off-axis distances, and their propagation in free space. It is shown by detailed numerical illustrative examples that the number and location of composite vortices at the waist plane are variable by varying the relative phase β, amplitude ratio η, waist width ratio ζ, or off-axis distance ratio μ. The net topological charge l net is not always equal to the sum l sum of charges of the two component beams. The motion, creation and annihilation of composite vortices take place in the free-space propagation, and the net charge during the propagation remains unchanged and equals to the net charge at the waist plane

  6. Large motion high cycle high speed optical fibers for space based applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stromberg, Peter G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tandon, Rajan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gibson, Cory S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Reedlunn, Benjamin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rasberry, Roger David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rohr, Garth David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Future remote sensing applications will require higher resolution and therefore higher data rates (up to perhaps 100 gigabits per second) while achieving lower mass and cost. A current limitation to the design space is high speed high bandwidth data does not cross movable gimbals because of cabling issues. This requires the detectors to be off gimbal. The ability to get data across the gimbal would open up efficiencies in designs where the detectors and the electronics can be placed anywhere on the system. Fiber optic cables provide light weight high speed high bandwidth connections. Current options are limited to 20,000 cycles as opposed to the 1,000,000 cycles needed for future space based applications. To extend this to the million+ regime, requires a thorough understanding of the failure mechanisms and the materials, proper selection of materials (e.g., glass and jacket material) allowable geometry changes to the cable, radiation hardness, etc.

  7. Reflected Sunlight Reduction and Characterization for a Deep-Space Optical Receiver Antenna (DSORA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clymer, B. D.

    1990-01-01

    A baffle system for the elimination of first-order specular and diffuse reflection of sunlight from the sunshade of a deep-space optical receiver telescope is presented. This baffle system consists of rings of 0.5cm blades spaced 2.5 cm apart on the walls of GO hexagonal sunshade tubes that combine to form the telescope sunshade. The shadow cast by the blades, walls, and rims of the tubes prevent all first-order reflections of direct sunlight from reaching the primary mirror of the telescope. A reflection model of the sunshade without baffles is also presented for comparison. Since manufacturers of absorbing surfaces do not measure data near grazing incidence, the reflection properties at anticipated angles of incidence must be characterized. A description of reflection from matte surfaces in term of bidirectional reflection distribution function (BRDF) is presented along with a discussion of measuring BRDF near grazing incidence.

  8. StreakDet data processing and analysis pipeline for space debris optical observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Jenni; Flohrer, Tim; Muinonen, Karri; Granvik, Mikael; Torppa, Johanna; Poikonen, Jonne; Lehti, Jussi; Santti, Tero; Komulainen, Tuomo; Naranen, Jyri

    We describe a novel data processing and analysis pipeline for optical observations of space debris. The monitoring of space object populations requires reliable acquisition of observational data, to support the development and validation of space debris environment models, the build-up and maintenance of a catalogue of orbital elements. In addition, data is needed for the assessment of conjunction events and for the support of contingency situations or launches. The currently available, mature image processing algorithms for detection and astrometric reduction of optical data cover objects that cross the sensor field-of-view comparably slowly, and within a rather narrow, predefined range of angular velocities. By applying specific tracking techniques, the objects appear point-like or as short trails in the exposures. However, the general survey scenario is always a “track before detect” problem, resulting in streaks, i.e., object trails of arbitrary lengths, in the images. The scope of the ESA-funded StreakDet (Streak detection and astrometric reduction) project is to investigate solutions for detecting and reducing streaks from optical images, particularly in the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) domain, where algorithms are not readily available yet. For long streaks, the challenge is to extract precise position information and related registered epochs with sufficient precision. Although some considerations for low-SNR processing of streak-like features are available in the current image processing and computer vision literature, there is a need to discuss and compare these approaches for space debris analysis, in order to develop and evaluate prototype implementations. In the StreakDet project, we develop algorithms applicable to single images (as compared to consecutive frames of the same field) obtained with any observing scenario, including space-based surveys and both low- and high-altitude populations. The proposed processing pipeline starts from the

  9. Influence of wind speed on free space optical communication performance for Gaussian beam propagation through non Kolmogorov strong turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Peng; Yuan Xiuhua; Zeng Yanan; Zhao Ming; Luo Hanjun

    2011-01-01

    In free-space optical communication links, atmospheric turbulence causes fluctuations in both the intensity and the phase of the received signal, affecting link performance. Most theoretical treatments have been described by Kolmogorov's power spectral density model through weak turbulence with constant wind speed. However, several experiments showed that Kolmogorov theory is sometimes incomplete to describe atmospheric turbulence properly, especially through the strong turbulence with variable wind speed, which is known to contribute significantly to the turbulence in the atmosphere. We present an optical turbulence model that incorporates into variable wind speed instead of constant value, a non-Kolmogorov power spectrum that uses a generalized exponent instead of constant standard exponent value 11/3, and a generalized amplitude factor instead of constant value 0.033. The free space optical communication performance for a Gaussian beam wave of scintillation index, mean signal-to-noise ratio , and mean bit error rate , have been derived by extended Rytov theory in non-Kolmogorov strong turbulence. And then the influence of wind speed variations on free space optical communication performance has been analyzed under different atmospheric turbulence intensities. The results suggest that the effects of wind speed variation through non-Kolmogorov turbulence on communication performance are more severe in many situations and need to be taken into account in free space optical communication. It is anticipated that this work is helpful to the investigations of free space optical communication performance considering wind speed under severe weather condition in the strong atmospheric turbulence.

  10. Eight-channel video broadcast feed service using free-space optical wireless technology at the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szajowski, Paul F.; Rigas, A. J.; Robinson, J. W.; Nykolak, Gerald; Paulson, Bruce D.; Tourgee, G. E.; Auborn, James J.

    2001-02-01

    12 Terrestrial 1550 nm WDM free-space optical communication systems have been demonstrated to provide a viable means to transport data, voice and video channels for point-to-point applications without the use of optical fiber. Key features of free-space optical transmission systems are their ability to utilize present day telecommunication components such as: laser diode transmitters, high-power optical amplifiers operating within the 1550 nm optical transmission window and high-sensitivity optical receivers designed for multi-Giga- bit data rates. In this paper, we report on details of the world's first field test, demonstrating real time video transmission of eight uncompressed standard-definition (SD) video channels operating at an aggregate data rate of 1.485 Gb/s over a 0.89 km terrestrial free-space link. This data link was used in support of the 2000 Olympic games held recently in Sydney, Australia. Results from this eight- channel SD terrestrial free-space laser communications systems are presented. The transmission system operated error-free continuously from September 14, 2000 until October 1, 2000, twenty-four hours a day, throughout the coverage of the games. Modeling results predict that free- space SD video transmission systems can be designed and operated over significant link distances under nominal visibility conditions.

  11. Experimental Evaluation of Optically Polished Aluminum Panels on the Deep Space Network's 34 Meter Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilnrotter, V.

    2011-01-01

    The potential development of large aperture ground?based "photon bucket" optical receivers for deep space communications has received considerable attention recently. One approach currently under investigation is to polish the aluminum reflector panels of 34?meter microwave antennas to high reflectance, and accept the relatively large spotsize generated by state of?the?art polished aluminum panels. Theoretical analyses of receiving antenna pointing, temporal synchronization and data detection have been addressed in previous papers. Here we describe the experimental effort currently underway at the Deep Space Network (DSN) Goldstone Communications Complex in California, to test and verify these concepts in a realistic operational environment. Two polished aluminum panels (a standard DSN panel polished to high reflectance, and a custom designed aluminum panel with much better surface quality) have been mounted on the 34 meter research antenna at Deep?Space Station 13 (DSS?13), and a remotely controlled CCD camera with a large CCD sensor in a weather?proof container has been installed next to the subreflector, pointed directly at the custom polished panel. The point?spread function (PSF) generated by the Vertex polished panel has been determined to be smaller than the sensor of the CCD camera, hence a detailed picture of the PSF can be obtained every few seconds, and the sensor array data processed to determine the center of the intensity distribution. In addition to estimating the center coordinates, expected communications performance can also been evaluated with the recorded data. The results of preliminary pointing experiments with the Vertex polished panel receiver using the planet Jupiter to simulate the PSF generated by a deep?space optical transmitter are presented and discussed in this paper.

  12. Analysis of compound parabolic concentrators and aperture averaging to mitigate fading on free-space optical links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasiczko, Linda M.; Smolyaninov, Igor I.; Davis, Christopher C.

    2004-01-01

    Free space optics (FSO) is one solution to the bandwidth bottleneck resulting from increased demand for broadband access. It is well known that atmospheric turbulence distorts the wavefront of a laser beam propagating through the atmosphere. This research investigates methods of reducing the effects of intensity scintillation and beam wander on the performance of free space optical communication systems, by characterizing system enhancement using either aperture averaging techniques or nonimaging optics. Compound Parabolic Concentrators, nonimaging optics made famous by Winston and Welford, are inexpensive elements that may be easily integrated into intensity modulation-direct detection receivers to reduce fading caused by beam wander and spot breakup in the focal plane. Aperture averaging provides a methodology to show the improvement of a given receiver aperture diameter in averaging out the optical scintillations over the received wavefront.

  13. FY 2000 report on the survey of geological structures overseas, etc. Volume 2. 'Tanjung Enim IV Coal Exploration Project between Japan and Indonesia'; 2000 nendo kaigai chishitsu kozo chosa hokokusho. 2. Nippon Indonesia sekitan kyodo tansa Tanjung Enim project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The survey was finished in the final fiscal year (FY 2000) of the Tanjung Enim IV Coal Exploration Project between Japan and Indonesia, and a report was summarized on the preliminary coal mining plan. In the design of the optimum mining area and pit, in terms of 3 cases of coal price of $8, $10, and $12/ton, the pit design was made considering rivers, houses, power transmission lines, etc., and the actual coal yield was asked. In the case of coal price of $8/ton, the actual coal yield in pit was 315 million tons in north block and 171 million tons in south block. In the case of coal price of $10/ton, pits are expandable in north block, but not in south block. For all the pit shapes designed, long-term mining plans were worked out. In each of the cases of coal production amount of 1 million, 3 million and 5 million tons, indicated were secular changes in overburden amount and coal quality because of the difference in mining direction. Further studies were made on the deposition plan, simulation of models of mining heavy machines, coal mine facilities, economical efficiency of coal mines, etc. (NEDO)

  14. FY 2000 report on the results of the research and development project for the photon-aided instrumentation and processing technologies. Development of high-efficiency production process technologies; 2000 nendo photon keisoku kako gijutsu seika hokokusho. Kokoritsu seisan process gijutsu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Described herein are the FY 2000 results of development of the photon-aided instrumentation and processing technologies, aimed at improving efficiency of the production processes which have been massively consuming energy, e.g., those for welding, joining, surface treatment and granulation for producing fine particles. The program for production of the functional composite compounds by the microscopic processing technologies prepares the electrically resistant films and dielectric films by in-situ mixing two types of the ultrafine particles. The program for the in-situ measuring technology is aimed at measuring contents of the constituent components of fine particles, 30nm or less in size, to an accuracy of 10% by the emission spectroscopy, after making them plasmatic. The program for the high-power, all-solid-state laser technology is developing the excited chamber for the high-power, all-solid-state slab type laser, in order to realize the energy-efficient laser-aided processing. The program for the tightly-focusing, all-solid-state laser technology develops the highly uniform crystals by growing the GLBO crystals for producing the high-power ultraviolet laser beams, is developing the techniques for production of the wavelength converting elements, including the GLBO crystal package, and develops the wavelength conversion method by the fourth-harmonic generation with the all-solid-state laser beams as the fundamental wave, realizing the high harmonic power of 23W, for generating the high-power ultraviolet laser beams at a high efficiency. (NEDO)

  15. FY 2000 research cooperation project for the research cooperative follow-up on the technology to simply set molding conditions of engineering plastics; 2000 nendo kenkyu kyoryoku jigyo. Enjiniaringu plastic no seikei joken kan'i settei gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku follow up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of supporting improvement of the plastic molding industry which is the important industry supporting industries such as household electric appliances and automobiles, the joint research was made on the production of high quality/high precision engineering plastic formed products, and the FY 2000 results were reported. In this fiscal year, the domestic support committee, ' the engineering plastic molding technology research committee' was held twice, and the following were carried out: discussion about the research plan, study of a plan for Japanese researchers to be sent and the details of the joint research, comprehensive evaluation of the results of the joint research made on the site. In the joint research at Thailand's BSID (Bureau of Supporting Industries Development), 4 engineers of molding technology/testing technology were sent from Japan during the period from September 18, 2000 to January 24, 2001, and the following were carried out: theoretical study and practical guidance for comprehension of injection molding technology, establishment of optimum conditions for injection molding and practice of measures taken against bad molding, conduction of the round robin test/comparative study by both JCII (Japan Chemical Innovation Institute) and BSID, etc. (NEDO)

  16. FY 2000 report on the results of the R and D of fundamental technologies of superconductivity applications. Development of technology to process low consumption power ultra high speed signals; 2000 nendo chodendo oyo kiban gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Teishohi denryoku chokosoku shingo shori gijutsu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-05-01

    In relation to the project on the R and D of fundamental technologies of superconductivity applications, the FY 2000 results of the design/fabrication of superconducting circuits were summarized. As to the development of technology to design superconducting circuits, an increase in circuit scale was tried targeting AD converter use modulator and decimation filter. As a result, operation was confirmed in element circuits of flux quantum multiplier circuit, feed back driver, DC isolator, etc. Concerning the development of technology for standard junction and integration, RHEED observations on the thin film surface before/after etching and YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} re-deposition were tried to be made, and the potentiality as monitoring technology was indicated. With respect to the fabrication of small scale circuits for demonstration, the design/trial fabrication were made of the basic pattern of SFQ circuit elements such as DC-SFQ, T-FF and SQUID for inductance rating. In regard to the development of technology to measure characteristics of superconducting circuits, a system was fabricated for processing and measuring output signals from {sigma}-{delta} modulators by semiconductor circuits, and it made the evaluation of AD converter performance possible. (NEDO)

  17. FY 2000 International energy use rationalization project. International technology dissemination project for improving energy consumption efficiency (Green helmet project for steel heating furnaces in Thailand); 2000 nendo kokusai energy shiyo gorika nado taisaku jigyo chosa hokokusho. Kokusai energy shohi koritsuka nado gijutsu fukyu jigyo (Green helmet jigyo (Tai: kozai kanetsuro))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The project for energy saving dissemination activities and technological assistance for Thailand is carried out, and the FY 2000 results are reported. For Siam Iron and Steel (SISCO), the experts are dispatched for reviewing the operating conditions of the facilities constructed by the model project, their maintenance and examination, time series diagnosis of the recuperator performance, and providing technical assistance for fuel consumption and high-load combustion of the downstream unit. Furthermore, the site survey and technical assistance are provided for two newly selected Thai steel enterprises, Sahaviriya Steel Industries Public Co. (SSI) and the Bangkok Iron and Steel Works Co. (BISW). For SSI, it is predicted that energy of approximately 50Mcal/ton can be saved by, e.g., enhancement of waste heat recovery, enhancement of heat insulation of skid pipes, introduction of steel discharging temperature prediction system, and combustion control. For BISW, it is predicted that energy of approximately 25Mcal/ton can be saved by, e.g., enhancement of waste heat recovery and reduction of heat loss in the waste gas. (NEDO)

  18. FY 2000 report on the results of the development of technology for commercialization of the photovoltaic power system - R and D of evaluation technology of the photovoltaic power system. R and D of the solar cell evaluation system; 2000 nendo New sunshine keikaku seika hokokusho. Taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu - Taiyodenchi hyoka gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu - Taiyodenchi hyoka system no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Study was made of the development of the basic technology for the integrated evaluation of solar cell performance, grasp of degradation phenomena of solar cell modules by outdoor exposure test, development of the accelerated degradation test method, etc., and the FY 2000 results were summed up. As to the development of the ultra-high approximation solar simulator for cell evaluation, a simulator was fabricated of which the irradiation non-uniformity is {+-} 1.0% and the spectral agreement is within {+-} 10% in 10 wavebands out of the 16 wavebands. Relating to the development of evaluation technology of large area modules, performance of the spectral irradiance distribution, etc. was improved by modification of the solar simulator, which made accurate measurement possible. In the study of degradation of solar cell modules, exposure tests on various kinds of solar cell modules were continued at 5 sites in Japan, 3 sites in Australia and 1 site in Oman for data collection/analysis. Further, analysis was made of Isc changes in the early stage of exposure, phenomenon of cell's cloudy discoloration, degradation caused by increase in series resistance, etc. As the test method of light accelerated degradation of A-Si solar cell, a brightness cycle test method was developed. (NEDO)

  19. FY 2000 Project of developing international standards for supporting new industries. Standardization of the testing/evaluation methods for high coherent lasers; 2000 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Ko coherent laser no shiken (hyoka hoho no hyojunka)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Described herein are the FY 2000 results of the development of high-precision, stabilized lasers, laser interferometers and signal processors, and developmental researches on the testing/evaluation methods for spectral characteristics of high-performance lasers, among others, for proposing the international standards. The program for narrowing the spectral lines for semiconductor lasers experimentally confirms validity of the external resonator structure with the diffraction lattice. The program for the developmental research on spectral width meter designs the width meter based on the delayed self-heterodyne technique, because of necessity for measurement of the spectral line width at a resolution of several hundreds Hz or less. The program for the saturation spectroscopy of iodine molecule designs and fabricates the iodine cell, to lock the semiconductor laser wavelength on the specific absorption line of iodine. It is judged, based on the test results, to be rational to adopt the absorption line of the (6-3) transitional P33 superfine structure. The program for the developmental research on wavelength meter conducts the preliminary tests for atmospheric pressure, temperature and humidity changes as the parameters which affect the measurement accuracy. (NEDO)

  20. FY 2000 report on the coal resource development basic survey (information collection analysis project). Cooperative project on the open-cut coal mine rehabilitation technology; 2000 nendo sekitan shigen kaihatsu kiso chosa (joho shushu kaiseki jigyo) hokokusho. Rotenbori sekitan saikutsu atochi shufuku gijutsu kyoryoku jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    At the Ensham open-cut mine in Australia, an investigational survey was conducted of a new rehabilitation technology which can contribute also to securing CO sink with the aim of preventing global warming, and the FY 2000 results were summed up. In the survey, the surface soil, sand silt layer, brown rock layer, gray sandstone layer and coal seam were moved from open pits, the goaf was embanked, and the experimental section was set up. As to the place for test, conducted were collection of information on adaptive plant species, bacterium species, meteorology and precipitation pattern, soil analysis, etc. Concerning the bacteria, bacteria were newly separated and tested at the survey site, besides the species to be tested. After planting, measurement of the growth amount of plants, etc. were conducted grasping the meteorology and the water-pouring state during cultivation. For the basement, three kinds of spoils were used, and permeability is different in each spoil. Permeability is an important factor to plants. Too good permeability and too bad permeability are both not good. A future follow-up survey will make what kind of spoil is suitable for eucalypti possible. (NEDO)

  1. FY 2000 report on the results of the R and D of 'frontier carbon technology.' Development of the high function control system for power generation; 2000 nendo 'tansokei kokino zairyo gijutsu' no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Hatsuden'yo kokino kanri system kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-05-01

    This report summarized the FY 2000 results. Items for study were as follows: 1) original production technology of substrates; 2) original production process technology of mechanically high function materials; 3) comprehensive survey; 4) formation of common basement technology. In 1), for the purpose of developing carbon materials with heat resistance and corrosion resistance in the oxidation atmosphere at 650 degrees C or more, the development of the rail gun spraying method and the device was conducted. It enabled the spraying of high melting point/high hardness materials. It was very difficult to do it by the existing technology. In 2), subjects are the composition gradient film forming technology, large area film forming technology, etc. By making positive use of characteristics such as low friction/low abrasion and high temperature corrosion resistance which can be expected of frontier carbon materials, it is planned to apply them to the operational part of various industrial machines and for the protection of the surface of high temperature members. In 3), study was made to widen the application field of frontier carbon materials excellent in environmental harmony by the mechanical field. In 4), R and D were carried out of the basic theory/principle/conception, realization of them, systematical arrangement, acquisition/arrangement of the data on new characteristics. (NEDO)

  2. FY 2000 report on the results of the development of the next generation chemical process technology/development of the non-halogen chemical process technology; 2000 nendo jisedai kagaku process gijutsu kaihatsu non halogen kagaku process gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of conserving energy and reducing environmental loads, the R and D were conducted of a new chemical process (non-halogen chemical process) using new catalytic reaction, etc., and the FY 2000 results were summed up. As to the development of a new method to synthesize isocyanate, the development was proceeded with of a method to synthesize diisocyanate by the dicarbamate reaction and pyrolysis of the carbamate, and the effect of catalyst on the yield of carbamate reaction was grasped. Concerning the development of a new synthetic method of epoxides, the development was proceeded with of the catalyst for synthesizing propylene oxides from propylene and hydrogen/oxygen, and conditions were obtained for preparation of a catalyst of the basic catalytic system and with reproducibility. Moreover, the development was proceeded with of a new catalyst used in doing epoxidation of 1-butene using the organic system hydroperoxide. Concerning the development of a new method to synthesize phenol, a promising system was found out by finding out the basic catalytic system of oxidation acetoxyl reaction and proceeding with the search for co-catalyst, carrier, etc. (NEDO)

  3. FY 2000 report on the promotion projects by Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth. Proceedings of the international seminar (Reports presented to the international workshop for selective oxidation catalysts); 2000 nendo chikyu kankyo sangyo gijutsu kaihatsu suishin jigyo kokusai seminar jigyo shiryo. Sentaku sanka shokubai kokusai workshop hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Described herein are the FY 2000 results of the international workshop for selective oxidation catalysts, promoted by RITE. The session of methane activation includes a comprehensive lecture on designs of selective alkane oxidation catalysts developed since the 1980s, describing the simplified catalyst design procedures and, at the same time, pointing out the vapor-phase reactions governing the overall reactions at high temperature. The session of alkane oxidation includes a lecture on oxidation of ethane into acrolein in the presence of a silica catalyst supporting isolated active sites, stressing necessity for controlling the vapor-phase reactions and importance of isolating the active sites. The session of crystalline materials includes a lecture on Ti-siting in Ti-containing molecular sieve and selective oxidation catalyst functions, concentrating discussion on oxidation with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as the oxidant on TS-1. The session of engineering hybrid includes a lecture on catalytic partial oxidation of alkanes in millisecond reactors, describing that possibility of controlling the vapor-phase reactions in the presence of monolith, porous-plate catalysts in a reactor through which the reactant gases pass in a very short time, of the order of millisecond. (NEDO)

  4. FY 2000 report on the verification survey of geothermal exploration technology, etc. Summary. Development of the exploration method of reservoir changes (Theme 3 - Development of the electrical/electromagnetic prospecting method); 2000 nendo chinetsu tansa gijutsu tou kensho chosa hokokusho (Yoyaku). Choryusou hendou tansaho kaihatsu (Tema 3 - Denki denjiki tansa ho kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of developing the technology for accurately predicting the spread of reservoir and future changes by grasping changes in self- potential and resistivity caused by sampling/reduction of geothermal fluids, an investigational study was conducted, and the FY 2000 results were summarized. As to the development of the self- potential monitoring system, observation was continuously made at 50 points on the earth's surface and 3 measuring points of bottom hole, and changes in self-potential associated with the production/reduction in the Ogiri power plant were smoothly observed. Concerning the development of the resistivity monitoring system, in the preliminary test made in the previous fiscal year, effectiveness was recognized of the high accuracy MT method monitoring system that can detect resistivity changes caused by reservoir changes, and the monitoring was started in this fiscal year. As to the development of the method for predicting reservoir changes using self-potential/resistivity, STAR-TOUGH 2 and self-potential post processor were applied to the geothermal simulation model in the Ogiri area, and study of the applicability and improvement of reservoir models were made. (NEDO)

  5. FY 2000 report on the results of the development of technology for commercialization of the photovoltaic power system - R and D of evaluation technology of the photovoltaic power system. R and D of the system evaluation technology; 2000 nendo New sunshine keikaku seika hokokusho. Taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu - Taiyoko hatsuden system hyoka gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu - System hyoka gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Based on the evaluation method for the performance prediction system of the standard photovoltaic power system, the R and D were conducted of the system generation output prediction technology which is general-purpose, simplified and applicable to various kinds of photovoltaic power system for residential use, and the FY 2000 results were summed up. In this fiscal year, the photovoltaic power system for residential use was increasingly installed at 15 places, and 100 sites in total were made database and analyzed. As to the development of simulation technology, technology of calculation was established such as the simulation of multi-plane array composition and correction of multi-plane array incidence. Further, technical information on system trouble and knowledge/information/proposal for reducing power generation loss were arranged by design parameter. Using the data on solar radiation/power loss at sites of residential use photovoltaic power systems installed in the Kanto area, value analysis of the capacity of wide area facilities of the photovoltaic power system was made by the statistical method. This study was compiled into the revised edition of design manual. (NEDO)

  6. FY 2000 report on the results of the development of commercialization technology of the photovoltaic power system. Demonstrative study of the photovoltaic power system (Study of the high density connection technology); 2000 nendo New sunshine keikaku seika hokokusho. Taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu - Taiyoko hatsuden system no jissho kenkyu (Komitsudo renkei gijutsu no kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the photovoltaic power system connected to the distribution line in high density, study was made in terms of the power quality, elucidation of the effect on operation/protection of the distribution line and the measures to be taken, improvement of power quality using inverter, etc., and the FY 2000 results were summed up. In this fiscal year, the results of the research made in four years were arranged, and at the same time, the theoretical analysis, verification test, etc. that were necessary for summarization of the research results were carried out. As to various kinds of technology for the measures to be taken, the following were conducted: study of the effect on the rise in voltage of the distribution line, development of the dispersed control type voltage stabilization method, test on characteristics of individual operation of the inverter on the market, simulation analysis of characteristics of the continuous individual operation, development of the high reliability individual operation prevention method, verification study of the environmental adaptability, etc. As a technology for improving utility value of the photovoltaic power generation, a high function inverter was developed which conducts not only the dc-ac conversion, but the smoothing of generating output/load variations and load higher harmonics/reactive power compensation. At the Rokko testing facilities, test was made of the parallel operation (5 units) of the pole transformer. (NEDO)

  7. FY 2000 report on the results of the R and D of the immediately effective/innovative energy technology. Development of the regenerative technology of energy saving type metal dust; 2000 nendo sokkoteki kakushinteki energy gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Sho energy gata kinzoku dust kaisei gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The development was proceeded with of the technology to recover iron and zinc components directly from high temperature exhaust gas emitted from the steel-making use electric furnace, etc. This process is more simplified than the conventional dust treatment process and markedly reduces the energy needed for zinc recovery. In FY 2000, the following were carried out: 1) development of the element technology to recover metal components in high temperature exhaust gas; 2) development of the technology to optimize the recovery process for metal components in high temperature exhaust gas. In 1), the following were proceeded with: grasp of conditions for metal recovery; development of the equipment to select/separate low vapor-pressure metal components; development of the heavy metal separation equipment to select/condensate zinc. As to the development of the equipment to select/separate low vapor-pressure metal components, it was confirmed by the element test that it was possible to separate iron by carbon material filter. Further, the reaction amount of gasification of carbon material was estimated to be small by the element test and simulational calculation. In 2), the bench-scale test device and small pilot test device were designed/fabricated. (NEDO)

  8. FY 2000 report on the results of the development of technology for commercialization of the photovoltaic power system - R and D of evaluation technology of the photovoltaic power system. R and D of the solar cell evaluation system; 2000 nendo New sunshine keikaku seika hokokusho. Taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu - Taiyodenchi hyoka gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu - Taiyodenchi hyoka system no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Study was made of the development of the basic technology for the integrated evaluation of solar cell performance, grasp of degradation phenomena of solar cell modules by outdoor exposure test, development of the accelerated degradation test method, etc., and the FY 2000 results were summed up. As to the development of the ultra-high approximation solar simulator for cell evaluation, a simulator was fabricated of which the irradiation non-uniformity is {+-} 1.0% and the spectral agreement is within {+-} 10% in 10 wavebands out of the 16 wavebands. Relating to the development of evaluation technology of large area modules, performance of the spectral irradiance distribution, etc. was improved by modification of the solar simulator, which made accurate measurement possible. In the study of degradation of solar cell modules, exposure tests on various kinds of solar cell modules were continued at 5 sites in Japan, 3 sites in Australia and 1 site in Oman for data collection/analysis. Further, analysis was made of Isc changes in the early stage of exposure, phenomenon of cell's cloudy discoloration, degradation caused by increase in series resistance, etc. As the test method of light accelerated degradation of A-Si solar cell, a brightness cycle test method was developed. (NEDO)

  9. FY 2000 report on the results of the development of commercialization technology of the photovoltaic power system. International cooperation project (IEA photovoltaic power generation program - Collection of the information on Task IX); 2000 nendo New sunshine keikaku seika hokokusho. Taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu kokusai jigyo kyoryoku (IEA taiyoko hatsuden program task IX ni kansuru joho shushu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Based on 'the Implementing agreement for a research cooperation project on the photovoltaic power system' being promoted by IEA, collection of the information was made on Task IX: Promotion of the effective spread of the PV technology in developing countries, and the FY 2000 results were summarized. In Task IX, for technical/economic subjects in introducing the PV system to developing countries, a commendable/practical guide using the experiences having been gained was to be arranged. Also, workshop was to be opened in developing countries as model, and cooperation was to be promoted with international organizations such as the Bank of the World. In this fiscal year, two meetings of specialists (abroad) and four sectional meetings of operation (in Japan) were held. This fiscal year was the second year of the 5-year plan. The standard for selecting developing countries as model was studied, and a draft of the commendable/practical guide was made and discussed in the meeting of specialists. (NEDO)

  10. FY 2000 report on the results of the development of commercialization technology of the photovoltaic power system. International cooperation project (IEA photovoltaic power generation program - Collection of the information on Task IX); 2000 nendo New sunshine keikaku seika hokokusho. Taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu kokusai jigyo kyoryoku (IEA taiyoko hatsuden program task IX ni kansuru joho shushu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Based on 'the Implementing agreement for a research cooperation project on the photovoltaic power system' being promoted by IEA, collection of the information was made on Task IX: Promotion of the effective spread of the PV technology in developing countries, and the FY 2000 results were summarized. In Task IX, for technical/economic subjects in introducing the PV system to developing countries, a commendable/practical guide using the experiences having been gained was to be arranged. Also, workshop was to be opened in developing countries as model, and cooperation was to be promoted with international organizations such as the Bank of the World. In this fiscal year, two meetings of specialists (abroad) and four sectional meetings of operation (in Japan) were held. This fiscal year was the second year of the 5-year plan. The standard for selecting developing countries as model was studied, and a draft of the commendable/practical guide was made and discussed in the meeting of specialists. (NEDO)

  11. FY 2000 Development of technologies for optimization control of reducing power loss during the service period. Report on the research and development results of the 'building total cooperation control by micro-internet technologies'; 2000 nendo kadoji denki sonshitsu sakugen saiteki seigyo gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Micro internet gijutsu ni yoru biru total kyocho seigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The research and development project is implemented for development of the energy-saving optimization/control system which continuously monitors/controls all of the energy-consuming appliances in a building for their optimization, and the FY 2000 results are reported. The program for the sensing technologies involves a human tracking system aided by fish-eye images and human region sensing technologies based on the neuro technologies, and introduces an animated image simulation system aided by a personal computer. The researches on the building total cooperation control involve establishment of the system designs for controlling heat sources, based on the thermal loads predicted by the information network system. The researches on the micro-internet technologies involve development of the prototype unit which collects information from indoor environment sensors (e.g., for room temperature, luminous intensity and CO2 concentration), and interface devices which collect information from the sub-systems, e.g., air conditioners and heat sources. These systems are completed. The demonstration and assessment program involves designs of the instrumentation systems and network environments. The designs are completed, and various sensors and monitors are installed. (NEDO)

  12. FY 2000 report on the results of the infrastructure construction project for spreading high-efficiency fuel cell systems/development of test apparatuses for evaluation of fuel cell systems for automobiles; 2000 nendo kokoritsu nenryo denchi system kiban gijutsu kaihatsu / jidoshayo nenryo denchi system hyoka shiken sochi no kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    This project studies the testing/evaluation methods for spreading fuel cells for automobiles. Described herein are the FY 2000 results. The problems involved in evaluation of the single cell units are classified into those involved in the cell construction and methods of evaluating the operation performances of the single cell units. These problems are analyzed mainly by literature survey. The mode simulation tests will be greatly simplified, if the system can be tested on the bench without being actually boarded on the vehicle. Therefore, this project is aimed at development of a comprehensive mode simulator which can be automatically operated corresponding to the running modes of various countries, to test the performance of FCEV and to examine the effects of each component independently on the vehicle performance. The factors required to reproduce the actual driving states of an FCEV on the bench are analyzed, and the conceptual designs are drawn for the controlling algorithms. It is necessary to standardize the stack and reformer testing methods, in order to evaluate the fuel cell system components. For these objects, the prototype units are constructed to evaluate 10kW direct hydrogen type stacks and 5kW methanol reformers. The units are also constructed to evaluate the high-pressure (1MPa) reformer reactors and hydrogen separation membrane systems. (NEDO)

  13. FY 2000 report on the results of the R and D of the technology for rationalization of energy utilization and for CO2 fixation using recycled paper; 2000 nendo energy shiyo gorika koshi nado yuko riyo nisanka tanso koteika gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    In this R and D, the recycled paper, etc. composed mainly of cellulose are degraded (saccharified) up to saccharides in a biological method. The saccharides and CO2 obtained are converted into useful substances such as organic acid using the bacterium function. The aim of the R and D is to develop this conversion (bioconversion) technology and to establish the technology to make an effective use of the recycled paper, etc. as useful chemical raw materials/substances and energy. In FY 2000, study was made mostly of the saccharification and bioconversion. As to the saccharification, conducted were the collection of the bacteria for cellulose degrading enzyme production which have been found so far and the evaluation of degradation of the recycled paper. And, as to the bioconversion, conducted were the survey and isolation of enzyme proteins and genes which are concerned in it in the process toward the formation to organic acid from saccharides and CO2, and the analysis of part of them. In this report, introductory remarks were described in Chapter 1. In Chapter 2, the results were summarized of the study on saccharification of the recycled paper. In Chapter 3, the results were outlined of the study on the bioconversion technology. This technology development was aimed at establishing new high efficiency bio-processes. (NEDO)

  14. FY 2000 report on the results of the R and D of 'frontier carbon technology.' Development of the technology to rationalize energy utilization; 2000 nendo 'tansokei kokino zairyo gijutsu' no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Energy shiyo gorika gijutsu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-05-01

    This report summarized the FY 2000 results. In Chapter 1, development of electrically high functional diamond process technology, electric characteristics which frontier carbon materials have were made clear by the following four subjects, and the development was executed of original production process technology for realizing energy saving by heightening efficiency of electric devices, displays, etc. 1) development of morphology control; 2) development of technology to control electron emission characteristics; 3) development of technology to control oriented growth; 4) development of technology to enlarge single crystals. In Chapter 2, the basement technology of electron emission control was studied. Namely, conditions for film formation were investigated to elucidate the formation mechanism of carbon nano structure films by Dual RF CVD method, IPC CVD method and thermal CVD method. As to the electron emission mechanism of diamond, electron emission characteristics were outlined of the boron dope diamond thin film formed by micro wave plasma CVD method in FY 1999. In Chapter 3, investigational study of original production process technology of electrically high function materials, test study was made of the element technology needed to make high quality/large area diamond substrates. (NEDO)

  15. FY 2000 report on the results of the development of the environmentally friendly type high efficiency energy utilization system. Part 2. Study of the effective utilization technology of high efficiency energy (Study of the optimum system design technology); 2000 nendo kankyo chowagata kokoritsu energy riyo system kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 2. Kokoritsu energy yuko riyo gijutsu no kenkyu (saiteki system sekkei gijutsu no kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-05-01

    The paper conducted the development of the environmentally friendly type high efficiency energy utilization system and the R and D of the high efficiency energy effective utilization technology, and the FY 2000 results were summed up. As to the energy transportation/storage technology, the R and D were made on the following: methanol/energy system, non-equilibrium high efficiency methanol decomposition reaction technology, development of multiple functions of catalyst, high efficiency heat pump technology using hydrogen storage alloys, heat-hydrogen recovery/transportation/utilization technology, vacuum insulated heat transport piping system, surfactant used for high density heat transport, high density latent heat transportation technology, etc. Concerning the energy supply/utilization technology, the R and D were made of the heat supply system using high efficient heat pump corresponding to multiple fuels. Relating to the environmental load reduction technology, the energy conserved heat pump system using natural coolant. As to the optimum system design technology, the comprehensive preparation of element technology, etc. (NEDO)

  16. FY 2000 Immediate-effect type project for research and development for international standards supporting information technology industries. Standardization of the methods of electronic trading of the integrated systems from the designing to production; 2000 nendo joho sangyo shien sokkogata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Sekkei kara seizo made no ikkan system no denshiteki torihiki hoho no hyojunka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    This project is aimed at standardization of, e.g., terminology for preparation of the dictionary of the measuring instruments manufactured by the Japan Electric Measuring Instruments Manufacturers' Association (JEMIMA) members, as the first step for realizing the e-Business of the related industry. The FY 2000 efforts are directed to the standardization of terms, classification, description of properties and basic semantic units (BSUs) for making the measuring instruments dictionary including flow meters, thermometers, level meters, meters, wattmeters, indicators, transducers, recorders, temperature transmitters, special instruments for steel making, and so on. Document type definition (DTD) is also standardized for flow meters, thermometers and level meters for information exchange by XML. The applications are also developed for electronic catalog creation support system, electronic catalog registration and revision support system, instrumentation selection support system, and instrumentation retrieval and viewing support system. They are installed in the clients' server systems, to implement the performance tests. Creation/registration and use of the electronic catalogs on the Internet are demonstrated for flow meter, thermometers and level meters. (NEDO)

  17. FY 2000 report on the results of the R and D of 'frontier carbon technology.' R and D of a system to support production of undersea oil; 2000 nendo 'tansokei kokino zairyo gijutsu' no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kaitei sekiyu seisan shien system kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-05-01

    This report summarized the results of the FY 2000 R and D of frontier carbon technology (FCT). In Chapter 1, technology of original production of substances, new carbon-base substances such as hetero-diamond and carbon nitride with high-grade and various characteristics are synthesized. And, the following are also established: method to synthesize nanotubes, etc. in quantity, technology to control interatomic bonding, technology to control hetero-element replacement, etc. BCN films were obtained by film formation by changing the gas component ratio of diborane, methane and nitrogen by the electron beam excitation CVD method. The sp{sup 3} bonding control in carbon film was advanced. By reacting benzene with raw materials using nickel phthalocyanine as catalyst, carbon nanotube with a 60nm diameter was obtained. Using ECRCVD device, carbon fiber was synthesized on Si substrate. In Chapter 2, original production process technology of mechanical high function materials, subjects are as follows: composition gradient film forming technology, complicated morphology film formation/micro processing technology, technology to apply carbon-base materials to tribology. The application of the materials to the movable part of various industrial machines is considered by making use of characteristics such as low friction and low abrasion which are expected of amorphous carbon, diamond, carbon nitride, etc. (NEDO)

  18. FY 2000 report on the results of the development of commercialization technology of the photovoltaic power system. International cooperation project (Collection of the information on the IEA photovoltaic power generation program); 2000 nendo New sunshine keikaku seika hokokusho. Taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu kokusai jigyo kyoryoku (IEA taiyoko hatsuden program ni kansuru joho shushu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Based on 'the Implementing agreement for a research cooperation project on the photovoltaic power system' being promoted by IEA, collection of the information on the photovoltaic power system was made, and the FY 2000 results were summarized. In Task I: Exchange of the information on the photovoltaic power system and the spread, the final report on 'the study on added values of PV system' was made. In Task II: Operational performance and design of the photovoltaic power system and subsystem, specifications for new database were determined, and the existing data were checked/revised/added. In Task III: Design and operation of the stand-alone type and remote island use photovoltaic power plant, survey was conducted of the present situation of technical standards and quality guarantee. In Task 7: Photovoltaic power system integrated with construction materials, work was done for making a book of installation samples of the PV system integrated with construction materials in each country. In Task 8: Investigative study of possibilities of the large-scale photovoltaic power generation using the unused land such as desert, a report making of the secondary survey was started. (NEDO)

  19. FY 2000 report on the survey of the project on field tests on the introduction of high performance industrial furnaces. Analysis/evaluation of the collected data; 2000 nendo koseino kogyoro donyu field test jigyo chosa hokokusho. Shushu data kaiseki hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of achieving the target of reduction in CO2 regarded as substance causing global warming which was agreed at COP3, the study has been made since FY 1993 on 'the development of high performance industrial furnaces (regenerative combustion furnace using heat storage type burner for realization of high temperature air combustion).' By applying the good results obtained, a field test project for introduction of high performance industrial furnace has been implemented for three years (FY 1998 - FY 2000) to confirm the actual performance, reliability, etc. Collection/arrangement were made mainly of the data obtained in this field test project for the introduction of high performance industrial furnaces in each fiscal year (1998, 1999 and 2000), and verification/evaluation and arrangement were made. In this R and D, energy conservation was achieved at a rate of more than 30% of the target. Also about NOx, the result was obtained that the NOx by energy saving can be reduced 50% in almost all kinds of furnace if adding the reduction amount in emission amount and the reduction amount by high temperature air combustion. About the quality, the good result was obtained. Downsizing was conducted in approximately 10 examples. (NEDO)

  20. FY 2000 report on the results of the development of commercialization technology of the photovoltaic power system. International cooperation project (Collection of the information on the IEA photovoltaic power generation program); 2000 nendo New sunshine keikaku seika hokokusho. Taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu kokusai jigyo kyoryoku (IEA taiyoko hatsuden program ni kansuru joho shushu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Based on 'the Implementing agreement for a research cooperation project on the photovoltaic power system' being promoted by IEA, collection of the information on the photovoltaic power system was made, and the FY 2000 results were summarized. In Task I: Exchange of the information on the photovoltaic power system and the spread, the final report on 'the study on added values of PV system' was made. In Task II: Operational performance and design of the photovoltaic power system and subsystem, specifications for new database were determined, and the existing data were checked/revised/added. In Task III: Design and operation of the stand-alone type and remote island use photovoltaic power plant, survey was conducted of the present situation of technical standards and quality guarantee. In Task 7: Photovoltaic power system integrated with construction materials, work was done for making a book of installation samples of the PV system integrated with construction materials in each country. In Task 8: Investigative study of possibilities of the large-scale photovoltaic power generation using the unused land such as desert, a report making of the secondary survey was started. (NEDO)

  1. FY 2000 report on the results of the research and development project for the photon-aided instrumentation and processing technologies. R and D of the photon-aided instrumentation and processing technologies; 2000 nendo photon keisoku kako gijutsu seika hokokusho. Photon keisoku kako gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Described herein are the FY 2000 results of development of the photon-aided instrumentation and processing technologies. The technological and R and D trends of the photon-aided instrumentation and processing technologies are surveyed, in order to clarify the directions of their impacts and ripple effects on creation of new industries and development of the existing industries. The survey committee is organized, for exchanging opinions and information, and collection of information. For the trends of the photon-aided processing technologies, information on the elementary and peripheral technologies is collected by literature survey and academic meetings for processing, applied instrumentation and analysis, and photon generation/controlling, to grasp, analyze and study the latest trends. For the photon-utilizing technologies, information is collected viewed from their application to wide industrial areas, e.g., medical, diagnostic, communication/transmission, multimedia and chemical areas, other than those for instrumentation and processing. Also surveyed and analyzed/studied are the technologies for environmental protection, sensing, information, and the new areas, e.g., terahertz photonics and agriculture. (NEDO)

  2. FY 2000 report on the results of the regional consortium R and D project - Regional consortium energy R and D. Third year report. R and D of a hybrid pulse plasma coating (HPPC) system; 2000 nendo chiiki consortium kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo - chiiki consortium energy kenkyu kaihatsu. Hybrid gata pulse plasma coating (HPPC) system no kenkyu kaihatsu (dai 3 nendo) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The development was proceeded with of the surface reforming technology system in which plasma CVD technology and PSII (plasma source ion implantation) technology are connected. HPPC forms DLC (diamond like carbon) layers excellent in adhesion and ceramic layers on the surface of work pieces such as complicatedly shaped dies and tools/sliding parts. Element technologies are the raw material gas pulse introducing technology for efficiently introducing raw materials into the reaction container in a state of gas, high density plasma formation technology and pulse plasma formation technology, minus pulse voltage application technology for vertically implanting various ions on the surface of complicatedly shaped work pieces, and advanced hybrid control technology enabling the control of ion species/implantation amount/layer formation speed. In FY 2000, using the prototype of the HPPC system, studies were made of the development of the DLC layer process and the low temperature DLC layer process, and development and commercialization of technology to improve throwing power, etc. (NEDO)

  3. FY 2000 report on development of the infrastructure to promote use of fuel cells for automobiles. Development of the infrastructure to spread stationary polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) systems; 2000 nendo nenryo denchi fukyu kiban seibi seika hokokusho. Teichiyo kotai kobunshigata nenryo denchi no fukyu kiban seibi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Described herein are the results of the FY 2000 studies on development of the infrastructures necessary for introduction and spread of stationary polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) systems. This project is aimed at establishment of testing and evaluation methods for safety, reliability, performance and so on, and collection of the data, both domestic and foreign, for drafting rules and standardization. The methods are studied to collect the data for the start-up/shut-down operations and rated-load/partial-load operations; establishing the methods for safety evaluation when inert gas purging is dispensed with; and dependence of the cell stack on current, carbon monoxide concentration and cell temperature to establish the basic performance testing methods. The makers are independently developing the stationary PEFC systems, and the data of the selected systems are collected individually as the test systems. The cell stacks also adopt different humidification and cooling methods by makers, and they are tested and their data are collected and analyzed, in order to establish the common testing methods. (NEDO)

  4. FY2000 report of the research results of medical/engineering cooperative research project, fundamental research on diagnosis/treatment systems by imaging higher order information of living systems; 2000 nendo igaku kogaku renkeigata kenkyu jigyo koji seitai joho no gazoka ni yoru shindan chiryo system ni kansuru kiban kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The research and development efforts are made for the fundamental technology necessary for visualizing higher order information of the physiological functions of the organs and tissues at high precision and non-invasively, and for supporting treatment of the malignant tumor and cerebrovascular diseases, while keeping the functions of the affected organs intact, and the FY 2000 results are reported. The program for the visualizing techniques includes development of the pulse sequence for commercializing the proton and carbon magnetic resonance spectrometric imaging (MRSI), and development of the prototype 1H/13C-detecting circuit. The program for the real-time analysis of tissue dynamics includes production of cine-images of, e.g., the peristalsis of the uterus, to accumulate the basic data for monitoring dynamics of the abdominal organs. The program for systems for supporting treatment while keeping the functions of the affected organs intact includes the MR-aided temperature-sensing systems, and improvement of the techniques for correcting motion of the measured organs by extracting characteristic points in the images taken and of MR-aided temperature sensing accuracy. The program for radiotherapy and ultrasonic therapy of malignant tumors in the body stems includes development of high-accuracy irradiation system aided by real-time three-dimensional body motion monitoring system. (NEDO)

  5. FY 2000 report on the results of the technology development of energy use reduction of machine tools. Development of dry cutting use abrasion resistant/lubricous coated tools; 2000 nendo energy shiyo gorika kosaku kikai nado gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Dry sessakuyo taimamo junkatsusei hifuku kogu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of energy conservation and reduction of environmental loads of machine tools, study was conducted on the dry cutting which is the cutting with no use of cutting oil, and the FY 2000 results were summed up. The study was made on dry cutting use abrasion resistance/lubricous coated tools coated with the composite membrane of which the cutting life become little lower than that of existing tools using coolant. In the survey of abrasion resistant/lubricous films, it was found out that in the adhesion to ultra-hard substrates, the DLC single-layer film consisting only of carbon indicated the same excellent adhesion as intermediate-layer inserts. As to the synthesis of abrasion resistant/lubricous films, the synthesis of the composite membrane (WC/C membrane) consisting of tungsten carbide (WC) and carbon (C) was made using arc ion plating device. The WC/C membrane is composed of W and C and has the structure in which at nm levels the layer with much W and the layer with less W were alternately piled. Study was made of devices necessary for the development of abrasion resistant/lubricous films and the film formation for drill. (NEDO)

  6. FY 2000 report on the results of the new regional consortium R and D project - Immediately effective type new regional consortium R and D. Study of the developmental technology for high-density recording materials using inverter plasma; 2000 nendo chiiki shinsei konsosiamu kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo - Sokkogata chiiki shinsei konsosiamu. Inbata purazuma wo mochiita komitsudo kiroku zairyo kaihatsu gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    For the purpose of reducing the price and size of large-capacity hard disk drive (HDD), using inverter plasma technology, developmental study was conducted of production technology of substrate for HDD using blue sheet glass as a main material and film formation technology in the media for HDD, and the FY 2000 results were reported. In the development of low-cost glass substrate, formation technology of the barrier layer to block the elution of alkali component was developed for blue sheet glass substrate. As to the development of formation technology of low-cost recording layer, developmental study was made of technology of formation of the layer as undercoat of magnetic recording layer onto the barrier layer. As a result of the experiment, the following were confirmed: metal chromium is well fit for the barrier layer and can be a proposed material of undercoat; it is possible to construct the magnetic media layer on the glass substrate. Concerning the development of the inverter plasma film formation unit, a unit was developed where it is possible to form the film of blue sheet glass substrate with a size of 3.5 inches. (NEDO)

  7. FY 2000 report on the results of the regional consortium R and D project. First year report. Regional new technology creation R and D. Development of the technology to produce useful substances by biosynthesis engineering; 2000 nendo chiiki consortium kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo - chiiki shingijutsu soshutsu kenkyu kaihatsu. Seigosei kogaku ni yoru yuyo busshitsu seisan gijutsu no kaihatsu (shonendo) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    On the basis of the basement technology such as the cloning technology of biosynthesis enzyme gene groups of secondary metabolite of plant and the identification technology of the expression protein enzyme function in the heterologous expression system, the development was proceeded with of the technology to produce useful substances using the biosynthesis function of plant components. Studies were made in the following four fields: 1) cloning of genes of useful biosynthetic plants and functional elucidation/application of the related genes; 2) analytical technology of genes and proteome; 3) development of plant genome database; 4) comprehensive investigational study. In FY 2000, in 1), the cloning was conducted of biosynthetic enzyme genes of oxidation resistant polyphenol, bioactive triterpenoid saponin, etc., and the function of a part of the enzyme proteins was elucidated. In 2), as the basic technology for improving producibility of secondary electrophoresis, fabricated was the electrophoresis chip so structured that slide glasses on which micro-channels were two-dimensionally fabricated were joined. (NEDO)

  8. FY 2000 report on the results of the supplementary project for the development of energy utilization rationalization technology. Leading study for the development of high efficiency thermoelectric converter; 2000 nendo energy shiyo gorika gijutsu kaihatsu hojo jigyo seika hokokusho. Kokoritsu netsuden henkan soshi kaihatsu sendo kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-05-01

    For the purpose of energy conservation and environmental protection by effective utilization of unused waste heat, the R and D of thermoelectric conversion technology were conducted, and the FY 2000 results were summed up. In the investigative study of thermoelectric converting materials, evaluation was made of the materials having a possibility of achieving the target with the element efficiency of 6% and the assumed use temperature domain of 120-330 degrees C. The result of the study indicated that the number of new materials which were made public was increasing, but there were no materials that have evidently practical applicability. In the investigative study of element manufacturing technology, trial manufacture of element was made in which the investigative results were integrated into the existing 50W element manufacturing technology, and a target of 70W was achieved. In the investigative study of the thermoelectric conversion system for industrial and commercial/residential use, field survey and questionnaire survey were conducted for three fields of iron works, chemical plant and garbage disposal plant. As a result, it was found that there was a large amount of waste heat. By the study of the system conceptional design, it was found out that the output of 40-50kW can be obtained in the system structure suitable for the source of waste heat of iron works, etc. (NEDO)

  9. FY 2000 report on the results of the research and development project for utilization of information of high-molecular-weight structures in a living body. Survey on the technological trends of utilizing the reactions with metals in a living body; 2000 nendo seitai kobunshi kozo joho riyo gijutsu kaihatsu chosa hokokusho. 'Seitai kinzoku hanno riyo gijutsu' ni kansuru gijutsu doko chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Described herein are the FY 2000 results of the survey on the technological trends of utilizing the reactions with metals in a living body, noting the bio-processes effectively coping with the environmental problems. The effects of heavy metals on microorganisms have been investigated on the molecular biology level, but are not fully elucidated. Recently, the microorganisms capable of converting inorganic metal ions in water into the insoluble compounds have been known, leading to possibility of bioremediation to solve pollution by heavy metals, which have detrimental effects on human health. Heavy metals must be recovered, because they are not extinct by decomposition. The plant aided purification has been attracting attention to cope with heavy metals accumulated in soil. Application of bacteria-aided leaching, which is adopted as one ore smelting process, to the technologies for utilizing metals in a living body has been expected, because diversified activities of inanimate matters in extreme environments have been known. Recently, bio-machining of metals aided by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, one species of independent nutrient bacteria capable of eating metals, has been developed to a potentially viable stage. (NEDO)

  10. FY 2000 report on the results of the research and development project for new industry creation type industrial science technologies. Cluster ion beam process technology; 2000 nendo shinki sangyo soshutsugata sangyo kagaku gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu seido seika hokokusho. Cluster ion beam process technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Described herein are the FY 2000 results of development of cluster ion beams. This technology generates the strong ion beams of atom and molecule clusters, and irradiate them onto the solid surfaces, to create new materials or treat materials. It allows the nano-level treatment. The program for high-current cluster ion beam generation/irradiation technology for industrial purposes attains the target high-current beam of 500{mu}m. It is necessary to establish the optimum cluster size, irradiated energy and ion species for the highly functional surface treatment, for which applicable technologies, e.g., those related to time of flight and molecular dynamics, are developed. Studies on high-current, large-area irradiation technologies are started. The program for material processing technologies involves evaluation of crystalline defects formed during the beam implantation by photoluminescence spectroscopy, and studies on semiconductor surface processing technologies. The surface smoothening technology is investigated to reduce crystalline defects and stress-induced strains for difficult-to-process materials, e.g., SiC and diamond, and the good results are produced. The program for development of superflat/superhard thin film formation technology involves irradiation of the Ar ion beams during the deposition of C{sub 60}(fullerene), to produce the superhard thin film. (NEDO)

  11. FY2000 report of the research results on medical/engineering cooperative research project, fundamental research for minimally invasive/super-selective localized diagnosis and treatment; 2000 nendo igaku kogaku renkeigata kenkyu jigyo teishinshu kokando sentakuteki kyokusho shindan chiryo ichigenka system no kiban kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The research and development efforts are made for super-selective localized diagnosis and treatment and simultaneous observation of the treatment results at the catheter edge point, based on the molecular biology and gene engineering methods, and the FY 2000 results are reported. The program for investigating the catheter hardware designs include the diagrammatic evaluation of a multi-lumen multi-functional laparoscope and pancreatoscope for localized diagnosis and medical treatment. The program for development of diagnostic technology leads to development of double staining of cancer cells and macrophage, which allows the in vivo analysis of the cell-to-cell interactions. The program for studying the technology related to affective genes which can be diagnosed and treated by a catheter includes cloning of genes for therapy of chronic glomerular nephritis and adrenal neoplasm, and those for liver regeneration. The program for method of local delivery of genes includes studies on therapy of metastatic cancer of lymph node using liposome and adenovirus as a gene carrier, and on pulse laser delivery for local and efficient delivery of the genes. (NEDO)

  12. FY 2000 report on the results of the regional consortium R and D project - Regional consortium field. Second year report. Development of the technology to combine plastic and metal using biodegradable natural polymer; 2000 nendo chiiki consortium kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo - chiiki consortium bun'ya. Seibunkaisei tennen plastic to kinzoku no fukugoka gijutsu no kaihatsu (dai 2 nendo) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The development was proceeded with of the electromagnetic wave shielding technology composed of plastic body, chitosan containing biodegradable coating and electroless metal plating layer. Key technologies are for formation of biodegradable electroless plating use coating using chitosan as chemical adsorption carrier of Pd and for separation of the body and the metal thin film by the environment-harmony method for recovery of the material. Studies were made in the following 5 fields: 1) method to produce low molecular chitin and chitosan; 2) application of biodegradable materials to electromagnetic wave shielding; 3) evaluation of physical properties and function of a new electromagnetic wave shielding system; 4) R and D of the degradation method of the new electromagnetic wave shielding system; 5) comprehensive investigational study. In FY 2000, in 1), conditions for production of chitosan degrading enzymes were determined, and also the scale of bio-reactor was increased up to 20L. Further, chitosan was so re-synthesized that it disperses to the electroless plating use primer. (NEDO)

  13. FY 2000 Immediate-effect type project for research and development for international standards supporting information technology industries. Standardization of the testing/evaluation methods for displays for information processing devices; 2000 nendo joho sangyo shien sokkogata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Joho shori kikiyo display no shiken hyoka hoho no hyojunka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Described herein are the FY 2000 results of the tests and studies for the methods of testing and evaluating the transparent electroconductive films necessary for production and product evaluation of liquid crystal displays, for their international standardization. The studies are directed to the testing/evaluation methods for internal stresses and adhesion force, surface shapes, and microstructures, and also to surveys on the market/technology trends, and preparation of the international standard drafts, among others. These result in, e.g., development of the quantitative evaluation technologies for internal stresses by the micro-sheet glass method, and surface shapes by atomic force microscopy. The local grain size and orientation are elucidated by transmission electron microscopy, to obtain new knowledge of the microstructures. Various technologies related to adhesion testing/evaluation methods are proposed for ISO/TC206, but it is found none is applicable to transparent electroconductive films. The standard drafts are prepared for standardization of the testing/evaluation methods for internal stresses, adhesion force and surface shapes. (NEDO)

  14. FY 2000 report on the results of the development of the environmentally friendly type high efficiency energy utilization system. Part 1. Study of the effective utilization technology of high efficiency energy (Study of the optimum system design technology); 2000 nendo kankyo chowagata kokoritsu energy riyo system kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 1. Kokoritsu energy yuko riyo gijutsu no kenkyu (saiteki system sekkei gijutsu no kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-05-01

    The paper conducted the development of element technology and comprehensive adjustment which are related to the development of the environmentally friendly type high efficiency energy utilization system and the study of the high efficiency energy utilization technology, and the results of FY 2000, the final fiscal year, were summed up. As to the R and D of the exhaust heat reforming/recovery system, the internal heat exchange type distillation tower was developed which has a good energy conservation effect and enables the heat supply outside. Concerning the R and D of the cogeneration system using low calorie exhaust gas, the following were conducted for further improvement of the performance of electrothermic elements: evaluation of the thermoelectric performance using bulk elements, development of new elements and evaluation of the energy balance at the time of combustion, etc. Relating to the R and D of the low temperature exhaust heat utilization cogeneration system, conducted were the development of thermoelectric materials and the fabrication/evaluation study of module. Moreover, WATT20A equipped with the original power generation module developed in this study was fabricated, and the data on the operation at the temperature of 150 degrees C were obtained by WATT-20HT. (NEDO)

  15. FY 2000 report on the results of the R and D of 'frontier carbon technology.' Development of the high function control system for power generation; 2000 nendo 'tansokei kokino zairyo gijutsu' no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Hatsuden'yo kokino kanri system kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-05-01

    This report summarized the FY 2000 results. Items for study were as follows: 1) original production technology of substrates; 2) original production process technology of mechanically high function materials; 3) comprehensive survey; 4) formation of common basement technology. In 1), for the purpose of developing carbon materials with heat resistance and corrosion resistance in the oxidation atmosphere at 650 degrees C or more, the development of the rail gun spraying method and the device was conducted. It enabled the spraying of high melting point/high hardness materials. It was very difficult to do it by the existing technology. In 2), subjects are the composition gradient film forming technology, large area film forming technology, etc. By making positive use of characteristics such as low friction/low abrasion and high temperature corrosion resistance which can be expected of frontier carbon materials, it is planned to apply them to the operational part of various industrial machines and for the protection of the surface of high temperature members. In 3), study was made to widen the application field of frontier carbon materials excellent in environmental harmony by the mechanical field. In 4), R and D were carried out of the basic theory/principle/conception, realization of them, systematical arrangement, acquisition/arrangement of the data on new characteristics. (NEDO)

  16. FY 2000 Development of technologies for optimization control of reducing power loss during the service period. Report on the research and development results of the 'building total cooperation control by micro-internet technologies'; 2000 nendo kadoji denki sonshitsu sakugen saiteki seigyo gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Micro internet gijutsu ni yoru biru total kyocho seigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The research and development project is implemented for development of the energy-saving optimization/control system which continuously monitors/controls all of the energy-consuming appliances in a building for their optimization, and the FY 2000 results are reported. The program for the sensing technologies involves a human tracking system aided by fish-eye images and human region sensing technologies based on the neuro technologies, and introduces an animated image simulation system aided by a personal computer. The researches on the building total cooperation control involve establishment of the system designs for controlling heat sources, based on the thermal loads predicted by the information network system. The researches on the micro-internet technologies involve development of the prototype unit which collects information from indoor environment sensors (e.g., for room temperature, luminous intensity and CO2 concentration), and interface devices which collect information from the sub-systems, e.g., air conditioners and heat sources. These systems are completed. The demonstration and assessment program involves designs of the instrumentation systems and network environments. The designs are completed, and various sensors and monitors are installed. (NEDO)

  17. FY 2000 report on development of the infrastructure to promote use of fuel cells for automobiles. Establishment of the base data for fuel quality standardization; 2000 nendo jidoshayo nenryo denchi no fukyu kiban seibi seika hokokusho. Nenryo seijo kikakuka no tame no base data chikuseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    This project is aimed at studies on the effects of impurities and additives in hydrogen and methanol fuels, to establish the base data for fuel quality standardization and thereby to promote use of fuel cells for automobiles. Described herein are the FY 2000 results. Literature survey is conducted for the effects of the impurities on performance of the cells and hydrogen-occluding alloys, and various additives for improving safety, e.g., odorants, flame visualizers for hydrogen, and fuel colorants and flame visualizers for methanol. Under the present standards, the cell and alloy performance may be affected by the impurities, e.g., CO and sulfur compounds. The commercial products are sampled, to analyze the impurity components and their concentrations. Hydrogen produced by various processes contains a high proportion of CO before being refined, which may adversely affect the performance. Methanol sampled from less frequently used refilling stations contains high proportions of carbonyl compounds, and it is necessary to confirm their effects of the reformer. In order to investigate the effects of impurities, the performance tests are conducted using the test apparatuses for performance evaluation of power generation by fuel cells and hydrogen-occluding alloys. Propane is found to be an effective flame visualizer for hydrogen, but should be contained at 5% or more to visualize the flame. (NEDO)

  18. FY 2000 report on the results of the R and D of 'frontier carbon technology.' R and D of a system to support production of undersea oil; 2000 nendo 'tansokei kokino zairyo gijutsu' no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kaitei sekiyu seisan shien system kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-05-01

    This report summarized the results of the FY 2000 R and D of frontier carbon technology (FCT). In Chapter 1, technology of original production of substances, new carbon-base substances such as hetero-diamond and carbon nitride with high-grade and various characteristics are synthesized. And, the following are also established: method to synthesize nanotubes, etc. in quantity, technology to control interatomic bonding, technology to control hetero-element replacement, etc. BCN films were obtained by film formation by changing the gas component ratio of diborane, methane and nitrogen by the electron beam excitation CVD method. The sp{sup 3} bonding control in carbon film was advanced. By reacting benzene with raw materials using nickel phthalocyanine as catalyst, carbon nanotube with a 60nm diameter was obtained. Using ECRCVD device, carbon fiber was synthesized on Si substrate. In Chapter 2, original production process technology of mechanical high function materials, subjects are as follows: composition gradient film forming technology, complicated morphology film formation/micro processing technology, technology to apply carbon-base materials to tribology. The application of the materials to the movable part of various industrial machines is considered by making use of characteristics such as low friction and low abrasion which are expected of amorphous carbon, diamond, carbon nitride, etc. (NEDO)

  19. FY 2000 report on the survey of the project on field tests on the introduction of high performance industrial furnaces. Analysis/evaluation of the collected data; 2000 nendo koseino kogyoro donyu field test jigyo chosa hokokusho. Shushu data kaiseki hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of achieving the target of reduction in CO2 regarded as substance causing global warming which was agreed at COP3, the study has been made since FY 1993 on 'the development of high performance industrial furnaces (regenerative combustion furnace using heat storage type burner for realization of high temperature air combustion).' By applying the good results obtained, a field test project for introduction of high performance industrial furnace has been implemented for three years (FY 1998 - FY 2000) to confirm the actual performance, reliability, etc. Collection/arrangement were made mainly of the data obtained in this field test project for the introduction of high performance industrial furnaces in each fiscal year (1998, 1999 and 2000), and verification/evaluation and arrangement were made. In this R and D, energy conservation was achieved at a rate of more than 30% of the target. Also about NOx, the result was obtained that the NOx by energy saving can be reduced 50% in almost all kinds of furnace if adding the reduction amount in emission amount and the reduction amount by high temperature air combustion. About the quality, the good result was obtained. Downsizing was conducted in approximately 10 examples. (NEDO)

  20. FY 2000 Project of developing international standards for supporting new industries. Standardization of the marine environment analyzers (Analyzers for measuring CO2 in ocean); 2000 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Kaiyo kankyo keisoku kiki (kaiyo CO2 sokutei kanren kikirui) no hyojunka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Described herein are the FY 2000 results of the research and development of analyzers and analytical procedures necessary for evaluating CO2 abatement effects and fixed quantities in ocean, for proposing the international standards. The program for studying the analytical procedures makes a literature survey mainly on papers and also on patent publications, to collect the data related to this project and establish the database. The program for measuring CO2 in deep ocean studies a suspension type CO2 profiler with a liquid-liquid leveler and develops a small-size, high-precision device serviceable at a depth of 3,000m, around 1m in length and 40kg in weight. The program for flux meters tests various commercial sensors, to obtain the design requirements for the sensor of improved functions to withstand splashes and rolling/pitching. The program for CO2 flux measurement methods study aims at the eddy correlation method, which is the most direct procedure involving limited number of assumptions, after having investigated various procedures, to improve precision of the sensor. (NEDO)

  1. FY 2000 report on the results of the development of commercialization technology of the photovoltaic power system. International cooperation project (Collection of the information on the IEA Solar Heating and Cooling Program); 2000 nendo seika hokokusho. Taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu kokusai jigyo kyoryoku (IEA taiyo reidanbo kyuto program ni kansuru joho shushu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    By sending specialists including mostly members of the IEA (International Energy Agency)/SHCP (Solar Heating and Cooling Program) to the Executive Committee Meeting of SHCP and the Task Specialist Meeting, information was collected, and the FY 2000 results were summarized. The mission of this implementing agreement by 2004 was to positively support the creation of the future environmentally sustainable by using solar design/technology to a high degree. For it, the following were to be carried out: development of solar technology including the cost reduction through the joint research with enterprises, construction of the international market, supply of the required information, quantification of the effectiveness of solar technology for the environment, tackling with the international standardization for expansion of the use in the building sector, promotion of solar technology utilization in developing countries, etc. In this fiscal year, finished were Task 19: Solar air/heat collecting system and Task 21: Natural lighting in buildings. Activities of Tasks 22-26, which started in the previous fiscal year, were continued. Activities of Tasks 27, 28 and 29 were newly started in this fiscal year. (NEDO)

  2. Cryptographic analysis on the key space of optical phase encryption algorithm based on the design of discrete random phase mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chao; Shen, Xueju; Li, Zengyan

    2013-07-01

    The key space of phase encryption algorithm using discrete random phase mask is investigated by numerical simulation in this paper. Random phase mask with finite and discrete phase levels is considered as the core component in most practical optical encryption architectures. The key space analysis is based on the design criteria of discrete random phase mask. The role of random amplitude mask and random phase mask in optical encryption system is identified from the perspective of confusion and diffusion. The properties of discrete random phase mask in a practical double random phase encoding scheme working in both amplitude encoding (AE) and phase encoding (PE) modes are comparably analyzed. The key space of random phase encryption algorithm is evaluated considering both the encryption quality and the brute-force attack resistibility. A method for enlarging the key space of phase encryption algorithm is also proposed to enhance the security of optical phase encryption techniques.

  3. Energy efficient rateless codes for high speed data transfer over free space optical channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Geetha; Kulkarni, Muralidhar; Acharya, U. S.

    2015-03-01

    Terrestrial Free Space Optical (FSO) links transmit information by using the atmosphere (free space) as a medium. In this paper, we have investigated the use of Luby Transform (LT) codes as a means to mitigate the effects of data corruption induced by imperfect channel which usually takes the form of lost or corrupted packets. LT codes, which are a class of Fountain codes, can be used independent of the channel rate and as many code words as required can be generated to recover all the message bits irrespective of the channel performance. Achieving error free high data rates with limited energy resources is possible with FSO systems if error correction codes with minimal overheads on the power can be used. We also employ a combination of Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) with provision for modification of threshold and optimized LT codes with belief propagation for decoding. These techniques provide additional protection even under strong turbulence regimes. Automatic Repeat Request (ARQ) is another method of improving link reliability. Performance of ARQ is limited by the number of retransmissions and the corresponding time delay. We prove through theoretical computations and simulations that LT codes consume less energy per bit. We validate the feasibility of using energy efficient LT codes over ARQ for FSO links to be used in optical wireless sensor networks within the eye safety limits.

  4. Multilevel microvibration test for performance predictions of a space optical load platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shiqi; Zhang, Heng; Liu, Shiping; Wang, Yue

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents a framework for the multilevel microvibration analysis and test of a space optical load platform. The test framework is conducted on three levels, including instrument, subsystem, and system level. Disturbance source experimental investigations are performed to evaluate the vibration amplitude and study vibration mechanism. Transfer characteristics of space camera are validated by a subsystem test, which allows the calculation of transfer functions from various disturbance sources to optical performance outputs. In order to identify the influence of the source on the spacecraft performance, a system level microvibration measurement test has been performed on the ground. From the time domain analysis and spectrum analysis of multilevel microvibration tests, we concluded that the disturbance source has a significant effect on its installation position. After transmitted through mechanical links, the residual vibration reduces to a background noise level. In addition, the angular microvibration of the platform jitter is mainly concentrated in the rotation of y-axes. This work is applied to a real practical application involving the high resolution satellite camera system.

  5. Performance analysis of stationary Hadamard matrix diffusers in free-space optical communication links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrell, Derek J.; Middlebrook, Christopher T.

    2017-08-01

    Wireless communication systems that employ free-space optical links in place of radio/microwave technologies carry substantial benefits in terms of data throughput, network security and design efficiency. Along with these advantages comes the challenge of counteracting signal degradation caused by atmospheric turbulence in free-space environments. A fully coherent laser source experiences random phase delays along its traversing path in turbulent conditions forming a speckle pattern and lowering the received signal-to-noise ratio upon detection. Preliminary research has shown that receiver-side speckle contrast may be significantly reduced and signal-to-noise ratio increased accordingly through the use of a partially coherent light source. While dynamic diffusers and adaptive optics solutions have been proven effective, they also add expense and complexity to a system that relies on accessibility and robustness for successful implementation. A custom Hadamard diffractive matrix design is used to statically induce partial coherence in a transmitted beam to increase signal-to-noise ratio for experimental turbulence scenarios. Atmospheric phase screens are generated using an open-source software package and subsequently loaded into a spatial light modulator using nematic liquid crystals to modulate the phase.

  6. Acousto-optic pointing and tracking systems for free-space laser communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikulin, V.; Khandekar, R.; Sofka, J.; Tartakovsky, G.

    2005-08-01

    Implementation of long-range laser communication systems holds great promise for high-bandwidth applications. They are viewed as a technology that in the nearest future will handle most of the "last mile" communication traffic for the individual subscribers, corporate offices, military, and possibly deep space probes. Indeed, lasers allow for concentration of energy within tightly focused beams and narrow spectral interval, thus offering high throughput, information security, weight and size of components and power requirements that could not be matched by RF systems. However, the advantages of optical communication systems come in the same package with several major challenges. In particular, high data rates should be complemented by high-precision wide-bandwidth position control of a laser beam. In many applications the ability to maintain a link is affected by the complex maneuvers performed by mobile communication platforms, resident vibrations, and atmospheric effects. The search for the most effective and reliable way to shape and steer the laser beam is an on-going effort. This paper is focused on the application of acousto-optic technology as an alternative to electro-mechanical devices. With realization that an acousto-optic Bragg cell is only a component of the entire communication system, which should perform complex tasks of acquisition, pointing, and tracking of the remote terminal, we present an attempt to consider this problem from the "systems" point of view.

  7. Exploiting Auto-Collimation for Real-Time Onboard Monitoring of Space Optical Camera Geometric Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W.; Wang, H.; Liu, D.; Miu, Y.

    2018-05-01

    Precise geometric parameters are essential to ensure the positioning accuracy for space optical cameras. However, state-of-the-art onorbit calibration method inevitably suffers from long update cycle and poor timeliness performance. To this end, in this paper we exploit the optical auto-collimation principle and propose a real-time onboard calibration scheme for monitoring key geometric parameters. Specifically, in the proposed scheme, auto-collimation devices are first designed by installing collimated light sources, area-array CCDs, and prisms inside the satellite payload system. Through utilizing those devices, the changes in the geometric parameters are elegantly converted into changes in the spot image positions. The variation of geometric parameters can be derived via extracting and processing the spot images. An experimental platform is then set up to verify the feasibility and analyze the precision index of the proposed scheme. The experiment results demonstrate that it is feasible to apply the optical auto-collimation principle for real-time onboard monitoring.

  8. Structural Feasibility Analysis of a Robotically Assembled Very Large Aperture Optical Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkie, William Keats; Williams, R. Brett; Agnes, Gregory S.; Wilcox, Brian H.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a feasibility study of robotically constructing a very large aperture optical space telescope on-orbit. Since the largest engineering challenges are likely to reside in the design and assembly of the 150-m diameter primary reflector, this preliminary study focuses on this component. The same technology developed for construction of the primary would then be readily used for the smaller optical structures (secondary, tertiary, etc.). A reasonable set of ground and on-orbit loading scenarios are compiled from the literature and used to define the structural performance requirements and size the primary reflector. A surface precision analysis shows that active adjustment of the primary structure is required in order to meet stringent optical surface requirements. Two potential actuation strategies are discussed along with potential actuation devices at the current state of the art. The finding of this research effort indicate that successful technology development combined with further analysis will likely enable such a telescope to be built in the future.

  9. Multilayer four-flux model for the optical degradation of thermal control coatings in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonon, C.; Rozé, C.; Girasole, T.; Duvignacq, Carole

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to generalize the four-flux radiative transfer model to the case of a multilayer medium. An application is presented with the study of the optical degradation of a white paint in simulated space environment. This paint is constituted of a mixing a zinc oxide and a silicone resin. A sample was irradiated with 45 keV protons and reflectance measurements were achieved in situ after each step of irradiation in order to see the evolution of the thermo-optical properties of the coating. These tests were completed after irradiation by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) in order to characterize the structure of the material and to detect possible structural changes due to the irradiation. This experimental investigation allowed us to define hypothesis to be introduced in the model. In particular, we assume that the optical degradation centered on 410 nm is due to a variation a-/+ of the imaginary part of the refractive index of zinc oxide in the damaged layer. The generalized four-flux model was validated by comparing numerical calculation with experiment.

  10. Reagentless chemiluminescence-based fiber optic sensors for regenerative life support in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwater, James E.; Akse, James R.; DeHart, Jeffrey; Wheeler, Richard R., Jr.

    1995-04-01

    The initial feasibility demonstration of a reagentless chemiluminescence based fiber optic sensor technology for use in advanced regenerative life support applications in space and planetary outposts is described. The primary constraints for extraterrestrial deployment of any technology are compatibility with microgravity and hypogravity environments; minimal size, weight, and power consumption; and minimal use of expendables due to the great expense and difficulty inherent to resupply logistics. In the current research, we report the integration of solid state flow through modules for the production of aqueous phase reagents into an integrated system for the detection of important analytes by chemiluminescence, with fiber optic light transmission. By minimizing the need for resupply expendables, the use of solid phase modules makes complex chemical detection schemes practical. For the proof of concept, hydrogen peroxide and glucose were chosen as analytes. The reaction is catalyzed by glucose oxidase, an immobilized enzyme. The aqueous phase chemistry required for sensor operation is implemented using solid phase modules which adjust the pH of the influent stream, catalyze the oxidation of analyte, and provide the controlled addition of the luminophore to the flowing aqueous stream. Precise control of the pH has proven essential for the long-term sustained release of the luminophore. Electrocatalysis is achieved using a controlled potential across gold mesh and gold foil electrodes which undergo periodic polarity reversals. The development and initial characterization of performance of the reagentless fiber optic chemiluminescence sensors are presented in this paper.

  11. Monitoring of facial stress during space flight: Optical computer recognition combining discriminative and generative methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinges, David F.; Venkataraman, Sundara; McGlinchey, Eleanor L.; Metaxas, Dimitris N.

    2007-02-01

    Astronauts are required to perform mission-critical tasks at a high level of functional capability throughout spaceflight. Stressors can compromise their ability to do so, making early objective detection of neurobehavioral problems in spaceflight a priority. Computer optical approaches offer a completely unobtrusive way to detect distress during critical operations in space flight. A methodology was developed and a study completed to determine whether optical computer recognition algorithms could be used to discriminate facial expressions during stress induced by performance demands. Stress recognition from a facial image sequence is a subject that has not received much attention although it is an important problem for many applications beyond space flight (security, human-computer interaction, etc.). This paper proposes a comprehensive method to detect stress from facial image sequences by using a model-based tracker. The image sequences were captured as subjects underwent a battery of psychological tests under high- and low-stress conditions. A cue integration-based tracking system accurately captured the rigid and non-rigid parameters of different parts of the face (eyebrows, lips). The labeled sequences were used to train the recognition system, which consisted of generative (hidden Markov model) and discriminative (support vector machine) parts that yield results superior to using either approach individually. The current optical algorithm methods performed at a 68% accuracy rate in an experimental study of 60 healthy adults undergoing periods of high-stress versus low-stress performance demands. Accuracy and practical feasibility of the technique is being improved further with automatic multi-resolution selection for the discretization of the mask, and automated face detection and mask initialization algorithms.

  12. Analysis of optical properties behaviour of CLEARCERAM, fused silica and CaF2 glasses exposed to simulated space conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Rodríguez, M.; Alvarado, C. G.; Núñez, A.; Álvarez-Herrero, A.

    2017-11-01

    Optical instrumentation on-board satellites suffer degradation due to the hostile conditions of space environment. Space conditions produce instrumentation performances changes causing a decrease or a cancellation of their features. Particularly, space environment conditions have a significant influence on the optical properties of glasses which are part of space optical systems. Space environment characteristics which effects on the optical system have to be taken into account are: outgassing, volatile components, gas or water vapor which form part of the spacecraft materials, vacuum, microgravity, micrometeorites, space debris, thermal, mechanical and radiation environment and effects of the high atmosphere [1]. This work is focused on analyzing temperature variations and ultraviolet (UV) and gamma radiation effects on the optical properties of several glasses used on space applications. Thermal environment is composed of radiation from the Sun, the albedo and the Earth radiation and the radiation from the spacecraft to deep space. Flux and influence of temperature on satellite materials depend on factors as the period of year or the position of them on the space system. Taking into account that the transfer mechanisms of heat are limited by the conduction and the radiation, high gradients of temperature are obtained in system elements which can cause changes of their optical properties, birefringence… Also, these thermal cycles can introduce mechanical loads into material structure due to the expansion and the contraction of the material leading to mechanical performances degradation [2]. However, it is the radiation environment the main cause of damage on optical properties of materials used on space instrumentation. This environment consists of a wide range of energetic particles between keV and MeV which are trapped by the geomagnetic field or are flux of particles that cross the Earth environment from the external of the Solar System [3]. The damage

  13. FY 2000 report on the results of the R and D of femtosecond technology. Development of the ultra-short pulse optoelectronic technology; 2000 nendo femto byo technology no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Chotan pulse hikari electronics gijutsu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    This project aims at creating new industrial basement technology which supports the highly information-oriented society in the 21st century, conducts the R and D of technology to control the state of light and electron in the femtosecond time domain (10{sup -15} - 10{sup -12} sec), and establishes the basement technology which exceeds the speed limit of the conventional electronics technology and also includes new functionality. Especially, it aims at establishing the basement technology of the ultra-high speed optoelectronics which are absolutely necessary for construction of the Tb/s class ultra-high speed/large capacity information communication infrastructure. The results obtained in this fiscal year were as follows: successful transmission of 144km of 600fs optical pulse, successful experiment of 4-chain pulse DEMUX equivalent to 1Tb/s by ultra-high speed intersubband transition optical switch of Sb-base material combination quantum well, realization of 2-bit coding/decoding in the spectral region, realization of serial-parallel conversion motion of optical pulse equivalent to 1Tb/s using squarylium J aggregate thin films, realization of subpico second optical pulse 20nm wavelength conversion by DFB laser structure, etc. (NEDO)

  14. Channel modelling for free-space optical inter-HAP links using adaptive ARQ transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathy, S.; Giggenbach, D.; Kirstädter, A.

    2014-10-01

    Free-space optical (FSO) communication systems have seen significant developments in recent years due to growing need for very high data rates and tap-proof communication. The operation of an FSO link is suited to diverse variety of applications such as satellites, High Altitude Platforms (HAPs), Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), aircrafts, ground stations and other areas involving both civil and military situations. FSO communication systems face challenges due to different effects of the atmospheric channel. FSO channel primarily suffers from scintillation effects due to Index of Refraction Turbulence (IRT). In addition, acquisition and pointing becomes more difficult because of the high directivity of the transmitted beam: Miss-pointing of the transmitted beam and tracking errors at the receiver generate additional fading of the optical signal. High Altitude Platforms (HAPs) are quasi-stationary vehicles operating in the stratosphere. The slowly varying but precisely determined time-of-flight of the Inter-HAP channel adds to its characteristics. To propose a suitable ARQ scheme, proper theoretical understanding of the optical atmospheric propagation and modeling of a specific scenario FSO channel is required. In this paper, a bi-directional symmetrical Inter-HAP link has been selected and modeled. The Inter-HAP channel model is then investigated via simulations in terms of optical scintillation induced by IRT and in presence of pointing error. The performance characteristic of the model is then quantified in terms of fading statistics from which the Packet Error Probability (PEP) is calculated. Based on the PEP characteristics, we propose suitable ARQ schemes.

  15. Design of a gigawatt space solar power satellite using optical concentrator system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessanti, B.; Komerath, N.; Shah, S.

    A 1-gigawatt space solar power satellite using a large array of individually pointable optical elements is identified as the key mass element of a large scale space solar power architecture using the Space Power Grid concept. The proposed satellite design enables a significant increase in specific power. Placed in sun-synchronous dynamic orbits near 2000km altitude, these satellites can maintain the constant solar view requirement of GEO-based architectures, while greatly reducing the beaming distance required, decreasing the required antenna size and in turn the overall system mass. The satellite uses an array of individually pointable optical elements (which we call a Mirasol Concentrator Array) to concentrate solar energy to an intensified feed target that feeds into the main heater of the spacecraft, similar conceptually to heliostat arrays. The spacecraft then utilizes Brayton cycle conversion to take advantage of non-linear power level scaling in order to generate high specific power values. Using phase array antennas, the power is then beamed at a millimeter wave frequency of 220GHz down to Earth. The design of the Mirasol concentrator system will be described and a detailed mass estimation of the system is developed. The technical challenges of pointing the elements and maintaining constant solar view is investigated. An end-to-end efficiency analysis is performed. Subsystem designs for the spacecraft are outlined. A detailed mass budget is refined to reflect reductions in uncertainty of the spacecraft mass, particularly in the Mirasol system. One of the key mass drivers of the spacecraft is the active thermal control system. The design of a lightweight thermal control system utilizing graphene sheets is also detailed.

  16. Deep-space and near-Earth optical communications by coded orbital angular momentum (OAM) modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, Ivan B

    2011-07-18

    In order to achieve multi-gigabit transmission (projected for 2020) for the use in interplanetary communications, the usage of large number of time slots in pulse-position modulation (PPM), typically used in deep-space applications, is needed, which imposes stringent requirements on system design and implementation. As an alternative satisfying high-bandwidth demands of future interplanetary communications, while keeping the system cost and power consumption reasonably low, in this paper, we describe the use of orbital angular momentum (OAM) as an additional degree of freedom. The OAM is associated with azimuthal phase of the complex electric field. Because OAM eigenstates are orthogonal the can be used as basis functions for N-dimensional signaling. The OAM modulation and multiplexing can, therefore, be used, in combination with other degrees of freedom, to solve the high-bandwidth requirements of future deep-space and near-Earth optical communications. The main challenge for OAM deep-space communication represents the link between a spacecraft probe and the Earth station because in the presence of atmospheric turbulence the orthogonality between OAM states is no longer preserved. We will show that in combination with LDPC codes, the OAM-based modulation schemes can operate even under strong atmospheric turbulence regime. In addition, the spectral efficiency of proposed scheme is N2/log2N times better than that of PPM.

  17. ANALYSIS OF RADAR AND OPTICAL SPACE BORNE DATA FOR LARGE SCALE TOPOGRAPHICAL MAPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Tampubolon

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Normally, in order to provide high resolution 3 Dimension (3D geospatial data, large scale topographical mapping needs input from conventional airborne campaigns which are in Indonesia bureaucratically complicated especially during legal administration procedures i.e. security clearance from military/defense ministry. This often causes additional time delays besides technical constraints such as weather and limited aircraft availability for airborne campaigns. Of course the geospatial data quality is an important issue for many applications. The increasing demand of geospatial data nowadays consequently requires high resolution datasets as well as a sufficient level of accuracy. Therefore an integration of different technologies is required in many cases to gain the expected result especially in the context of disaster preparedness and emergency response. Another important issue in this context is the fast delivery of relevant data which is expressed by the term “Rapid Mapping”. In this paper we present first results of an on-going research to integrate different data sources like space borne radar and optical platforms. Initially the orthorectification of Very High Resolution Satellite (VHRS imagery i.e. SPOT-6 has been done as a continuous process to the DEM generation using TerraSAR-X/TanDEM-X data. The role of Ground Control Points (GCPs from GNSS surveys is mandatory in order to fulfil geometrical accuracy. In addition, this research aims on providing suitable processing algorithm of space borne data for large scale topographical mapping as described in section 3.2. Recently, radar space borne data has been used for the medium scale topographical mapping e.g. for 1:50.000 map scale in Indonesian territories. The goal of this on-going research is to increase the accuracy of remote sensing data by different activities, e.g. the integration of different data sources (optical and radar or the usage of the GCPs in both, the optical and the

  18. Three-dimensional crossbar interconnection using planar-integrated free-space optics and digital mirror-device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, U.; Jahns, J.; Limmer, S.; Fey, D.

    2011-01-01

    We consider the implementation of a dynamic crossbar interconnect using planar-integrated free-space optics (PIFSO) and a digital mirror-device™ (DMD). Because of the 3D nature of free-space optics, this approach is able to solve geometrical problems with crossings of the signal paths that occur in waveguide optical and electrical interconnection, especially for large number of connections. The DMD device allows one to route the signals dynamically. Due to the large number of individual mirror elements in the DMD, different optical path configurations are possible, thus offering the chance for optimizing the network configuration. The optimization is achieved by using an evolutionary algorithm for finding best values for a skewless parallel interconnection. Here, we present results and experimental examples for the use of the PIFSO/DMD-setup.

  19. LEO-to-ground optical communications using SOTA (Small Optical TrAnsponder) - Payload verification results and experiments on space quantum communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco-Casado, Alberto; Takenaka, Hideki; Kolev, Dimitar; Munemasa, Yasushi; Kunimori, Hiroo; Suzuki, Kenji; Fuse, Tetsuharu; Kubo-Oka, Toshihiro; Akioka, Maki; Koyama, Yoshisada; Toyoshima, Morio

    2017-10-01

    Free-space optical communications have held the promise of revolutionizing space communications for a long time. The benefits of increasing the bitrate while reducing the volume, mass and energy of the space terminals have attracted the attention of many researchers for a long time. In the last few years, more and more technology demonstrations have been taking place with participants from both the public and the private sector. The National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) in Japan has a long experience in this field. SOTA (Small Optical TrAnsponder) was the last NICT space lasercom mission, designed to demonstrate the potential of this technology applied to microsatellites. Since the beginning of SOTA mission in 2014, NICT regularly established communication using the Optical Ground Stations (OGS) located in the Headquarters at Koganei (Tokyo) to receive the SOTA signals, with over one hundred successful links. All the goals of the SOTA mission were fulfilled, including up to 10-Mbit/s downlinks using two different wavelengths and apertures, coarse and fine tracking of the OGS beacon, space-to-ground transmission of the on-board-camera images, experiments with different error correcting codes, interoperability with other international OGS, and experiments on quantum communications. The SOTA mission ended on November 2016, more than doubling the designed lifetime of 1-year. In this paper, the SOTA characteristics and basic operation are explained, along with the most relevant technological demonstrations.

  20. Optical devices for proximity operations study and test report. [intensifying images for visual observation during space transportation system activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    Operational and physical requirements were investigated for a low-light-level viewing device to be used as a window-mounted optical sight for crew use in the pointing, navigating, stationkeeping, and docking of space vehicles to support space station operations and the assembly of large structures in space. A suitable prototype, obtained from a commercial vendor, was subjected to limited tests to determine the potential effectiveness of a proximity optical device in spacecraft operations. The constructional features of the device are discussed as well as concepts for its use. Tests results show that a proximity optical device is capable of performing low-light-level viewing services and will enhance manned spacecraft operations.

  1. A coherent free space optical link for long distance clock comparison, navigation, and communication: The Mini-Doll project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djerroud, K.; Samain, E.; Clairon, A.; Acef, O.; Man, N.; Lemonde, P.; Wolf, P.

    2017-11-01

    We describe the realization of a 5 km free space coherent optical link through the turbulent atmosphere between a telescope and a ground target. We present the phase noise of the link, limited mainly by atmospheric turbulence and mechanical vibrations of the telescope and the target. We discuss the implications of our results for applications, with particular emphasis on optical Doppler ranging to satellites and long distance frequency transfer.

  2. Free-Space Optical Communications: Capacity Bounds, Approximations, and a New Sphere-Packing Perspective

    KAUST Repository

    Chaaban, Anas; Morvan, Jean-Marie; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    The capacity of the free-space optical channel is studied. A new recursive approach for bounding the capacity of the channel based on sphere-packing is proposed. This approach leads to new capacity upper bounds for a channel with a peak intensity constraint or an average intensity constraint. Under an average constraint only, the derived bound is tighter than an existing sphere-packing bound derived earlier by Farid and Hranilovic. The achievable rate of a truncated-Gaussian input distribution is also derived. It is shown that under both average and peak constraints, this achievable rate and the sphere-packing bounds are within a small gap at high SNR, leading to a simple high-SNR capacity approximation. Simple fitting functions that capture the best known achievable rate for the channel are provided. These functions can be of practical importance especially for the study of systems operating under atmospheric turbulence and misalignment conditions.

  3. Differential phase-shift keying and channel equalization in free space optical communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dai; Hao, Shiqi; Zhao, Qingsong; Wan, Xiongfeng; Xu, Chenlu

    2018-01-01

    We present the performance benefits of differential phase-shift keying (DPSK) modulation in eliminating influence from atmospheric turbulence, especially for coherent free space optical (FSO) communication with a high communication rate. Analytic expression of detected signal is derived, based on which, homodyne detection efficiency is calculated to indicate the performance of wavefront compensation. Considered laser pulses always suffer from atmospheric scattering effect by clouds, intersymbol interference (ISI) in high-speed FSO communication link is analyzed. Correspondingly, the channel equalization method of a binormalized modified constant modulus algorithm based on set-membership filtering (SM-BNMCMA) is proposed to solve the ISI problem. Finally, through the comparison with existing channel equalization methods, its performance benefits of both ISI elimination and convergence speed are verified. The research findings have theoretical significance in a high-speed FSO communication system.

  4. Ergodic Capacity Analysis of Free-Space Optical Links with Nonzero Boresight Pointing Errors

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Imran Shafique

    2015-04-01

    A unified capacity analysis of a free-space optical (FSO) link that accounts for nonzero boresight pointing errors and both types of detection techniques (i.e. intensity modulation/ direct detection as well as heterodyne detection) is addressed in this work. More specifically, an exact closed-form expression for the moments of the end-to-end signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of a single link FSO transmission system is presented in terms of well-known elementary functions. Capitalizing on these new moments expressions, we present approximate and simple closedform results for the ergodic capacity at high and low SNR regimes. All the presented results are verified via computer-based Monte-Carlo simulations.

  5. Unified performance analysis of hybrid-ARQ with incremental redundancy over free-space optical channels

    KAUST Repository

    Zedini, Emna

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we carry out a unified performance analysis of hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) with incremental redundancy (IR) from an information theoretic perspective over a point-to-point free-space optical (FSO) system. First, we introduce a novel unified expression for the distribution of a single FSO link modeled by the Gamma fading that accounts for pointing errors subject to both types of detection techniques at the receiver side (i.e. heterodyne detection and intensity modulation with direct detection (IM/DD)). Then, we provide analytical expressions for the outage probability, the average number of transmissions, and the average transmission rate for HARQ with IR, assuming a maximum number of rounds for the HARQ protocol. In our study, the communication rate per HARQ round is constant. Our analysis demonstrates the importance of HARQ in improving the performance and reliability of FSO communication systems. All the given results are verified via computer-based Monte-Carlo simulations.

  6. Free-Space Optical Communications: Capacity Bounds, Approximations, and a New Sphere-Packing Perspective

    KAUST Repository

    Chaaban, Anas

    2016-02-03

    The capacity of the free-space optical channel is studied. A new recursive approach for bounding the capacity of the channel based on sphere-packing is proposed. This approach leads to new capacity upper bounds for a channel with a peak intensity constraint or an average intensity constraint. Under an average constraint only, the derived bound is tighter than an existing sphere-packing bound derived earlier by Farid and Hranilovic. The achievable rate of a truncated-Gaussian input distribution is also derived. It is shown that under both average and peak constraints, this achievable rate and the sphere-packing bounds are within a small gap at high SNR, leading to a simple high-SNR capacity approximation. Simple fitting functions that capture the best known achievable rate for the channel are provided. These functions can be of practical importance especially for the study of systems operating under atmospheric turbulence and misalignment conditions.

  7. Technique of fiber optics used to localize epidural space in piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Chien-Kun; Chang, Yin

    2010-05-24

    Technique of loss-of-resistance in epidural block is commonly used for epidural anesthesia in humans with approximately 90% successful rate. However, it may be one of the most difficult procedures to learn for anesthesia residents in hospital. A two-wavelength (650 nm and 532 nm) fiber-optical method has been developed according to the characteristic reflectance spectra of ex-vivo porcine tissues, which are associated with the needle insertion to localize the epidural space (ES). In an in-vivo study in piglets showed that the reflected lights from ES and its surrounding tissue ligamentum flavum (LF) are highly distinguishable. This indicates that this technique has potential to localize the ES on the spot without the help of additional guiding assistance.

  8. Performance analysis of coherent free space optical communications with sequential pyramid wavefront sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Yao, Kainan; Chen, Lu; Huang, Danian; Cao, Jingtai; Gu, Haijun

    2018-03-01

    Based-on the previous study on the theory of the sequential pyramid wavefront sensor (SPWFS), in this paper, the SPWFS is first applied to the coherent free space optical communications (FSOC) with more flexible spatial resolution and higher sensitivity than the Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor, and with higher uniformity of intensity distribution and much simpler than the pyramid wavefront sensor. Then, the mixing efficiency (ME) and the bit error rate (BER) of the coherent FSOC are analyzed during the aberrations correction through numerical simulation with binary phase shift keying (BPSK) modulation. Finally, an experimental AO system based-on SPWFS is setup, and the experimental data is used to analyze the ME and BER of homodyne detection with BPSK modulation. The results show that the AO system based-on SPWFS can increase ME and decrease BER effectively. The conclusions of this paper provide a new method of wavefront sensing for designing the AO system for a coherent FSOC system.

  9. Linear and nonlinear optical signals in probability and phase-space representations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Man'ko, Margarita A

    2006-01-01

    Review of different representations of signals including the phase-space representations and tomographic representations is presented. The signals under consideration are either linear or nonlinear ones. The linear signals satisfy linear quantumlike Schroedinger and von Neumann equations. Nonlinear signals satisfy nonlinear Schroedinger equations as well as Gross-Pitaevskii equation describing solitons in Bose-Einstein condensate. The Ville-Wigner distributions for solitons are considered in comparison with tomographic-probability densities describing solitons completely. different kinds of tomographies - symplectic tomography, optical tomography and Fresnel tomography are reviewed. New kind of map of the signals onto probability distributions of discrete photon number-like variable is discussed. Mutual relations between different transformations of signal functions are established in explicit form. Such characteristics of the signal-probability distribution as entropy is discussed

  10. Free-space optical communications with peak and average constraints: High SNR capacity approximation

    KAUST Repository

    Chaaban, Anas

    2015-09-07

    The capacity of the intensity-modulation direct-detection (IM-DD) free-space optical channel with both average and peak intensity constraints is studied. A new capacity lower bound is derived by using a truncated-Gaussian input distribution. Numerical evaluation shows that this capacity lower bound is nearly tight at high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), while it is shown analytically that the gap to capacity upper bounds is a small constant at high SNR. In particular, the gap to the high-SNR asymptotic capacity of the channel under either a peak or an average constraint is small. This leads to a simple approximation of the high SNR capacity. Additionally, a new capacity upper bound is derived using sphere-packing arguments. This bound is tight at high SNR for a channel with a dominant peak constraint.

  11. Performance Analysis of Free-Space Optical Communication Systems With Multiuser Diversity Over Atmospheric Turbulence Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Liang

    2014-04-01

    Free-space optical (FSO) communication has become a cost-effective method to provide high data rates. However, the turbulence-induced fading limits its application to short-range applications. To address this, we propose a multiuser diversity (MD) FSO scheme in which the Nth best user is selected and the channel fluctuations can be effectively exploited to produce a selection diversity gain. More specifically, we first present the statistics analysis for the considered system over both weak and strong atmospheric turbulence channels. Based on these statistics, the outage probability, bit-error rate performance, average capacity, diversity order, and coverage are analyzed. Results show that the diversity order for the gamma-gamma fading is N min{α, β}/2, where N is the number of users, and α and β are the channel fading parameters related to the effective atmospheric conditions of the link.

  12. Test and Evaluation of Fiber Optic Sensors for High-Radiation Space Nuclear Power Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klemer, Daniel; Fielder, Robert S.; Stinson-Bagby, Kelly L.

    2004-01-01

    Fiber optic sensors can be used to measure a number of parameters, including temperature, strain, pressure and flow, for instrumentation and control of space nuclear power systems. In the past, this technology has often been rejected for use in such a high-radiation environment based on early experiments that revealed a number of degradation phenomena, including radiation-induced fiber attenuation, or 'graying', and Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) fading and wavelength shift. However, this paper reports the results of recent experimental testing that demonstrates readability of fiber optic sensors to extremely high levels of neutron and gamma radiation. Both distributed Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors and single-point Extrinsic Fabry Perot Interferometer (EFPI) sensors were continuously monitored over a 2-month period, during which they were exposed to combined neutron and gamma radiation in both in-core and ex-core positions within a nuclear reactor. Total exposure reached approximately 2 x 10 19 cm -2 fast neutron (E > 1 MeV) fluence and 8.7 x 10 8 Gy gamma for in-core sensors. FBG sensors were interrogated using a standard Luna Innovations FBG measurement system, which is based on optical frequency-domain reflectometer (OFDR) technology. Approximately 74% of the 19 FBG sensors located at the core centerline in the in-core position exhibited sufficient signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) to remain readable even after receiving the maximum dose. EFPI sensors were spectrally interrogated using a broadband probe source operating in the 830 nm wavelength region. While these single-point sensors failed early in the test, important additional fiber spectral transmission data was collected, which indicates that interrogation of EFPI sensors in alternate wavelength regions may allow significant improvement in sensor longevity for operation in high-radiation environments. This work was funded through a Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) contract with the Nasa Glenn Research

  13. Combined effect of turbulence and aerosol on free-space optical links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libich, Jiri; Perez, Joaquin; Zvanovec, Stanislav; Ghassemlooy, Zabih; Nebuloni, Roberto; Capsoni, Carlo

    2017-01-10

    Despite the benefits of free-space optical (FSO) communications, their full utilization is limited by the influence of atmospheric weather conditions, such as fog, turbulence, smoke, snow, etc. In urban environments, additional environmental factors such as smog and dust particles due to air pollution caused by industry and motor vehicles may affect FSO link performance, which has not been investigated in detail yet. Both smog and dust particles cause absorption and scattering of the propagating optical signal, thus resulting in high attenuation. This work investigates the joint impact of atmospheric turbulence and dust particle-imposed scattering on FSO link performance as part of the last-mile access network in urban areas. Propagation of an optical wave is at first analyzed based on the microphysic approach, and the extinction caused by small particles is determined. An experimental measurement campaign using a dedicated test chamber is carried out to assess FSO link performance operating wavelengths of 670 nm and 830 nm and under dust and turbulent conditions. The measured attenuation and the Q factor in terms of the velocity of particle flow and turbulence strength are analyzed. We show that for an airflow of 2 m/s, the Q factor is almost 3.5 higher at the wavelength of 830 nm than at 670 nm. However, for a wavelength of 670 nm, the FSO link is less affected by the increase in airflow compared to 830 nm. The Q factor reduces with turbulence. Under similar turbulence conditions, for ash particles, the Q factor is higher than that of sand particles.

  14. Resilient backhaul network design using hybrid radio/free-space optical technology

    KAUST Repository

    Douik, Ahmed

    2016-07-26

    The radio-frequency (RF) technology is a scalable solution for the backhaul planning. However, its performance is limited in terms of data rate and latency. Free Space Optical (FSO) backhaul, on the other hand, offers a higher data rate but is sensitive to weather conditions. To combine the advantages of RF and FSO backhauls, this paper proposes a cost-efficient backhaul network using the hybrid RF/FSO technology. To ensure a resilient backhaul, the paper imposes a given degree of redundancy by connecting each node through K link-disjoint paths so as to cope with potential link failures. Hence, the network planning problem considered in this paper is the one of minimizing the total deployment cost by choosing the appropriate link type, i.e., either hybrid RF/FSO or optical fiber (OF), between each couple of base-stations while guaranteeing K link-disjoint connections, a data rate target, and a reliability threshold. The paper solves the problem using graph theory techniques. It reformulates the problem as a maximum weight clique problem in the planning graph, under a specified realistic assumption about the cost of OF and hybrid RF/FSO links. Simulation results show the cost of the different planning and suggest that the proposed heuristic solution has a close-to-optimal performance for a significant gain in computation complexity. © 2016 IEEE.

  15. Scanless nonlinear optical microscope for image reconstruction and space-time correlation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceffa, N. G.; Radaelli, F.; Pozzi, P.; Collini, M.; Sironi, L.; D'alfonso, L.; Chirico, G.

    2017-06-01

    Optical Microscopy has been applied to life science from its birth and reached widespread application due to its major advantages: limited perturbation of the biological tissue and the easy accessibility of the light sources. However, as the spatial and time resolution requirements and the time stability of the microscopes increase, researchers are struggling against some of its limitations: limited transparency and the refractivity of the living tissue to light and the field perturbations induced by the path in the tissue. We have developed a compact stand-alone, completely scan-less, optical setup that allows to acquire non-linear excitation images and to measure the sample dynamics simultaneously on an ensemble of arbitrary chosen regions of interests. The image is obtained by shining a square array of spots on the sample obtained by a spatial light modulator and by shifting it (10 ms refresh time) on the sample. The final image is computed from the superposition of (100-1000) images. Filtering procedures can be applied to the raw images of the excitation array before building the image. We discuss results that show how this setup can be used for the correction of wave front aberrations induced by turbid samples (such as living tissues) and for the computation of space-time cross-correlations in complex networks.

  16. Fiber optic sensing subsystem for temperature monitoring in space in-flight applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, S.; Araujo, F.; Pinto, F.; González Torres, J.; Rodriguez, R.; Moreno, M. A.

    2017-11-01

    Fiber Optic Sensor (FOS) technology presents long recognized advantages which enable to mitigate deficient performance of conventional technology in hazard-environments common in spacecraft monitoring applications, such as: multiplexing capability, immunity to EMI/RFI, remote monitoring, small size and weight, electrical insulation, intrinsically safe operation, high sensibility and long term reliability. A key advantage is also the potential reduction of Assembly Integration and Testing (AIT) time achieved by the multiplexing capability and associated reduced harness. In the frame of the ESA's ARTES5.2 and FLPP-Phase 3 programs, Airbus DS-Crisa and FiberSensing are developing a Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) - based temperature monitoring system for application in space telecommunication platforms and launchers. The development encompasses both the interrogation unit and the FBG temperature sensors and associated fiber harness. In parallel Airbus DS - Crisa is developing a modular RTU (RTU2015) to provide maximum flexibility and mission-customization capability for RTUs maintaining the ESA's standards at I/O interface level [1]. In this context, the FBG interrogation unit is designed as a module to be compatible, in both physical dimensions and electrical interfaces aspects, with the Electrical Internal Interface Bus of the RTU2015, thus providing the capability for a hybrid electrical and optical monitoring system.

  17. Hybrid Radio/Free-Space Optical Design for Next Generation Backhaul Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Douik, Ahmed

    2016-04-22

    The deluge of date rate in today\\'s networks imposes a cost burden on the backhaul network design. Developing cost-efficient backhaul solutions becomes an exciting, yet challenging, problem. Traditional technologies for backhaul networks, including either radio-frequency (RF) backhauls or optical fibers (OF). While RF is a cost-effective solution as compared with OF, it supports the lower data rate requirements. Another promising backhaul solution is the free-space optics (FSO) as it offers both a high data rate and a relatively low cost. The FSO, however, is sensitive to nature conditions, e.g., rain, fog, and line-of-sight. This paper combines both the RF and FSO advantages and proposes a hybrid RF/FSO backhaul solution. It considers the problem of minimizing the cost of the backhaul network by choosing either OF or hybrid RF/FSO backhaul links between the base stations, so as to satisfy data rate, connectivity, and reliability constraints. It shows that under a specified realistic assumption about the cost of OF and hybrid RF/FSO links, the problem is equivalent to a maximum weight clique problem, which can be solved with moderate complexity. Simulation results show that the proposed solution shows a close-to-optimal performance, especially for reasonable prices of the hybrid RF/FSO links. They further reveal that the hybrid RF/FSO is a cost-efficient solution and a good candidate for upgrading the existing backhaul networks. © 2016 IEEE.

  18. Free Space Optical (FSO) Communications, Towards the Speeds of Wireline Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2015-01-07

    Rapid increase in the use of wireless services over the last two decades has lead the problem of the radio-frequency (RF) spectrum exhaustion. More specifically, due to this RF spectrum scarcity, additional RF bandwidth allocation, as utilized in the recent past, is not anymore a viable solution to fulfill the demand for more wireless applications and higher data rates. Among the many proposed solutions, optical wireless communication or free-space optical (FSO) systems have gained an increasing interest due to their advantages including higher bandwidth and higher capacity compared to the traditional RF communication systems. This promising technology offers full-duplex Gigabit throughput in certain applications and environment while benefiting from a huge license-free spectrum, immunity to interference, and high security. These features of FSO communication systems potentially enable solving the issues that the RF communication systems face due to the expensive and scarce RF spectrum. The first part of the talk will give an overview of FSO communication systems by offering examples of advantages and application areas of this emerging technology. In the second part of talk, we will focus on some recent results and on-going research directions in the accurate characterization of the performance of FSO systems in the presence of inevitable impairments due to atmospheric turbulence and misalignment between transmitter and receiver.

  19. Novel CNC Grinding Process Control for Nanometric Surface Roughness for Aspheric Space Optical Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Yeol Han

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Optics fabrication process for precision space optical parts includes bound abrasive grinding, loose abrasive lapping and polishing. The traditional bound abrasive grinding with bronze bond cupped diamond wheel leaves the machine marks of about 20 μm rms in height and the subsurface damage of about 1 μm rms in height to be removed by subsequent loose abrasive lapping. We explored an efficient quantitative control of precision CNC grinding. The machining parameters such as grain size, work-piece rotation speed and feed rate were altered while grinding the work-piece surfaces of 20-100 mm in diameter. The input grinding variables and the resulting surface quality data were used to build grinding prediction models using empirical and multi-variable regression analysis. The effectiveness of such grinding prediction models was then examined by running a series of precision CNC grinding operation with a set of controlled input variables and predicted output surface quality indicators. The experiment achieved the predictability down to ±20 nm in height and the surface roughness down to 36 nm in height. This study contributed to improvement of the process efficiency reaching directly the polishing and figuring process without the need for the loose abrasive lapping stage.

  20. Free-space optical channel characterization and experimental validation in a coastal environment

    KAUST Repository

    Alheadary, Wael Ghazy

    2018-03-05

    Over the years, free-space optical (FSO) communication has attracted considerable research interest owing to its high transmission rates via the unbounded and unlicensed bandwidths. Nevertheless, various weather conditions lead to significant deterioration of the FSO link capabilities. In this context, we report on the modelling of the channel attenuation coefficient (β) for a coastal environment and related ambient, considering the effect of coastal air temperature (T), relative humidity (RH) and dew point (TD) by employing a mobile FSO communication system capable of achieving a transmission rate of 1 Gbps at an outdoor distance of 70 m for optical beam wavelengths of 1310 nm and 1550 nm. For further validation of the proposed models, an indoor measurement over a 1.5 m distance utilizing 1310 nm, 1550 nm, and 1064 nm lasers was also performed. The first model provides a general link between T and β, while the second model provides a relation between β, RH as well as TD. By validating our attenuation coefficient model with actual outdoor and indoor experiments, we obtained a scaling parameter x and decaying parameter c values of 19.94, 40.02, 45.82 and 0.03015, 0.04096, 0.0428 for wavelengths of 1550, 1310, 1064 nm, respectively. The proposed models are well validated over the large variation of temperature and humidity over the FSO link in a coastal region and emulated indoor environment.

  1. Photometric redshifts for weak lensing tomography from space: the role of optical and near infrared photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, F. B.; Amara, A.; Capak, P.; Cypriano, E. S.; Lahav, O.; Rhodes, J.

    2008-07-01

    We study in detail the photometric redshift requirements needed for tomographic weak gravitational lensing in order to measure accurately the dark energy equation of state. In particular, we examine how ground-based photometry (u, g, r, i, z, y) can be complemented by space-based near-infrared (near-IR) photometry (J, H), e.g. onboard the planned DUNE satellite. Using realistic photometric redshift simulations and an artificial neural network photo-z method we evaluate the figure of merit for the dark energy parameters (w0, wa). We consider a DUNE-like broad optical filter supplemented with ground-based multiband optical data from surveys like the Dark Energy Survey, Pan-STARRS and LSST. We show that the dark energy figure of merit would be improved by a factor of 1.3-1.7 if IR filters are added onboard DUNE. Furthermore we show that with IR data catastrophic photo-z outliers can be removed effectively. There is an interplay between the choice of filters, the magnitude limits and the removal of outliers. We draw attention to the dependence of the results on the galaxy formation scenarios encoded into the mock galaxies, e.g. the galaxy reddening. For example, very deep u-band data could be as effective as the IR. We also find that about 105-106 spectroscopic redshifts are needed for calibration of the full survey.

  2. Free-space optical code-division multiple-access system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeromin, Lori L.; Kaufmann, John E.; Bucher, Edward A.

    1993-08-01

    This paper describes an optical direct-detection multiple access communications system for free-space satellite networks utilizing code-division multiple-access (CDMA) and forward error correction (FEC) coding. System performance is characterized by how many simultaneous users operating at data rate R can be accommodated in a signaling bandwidth W. The performance of two CDMA schemes, optical orthogonal codes (OOC) with FEC and orthogonal convolutional codes (OCC), is calculated and compared to information-theoretic capacity bounds. The calculations include the effects of background and detector noise as well as nonzero transmitter extinction ratio and power imbalance among users. A system design for 10 kbps multiple-access communications between low-earth orbit satellites is given. With near- term receiver technology and representative system losses, a 15 W peak-power transmitter provides 10-6 BER performance with seven interfering users and full moon background in the receiver FOV. The receiver employs an array of discrete wide-area avalanche photodiodes (APD) for wide field of view coverage. Issues of user acquisition and synchronization, implementation technology, and system scalability are also discussed.

  3. Ethernet access network based on free-space optic deployment technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhart, Michael; Leitgeb, Erich; Birnbacher, Ulla; Schrotter, Peter

    2004-06-01

    The satisfaction of all communication needs from single households and business companies over a single access infrastructure is probably the most challenging topic in communications technology today. But even though the so-called "Last Mile Access Bottleneck" is well known since more than ten years and many distribution technologies have been tried out, the optimal solution has not yet been found and paying commercial access networks offering all service classes are still rare today. Conventional services like telephone, radio and TV, as well as new and emerging services like email, web browsing, online-gaming, video conferences, business data transfer or external data storage can all be transmitted over the well known and cost effective Ethernet networking protocol standard. Key requirements for the deployment technology driven by the different services are high data rates to the single customer, security, moderate deployment costs and good scalability to number and density of users, quick and flexible deployment without legal impediments and high availability, referring to the properties of optical and wireless communication. We demonstrate all elements of an Ethernet Access Network based on Free Space Optic distribution technology. Main physical parts are Central Office, Distribution Network and Customer Equipment. Transmission of different services, as well as configuration, service upgrades and remote control of the network are handled by networking features over one FSO connection. All parts of the network are proven, the latest commercially available technology. The set up is flexible and can be adapted to any more specific need if required.

  4. Free-space optical channel characterization and experimental validation in a coastal environment

    KAUST Repository

    Alheadary, Wael Ghazy; Park, Kihong; Alfaraj, Nasir; Guo, Yujian; Stegenburgs, Edgars; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2018-01-01

    Over the years, free-space optical (FSO) communication has attracted considerable research interest owing to its high transmission rates via the unbounded and unlicensed bandwidths. Nevertheless, various weather conditions lead to significant deterioration of the FSO link capabilities. In this context, we report on the modelling of the channel attenuation coefficient (β) for a coastal environment and related ambient, considering the effect of coastal air temperature (T), relative humidity (RH) and dew point (TD) by employing a mobile FSO communication system capable of achieving a transmission rate of 1 Gbps at an outdoor distance of 70 m for optical beam wavelengths of 1310 nm and 1550 nm. For further validation of the proposed models, an indoor measurement over a 1.5 m distance utilizing 1310 nm, 1550 nm, and 1064 nm lasers was also performed. The first model provides a general link between T and β, while the second model provides a relation between β, RH as well as TD. By validating our attenuation coefficient model with actual outdoor and indoor experiments, we obtained a scaling parameter x and decaying parameter c values of 19.94, 40.02, 45.82 and 0.03015, 0.04096, 0.0428 for wavelengths of 1550, 1310, 1064 nm, respectively. The proposed models are well validated over the large variation of temperature and humidity over the FSO link in a coastal region and emulated indoor environment.

  5. FY 2000 Project of developing international standards for supporting new industries. Comprehensive study for promotion of the international standardization; 2000 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Kokusai hyojunka suishin ni kakawaru hokatsuteki chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    This project studies the schemes for the international standardization, trends of the international standardization by the international standardization organizations and related organizations, and activities for the international standardization by the enterprises in the advanced countries, among others, in order to promote the international standardization for the 8 research and development themes. These themes are SMIL (synchronized multimedia integration language) tag standard of the three-dimensional image data, based on MXL; systems for detecting gene recombination products; methods for testing mileage of gas-fueled automobiles; measurement of multi-colors; testing/evaluation methods for highly coherent lasers; methods of evaluating optical performance of microlenses for optical information processing; recycled CFRPs; and devices for measuring marine environments. The study results indicate that progress of the development of the international standardization of the advanced technologies can be followed by investigating the characteristics of the ISO publications; ISO is studying the business plans being developed by each TC, in order to improve market adaptability of the international standards; and the European countries add conditions for standardization when the research and development themes are contracted. (NEDO)

  6. Darwin : the technical challenges of an optical nulling interferometer in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viard, Thierry; Lund, Glenn; Thomas, Eric; Vacance, Michel

    2017-11-01

    Alcatel Space has been responsible for a feasibility study contract, awarded by the European Space Agency, and dedicated to the definition of preliminary interferometric concepts for the direct detection and characterisation of exo-planets associated with nearby stars. The retained concept is a six free-flyer-telescope interferometer, with a variable baseline ranging from 50 to 500 m. The collected wavefronts are combined on a 7th free-flying hub satellite at the centre of the array, and the observations are performed in the thermal Infra-Red spectral band. The latter choice is made for two reasons : firstly, the wavelength providing optimal contrast between the planetary and stellar (background) signals is approximately 10μm secondly, the spectral features of interest for the detection of life as we know it (CO2, H2O, O3 , CH4 ... ) lie in the band between 6 and 18 μm. The system requirements for such an instrument are very severe, owing to the physical nature of the mission concept; i.e. that of a coronographic stellar interferometer: in order to achieve satisfactory extinction of the unwanted flux generated by the central star, such a concept will impose the control of optical pathlength differences between telescopes to within a small fraction of a wavelength, milli-arcsec pointing stabilities, 10-3 amplitude equalisation, achromatic check-shifts of some beams with respect to the others, and the use of passively cooled cryogenic telescopes.

  7. Polarization demultiplexing in stokes space for coherent optical PDM-OFDM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhenming; Yi, Xingwen; Yang, Qi; Luo, Ming; Zhang, Jing; Chen, Lei; Qiu, Kun

    2013-02-11

    We propose a polarization demultiplexing method for coherent optical PDM-OFDM based on Stokes space, without inserting training symbols. The proposed approach performs well for different modulation formats of OFDM subcarrier, and shows comparable performances with that of conventional methods, but with a fast convergence speed and reduced overhead. The OFDM signal in the time domain cannot satisfy the conditions of SS-PDM accurately. Therefore, we first digitally convert the received OFDM signals to the frequency domain using fast Fourier transform (FFT). Each subcarrier of the OFDM signal has a much lower speed and narrower bandwidth, the polarization effects that it experiences can be treated as flat. Consequently, we can apply the polarization demultiplexing in Stokes space (SS-PDM) on per subcarrier basis. We verify this method in experiment by transmitting 66.6-Gb/s PDM-OFDM signal with 4QAM subcarrier modulation over 5440km SSMF and 133.3-Gb/s PDM-OFDM signal with 16QAM subcarrier modulation over 960km SSMF respectively. We also compare the results with those of training symbols. Finally, we analyze of the convergence speed of this method.

  8. OCCAMS: Optically Controlled and Corrected Active Meta-material Space Structures (Ultra-Lightweight Photonic Muscle Space Structures Phase II)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Photons weigh nothing. Why must even small space telescopes have high mass? Our team has demonstrated this is not the case using a completely novel approach to...

  9. FY 2000 report on the results of the regional consortium R and D project - Regional consortium energy field. Final year report. R and D on the bio-fuel production by high functional bio-reactor; 2000 nendo chiiki consortium kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo - chiiki consortium energy bun'ya. Kokino bio reactor ni yoru bio nenryo seisan ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu (saishu nendo) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    A system was developed for producing automobile fuel from the recycled paper and waste cooking oil using high functional intelligent yeast. Element technology is the functional yeast creation technology and the online intelligent control technology of the process into which the fixed bio-reactor was inserted. Studies were made on the following: 1) creation of high activity lipase production/ethanol production yeasts; 2) bio-fuel production by intelligent bio-reactor; 3) process optimization control technology by fuzzy control; 4) stabilization of bio-fuel production yeast; 5) comprehensive investigational study. In FY 2000, the results were obtained as written below: development of the stable lipase coming from rhizopus japonicus, fixed bacterium using rhizopus oryzae fungus body which can be used more than ten times, direct ethanol fermentation from starch by developing the multi-copy glucoamylase manifestation yeast, operation of a 20L capacity bench plant, etc. (NEDO)

  10. FY 2000 report on the results of the regional consortium R and D project - Regional consortium energy R and D. Final year report. Development of the measuring control technology supporting energy conservation in the manufacturing process of electronics (Design and trial manufacture of IMI); 2000 nendo chiiki consortium kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo - chiiki consortium energy kenkyu kaihatsu. Denshi kikirui seizo process no sho energy shien keisoku seigyo gijutsu no kaihatsu - IMI no sekkei to shisaku (saishu nendo) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    As measures taken for energy conservation in the manufacturing plant of electronic devices/equipment such as IC, the development was proceeded with a chlorine gas radio sensing system and a liquid crystal driver IC probe, according to the survey results that it is possible to control energy consumption in air conditioning by completely furnishing poisonous gas monitor in clean room and conserve energy related to the manufacture of IC and LSI tester by using Si for IC probe cards. The following four were carried out: 1) development/trial manufacture of chlorine sensing system; 2) development/trial manufacture of LCD (liquid crystal driver) IC probe; 3) support of trial manufacture of key element technology; 4) comprehensive investigational study of IMI (Intelligent Micro-Instrument). In FY 2000, study was focused on 1) and 2). In 1), a planar type micro-structure sensor was developed, and the trial-manufactured system brought favorable results in sensitivity, response speed and reproductivity. (NEDO)

  11. Coherent lidar wind measurements from the Space Station base using 1.5 m all-reflective optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilbro, J. W.; Beranek, R. G.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses the space-based measurement of atmospheric winds from the point of view of the requirements of the optical system of a coherent CO2 lidar. A brief description of the measurement technique is given and a discussion of previous study results provided. The telescope requirements for a Space Station based lidar are arrived at through discussions of the desired system sensitivity and the need for lag angle compensation.

  12. Chip-interleaved optical code division multiple access relying on a photon-counting iterative successive interference canceller for free-space optical channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaolin; Zheng, Xiaowei; Zhang, Rong; Hanzo, Lajos

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, we design a novel Poisson photon-counting based iterative successive interference cancellation (SIC) scheme for transmission over free-space optical (FSO) channels in the presence of both multiple access interference (MAI) as well as Gamma-Gamma atmospheric turbulence fading, shot-noise and background light. Our simulation results demonstrate that the proposed scheme exhibits a strong MAI suppression capability. Importantly, an order of magnitude of BER improvements may be achieved compared to the conventional chip-level optical code-division multiple-access (OCDMA) photon-counting detector.

  13. Propagation and scattering of optical light beams in free space, in atmosphere and in biological media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Serkan

    With their first production implemented around 1960's, lasers have afterwards proven to be excellent light sources in building the technology. Subsequently, it has been shown that the extraordinary properties of lasers are related to their coherence properties. Recent developments in optics make it possible to synthesize partially coherent light beams from fully coherent ones. In the last several decades it was seen that using partially coherent light sources may be advantageous, in the areas such as laser surface processing, fiber and free-space optical communications, and medical diagnostics. In this thesis, I study extensively the generation, the propagation in different media, and the scattering of partially coherent light beams with respect to their spectral polarization and coherence states. For instance, I analyze the evolution of recently introduced degree of cross-polarization of light fields in free space; then develop a novel partially coherent light source which acquires and keeps a flat intensity profile around the axis at any distance in the far field; and investigate the interaction of electromagnetic random light with the human eye lens. A part of the thesis treats the effect of atmospheric turbulence on random light beams. Due to random variations in the refractive index, atmospheric turbulence modulates all physical and statistical properties of propagating beams. I have explored the possibility of employing the polarimetric domain of the beam for scintillation reduction, which positively affects the performance of free-space communication systems. I also discuss novel techniques for the sensing of rough targets in the turbulent atmosphere by polarization and coherence properties of light. The other contribution to the thesis is the investigation of light scattering from deterministic or random collections of particles, within the validity of first Born approximation. In the case of a random collection, I introduce and model the new quantity

  14. Optical design of visible emission line coronagraph on Indian space solar mission Aditya-L1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj Kumar, N.; Raghavendra Prasad, B.; Singh, Jagdev; Venkata, Suresh

    2018-03-01

    The ground based observations of the coronal emission lines using a coronagraph are affected by the short duration of clear sky and varying sky transparency. These conditions do not permit to study small amplitude variations in the coronal emission reliably necessary to investigate the process or processes involved in heating the coronal plasma and dynamics of solar corona. The proposed Visible Emission Line Coronagraph (VELC) over comes these limitations and will provide continuous observation 24 h a day needed for detailed studies of solar corona and drivers for space weather predictions. VELC payload onboard India's Aditya-L1 space mission is an internally occulted solar coronagraph for studying the temperature, velocity, density and heating of solar corona. To achieve the proposed science goals, an instrument which is capable of carrying out simultaneous imaging, spectroscopy and spectro-polarimetric observations of the solar corona close to the solar limb is required. VELC is designed with salient features of (a) Imaging solar corona at 500 nm with an angular resolution of 5 arcsec over a FOV of 1.05Ro to 3Ro (Ro:Solar radius) (b) Simultaneous multi-slit spectroscopy at 530.3 nm [Fe XIV],789.2 nm [Fe XI] and 1074.7 nm [Fe XIII] with spectral dispersion of 28mÅ, 31mÅ and 202mÅ per pixel respectively, over a FOV of 1.05Ro to 1.5Ro. (c) Multi-slit dual beam spectro-polarimetry at 1074.7 nm. All the components of instrument have been optimized in view of the scientific objectives and requirements of space payloads. In this paper we present the details of optical configuration and the expected performance of the payload.

  15. Optical design of visible emission line coronagraph on Indian space solar mission Aditya-L1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj Kumar, N.; Raghavendra Prasad, B.; Singh, Jagdev; Venkata, Suresh

    2018-04-01

    The ground based observations of the coronal emission lines using a coronagraph are affected by the short duration of clear sky and varying sky transparency. These conditions do not permit to study small amplitude variations in the coronal emission reliably necessary to investigate the process or processes involved in heating the coronal plasma and dynamics of solar corona. The proposed Visible Emission Line Coronagraph (VELC) over comes these limitations and will provide continuous observation 24 h a day needed for detailed studies of solar corona and drivers for space weather predictions. VELC payload onboard India's Aditya-L1 space mission is an internally occulted solar coronagraph for studying the temperature, velocity, density and heating of solar corona. To achieve the proposed science goals, an instrument which is capable of carrying out simultaneous imaging, spectroscopy and spectro-polarimetric observations of the solar corona close to the solar limb is required. VELC is designed with salient features of (a) Imaging solar corona at 500 nm with an angular resolution of 5 arcsec over a FOV of 1.05Ro to 3Ro (Ro:Solar radius) (b) Simultaneous multi-slit spectroscopy at 530.3 nm [Fe XIV],789.2 nm [Fe XI] and 1074.7 nm [Fe XIII] with spectral dispersion of 28mÅ, 31mÅ and 202mÅ per pixel respectively, over a FOV of 1.05Ro to 1.5Ro. (c) Multi-slit dual beam spectro-polarimetry at 1074.7 nm. All the components of instrument have been optimized in view of the scientific objectives and requirements of space payloads. In this paper we present the details of optical configuration and the expected performance of the payload.

  16. FY 2000 report on the results of the research and development project for the photon-aided instrumentation and processing technologies. Research and development of the advanced instrumentation and processing technologies for oil production systems; 2000 nendo photon keisoku kako gijutsu seika hokokusho. Sekiyu seisan system kodo keisoku kako gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Described herein are the FY 2000 results of development of the photon-aided instrumentation and processing technologies, as part of development of the advanced instrumentation and processing technologies for oil production systems. The program for the microscopic processing technology combines iodine and YAG laser beams as the high-power laser beams of wavelength of the order of 1{mu}m, in order to realize laser-aided welding of high-quality thick plates, the welding demonstration tests producing good results; improves an in-process monitoring sensor, to confirm its high reliability; and improves size controllability for ultrafine semiconductor particles for development of quantum functional optoelectronic devices, and extends the electric conductivity for production of the transparent conducting films. The program for the non-destructive composition measuring technology develops a light source which produces short wavelength ray of sufficient brightness; produces three-dimensional CT images with a resolution of 2{mu}m, and is developing superconducting X-ray detectors. The program for the high-power all-solid-state laser technology starts development of a rod-type oscillation-controlling laser which can provide mixed operations of CW, pulsed and Q-switched oscillation modes at an average power of 1kW level. The program for the tightly-focusing all-solid-state laser technology develops the prototype of disk type fiber laser using silica fibers of rectangular cross-section, which produces a power of 103W, and starts development of a laser diode. (NEDO)

  17. BER Analysis of Coherent Free-Space Optical Communication Systems with a Focal-Plane-Based Wavefront Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jingtai; Zhao, Xiaohui; Liu, Wei; Gu, Haijun

    2018-03-01

    A wavefront sensor is one of most important units for an adaptive optics system. Based on our previous works, in this paper, we discuss the bit-error-rate (BER) performance of coherent free space optical communication systems with a focal-plane-based wavefront sensor. Firstly, the theory of a focal-plane-based wavefront sensor is given. Then the relationship between the BER and the mixing efficiency with a homodyne receiver is discussed on the basis of binary-phase-shift-keying (BPSK) modulation. Finally, the numerical simulation results are shown that the BER will be decreased obviously after aberrations correction with the focal-plane-based wavefront sensor. In addition, the BER will decrease along with increasing number of photons received within a single bit. These analysis results will provide a reference for the design of the coherent Free space optical communication (FSOC) system.

  18. Sentinel-2: next generation satellites for optical land observation from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautenschläger, G.; Gessner, R.; Gockel, W.; Haas, C.; Schweickert, G.; Bursch, S.; Welsch, M.; Sontag, H.

    2013-10-01

    The first Sentinel-2 satellites, which constitute the next generation of operational Earth observation satellites for optical land monitoring from space, are undergoing completion in the facilities at Astrium ready for launch end 2014. Sentinel-2 will feature a major breakthrough in the area of optical land observation since it will for the first time enable continuous and systematic acquisition of all land surfaces world-wide with the Multi-Spectral Instrument (MSI), thus providing the basis for a truly operational service. Flying in the same orbital plane and spaced at 180°, the constellation of two satellites, designed for an in-orbit nominal operational lifetime of 7 years each, will acquire all land surfaces in only 5 days at the equator. In order to support emergency operations, the satellites can further be operated in an extended observation mode allowing to image any point on Earth even on a daily basis. MSI acquires images in 13 spectral channels from Visible-to-Near Infrared (VNIR) to Short Wave Infrared (SWIR) with a swath of almost 300 km on ground and a spatial resolution up to 10 m. The data ensure continuity to the existing data sets produced by the series of Landsat and SPOT satellites, and will further provide detailed spectral information to enable derivation of biophysical or geophysical products. Excellent geometric image quality performances are achieved with geolocation better than 16 m, thanks to an innovative instrument design in conjunction with a high-performance satellite AOCS subsystem centered around a 2-band GPS receiver, high-performance star trackers and a fiberoptic gyro. To cope with the high data volume on-board, data are compressed using a state-of-the-art wavelet compression scheme. Thanks to a powerful mission data handling system built around a newly developed very large solid-state mass memory based on flash technology, on-board compression losses will be kept to a minimum. The Sentinel-2 satellite design features a highly

  19. Cost-effective backhaul design using hybrid radio/free-space optical technology

    KAUST Repository

    Douik, Ahmed S.

    2015-06-08

    The deluge of date rate in today\\'s networks poses a cost burden on the backhaul network design. Developing cost efficient backhaul solutions becomes an interesting, yet challenging, problem. Traditional technologies for backhaul networks include either radio-frequency backhauls (RF) or optical fibres (OF). While RF is a cost-effective solution as compared to OF, it supports lower data rate requirements. Another promising backhaul solution that may combine both a high data rate and a relatively low cost is the free-space optics (FSO). FSO, however, is sensitive to nature conditions (e.g., rain, fog, line-ofsight, etc.). A more reliable alternative is, therefore, to combine RF and FSO solutions through a hybrid structure called hybrid RF/FSO. Consider a backhaul network, where the base-stations (BS) can be connected to each other either via OF or hybrid RF/FSO backhaul links. The paper addresses the problem of minimizing the cost of backhaul planning under connectivity and data rates constraints, so as to choose the appropriate costeffective backhaul type between BSs (i.e., either OF or hybrid RF/FSO). The paper solves the problem using graph theory techniques by introducing the corresponding planning graph. It shows that under a specified realistic assumption about the cost of OF and hybrid RF/FSO links, the problem is equivalent to a maximum weight clique problem, which can be solved with moderate complexity. Simulation results show that our proposed solution shows a close-to-optimal performance, especially for practical prices of the hybrid RF/FSO.

  20. Cost-effective backhaul design using hybrid radio/free-space optical technology

    KAUST Repository

    Douik, Ahmed S.; Dahrouj, Hayssam; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2015-01-01

    The deluge of date rate in today's networks poses a cost burden on the backhaul network design. Developing cost efficient backhaul solutions becomes an interesting, yet challenging, problem. Traditional technologies for backhaul networks include either radio-frequency backhauls (RF) or optical fibres (OF). While RF is a cost-effective solution as compared to OF, it supports lower data rate requirements. Another promising backhaul solution that may combine both a high data rate and a relatively low cost is the free-space optics (FSO). FSO, however, is sensitive to nature conditions (e.g., rain, fog, line-ofsight, etc.). A more reliable alternative is, therefore, to combine RF and FSO solutions through a hybrid structure called hybrid RF/FSO. Consider a backhaul network, where the base-stations (BS) can be connected to each other either via OF or hybrid RF/FSO backhaul links. The paper addresses the problem of minimizing the cost of backhaul planning under connectivity and data rates constraints, so as to choose the appropriate costeffective backhaul type between BSs (i.e., either OF or hybrid RF/FSO). The paper solves the problem using graph theory techniques by introducing the corresponding planning graph. It shows that under a specified realistic assumption about the cost of OF and hybrid RF/FSO links, the problem is equivalent to a maximum weight clique problem, which can be solved with moderate complexity. Simulation results show that our proposed solution shows a close-to-optimal performance, especially for practical prices of the hybrid RF/FSO.

  1. Free-Space Optical Communications: Capacity Bounds, Approximations, and a New Sphere-Packing Perspective

    KAUST Repository

    Chaaban, Anas

    2015-04-01

    The capacity of the intensity-modulation direct-detection (IM-DD) free-space optical channel is studied. It is shown that for an IM-DD channel with generally input-dependent noise, the worst noise at high SNR is input-independent Gaussian with variance dependent on the input cost. Based on this result, a Gaussian IM-DD channel model is proposed where the noise variance depends on the optical intensity constraints only. A new recursive approach for bounding the capacity of the channel based on sphere-packing is proposed, which leads to a tighter bound than an existing sphere-packing bound for the channel with only an average intensity constraint. Under both average and peak constraints, it yields bounds that characterize the high SNR capacity within a negligible gap, where the achievability is proved by using a truncated Gaussian input distribution. This completes the high SNR capacity characterization of the channel, by closing the gap in the existing characterization for a small average-to-peak ratio. Simple fitting functions that capture the best known achievable rate for the channel are provided. These functions can be of significant practical importance especially for the study of systems operating under atmospheric turbulence and misalignment conditions. Finally, the capacity/SNR loss between heterodyne detection (HD) systems and IM-DD systems is bounded at high SNR, where it is shown that the loss grows as SNR increases for a complex-valued HD system, while it is bounded by 1.245 bits or 3.76 dB at most for a real-valued one.

  2. Free-Space Optical Communications: Capacity Bounds, Approximations, and a New Sphere-Packing Perspective

    KAUST Repository

    Chaaban, Anas; Morvan, Jean-Marie; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2015-01-01

    The capacity of the intensity-modulation direct-detection (IM-DD) free-space optical channel is studied. It is shown that for an IM-DD channel with generally input-dependent noise, the worst noise at high SNR is input-independent Gaussian with variance dependent on the input cost. Based on this result, a Gaussian IM-DD channel model is proposed where the noise variance depends on the optical intensity constraints only. A new recursive approach for bounding the capacity of the channel based on sphere-packing is proposed, which leads to a tighter bound than an existing sphere-packing bound for the channel with only an average intensity constraint. Under both average and peak constraints, it yields bounds that characterize the high SNR capacity within a negligible gap, where the achievability is proved by using a truncated Gaussian input distribution. This completes the high SNR capacity characterization of the channel, by closing the gap in the existing characterization for a small average-to-peak ratio. Simple fitting functions that capture the best known achievable rate for the channel are provided. These functions can be of significant practical importance especially for the study of systems operating under atmospheric turbulence and misalignment conditions. Finally, the capacity/SNR loss between heterodyne detection (HD) systems and IM-DD systems is bounded at high SNR, where it is shown that the loss grows as SNR increases for a complex-valued HD system, while it is bounded by 1.245 bits or 3.76 dB at most for a real-valued one.

  3. Hybrid microtransmitter for free-space optical spacecraft communication: design, manufacturing, and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfi, Sara; Palmer, Kristoffer; Kratz, Henrik; Thornell, Greger

    2009-02-01

    Optical intra-communication links are investigated by several currently operational qualification missions. Compared with RF communication systems, the optical domain obtains a wider bandwidth, enables miniaturized spacecraft and reduced power consumption. In this project, a microtransmitter is designed and manufactured for formation flying spacecraft with transmission rates of 1 Gbit/s. Simulations in Matlab and Simulink show that a BER of 10-9 can be achieved with aperture sizes of 1 cm and a transmitter output peak power of 12 mW for a distance of 10 km. The results show that the performance of the communication link decreases due to mechanical vibrations in the spacecraft together with a narrow laser beam. A dual-axis microactuator designed as a deflectable mirror has been developed for the laser beam steering where the fabrication is based on a double-sided, bulk micromachining process. The mirror actuates by joints consisting of v-grooves filled with SU-8 polymer. The deflection is controlled by integrated resistive heaters in the joints causing the polymer to expand thermally. Results show that the mirror actuates 20-30° in the temperature interval 25-250°C. Flat Fresnel lenses made of Pyrex 7740 are used to collimate the laser beam. These lenses are simulated in the Comsol software and optimized for a 670 nm red VCSEL. The lenses are manufactured using lithography and reactive ion etching. All tests are made in a normal laboratory environment, but the effect of the space environment is discussed.

  4. Remote sensing optical instrumentation for enhanced space weather monitoring from the L1 and L5 Lagrange points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, S.; Puschmann, K. G.; Luntama, J. P.

    2017-09-01

    As part of the Space Situational Awareness Programme (SSA), ESA has initiated the assessment of two missions currently foreseen to be implemented to enable enhanced space weather monitoring. These missions utilize the positioning of satellites at the Lagrangian L1 and L5 points. These Phase 0 or Pre-Phase A mission studies are about to be completed and will thereby have soon passed the Mission Definition Review. Phase A studies are planned to start in 2017. The space weather monitoring system currently considers four remote sensing optical instruments and several in-situ instruments to analyse the Sun and the solar wind conditions, in order to provide early warnings of increased solar activity and to identify and mitigate potential threats to society and ground, airborne and space based infrastructure. The suggested optical instruments take heritage from ESA and NASA science missions like SOHO, STEREO and Solar Orbiter, but the instruments are foreseen to be optimized for operational space weather monitoring purposes with high reliability and robustness demands. The instruments are required to provide high quality measurements particularly during severe space weather events. The program intends to utilize the results of the on-going ESA instrument prototyping and technology development activities, and to initiate pre-developments of the operational space weather instruments to ensure the required maturity before the mission implementation.

  5. Optical Multi-Gas Monitor Technology Demonstration on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilgrim, Jeffrey S.; Wood, William R.; Casias, Miguel E.; Vakhtin, Andrei B,; Johnson, Michael D.; Mudgett, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    There are a variety of both portable and fixed gas monitors onboard the International Space Station (ISS). Devices range from rack-mounted mass spectrometers to hand-held electrochemical sensors. An optical Multi-Gas Monitor has been developed as an ISS Technology Demonstration to evaluate long-term continuous measurement of 4 gases. Based on tunable diode laser spectroscopy, this technology offers unprecedented selectivity, concentration range, precision, and calibration stability. The monitor utilizes the combination of high performance laser absorption spectroscopy with a rugged optical path length enhancement cell that is nearly impossible to misalign. The enhancement cell serves simultaneously as the measurement sampling cell for multiple laser channels operating within a common measurement volume. Four laser diode based detection channels allow quantitative determination of ISS cabin concentrations of water vapor (humidity), carbon dioxide, ammonia and oxygen. Each channel utilizes a separate vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) at a different wavelength. In addition to measuring major air constituents in their relevant ranges, the multiple gas monitor provides real time quantitative gaseous ammonia measurements between 5 and 20,000 parts-per-million (ppm). A small ventilation fan draws air with no pumps or valves into the enclosure in which analysis occurs. Power draw is only about 3 W from USB sources when installed in Nanoracks or when connected to 28V source from any EXPRESS rack interface. Internal battery power can run the sensor for over 20 hours during portable operation. The sensor is controlled digitally with an FPGA/microcontroller architecture that stores data internally while displaying running average measurements on an LCD screen and interfacing with the rack or laptop via USB. Design, construction and certification of the Multi-Gas Monitor were a joint effort between Vista Photonics, Nanoracks and NASA-Johnson Space Center (JSC

  6. Aspects of scintillation modelling in LEO-ground free-space optical communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Florian

    2017-10-01

    Free-space optical communications can be used to transmit data from low Earth orbit satellites to ground with very high data rate. In the last section of the downlink, the electro-magnetic wave propagates through the turbulent atmosphere which is characterized by random index of refraction fluctuations. The propagating wave experiences phase distortions that lead to intensity scintillation in the aperture plane of the receiving telescope. For quantification, an appropriate scintillation model is needed. Approaches to analytically model the scintillation exist. Parameterization of the underlying turbulence profile (Cn2 profile) is however difficult. The Cn2 profiles are often site-specific and thus inappropriate or generic and thus too complex for a feasible deployment. An approach that directly models the scintillation effect based on measurements without claiming to be generic is therefore more feasible. Since measurements are sparse, a combination with existing theoretical framework is feasible to develop a new scintillation model that focuses on low earth orbit to ground free-space optical communications link design with direct detection. The paper addresses several questions one has to answer while analyzing the measurements data and selection of the theoretical models for the LEO downlink scenario. The first is the question of a suitable yet ease to use simple Cn2 profile. The HAP model is analyzed for its feasibility in this scenario since it includes a more realistic boundary layer profile decay than the HV model. It is found that the HAP model needs to be modified for a feasible deployment in the LEO downlink scenario for night time. The validity of the plane wave assumption in the downlink is discussed by model calculations of the scintillation index for a plane and Gaussian beam wave. Inaccuracies when using the plane earth model instead of the spherical earth model are investigated by analyzing the Rytov index. Impact of beam wander and non

  7. FY 2000 report on the development of ultra low loss power element technology. Commercialization of next generation power semiconductor device; 2000 nendo choteisonshitsu denryoku soshi gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Jisedai power handotai device jitsuyoka chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of contributing to the promotion of development of ultra low loss power element technology, survey was conducted on the present situation, future, etc. of various technologies/systems related to power semiconductor devices. In the industrial equipment field, it is predicted that power semiconductor devices will be increased in the field of application by enlargement of the defense field of IGBT, new MOS structure elements, etc. In the field of home appliances, possibilities are expected of switching loss reduction and electric noise reduction by making SiC high speed diode. As to the space photovoltaic power generation, SiC is expected for various semiconductors such as solar cells, FET for transmitter/amplifier of radio power electric transmission use micro waves, etc. Concerning the radio communication system plan using stratosphere platform, there are technical problems on communication equipment such as antenna and RF circuit, and the role of SiC device is expected to be large. The society where the electrification rate is 80% and fuel cell vehicles are used is a new paradigm, and it is necessary and indispensable to commercialize ultra low loss power elements using SiC. (NEDO)

  8. FY 2000 report on the results of the advanced R and D for the UTES (underground thermal energy storage) system; 2000 nendo chichu jiban chikunetsu system gijutsu sendo kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    In this study, study was made of the commercialization of the UTES (underground thermal energy storage) system using the underground heat source heat pump system technology as the base, considering that this is a technology suitable for the urban area where the heat demand intensively increases and a lot of exhaust heat and usable heat exist. By the realization of the UTES system technology, it is expected that the system promotes Japan's utilization of the unused energy and contributes to the construction of the CO2 emission control type society for Japan's energy policy and global warming prevention and secondarily to leveling of power loads and elimination of the heat island phenomenon in large cities. As to the UTES system which is aimed at being used for space heating and cooling and hot water supply in buildings, the following two were studied: the indirect system, BTES (borehole thermal energy storage) system, in which heat is collected/radiated from the ground by the heat exchanger installed underground; the direct system, ATES (aquifer thermal energy storage) system, in which the groundwater stored in aquifer is directly pumped up and used. The study was made in the items written below: 1) establishment of an system image of the UTES system; 2) evaluation study of effects of the introduction, practical applicability, etc. 3) extraction of the subjects for development. As a result, system images of the indirect/direct systems were obtained. (NEDO)

  9. FY 2000 report on the results of the advanced R and D for the UTES (underground thermal energy storage) system; 2000 nendo chichu jiban chikunetsu system gijutsu sendo kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    In this study, study was made of the commercialization of the UTES (underground thermal energy storage) system using the underground heat source heat pump system technology as the base, considering that this is a technology suitable for the urban area where the heat demand intensively increases and a lot of exhaust heat and usable heat exist. By the realization of the UTES system technology, it is expected that the system promotes Japan's utilization of the unused energy and contributes to the construction of the CO2 emission control type society for Japan's energy policy and global warming prevention and secondarily to leveling of power loads and elimination of the heat island phenomenon in large cities. As to the UTES system which is aimed at being used for space heating and cooling and hot water supply in buildings, the following two were studied: the indirect system, BTES (borehole thermal energy storage) system, in which heat is collected/radiated from the ground by the heat exchanger installed underground; the direct system, ATES (aquifer thermal energy storage) system, in which the groundwater stored in aquifer is directly pumped up and used. The study was made in the items written below: 1) establishment of an system image of the UTES system; 2) evaluation study of effects of the introduction, practical applicability, etc. 3) extraction of the subjects for development. As a result, system images of the indirect/direct systems were obtained. (NEDO)

  10. Local multipoint distribution system (LDMS) versus free-space optical (FSO) networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willebrand, Heinz A.; Clark, Gerald R.; Willson, Bryan; Andreu von Euw, Christian G.; Roy, Joe; Mayhew, Laurel M.

    2001-11-01

    This paper compares two emerging broadband access methodologies, Free Space Optics (FSO) and Local Multipoint Distribution System (LMDS) and the atmospheric propagation characteristics of each when exposed to a dynamically changing channel. The comparison focuses on bandwidth, availability, and distance requirements for the new broadband market and how LMDS and FSO can be used to meet these requirements. Possible network topologies and their associated costs are examined. This comparison takes into account the total cost of deployment, including equipment costs, installation fees, access fees, and spectrum licensing fees. LMDS and FSO are compared on speed of deployment, scalability, aggregate bandwidth, and bandwidth per customer. Present and projected capabilities of each technology are considered for their suitability in different locations in the network, from the Wide Area Network (WAN), to the Metropolitan Area Network (MAN), all the way to Last Mile Access. There is a discussion on the relative performance of LMDS and FSO, focusing on the different factors that can affect link availability. Since network design is a large factor in assuring overall reliability, the flexibility of each technology with regard to network design is compared. LMDS and FSO are both line of sight, space-propagated technologies, and as such, they are both susceptible to path impediments and atmospheric attenuation, dispersion, scattering, and absorption. LMDS and FSO are affected very differently by different meteorological phenomena. Problematic atmospheric conditions are, specifically scintillation, rainfall, and fog, are examined. In addition to a discussion of these conditions, various techniques for minimizing atmospheric and environmental effects are investigated. The paper concludes with a summary of findings and recommendations for a number of broadband wireless applications.

  11. Drone swarm with free-space optical communication to detect and make deep decisions about physical problems for area surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazher, Wamidh Jalil; Ibrahim, Hadeel T.; Ucan, Osman N.; Bayat, Oguz

    2018-03-01

    This paper aims to design a drone swarm network by employing free-space optical (FSO) communication for detecting and deep decision making of topological problems (e.g., oil pipeline leak), where deep decision making requires the highest image resolution. Drones have been widely used for monitoring and detecting problems in industrial applications during which the drone sends images from the on-air camera video stream using radio frequency (RF) signals. To obtain higher-resolution images, higher bandwidth (BW) is required. The current study proposed the use of the FSO communication system to facilitate higher BW for higher image resolution. Moreover, the number of drones required to survey a large physical area exceeded the capabilities of RF technologies. Our configuration of the drones is V-shaped swarm with one leading drone called mother drone (DM). The optical decode-and-forward (DF) technique is used to send the optical payloads of all drones in V-shaped swarm to the single ground station through DM. Furthermore, it is found that the transmitted optical power (Pt) is required for each drone based on the threshold outage probability of FSO link failure among the onboard optical-DF drones. The bit error rate of optical payload is calculated based on optical-DF onboard processing. Finally, the number of drones required for different image resolutions based on the size of the considered topological area is optimized.

  12. Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Mathieu, Jean Paul

    1975-01-01

    Optics, Parts 1 and 2 covers electromagnetic optics and quantum optics. The first part of the book examines the various of the important properties common to all electromagnetic radiation. This part also studies electromagnetic waves; electromagnetic optics of transparent isotropic and anisotropic media; diffraction; and two-wave and multi-wave interference. The polarization states of light, the velocity of light, and the special theory of relativity are also examined in this part. The second part is devoted to quantum optics, specifically discussing the classical molecular theory of optical p

  13. Kinerja Sistem Komunikasi FSO (Free Space Optics Menggunakan Cell-site Diversity di Daerah Tropis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octiana Widyarena

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Kebutuhan masyarakat akan adanya layanan komunikasi multimedia seperti video conference, high speed internet, video streaming, dan lain sebagainya, saat ini terus meningkat. Untuk memenuhi kebutuhan tersebut, perlu adanya suatu sistem komunikasi nirkabel dengan kecepatan tinggi. Salah satunya yaitu dengan menggunakan FSO (Free Space Optics. FSO merupakan sistem komunikasi yang memungkinkan memiliki koneksi layaknya serat optik, namun media transmisi yang digunakan yaitu melalui atmosfer. Penggunaan FSO di daerah tropis memiliki kendala yang cukup serius yaitu tingginya intensitas curah hujan yang dapat mempengaruhi kinerja dari FSO. Semakin tinggi intensitas curah hujan, maka nilai redaman hujan juga semakin besar. Untuk mengatasi dampak redaman hujan tersebut, maka digunakan teknik cell-site diversity dengan selection combining. Penerapan teknik cell-site diversity pada sistem komunikasi FSO menggunakan variasi panjang lintasan 0,5 km, 1 km, 1,5 km, dan 2 km serta variasi sudut antar link sebesar 45°, 90°, 135°, dan 180°. Hasil dari penerapan teknik cell-site diversity menunjukkan bahwa adanya peningkatan kualitas sinyal FSO, dalam hal ini yaitu nilai SNR. Peningkatan nilai SNR terbesar didapatkan pada panjang lintasan 2 km dengan sudut antar link 180° serta pada link availability 99,9 %. Untuk konfigurasi cell-site diversity terbaik didapatkan pada sudut antar link sebesar 90° dan 180°.

  14. Positioning and tracking control system analysis for mobile free space optical network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yushan; Refai, Hazem; Sluss, , James J., Jr.; Verma, Pramode; LoPresti, Peter

    2005-08-01

    Free Space Optical (FSO) communication has evolved to be applied to the mobile network, because it can provide up to 2.5Gbps or higher data rate wireless communication. One of the key challenges with FSO systems is to maintain the Line of Sight (LOS) between transmitter and receiver. In this paper, the feasibility and performance of applying the FSO technology to the mobile network is explored, and the design plan of the attitude positioning and tracking control system of the FSO transceiver is investigated. First, the system architecture is introduced, the requirements for the control system are analyzed, the involved reference frames and frame transformation are presented. Second, the control system bandwidth is used to evaluate the system performance in controlling a positioning system consisting of a gimbal and a steering mirror, some definitions to describe the positioning accuracy and tracking capacity are given. The attitude control of a FSO transceiver is split into 2 similar channels: pitch and yaw. Using an equivalent linear control system model, the simulations are carried out, with and without the presence of uncertainties that includes GPS data errors and sensor measurement errors. Finally, based on the simulation results in the pitch channel, the quantitative evaluation on the performance of the control system is given, including positioning accuracy, tracking capability and uncertainty tolerance.

  15. On the Performance of Free-Space Optical Communication Systems over Double Generalized Gamma Channel

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Quwaiee, Hessa; Ansari, Imran Shafique; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2015-01-01

    Starting with the double generalized Gamma (GG) model to describe turbulence-induced fading in free-space optical (FSO) systems, we propose a new unified model that accounts for the impact of pointing errors and type of receiver detector. More specifically, we present unified closed-form expressions for the cumulative distribution function, the probability density function, the moment generating function, and the moments of the end-toend signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of a single link FSO transmission system in terms of the Meijer’s G-function. We then use these unified expressions to evaluate performance measures such as the bit error rate, the outage probability, and the ergodic capacity of (i) a single FSO link operating over double GG fading model (ii) asymmetric RF-FSO dual-hop relay transmission system with fixed gain relay. Using an asymptotic expansion of the Meijer’s G-function at high SNR, we express all the expressions, derived earlier, in terms of elementary functions. All our analytical results are verified using computer based Monte-Carlo simulations.

  16. On the Performance of Free-Space Optical Communication Systems over Double Generalized Gamma Channel

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Quwaiee, Hessa

    2015-05-13

    Starting with the double generalized Gamma (GG) model to describe turbulence-induced fading in free-space optical (FSO) systems, we propose a new unified model that accounts for the impact of pointing errors and type of receiver detector. More specifically, we present unified closed-form expressions for the cumulative distribution function, the probability density function, the moment generating function, and the moments of the end-toend signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of a single link FSO transmission system in terms of the Meijer’s G-function. We then use these unified expressions to evaluate performance measures such as the bit error rate, the outage probability, and the ergodic capacity of (i) a single FSO link operating over double GG fading model (ii) asymmetric RF-FSO dual-hop relay transmission system with fixed gain relay. Using an asymptotic expansion of the Meijer’s G-function at high SNR, we express all the expressions, derived earlier, in terms of elementary functions. All our analytical results are verified using computer based Monte-Carlo simulations.

  17. Discovery of an Unusual Optical Transient with the Hubble Space Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    The Supernova Cosmology Project; Barbary, Kyle; Dawson, Kyle S.; Tokita, Kouichi; Aldering, Greg; Amanullah, Rahman; Connolly, Natalia V.; Doi, Mamoru; Faccioli, Lorenzo; Fadeyev, Vitaliy; Fruchter, Andrew S.; Goldhaber, Gerson; Goobar, Ariel; Gude, Alexander; Huang, Xiaosheng; Ihara, Yutaka; Konishi, Kohki; Kowalski, Marek; Lidman, Chris; Meyers, Josh; Morokuma, Tomoki; Nugent, Peter; Perlmutter, Saul; Rubin, David; Schlegel, David; Spadafora, Anthony L.; Suzuki, Nao; Swift, Hannah K.; Takanashi, Naohiro; Thomas, Rollin C.; Yasuda, Naoki

    2008-09-08

    We present observations of SCP 06F6, an unusual optical transient discovered during the Hubble Space Telescope Cluster Supernova Survey. The transient brightened over a period of ~;;100 days, reached a peak magnitude of ~;;21.0 in both i_775 and z_850, and then declined over a similar timescale. There is no host galaxy or progenitor star detected at the location of the transient to a 3 sigma upper limit of i_775 = 26.4 and z_850 = 26.1, giving a corresponding lower limit on the flux increase of a factor of ~;;120. Multiple spectra show five broad absorption bands between 4100 AA and 6500 AA and a mostly featureless continuum longward of 6500 AA. The shape of the lightcurve is inconsistent with microlensing. The transient's spectrum, in addition to being inconsistent with all known supernova types, is not matched to any spectrum in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) database. We suggest that the transient may be one of a new class.

  18. Performances of Free-Space Optical Communication System Over Strong Turbulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ucuk Darusalam

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We report an experimental of free-space optical communication (FSOC system that use tube propagation simulator (TPS as the turbulence medium. The FSOC system usewavelength of 1550 nm at the rate transmission of 1000 Mbps and amplified with EDFA at the output of +23 dBm. Index structure of 10-15–10-13 as the representation of atmosphere index turbulences are used for simulation of intensity distribution model or scintillation. The simulation use gammagamma and K model as well. The beam wave propagation models used in simulation are plane wave, spherical wave and Gaussian wave. Spherical wave achieves highest performance via gamma-gamma in strong turbulence. While Gaussian wave achieves highest performance also via K model. We also found, characteristical FSOC system performance is calculated more accurately with gamma-gamma method for strong turbulence than K model. The performances from gamma-gamma for strong turbulenceare at 22.55 dB, at 5.33×10-4, and at 9.41 ×10-6. 

  19. A High-Performance Deformable Mirror with Integrated Driver ASIC for Space Based Active Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Chris

    Direct imaging of exoplanets is key to fully understanding these systems through spectroscopy and astrometry. The primary impediment to direct imaging of exoplanets is the extremely high brightness ratio between the planet and its parent star. Direct imaging requires a technique for contrast suppression, which include coronagraphs, and nulling interferometers. Deformable mirrors (DMs) are essential to both of these techniques. With space missions in mind, Microscale is developing a novel DM with direct integration of DM and its electronic control functions in a single small envelope. The Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) is key to the shrinking of the electronic control functions to a size compatible with direct integration with the DM. Through a NASA SBIR project, Microscale, with JPL oversight, has successfully demonstrated a unique deformable mirror (DM) driver ASIC prototype based on an ultra-low power switch architecture. Microscale calls this the Switch-Mode ASIC, or SM-ASIC, and has characterized it for a key set of performance parameters, and has tested its operation with a variety of actuator loads, such as piezo stack and unimorph, and over a wide temperature range. These tests show the SM-ASIC's capability of supporting active optics in correcting aberrations of a telescope in space. Microscale has also developed DMs to go with the SM-ASIC driver. The latest DM version produced uses small piezo stack elements in an 8x8 array, bonded to a novel silicon facesheet structure fabricated monolithically into a polished mirror on one side and mechanical linkage posts that connect to the piezoelectric stack actuators on the other. In this Supporting Technology proposal we propose to further develop the ASIC-DM and have assembled a very capable team to do so. It will be led by JPL, which has considerable expertise with DMs used in Adaptive Optics systems, with high-contrast imaging systems for exoplanet missions, and with designing DM driver

  20. High-dimensional structured light coding/decoding for free-space optical communications free of obstructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jing; Wang, Jian

    2015-11-01

    Bessel beams carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) with helical phase fronts exp(ilφ)(l=0;±1;±2;…), where φ is the azimuthal angle and l corresponds to the topological number, are orthogonal with each other. This feature of Bessel beams provides a new dimension to code/decode data information on the OAM state of light, and the theoretical infinity of topological number enables possible high-dimensional structured light coding/decoding for free-space optical communications. Moreover, Bessel beams are nondiffracting beams having the ability to recover by themselves in the face of obstructions, which is important for free-space optical communications relying on line-of-sight operation. By utilizing the OAM and nondiffracting characteristics of Bessel beams, we experimentally demonstrate 12 m distance obstruction-free optical m-ary coding/decoding using visible Bessel beams in a free-space optical communication system. We also study the bit error rate (BER) performance of hexadecimal and 32-ary coding/decoding based on Bessel beams with different topological numbers. After receiving 500 symbols at the receiver side, a zero BER of hexadecimal coding/decoding is observed when the obstruction is placed along the propagation path of light.

  1. Optical Characteristics of the Marshall Space Flight Center Solar Ultraviolet Magnetograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Edward; Porter, Jason; Davis, John; Gary, Allen; Adams, Mitzi; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper will describe the scientific objectives of the MSFC SUMI project and the optical components that have been developed to meet those objectives. In order to test the scientific feasibility of measuring magnetic fields in the UV, a sounding rocket payload is being developed, This paper will describe the optical measurements that have been made on the SUMI telescope mirrors and polarization optics.

  2. Illusions in the spatial sense of the eye: geometrical-optical illusions and the neural representation of space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westheimer, Gerald

    2008-09-01

    Differences between the geometrical properties of simple configurations and their visual percept are called geometrical-optical illusions. They can be differentiated from illusions in the brightness or color domains, from ambiguous figures and impossible objects, from trompe l'oeil and perspective drawing with perfectly valid views, and from illusory contours. They were discovered independently by several scientists in a short time span in the 1850's. The clear distinction between object and visual space that they imply allows the question to be raised whether the transformation between the two spaces can be productively investigated in terms of differential geometry and metrical properties. Perceptual insight and psychophysical research prepares the ground for investigation of the neural representation of space but, because visual attributes are processed separately in parallel, one looks in vain for a neural map that is isomorphic with object space or even with individual forms it contains. Geometrical-optical illusions help reveal parsing rules for sensory signals by showing how conflicts are resolved when there is mismatch in the output of the processing modules for various primitives as a perceptual pattern's unitary structure is assembled. They point to a hierarchical ordering of spatial primitives: cardinal directions and explicit contours predominate over oblique orientation and implicit contours (Poggendorff illusion); rectilinearity yields to continuity (Hering illusion), point position and line length to contour orientation (Ponzo). Hence the geometrical-optical illusions show promise as analytical tools in unraveling neural processing in vision.

  3. New optical solitons of space-time conformable fractional perturbed Gerdjikov-Ivanov equation by sine-Gordon equation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaşar, Elif; Yıldırım, Yakup; Yaşar, Emrullah

    2018-06-01

    This paper devotes to conformable fractional space-time perturbed Gerdjikov-Ivanov (GI) equation which appears in nonlinear fiber optics and photonic crystal fibers (PCF). We consider the model with full nonlinearity in order to give a generalized flavor. The sine-Gordon equation approach is carried out to model equation for retrieving the dark, bright, dark-bright, singular and combined singular optical solitons. The constraint conditions are also reported for guaranteeing the existence of these solitons. We also present some graphical simulations of the solutions for better understanding the physical phenomena of the behind the considered model.

  4. High-capacity Free-space Optical Communications with Orbital Angular Momentum

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As the demand for high data returns from space science missions continues, significant improvements over the current radiofrequency (RF) communications architectures...

  5. Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Fincham, W H A

    2013-01-01

    Optics: Ninth Edition Optics: Ninth Edition covers the work necessary for the specialization in such subjects as ophthalmic optics, optical instruments and lens design. The text includes topics such as the propagation and behavior of light; reflection and refraction - their laws and how different media affect them; lenses - thick and thin, cylindrical and subcylindrical; photometry; dispersion and color; interference; and polarization. Also included are topics such as diffraction and holography; the limitation of beams in optical systems and its effects; and lens systems. The book is recommen

  6. Erratum: "Space Density of Optically Selected Type 2 Quasars" (2008, AJ, 136, 2373)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Reinabelle; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Strauss, Michael A.; Green, Joshua; Krolik, Julian H.; Shen, Yue; Richards, Gordon T.; Anderson, Scott F.; Schneider, Donald P.

    2010-03-01

    Figure 12 of the paper "Space Density of Optically Selected Type 2 Quasars" compares the obscured quasar fractions derived in our work with those of other studies. Unfortunately, some of the points from these other studies were shown incorrectly. Specifically, the results from X-ray data—Hasinger (2004; open circles) and Ueda et al. (2003; open squares)—which we had taken from Figure 16 of Hopkins et al. (2006), were affected by a luminosity conversion error, in the sense that the displayed luminosities for these data were too high by ~1 dex. With this erratum, we correct this problem and update the figure. The new version (Figure 12) shows more recent results from Hasinger (2008), in lieu of the Hasinger (2004) data points. These are based on data in the redshift range z = 0.2-3.2 (open circles) in that work. The best linear fit to these data (black dashed line) is consistent with that derived for the redshift slice z = 0.4-0.8, which overlaps with the highest redshift bin in our study, and is higher than that derived for redshifts smaller than 0.4 (corresponding to a shift of ~0.7 dex in luminosity). Figure 12 also shows estimates of the obscured quasar fraction derived from the ratio of IR to bolometric luminosities of an AGN sample at redshift z ~ 1 (Treister et al. 2008; filled triangles). Because the obscured quasar fractions derived from our analysis (colored arrows) are strict lower limits, there was already a hint in the previous version of Figure 12 that at high quasar luminosities, we find higher obscured quasar fractions than X-ray surveys. The correction and updates of Figure 12 strengthen this conclusion. At face value, our derived obscured quasar fractions are consistent with those from IR data (Treister et al. 2008; filled triangles). However, we find that they are significantly higher than those derived from X-ray surveys at L_[O\\,\\mathsc {iii]}\\gtrsim 10^{9.5}\\;L_{\\odot }, especially those from the recent analysis by Hasinger (2008). This

  7. 12.5 Gb/s multi-channel broadcasting transmission for free-space optical communication based on the optical frequency comb module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jun; Zhao, Zeping; Wang, Yuehui; Zhang, Zhike; Liu, Jianguo; Zhu, Ninghua

    2018-01-22

    A wide-spectrum, ultra-stable optical frequency comb (OFC) module with 100 GHz frequency intervals based on a quantum dot mode locked (QDML) laser is fabricated by our lab, and a scheme with 12.5 Gb/s multi-channel broadcasting transmission for free-space optical (FSO) communication is proposed based on the OFC module. The output power of the OFC is very stable, with the specially designed circuit and the flatness of the frequency comb over the span of 6 nm, which can be limited to 1.5 dB. Four channel wavelengths are chosen to demonstrate one-to-many channels for FSO communication, like optical wireless broadcast. The outdoor experiment is established to test the bit error rate (BER) and eye diagrams with 12.5 Gb/s on-off keying (OOK). The indoor experiment is used to test the highest traffic rate, which is up to 21 Gb/s for one-hop FSO communication. To the best of our knowledge, this scheme is the first to propose the realization of one-to-many broadcasting transmission for FSO communication based on the OFC module. The advantages of integration, miniaturization, channelization, low power consumption, and unlimited bandwidth of one-to-many broadcasting communication scheme, shows promising results on constructing the future space-air-ground-ocean (SAGO) FSO communication networks.

  8. Performance Analysis of Free-Space Optical Links Over Malaga (M) Turbulence Channels with Pointing Errors

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Imran Shafique; Yilmaz, Ferkan; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we present a unified performance analysis of a free-space optical (FSO) link that accounts for pointing errors and both types of detection techniques (i.e. intensity modulation/direct detection (IM/DD) as well as heterodyne detection). More specifically, we present unified exact closedform expressions for the cumulative distribution function, the probability density function, the moment generating function, and the moments of the end-to-end signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of a single link FSO transmission system, all in terms of the Meijer’s G function except for the moments that is in terms of simple elementary functions. We then capitalize on these unified results to offer unified exact closed-form expressions for various performance metrics of FSO link transmission systems, such as, the outage probability, the scintillation index (SI), the average error rate for binary and M-ary modulation schemes, and the ergodic capacity (except for IM/DD technique, where we present closed-form lower bound results), all in terms of Meijer’s G functions except for the SI that is in terms of simple elementary functions. Additionally, we derive the asymptotic results for all the expressions derived earlier in terms of Meijer’s G function in the high SNR regime in terms of simple elementary functions via an asymptotic expansion of the Meijer’s G function. We also derive new asymptotic expressions for the ergodic capacity in the low as well as high SNR regimes in terms of simple elementary functions via utilizing moments. All the presented results are verified via computer-based Monte-Carlo simulations.

  9. Performance Analysis of Free-Space Optical Links Over Malaga (M) Turbulence Channels with Pointing Errors

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Imran Shafique

    2015-08-12

    In this work, we present a unified performance analysis of a free-space optical (FSO) link that accounts for pointing errors and both types of detection techniques (i.e. intensity modulation/direct detection (IM/DD) as well as heterodyne detection). More specifically, we present unified exact closedform expressions for the cumulative distribution function, the probability density function, the moment generating function, and the moments of the end-to-end signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of a single link FSO transmission system, all in terms of the Meijer’s G function except for the moments that is in terms of simple elementary functions. We then capitalize on these unified results to offer unified exact closed-form expressions for various performance metrics of FSO link transmission systems, such as, the outage probability, the scintillation index (SI), the average error rate for binary and M-ary modulation schemes, and the ergodic capacity (except for IM/DD technique, where we present closed-form lower bound results), all in terms of Meijer’s G functions except for the SI that is in terms of simple elementary functions. Additionally, we derive the asymptotic results for all the expressions derived earlier in terms of Meijer’s G function in the high SNR regime in terms of simple elementary functions via an asymptotic expansion of the Meijer’s G function. We also derive new asymptotic expressions for the ergodic capacity in the low as well as high SNR regimes in terms of simple elementary functions via utilizing moments. All the presented results are verified via computer-based Monte-Carlo simulations.

  10. Analysis of fog effects on terrestrial Free Space optical communication links

    KAUST Repository

    Esmail, Maged Abdullah

    2016-07-26

    In this paper, we consider and examine fog measurement data, coming from several locations in Europe and USA, and attempt to derive a unified model for fog attenuation in free space optics (FSO) communication links. We evaluate and compare the performance of our proposed model to that of many well-known alternative models. We found that our proposed model, achieves an average RMSE that outperforms them by more than 9 dB. Furthermore, we have studied the performance of the FSO system using different performance metrics such as signal-to-noise (SNR) ratio, bit error rate (BER), and channel capacity. Our results show that FSO is a short range technology. Therefore, FSO is expected to find its place in future networks that will have small cell size, i.e., <1 km diameter. Moreover, our investigation shows that under dense fog, it is difficult to maintain a communications link because of the high signal attenuation, which requires switching the communications to RF backup. Our results show that increasing the transmitted power will improve the system performance under light fog. However, under heavy fog, the effect is minor. To enhance the system performance under low visibility range, multi-hop link is used which can enhance the power budget by using short segments links. Using 22 dBm transmitted power, we obtained BER=10-3 over 1 km link length with 600 m visibility range which corresponds to light fog. However, under lower visibility range equals 40 m that corresponds to dense fog, we obtained the same BER but over 200 m link length. © 2016 IEEE.

  11. New earth system model for optical performance evaluation of space instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Dongok; Kim, Sug-Whan; Breault, Robert P

    2017-03-06

    In this study, a new global earth system model is introduced for evaluating the optical performance of space instruments. Simultaneous imaging and spectroscopic results are provided using this global earth system model with fully resolved spatial, spectral, and temporal coverage of sub-models of the Earth. The sun sub-model is a Lambertian scattering sphere with a 6-h scale and 295 lines of solar spectral irradiance. The atmospheric sub-model has a 15-layer three-dimensional (3D) ellipsoid structure. The land sub-model uses spectral bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDF) defined by a semi-empirical parametric kernel model. The ocean is modeled with the ocean spectral albedo after subtracting the total integrated scattering of the sun-glint scatter model. A hypothetical two-mirror Cassegrain telescope with a 300-mm-diameter aperture and 21.504 mm × 21.504-mm focal plane imaging instrument is designed. The simulated image results are compared with observational data from HRI-VIS measurements during the EPOXI mission for approximately 24 h from UTC Mar. 18, 2008. Next, the defocus mapping result and edge spread function (ESF) measuring result show that the distance between the primary and secondary mirror increases by 55.498 μm from the diffraction-limited condition. The shift of the focal plane is determined to be 5.813 mm shorter than that of the defocused focal plane, and this result is confirmed through the estimation of point spread function (PSF) measurements. This study shows that the earth system model combined with an instrument model is a powerful tool that can greatly help the development phase of instrument missions.

  12. On the investigation of electronic defect states in ZnO thin films by space charge spectroscopy with optical excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Matthias; Wenckstern, Holger von; Pickenhain, Rainer; Grundmann, Marius

    2012-09-01

    Electronic defect states in a n-type conducting zinc oxide thin film sample were investigated by means of space charge spectroscopy focussing on levels in the midgap region as well as on hole traps. To overcome the experimental difficulties arising from the wide bandgap and the lack of p-type conduction, optical excitation was employed to measure the emission of trapped charge carriers from these levels. Therefore - besides deep-level transient spectroscopy measurements - photo-capacitance, optically chopped photo-current, minority carrier transient spectroscopy, and optical capacitance-voltage experiments were conducted. In doing so, a midgap level labelled T4, and hole traps labelled TH1 and TH2 were detected. In the case of T4 and TH1 the photo-ionisation cross-section spectra were determined.

  13. Optical design and studies of a tiled single grating pulse compressor for enhanced parametric space and compensation of tiling errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daiya, D.; Patidar, R. K.; Sharma, J.; Joshi, A. S.; Naik, P. A.; Gupta, P. D.

    2017-04-01

    A new optical design of tiled single grating pulse compressor has been proposed, set-up and studied. The parametric space, i.e. the laser beam diameters that can be accommodated in the pulse compressor for the given range of compression lengths, has been calculated and shown to have up to two fold enhancement in comparison to our earlier proposed optical designs. The new optical design of the tiled single grating pulse compressor has an additional advantage of self compensation of various tiling errors like longitudinal and lateral piston, tip and groove density mismatch, compared to the earlier designs. Experiments have been carried out for temporal compression of 650 ps positively chirped laser pulses, at central wavelength 1054 nm, down to 235 fs in the tiled grating pulse compressor set up with the proposed design. Further, far field studies have been performed to show the desired compensation of the tiling errors takes place in the new compressor.

  14. Modernization of NASA's Johnson Space Center Chamber: A Payload Transport Rail System to Support Cryogenic Vacuum Optical Testing of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Sam; Homan, Jonathan; Speed, John

    2016-01-01

    NASA is the mission lead for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), the next of the "Great Observatories", scheduled for launch in 2018. It is directly responsible for the integration and test (I&T) program that will culminate in an end-to-end cryo vacuum optical test of the flight telescope and instrument module in Chamber A at NASA Johnson Space Center. Historic Chamber A is the largest thermal vacuum chamber at Johnson Space Center and one of the largest space simulation chambers in the world. Chamber A has undergone a major modernization effort to support the deep cryogenic, vacuum and cleanliness requirements for testing the JWST. This paper describe the challenges of developing, integrating and modifying new payload rails capable of transporting payloads within the thermal vacuum chamber up to 65,000 pounds. Ambient and Cryogenic Operations required to configure for testing will be explained. Lastly review historical payload configurations stretching from the Apollo program era to current James Webb Space Telescope testing.

  15. Molecular Dynamics of Flexible Polar Cations in a Variable Confined Space: Toward Exceptional Two-Step Nonlinear Optical Switches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei-Jian; He, Chun-Ting; Ji, Cheng-Min; Chen, Shao-Li; Huang, Rui-Kang; Lin, Rui-Biao; Xue, Wei; Luo, Jun-Hua; Zhang, Wei-Xiong; Chen, Xiao-Ming

    2016-07-01

    The changeable molecular dynamics of flexible polar cations in the variable confined space between inorganic chains brings about a new type of two-step nonlinear optical (NLO) switch with genuine "off-on-off" second harmonic generation (SHG) conversion between one NLO-active state and two NLO-inactive states. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. On the performance of free-space optical wireless communication systems over double generalized gamma fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Quwaiee, Hessa

    2014-03-01

    Starting with the double generalized Gamma (GG) model that was proposed in [1] to describe turbulence-induced fading in free-space optical (FSO) systems, we propose a new unified model which accounts for the impact of pointing errors and type of receiver detector. Based on this new unified model, we study the performance of FSO links operating over these kind of channels. All our analytical results are verified using computer based Monte-Carlo simulations. © 2014 IEEE.

  17. On the performance of free-space optical wireless communication systems over double generalized gamma fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Quwaiee, Hessa; Ansari, Imran Shafique; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2014-01-01

    Starting with the double generalized Gamma (GG) model that was proposed in [1] to describe turbulence-induced fading in free-space optical (FSO) systems, we propose a new unified model which accounts for the impact of pointing errors and type of receiver detector. Based on this new unified model, we study the performance of FSO links operating over these kind of channels. All our analytical results are verified using computer based Monte-Carlo simulations. © 2014 IEEE.

  18. Detection Performance of Upgraded "Polished Panel" Optical Receiver Concept on the Deep-Space Network's 34 Meter Research Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilnrotter, Victor A.

    2012-01-01

    The development and demonstration of a "polished panel" optical receiver concept on the 34 meter research antenna of the Deep Space Network (DSN) has been the subject of recent papers. This concept would enable simultaneous reception of optical and microwave signals by retaining the original shape of the main reflector for microwave reception, but with the aluminum panels polished to high reflectivity to enable focusing of optical signal energy as well. A test setup has been installed on the DSN's 34 meter research antenna at Deep Space Station 13 (DSS-13) of NASA's Goldstone Communications Complex in California, and preliminary experimental results have been obtained. This paper describes the results of our latest efforts to improve the point-spread function (PSF) generated by a custom polished panel, in an attempt to reduce the dimensions of the PSF, thus enabling more precise tracking and improved detection performance. The design of the new mechanical support structure and its operation are described, and the results quantified in terms of improvements in collected signal energy and optical communications performance, based on data obtained while tracking the planet Jupiter with the 34 meter research antenna at DSS-13.

  19. Experimental Evaluation of the "Polished Panel Optical Receiver" Concept on the Deep Space Network's 34 Meter Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilnrotter, Victor A.

    2012-01-01

    The potential development of large aperture ground-based "photon bucket" optical receivers for deep space communications has received considerable attention recently. One approach currently under investigation proposes to polish the aluminum reflector panels of 34-meter microwave antennas to high reflectance, and accept the relatively large spotsize generated by even state-of-the-art polished aluminum panels. Here we describe the experimental effort currently underway at the Deep Space Network (DSN) Goldstone Communications Complex in California, to test and verify these concepts in a realistic operational environment. A custom designed aluminum panel has been mounted on the 34 meter research antenna at Deep-Space Station 13 (DSS-13), and a remotely controlled CCD camera with a large CCD sensor in a weather-proof container has been installed next to the subreflector, pointed directly at the custom polished panel. Using the planet Jupiter as the optical point-source, the point-spread function (PSF) generated by the polished panel has been characterized, the array data processed to determine the center of the intensity distribution, and expected communications performance of the proposed polished panel optical receiver has been evaluated.

  20. Optimal Performance Monitoring of Hybrid Mid-Infrared Wavelength MIMO Free Space Optical and RF Wireless Networks in Fading Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Barnet Michael

    An optimal performance monitoring metric for a hybrid free space optical and radio-frequency (RF) wireless network, the Outage Capacity Objective Function, is analytically developed and studied. Current and traditional methods of performance monitoring of both optical and RF wireless networks are centered on measurement of physical layer parameters, the most common being signal-to-noise ratio, error rate, Q factor, and eye diagrams, occasionally combined with link-layer measurements such as data throughput, retransmission rate, and/or lost packet rate. Network management systems frequently attempt to predict or forestall network failures by observing degradations of these parameters and to attempt mitigation (such as offloading traffic, increasing transmitter power, reducing the data rate, or combinations thereof) prior to the failure. These methods are limited by the frequent low sensitivity of the physical layer parameters to the atmospheric optical conditions (measured by optical signal-to-noise ratio) and the radio frequency fading channel conditions (measured by signal-to-interference ratio). As a result of low sensitivity, measurements of this type frequently are unable to predict impending failures sufficiently in advance for the network management system to take corrective action prior to the failure. We derive and apply an optimal measure of hybrid network performance based on the outage capacity of the hybrid optical and RF channel, the outage capacity objective function. The objective function provides high sensitivity and reliable failure prediction, and considers both the effects of atmospheric optical impairments on the performance of the free space optical segment as well as the effect of RF channel impairments on the radio frequency segment. The radio frequency segment analysis considers the three most common RF channel fading statistics: Rayleigh, Ricean, and Nakagami-m. The novel application of information theory to the underlying physics of the