Sample records for space optical communication

  1. Free space optical communication

    CERN Document Server

    Kaushal, Hemani; Kar, Subrat


    This book provides an in-depth understanding of free space optical (FSO) communication with a particular emphasis on optical beam propagation through atmospheric turbulence. The book is structured in such a way that it provides a basic framework for the beginners and also gives a concise description from a designer’s perspective. The book provides an exposure to FSO technology, fundamental limitations, design methodologies, system trade-offs, acquisition, tracking and pointing (ATP) techniques and link-feasibility analysis. The contents of this book will be of interest to professionals and researchers alike. The book may also be used as a textbook for engineering coursework and professional training.

  2. Deep Space Optical Communication (DSOC) Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop key technologies that enable operational deep space optical communications.Spacecraft disturbance isolation platform for sub-microradian pointing with...

  3. Atmospheric free-space coherent optical communications with adaptive optics (United States)

    Ting, Chueh; Zhang, Chengyu; Yang, Zikai


    Free-space coherent optical communications have a potential application to offer last mile bottleneck solution in future local area networks (LAN) because of their information carrier, information security and license-free status. Coherent optical communication systems using orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) digital modulation are successfully demonstrated in a long-haul tens Giga bits via optical fiber, but they are not yet available in free space due to atmospheric turbulence-induced channel fading. Adaptive optics is recognized as a promising technology to mitigate the effects of atmospheric turbulence in free-space optics. In this paper, a free-space coherent optical communication system using an OFDM digital modulation scheme and adaptive optics (FSO OFDM AO) is proposed, a Gamma-Gamma distribution statistical channel fading model for the FSO OFDM AO system is examined, and FSO OFDM AO system performance is evaluated in terms of bit error rate (BER) versus various propagation distances.

  4. Space Optical Communications Using Laser Beam Amplification (United States)

    Agrawal, Govind


    The Space Optical Communications Using Laser Beam Amplification (SOCLBA) project will provide a capability to amplify a laser beam that is received in a modulating retro-reflector (MRR) located in a satellite in low Earth orbit. It will also improve the pointing procedure between Earth and spacecraft terminals. The technology uses laser arrays to strengthen the reflected laser beam from the spacecraft. The results of first year's work (2014) show amplification factors of 60 times the power of the signal beam. MMRs are mirrors that reflect light beams back to the source. In space optical communications, a high-powered laser interrogator beam is directed from the ground to a satellite. Within the satellite, the beam is redirected back to ground using the MMR. In the MMR, the beam passes through modulators, which encode a data signal onto the returning beam. MMRs can be used in small spacecraft for optical communications. The SOCLBA project is significant to NASA and small spacecraft due to its application to CubeSats for optical data transmission to ground stations, as well as possible application to spacecraft for optical data transmission.

  5. Free Space Optical Communications Utilizing MEMS Adaptive Optics Correction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, C A; Kartz, M W; Flath, L M; Wilks, S C; Young, R A; Johnson, G W; Ruggiero, A J


    Free space optical communications (FSO) are beginning to provide attractive alternatives to fiber-based solutions in many situations. Currently, a handful of companies provide fiberless alternatives specifically aimed at corporate intranet and sporting event video applications. These solutions are geared toward solving the ''last mile'' connectivity issues. There exists a potential need to extend this pathlength to distances much greater than a 1 km, particularly for government and military applications. For cases of long distance optical propagation, atmospheric turbulence will ultimately limit the maximum achievable data rate. In this paper, we propose a method to improve signal quality through the use of adaptive optics. In particular, we show work in progress toward a high-speed, small footprint Adaptive Optics system for horizontal and slant path laser communications. Such a system relies heavily on recent progress in Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) deformable mirrors, as well as improved communication and computational components.

  6. Systems and methods for free space optical communication (United States)

    Harper, Warren W [Benton City, WA; Aker, Pamela M [Richland, WA; Pratt, Richard M [Richland, WA


    Free space optical communication methods and systems, according to various aspects are described. The methods and systems are characterized by transmission of data through free space with a digitized optical signal acquired using wavelength modulation, and by discrimination between bit states in the digitized optical signal using a spectroscopic absorption feature of a chemical substance.

  7. Optical ground station site diversity for Deep Space Optical Communications the Mars Telecom Orbiter optical link (United States)

    Wilson, K.; Parvin, B.; Fugate, R.; Kervin, P.; Zingales, S.


    Future NASA deep space missions will fly advanced high resolution imaging instruments that will require high bandwidth links to return the huge data volumes generated by these instruments. Optical communications is a key technology for returning these large data volumes from deep space probes. Yet to cost effectively realize the high bandwidth potential of the optical link will require deployment of ground receivers in diverse locations to provide high link availability. A recent analysis of GOES weather satellite data showed that a network of ground stations located in Hawaii and the Southwest continental US can provide an average of 90% availability for the deep space optical link. JPL and AFRL are exploring the use of large telescopes in Hawaii, California, and Albuquerque to support the Mars Telesat laser communications demonstration. Designed to demonstrate multi-Mbps communications from Mars, the mission will investigate key operational strategies of future deep space optical communications network.

  8. Beaconless Pointing for Deep-Space Optical Communication (United States)

    Swank, Aaron J.; Aretskin-Hariton, Eliot; Le, Dzu K.; Sands, Obed S.; Wroblewski, Adam


    Free space optical communication is of interest to NASA as a complement to existing radio frequency communication methods. The potential for an increase in science data return capability over current radio-frequency communications is the primary objective. Deep space optical communication requires laser beam pointing accuracy on the order of a few microradians. The laser beam pointing approach discussed here operates without the aid of a terrestrial uplink beacon. Precision pointing is obtained from an on-board star tracker in combination with inertial rate sensors and an outgoing beam reference vector. The beaconless optical pointing system presented in this work is the current approach for the Integrated Radio and Optical Communication (iROC) project.

  9. Space Optical Communications Using Laser Beams (United States)

    Goorjian, Peter M. (Inventor)


    A system for communicating between an object in space and a ground station, between objects in space, or between ground stations, includes a telecentric lens. Photodetectors positioned upon a focal plane of the telecentric lens detect an inbound light beam, received from a source, that has passed through the telecentric lens to the focal plane. Lasers positioned upon the focal plane transmit light beams from the focal plane through the telecentric lens to an area that includes the source of the inbound light beam. A processor detect signals from individual photodetectors corresponding to light detected, and selectively signals individual lasers that are close to those photodetectors, resulting in a returning beam that arrives close to the source, and which carries encoded data.

  10. Free Space Optical Communication for Tactical Operations (United States)


    I would like to dedicate my heartfelt appreciation to my wife, Ms. Foo Suan Wood , and my family, Mr. Lai Lin Wah (father), Ms. Chin Choon Heong...variations in the air pockets along the path of an optical link [2]. This causes fluctuations in the optical beam, resulting in variation of energy

  11. Research on optic antenna of space laser communication networking (United States)

    Meng, Li-Xin; Li, Long; Zhang, Li-zhong; Zhao, Shan-shan; Jiang, Hui-lin


    With the highlights of the high transmission rate, large capacity, strong anti-interference and anti-capture ability, good security and small light, space laser communication becomes an important hotspot. At present, the focus of research of the laser communication system is point to point communication structure. However, from the application point of view, both the realization of space laser communication among multiple points and the establishment of the information transmission network can really have the practical value. Aiming at the problem of space laser communication network, this article puts forward the general idea about optical antenna to achieve multiple tracking goals at the same time. Through the analysis of the optical antenna, and the comparing of the current commonly used mirror driving mechanism, a new mirror driving mechanism is designed. The azimuth motion, containing circular grating feedback, is driven by torque motor,voice coil motor of fan produces pitch motion that has fan-shaped grating feedback, so that compression of the structure size to improve the efficiency of the reflector assembly. Through the establishment of the driving mechanism and the kinematic model of 3D entity, the relationship between the single drive azimuth and pitch angle following the angle of incident light is explained. The biggest ideal view area affecting the optical antenna is obtained by the simulation analysis of the kinematics model using MATLAB. The several factors of field overlap area and blind area offers a theoretical basis for structure optimization and control system for the subsequent optical antenna design.

  12. Spectrum Scarcity and Free Space Optical Communications

    KAUST Repository

    Alouini, Mohamed-Slim


    Exact and asymptotic studies of the average error probability of wireless communication systems over generalized fading channels have been extensively pursued over the last two decades. In contrast, studies and results dealing with the channel capacity in these environments have been more scarce. In the first part of this talk, we present a generic moment generating function-based approach for the exact computation of the channel capacity in such kind of environments. The resulting formulas are applicable to systems having channel state information (CSI) at the receiver and employing maximal-ratio combining or equal-gain combining multichannel reception. The analysis covers the case where the combined paths are not necessarily independent or identically distributed. In all cases, the proposed approach leads to an expression of the ergodic capacity involving a single finite-range integral, which can be easily computed numerically. In the second part of the talk, we focus on the asymptotic analysis of the capacity in the high and low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regimes. More specifically, we offer new simple closed-form formulas that give an intuitive understanding of the capacity behavior at these two extreme regimes. Our characterization covers not only the case where the CSI is available only at the receiver but also the case where the CSI is available at both the transmitter and receiver.

  13. Development of the Free-space Optical Communications Analysis Software (FOCAS) (United States)

    Jeganathan, M.; Mecherle, G.; Lesh, J.


    The Free-space Optical Communications Analysis Software (FOCAS) was developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to provide mission planners, systems engineers and communications engineers with an easy to use tool to analyze optical communications link.

  14. Design of low SWaP optical terminals for free space optical communications (United States)

    Shubert, P.; Cline, A.; McNally, J.; Pierson, R.


    Along with advantages in higher data rates, spectrum contention, and security, free space optical communications can provide size, weight, and power (SWaP) advantages over radio frequency (RF) systems. SWaP is always an issue in space systems and can be critical in applying free space optical communications to small satellite platforms. The system design of small space-based free space optical terminals with Gbps data rates is addressed. System architectures and requirements are defined to ensure the terminals are capable of acquisition, establishment and maintenance of a free space optical communications link. Design trades, identification of blocking technologies, and performance analyses are used to evaluate the practical limitations to terminal SWaP. Small terminal design concepts are developed to establish their practicality and feasibility. Techniques, such as modulation formats and capacity approaching encoding, are considered to mitigate the disadvantages brought by SWaP limitations, and performance as a function of SWaP is evaluated.

  15. Laser guide stars for optical free-space communications (United States)

    Mata-Calvo, Ramon; Bonaccini Calia, Domenico; Barrios, Ricardo; Centrone, Mauro; Giggenbach, Dirk; Lombardi, Gianluca; Becker, Peter; Zayer, Igor


    The German Aerospace Center (DLR) and the European Southern Observatory (ESO) performed a measurement campaign together in April and July 2016 at Teide-Observatory (Tenerife), with the support of the European Space Agency (ESA), to investigate the use of laser guide stars (LGS) in ground to space optical communications. Atmospheric turbulence causes strong signal fluctuations in the uplink, due to scintillation and beam wander. In space communications, the use of the downlink channel as reference for pointing and for pre-distortion adaptive optics is limited by the size of the isokinetic and isoplanatic angle in relation to the required point-ahead angle. Pointing and phase errors due to the decorrelation between downward and upward beam due to the point-ahead angle may have a severe impact on the required transmit power and the stability of the communications link. LGSs provide a self-tailored reference to any optical ground-to-space link, independently of turbulence conditions and required point-ahead angle. In photon-starved links, typically in deep-space scenarios, LGSs allow dedicating all downlink received signal to communications purposes, increasing the available link margin. The scope of the joint DLR-ESO measurement campaign was, first, to measure the absolute value of the beam wander (uplink-tilt) using a LGS, taking a natural star as a reference, and, second, to characterize the decrease of correlation between uplink-tilt and downlink-tilt with respect to the angular separation between both sources. This paper describes the experiments performed during the measurement campaigns, providing an overview of the measured data and the first outcomes of the data post-processing.

  16. Research of STBC in free space optical communications system (United States)

    Deng, Tianping; Peng, Kai; Lu, Yimin


    Free Space Optical (FSO) communication is a communication pattern in which laser is used as the information carrier in atmosphere environment. FSO system has been widely applied in the fields of satellite communication and ground sight distance communication, with a promising application prospect and tremendous market potential. And space-time processing (using multiple antennas) is now recognized as a key to achieving reliable high data rate wireless communications and is being incorporated into the physical layer of many wireless standards. In this letter, error rate performance for space-time block coding (STBC) in FSO communication systems with direct detection operating over strong atmospheric turbulence channels is analyzed. The purpose of the paper is: (i) to determine the channel capacity of FSO system in the presence of atmospheric turbulence, (ii) to see how much this limit can be approached using the best known STBC techniques. In this paper, we use mathematics tool to establish the channel model of FSO system, and then apply the STBC to the FSO system, research the decoding method and simulate the performance using MATLAB tools. The mathematics analysis and simulation results show the great application expectation of STBC in the OOK channel of the FSO system.

  17. Two mode optical fiber in space optics communication (United States)

    Hampl, Martin


    In our contribution we propose to use of a two-mode optical fiber as a primary source in a transmitting optical head instead of the laser diode. The distribution of the optical intensity and the complex degree of the coherence on the output aperture of the lens that is irradiated by a step-index weakly guiding optical fiber is investigated. In our treatment we take into account weakly guided modes with polarization corrections to the propagation constant and unified theory of second order coherence and polarization of electromagnetic beams.

  18. Fading testbed for free-space optical communications (United States)

    Shrestha, Amita; Giggenbach, Dirk; Mustafa, Ahmad; Pacheco-Labrador, Jorge; Ramirez, Julio; Rein, Fabian


    Free-space optical (FSO) communication is a very attractive technology offering very high throughput without spectral regulation constraints, yet allowing small antennas (telescopes) and tap-proof communication. However, the transmitted signal has to travel through the atmosphere where it gets influenced by atmospheric turbulence, causing scintillation of the received signal. In addition, climatic effects like fogs, clouds and rain also affect the signal significantly. Moreover, FSO being a line of sight communication requires precise pointing and tracking of the telescopes, which otherwise also causes fading. To achieve error-free transmission, various mitigation techniques like aperture averaging, adaptive optics, transmitter diversity, sophisticated coding and modulation schemes are being investigated and implemented. Evaluating the performance of such systems under controlled conditions is very difficult in field trials since the atmospheric situation constantly changes, and the target scenario (e.g. on aircraft or satellites) is not easily accessible for test purposes. Therefore, with the motivation to be able to test and verify a system under laboratory conditions, DLR has developed a fading testbed that can emulate most realistic channel conditions. The main principle of the fading testbed is to control the input current of a variable optical attenuator such that it attenuates the incoming signal according to the loaded power vector. The sampling frequency and mean power of the vector can be optionally changed according to requirements. This paper provides a brief introduction to software and hardware development of the fading testbed and measurement results showing its accuracy and application scenarios.

  19. The aero optics effect on near space laser communication optical system (United States)

    Hu, Yuan; Fu, Yuegang; Jiang, Huilin


    With the developing of the space laser communication link, the performance index including higher transfer speed, extending transfer distance, and environmental adaptability, all ask the system accuracy and indexes improving. Special the developing near space platform, its environmental is extremes, the near space drone and other airplane flight speed is very quickly from the subsonic to supersonic. The aero optics effect caused by high speed will generate a thin turbulent air layer. It affects the performance of laser communication optical system by laser light vibration, deviation and so on, further more affects the performance of laser communication system working performance, even can't communication. Therefore, for achieving optical system indexes, we need do more research in optical system near space aero optics environmental adaptability. In this paper, near space link environmental characteristic are researched. And on the base of the aero optics theory, computer simulating method is applied to analyze the relationship among the altitude, the flight speed and the image dispersion. The result shows that, the aero optics effect cannot be ignored when the terminal is in low altitude or is moving with supersonic speed. The effect must be taken into considered from overall design. The result will provide the basis of research design.

  20. High power optical transmitter package for free space optical communication (United States)

    Hildebrand, U.; Menke, B.; Wiesmann, Th.; Ohm, G.


    This paper discusses the characteristics of a new concept involving high-power laser diode (HPLD) arrays which are able to emit up to 1000 mW of optical output power but which suffer from poor far-field pattern and poor optical quality, related to the gain guiding mechanism used in such devices. Methods are proposed for improving the optical quality of HPLDs. These include the use of apertured AM scheme for HPLDs and the use of a graded-index lens and a stripe mirror to stabilize the HPLD. A HPLD optical transmitter is designed which will have the capability of operating the HPLD in the 180 deg phase alternating mode under modulation.

  1. High-Counting Rate Photon Detectors for Long-Range Space Optical Communications Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Long range, RF space communications do not meet anymore the bandwidth requirements or power constraints of future NASA missions. Optical communications offer the...

  2. Application of spinal code for performance improvement in free-space optical communications (United States)

    Saiki, Naoya; Okamoto, Eiji; Takenaka, Hideki; Toyoshima, Morio


    In recent years, the demand for high-capacity communication has grown, and fiber-optic transmission is being used in wired communications to meet this demand. Similarly, free-space optics (FSO), which is an optical wireless communication technology that uses laser light, has attracted much attention and has been considered as a suitable alternative to satisfy this demand in wireless communications. Free-space optical communication uses a hundred THz frequency band and allows for high-speed and radio-regulation free transmission, which may provide a solution for the current shortage of radio frequency bands.

  3. Fast QC-LDPC code for free space optical communication (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Zhang, Qi; Udeh, Chinonso Paschal; Wu, Rangzhong


    Free Space Optical (FSO) Communication systems use the atmosphere as a propagation medium. Hence the atmospheric turbulence effects lead to multiplicative noise related with signal intensity. In order to suppress the signal fading induced by multiplicative noise, we propose a fast Quasi-Cyclic (QC) Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC) code for FSO Communication systems. As a linear block code based on sparse matrix, the performances of QC-LDPC is extremely near to the Shannon limit. Currently, the studies on LDPC code in FSO Communications is mainly focused on Gauss-channel and Rayleigh-channel, respectively. In this study, the LDPC code design over atmospheric turbulence channel which is nether Gauss-channel nor Rayleigh-channel is closer to the practical situation. Based on the characteristics of atmospheric channel, which is modeled as logarithmic-normal distribution and K-distribution, we designed a special QC-LDPC code, and deduced the log-likelihood ratio (LLR). An irregular QC-LDPC code for fast coding, of which the rates are variable, is proposed in this paper. The proposed code achieves excellent performance of LDPC codes and can present the characteristics of high efficiency in low rate, stable in high rate and less number of iteration. The result of belief propagation (BP) decoding shows that the bit error rate (BER) obviously reduced as the Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) increased. Therefore, the LDPC channel coding technology can effectively improve the performance of FSO. At the same time, the BER, after decoding reduces with the increase of SNR arbitrarily, and not having error limitation platform phenomenon with error rate slowing down.

  4. Design of a stabilized, compact gimbal for space-based free space optical communications (FSOC) (United States)

    Cline, A.; Shubert, P.; McNally, J.; Jacka, N.; Pierson, R.


    Data transmits via optical communications through fibers at 10's of Terabits per second. Given the recent rapid explosion for bandwidth and competing demand for radio frequency (RF) spectrum allocations among differing interests, the need for space-based free space optical communications (FSOC) systems is ever increasing. FSOC systems offer advantages of higher data rates, smaller size and weight, narrower beam divergence, and lower power than RF systems. Lightweight, small form factor, and high performance two-axis gimbals are of strong interest for satellite FSOC applications. Small gimbal and optical terminal designs are important for widespread implementation of optical communications systems; in particular, for satellite-to-satellite crosslinks where the advantages of more secure communications links (Lower Probability of Intercept (LPI)/Lower Probability of Detect (LPD)) are very important. We developed design concepts for a small gimbal focusing on the use of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) subsystems to establish their feasible implementation against the pointing stabilization, size, weight and power (SWaP), and performance challenges. The design drivers for the gimbal were weight, the elevation and azimuth field of regards, the form factor envelope (1U CubeSats), 100 μrad pointing accuracy, and 10 degrees per second slew capability. Innovations required in this development included a continuous fiber passed through an Azimuth Fiber Wrap and Elevation Fiber Wrap, overcoming typical mechanical and stress related limitations encountered with fiber optic cable wraps. In this presentation, we describe the configuration trades and design of such a gimbal.

  5. Highly Sensitive Photon Counting Detectors for Deep Space Optical Communications Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A new type of a photon-counting photodetector is proposed to advance the state-of the-art in deep space optical communications technology. The proposed detector...

  6. Quantum Limits of Space-to-Ground Optical Communications (United States)

    Hemmati, H.; Dolinar, S.


    For a pure loss channel, the ultimate capacity can be achieved with classical coherent states (i.e., ideal laser light): (1) Capacity-achieving receiver (measurement) is yet to be determined. (2) Heterodyne detection approaches the ultimate capacity at high mean photon numbers. (3) Photon-counting approaches the ultimate capacity at low mean photon numbers. A number of current technology limits drive the achievable performance of free-space communication links. Approaching fundamental limits in the bandwidth-limited regime: (1) Heterodyne detection with high-order coherent-state modulation approaches ultimate limits. SOA improvements to laser phase noise, adaptive optics systems for atmospheric transmission would help. (2) High-order intensity modulation and photon-counting can approach heterodyne detection within approximately a factor of 2. This may have advantages over coherent detection in the presence of turbulence. Approaching fundamental limits in the photon-limited regime (1) Low-duty cycle binary coherent-state modulation (OOK, PPM) approaches ultimate limits. SOA improvements to laser extinction ratio, receiver dark noise, jitter, and blocking would help. (2) In some link geometries (near field links) number-state transmission could improve over coherent-state transmission

  7. The effect of jitter on the performance of space coherent optical communication system with Costas loop (United States)

    Li, Xin; Hong, Yifeng; Wang, Jinfang; Liu, Yang; Sun, Xun; Li, Mi


    Numerous communication techniques and optical devices successfully applied in space optical communication system indicates a good portability of it. With this good portability, typical coherent demodulation technique of Costas loop can be easily adopted in space optical communication system. As one of the components of pointing error, the effect of jitter plays an important role in the communication quality of such system. Here, we obtain the probability density functions (PDF) of different jitter degrees and explain their essential effect on the bit error rate (BER) space optical communication system. Also, under the effect of jitter, we research the bit error rate of space coherent optical communication system using Costas loop with different system parameters of transmission power, divergence angle, receiving diameter, avalanche photodiode (APD) gain, and phase deviation caused by Costas loop. Through a numerical simulation of this kind of communication system, we demonstrate the relationship between the BER and these system parameters, and some corresponding methods of system optimization are presented to enhance the communication quality.

  8. Analysis of large optical ground stations for deep-space optical communications (United States)

    Garcia-Talavera, M. Reyes; Rivera, C.; Murga, G.; Montilla, I.; Alonso, A.


    Inter-satellite and ground to satellite optical communications have been successfully demonstrated over more than a decade with several experiments, the most recent being NASA's lunar mission Lunar Atmospheric Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE). The technology is in a mature stage that allows to consider optical communications as a high-capacity solution for future deep-space communications [1][2], where there is an increasing demand on downlink data rate to improve science return. To serve these deep-space missions, suitable optical ground stations (OGS) have to be developed providing large collecting areas. The design of such OGSs must face both technical and cost constraints in order to achieve an optimum implementation. To that end, different approaches have already been proposed and analyzed, namely, a large telescope based on a segmented primary mirror, telescope arrays, and even the combination of RF and optical receivers in modified versions of existing Deep-Space Network (DSN) antennas [3][4][5]. Array architectures have been proposed to relax some requirements, acting as one of the key drivers of the present study. The advantages offered by the array approach are attained at the expense of adding subsystems. Critical issues identified for each implementation include their inherent efficiency and losses, as well as its performance under high-background conditions, and the acquisition, pointing, tracking, and synchronization capabilities. It is worth noticing that, due to the photon-counting nature of detection, the system performance is not solely given by the signal-to-noise ratio parameter. To start with the analysis, first the main implications of the deep space scenarios are summarized, since they are the driving requirements to establish the technical specifications for the large OGS. Next, both the main characteristics of the OGS and the potential configuration approaches are presented, getting deeper in key subsystems with strong impact in the

  9. Space division multiplexing optical communication using few-mode fibers (United States)

    Weng, Yi; He, Xuan; Pan, Zhongqi


    To realize ultra-high capacity long-haul transmission, space-division multiplexing (SDM) has emerged as a promising solution, in which each data channel is modulated into an individual spatial/polarization modes in few-mode fibers (FMF) to increase the overall number of parallel channels. In this paper, we review the latest advances in SDM technology on the FMF, component, digital signal processing (DSP), as well as transmission demonstrations. First, we introduce the FMF characteristics, fabrication and manufacturing issues including modal dispersion, mode coupling, and nonlinearities. We next discuss in detail several key SDM components such as spatial multiplexers/demultiplexers (MUX/DeMUX), optical amplifiers, mode converters and SDM reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer (ROADM). Accordingly, we explore the DSP algorithms for SDM systems, covering least mean squares (LMS), recursive least squares (RLS), hardware complexity analysis, and mode dependent effects. Besides, a number of recent experimental validations are evaluated enabling higher transmission capacity for short, medium and long distances.

  10. Polarization tracking system for free-space optical communication, including quantum communication (United States)

    Nordholt, Jane Elizabeth; Newell, Raymond Thorson; Peterson, Charles Glen; Hughes, Richard John


    Quantum communication transmitters include beacon lasers that transmit a beacon optical signal in a predetermined state of polarization such as one of the states of polarization of a quantum communication basis. Changes in the beacon polarization are detected at a receiver, and a retarder is adjusted so that the states of polarization in a received quantum communication optical signal are matched to basis polarizations. The beacon and QC signals can be at different wavelengths so that the beacon does not interfere with detection and decoding of the QC optical signal.

  11. Ultra-sonic motor for the actuators of space optical communications terminal (United States)

    Araki, T.; Kobayashi, Y.; Kawashima, N.; Maniwa, K.; Obara, S.; Zakoji, T.; Kubota, A.


    The main advantages of space optical communication technologies compared with RF communications are 1) Wide bandwidth that enables a much higher data rate and 2) Smaller antenna and hardware due to the ultra-short wavelength characteristics. The cost and weight of each spacecraft has been decreasing year by year. Space optical communication technologies, that are being established, have been required to reduce cost and weight recently. The general rotational actuators of spacecraft are magnetic motors. However, it is difficult to reduce it's weight and cost dramatically since magnetic motors include iron core and metal coil. In addition, we do not have the flexibility of magnetic motor's shape. JAXA is interested in optical data relay including LEO-GEO optical communication. In this application, space optical communication equipment must equip rotational actuators as a coarse pointing mechanism. Therefore, the authors have focused on ultra-sonic motors (USM) for the equipment of space optical communication so that we will achieve lower cost, lower weight and a more-flexible-shape of actuators than magnetic motors. In this presentation, the authors propose applications of USM as actuators of space optical communications. USM has been widely used in our life and industry. Usage in industry includes vacuum environments of the semiconductor manufacturing process. So, the authors estimated the usage of USM can be applied to actuators of spacecraft. At first, the authors discuss the advantages and disadvantages of USM compared to traditional magnetic motors. Then, driving performance of USM under vacuum, high and low-temperature conditions are shown. At last, results of life estimation test of USM are discussed.

  12. Lightwave Propagation in the Presence of Random Turbulent Media and Pointing Jitter in Optical Space Communications


    Toyoshima, Morio


    This study is devoted to lightwave propagation in the presence of random pointing jitter and atmospheric turbulence. The intrinsic narrow beam/high gain nature of free-space laser communications produces several extremely valuable advantages when compared to microwaves, but also requires a very high tracking and pointing accuracy. Furthermore, space-to-ground optical communications are strongly affected by scintillation effects due to the turbulent atmosphere. The purpose of this study is to ...

  13. A review on channel models in free space optical communication systems (United States)

    Anbarasi, K.; Hemanth, C.; Sangeetha, R. G.


    Free Space Optical communication (FSO) is a wireless communication technology which uses light to transmit the data in free space. FSO has advantages like unlicensed spectrum and higher bandwidth. In this paper FSO system merits and demerits, challenges in FSO, and various channel models are discussed. To mitigate the turbulence in FSO the mitigation techniques like relaying, diversity schemes and adopting different modulation techniques used in different channels are discussed and its performance comparison is given.

  14. Novel space-time trellis codes for free-space optical communications using transmit laser selection. (United States)

    García-Zambrana, Antonio; Boluda-Ruiz, Rubén; Castillo-Vázquez, Carmen; Castillo-Vázquez, Beatriz


    In this paper, the deployment of novel space-time trellis codes (STTCs) with transmit laser selection (TLS) for free-space optical (FSO) communication systems using intensity modulation and direct detection (IM/DD) over atmospheric turbulence and misalignment fading channels is presented. Combining TLS and STTC with rate 1 bit/(s · Hz), a new code design criterion based on the use of the largest order statistics is here proposed for multiple-input/single-output (MISO) FSO systems in order to improve the diversity order gain by properly chosing the transmit lasers out of the available L lasers. Based on a pairwise error probability (PEP) analysis, closed-form asymptotic bit error-rate (BER) expressions in the range from low to high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) are derived when the irradiance of the transmitted optical beam is susceptible to moderate-to-strong turbulence conditions, following a gamma-gamma (GG) distribution, and pointing error effects, following a misalignment fading model where the effect of beam width, detector size and jitter variance is considered. Obtained results show diversity orders of 2L and 3L when simple two-state and four-state STTCs are considered, respectively. Simulation results are further demonstrated to confirm the analytical results.

  15. Preface to the special issue on ;Optical Communications Exploiting the Space Domain; (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Yu, Siyuan; Li, Guifang


    The demand for high capacity optical communications will continue to be driven by the exponential growth of global internet traffic. Optical communications are about the exploitation of different physical dimensions of light waves, including complex amplitude, frequency (or wavelength), time, polarization, etc. Conventional techniques such as wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM), time-division multiplexing (TDM) and polarization-division multiplexing (PDM) have almost reached their scalability limits. Space domain is the only known physical dimension left and space-division multiplexing (SDM) seems the only option to further scale the transmission capacity and spectral efficiency of optical communications. In recent years, few-mode fiber (FMF), multi-mode fiber (MMF), multi-core fiber (MCF) and few-mode multi-core fiber (FM-MCF) have been widely explored as promising candidates for fiber-based SDM. The challenges for SDM include efficient (de)multiplexer, amplifiers, and multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) digital signal processing (DSP) techniques. Photonic integration will also be a key technology to SDM. Meanwhile, free-space and underwater optical communications have also exploited the space domain to increase the transmission capacity and spectral efficiency. The challenges include long-distance transmission limited by propagation loss, divergence, scattering and turbulence. Very recently, helically phased light beams carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) have also seen potential applications both in free-space, underwater and fiber-based optical communications. Actually, different mode bases such as linearly polarized (LP) modes and OAM modes can be employed for SDM. Additionally, SDM could be used in chip-scale photonic interconnects and data center optical interconnects. Quantum processing exploiting the space domain is of great interest. The information capacity limit and physical layer security in SDM optical communications systems are important

  16. Alamouti-Type Space-Time Coding for Free-Space Optical Communication with Direct Detection (United States)

    Simon, M. K.; Vilnrotter, V.


    In optical communication systems employing direct detection at the receiver, intensity modulations such as on-off keying (OOK) or pulse-position modulation (PPM) are commonly used to convey the information. Consider the possibility of applying space-time coding in such a scenario, using, for example, an Alamouti-type coding scheme [1]. Implicit in the Alamouti code is the fact that the modulation that defines the signal set is such that it is meaningful to transmit and detect both the signal and its negative. While modulations such as phase-shift keying (PSK) and quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) naturally fall into this class, OOK and PPM do not since the signal polarity (phase) would not be detected at the receiver. We investigate a modification of the Alamouti code to be used with such modulations that has the same desirable properties as the conventional Alamouti code but does not rely on the necessity of transmitting the negative of a signal.

  17. An Extended Tropospheric Scintillation Model for Free Space Optical Communication Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John O. Famoriji


    Full Text Available Fluctuations caused mostly by tropospheric scintillation at the free space optical receiver end have been a major problem in the rapid development of telecommunication and the increasing demands for larger bandwidth is forcing the use of free space optical (FSO technology. This paper examined existing tropospheric scintillation models of Karasawa, Van de Kamp model, Otung, Ortgies and ITU-R, and discovered that all of them operate at the microwave range, which limits their application in FSO laser beam technology that operates in PHz frequency-range. ITU-R model was later selected owing to its global application and modified for use in FSO communication system. The new model can serve as basis for communication engineers to use as platform in the link budgetary for planning and design of low margin systems of free space optical communication link.

  18. Performance analysis of an adaptive optics system for free-space optics communication through atmospheric turbulence. (United States)

    Wang, Yukun; Xu, Huanyu; Li, Dayu; Wang, Rui; Jin, Chengbin; Yin, Xianghui; Gao, Shijie; Mu, Quanquan; Xuan, Li; Cao, Zhaoliang


    The performance of free-space optics communication (FSOC) is greatly degraded by atmospheric turbulence. Adaptive optics (AO) is an effective method for attenuating the influence. In this paper, the influence of the spatial and temporal characteristics of turbulence on the performance of AO in a FSOC system is investigated. Based on the Greenwood frequency (GF) and the ratio of receiver aperture diameter to atmospheric coherent length (D/r 0 ), the relationship between FSOC performance (CE) and AO parameters (corrected Zernike modes number and bandwidth) is derived for the first time. Then, simulations and experiments are conducted to analyze the influence of AO parameters on FSOC performance under different GF and D/r 0 . The simulation and experimental results show that, for common turbulence conditions, the number of corrected Zernike modes can be fixed at 35 and the bandwidth of the AO system should be larger than the GF. Measurements of the bit error rate (BER) for moderate turbulence conditions (D/r 0  = 10, f G  = 60 Hz) show that when the bandwidth is two times that of GF, the average BER is decreased by two orders of magnitude compared with f G /f 3dB  = 1. These results and conclusions can provide important guidance in the design of an AO system for FSOC.

  19. Active disturbance rejection controller of fine tracking system for free space optical communication (United States)

    Cui, Ning; Liu, Yang; Chen, Xinglin; Wang, Yan


    Free space optical communication is one of the best approaches in future communications. Laser beam's acquisition, pointing and tracking are crucial technologies of free space optical communication. Fine tracking system is important component of APT (acquisition, pointing and tracking) system. It cooperates with the coarse pointing system in executing the APT mission. Satellite platform vibration and disturbance, which reduce received optical power, increase bit error rate and affect seriously the natural performance of laser communication. For the characteristic of satellite platform, an active disturbance rejection controller was designed to reduce the vibration and disturbance. There are three major contributions in the paper. Firstly, the effects of vibration on the inter satellite optical communications were analyzed, and the reasons and characters of vibration of the satellite platform were summarized. The amplitude-frequency response of a filter was designed according to the power spectral density of platform vibration of SILEX (Semiconductor Inter-satellite Laser Experiment), and then the signals of platform vibration were generated by filtering white Gaussian noise using the filter. Secondly, the fast steering mirror is a key component of the fine tracking system for optical communication. The mechanical design and model analysis was made to the tip/tilt mirror driven by the piezoelectric actuator and transmitted by the flexure hinge. The transfer function of the fast steering mirror, camera, D/A data acquisition card was established, and the theory model of transfer function of this system was further obtained. Finally, an active disturbance rejection control method is developed, multiple parallel extended state observers were designed for estimation of unknown dynamics and external disturbance, and the estimated states were used for nonlinear feedback control and compensation to improve system performance. The simulation results show that the designed

  20. The JPL optical communications telescope laboratory (OCTL) test bed for the future optical Deep Space Network (United States)

    Wilson, K. E.; Page, N.; Wu, J.; Srinivasan, M.


    Relative to RF, the lower power-consumption and lower mass of high bandwidth optical telecommunications make this technology extremely attractive for returning data from future NASA/JPL deep space probes.

  1. Improved Climatological Characterization of Optical Turbulence for Space Optical Imaging and Communications (United States)

    Alliss, R.; Felton, B.


    Optical turbulence (OT) acts to distort light in the atmosphere, degrading imagery from astronomical or other telescopes. In addition, the quality of service of a free space optical communications link may also be impacted. Some of the degradation due to turbulence can be corrected by adaptive optics. However, the severity of optical turbulence, and thus the amount of correction required, is largely dependent upon the turbulence at the location of interest. Therefore, it is vital to understand the climatology of optical turbulence at such locations. In many cases, it is impractical and expensive to setup instrumentation to characterize the climatology of OT, particularly for OCONUS locations, so simulations become a less expensive and convenient alternative. The strength of OT is characterized by the refractive index structure function Cn2, which in turn is used to calculate atmospheric seeing parameters. While attempts have been made to characterize Cn2 using empirical models, Cn2 can be calculated more directly from Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) simulations using pressure, temperature, thermal stability, vertical wind shear, turbulent Prandtl number, and turbulence kinetic energy (TKE). In this work we use the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) NWP model to generate Cn2 climatologies in the planetary boundary layer and free atmosphere, allowing for both point-to-point and ground-to-space seeing estimates of the Fried Coherence length (ro) and other seeing parameters. Simulations are performed using the Maui High Performance Computing Centers (MHPCC) Mana cluster. The WRF model is configured to run at 1km horizontal resolution over a domain covering several hundreds of kilometers. The vertical resolution varies from 25 meters in the boundary layer to 500 meters in the stratosphere. The model top is 20 km. We are interested in the variations in Cn2 and the Fried Coherence Length (ro). Nearly two years of simulations have been performed over various regions

  2. Exotic Optical Beam Classes for Free-Space Communication (United States)


    communications systems through variations in the intensity of light. Unlike longer-wavelength fields like radio waves , however, visible light fields can...of beams with previously unknown correlations could be generated with a simple analytic model amenable to atmospheric propagation studies. In this...correlated beam (NUC), a Gaussian Schell- model beam (GSM), and a coherent Gaussian beam, as a function of propagation distance through moderate

  3. The architecture of blind equalizer for MIMO free space optical communication system (United States)

    Li, Hongwei; Huang, Yongmei


    The free space optical (FSO) communication system has attracted many researchers from different countries, owning to its advantages such as high security, high speed and anti-interference. Among all kinds of the channels of the FSO communication system, the atmosphere channel is very difficult to deal with for two typical disadvantages at least. The one is the scintillation of the optical carrier intensity caused by the atmosphere turbulence and the other is the multipath effect by the optical scattering. A lot of studies have shown that the MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output) technology can overcome the scintillation of the optical carrier through the atmosphere effectively. So the background of this paper is a MIMO system which includes multiple optical transmitting antennas and multiple optical receiving antennas. A number of particles such as hazes, water droplets and aerosols exit in the atmosphere widely. When optical carrier meets these particles, the scattering phenomenon is inevitable, which leads to the multipath effect. As a result, a optical pulse transmitted by the optical transmitter becomes wider, to some extent, when it gets to the optical receiver due to the multipath effect. If the information transmission rate is quite low, there is less relationship between the multipath effect and the bit error rate (BER) of the communication system. Once the information transmission rate increases to a high level, the multipath effect will produce the problem called inter symbol inference (ISI) seriously and the bit error rate will increase severely. In order to take the advantage of the FSO communication system, the inter symbol inference problem must be solved. So it is necessary to use the channel equalization technology. This paper aims at deciding a equalizer and designing suitable equalization algorithm for a MIMO free space optical communication system to overcome the serious problem of bit error rate. The reliability and the efficiency of

  4. Free space optical communication based on pulsed lasers (United States)

    Drozd, Tadeusz; Mierczyk, Zygmunt; Zygmunt, Marek; Wojtanowski, Jacek


    Most of the current optical data transmission systems are based on continuous wave (cw) lasers. It results from the tendency to increase data transmission speed, and from the simplicity in implementation (straightforward modulation). Pulsed lasers, which find many applications in a variety of industrial, medical and military systems, in this field are not common. Depending on the type, pulsed lasers can generate instantaneous power which is many times greater when compared with cw lasers. As such, they seem to be very attractive to be used in data transmission technology, especially due to the potentially larger ranges of transmission, or in adverse atmospheric conditions where low power cw-lasersbased transmission is no longer feasible. It is also a very practical idea to implement data transmission capability in the pulsed laser devices that have been around and already used, increasing the functionality of this type of equipment. At the Institute of Optoelectronics at Military University of Technology, a unique method of data transmission based on pulsed laser radiation has been developed. This method is discussed in the paper in terms of both data transmission speed and transmission range. Additionally, in order to verify the theoretical assumptions, modules for voice and data transmission were developed and practically tested which is also reported, including the measurements of Bit Error Rate (BER) and performance vs. range analysis.

  5. Optical Communication on SmallSats - Enabling the Next Era in Space Science (a Keck Institute for Space Studies Workshop) (United States)

    Grefenstette, Brian


    Small satellites (communications are poised to increase telemetry bandwidth to a gigabit per second (Gb/s) or more. This enhancement can allow real-time, global science measurements and/or ultra-high fidelity (resolution, cadence, etc.) observations from tens or hundreds of Earth-orbiting satellites, or permit high-bandwidth, direct-to-earth communications for (inter)planetary missions. Here we present the results of a recent Keck Institue for Space Science workshop that brought together scientists and engineers from academia and industry to showcase the breakthrough science enabled by optical communications on small satellites for future missions.

  6. LEO-to-ground optical communications using SOTA (Small Optical TrAnsponder) - Payload verification results and experiments on space quantum communications (United States)

    Carrasco-Casado, Alberto; Takenaka, Hideki; Kolev, Dimitar; Munemasa, Yasushi; Kunimori, Hiroo; Suzuki, Kenji; Fuse, Tetsuharu; Kubo-Oka, Toshihiro; Akioka, Maki; Koyama, Yoshisada; Toyoshima, Morio


    Free-space optical communications have held the promise of revolutionizing space communications for a long time. The benefits of increasing the bitrate while reducing the volume, mass and energy of the space terminals have attracted the attention of many researchers for a long time. In the last few years, more and more technology demonstrations have been taking place with participants from both the public and the private sector. The National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) in Japan has a long experience in this field. SOTA (Small Optical TrAnsponder) was the last NICT space lasercom mission, designed to demonstrate the potential of this technology applied to microsatellites. Since the beginning of SOTA mission in 2014, NICT regularly established communication using the Optical Ground Stations (OGS) located in the Headquarters at Koganei (Tokyo) to receive the SOTA signals, with over one hundred successful links. All the goals of the SOTA mission were fulfilled, including up to 10-Mbit/s downlinks using two different wavelengths and apertures, coarse and fine tracking of the OGS beacon, space-to-ground transmission of the on-board-camera images, experiments with different error correcting codes, interoperability with other international OGS, and experiments on quantum communications. The SOTA mission ended on November 2016, more than doubling the designed lifetime of 1-year. In this paper, the SOTA characteristics and basic operation are explained, along with the most relevant technological demonstrations.

  7. InAlAs/InGaAs avalanche photodiode arrays for free space optical communication. (United States)

    Ferraro, Mike S; Clark, William R; Rabinovich, William S; Mahon, Rita; Murphy, James L; Goetz, Peter G; Thomas, Linda M; Burris, Harris R; Moore, Christopher I; Waters, William D; Vaccaro, Kenneth; Krejca, Brian D


    In free space optical communication, photodetectors serve not only as communications receivers but also as position sensitive detectors (PSDs) for pointing, tracking, and stabilization. Typically, two separate detectors are utilized to perform these tasks, but recent advances in the fabrication and development of large-area, low-noise avalanche photodiode (APD) arrays have enabled these devices to be used both as PSDs and as communications receivers. This combined functionality allows for more flexibility and simplicity in optical system design without sacrificing the sensitivity and bandwidth performance of smaller, single-element data receivers. This work presents the development of APD arrays rated for bandwidths beyond 1 GHz with measured carrier ionization ratios of approximately 0.2 at moderate APD gains. We discuss the fabrication and characterization of three types of APD arrays along with their performance as high-speed photodetectors.

  8. Development of a safe ground to space laser propagation system for the optical communications telescope laboratory (United States)

    Wu, Janet P.


    Furthering pursuits in high bandwidth communications to future NASA deep space and neat-Earth probes, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is building the Optical communications Telescope Laboratory (OCTL) atop Table Mountain in Southern California. This R&D optical antenna will be used to develop optical communication strategies for future optical ground stations. Initial experiments to be conducted include propagating high-powered, Q-switched laser beams to retro-reflecting satellites. Yet laser beam propagation from the ground to space is under the cognizance of various government agencies, namely: the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (ISHA) that is responsible for protecting workforce personnel; the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) responsible for protecting pilots and aircraft; and the Laser Clearinghouse of Space Command responsible for protecting space assets. To ensure that laser beam propagation from the OCTL and future autonomously operated ground stations comply with the guidelines of these organizations, JPL is developing a multi-tiered safety system that will meet the coordination, monitoring, and reporting functions required by the agencies. At Tier 0, laser operators will meet OSHA safety standards for protection and access to the high power lasers area will be restricted and interlocked. Tier 1, the area defined from the telescope dome out to a range of 3.4-km, will utilize long wave infrared camera sensors to alert operators of at risk aircraft in the FAA controlled airspace. Tier 2, defined to extend from 3.4-km out to the aircraft service ceiling in FAA airspace, will detect at risk aircraft by radar. Lastly, beam propagation into space, defined as Tier 3, will require coordination with the Laser Clearinghouse. A detailed description of the four tiers is presented along with the design of the integrated monitoring and beam transmission control system.

  9. Free-space optical communication link using perfect vortex beams carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) (United States)

    Zhu, Fuquan; Huang, Sujuan; Shao, Wei; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Musheng; Zhang, Weibing; Zeng, Junzhang


    We experimentally demonstrate a free-space optical communication link using perfect vortex beams. Perfect vortex beams with different topological charges are generated using a phase-modulation-type spatial light modulator (SLM) loaded with novel phase holograms based on the Bessel function. With the help of a microscope objective and simple lens, perfect vortex beams are transmitted effectively for a certain distance. After completing the demodulation of perfect vortex beams carrying OFDM 16-QAM signals and a series of offline processing on the Gaussian bright spot demodulated from the perfect vortex beams, we also achieve a communication link. The constellations and mean bit error rates (BER) of subcarriers are shown.

  10. Investigation on the influence of intensity scintillation and beam wander in space optical uplink DWDM communication system (United States)

    Li, Mi; Chen, Mengji; Zhang, Xuping; Cong, Hengji; Song, Yuejiang; Lu, Yuangang


    Dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) has been widely applied in ground optical communication. However, the technology of DWDM is still not mature enough in the space optical communication system. In order to further advance the use of DWDM into space optical communication, the probability density function (PDF) and the bit-error rate (BER) performance of DWDM is investigated in uplink communications under the influence of atmospheric turbulence, consisting of intensity scintillation and beam wander caused by atmospheric turbulence. Numerical results show that the atmospheric turbulence has a great impact on BER and PDF, and wavelength, divergence angel, and other relevant parameters should be carefully considered in this DWDM system. This work can be conducive for improving DWDM design of space optical uplink communication systems.

  11. Performance analysis of 1-km free-space optical communication system over real atmospheric turbulence channels (United States)

    Liu, Dachang; Wang, Zixiong; Liu, Jianguo; Tan, Jun; Yu, Lijuan; Mei, Haiping; Zhou, Yusong; Zhu, Ninghua


    The performance of a free-space optical communication system is highly affected by the atmospheric turbulence in terms of scintillation. An optical communication system based on intensity-modulation direct-detection was built with 1-km transmission distance to evaluate the bit error rate (BER) performance over real atmospheric turbulence. 2.5-, 5-, and 10-Gbps data rate transmissions were carried out, where error-free transmission could be achieved during over 37% of the 2.5-Gbps transmissions and over 43% of the 5-Gbps transmissions. In the rest of the transmissions, BER deteriorated as the refractive-index structure constant increased, while the two measured items have almost the same trend.

  12. Free Space Optical (FSO) Communications, Towards the Speeds of Wireline Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Alouini, Mohamed-Slim


    Rapid increase in the use of wireless services over the last two decades has lead the problem of the radio-frequency (RF) spectrum exhaustion. More specifically, due to this RF spectrum scarcity, additional RF bandwidth allocation, as utilized in the recent past, is not anymore a viable solution to fulfill the demand for more wireless applications and higher data rates. Among the many proposed solutions, optical wireless communication or free-space optical (FSO) systems have gained an increasing interest due to their advantages including higher bandwidth and higher capacity compared to the traditional RF communication systems. This promising technology offers full-duplex Gigabit throughput in certain applications and environment while benefiting from a huge license-free spectrum, immunity to interference, and high security. These features of FSO communication systems potentially enable solving the issues that the RF communication systems face due to the expensive and scarce RF spectrum. The first part of the talk will give an overview of FSO communication systems by offering examples of advantages and application areas of this emerging technology. In the second part of talk, we will focus on some recent results and on-going research directions in the accurate characterization of the performance of FSO systems in the presence of inevitable impairments due to atmospheric turbulence and misalignment between transmitter and receiver.

  13. Main-Reflector Manufacturing Technology for the Deep Space Optical Communications Ground Station (United States)

    Britcliffe, M. J.; Hoppe, D. J.


    The Deep Space Network (DSN) has plans to develop a 10-m-diameter optical communications receiving station. The system uses the direct detection technique, which has much different requirements from a typical astronomical telescope. The receiver must operate in daylight and nighttime conditions. This imposes special requirements on the optical system to reject stray light from the Sun and other sources. One of the biggest challenges is designing a main-reflector surface that meets these requirements and can be produced at a reasonable cost. The requirements for the performance of the reflector are presented. To date, an aspherical primary reflector has been assumed. A reflector with a spherical reflector has a major cost advantage over an aspherical design, with no sacrifice in performance. A survey of current manufacturing techniques for optical mirrors of this type was performed. Techniques including solid glass, lightweight glass, diamond-turned aluminum, and composite mirrors were investigated.

  14. Deep-space and near-Earth optical communications by coded orbital angular momentum (OAM) modulation. (United States)

    Djordjevic, Ivan B


    In order to achieve multi-gigabit transmission (projected for 2020) for the use in interplanetary communications, the usage of large number of time slots in pulse-position modulation (PPM), typically used in deep-space applications, is needed, which imposes stringent requirements on system design and implementation. As an alternative satisfying high-bandwidth demands of future interplanetary communications, while keeping the system cost and power consumption reasonably low, in this paper, we describe the use of orbital angular momentum (OAM) as an additional degree of freedom. The OAM is associated with azimuthal phase of the complex electric field. Because OAM eigenstates are orthogonal the can be used as basis functions for N-dimensional signaling. The OAM modulation and multiplexing can, therefore, be used, in combination with other degrees of freedom, to solve the high-bandwidth requirements of future deep-space and near-Earth optical communications. The main challenge for OAM deep-space communication represents the link between a spacecraft probe and the Earth station because in the presence of atmospheric turbulence the orthogonality between OAM states is no longer preserved. We will show that in combination with LDPC codes, the OAM-based modulation schemes can operate even under strong atmospheric turbulence regime. In addition, the spectral efficiency of proposed scheme is N2/log2N times better than that of PPM.

  15. Communication spaces. (United States)

    Coiera, Enrico


    Annotations to physical workspaces such as signs and notes are ubiquitous. When densely annotated, work areas become communication spaces. This study aims to characterize the types and purpose of such annotations. A qualitative observational study was undertaken in two wards and the radiology department of a 440-bed metropolitan teaching hospital. Images were purposefully sampled; 39 were analyzed after excluding inferior images. Annotation functions included signaling identity, location, capability, status, availability, and operation. They encoded data, rules or procedural descriptions. Most aggregated into groups that either created a workflow by referencing each other, supported a common workflow without reference to each other, or were heterogeneous, referring to many workflows. Higher-level assemblies of such groupings were also observed. Annotations make visible the gap between work done and the capability of a space to support work. Annotations are repairs of an environment, improving fitness for purpose, fixing inadequacy in design, or meeting emergent needs. Annotations thus record the missing information needed to undertake tasks, typically added post-implemented. Measuring annotation levels post-implementation could help assess the fit of technology to task. Physical and digital spaces could meet broader user needs by formally supporting user customization, 'programming through annotation'. Augmented reality systems could also directly support annotation, addressing existing information gaps, and enhancing work with context sensitive annotation. Communication spaces offer a model of how work unfolds. Annotations make visible local adaptation that makes technology fit for purpose post-implementation and suggest an important role for annotatable information systems and digital augmentation of the physical environment.

  16. On the performance of free-space optical communication systems with multiuser diversity

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Liang


    Free space optical (FSO) communication has become a cost-effective method to provide high data rates. However, the turbulence-induced fading limits its application to short range applications. To address this, we propose a multiuser diversity (MD) FSO scheme in which the Nth best user is selected and the channel fluctuations can be effectively exploited to produce a selection diversity gain. More specifically, we first present the statistics analysis for the considered system over weak atmospheric turbulence channels. Based on these statistics, the outage probability, bit-error rate performance, and coverage are analyzed.

  17. Free-space optical communications performance in the presence of interfering laser signals (United States)

    Refai, Hakki H.; Sluss, James J., Jr.; Refai, Hazem H.


    Free-space optics (FSO) is a technology that uses modulated optical beams to transmit information in a line-of-sight fashion to achieve a high-bandwidth communications link. FSO technology has been investigated for military and civilian "last mile" applications for many years and, more recently, has generated interest for space-based applications. As the use of FSO technology grows, the potential for optical interference that degrades FSO network performance, whether intentional (jamming) or otherwise, becomes a matter of increasing importance. The investigation described in this paper examined the effects of interference upon the operation and performance of a point-to-point FSO link connecting two virtual local area networks. The sources of interference were laser pulses of varying energy, wavelength, and repetition rate produced from a nitrogen-pumped, tunable dye laser. The study evaluated the effect upon FSO link performance of varying the output power of the interfering source for a fixed wavelength, of varying the wavelength of the source for a fixed power, and of varying the pulse repetition rate of the source. The results of the study indicated that FSO link performance was negatively influenced by such interference.

  18. Modified artificial fish school algorithm for free space optical communication with sensor-less adaptive optics system (United States)

    Cao, Jingtai; Zhao, Xiaohui; Li, Zhaokun; Liu, Wei; Gu, Haijun


    The performance of free space optical (FSO) communication system is limited by atmospheric turbulent extremely. Adaptive optics (AO) is the significant method to overcome the atmosphere disturbance. Especially, for the strong scintillation effect, the sensor-less AO system plays a major role for compensation. In this paper, a modified artificial fish school (MAFS) algorithm is proposed to compensate the aberrations in the sensor-less AO system. Both the static and dynamic aberrations compensations are analyzed and the performance of FSO communication before and after aberrations compensations is compared. In addition, MAFS algorithm is compared with artificial fish school (AFS) algorithm, stochastic parallel gradient descent (SPGD) algorithm and simulated annealing (SA) algorithm. It is shown that the MAFS algorithm has a higher convergence speed than SPGD algorithm and SA algorithm, and reaches the better convergence value than AFS algorithm, SPGD algorithm and SA algorithm. The sensor-less AO system with MAFS algorithm effectively increases the coupling efficiency at the receiving terminal with fewer numbers of iterations. In conclusion, the MAFS algorithm has great significance for sensor-less AO system to compensate atmospheric turbulence in FSO communication system.

  19. Wavefront reconstruction method based on wavelet fractal interpolation for coherent free space optical communication (United States)

    Zhang, Dai; Hao, Shiqi; Zhao, Qingsong; Zhao, Qi; Wang, Lei; Wan, Xiongfeng


    Existing wavefront reconstruction methods are usually low in resolution, restricted by structure characteristics of the Shack Hartmann wavefront sensor (SH WFS) and the deformable mirror (DM) in the adaptive optics (AO) system, thus, resulting in weak homodyne detection efficiency for free space optical (FSO) communication. In order to solve this problem, we firstly validate the feasibility of liquid crystal spatial light modulator (LC SLM) using in an AO system. Then, wavefront reconstruction method based on wavelet fractal interpolation is proposed after self-similarity analysis of wavefront distortion caused by atmospheric turbulence. Fast wavelet decomposition is operated to multiresolution analyze the wavefront phase spectrum, during which soft threshold denoising is carried out. The resolution of estimated wavefront phase is then improved by fractal interpolation. Finally, fast wavelet reconstruction is taken to recover wavefront phase. Simulation results reflect the superiority of our method in homodyne detection. Compared with minimum variance estimation (MVE) method based on interpolation techniques, the proposed method could obtain superior homodyne detection efficiency with lower operation complexity. Our research findings have theoretical significance in the design of coherent FSO communication system.

  20. Wavelength optimization via retroreflection for underwater free-space optical communication (United States)

    Neuner, Burton; Pascoguin, B. Melvin


    The wireless, high-data-rate transmission of information is becoming increasingly important for undersea applications that include defense, environmental monitoring, and petroleum engineering. Free-space optical (FSO) communication addresses this need by providing an undersea high-data-rate link over moderate distances (up to 100s of meters). Light transmission through seawater is maximal in the blue-green part of the optical spectrum (475 nm-575 nm), but turbidity conditions, which are dynamic, strongly influence the actual maximum. We describe the development of a laser-wavelength auto-selection algorithm and system for optimized underwater FSO communications. The use of a passive corner cube retroreflector allows all transmitter and receiver electronics to be collocated, which will be beneficial for any fielded system. First, we describe the laser test bed and retroreflector system. Next, we describe the development of the algorithm and hardware. We then describe the creation of various water types (from clear to turbid) in the laboratory using particle suspensions and dyes, which will enable wavelength-dependent transmission tests. Finally, we show experimental results from water tube tests, demonstrating wavelength auto-selection within one minute.

  1. Feasibility of utilizing Cherenkov Telescope Array gamma-ray telescopes as free-space optical communication ground stations. (United States)

    Carrasco-Casado, Alberto; Vilera, Mariafernanda; Vergaz, Ricardo; Cabrero, Juan Francisco


    The signals that will be received on Earth from deep-space probes in future implementations of free-space optical communication will be extremely weak, and new ground stations will have to be developed in order to support these links. This paper addresses the feasibility of using the technology developed in the gamma-ray telescopes that will make up the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) observatory in the implementation of a new kind of ground station. Among the main advantages that these telescopes provide are the much larger apertures needed to overcome the power limitation that ground-based gamma-ray astronomy and optical communication both have. Also, the large number of big telescopes that will be built for CTA will make it possible to reduce costs by economy-scale production, enabling optical communications in the large telescopes that will be needed for future deep-space links.

  2. 850-nm hybrid fiber/free-space optical communications using orbital angular momentum modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurado-Navas, Antonio; Tatarczak, Anna; Lu, Xiaofeng


    Light beams can carry orbital angular momentum (OAM) associated to the helicity of their phasefronts. These OAM modes can be employed to encode information onto a laser beam for transmitting not only in a fiber link but also in a free-space optical (FSO) one. Regarding this latter scenario, FSO c...... to the multimode fiber link. In addition, we report a better and more robust behavior of higher order OAM modes when the intermodal dispersion is dominant in the fiber after exceeding its maximum range of operation.......Light beams can carry orbital angular momentum (OAM) associated to the helicity of their phasefronts. These OAM modes can be employed to encode information onto a laser beam for transmitting not only in a fiber link but also in a free-space optical (FSO) one. Regarding this latter scenario, FSO...... modes can be seen as an efficient solution to increase the capacity and the security in the link. In this paper, we discuss an experimental demonstration of a proposal for next generation FSO communication system where a light beam carrying different OAM modes and affected by M turbulence is coupled...

  3. Performance analysis of stationary Hadamard matrix diffusers in free-space optical communication links (United States)

    Burrell, Derek J.; Middlebrook, Christopher T.


    Wireless communication systems that employ free-space optical links in place of radio/microwave technologies carry substantial benefits in terms of data throughput, network security and design efficiency. Along with these advantages comes the challenge of counteracting signal degradation caused by atmospheric turbulence in free-space environments. A fully coherent laser source experiences random phase delays along its traversing path in turbulent conditions forming a speckle pattern and lowering the received signal-to-noise ratio upon detection. Preliminary research has shown that receiver-side speckle contrast may be significantly reduced and signal-to-noise ratio increased accordingly through the use of a partially coherent light source. While dynamic diffusers and adaptive optics solutions have been proven effective, they also add expense and complexity to a system that relies on accessibility and robustness for successful implementation. A custom Hadamard diffractive matrix design is used to statically induce partial coherence in a transmitted beam to increase signal-to-noise ratio for experimental turbulence scenarios. Atmospheric phase screens are generated using an open-source software package and subsequently loaded into a spatial light modulator using nematic liquid crystals to modulate the phase.

  4. Performance Analysis of Free-Space Optical Communication Systems With Multiuser Diversity Over Atmospheric Turbulence Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Liang


    Free-space optical (FSO) communication has become a cost-effective method to provide high data rates. However, the turbulence-induced fading limits its application to short-range applications. To address this, we propose a multiuser diversity (MD) FSO scheme in which the Nth best user is selected and the channel fluctuations can be effectively exploited to produce a selection diversity gain. More specifically, we first present the statistics analysis for the considered system over both weak and strong atmospheric turbulence channels. Based on these statistics, the outage probability, bit-error rate performance, average capacity, diversity order, and coverage are analyzed. Results show that the diversity order for the gamma-gamma fading is N min{α, β}/2, where N is the number of users, and α and β are the channel fading parameters related to the effective atmospheric conditions of the link.

  5. Performance analysis of coherent free space optical communications with sequential pyramid wavefront sensor (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Yao, Kainan; Chen, Lu; Huang, Danian; Cao, Jingtai; Gu, Haijun


    Based-on the previous study on the theory of the sequential pyramid wavefront sensor (SPWFS), in this paper, the SPWFS is first applied to the coherent free space optical communications (FSOC) with more flexible spatial resolution and higher sensitivity than the Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor, and with higher uniformity of intensity distribution and much simpler than the pyramid wavefront sensor. Then, the mixing efficiency (ME) and the bit error rate (BER) of the coherent FSOC are analyzed during the aberrations correction through numerical simulation with binary phase shift keying (BPSK) modulation. Finally, an experimental AO system based-on SPWFS is setup, and the experimental data is used to analyze the ME and BER of homodyne detection with BPSK modulation. The results show that the AO system based-on SPWFS can increase ME and decrease BER effectively. The conclusions of this paper provide a new method of wavefront sensing for designing the AO system for a coherent FSOC system.

  6. Influence of wind speed on free space optical communication performance for Gaussian beam propagation through non Kolmogorov strong turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng Peng; Yuan Xiuhua; Zeng Yanan; Zhao Ming; Luo Hanjun, E-mail: [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road, Wuhan, Hubei (China)


    In free-space optical communication links, atmospheric turbulence causes fluctuations in both the intensity and the phase of the received signal, affecting link performance. Most theoretical treatments have been described by Kolmogorov's power spectral density model through weak turbulence with constant wind speed. However, several experiments showed that Kolmogorov theory is sometimes incomplete to describe atmospheric turbulence properly, especially through the strong turbulence with variable wind speed, which is known to contribute significantly to the turbulence in the atmosphere. We present an optical turbulence model that incorporates into variable wind speed instead of constant value, a non-Kolmogorov power spectrum that uses a generalized exponent instead of constant standard exponent value 11/3, and a generalized amplitude factor instead of constant value 0.033. The free space optical communication performance for a Gaussian beam wave of scintillation index, mean signal-to-noise ratio, and mean bit error rate , have been derived by extended Rytov theory in non-Kolmogorov strong turbulence. And then the influence of wind speed variations on free space optical communication performance has been analyzed under different atmospheric turbulence intensities. The results suggest that the effects of wind speed variation through non-Kolmogorov turbulence on communication performance are more severe in many situations and need to be taken into account in free space optical communication. It is anticipated that this work is helpful to the investigations of free space optical communication performance considering wind speed under severe weather condition in the strong atmospheric turbulence.

  7. Data Relay Board with Protocol for High-Speed, Free-Space Optical Communications (United States)

    Wright, Malcolm; Clare, Loren; Gould, Gary; Pedyash, Maxim


    In a free-space optical communication system, the mitigation of transient outages through the incorporation of error-control methods is of particular concern, the outages being caused by scintillation fades and obscurants. The focus of this innovative technology is the development of a data relay system for a reliable high-data-rate free-spacebased optical-transport network. The data relay boards will establish the link, maintain synchronous connection, group the data into frames, and provide for automatic retransmission (ARQ) of lost or erred frames. A certain Quality of Service (QoS) can then be ensured, compatible with the required data rate. The protocol to be used by the data relay system is based on the draft CCSDS standard data-link protocol Proximity-1, selected by orbiters to multiple lander assets in the Mars network, for example. In addition to providing data-link protocol capabilities for the free-space optical link and buffering the data, the data relay system will interface directly with user applications over Gigabit Ethernet and/or with highspeed storage resources via Fibre Channel. The hardware implementation is built on a network-processor-based architecture. This technology combines the power of a hardware switch capable of data switching and packet routing at Gbps rates, with the flexibility of a software- driven processor that can host highly adaptive and reconfigurable protocols used, for example, in wireless local-area networks (LANs). The system will be implemented in a modular multi-board fashion. The main hardware elements of the data relay system are the new data relay board developed by Rockwell Scientific, a COTS Gigabit Ethernet board for user interface, and a COTS Fibre Channel board that connects to local storage. The boards reside in a cPCI back plane, and can be housed in a VME-type enclosure.

  8. Impacts of environmental factors to bi-directional 2×40 Gb/s WDM free-space optical communication (United States)

    Liaw, Shien-Kuei; Hsu, Kuang-Yu; Yeh, Jai-Ger; Lin, Yu-Ming; Yu, Yi-Lin


    Bi-directional short-range free-space optical (FSO) communication with bi-directional 2×4×10 Gb/s wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) channel signals is demonstrated by using a transmission distance of 25 m. The single-mode-fiber components are used in the optical terminals for both optical transmitting and receiving functions. The measured power penalties for the 25-m bi-directional four-channel FSO communication compared with the back-to-back link and uni-directional transmission system are less than 0.8 dB and 0.2 dB, respectively. The environmental factor effects, including the oblique incidence through the building window glasses, thermally induced non-uniform air index as well as rainfall on the FSO performance are investigated and analyzed. The experimental results show that rainfall is influential for free space optical transmission.

  9. Improved artificial bee colony algorithm for wavefront sensor-less system in free space optical communication (United States)

    Niu, Chaojun; Han, Xiang'e.


    Adaptive optics (AO) technology is an effective way to alleviate the effect of turbulence on free space optical communication (FSO). A new adaptive compensation method can be used without a wave-front sensor. Artificial bee colony algorithm (ABC) is a population-based heuristic evolutionary algorithm inspired by the intelligent foraging behaviour of the honeybee swarm with the advantage of simple, good convergence rate, robust and less parameter setting. In this paper, we simulate the application of the improved ABC to correct the distorted wavefront and proved its effectiveness. Then we simulate the application of ABC algorithm, differential evolution (DE) algorithm and stochastic parallel gradient descent (SPGD) algorithm to the FSO system and analyze the wavefront correction capabilities by comparison of the coupling efficiency, the error rate and the intensity fluctuation in different turbulence before and after the correction. The results show that the ABC algorithm has much faster correction speed than DE algorithm and better correct ability for strong turbulence than SPGD algorithm. Intensity fluctuation can be effectively reduced in strong turbulence, but not so effective in week turbulence.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Robinson


    Full Text Available Free Space Optical (FSO communication is being realized as an effective solution for future accessing networks, offering light passed through air. The performance of FSO can be primarily degraded by various atmospheric attenuation namely, rain, fog, haze and snow. At present, hybridization of Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM with Coarse Wavelength Division Multiplexing (CWDM becomes necessary to scale the speed and high bandwidth of the services. In this paper, hybrid WDM system is proposed, designed and the network parameters such as Bit Error Rate (BER, Quality Factor and receiver sensitivity are analyzed with respect to link distance for various weather conditions. For investigation, 4 CWDM and 8 DWDM channels are considered whose corresponding channel spacing is 20nm and 0.8nm, respectively. From the simulation, it is investigated that the average link distance of proposed hybrid WDM-FSO system for DWDM and CWDM system at very clear condition are around 810km and 780km. The proposed hybrid WDM based FSO system is designed to handle the quality of transmission for 12 users, each at a data rate of 2.5Gbps.

  11. Demonstration of 2.5 Gbit/sec free space optical communication by using Y-00 cipher: toward secure aviation systems (United States)

    Futami, Fumio; Hirota, Osamu


    Wireless communication of aviation contains high capacity confidential information and therefore such communication requires secure high speed data communication scheme by using reliable cipher. In this report, the authors propose free space optical communication by utilizing optical intensity-modulated Y-00 cipher for applications of secure aviation systems including unmanned aircraft systems. Y-00 cipher transmitter and receiver with intensity levels of 4096 at data rate of 2.5 Gbit/s are fabricated for secure free space optical communication and a free space Y-00 cipher transmission is experimentally demonstrated.

  12. Analysis of fog effects on terrestrial Free Space optical communication links

    KAUST Repository

    Esmail, Maged Abdullah


    In this paper, we consider and examine fog measurement data, coming from several locations in Europe and USA, and attempt to derive a unified model for fog attenuation in free space optics (FSO) communication links. We evaluate and compare the performance of our proposed model to that of many well-known alternative models. We found that our proposed model, achieves an average RMSE that outperforms them by more than 9 dB. Furthermore, we have studied the performance of the FSO system using different performance metrics such as signal-to-noise (SNR) ratio, bit error rate (BER), and channel capacity. Our results show that FSO is a short range technology. Therefore, FSO is expected to find its place in future networks that will have small cell size, i.e., <1 km diameter. Moreover, our investigation shows that under dense fog, it is difficult to maintain a communications link because of the high signal attenuation, which requires switching the communications to RF backup. Our results show that increasing the transmitted power will improve the system performance under light fog. However, under heavy fog, the effect is minor. To enhance the system performance under low visibility range, multi-hop link is used which can enhance the power budget by using short segments links. Using 22 dBm transmitted power, we obtained BER=10-3 over 1 km link length with 600 m visibility range which corresponds to light fog. However, under lower visibility range equals 40 m that corresponds to dense fog, we obtained the same BER but over 200 m link length. © 2016 IEEE.

  13. Space-Qualifiable 1064 nm Fiber Based Transmitter for Long Range Optical Communications Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Fibertek has developed transmitters for Lidar and 3D imaging applications based on fiber optics architectures both at 1064nm. We have demonstrated an all fiber...

  14. Optical communication theory. (United States)

    Hoversten, E. V.


    An introduction is provided to the important ideas involved in the design and the evaluation of optical communication systems which transmit digital or analog data. Field representations are discussed together with background noise, a detector statistical model, quantum receivers, and turbulent and scatter channels. Free-space channels are considered, taking into account heterodyne systems, preamplifier and homodyne systems, direct-detection systems, and optimum quantum systems.

  15. Performances of Free-Space Optical Communication System Over Strong Turbulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ucuk Darusalam


    Full Text Available We report an experimental of free-space optical communication (FSOC system that use tube propagation simulator (TPS as the turbulence medium. The FSOC system usewavelength of 1550 nm at the rate transmission of 1000 Mbps and amplified with EDFA at the output of +23 dBm. Index structure of 10-15–10-13 as the representation of atmosphere index turbulences are used for simulation of intensity distribution model or scintillation. The simulation use gammagamma and K model as well. The beam wave propagation models used in simulation are plane wave, spherical wave and Gaussian wave. Spherical wave achieves highest performance via gamma-gamma in strong turbulence. While Gaussian wave achieves highest performance also via K model. We also found, characteristical FSOC system performance is calculated more accurately with gamma-gamma method for strong turbulence than K model. The performances from gamma-gamma for strong turbulenceare at 22.55 dB, at 5.33×10-4, and at 9.41 ×10-6. 

  16. Design of active disturbance rejection controller for space optical communication coarse tracking system (United States)

    Gu, Jian; Ai, Yong


    In order to improve the dynamic tracking performance of coarse tracking system in space optical communication, a new control method based on active disturbance rejection controller (ADRC) is proposed. Firstly, based on the structure analysis of coarse tracking system, the simplified system model was obtained, and then the extended state observer was designed to calculate state variables and spot disturbance from the input and output signals. Finally, the ADRC controller of coarse tracking system is realized with the combination of nonlinear PID controller. The simulation experimental results show that compared with the PID method, this method can significantly reduce the step response overshoot and settling time. When the target angular velocity is120mrad/s, tracking error with ADRC method is 30μrad, which decreases 85% compared with the PID method. Meanwhile the disturbance rejection bandwidth is increased by 3 times with ADRC. This method can effectively improve the dynamic tracking performance of coarse tracking and disturbance rejection degree, with no need of hardware upgrade, and is of certain reference value to the wide range and high dynamic precision photoelectric tracking system.

  17. Optimizations of a Turbo-Like Decoder for Deep-Space Optical Communications (United States)

    Cheng, M. K.; Nakashima, M. A.; Moision, B. E.; Hamkins, J.


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has developed a capacity-approaching modulation and coding scheme that comprises a serial concatenation of an inner accumulate pulse-position modulation and an outer convolutional code for deep-space optical communications. Decoding of this serially concatenated pulse-position modulation (SCPPM) code uses a turbo-like algorithm. However, the inner code trellis contains many parallel edges that are not typical in standard turbo codes and, therefore, a straightforward application of classical turbo decoding is very inefficient. Here, we present various optimizations applicable in hardware implementation of the SCPPM decoder. More specifically, we feature a Super Gamma computation to efficiently handle parallel trellis edges, a "maxstar top 2" circuit fit for pipelining, a modified two's complement subtraction circuit with a shorter path delay, and a cyclic redundancy check circuit for window-based turbo decoders. We also present a polynomial interleaver where current interleaver positions can be calculated from previous positions. This recursive interleaver property enables an algorithmic realization in which no memory is needed to store the interleaver mappings. Using the featured optimizations, we implement a 6.72 megabits-per-second (Mbps) SCPPM decoder on a single field-programmable gate array (FPGA). Compared to the current data rate of 256 kbps from Mars, the SCPPM-coded scheme represents a throughput increase of more than twenty-six fold. Extension to a 50-Mbps decoder on a board with multiple FPGAs follows naturally. We show through hardware simulations that the SCPPM-coded system can operate within 1 dB of the Shannon capacity at nominal operating conditions.

  18. Development and Characterization of a Small Spacecraft Electro-Optic Scanner for Free-Space Laser Communications (United States)

    Davis, Scott; Lichter, Michael; Raible, Daniel


    Emergent data-intensive missions coupled with dramatic reductions in spacecraft size plus an increasing number of space-based missions necessitates new high performance, compact and low cost communications technology. Free space optical communications offer advantages including orders of magnitude increase for data rate performance, increased security, immunity to jamming and lack of frequency allocation requirements when compared with conventional radio frequency (RF) means. The spatial coherence and low divergence associated with the optical frequencies of laser communications lends themselves to superior performance, but this increased directionality also creates one of the primary technical challenges in establishing a laser communications link by repeatedly and reliably pointing the beam onto the receive aperture. Several solutions have emerged from wide angle (slow) mechanical articulation systems, fine (fast) steering mirrors and rotating prisms, inertial compensation gyros and vibration isolation cancellation systems, but each requires moving components and imparts a measured amount of burden on the host platform. The complexity, cost and size of current mechanically scanned solutions limits their platform applicability, and restricts the feasibility of deploying optical communications payloads on very compact spacecraft employing critical systems. A high speed, wide angle, non-mechanical solution is therefore desirable. The purpose of this work is to share the development, testing, and demonstration of a breadboard prototype electro-optic (EO) scanned laser-communication link (see Figure 1). This demonstration is a step toward realizing ultra-low Size, Weight and Power (SWaP) SmallSat/MicroSat EO non-mechanical laser beam steering modules for high bandwidth ( greater than Gbps) free-space data links operating in the 1550 nm wavelength bands. The elimination of all moving parts will dramatically reduce SWaP and cost, increase component lifetime and

  19. Optimal design of a new type space laser communication optical system (United States)

    Yan, Pei-pei; Deng, Xiao-guo; Li, Gang; Liu, Kai; Duan, Jing; Shan, Qiu-sha; Jiang, Kai; Zhang, Yu


    A design of a laser communications optical system with high transmitting and receiving performance is given. The traditional on-axis Cassegrain optical antenna has the default that the transmitting and receiving power decreased greatly because of the obscuration of the secondary mirror. Considering that the eccentric-pupil Cassegrain optical antenna is designed. The optical antenna system in transceiver has been designed by means of CODEV software. It improves the efficiency of transmitting and receiving power effectively. Its properties have been analyzed, such as gain, image quality, and transmission efficiency. Meanwhile, the materials of optical elements have been analyzed. The power decline curve has been obtained by means of the detailed analysis of antenna system in partial axis situation. The system includes transmitter channel, receiving channel and experiment channel. It can realize the functions of transmitter-receiver isolation and multi-light ways using dichroic mirrors and beam splitting prisms. The system volume and weight are reduced greatly. The complexity of conventional laser communication system is reduced enormously at the same time. It has important reference significance and application value.

  20. Development of Operational Free-Space-Optical (FSO) Laser Communication Systems Final Report CRADA No. TC02093.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruggiero, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Orgren, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    This project was a collaborative effort between Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC (formerly The Regents of the University of California)/Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and LGS Innovations, LLC (formerly Lucent Technologies, Inc.), to develop long-range and mobile operational free-space optical (FSO) laser communication systems for specialized government applications. LLNL and LGS Innovations formerly Lucent Bell Laboratories Government Communications Systems performed this work for a United States Government (USG) Intelligence Work for Others (I-WFO) customer, also referred to as "Government Customer", or "Customer" and "Government Sponsor." The CRADA was a critical and required part of the LLNL technology transfer plan for the customer.

  1. Advanced digital optical communications

    CERN Document Server

    Binh, Le Nguyen


    This book provides a fundamental understanding of digital communication applications in optical communication technologies. Emphasizing operation principles versus mathematical analysis, the Second Edition includes new coverage of superchannel optical transmission systems, metropolitan and long-haul optical systems and networks, and Nyquist pulse shaping and high spectral efficiency of optical transmission systems, as well as new homework problems and examples. Featuring theoretical foundations as well as practical case studies, the text focuses on enhancements to digital technologies that are

  2. Level crossing statistics for optical beam wander in a turbulent atmosphere with applications to ground-to-space laser communications. (United States)

    Yura, Harold T; Fields, Renny A


    Level crossing statistics is applied to the complex problem of atmospheric turbulence-induced beam wander for laser propagation from ground to space. A comprehensive estimate of the single-axis wander angle temporal autocorrelation function and the corresponding power spectrum is used to develop, for the first time to our knowledge, analytic expressions for the mean angular level crossing rate and the mean duration of such crossings. These results are based on an extension and generalization of a previous seminal analysis of the beam wander variance by Klyatskin and Kon. In the geometrical optics limit, we obtain an expression for the beam wander variance that is valid for both an arbitrarily shaped initial beam profile and transmitting aperture. It is shown that beam wander can disrupt bidirectional ground-to-space laser communication systems whose small apertures do not require adaptive optics to deliver uniform beams at their intended target receivers in space. The magnitude and rate of beam wander is estimated for turbulence profiles enveloping some practical laser communication deployment options and suggesting what level of beam wander effects must be mitigated to demonstrate effective bidirectional laser communication systems.

  3. Fibre-optic communications

    CERN Document Server

    Lecoy, Pierre


    This book describes in a comprehensive manner the components and systems of fiber optic communications and networks. The first section explains the theory of multimode and single-mode fibers, then the technological features, including manufacturing, cabling, and connecting. The second section describes the various components (passive and active optical components, integrated optics, opto-electronic transmitters and receivers, and optical amplifiers) used in fiber optic systems. Finally, the optical transmission system design is explained, and applications to optical networks and fiber optic se

  4. Future Optical Communications Systems (United States)


    Figure 40: U.S. Multiple System Operator and Telco Carrier Network Infrastructure ......................... 43 Future Optical Communications Systems – vi...access networks deployed today. Future Optical Communications Systems – 43 An OIDA Forum Report Figure 40: U.S. Multiple System Operator and Telco

  5. Demonstration of a free-space optical communication system using a solar-pumped laser as signal transmitter (United States)

    Guan, Z.; Zhao, C. M.; Yang, S. H.; Wang, Y.; Ke, J. Y.; Zhang, H. Y.


    A free-space optical communication system with a sun light directly pumped laser as the signal transmitter was demonstrated. A 0.6  ×  0.6 m Fresnel lens was used as the primary concentrator to collect the solar light. 6.8 W continuous wave laser power was obtained from a 4 mm diameter grooved Nd:YAG rod. The output intensity was modulated with a video signal via a LiNbO3 Mach-Zehnder optoelectronic modulator. The video signal with a resolution of 1920  *  1080/frame and the frame rate of 25 Hz was transmitted over five-meter free-space in real time with high fidelity. The transmission rate was 125 Mbps and bit error rate was lower than 10-6. This research shows the feasibility of applying a solar light directly pumped laser for free-space optical communication, which is significant for telecommunications between satellites.

  6. LDPC-coded orbital angular momentum (OAM) modulation for free-space optical communication. (United States)

    Djordjevic, Ivan B; Arabaci, Murat


    An orbital angular momentum (OAM) based LDPC-coded modulation scheme suitable for use in FSO communication is proposed. We demonstrate that the proposed scheme can operate under strong atmospheric turbulence regime and enable 100 Gb/s optical transmission while employing 10 Gb/s components. Both binary and nonbinary LDPC-coded OAM modulations are studied. In addition to providing better BER performance, the nonbinary LDPC-coded modulation reduces overall decoder complexity and latency. The nonbinary LDPC-coded OAM modulation provides a net coding gain of 9.3 dB at the BER of 10(-8). The maximum-ratio combining scheme outperforms the corresponding equal-gain combining scheme by almost 2.5 dB.

  7. Single-source bidirectional free-space optical communications using reflective SOA-based amplified modulating retro-reflection (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Feng, Xianglian; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Tianshu; Gao, Shiming


    A novel amplified modulating retro-reflector (AMRR) based on a reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (RSOA) is proposed and a bidirectional free-space optical communication (FSO) system including both downstream and upstream links is experimentally demonstrated with only a single light source using this AMRR. The RSOA-based AMRR can provide a net gain more than 4 dB and support the modulation bit rate up to 1.25 Gbit/s. The bidirectional FSO transmission performance is evaluated by observing eye diagrams and measuring bit error rate (BER) results of both 10-Gbit/s DPSK downstream and 1.25-Gbit/s OOK upstream signals. The factors that limit the modulation bit rate and transmission quality are analyzed. The power penalties of both links are less than 0.69 dB in the bidirectional FSO system at the BER of 1×10-3.

  8. Modelling of 10 Gbps Free Space Optics Communication Link Using Array of Receivers in Moderate and Harsh Weather Conditions (United States)

    Gupta, Amit; Shaina, Nagpal


    Intersymbol interference and attenuation of signal are two major parameters affecting the quality of transmission in Free Space Optical (FSO) Communication link. In this paper, the impact of these parameters on FSO communication link is analysed for delivering high-quality data transmission. The performance of the link is investigated under the influence of amplifier in the link. The performance parameters of the link like minimum bit error rate, received signal power and Quality factor are examined by employing erbium-doped fibre amplifier in the link. The effects of amplifier are visualized with the amount of received power. Further, the link is simulated for moderate weather conditions at various attenuation levels on transmitted signal. Finally, the designed link is analysed in adverse weather conditions by using high-power laser source for optimum performance.

  9. Free-Space Optical Communications: Capacity Bounds, Approximations, and a New Sphere-Packing Perspective

    KAUST Repository

    Chaaban, Anas


    The capacity of the free-space optical channel is studied. A new recursive approach for bounding the capacity of the channel based on sphere-packing is proposed. This approach leads to new capacity upper bounds for a channel with a peak intensity constraint or an average intensity constraint. Under an average constraint only, the derived bound is tighter than an existing sphere-packing bound derived earlier by Farid and Hranilovic. The achievable rate of a truncated-Gaussian input distribution is also derived. It is shown that under both average and peak constraints, this achievable rate and the sphere-packing bounds are within a small gap at high SNR, leading to a simple high-SNR capacity approximation. Simple fitting functions that capture the best known achievable rate for the channel are provided. These functions can be of practical importance especially for the study of systems operating under atmospheric turbulence and misalignment conditions.

  10. Free-space optical communications with peak and average constraints: High SNR capacity approximation

    KAUST Repository

    Chaaban, Anas


    The capacity of the intensity-modulation direct-detection (IM-DD) free-space optical channel with both average and peak intensity constraints is studied. A new capacity lower bound is derived by using a truncated-Gaussian input distribution. Numerical evaluation shows that this capacity lower bound is nearly tight at high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), while it is shown analytically that the gap to capacity upper bounds is a small constant at high SNR. In particular, the gap to the high-SNR asymptotic capacity of the channel under either a peak or an average constraint is small. This leads to a simple approximation of the high SNR capacity. Additionally, a new capacity upper bound is derived using sphere-packing arguments. This bound is tight at high SNR for a channel with a dominant peak constraint.

  11. Pappus in optical space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenderink, Jan J.; van Doorn, Andrea J.; Kappers, Astrid M L; Todd, James T.

    Optical space differs from physical space. The structure of optical space has generally been assumed to be metrical. In contradistinction, we do not assume any metric, but only incidence relations (i.e., we assume that optical points and lines exist and that two points define a unique line, and two

  12. Design, Simulation and Testing of the OOK NRZ Modulation Format for Free Space Optic Communication in a Simulation Box

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ales Vanderka


    Full Text Available This article deals with the construction of a modulator and demodulator for Free-Space Optical (FSO communication. In FSO optics, the modulated optical signal is propagated in the constantly changing environment (atmosphere. The optical signal is strongly influenced by the actual composition of air, which is directly linked to the change in refractive index in the turbulent cells. This article examines primarily the appropriate modulation format for FSO. For this purpose, one type of an OOK-NRZ modulator and one type of a demodulator were designed. This article also describes the construction of two types of photo detectors (the high impedance and the transimpedance ones. All electronic constructions were tested in the MicroCap simulator and they were experimentally measured as well. For the OOK NRZ modulation the, maximum transmission speed achieved the value of 160~Mbps. Measuring the quality of the modulation formats was carried out under mechanical and thermal turbulences. The last part of this work gives the results of the measurements of fog influences.

  13. Orbital Angular Momentum-based Space Division Multiplexing for High-capacity Underwater Optical Communications (United States)

    Ren, Yongxiong; Li, Long; Wang, Zhe; Kamali, Seyedeh Mahsa; Arbabi, Ehsan; Arbabi, Amir; Zhao, Zhe; Xie, Guodong; Cao, Yinwen; Ahmed, Nisar; Yan, Yan; Liu, Cong; Willner, Asher J.; Ashrafi, Solyman; Tur, Moshe; Faraon, Andrei; Willner, Alan E.


    To increase system capacity of underwater optical communications, we employ the spatial domain to simultaneously transmit multiple orthogonal spatial beams, each carrying an independent data channel. In this paper, we show up to a 40-Gbit/s link by multiplexing and transmitting four green orbital angular momentum (OAM) beams through a single aperture. Moreover, we investigate the degrading effects of scattering/turbidity, water current, and thermal gradient-induced turbulence, and we find that thermal gradients cause the most distortions and turbidity causes the most loss. We show systems results using two different data generation techniques, one at 1064 nm for 10-Gbit/s/beam and one at 520 nm for 1-Gbit/s/beam; we use both techniques since present data-modulation technologies are faster for infrared (IR) than for green. For the 40-Gbit/s link, data is modulated in the IR, and OAM imprinting is performed in the green using a specially-designed metasurface phase mask. For the 4-Gbit/s link, a green laser diode is directly modulated. Finally, we show that inter-channel crosstalk induced by thermal gradients can be mitigated using multi-channel equalisation processing.

  14. Orbital Angular Momentum-based Space Division Multiplexing for High-capacity Underwater Optical Communications (United States)

    Ren, Yongxiong; Li, Long; Wang, Zhe; Kamali, Seyedeh Mahsa; Arbabi, Ehsan; Arbabi, Amir; Zhao, Zhe; Xie, Guodong; Cao, Yinwen; Ahmed, Nisar; Yan, Yan; Liu, Cong; Willner, Asher J.; Ashrafi, Solyman; Tur, Moshe; Faraon, Andrei; Willner, Alan E.


    To increase system capacity of underwater optical communications, we employ the spatial domain to simultaneously transmit multiple orthogonal spatial beams, each carrying an independent data channel. In this paper, we show up to a 40-Gbit/s link by multiplexing and transmitting four green orbital angular momentum (OAM) beams through a single aperture. Moreover, we investigate the degrading effects of scattering/turbidity, water current, and thermal gradient-induced turbulence, and we find that thermal gradients cause the most distortions and turbidity causes the most loss. We show systems results using two different data generation techniques, one at 1064 nm for 10-Gbit/s/beam and one at 520 nm for 1-Gbit/s/beam; we use both techniques since present data-modulation technologies are faster for infrared (IR) than for green. For the 40-Gbit/s link, data is modulated in the IR, and OAM imprinting is performed in the green using a specially-designed metasurface phase mask. For the 4-Gbit/s link, a green laser diode is directly modulated. Finally, we show that inter-channel crosstalk induced by thermal gradients can be mitigated using multi-channel equalisation processing. PMID:27615808

  15. Orbital Angular Momentum-based Space Division Multiplexing for High-capacity Underwater Optical Communications

    CERN Document Server

    Ren, Yongxiong; Wang, Zhe; Kamali, Seyedeh Mahsa; Arbabi, Ehsan; Arbabi, Amir; Zhao, Zhe; Xie, Guodong; Cao, Yinwen; Ahmed, Nisar; Yan, Yan; Liu, Cong; Willner, Asher J; Ashrafi, Solyman; Tur, Moshe; Faraon, Andrei; Willner, Alan E


    To increase system capacity of underwater optical communications, we employ the spatial domain to simultaneously transmit multiple orthogonal spatial beams, each carrying an independent data channel. In this paper, we multiplex and transmit four green orbital angular momentum (OAM) beams through a single aperture. Moreover, we investigate the degrading effects of scattering/turbidity, water current, and thermal gradient-induced turbulence, and we find that thermal gradients cause the most distortions and turbidity causes the most loss. We show systems results using two different data generation techniques, one at 1064 nm for 10-Gbit/s/beam and one at 520 nm for 1-Gbit/s/beam, we use both techniques since present data-modulation technologies are faster for infrared (IR) than for green. For the higher-rate link, data is modulated in the IR, and OAM imprinting is performed in the green using a specially-designed metasurface phase mask. For the lower rates, a green laser diode is directly modulated. Finally, we s...

  16. Data delivery performance of space-to-ground optical communication systems employing rate-constrained feedback protocols (United States)

    Schieler, C. M.; Robinson, B. S.; Boroson, D. M.


    Space-based optical communication systems that transmit directly to Earth must provision for changing conditions such as received power fluctuations that can occur due to atmospheric turbulence. One way of ensuring error-free communication in this environment is to introduce link-layer feedback protocols that use an Earth-toSpace uplink to request retransmission of erroneous or missing frames. In this paper, we consider near-Earth systems that use low-bandwidth uplinks to supply feedback for automatic repeat request (ARQ) protocols. Constraining the uplink signaling bandwidth can reduce the complexity of the space terminal, but it also decreases the efficacy of feedback schemes. Using a Markov-based model of the link-layer channel, we give an analytical result for the downlink performance penalty of a system employing a data-rate-constrained selective-repeat ARQ protocol. We find that the tradeoff between downlink performance and feedback rate is primarily influenced by the coherence time of the atmospheric channel.

  17. Free-Space Optical Communications: Capacity Bounds, Approximations, and a New Sphere-Packing Perspective

    KAUST Repository

    Chaaban, Anas


    The capacity of the intensity-modulation direct-detection (IM-DD) free-space optical channel is studied. It is shown that for an IM-DD channel with generally input-dependent noise, the worst noise at high SNR is input-independent Gaussian with variance dependent on the input cost. Based on this result, a Gaussian IM-DD channel model is proposed where the noise variance depends on the optical intensity constraints only. A new recursive approach for bounding the capacity of the channel based on sphere-packing is proposed, which leads to a tighter bound than an existing sphere-packing bound for the channel with only an average intensity constraint. Under both average and peak constraints, it yields bounds that characterize the high SNR capacity within a negligible gap, where the achievability is proved by using a truncated Gaussian input distribution. This completes the high SNR capacity characterization of the channel, by closing the gap in the existing characterization for a small average-to-peak ratio. Simple fitting functions that capture the best known achievable rate for the channel are provided. These functions can be of significant practical importance especially for the study of systems operating under atmospheric turbulence and misalignment conditions. Finally, the capacity/SNR loss between heterodyne detection (HD) systems and IM-DD systems is bounded at high SNR, where it is shown that the loss grows as SNR increases for a complex-valued HD system, while it is bounded by 1.245 bits or 3.76 dB at most for a real-valued one.

  18. On the Performance of Free-Space Optical Communication Systems over Double Generalized Gamma Channel

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Quwaiee, Hessa


    Starting with the double generalized Gamma (GG) model to describe turbulence-induced fading in free-space optical (FSO) systems, we propose a new unified model that accounts for the impact of pointing errors and type of receiver detector. More specifically, we present unified closed-form expressions for the cumulative distribution function, the probability density function, the moment generating function, and the moments of the end-toend signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of a single link FSO transmission system in terms of the Meijer’s G-function. We then use these unified expressions to evaluate performance measures such as the bit error rate, the outage probability, and the ergodic capacity of (i) a single FSO link operating over double GG fading model (ii) asymmetric RF-FSO dual-hop relay transmission system with fixed gain relay. Using an asymptotic expansion of the Meijer’s G-function at high SNR, we express all the expressions, derived earlier, in terms of elementary functions. All our analytical results are verified using computer based Monte-Carlo simulations.

  19. Spatial beam tracking for Hermite-Gaussian-based free-space optical communications (United States)

    Kiasaleh, Kamran


    The problem of spatial tracking for Hermite-Gaussian free-space optical (HG-FSO) links is addressed. Since HG waveforms allow for the simultaneous presence of orthogonal spatial channels, FSO-HG has the potential of offering a considerable increase in system capacity as compared with the standard FSO systems. To harness this capacity gain, the problem of spatial tracking becomes of paramount importance as the presence of spatial error significantly impacts the orthogonality of the HG waveforms. We, then, consider spatial tracking using a standard quad-detector arrangement and assume that the background noise and/or receiver thermal noise are large enough to warrant a Gaussian detection statistics. The performance is assessed in terms of the probability density function of the spatial tracking error for HG order of up to 3. In assessing performance, it is assumed that the impact of the cross-talk among the spatial modes is negligible under the steady-state condition. Numerical results are presented to assess the viability of the tracking loop. Numerical results show that among the HG waveforms with orders ranging from 1 to 3, the second-order HG waveform offers the best tracking performance and, hence, must be selected for the purpose of tracking in HG-FSO systems.

  20. Performance Investigation of 40 GB/s DWDM over Free Space Optical Communication System Using RZ Modulation Format

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sooraj Parkash


    Full Text Available We successfully demonstrate 40 GB/s 8 channels’ Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM over free space optical (FSO communication system. Each channel is transmitting 5 GB/s data rate in downstream separated by 0.8 nm (100 GHz channel spacing with 1.8 GHz filter bandwidth. DWDM over FSO communication system is very effective in providing high data rate transmission with very low bit error rate (BER. The maximum reach of designed system is 4000 m without any compensation scheme. The simulation work reports minimum BER for Return-to-Zero (RZ modulation format at different channels 1, 4, and 8 are found to be 2.32e-17, 1.70e-16, and 9.51e-15 at 4000 m distance, respectively. Sharp increase in BER occurs if data rate and distance increase up to 10 GB/s and 5000 m.

  1. Gigahertz Optical Data Transmitters for Laser Communications Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Wireless optical communication systems have gone through considerable development in the past few years, as optical components have experiences important technologic...

  2. ATLAS simulation of a laser diode for free space optical communication (FSOC) in mid-infrared spectral region (United States)

    Sanjeev; Chakrabarti, P.


    In this paper, simulation studies on an N+-InAs0.61Sb0.13P0.26/n0-InAs0.97Sb0.03/P+-InAs0.61Sb0.13P0.26 double heterostructure laser diode suitable for use as a source in a free space optical communication system at 3.7 μm at room temperature has been presented. The device structure has been characterized in terms of energy band diagram, electric field profile, and carrier concentration profile using ATLAS simulation tool from Silvaco. The current-voltage characteristics of the structure have been estimated taking into account the degeneracy effect. The results of simulation have been validated by the reported experimental results.

  3. Steering compensation for strong vertical refraction gradients in a long-distance free-space optical communication link over water (United States)

    Suite, M. R.; Moore, C. I.; Burris, H. R., Jr.; Wasiczko, L.; Stell, M. F.; Rabinovich, W. S.; Scharpf, W. J.; Gilbreath, G. C.


    It is important to be able to characterize and compensate for refraction effects in free-space optical laser communication (FSO lasercom). The refractive index depends on various properties of the propagation medium such as temperature, pressure, and moisture, with temperature having the largest affect. Very strong but slow-varying thermal gradients have been observed at the NRL Chesapeake Bay lasercom testbed, which offers a 16 km one-way (32 km round-trip) FSO lasercom link over water. Thermal gradients affect the elevation-pointing angle, and their magnitudes are a function of the time of day and year and also the weather conditions. These vertical refraction errors are corrected by the use of a fiber positioner controlled by a position-sensing detector (PSD). This system is implemented into the receiver at the NRL Chesapeake Bay lasercom testbed. System test results will be presented.

  4. Analysis of the effect of BER and Q-factor on free space optical communication system using diverse wavelength technique (United States)

    Anis, A. A.; Rashidi, C. B. M.; Rahman, A. K.; Aljunid, S. A.; Ali, N.


    This paper presents the analysis of the effect of BER and Q-factor on free space optical communication system using the diverse wavelength technique. The visibility is gradually decreased due to attenuation effects such as weather conditions as the bit error rate increases. Despite this disadvantage, FSO performance could be further improved by using a wide range of wavelengths of the laser beam. The results show good performance for 1550 nm wavelength, where the wavelength can accommodate visibility for 6 km at link range of 1 km, and Q-factor 25 at the system performance BER = 10-124 could improve the system by 67% compared to 850 nm and 785 nm wavelength, which could enhance the system by only 2%. This clearly show that the superior capabilities of 1550 nm wavelength in handling attenuation problems and capability to reduce the power loss compared to 850 nm and 785 nm wavelength.

  5. Free-space optical communications using orbital-angular-momentum multiplexing combined with MIMO-based spatial multiplexing. (United States)

    Ren, Yongxiong; Wang, Zhe; Xie, Guodong; Li, Long; Cao, Yinwen; Liu, Cong; Liao, Peicheng; Yan, Yan; Ahmed, Nisar; Zhao, Zhe; Willner, Asher; Ashrafi, Nima; Ashrafi, Solyman; Linquist, Roger D; Bock, Robert; Tur, Moshe; Molisch, Andreas F; Willner, Alan E


    We explore the potential of combining the advantages of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO)-based spatial multiplexing with those of orbital angular momentum (OAM) multiplexing to increase the capacity of free-space optical (FSO) communications. We experimentally demonstrate an 80 Gbit/s FSO system with a 2×2 aperture architecture, in which each transmitter aperture contains two multiplexed data-carrying OAM modes. Inter-channel crosstalk effects are minimized by the OAM beams' inherent orthogonality and by the use of 4×4 MIMO signal processing. Our experimental results show that the bit-error rates can reach below the forward error correction limit of 3.8×10(-3) and the power penalties are less than 3.6 dB for all channels after MIMO processing. This indicates that OAM and MIMO-based spatial multiplexing could be simultaneously utilized, thereby providing the potential to enhance system performance.

  6. Wireless Communications in Space (United States)


    In 1992, NASA and the U.S. Department of Defense jointly commissioned the research and development of a technology solution to address the challenges and requirements of communicating with their spacecraft. The project yielded an international consortium composed of representatives from the space science community, industry, and academia. This group of experts developed a broad suite of protocols specifically designed for space-based communications, known today as Space Communications Protocol Standards (SCPS). Having been internationally standardized by the Consultative Committee on Space Data Systems and the International Standards Organization, SCPS is distributed as open source technology by NASA s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The protocols are used for every national space mission that takes place today.

  7. Roadmap of optical communications (United States)

    Agrell, Erik; Karlsson, Magnus; Chraplyvy, A. R.; Richardson, David J.; Krummrich, Peter M.; Winzer, Peter; Roberts, Kim; Fischer, Johannes Karl; Savory, Seb J.; Eggleton, Benjamin J.; Secondini, Marco; Kschischang, Frank R.; Lord, Andrew; Prat, Josep; Tomkos, Ioannis; Bowers, John E.; Srinivasan, Sudha; Brandt-Pearce, Maïté; Gisin, Nicolas


    Lightwave communications is a necessity for the information age. Optical links provide enormous bandwidth, and the optical fiber is the only medium that can meet the modern society's needs for transporting massive amounts of data over long distances. Applications range from global high-capacity networks, which constitute the backbone of the internet, to the massively parallel interconnects that provide data connectivity inside datacenters and supercomputers. Optical communications is a diverse and rapidly changing field, where experts in photonics, communications, electronics, and signal processing work side by side to meet the ever-increasing demands for higher capacity, lower cost, and lower energy consumption, while adapting the system design to novel services and technologies. Due to the interdisciplinary nature of this rich research field, Journal of Optics has invited 16 researchers, each a world-leading expert in their respective subfields, to contribute a section to this invited review article, summarizing their views on state-of-the-art and future developments in optical communications.

  8. Asynchronous Free-Space Optical CDMA Communications System for Last-mile Access Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurado-Navas, Antonio; Raddo, Thiago R.; Sanches, Anderson L.


    We propose a new hybrid asynchronous OCDMA-FSO communications system for access network solutions. New ABER expressions are derived under gamma-gamma scintillation channels, where all users can surprisingly achieve error-free transmissions when FEC is employed....

  9. Demonstration of free-space optical communication for long-range data links between balloons on Project Loon (United States)

    Moision, Bruce; Erkmen, Baris; Keyes, Edward; Belt, Todd; Bowen, Oliver; Brinkley, Devin; Csonka, Paul; Eglington, Michael; Kazmierski, Andrei; Kim, Nam-hyong; Moody, John; Tu, Thanh; Vermeer, William


    Internet connectivity is limited and in some cases non-existent for a significant part of the world's population. Project Loon aims to address this with a network of high-altitude balloons traveling in the stratosphere, at an altitude of approximately 20 km. The balloons navigate by using the stratified wind layers at different altitudes, adjusting the balloon's altitude to catch winds in a desired direction. Data transfer is achieved by 1) uplinking a signal from an Internet-connected ground station to a balloon terminal, 2) crosslinking the signal through the balloon network to reach the geographic area of the users, and 3) downlinking the signal directly to the end-users' phones or other LTE-enabled devices. We describe Loon's progress on utilizing free-space optical communications (FSOC) for the inter-balloon crosslinks. FSOC, offering high data rates and long communication ranges, is well-suited for communication between high-altitude platforms. A stratospheric link is sufficiently high to be above weather events (clouds, fog, rain, etc.), and the impact of atmospheric turbulence is significantly weaker than at ground level. In addition, being in the stratosphere as opposed to space helps avoid the typical challenges faced by space-based systems, namely operation in a vacuum environment with significant radiation. Finally, the angular pointing disturbances introduced by a floating balloon-based platform are notably less than any propelled platform, which simplifies the disturbance rejection requirements on the FSOC system. We summarize results from Project Loon's early-phase experimental inter-balloon links at 20 km altitude, demonstrating full duplex 130 Mbps throughput at distances in excess of 100 km over the course of several-day flights. The terminals utilize a monostatic design, with dual wavelengths for communication and a dedicated wide-angle beacon for pointing, acquisition, and tracking. We summarize the constraints on the terminal design, and the

  10. Highly Sensitive Photon Counting Detectors for Deep Space Optical Communications Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will focus on fabricating and optimizing a photodetector that utilizes the emerging technology of internal discrete amplification to create...

  11. Free Space Optical Interconnect (FSOI) modules for short range data transfer applied to board to board high rate communication (United States)

    Kaba, Myriam; Mallet, Maxime; Pujol, Laurence; Claudepierre, Christian; Veyron, Johannès.; Giroud, Romain; Mousseaux, Daniel; Quentel, Francois; Foucal, Vincent; Pez, Mathias


    To provide more flexibility in inter-board communication in blade chassis, we developed a Free Space Optical Interconnect (FSOI) system for short range high speed data transfer. We designed robust and low footprint components compliant with both a use in milaero environment and an operation up to 5 and 10 Gbps. The 5Gpbs configuration demonstrated large tolerance to misalignment between emitter and receiver modules: +1.5/-1 mm along optical axis, lateral tolerance of +/-1 mm and angular tolerances of +/-1.5°. Reliable performances have been demonstrated over a temperature range from -30°C to 80°C and constraint environment as thermal and damp heat cycles and vibrations. Increase the data rate of the FSO device one step beyond up to 10 Gbps requires dealing with mode partitioning troubles generated by the use of VCSEL lasers. We designed and evaluated an improved opto-mechanical combination to overcome this drawback. The resulting device shows error free 10 Gbps data transfer while keeping large tolerance to Tx/Rx misalignments.

  12. Multi-Aperture Digital Coherent Combining for Free-Space Optical Communication Receivers (United States)


    Jalali and S. Fathpour, "Silicon photonics," J. Lightw. Technol. 24(12), 4600-4615 (2006). 27. A. Leven , N. Kaneda, and S. Corteselli, "Real-time...a 12” × 12” optical breadboard that includes additional components used for ease of calibration and testing . After acquisition of the I and Q

  13. Infrared Free Space Communication - The Autonomous Testing of Free Space Infrared Communication (United States)

    Heldman, Christopher


    Fiber optics has been a winning player in the game of high-speed communication and data transfer in cable connections. Yet, in free space RF has been the repeated choice of communication medium of the space industry. Investigating the benefits of free space optical communication over radio frequency is worthwhile. An increase in science data rate return capabilities could occur if optical communication is implemented. Optical communication systems also provide efficiencies in power, mass, and volume over RF systems1. Optical communication systems have been demonstrated from a satellite in orbit with the moon to earth, and resulted in the highest data rates ever seen through space (622Mbps)2. Because of these benefits, optical communication is far superior to RF. The HiDRA (High Data Rate Architecture) project is researching Passive Misalignment Mitigation of Dynamic Free Apace Optical Communication Links. The goal of this effort is to enable gigabit per second transmission of data in short range dynamic links (less than 100 meters). In practice this would enhance data rates between sites on the International Space Station with minimal size, weight, and power requirements. This paper will focus on an autonomous code and a hardware setup that will be used to fulfill the next step in the research being conducted. The free space optical communications pointing downfalls will be investigated. This was achieved by creating 5 python programs and a top-level code to automate this test.

  14. Adaptive free-space optical communications through turbulence using self-healing Bessel beams (United States)

    Li, Shuhui; Wang, Jian


    We present a scheme to realize obstruction- and turbulence-tolerant free-space orbital angular momentum (OAM) multiplexing link by using self-healing Bessel beams accompanied by adaptive compensation techniques. Compensation of multiple 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (16-QAM) data carrying Bessel beams through emulated atmospheric turbulence and obstructions is demonstrated. The obtained experimental results indicate that the compensation scheme can effectively reduce the inter-channel crosstalk, improve the bit-error rate (BER) performance, and recuperate the nondiffracting property of Bessel beams. The proposed scheme might be used in future high-capacity OAM links which are affected by atmospheric turbulence and obstructions. PMID:28230076

  15. Free space optical networks for ultra-broad band services

    CERN Document Server

    Kartalopoulos, Stamatios V


    "Free Space Optical Network is a next generation communication network which uses optical waves instead of microwaves, potentially offering faster communication with ultra band width, meaning more complex communication services can be simultaneously offered. This book describes the network concepts in simple language starting with point-to-point free space optics basics and discusses networking, interoperability with existing communication network, and security. An ideal resource for communication professionals just entering the free space optical communication field and graduate students majoring in optical communications"--Provided by publisher.

  16. Two-stage cross-talk mitigation in an orbital-angular-momentum-based free-space optical communication system. (United States)

    Qu, Zhen; Djordjevic, Ivan B


    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a two-stage cross-talk mitigation method in an orbital-angular-momentum (OAM)-based free-space optical communication system, which is enabled by combining spatial offset and low-density parity-check (LDPC) coded nonuniform signaling. Different from traditional OAM multiplexing, where the OAM modes are centrally aligned for copropagation, the adjacent OAM modes (OAM states 2 and -6 and OAM states -2 and 6) in our proposed scheme are spatially offset to mitigate the mode cross talk. Different from traditional rectangular modulation formats, which transmit equidistant signal points with uniform probability, the 5-quadrature amplitude modulation (5-QAM) and 9-QAM are introduced to relieve cross-talk-induced performance degradation. The 5-QAM and 9-QAM formats are based on the Huffman coding technique, which can potentially achieve great cross-talk tolerance by combining them with corresponding nonbinary LDPC codes. We demonstrate that cross talk can be reduced by 1.6 dB and 1 dB via spatial offset for OAM states ±2 and ±6, respectively. Compared to quadrature phase shift keying and 8-QAM formats, the LDPC-coded 5-QAM and 9-QAM are able to bring 1.1 dB and 5.4 dB performance improvements in the presence of atmospheric turbulence, respectively.

  17. Capacity of MIMO free space optical communications using multiple partially coherent beams propagation through non-Kolmogorov strong turbulence. (United States)

    Deng, Peng; Kavehrad, Mohsen; Liu, Zhiwen; Zhou, Zhou; Yuan, Xiuhua


    We study the average capacity performance for multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) free-space optical (FSO) communication systems using multiple partially coherent beams propagating through non-Kolmogorov strong turbulence, assuming equal gain combining diversity configuration and the sum of multiple gamma-gamma random variables for multiple independent partially coherent beams. The closed-form expressions of scintillation and average capacity are derived and then used to analyze the dependence on the number of independent diversity branches, power law α, refractive-index structure parameter, propagation distance and spatial coherence length of source beams. Obtained results show that, the average capacity increases more significantly with the increase in the rank of MIMO channel matrix compared with the diversity order. The effect of the diversity order on the average capacity is independent of the power law, turbulence strength parameter and spatial coherence length, whereas these effects on average capacity are gradually mitigated as the diversity order increases. The average capacity increases and saturates with the decreasing spatial coherence length, at rates depending on the diversity order, power law and turbulence strength. There exist optimal values of the spatial coherence length and diversity configuration for maximizing the average capacity of MIMO FSO links over a variety of atmospheric turbulence conditions.

  18. High-power diode-pumped solid-state lasers for optical space communications (United States)

    Koechner, Walter; Burnham, Ralph; Kasinski, Jeff; Bournes, Pat; Dibiase, Don; Le, Khoa; Marshall, Larry; Hays, Alan


    The design and performance of a large diode-pumped multi-stage Nd:YAG laser system for space and airborne applications will be described. The laser operates at a repetition rate of 40 Hz and produces an output either at 1.064 micron or 532 nm with an average power in the Q-switched mode of 30 W at the fundamental and 20 W at the second harmonic wavelength. The output beam is diffraction limited (TEM 00 mode) and can optionally also be operated in a single longitudinal mode. The output energy ranges from 1.25 Joule/pulse in the free lasing mode, 0.75 Joule in a 17 nsec Q-switched pulse, to 0.5 Joules/pulse at 532 nm. The overall electrical efficiency for the Q-switched second harmonic output is 4.

  19. Optical Clocks in Space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiller, S.; Görlitz, A.; Nevsky, A.; Koelemeij, J. C J; Wicht, A.; Gill, K.P.; Klein, H. A.; Margolis, H. S.; Mileti, G.; Sterr, U.; Riehle, F.; Peik, E.; Tamm, Chr; Ertmer, W.; Rasel, E.; van der Klein, M; Salomon, C.; Tino, G. M.; Lemonde, P.; Holzwarth, R.; Hänsch, T. W.

    The performance of optical clocks has strongly progressed in recent years, and accuracies and instabilities of 1 part in 1018 are expected in the near future. The operation of optical clocks in space provides new scientific and technological opportunities. In particular, an earth-orbiting satellite

  20. Lamp pumped Nd:YAG laser. Space-qualifiable Nd:YAG laser for optical communications (United States)

    Ward, K. B.


    Results are given of a program concerned with the design, fabrication, and evaluation of alkali pump lamps for eventual use in a space qualified Nd:YAG laser system. The study included evaluation of 2mm through 6mm bore devices. Primary emphasis was placed upon the optimization of the 4mm bore lamp and later on the 6mm bore lamp. As part of this effort, reference was made to the Sylvania work concerned with the theoretical modeling of the Nd:YAG laser. With the knowledge gained, a projection of laser performance was made based upon realistic lamp parameters which should easily be achieved during following developmental efforts. Measurements were made on the lamp performance both in and out of the cavity configuration. One significant observation was that for a constant vapor pressure device, the spectral and fluorescent output did not vary for vacuum or argon environment. Therefore, the laser can be operated in an inert environment (eg. argon) with no degradation in output. Laser output of 3.26 watts at 430 watts input was obtained for an optimized 4mm bore lamp.

  1. High Power Uplink Amplifier for Deep Space Communications Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Critical to the success of delivering on the promise of deep space optical communications is the creation of a stable and reliable high power multichannel optical...

  2. Technology Development for High Efficiency Optical Communications (United States)

    Farr, William H.


    Deep space optical communications is a significantly more challenging operational domain than near Earth space optical communications, primarily due to effects resulting from the vastly increased range between transmitter and receiver. The NASA Game Changing Development Program Deep Space Optical Communications Project is developing four key technologies for the implementation of a high efficiency telecommunications system that will enable greater than 10X the data rate of a state-of-the-art deep space RF system (Ka-band) for similar transceiver mass and power burden on the spacecraft. These technologies are a low mass spacecraft disturbance isolation assembly, a flight qualified photon counting detector array, a high efficiency flight laser amplifier and a high efficiency photon counting detector array for the ground-based receiver.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The growing demand of bandwidth in this modern internet age has been testing the existing telecommunication infrastructures around the world. With broadband speeds moving towards the region of Gbps and Tbps, many researches have begun on the development of using optical wireless technology as feasible and future methods to the current wireless technology. Unlike the existing radio frequency wireless applications, optical wireless uses electromagnetic spectrums that are unlicensed and free. With that, this project aim to understand and gain better understanding of optical wireless communication system by building an experimental and simulated model. The quality of service and system performance will be investigated and reviewed. This project employs laser diode as the propagation medium and successfully transferred audio signals as far as 15 meters. On its quality of service, results of the project model reveal that the bit error rate increases, signal-to-noise ratio and quality factor decreases as the link distance between the transmitter and receiver increases. OptiSystem was used to build the simulated model and MATLAB was used to assist signal-to-noise ratio calculations. By comparing the simulated and experimental receiver’s power output, the experimental model’s efficiency is at 66.3%. Other than the system’s performance, challenges and factors affecting the system have been investigated and discussed. Such challenges include beam divergence, misalignment and particle absorption.

  4. Analysis of Free-Space Optics Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikołajczyk Janusz


    Full Text Available The article presents state of work in technology of free-space optical communications (Free Space Optics − FSO. Both commercially available optical data links and their further development are described. The main elements and operation limiting factors of FSO systems have been identified. Additionally, analyses of FSO/RF hybrid systems application are included. The main aspects of LasBITer project related to such hybrid technology for security and defence applications are presented.

  5. On the performance of free-space optical wireless communication systems over double generalized gamma fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Quwaiee, Hessa


    Starting with the double generalized Gamma (GG) model that was proposed in [1] to describe turbulence-induced fading in free-space optical (FSO) systems, we propose a new unified model which accounts for the impact of pointing errors and type of receiver detector. Based on this new unified model, we study the performance of FSO links operating over these kind of channels. All our analytical results are verified using computer based Monte-Carlo simulations. © 2014 IEEE.

  6. Teleoperation of an experimental mobile vehicle via a free-space optical laser line-of-sight communication link for use in nuclear power plant environments (United States)

    Girach, Khalid; Bouazza-Marouf, K.; Kerr, David; Hewit, Jim


    The paper describes the investigations carried out to implement a line of sight control and communication link for a mobile robot vehicle for use in structured nuclear semi-hazardous environments. Line of sight free space optical laser communication links for remote teleoperation have important applications in hazardous environments. They have certain advantages over radio/microwave links and umbilical control such as greater protection against generation of and susceptance to electro-magnetic fields. The cable-less environment provides increased integrity and mechanical freedom to the mobile robot. However, to maintain the communication link, continuous point and tracking is required between the base station and the mobile vehicle. This paper presents a novel two ended optical tracking system utilizing the communication laser beams and photodetectors. The mobile robot is a six wheel drive vehicle with a manipulator arm which can operate in a variety of terrain. The operator obtains visual feedback information from cameras placed on the vehicle. From this information, the speed and direction of the vehicle can be controlled from a joystick panel. We describe the investigations carried out for the communication of analogue video and digital data signals over the laser link for speed and direction control.

  7. Optical Communication: Its History and Recent Progress (United States)

    Agrawal, Govind P.

    This chapter begins with a brief history of optical communication before describing the main components of a modern optical communication system. Specific attention is paid to the development of low-loss optical fibers as they played an essential role after 1975. The evolution of fiber-optic communication systems is described through its six generations over a 40-year time period ranging from 1975 to 2015. The adoption of wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) during the 1990s to meet the demand fueled by the advent of the Internet is discussed together with the bursting of the telecom bubble in 2000. Recent advances brought by digital coherent technology and space-division multiplexing are also described briefly.

  8. Isolation Platform for Long Range Optical Communications Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Optical communication links provide higher data transfer rates with lower mass, power, and volume than conventional radio-frequency links. For deep space...

  9. Vibration Isolation Platform for Long Range Optical Communications Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Optical communication links provide higher data transfer rates with lower mass, power, and volume than conventional radio-frequency links. For deep space...

  10. Commercialization and Standardization Progress Towards an Optical Communications Earth Relay (United States)

    Edwards, Bernard L.; Israel, David J.


    NASA is planning to launch the next generation of a space based Earth relay in 2025 to join the current Space Network, consisting of Tracking and Data Relay Satellites in space and the corresponding infrastructure on Earth. While the requirements and architecture for that relay satellite are unknown at this time, NASA is investing in communications technologies that could be deployed to provide new communications services. One of those new technologies is optical communications. The Laser Communications Relay Demonstration (LCRD) project, scheduled for launch in 2018 as a hosted payload on a commercial communications satellite, is a critical pathfinder towards NASA providing optical communications services on the next generation space based relay. This paper will describe NASA efforts in the on-going commercialization of optical communications and the development of inter-operability standards. Both are seen as critical to making optical communications a reality on future NASA science and exploration missions. Commercialization is important because NASA would like to eventually be able to simply purchase an entire optical communications terminal from a commercial provider. Inter-operability standards are needed to ensure that optical communications terminals developed by one vendor are compatible with the terminals of another. International standards in optical communications would also allow the space missions of one nation to use the infrastructure of another.

  11. Optical Space Telescope Assembly Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Optical Space Telescope Assembly (OSTA) task is to demonstrate the technology readiness of assembling large space telescopes on orbit in 2015. This task is an...

  12. Fibre optic communication key devices

    CERN Document Server

    Grote, Norbert


    The book gives an in-depth description of key devices of current and next generation fibre optic communication networks. Devices treated include semiconductor lasers, optical amplifiers, modulators, wavelength filters and other passives, detectors, all-optical switches, but relevant properties of optical fibres and network aspects are included as well. The presentations include the physical principles underlying the various devices, technologies used for their realization, typical performance characteristics and limitations, but development trends towards more advanced components are also illustrated. This new edition of a successful book was expanded and updated extensively. The new edition covers among others lasers for optical communication, optical switches, hybrid integration, monolithic integration and silicon photonics. The main focus is on Indium phosphide-based structures but silicon photonics is included as well. The book covers relevant principles, state-of-the-art implementations, status of curren...

  13. Product Codes for Optical Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jakob Dahl


    Many optical communicaton systems might benefit from forward-error-correction. We present a hard-decision decoding algorithm for the "Block Turbo Codes", suitable for optical communication, which makes this coding-scheme an alternative to Reed-Solomon codes....

  14. Omnidirectional free-space optical receiver architecture (United States)

    Murshid, Syed H.; Lovell, Gregory L.; Finch, Michael F.


    Free Space Optical (FSO) communication is the fusion of wireless technology and optical fiber communications systems. It has the potential of providing fiber optic data rates without the physical restraints of optical fiber cables. This endeavor presents a novel receiver structure with potential for omnidirectional free space optical communications. Interesting approaches for accomplishing omnidirectional free space lasercomm such as direct detection and solar blind non-line of sight UV scattering have been reported over the last few years. However, these technologies have resulted in limited distances of the order of 10 to 100 meters and data rates often limited to less than 1 Mb/s. This endeavor reports the architecture of an omnidirectional receiver setup by integrating an off the shelf detector and a fiber bundle, where the fiber bundle couples omnidirectional photons within its field of view and delivers these photons to the detector. The coupling of light from all directions into a detector is regulated by the cone of the acceptance angle of the fiber. Multiple fibers with overlapping acceptance angles provide the necessary coverage that may be needed to extract the optical signal from the free space optical channel. Simulated results showing the normalized power pattern of the system is presented to demonstrate omnidirectional potential of the structure. Theoretical power level versus distance plot for an FSO System employing On-O Keying (OOK) is also presented.

  15. Performance analysis of multihop heterodyne free-space optical communication over general Malaga turbulence channels with pointing error

    KAUST Repository

    Alheadary, Wael Ghazy


    This work investigates the end-to-end performance of a free space optical amplify-and-forward (AF) channel-state-information (CSI)-assisted relaying system using heterodyne detection over Malaga turbulence channels at the presence of pointing error employing rectangular quadrature amplitude modulation (R-QAM). More specifically, we present exact closed-form expressions for average bit-error rate for adaptive/non-adaptive modulation, achievable spectral efficiency, and ergodic capacity by utilizing generalized power series of Meijer\\'s G-function. Moreover, asymptotic closed form expressions are provided to validate our work at high power regime. In addition, all the presented analytical results are illustrated using a selected set of numerical results. Moreover, we applied the bisection method to find the optimum beam width for the proposed FSO system.

  16. Investigation of the EDFA effect on the BER performance in space uplink optical communication under the atmospheric turbulence. (United States)

    Li, Mi; Jiao, Wenxiang; Song, Yuejiang; Zhang, Xuping; Dong, Shandong; Poo, Yin


    In a ground-to-satellite communication system with a preset EDFA, the EDFA's performance will be affected by space environment. With 250 Gy radiation, the EDFA's gain decreases by 2 dB from 19.97 dB at 20 °C. The BER increases by 2.5 orders of magnitude from 10(-10), and increases more with more radiation. The situation aggravates when the temperature rises by 73 °C. The laser's divergence-angle and transmitter radius have optimal values to make the lowest BER and increasing receiver diameter makes lower BERs, so setting these parameters with appropriate values will compensate the degradation caused by EDFA.

  17. Enhanced quantum communication via optical refocusing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lupo, Cosmo [School of Science and Technology, University of Camerino, I-62032 Camerino (Italy); Giovannetti, Vittorio [National Enterprise for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (NEST), Scuola Normale Superiore and Istituto Nanoscienze, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), I-56126 Pisa (Italy); Pirandola, Stefano [Department of Computer Science, University of York, York YO10 5GH (United Kingdom); Mancini, Stefano [School of Science and Technology, University of Camerino, I-62032 Camerino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Lloyd, Seth [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)


    We consider the problem of quantum communication mediated by a passive optical refocusing system. The model captures the basic features of all those situations in which a signal is either refocused by a repeater for long-distance communication, or it is focused on a detector prior to the information decoding process. Introducing a general method for linear passive optical systems, we determine the conditions under which optical refocusing implies information transmission gain. Although the finite aperture of the repeater may cause loss of information, we show that the presence of the refocusing system can substantially enhance the rate of reliable communication with respect to the free-space propagation. We explicitly address the transferring of classical messages over the quantum channel, but the results can be easily extended to include the case of transferring quantum messages as well.

  18. Integrated Radio and Optical Communication (iROC) (United States)

    Raible, Daniel; Romanofsky, Robert; Pease, Gary; Kacpura, Thomas


    This is an overview of the Integrated Radio and Optical Communication (iROC) Project for Space Communication and Navigation Industry Days. The Goal is to develop and demonstrate new, high payoff space technologies that will promote mission utilization of optical communications, thereby expanding the capabilities of NASA's exploration, science, and discovery missions. This is an overview that combines the paramount features of select deep space RF and optical communications elements into an integrated system, scalable from deep space to near earth. It will realize Ka-band RF and 1550 nanometer optical capability. The approach is to prototype and demonstrate performance of key components to increase to TRL-5, leading to integrated hybrid communications system demonstration to increase to TRL-5, leading to integrated hybrid communications system demonstration.

  19. Optical fiber communications

    CERN Document Server

    Keiser, Gerd


    The fourth edition of this popular text and reference book presents the fundamental principles for understanding and applying optical fiber technology to sophisticated modern telecommunication systems. Optical-fiber-based telecommunication networks have become a major information-transmission-system, with high capacity links encircling the globe in both terrestrial and undersea installations. Numerous passive and active optical devices within these links perform complex transmission and networking functions in the optical domain, such as signal amplification, restoration, routing, and switching. Along with the need to understand the functions of these devices comes the necessity to measure both component and network performance, and to model and stimulate the complex behavior of reliable high-capacity networks.

  20. An Optical Receiver Post Processing System for the Integrated Radio and Optical Communications Software Defined Radio Test Bed (United States)

    Nappier, Jennifer M.; Tokars, Roger P.; Wroblewski, Adam C.


    The Integrated Radio and Optical Communications (iROC) project at the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations (NASA) Glenn Research Center is investigating the feasibility of a hybrid radio frequency (RF) and optical communication system for future deep space missions. As a part of this investigation, a test bed for a radio frequency (RF) and optical software defined radio (SDR) has been built. Receivers and modems for the NASA deep space optical waveform are not commercially available so a custom ground optical receiver system has been built. This paper documents the ground optical receiver, which is used in order to test the RF and optical SDR in a free space optical communications link.

  1. An Optical Receiver Post-Processing System for the Integrated Radio and Optical Communications Software Defined Radio Test Bed (United States)

    Nappier, Jennifer M.; Tokars, Roger P.; Wroblewski, Adam C.


    The Integrated Radio and Optical Communications (iROC) project at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Glenn Research Center is investigating the feasibility of a hybrid radio frequency (RF) and optical communication system for future deep space missions. As a part of this investigation, a test bed for a radio frequency (RF) and optical software defined radio (SDR) has been built. Receivers and modems for the NASA deep space optical waveform are not commercially available so a custom ground optical receiver system has been built. This paper documents the ground optical receiver, which is used in order to test the RF and optical SDR in a free space optical communications link.

  2. Optical Communication over Plastic Optical Fibers Integrated Optical Receiver Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Atef, Mohamed


    This book presents high-performance data transmission over plastic optical fibers (POF) using integrated optical receivers having good properties with multilevel modulation, i.e. a higher sensitivity and higher data rate transmission over a longer plastic optical fiber length. Integrated optical receivers and transmitters with high linearity are introduced for multilevel communication. For binary high-data rate transmission over plastic optical fibers, an innovative receiver containing an equalizer is described leading also to a high performance of a plastic optical fiber link. The cheap standard PMMA SI-POF (step-index plastic optical fiber) has the lowest bandwidth and the highest attenuation among multimode fibers. This small bandwidth limits the maximum data rate which can be transmitted through plastic optical fibers. To overcome the problem of the plastic optical fibers high transmission loss, very sensitive receivers must be used to increase the transmitted length over POF. The plastic optical fiber li...

  3. Radio Science from an Optical Communications Signal (United States)

    Moision, Bruce; Asmar, Sami; Oudrhiri, Kamal


    NASA is currently developing the capability to deploy deep space optical communications links. This creates the opportunity to utilize the optical link to obtain range, doppler, and signal intensity estimates. These may, in turn, be used to complement or extend the capabilities of current radio science. In this paper we illustrate the achievable precision in estimating range, doppler, and received signal intensity of an non-coherent optical link (the current state-of-the-art for a deep-space link). We provide a joint estimation algorithm with performance close to the bound. We draw comparisons to estimates based on a coherent radio frequency signal, illustrating that large gains in either precision or observation time are possible with an optical link.

  4. Atmospheric Optical Communication Systems. (United States)


    found on vendor data sheets are the optical quality of the transmitter optics and the reflection characteristics of the receiver. These factors are...rotational absorpiton-line chaacer- isi-Is of the spec!Zc =oiecnLes.. Scaes-ng is dependenz on the -- ber density, size A stnabaon. shape, and indez - of...Simer and W!tte. These models are defned in terms of the atmosphe-_iO Press=-* and density, tanprsoe, and ozone and water vapor concenratios as a

  5. Quantum optics in phase space

    CERN Document Server

    Schleich, W P; Mayr, E


    Quantum Optics in Phase Space provides a concise introduction to the rapidly moving field of quantum optics from the point of view of phase space. Modern in style and didactically skillful, Quantum Optics in Phase Space prepares students for their own research by presenting detailed derivations, many illustrations and a large set of workable problems at the end of each chapter. Often, the theoretical treatments are accompanied by the corresponding experiments. An exhaustive list of references provides a guide to the literature. Quantum Optics in Phase Space also serves advanced researchers as

  6. Fiber-optic communication systems

    CERN Document Server

    Agrawal, Govind P


    This book provides a comprehensive account of fiber-optic communication systems. The 3rd edition of this book is used worldwide as a textbook in many universities. This 4th edition incorporates recent advances that have occurred, in particular two new chapters. One deals with the advanced modulation formats (such as DPSK, QPSK, and QAM) that are increasingly being used for improving spectral efficiency of WDM lightwave systems. The second chapter focuses on new techniques such as all-optical regeneration that are under development and likely to be used in future communication systems. All othe

  7. Experimental demonstration of bidirectional up to 40 Gbit/s QPSK coherent free-space optical communication link over ∼1 km (United States)

    Feng, Xianglian; Wu, Zhihang; Wang, Tianshu; Zhang, Peng; Li, Xiaoyan; Jiang, Huilin; Su, Yuwei; He, Hongwei; Wang, Xiaoyan; Gao, Shiming


    Advanced multi-level modulation formats have shown their great potential in high-speed and high-spectral-efficiency optical communications. Using quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) modulation format for free-space optical (FSO) communication, a bidirectional high-speed FSO transmission link with the bit rates of up to 40 Gbit/s over ∼1 km, between two buildings in the campus of Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun, China, is experimentally demonstrated cooperating by capture and tracking systems. The eye-diagrams and constellation diagrams of the transmitted QPSK signals are clearly observed. By comparing the bit error rate (BER) curves before and after transmission, one can find that the receiving powers are both less than -16.5 dBm for the forward and backward transmissions of the bidirectional 20, 30, and 40 Gbit/s FSO links, and their power penalties due to the phase fluctuation of the atmospheric channel are both less than 2.6 dB, at the BER of 3.8 ×10-3.

  8. Fibre Optic Communication Key Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Grote, Norbert


    The book gives an in-depth description of the key devices of current and next generation fibre optic communication networks. In particular, the book covers devices such as semiconductor lasers, optical amplifiers, modulators, wavelength filters, and detectors but the relevant properties of optical fibres as well. The presentations include the physical principles underlying the various devices, the technologies used for the realization of the different devices, typical performance characteristics and limitations, and development trends towards more advanced components are also illustrated. Thus the scope of the book spans relevant principles, state-of-the-art implementations, the status of current research and expected future components.

  9. Impact of nonlinearities on fiber optic communications

    CERN Document Server


    This book covers the recent progress in fiber-optic communication systems with a main focus on the impact of fiber nonlinearities on system performance. There has been significant progress in coherent communication systems in the past few years due to the advances in digital signal processing techniques. This has led to renewed interest in fiber linear and nonlinear impairments as well as techniques to mitigate them in the electrical domain. In this book, the reader will find all the important topics of fiber optic communication systems in one place, with in-depth coverage by the experts of each sub-topic. Pioneers from each of the sub-topics have been invited to contribute. Each chapter will have a section on fundamentals as well as reviews of literature and of recent developments. Readers will benefit from this approach since many of the conference proceedings and journal articles mainly focus on the authors’ research, without spending space on preliminaries.

  10. High-Capacity Free-Space Optical Communications Between a Ground Transmitter and a Ground Receiver via a UAV Using Multiplexing of Multiple Orbital-Angular-Momentum Beams. (United States)

    Li, Long; Zhang, Runzhou; Zhao, Zhe; Xie, Guodong; Liao, Peicheng; Pang, Kai; Song, Haoqian; Liu, Cong; Ren, Yongxiong; Labroille, Guillaume; Jian, Pu; Starodubov, Dmitry; Lynn, Brittany; Bock, Robert; Tur, Moshe; Willner, Alan E


    We explore the use of orbital-angular-momentum (OAM)-multiplexing to increase the capacity of free-space data transmission to moving platforms, with an added potential benefit of decreasing the probability of data intercept. Specifically, we experimentally demonstrate and characterize the performance of an OAM-multiplexed, free-space optical (FSO) communications link between a ground transmitter and a ground receiver via a moving unmanned-aerial-vehicle (UAV). We achieve a total capacity of 80 Gbit/s up to 100-m-roundtrip link by multiplexing 2 OAM beams, each carrying a 40-Gbit/s quadrature-phase-shift-keying (QPSK) signal. Moreover, we investigate for static, hovering, and moving conditions the effects of channel impairments, including: misalignments, propeller-induced airflows, power loss, intermodal crosstalk, and system bit error rate (BER). We find the following: (a) when the UAV hovers in the air, the power on the desired mode fluctuates by 2.1 dB, while the crosstalk to the other mode is -19 dB below the power on the desired mode; and (b) when the UAV moves in the air, the power fluctuation on the desired mode increases to 4.3 dB and the crosstalk to the other mode increases to -10 dB. Furthermore, the channel crosstalk decreases with an increase in OAM mode spacing.

  11. Space-bounded communication complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brody, Joshua Eric; Chen, Shiteng; Papakonstantinou, Periklis A.


    -obliviousness shows up. For this model we also introduce new techniques through which certain limitations of space-bounded computation are revealed. One of the main motivations of this work is in understanding the difference in the use of space when computing the following functions: Equality (EQ), Inner Product (IP......In the past thirty years, Communication Complexity has emerged as a foundational tool to proving lower bounds in many areas of computer science. Its power comes from its generality, but this generality comes at a price---no superlinear communication lower bound is possible, since a player may...... communicate his entire input. However, what if the players are limited in their ability to recall parts of their interaction? We introduce memory models for 2-party communication complexity. Our general model is as follows: two computationally unrestricted players, Alice and Bob, each have s(n) bits of memory...

  12. Devices and Control Strategies for AD HOC Optical Communications Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baillieul, John; Bifano, Thomas G


    ... (both hardware and operational concepts) that we plan to develop in initiating an ambitious program of research to develop a radical new technology for high-bandwidth, stealthy communication over free-space optical links...

  13. Optical wireless communications an emerging technology

    CERN Document Server

    Capsoni, Carlo; Ghassemlooy, Zabih; Boucouvalas, Anthony; Udvary, Eszter


    This book focuses on optical wireless communications (OWC), an emerging technology with huge potential for the provision of pervasive and reliable next-generation communications networks. It shows how the development of novel and efficient wireless technologies can contribute to a range of transmission links essential for the heterogeneous networks of the future to support various communications services and traffic patterns with ever-increasing demands for higher data-transfer rates. The book starts with a chapter reviewing the OWC field, which explains different sub-technologies (visible-light, ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) communications) and introduces the spectrum of application areas (indoor, vehicular, terrestrial, underwater, intersatellite, deep space, etc.). This provides readers with the necessary background information to understand the specialist material in the main body of the book, which is in four parts. The first of these deals with propagation modelling and channel characterization of ...

  14. Optical Computers and Space Technology (United States)

    Abdeldayem, Hossin A.; Frazier, Donald O.; Penn, Benjamin; Paley, Mark S.; Witherow, William K.; Banks, Curtis; Hicks, Rosilen; Shields, Angela


    The rapidly increasing demand for greater speed and efficiency on the information superhighway requires significant improvements over conventional electronic logic circuits. Optical interconnections and optical integrated circuits are strong candidates to provide the way out of the extreme limitations imposed on the growth of speed and complexity of nowadays computations by the conventional electronic logic circuits. The new optical technology has increased the demand for high quality optical materials. NASA's recent involvement in processing optical materials in space has demonstrated that a new and unique class of high quality optical materials are processible in a microgravity environment. Microgravity processing can induce improved orders in these materials and could have a significant impact on the development of optical computers. We will discuss NASA's role in processing these materials and report on some of the associated nonlinear optical properties which are quite useful for optical computers technology.

  15. Ultrahigh Capacity Optical Communications Beyond Pb/s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morioka, Toshio


    Recent progress in ultrahigh capacity optical communication technologies based on space-division multiplexing is described including one Pb/s transmission in a newly developed multi-core fiber with future perspectives for more capacity.......Recent progress in ultrahigh capacity optical communication technologies based on space-division multiplexing is described including one Pb/s transmission in a newly developed multi-core fiber with future perspectives for more capacity....

  16. Advanced communications, tracking, robotic vision technology for space applications (United States)

    Krishen, Kumar


    Recent advancements in the areas of tracking, communications, and robotics vision sensors being pursued within NASA, as applicable to space programs, are presented. Optical and laser-based communications and tracking systems and applications to space programs are discussed. Communication systems for multiple access, broadband, high data rate, and efficient operations are given. Current efforts at 20/30 GHz and millimeter wave bands are summarized. The use of optical data processing in control system applications for rendezvous and docking is presented. Robotics vision, based on television, laser, and microwave sensors for space applications, is discussed. The fusion of these technologies for remote control, station keeping, tracking, inspection, and satellite repair is detailed.

  17. SCHOTT optical glass in space (United States)

    Jedamzik, Ralf; Petzold, Uwe


    Optical systems in space environment have to withstand harsh radiation. Radiation in space usually comes from three main sources: the Van Allen radiation belts (mainly electrons and protons); solar proton events and solar energetic particles (heavier ions); and galactic cosmic rays (gamma- or x-rays). Other heavy environmental effects include short wavelength radiation (UV) and extreme temperatures (cold and hot). Radiation can damage optical glasses and effect their optical properties. The most common effect is solarization, the decrease in transmittance by radiation. This effect can be observed for UV radiation and for gamma or electron radiation. Optical glasses can be stabilized against many radiation effects. SCHOTT offers radiation resistant glasses that do not show solarization effects for gamma or electron radiation. A review of SCHOTT optical glasses in space missions shows, that not only radiation resistant glasses are used in the optical designs, but also standard optical glasses. This publication finishes with a selection of space missions using SCHOTT optical glass over the last decades.

  18. Bit error rate analysis of free-space optical communication over general Malaga turbulence channels with pointing error

    KAUST Repository

    Alheadary, Wael Ghazy


    In this work, we present a bit error rate (BER) and achievable spectral efficiency (ASE) performance of a freespace optical (FSO) link with pointing errors based on intensity modulation/direct detection (IM/DD) and heterodyne detection over general Malaga turbulence channel. More specifically, we present exact closed-form expressions for adaptive and non-adaptive transmission. The closed form expressions are presented in terms of generalized power series of the Meijer\\'s G-function. Moreover, asymptotic closed form expressions are provided to validate our work. In addition, all the presented analytical results are illustrated using a selected set of numerical results.

  19. Dual-Pulse Pulse Position Modulation (DPPM) for Deep-Space Optical Communications: Performance and Practicality Analysis (United States)

    Li, Jing; Hylton, Alan; Budinger, James; Nappier, Jennifer; Downey, Joseph; Raible, Daniel


    Due to its simplicity and robustness against wavefront distortion, pulse position modulation (PPM) with photon counting detector has been seriously considered for long-haul optical wireless systems. This paper evaluates the dual-pulse case and compares it with the conventional single-pulse case. Analytical expressions for symbol error rate and bit error rate are first derived and numerically evaluated, for the strong, negative-exponential turbulent atmosphere; and bandwidth efficiency and throughput are subsequently assessed. It is shown that, under a set of practical constraints including pulse width and pulse repetition frequency (PRF), dual-pulse PPM enables a better channel utilization and hence a higher throughput than it single-pulse counterpart. This result is new and different from the previous idealistic studies that showed multi-pulse PPM provided no essential information-theoretic gains than single-pulse PPM.

  20. Optical communications beyond orbital angular momentum (United States)

    Rosales-Guzmán, Carmelo; Trichili, Abderrahmen; Dudley, Angela; Ndagano, Bienvenu; Ben Salem, Amine; Zghal, Mourad; Forbes, Andrew


    Current optical communication technologies are predicted to face a bandwidth capacity limit in the near future. The nature of the limitation is fundamental rather than technological and is set by nonlinearities in optical fibers. One solution, suggested over 30 years ago, comprises the use of spatial modes of light as information carriers. Along this direction, light beams endowed with orbital angular momentum (OAM) have been demonstrated as potential information carriers in both, free space and fibres. However, recent studies suggest that purely OAM modes does not increase the bandwidth of optical communication systems. In fact, in all work to date, only the azimuthal component of transverse spatial modes has been used. Crucially, all transverse spatial modes require two degrees of freedom to be described; in the context of Laguerre-Gaussian (LGp`) beams these are azimuthal (l) and radial (p), the former responsible for OAM. Here, we demonstrate a technique where both degrees of freedom of LG modes are used as information carrier over free space. We transfer images encoded using 100 spatial modes in three wavelengths as our basis, and employ a spatial demultiplexing scheme that detects all 100 modes simultaneously. Our scheme is a hybrid of MIMO and SMM, and serves as a proof-of-principle demonstration. The cross-talk between the modes is small and independent of whether OAM modes are used or not.

  1. Spatially multiplexed orbital-angular-momentum-encoded single photon and classical channels in a free-space optical communication link. (United States)

    Ren, Yongxiong; Liu, Cong; Pang, Kai; Zhao, Jiapeng; Cao, Yinwen; Xie, Guodong; Li, Long; Liao, Peicheng; Zhao, Zhe; Tur, Moshe; Boyd, Robert W; Willner, Alan E


    We experimentally demonstrate spatial multiplexing of an orbital angular momentum (OAM)-encoded quantum channel and a classical Gaussian beam with a different wavelength and orthogonal polarization. Data rates as large as 100 MHz are achieved by encoding on two different OAM states by employing a combination of independently modulated laser diodes and helical phase holograms. The influence of OAM mode spacing, encoding bandwidth, and interference from the co-propagating Gaussian beam on registered photon count rates and quantum bit error rates is investigated. Our results show that the deleterious effects of intermodal crosstalk effects on system performance become less important for OAM mode spacing Δ≥2 (corresponding to a crosstalk value of less than -18.5  dB). The use of OAM domain can additionally offer at least 10.4 dB isolation besides that provided by wavelength and polarization, leading to a further suppression of interference from the classical channel.

  2. Comparing mode-crosstalk and mode-dependent loss of laterally displaced orbital angular momentum and Hermite-Gaussian modes for free-space optical communication. (United States)

    Ndagano, Bienvenu; Mphuthi, Nokwazi; Milione, Giovanni; Forbes, Andrew


    There is interest in using orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes to increase the data speed of free-space optical communication. A prevalent challenge is the mitigation of mode-crosstalk and mode-dependent loss that is caused by the modes' lateral displacement at the data receiver. Here, the mode-crosstalk and mode-dependent loss of laterally displaced OAM modes (LG 0,+1 , LG 0,-1 ) are experimentally compared to that of a Hermite-Gaussian (HG) mode subset (HG 0,1 , HG 1,0 ). It is shown, for an aperture larger than the modes' waist sizes, some of the HG modes can experience less mode-crosstalk and mode-dependent loss when laterally displaced along a symmetry axis. It is also shown, over a normal distribution of lateral displacements whose standard deviation is 2× the modes' waist sizes, on average, the HG modes experience 66% less mode-crosstalk and 17% less mode-dependent loss.

  3. Optical communication beyond orbital angular momentum

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Trichili, A


    Full Text Available . 3CSIR National Laser Centre, PO Box 395, Pretoria 0001, South Africa. 4Institut Mines-Télécom/Télécom SudParis, 9 rue Charles Fourier, 91011 Evry, France. Correspondence and requests for materials should be addressed to C.R.-G. (email: carmelo..., Y. et al. Free-space optical communications using orbital-angular-momentum multiplexing combined with mimo-based spatial multiplexing. Opt. Lett. 40, 4210–4213 (2015). 19. Zhao, N., Li, X., Li, G. & Kahn, J. M. Capacity limits of spatially...

  4. Space Flight Applications of Optical Fiber; 30 Years of Space Flight Success (United States)

    Ott, Melanie N.


    For over thirty years NASA has had success with space flight missions that utilize optical fiber component technology. One of the early environmental characterization experiments that included optical fiber was launched as the Long Duration Exposure Facility in 1978. Since then, multiple missions have launched with optical fiber components that functioned as expected, without failure throughout the mission life. The use of optical fiber in NASA space flight communications links and exploration and science instrumentation is reviewed.

  5. Deep Space Optical Link ARQ Performance Analysis (United States)

    Clare, Loren; Miles, Gregory


    Substantial advancements have been made toward the use of optical communications for deep space exploration missions, promising a much higher volume of data to be communicated in comparison with present -day Radio Frequency (RF) based systems. One or more ground-based optical terminals are assumed to communicate with the spacecraft. Both short-term and long-term link outages will arise due to weather at the ground station(s), space platform pointing stability, and other effects. To mitigate these outages, an Automatic Repeat Query (ARQ) retransmission method is assumed, together with a reliable back channel for acknowledgement traffic. Specifically, the Licklider Transmission Protocol (LTP) is used, which is a component of the Disruption-Tolerant Networking (DTN) protocol suite that is well suited for high bandwidth-delay product links subject to disruptions. We provide an analysis of envisioned deep space mission scenarios and quantify buffering, latency and throughput performance, using a simulation in which long-term weather effects are modeled with a Gilbert -Elliot Markov chain, short-term outages occur as a Bernoulli process, and scheduled outages arising from geometric visibility or operational constraints are represented. We find that both short- and long-term effects impact throughput, but long-term weather effects dominate buffer sizing and overflow losses as well as latency performance.

  6. Essentials of modern optical fiber communication

    CERN Document Server

    Noé, Reinhold


    This is a concise introduction into optical fiber communication. It covers important aspects from the physics of optical wave propagation and amplification to the essentials of modulation formats and receivers. The combination of a solid coverage of necessary fundamental theory with an in-depth discussion of recent relevant research results enables the reader to design modern optical fiber communication systems. The book serves both graduate students and professionals. It includes many worked examples with solutions for lecturers. For the second edition, Reinhold Noé made many changes and additions throughout the text so that this concise book presents the essentials of optical fiber communication in an easy readable and understandable way.

  7. Self-sustainability of optical fibers in airborne communications (United States)

    Dwivedi, Anurag; Finnegan, Eric J.


    A large number of communications technologies co-exist today in both civilian and military space with their relative strengths and weaknesses. The information carrying capacity of optical fiber communication, however, surpasses any other communications technology in use today. Additionally, optical fiber is immune to environmental effects and detection, and can be designed to be resistant to exploitation and jamming. However, fiber-optic communication applications are usually limited to static, pre-deployed cable systems. Enabling the fiber applications in dynamically deployed and ad-hoc conditions will open up a large number of communication possibilities in terrestrial, aerial, and oceanic environments. Of particular relevance are bandwidth intensive data, video and voice applications such as airborne imagery, multispectral and hyperspectral imaging, surveillance and communications disaster recovery through surveillance platforms like Airships (also called balloons, aerostats or blimps) and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Two major considerations in the implementation of airborne fiber communications are (a) mechanical sustainability of optical fibers, and (b) variation in optical transmission characteristics of fiber in dynamic deployment condition. This paper focuses on the mechanical aspects of airborne optical fiber and examines the ability of un-cabled optical fiber to sustain its own weight and wind drag in airborne communications applications. Since optical fiber is made of silica glass, the material fracture characteristics, sub-critical crack growth, strength distribution and proof stress are the key parameters that determine the self-sustainability of optical fiber. Results are presented in terms of maximum self-sustainable altitudes for three types of optical fibers, namely silica-clad, Titania-doped Silica-clad, and carbon-coated hermetic fibers, for short and long service periods and a range of wind profiles and fiber dimensions.

  8. A COTS RF Optical Software Defined Radio for the Integrated Radio and Optical Communications Test Bed (United States)

    Nappier, Jennifer M.; Zeleznikar, Daniel J.; Wroblewski, Adam C.; Tokars, Roger P.; Schoenholz, Bryan L.; Lantz, Nicholas C.


    The Integrated Radio and Optical Communications (iROC) project at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is investigating the merits of a hybrid radio frequency (RF) and optical communication system for deep space missions. In an effort to demonstrate the feasibility and advantages of a hybrid RFOptical software defined radio (SDR), a laboratory prototype was assembled from primarily commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware components. This COTS platform has been used to demonstrate simultaneous transmission of the radio and optical communications waveforms through to the physical layer (telescope and antenna). This paper details the hardware and software used in the platform and various measures of its performance. A laboratory optical receiver platform has also been assembled in order to demonstrate hybrid free space links in combination with the transmitter.

  9. User Needs and Advances in Space Wireless Sensing and Communications (United States)

    Kegege, Obadiah


    Decades of space exploration and technology trends for future missions show the need for new approaches in space/planetary sensor networks, observatories, internetworking, and communications/data delivery to Earth. The User Needs to be discussed in this talk includes interviews with several scientists and reviews of mission concepts for the next generation of sensors, observatories, and planetary surface missions. These observatories, sensors are envisioned to operate in extreme environments, with advanced autonomy, whereby sometimes communication to Earth is intermittent and delayed. These sensor nodes require software defined networking capabilities in order to learn and adapt to the environment, collect science data, internetwork, and communicate. Also, some user cases require the level of intelligence to manage network functions (either as a host), mobility, security, and interface data to the physical radio/optical layer. For instance, on a planetary surface, autonomous sensor nodes would create their own ad-hoc network, with some nodes handling communication capabilities between the wireless sensor networks and orbiting relay satellites. A section of this talk will cover the advances in space communication and internetworking to support future space missions. NASA's Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) program continues to evolve with the development of optical communication, a new vision of the integrated network architecture with more capabilities, and the adoption of CCSDS space internetworking protocols. Advances in wireless communications hardware and electronics have enabled software defined networking (DVB-S2, VCM, ACM, DTN, Ad hoc, etc.) protocols for improved wireless communication and network management. Developing technologies to fulfil these user needs for wireless communications and adoption of standardized communication/internetworking protocols will be a huge benefit to future planetary missions, space observatories, and manned missions

  10. A key technology for standardizing outdoor optical wireless communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuwei Su


    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce a key technology, polarization modulation (PM, which should be taken into account when standardizing outdoor optical wireless communications (OWC, also known as free-space optical communications (FSO. We analyze the distortion of the polarization state when a laser beam propagates through the atmospheric channel. The floating range of the optical polarization was estimated and the necessity of researching the proposed technology was discussed. Moreover, we conducted a comparison between the PM-based FSO system and intensity modulation-based FSO system. The conclusions will be helpful in establishing the FSO standard architectures.

  11. Optical Wireless Communications - An Emerging Technology


    Utkovski, Zoran


    Wireless transmission via optical carriers opens doors of opportunity in areas as yet largely unexplored. Offering significant technical and operational advantages, optical wireless communication (OWC) can be, in some applications, a powerful alternative to and, in others, complementary to existing radio frequency (RF) wireless systems. Variations of OWC can be employed in a diverse range of communication applications ranging from very short-range (on the order of millimetres) optical interco...

  12. Optical Lightning Detection From Space (United States)

    Christian, Hugh J., Jr.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)


    Since 1995 we have had one or more optical lightning sensors in low earth orbit (LEO) providing near continuous lightning observations of the earth. The resulting data sets have enabled scientists to study global lighting distributions and their variable. Diurnal, seasonal and interannual variabilities are clearly revealed. In addition, because of the exceptionally high detection efficiency of the optical sensing technique and the high spatial resolution, it is possible to study individual clouds and cloud system despite a viewing time that is often as short as 80 seconds. These case studies have demonstrated the importance of total lightning measurements in the study of severe weather. Results from these space-based lightning measurements will be presented as well as the next logical concept - optical observations from geostationary orbit (GEO). With a Lightning Mapper Sensor (LMS) in GEO, it will be possible to monitor severe weather on a continuous basis and to disseminate the data in less than 60 seconds.

  13. Fiber Optic Communications Technology. A Status Report. (United States)

    Hull, Joseph A.

    Fiber optic communications (communications over very pure glass transmission channels of diameter comparable to a human hair) is an emerging technology which promises most improvements in communications capacity at reasonable cost. The fiber transmission system offers many desirable characteristics representing improvements over conventional…

  14. On the Maximum and Minimum of Double Generalized Gamma Variates with Applications to the Performance of Free-space Optical Communication Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Quwaiee, Hessa


    In this work, we derive the exact statistical characteristics of the maximum and the minimum of two modified1 double generalized gamma variates in closed-form in terms of Meijer’s G-function, Fox’s H-function, the extended generalized bivariate Meijer’s G-function and H-function in addition to simple closed-form asymptotic results in terms of elementary functions. Then, we rely on these new results to present the performance analysis of (i) a dual-branch free-space optical selection combining diversity and of (ii) a dual-hop free-space optical relay transmission system over double generalized gamma fading channels with the impact of pointing errors. In addition, we provide asymptotic results of the bit error rate of the two systems at high SNR regime. Computer-based Monte-Carlo simulations verify our new analytical results.

  15. An Update on the CCSDS Optical Communications Working Group (United States)

    Edwards, Bernard L.; Schulz, Klaus-Juergen; Hamkins, Jonathan; Robinson, Bryan; Alliss, Randall; Daddato, Robert; Schmidt, Christopher; Giggebach, Dirk; Braatz, Lena


    International space agencies around the world are currently developing optical communication systems for Near Earth and Deep Space applications for both robotic and human rated spacecraft. These applications include both links between spacecraft and links between spacecraft and ground. The Interagency Operation Advisory Group (IOAG) has stated that there is a strong business case for international cross support of spacecraft optical links. It further concluded that in order to enable cross support the links must be standardized. This paper will overview the history and structure of the space communications international standards body, the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS), that will develop the standards and provide an update on the proceedings of the Optical Communications Working Group within CCSDS. This paper will also describe the set of optical communications standards being developed and outline some of the issues that must be addressed in the next few years. The paper will address in particular the ongoing work on application scenarios for deep space to ground called High Photon Efficiency, for LEO to ground called Low Complexity, for inter-satellite and near Earth to ground called High Data Rate, as well as associated atmospheric measurement techniques and link operations concepts.

  16. Optical smart card using semipassive communication (United States)

    Glaser, I.; Green, Shlomo; Dimkov, Ilan


    An optical secure short-range communication system is presented. The mobile unit (optical smart card) of this system utilizes a retroreflector with an optical modulator, using light from the stationary unit; this mobile unit has very low power consumption and can be as small as a credit card. Such optical smart cards offer better security than RF-based solutions, yet do not require physical contact. Results from a feasibility study model are included.

  17. Hybrid Ground Station Technology for RF and Optical Communication Links (United States)

    Davarian, Faramaz; Hoppe, D.; Charles, J.; Vilnrotter, V.; Sehic, A.; Hanson, T.; Gam, E.


    To support future enhancements of NASA's deep space and planetary communications and tracking services, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory is developing a hybrid ground station that will be capable of simultaneously supporting RF and optical communications. The main reason for adding optical links to the existing RF links is to significantly increase the capacity of deep space communications in support of future solar system exploration. It is envisioned that a mission employing an optical link will also use an RF link for telemetry and emergency purposes, hence the need for a hybrid ground station. A hybrid station may also reduce operations cost by requiring fewer staff than would be required to operate two stations. A number of approaches and techniques have been examined. The most promising ones have been prototyped for field examination and validation.

  18. Optical wireless communications: Theory and applications (United States)

    Aminikashani, Mohammadreza

    This dissertation focuses on optical communications having recently attracted sig- nificant attentions as a promising complementary technique for radio frequency (RF) in both short- and long-range communications. These systems offer signifi- cant technical and operational advantages such as higher capacity, virtually unlim- ited reuse, unregulated spectrum and robustness to electromagnetic interference. Optical wireless communication (OWC) can be used both indoors and outdoors. Part of the dissertation contains novel results on terrestrial free-space optical (FSO) communications. FSO communication is a line-of sight technique that uses lasers for high rate wireless communication over distances up to several kilometers. In comparison to RF counterparts, a FSO link has a very high optical bandwidth available, allowing aggregate data rates on the order of Tera bits per second (1 Tera bits per second is 1000 Giga bites per second). However, FSO suffers limitations. The major limitation of the terrestrial FSO communication systems is the atmo- spheric turbulence, which produces fluctuations in the irradiance of the transmitted optical beam, as a result of random variations in the refractive index through the link. The existence of atmospheric-induced turbulence degrades the performance of FSO links particularly with a transmission distance longer than 1 kilometer. The identification of a tractable probability density function (pdf) to describe at- mospheric turbulence under all irradiance fluctuation regimes is crucial in order to study the reliability of a terrestrial FSO system. This dissertation addresses this daunting problem and proposes a novel statistical model that accurately de- scribes turbulence-induced fading under all irradiance conditions and unifies most of the proposed statistical models derived until now in the literature. The proposed model is important for the research community working on FSO communications because it allows them to fully capitalize

  19. Intelligent Agents for Scheduling Space Communications Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — With the advent of the new exploration initiative, the number of customers and missions to be supported by the NASA Space Communications infrastructure will increase...

  20. Reciprocity-enhanced optical communication through atmospheric turbulence - part II: communication architectures and performance (United States)

    Puryear, Andrew L.; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.; Parenti, Ronald R.


    Free-space optical communication provides rapidly deployable, dynamic communication links that are capable of very high data rates compared with those of radio-frequency systems. As such, free-space optical communication is ideal for mobile platforms, for platforms that require the additional security afforded by the narrow divergence of a laser beam, and for systems that must be deployed in a relatively short time frame. In clear-weather conditions the data rate and utility of free-space optical communication links are primarily limited by fading caused by micro-scale atmospheric temperature variations that create parts-per-million refractive-index fluctuations known as atmospheric turbulence. Typical communication techniques to overcome turbulence-induced fading, such as interleavers with sophisticated codes, lose viability as the data rate is driven higher or the delay requirement is driven lower. This paper, along with its companion [J. H. Shapiro and A. Puryear, "Reciprocity-Enhanced Optical Communication through Atmospheric Turbulence-Part I: Reciprocity Proofs and Far-Field Power Transfer"], present communication systems and techniques that exploit atmospheric reciprocity to overcome turbulence which are viable for high data rate and low delay requirement systems. Part I proves that reciprocity is exhibited under rather general conditions, and derives the optimal power-transfer phase compensation for far-field operation. The Part II paper presents capacity-achieving architectures that exploit reciprocity to overcome the complexity and delay issues that limit state-of-the art free-space optical communications. Further, this paper uses theoretical turbulence models to determine the performance—delay, throughput, and complexity—of the proposed architectures.

  1. Optical fiber communication — An overview

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    telecommunication systems. Particularly, optical fiber communication plays a vital role in the development of high quality and high-speed telecommunication systems. Today, optical fibers are not only used in telecommunication links but also used in the Internet and local area networks (LAN) to achieve high signaling rates.

  2. Alternate Communications for Space Travel (United States)

    Williams, Pharis E.


    resulting five dimensional wave equations. Whereas in Maxwellian electromagnetism there are two, coupled, vector wave equations in the five dimensional gauge field there are three, coupled, vector wave equations that are also coupled to a scalar wave equation. The presentation will discuss the resulting transverse and longitudinal solutions to this system of wave equations. It will show that the inductive coupling with the gravitational field provides a very weak gravitational component to the transverse waves. It will also show that the longitudinal wave solutions may be independent of the transverse solutions and that the longitudinal solutions consist of only electric and gravitational vector components with an accompanying scalar wave. Longitudinal electrogravitic waves do not interact with the propagation medium as do transverse waves and make good candidates for space communication. Not only will longitudinal waves pass through intervening material, but they may be made very directive and, thereby, avoid a 1/r2 loss. The presentation will also present an antenna design for converting transverse electromagnetic waves into longitudinal electrogravitic waves for using current transmitting laser communication equipment and the reciprocal antenna design for converting longitudinal waves back into transverse waves to use current receivers.

  3. The handbook of optical communication networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ilyas, Mohammad


    The Handbook of Optical Communication Networks presents comprehensive, up-to-date technical information on integrated, state-of-the-art optical networks. Beginning with an in-depth intoduction to the field, top international authorities explore every major aspect of optical networks, from basic concepts to research grade material. Their discussions cover all of the essential topics, including protocols, resource management, routing and wavelength assignment in WDM networks, connection management, survivability, enabling technologies, and future trends.

  4. Optical overview and qualification of the LLCD space terminal (United States)

    DeVoe, C. E.; Pillsbury, A. D.; Khatri, F.; Burnside, J. M.; Raudenbush, A. C.; Petrilli, L. J.; Williams, T.


    In October 2013 the Lunar Laser Communications Demonstration (LLCD) made communications history by successfully demonstrating 622 megabits per second laser communication from the moon's orbit to earth. The LLCD consisted of the Lunar Laser Communication Space Terminal (LLST), developed by MIT Lincoln Laboratory, mounted on NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft and a primary ground terminal located in New Mexico, the Lunar Laser Communications Ground Terminal (LLGT), and two alternate ground terminals. This paper presents the optical layout of the LLST, the approach for testing the optical subsystems, and the results of the optical qualification of the LLST. Also described is the optical test set used to qualify the LLST. The architecture philosophy for the optics was to keep a small, simple optical backend that provided excellent boresighting and high isolation between the optical paths, high quality wavefront on axis, with minimal throughput losses on all paths. The front end large optics consisted of a Cassegrain 107mm telescope with an f/0.7 parabolic primary mirror and a solar window to reduce the thermal load on the telescope and to minimize background light received at the sensors.

  5. High Spectral Density Optical Communication Technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Nakazawa, Masataka; Miyazaki, Tetsuya


    The latest hot topics of high-spectral density optical communication systems using digital coherent optical fibre communication technologies are covered by this book. History and meaning of a "renaissance" of the technology, requirements to the Peta-bit/s class "new generation network" are also covered in the first part of this book. The main topics treated are electronic and optical devices, digital signal processing including forward error correction, modulation formats as well as transmission and application systems. The book serves as a reference to researchers and engineers.

  6. Fiber optic communications fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Shiva


    Fiber-optic communication systems have advanced dramatically over the last four decades, since the era of copper cables, resulting in low-cost and high-bandwidth transmission. Fiber optics is now the backbone of the internet and long-distance telecommunication. Without it we would not enjoy the benefits of high-speed internet, or low-rate international telephone calls. This book introduces the basic concepts of fiber-optic communication in a pedagogical way. The important mathematical results are derived by first principles rather than citing research articles. In addition, physical interpre

  7. Technology forecasting for space communication. [analysis of systems for application to Spacecraft Data and Tracking Network (United States)


    A study was conducted to determine techniques for application to space communication. The subjects considered are as follows: (1) optical communication systems, (2) laser communications for data acquisition networks, (3) spacecraft data rate requirements, (4) telemetry, command, and data handling, (5) spacecraft tracking and data network antenna and preamplifier cost tradeoff study, and (6) spacecraft communication terminal evaluation.

  8. Optical wireless communication through random media (United States)

    Arnon, Shlomi


    The growing need for high data-rate communication both through the atmosphere and the ocean (sub-sea) has stimulated considerable interest in optical wireless communication (OWC) technologies. The main advantages of OWC as compared with RF communication in the atmosphere and with acoustic communication in sub-sea applications are a) high achievable data-rate, b) small size of equipment and c) low power-consumption. On the other hand the characteristics of the communication channel in both scenarios are stochastic with high values of variance, which severely degrades OWC communication system performance. In this paper we present a tutorial discussing the effects of random media on OWC and expand on two examples: Monte-Carlo simulation for sub-sea communication and mathematical synthesis using Meijer G-function for OWC through atmospheric turbulence. These two examples demonstrate that it is possible to gain significant insights on the effects of the random channel on system performance. The results of the different analysis methods could also indicate solutions for the improvement of performance using adaptive solutions or for extending the communication range by applying a multi-hop concept. We summarize the paper with a brief review of two emerging research fields that could, surprisingly, benefit from the characteristics of light propagation through random media and its effect on the communication system performance. The first research field is trans-cutaneous OWC and the second is an unguided optical communication bus for next-generation computers.

  9. Space Mobile Network: A Near Earth Communication and Navigation Architecture (United States)

    Israel, Dave J.; Heckler, Greg; Menrad, Robert J.


    This paper describes a Space Mobile Network architecture, the result of a recently completed NASA study exploring architectural concepts to produce a vision for the future Near Earth communications and navigation systems. The Space Mobile Network (SMN) incorporates technologies, such as Disruption Tolerant Networking (DTN) and optical communications, and new operations concepts, such as User Initiated Services, to provide user services analogous to a terrestrial smartphone user. The paper will describe the SMN Architecture, envisioned future operations concepts, opportunities for industry and international collaboration and interoperability, and technology development areas and goals.

  10. Day and night cloud occurrence climatology for space-to-ground optical communication feasibility: the advantages of a thermal infrared sky imager (United States)

    Liandrat, O.; Bertin, C.; Cros, S.; Saint-Antonin, L.


    Day and night cloud cover imaging of the sky vault from the surface has several applications such as cloud properties climatological studies or cloud cover monitoring for air traffic… Real-time hemispheric observations of cloud cover also helps to manage optical communications between a satellite and an optical ground station (OGS). Indeed, it permits to predict an eventual cloud obstruction to continue instantaneously the transmission by using an alternative OGS located in a cloud-free area of the satellite communication zone. Sky imager with a thermal infrared (TIR) camera is a convenient solution to observe continuously cloud cover evolution. The spectral broadband comprised between 7.5 and 13.5 µm permits to detect cloud, night and day, without any significant disturbance due to sunshine. This sky radiation signature has also the potential to retrieve some cloud physical properties (ceil altitude, cloud optical depth…) In this work, we propose a method to retrieve the cloud presence on a given pixel of the sky vault TIR image acquired by the SIONS-T developed by Reuniwatt and experimented by IRT Saint-Exupery. First, we estimate the clear sky radiance by selecting the pixel presenting the minimal radiance for a given set of airmass intervals. Then, this clear sky radiance is subtracted from the observed radiance in order to obtain a residual radiance, assuming this latter is only driven by cloud thermal emission. Finally, a pixel is classified as cloud if the residual radiance is 5% higher than the clear sky radiance. The method has been performed on a 1-year time-series of TIR images acquired at Côte d'Azur Observatory (France) in 2015-2016. Day time cloud images with about 2000 manually indexed pixels observed with a co-located visible sky imager have been used as truth data. Our cloud detection classify pixel correctly in more than 98 % of the cases. Variations of this accuracy according to viewing angle and cloud cover conditions are discussed.

  11. The human communication space towards I-centric communications

    CERN Document Server

    Arbanowski, S; Steglich, S; Popescu-Zeletin, R


    A variety of concepts for service integration and corresponding systems have been developed. On one hand, they aim for the interworking and integration of classical telecommunications and data communications services. On the other, they are focusing on universal service access from a variety of end-user systems. Many of the technical problems, resulting from service integration and service personalisation, have been solved. However, all these systems are driven by the concept of providing several technologies to users by keeping the peculiarity of each service. Looking at human communication behaviour and communication space, it is obvious that human beings interact habitually in a set of contexts with their environment. The individual information preferences and needs, persons to interact with, and the set of devices controlled by each individual define their personal communication space. Following this view, a new approach is to build communication systems not on the basis of specific technologies, but on t...

  12. Free-space optical wireless links with topology control (United States)

    Milner, Stuart D.; Ho, Tzung-Hsien; Smolyaninov, Igor I.; Trisno, Sugianto; Davis, Christopher C.


    The worldwide demand for broadband communications is being met in many places through the use of installed single-mode fiber networks. However, there is still a significant 'first-mile' problem, which seriously limits the availability of broadband Internet access. Free-space optical wireless communication has emerged as a technique of choice for bridging gaps in the existing high data rate communication networks, and as a backbone for rapidly deployable mobile wireless communication infrastructure. Because free space laser communication links can be easily and rapidly redirected, optical wireless networks can be autonomously reconfigured in a multiple-connected topology to provide improved network performance. In this paper we describe research designed to improve the performance of such networks. Using topology control algorithms, we have demonstrated that multiply-connected, rapidly reconfigurable optical wireless networks can provide robust performance, and a high quality of service at high data rates (up to and beyond 1 Gbps). These systems are also very cost-effective. We have designed and tested on the University of Maryland campus a prototype four-node optical wireless network, where each node could be connected to the others via steerable optical wireless links. The design and performance of this network and the topology control is discussed.

  13. Multilevel Modulation formats for Optical Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Bevensee


    This thesis studies the use of multilevel modulation formats for optical communication systems. Multilevel modulation is an attractive method of increasing the spectral efficiency of optical communication systems. Various modulation formats employing phase modulation, amplitude modulation...... or a combination of the two have been studied. The use of polarization multiplexing (PolMux) to double the bit rate has also been investigated. The impact of transmission impairments such as chromatic dispersion, self phase modulation and cross phase modulation has been investigated. The feasibility of multilevel...... modulation for network oriented scenarios has been demonstrated....

  14. Face to Face Communications in Space (United States)

    Cohen, Malcolm M.; Davon, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)


    It has been reported that human face-to-face communications in space are compromised by facial edema, variations in the orientations of speakers and listeners, and background noises that are encountered in the shuttle and in space stations. To date, nearly all reports have been anecdotal or subjective, in the form of post-flight interviews or questionnaires; objective and quantitative data are generally lacking. Although it is acknowledged that efficient face-to-face communications are essential for astronauts to work safely and effectively, specific ways in which the space environment interferes with non-linguistic communication cues are poorly documented. Because we have only a partial understanding of how non-linguistic communication cues may change with mission duration, it is critically important to obtain objective data, and to evaluate these cues under well-controlled experimental conditions.

  15. Avalanche Photodiode Arrays for Optical Communications Receivers (United States)

    Srinivasan, M.; Vilnrotter, V.


    An avalanche photodiode (APD) array for ground-based optical communications receivers is investigated for the reception of optical signals through the turbulent atmosphere. Kolmogorov phase screen simulations are used to generate realistic spatial distributions of the received optical field. It is shown that use of an APD array for pulse-position modulation detection can improve performance by up to 4 dB over single APD detection in the presence of turbulence, but that photon-counting detector arrays yield even greater gains.

  16. Experiments Program for NASA's Space Communications Testbed (United States)

    Chelmins, David; Reinhart, Richard


    NASA developed a testbed for communications and navigation that was launched to the International Space Station in 2012. The testbed promotes new software defined radio (SDR) technologies and addresses associated operational concepts for space-based SDRs, enabled by this first flight of NASA's Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) architecture standard. The experiments program consists of a mix of in-house and external experiments from partners in industry, academia, and government. The experiments will investigate key challenges in communications, networking, and global positioning system navigation both on the ground and on orbit. This presentation will discuss some of the key opportunities and challenges for the testbed experiments program.

  17. A COTS RF/Optical Software Defined Radio for the Integrated Radio and Optical Communications Test Bed (United States)

    Nappier, Jennifer M.; Zeleznikar, Daniel J.; Wroblewski, Adam C.; Tokars, Roger P.; Schoenholz, Bryan L.; Lantz, Nicholas C.


    The Integrated Radio and Optical Communications (iROC) project at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is investigating the merits of a hybrid radio frequency (RF) and optical communication system for deep space missions. In an effort to demonstrate the feasibility and advantages of a hybrid RF/Optical software defined radio (SDR), a laboratory prototype was assembled from primarily commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware components. This COTS platform has been used to demonstrate simultaneous transmission of the radio and optical communications waveforms through to the physical layer (telescope and antenna). This paper details the hardware and software used in the platform and various measures of its performance. A laboratory optical receiver platform has also been assembled in order to demonstrate hybrid free space links in combination with the transmitter.

  18. Space Communication and Navigation Testbed Communications Technology for Exploration (United States)

    Reinhart, Richard


    NASA developed and launched an experimental flight payload (referred to as the Space Communication and Navigation Test Bed) to investigate software defined radio, networking, and navigation technologies, operationally in the space environment. The payload consists of three software defined radios each compliant to NASAs Space Telecommunications Radio System Architecture, a common software interface description standard for software defined radios. The software defined radios are new technology developed by NASA and industry partners. The payload is externally mounted to the International Space Station truss and available to NASA, industry, and university partners to conduct experiments representative of future mission capability. Experiment operations include in-flight reconfiguration of the SDR waveform functions and payload networking software. The flight system communicates with NASAs orbiting satellite relay network, the Tracking, Data Relay Satellite System at both S-band and Ka-band and to any Earth-based compatible S-band ground station.

  19. Optical Observations of Space Debris (United States)

    Seitzer, Patrick; Abercromby, Kira; Rodriquez, Heather; Barker, Edwin S.; Kelecy, Thomas


    This viewgraph presentation reviews the use of optical telescopes to observe space debris. .It will present a brief review of how the survey is conducted, and what some of the significant results encompass. The goal is to characterize the population of debris objects at GEO, with emphasis on the faint object population. Because the survey observations extend over a very short arc (5 minutes), a full six parameter orbit can not be determined. Recently we have begun to use a second telescope, the 0.9-m at CTIO, as a chase telescope to do follow-up observations of potential GEO debris candidates found by MODEST. With a long enough sequence of observations, a full six-parameter orbit including eccentricity can be determined. The project has used STK since inception for planning observing sessions based on the distribution of bright cataloged objects and the anti-solar point (to avoid eclipse). Recently, AGI's Orbit Determination Tool Kit (ODTK) has been used to determine orbits, including the effects of solar radiation pressure. Since an unknown fraction of the faint debris at GEO has a high area-to-mass ratio (A/M), the orbits are perturbed significantly by solar radiation. The ODTK analysis results indicate that temporal variations in the solar perturbations, possibly due to debris orientation dynamics, can be estimated in the OD process. Additionally, the best results appear to be achieved when solar forces orthogonal to the object-Sun line are considered. Determining the A/M of individual objects and the distribution of A/M values of a large sample of debris is important to understanding the total population of debris at GEO

  20. LDPC-PPM Coding Scheme for Optical Communication (United States)

    Barsoum, Maged; Moision, Bruce; Divsalar, Dariush; Fitz, Michael


    In a proposed coding-and-modulation/demodulation-and-decoding scheme for a free-space optical communication system, an error-correcting code of the low-density parity-check (LDPC) type would be concatenated with a modulation code that consists of a mapping of bits to pulse-position-modulation (PPM) symbols. Hence, the scheme is denoted LDPC-PPM. This scheme could be considered a competitor of a related prior scheme in which an outer convolutional error-correcting code is concatenated with an interleaving operation, a bit-accumulation operation, and a PPM inner code. Both the prior and present schemes can be characterized as serially concatenated pulse-position modulation (SCPPM) coding schemes. Figure 1 represents a free-space optical communication system based on either the present LDPC-PPM scheme or the prior SCPPM scheme. At the transmitting terminal, the original data (u) are processed by an encoder into blocks of bits (a), and the encoded data are mapped to PPM of an optical signal (c). For the purpose of design and analysis, the optical channel in which the PPM signal propagates is modeled as a Poisson point process. At the receiving terminal, the arriving optical signal (y) is demodulated to obtain an estimate (a^) of the coded data, which is then processed by a decoder to obtain an estimate (u^) of the original data.

  1. Estimation of optical attenuation in reduced visibility conditions in different environments across free space optics link

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dev, K.; Nebuloni, R.; Capsoni, C.; Fišer, Ondřej; Brázda, V.


    Roč. 11, č. 12 (2017), s. 1708-1713 ISSN 1751-8725 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : light attenuation * optical sensors * free-space optical communication Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology OBOR OECD: Meteorology and atmospheric sciences Impact factor: 1.187, year: 2016 http://digital- library

  2. Enhancing optical communication with deep neural networks (United States)

    Lohani, Sanjaya; Knutson, Erin; Tkach, Sam; Huver, Sean; Glasser, Ryan; Tulane University Collaboration; Deep Science AI Collaboration

    The spatial profile of optical modes may be altered such that they contain nonzero orbital angular momentum (OAM). Laguerre-Gauss (LG) states of light have a helical wavefront and well-defined OAM, and have recently been shown to allow for larger information transfer rates in optical communications as compared to using only Gaussian modes. A primary difficulty, however, is the accurate classification of different OAM optical states, which contain different values of OAM, in the detection stage. The difficulty in this differentiation increases as larger degrees of OAM are used. Here we show the performance of deep neural networks in the simultaneous classification of numerically generated, noisy, Laguerre-Gauss states with OAM value up to 100 can reach near 100% accuracy. This method relies only on the intensity profile of the detected OAM states, avoiding bulky and difficult-to-implement methods that are required to measure the phase profile of the modes in the receiver of the communication platform. This allows for a simplification in the network design and an increase in performance when using states with large degrees of OAM. We anticipate that this approach will allow for significant advances in the development of optical communication technologies. We acknowledge funding from the Louisiana State Board of Regents and Northrop Grumman - NG NEXT.

  3. Religion and Communication Spaces. A Semio-pragmatic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Odin


    Full Text Available Following the reflection initiated in his book The Spaces of Communication, Roger Odin suggests a new distinction between physical communication spaces and mental communication spaces (spaces that we have inside us. The suggestion is exemplified by three film analyses dedicated to the relationships between religion and communication.

  4. Feasibility of retroreflective transdermal optical wireless communication. (United States)

    Gil, Yotam; Rotter, Nadav; Arnon, Shlomi


    There is an increasing demand for transdermal high-data-rate communication for use with in-body devices, such as pacemakers, smart prostheses, neural signals processors at the brain interface, and cameras acting as artificial eyes as well as for collecting signals generated within the human body. Prominent requirements of these communication systems include (1) wireless modality, (2) noise immunity and (3) ultra-low-power consumption for the in-body device. Today, the common wireless methods for transdermal communication are based on communication at radio frequencies, electrical induction, or acoustic waves. In this paper, we will explore another alternative to these methods--optical wireless communication (OWC)--for which modulated light carries the information. The main advantages of OWC in transdermal communication, by comparison to the other methods, are the high data rates and immunity to external interference availed, which combine to make it a promising technology for next-generation systems. In this paper, we present a mathematical model and experimental results of measurements from direct link and retroreflection link configurations with Gallus gallus domesticus derma as the transdermal channel. The main conclusion from this work is that an OWC link is an attractive communication solution in medical applications. For a modulating retroreflective link to become a competitive solution in comparison with a direct link, low-energy-consumption modulating retroreflectors should be developed.

  5. Soliton coding for secured optical communication link

    CERN Document Server

    Amiri, Iraj Sadegh; Idrus, Sevia Mahdaliza


    Nonlinear behavior of light such as chaos can be observed during propagation of a laser beam inside the microring resonator (MRR) systems. This Brief highlights the design of a system of MRRs to generate a series of logic codes. An optical soliton is used to generate an entangled photon. The ultra-short soliton pulses provide the required communication signals to generate a pair of polarization entangled photons required for quantum keys. In the frequency domain, MRRs can be used to generate optical millimetre-wave solitons with a broadband frequency of 0?100 GHz. The soliton signals are multi

  6. Applied physics: Optical trapping for space mirrors. (United States)

    McGloin, David


    Might it be possible to create mirrors for space telescopes, using nothing but microscopic particles held in place by light? A study that exploits a technique called optical binding provides a step towards this goal.

  7. Fiber optical parametric amplifiers in optical communication systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marhic, Michel E.; Andrekson, Peter A.; Petropoulos, Periklis


    The prospects for using fiber optical parametric amplifiers (OPAs) in optical communication systems are reviewed. Phase-insensitive amplifiers (PIAs) and phase-sensitive amplifiers (PSAs) are considered. Low-penalty amplification at/or near 1 Tb/s has been achieved, for both wavelength- and time......-modulated signals. A PSA with 1.1-dB noise figure has been demonstrated, and preliminary wavelength-division multiplexing experiments have been performed with PSAs. 512Gb/s have been transmitted over 6,000km by periodic phase conjugation. Simulations indicate that PIAs could reach data rate x reach products...

  8. Space Shuttle Underside Astronaut Communications Performance Evaluation (United States)

    Hwu, Shian U.; Dobbins, Justin A.; Loh, Yin-Chung; Kroll, Quin D.; Sham, Catherine C.


    The Space Shuttle Ultra High Frequency (UHF) communications system is planned to provide Radio Frequency (RF) coverage for astronauts working underside of the Space Shuttle Orbiter (SSO) for thermal tile inspection and repairing. This study is to assess the Space Shuttle UHF communication performance for astronauts in the shadow region without line-of-sight (LOS) to the Space Shuttle and Space Station UHF antennas. To insure the RF coverage performance at anticipated astronaut worksites, the link margin between the UHF antennas and Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Astronauts with significant vehicle structure blockage was analyzed. A series of near-field measurements were performed using the NASA/JSC Anechoic Chamber Antenna test facilities. Computational investigations were also performed using the electromagnetic modeling techniques. The computer simulation tool based on the Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD) was used to compute the signal strengths. The signal strength was obtained by computing the reflected and diffracted fields along the propagation paths between the transmitting and receiving antennas. Based on the results obtained in this study, RF coverage for UHF communication links was determined for the anticipated astronaut worksite in the shadow region underneath the Space Shuttle.

  9. Machine learning techniques for optical communication system optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zibar, Darko; Wass, Jesper; Thrane, Jakob

    In this paper, machine learning techniques relevant to optical communication are presented and discussed. The focus is on applying machine learning tools to optical performance monitoring and performance prediction.......In this paper, machine learning techniques relevant to optical communication are presented and discussed. The focus is on applying machine learning tools to optical performance monitoring and performance prediction....

  10. Downlink Fiber Laser Transmitter for Deep Space Communication Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) roadmap, calls for an integrated network approach to communication and navigation needs for robotic and human space...

  11. Emergency Communications for NASA's Deep Space Missions (United States)

    Shambayati, Shervin; Lee, Charles H.; Morabito, David D.; Cesarone, Robert J.; Abraham, Douglas S.


    The ability to communicate with spacecraft during emergencies is a vital service that NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) provides to all deep space missions. Emergency communications is characterized by low data rates(typically is approximately10 bps) with the spacecraft using either a low-gain antenna (LGA, including omnidirectional antennas) or,in some cases, a medium-gain antenna (MGA). Because of the use of LGAs/MGAs for emergency communications, the transmitted power requirements both on the spacecraft andon the ground are substantially greater than those required for normal operations on the high-gain antenna (HGA) despite the lower data rates. In this paper, we look at currentand future emergency communications capabilities available to NASA's deep-space missions and discuss their limitations in the context of emergency mode operations requirements.These discussions include the use of the DSN 70-m diameter antennas, the use of the 34-m diameter antennas either alone or arrayed both for the uplink (Earth-to-spacecraft) and the downlink (spacecraft-to-Earth), upgrades to the ground transmitters, and spacecraft power requirements both with unitygain (0 dB) LGAs and with antennas with directivity (>0 dB gain, either LGA or MGA, depending on the gain). Also discussed are the requirements for forward-error-correctingcodes for both the uplink and the downlink. In additional, we introduce a methodology for proper selection of a directionalLGA/MGA for emergency communications.

  12. Hemispherical optical dome for underwater communication (United States)

    Shiri, Ron S.; Lunde, Emily L.; Coronado, Patrick L.; Quijada, Manuel A.


    For many years, acoustic systems have been used as the primary method for underwater communication; however, the data transfer rate of such systems is low because sound propagates slowly through water. A higher throughput can be achieved using visible light to transmit data underwater. The first issue with this approach is that there is generally a large loss of the light signal due to scattering and absorption in water, even though there is an optimal wavelength for transmission in the blue or green wavelengths of the visible spectrum. The second issue is that a simple communication system, consisting only of a highly directional source/transmitter and small optical detector/receiver, has a very narrow field of view. The goal of this project is to improve an optical, underwater communication system by increasing the effective field of view of the receiving optics. To this end, we make two changes to the simple system: (1) An optical dome was added near the receiver. An array of lenses is placed radially on the surface of the dome, reminiscent of the compound eye of an insect. The lenses make the source and detector planes conjugate, and each lens adds a new region of the source plane to the instrument's total field of view. (2) The receiver was expanded to include multiple photodiodes. With these two changes, the receiver has much more tolerance to misalignments (in position and angle) of the transmitter. Two versions of the optical dome (with 6" and 8" diameters) were designed using PTC's Creo CAD software and modeled using Synopsys' CODE V optical design software. A series of these transparent hemispherical domes, with both design diameters, were manufactured using a 5-axis mill. The prototype was then retrofitted with lenses and compared with the computer-generated model to demonstrate the effectiveness of this solution. This work shows that the dome design improves the optical field of view of the underwater communication system considerably. Furthermore, with

  13. The LAM space active optics facility (United States)

    Engel, C.; Ferrari, M.; Hugot, E.; Escolle, C.; Bonnefois, A.; Bernot, M.; Bret-Dibat, T.; Carlavan, M.; Falzon, F.; Fusco, T.; Laubier, D.; Liotard, A.; Michau, V.; Mugnier, L.


    The next generation of large lightweight space telescopes will require the use of active optics systems to enhance the performance and increase the spatial resolution. Since almost 10 years now, LAM, CNES, THALES and ONERA conjugate their experience and efforts for the development of space active optics through the validation of key technological building blocks: correcting devices, metrology components and control strategies. This article presents the work done so far on active correcting mirrors and wave front sensing, as well as all the facilities implemented. The last part of this paper focuses on the merging of the MADRAS and RASCASSE test-set up. This unique combination will provide to the active optics community an automated, flexible and versatile facility able to feed and characterise space active optics components.

  14. Hemispherical Optical Dome for Underwater Communication (United States)

    Shiri, Ron S.; Lunde, Emily L.; Coronado, Patrick L.; Quijada, Manuel A.


    For many years, acoustic systems have been used as the primary method for underwater communication; however, the data transfer rate of such systems is low because sound propagates slowly through the water. A higher throughput can be achieved using visible light to transmit data underwater. The first issue with using this approach is that there is generally a large loss of the light signal due to scattering and absorption in water even though there is an optimal wavelength for transmission in the blue or green wavelengths of the visible spectrum. The second issue is that a simple system consisting only of a highly directional source transmitter and small optical detector receiver has a very narrow field of view. The goal of this project is to improve an optical, underwater communication system by increasing the effective field of view of the receiving optics. To this end, we make two changes to the simple system: (1) An optical dome was added near the receiver. An array of lenses is placed radially on the surface of the dome, reminiscent of the compound eye of an insect. The lenses make the source and detector planes conjugate, and each lens adds a new region of the source plane to the instrument's total field of view. (2) The receiver was expanded to include multiple photodiodes. With these two changes, the receiver has much more tolerance to misalignments (in position and angle) of the transmitter.Two versions of the optical dome (with 6 and 8 diameters) were designed using the CREO CAD software and modeled using the CODE V optical design software. A series of these transparent hemispherical domes, with both design diameters, were manufactured using a 5-axis mill. The prototype was then retrofitted with lenses and compared with the computer-generated model to demonstrate the effectiveness of this solution. This work shows the dome design improves the optical field of view of the underwater communication system considerably. Furthermore, with the experimental test

  15. Challenges of Integrating NASAs Space Communication Networks (United States)

    Reinert, Jessica M.; Barnes, Patrick


    The transition to new technology, innovative ideas, and resistance to change is something that every industry experiences. Recent examples of this shift are changing to using robots in the assembly line construction of automobiles or the increasing use of robotics for medical procedures. Most often this is done with cost-reduction in mind, though ease of use for the customer is also a driver. All industries experience the push to increase efficiency of their systems; National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the commercial space industry are no different. NASA space communication services are provided by three separately designed, developed, maintained, and operated communications networks known as the Deep Space Network (DSN), Near Earth Network (NEN) and Space Network (SN). The Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) Program is pursuing integration of these networks and has performed a variety of architecture trade studies to determine what integration options would be the most effective in achieving a unified user mission support organization, and increase the use of common operational equipment and processes. The integration of multiple, legacy organizations and existing systems has challenges ranging from technical to cultural. The existing networks are the progeny of the very first communication and tracking capabilities implemented by NASA and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) more than 50 years ago and have been customized to the needs of their respective user mission base. The technical challenges to integrating the networks are many, though not impossible to overcome. The three distinct networks provide the same types of services, with customizable data rates, bandwidth, frequencies, and so forth. The differences across the networks have occurred in effort to satisfy their user missions' needs. Each new requirement has made the networks more unique and harder to integrate. The cultural challenges, however, have proven to be a

  16. Challenges of Integrating NASA's Space Communications Networks (United States)

    Reinert, Jessica; Barnes, Patrick


    The transition to new technology, innovative ideas, and resistance to change is something that every industry experiences. Recent examples of this shift are changing to using robots in the assembly line construction of automobiles or the increasing use of robotics for medical procedures. Most often this is done with cost-reduction in mind, though ease of use for the customer is also a driver. All industries experience the push to increase efficiency of their systems; National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the commercial space industry are no different. NASA space communication services are provided by three separately designed, developed, maintained, and operated communications networks known as the Deep Space Network (DSN), Near Earth Network (NEN) and Space Network (SN). The Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) Program is pursuing integration of these networks and has performed a variety of architecture trade studies to determine what integration options would be the most effective in achieving a unified user mission support organization, and increase the use of common operational equipment and processes. The integration of multiple, legacy organizations and existing systems has challenges ranging from technical to cultural. The existing networks are the progeny of the very first communication and tracking capabilities implemented by NASA and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) more than 50 years ago and have been customized to the needs of their respective user mission base. The technical challenges to integrating the networks are many, though not impossible to overcome. The three distinct networks provide the same types of services, with customizable data rates, bandwidth, frequencies, and so forth. The differences across the networks have occurred in effort to satisfy their user missions' needs. Each new requirement has made the networks more unique and harder to integrate. The cultural challenges, however, have proven to be a

  17. Fibre optic gyroscopes for space use (United States)

    Faussot, Nicolas; Cottreau, Yann; Hardy, Guillaume; Simonpietri, Pascal; Gaiffe, Thierry


    Among the technologies available for gyroscopes usable in space, the Fibre Optic Gyroscope (FOG) technology appears to be the most suitable: no moving parts, very good lifetime, low power consumption, very low random walk, arbitrarily low angular resolution and very good behaviour in radiations and vacuum. Benefiting from more than ten years of experience with this technology, Ixsea (formerly the Navigation Division of Photonetics) is developing space FOG under both CNES and ESA contracts since many years. In the 1996-1998 period, two space FOG demonstrators in the 0,01°/h class were manufactured, including an optical head (optic and optoelectronic part) designed for space use and a standard ground electronics. Beyond the demonstration of the specified FOG performances, the behaviour of the optical head has been validated for use in typical space environment: vibrations, shocks, radiations (up to 50 krad) and thermal vacuum. Since the beginning of 1999, Ixsea is developing a space electronics in order to manufacture two complete space FOG. The first one entered in qualification in October. The second one will be delivered beginning of next year, it will be used in a CNES attitude measurement experiment (MAGI) onboard the FrenchBrazilian Microsatellite (FBM) partly dedicated to technology evaluation.

  18. Fiber optical parametric amplifiers in optical communication systems (United States)

    Marhic (†), Michel E; Andrekson, Peter A; Petropoulos, Periklis; Radic, Stojan; Peucheret, Christophe; Jazayerifar, Mahmoud


    The prospects for using fiber optical parametric amplifiers (OPAs) in optical communication systems are reviewed. Phase-insensitive amplifiers (PIAs) and phase-sensitive amplifiers (PSAs) are considered. Low-penalty amplification at/or near 1 Tb/s has been achieved, for both wavelength- and time-division multiplexed formats. High-quality mid-span spectral inversion has been demonstrated at 0.64 Tb/s, avoiding electronic dispersion compensation. All-optical amplitude regeneration of amplitude-modulated signals has been performed, while PSAs have been used to demonstrate phase regeneration of phase-modulated signals. A PSA with 1.1-dB noise figure has been demonstrated, and preliminary wavelength-division multiplexing experiments have been performed with PSAs. 512 Gb/s have been transmitted over 6,000 km by periodic phase conjugation. Simulations indicate that PIAs could reach data rate x reach products in excess of 14,000 Tb/s × km in realistic wavelength-division multiplexed long-haul networks. Technical challenges remaining to be addressed in order for fiber OPAs to become useful for long-haul communication networks are discussed. PMID:25866588

  19. Acquisition and tracking for underwater optical communications (United States)

    Williams, Andrew J.; Laycock, Leslie L.; Griffith, Michael S.; McCarthy, Andrew G.; Rowe, Duncan P.


    There is a growing requirement to transfer large volumes of data between underwater platforms. As seawater is transmissive in the visible band, underwater optical communications is an active area of interest since it offers the potential for power efficient, covert and high bandwidth datalinks at short to medium ranges. Short range systems have been successfully demonstrated using sources with low directionality. To realise higher data rates and/or longer ranges, the use of more efficient directional beams is required; by necessity, these must be sufficiently aligned to achieve the required link margin. For mobile platforms, the acquisition and tracking of each node is therefore critical in order to establish and maintain an optical datalink. This paper describes work undertaken to demonstrate acquisition and tracking in a 3D underwater environment. A range of optical sources, beam steering technologies, and tracking sensors have been assessed for suitability. A novel scanning strategy exploiting variable beam divergence was developed to provide robust acquisition whilst minimising acquisition time. A prototype system was assembled and demonstrated in a large water tank. This utilised custom quadrant detectors based on Silicon PhotoMultiplier (SiPM) arrays for fine tracking, and a Wide Field of View (WFoV) sCMOS camera for link acquisition. Fluidic lenses provided dynamic control of beam divergence, and AC modulation/filtering enabled background rejection. The system successfully demonstrated robust optical acquisition and tracking between two nodes with only nanowatt received optical powers. The acquisition time was shown to be dependent on the initial conditions and the transmitted optical power.

  20. Space Optic Manufacturing - X-ray Mirror (United States)


    NASA's Space Optics Manufacturing Center has been working to expand our view of the universe via sophisticated new telescopes. The Optics Center's goal is to develop low-cost, advanced space optics technologies for the NASA program in the 21st century - including the long-term goal of imaging Earth-like planets in distant solar systems. To reduce the cost of mirror fabrication, Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has developed replication techniques, the machinery and materials to replicate electro-formed nickel mirrors. The process allows fabricating precisely shaped mandrels to be used and reused as masters for replicating high-quality mirrors. This image shows a lightweight replicated x-ray mirror with gold coatings applied.

  1. SBIR Technology Applications to Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) (United States)

    Liebrecht, Phil; Eblen, Pat; Rush, John; Tzinis, Irene


    This slide presentation reviews the mission of the Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) Office with particular emphasis on opportunities for technology development with SBIR companies. The SCaN office manages NASA's space communications and navigation networks: the Near Earth Network (NEN), the Space Network (SN), and the Deep Space Network (DSN). The SCaN networks nodes are shown on a world wide map and the networks are described. Two types of technologies are described: Pull technology, and Push technologies. A listing of technology themes is presented, with a discussion on Software defined Radios, Optical Communications Technology, and Lunar Lasercom Space Terminal (LLST). Other technologies that are being investigated are some Game Changing Technologies (GCT) i.e., technologies that offer the potential for improving comm. or nav. performance to the point that radical new mission objectives are possible, such as Superconducting Quantum Interference Filters, Silicon Nanowire Optical Detectors, and Auto-Configuring Cognitive Communications

  2. Modeling and Performance Analysis of 10 Gbps Inter-satellite Optical Wireless Communication Link (United States)

    Singh, Mehtab


    Free-space optical (FSO) communication has the advantages of two of the most predominant data transmission technologies - optical fiber communication and wireless communication. Most of the technical aspects of FSO are similar to that of optical fiber communication, with major difference in the information signal propagation medium which is free space in case of FSO rather than silica glass in optical fiber communication. One of the most important applications of FSO is inter-satellite optical wireless communication (IsOWC) links which will be deployed in the future in space. The IsOWC links have many advantages over the previously existing microwave satellite communication technologies such as higher bandwidth, lower power consumption, low cost of implementation, light size, and weight. In this paper, modeling and performance analysis of a 10-Gbps inter-satellite communication link with two satellites separated at a distance of 1,200 km has been done using OPTISYSTEM simulation software. Performance has been analyzed on the basis of quality factor, signal to noise ratio (SNR), and total power of the received signal.

  3. Initial Characterization of Optical Communications with Disruption-Tolerant Network Protocols (United States)

    Schoolcraft, Joshua; Wilson, Keith


    Disruption-tolerant networks (DTNs) are groups of network assets connected with a suite of communication protocol technologies designed to mitigate the effects of link delay and disruption. Application of DTN protocols to diverse groups of network resources in multiple sub-networks results in an overlay network-of-networks with autonomous data routing capability. In space environments where delay or disruption is expected, performance of this type of architecture (such as an interplanetary internet) can increase with the inclusion of new communications mediums and techniques. Space-based optical communication links are therefore an excellent building block of space DTN architectures. When compared to traditional radio frequency (RF) communications, optical systems can provide extremely power-efficient and high bandwidth links bridging sub-networks. Because optical links are more susceptible to link disruption and experience the same light-speed delays as RF, optical-enabled DTN architectures can lessen potential drawbacks and maintain the benefits of autonomous optical communications over deep space distances. These environment-driven expectations - link delay and interruption, along with asymmetric data rates - are the purpose of the proof-of-concept experiment outlined herein. In recognizing the potential of these two technologies, we report an initial experiment and characterization of the performance of a DTN-enabled space optical link. The experiment design employs a point-to-point free-space optical link configured to have asymmetric bandwidth. This link connects two networked systems running a DTN protocol implementation designed and written at JPL for use on spacecraft, and further configured for higher bandwidth performance. Comparing baseline data transmission metrics with and without periodic optical link interruptions, the experiment confirmed the DTN protocols' ability to handle real-world unexpected link outages while maintaining capability of

  4. From space qualified fiber optic gyroscope to generic fiber optic solutions available for space application (United States)

    Buret, Thomas; Ramecourt, David; Napolitano, Fabien


    The aim of this article is to present how the qualification of the Fiber Optic Gyroscope technology from IXSEA has been achieved through the qualification of a large range of optical devices and related manufacturing processes. These qualified optical devices and processes, that are now fully mastered by IXSEA through vertical integration of the technology, can be used for other space optical sensors. The example of the SWARM project will be discussed.

  5. Optical Fiber Communications Group of the Nonlinear Transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Lekic, S; Rajilic, Z


    A new method for finding solutions of the nonlinear Shrödinger equation is proposed. Comutative multiplicative group of the nonlinear transformations, which operate on stationary localized solutions, enables a consideration of fractal subspaces in the solution space, stability and deterministic chaos. An increase of the transmission rate at the optical fiber communications can be based on new forms of localized stationary solutions, without significant change of input power. The estimated transmission rate is 50 Gbit/s, for certain available soliton transmission systems.

  6. Analysis of optical amplifier noise in coherent optical communication systems with optical image rejection receivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Bo Foged; Mikkelsen, Benny; Mahon, Cathal J.


    A detailed theoretical analysis of optical amplifier noise in coherent optical communication systems with heterodyne receivers is presented. The analysis quantifies in particular how optical image rejection receiver configurations reduce the influence of optical amplifier noise on system performa......A detailed theoretical analysis of optical amplifier noise in coherent optical communication systems with heterodyne receivers is presented. The analysis quantifies in particular how optical image rejection receiver configurations reduce the influence of optical amplifier noise on system...... performance. Two types of optical image rejection receivers are investigated: a novel, all-optical configuration and the conventional, microwave-based configuration. The analysis shows that local oscillator-spontaneous emission beat noise (LO-SP), signal-spontaneous emission beat noise (S-SP), and spontaneous......-spontaneous beat noise (SP-SP) can all be reduced by 3 dB, thereby doubling the dynamic range of the optical amplifier. A 2.5-dB improvement in dynamic range has been demonstrated experimentally with the all-optical image rejection configuration. The implications of the increased dynamic range thus obtained...

  7. Impact of Various Parameters on the Performance of Inter-aircraft Optical Wireless Communication Link (United States)

    Singh, Mehtab


    Optical wireless communication (OWC) systems also known as Free space optics (FSO) are capable of providing high channel bandwidth, high data transmission rates, low power consumption, and high security. OWC links are being considered in different applications such as inter-satellite links, terrestrial links, and inter-aircraft communication links. This paper investigates the impact of different system parameters such as transmission power level, operating wavelength, transmitter pointing error angle, bit transmission rate, atmospheric attenuation, antenna aperture diameter, geometric losses, the responsivity of the photodetector, and link range on the performance of inter-aircraft optical wireless communication link.

  8. Free-space communication with over 100 spatial modes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rosales-Guzmán, C


    Full Text Available Congress 2016: Advanced Solid State Lasers (ASSL); Applications of Lasers for Sensing and Free Space Communications (LS&C), 30 October - 3 November 2016, Boston, Massachusetts, United States Free-space communication with over 100 spatial modes...

  9. Free-space laser communication system with rapid acquisition based on astronomical telescopes. (United States)

    Wang, Jianmin; Lv, Junyi; Zhao, Guang; Wang, Gang


    The general structure of a free-space optical (FSO) communication system based on astronomical telescopes is proposed. The light path for astronomical observation and for communication can be easily switched. A separate camera is used as a star sensor to determine the pointing direction of the optical terminal's antenna. The new system exhibits rapid acquisition and is widely applicable in various astronomical telescope systems and wavelengths. We present a detailed analysis of the acquisition time, which can be decreased by one order of magnitude compared with traditional optical communication systems. Furthermore, we verify software algorithms and tracking accuracy.

  10. Long Duration Exposure Facility Space Optics Handbook (United States)


    5.7 * Lunar Radiation Handbook of Geophysics and Space Environment, Paragraph * Earth Shine Handbook of Geophysics and Space Environment...believed to arise from micrometeorites incident at angles between 200 and 450 have been observed in lunar craters. Tile unsymmetric glass ejecta or...reported that the * following optical components survived in this environment: Au on Al, Al on fused silica, and • bare fased silica. These

  11. Free space optical sensor network for fixed infrastructure sensing (United States)

    Agrawal, Navik; Milner, Stuart D.; Davis, Christopher C.


    Free space optical (FSO) links for indoor sensor networks can provide data rates that can range from bits/s to hundreds of Mb/s. In addition, they offer physical security, and in contrast with omnidirectional RF networks, they avoid interference with other electronic systems. These features are advantageous for communication over short distances in fixed infrastructure sensor networks. In this paper the system architecture for a fixed infrastructure FSO sensor network is presented. The system includes a network of small, low power (mW), sensor systems, or "motes," that transmit data optically to a central "cluster head," which controls the network traffic of all the motes and can aggregate the sensor information. The cluster head is designed with multiple vertical cavity surface emitting lasers oriented in different directions and controlled to diverge at 12º in order to provide signal coverage over a wide field of view. Both the cluster head and motes form a local area network. Our system design focuses on low-power wireless motes that can maintain successful communication over distances up to a few meters without having to use stringent optical alignment techniques, and our network design focuses on controlling mote sleep cycles for energy efficiency. This paper presents the design as well as the experimental link and optical communications performance of a prototype FSO-based sensor network.

  12. Machine learning techniques for optical communication system optimization


    Zibar, Darko; Wass, Jesper; Thrane, Jakob; Piels, Molly


    In this paper, machine learning techniques relevant to optical communication are presented and discussed. The focus is on applying machine learning tools to optical performance monitoring and performance prediction.

  13. Implementation of a Space Communications Cognitive Engine (United States)

    Hackett, Timothy M.; Bilen, Sven G.; Ferreira, Paulo Victor R.; Wyglinski, Alexander M.; Reinhart, Richard C.


    Although communications-based cognitive engines have been proposed, very few have been implemented in a full system, especially in a space communications system. In this paper, we detail the implementation of a multi-objective reinforcement-learning algorithm and deep artificial neural networks for the use as a radio-resource-allocation controller. The modular software architecture presented encourages re-use and easy modification for trying different algorithms. Various trade studies involved with the system implementation and integration are discussed. These include the choice of software libraries that provide platform flexibility and promote reusability, choices regarding the deployment of this cognitive engine within a system architecture using the DVB-S2 standard and commercial hardware, and constraints placed on the cognitive engine caused by real-world radio constraints. The implemented radio-resource allocation-management controller was then integrated with the larger spaceground system developed by NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC).

  14. Precoded generalized space shift keying for indoor visible light communications

    KAUST Repository

    Kadampot, Ishaque Ashar


    We consider a visible light communication system with 2 transmit light emitting diodes (LED) and nr receive photodiodes. An optical generalized space shift keying modulation scheme is considered for the transmission of bits where each LED can be either in ON state or OFF state at a given time. With this set-up, we design in this paper a precoder for this modulation scheme given the channel state information to improve the bit error rate performance of the system. As conventional precoding techniques for radio frequency at the transmitter cannot be applied to the optical intensity channel, we formulate an optimization problem with constraints for this specific channel. An analytical solution for the precoder is derived and the system performance is compared with and without precoder.

  15. Optical communication beyond orbital angular momentum (United States)

    Trichili, Abderrahmen; Rosales-Guzmán, Carmelo; Dudley, Angela; Ndagano, Bienvenu; Ben Salem, Amine; Zghal, Mourad; Forbes, Andrew


    Mode division multiplexing (MDM) is mooted as a technology to address future bandwidth issues, and has been successfully demonstrated in free space using spatial modes with orbital angular momentum (OAM). To further increase the data transmission rate, more degrees of freedom are required to form a densely packed mode space. Here we move beyond OAM and demonstrate multiplexing and demultiplexing using both the radial and azimuthal degrees of freedom. We achieve this with a holographic approach that allows over 100 modes to be encoded on a single hologram, across a wide wavelength range, in a wavelength independent manner. Our results offer a new tool that will prove useful in realizing higher bit rates for next generation optical networks.

  16. VCSELs for optical communication at Fuji Xerox (United States)

    Kondo, Takashi; Hayakawa, Junichiro; Jogan, Naoki; Murakami, Akemi; Sakurai, Jun; Gu, Xiaodong; Koyama, Fumio


    We introduce the characteristics of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) for use in optical communications. In the field of optical interconnections and networks, 850 nm VCSELs are key optical transmitters due to their high-speed modulation and low power consumption. One promising candidate for achieving high-speed modulations exceeding 50 Gbps is the transverse-coupled-cavity (TCC) VCSEL. In this talk, we demonstrate the characteristics of 850 nm transverse-coupled-cavity VCSELs, which helped us achieve a high 3dB modulation bandwidth (30 GHz) at 0 °C and realize eye-opening at the large-signal modulation rate of 48 Gbps. The VCSEL's epilayer structure was grown by MOCVD. The active region consists of three strained InGaAs QWs surrounded by AlGaAs barriers. The n-type and p-type DBRs are composed of AlGaAs/AlGaAs, respectively. A line-shaped H+ ion was implanted at the center of the bowtie-shaped post, dividing it into two cavities. The threshold current of the TCC VCSEL with an oxide aperture of 3.6 μm is 0.33 mA. Only the left-side cavity is pumped, while the right cavity is unpumped. The effect of modulation bandwidth enhancement was observed over a wide temperature range of 120K thanks to an optical feedback in the coupled cavities. These results show the possibility of achieving high-speed VCSELs without any temperature or bias control. We also demonstrate an ultra-compact photodetector-integrated VCSEL with two laterally-coupled cavities. An output power and a photocurrent exhibit similar tendencies under a wide range of temperature changes. This device could be also used for monitoring output power without a conventional photodetector mounted separately.

  17. Hybrid Experience Space for Cultural Heritage Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veirum, Niels Einar; Christensen, Mogens Fiil; Mayerhofer, Mikkel


    by daily use of experience products like computer-games, IMAX cinemas and theme parks featuring virtual reality installations. “It’s a question of stone-axe displays versus Disney-power installations” as one of the involved museum professionals point it, “but we don’t want any of these possibilities......”. The paper presents an actual experience design case in Zea Harbour, Greece dealing with these challenges using hybrid experience space communicating cultural heritage material. Ar-chaeological findings, physical reconstructions and digital models are mixed to effec-tively stage the interactive experience...

  18. Ground-to-Ground Optical Communications Demonstration (United States)

    Biswas, A.; Lee, S.


    A bidirectional horizontal-path optical link was demonstrated between Strawberry Peak (SP), Lake Arrowhead, California, and the JPL Table Mountain Facility (TMF), Wrightwood, California, during June and November of 1998. The 0.6-m telescope at TMF was used to broadcast a 4-beam 780-nm beacon to SP. The JPL-patented Optical Communications Demonstrator (OCD) at SP received the beacon, performed ne tracking to compensate for the atmosphere-induced beacon motion and retransmitted a 844-nm communications laser beam modulated at 40 to 500 Mb/s back to TMF. Characteristics of the horizontal-path atmospheric channel as well as performance of the optical communications link were evaluated. The normalized variance of the irradiance fluctuations or scintillation index delta2/I at either end was determined. At TMF where a single 844-nm beam was received by a 0.6-m aperture, the measured delta2/I covered a wide range from 0.07 to 1.08. A single 780-nm beam delta2/I measured at SP using a 0.09-m aperture yielded values ranging from 0.66 to 1.03, while a combination of four beams reduced the scintillation index due to incoherent averaging to 0.22 to 0.40. This reduction reduced the dynamic range of the fluctuations from 17 to 21 dB to 13 to 14 dB as compared with the OCD tracking sensor dynamic range of 10 dB. Predictions of these values also were made based on existing theories and are compared. Generally speaking, the theoretical bounds were reasonable. Discussions on the probability density function (PDF) of the intensity fluctuations are presented and compared with the measurements made. The lognormal PDF was found to agree for the weak scintillation regime as expected. The present measurements support evidence presented by earlier measurements made using the same horizontal path, which suggests that the aperture averaging effect is better than theoretically predicted.

  19. Review of optical wireless communications for data centers (United States)

    Arnon, Shlomi


    A data center (DC) is a facility either physical or virtual, for running applications, searching, storage, management and dissemination of information known as cloud computing, which consume a huge amount of energy. A DC includes thousands of servers, communication and storage equipment and a support system including an air conditioning system, security, monitoring equipment and electricity regulator units. Data center operators face the challenges of meeting exponentially increasing demands for network bandwidth without unreasonable increases in operation and infrastructure cost. In order to meet the requirements of moderate increase in operation and infrastructure cost technology, a revolution is required. One way to overcome the shortcomings of traditional static (wired) data center architectures is use of a hybrid network based on fiber and optical wireless communication (OWC) or free space optics (FSO). The OWC link could be deployed on top of the existing cable/fiber network layer, so that live migration could be done easily and dynamically. In that case the network topology is flexible and adapts quickly to changes in traffic, heat distribution, power consumption and characteristics of the applications. In addition, OWC could provide an easy way to maintain and scale up data centers. As a result total cost of ownership could be reduced and the return on investment could be increased. In this talk we will review the main OWC technologies applicable for data centers, indicate how energy could be saved using OWC multichannel communication and discuss the issue of OWC pointing accuracy for data center scenario.

  20. Ultimate classical communication rates of quantum optical channels (United States)

    Giovannetti, V.; García-Patrón, R.; Cerf, N. J.; Holevo, A. S.


    Optical channels, such as fibres or free-space links, are ubiquitous in today's telecommunication networks. They rely on the electromagnetic field associated with photons to carry information from one point to another in space. A complete physical model of these channels must necessarily take quantum effects into account to determine their ultimate performances. Single-mode, phase-insensitive bosonic Gaussian channels have been extensively studied over past decades, given their importance for practical applications. In spite of this, a long-standing unsolved conjecture on the optimality of Gaussian encodings has prevented finding their classical communication capacity. Here, this conjecture is solved by proving that the vacuum state achieves the minimum output entropy of these channels. This establishes the ultimate achievable bit rate under an energy constraint, as well as the long awaited proof that the single-letter classical capacity of these channels is additive.

  1. On Applications of Disruption Tolerant Networking to Optical Networking in Space (United States)

    Hylton, Alan Guy; Raible, Daniel E.; Juergens, Jeffrey; Iannicca, Dennis


    The integration of optical communication links into space networks via Disruption Tolerant Networking (DTN) is a largely unexplored area of research. Building on successful foundational work accomplished at JPL, we discuss a multi-hop multi-path network featuring optical links. The experimental test bed is constructed at the NASA Glenn Research Center featuring multiple Ethernet-to-fiber converters coupled with free space optical (FSO) communication channels. The test bed architecture models communication paths from deployed Mars assets to the deep space network (DSN) and finally to the mission operations center (MOC). Reliable versus unreliable communication methods are investigated and discussed; including reliable transport protocols, custody transfer, and fragmentation. Potential commercial applications may include an optical communications infrastructure deployment to support developing nations and remote areas, which are unburdened with supporting an existing heritage means of telecommunications. Narrow laser beam widths and control of polarization states offer inherent physical layer security benefits with optical communications over RF solutions. This paper explores whether or not DTN is appropriate for space-based optical networks, optimal payload sizes, reliability, and a discussion on security.

  2. Mitigating Photon Jitter in Optical PPM Communication (United States)

    Moision, Bruce


    A theoretical analysis of photon-arrival jitter in an optical pulse-position-modulation (PPM) communication channel has been performed, and now constitutes the basis of a methodology for designing receivers to compensate so that errors attributable to photon-arrival jitter would be minimized or nearly minimized. Photon-arrival jitter is an uncertainty in the estimated time of arrival of a photon relative to the boundaries of a PPM time slot. Photon-arrival jitter is attributable to two main causes: (1) receiver synchronization error [error in the receiver operation of partitioning time into PPM slots] and (2) random delay between the time of arrival of a photon at a detector and the generation, by the detector circuitry, of a pulse in response to the photon. For channels with sufficiently long time slots, photon-arrival jitter is negligible. However, as durations of PPM time slots are reduced in efforts to increase throughputs of optical PPM communication channels, photon-arrival jitter becomes a significant source of error, leading to significant degradation of performance if not taken into account in design. For the purpose of the analysis, a receiver was assumed to operate in a photon- starved regime, in which photon counts follow a Poisson distribution. The analysis included derivation of exact equations for symbol likelihoods in the presence of photon-arrival jitter. These equations describe what is well known in the art as a matched filter for a channel containing Gaussian noise. These equations would yield an optimum receiver if they could be implemented in practice. Because the exact equations may be too complex to implement in practice, approximations that would yield suboptimal receivers were also derived.

  3. Scheduling algorithm for data relay satellite optical communication based on artificial intelligent optimization (United States)

    Zhao, Wei-hu; Zhao, Jing; Zhao, Shang-hong; Li, Yong-jun; Wang, Xiang; Dong, Yi; Dong, Chen


    Optical satellite communication with the advantages of broadband, large capacity and low power consuming broke the bottleneck of the traditional microwave satellite communication. The formation of the Space-based Information System with the technology of high performance optical inter-satellite communication and the realization of global seamless coverage and mobile terminal accessing are the necessary trend of the development of optical satellite communication. Considering the resources, missions and restraints of Data Relay Satellite Optical Communication System, a model of optical communication resources scheduling is established and a scheduling algorithm based on artificial intelligent optimization is put forwarded. According to the multi-relay-satellite, multi-user-satellite, multi-optical-antenna and multi-mission with several priority weights, the resources are scheduled reasonable by the operation: "Ascertain Current Mission Scheduling Time" and "Refresh Latter Mission Time-Window". The priority weight is considered as the parameter of the fitness function and the scheduling project is optimized by the Genetic Algorithm. The simulation scenarios including 3 relay satellites with 6 optical antennas, 12 user satellites and 30 missions, the simulation result reveals that the algorithm obtain satisfactory results in both efficiency and performance and resources scheduling model and the optimization algorithm are suitable in multi-relay-satellite, multi-user-satellite, and multi-optical-antenna recourses scheduling problem.

  4. Laser space communication experiment: Modulator technology (United States)

    Goodwin, F. E.


    Results are presented of a contractual program to develop the modulator technology necessary for a 10.6 micron laser communication system using cadmium telluride as the modulator material. The program consisted of the following tasks: (1) The growth of cadmium telluride crystals of sufficient size and purity and with the necessary optical properties for use as laser modulator rods. (2) Develop a low loss antireflection coating for the cadmium telluride rods. (3) Design and build a modulator capable of 300 MHz modulation. (4) Develop a modulator driver capable of a data rate of 300 MBits/sec, 12 W rms output power, and 40 percent efficiency. (5) Assemble and test the modulator system. All design goals were met and the system was built and tested.

  5. Optical image encryption in phase space (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Xu, Xiaobin; Situ, Guohai; Wu, Quanying


    In the field of optical information security, the research of double random phase encoding is becoming deeper with each passing day, however the encryption system is linear, and the dependencies between plaintext and ciphertext is not complicated, with leaving a great hidden danger to the security of the encryption system. In this paper, we encrypted the higher dimensional Wigner distribution function of low dimensional plaintext by using the bilinear property of Wigner distribution function. Computer simulation results show that this method can not only enlarge the key space, but also break through the linear characteristic of the traditional optical encryption technology. So it can significantly improve the safety of the encryption system.

  6. Joint digital signal processing for superchannel coherent optical communication systems. (United States)

    Liu, Cheng; Pan, Jie; Detwiler, Thomas; Stark, Andrew; Hsueh, Yu-Ting; Chang, Gee-Kung; Ralph, Stephen E


    Ultra-high-speed optical communication systems which can support ≥ 1Tb/s per channel transmission will soon be required to meet the increasing capacity demand. However, 1Tb/s over a single carrier requires either or both a high-level modulation format (i.e. 1024QAM) and a high baud rate. Alternatively, grouping a number of tightly spaced "sub-carriers" to form a terabit superchannel increases channel capacity while minimizing the need for high-level modulation formats and high baud rate, which may allow existing formats, baud rate and components to be exploited. In ideal Nyquist-WDM superchannel systems, optical subcarriers with rectangular spectra are tightly packed at a channel spacing equal to the baud rate, thus achieving the Nyquist bandwidth limit. However, in practical Nyquist-WDM systems, precise electrical or optical control of channel spectra is required to avoid strong inter-channel interference (ICI). Here, we propose and demonstrate a new "super receiver" architecture for practical Nyquist-WDM systems, which jointly detects and demodulates multiple channels simultaneously and mitigates the penalties associated with the limitations of generating ideal Nyquist-WDM spectra. Our receiver-side solution relaxes the filter requirements imposed on the transmitter. Two joint DSP algorithms are developed for linear ICI cancellation and joint carrier-phase recovery. Improved system performance is observed with both experimental and simulation data. Performance analysis under different system configurations is conducted to demonstrate the feasibility and robustness of the proposed joint DSP algorithms.

  7. Optical wireless communications system and channel modelling with Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Ghassemlooy, Z


    Detailing a systems approach, Optical Wireless Communications: System and Channel Modelling with MATLAB(R), is a self-contained volume that concisely and comprehensively covers the theory and technology of optical wireless communications systems (OWC) in a way that is suitable for undergraduate and graduate-level students, as well as researchers and professional engineers. Incorporating MATLAB(R) throughout, the authors highlight past and current research activities to illustrate optical sources, transmitters, detectors, receivers, and other devices used in optical wireless communications. The

  8. Research in space commercialization, technology transfer and communications, vol. 2 (United States)

    Dunn, D. A.; Agnew, C. E.


    Spectrum management, models for evaluating communications systems, and implications of communications regulations for NASA are considered as major parts of communications policy. Marketing LANDSAT products in developing countries, a political systems analysis of LANDSAT, and private financing and operation of the space operations center (space station) are discussed. Investment requirements, risks, government support, and other primary business and management considerations are examined.

  9. Optical Theory Improvements to Space Domain Awareness (United States)


    detection, tracking, and characterization of space objects. These objects include satellites , orbital debris, and Near-Earth Asteroids (NEA). SDA is currently...observing the Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) communications satellite ANIK-F1 as it enters into an eclipse. The SST is programmed to track the... orbital elements of the satellite as it enters an eclipse caused by the earth. Collecting images in this manner causes the satellite to change intensity as

  10. Underwater optical communications using orbital angular momentum-based spatial division multiplexing (United States)

    Willner, Alan E.; Zhao, Zhe; Ren, Yongxiong; Li, Long; Xie, Guodong; Song, Haoqian; Liu, Cong; Zhang, Runzhou; Bao, Changjing; Pang, Kai


    In this paper, we review high-capacity underwater optical communications using orbital angular momentum (OAM)-based spatial division multiplexing. We discuss methods to generate and detect blue-green optical data-carrying OAM beams as well as various underwater effects, including attenuation, scattering, current, and thermal gradients on OAM beams. Attention is also given to the system performance of high-capacity underwater optical communication links using OAM-based space division multiplexing. The paper closes with a discussion of a digital signal processing (DSP) algorithm to mitigate the inter-mode crosstalk caused by thermal gradients.

  11. Concurrent System Engineering and Risk Reduction for Dual-Band (RF/optical) Spacecraft Communications (United States)

    Fielhauer, Karl, B.; Boone, Bradley, G.; Raible, Daniel, E.


    This paper describes a system engineering approach to examining the potential for combining elements of a deep-space RF and optical communications payload, for the purpose of reducing the size, weight and power burden on the spacecraft and the mission. Figures of merit and analytical methodologies are discussed to conduct trade studies, and several potential technology integration strategies are presented. Finally, the NASA Integrated Radio and Optical Communications (iROC) project is described, which directly addresses the combined RF and optical approach.

  12. A 400 Gbps/100 m free-space optical link (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Yu; Lu, Hai-Han; Ho, Chun-Ming; Cheng, Ming-Te; Huang, Sheng-Jhe; Wang, Yun-Chieh; Chi, Jing-Kai


    A 400 Gbps/100 m free-space optical (FSO) link with dense-wavelength-division-multiplexing (DWDM)/space-division-multiplexing (SDM) techniques and a doublet lens scheme is proposed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that a link adopting DWDM and SDM techniques and a doublet lens scheme has demonstrated a 400 Gbps/100 m FSO link. The experimental results show that the free-space transmission rate is significantly enhanced by the DWDM and SDM techniques, and the free-space transmission distance is greatly increased by the doublet lens scheme. A 16-channel FSO link with a total transmission rate of 400 Gbps (25 Gbps/λ  ×  16 λ  =  400 Gbps) over a 100 m free-space link is successfully demonstrated. Such a 400 Gbps/100 m DWDM/SDM FSO link provides the advantages of optical wireless communications for high transmission rates and long transmission distances, which is very useful for high-speed and long-haul light-based WiFi (LiFi) applications.

  13. Laser Communications Relay Demonstration (LCRD) Update and the Path Towards Optical Relay Operations (United States)

    Israel, David J.; Edwards, Bernard L.; Staren, John W.


    This paper provides a concept for an evolution of NASA's optical communications near Earth relay architecture. NASA's Laser Communications Relay Demonstration (LCRD), a joint project between NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory - California Institute of Technology (JPL), and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Laboratory (MIT LL). LCRD will provide a minimum of two years of high data rate optical communications service experiments in geosynchronous orbit (GEO), following launch in 2019. This paper will provide an update of the LCRD mission status and planned capabilities and experiments, followed by a discussion of the path from LCRD to operational network capabilities.

  14. Training program developed for senior undergraduates majoring in optical communication (United States)

    Cui, Sheng; Zhang, Xinliang; Ke, Changjian


    Based on the well-known simulation software VPI TransmissionMaker, a comprehensive training program for senior undergraduates majoring in optical communication and optical network technology was developed by the author after detailed study of the teaching difficult and key points in the discipline. Aiming at solving practical scientific and engineering problems, the program helped our students to develop the ability of acquiring and applying knowledge by designing optical devices, optical signal processing algorithms and optical fiber communication systems. Furthermore, innovation is inspired by introducing competition mechanism among project teams. The program was validated through four years of use and achieved good results.

  15. Optical coherent and envelope detection for photonic wireless communication links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prince, Kamau; Zibar, Darko; Yu, Xianbin

    We present two novel optical detection techniques for radio over fiber (RoF) communication links. Firstly, we present recent results obtained with optical digital coherent detection of optical phase-modulated ROF signals supporting error-free transmission over 25 km standard SMF with BPSK and QPSK...

  16. Space Division Multiplexing in Optical Fibres

    CERN Document Server

    Richardson, D J; Nelson, L E


    Optical communications technology has made enormous and steady progress for several decades, providing the key resource in our increasingly information-driven society and economy. Much of this progress has been in finding innovative ways to increase the data carrying capacity of a single optical fibre. In this search, researchers have explored (and close to maximally exploited) every available degree of freedom, and even commercial systems now utilize multiplexing in time, wavelength, polarization, and phase to speed more information through the fibre infrastructure. Conspicuously, one potentially enormous source of improvement has however been left untapped in these systems: fibres can easily support hundreds of spatial modes, but today's commercial systems (single-mode or multi-mode) make no attempt to use these as parallel channels for independent signals.

  17. The Deep Space Network: A Radio Communications Instrument for Deep Space Exploration (United States)

    Renzetti, N. A.; Stelzried, C. T.; Noreen, G. K.; Slobin, S. D.; Petty, S. M.; Trowbridge, D. L.; Donnelly, H.; Kinman, P. W.; Armstrong, J. W.; Burow, N. A.


    The primary purpose of the Deep Space Network (DSN) is to serve as a communications instrument for deep space exploration, providing communications between the spacecraft and the ground facilities. The uplink communications channel provides instructions or commands to the spacecraft. The downlink communications channel provides command verification and spacecraft engineering and science instrument payload data.

  18. High Data Rate Optical Wireless Communications Based on Ultraviolet Band

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Xiaobin


    . The measured bit-error rate (BER) of 2.8 × 10−4 and 2.4 × 10−4, respectively, are well below the forward error correction (FEC) criterion of 3.8 × 10−3. The demonstrated high data-rate OFDM-based UVB communication link paves the way for realizing high-speed non-line-of-sight free-space optical (FSO) communications.

  19. Free-Space Optical Interconnects for Multiprocessing Computers (United States)

    Ha, Berlin

    Various new free-space optical interconnects are studied in this thesis. The focus of the research is to design and to develop fast, reliable and efficient free -space optical interconnects for linking multiprocessing digital computers. New approaches to realize optical crossover and perfect shuffle interconnects are presented in the first two chapters. To implement the optical crossover interconnects, two methods, one based on reflective components, such as mirrors and beam-splitters, and the other based on diffractive components, such as Fresnel zone plates, are used to provide controllable data permutations among digital processing elements. A new optical perfect shuffle, which can form a cascade network of shuffles, is also proposed. This new cascadable optical shuffle makes it possible to realize optical interconnects for multiple-instruction-and-multiple -data processing applications. Optical implementation of binary symmetric logic functions is also studied in this thesis. The proposed optical binary symmetric logic networks provide a new means of using a set of spatially interconnected contact switches as computation tools to execute various binary arithmetic operations, such as arithmetic addition and multiplication. In this thesis, processing element distribution methods for different interconnect topologies are also studied. A new concept to distribute processing elements in a ring array rather than in a rectangular array is proposed. Employing a pair of Dove prisms, the designed optical ring array imaging system can provide both bi-directional and unidirectional links for digital processing nodes. A reflective prism is also specially designed to perform a pair of conjugated image rotation operations for the proposed reflective ring array interconnect. Both the transmissive and reflective ring array networks offer a high speed clock-skew-free data communications among single-instruction-and-multiple -data processors. Finally, a detailed in

  20. A Mobile Communications Space Link Between the Space Shuttle Orbiter and the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (United States)

    Fink, Patrick; Arndt, G. D.; Bondyopadhyay, P.; Shaw, Roland


    A communications experiment is described as a link between the Space Shuttle Orbiter (SSO) and the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS). Breadboarding for this experiment has led to two items with potential for commercial application: a 1-Watt Ka-band amplifier and a Ka-band, circularly polarized microstrip antenna. Results of the hybrid Ka-band amplifier show gain at 30 dB and a saturated output power of 28.5 dBm. A second version comprised of MMIC amplifiers is discussed. Test results of the microstrip antenna subarray show a gain of approximately 13 dB and excellent circular polarization.

  1. Simplified Architecture for Precise Aiming of a Deep-Space Communication Laser Transceiver (United States)

    Ortiz, Gerard G.; Farr, William H.; Charles, Jeffrey R.


    The simplified architecture is a minimal system for a deep-space optical communications transceiver. For a deepspace optical communications link the simplest form of the transceiver requires (1) an efficient modulated optical source, (2) a point-ahead mechanism (PAM) to compensate for two-way light travel, (3) an aperture to reduce the divergence of the transmit laser communication signal and also to collect the uplink communication signal, and (4) a receive detector to sense the uplink communication signal. Additional components are introduced to mitigate for spacecraft microvibrations and to improve the pointing accuracy. The Canonical Transceiver implements this simplified architecture (see figure). A single photon-counting smart focal plane sensor combines acquisition, tracking, and forward link data detection functionality. This improves optical efficiency by eliminating channel splits. A transmit laser blind sensor (e.g. silicon with 1,550-nm beam) provides transmit beam-pointing feedback via the two-photon absorption (TPA) process. This vastly improves the transmit/receive isolation because only the focused transmit beam is detected. A piezoelectric tiptilt actuator implements the required point-ahead angle. This point-ahead mechanism has been demonstrated to have near zero quiescent power and is flight qualified. This architecture also uses an innovative 100-mHz resonant frequency passive isolation platform to filter spacecraft vibrations with voice coil actuators for active tip-tilt correction below the resonant frequency. The canonical deep-space optical communications transceiver makes synergistic use of innovative technologies to reduce size, weight, power, and cost. This optical transceiver can be used to retire risks associated with deep-space optical communications on a planetary pathfinder mission and is complementary to ongoing lunar and access link developments.

  2. A Shuttle based laser system for space communication (United States)

    Fitzmaurice, Michael W.; Bruno, Ronald C.


    A key element of NASA-Goddard's plan for future laser space communications is the Space Shuttle-based Laser Technology Experiments Facility (LTEF), which will be designed to communicate with a cooperative laser system under development for the Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS) and will conduct a comprehensive set of acquisition, tracking, and communication experiments. Attention is presently given to the challenges faced by designers in achieving LTEF acquisition of the ACTS downlink beacon laser.

  3. Development of a strontium optical lattice clock for space applications (United States)

    Singh, Yeshpal


    With timekeeping being of paramount importance for modern life, much research and major scientific advances have been undertaken in the field of frequency metrology, particularly over the last few years. New Nobel-prize winning technologies have enabled a new era of atomic clocks; namely the optical clock. These have been shown to perform significantly better than the best microwave clocks reaching an inaccuracy of 1.6x10-18 [1]. With such results being found in large lab based apparatus, the focus now has shifted to portability - to enable the accuracy of various ground based clocks to be measured, and compact autonomous performance - to enable such technologies to be tested in space. This could lead to a master clock in space, improving not only the accuracy of technologies on which modern life has come to require such as GPS and communication networks. But also more fundamentally, this could lead to the redefinition of the second and tests of fundamental physics including applications in the fields of ground based and satellite geodesy, metrology, positioning, navigation, transport and logistics etc. Within the European collaboration, Space Optical Clocks (SOC2) [2-3] consisting of various institutes and industry partners across Europe we have tried to tackle this problem of miniaturisation whilst maintaining stability, accuracy (5x10-17) and robustness whilst keeping power consumption to a minimum - necessary for space applications. We will present the most recent results of the Sr optical clock in SOC2 and also the novel compact design features, new methods employed and outlook. References [1] B. J. Bloom, T. L. Nicholson, J. R. Williams, S. L. Campbell, M. Bishof, X. Zhang, W. Zhang, S. L. Bromley, and J. Ye, "An optical lattice clock with accuracy and stability at the 10-18 level," Nature 506, 71-75 (2014). [2] S. Schiller et al. "Towards Neutral-atom Space Optical Clocks (SOC2): Development of high-performance transportable and breadboard optical clocks and

  4. Serial optical communications and ultra-fast optical signal processing of Tbit/s data signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Galili, Michael; Hu, Hao


    This paper reviews our recent advances in ultra-high speed serial optical communications. It describes Tbit/s optical signal processing and various materials allowing for this, as well as network scenarios embracing this technology......This paper reviews our recent advances in ultra-high speed serial optical communications. It describes Tbit/s optical signal processing and various materials allowing for this, as well as network scenarios embracing this technology...

  5. Optical Detection of Lightning from Space (United States)

    Boccippio, Dennis J.; Christian, Hugh J.


    Optical sensors have been developed to detect lightning from space during both day and night. These sensors have been fielded in two existing satellite missions and may be included on a third mission in 2002. Satellite-hosted, optically-based lightning detection offers three unique capabilities: (1) the ability to reliably detect lightning over large, often remote, spatial regions, (2) the ability to sample all (IC and CG) lightning, and (3) the ability to detect lightning with uniform (i.e., not range-dependent) sensitivity or detection efficiency. These represent significant departures from conventional RF-based detection techniques, which typically have strong range dependencies (biases) or range limitations in their detection capabilities. The atmospheric electricity team of the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's Global Hydrology and Climate Center has implemented a three-step satellite lightning research program which includes three phases: proof-of-concept/climatology, science algorithm development, and operational application. The first instrument in the program, the Optical Transient Detector (OTD), is deployed on a low-earth orbit (LEO) satellite with near-polar inclination, yielding global coverage. The sensor has a 1300 x 1300 sq km field of view (FOV), moderate detection efficiency, moderate localization accuracy, and little data bias. The OTD is a proof-of-concept instrument and its mission is primarily a global lightning climatology. The limited spatial accuracy of this instrument makes it suboptimal for use in case studies, although significant science knowledge has been gained from the instrument as deployed.

  6. Protocols for Relay-Assisted Free-Space Optical Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chatzidiamantis, Nestor D; Kriezis, Emmanouil E; Karagiannidis, George K; Schober, Robert


    We investigate transmission protocols for relay-assisted free-space optical (FSO) systems, when multiple parallel relays are employed and there is no direct link between the source and the destination. As alternatives to all-active FSO relaying, where all the available relays transmit concurrently, we propose schemes that select only a single relay to participate in the communication between the source and the destination in each transmission slot. This selection is based on the channel state information (CSI) obtained either from all or from some of the FSO links. Thus, the need for synchronizing the relays' transmissions is avoided and the slowly varying nature of the atmospheric channel is exploited. For both relay selection and all-active relaying, novel closed-form expressions for their outage performance are derived, assuming the versatile Gamma-Gamma channel model. Furthermore, based on the derived analytical results, the problem of allocating the optical power resources to the FSO links is addressed, ...

  7. Self-Homodyne Detection in Optical Communication Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin J. Puttnam


    Full Text Available We review work on self-homodyne detection (SHD for optical communication systems. SHD uses a transmitted pilot-tone (PT, originating from the transmitter laser, to exploit phase noise cancellation at a coherent receiver and to enable transmitter linewidth tolerance and potential energy savings. We give an overview of SHD performance, outlining the key contributors to the optical signal-to-noise ratio penalty compared to equivalent intradyne systems, and summarize the advantages, differences and similarities between schemes using polarization-division multiplexed PTs (PDM-SHD and those using space-division multiplexed PTs (SDM-SHD. For PDM-SHD, we review the extensive work on the transmission of advanced modulation formats and techniques to minimize the trade-off with spectral efficiency, as well as recent work on digital SHD, where the SHD receiver is combined with an polarization-diversity ID front-end receiver to provide both polarization and modulation format alignment. We then focus on SDM-SHD systems, describing experimental results using multi-core fibers (MCFs with up to 19 cores, including high capacity transmission with broad-linewidth lasers and experiments incorporating SDM-SHD in networking. Additionally, we discuss the requirement for polarization tracking of the PTs at the receiver and path length alignment and review some variants of SHD before outlining the future challenges of self-homodyne optical transmission and gaps in current knowledge.

  8. The museum foyer as a transformative space of communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Ditte; Kristiansen, Erik; Drotner, Kirsten


    This article explores how we may study physical museum foyers as multilayered spaces of communication. Based on a critical examination of ways in which the museum foyer is conceptualised in the research literature, we define the foyer as a transformative space of communication for visitors which...... communicative space. Based on qualitative studies of four divergent Danish museums and a science centre, we demonstrate that the foyer’s communicative space supports transformative functions consisting of multiple phases before and after the visit itself, namely arrival–orientation–service–preparation (before...

  9. Advanced free space optics (FSO) a systems approach

    CERN Document Server

    Majumdar, Arun K


    This book provides a comprehensive, unified tutorial covering the most recent advances in the technology of free-space optics (FSO). It is an all-inclusive source of information on the fundamentals of FSO as well as up-to-date information on the state-of-the-art in technologies available today. This text is intended for graduate students, and will also be useful for research scientists and engineers with an interest in the field. FSO communication is a practical solution for creating a three dimensional global broadband communications grid, offering bandwidths far beyond what is possible in the Radio Frequency (RF) range. However, the attributes of atmospheric turbulence and scattering impose perennial limitations on availability and reliability of FSO links. From a systems point-of-view, this groundbreaking book provides a thorough understanding of channel behavior, which can be used to design and evaluate optimum transmission techniques that operate under realistic atmospheric conditions. Topics addressed...

  10. RF Technologies for Advancing Space Communication Infrastructure (United States)

    Romanofsky, Robert R.; Bibyk, Irene K.; Wintucky, Edwin G.


    This paper will address key technologies under development at the NASA Glenn Research Center designed to provide architecture-level impacts. Specifically, we will describe deployable antennas, a new type of phased array antenna and novel power amplifiers. The evaluation of architectural influence can be conducted from two perspectives where said architecture can be analyzed from either the top-down to determine the areas where technology improvements will be most beneficial or from the bottom-up where each technology s performance advancement can affect the overall architecture s performance. This paper will take the latter approach with focus on some technology improvement challenges and address architecture impacts. For example, using data rate as a performance metric, future exploration scenarios are expected to demand data rates possibly exceeding 1 Gbps. To support these advancements in a Mars scenario, as an example, Ka-band and antenna aperture sizes on the order of 10 meters will be required from Mars areostationary platforms. Key technical challenges for a large deployable antenna include maximizing the ratio of deployed-to-packaged volume, minimizing aerial density, maintaining RMS surface accuracy to within 1/20 of a wavelength or better, and developing reflector rigidization techniques. Moreover, the high frequencies and large apertures manifest a new problem for microwave engineers that are familiar to optical communications specialists: pointing. The fine beam widths and long ranges dictate the need for electronic or mechanical feed articulation to compensate for spacecraft attitude control limitations.

  11. Novel Photon-Counting Detectors for Free-Space Communication (United States)

    Krainak, Michael A.; Yang, Guan; Sun, Xiaoli; Lu, Wei; Merritt, Scott; Beck, Jeff


    We present performance data for novel photon counting detectors for free space optical communication. NASA GSFC is testing the performance of three novel photon counting detectors 1) a 2x8 mercury cadmium telluride avalanche array made by DRS Inc. 2) a commercial 2880 silicon avalanche photodiode array and 3) a prototype resonant cavity silicon avalanche photodiode array. We will present and compare dark count, photon detection efficiency, wavelength response and communication performance data for these detectors. We discuss system wavelength trades and architectures for optimizing overall communication link sensitivity, data rate and cost performance. The HgCdTe APD array has photon detection efficiencies of greater than 50 were routinely demonstrated across 5 arrays, with one array reaching a maximum PDE of 70. High resolution pixel-surface spot scans were performed and the junction diameters of the diodes were measured. The junction diameter was decreased from 31 m to 25 m resulting in a 2x increase in e-APD gain from 470 on the 2010 array to 1100 on the array delivered to NASA GSFC. Mean single photon SNRs of over 12 were demonstrated at excess noise factors of 1.2-1.3.The commercial silicon APD array has a fast output with rise times of 300ps and pulse widths of 600ps. Received and filtered signals from the entire array are multiplexed onto this single fast output. The prototype resonant cavity silicon APD array is being developed for use at 1 micron wavelength.

  12. Space photovoltaic modules based on reflective optics (United States)

    Andreev, V. M.; Larionov, V. R.; Rumyantsev, V. D.; Shvarts, M. Z.


    The conceptual design and experimental results for two types of space application concentrator photovoltaic modules, employing reflective optical elements, are presented. The first type is based on the use of compound parabolic concentrators, the second type is based on the use of line-focus parabolic troughs. Lightweight concentrators are formed with nickel foil coated silver with a diamond-like carbon layer protection. Secondary optical elements, including lenses and cones, are introduced for a better matching of concentrators and solar cells. Both types of modules are characterized by concentration ratios in the range 20x to 30x, depending on the chosen range of misorientation angles. The estimated specific parameters of these modules operating with single junction AlGaAs/GaAs solar cells are 240 W/sq m and 3 kg/sq m.

  13. Bi-directional free space laser communication of gigabit ethernet telemetry data using dual atmospheric effect mitigation approach (United States)

    Chan, Eric; Saint Clair, Jonathan


    This paper presents experimental demonstration of optical components applicable in free space laser communication systems for bi-directional transmission of Gigabit Ethernet (GBE) telemetry data and control messages using a dual atmospheric effect mitigation approach. The objective is to address the challenges for optical transmission of telemetry data. (1) Turbulence effects which cause optical beam scintillation, wander and breakup, all of which cause signal degradation at the receiver. (2) An optical signal in free space has a fading effect which is caused by communications terminal equipment`s in-ability to maintain perfect pointing along a line of sight due to vibrations/motions of the mobile platform.

  14. MEMS tracking mirror system for a bidirectional free-space optical link. (United States)

    Jeon, Sungho; Toshiyoshi, Hiroshi


    We report on a bidirectional free-space optical system that is capable of automatic connection and tracking of an optical link between two nodes. A piezoelectric micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) optical scanner is used to steer a laser beam of two wavelengths superposed to visually present a communication zone, to search for the position of the remote node by means of the retro-reflector optics, and to transmit the data between the nodes. A feedback system is developed to control the MEMS scanner to dynamically establish the optical link within a 10-ms transition time and to keep track of the moving node.

  15. Lightweight, Active Optics for Space and Near Space (United States)

    Wick, D.; Bagwell, B.; Martinez, T.; Payne, D.; Restaino, S.; Romeo, R.

    Size, weight, and a lack of adaptability currently hinder the effectiveness of conventional imaging sensors in a number of military applications, including space-based space situational awareness (SSA), intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR), and missile tracking. The development of sensors that are smaller, lighter weight, adaptive, and use less power is critical for the success of future military initiatives. Threat detection systems need the flexibility of a wide FOV for surveillance and situational awareness while simultaneously maintaining high-resolution for target identification and precision tracking from a single, nonmechanical imaging system. Sandia National Laboratories, the Naval Research Laboratory, Narrascape, Inc., and Composite Mirror Applications, Inc. are at the forefront of active optics research, leading the development of active systems for foveated imaging, nonmechanical zoom, phase diversity, and actively enhanced multi-spectral imaging. Increasing the field-of-view, spatial resolution, spectral capability and system magnification have all been demonstrated with active optics. Adding active components to existing systems should significantly enhance capability in a number of military applications, including night vision, remote sensing and surveillance, chemical/biological detection, and large aperture, space-based systems. Deployment costs of large aperture systems in space or near-space are directly related to the weight of the system. In order to minimize the weight of conventional primary mirrors and simultaneously achieve an agile system that is capable of true optical zoom without macroscopic moving parts, we are proposing a revolutionary alternative to conventional telescopes where moving lenses/mirrors and gimbals are replaced with lightweight carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) variable radius-of-curvature mirrors (VRMs) and MEMS deformable mirrors (DMs). CFRP and MEMS DMs can provide a variable effective focal

  16. European IST-programme roadmap for Optical Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ackaert, Ann; Demeester, Piet; Lagasse, Paul


    On the basis of European IST project results in the field of photonics, the OPTIMIST thematic network has produced a roadmap for optical communications. This work is described in the present article which provides scenarios for the evolution of the optical network in the coming 10 years. Predicta......On the basis of European IST project results in the field of photonics, the OPTIMIST thematic network has produced a roadmap for optical communications. This work is described in the present article which provides scenarios for the evolution of the optical network in the coming 10 years...

  17. Global Communications Infrastructure: CTBT Treaty monitoring using space communications (United States)

    Kebeasy, R.; Abaya, E.; Ricker, R.; Demeules, G.

    first global integrated satellite communications network based on VSAT technology. Space segment has been leased to carry more than 9 gigabytes/day of data to the IDC with a designed annual availability of 99.5%. This paper explains the topology of this satellite-based network, and practical limitations encountered in organizing a single network with 250 links that span the majority of countries in the world, plus the Antarctic regions and the earth's oceans. Having now installed about half of the satellite links in 67 countries, CTBTO has had to hurdle regulatory challenges to install VSAT equipment, and operational challenges to keep the earth stations running in unmanned remote locations. Despite the challenges, the GCI has proven its worth in reliably collecting monitoring data and making such available to authorized users. It has also been useful to give scientists real-time access for controlling their remote monitoring stations.

  18. A Review on Inter-satellite Link in Inter-satellite Optical Wireless Communication (United States)

    Arora, Heena; Goyal, Rakesh


    In this paper, inter-satellite optical wireless communication (IsOWC) system is proposed, one of the imperative utilizations of free space optics/wireless space optics (FSO)/WSO innovation. IsOWC frameworks give a high bandwidth, small size, small weight, low power and minimal effort different option for present microwave satellite frameworks. Optical communications systems have evolved from lengthy fibers to powerful wireless system. This has hence resulted in the use of optical wireless communication system in space communications. As the quantity of satellites circling the Earth expands year by year, a system between the satellites gives a strategy to them to correspond with one another. This is vital for satellites to send data to each other furthermore to hand off the data starting with one satellite then onto the next satellite and after that to the ground stations. By utilizing laser satellite correspondence, the satellites can be joined with information rates up to a few Gbps. The system performance including bit rates, input power, wavelength and distance on an inter-satellite link was analyzed. Various issues such as bit rates, input power, wavelength and distance were presented in IsOWC.

  19. Application of Beyond Bound Decoding for High Speed Optical Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Bomin; Larsen, Knud J.; Vegas Olmos, Juan José


    This paper studies the application of beyond bound decoding method for high speed optical communications. This hard-decision decoding method outperforms traditional minimum distance decoding method, with a total net coding gain of 10.36 dB....

  20. Visible laser and superluminescent diode based free space and underwater communications

    KAUST Repository

    Ooi, Boon S.


    We report on our recent progress in high-modulation-efficiency, InGaN-based integrated waveguide modulator-laser diodes (IWM-LDs), high-speed violet and blue emitting superluminescent diodes (SLDs), InGaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs), and their applications for gigahertz laser based free-space and underwater wireless optical communications.

  1. All-optical signal processing data communication and storage applications

    CERN Document Server

    Eggleton, Benjamin


    This book provides a comprehensive review of the state-of-the art of optical signal processing technologies and devices. It presents breakthrough solutions for enabling a pervasive use of optics in data communication and signal storage applications. It presents presents optical signal processing as solution to overcome the capacity crunch in communication networks. The book content ranges from the development of innovative materials and devices, such as graphene and slow light structures, to the use of nonlinear optics for secure quantum information processing and overcoming the classical Shannon limit on channel capacity and microwave signal processing. Although it holds the promise for a substantial speed improvement, today’s communication infrastructure optics remains largely confined to the signal transport layer, as it lags behind electronics as far as signal processing is concerned. This situation will change in the near future as the tremendous growth of data traffic requires energy efficient and ful...

  2. Mode-Locked Semiconductor Lasers for Optical Communication Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yvind, Kresten; Larsson, David; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo


    We present investigations on 10 and 40 GHz monolithic mode-locked lasers for applications in optical communications systems. New all-active lasers with one to three quantum wells have been designed, fabricated and characterized.......We present investigations on 10 and 40 GHz monolithic mode-locked lasers for applications in optical communications systems. New all-active lasers with one to three quantum wells have been designed, fabricated and characterized....

  3. Applications of expectation maximization algorithm for coherent optical communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho, L.; Oliveira, J.; Zibar, Darko


    In this invited paper, we present powerful statistical signal processing methods, used by machine learning community, and link them to current problems in optical communication. In particular, we will look into iterative maximum likelihood parameter estimation based on expectation maximization...... algorithm and its application in coherent optical communication systems for linear and nonlinear impairment mitigation. Furthermore, the estimated parameters are used to build the probabilistic model of the system for the synthetic impairment generation....

  4. Machine learning concepts in coherent optical communication systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zibar, Darko; Schäffer, Christian G.


    Powerful statistical signal processing methods, used by the machine learning community, are addressed and linked to current problems in coherent optical communication. Bayesian filtering methods are presented and applied for nonlinear dynamic state tracking. © 2014 OSA.......Powerful statistical signal processing methods, used by the machine learning community, are addressed and linked to current problems in coherent optical communication. Bayesian filtering methods are presented and applied for nonlinear dynamic state tracking. © 2014 OSA....

  5. Securing Data for Space Communications Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's vision of data exchange between space and ground nodes would involve the space network accessing public infrastructure such as the internet. Hence, advanced...

  6. New Cryogenic Optical Test Capability at Marshall Space Flight Center's Space Optics Manufacturing Technology Center (United States)

    Kegley, Jeff; Burdine, Robert V. (Technical Monitor)


    A new cryogenic optical testing capability exists at Marshall Space Flight Center's Space Optics Manufacturing Technology Center (SOMTC). SOMTC has been performing optical wavefront testing at cryogenic temperatures since 1999 in the X-ray Cryogenic Test Facility's (XRCF's) large vacuum chamber. Recently the cryogenic optical testing capability has been extended to a smaller vacuum chamber. This smaller horizontal cylindrical vacuum chamber has been outfitted with a helium-cooled liner that can be connected to the facility's helium refrigeration system bringing the existing kilowatt of refrigeration capacity to bear on a 1 meter diameter x 2 meter long test envelope. Cryogenic environments to less than 20 Kelvin are now possible in only a few hours. SOMTC's existing instruments (the Instantaneous Phase-shifting Interferometer (IPI) from ADE Phase-Shift Technologies and the PhaseCam from 4D Vision Technologies) view the optic under test through a 150 mm clear aperture BK-7 window. Since activation and chamber characterization tests in September 2001, the new chamber has been used to perform a cryogenic (less than 30 Kelvin) optical test of a 22.5 cm diameter x 127 cm radius of curvature Si02 mirror, a cryogenic survival (less than 30 Kelvin) test of an adhesive, and a cryogenic cycle (less than 20 Kelvin) test of a ULE mirror. A vibration survey has also been performed on the test chamber. Chamber specifications and performance data, vibration environment data, and limited test results will be presented.

  7. Advanced technology for space communications, tracking, and robotic sensors (United States)

    Krishen, Kumar


    Technological advancements in tracking, communications, and robotic vision sensors are reviewed. The development of communications systems for multiple access, broadband, high data rate, and efficient operation is discussed. Consideration is given to the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite systems, GPS, and communications and tracking systems for the Space Shuttle and the Space Station. The use of television, laser, and microwave sensors for robotics and technology for autonomous rendezvous and docking operations are examined.

  8. Power Budget Analysis of Fiber Optics Communication Links Along ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the development of optical fiber communication system most telecommunication companies now prefer to use optical fiber transmission medium for higher information bandwidth. The design of such a system involves many aspects such as the type of source to be used, the kind of fiber to be employed and detector.

  9. A Fibre-Optic Communications Network for Teaching Clinical Medicine. (United States)

    Williams, Robin


    Describes an interactive television system based on fiber-optic communications technology which is used to facilitate participation by University of London medical students in lecture/tutorials by teachers in different hospital locations. Highlights include advantages of fiber-optics, cable manufacture and installation, opto-electronic interface,…

  10. Soliton-based ultra-high speed optical communications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    increase of internet traffic has resulted in remarkable progress in the capacity of optical communications both ... evolution of information and introduction of optical soliton solution as the stable nonlinear solution. The paper .... We now derive the equation, which describes evolution ¯E along the direction z of the propagation ...

  11. Interactive educational technologies as a method of communicative competency development of optical and fiber optic communication systems specialists (United States)

    Matveeva, Tatiana U.; Osadchiy, Igor S.; Husnutdinova, Marina N.


    The article examines the process of formation of communicative competencies of optic and fiber optic communication systems specialists; the role of communicative competencies is examined in the structure of professionally important skills, together with the contents of professional activity. The stages of empirical research into formation of communicative competencies have been presented, and the values of statistical reliability of data have been provided. The model of formation of communicative competency using interactive technology has been developed based on the research done, and main stages of model implementation and motives of formation of communicative competency have been highlighted. A scheme of "Communicative competence as a base of future success" training session has been suggested as one of the basic interactive technologies. Main components of education that are used during the stages of the training cycle have been examined. The statistical data on the effectiveness of use of interactive educational technologies has been presented; it allowed development of communicative competency of specialists in the field of optical and fiber optic communication system.

  12. Soliton-based ultra-high speed optical communications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    All these facts are the outcome of research on optical solitons in fibers in spite of the fact that the commonly used RZ format is not always called a soliton format. The overview presented here attempts to incorporate the role of soliton-based communications research in present day ultra-high speed communications.

  13. Space debris detection in optical image sequences. (United States)

    Xi, Jiangbo; Wen, Desheng; Ersoy, Okan K; Yi, Hongwei; Yao, Dalei; Song, Zongxi; Xi, Shaobo


    We present a high-accuracy, low false-alarm rate, and low computational-cost methodology for removing stars and noise and detecting space debris with low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in optical image sequences. First, time-index filtering and bright star intensity enhancement are implemented to remove stars and noise effectively. Then, a multistage quasi-hypothesis-testing method is proposed to detect the pieces of space debris with continuous and discontinuous trajectories. For this purpose, a time-index image is defined and generated. Experimental results show that the proposed method can detect space debris effectively without any false alarms. When the SNR is higher than or equal to 1.5, the detection probability can reach 100%, and when the SNR is as low as 1.3, 1.2, and 1, it can still achieve 99%, 97%, and 85% detection probabilities, respectively. Additionally, two large sets of image sequences are tested to show that the proposed method performs stably and effectively.

  14. Photonic lantern as mode multiplexer for multimode optical communications (United States)

    Leon-Saval, Sergio G.; Fontaine, Nicolas K.; Amezcua-Correa, Rodrigo


    The majority of optical fiber technology developments in the applied sciences have arisen from developments in telecommunications. However, the photonic lantern is one of several devices that arose to solve problems in astronomy. Interestingly, these devices are now being extensively used in multimode optical telecommunications research and are likely to find commercial use in the next few years. A photonic lantern allows for a low-loss transformation of a multimode system into a discrete number of single-mode ones and vice versa, thus, enabling their use as mode multiplexers/demultiplexers in Space Division Multiplexing (SDM). Further, it provides seamless integration with the rest of single-mode photonic technologies in telecommunication systems. In this paper, we will discuss the theory and function of the photonic lantern, along with several different variants of the technology needed for their use in SDM communications, focusing on the fiber-bundle photonic lanterns type. We will also discuss some of its current and future applications.

  15. In-Space Internet-Based Communications for Space Science Platforms Using Commercial Satellite Networks (United States)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Bhasin, Kul B.; Fabian, Theodore P.; Griner, James H.; Kachmar, Brian A.; Richard, Alan M.


    The continuing technological advances in satellite communications and global networking have resulted in commercial systems that now can potentially provide capabilities for communications with space-based science platforms. This reduces the need for expensive government owned communications infrastructures to support space science missions while simultaneously making available better service to the end users. An interactive, high data rate Internet type connection through commercial space communications networks would enable authorized researchers anywhere to control space-based experiments in near real time and obtain experimental results immediately. A space based communications network architecture consisting of satellite constellations connecting orbiting space science platforms to ground users can be developed to provide this service. The unresolved technical issues presented by this scenario are the subject of research at NASA's Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. Assessment of network architectures, identification of required new or improved technologies, and investigation of data communications protocols are being performed through testbed and satellite experiments and laboratory simulations.

  16. Cryogenic performance of the space infrared optical payload (United States)

    Wang, Dawei; Tan, Fanjiao; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Mingdong; Wang, Haipeng


    A model as well as the methodology is proposed to analyze the cryogenic performance of space infrared optical payload. And the model is established from two aspects: imaging quality and background radiation. On the basis of finite element analysis, the deformation of optical surface in cryogenic environment is characterized by Zernike polynomials, and then, the varying pattern of MTF of space cryogenic optical payload could be concluded accordingly. Then from the theory of thermal radiative transfer, the temperature distribution and the deformation of the optical payload under the action of inertial load and thermal load are analyzed based on the finite element method, and the spontaneous radiation and scattering properties of the optical surface and shielding factors between the opto-mechanical structure are considered to establish the radiation calculation model. Furthermore, the cryogenic radiation characteristics of the space infrared optical payload are obtained by the radiation calculation model. Finally, experiments are conducted using an actual off-axis TMA space infrared optical payload. And the results indicate that the background radiation of the space infrared optical payload is decreased by 79% while 33% for MTF at the thermal control temperature of 240K. In this circumstance, the system background radiation is effectively suppressed and the detection sensitivity of the optical payload is improved as well, while the imaging quality is acceptable. The model proposed in this paper can be applied to the analyzing cryogenic properties of space infrared optical payload, and providing theoretical guidance for the design and application of the space cryogenic optical payload.

  17. Intersatellite communications optoelectronics research at the Goddard Space Flight Center (United States)

    Krainak, Michael A.


    A review is presented of current optoelectronics research and development at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center for high-power, high-bandwidth laser transmitters; high-bandwidth, high-sensitivity optical receivers; pointing, acquisition, and tracking components; and experimental and theoretical system modeling at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Program hardware and space flight opportunities are presented.

  18. HabEx space telescope optical system (United States)

    Martin, Stefan; Rud, Mayer; Scowen, Paul; Stern, Daniel; Nissen, Joel; Krist, John


    The HabEx study is defining a concept for a new space telescope with the primary mission of detecting and characterizing planetary systems around nearby stars. The telescope is designed specifically to operate with both a high contrast coronagraph and a starshade, enabling the direct optical detection of exoplanets as close as 70 mas from their star. The telescope will be equipped with cameras for exoplanetary system imaging and with spectrometers capable of characterizing exoplanet atmospheres. Gases such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, water vapor and methane have spectral lines in the visible and near infrared part of the spectrum and may indicate biological activity. In addition to the study of exoplanets, HabEx enables general astrophysics with two dedicated instruments. One instrument is a camera enabling imaging on a 3 arc minute field of view in two bands stretching from the UV to the near infrared. The same instrument can also be operated as a multi-object spectrograph, with resolution of 2000. A second instrument will be a high resolution UV spectrograph operating from 120 nm with up to 60,0000 resolution. We discuss the preliminary designs of the telescope and the optical instruments for the observatory.

  19. Iterative Decoding for an Optical CDMA based Laser communication System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Young; Kim, Eun Cheol [Kwangwoon Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Jae Sang [Seoul National Univ. of Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    An optical CDMA(code division multiple access)based Laser communication system has attracted much attention since it requires minimal optical Laser signal processing and it is virtually delay free, while from the theoretical point of view, its performance depends on the auto and cross correlation properties of employed sequences. Various kinds of channel coding schemes for optical CDMA based Laser communication systems have been proposed and analyzed to compensate nonideal channel and receiver conditions in impaired photon channels. In this paper, we propose and analyze an iterative decoding of optical CDMA based Laser communication signals for both shot noise limited and thermal noise limited systems. It is assumed that optical channel is an intensity modulated (IM)channel and direct detection scheme is employed to detect the received optical signal. The performance is evaluated in terms of bit error probability and throughput. It is demonstrated that the BER and throughput performance is substantially improved with interleaver length for a fixed code rate and with alphabet size of PPM (pulse position modulation). Also, the BER and throughput performance is significantly enhanced with the number of iterations for decoding process. The results in this paper can be applied to the optical CDMA based Laser communication network with multiple access applications.

  20. Optimum signal input distribution design in the presence of random pointing jitter for intersatellite optical communications (United States)

    Li, Xin; Ma, Jing; Yu, Siyuan; Tan, Liying; Shen, Tao


    Channel capacity is widely investigated for free space optical links to approach high-speed data-rate communication. Instead of traditional equiprobable binary symbol input distribution, an optimum input distribution is proposed with respect to channel capacity by maximizing mutual information for intersatellite optical communications in the presence of random pointing jitter. It is shown that the optimum input distribution varies with the variance of pointing jitter σ and laser beam divergence angle w0 and the normalized intensity threshold IT. For traditional normalized intensity threshold IT=0.5, the optimum input distribution ranges from about p(x=0)=0.52 for weak pointing jitter to about p(x=0)=0.24 for strong pointing jitter given the same laser beam divergence angle. The results obtained in this paper will be useful for intersatellite optical communication system design.

  1. Low Cost Method of Manufacturing Space Optics Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Proposed is the development of a manufacturing technology that will increase feasible large optics design options and significantly reduce the manufacturing time,...

  2. Cognitive Radio and TV White Space Communications: TV White Space Geo-location Database System


    Zurutuza, Naroa


    The aim of this thesis is to research in the use of emerging TV white space communications, implementing a geo-location database system. For that, some research and theoretical studies related to cognitive radio and TV white space communications will be done first, focusing on current activities, standarization processes, commercial approaches and related projects. Once the background and the present TV white space communications status is analyzed, a geolocation database system will be desig...

  3. Digital optical processing of optical communications: towards an Optical Turing Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Touch Joe


    Full Text Available Optical computing is needed to support Tb/s in-network processing in a way that unifies communication and computation using a single data representation that supports in-transit network packet processing, security, and big data filtering. Support for optical computation of this sort requires leveraging the native properties of optical wave mixing to enable computation and switching for programmability. As a consequence, data must be encoded digitally as phase (M-PSK, semantics-preserving regeneration is the key to high-order computation, and data processing at Tb/s rates requires mixing. Experiments have demonstrated viable approaches to phase squeezing and power restoration. This work led our team to develop the first serial, optical Internet hop-count decrement, and to design and simulate optical circuits for calculating the Internet checksum and multiplexing Internet packets. The current exploration focuses on limited-lookback computational models to reduce the need for permanent storage and hybrid nanophotonic circuits that combine phase-aligned comb sources, non-linear mixing, and switching on the same substrate to avoid the macroscopic effects that hamper benchtop prototypes.

  4. Digital optical processing of optical communications: towards an Optical Turing Machine (United States)

    Touch, Joe; Cao, Yinwen; Ziyadi, Morteza; Almaiman, Ahmed; Mohajerin-Ariaei, Amirhossein; Willner, Alan E.


    Optical computing is needed to support Tb/s in-network processing in a way that unifies communication and computation using a single data representation that supports in-transit network packet processing, security, and big data filtering. Support for optical computation of this sort requires leveraging the native properties of optical wave mixing to enable computation and switching for programmability. As a consequence, data must be encoded digitally as phase (M-PSK), semantics-preserving regeneration is the key to high-order computation, and data processing at Tb/s rates requires mixing. Experiments have demonstrated viable approaches to phase squeezing and power restoration. This work led our team to develop the first serial, optical Internet hop-count decrement, and to design and simulate optical circuits for calculating the Internet checksum and multiplexing Internet packets. The current exploration focuses on limited-lookback computational models to reduce the need for permanent storage and hybrid nanophotonic circuits that combine phase-aligned comb sources, non-linear mixing, and switching on the same substrate to avoid the macroscopic effects that hamper benchtop prototypes.



    Raghunathababu.CH; Dr. Siddaiah.P


    Electro Optic devices in fiber optic Communication systems are playing a Vital Role in telecommunication infrastructure for worldwide broadband networks. Wide bandwidth of signal transmission with low delay, wide transmission bandwidth with less latency, the transmission medium for long distance with high data rate transmission. This paper gives an overview of Electro optic devices for fiber optic systems and their key technologies, their technological trend towards the next generation.

  6. Optoelectronics research for communication programs at the Goddard Space Flight Center (United States)

    Krainak, Michael A.


    Current optoelectronics research and development of high-power, high-bandwidth laser transmitters, high-bandwidth, high-sensitivity optical receivers, pointing, acquisition and tracking components, and experimental and theoretical system modeling at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is reviewed. Program hardware and space flight milestones are presented. It is believed that these experiments will pave the way for intersatellite optical communications links for both the NASA Advanced Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System and commercial users in the 21st century.

  7. Network Communication by Optical Directional Link

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Biolkova


    Full Text Available In this article, infrared point-to-point technologies (optical directional links are discussed which are designed for digital transmissions. Optical directional links (ODLs are transparent for the SDH/ATM, FDDI-II, Ethernet, and Token Ring protocols. Depending on type, ODL ranges are 300 m, 500 m, 1000 m and 2000 m. Steady and statistical models of ODL are presented as well as the measuring ODL arrangement and the graphs concerning the fluctuations of the received signal.

  8. In-Space Distributed Fiber Optic Hydrogen Leak Sensor Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Broadband Photonics Inc. proposes development of a patent-pending distributed fiber optic sensor for in-space hydrogen leak detection. Reliable and fast detection of...

  9. 3rd Symposium on Space Optical Instruments and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Guangjun


    This volume contains selected and expanded contributions presented at the 3rd Symposium on Space Optical Instruments and Applications in Beijing, China June 28 – 29, 2016. This conference series is organised by the Sino-Holland Space Optical Instruments Laboratory, a cooperation platform between China and the Netherlands. The symposium focused on key technological problems of optical instruments and their applications in a space context. It covered the latest developments, experiments and results regarding theory, instrumentation and applications in space optics. The book is split across five topical sections. The first section covers space optical remote sensing system design, the second advanced optical system design, the third remote sensor calibration and measurement. Remote sensing data processing and information extraction is then presented, followed by a final section on remote sensing data applications. .

  10. Contamination effects of oil paint on the space optical system (United States)

    Lu, Chun-lian; Zhou, Yan-ping; Sang, Yi


    Space environment in which the space optical system exposed includes space vacuum, cryogenics, and energetic particles and etc. The contamination effects on the space optical system, so the optical damage occurs. And the image quality of the system will be affected. In this paper, the effects of contamination to optical system were discussed, and the contamination source and its space distribution were analyzed. An experiment was designed to determine the effect value. Numeral fitting method was used to analyze the relationship of the optical damage factor (Transmissivity decay factor) and the contamination degree of the optical system. In the experiment, the contamination degree was expressed by mass thickness with the unit μg/mm2. Oil paint was used as the contamination source. Comparison between previous and present researches was given.

  11. Behavioral modeling approach for optical communication network design (United States)

    Vuorinen, Kimmo; Jacquemod, Gilles; Gaffiot, Frederic; Seassal, Christian


    An optical communication networks can be divided in two levels: communication level, which defines the protocols, the control and the management of the networks and physical level formed by photonic and electronic components in order to transmit and receive the data between different nodes of the network. Traditionally, these two levels are considered separately in the optical communication network design process. This can lead to an erroneous or non-ideal networks implementation, due to the fact that the communication and physical levels are not independent. For example, in WDM communication network the maximum achievable data rate is limited not only by the networks protocol, but depends also on the implementation of the physical level: tuning delay of the optical multiplexers. Also the lack of the possibilities for co-verification of the communication and the physical levels together could lead to misinterpretations between the designers of the different levels and thus induce design faults. Since the prototyping is extremely expensive and time consuming, an integrated simulation of both communication and physical levels is necessary, at least in some extend. In this paper, a behavioral modeling approach that allows a co- simulation of the communication and the physical levels is presented. It is based on the use of a VHDL-AMS-like hardware description language, dedicated to electronic system modeling, but also suitable for modeling and simulation of non- electronic and mixed-domain systems. The behavioral models for photonic and electronic components, as well as the software are integrated in a unique simulator in order to co-simulate the communication (control) and the physical level (data path) of a WDM optical communication network.

  12. Spectral and spatial characterization of perfluorinated graded-index polymer optical fibers for the distribution of optical wireless communication cells. (United States)

    Hajjar, Hani Al; Montero, David S; Lallana, Pedro C; Vázquez, Carmen; Fracasso, Bruno


    In this paper, the characterization of a perfluorinated graded-index polymer optical fiber (PF-GIPOF) for a high-bitrate indoor optical wireless system is reported. PF-GIPOF is used here to interconnect different optical wireless access points that distribute optical free-space high-bitrate wireless communication cells. The PF-GIPOF channel is first studied in terms of transmission attenuation and frequency response and, in a second step, the spatial power profile distribution at the fiber output is analyzed. Both characterizations are performed under varying restricted mode launch conditions, enabling us to assess the transmission channel performance subject to potential connectorization errors within an environment where the end users may intervene by themselves on the home network infrastructure.

  13. Optical turbulence parameters characterized via optical measurements over a 2.33 km free-space laser path. (United States)

    Tunick, Arnold


    Optical turbulence research contributes to improved laser communications, adaptive optics, and long-range imaging systems. This paper presents experimental measurements of scintillation and focal spot displacement to obtain optical turbulence information along a near-horizontal 2.33 km free-space laser propagation path. Calculated values for the refractive index structure constant (C(n)(2)) and Fried parameter (r0) are compared to scintillometer-based measurements for several cases in winter and spring. Optical measurements were investigated using two different laser sources for the first and second parts of the experiment. Scintillation index estimates from recorded signal intensities were corrected to account for aperture averaging. As a result, we found that an earlier calculation algorithm based on analysis of log-amplitude intensity variance was the best estimator of optical turbulence parameters over the propagation path considered.

  14. Ultrafast Long-Distance Quantum Communication with Static Linear Optics. (United States)

    Ewert, Fabian; Bergmann, Marcel; van Loock, Peter


    We propose a projection measurement onto encoded Bell states with a static network of linear optical elements. By increasing the size of the quantum error correction code, both Bell measurement efficiency and photon-loss tolerance can be made arbitrarily high at the same time. As a main application, we show that all-optical quantum communication over large distances with communication rates similar to those of classical communication is possible solely based on local state teleportations using optical sources of encoded Bell states, fixed arrays of beam splitters, and photon detectors. As another application, generalizing state teleportation to gate teleportation for quantum computation, we find that in order to achieve universality the intrinsic loss tolerance must be sacrificed and a minimal amount of feedforward has to be added.

  15. 13 bits per incident photon optical communications demonstration (United States)

    Farr, William H.; Choi, John M.; Moision, Bruce


    Minimizing the mass and power burden of a laser transceiver on a spacecraft for interplanetary optical communications links drives requires operation in a "photon starved" regime. The relevant performance metric in the photon starved regime is Photon Information Efficiency (PIE) with units of bits per photon. Measuring this performance at the detector plane of an optical communications receiver, prior art has achieved performance levels around one bit per incident photon using pulse position modulation (PPM). By combining a PPM modulator with greater than 75 dB extinction ratio with a tungsten silicide (WSi) superconducting nanowire detector with greater than 83% detection efficiency we have demonstrated an optical communications link at 13 bits per incident photon.

  16. Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) space optics handbook (United States)

    Kemp, William T.; Taylor, Edward; Champetier, Robert; Watts, Alan; Atkinson, Dale


    The overall objective of this effort is to construct a top-level space optics handbook that provides design guidelines based upon data collected from the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) experiment. The content of the handbook would cover optical coatings, surfaces, fiber optics, and fabricating process for lenses, windows and mirrors that were used on LDEF. The goal of this program (and handbook) is to ensure that the space community can derive the maximum benefit from the LDEF experiment relative to future optics designs for space applications. The summary of this handbook is 'What did we learn from the LDEF experiment?'

  17. Diaspora: Multilingual and Intercultural Communication across Time and Space (United States)

    Wei, Li; Hua, Zhu


    The nature of diaspora is changing in the 21st century. Yet many of the communication issues remain the same. At the heart of it is multilingual and intercultural communication across time and space. There is much that applied linguists can contribute to the understanding of diaspora in the era of globalization. This article discusses some of the…

  18. Information environment as the intercultural communication space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drotianko Liubov


    Full Text Available The article aims to determine how information society influences the transformation of intercultural communication in a globalized world. The reception of leading philosophical concepts related to this issue is implemented. In particular the points of view of such philosophers as I. Wallerstain, J. Habermas, Y. Masuda, S. Huntington, F. Fukuyama and others are analyzed here. The article provides the idea that the presence of common information environment to different cultures is not able to ensure the integration and cooperation of the world community in all spheres of life society by itself. The efforts of different ethnic community’s representatives are required to upgrade intercultural communication.

  19. Creating communicative spaces in an action research study. (United States)

    Bevan, Ann L


    To argue that creating communicative spaces in an action research study gave voice to young mothers who may otherwise have remained voiceless. Underpinning the concept of the communicative space in action research is the critical social theory of Jürgen Habermas, in particular, his theory of communicative action and the ideal speech situation. The author argues that in collaborative research, the successful creation of a communicative space is vital in enabling equitable and discursive speech to take place. This is a methodological paper. This approach provided a discursive space to participants who ordinarily may not have interacted, and led to the sharing of different perceptions and understandings that may not otherwise have been possible. This research pointed to the possibility of the ideal speech situation, and the value of opening up a communicative space for researchers and participants. Action research for professionals is a sometimes messy and time-consuming process. However, it is a rewarding approach that uncovers layers of interpretations and understanding that have meaning for the participants involved. The creation of communicative spaces has the potential to enrich nursing research because of its participatory nature, making it more likely that solutions reached will have meaning to people.

  20. Machine learning techniques in optical communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zibar, Darko; Piels, Molly; Jones, Rasmus Thomas


    Techniques from the machine learning community are reviewed and employed for laser characterization, signal detection in the presence of nonlinear phase noise, and nonlinearity mitigation. Bayesian filtering and expectation maximization are employed within nonlinear state-space framework...

  1. Optical communication beyond orbital angular momentum


    Trichili, Abderrahmen; Rosales-Guzm?n, Carmelo; Dudley, Angela; Ndagano, Bienvenu; Ben Salem, Amine; Zghal, Mourad; Forbes, Andrew


    Mode division multiplexing (MDM) is mooted as a technology to address future bandwidth issues, and has been successfully demonstrated in free space using spatial modes with orbital angular momentum (OAM). To further increase the data transmission rate, more degrees of freedom are required to form a densely packed mode space. Here we move beyond OAM and demonstrate multiplexing and demultiplexing using both the radial and azimuthal degrees of freedom. We achieve this with a holographic approac...

  2. Space communication and radar with lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witteman, W.J.


    Sensitive heterodyne detection with lasers applied .to radar and satellite communication is seriously hampered by the large electronic bandwidth due to random Doppler shift and frequency instability. These drawbacks can be circumvented by dual signal heterodyne detection. The system consists of

  3. Ring resonator systems to perform optical communication enhancement using soliton

    CERN Document Server

    Amiri, Iraj Sadegh


    The title explain new technique of secured and high capacity optical communication signals generation by using the micro and nano ring resonators. The pulses are known as soliton pulses which are more secured due to having the properties of chaotic and dark soliton signals with ultra short bandwidth. They have high capacity due to the fact that ring resonators are able to generate pulses in the form of solitons in multiples and train form. These pulses generated by ring resonators are suitable in optical communication due to use the compact and integrated rings system, easy to control, flexibi

  4. Holographic toolkit for optical communication beyond orbital angular momentum

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rosales-Guzman, C


    Full Text Available -Te´le´com/Te´le´com SudParis, 9 rue Charles Fourier, 91011 Evry, France ABSTRACT Current optical communication technologies are predicted to face a bandwidth capacity limit in the near future. The nature of the limitation is fundamental rather than technological... momentum multiplexing.,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4876 (2014). [20] Torres, J. P., “Optical communications: Multiplexing twisted light,” Nature Photonics 6(7), 420–422 (2012). [21] Zhao, N., Li, X., Li, G., and Kahn, J. M., “Capacity limits of spatially multiplexed...

  5. Intelligent Agents for Scheduling Space Communications Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The new exploration initiative, and the planned new antenna types to be developed in support of that initiative will increase the number and complexity of missions...

  6. Ladar and Optical Communications Institute (LOCI) (United States)


    to overcome limited resolution in long range remote sensing. Both methods typically use a single antenna or detector acting as a point receiver and...Tapered Microfibers Abstract: 69 Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited We present optical transmission results for biconic tapered... biconic fiber tapers for sensor applications have focused primarily on the behavior of the quasi-linear polarized hybrid modes (HE1l ; EH1l). In this

  7. Peaceful Applications Of Optics In Space (which path will we take to the 21st Century?) (United States)

    Speake, George E.


    Growing national and international concerns in the areas of energy, defense, food, national economic vitality, communications and information systems, and social goals for improved quality of life play increasingly important roles in determining how aggressively peaceful applications of optics in space will be supported or pursued by the United States. Today, peaceful space projects are often viewed as a nonessential luxury that can be dispensed with; the percent of GNP devoted to peaceful space applications has diminished in recent years. On the other hand, dramatic growth of peaceful space optical systems with direct practical benefits to some of these national concerns can emerge in the next two decades. Three levels of optical technology are examined, ranging from nearterm engineering growth to more specu-lative extrapolation. Finally, an assessment is made of the relative likelihood of implementing these technology levels.

  8. All-Optical Regeneration System for Optical Wavelength Division Multiplexed Communication Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    an input WDM data signal comprising multiple wavelength channels into an input OTDM data signal comprising multiple time multiplexed time channels. The system further comprises an all-optical regenerator unit being configured for regenerating the input OTDM data signal into an output OTDM data signal....... The system additionally comprises an OTDM-to-WDM converter for converting the output OTDM data signal to an output WDM data signal. An input of the all-optical regenerator unit is in optical communication with an output of the WDM-to-OTDM converter, and an output of the all-optical regenerator unit...... is in optical communication with an input of the OTDM-to-WDM converter. The invention further relates to a method for all-optical regeneration of WDM data signals....

  9. Scalable Track Initiation for Optical Space Surveillance (United States)

    Schumacher, P.; Wilkins, M. P.


    The advent of high-sensitivity, high-capacity optical sensors for space surveillance presents us with interesting and challenging tracking problems. Accounting for the origin of every detection made by such systems is generally agreed to belong to the "most difficult" category of tracking problems. Especially in the early phases of the tracking scenario, when a catalog of targets is being compiled, or when many new objects appear in space because of on-orbit explosion or collision, one faces a combinatorially large number of orbit (data association) hypotheses to evaluate. The number of hypotheses is reduced to a more feasible number if observations close together in time can, with high confidence, be associated by the sensor into extended tracks on single objects. Most current space surveillance techniques are predicated on the sensor systems' ability to form such tracks reliably. However, the required operational tempo of space surveillance, the very large number of objects in Earth orbit and the difficulties of detecting dim, fast-moving targets at long ranges means that individual sensor track reports are often inadequate for computing initial orbit hypotheses. In fact, this situation can occur with optical sensors even when the probability of detection is high. For example, the arc of orbit that has been observed may be too short or may have been sampled too sparsely to allow well-conditioned, usable orbit estimates from single tracks. In that case, one has no choice but to solve a data association problem involving an unknown number of targets and many widely spaced observations of uncertain origin. In the present paper, we are motivated by this more difficult aspect of the satellite cataloging problem. However, the results of this analysis may find use in a variety of less stressing tracking applications. The computational complexity of track initiation using only angle measurements is polynomial in time. However, the polynomial degree can be high, always at

  10. [Style of communication between mission control centers and space crews]. (United States)

    Iusupova, A K; Gushchin, V I; Shved, D M; Cheveleva, L M


    The article deals with a pilot investigation into the audio communication of cosmonauts with ground controllers. The purpose was to verify in space flight the patterns and trends revealed in model tests of intergroup communication, and to pinpoint the signature of multinational crew communication with 2 national mission control centers (MCCs). The investigation employed authors' content-analysis adapted to the scenario of long-duration mission. The investigation resulted in a phenomenon of double-loop ground-orbit communication, divergence, difference in opinion predictable from the concept formulated by G.T.Beregovoi. Also, there was a notable difference of expressions used by controllers of 2 MCCs.

  11. Unified Communications for Space Inventory Management (United States)

    Gifford, Kevin K.; Fink, Patrick W.; Barton, Richard; Ngo, Phong H.


    To help assure mission success for long-duration exploration activities, NASA is actively pursuing wireless technologies that promote situational awareness and autonomy. Wireless technologies are typically extensible, offer freedom from wire tethers, readily support redundancy, offer potential for decreased wire weight, and can represent dissimilar implementation for increased reliability. In addition, wireless technologies can enable additional situational awareness that otherwise would be infeasible. For example, addition of wired sensors, the need for which might not have been apparent at the outset of a program, night be extremely costly due in part to the necessary routing of cables through the vehicle. RFID, or radio frequency identification, is a wireless technology with the potential for significant savings and increased reliability and safety in space operations. Perhaps the most obvious savings relate to the application of inventory management. A fully automated inventory management system is highly desirable for long-term sustaining operations in space environments. This assertion is evidenced by inventory activities on the International Space Station, which represents the most extensive inventory tracking experience base in the history of space operations. In the short tern, handheld RFID readers offer substantial savings owing to reduced crew time for inventory audits. Over the long term, a combination of improved RFID technology and operational concepts modified to fully utilize the technology should result in space based inventory management that is highly reliable and requires very little crew time. In addition to inventory management, RFID is likely to find space applications in real-time location and tracking systems. These could vary from coarse-resolution RFID portals to the high resolution afforded by ultra-wideband (UWB) RFID. Longer range RFID technologies that leverage passive surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices are being investigated to

  12. Improvements to Optical Communication Capabilities Achieved through the Optical Injection of Semiconductor Lasers (United States)


    electromagnetic radiation . Never the less, guided optical communication does not dominate the entire communications industry since copper wires still...sequenced spread-spectrum (CSSS) communication symbols (compliant with IEEE 802.11a or WiFi ) on a widely tunable microwave frequency exclusively... radiation (photons) with random direction, random phase, and energy equal to the band-gap as, described by Equation (6). 27 Figure 2.6: Driving

  13. Technology Developments Integrating a Space Network Communications Testbed (United States)

    Kwong, Winston; Jennings, Esther; Clare, Loren; Leang, Dee


    As future manned and robotic space explorations missions involve more complex systems, it is essential to verify, validate, and optimize such systems through simulation and emulation in a low cost testbed environment. The goal of such a testbed is to perform detailed testing of advanced space and ground communications networks, technologies, and client applications that are essential for future space exploration missions. We describe the development of new technologies enhancing our Multi-mission Advanced Communications Hybrid Environment for Test and Evaluation (MACHETE) that enable its integration in a distributed space communications testbed. MACHETE combines orbital modeling, link analysis, and protocol and service modeling to quantify system performance based on comprehensive considerations of different aspects of space missions. It can simulate entire networks and can interface with external (testbed) systems. The key technology developments enabling the integration of MACHETE into a distributed testbed are the Monitor and Control module and the QualNet IP Network Emulator module. Specifically, the Monitor and Control module establishes a standard interface mechanism to centralize the management of each testbed component. The QualNet IP Network Emulator module allows externally generated network traffic to be passed through MACHETE to experience simulated network behaviors such as propagation delay, data loss, orbital effects and other communications characteristics, including entire network behaviors. We report a successful integration of MACHETE with a space communication testbed modeling a lunar exploration scenario. This document is the viewgraph slides of the presentation.

  14. DLR's free space experimental laser terminal for optical aircraft downlinks (United States)

    Fuchs, Christian; Schmidt, Christopher; Rödiger, Benjamin; Shrestha, Amita; Brechtelsbauer, Martin; Ramirez Molina, Julio; Pacheco, Jorge; Gstaiger, Veronika


    The German Aerospace Center's Institute of Communications and Navigation developed the Free Space Experimental Laser Terminal II and has been using it for optical downlink experiments since 2008. It has been developed for DLR's Dornier 228 aircraft and is capable of performing optical downlink as well as inter-platform experiments. After more than 5 years of successful operation, it has been refurbished with up-to-date hardware and is now available for further aircraft-experiments. The system is a valuable resource for carrying out measurements of the atmospheric channel, for testing new developments, and of course to transmit data from the aircraft to a ground station with a very high data rate. This paper will give an overview about the system and describe the capabilities of the flexible platform. The current status of the system will be described and measurement results of a recent flight campaign will be presented. Finally, an outlook to future use of the system will be given.

  15. Free-space optical channel characterization in a coastal environment

    KAUST Repository

    Alheadary, Wael Ghazy


    Recently, FSO (Free-Space Optical Communication) has received a lot of attention thanks to its high data-rate transmission via unbounded unlicensed bandwidth. However, some weather conditions lead to significant degradation of the FSO link performance. Based on this context and in order to have a better understanding of the capabilities of FSO communication in a coastal environment, the effects of temperature and humidity on an FSO system are investigated in this study. An experiment is conducted using an open source FSO system that achieves a transmission rate of 1 Gbit/s at a distance of 70 m. Two new mathematical models are proposed to represent the effects of temperature and humidity on our developed FSO system operating at a wavelength of 1 550 nm. The first model links the FSO attenuation coeffcient to the air temperature in coastal regions, while the second model links the FSO attenuation coeffcient to the humidity and the dew-point temperature. The key finding of this study is that FSO links can achieve maximum availability in a coastal city with normal variations in temperature and humidity.

  16. Information Theoretical Limits of Free-Space Optical Links

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Imran Shafique


    Generalized fading has been an imminent part and parcel of wireless communications. It not only characterizes the wireless channel appropriately but also allows its utilization for further performance analysis of various types of wireless communication systems. Under the umbrella of generalized fading channels, a unified ergodic capacity analysis of a free-space optical (FSO) link under both types of detection techniques (i.e., intensity modulation/direct detection (IM/DD) as well as heterodyne detection) over generalized atmospheric turbulence channels that account for generalized pointing errors is presented. Specifically, unified exact closed-form expressions for the moments of the end-to-end signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of a single link FSO transmission system are presented. Subsequently, capitalizing on these unified statistics, unified exact closed-form expressions for ergodic capacity performance metric of FSO link transmission systems is offered. Additionally, for scenarios wherein the exact closed-form solution is not possible to obtain, some asymptotic results are derived in the high SNR regime. All the presented results are verified via computer-based Monte-Carlo simulations.

  17. Acemind new indoor full duplex optical wireless communication prototype (United States)

    Bouchet, Olivier; Perrufel, Micheline; Topsu, Suat; Guan, Hongyu


    For over a century and Mr. Guglielmo Marconi invention, systems using radio waves have controlled over wireless telecommunication solutions; from Amplitude Modulation (AM) radio products to satellite communications for instance. But beyond an increasingly negative opinion face to radio waves and radio spectrum availability more and more reduced; there is an unprecedented opportunity with LED installation in displays and lighting to provide optical wireless communication solutions. As a result, technologically mature solutions are already commercially available for services such as Location Based Services (LBS), broadcast diffusion or Intelligent Transport Services (ITS). Pending finalization of the standard review process IEEE 802.15.7 r1, our paper presents the results of the European collaborative project named "ACEMIND". It offers an indoor bilateral optical wireless communication prototype having the following characteristics: use of the existing electrical infrastructure, through judicious combination with Light Fidelity (LiFi), Power Line Communication (PLC) and Ethernet to reduce the implementation cost. We propose a bilateral optical wireless communication even when the light is switched off by using Visible Light Communication (VLC) and Infra-Red Communication (IRC) combined to a remote optical switch. Dimensionally optimized LiFi module is presented in order to offer the possibility for integration inside a laptop. Finally, there is operational mechanism implementation such as OFDM/DMT to increase throughput. After the introduction, we will present the results of a market study from Orange Labs customers about their opinion on LiFi components. Then we will detail the LiFi prototype, from the physical layer aspect to MAC layer before concluding on commercial development prospects.

  18. Optical Fiber for High-Power Optical Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Kurokawa


    Full Text Available We examined optical fibers suitable for avoiding such problems as the fiber fuse phenomenon and failures at bends with a high power input. We found that the threshold power for fiber fuse propagation in photonic crystal fiber (PCF and hole-assisted fiber (HAF can exceed 18 W, which is more than 10 times that in conventional single-mode fiber (SMF. We considered this high threshold power in PCF and HAF to be caused by a jet of high temperature fluid penetrating the air holes. We showed examples of two kinds of failures at bends in conventional SMF when the input power was 9 W. We also observed the generation of a fiber fuse under a condition that caused a bend-loss induced failure. We showed that one solution for the failures at bends is to use optical fibers with a low bending loss such as PCF and HAF. Therefore, we consider PCF and HAF to be attractive solutions to the problems of the fiber fuse phenomenon and failures at bends with a high power input.

  19. the analysis of an optical fibre communication system using laser ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    THE ANALYSIS OF AN OPTICAL FIBRE. COMMUNICATION SYSTEM USING LASER RATE. EQUATIONS. HN Kundaeli. Department of Physics, University of Dar-es-Salaam,. P. O. Box 35063, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. ABSTRACT. Fibre dispersion has been the main limitation to high-speed data transmissions employing ...

  20. Simulating channel losses in an underwater optical communication system. (United States)

    Cox, William; Muth, John


    A Monte Carlo numerical simulation for computing the received power for an underwater optical communication system is discussed and validated. Power loss between receiver and transmitter is simulated for a variety of receiver aperture sizes and fields of view. Additionally, pointing-and-tracking losses are simulated.

  1. Kansas Communication and Instruction System through Fiber-Optic Transmission. (United States)

    Kansas State Dept. of Education, Topeka.

    Schools and communities will restructure as they move into the next decade. The success of this restructuring will be dependent upon access to and sharing of quality teaching and information through an expanded communication system. One of the major two-way interactive technologies is the fiber-optic cable: a delivery system that will provide…

  2. Optical Testing of the James Webb Space Telescope (United States)

    Aronstein, David


    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will be a large infrared telescope with a 6.5-meter primary mirror, working to an October 2018 launch date. Ground testing for the JWST occurred in two test campaigns, at NASAs Goddard Space Flight Center and Johnson Space Center. The talk describes the JWST and its optical ground testing.

  3. The 2004 Latsis Symposium: Quantum optics for Communication and Computing

    CERN Multimedia


    1-3 March 2004 Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne Auditoire SG1 The field of Quantum Optics covers topics that extend from basic physical concepts, regarding the quantum description of light, matter, and light-matter interaction, to the applications of these concepts in future information and communication technologies. This field is of primary importance for science and society for two reasons. Firstly, it brings a deeper physical understanding of the fundamental aspects of modern quantum physics. Secondly, it offers perspectives for the invention and implementation of new devices and systems in the fields of communications, information management and computing. The themes that will be addressed in the Latsis Symposium on Quantum Optics are quantum communications, quantum computation, and quantum photonic devices. The objective of the symposium is to give an overview of this fascinating and rapidly evolving field. The different talks will establish links between new fundamental ...

  4. The 2004 Latsis Symposium: Quantum optics for Communication and Computing

    CERN Multimedia


    1-3 March 2004 Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne Auditoire SG1 The field of Quantum Optics covers topics that extend from basic physical concepts, regarding the quantum description of light, matter, and light-matter interaction, to the applications of these concepts in future information and communication technologies. This field is of primary importance for science and society for two reasons. Firstly, it brings a deeper physical understanding of the fundamental aspects of modern quantum physics. Secondly, it offers perspectives for the invention and implementation of new devices and systems in the fields of communications, information management and computing. The themes that will be addressed in the Latsis Symposium on Quantum Optics are quantum communications, quantum computation, and quantum photonic devices. The objective of the symposium is to give an overview of this fascinating and rapidly evolving field. The different talks will establish links between new fundamental c...

  5. The 2004 Latsis Symposium: Quantum optics for Communication and Computing

    CERN Multimedia


    1-3 March 2004 Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne Auditoire SG1 The field of Quantum Optics covers topics that extend from basic physical concepts, regarding the quantum description of light, matter, and light-matter interaction, to the applications of these concepts in future information and communication technologies. This field is of primary importance for science and society for two reasons. Firstly, it brings a deeper physical understanding of the fundamental aspects of modern quantum physics. Secondly, it offers perspectives for the invention and implementation of new devices and systems in the fields of communications, information management and computing. The themes that will be addressed in the Latsis Symposium on Quantum Optics are quantum communications, quantum computation, and quantum photonic devices. The objective of the symposium is to give an overview of this fascinating and rapidly evolving field. The different talks will establish links between new fundamental...

  6. Performance analysis and material dependence of micro holographic optical elements as couplers for fiber optic communication (United States)

    Ambadiyil, Sajan; Prasannan, G.; Sathyan, Jithesh; Ajith Kumar, P. T.


    Holographic Optical Elements (HOEs) are gaining much importance and finding newer and better applications in areas of optical fiber communication and optical information processing systems. In contrast to conventional HOEs, optical communication and information systems require smaller and efficient elements of desired characteristics and transfer functions. Such Micro Holographic Optical Elements (MHOEs) can either be an HOE, recorded with two narrow beams of laser light or a segment cut from a larger HOE (SHOEs), and recorded in the conventional manner. In this study, micro holographic couplers, having specific focusing and diffraction characteristics were recorded in different holographic recording media such as silver halide and dichromated gelatin. Wavelength response of the elements was tested at 633 nm and 442 nm. Variation in diffraction efficiency/coupling factor, and insertion loss of the elements were studied. The paper reports in detail about the above results and related design considerations.

  7. Spaces of intercultural communication. An interdisciplinary introduction to communication, culture, and globalizing/localizing identities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lie, R.


    This volume explores spaces where cultures meet and mix in entangled flows and levels of globality and locality. It makes a contribution to our understanding of the complex processes of communications across and beyond borders. It provides an introduction to intercultural/international communication

  8. Holographic Optical Receiver Front End for Wireless Infrared Indoor Communications (United States)

    Jivkova, S.; Kavehrad, M.


    Multispot diffuse configuration (MSDC) for indoor wireless optical communications, utilizing multibeam transmitter and angle diversity detection, is one of the most promising ways of achieving high capacities for use in high-bandwidth islands such as classrooms, hotel lobbies, shopping malls, and train stations. Typically, the optical front end of the receiver consists of an optical concentrator to increase the received optical signal power and an optical bandpass filter to reject the ambient light. Using the unique properties of holographic optical elements (HOE), we propose a novel design for the receiver optical subsystem used in MSDC. With a holographic curved mirror as an optical front end, the receiver would achieve more than an 10-dB improvement in the electrical signal-to-noise ratio compared with a bare photodetector. Features such as multifunctionality of the HOE and the receiver s small size, light weight, and low cost make the receiver front end a promising candidate for a user s portable equipment in broadband indoor wireless multimedia access.

  9. Laser Communications Relay Demonstration Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Laser Communications Relay Demonstration project will advance optical communications technology, expanding industry’s capability to produce competitive,...

  10. Raman amplification in optical communication systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Rasmus


    the length of future access networks, and inter-channel transient crosstalk and a new all-optical method to remedy these unwanted effects. Finally, a numerical amplifier model is developed to better understand the dynamics, gain and noise limitations of the amplifier. I denne afhandling undersøges...... støjtal under 4,5 dB og en samlet udgangseffekt på 22 dBm. Med henblik på at forlænge rækkevidden af fremtidige access-netværk foreslås en ny arkitektur for såkaldte langdistance passive optiske netværk (PON). Dette system evalueres både teoretisk og eksperimentelt. Distribueret Raman-forstærkning bruges...... modtagerfølsomheden p.g.a. den bidirektionelle trafik. De dynamiske egenskaber af PON-forbindelsen testes med forstyrrende trafik og som konklusion vurderes systemet at være en lovende kandidat til fremtidige langdistance access PONs med dynamisk trafik. Krydstale mellem to eller flere kanaler i mættede...

  11. Software Defined Radio Architecture Contributions to Next Generation Space Communications (United States)

    Kacpura, Thomas J.; Eddy, Wesley M.; Smith, Carl R.; Liebetreu, John


    Space communications architecture concepts, comprising the elements of the system, the interactions among them, and the principles that govern their development, are essential factors in developing National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) future exploration and science missions. Accordingly, vital architectural attributes encompass flexibility, the extensibility to insert future capabilities, and to enable evolution to provide interoperability with other current and future systems. Space communications architectures and technologies for this century must satisfy a growing set of requirements, including those for Earth sensing, collaborative observation missions, robotic scientific missions, human missions for exploration of the Moon and Mars where surface activities require supporting communications, and in-space observatories for observing the earth, as well as other star systems and the universe. An advanced, integrated, communications infrastructure will enable the reliable, multipoint, high-data-rate capabilities needed on demand to provide continuous, maximum coverage for areas of concentrated activity. Importantly, the cost/value proposition of the future architecture must be an integral part of its design; an affordable and sustainable architecture is indispensable within anticipated future budget environments. Effective architecture design informs decision makers with insight into the capabilities needed to efficiently satisfy the demanding space-communication requirements of future missions and formulate appropriate requirements. A driving requirement for the architecture is the extensibility to address new requirements and provide low-cost on-ramps for new capabilities insertion, ensuring graceful growth as new functionality and new technologies are infused into the network infrastructure. In addition to extensibility, another key architectural attribute of the space communication equipment's interoperability with other NASA communications

  12. Security Policy for a Generic Space Exploration Communication Network Architecture (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.; Sheehe, Charles J.; Vaden, Karl R.


    This document is one of three. It describes various security mechanisms and a security policy profile for a generic space-based communication architecture. Two other documents accompany this document- an Operations Concept (OpsCon) and a communication architecture document. The OpsCon should be read first followed by the security policy profile described by this document and then the architecture document. The overall goal is to design a generic space exploration communication network architecture that is affordable, deployable, maintainable, securable, evolvable, reliable, and adaptable. The architecture should also require limited reconfiguration throughout system development and deployment. System deployment includes subsystem development in a factory setting, system integration in a laboratory setting, launch preparation, launch, and deployment and operation in space.

  13. Phase change material based tunable reflectarray for free-space optical inter/intra chip interconnects. (United States)

    Zou, Longfang; Cryan, Martin; Klemm, Maciej


    The concept of phase change material (PCM) based optical antennas and antenna arrays is proposed for dynamic beam shaping and steering utilized in free-space optical inter/intra chip interconnects. The essence of this concept lies in the fact that the behaviour of PCM based optical antennas will change due to the different optical properties of the amorphous and crystalline state of the PCM. By engineering optical antennas or antenna arrays, it is feasible to design dynamic optical links in a desired manner. In order to illustrate this concept, a PCM based tunable reflectarray is proposed for a scenario of a dynamic optical link between a source and two receivers. The designed reflectarray is able to switch the optical link between two receivers by switching the two states of the PCM. Two types of antennas are employed in the proposed tunable reflectarray to achieve full control of the wavefront of the reflected beam. Numerical studies show the expected binary beam steering at the optical communication wavelength of 1.55 μm. This study suggests a new research area of PCM based optical antennas and antenna arrays for dynamic optical switching and routing.

  14. Dual-pump Kerr Micro-cavity Optical Frequency Comb with varying FSR spacing (United States)

    Wang, Weiqiang; Chu, Sai T.; Little, Brent E.; Pasquazi, Alessia; Wang, Yishan; Wang, Leiran; Zhang, Wenfu; Wang, Lei; Hu, Xiaohong; Wang, Guoxi; Hu, Hui; Su, Yulong; Li, Feitao; Liu, Yuanshan; Zhao, Wei


    In this paper, we demonstrate a novel dual-pump approach to generate robust optical frequency comb with varying free spectral range (FSR) spacing in a CMOS-compatible high-Q micro-ring resonator (MRR). The frequency spacing of the comb can be tuned by an integer number FSR of the MRR freely in our dual-pump scheme. The dual pumps are self-oscillated in the laser cavity loop and their wavelengths can be tuned flexibly by programming the tunable filter embedded in the cavity. By tuning the pump wavelength, broadband OFC with the bandwidth of >180 nm and the frequency-spacing varying from 6 to 46-fold FSRs is realized at a low pump power. This approach could find potential and practical applications in many areas, such as optical metrology, optical communication, and signal processing systems, for its excellent flexibility and robustness. PMID:27338250

  15. Advanced transport protocols for space communications (United States)

    Fang, Jian

    Satellite IP networks are characterized by high bit error rates, long propagation delays, low bandwidth feedback links, and persistent fades resulting from varying weather patterns. A new unicast transport protocol is designed to address all the above challenges. Two new algorithms, Jump Start and Quick Recovery, are presented to replace the traditional Slow Start algorithm and to recover rapidly from multiple segment losses within one window of data. The characteristics of satellite IP networks also distinguish satellite multicasting from multicasting in terrestrial wirelined networks. A reliable data multicast transport protocol, TCP-Peachtree, is proposed to solve the acknowledgment implosion and scalability problems in satellite IP networks. Developments in space technology are enabling the realization of deep space missions. The scientific data from these missions need to be delivered to the Earth successfully. To achieve this goal, the InterPlaNetary Internet is proposed as the Internet of the deep space planetary networks, which is characterized by extremely high propagation delays, high link errors, asymmetrical bandwidth, and blackouts. A reliable transport protocol, TP-Planet, is proposed for data traffic in the InterPlaNetary Internet. TP-Planet deploys rate-based additive-increase multiplicative-decrease (AIMD) congestion control and replaces the inefficient slow start algorithm with a novel Initial State algorithm that allows the capture of link resources in a very fast and controlled manner. A new congestion detection and control mechanism is developed and a Blackout State is incorporated into the protocol operation. Multimedia traffic is also one part of the aggregate traffic over InterPlaNetary Internet backbone links and it has additional requirements such as minimum bandwidth, smooth traffic, and error control. To address all the above challenges, RCP-Planet is proposed. RCP-Planet consists of two novel algorithms, i.e., Begin State and

  16. Fiber-Optic Sensing for In-Space Inspection (United States)

    Pena, Francisco; Richards, W. Lance; Piazza, Anthony; Parker, Allen R.; Hudson, Larry D.


    This presentation provides examples of fiber optic sensing technology development activities performed at NASA Armstrong. Examples of current and previous work that support in-space inspection techniques and methodologies are highlighted.

  17. Modeling of optical wireless scattering communication channels over broad spectra. (United States)

    Liu, Weihao; Zou, Difan; Xu, Zhengyuan


    The air molecules and suspended aerosols help to build non-line-of-sight (NLOS) optical scattering communication links using carriers from near infrared to visible light and ultraviolet bands. This paper proposes channel models over such broad spectra. Wavelength dependent Rayleigh and Mie scattering and absorption coefficients of particles are analytically obtained first. They are applied to the ray tracing based Monte Carlo method, which models the photon scattering angle from the scatterer and propagation distance between two consecutive scatterers. Communication link path loss is studied under different operation conditions, including visibility, particle density, wavelength, and communication range. It is observed that optimum communication performances exist across the wavelength under specific atmospheric conditions. Infrared, visible light and ultraviolet bands show their respective features as conditions vary.

  18. Experimental free-space optical network for massively parallel computers. (United States)

    Araki, S; Kajita, M; Kasahara, K; Kubota, K; Kurihara, K; Redmond, I; Schenfeld, E; Suzaki, T


    A free-space optical interconnection scheme is described for massively parallel processors based on the interconnection-cached network architecture. The optical network operates in a circuit-switching mode. Combined with a packet-switching operation among the circuit-switched optical channels, a high-bandwidth, low-latency network for massively parallel processing results. The design and assembly of a 64-channel experimental prototype is discussed, and operational results are presented.

  19. Optical Phase Recovery and Locking in a PPM Laser Communication Link (United States)

    Aveline, David C.; Yu, Nan; Farr, William H.


    Free-space optical communication holds great promise for future space missions requiring high data rates. For data communication in deep space, the current architecture employs pulse position modulation (PPM). In this scheme, the light is transmitted and detected as pulses within an array of time slots. While the PPM method is efficient for data transmission, the phase of the laser light is not utilized. The phase coherence of a PPM optical signal has been investigated with the goal of developing a new laser communication and ranging scheme that utilizes optical coherence within the established PPM architecture and photon-counting detection (PCD). Experimental measurements of a PPM modulated optical signal were conducted, and modeling code was developed to generate random PPM signals and simulate spectra via FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) analysis. The experimental results show very good agreement with the simulations and confirm that coherence is preserved despite modulation with high extinction ratios and very low duty cycles. A real-time technique has been developed to recover the phase information through the mixing of a PPM signal with a frequency-shifted local oscillator (LO). This mixed signal is amplified, filtered, and integrated to generate a voltage proportional to the phase of the modulated signal. By choosing an appropriate time constant for integration, one can maintain a phase lock despite long dark times between consecutive pulses with low duty cycle. A proof-of-principle demonstration was first achieved with an RF-based PPM signal and test setup. With the same principle method, an optical carrier within a PPM modulated laser beam could also be tracked and recovered. A reference laser was phase-locked to an independent pulsed laser signal with low-duty-cycle pseudo-random PPM codes. In this way, the drifting carrier frequency in the primary laser source is tracked via its phase change in the mixed beat note, while the corresponding voltage feedback

  20. Space filling modular optics: expanded Peano and collapsed Hilbert curves (United States)

    Schamschula, Marius P.; Caulfield, H. John


    Recently we introduced space filling curves such as the Peano and Hilbert curves as a method of realizing compact modular optics. In this paper we modify the primitives of these curves to construct novel compact two-dimensional modular optical systems.

  1. Active optics for next generation space telescopes (United States)

    Costes, V.; Perret, L.; Laubier, D.; Delvit, J. M.; Imbert, C.; Cadiergues, L.; Faure, C.


    High resolution observation systems need bigger and bigger telescopes. The design of such telescopes is a key issue for the whole satellite. In order to improve the imaging resolution with minimum impact on the satellite, a big effort must be made to improve the telescope compactness. Compactness is also important for the agility of the satellite and for the size and cost of the launcher. This paper shows how compact a high resolution telescope can be. A diffraction limited telescope can be less than ten times shorter than its focal length. But the compactness impacts drastically the opto-mechanical sensitivity and the optical performances. Typically, a gain of a factor of 2 leads to a mechanical tolerance budget 6 times more difficult. The need to implement active optics for positioning requirements raises very quickly. Moreover, the capability to compensate shape defaults of the primary mirror is the way to simplify the mirror manufacture, to mitigate the development risks and to minimize the cost. The larger the primary mirror is, the more interesting it is to implement active optics for shape compensations. CNES is preparing next generation of earth observation satellite in the frame of OTOS (Observation de la Terre Optique Super-Résolue; High resolution earth observing optical system). OTOS is a technology program. In particular, optical technological developments and breadboards dedicated to active optics are on-going. The aim is to achieve TRL 5 to TRL6 for these new technologies and to validate the global performances of such an active telescope.

  2. Multi-platform laser communication networking optical antenna system design (United States)

    Zhang, Tao


    In this paper, a new conclusion based on rotating parabolic model and a different scheme of laser communication networking antenna system has been put forward in the paper. Based on rotating parabolic antenna, a new theory of the optical properties have been deduced, which can realize larger dynamic, duplex, networking communications among multiple platforms in 360° azimuth and pitch range. Meanwhile, depending on the operation mode of the system, multiple mathematical optimization models have been established. Tracking communication range, emission energy efficiency and receiving energy efficiency have been analyzed and optimized. Relationship among opening up and low apertures, the lens unit aperture, focal length of lens unit as well as rotating parabolic focal length have been analyzed. Tracking pitching range and emission energy utilization has carried on the theoretical derivation and optimization and networking platform link between energy receiver and transmitter has been analyzed. Taking some parameters of this new system into calculation, optimized results can be utilized with MATLAB software for its application and system of communication engineering. The rotating parabolic internal can form a hollow structure, which is utilized for miniaturization, light-weighted design and realize duplex communication in a wide range and distance. Circular orbit guidance is the modern way used in dynamic tracking system. The new theory and optical antenna system has widespread applications value as well.

  3. High-Density Optical Cable For Public Communications (United States)

    Trunk, Jonas; Monteiro, Ricardo


    Optical fiber networks for public communications are moving toward the subscribers and therefore feeder optical cables with relative great amount of fibers are needed. A 120 fibers cable has been designed with ten UV curable acrilate coated fibers accommodate together inside each plastic loose tube, and twelve these tubes are stranded around a central strength member resulting in a high packaging density construction. A cable prototipe has been manufactured and some tests was made under conditions which simulate the situations found during installation and after due to hostile environments.

  4. Optical fiber communication systems with Matlab and Simulink models

    CERN Document Server

    Binh, Le Nguyen


    ""This book adds an aspect of programming and simulation not so well developed in other books. It is complete in this sense and enables directly linking the physics of optical components and systems to realistic results.""-Martin Rochette, Associate Professor, McGill University, Quebec, Canada""…this will be an excellent textbook since it has all new development and information on optical communication systems…I think this book can easily replace many other textbooks in this field.""-Massoud Moussavi, California State Polytechnic University-Pomona""The book is well written. It describes the fu

  5. Adaptive Optics and NICMOS Uniqueness Space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Max, C.


    As part of the HST Second Decade Study a subgroup consisting of Claire Max, James Beletic, Donald McCarthy, and Keith Noll has analyzed the expected performance of near-infra-red adaptive optics systems on the new generation of 8-10 meter ground-based telescopes, for comparison with HST. In addition the subgroup has polled the adaptive optics community regarding expected adaptive optics performance over the coming five years. Responses have been received from representatives of most of the major telescopes: Gemini, VLT, Keck, LBT, and the MMT, as well as of several operational 3-4 meter telescope AO systems. The present document outlines the conclusions to date, with emphasis on aspects relevant to the NICMOS cryocooler Independent Science Review. In general the near-infra-red capabilities of the new ground-based adaptive optics systems will be complementary to the capabilities of NICMOS. For example NICMOS will have greater H-band sensitivity, broader wavelength coverage, and higher point-spread-function stability, whereas ground-based adaptive optics instruments will have higher spatial and spectral resolution. Section 2 of this report outlines the operational constraints faced by the first generation of adaptive optics (AO) systems on new 8-10 meter telescopes. Section 3 describes the areas of relative strength of near-infra-red observing from the ground via adaptive optics, compared with NICMOS. A Table gives an overview of the main strengths and weaknesses of these current-generation systems. Section 4 gives an indication of ground-based capabilities anticipated in the near future and in five to ten years. Section 5 contains a summary and conclusions.

  6. Research on key technology of space laser communication network (United States)

    Chang, Chengwu; Huang, Huiming; Liu, Hongyang; Gao, Shenghua; Cheng, Liyu


    Since the 21st century, Spatial laser communication has made a breakthrough development. Europe, the United States, Japan and other space powers have carried out the test of spatial laser communication technology on-orbit, and put forward a series of plans. In 2011, China made the first technology demonstration of satellite-ground laser communication carried by HY-2 satellite. Nowadays, in order to improve the transmission rate of spatial network, the topic of spatial laser communication network is becoming a research hotspot at home and abroad. This thesis, from the basic problem of spatial laser communication network to solve, analyzes the main difference between spatial network and ground network, which draws forth the key technology of spatial laser communication backbone network, and systematically introduces our research on aggregation, addressing, architecture of spatial network. From the perspective of technology development status and trends, the thesis proposes the development route of spatial laser communication network in stages. So as to provide reference about the development of spatial laser communication network in China.

  7. Digital nonlinearity compensation in high-capacity optical communication systems considering signal spectral broadening effect. (United States)

    Xu, Tianhua; Karanov, Boris; Shevchenko, Nikita A; Lavery, Domaniç; Liga, Gabriele; Killey, Robert I; Bayvel, Polina


    Nyquist-spaced transmission and digital signal processing have proved effective in maximising the spectral efficiency and reach of optical communication systems. In these systems, Kerr nonlinearity determines the performance limits, and leads to spectral broadening of the signals propagating in the fibre. Although digital nonlinearity compensation was validated to be promising for mitigating Kerr nonlinearities, the impact of spectral broadening on nonlinearity compensation has never been quantified. In this paper, the performance of multi-channel digital back-propagation (MC-DBP) for compensating fibre nonlinearities in Nyquist-spaced optical communication systems is investigated, when the effect of signal spectral broadening is considered. It is found that accounting for the spectral broadening effect is crucial for achieving the best performance of DBP in both single-channel and multi-channel communication systems, independent of modulation formats used. For multi-channel systems, the degradation of DBP performance due to neglecting the spectral broadening effect in the compensation is more significant for outer channels. Our work also quantified the minimum bandwidths of optical receivers and signal processing devices to ensure the optimal compensation of deterministic nonlinear distortions.

  8. An entropy maximization problem related to optical communication (United States)

    Mceliece, R. J.; Rodemich, E. R.; Swanson, L.


    In relation to a problem in optical communication, the paper considers the general problem of maximizing the entropy of a stationary radom process that is subject to an average transition cost constraint. By using a recent result of Justesen and Hoholdt, an exact solution to the problem is presented and a class of finite state encoders that give a good approximation to the exact solution is suggested.

  9. Qualification and Lessons Learned with Space Flight Fiber Optic Components (United States)

    Ott, Melanie


    This presentation covers lessons learned during the design, development, manufacturing and qualification of space flight fiber optic components. Changes at NASA, including short-term projects and decreased budgets have brought about changes to vendors and parts. Most photonics for NASA needs are now commercial off the shelf (COTS) products. The COTS Tecnology Assurance approach for space flight and qualification plans are outlined.

  10. Free-space wavelength-multiplexed optical scanner. (United States)

    Yaqoob, Z; Rizvi, A A; Riza, N A


    A wavelength-multiplexed optical scanning scheme is proposed for deflecting a free-space optical beam by selection of the wavelength of the light incident on a wavelength-dispersive optical element. With fast tunable lasers or optical filters, this scanner features microsecond domain scan setting speeds and large- diameter apertures of several centimeters or more for subdegree angular scans. Analysis performed indicates an optimum scan range for a given diffraction order and grating period. Limitations include beam-spreading effects based on the varying scanner aperture sizes and the instantaneous information bandwidth of the data-carrying laser beam.

  11. Laser damage test bench for space optics (United States)

    Riede, Wolfgang; Allenspacher, Paul


    At the German Aerospace Center in Stuttgart a laser damage test bench is run to evaluate damage thresholds of various optical components. The system setup is based on the current ISO standards 11254 [1-3] for single shot and multiple pulse operation. The laser damage test bench contains two repetitively pulsed laser sources, a Ti:Sapphire and a Nd:YAG laser, operating at wavelengths of 775 nm and 1064 nm, respectively. Harmonic wavelength converters to the visible spectral range are available. Both lasers are supplying the same damage testing rig. Online damage assessment techniques like sensitive scatter probe monitoring and video microscopy monitoring are used. The system is suited and has been tested extensively in the past for dielectric coated optics like beam turning mirrors, reflectors and windows, nonlinear optical components, semiconductors, and laser crystals. The damage test bench is located in a class 10,000 cleanroom environment under a laminar flowbox providing an additional isolation factor of >103. The tests can also be performed in sealed optical compartments in partial vacuum and under long term irradiation conditions. All experiments are supported by theoretical simulation of laser-material interactions, down to the sub-ps timescale [4].

  12. Autonomous Deep-Space Optical Navigation Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Every one of the future exploration architectures being considered by NASA have, at their core, the need to rendezvous and dock with other vehicles or bodies. ...

  13. Data acquisition remote node powered over the communications optical fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista, Antonio J.N., E-mail:; Sousa, Jorge; Gonçalves, Bruno


    Large nuclear fusion reactors, like ITER, will have harsh electromagnetic environments nearby the machine. Foreseeing the necessity for special data acquisition remote nodes, on difficult access locations and as close as possible to the experimental devices, motivated the system design. The architecture is based on the power-over-fiber technology recent advancements and respective implementation aim is to attain a proof of concept for the fusion technology field and others, e.g., high energy physics, industry, etc. The design intends the replacement of traditional copper cables and power supplies, vulnerable to electromagnetic interference, by the communications optical fiber of the data acquisition remote node. Optical fibers provide galvanic isolation, immunity to noisy electromagnetic environments and simultaneously can supply power to the remote node electronics. System architecture uses a laser power converter (array of photovoltaic cells) to convert the laser light, from the optical fiber, into electricity. The generated electrical power is enough for powering the remote node electronics and optoelectronics, such as an ADC, a low power FPGA and an optical transmitter. The laser power converter is also used as the communications receiver and from which the acquisition clock is recovered, providing synchronism between remote data acquisition nodes. Descriptions of the system architecture, tested implementations and future improvements are presented.

  14. Stokes-vector direct detection for optical communications (United States)

    Shieh, William; Li, An; Che, Di; Yuan, Feng; Khodakarami, Hamid


    To cope with the exponential growth of the Internet traffic, optical communications has advanced by leaps and bounds. For several decades, Intensity modulation with direct detection (IM-DD) dominates the commercial short-reach optical communications. However, when upgrading the data-rate distance product to 1000 Gb/s·km per wavelength and beyond, IM-DD faces severe performance barrier. Aiming to improve the electrical SE and extend the transmission distance, advanced DD modulation formats have been proposed through a so-called self-coherent (SCOH) approach, where a carrier is transmitted together with the signal to achieve a linear mapping between the electrical baseband signal and the optical field. In that way, the impact of the CD can be removed from the received signal, greatly extending the transmission distance of the DD system. Particularly, Stokes-vector direct detection (SV-DD) has been proposed to realize linear complex optical channels as well as enhance the electrical spectral efficiency and transmission reach. In this talk, we present the principle and discuss the performance of SV-DD systems.

  15. Rejuvenating direct modulation and direct detection for modern optical communications (United States)

    Che, Di; Li, An; Chen, Xi; Hu, Qian; Shieh, William


    High-speed transoceanic optical fiber transmission using direct modulation (DM) and direct detection (DD) was one of the most stirring breakthroughs for telecommunication in 1990s, which drove the internet as a global phenomenon. However, the later evolution of optical coherent communications in 2000s gradually took over the long-haul applications, due to its superior optical spectral efficiency. Nowadays, DM-DD systems are dominant mainly in cost- and power-sensitive short-reach applications, because of its natural characteristics-the simplicity. This paper reviews the recent advances of DM-DD transceivers from both hardware and signal processing perspectives. It introduces a variety of modified DM and/or DD systems for 3 application scenarios: very-short-reach interconnect with little fiber channel impact; single or a few spans of fiber transmission up to several hundred km; and distance beyond the 2nd scenario. Besides the DM-DD and multi-dimension DM-DD with polarization diversity, this paper focuses on how to rejuvenate traditional DM and DD technologies in order to bridge the transmission application gap between DM-DD and coherent transceivers, using technologies such as dispersion compensation, signal field recovery from the intensity-only DD receiver, and complex direct modulation with coherent detection. More than 30 years since the birth, DM and DD still hold indispensable roles in modern optical communications.

  16. Entangled and non-line-of-sight (NLOS) free-space photon quantum communication [Invited (United States)

    Meyers, Ronald E.; Deacon, Keith S.


    Feature Issue on Optical Wireless Communications (OWC) We present new quantum communication (QC) schemes suitable for free-space (wireless) QC implementation. In particular, we present several entangled QC schemes and propose non-line-of-sight (NLOS) free-space photon QC. It is shown that in the presence of atmospheric scattering media, UV photons can be used for NLOS QC. Non-Poisson quantum fluctuations in an invariance regime can propagate farther than coherent laser speckle. In such situations the non-Poissonian statistics survive over long distances and should be taggable with a polarization signature. Quantum noise observables scale markedly differently with scattering parameters compared to classical noise observables. Variation of the polarization should allow Yuen-Kumar QC using non-Poissonian statistics of the beam as an authentication of the signal. The NLOS communication in the UV would be expected to be possible to at least a range of 1 km and falls under the category of deliberately short-range QC. Applications of importance for this method include military stealth and optical communication in the presence of obstacles such as a forest or urban environment.

  17. Architecting Communication Network of Networks for Space System of Systems (United States)

    Bhasin, Kul B.; Hayden, Jeffrey L.


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Department of Defense (DoD) are planning Space System of Systems (SoS) to address the new challenges of space exploration, defense, communications, navigation, Earth observation, and science. In addition, these complex systems must provide interoperability, enhanced reliability, common interfaces, dynamic operations, and autonomy in system management. Both NASA and the DoD have chosen to meet the new demands with high data rate communication systems and space Internet technologies that bring Internet Protocols (IP), routers, servers, software, and interfaces to space networks to enable as much autonomous operation of those networks as possible. These technologies reduce the cost of operations and, with higher bandwidths, support the expected voice, video, and data needed to coordinate activities at each stage of an exploration mission. In this paper, we discuss, in a generic fashion, how the architectural approaches and processes are being developed and used for defining a hypothetical communication and navigation networks infrastructure to support lunar exploration. Examples are given of the products generated by the architecture development process.

  18. Lessons from Communicating Space Science Over the Web (United States)

    Dooling, David, Jr.; Triese, D.


    The Science Directorate at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center uses the web in an aggressive manner to expand communications beyond the traditional "public affairs" or "media relations" routines. The key to success has been developing a balanced process that A) involves laboratory personnel and the NASA center community through a weekly Science Communications Roundtable, B) vests ownership and development of the product (i.e., the story) in the scientist a writer resident in the laboratory, and C) seeks taps the talents of the outside communications community through the Research/Roadmap Communications activity. The process is flexible and responsive, allowing Science@NASA to provide daily coverage for events, such as two materials science missions managed by NASA/Marshall. In addition to developing materials for the web, Science@NASA has conducted extensive research to determine what subjects people seek on the web, and the best methods to position stories so they will be found and read.

  19. On the Performance Analysis of Free-Space Optical Links under Generalized Turbulence and Misalignment Models

    KAUST Repository

    AlQuwaiee, Hessa


    One of the potential solutions to the radio frequency (RF) spectrum scarcity problem is optical wireless communications (OWC), which utilizes the unlicensed optical spectrum. Long-range outdoor OWC are usually referred to in the literature as free-space optical (FSO) communications. Unlike RF systems, FSO is immune to interference and multi-path fading. Also, the deployment of FSO systems is flexible and much faster than optical fibers. These attractive features make FSO applicable for broadband wireless transmission such as optical fiber backup, metropolitan area network, and last mile access. Although FSO communication is a promising technology, it is negatively affected by two physical phenomenon, namely, scintillation due to atmospheric turbulence and pointing errors. These two critical issues have prompted intensive research in the last decade. To quantify the effect of these two factors on FSO system performance, we need effective mathematical models. In this work, we propose and study a generalized pointing error model based on the Beckmann distribution. Then, we aim to generalize the FSO channel model to span all turbulence conditions from weak to strong while taking pointing errors into consideration. Since scintillation in FSO is analogous to the fading phenomena in RF, diversity has been proposed too to overcome the effect of irradiance fluctuations. Thus, several combining techniques of not necessarily independent dual-branch free-space optical links were investigated over both weak and strong turbulence channels in the presence of pointing errors. On another front, improving the performance, enhancing the capacity and reducing the delay of the communication link has been the motivation of any newly developed schemes, especially for backhauling. Recently, there has been a growing interest in practical systems to integrate RF and FSO technologies to solve the last mile bottleneck. As such, we also study in this thesis asymmetric an RF-FSO dual-hop relay

  20. Nonlinear effects in ultralong semiconductor optical amplifiers for optical communications. Physics and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runge, Patrick


    The presented work discusses physical properties of ultralong semiconductor optical amplifiers (UL-SOAs) and some of their possible applications in optical communication systems. At the beginning of this thesis the analytical framework for the optical properties of UL-SOAs is presented. Based on this theoretical description, a numerical simulation model is derived used for the investigation of this thesis. To obtain from the simulation model realistic results the important properties of UL-SOAs have to be included, e.g., being the saturation of the main part of the device. In this saturated part of the device, fast intraband effects dominate over the slow interband effects. The intention of UL-SOAs is to make use of these pronounced fast intraband effects in applications. Due to the short relaxation times of the fast intraband effects, they can be used for high-speed signal processing (>20 GBaud). With the help of an additional continuous wave (CW) signal propagating with the data signal in the UL-SOA, the capability for all-optical signal processing with 100 Gbit/s on-off keying RZ-50% pseudo random bit sequence signals has been demonstrated in this thesis. With an optimised device under proper driving conditions, bit pattern effects are negligible compared to the degradation due to amplified spontaneous emission. The suppression of the bit pattern effects can be ascribed to the additional CW signal operating as a holding beam. Investigations of the UL-SOA's driving condition showed that the data signal's extinction ratio (ER) can be regenerated if the two input signals are co-polarised and the data signal has a shorter wavelength than the CW signal. These two and other driving conditions have indicated, that parametric amplification due to four-wave mixing (FWM) (Bogatov-like effect) is the reason for the ER improvement. Moreover, due to the additional CW signal, all-optical wavelength conversion (AOWC) is possible which can be combined with the ER

  1. Silicon Nanowires for All-Optical Signal Processing in Optical Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pu, Minhao; Hu, Hao; Ji, Hua


    such as four-wave mixing (FWM) which is an imperative process for optical signal processing. Since the current mature silicon fabrication technology enables a precise dimension control on nanowires, dispersion engineering can be performed by tailoring nanowire dimensions to realize an efficient nonlinear...... process. In the last four years, we investigated and demonstrated different ultra-fast all-optical nonlinear signal processing applications in silicon nanowires for optical time domain multiplexing (OTDM) systems, including wavelength conversion, signal regeneration, ultra-fast waveform sampling......, demultiplexing, and multicasting, which shows great potentials in the future optical communication systems. Although the strong light confinement in nanowires allows efficient nonlinear optical signal processing, it also leads to coupling difficulty between on-chip sub-micron nanowires and micro-size fibers due...

  2. Advancing Unmanned Aircraft Sensor Collection and Communication Capabilities with Optical Communications (United States)

    Lukaczyk, T.


    Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) are now being used for monitoring climate change over both land and seas. Their uses include monitoring of cloud conditions and atmospheric composition of chemicals and aerosols due to pollution, dust storms, fires, volcanic activity and air-sea fluxes. Additional studies of carbon flux are important for various ecosystem studies of both marine and terrestrial environments specifically, and can be related to climate change dynamics. Many measurements are becoming more complex as additional sensors become small enough to operate on more widely available small UAS. These include interferometric radars as well as scanning and fan-beam lidar systems which produce data streams even greater than those of high resolution video. These can be used to precisely map surfaces of the earth, ocean or ice features that are important for a variety of earth system studies. As these additional sensor capabilities are added to UAS the ability to transmit data back to ground or ship monitoring sites is limited by traditional wireless communication protocols. We describe results of tests of optical communication systems that provide significantly greater communication bandwidths for UAS, and discuss both the bandwidth and effective range of these systems, as well as their power and weight requirements both for systems on UAS, as well as those of ground-based receiver stations. We justify our additional use of Delay and Disruption Tolerant Networking (DTN) communication protocols with optical communication methods to ensure security and continuity of command and control operations. Finally, we discuss the implications for receiving, geo-referencing, archiving and displaying data streams from sensors communicated via optical communication to better enable real-time anomaly detection and adaptive sampling capabilities using multiple UAS or other unmanned or manned systems.

  3. Performance comparison of a fiber optic communication system based on optical OFDM and an optical OFDM-MIMO with Alamouti code by using numerical simulations (United States)

    Serpa-Imbett, C. M.; Marín-Alfonso, J.; Gómez-Santamaría, C.; Betancur-Agudelo, L.; Amaya-Fernández, F.


    Space division multiplexing in multicore fibers is one of the most promise technologies in order to support transmissions of next-generation peta-to-exaflop-scale supercomputers and mega data centers, owing to advantages in terms of costs and space saving of the new optical fibers with multiple cores. Additionally, multicore fibers allow photonic signal processing in optical communication systems, taking advantage of the mode coupling phenomena. In this work, we numerically have simulated an optical MIMO-OFDM (multiple-input multiple-output orthogonal frequency division multiplexing) by using the coded Alamouti to be transmitted through a twin-core fiber with low coupling. Furthermore, an optical OFDM is transmitted through a core of a singlemode fiber, using pilot-aided channel estimation. We compare the transmission performance in the twin-core fiber and in the singlemode fiber taking into account numerical results of the bit-error rate, considering linear propagation, and Gaussian noise through an optical fiber link. We carry out an optical fiber transmission of OFDM frames using 8 PSK and 16 QAM, with bit rates values of 130 Gb/s and 170 Gb/s, respectively. We obtain a penalty around 4 dB for the 8 PSK transmissions, after 100 km of linear fiber optic propagation for both singlemode and twin core fiber. We obtain a penalty around 6 dB for the 16 QAM transmissions, with linear propagation after 100 km of optical fiber. The transmission in a two-core fiber by using Alamouti coded OFDM-MIMO exhibits a better performance, offering a good alternative in the mitigation of fiber impairments, allowing to expand Alamouti coded in multichannel systems spatially multiplexed in multicore fibers.

  4. Grating-based real-time smart optics for biomedicine and communications (United States)

    Yaqoob, Zahid

    Novel photonic systems are proposed and experimentally validated using active as well as passive wavelength dispersive optical devices in unique fashions to solve important system level application problems in biomedicine and laser communications. Specifically for the first time are proposed, high dynamic range variable optical attenuators (VOAs) using bulk acousto-optics (AO). These AO-based architectures have excellent characteristics such as high laser damage threshold (e.g., 1 Watt CW laser power operations), large (e.g., >40 dB) dynamic range, and microsecond domain attenuation setting speed. The demonstrated architectures show potentials for compact, low static insertion loss, and low power VOA designs for wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) fiber-optic communication networks and high speed photonic signal processing for optical and radio frequency (RF) radar and electronic warfare (EW). Acoustic diffraction of light in isotropic media has been manipulated to design and demonstrate on a proof-of-principle basis, the first bulk AO-based optical coherence tomography (OCT) system for high-resolution sub-surface tissue diagnostics. As opposed to the current OCT systems that use mechanical means to generate optical delays, both free-space as well as fiber-optic AO-based OCT systems utilize unique electronically-controlled acousto-optically switched no-moving parts optical delay lines and therefore promise microsecond speed OCT data acquisition rates. The proposed OCT systems also feature high (e.g., >100 MHz) intermediate frequency for low 1/f noise heterodyne detection. For the first time, two agile laser beam steering schemes that are members of a new beam steering technology known as Multiplexed-Optical Scanner Technology (MOST) are theoretically investigated and experimentally demonstrated. The new scanner technologies are based on wavelength and space manipulations and possess remarkable features such as a no-moving parts fast (e.g., microseconds domain or

  5. Extreme Universe Space Observatory (EUSO) Optics Module (United States)

    Young, Roy; Christl, Mark


    A demonstration part will be manufactured in Japan on one of the large Toshiba machines with a diameter of 2.5 meters. This will be a flat PMMA disk that is cut between 0.5 and 1.25 meters radius. The cut should demonstrate manufacturing the most difficult parts of the 2.5 meter Fresnel pattern and the blazed grating on the diffractive surface. Optical simulations, validated with the subscale prototype, will be used to determine the limits on manufacturing errors (tolerances) that will result in optics that meet EUSO s requirements. There will be limits on surface roughness (or errors at high spatial frequency); radial and azimuthal slope errors (at lower spatial frequencies) and plunge cut depth errors in the blazed grating. The demonstration part will be measured to determine whether it was made within the allowable tolerances.

  6. Invited Article: Polarization diversity and modulation for high-speed optical communications: architectures and capacity (United States)

    Shieh, William; Khodakarami, Hamid; Che, Di


    Polarization is one of the fundamental properties of optical waves. To cope with the exponential growth of the Internet traffic, optical communications has advanced by leaps and bounds within the last decade. For the first time, the polarization domain has been extensively explored for high-speed optical communications. In this paper, we discuss the general principle of polarization modulation in both Jones and Stokes spaces. We show that there is no linear optical device capable of transforming an arbitrary input polarization into one that is orthogonal to itself. This excludes the receiver self-polarization diversity architecture by splitting the signal into two branches, and then transferring one of the branches into orthogonal polarization. We next propose a novel Stokes vector (SV) detection architecture using four single-ended photodiodes (PD) that can recover a full set of SV. We then derive a closed-form expression for the information capacity of different SV detection architectures and compare the capacity of our proposed architectures with that of intensity-modulated directly-detected (IM/DD) method. We next study the 3-PD SV detection architecture where a subset of SV is detected, and devise a novel modulation algorithm that can achieve 2-dimensional modulation with the 3-PD detection. By using cost-effective SV receivers, polarization modulation and multiplexing offers a powerful solution for short-reach optical networks where the wavelength domain is quickly exhausted.

  7. Free Space Optics for Next Generation Cellular Backhaul

    KAUST Repository

    Zedini, Emna


    The exponential increase in the number of mobile users, coupled with the strong demand for high-speed data services results in a significant growth in the required cellular backhaul capacity. Optimizing the cost efficiency while increasing the capacity is becoming a key challenge to the cellular backhaul. It refers to connections between base stations and mobile switching nodes over a variety of transport technologies such as copper, optical fibers, and radio links. These traditional transmission technologies are either expensive, or cannot provide high data rates. This work is focused on the opportunities of free-space-optical (FSO) technology in next generation cellular back- haul. FSO is a cost effective and wide bandwidth solution as compared with the traditional radio-frequency (RF) transmission. Moreover, due to its ease of deployment, license-free operation, high transmission security, and insensitivity to interference, FSO links are becoming an attractive solution for next generation cellular networks. However, the widespread deployment of FSO links is hampered by the atmospheric turbulence-induced fading, weather conditions, and pointing errors. Increasing the reliability of FSO systems, while still exploiting their high data rate communications, is a key requirement in the deployment of an FSO-based backhaul. Therefore, the aim of this work is to provide different approaches to address these technical challenges. In this context, investigation of hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) protocols from an information-theoretic perspective is undertaken. Moreover, performance analysis of asymmetric RF/FSO dual-hop systems is studied. In such system models, multiple RF users can be multiplexed and sent over the FSO link. More specifically, the end-to-end performance metrics are presented in closed-form. This also has increased the interest to study the performance of dual-hop mixed FSO/RF systems, where the FSO link is used as a multicast channel that serves

  8. Interference-Assisted Techniques for Transmission and Multiple Access in Optical Communications (United States)

    Guan, Xun

    Optical communications can be in wired or wireless form. Fiber optics communication (FOC) connects transmitters and receivers with optical fiber. Benefiting from its high bandwidth, low cost per volume and stability, it gains a significant market share in long-haul networks, access networks and data centers. Meanwhile, optical wireless communication (OWC) is also emerging as a crucial player in the communication market. In OWC, free-space optical communication (FSO) and visible light communication (VLC) are being studied and commercially deployed extensively. Interference is a common phenomenon in multi-user communication systems. In both FOC and OWC, interference has long been treated as a detrimental effect. However, it could also be beneficial to system applications. The effort of harnessing interference has spurred numerous innovations. Interesting examples are physical-layer network coding (PNC) and non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA). The first part of this thesis in on the topic of PNC. PNC was firstly proposed in wireless communication to improve the throughput of a two-way relay network (TWRN). As a variation of network coding (NC), PNC turns the common channel interference (CCI) as a natural network coding operation. In this thesis, PNC is introduced into optical communication. Three schemes are proposed in different scenarios. Firstly, PNC is applied to a coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (CO-OFDM) system so as to improve the throughput of the multicast network. The optical signal to noise ratio (OSNR) penalty is quite low. Secondly, we investigate the application of PNC in an OFDM passive optical network (OFDM-PON) supporting heterogeneous services. It is found that only minor receiver power penalties are observed to realize PNC-based virtual private networks (VPN), both in the wired service part and the wireless service part in an OFDM-PON with heterogeneous services. Thirdly, we innovate relay-based visible light

  9. Effect analysis of oil paint on the space optical contamination (United States)

    Lu, Chun-lian; Lv, He; Han, Chun-xu; Wei, Hai-Bin


    The space contamination of spacecraft surface is a hot topic in the spacecraft environment project and environment safeguard for spacecraft. Since the 20th century, many American satellites have had malfunction for space contamination. The space optical systems are usually exposed to the external space environment. The particulate contamination of optical systems will degrade the detection ability. We call the optical damage. It also has a bad influence on the spectral imaging quality of the whole system. In this paper, effects of contamination on spectral imaging were discussed. The experiment was designed to observe the effect value. We used numeral curve fitting to analyze the relationship between the optical damage factor (Transmittance decay factor) and the contamination degree of the optical system. We gave the results of six specific wavelengths from 450 to 700nm and obtained the function of between the optical damage factor and contamination degree. We chose three colors of oil paint to be compared. Through the numeral curve fitting and processing data, we could get the mass thickness for different colors of oil paint when transmittance decreased to 50% and 30%. Some comparisons and research conclusions were given. From the comparisons and researches, we could draw the conclusions about contamination effects of oil paint on the spectral imaging system.

  10. Silicon carbide optics for space and ground based astronomical telescopes (United States)

    Robichaud, Joseph; Sampath, Deepak; Wainer, Chris; Schwartz, Jay; Peton, Craig; Mix, Steve; Heller, Court


    Silicon Carbide (SiC) optical materials are being applied widely for both space based and ground based optical telescopes. The material provides a superior weight to stiffness ratio, which is an important metric for the design and fabrication of lightweight space telescopes. The material also has superior thermal properties with a low coefficient of thermal expansion, and a high thermal conductivity. The thermal properties advantages are important for both space based and ground based systems, which typically need to operate under stressing thermal conditions. The paper will review L-3 Integrated Optical Systems - SSG’s (L-3 SSG) work in developing SiC optics and SiC optical systems for astronomical observing systems. L-3 SSG has been fielding SiC optical components and systems for over 25 years. Space systems described will emphasize the recently launched Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) developed for JHU-APL and NASA-GSFC. Review of ground based applications of SiC will include supporting L-3 IOS-Brashear’s current contract to provide the 0.65 meter diameter, aspheric SiC secondary mirror for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST).

  11. The Fiber Optic Subsystem Components on Express Logistics Carrier for International Space Station (United States)

    Ott, Melanie N.; Switzer, Robert; Thomes, William Joe; Chuska, Richard; LaRocca, Frank; Day, Lance


    ISS SSP 50184 HRDL optical fiber communication subsystem, has system level requirements that were changed to accommodate large loss optical fiber links previously installed. SSQ22680 design is difficult to implement, no metal shell over socket/pin combination to protect the weak part of the pin. Additions to ISS are planned for the future. AVIM still used for interconnection in space flight applications without incident. Thermal cycling resulted in less than 0.25 dB max change in Insertion Loss for all types during cycling, nominal as compared to the AVIM. Vibration testing results conclusion; no significant changes, nominal as compared to AVIM.

  12. Transmission of multi-dimensional signals for next generation optical communication systems (United States)

    Yi, Anlin; Yan, Lianshan; Pan, Yan; Jiang, Lin; Chen, Zhiyu; Pan, Wei; Luo, Bin


    Over the past several decades, the data-carrying capacity of a single optical fiber have been increased significantly by fully exploring and optimizing physical dimensions of the light. Generally there are five major candidates of dimensions, including time, wavelength, polarization, space and quadrature (phase and amplitude). Multi-dimension, utilizing more than two dimensions of the light simultaneously, is one of the essential characteristics of next generation optical communication systems. We review recent advances in transmission of multi-dimensional signals, and highlight innovative ways of exploring the polarization dimension to further increase the capacity or spectral efficiency of a single optical fiber, a so-called pseudo-polarization-division-multiplexing (PPDM) technique. Related demonstrations include non-orthogonal PDM, PPDM of three and four states (PPDM-3 and PPDM-4). Brief discussions on trends of multi-dimensional signal transmission technologies are also presented.

  13. Optical wireless communication using positive real-valued orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing and optical beamforming (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Man; Kwon, Ki-Keun


    The relatively unsatisfactory performance of optical wireless communication (OWC) with respect to WiFi and millimeter-wave communications has formed a key issue preventing its commercialization. We experimentally demonstrate an OWC technology using a combination of positive real-valued orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) and optical beamforming (OB). Due to the intensity-modulation and direct-detection aspects of OWC systems, a positive real-valued OFDM signal can be suitably utilized to maximize the OWC data rate. Further, the OB technique, which can focus laser light on a desired target, can be utilized to increase the OWC data rate and transmission distance. Our experimental results show that the received optical signal power and electrical signal increase by up to 42 and 25 dB, respectively. Further, the data rate increases by a factor of 200 with OB over the conventional approach.

  14. Liquid crystal optics for communications, signal processing and 3-D microscopic imaging (United States)

    Khan, Sajjad Ali

    This dissertation proposes, studies and experimentally demonstrates novel liquid crystal (LC) optics to solve challenging problems in RF and photonic signal processing, freespace and fiber optic communications and microscopic imaging. These include free-space optical scanners for military and optical wireless applications, variable fiber-optic attenuators for optical communications, photonic control techniques for phased array antennas and radar, and 3-D microscopic imaging. At the heart of the applications demonstrated in this thesis are LC devices that are non-pixelated and can be controlled either electrically or optically. Instead of the typical pixel-by-pixel control as is custom in LC devices, the phase profile across the aperture of these novel LC devices is varied through the use of high impedance layers. Due to the presence of the high impedance layer, there forms a voltage gradient across the aperture of such a device which results in a phase gradient across the LC layer which in turn is accumulated by the optical beam traversing through this LC device. The geometry of the electrical contacts that are used to apply the external voltage will define the nature of the phase gradient present across the optical beam. In order to steer a laser beam in one angular dimension, straight line electrical contacts are used to form a one dimensional phase gradient while an annular electrical contact results in a circularly symmetric phase profile across the optical beam making it suitable for focusing the optical beam. The geometry of the electrical contacts alone is not sufficient to form the linear and the quadratic phase profiles that are required to either deflect or focus an optical beam. Clever use of the phase response of a typical nematic liquid crystal (NLC) is made such that the linear response region is used for the angular beam deflection while the high voltage quadratic response region is used for focusing the beam. Employing an NLC deflector, a device

  15. Wireless Network Communications Overview for Space Mission Operations (United States)

    Fink, Patrick W.


    The mission of the On-Board Wireless Working Group (WWG) is to serve as a general CCSDS focus group for intra-vehicle wireless technologies. The WWG investigates and makes recommendations pursuant to standardization of applicable wireless network protocols, ensuring the interoperability of independently developed wireless communication assets. This document presents technical background information concerning uses and applicability of wireless networking technologies for space missions. Agency-relevant driving scenarios, for which wireless network communications will provide a significant return-on-investment benefiting the participating international agencies, are used to focus the scope of the enclosed technical information.

  16. New electro-optic laser scanners for small-sat to ground laser communication links (United States)

    Davis, Scott R.; Johnson, Seth T.; Rommel, Scott D.; Anderson, Michael H.; Chen, Jimmy; Chao, Tien-Hsin


    In this paper we present new electro-optic beam steering technology and propose to combine it with optical telecommunication technology, thereby enabling low cost, compact, and rugged free space optical (FSO) communication modules for small-sat applications. Small satellite applications, particularly those characterized as "micro-sats" are often highly constrained by their ability to provide high bandwidth science data to the ground. This will often limit the relevance of even highly capable payloads due to the lack of data availability. FSO modules with unprecedented cost and size, weight, and power (SWaP) advantages will enable multi-access FSO networks to spread across previously inaccessible platforms. An example system would fit within a few cubic inch volume, require less than 1 watt of power and be able to provide ground station tracking (including orbital motion over wide angles and jitter correction) with a 50 to 100 Mbps downlink and no moving parts. This is possible, for the first time, because of emergent and unprecedented electro-optic (EO) laser scanners which will replace expensive, heavy, and power-consuming gimbal mechanisms. In this paper we will describe the design, construction, and performance of these new scanners. Specific examples to be discussed include an all electro-optic beamsteer with a 60 degree by 40 degree field of view. We will also present designs for a cube-sat to ground flight demonstration. This development would provide a significant enhancement in capabilities for future NASA and other Government and industry space projects.

  17. Microresonator-based solitons for massively parallel coherent optical communications (United States)

    Marin-Palomo, Pablo; Kemal, Juned N.; Karpov, Maxim; Kordts, Arne; Pfeifle, Joerg; Pfeiffer, Martin H. P.; Trocha, Philipp; Wolf, Stefan; Brasch, Victor; Anderson, Miles H.; Rosenberger, Ralf; Vijayan, Kovendhan; Freude, Wolfgang; Kippenberg, Tobias J.; Koos, Christian


    Solitons are waveforms that preserve their shape while propagating, as a result of a balance of dispersion and nonlinearity. Soliton-based data transmission schemes were investigated in the 1980s and showed promise as a way of overcoming the limitations imposed by dispersion of optical fibres. However, these approaches were later abandoned in favour of wavelength-division multiplexing schemes, which are easier to implement and offer improved scalability to higher data rates. Here we show that solitons could make a comeback in optical communications, not as a competitor but as a key element of massively parallel wavelength-division multiplexing. Instead of encoding data on the soliton pulse train itself, we use continuous-wave tones of the associated frequency comb as carriers for communication. Dissipative Kerr solitons (DKSs) (solitons that rely on a double balance of parametric gain and cavity loss, as well as dispersion and nonlinearity) are generated as continuously circulating pulses in an integrated silicon nitride microresonator via four-photon interactions mediated by the Kerr nonlinearity, leading to low-noise, spectrally smooth, broadband optical frequency combs. We use two interleaved DKS frequency combs to transmit a data stream of more than 50 terabits per second on 179 individual optical carriers that span the entire telecommunication C and L bands (centred around infrared telecommunication wavelengths of 1.55 micrometres). We also demonstrate coherent detection of a wavelength-division multiplexing data stream by using a pair of DKS frequency combs—one as a multi-wavelength light source at the transmitter and the other as the corresponding local oscillator at the receiver. This approach exploits the scalability of microresonator-based DKS frequency comb sources for massively parallel optical communications at both the transmitter and the receiver. Our results demonstrate the potential of these sources to replace the arrays of continuous-wave lasers

  18. Design of optical systems for large space telescopes (United States)

    Malamed, Evgeny R.; Sokolsky, M. N.


    On the basis of long-term experience of LOMO PLC in creating large optical systems for ground and space telescopes, with diameter of primary mirror from 1 to 6 meters, the following issues should be considered: principles of constructing optical systems for space telescopes and selecting their optimum design in respect of dimensions/mass and performance criteria; ensuring the fulfillment of image quality requirements in the process of manufacturing optical systems for controlling ground telescope elements in operating conditions; providing automatic adjustment of telescope secondary mirror, automatic focusing, interferometric control of image quality by means of stellar interferometer with radial shift and internal control with Gartman's test. Description of space telescope equipped with primary mirror of diameter 1.5 m, manufactured in LOMO PLC, is given.

  19. Nantenna for Standard 1550 nm Optical Communication Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed Tariq Sethi


    Full Text Available Nanoscale transmission and reception technologies will play a vital role and be part of the next generation communication networks. This applies for all application fields including imaging, health, biosensing, civilian, and military communications. The detection of light frequency using nanooptical antennas may possibly become a good competitor to the semiconductor based photodetector because of the simplicity of integration, cost, and inherent capability to detect the phase and amplitude instead of power only. In this paper, authors propose simulated design of a hexagonal dielectric loaded nantenna (HDLN and explore its potential benefits at the standard optical C-band (1550 nm. The proposed nantenna consists of “Ag-SiO2-Ag” structure, consisting of “Si” hexagonal dielectric with equal lengths fed by “Ag” nanostrip transmission line. The simulated nantenna achieves an impedance bandwidth of 3.7% (190.9 THz–198.1 THz and a directivity of 8.6 dBi, at a center frequency of 193.5 THz, covering most of the ITU-T standard optical transmission window (C-band. The hexagonal dielectric nantenna produces HE20δ modes and the wave propagation is found to be end-fire. The efficiency of the nantenna is proven via numerical expressions, thus making the proposed design viable for nanonetwork communications.

  20. Optical chaos synchronization and encrypted communications of VCSEL by direct optical injection (United States)

    Hosomi, Naohito; Sasaki, Wakao


    In this work, we propose electro-optical nonlinear delayed feedback systems (NDFS) for optical secure communications using VCSEL for the first time. Its optical output can perform more sensitive chaotic dynamics by varying only a few mA of injection current range resulting in very significant charges of VCSEL's operation conditions from threshold to maximum rating. This enables us to vary chaotic output dynamically by a slight difference of initial values in NDFS. We have proposed a chaos synchronization system using two identical NDFS's of VCSEL, and realized chaos synchronization by optical injection. As a result of experiment the correlation coefficient up to about 0.88 was obtained. Moreover, by varying the delay time and feedback gain in the parameters of NDFSs, we have confirmed that the variations of these parameters may affect variations of correlation.

  1. MEMS-Based Communications Systems for Space-Based Applications (United States)

    DeLosSantos, Hector J.; Brunner, Robert A.; Lam, Juan F.; Hackett, Le Roy H.; Lohr, Ross F., Jr.; Larson, Lawrence E.; Loo, Robert Y.; Matloubian, Mehran; Tangonan, Gregory L.


    As user demand for higher capacity and flexibility in communications satellites increases, new ways to cope with the inherent limitations posed by the prohibitive mass and power consumption, needed to satisfy those requirements, are under investigation. Recent studies suggest that while new satellite architectures are necessary to enable multi-user, multi-data rate, multi-location satellite links, these new architectures will inevitably increase power consumption, and in turn, spacecraft mass, to such an extent that their successful implementation will demand novel lightweight/low power hardware approaches. In this paper, following a brief introduction to the fundamentals of communications satellites, we address the impact of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology, in particular micro-electro-mechanical (MEM) switches to mitigate the above mentioned problems and show that low-loss/wide bandwidth MEM switches will go a long way towards enabling higher capacity and flexibility space-based communications systems.

  2. Applying Model Based Systems Engineering to NASA's Space Communications Networks (United States)

    Bhasin, Kul; Barnes, Patrick; Reinert, Jessica; Golden, Bert


    System engineering practices for complex systems and networks now require that requirement, architecture, and concept of operations product development teams, simultaneously harmonize their activities to provide timely, useful and cost-effective products. When dealing with complex systems of systems, traditional systems engineering methodology quickly falls short of achieving project objectives. This approach is encumbered by the use of a number of disparate hardware and software tools, spreadsheets and documents to grasp the concept of the network design and operation. In case of NASA's space communication networks, since the networks are geographically distributed, and so are its subject matter experts, the team is challenged to create a common language and tools to produce its products. Using Model Based Systems Engineering methods and tools allows for a unified representation of the system in a model that enables a highly related level of detail. To date, Program System Engineering (PSE) team has been able to model each network from their top-level operational activities and system functions down to the atomic level through relational modeling decomposition. These models allow for a better understanding of the relationships between NASA's stakeholders, internal organizations, and impacts to all related entities due to integration and sustainment of existing systems. Understanding the existing systems is essential to accurate and detailed study of integration options being considered. In this paper, we identify the challenges the PSE team faced in its quest to unify complex legacy space communications networks and their operational processes. We describe the initial approaches undertaken and the evolution toward model based system engineering applied to produce Space Communication and Navigation (SCaN) PSE products. We will demonstrate the practice of Model Based System Engineering applied to integrating space communication networks and the summary of its

  3. OPSys: optical payload systems facility for testing space coronagraphs (United States)

    Fineschi, S.; Crescenzio, G.; Massone, G.; Capobianco, G.; Zangrilli, L.; Antonucci, E.; Anselmi, F.


    The Turin Astronomical Observatory, Italy, has implemented in ALTEC, Turin, a new Optical Payload Systems (OPSys) facility for testing of contamination sensitive optical space flight instrumentation. The facility is specially tailored for tests on solar instruments like coronagraphs. OPSys comprises an ISO 7 clean room for instrument assembly and a relatively large (4.4 m3) optical test and calibration vacuum chamber: the Space Optics Calibration Chamber (SPOCC). SPOCC consists of a test section with a vacuum-compatible motorized optical bench, and of a pipeline section with a sun simulator at the opposite end of the optical bench hosting the instrumentation under tests. The solar simulator is an off-axis parabolic mirror collimating the light from the source with the solar angular divergence. After vacuum conditioning, the chamber will operate at an ultimate pressure of 10-6 mbar. This work describes the SPOCC's vacuum system and optical design, and the post-flight stray-light tests to be carried out on the Sounding-rocket Experiment (SCORE). This sub-orbital solar coronagraph is the prototype of the METIS coronagraph for the ESA Solar Orbital mission whose closest perihelion is one-third of the Sun-Earth distance. The plans are outlined for testing METIS in the SPOCC simulating the observing conditions from the Solar Orbiter perihelion.

  4. Experimental results of an optical 20 MBPS bipolar coded raised cosine digital communications link (United States)

    Durrant, Randy; Kennedy, William P.


    The use of raised cosine shaped symbols has been proposed for optical digital communications. The raised cosine pulse shape reduces the receiver signal bandwidth to that of the data rate while simultaneously minimizing inter-symbol interference. This has the effect of increasing receiver sensitivity due to the noise density characteristics of transimpedance amplifiers when bandwidth is reduced. Receiver sensitivity is an essential criteria for free space laser communication. An optical communications experiment was conducted consisting of a laser transmitter modulated by a 20 megabit per second bipolar coded raised cosine bit stream and a matched filter receiver utilizing an APD detector and a transimpedance amplifier. Pulse shaping and matched filter circuits were implemented using a tapped delay line filter type topology. The bit error rate of the receiver as a function of incident optical power was measured and is compared to predicted performance. Implementation losses are accounted for in terms of matched filter mismatch loss, inter-symbol interference, sample time uncertainties, and system nonlinearities.

  5. Mixed Integer Programming and Heuristic Scheduling for Space Communication (United States)

    Lee, Charles H.; Cheung, Kar-Ming


    Optimal planning and scheduling for a communication network was created where the nodes within the network are communicating at the highest possible rates while meeting the mission requirements and operational constraints. The planning and scheduling problem was formulated in the framework of Mixed Integer Programming (MIP) to introduce a special penalty function to convert the MIP problem into a continuous optimization problem, and to solve the constrained optimization problem using heuristic optimization. The communication network consists of space and ground assets with the link dynamics between any two assets varying with respect to time, distance, and telecom configurations. One asset could be communicating with another at very high data rates at one time, and at other times, communication is impossible, as the asset could be inaccessible from the network due to planetary occultation. Based on the network's geometric dynamics and link capabilities, the start time, end time, and link configuration of each view period are selected to maximize the communication efficiency within the network. Mathematical formulations for the constrained mixed integer optimization problem were derived, and efficient analytical and numerical techniques were developed to find the optimal solution. By setting up the problem using MIP, the search space for the optimization problem is reduced significantly, thereby speeding up the solution process. The ratio of the dimension of the traditional method over the proposed formulation is approximately an order N (single) to 2*N (arraying), where N is the number of receiving antennas of a node. By introducing a special penalty function, the MIP problem with non-differentiable cost function and nonlinear constraints can be converted into a continuous variable problem, whose solution is possible.

  6. InP on SOI devices for optical communication and optical network on chip (United States)

    Fedeli, J.-M.; Ben Bakir, B.; Olivier, N.; Grosse, Ph.; Grenouillet, L.; Augendre, E.; Phillippe, P.; Gilbert, K.; Bordel, D.; Harduin, J.


    For about ten years, we have been developing InP on Si devices under different projects focusing first on μlasers then on semicompact lasers. For aiming the integration on a CMOS circuit and for thermal issue, we relied on SiO2 direct bonding of InP unpatterned materials. After the chemical removal of the InP substrate, the heterostructures lie on top of silicon waveguides of an SOI wafer with a separation of about 100nm. Different lasers or photodetectors have been achieved for off-chip optical communication and for intra-chip optical communication within an optical network. For high performance computing with high speed communication between cores, we developed InP microdisk lasers that are coupled to silicon waveguide and produced 100μW of optical power and that can be directly modulated up to 5G at different wavelengths. The optical network is based on wavelength selective circuits with ring resonators. InGaAs photodetectors are evanescently coupled to the silicon waveguide with an efficiency of 0.8A/W. The fabrication has been demonstrated at 200mm wafer scale in a microelectronics clean room for CMOS compatibility. For off-chip communication, silicon on InP evanescent laser have been realized with an innovative design where the cavity is defined in silicon and the gain localized in the QW of bonded InP hererostructure. The investigated devices operate at continuous wave regime with room temperature threshold current below 100 mA, the side mode suppression ratio is as high as 20dB, and the fibercoupled output power is {7mW. Direct modulation can be achieved with already 6G operation.

  7. Implications of information theory in optical fibre communications. (United States)

    Agrell, Erik; Alvarado, Alex; Kschischang, Frank R


    Recent decades have witnessed steady improvements in our ability to harness the information-carrying capability of optical fibres. Will this process continue, or will progress eventually stall? Information theory predicts that all channels have a limited capacity depending on the available transmission resources, and thus it is inevitable that the pace of improvements will slow. However, information theory also provides insights into how transmission resources should, in principle, best be exploited, and thus may serve as a guide for where to look for better ways to squeeze more out of a precious resource. This tutorial paper reviews the basic concepts of information theory and their application in fibre-optic communications. © 2016 The Author(s).

  8. Radio-wave propagation for space communications systems (United States)

    Ippolito, L. J.


    The most recent information on the effects of Earth's atmosphere on space communications systems is reviewed. The design and reliable operation of satellite systems that provide the many applications in space which rely on the transmission of radio waves for communications and scientific purposes are dependent on the propagation characteristics of the transmission path. The presence of atmospheric gases, clouds, fog, precipitation, and turbulence causes uncontrolled variations in the signal characteristics. These variations can result in a reduction of the quality and reliability of the transmitted information. Models and other techniques are used in the prediction of atmospheric effects as influenced by frequency, geography, elevation angle, and type of transmission. Recent data on performance characteristics obtained from direct measurements on satellite links operating to above 30 GHz have been reviewed. Particular emphasis has been placed on the effects of precipitation on the Earth/space path, including rain attenuation, and ice particle depolarization. Other factors are sky noise, antenna gain degradation, scintillations, and bandwidth coherence. Each of the various propagation factors has an effect on design criteria for communications systems. These criteria include link reliability, power margins, noise contribution, modulation and polarization factors, channel cross talk, error rate, and bandwidth limitations.

  9. Technology assessment: Optical communications, signal processors, and radiation effects (United States)

    Ricardi, L. J.; Boroson, D. M.; Chan, V. W. S.; Hutchinson, B. H.; Walther, F. G.; Woods, J. P.; Zolnay, S. L.


    Military satellite communication system architects are often constrained by the performance capability of technology limited devices. Consequently, it is important to continually assess that technology essential to the support of future MILSATCOM systems. This project report and those published previously summarize study efforts that developed strawman MILSATCOM systems which satisfy projected user requirements. The technology requisite to deployment of these SATCOM systems was carefully evaluated, and required improvements were described and/or defined. Previously, the study was limited to rf devices or related phenomena. This report considers optical communications systems, on-board signal demodulators, and radiation effects. An update on the traveling-wave tube technology is presented because of its extreme importance to the development of affordable MILSATCOM terminals.

  10. Semiconductor Mode-Locked Lasers for Optical Communication Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yvind, Kresten


    The thesis deals with the design and fabrication of semiconductor mode-locked lasers for use in optical communication systems. The properties of pulse sources and characterization methods are described as well as requirements for application in communication systems. Especially, the importance of...... as the first 10 GHz all-active monolithic laser with both short pulses and low jitter.Results from external cavity mode-locked lasers are also reported along with an investigation of the influence of the operating conditions on the performance of the device. Antireflection coatings are a critical limiting...... factor for external cavity devices and a chapter is devoted to calculations on coating design.The fabrication process for the lasers is outlined and solutions to the challenges encountered in realizing the proposed structures are reported....

  11. A comparative study of optical concentrators for visible light communications (United States)

    Mulyawan, Rahmat; Gomez, Ariel; Chun, Hyunchae; Rajbhandari, Sujan; Manousiadis, Pavlos P.; Vithanage, Dimali A.; Faulkner, Grahame; Turnbull, Graham A.; Samuel, Ifor D. W.; Collins, Stephen; O'Brien, Dominic


    Given the imminent radio frequency spectrum crunch, Visible Light Communication (VLC) is being proposed as an alternative wireless technology allowing for scalable connectivity to potentially millions of mobile and Internet-of- Things (IoT) devices. A VLC system uses a photo-detector (PD) receiver that converts the optically modulated light from a light source into a modulated electrical signal. The corresponding receiver electrical bandwidth is typically inversely proportional to the PD active area. Consequently, to construct a high-speed VLC link, the PD active area is often substantially reduced and an optical concentrator is used to enhance the receiver collection area. However, to achieve high concentrating factor, the link field-of-view (FOV) needs to be narrow due to the étendue conservation in linear passive optical systems. This paper studies a Fluorescent Concentrator (FC) that breaks this étendue conservation. The FC is not only based on reflective and refractive principles but also makes use of fluorescence process. A comparison between the FC and conventional optical concentrators, namely Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC) is also investigated. The trade-off between received signal strength and incoming link angle is demonstrated over 60° coverage. Experimental results show that performance degradation as the link angle increases using FC-based receivers is significantly lower than for conventional CPC.

  12. Diversity Order Results for MIMO Optical Wireless Communications

    KAUST Repository

    Sapenov, Yerzhan


    An optical wireless multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communication system employing intensity-modulation direct-detection (IM/DD) is considered. The maximal diversity order of the channel is characterized by studying the outage probability. Then, spatial repetition coding (RC) is shown to be diversity-optimal as it achieves the channel’s maximal diversity order. This diversity order is given by a simple expression which is suitable for any channel statistics of practical interest. The results are specialized to some practical channel statistics, and numerical results are provided to verify the results.

  13. Optical Communications With A Geiger Mode APD Array (United States)


    Optical Communications With A Geiger Mode APD Array by Benjamin William Horkley S.B., EECS, MIT 2014 Submitted to the Department of Electrical... William Horkley Submitted to the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science on January 29, 2016, in partial fulfillment of the 9.7 M B d . F rom top to b ottom , th e th ree d ash ed lin es sh ow th e F E C error correction cu toff s for rate 1/2, 4/5, an d 9/10 co d es. 40

  14. Non-line-of-sight underwater optical wireless communication network. (United States)

    Arnon, Shlomi; Kedar, Debbie


    The growing need for ocean observation systems has stimulated considerable interest within the research community in advancing the enabling technologies of underwater wireless communication and underwater sensor networks. Sensors and ad hoc sensor networks are the emerging tools for performing extensive data-gathering operations on land, and solutions in the subsea setting are being sought. Efficient communication from the sensors and within the network is critical, but the underwater environment is extremely challenging. Addressing the special features of underwater wireless communication in sensor networks, we propose a novel non-line-of-sight network concept in which the link is implemented by means of back-reflection of the propagating optic signal at the ocean-air interface and derive a mathematical model of the channel. Point-to-multipoint links can be achieved in an energy efficient manner and broadcast broadband communications, such as video transmissions, can be executed. We show achievable bit error rates as a function of sensor node separation and demonstrate the feasibility of this concept using state-of-the-art silicon photomultiplier detectors.

  15. Optical communication with two-photon coherent stages. I - Quantum-state propagation and quantum-noise reduction (United States)

    Yuen, H. P.; Shapiro, J. H.


    To determine the ultimate performance limitations imposed by quantum effects, it is also essential to consider optimum quantum-state generation. Certain 'generalized' coherent states of the radiation field possess novel quantum noise characteristics that offer the potential for greatly improved optical communications. These states have been called two-photon coherent states because they can be generated, in principle, by stimulated two-photon processes. The use of two-photon coherent state (TCS) radiation in free-space optical communications is considered. A simple theory of quantum state propagation is developed. The theory provides the basis for representing the free-space channel in a quantum-mechanical form convenient for communication analysis. The new theory is applied to TCS radiation.

  16. Laser Communications and Fiber Optics Lab Manual. High-Technology Training Module. (United States)

    Biddick, Robert

    This laboratory training manual on laser communications and fiber optics may be used in a general technology-communications course for ninth graders. Upon completion of this exercise, students achieve the following goals: match concepts with laser communication system parts; explain advantages of fiber optic cable over conventional copper wire;…

  17. Implementation concepts for a bridging protocol for the high data rate slow-fading free-space optical channel (United States)

    Epple, Bernhard; Serrano Solsona, Clara


    This paper addresses various aspects for designing and implementing a bridging protocol for reliable data transfer between two local area networks over the high data rate slow-fading free-space optical channel. First the service requirements of widely spread applications of today's life like voice communication, video streaming or file transfer are given and the resulting constrains for data transfer protocols are compiled. Then, based on the physical characteristics of different communication scenarios and the compiled results, the feasibility of these services on optical free-space links is studied. Finally different protocol design aspects are discussed and an implementation concept for bridging data of different services over free-space optical links is presented.

  18. Distributed interactive communication in simulated space-dwelling groups. (United States)

    Brady, Joseph V; Hienz, Robert D; Hursh, Steven R; Ragusa, Leonard C; Rouse, Charles O; Gasior, Eric D


    This report describes the development and preliminary application of an experimental test bed for modeling human behavior in the context of a computer generated environment to analyze the effects of variations in communication modalities, incentives and stressful conditions. In addition to detailing the methodological development of a simulated task environment that provides for electronic monitoring and recording of individual and group behavior, the initial substantive findings from an experimental analysis of distributed interactive communication in simulated space dwelling groups are described. Crews of three members each (male and female) participated in simulated "planetary missions" based upon a synthetic scenario task that required identification, collection, and analysis of geologic specimens with a range of grade values. The results of these preliminary studies showed clearly that cooperative and productive interactions were maintained between individually isolated and distributed individuals communicating and problem-solving effectively in a computer-generated "planetary" environment over extended time intervals without benefit of one another's physical presence. Studies on communication channel constraints confirmed the functional interchangeability between available modalities with the highest degree of interchangeability occurring between Audio and Text modes of communication. The effects of task-related incentives were determined by the conditions under which they were available with Positive Incentives effectively attenuating decrements in performance under stressful time pressure. c2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Handbook of fiber optic data communication a practical guide to optical networking

    CERN Document Server

    DeCusatis, Casimer


    The third edition of this Handbook provides a comprehensive, easy to use guide to the field of optical fiber data communications. Written by experts in the industry from major companies such as IBM, Cisco and Nortel, the Handbook is a key reference for optical fiber technology, networking, protocols, applications, manufacturing, and future directions. It includes chapters on all the major industry standards, written by the same experts who developed them.This edition contains new material on transceiver form factors (QSFP, SFP +, XFP, X2), manufacturing standards, including JEDEC and R

  20. High Precision Ranging and Range-Rate Measurements over Free-Space-Laser Communication Link (United States)

    Yang, Guangning; Lu, Wei; Krainak, Michael; Sun, Xiaoli


    We present a high-precision ranging and range-rate measurement system via an optical-ranging or combined ranging-communication link. A complete bench-top optical communication system was built. It included a ground terminal and a space terminal. Ranging and range rate tests were conducted in two configurations. In the communication configuration with 622 data rate, we achieved a two-way range-rate error of 2 microns/s, or a modified Allan deviation of 9 x 10 (exp -15) with 10 second averaging time. Ranging and range-rate as a function of Bit Error Rate of the communication link is reported. They are not sensitive to the link error rate. In the single-frequency amplitude modulation mode, we report a two-way range rate error of 0.8 microns/s, or a modified Allan deviation of 2.6 x 10 (exp -15) with 10 second averaging time. We identified the major noise sources in the current system as the transmitter modulation injected noise and receiver electronics generated noise. A new improved system will be constructed to further improve the system performance for both operating modes.

  1. Linear ray and wave optics in phase space bridging ray and wave optics via the Wigner phase-space picture

    CERN Document Server

    Torre, Amalia


    Ray, wave and quantum concepts are central to diverse and seemingly incompatible models of light. Each model particularizes a specific ''manifestation'' of light, and then corresponds to adequate physical assumptions and formal approximations, whose domains of applicability are well-established. Accordingly each model comprises its own set of geometric and dynamic postulates with the pertinent mathematical means.At a basic level, the book is a complete introduction to the Wigner optics, which bridges between ray and wave optics, offering the optical phase space as the ambience and the Wigner f

  2. Coherent demodulation of microwave signals by using optical heterodyne technique with applications to point to point indoor wireless communications systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Juarez, A; Gomez-Colin, M R; Rojas-Hernandez, A G [Universidad de Sonora (Mexico); Zaldivar-Huerta, I E; Aguayo-Rodriguez, G [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica (Mexico); Rodriguez-Asomoza, J, E-mail: [Universidad de las Americas-Puebla (Mexico)


    An optical communications system using a couple microstrip antennas for distributing point to point analog TV with coherent demodulation based on optical heterodyne in close vicinity is reported in this paper. In the proposed experimental setup, two optical waves at different wavelengths are mixed and applied to a photodetector. Then a beat signal with a frequency equivalent to the spacing of the two wavelengths is obtained at the output of the photodetector. This signal corresponds to a microwave signal located at 1.25 GHz, which it is used as a microwave carrier in the transmitter and as a local oscillator in the receiver of our optical communication system. The feasibility of this technique is demonstrated transmitting a TV signal of 66-72 MHz.

  3. Architectural design of a ground-based deep-space optical reception antenna (United States)

    Kerr, E. L.


    An architectural design of a ground-based antenna (telescope) for receiving optical communications from deep space is presented. Physical and optical parameters, and their effect on the performance and cost considerations, are described. The channel capacity of the antenna is 100 kbits/s from Saturn and 5 Mbits/s from Mars. A novel sunshade is designed to permit optical communication even when the deep-space laser source is as close to the sun as 12 deg. Inserts in the tubes of the sunshade permit operations at solar elongations as small as 6 or 3 deg. The Nd:YAG source laser and the Fraunhofer filter (a narrow-band predetection optical filter) are tuned to match the Doppler shifts of the source and background. A typical Saturn-to-earth data link can reduce its source power requirement from 8.2 W to 2 W of laser output by employing a Fraunhofer filter instead of a conventional multilayer dielectric filter.

  4. Forward error correction and its impact on high-data-rate, free-space laser communication system design (United States)

    Hemmati, F.; Paul, D. K.; Marshalek, R. G.


    This paper discusses the use of forward error correction (FEC) in a 300 to 1000 Mbit/s free-space optical communications link. It also considers the tradeoffs involved in applying block codes or convolutional codes, emphasizing the peak and average power limitations of GaAlAs diode laser sources. Direct-detection optical receivers are assumed throughout. The application of FEC technology to a high-data-rate optical communications system is discussed, including available coding gain, correction for both random errors and mispointing-induced burst errors, and electronic implementation difficulties. This is followed by a discussion of the major system benefits derivable from FEC. Consideration is given to using the available coding gain for reducing diode laser source power, aperture size, or fine tracking accuracy. Regarding optical system design, it is most favorable to apply the coding gain toward reducing diode laser power requirements.

  5. Distributed Joule-Thomson microcooling for optical detectors in space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derking, J.H.


    The utilization of micromachined Joule‐Thomson (JT) coolers for future space missions in cooling small optical detectors operating in the temperature range 80 ‐ 300 K is investigated. The scope is to obtain a distributed cooling system in which multiple miniature coolers, each cooling a small

  6. Interfacing issues in microcooling of optical detectors in space applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derking, J.H.; ter Brake, Hermanus J.M.; Linder, M.; Rogalla, Horst


    Miniature Joule-Thomson coolers were developed at the University of Twente and are able to cool to 100 K with a typical cooling power of 10 to 20 mW. These coolers have a high potential for space applications in cooling small optical detectors for future earth observation and science missions. Under

  7. AFFECTS - Advanced Forecast For Ensuring Communications Through Space (United States)

    Bothmer, Volker


    Through the AFFECTS project funded by the European Union's 7th Framework Programme, European and US scientists develop an advanced proto-type space weather warning system to safeguard the operation of telecommunication and navigation systems on Earth to the threat of solar storms. The project is led by the University of Göttingen's Institute for Astrophysics and comprises worldwide leading research and academic institutions and industrial enterprises from Germany, Belgium, Ukraine, Norway and the United States. The key objectives of the AFFECTS project are: State-of-the-art analysis and modelling of the Sun-Earth chain of effects on the Earth's ionosphere and their subsequent impacts on communication systems based on multipoint space observations and complementary ground-based data. Development of a prototype space weather early warning system and reliable space weather forecasts, with specific emphasis on ionospheric applications. Dissemination of new space weather products and services to end users, the scientific community and general public. The presentation summarizes the project highlights, with special emphasis on the developed space weather forecast tools.

  8. Holographic analysis of dispersive pupils in space--time optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calatroni, J.; Vienot, J.C.


    Extension of space--time optics to objects whose transparency is a function of the temporal frequency v = c/lambda is examined. Considering the effects of such stationary pupils on white light waves, they are called temporal pupils. It is shown that simultaneous encoding both in the space and time frequency domains is required to record pupil parameters. The space-time impulse response and transfer functions are calculated for a dispersive nonabsorbent material. An experimental method providing holographic recording of the dispersion curve of any transparent material is presented.

  9. Method and apparatus for use of III-nitride wide bandgap semiconductors in optical communications (United States)

    Hui, Rongqing [Lenexa, KS; Jiang, Hong-Xing [Manhattan, KS; Lin, Jing-Yu [Manhattan, KS


    The present disclosure relates to the use of III-nitride wide bandgap semiconductor materials for optical communications. In one embodiment, an optical device includes an optical waveguide device fabricated using a III-nitride semiconductor material. The III-nitride semiconductor material provides for an electrically controllable refractive index. The optical waveguide device provides for high speed optical communications in an infrared wavelength region. In one embodiment, an optical amplifier is provided using optical coatings at the facet ends of a waveguide formed of erbium-doped III-nitride semiconductor materials.

  10. Electro-Optical Design for Efficient Visual Communication (United States)

    Huck, Friedrich O.; Fales, Carl L.; Jobson, Daniel J.; Rahman, Zia-Ur


    Visual communication, in the form of telephotography and television, for example, can be regarded as efficient only if the amount of information that it conveys about the scene to the observer approaches the maximum possible and the associated cost approaches the minimum possible. Elsewhere we have addressed the problem of assessing the end to end performance of visual communication systems in terms of their efficiency in this sense by integrating the critical limiting factors that constrain image gathering into classical communications theory. We use this approach to assess the electro-optical design of image gathering devices as a function of the f number and apodization of the objective lens and the aperture size and sampling geometry of the phot-detection mechanism. Results show that an image gathering device that is designed to optimize information capacity performs similarly to the human eye. For both, the performance approaches the maximum possible, in terms of the efficiency with which the acquired information can be transmitted as decorrelated data, and the fidelity, sharpness, and clearity with which fine detail can be restored.

  11. Free-Space Quantum Communication with a Portable Quantum Memory (United States)

    Namazi, Mehdi; Vallone, Giuseppe; Jordaan, Bertus; Goham, Connor; Shahrokhshahi, Reihaneh; Villoresi, Paolo; Figueroa, Eden


    The realization of an elementary quantum network that is intrinsically secure and operates over long distances requires the interconnection of several quantum modules performing different tasks. In this work, we report the realization of a communication network functioning in a quantum regime, consisting of four different quantum modules: (i) a random polarization qubit generator, (ii) a free-space quantum-communication channel, (iii) an ultralow-noise portable quantum memory, and (iv) a qubit decoder, in a functional elementary quantum network possessing all capabilities needed for quantum-information distribution protocols. We create weak coherent pulses at the single-photon level encoding polarization states |H ⟩ , |V ⟩, |D ⟩, and |A ⟩ in a randomized sequence. The random qubits are sent over a free-space link and coupled into a dual-rail room-temperature quantum memory and after storage and retrieval are analyzed in a four-detector polarization analysis akin to the requirements of the BB84 protocol. We also show ultralow noise and fully portable operation, paving the way towards memory-assisted all-environment free-space quantum cryptographic networks.

  12. Link Analysis for Space Communication Links Using ARQ Protocol (United States)

    Cheung, Kar-Ming; Lau, Chi-Wung; Lee, Charles


    In space communications, standard link analysis assumes that messages are sent once. For a communication link that uses an error-correction coding scheme, bit-error-rate (BER) or frame-error-rate (FER), and link margins are common metrics that characterize the quality of a link, and they are used to determine the supportable data rate. With the advent of Automatic Repeat-reQuest (ARQ) protocols, when messages are corrupted during transmission, they can be resent multiple times automatically until they are correctly received and acknowledged. The concept of BER, FER, and link margin cannot be directly applied, and the link analysis approach for ARQ links needs to be re-examined.

  13. Research on diversity receive technology for wireless optical communication using PPM in weak turbulence atmosphere channel (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Guo-an


    In order to mitigate atmospheric turbulence, the free space optical (FSO) system model with spatial diversity is analyzed based on intensity detection pulse position modulation (PPM) in the weak turbulence atmosphere. The slot error rate (SER) calculating formula of the system without diversity is derived under pulse position modulation firstly. Then as a benchmark, independent of identical distribution, the average slot error rates of the three linear combining technologies, which are the maximal ratio combining (MRC), equal gain combining (EGC) and selection combining (SelC), are compared. Simulation results show that the performance of system is the best improved by MRC, followed by EGC, and is poor by SelC, but SelC is simpler and more convenient. Spatial diversity is efficient to improve the performance and has strong ability on resistance to atmospheric channel decline. The above scheme is more suitable for optical wireless communication systems.

  14. Confidence range estimate of extended source imagery acquisition algorithms via computer simulations. [in optical communication systems (United States)

    Chen, CHIEN-C.; Hui, Elliot; Okamoto, Garret


    Spatial acquisition using the sun-lit Earth as a beacon source provides several advantages over active beacon-based systems for deep-space optical communication systems. However, since the angular extend of the Earth image is large compared to the laser beam divergence, the acquisition subsystem must be capable of resolving the image to derive the proper pointing orientation. The algorithms used must be capable of deducing the receiver location given the blurring introduced by the imaging optics and the large Earth albedo fluctuation. Furthermore, because of the complexity of modelling the Earth and the tracking algorithms, an accurate estimate of the algorithm accuracy can only be made via simulation using realistic Earth images. An image simulator was constructed for this purpose, and the results of the simulation runs are reported.

  15. Optical power allocation for adaptive transmissions in wavelength-division multiplexing free space optical networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhou


    Full Text Available Attracting increasing attention in recent years, the Free Space Optics (FSO technology has been recognized as a cost-effective wireless access technology for multi-Gigabit rate wireless networks. Radio on Free Space Optics (RoFSO provides a new approach to support various bandwidth-intensive wireless services in an optical wireless link. In an RoFSO system using wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM, it is possible to concurrently transmit multiple data streams consisting of various wireless services at very high rate. In this paper, we investigate the problem of optical power allocation under power budget and eye safety constraints for adaptive WDM transmission in RoFSO networks. We develop power allocation schemes for adaptive WDM transmissions to combat the effect of weather turbulence on RoFSO links. Simulation results show that WDM RoFSO can support high data rates even over long distance or under bad weather conditions with an adequate system design.

  16. Reliability issues of free-space communications systems and networks (United States)

    Willebrand, Heinz A.


    Free space optics (FSO) is a high-speed point-to-point connectivity solution traditionally used in the enterprise campus networking market for building-to-building LAN connectivity. However, more recently some wire line and wireless carriers started to deploy FSO systems in their networks. The requirements on FSO system reliability, meaing both system availability and component reliability, are far more stringent in the carrier market when compared to the requirements in the enterprise market segment. This paper tries to outline some of the aspects that are important to ensure carrier class system reliability.

  17. A hybrid quantum eraser scheme for characterization of free-space and fiber communication channels (United States)

    Nape, Isaac; Kyeremah, Charlotte; Vallés, Adam; Rosales-Guzmán, Carmelo; Buah-Bassuah, Paul K.; Forbes, Andrew


    We demonstrate a simple projective measurement based on the quantum eraser concept that can be used to characterize the disturbances of any communication channel. Quantum erasers are commonly implemented as spatially separated path interferometric schemes. Here we exploit the advantages of redefining the which-path information in terms of spatial modes, replacing physical paths with abstract paths of orbital angular momentum (OAM). Remarkably, vector modes (natural modes of free-space and fiber) have a non-separable feature of spin-orbit coupled states, equivalent to the description of two independently marked paths. We explore the effects of fiber perturbations by probing a step-index optical fiber channel with a vector mode, relevant to high-order spatial mode encoding of information for ultra-fast fiber communications.

  18. On the performance of block codes. [in space communication systems (United States)

    Helgert, H. J.


    It is important to define and evaluate measures which incorporate most, if not all, of the quantities affecting the overall system reliability. For the simple types of block codes normally employed in space communication systems, the complexity of the encoder and decoder is of little consequence, since the use of integrated circuit technology allows the construction of the basic components in an inexpensive fashion. The complexity is essentially independent of the particular code-decoder used. The processing speed is generally a function of the type of logic used and the technology in the construction of the integrated circuits.

  19. Integrated fiber optic structural health sensors for inflatable space habitats (United States)

    Ohanian, Osgar John; Garg, Naman; Castellucci, Matthew A.


    Inflatable space habitats offer many advantages for future space missions; however, the long term integrity of these flexible structures is a major concern in harsh space environments. Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) of these structures is essential to ensure safe operation, provide early warnings of damage, and measure structural changes over long periods of time. To address this problem, the authors have integrated distributed fiber optic strain sensors to measure loading and to identify the occurrence and location of damage in the straps and webbing used in the structural restraint layer. The fiber optic sensors employed use Rayleigh backscatter combined with optical frequency domain reflectometry to enable measurement of strain every 0.65 mm (0.026 inches) along the sensor. The Kevlar woven straps that were tested exhibited large permanent deformation during initial cycling and continued to exhibit hysteresis thereafter, but there was a consistent linear relationship between the sensor's measurement and the actual strain applied. Damage was intentionally applied to a tensioned strap, and the distributed strain measurement clearly identified a change in the strain profile centered on the location of the damage. This change in structural health was identified at a loading that was less than half of the ultimate loading that caused a structural failure. This sensing technique will be used to enable integrated SHM sensors to detect loading and damage in future inflatable space habitat structures.

  20. Architecture for Cognitive Networking within NASAs Future Space Communications Infrastructure (United States)

    Clark, Gilbert J., III; Eddy, Wesley M.; Johnson, Sandra K.; Barnes, James; Brooks, David


    Future space mission concepts and designs pose many networking challenges for command, telemetry, and science data applications with diverse end-to-end data delivery needs. For future end-to-end architecture designs, a key challenge is meeting expected application quality of service requirements for multiple simultaneous mission data flows with options to use diverse onboard local data buses, commercial ground networks, and multiple satellite relay constellations in LEO, MEO, GEO, or even deep space relay links. Effectively utilizing a complex network topology requires orchestration and direction that spans the many discrete, individually addressable computer systems, which cause them to act in concert to achieve the overall network goals. The system must be intelligent enough to not only function under nominal conditions, but also adapt to unexpected situations, and reorganize or adapt to perform roles not originally intended for the system or explicitly programmed. This paper describes architecture features of cognitive networking within the future NASA space communications infrastructure, and interacting with the legacy systems and infrastructure in the meantime. The paper begins by discussing the need for increased automation, including inter-system collaboration. This discussion motivates the features of an architecture including cognitive networking for future missions and relays, interoperating with both existing endpoint-based networking models and emerging information-centric models. From this basis, we discuss progress on a proof-of-concept implementation of this architecture as a cognitive networking on-orbit application on the SCaN Testbed attached to the International Space Station.

  1. Architecture for Cognitive Networking within NASA's Future Space Communications Infrastructure (United States)

    Clark, Gilbert; Eddy, Wesley M.; Johnson, Sandra K.; Barnes, James; Brooks, David


    Future space mission concepts and designs pose many networking challenges for command, telemetry, and science data applications with diverse end-to-end data delivery needs. For future end-to-end architecture designs, a key challenge is meeting expected application quality of service requirements for multiple simultaneous mission data flows with options to use diverse onboard local data buses, commercial ground networks, and multiple satellite relay constellations in LEO, GEO, MEO, or even deep space relay links. Effectively utilizing a complex network topology requires orchestration and direction that spans the many discrete, individually addressable computer systems, which cause them to act in concert to achieve the overall network goals. The system must be intelligent enough to not only function under nominal conditions, but also adapt to unexpected situations, and reorganize or adapt to perform roles not originally intended for the system or explicitly programmed. This paper describes an architecture enabling the development and deployment of cognitive networking capabilities into the envisioned future NASA space communications infrastructure. We begin by discussing the need for increased automation, including inter-system discovery and collaboration. This discussion frames the requirements for an architecture supporting cognitive networking for future missions and relays, including both existing endpoint-based networking models and emerging information-centric models. From this basis, we discuss progress on a proof-of-concept implementation of this architecture, and results of implementation and initial testing of a cognitive networking on-orbit application on the SCaN Testbed attached to the International Space Station.

  2. SILEX: Overview on the European optical communications programme (United States)

    Laurent, B.


    SILEX (Semi-Conducteur Intersatellite Link Experiment) is the first civilian optical communications programme (in the frame of ESA DRTM). It will demonstrate in 1997 high data rate transmission between a Low Earth Orbit Satellite (SPOT IV, built by MMS for CNES) and a Geostationnary spacecraft (ARTEMIS, realized by ALENIA for ESA). After the opto/mechanical/thermal qualification obtained mid of 1994, the SILEX programme is entered in an intensive phase with: — the integration/validation for the LEO flight model (PASTEL)— the preparation of integration of the GEO qualification STM and electrical/SW models (OPALE) The article describes the overall development status including the major terminal validation steps as well as the significant technological progress obtained through the qualification at equipment/terminal level.

  3. Possible existence of optical communication channels in the brain

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Sourabh; Tuszynski, Jack; Barclay, Paul E; Simon, Christoph


    Given that many fundamental questions in neuroscience are still open, it seems pertinent to explore whether the brain might use other physical modalities than the ones that have been discovered so far. In particular it is well established that neurons can emit photons, which prompts the question whether these biophotons could serve as signals between neurons, in addition to the well-known electro-chemical signals. For such communication to be targeted, the photons would need to travel in waveguides. Here we show, based on detailed theoretical modeling, that myelinated axons could serve as photonic waveguides, taking into account realistic optical imperfections. We propose experiments, both \\textit{in vivo} and \\textit{in vitro}, to test our hypothesis. We discuss the implications of our results, including the question whether photons could mediate long-range quantum entanglement in the brain.

  4. Fraunhofer filters to reduce solar background for optical communications (United States)

    Kerr, E. L.


    A wavelength that lies within a spectral interval of reduced solar emission (a Fraunhofer line) can carry optical communications with reduced interference from direct or reflected background sunlight. Suitable Fraunhofer lines are located within the tuning range of good candidate lasers. The laser should be tunable dynamically to track Doppler shifts in the sunlight incident on any solar system body that may appear in the background as viewed by the receiver. A Fraunhofer filter used with a direct-detection receiver should be tuned to match the Doppler shifts of the source and background. The required tuning calculated here for various situations is also required if, instead, one uses a heterodyne receiver with limited post-detection bandwidth.

  5. Experimental demonstration of MIMO-OFDM underwater wireless optical communication (United States)

    Song, Yuhang; Lu, Weichao; Sun, Bin; Hong, Yang; Qu, Fengzhong; Han, Jun; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Jing


    In this paper, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a multiple-input multiple-output orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM) underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) system, with a gross bit rate of 33.691 Mb/s over a 2-m water channel using low-cost blue light-emitting-diodes (LEDs) and 10-MHz PIN photodiodes. The system is capable of realizing robust data transmission within a relatively large reception area, leading to relaxed alignment requirement for UWOC. In addition, we have compared the system performance of repetition coding OFDM (RC-OFDM), Alamouti-OFDM and multiple-input single-output OFDM (MISO-OFDM) in turbid water. Results show that the Alamouti-OFDM UWOC is more resistant to delay than the RC-OFDM-based system.

  6. Optical soliton communication using ultra-short pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Sadegh Amiri, Iraj


    This brief analyzes the characteristics of a microring resonator (MRR) to perform communication using ultra-short soliton pulses. The raising of nonlinear refractive indices, coupling coefficients and radius of the single microring resonator leads to decrease in input power and round trips wherein the bifurcation occurs. As a result, bifurcation or chaos behaviors are seen at lower input power of 44 W, where the nonlinear refractive index is n2=3.2×10−20 m2/W. Using a decimal convertor system, these ultra-short signals can be converted into quantum information. Results show that multi solitons with FWHM and FSR of 10 pm and 600 pm can be generated respectively. The multi optical soliton with FWHM and FSR of 325 pm and 880 nm can be incorporated with a time division multiple access (TDMA) system wherein the transportation of quantum information is performed.

  7. Free-space optical technology and distribution architecture for broadband metro and local services (United States)

    Dodley, J. P.; Britz, David M.; Bowen, D. J.; Lundgren, Carl W.


    12 This paper addresses the hardware and operational requirements for broadband metro and local services using line of sight wireless Free Space Optical Communication (FSOC) optical links. The primary considerations for successful optical wireless service provisions include link availability, type of service and integration into existing fiber optic networks. A comprehensive link analysis for broadband access services is presented. This paper addresses FSOC critical atmospheric transmission impairments and describes one possible FSOC/network fiber optic interface and routing scenario. This paper will also detail methods to restor FSOC service links that have failed due to atmospheric impairments. This paper will detail the use of secondary radio (mm wave or ISM band radio) link architectures to provide critical transmission back-up for data, emergency and voice call services. An FSOC back-up link for existing millimeter-wave radio local services is also discussed. A co-operative network of FSOC links is discussed for achieving availability requirements for metro and local distribution services. This paper also describes one possible rooftop routing scenario using optical cross- connect architectures located at each node of the local FSOC access network. Rooftop routing will utilize the technology flexibility and system redundancy described above to provide high `five nines' metro service availability. This paper will also describe a proposed FSOC test installation to study link architectures, performance of such links, and vendor product interface and evaluation.

  8. Preparing the way to space borne Fresnel imagers. Space scenarios optical layouts (United States)

    Deba, Paul; Etcheto, Pierre; Duchon, Paul


    The Fresnel Diffractive Array Imager (FDAI) relies on diffraction focusing to potentially ouput very high wavefront quality particularly in the Ultraviolet. After Chesnokov (Russ Space Bull 1(2), 1993) or Barton (Appl Opt 40(4):447-451, 2001), we intend to develop tangible optical designs for space missions at the horizon 2025. This paper refers to the phase 0 study completed at CNES. We canvass here different optical scenarios adapted to space formation flying, discussing the technologies involved, their level of maturity and criticity. Large spectral domains were investigated from Lyman- α to Infra-Red, with competitive aperture size and ambitious objectives. We conclude by a 4-m class UV space mission scenario that could be the first launched imager of this kind.

  9. Russian Language in the Intercultural Communication Space: Modern Problem Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ella Germanovna Kulikova


    Full Text Available A special role belongs to cross-cultural communication in the modern world. An attempt to limit the problem of the Russian language in Russia just with linguistic aspects, and only to culturological and political ones in the post-Soviet Union space is deeply wrong because of the whole complex of factors, relevant to the current state of the language, including both its fundamental character for the Russian culture preservation and transference and its enduring role in preservation of Russia’s and neighbouring states’ information and national security. A problem of the link between generations is especially topical for Russia, as the Russian society and nation are disoriented in language as a field of meanings and styles, in axiological and ethical coordinates of the world picture. Detailed investigation of the factors affecting the development of the Russian language in the cross-cultural communication space is becoming strategically important in the aspect of ensuring national security of Russia and its national unity.

  10. Meteor observation from space - The Smart Panoramical Optical Sensor (SPOSH) (United States)

    Koschny, D.; di Martino, M.; Oberst, J.

    The European Space Agency (ESA) is funding two parallel studies for a ``Smart Panoramic Optical Head''. The main goal is to develop the technology for a space-qualified, very light-sensitive camera with a wide field of view, both from the hardware and the software side. The scientific application is to allow imaging of phenomena on the dark side of planets or moons, e.g. lightning flashes from thunderstorms or electrical discharges in sand storms, meteors, impact flashes, aurorae, etc. This paper will concentrate on the potential of this camera for the study of meteors from an orbit around a planet.

  11. Analysis of Rain Effects on Terrestrial Free Space Optics based on Data Measured in Tropical Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suriza Ahmad Zabidi


    Full Text Available Free Space Optics (FSO shows a great alternative as the solution for last mile problem where fiber optics is unavailable due to deployment time and cost constraint.  However, the feasibility of using FSO system as communication link very much depends on local weather.  Since tropical region experiences heavy rainfall, rain with high intensity is expected to affect the FSO link severely. Few prediction models have been proposed by ITU-R based on France and Japan’s measurement. This paper has compared  rain attenuation predicted by  models and  data measured in Malaysia over Free Space Optical links for one year period. Prediction models are clearly unable to predict attenuation measured in tropical climate. ABSTRAK: Wayarles optik menjadi alternatif sebagai satu penyelesaian kepada masalah kesesakan terutama diakhir sesuatu talian dimana ianya tidak dapat diselesaikan dengan menggunakan gentian fiber akibat daripada kekangan masa pemasangan dan masalah kewangan.  Walaubagaimanapun, kejayaan untuk menggunakan wayarless optic ini amat bergantung kepada keadaan cuaca di sesuatu tempat.  Di rantau tropika  hujan lebat sentiasa dialami, oleh itu hujan dengan kepadatan tinggi adalah dijangkakan lebih memberi kesan kepada talian wayarles optic ini. Beberapa model yang telah dicadangkan oleh ITU-R berlandaskan kepada pengumpulan data yang dibuat di Perancis dan Jepun.  Kertas kajian ini akan membandingkan antara model-model yang telah digunapakai dengan data yang dikumpulkan di Malaysia selama setahun.  Jelasnya model yang telah digunapakai tidak dapat digunakan secara berkesan di rantau tropika.KEYWORDS: free space optics; rainfall rate; rain attenuation

  12. Inverse optical imaging viewed as a backward channel communication problem

    CERN Document Server

    De Micheli, Enrico


    The inverse problem in optics, which is closely related to the classical question of the resolving power, is reconsidered as a communication channel problem. The main result is the evaluation of the maximum number $M_\\epsilon$ of $\\epsilon$-distinguishable messages ($\\epsilon$ being a bound on the noise of the image) which can be conveyed back from the image to reconstruct the object. We study the case of coherent illumination. By using the concept of Kolmogorov's $\\epsilon$-capacity, we obtain: $M_\\epsilon ~ 2^{S \\log(1/\\epsilon)} \\to \\infty$ as $\\epsilon \\to 0$, where S is the Shannon number. Moreover, we show that the $\\epsilon$-capacity in inverse optical imaging is nearly equal to the amount of information on the object which is contained in the image. We thus compare the results obtained through the classical information theory, which is based on the probability theory, with those derived from a form of topological information theory, based on Kolmogorov's $\\epsilon$-entropy and $\\epsilon$-capacity, whi...

  13. The Future of the Deep Space Network: Technology Development for K2-Band Deep Space Communications (United States)

    Bhanji, Alaudin M.


    Projections indicate that in the future the number of NASA's robotic deep space missions is likely to increase significantly. A launch rate of up to 4-6 launches per year is projected with up to 25 simultaneous missions active [I]. Future high resolution mapping missions to other planetary bodies as well as other experiments are likely to require increased downlink capacity. These future deep space communications requirements will, according to baseline loading analysis, exceed the capacity of NASA's Deep Space Network in its present form. There are essentially two approaches for increasing the channel capacity of the Deep Space Network. Given the near-optimum performance of the network at the two deep space communications bands, S-Band (uplink 2.025-2.120 GHz, downlink 2.2-2.3 GHz), and X-Band (uplink 7.145-7.19 GHz, downlink 8.48.5 GHz), additional improvements bring only marginal return for the investment. Thus the only way to increase channel capacity is simply to construct more antennas, receivers, transmitters and other hardware. This approach is relatively low-risk but involves increasing both the number of assets in the network and operational costs.

  14. Modeled and experimental results of an omnidirectional free-space optical receiver architecture (United States)

    Murshid, Syed H.; Lovell, Gregory L.; Finch, Michael F.


    Free-space optical (FSO) communications provide point-to-point connectivity while offering many advantages in size, weight, and power as compared to radio frequency. It has the potential to provide fiber-optic data rates without the need for lengthy fiber cables. Omnidirectional FSO, also known as O-FSO systems, provide a non-line-of-sight option for data communications. They are gaining popularity in short-distance networks. Most existing O-FSO links range from 1 to 100 m and present experimental/simulated data rates ranging between 5 kb/s and 1 Mb/s. A 2.5-Gb/s O-FSO system was recently reported with a range of 25 cm. This paper employs a fiber bundle as an O-FSO receiver. The energy collected by the receiver is related to the acceptance cone of each fiber. The fiber bundle integrates the optical power gathered by the individual fibers and couples it to the photodetector. Experimental data rates approaching 100 kb/s over a meter long system are presented, whereas simulated results support a data rate up to 52 Mb/s for distances approaching a kilometer. Theoretical and experimental optical power versus range is also presented for the proposed O-FSO architecture, using on-off keying.

  15. Biomimetric sentinel reef structures for optical sensing and communications (United States)

    Fries, David; Hutcheson, Tim; Josef, Noam; Millie, David; Tate, Connor


    Traditional artificial reef structures are designed with uniform cellular architectures and topologies and do not mimic natural reef forms. Strings and ropes are a proven, common fisheries and mariculture construction element throughout the world and using them as artificial reef scaffolding can enable a diversity of ocean sensing, communications systems including the goal of sentinel reefs. The architecture and packaging of electronics is key to enabling such structures and systems. The distributed sensor reef concept leads toward a demonstrable science-engineering-informed framework for 3D smart habitat designs critical to stock fish development and coastal monitoring and protection. These `nature-inspired' reef infrastructures, can enable novel instrumented `reef observatories' capable of collecting real-time ecosystem data. Embedding lighting and electronic elements into artificial reef systems are the first systems conceptualized. This approach of bringing spatial light to the underwater world for optical sensing, communication and even a new breed of underwater robotic vehicle is an interdisciplinary research activity which integrates principles of electronic packaging, and ocean technology with art/design.

  16. Secure space-to-space interferometric communications and its nexus to the physics of quantum entanglement (United States)

    Duarte, F. J.


    The history of the probability amplitude equation | ψ > = ( | x , y > - | y , x > ) applicable to quanta pairs, propagating in different directions with entangled polarizations, is reviewed and traced back to the 1947-1949 period. The interferometric Dirac foundations common to | ψ > = ( | x , y > - | y , x > ) and the generalized N-slit interferometric equation, for indistinguishable quanta, are also described. The results from a series of experiments on N-slit laser interferometers, with intra interferometric propagation paths up to 527 m, are reviewed. Particular attention is given to explain the generation of interferometric characters, for secure space-to-space communications, which immediately collapse on attempts of interception. The design of a low divergence N-slit laser interferometer for low Earth orbit-low Earth orbit (LEO-LEO), and LEO-geostationary Earth orbit (LEO-GEO), secure interferometric communications is described and a weight assessment is provided.

  17. Characterization of dual-polarization LTE radio over a free-space optical turbulence channel. (United States)

    Bohata, J; Zvanovec, S; Korinek, T; Mansour Abadi, M; Ghassemlooy, Z


    A dual polarization (DP) radio over a free-space optical (FSO) communication link using a long-term evolution (LTE) radio signal is proposed and analyzed under different turbulence channel conditions. Radio signal transmission over the DP FSO channel is experimentally verified by means of error vector magnitude (EVM) statistics. We demonstrate that such a system, employing a 64 quadrature amplitude modulation at the frequency bands of 800 MHz and 2.6 GHz, evinces reliability with LTE signal over the FSO channel is a potential solution for last-mile access or backbone networks, when using multiple-input multiple-output based DP signals.

  18. Adaptive Bit Rate Video Streaming Through an RF/Free Space Optical Laser Link

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Akbulut


    Full Text Available This paper presents a channel-adaptive video streaming scheme which adjusts video bit rate according to channel conditions and transmits video through a hybrid RF/free space optical (FSO laser communication system. The design criteria of the FSO link for video transmission to 2.9 km distance have been given and adaptive bit rate video streaming according to the varying channel state over this link has been studied. It has been shown that the proposed structure is suitable for uninterrupted transmission of videos over the hybrid wireless network with reduced packet delays and losses even when the received power is decreased due to weather conditions.

  19. Free-space wavelength-multiplexed optical scanner demonstration. (United States)

    Yaqoob, Zahid; Riza, Nabeel A


    Experimental demonstration of a no-moving-parts free-space wavelength-multiplexed optical scanner (W-MOS) is presented. With fast tunable lasers or optical filters and planar wavelength dispersive elements such as diffraction gratings, this microsecond-speed scanner enables large several-centimeter apertures for subdegree angular scans. The proposed W-MOS design incorporates a unique optical amplifier and variable optical attenuator combination that enables the calibration and modulation of the scanner response, leading to any desired scanned laser beam power shaping. The experimental setup uses a tunable laser centered at 1560 nm and a 600-grooves/mm blazed reflection grating to accomplish an angular scan of 12.92 degrees as the source is tuned over an 80-nm bandwidth. The values for calculated maximum optical beam divergance, required wavelength resolution, beam-pointing accuracy, and measured scanner insertion loss are 1.076 mrad, 0.172 nm, 0.06 mrad, and 4.88 dB, respectively.

  20. NASA's mobile satellite communications program; ground and space segment technologies (United States)

    Naderi, F.; Weber, W. J.; Knouse, G. H.


    This paper describes the Mobile Satellite Communications Program of the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The program's objectives are to facilitate the deployment of the first generation commercial mobile satellite by the private sector, and to technologically enable future generations by developing advanced and high risk ground and space segment technologies. These technologies are aimed at mitigating severe shortages of spectrum, orbital slot, and spacecraft EIRP which are expected to plague the high capacity mobile satellite systems of the future. After a brief introduction of the concept of mobile satellite systems and their expected evolution, this paper outlines the critical ground and space segment technologies. Next, the Mobile Satellite Experiment (MSAT-X) is described. MSAT-X is the framework through which NASA will develop advanced ground segment technologies. An approach is outlined for the development of conformal vehicle antennas, spectrum and power-efficient speech codecs, and modulation techniques for use in the non-linear faded channels and efficient multiple access schemes. Finally, the paper concludes with a description of the current and planned NASA activities aimed at developing complex large multibeam spacecraft antennas needed for future generation mobile satellite systems.

  1. Experimental Evaluation of Optically Polished Aluminum Panels on the Deep Space Network's 34 Meter Antenna (United States)

    Vilnrotter, V.


    The potential development of large aperture ground?based "photon bucket" optical receivers for deep space communications has received considerable attention recently. One approach currently under investigation is to polish the aluminum reflector panels of 34?meter microwave antennas to high reflectance, and accept the relatively large spotsize generated by state of?the?art polished aluminum panels. Theoretical analyses of receiving antenna pointing, temporal synchronization and data detection have been addressed in previous papers. Here we describe the experimental effort currently underway at the Deep Space Network (DSN) Goldstone Communications Complex in California, to test and verify these concepts in a realistic operational environment. Two polished aluminum panels (a standard DSN panel polished to high reflectance, and a custom designed aluminum panel with much better surface quality) have been mounted on the 34 meter research antenna at Deep?Space Station 13 (DSS?13), and a remotely controlled CCD camera with a large CCD sensor in a weather?proof container has been installed next to the subreflector, pointed directly at the custom polished panel. The point?spread function (PSF) generated by the Vertex polished panel has been determined to be smaller than the sensor of the CCD camera, hence a detailed picture of the PSF can be obtained every few seconds, and the sensor array data processed to determine the center of the intensity distribution. In addition to estimating the center coordinates, expected communications performance can also been evaluated with the recorded data. The results of preliminary pointing experiments with the Vertex polished panel receiver using the planet Jupiter to simulate the PSF generated by a deep?space optical transmitter are presented and discussed in this paper.

  2. Practical Quantum Communication and Cryptography for WDM Optical Networks (United States)

    Kumar, Prem


    Keeping in mind the ubiquitous standard optical fiber for long-distance transmission and the widespread availability of efficient active and passive fiber devices, we have been developing telecom-band resources for practical quantum communication and cryptography in wave-division-multiplexed (WDM) optical networks. In this talk I present our recent results on two fronts: i) telecom-band in-fiber entanglement generation, storage, and long-distance distribution and ii) quantum-noise protected high-speed data encryption through an optically-amplified WDM line. Along the first front, with our in-fiber entanglement source all four Bell states can be readily produced and we have demonstrated violation of Bell's inequalities by up to 10 standard deviations of measurement uncertainty. With such a source we have demonstrated storage of entanglement for up to 1/8 of a millisecond. Furthermore, when each photon of the entangled pair is propagated in separate 25km-long standard fibers, high visibility quantum interference is still observed, demonstrating that this system is capable of long-distance (> 50 km) entanglement distribution. Along the second front, we have implemented a new quantum cryptographic scheme, based on Yuen's KCQ protocol, in which the inherent quantum noise of coherent states of light is used to perform the cryptographic service of data encryption. In this scheme a legitimate receiver, with use of a short, shared, secret-key, executes a simple binary decision rule on every transmitted bit. An eavesdropper, on the other hand, who does not possess the secret-key, is subjected to an irreducible quantum uncertainty in each measurement, even with the use of ideal detectors. We have implemented this scheme to demonstrate quantum-noise-protected data encryption at 650 Mbps through a 200 km, in-line amplified, WDM line. The line simultaneously carried two 10 Gbps standard data channels, 100 GHz on either side of the encrypted channel, which shows that this scheme

  3. New trends in space x-ray optics (United States)

    Hudec, R.; Maršíková, V.; Pína, L.; Inneman, A.; Skulinová, M.


    The X-ray optics is a key element of various X-ray telescopes, X-ray microscopes, as well as other X-ray imaging instruments. The grazing incidence X-ray lenses represent the important class of X-ray optics. Most of grazing incidence (reflective) X-ray imaging systems used in astronomy but also in other (laboratory) applications are based on the Wolter 1 (or modified) arrangement. But there are also other designs and configurations proposed, used and considered for future applications both in space and in laboratory. The Kirkpatrick-Baez (K-B) lenses as well as various types of Lobster-Eye optics and MCP/Micropore optics serve as an example. Analogously to Wolter lenses, the X-rays are mostly reflected twice in these systems to create focal images. Various future projects in X-ray astronomy and astrophysics will require large segments with multiple thin shells or foils. The large Kirkpatrick-Baez modules, as well as the large Lobster-Eye X-ray telescope modules in Schmidt arrangement may serve as examples. All these space projects will require high quality and light segmented shells (bent or flat foils) with high X-ray reflectivity and excellent mechanical stability. The Multi Foil Optics (MFO) approach represent a promising alternative for both LE and K-B X-ray optical modules. Several types of reflecting substrates may be considered for these applications, with emphasis on thin float glass sheets and, more recently, high quality silicon wafers. This confirms the importance of non- Wolter X-ray optics designs for the future. Future large space X-ray telescopes (such as IXO) require precise and light-weight X-ray optics based on numerous thin reflecting shells. Novel approaches and advanced technologies are to be exploited and developed. In this contribution, we refer on results of tested X-ray mirror shells produced by glass thermal forming (GTF) and by shaping Si wafers. Both glass foils and Si wafers are commercially available, have excellent surface

  4. Space-Data Routers: Enhancing Deep Space communications for scientific data transmission and exploitation from Mars through Space Internetworking (United States)

    Sykioti, Olga; Daglis, Ioannis; Rontogiannis, Athanasios; Tsaoussidis, Vassilis; Diamantopoulos, Sotirios


    Dissemination and exploitation of data from Deep Space missions, such as planetary missions, face two major impediments: limited access capabilities due to narrow connectivity window via satellites (thus, resulting to confined scientific capacity) and lack of sufficient communication and dissemination mechanisms between deep space missions such the current missions to Mars, space data receiving centers, space-data collection centers and the end-user community. Although large quantities of data have to be transferred from deep space to the operation centers and then to the academic foundations and research centers, due to the aforementioned impediments more and more stored space data volumes remain unexploited, until they become obsolete or useless and are consequently removed. In the near future, these constraints on space and ground segment resources will rapidly increase due to the launch of new missions. The Space-Data Routers (SDR) project aims into boosting collaboration and competitiveness between the European Space Agency, the European Space Industry and the European Academic Institutions towards meeting these new challenges through Space Internetworking. Space internetworking gradually replaces or assists traditional telecommunication protocols. Future deep space operations, such as those to Mars, are scheduled to be more dynamic and flexible; many of the procedures, which are now human-operated, will become automated, interoperable and collaborative. As a consequence, space internetworking will bring a revolution in space communications. For this purpose, one of the main scientific objectives of the project is, through the examination of a specific scenario, the enhanced transmission and dissemination of Deep Space data from Mars, through unified communication channels. Specifically, the scenario involves enhanced data transmission acquired by the OMEGA sensor on-board ESA's Mars Express satellite. We consider two separate issues considering the

  5. Communications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Popular mediums : Paper postal service, newspapers. Air (Wireless) person to person communication, mobile phones, satellite systems. Copper Wire ( Land - line) POTS based telephone system; Other mediums optical fiber, water etc.

  6. Harnessing Adaptive Optics for Space Debris Collision Mitigation (United States)

    Zovaro, A.; Bennet, F.; Copeland, M.; Rigaut, F.; d'Orgeville, C.; Grosse, D.


    Human kind's continued use of space depends upon minimising the build-up of debris in low Earth-orbit (LEO). Preventing collisions between satellites and debris is essential given that a single collision can generate thousands of new debris objects. However, in-orbit manoeuvring of satellites is extremely expensive and shortens their operational life. Adjusting the orbits of debris objects instead of satellites would shift the responsibility of collision avoidance away from satellite operators altogether, thereby offering a superior solution. The Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics at the Australian National University, partnered with Electro Optic Systems (EOS) Space Systems, Lockheed Martin Corporation and the Space Environment Research Centre (SERC) Limited, are developing the Adaptive Optics Tracking and Pushing (AOTP) system. AOTP will be used to perturb the orbits of debris objects using photon pressure from a 10 kW IR laser beam launched from the 1.8 m telescope at Mount. Stromlo Observatory, Australia. Initial simulations predict that AOTP will be able to displace debris objects 10 cm in size by up to 100 m with several overhead passes. An operational demonstrator is planned for 2019. Turbulence will distort the laser beam as it propagates through the atmosphere, resulting in a lower photon flux on the target and reduced pointing accuracy. To mitigate these effects, adaptive optics (AO) will be used to apply wavefront correction to the beam prior to launch. A unique challenge in designing the AO system arises from the high slew rate needed to track objects in LEO, which in turn requires laser guide star AO for satisfactory wavefront correction. The optical design and results from simulations of estimated performance of AOTP will be presented. In particular, design considerations associated with the high-power laser will be detailed.

  7. Creating new opportunities for communicating about space science (United States)

    Treise, Debbie


    With the political and economic atmosphere changing so drastically, NASA has found it necessary to change its mission from one of exploration to that of accountability and application. These changes have made it difficult for NASA to access how its roles and constituency groups have changed in response. Specifically, at the MSFC Space Sciences Lab, management must now decide the most appropriate communication objectives, strategies and target market to direct messages reflecting these changes. Complicating the issue is that MSFC, must walk a fine line between looking as though it is spending too much money and 'marketing' themselves, which it is strictly prohibited from doing, and imparting the information in an exciting enough form to be picked up by the media.

  8. Ergodic channel capacity of spatial correlated multiple-input multiple-output free space optical links using multipulse pulse-position modulation (United States)

    Wang, Huiqin; Wang, Xue; Cao, Minghua


    The spatial correlation extensively exists in the multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) free space optical (FSO) communication systems due to the channel fading and the antenna space limitation. Wilkinson's method was utilized to investigate the impact of spatial correlation on the MIMO FSO communication system employing multipulse pulse-position modulation. Simulation results show that the existence of spatial correlation reduces the ergodic channel capacity, and the reception diversity is more competent to resist this kind of performance degradation.

  9. Ground Optical Signal Processing Architecture for Contributing SSA Space Based Sensor Data (United States)

    Koblick, D.; Klug, M.; Goldsmith, A.; Flewelling, B.; Jah, M.; Shanks, J.; Piña, R.


    The main objective of the DARPA program Orbit Outlook (O^2) is to improve the metric tracking and detection performance of the Space Situational Network (SSN) by adding a diverse low-cost network of contributing sensors to the Space Situational Awareness (SSA) mission. In order to accomplish this objective, not only must a sensor be in constant communication with a planning and scheduling system to process tasking requests, there must be an underlying framework to provide useful data products, such as angles only measurements. Existing optical signal processing implementations such as the Optical Processing Architecture at Lincoln (OPAL) are capable of converting mission data collections to angles only observations, but may be difficult for many users to obtain, support, and customize for low-cost missions and demonstration programs. The Ground Optical Signal Processing Architecture (GOSPA) will ingest raw imagery and telemetry data from a space based electro optical sensor and perform a background removal process to remove anomalous pixels, interpolate over bad pixels, and dominant temporal noise. After background removal, the streak end points and target centroids are located using a corner detection algorithm developed by Air Force Research Laboratory. These identified streak locations are then fused with the corresponding spacecraft telemetry data to determine the Right Ascension and Declination measurements with respect to time. To demonstrate the performance of GOSPA, non-rate tracking collections against a satellite in Geosynchronous Orbit are simulated from a visible optical imaging sensor in a polar Low Earth Orbit. Stars, noise and bad pixels are added to the simulated images based on look angles and sensor parameters. These collections are run through the GOSPA framework to provide angles- only measurements to the Air Force Research Laboratory Constrained Admissible Region Multiple Hypothesis Filter (CAR-MHF) in which an Initial Orbit Determination is

  10. Space active optics: in flight aberrations correction for the next generation of large space telescopes (United States)

    Laslandes, M.; Ferrari, M.; Hugot, E.; Lemaitre, G.


    The need for both high quality images and light structures is a constant concern in the conception of space telescopes. In this paper, we present an active optics system as a way to fulfill those two objectives. Indeed, active optics consists in controlling mirrors' deformations in order to improve the images quality [1]. The two main applications of active optics techniques are the in-situ compensation of phase errors in a wave front by using a corrector deformable mirror [2] and the manufacturing of aspherical mirrors by stress polishing or by in-situ stressing [3]. We will focus here on the wave-front correction. Indeed, the next generation of space telescopes will have lightweight primary mirrors; in consequence, they will be sensitive to the environment variations, inducing optical aberrations in the instrument. An active optics system is principally composed of a deformable mirror, a wave front sensor, a set of actuators deforming the mirror and control/command electronics. It is used to correct the wave-front errors due to the optical design, the manufacturing imperfections, the large lightweight primary mirrors' deflection in field gravity, the fixation devices, and the mirrors and structures' thermal distortions due to the local turbulence [4]. Active optics is based on the elasticity theory [5]; forces and/or load are used to deform a mirror. Like in adaptive optics, actuators can simply be placed under the optical surface [1,2], but other configurations have also been studied: a system's simplification, inducing a minimization of the number of actuators can be achieved by working on the mirror design [5]. For instance, in the so called Vase form Multimode Deformable Mirror [6], forces are applied on an external ring clamped on the pupil. With this method, there is no local effect due to the application of forces on the mirror's back face. Furthermore, the number of actuators needed to warp the mirror does not depend on the pupil size; it is a fully

  11. Proposed parameters of specific rain attenuation prediction for Free Space Optics link operating in tropical region (United States)

    Suriza, A. Z.; Md Rafiqul, Islam; Wajdi, A. K.; Naji, A. W.


    As the demand for higher and unlimited bandwidth for communication channel is increased, Free Space Optics (FSO) is a good alternative solution. As it is protocol transparent, easy to install, cost effective and have capabilities like fiber optics, its demand rises very fast. Weather condition, however is the limiting factor for FSO link. In the temperate region the major blockage for FSO link feasibility is fog. In the tropical region high rainfall rate is expected to be the major drawback of FSO link availability. Rain attenuation is the most significant to influence FSO link availability in tropical region. As for now the available k and α values are developed using data from temperate regions. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to propose new parameters for specific rain attenuation prediction model that represents tropical weather condition. The proposed values are derived from data measured in Malaysia and using methods recommended by ITU-R.

  12. Unified performance analysis of hybrid-ARQ with incremental redundancy over free-space optical channels

    KAUST Repository

    Zedini, Emna


    In this paper, we carry out a unified performance analysis of hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) with incremental redundancy (IR) from an information theoretic perspective over a point-to-point free-space optical (FSO) system. First, we introduce a novel unified expression for the distribution of a single FSO link modeled by the Gamma fading that accounts for pointing errors subject to both types of detection techniques at the receiver side (i.e. heterodyne detection and intensity modulation with direct detection (IM/DD)). Then, we provide analytical expressions for the outage probability, the average number of transmissions, and the average transmission rate for HARQ with IR, assuming a maximum number of rounds for the HARQ protocol. In our study, the communication rate per HARQ round is constant. Our analysis demonstrates the importance of HARQ in improving the performance and reliability of FSO communication systems. All the given results are verified via computer-based Monte-Carlo simulations.

  13. Enabling Future Science and Human Exploration with NASA's Next Generation Near Earth and Deep Space Communications and Navigation Architecture (United States)

    Reinhart, Richard; Schier, James; Israel, David; Tai, Wallace; Liebrecht, Philip; Townes, Stephen


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is studying alternatives for the United States space communications architecture through the 2040 timeframe. This architecture provides communication and navigation services to both human exploration and science missions throughout the solar system. Several of NASA's key space assets are approaching their end of design life and major systems are in need of replacement. The changes envisioned in the relay satellite architecture and capabilities around both Earth and Mars are significant undertakings and occur only once or twice each generation, and therefore is referred to as NASA's next generation space communications architecture. NASA's next generation architecture will benefit from technology and services developed over recent years. These innovations will provide missions with new operations concepts, increased performance, and new business and operating models. Advancements in optical communications will enable high-speed data channels and the use of new and more complex science instruments. Modern multiple beam/multiple access technologies such as those employed on commercial high throughput satellites will enable enhanced capabilities for on-demand service, and with new protocols will help provide Internet-like connectivity for cooperative spacecraft to improve data return and coordinate joint mission objectives. On-board processing with autonomous and cognitive networking will play larger roles to help manage system complexity. Spacecraft and ground systems will coordinate among themselves to establish communications, negotiate link connectivity, and learn to share spectrum to optimize resource allocation. Spacecraft will autonomously navigate, plan trajectories, and handle off-nominal events. NASA intends to leverage the ever-expanding capabilities of the satellite communications industry and foster its continued growth. NASA's technology development will complement and extend commercial capabilities

  14. Enabling Future Science and Human Exploration with NASA's Next Generation near Earth and Deep Space Communications and Navigation Architecture (United States)

    Reinhart, Richard C.; Schier, James S.; Israel, David J.; Tai, Wallace; Liebrecht, Philip E.; Townes, Stephen A.


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is studying alternatives for the United States space communications architecture through the 2040 timeframe. This architecture provides communication and navigation services to both human exploration and science missions throughout the solar system. Several of NASA's key space assets are approaching their end of design life and major systems are in need of replacement. The changes envisioned in the relay satellite architecture and capabilities around both Earth and Mars are significant undertakings and occur only once or twice each generation, and therefore is referred to as NASA's next generation space communications architecture. NASA's next generation architecture will benefit from technology and services developed over recent years. These innovations will provide missions with new operations concepts, increased performance, and new business and operating models. Advancements in optical communications will enable high-speed data channels and the use of new and more complex science instruments. Modern multiple beam/multiple access technologies such as those employed on commercial high throughput satellites will enable enhanced capabilities for on-demand service, and with new protocols will help provide Internet-like connectivity for cooperative spacecraft to improve data return and coordinate joint mission objectives. On-board processing with autonomous and cognitive networking will play larger roles to help manage system complexity. Spacecraft and ground systems will coordinate among themselves to establish communications, negotiate link connectivity, and learn to share spectrum to optimize resource allocation. Spacecraft will autonomously navigate, plan trajectories, and handle off-nominal events. NASA intends to leverage the ever-expanding capabilities of the satellite communications industry and foster its continued growth. NASA's technology development will complement and extend commercial capabilities

  15. Communication-Oriented Design Space Exploration for Reconfigurable Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gogniat Guy


    Full Text Available Many academic works in computer engineering focus on reconfigurable architectures and associated tools. Fine-grain architectures, field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs, are the most well-known structures of reconfigurable hardware. Dedicated tools (generic or specific allow for the exploration of their design space to choose the best architecture characteristics and/or to explore the application characteristics. The aim is to increase the synergy between the application and the architecture in order to get the best performance. However, there is no generic tool to perform such an exploration for coarse-grain or heterogeneous-grain architectures, just a small number of very specific tools are able to explore a limited set of architectures. To address this major lack, in this paper we propose a new design space exploration approach adapted to fine- and coarse-grain granularities. Our approach combines algorithmic and architecture explorations. It relies on an automatic estimation tool which computes the communication hierarchical distribution and the architectural processing resources use rate for the architecture under exploration. Such an approach forwards the rapid definition of efficient reconfigurable architectures dedicated to one or several applications.

  16. Communication-Oriented Design Space Exploration for Reconfigurable Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Bossuet


    Full Text Available Many academic works in computer engineering focus on reconfigurable architectures and associated tools. Fine-grain architectures, field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs, are the most well-known structures of reconfigurable hardware. Dedicated tools (generic or specific allow for the exploration of their design space to choose the best architecture characteristics and/or to explore the application characteristics. The aim is to increase the synergy between the application and the architecture in order to get the best performance. However, there is no generic tool to perform such an exploration for coarse-grain or heterogeneous-grain architectures, just a small number of very specific tools are able to explore a limited set of architectures. To address this major lack, in this paper we propose a new design space exploration approach adapted to fine- and coarse-grain granularities. Our approach combines algorithmic and architecture explorations. It relies on an automatic estimation tool which computes the communication hierarchical distribution and the architectural processing resources use rate for the architecture under exploration. Such an approach forwards the rapid definition of efficient reconfigurable architectures dedicated to one or several applications.

  17. James Webb Space Telescope Optical Telescope Element Mirror Coatings (United States)

    Keski-Kuha, Ritva A.; Bowers, Charles W.; Quijada, Manuel A.; Heaney, James B.; Gallagher, Benjamin; McKay, Andrew; Stevenson, Ian


    James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Optical Telescope Element (OTE) mirror coating program has been completed. The science goals of the JWST mission require a uniform, low stress, durable optical coating with high reflectivity over the JWST spectral region. The coating has to be environmentally stable, radiation resistant and compatible with the cryogenic operating environment. The large size, 1.52 m point to point, light weight, beryllium primary mirror (PM) segments and flawless coating process during the flight mirror coating program that consisted coating of 21 flight mirrors were among many technical challenges. This paper provides an overview of the JWST telescope mirror coating program. The paper summarizes the coating development program and performance of the flight mirrors.

  18. Ultra-stable optical links for space and ground applications (United States)

    Narbonneau, F.; Lours, M.; Daussy, C.; Lopez, O.; Clairon, A.; Santarelli, G.


    We have demonstrated the feasibility of a free-space ultra-stable optical link on a 3 meters test bench, operating at 100 MHz. With this type of link, it is possible to transfer a 100 MHz signal with a relative frequency stability of a few 10-14 at one second integration time, 10-16 at one day and a phase stability of a few picoseconds per day in presence of moderate mechanical vibrations and thermal fluctuations. The comparisons of modern clocks of distant (<100 km) Time and Frequency laboratories have a strong scientific interest. In this context we study a low noise frequency distribution via optical fibres. Some preliminary tests have been realized and the results are encouraging. We expect to transfer ultra stable oscillators with a relative frequency stability of a few 10-14 at one second integration time, 10-16 at one day.

  19. Channel modelling for free-space optical inter-HAP links using adaptive ARQ transmission (United States)

    Parthasarathy, S.; Giggenbach, D.; Kirstädter, A.


    Free-space optical (FSO) communication systems have seen significant developments in recent years due to growing need for very high data rates and tap-proof communication. The operation of an FSO link is suited to diverse variety of applications such as satellites, High Altitude Platforms (HAPs), Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), aircrafts, ground stations and other areas involving both civil and military situations. FSO communication systems face challenges due to different effects of the atmospheric channel. FSO channel primarily suffers from scintillation effects due to Index of Refraction Turbulence (IRT). In addition, acquisition and pointing becomes more difficult because of the high directivity of the transmitted beam: Miss-pointing of the transmitted beam and tracking errors at the receiver generate additional fading of the optical signal. High Altitude Platforms (HAPs) are quasi-stationary vehicles operating in the stratosphere. The slowly varying but precisely determined time-of-flight of the Inter-HAP channel adds to its characteristics. To propose a suitable ARQ scheme, proper theoretical understanding of the optical atmospheric propagation and modeling of a specific scenario FSO channel is required. In this paper, a bi-directional symmetrical Inter-HAP link has been selected and modeled. The Inter-HAP channel model is then investigated via simulations in terms of optical scintillation induced by IRT and in presence of pointing error. The performance characteristic of the model is then quantified in terms of fading statistics from which the Packet Error Probability (PEP) is calculated. Based on the PEP characteristics, we propose suitable ARQ schemes.

  20. Graphical user interfaces for teaching and research in optical communications (United States)

    Almeida, Telmo; Nogueira, Rogerio; André, Paulo


    This paper highlights the use of graphical user interfaces (GUIs) developed with the guide tool from Matlab® for university level optical communications courses and research activities. Graphical user interfaces programmed with Matlab® would not only improve the learning experience, making models easier to understand, but also could be tweaked and improved by students themselves. As Matlab® is already taught in many universities, this would ease the process. An example of a model for a stationary EDFA is given to demonstrate the ease of use and understanding of the role of all the different parameters of the model, so students can get a real interactive experience. Another considered potential application is in research. With GUIs, researchers can make real-time parameter optimization, quick assessments and calculations, or simply showcase their work to broader audiences who may not be so familiar with the topic. A practical example of a research application is given for a parameter optimization of a model for non-linear phenomena in uncompensated long-haul transmission links is given. Besides all the emphasis given to practical applications and potential situations for its use, the paper also covers the basic notions of the critical steps in making a successful Matlab® GUI. Ease of use, visual appearance and computation time are the key features of a successfully implemented GUI.

  1. Dispersion characteristics and compensation in the POLMUX coherent optical communication system (United States)

    Zhu, Guijun; Ruan, Xiukai; Zhou, Zhili


    The trend of high-speed optical communication is to realize large capacity, fast speed and long haul transmission. However, the dispersion in an optical fiber link can cause signals distortion or even inter symbol interference (ISI). With increasing signal rate and transmission distance in the optical communication system, the development of high-speed optical fiber communication is restricted seriously. This paper is focusing on the dispersion characteristics and compensation of the polarization multiplexing (POLMUX) coherent optical communication system: (i) to study on dispersion theoretically, e.g., chromatic dispersion (CD), polarization mode dispersion (PMD) and dispersion tolerance; (ii) to analyze and compare the performance of dispersion with various 16-ary modulation formats; (iii) to compensate dispersion by the classical dispersion compensation methods.

  2. Development of a Handheld Line Information Reader and Generator for Efficient Management of Optical Communication Lines. (United States)

    Lee, Jaeyul; Kwon, Hyungwoo; Song, Jaewon; Jeon, Mansik; Kim, Jeehyun


    A handheld line information reader and a line information generator were developed for the efficient management of optical communication lines. The line information reader consists of a photo diode, trans-impedance amplifier, voltage amplifier, microcontroller unit, display panel, and communication modules. The line information generator consists of a laser diode, laser driving circuits, microcontroller unit, and communication modules. The line information reader can detect the optical radiation field of the test line by bending the optical fiber. To enhance the sensitivity of the line information reader, an additional lens was used with a focal length of 4.51 mm. Moreover, the simulation results obtained through BeamPROP® software from Synopsys, Inc. demonstrated a stronger optical radiation field of the fiber due to a longer transmission wavelength and larger bending angle of the fiber. Therefore, the developed devices can be considered as useful tools for the efficient management of optical communication lines.

  3. Improvement of matrix condition of Hybrid, space variant optics by the means of parallel optics design. (United States)

    Klapp, Iftach; Mendlovic, David


    The problem of image restoration of space variant blur is common and important. One of the most useful descriptions of this problem is in its algebraic form I=H*O, where O is the object represented as a column vector, I is the blur image represented as a column vector and H is the PSF matrix that represents the optical system. When inverting the problem to restore the geometric object from the blurred image and the known system matrix, restoration is limited in speed and quality by the system condition. Current optical design methods focus on image quality, therefore if additional image processing is needed the matrix condition is taken "as is". In this paper we would like to present a new optical approach which aims to improve the system condition by proper optical design. In this new method we use Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) to define the weak parts of the matrix condition. We design a second optical system based on those weak SVD parts and then we add the second system parallel to the first one. The original and second systems together work as an improved parallel optics system. Following that, we present a method for designing such a "parallel filter" for systems with a spread SVD pattern. Finally we present a study case in which by using our new method we improve a space variant image system with an initial condition number of 8.76e4, down to a condition number of 2.29e3. We use matrix inversion to simulate image restoration. Results show that the new parallel optics immunity to Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) is much better then that of the original simple lens. Comparing the original and the parallel optics systems, the parallel optics system crosses the MSEIF=0 [db] limit in SNR value which is more than 50db lower then the SNR value in the case of the original simple lens. The new parallel optics system performance is also compared to another method based on the MTF approach.

  4. Free-space optical switching core for storage area network (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Collings, Neil; Crossland, William A.; Wilkinson, Timothy D.; Fan, Mark; Taghizadeh, Mohammad R.; Waddie, Andrew


    Storage Area Network (SAN) has gradually developed as the demand for storage capacity and fast access has increased. The traditional way of attaching storage directly to the servers over a SCSI bus has limited scalability. Several drawbacks and limitations have turned up. Switched Fibre Channel SAN resolves all of these issues. In this paper, the architecture of the switch fabric for the SAN is discussed. The complete design of the free-space optical switching core based on the diffractive element and the PLZT shutter is proposed.

  5. Global aspects of polarization optics and coset space geometry (United States)

    Arvind; Chaturvedi, S.; Mukunda, N.


    We use group theoretic ideas and coset space methods to deal with problems in polarization optics of a global nature. The well-known impossibility of a globally smooth phase convention for electric fields for all points on the Poincaré sphere, and the equally well-known impossibility of real bases for transverse electric vectors for all propagation directions, are expressed in terms of coset spaces SU (2) / U (1), SO (3) / SO (2) respectively. Combining these two negative results in a judicious manner, by making the singularities in coset representatives in the two cases cancel one another, the known possibility of a globally smooth complex basis for transverse electric vectors, and its essential uniqueness, are shown. We find that apart from the groups SU (2) and SO (3) which occur naturally in these problems, the group SU (3) also plays an important role.

  6. Design and Evaluation of 10-Gbps Inter-satellite Optical Wireless Communication Link for Improved Performance (United States)

    Gupta, Amit; Nagpal, Shaina


    Inter-satellite optical wireless communication (IsOWC) systems can be chosen over existing microwave satellite systems for deploying in space in the future due to their high bandwidth, small size, light weight, low power and low cost. However, the IsOWC system suffers from various attenuations due to weather conditions, turbulence or scintillations which limit its performance and decreases its availability. So, in order to improve the performance, IsOWC system using directly modulated laser source is proposed in this work. The system is designed and evaluated to be suitable for high data rate transmissions up to 10 Gbps. The performance of the system is investigated in order to reduce the cost and complexity of link and improving the quality of information signal. Further the proposed IsOWC system is analysed using BER analyser, power meter and oscilloscope Visualizer.

  7. Programmable High-Rate Multi-Mission Receiver for Space Communications Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Current and upcoming NASA space links require both highly reliable low-rate communications links supporting critical TT&C, ranging and voice services and highly...

  8. High-Efficiency, High-Power Laser Transmitter for Deep-Space Communication Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There is demand for vastly improved deep space satellite communications links. As data rates dramatically increase due to new sensor technologies and the desire to...

  9. 2017 International Conference on Space Science and Communication (United States)


    Table of Content Preface 2017 International Conference on Space Science and CommunicationSpace Science for Sustainability” The present volume of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series represents contributions from participants of the 2017 International Conference on Space Science and Communication (IconSpace2017) held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia from May 3-5, 2017. The conference was organized by Space Science Centre (ANGKASA), Institute of Climate Change, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) with a theme on “Space Science for Sustainability”. IconSpace2017 is the fifth series of conferences devoted to bringing researchers from around the world together to present and discuss their recent research results related to space science and communication, and also to provide an international platform for future research collaborations. This biennial international conference is an open forum where members in the field and others can meet in one place to discuss their current research findings. The technical program of this conference includes four keynote speakers, invited speakers, and the presentation of papers and poster. The track of the session includes Astrophysics and Astronomy, Atmospheric and Magnetospheric Sciences, Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Satellite and Communication Technology, and Interdisciplinary Space Science. Apart from the main conference, there will be a special talk on “Space Exploration & Updates” on 5 May 2017. More than 100 scientists and engineers from various academic, government, and industrial institutions in Europe, Asia, Australia, Africa, and the Americas attended the conference. The papers for this conference were selected after a rigorous review process. The papers were all evaluated by international and local reviewers and at least two reviewers were required to evaluate each paper. We should like to offer our thanks for the professionalism of the organizing committee, authors, reviewers, and volunteers deserve much

  10. Calibration of optical components for the DS-1 space probe (United States)

    Zito, Richard R.


    The deep space one (DS-1) probe is a mini-tour photo reconnaissance mission of Earth-Mars space. Target bodies include an asteroid, a comet, and the planet Mars. Central to this mission is an accurate measurement of the reflectance of the primary mirror of the imaging system. Knowledge of this reflectance will allow calculation of the absolute albedos of the target bodies encountered. Scattering measurements were also made on the so-called 'diffuser plate' of the optical train. This component was intended to be used only for the solar occultation experiment which measures the solar intensity as a function of atmospheric depth as Mars comes between the Sun and the probes optical detectors. The diffuser plate was designed to reduce the solar intensity by scattering light in an isotropic fashion. However, it has been found that the diffuser plate is not an isotropic scatterer. This report describes the equipment used to make the reflectance and scattering measurements, as well as the results obtained from the measurement program.

  11. A novel DC Magnetron sputtering facility for space research and synchrotron radiation optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, A.M.; Christensen, Finn Erland; Pareschi, G.


    A new DC magnetron sputtering facility has been build up at the Danish Space Research Institute (DSRI), specially designed to enable uniform coatings of large area curved optics, such as Wolter-I mirror optics used in space telescopes and curved optics used in synchrotron radiation facilities...

  12. Influences of simulated space radiation on optical glasses (United States)

    Doyle, Dominic B.; Czichy, Reinhard H.


    Samples of 20 types of optical glass (both normal and radiation hardened crowns and flints, and fused silica), were subjected to both gamma (Co60) and proton radiation in air to simulate the dose expected over a 10 year lifetime in geostationary orbit. The samples were all 2 mm thick optically flat disks and were characterized before and after irradiation by spectral transmittance (250-800 nm) and wavefront error (approximately 630 nm) measurements. The geometry of the gamma irradiation was such that the outer area of each sample disk was covered by an annular lead shield giving a dose step of 50% of the nominal between the center and edge. This unique configuration gave rise to 'aperture imprinting' in some of the samples after Co60 irradiation, which was manifested as both a visible change in the coloration densities and a clear step in the measured interferograms from center to edge. The spectral transmission properties were much as expected from previously published work, with significant coloration and transmission loss in the near UV and the visible for the non cerium doped samples. The results of the tests are presented in summary form, conclusions are drawn with regard to the selection of optical glasses for application in space borne instrumentation, and recommendations for future work in this field are made.

  13. On the use of wavelength and time diversity in optical wireless communication systems over gamma-gamma turbulence channels (United States)

    Nistazakis, Hector E.; Tombras, George S.


    Optical wireless communication or free space optical systems have gained significant research and commercial attention in recent years due to their cost-effective and license-free high bandwidth access characteristics. However, by using the atmosphere as transmission media, the performance of such a system depends on the atmospheric conditions that exist between transmitter and receiver. Indeed, for an outdoor optical channel link, the existence of atmospheric turbulence may significantly degrade the performance of the associated communication system over distances longer than 1 or even 0.5 km. In order to anticipate this, particular attention has been given to diversity methods. In this work, we consider the use of wavelength and time diversity in wireless optical communication systems that operate under weak to strong atmospheric turbulence conditions modeled by the gamma-gamma distribution, and we derive closed form mathematical expressions for estimating the system's achievable outage probability and average bit error rate. Finally, numerical results referred to common practical cases are also obtained in order to show that wavelength and time diversity schemes enhances considerably these systems' availability and performance.

  14. Free Space Optical Communication in the Military Environment (United States)


    methods used fire to make smoke or light that could be seen over long distances during either day or night. A famous example of this is the reporting of...The HyBridge radio increases the range of the system through a rate adaptive multiple band technology trademarked as Maximized Distance DualPath

  15. Power and optical communications for long tie-backs (United States)

    Lecroart, A.; Doyle, L.-P.; Michel, R.; Odier, J.-P.


    Large volume neutrino telescopes require real time communications back to shore and a sizeable amount of power at the bottom to feed the detectors and the associated electronics. The telecommunications industry has developed a family of cabled products that have been cost optimized over the years. These submarine cables using optical fibres and a single copper conductor are ideal to achieve the transport of signal and energy. Sea return is required but the overall solution is far less expensive than using a bespoke multi-conductor umbilical design. The quality of neutrino detection may require photo-multipliers to be located in a relatively deep area to limit ambient light noise. This may dictate the choice of the location, which may be tens of kilometres away from the land-based station. If this distance is relatively short then high voltage AC powering can be envisaged. Yet the cable capacitance might become an issue for distances beyond 50 km where the amount of power lost in the cable may become too important. Alcatel-Lucent is developing a 10 kV DC solution based on the advent of a new device converting the 10 kV DC into a more usable 350 or 400 V DC user voltage. Alcatel-Lucent believes that a 10 kV DC solution using Medium Voltage Converters can efficiently bring power to areas located up to 600 km from the shore. In this case, repeaters are used to amplify the light signal along the way. Alcatel-Lucent has qualified repeaters able to sustain a permanent line current of up to 8 A.

  16. Experimental Evaluation of the "Polished Panel Optical Receiver" Concept on the Deep Space Network's 34 Meter Antenna (United States)

    Vilnrotter, Victor A.


    The potential development of large aperture ground-based "photon bucket" optical receivers for deep space communications has received considerable attention recently. One approach currently under investigation proposes to polish the aluminum reflector panels of 34-meter microwave antennas to high reflectance, and accept the relatively large spotsize generated by even state-of-the-art polished aluminum panels. Here we describe the experimental effort currently underway at the Deep Space Network (DSN) Goldstone Communications Complex in California, to test and verify these concepts in a realistic operational environment. A custom designed aluminum panel has been mounted on the 34 meter research antenna at Deep-Space Station 13 (DSS-13), and a remotely controlled CCD camera with a large CCD sensor in a weather-proof container has been installed next to the subreflector, pointed directly at the custom polished panel. Using the planet Jupiter as the optical point-source, the point-spread function (PSF) generated by the polished panel has been characterized, the array data processed to determine the center of the intensity distribution, and expected communications performance of the proposed polished panel optical receiver has been evaluated.

  17. The analysis of an optical fibre communication system using laser ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fibre dispersion has been the main limitation to high-speed data transmissions employing optical fibres. Various techniques and methods for combating this limitation have therefore been proposed. Such techniques include electrical and optical dispersion compensation, optical and electrical pulse shaping, and ...

  18. Performance Limits of Non-Line-of-Sight Optical Communications (United States)


    and the path loss is overestimated. This becomes more evident as the intersection diminishes, with a sharp climb in path loss as φ1 grows. The...communications, particularly in outdoor UV communication (in which we consider ad hoc topology) and indoor VLC (in which we prefer infrastructure topology...outdoor communication: The IEEE 802.11 standard proposes a carrier sense based MAC scheme for indoor IR with LOS communication links. The MAC design in

  19. Application of Nanophotonic Devices in High Speed Optical Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vukovic, Dragana

    All-optical signal processing has attracted a significant research interest in the past decade as it might become competitive with electronics in terms of compactness, energy consumption, and reliability. Furthermore it might solve the current bandwidth mismatch between optical transmission...... and electronic components in the physical layer and maintain high data rates, transparency and efficiency in optical networks. The remarkable advance, maturity, and cost reduction of optical components has therefore intensified research for the realization and exploitation of all-optical signal processing...

  20. Near-Infrared Wireless Optical Communication with Particulates In-Suspension over the Underwater Channel

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, It Ee


    We demonstrate a gigabit near-infrared-based underwater wireless optical communication link using an 808-nm laser diode to mitigate the particle scattering effect in turbid medium. An improvement in the error performance is observed with increasing concentrations.