WorldWideScience

Sample records for space odyssey paradigm

  1. Space Odyssey Gift Shop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The Space Odyssey Gift Shop located in StenniSphere at the John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., offers every visitor the opportunity to go home with 'the right stuff' from his or her StenniSphere visit. The gift shop is located just inside the front doors to StenniSphere and offers a wide range of space-related apparel, memorabilia, toys, books, mission patches and more.

  2. A learning space Odyssey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beckers, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the alignment of learning space with higher education learning and teaching. Significant changes in higher education the past decades, such as increased information and communication technology (ICT) and new learning theories have resulted in the dilemma whether higher

  3. Y2K+1: Technology, Community-College Students, the Millennium, and Stanley Kubrick's "2001: A Space Odyssey."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haspel, Paul

    2002-01-01

    Considers how screening Stanley Kubrick's "2001: A Space Odyssey" in a sophomore film class shows modern community-college students that millennial anxiety existed well before late 1999, the time of "Y2K" fears. Presents an assignment that examines "2001: A Space Odyssey" in the context of its time and in 2001. (SG)

  4. From Early Exploration to Space Weather Forecasts: Canada's Geomagnetic Odyssey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Hing-Lan

    2011-05-01

    Canada is a region ideally suited for the study of space weather: The north magnetic pole is encompassed within its territory, and the auroral oval traverses its vast landmass from east to west. Magnetic field lines link the country directly to the outer magnetosphere. In light of this geographic suitability, it has been a Canadian tradition to install ground monitors to remotely sense the space above Canadian territory. The beginning of this tradition dates back to 1840, when Edward Sabine, a key figure in the “magnetic crusade” to establish magnetic observatories throughout the British Empire in the nineteenth century, founded the first Canadian magnetic observatory on what is now the campus of the University of Toronto, 27 years before the birth of Canada. This observatory, which later became the Toronto Magnetic and Meteorological Observatory, marked the beginning of the Canadian heritage of installing magnetic stations and other ground instruments in the years to come. This extensive network of ground-based measurement devices, coupled with space-based measurements in more modern times, has enabled Canadian researchers to contribute significantly to studies related to space weather.

  5. Space odysseys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antologi om unge danske arkitekter og designere. Udgivet som Arkitektur DK 5/2006 og som selvstændig publikation. Den indledende artikel er af arkitekturteoretisk karakter, de øvrige formidlende.   ...

  6. Realizing "2001: A Space Odyssey": Piloted Spherical Torus Nuclear Fusion Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Craig H.; Dudzinski, Leonard A.; Borowski, Stanley K.; Juhasz, Albert J.

    2005-01-01

    A conceptual vehicle design enabling fast, piloted outer solar system travel was created predicated on a small aspect ratio spherical torus nuclear fusion reactor. The initial requirements were satisfied by the vehicle concept, which could deliver a 172 mt crew payload from Earth to Jupiter rendezvous in 118 days, with an initial mass in low Earth orbit of 1,690 mt. Engineering conceptual design, analysis, and assessment was performed on all major systems including artificial gravity payload, central truss, nuclear fusion reactor, power conversion, magnetic nozzle, fast wave plasma heating, tankage, fuel pellet injector, startup/re-start fission reactor and battery bank, refrigeration, reaction control, communications, mission design, and space operations. Detailed fusion reactor design included analysis of plasma characteristics, power balance/utilization, first wall, toroidal field coils, heat transfer, and neutron/x-ray radiation. Technical comparisons are made between the vehicle concept and the interplanetary spacecraft depicted in the motion picture 2001: A Space Odyssey.

  7. Cosmic odyssey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidmann, J.

    1989-01-01

    The immensity of the cosmos, the richness of the universe, the limits of space and time: these are the themes of Cosmic Odyssey, which takes the reader on imaginary journeys through the past, present and future of our universe. After a first look at the starry night sky, the enigmas posed since ancient times by the universe are reviewed. There then follows a broadbrush view of the universe as we understand it today. Following this, a trio of chapters take us to ultimate questions about its nature. The author explores in turn the relativistic universe, the quantum universe and the inflationary universe. Finally the journey returns to questions that touch on our own presence in the universe. Cosmology, the science of understanding the nature of the universe as a whole, has gone through an extraordinary revolution in its approach. This book explains in detail the link between particle physics and cosmology, the very early universe, the significance of Grand Unified Theory and superstrings, the magical qualities of the inflationary universe, and the seemingly bleak scenarios for the farthest future. (author)

  8. Odyssey in the zepto-space. A voyage in the physics of the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giudice, Gian Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Since end of 2009 the mostly ambitioned scientific experiment of all times runs with record energy - and however its goals are scarcely understandable for the generality. This book puts everyone in the position to consecute and reproduce the immediately imminent discoveries in the particle-accelerator project of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. It invites the reader to consider the theory of particle physics with the eyes of an insider, and gives him the tool in the hand in order to comprehend the importance of the mental revolution, the witnesses of which we are at time. To the mostly impressive aspects of this scientific eventure belong the technological innovations in the construction of the LHC. As part of the project history they are described here too. Furthermore this book gives a survey about the scientific goals and expectations connected with the LHC: Does the mysterious Higgs particle really exist? Hides the space a supersymmetry or extends to additional dimensions? How the protons colliding in the LHC ring can give away the mysteries of the origin of our universe? All these questions are explained in the present book by a proved expert. Without any cuts in the exactness the exceedingly technical matter is here presented in a pleasant, accessible style. This books wants not only informate, but also mediate to the reader, which respect and which excitation a physicist feels, when he stands at the threshold to a new era in the understanding of our world.

  9. TAMU: A New Space Mission Operations Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkat, Leila; Ruszkowski, James; Haensly, Jean; Pennington, Granvil A.; Hogle, Charles

    2011-01-01

    The Transferable, Adaptable, Modular and Upgradeable (TAMU) Flight Production Process (FPP) is a model-centric System of System (SoS) framework which cuts across multiple organizations and their associated facilities, that are, in the most general case, in geographically diverse locations, to develop the architecture and associated workflow processes for a broad range of mission operations. Further, TAMU FPP envisions the simulation, automatic execution and re-planning of orchestrated workflow processes as they become operational. This paper provides the vision for the TAMU FPP paradigm. This includes a complete, coherent technique, process and tool set that result in an infrastructure that can be used for full lifecycle design and decision making during any flight production process. A flight production process is the process of developing all products that are necessary for flight.

  10. Diachronic Homer and a Cretan Odyssey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Nagy

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores the kaleidoscopic world of Homer and Homeric poetry from a combined diachronic and synchronic perspective. Linguists refer to “synchronic” as a given structure that exists in a given time and space, and “diachronic” as a structure that evolves through time. Nagy argues that from a diachronic perspective, the structure known as Homeric poetry can be viewed as an “evolving medium.” From a diachronic perspective, Homeric poetry is not only an evolving medium of oral poetry, but it is also a medium that actually views itself diachronically. In other words, Homeric poetry demonstrates aspects of its own evolution. A case in point is “the Cretan _Odyssey_”—or, better, “a Cretan _Odyssey_”—as reflected in the “lying tales” of Odysseus in the _Odyssey_. The author claims that these tales give the medium an opportunity to open windows into an _Odyssey_ that is otherwise unknown. In the alternate universe of this “Cretan _Odyssey_,” the adventures of Odysseus take place in the exotic context of Minoan-Mycenaean civilization.

  11. Nanosatellites : A paradigm change for space weather studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthelemy, Mathieu

    2016-04-01

    Nanosatellites are changing the paradigm of space exploration and engineering. The past 15 years have seen a growing activity in this field, with a marked acceleration in the last 3 years. Whereas the educational value of nanosatellites is well recognized, their scientific and technological use is potentially extremely rich but not fully explored. Conventional attitudes towards space engineering need to be reviewed in light of the capabilities and characteristics of these miniature devices that enable approaches and applications not possible with traditional satellite platforms. After an evaluation of the past and near future nanosatellites missions in the domain of space weather and from the example of the Zegrensat/ATISE mission, we will give some perspectives on the possibilities opened by these small satellites.

  12. [An unconscious odyssey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, Walter H

    2008-12-01

    A 76-year-old ex-manager of a shipping company with preexisting pneumopathy suffered from massive pulmonary embolism after an operation in Germany and had to be mechanically ventilated. His wife requested a transportation by helicopter to the intensive care unit of a smaller hospital in the Engadin, Grisons, Switzerland, where he was later tracheotomized. Weeks later, the wife insisted on a transfer to another, even smaller hospital in the area. During that stay an emergency pericardiocentesis had to be performed. Thereafter, he was transferred to the intensive care unit of our hospital. The last journey was again by request of his wife against medical advices a flight back to his home in Germany, what he survived only for a few hours and was followed by the suicide of his wife. Why could nobody prevent or stop this insane odyssey?

  13. TAMU: Blueprint for A New Space Mission Operations System Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruszkowski, James T.; Meshkat, Leila; Haensly, Jean; Pennington, Al; Hogle, Charles

    2011-01-01

    The Transferable, Adaptable, Modular and Upgradeable (TAMU) Flight Production Process (FPP) is a System of System (SOS) framework which cuts across multiple organizations and their associated facilities, that are, in the most general case, in geographically disperse locations, to develop the architecture and associated workflow processes of products for a broad range of flight projects. Further, TAMU FPP provides for the automatic execution and re-planning of the workflow processes as they become operational. This paper provides the blueprint for the TAMU FPP paradigm. This blueprint presents a complete, coherent technique, process and tool set that results in an infrastructure that can be used for full lifecycle design and decision making during the flight production process. Based on the many years of experience with the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) and the International Space Station (ISS), the currently cancelled Constellation Program which aimed on returning humans to the moon as a starting point, has been building a modern model-based Systems Engineering infrastructure to Re-engineer the FPP. This infrastructure uses a structured modeling and architecture development approach to optimize the system design thereby reducing the sustaining costs and increasing system efficiency, reliability, robustness and maintainability metrics. With the advent of the new vision for human space exploration, it is now necessary to further generalize this framework to take into consideration a broad range of missions and the participation of multiple organizations outside of the MOD; hence the Transferable, Adaptable, Modular and Upgradeable (TAMU) concept.

  14. Paradigm shift regarding the transversalis fascia, preperitoneal space, and Retzius' space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakage, N

    2018-06-01

    There has been confusion in the anatomical recognition when performing inguinal hernia operations in Japan. From now on, a paradigm shift from the concept of two-dimensional layer structure to the three-dimensional space recognition is necessary to promote an understanding of anatomy. Along with the formation of the abdominal wall, the extraperitoneal space is formed by the transversalis fascia and preperitoneal space. The transversalis fascia is a somatic vascular fascia originating from an arteriovenous fascia. It is a dense areolar tissue layer at the outermost of the extraperitoneal space that runs under the diaphragm and widely lines the body wall muscle. The umbilical funiculus is taken into the abdominal wall and transformed into the preperitoneal space that is a local three-dimensional cavity enveloping preperitoneal fasciae composed of the renal fascia, vesicohypogastric fascia, and testiculoeferential fascia. The Retzius' space is an artificial cavity formed at the boundary between the transversalis fascia and preperitoneal space. In the underlay mesh repair, the mesh expands in the range spanning across the Retzius' space and preperitoneal space.

  15. Odyssey, an optimized personal communications satellite system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusch, Roger J.

    Personal communications places severe demands on service providers and transmission facilities. Customers are not satisfied with the current levels of service and want improvements. Among the characteristics that users seek are: lower service rates, hand held convenience, acceptable time delays, ubiquitous service, high availability, reliability, and high quality. The space industry is developing commercial space systems for providing mobile communications to personal telephones. Provision of land mobile satellite service is fundamentally different from the fixed satellite service provided by geostationary satellites. In fixed service, the earth based antennas can depend on a clear path from user to satellite. Mobile users in a terrestrial environment commonly encounter blockage due to vegetation, terrain or buildings. Consequently, high elevation angles are of premium value. TRW studied the issues and concluded that a Medium Earth Orbit constellation is the best solution for Personal Communications Satellite Service. TRW has developed Odyssey, which uses twelve satellites in medium altitude orbit to provide personal communications satellite service. The Odyssey communications system projects a multibeam antenna pattern to the Earth. The attitude control system orients the satellites to ensure constant coverage of land mass and coastal areas. Pointing can be reprogrammed by ground control to ensure optimized coverage of the desired service areas. The payload architecture features non-processing, "bent pipe" transponders and matrix amplifiers to ensure dynamic power delivery to high demand areas. Circuit capacity is 3000 circuits per satellite. Each satellite weighs 1917 kg (4226 pounds) at launch and the solar arrays provide 3126 Watts of power. Satellites are launched in pairs on Ariane, Atlas, or other vehicles. Each satellite is placed in a circular orbit at an altitude of 10,354 km. There are three orbit planes inclined at 55° to the equatorial plane

  16. New Paradigms for Ensuring the Enduring Viability of the Space Science Enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenberg, Jonathan; Conti, Alberto

    2018-01-01

    Pursuing ground breaking science in a highly cost and funding constrained environment presents new challenges to the development of future large space astrophysics missions. Within the conventional cost models for large observatories, executing a flagship “mission after next” appears to be unstainable. To achieve our nation’s space astrophysics ambitions requires new paradigms in system design, development and manufacture. Implementation of this new paradigm requires that the space astrophysics community adopt new answers to a new set of questions. This poster will present our recent results on the origins of these new questions and the steps to their answers.

  17. Ensuring the Enduring Viability of the Space Science Enterprise: New Questions, New Thinking, New Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenberg, Jonathan; Conti, Alberto; Atkinson, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Pursuing ground breaking science in a highly cost and funding constrained environment presents new challenges to the development of future space astrophysics missions. Within the conventional cost models for large observatories, executing a flagship “mission after next” appears to be unstainable. To achieve our nation’s space astrophysics ambitions requires new paradigms in system design, development and manufacture. Implementation of this new paradigm requires that the space astrophysics community adopt new answers to a new set of questions. This paper will discuss the origins of these new questions and the steps to their answers.

  18. Programming iSpaces - A Tale of Two Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, V.; Colley, M.; Hagras, H.; Chin, J.; Doctor, F.; Clarke, G.

    'iSpace, the final frontier' - this parody of Star Trek encapsulates many of our aspirations for this area as, in the longer term, iSpaces are likely to be the key to mankind's successful exploration of deep space. In outer space, or hostile planetary habitats, it is inevitable that people will survive in wholly technologically supported artificial environments [1]. Such environments will contain numerous communicating computers embedded into a myriad of devices, sensing, acting, delivering media, processing data, and providing services that enhance the life-style and effectiveness of the occupant and, in outer space, preserving human life. Such environments will also include robots [2]. In today's iSpaces, while human life will not normally be at stake, the underlying principles and technology are much the same. Today our homes are rapidly being filled with diverse types of products ranging from simple lighting systems to sophisticated entertainment systems, all adding to the functionality and convenience available to the home user. The iSpace approach envisages that, one day soon, most artefacts will contain embedded computers and network connections, opening up the possibility for hundreds of communicating devices, co-operating in communities serving the occupant(s). The seeds of this revolution have already been sown in that pervasive technologies such as the Internet and mobile telephones already boast over 200 and 680 million users, respectively [3].

  19. Old women in the Odyssey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minna Skafte Jensen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Being a heroic epic, the Odyssey is peopled by male protagonists in their prime. Nevertheless, the poem gives attention also to humbler figures, among them old women. They are few, but important. A couple of them belong to the highest stratum of society, the rest are slaves. Especially, they are trophoi, nurses, and the impression given is that such nurses are an indispensable part of any big household. The most impressive of them is Odysseus’ nurse Eurycleia, who has a role to play all the way through the poem. When her story is traced from beginning to end it unfolds as a poem inside the poem, with its own inner coherence. Her character is ambiguous: in some scenes she is the quintessence of care and kindness, in others she is brutal, so much so as to make of her one of the scariest characters in the poem. What has made her so full of hatred? the hard life as a slave. She has accustomed herself to her fate and shows unbroken solidarity with her masters, only to feel all the more offended by the amount of work the feasting suitors have caused. Besides, a traditional fairy tale pattern runs as an undercurrent through the epic, with Penelope and Eurycleia filling in the same tale role so that good and bad is split between them.

  20. Urban green space qualities reframed toward a public value management paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholst, Andrej Christian; Konijnendijk van den Bosch, Cecil C.; Kjøller, Christian Philip

    2016-01-01

    The change toward a public value management (PVM) paradigm in the public sector has challenged urban green space managers to rethink how they define and assess their services. In the Nordic countries, the challenge has resulted in the development of the Nordic Green Space Award (NSGA), as a new...... shared standard. This article reviews the NGSA scheme and its development. The development of the scheme embodies a methodology for how the question of ‘what makes for a good urban green space' collectively can be addressed within a particular regional context. The resulting scheme relies on ‘structure...... and general aspects', 'functionality and experience', and ‘management and organisation', as three principal themes and provides an easily manageable, unified and affordable approach to assessment of a variety of urban green spaces. Conceptually, the scheme resembles other comparable assessment schemes...

  1. Advanced Space Transportation Concepts and Propulsion Technologies for a New Delivery Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, John W.; McCleskey, Carey M.; Rhodes, Russel E.; Lepsch, Roger A.; Henderson, Edward M.; Joyner, Claude R., III; Levack, Daniel J. H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes Advanced Space Transportation Concepts and Propulsion Technologies for a New Delivery Paradigm. It builds on the work of the previous paper "Approach to an Affordable and Productive Space Transportation System". The scope includes both flight and ground system elements, and focuses on their compatibility and capability to achieve a technical solution that is operationally productive and also affordable. A clear and revolutionary approach, including advanced propulsion systems (advanced LOX rich booster engine concept having independent LOX and fuel cooling systems, thrust augmentation with LOX rich boost and fuel rich operation at altitude), improved vehicle concepts (autogeneous pressurization, turbo alternator for electric power during ascent, hot gases to purge system and keep moisture out), and ground delivery systems, was examined. Previous papers by the authors and other members of the Space Propulsion Synergy Team (SPST) focused on space flight system engineering methods, along with operationally efficient propulsion system concepts and technologies. This paper continues the previous work by exploring the propulsion technology aspects in more depth and how they may enable the vehicle designs from the previous paper. Subsequent papers will explore the vehicle design, the ground support system, and the operations aspects of the new delivery paradigm in greater detail.

  2. CHANGING PARADIGMS IN SPACE THEORIES: Recapturing 20th Century Architectural History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gül Kaçmaz Erk

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The concept of space entered architectural history as late as 1893. Studies in art opened up the discussion, and it has been studied in various ways in architecture ever since. This article aims to instigate an additional reading to architectural history, one that is not supported by “isms” but based on space theories in the 20th century. Objectives of the article are to bring the concept of space and its changing paradigms to the attention of architectural researchers, to introduce a conceptual framework to classify and clarify theories of space, and to enrich the discussions on the 20th century architecture through theories that are beyond styles. The introduction of space in architecture will revolve around subject-object relationships, three-dimensionality and senses. Modern space will be discussed through concepts such as empathy, perception, abstraction, and geometry. A scientific approach will follow to study the concept of place through environment, event, behavior, and design methods. Finally, the reearch will look at contemporary approaches related to digitally  supported space via concepts like reality-virtuality, mediated experience, and relationship with machines.

  3. An Odyssey to Viral Pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldstone, Michael B A

    2016-05-23

    This odyssey is mine from early junior high school, where my dreams for adventure were shaped by Arthur Conan Doyle's Sherlock Holmes, Percival Christopher Wren's Beau Geste, and best of all the remarkable explorers in Paul de Kruif's Microbe Hunters. My birth site was in Manhattan (my mother was a Vogue model and my father worked in retail), and I traveled to college at the University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, where my love of history and English literature was shaped along with a sufficient exposure to biology, chemistry, and genetics to meet requirements for entering medical school. By the second year at the University of Maryland School of Medicine, through expert teachers such as Theodore (Ted) Woodward and Sheldon (Shelly) Greisman in medicine and Charles Weissmann in virology and microbiology, I found that understanding why and how people became ill was more my cup of tea than identifying and treating their illnesses. Although I was becoming competent in diagnosis and treatment, I left medical school at the end of my sophomore year to seek a more basic understanding of biology and chemistry. I achieved this by working toward a PhD in biochemistry at Johns Hopkins McCollum-Pratt Institute combined with study of rickettsial toxin at Maryland. This was a very important time in my life, because it convinced me that addressing biologic and medical questions in a disciplined scientific manner was what my life voyage should be. That voyage led me initially, through Woodward's contact, to work a summer in Joe Smadel's unit at Walter Reed (Smadel being one of the deans of American virology) and to meet several times with Carleton Gajdusek and then John Enders at Harvard, who pointed me to Frank Dixon at Scripps in La Jolla, California, for postdoctoral training. Dixon was among the founders of modern immunology and a pathfinder for immunopathology. Training by and association with Dixon and his other postdoctoral fellows, my independent position at Scripps, early

  4. Rational drug design paradigms: the odyssey for designing better drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellici, Tahsin; Ntountaniotis, Dimitrios; Vrontaki, Eleni; Liapakis, George; Moutevelis-Minakakis, Panagiota; Kokotos, George; Hadjikakou, Sotiris; Tzakos, Andreas G; Afantitis, Antreas; Melagraki, Georgia; Bryant, Sharon; Langer, Thierry; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Mavromoustakos, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Due to the time and effort requirements for the development of a new drug, and the high attrition rates associated with this developmental process, there is an intense effort by academic and industrial researchers to find novel ways for more effective drug development schemes. The first step in the discovery process of a new drug is the identification of the lead compound. The modern research tendency is to avoid the synthesis of new molecules based on chemical intuition, which is time and cost consuming, and instead to apply in silico rational drug design. This approach reduces the consumables and human personnel involved in the initial steps of the drug design. In this review real examples from our research activity aiming to discover new leads will be given for various dire warnings diseases. There is no recipe to follow for discovering new leads. The strategy to be followed depends on the knowledge of the studied system and the experience of the researchers. The described examples constitute successful and unsuccessful efforts and reflect the reality which medicinal chemists have to face in drug design and development. The drug stability is also discussed in both organic molecules and metallotherapeutics. This is an important issue in drug discovery as drug metabolism in the body can lead to various toxic and undesired molecules.

  5. Reconsidering the Geddesian Concepts of Community and Space through the Paradigm of Smart Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Garau

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The 100th anniversary of Geddes’ book “Cities in Evolution” has just passed, and the authors of this paper present a contribution towards understanding “how” Geddes might address the paradigm of the “smart city”. Geddesian concepts have greatly revolutionized the design and building of modern cities around the world. As a botanist and a scientist, Geddes incorporated the concept of the appearance of gardens when designing towns. His success in pioneering the planning of his city of residence in Scotland inspired further involvement in designing towns and the renovation of old structures and buildings. His concepts regarding the planning and development of towns and cities have created a foundation of interest in research, professionalism, and educational development. This study analyses the concepts of space, communities, and smart cities, and repositions Geddesian ideas in contemporary learning strategies in relation to the wider political spectrum associated with the paradigm of smart cities. The authors explore the relevance of his thoughts and perspectives in the current design environment geared towards the creation of smart cities. The study also evaluates the challenges of developing smart cities in relation to Patrick Geddes’s ideas.

  6. General Relativity without paradigm of space-time covariance, and resolution of the problem of time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soo, Chopin; Yu, Hoi-Lai

    2014-01-01

    The framework of a theory of gravity from the quantum to the classical regime is presented. The paradigm shift from full space-time covariance to spatial diffeomorphism invariance, together with clean decomposition of the canonical structure, yield transparent physical dynamics and a resolution of the problem of time. The deep divide between quantum mechanics and conventional canonical formulations of quantum gravity is overcome with a Schrödinger equation for quantum geometrodynamics that describes evolution in intrinsic time. Unitary time development with gauge-invariant temporal ordering is also viable. All Kuchar observables become physical; and classical space-time, with direct correlation between its proper times and intrinsic time intervals, emerges from constructive interference. The framework not only yields a physical Hamiltonian for Einstein's theory, but also prompts natural extensions and improvements towards a well behaved quantum theory of gravity. It is a consistent canonical scheme to discuss Horava-Lifshitz theories with intrinsic time evolution, and of the many possible alternatives that respect 3-covariance (rather than the more restrictive 4-covariance of Einstein's theory), Horava's "detailed balance" form of the Hamiltonian constraint is essentially pinned down by this framework. Issues in quantum gravity that depend on radiative corrections and the rigorous definition and regularization of the Hamiltonian operator are not addressed in this work.

  7. Globalisation and health inequalities: can a human rights paradigm create space for civil society action?

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Leslie; Schneider, Helen

    2012-01-01

    While neoliberal globalisation is associated with increasing inequalities, global integration has simultaneously strengthened the dissemination of human rights discourse across the world. This paper explores the seeming contradiction that globalisation is conceived as disempowering nations states' ability to act in their population's interests, yet implementation of human rights obligations requires effective states to deliver socio-economic entitlements, such as health. Central to the actions required of the state to build a health system based on a human rights approach is the notion of accountability. Two case studies are used to explore the constraints on states meeting their human rights obligations regarding health, the first drawing on data from interviews with parliamentarians responsible for health in East and Southern Africa, and the second reflecting on the response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic in South Africa. The case studies illustrate the importance of a human rights paradigm in strengthening parliamentary oversight over the executive in ways that prioritise pro-poor protections and in increasing leverage for resources for the health sector within parliamentary processes. Further, a rights framework creates the space for civil society action to engage with the legislature to hold public officials accountable and confirms the importance of rights as enabling civil society mobilization, reinforcing community agency to advance health rights for poor communities. In this context, critical assessment of state incapacity to meet claims to health rights raises questions as to the diffusion of accountability rife under modern international aid systems. Such diffusion of accountability opens the door to 'cunning' states to deflect rights claims of their populations. We argue that human rights, as both a normative framework for legal challenges and as a means to create room for active civil society engagement provide a means to contest both the real and the

  8. Modeling Reaction Control System Effects on Mars Odyssey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hanna, Jill

    2002-01-01

    ...) simulations to determine rotational motion of the spacecraft. The main objective of this study was to assess the reaction control system models and their effects on the atmospheric flight of Odyssey...

  9. Is an eclipse described in the Odyssey?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baikouzis, Constantino; Magnasco, Marcelo O

    2008-07-01

    Plutarch and Heraclitus believed a certain passage in the 20th book of the Odyssey ("Theoclymenus's prophecy") to be a poetic description of a total solar eclipse. In the late 1920s, Schoch and Neugebauer computed that the solar eclipse of 16 April 1178 B.C.E. was total over the Ionian Islands and was the only suitable eclipse in more than a century to agree with classical estimates of the decade-earlier sack of Troy around 1192-1184 B.C.E. However, much skepticism remains about whether the verses refer to this, or any, eclipse. To contribute to the issue independently of the disputed eclipse reference, we analyze other astronomical references in the Epic, without assuming the existence of an eclipse, and search for dates matching the astronomical phenomena we believe they describe. We use three overt astronomical references in the epic: to Boötes and the Pleiades, Venus, and the New Moon; we supplement them with a conjectural identification of Hermes's trip to Ogygia as relating to the motion of planet Mercury. Performing an exhaustive search of all possible dates in the span 1250-1115 B.C., we looked to match these phenomena in the order and manner that the text describes. In that period, a single date closely matches our references: 16 April 1178 B.C.E. We speculate that these references, plus the disputed eclipse reference, may refer to that specific eclipse.

  10. Comments on Nijman's 'A study of Space in Mumbai's Slums' From Slumdog to Mumbaikar: a Space Odyssey? : A SPACE ODYSSEY?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Druijven, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Following a brief sketch of the shift within development geography from rural to urban themes, this paper examines Nijman's description and analysis of Mumbai's slums. This is characterised by a historical and geographical stratification, with an emphasis on the congruence of economic and social

  11. Evaluating the Medical Kit System for the International Space Station(ISS) - A Paradigm Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailey, Melinda J.; Urbina, Michelle C.; Hughlett, Jessica L.; Gilmore, Stevan; Locke, James; Reyna, Baraquiel; Smith, Gwyn E.

    2010-01-01

    Medical capabilities aboard the International Space Station (ISS) have been packaged to help astronaut crew medical officers (CMO) mitigate both urgent and non-urgent medical issues during their 6-month expeditions. Two ISS crewmembers are designated as CMOs for each 3-crewmember mission and are typically not physicians. In addition, the ISS may have communication gaps of up to 45 minutes during each orbit, necessitating medical equipment that can be reliably operated autonomously during flight. The retirement of the space shuttle combined with ten years of manned ISS expeditions led the Space Medicine Division at the NASA Johnson Space Center to reassess the current ISS Medical Kit System. This reassessment led to the system being streamlined to meet future logistical considerations with current Russian space vehicles and future NASA/commercial space vehicle systems. Methods The JSC Space Medicine Division coordinated the development of requirements, fabrication of prototypes, and conducted usability testing for the new ISS Medical Kit System in concert with implementing updated versions of the ISS Medical Check List and associated in-flight software applications. The teams constructed a medical kit system with the flexibility for use on the ISS, and resupply on the Russian Progress space vehicle and future NASA/commercial space vehicles. Results Prototype systems were developed, reviewed, and tested for implementation. Completion of Preliminary and Critical Design Reviews resulted in a streamlined ISS Medical Kit System that is being used for training by ISS crews starting with Expedition 27 (June 2011). Conclusions The team will present the process for designing, developing, , implementing, and training with this new ISS Medical Kit System.

  12. The Visual Uncertainty Paradigm for Controlling Screen-Space Information in Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Aritra

    2012-01-01

    The information visualization pipeline serves as a lossy communication channel for presentation of data on a screen-space of limited resolution. The lossy communication is not just a machine-only phenomenon due to information loss caused by translation of data, but also a reflection of the degree to which the human user can comprehend visual…

  13. The part task of the part-spacing paradigm is not a pure measurement of part-based information of faces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Zhu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Faces are arguably one of the most important object categories encountered by human observers, yet they present one of the most difficult challenges to both the human and artificial visual systems. A variety of experimental paradigms have been developed to study how faces are represented and recognized, among which is the part-spacing paradigm. This paradigm is presumed to characterize the processing of both the featural and configural information of faces, and it has become increasingly popular for testing hypotheses on face specificity and in the diagnosis of face perception in cognitive disorders. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In two experiments we questioned the validity of the part task of this paradigm by showing that, in this task, measuring pure information about face parts is confounded by the effect of face configuration on the perception of those parts. First, we eliminated or reduced contributions from face configuration by either rearranging face parts into a non-face configuration or by removing the low spatial frequencies of face images. We found that face parts were no longer sensitive to inversion, suggesting that the previously reported inversion effect observed in the part task was due in fact to the presence of face configuration. Second, self-reported prosopagnosic patients who were selectively impaired in the holistic processing of faces failed to detect part changes when face configurations were presented. When face configurations were scrambled, however, their performance was as good as that of normal controls. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In sum, consistent evidence from testing both normal and prosopagnosic subjects suggests the part task of the part-spacing paradigm is not an appropriate task for either measuring how face parts alone are processed or for providing a valid contrast to the spacing task. Therefore, conclusions from previous studies using the part-spacing paradigm may need re-evaluation with

  14. Druggable pockets and binding site centric chemical space: a paradigm shift in drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérot, Stéphanie; Sperandio, Olivier; Miteva, Maria A; Camproux, Anne-Claude; Villoutreix, Bruno O

    2010-08-01

    Detection, comparison and analyses of binding pockets are pivotal to structure-based drug design endeavors, from hit identification, screening of exosites and de-orphanization of protein functions to the anticipation of specific and non-specific binding to off- and anti-targets. Here, we analyze protein-ligand complexes and discuss methods that assist binding site identification, prediction of druggability and binding site comparison. The full potential of pockets is yet to be harnessed, and we envision that better understanding of the pocket space will have far-reaching implications in the field of drug discovery, such as the design of pocket-specific compound libraries and scoring functions.

  15. The Odyssey Approach for Optimizing Federated SPARQL Queries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montoya, Gabriela; Skaf-Molli, Hala; Hose, Katja

    2017-01-01

    . Nevertheless, these plans may still exhibit a high number of intermediate results or high execution times because of heuristics and inaccurate cost estimations. In this paper, we present Odyssey, an approach that uses statistics that allow for a more accurate cost estimation for federated queries and therefore...

  16. Zero Energy Building Pays for Itself: Odyssey Elementary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torcellini, Paul A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-09

    Odyssey Elementary is a large public school in an area of Utah with a growing population. Created as a prototype for the Davis School District, Odyssey is a zero energy building whose design has already been copied for two other new schools, both of which are targeting zero energy. It has a unique design with four 'houses' (or classroom wings) featuring generously daylit classrooms. This design contributes to the school's energy efficiency. In an effort to integrate positive messages about fitness into the learning environment, each house has a different take on the theme of 'bodies in motion' in the natural world. In a postoccupancy survey of parents, students, and teachers, more than 87% were satisfied with the building overall.

  17. The couple's odyssey: Hollywood's take on love relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Matthew

    2009-06-01

    Psychiatrists need to be aware of how their individual clients are impacted by issues they may be having in their intimate relationships and how couples issues, in turn, impact and are impacted by emotional and mental disorders. In addition, psychiatrists need to be able to offer sound advice to individuals in troubled relationships, know how to make referrals to trained marriage therapists and know how medications they prescribe may impact couples. Over the past twenty years, there have been significant advances in couple research to assist health professionals in offering insight to couples struggling with communication, conflict resolution, affairs, addictions and many other aspects of the couple's odyssey. Movie clips offer an effective way of teaching psychiatrists about common issues in coupling and couple therapy. The use of movies for teaching health professionals is well documented in previous articles and books on cinemeducation. This paper highlights movies and movie clips which are useful for educating psychiatrists about common clinical issues in couple therapy.

  18. Computational Approaches for Developing Active Radiation Dosimeters for Space Applications Based on New Paradigms for Risk Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Exposure to ionizing radiation can cause acute injury or sickness in humans under circumstances of very large doses and it presents the possibility of causing cancer...

  19. Considering space weather forces interaction on human health: the equilibrium paradigm in clinical cosmobiology - is it equal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoupel, Eliyahu

    2015-03-01

    We are constantly affected by changes in space weather. The principal "players" are solar activity (SA), geomagnetic activity (GMA) and antagonistic to them, cosmic ray activity (CRA) and high energy proton flux. CRA is measured by neutron activity on the earth's surface in imp/min. SA and GMA are linked and serve as a shield for the earth from CRA. For a long time SA and GMA were the main areas of studies. The aim of this study was to compare some effects of the mentioned forces and discuss the temporal distribution of both groups of space weather, in relation to their effects on humans. The time distribution of GMA storms (daily) was compared with quiet (low) GMA, with higher CRA (neutron activity). Space weather data were obtained from the USA, Russia and Finland. A total of 4383 days were analyzed in the years 2000-2012. A total of 71 days (1.62%) of geomagnetic storms (GS) and 2753 days (63.8%) of quiet (I0) GMA were registered. A second study was provided including the years 1983-2007 (9131 days); here 3800 days (41.62%) were quiet GMA days and 400 storm days (4.38%). According to publications in the medical literature, many phenomena are connected with the extremes of space weather. Despite a great number of publications and the significant role of GS, it is a relatively rare event and most medical emergencies and deaths occur on days of low GMA, accompanied by higher CRA (neutron activity). High neutron activity deserves more attention when analyzing space effects on human health and their mechanism of action.

  20. Seasonal and Static Gravity Field of Mars from MGS, Mars Odyssey and MRO Radio Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genova, Antonio; Goossens, Sander; Lemoine, Frank G.; Mazarico, Erwan; Neumann, Gregory A.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2016-01-01

    We present a spherical harmonic solution of the static gravity field of Mars to degree and order 120, GMM-3, that has been calculated using the Deep Space Network tracking data of the NASA Mars missions, Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), Mars Odyssey (ODY), and the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). We have also jointly determined spherical harmonic solutions for the static and time-variable gravity field of Mars, and the Mars k 2 Love numbers, exclusive of the gravity contribution of the atmosphere. Consequently, the retrieved time-varying gravity coefficients and the Love number k 2 solely yield seasonal variations in the mass of the polar caps and the solid tides of Mars, respectively. We obtain a Mars Love number k 2 of 0.1697 +/-0.0027 (3- sigma). The inclusion of MRO tracking data results in improved seasonal gravity field coefficients C 30 and, for the first time, C 50 . Refinements of the atmospheric model in our orbit determination program have allowed us to monitor the odd zonal harmonic C 30 for approx.1.5 solar cycles (16 years). This gravity model shows improved correlations with MOLA topography up to 15% larger at higher harmonics ( l = 60–80) than previous solutions.

  1. Membrane paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.H.; Thorne, K.S.

    1986-01-01

    The membrane paradigm is a modified frozen star approach to modeling black holes, with particles and fields assuming a complex, static, boundary-layer type structure (membrane) near the event horizon. The membrane has no effects on the present or future evolution of particles and fields above itself. The mathematical representation is a combination of a formalism containing terms for the shear and bulk viscosity, surface pressure, momentum, temperature, entropy, etc., of the horizon and the 3+1 formalism. The latter model considers a family of three-dimensional spacelike hypersurfaces in one-dimensional time. The membrane model considers a magnetic field threading the hole and undergoing torque from the hole rotation. The field is cleaned by the horizon and distributed over the horizon so that ohmic dissipation is minimized. The membrane paradigm is invalid inside the horizon, but is useful for theoretically probing the properties of slowly evolving black holes

  2. ODYSSEY: A PUBLIC GPU-BASED CODE FOR GENERAL RELATIVISTIC RADIATIVE TRANSFER IN KERR SPACETIME

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pu, Hung-Yi [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, 11F of Astronomy-Mathematics Building, AS/NTU No. 1, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Yun, Kiyun; Yoon, Suk-Jin [Department of Astronomy and Center for Galaxy Evolution Research, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Younsi, Ziri [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Max-von-Laue-Straße 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2016-04-01

    General relativistic radiative transfer calculations coupled with the calculation of geodesics in the Kerr spacetime are an essential tool for determining the images, spectra, and light curves from matter in the vicinity of black holes. Such studies are especially important for ongoing and upcoming millimeter/submillimeter very long baseline interferometry observations of the supermassive black holes at the centers of Sgr A* and M87. To this end we introduce Odyssey, a graphics processing unit (GPU) based code for ray tracing and radiative transfer in the Kerr spacetime. On a single GPU, the performance of Odyssey can exceed 1 ns per photon, per Runge–Kutta integration step. Odyssey is publicly available, fast, accurate, and flexible enough to be modified to suit the specific needs of new users. Along with a Graphical User Interface powered by a video-accelerated display architecture, we also present an educational software tool, Odyssey-Edu, for showing in real time how null geodesics around a Kerr black hole vary as a function of black hole spin and angle of incidence onto the black hole.

  3. Mathematics Intervention Utilizing Carnegie Learning's Cognitive Tutor® and Compass Learning's Odyssey Math®

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, James M.

    2016-01-01

    Carnegie Learning's Cognitive Tutor®The purpose of this study is to determine whether there is a statistically significant difference between pre-test and post-test achievement scores when Compass Learning's Odyssey Math® is used together with Carnegie Learning's Math Cognitive Tutor® in a mathematics intervention program at ABC Middle School. The…

  4. PARADIGMS IN CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

    OpenAIRE

    Sabrina Oktoria Sihombing

    2011-01-01

    A paradigm influences what we see and conceive about certain facts. Paradigm can also influence what we accept as a truth. Yet, the debate over which paradigm and methodology is best suit for marketing and consumer behavior has begun since 1980s. Many researchers criticized the domination of logical empiricism paradigm and offered alternative paradigm to understand marketing and consumer behavior. This article discusses several paradigms and methodology, which are part of qualitative paradigm...

  5. PARADIGMS IN CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Oktoria Sihombing

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A paradigm influences what we see and conceive about certain facts. Paradigm can also influence what we accept as a truth. Yet, the debate over which paradigm and methodology is best suit for marketing and consumer behavior has begun since 1980s. Many researchers criticized the domination of logical empiricism paradigm and offered alternative paradigm to understand marketing and consumer behavior. This article discusses several paradigms and methodology, which are part of qualitative paradigm, and compares them with positivism paradigm. This article will also point to the importance of reconciliation between qualitative and quantitative paradigm in order to improve marketing and consumer behavior studies.

  6. Operations Odyssey Dawn and Unified Protector: Another Win for Warden s Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-04

    the aircraft aimed at armoured vehicles just outside Benghazi. At night, US Navy ships and Royal Navy submarine HMS Triumph launched 112 Tomahawk...the vicinity of Zintan: 3 tanks, 1 anti-aircraft weapon system and 1 armoured vehicles were destroyed. In the vicinity of Brega: 1 building was... demographic groups) to be sympathetic and helpful in a variety of ways.”95 For Operations Odyssey Dawn and Unified Protector, the objective was

  7. Odyssey of the Mind: Social Networking in Cyberschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, Michael K.; Plough, Cory

    2012-01-01

    K-12 online learning and cyber charter schools have grown at a tremendous rate over the past decade. At the same time, these online programs have struggled to provide the social spaces where students can interact that K-12 schools are traditionally able to provide. Social networking presents a unique opportunity to provide these kinds of social…

  8. Maverick genius the pioneering odyssey of Freeman Dyson

    CERN Document Server

    Schewe, Phillip F

    2013-01-01

    Scientist. Innovator. Rebel. For decades, Freeman Dyson has been regarded as one of the world’s most important thinkers. The Atlantic wrote, “In the range of his genius, Freeman Dyson is heir to Einstein – a visionary who has reshaped thinking in fields from math to astrophysics to medicine, and who has conceived nuclear-propelled spaceships designed to transport human colonists to distance planets.” Salon.com says that, “what sets Dyson apart among an elite group of scientists is the conscience and compassion he brings to his work.” Now, in this first complete biography of Dyson, author Phillip F. Schewe examines the life of a man whose accomplishments have shaped our world in many ways. From quantum physics to national defense, from space to biotechnology, Dyson’s work has cemented his position as a man whose influence goes far beyond the field of theoretical physics. It even won him the million dollar Templeton prize for his writing about science and religion. Recently, Dyson has made head...

  9. The World Development Report 2009: The Beginning of A Space Odyssey?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Walther

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction It was exactly forty years ago. The World Bank followed the recommendations of the Pearson Commission, which had been set up in order to evaluate the consequences of development aid. It was necessary to combat urbanisation, the Commission stated, by means of policies acting upon factors triggering rural migration and by supporting small regional centres (Ramsamy 2006. For her part, the urban planner Jane Jacobs published The Economy of Cities (1969, a work which reversed the ev...

  10. New energy paradigm?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldoni, Giovanni

    2007-01-01

    The rise of oil prices, the difficulties in markets liberalization, and the poor results of competition have convinced many that a new energy paradigm is necessary. Taking the original definition of scientific paradigm, it doesn't seem that a practical solution could be found outside the present paradigm of energy policy, made of privatisation, liberalisation and competition [it

  11. The Next Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Kastrup

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to perceive the world, we need more than just raw sensory input: a subliminal paradigm of thought is required to interpret raw sensory data and, thereby, create the objects and events we perceive around ourselves. As such, the world we see reflects our own unexamined, culture-bound assumptions and expectations, which explains why every generation in history has believed that it more or less understood the world. Today, we perceive a world of objects and events outside and independent of mind, which merely reflects our current paradigm of thought. Anomalies that contradict this paradigm have been accumulated by physicists over the past couple of decades, which will eventually force our culture to move to a new paradigm. Under this new paradigm, a form of universal mind will be viewed as nature’s sole fundamental entity. In this paper, I offer a sketch of what the new paradigm may look like.

  12. Didaktiske paradigmer og refleksion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Torben Spanget

    2014-01-01

    analysis of subject didactics by Sigmund Ongstad. The two positions offer fundamentally different insights into didactics. Nielsen’s position establishes didactics as a knowledge domain and Ongstad’s position points to the dynamics of subject didactics by analyzing communication as a basic aspect. Krogh...... this article. A possible utilitarian didactical paradigm, already indicated by Krogh as a historical paradigm prominent in our time, is also discussed. It is suggested that reflection could be seen as a normative response to the utilitarian paradigm, and not as a paradigm in its own right. It is concluded...

  13. Stand up for epilepsy San Diego photo-shoot: a personal odyssey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Kenneth R; Kaufman, Nathaniel D

    2013-06-01

    Stigma towards epilepsy results in barriers to social integration, education, employment, and marriage, with increased divorce rates. There is a societal need to realise that many persons with epilepsy (PWE) lead normal lives and can be highly educated with effective employment. Integration of PWE into sports is therapeutic both for PWE (decreased seizure frequency, decreased comorbid conditions, and increased psychosocial skills) and society. Stand Up For Epilepsy (SUFE), overseen by the ILAE Task Force on Sports and Epilepsy, is an international project in which action photographs with PWE were taken as a means to destigmatise epilepsy. This autobiographical narrative describes how SUFE initiated effective athlete-PWE interactions with positive PWE, athlete, and parent responses. Expansion of SUFE is recommended to further destigmatise epilepsy. Participation in SUFE can serve as a personal odyssey for PWE.

  14. Climate Odyssey: Resources for Understanding Coastal Change through Art, Science, and Sail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klos, P. Z.; Holtsnider, L.

    2017-12-01

    Climate Odyssey (climateodyssey.org) is a year-long sailing expedition and continuing collaboration aimed at using overlaps in science and visual art to communicate coastal climate change impacts and solutions. We, visual artist Lucy Holtsnider and climate scientist Zion Klos, are using our complimentary skills in art, science and communication to engage audiences both intuitively and cognitively regarding the urgency of climate change through story and visualization. Over the 2015 - 2016 academic year, we embarked on the sailing portion of Climate Odyssey, beginning in Lake Michigan, continuing along the Eastern Seaboard, and concluding in the tropics. Along the way we photographed climate change impacts and adaptation strategies, interviewed stakeholders, scientists, and artists. We are now sharing our photographs and documented encounters through a tangible artist's book, interactive digital map, blog, and series of K16 lesson plans. Each of our images added to the artist's book and digital map are linked to relevant blog entries and other external scientific resources, making the map both a piece of art and an engaging education tool for sharing the science of climate change impacts and solutions. After completing the sailing component of the project, we have now finalized our multi-media resources and are working to share these with the public via libraries, galleries, and K16 classrooms in coastal communities. At AGU, we will share with our peers the completed version of the series of K16 lesson plans that provide educators an easy-to-use way to introduce and utilize the material in the artist's book, digital map, and online blog. Through this, we hope to both discuss climate-focused education and engagement strategies, as well as showcase this example of art-science outreach with the broader science education and communication community that is focused on climate literacy in the U.S. and beyond.

  15. Dynamic paradigm of turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhamedov, Alfred M.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a dynamic paradigm of turbulence is proposed. The basic idea consists in the novel definition of chaotic structure given with the help of Pfaff system of PDE associated with the turbulent dynamics. A methodological analysis of the new and the former paradigm is produced

  16. An Integrative Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammack, Phillip L.

    2005-01-01

    Through the application of life course theory to the study of sexual orientation, this paper specifies a new paradigm for research on human sexual orientation that seeks to reconcile divisions among biological, social science, and humanistic paradigms. Recognizing the historical, social, and cultural relativity of human development, this paradigm…

  17. Of Paradigms and Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Martin B.; Matthijs, Matthias

    in the study of policy paradigms. To demonstrate the general applicability of our framework, the paper examines the evolution of British macroeconomic policy making since 1990. We show that various Prime Ministers and their Chancellors were able to reinterpret and redefine the dominant neoliberal understanding......? Despite the profound impact of Peter Hall’s approach to policy paradigms and social learning, there is a burgeoning consensus that transposing a rudimentary ‘Kuhnian’ understanding of paradigms into the context of public policy making leads to a notion of punctuated equilibrium style shifts as the only...

  18. Programming Language Paradigms

    OpenAIRE

    Felician ALECU

    2013-01-01

    This paper's goal is to briefly explain the basic theory behind programming languages and their history while taking a close look at different programming paradigms that are used today as well as describing their differences, benefits, and drawbacks

  19. El asunto del “Nuestra señora de la Mercedes” (Odyssey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Jesús Carrera Hernández

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo constituye, básicamente, una valoración del informe emitido en Estados Unidos por el Juez Pizzo en el que ya podemos calificar como asunto del “Nuestra Señora de La Mercedes”, iniciado hace dos años tras las actividades de expolio desarrolladas por la empresa Odyssey en aguas del Atlántico próximas al Estrecho de Gibraltar. Se trata de un caso que afecta directamente a los intereses españoles en relación con el patrimonio cultural submarino situado en zonas próximas a nuestras costas. De convertirse en jurisprudencia, estaremos dando un paso más en aras de la protección del patrimonio cultural, soslayando la aplicación de legislaciones ancladas enla aplicación de principios de salvamento y hallazgos a bienes que poseen un valor arqueológico, histórico o cultural, y que se encuentran en santuarios de nuestros antepasados.

  20. The effectiveness of experiential environmental education: O'Neill Sea Odyssey program case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanneman, Lauren E.

    Environmental education programs aim to develop participant awareness, sensitivity, and understanding of their affective relationship to the natural environment through conceptual knowledge and personal experiences. Previous findings have suggested that participation in environmental education programs leads to short-term positive increases in environmental knowledge, pro-environmental attitudes, and intentions to act in environmentally responsible behaviors; however, few studies have included long-term, follow-up assessment. This research provided an analysis of the effectiveness of the O'Neill Sea Odyssey (OSO) education program in fostering a long-term awareness of personal responsibility about ocean pollution among student participants. A survey administered to 261 students from the greater San Francisco Bay Area in California was used to explore 7th through 10 th grade students' conceptions about the connection between ocean pollution and stewardship behaviors. The study revealed that 75% of 86 former OSO participants retained a high level of awareness of the connection between non-point source pollution and personal behaviors two to five years after the program, regardless of differences in sex, language, grade level, and community setting. These results indicate that OSO participants retained a long-term conceptual awareness about environmental stewardship behaviors taught during the OSO program.

  1. Group Analysis in MNE-Python of Evoked Responses from a Tactile Stimulation Paradigm: A Pipeline for Reproducibility at Every Step of Processing, Going from Individual Sensor Space Representations to an across-Group Source Space Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Lau M

    2018-01-01

    An important aim of an analysis pipeline for magnetoencephalographic data is that it allows for the researcher spending maximal effort on making the statistical comparisons that will answer the questions of the researcher, while in turn spending minimal effort on the intricacies and machinery of the pipeline. I here present a set of functions and scripts that allow for setting up a clear, reproducible structure for separating raw and processed data into folders and files such that minimal effort can be spend on: (1) double-checking that the right input goes into the right functions; (2) making sure that output and intermediate steps can be accessed meaningfully; (3) applying operations efficiently across groups of subjects; (4) re-processing data if changes to any intermediate step are desirable. Applying the scripts requires only general knowledge about the Python language. The data analyses are neural responses to tactile stimulations of the right index finger in a group of 20 healthy participants acquired from an Elekta Neuromag System. Two analyses are presented: going from individual sensor space representations to, respectively, an across-group sensor space representation and an across-group source space representation. The processing steps covered for the first analysis are filtering the raw data, finding events of interest in the data, epoching data, finding and removing independent components related to eye blinks and heart beats, calculating participants' individual evoked responses by averaging over epoched data and calculating a grand average sensor space representation over participants. The second analysis starts from the participants' individual evoked responses and covers: estimating noise covariance, creating a forward model, creating an inverse operator, estimating distributed source activity on the cortical surface using a minimum norm procedure, morphing those estimates onto a common cortical template and calculating the patterns of activity

  2. Group Analysis in MNE-Python of Evoked Responses from a Tactile Stimulation Paradigm: A Pipeline for Reproducibility at Every Step of Processing, Going from Individual Sensor Space Representations to an across-Group Source Space Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lau M. Andersen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An important aim of an analysis pipeline for magnetoencephalographic data is that it allows for the researcher spending maximal effort on making the statistical comparisons that will answer the questions of the researcher, while in turn spending minimal effort on the intricacies and machinery of the pipeline. I here present a set of functions and scripts that allow for setting up a clear, reproducible structure for separating raw and processed data into folders and files such that minimal effort can be spend on: (1 double-checking that the right input goes into the right functions; (2 making sure that output and intermediate steps can be accessed meaningfully; (3 applying operations efficiently across groups of subjects; (4 re-processing data if changes to any intermediate step are desirable. Applying the scripts requires only general knowledge about the Python language. The data analyses are neural responses to tactile stimulations of the right index finger in a group of 20 healthy participants acquired from an Elekta Neuromag System. Two analyses are presented: going from individual sensor space representations to, respectively, an across-group sensor space representation and an across-group source space representation. The processing steps covered for the first analysis are filtering the raw data, finding events of interest in the data, epoching data, finding and removing independent components related to eye blinks and heart beats, calculating participants' individual evoked responses by averaging over epoched data and calculating a grand average sensor space representation over participants. The second analysis starts from the participants' individual evoked responses and covers: estimating noise covariance, creating a forward model, creating an inverse operator, estimating distributed source activity on the cortical surface using a minimum norm procedure, morphing those estimates onto a common cortical template and calculating the patterns

  3. Winnicott's paradigm outlined

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeljko Loparic

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to present a unified view of Winnicott’s contribution to psychoanalysis. Part I (Sections 1-4 starts off by recalling that, according to some important commentators, Winnicott introduced a change in paradigms in psychoanalysis. In order to show that this change can be viewed as an overall “switch in paradigms”, in the sense given by T. S. Kuhn, this paper presents an account of the Kuhn’s view of science and offers a reconstruction of Freud’s Oedipal, Triangular or “Toddler-in-the-Mother’s-Bed” Paradigm. Part II (Sections 5-13 shows that as early as the 1920’s Winnicott encountered insurmountable anomalies in the Oedipal paradigm and, for that reason, started what can be called revolutionary research for a new framework of psychoanalysis. This research led Winnicott, especially during the last period of his life, to produce an alternative dual or “Baby-on-the-Mother’s-Lap” Paradigm. This new paradigm is described in some detail, especially the paradigmatic dual mother-baby relation and Winnicott’s dominant theory of maturation. Final remarks are made regarding Winnicott’s heritage and the future of psychoanalysis.

  4. Three paradigms of horror

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Ognjanović

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Starting with the definition of horror as a literary genre the core story of which is based on a meeting with threatening Otherness whose influx into consensual reality and it’s tacit normality creates unrest and awakens fear in the protagonists and the audience, this paper defines the three key paradigms of the horror genre, based on the causes of fear, or rather the “monstrous” Otherness in them. Paradigm 1 concerns the “fear of one’s own self”: the root of the fear is inside, in the individual psyche, in the split, deceived, or in some other way unreliable self which is, consciously or unconsciously, harmful to others, and ultimately to itself. Paradigm 2 deals with the “Fear of others”: the root of fear is outside and is concerned with other people and other creatures which have an urge to occupy a certain human microcosm. Paradigm 3 is concerned with the “Fear of the numinous”: the root of the fear is mostly situated on the outside; however its shape is amorphous, ambivalent and unknowable. The “monster” is faceless; it touches on primary forces of the divine/demonic, and as such is situated on the very border between inside/outside. All three paradigms, with their main approaches and constitutive elements, are modulated through two basic possible treatments: the conservative and the progressive (liberal, which affords a total of six basic variations of horror. Starting from definitions given by John Carpenter, Robin Wood and his own, the author analyzes representative examples from horror literature and film for each paradigm and its variation, with a special accent on the image of Otherness and its connection to the norm, its intrusion into the status quo, anthropocentrism and the presence or absence of a happy ending. The paper demonstrates the richness of connotative potential within the horror genre and provides a basis for its taxonomy.

  5. Three paradigms of horror

    OpenAIRE

    Dejan Ognjanović

    2016-01-01

    Starting with the definition of horror as a literary genre the core story of which is based on a meeting with threatening Otherness whose influx into consensual reality and it’s tacit normality creates unrest and awakens fear in the protagonists and the audience, this paper defines the three key paradigms of the horror genre, based on the causes of fear, or rather the “monstrous” Otherness in them. Paradigm 1 concerns the “fear of one’s own self”: the root of the fear is inside, in the indivi...

  6. The Gravity Field of Mars From MGS, Mars Odyssey, and MRO Radio Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genova, Antonio; Goossens, Sander; Lemoine, Frank G.; Mazarico, Erwan; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2015-01-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), Mars Odyssey (ODY), and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) missions have enabled NASA to conduct reconnaissance and exploration of Mars from orbit for sixteen consecutive years. These radio systems on these spacecraft enabled radio science in orbit around Mars to improve the knowledge of the static structure of the Martian gravitational field. The continuity of the radio tracking data, which cover more than a solar cycle, also provides useful information to characterize the temporal variability of the gravity field, relevant to the planet's internal dynamics and the structure and dynamics of the atmosphere [1]. MGS operated for more than 7 years, between 1999 and 2006, in a frozen sun-synchronous, near-circular, polar orbit with the periapsis at approximately 370 km altitude. ODY and MRO have been orbiting Mars in two separate sun-synchronous orbits at different local times and altitudes. ODY began its mapping phase in 2002 with the periapis at approximately 390 km altitude and 4-5pm Local Solar Time (LST), whereas the MRO science mission started in November 2006 with the periapis at approximately 255 km altitude and 3pm LST. The 16 years of radio tracking data provide useful information on the atmospheric density in the Martian upper atmosphere. We used ODY and MRO radio data to recover the long-term periodicity of the major atmospheric constituents -- CO2, O, and He -- at the orbit altitudes of these two spacecraft [2]. The improved atmospheric model provides a better prediction of the annual and semi-annual variability of the dominant species. Therefore, the inclusion of the recovered model leads to improved orbit determination and an improved gravity field model of Mars with MGS, ODY, and MRO radio tracking data.

  7. Whole exome sequencing in neurogenetic odysseys: An effective, cost- and time-saving diagnostic approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Córdoba

    Full Text Available Diagnostic trajectories for neurogenetic disorders frequently require the use of considerable time and resources, exposing patients and families to so-called "diagnostic odysseys". Previous studies have provided strong evidence for increased diagnostic and clinical utility of whole-exome sequencing in medical genetics. However, specific reports assessing its utility in a setting such as ours- a neurogeneticist led academic group serving in a low-income country-are rare.To assess the diagnostic yield of WES in patients suspected of having a neurogenetic condition and explore the cost-effectiveness of its implementation in a research group located in an Argentinean public hospital.This is a prospective study of the clinical utility of WES in a series of 40 consecutive patients selected from a Neurogenetic Clinic of a tertiary Hospital in Argentina. We evaluated patients retrospectively for previous diagnostic trajectories. Diagnostic yield, clinical impact on management and economic diagnostic burden were evaluated.We demonstrated the clinical utility of Whole Exome Sequencing in our patient cohort, obtaining a diagnostic yield of 40% (95% CI, 24.8%-55.2% among a diverse group of neurological disorders. The average age at the time of WES was 23 (range 3-70. The mean time elapsed from symptom onset to WES was 11 years (range 3-42. The mean cost of the diagnostic workup prior to WES was USD 1646 (USD 1439 to 1853, which is 60% higher than WES cost in our center.WES for neurogenetics proved to be an effective, cost- and time-saving approach for the molecular diagnosis of this heterogeneous and complex group of patients.

  8. Thermophysical Properties of Mars' North Polar Layered Deposits and Related Materials from Mars Odyssey THEMIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasavada, A. R.; Richardson, M. I.; Byrne, S.; Ivanov, A. B.; Christensen, P. R.

    2003-01-01

    The presence of a thick sequence of horizontal layers of ice-rich material at Mars north pole, dissected by troughs and eroding at its margins, is undoubtedly telling us something about the evolution of Mars climate [1,2] we just don t know what yet. The North Polar Layered Deposits (NPLD) most likely formed as astronomically driven climate variations led to the deposition of conformable, areally extensive layers of ice and dust over the polar region. More recently, the balance seems to have fundamentally shifted to net erosion, as evidenced by the many troughs within the NPLD and the steep, arcuate scarps present near its margins, both of which expose layering. We defined a number of Regions of Interest ROI) for THEMIS to target as part of the Mars Odyssey Participating Scientist program. We use these THEMIS data in order to understand the morphology and color/thermal properties of the NPLD and related materials over relevant (i.e., m to km) spatial scales. We have assembled color mosaics of our ROIs in order to map the distribution of ices, the different layered units, dark material, and underlying basement. The color information from THEMIS is crucial for distinguishing these different units which are less distinct on Mars Orbiter Camera images. We wish to understand the nature of the marginal scarps and their relationship to the dark material. Our next, more ambitious goal is to derive the thermophysical properties of the different geologic materials using THEMIS and Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer TES) data.

  9. Paradigms in object recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutihac, R.; Mutihac, R.C.

    1999-09-01

    A broad range of approaches has been proposed and applied for the complex and rather difficult task of object recognition that involves the determination of object characteristics and object classification into one of many a priori object types. Our paper revises briefly the three main different paradigms in pattern recognition, namely Bayesian statistics, neural networks, and expert systems. (author)

  10. Programming Language Paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartoníček Jan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper's goal is to briefly explain the basic theory behind programming languages and their history while taking a close look at different programming paradigms that are used today as well as describing their differences, benefits, and drawbacks

  11. Shifting the paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiss, Katalin; Brozik, Anna; Kucsma, Nora

    2012-01-01

    ABCB6, a member of the adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family, has been proposed to be responsible for the mitochondrial uptake of porphyrins. Here we show that ABCB6 is a glycoprotein present in the membrane of mature erythrocytes and in exosomes released from reticuloc...... paradigm linking the expression and function of ABCB6 to mitochondria....

  12. Deconstructing Research: Paradigms Lost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifonas, Peter Pericles

    2009-01-01

    In recent decades, proponents of naturalistic and/or critical modes of inquiry advocating the use of ethnographic techniques for the narrative-based study of phenomena within pedagogical contexts have challenged the central methodological paradigm of educational research: that is, the tendency among its practitioners to adhere to quantitative…

  13. The resilience of paradigm mixes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Farsund, Arild Aurvåg; Langhelle, Oluf

    2017-01-01

    This paper argues that a policy regime based on a paradigm mix may be resilient when challenged by changing power balances and new agendas. Controversies between the actors can be contained within the paradigm mix as it enables them to legitimize different ideational positions. Rather than engaging...... context changed. The paradigm mix proved sufficiently flexible to accommodate food security concerns and at the same time continue to take steps toward further liberalization. Indeed, the main players have not challenged the paradigm mix....

  14. CHANGE OF ENERGY PARADIGM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionut PURICA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We are at the beginning of a change of paradigm in the energy systems of the whole World. Both new resources being found and exploited and the new technologies for energy conversion, transport and distribution, along with the associated artificial intelligence systems, are starting to create new futures, with different living values, for the greatest machine created by men: the energy system. Some relevant elements are presented in the paper along with the position and the perspectives of Romania.

  15. The Odyssey of Dental Anxiety: From Prehistory to the Present. A Narrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Facco

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Dental anxiety (DA can be considered as a universal phenomenon with a high prevalence worldwide; DA and pain are also the main causes for medical emergencies in the dental office, so their prevention is an essential part of patient safety and overall quality of care. Being DA and its consequences closely related to the fight-or-flight reaction, it seems reasonable to argue that the odyssey of DA began way back in the distant past, and has since probably evolved in parallel with the development of fight-or-flight reactions, implicit memory and knowledge, and ultimately consciousness. Basic emotions are related to survival functions in an inseparable psychosomatic unity that enable an immediate response to critical situations rather than generating knowledge, which is why many anxious patients are unaware of the cause of their anxiety. Archeological findings suggest that humans have been surprisingly skillful and knowledgeable since prehistory. Neanderthals used medicinal plants; and relics of dental tools bear witness to a kind of Neolithic proto-dentistry. In the two millennia BC, Egyptian and Greek physicians used both plants (such as papaver somniferum and incubation (a forerunner of modern hypnosis, e.g., in the sleep temples dedicated to Asclepius in the attempt to provide some form of therapy and painless surgery, whereas modern scientific medicine strongly understated the role of subjectivity and mind-body approaches until recently. DA has a wide range of causes and its management is far from being a matter of identifying the ideal sedative drug. A patient's proper management must include assessing his/her dental anxiety, ensuring good communications, and providing information (iatrosedation, effective local anesthesia, hypnosis, and/or a wise use of sedative drugs where necessary. Any weak link in this chain can cause avoidable suffering, mistrust, and emergencies, as well as having lifelong psychological consequences. Iatrosedation and

  16. The Odyssey of Dental Anxiety: From Prehistory to the Present. A Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facco, Enrico; Zanette, Gastone

    2017-01-01

    Dental anxiety (DA) can be considered as a universal phenomenon with a high prevalence worldwide; DA and pain are also the main causes for medical emergencies in the dental office, so their prevention is an essential part of patient safety and overall quality of care. Being DA and its consequences closely related to the fight-or-flight reaction, it seems reasonable to argue that the odyssey of DA began way back in the distant past, and has since probably evolved in parallel with the development of fight-or-flight reactions, implicit memory and knowledge, and ultimately consciousness. Basic emotions are related to survival functions in an inseparable psychosomatic unity that enable an immediate response to critical situations rather than generating knowledge, which is why many anxious patients are unaware of the cause of their anxiety. Archeological findings suggest that humans have been surprisingly skillful and knowledgeable since prehistory. Neanderthals used medicinal plants; and relics of dental tools bear witness to a kind of Neolithic proto-dentistry. In the two millennia BC, Egyptian and Greek physicians used both plants (such as papaver somniferum ) and incubation (a forerunner of modern hypnosis, e.g., in the sleep temples dedicated to Asclepius) in the attempt to provide some form of therapy and painless surgery, whereas modern scientific medicine strongly understated the role of subjectivity and mind-body approaches until recently. DA has a wide range of causes and its management is far from being a matter of identifying the ideal sedative drug. A patient's proper management must include assessing his/her dental anxiety, ensuring good communications, and providing information (iatrosedation), effective local anesthesia, hypnosis, and/or a wise use of sedative drugs where necessary. Any weak link in this chain can cause avoidable suffering, mistrust, and emergencies, as well as having lifelong psychological consequences. Iatrosedation and hypnosis are no

  17. Black holes: the membrane paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorne, K.S.; Price, R.H.; Macdonald, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    The physics of black holes is explored in terms of a membrane paradigm which treats the event horizon as a two-dimensional membrane embedded in three-dimensional space. A 3+1 formalism is used to split Schwarzschild space-time and the laws of physics outside a nonrotating hole, which permits treatment of the atmosphere in terms of the physical properties of thin slices. The model is applied to perturbed slowly or rapidly rotating and nonrotating holes, and to quantify the electric and magnetic fields and eddy currents passing through a membrane surface which represents a stretched horizon. Features of tidal gravitational fields in the vicinity of the horizon, quasars and active galalctic nuclei, the alignment of jets perpendicular to accretion disks, and the effects of black holes at the center of ellipsoidal star clusters are investigated. Attention is also given to a black hole in a binary system and the interactions of black holes with matter that is either near or very far from the event horizon. Finally, a statistical mechanics treatment is used to derive a second law of thermodynamics for a perfectly thermal atmosphere of a black hole

  18. The peopleware paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, C G

    1996-08-01

    Manufacturing managements and practitioners alike are at long last realizing that the heartbeat of competitive advantage springs from peopleware, not hardware and software. But despite this heightened awareness the problem persists even among manufacturing professionals--they may talk a good game about priortizing people and quality, but all too many have precious little idea of how to go about it with constancy of purpose. This article bridges the gap and addresses the key issues in adopting the powerful new peopleware paradigm that provides the positive motivational climate for the improvement-change journey toward world-class performance through teamwork, innovation, and continuous improvement.

  19. Competitiveness: new economic paradigm?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Peñaloza

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays competitiveness is made up of “the new” paradigm that allows to prevail in the global World. Thus, it is inevitable to ask, was it required to be competitive to be successful in the international trade arena? Recognizing the discussion about it and its theoretical-conceptual density, the present paper studies this old notion whose meaning, in essence, is always the same one. This applies even though new realities in the present world-wide atmosphere confer to it a distinguishing character and new and old players are forced to organize actions and bring efforts together to obtain the competitive supremacy.

  20. The Odyssey of the Ancestral Escherich Strain through Culture Collections: an Example of Allopatric Diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desroches, M; Royer, G; Roche, D; Mercier-Darty, M; Vallenet, D; Médigue, C; Bastard, K; Rodriguez, C; Clermont, O; Denamur, E; Decousser, J-W

    2018-01-01

    More than a century ago, Theodor Escherich isolated the bacterium that was to become Escherichia coli , one of the most studied organisms. Not long after, the strain began an odyssey and landed in many laboratories across the world. As laboratory culture conditions could be responsible for major changes in bacterial strains, we conducted a genome analysis of isolates of this emblematic strain from different culture collections (England, France, the United States, Germany). Strikingly, many discrepancies between the isolates were observed, as revealed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), the presence of virulence-associated genes, core genome MLST, and single nucleotide polymorphism/indel analyses. These differences are correlated with the phylogeographic history of the strain and were due to an unprecedented number of mutations in coding DNA repair functions such as mismatch repair (MutL) and oxidized guanine nucleotide pool cleaning (MutT), conferring a specific mutational spectrum and leading to a mutator phenotype. The mutator phenotype was probably acquired during subculturing and corresponded to second-order selection. Furthermore, all of the isolates exhibited hypersusceptibility to antibiotics due to mutations in efflux pump- and porin-encoding genes, as well as a specific mutation in the sigma factor-encoding gene rpoS . These defects reflect a self-preservation and nutritional competence tradeoff allowing survival under the starvation conditions imposed by storage. From a clinical point of view, dealing with such mutator strains can lead microbiologists to draw false conclusions about isolate relatedness and may impact therapeutic effectiveness. IMPORTANCE Mutator phenotypes have been described in laboratory-evolved bacteria, as well as in natural isolates. Several genes can be impacted, each of them being associated with a typical mutational spectrum. By studying one of the oldest strains available, the ancestral Escherich strain, we were able to

  1. Export Odyssey: An Exposition and Analytical Review of Literature Concerning an Undergraduate Student Project in International Marketing on Key Teaching-Learning Dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Nicholas C.

    2001-01-01

    Describes Export Odyssey (EO), a structured, Internet-intensive, team-based undergraduate student project in international marketing. Presents an analytical review of articles in the literature that relate to three key teaching-learning dimensions of student projects (experiential versus non-experiential active learning, team-based versus…

  2. The Effects of the Compasslearning Odyssey Spiral-Up Program on Discovery Education Scores of Sixth-Grade Gifted and High-Performing Language Arts Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, Carmen Freeman

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the implementation of the Response to Intervention (RTI) model CompassLearning Odyssey and the performance of middle school language arts students on the Discovery Education Test B and Tennessee Comprehensive Assessment Program (TCAP) along with examining teacher perceptions of high…

  3. The WIMP Paradigm: Current Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    The WIMP paradigm is the glue that joins together much of the high energy and cosmic frontiers. It postulates that most of the matter in the Universe is made of weakly-interacting massive particles, with implications for a broad range of experiments and observations. I will review the WIMP paradigm's underlying motivations, its current status in view of rapid experimental progress on several fronts, and recent theoretical variations on the WIMP paradigm theme.

  4. Global Distribution of Shallow Water on Mars: Neutron Mapping of Summer-Time Surface by HEND/Odyssey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrofanov, I. G.; Litvak, M. L.; Kozyrev, A. S.; Sanin, A. B.; Tretyakov, V. I.; Boynton, W.; Hamara, D.; Shinohara, C.; Saunders, R. S.; Drake, D.

    2003-01-01

    Orbital mapping of induced neutrons and gamma-rays by Odyssey has recently successfully proven the applicability of nuclear methods for studying of the elementary composition of Martian upper-most subsurface. In particular, the suite of Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) has discovered the presence of large water-ice rich regions southward and northward on Mars. The data of neutron mapping of summer-time surface are presented below from the Russian High Energy Neutron Spectrometer (HEND), which is a part of GRS suite. These maps represent the content of water in the soil for summer season at Southern and Northern hemispheres, when the winter deposit of CO2 is absent on the surface. The seasonal evolution of CO2 coverage on Mars is the subject of the complementary paper.

  5. PARADIGM OF ACCOUNTING CHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanta Iacob

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The words and phrases swop with each other and the apparent stability of a word’s meaning sometimes change in time. This explains why the generic term of accounting is used when referring to the qualities attributed to accounting,but also when it comes to organizing financial accounting function within the entity, and when referring concretely to keeping a double record with its specific means, methods and tools specific, respectively seen as a technical accounting.Speaking about the qualities of accounting, but also about the organizational form it takes, we note that there is a manifold meaning of the word accounting, which is why the purpose of this article is to demonstrate that the paradigm shift aimed at a new set of rules and if the rules changes, then we can change the very purpose of accounting.

  6. Paradigms for parasite conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Eric R; Carlson, Colin J; Bueno, Veronica M; Burgio, Kevin R; Cizauskas, Carrie A; Clements, Christopher F; Seidel, Dana P; Harris, Nyeema C

    2016-08-01

    Parasitic species, which depend directly on host species for their survival, represent a major regulatory force in ecosystems and a significant component of Earth's biodiversity. Yet the negative impacts of parasites observed at the host level have motivated a conservation paradigm of eradication, moving us farther from attainment of taxonomically unbiased conservation goals. Despite a growing body of literature highlighting the importance of parasite-inclusive conservation, most parasite species remain understudied, underfunded, and underappreciated. We argue the protection of parasitic biodiversity requires a paradigm shift in the perception and valuation of their role as consumer species, similar to that of apex predators in the mid-20th century. Beyond recognizing parasites as vital trophic regulators, existing tools available to conservation practitioners should explicitly account for the unique threats facing dependent species. We built upon concepts from epidemiology and economics (e.g., host-density threshold and cost-benefit analysis) to devise novel metrics of margin of error and minimum investment for parasite conservation. We define margin of error as the risk of accidental host extinction from misestimating equilibrium population sizes and predicted oscillations, while minimum investment represents the cost associated with conserving the additional hosts required to maintain viable parasite populations. This framework will aid in the identification of readily conserved parasites that present minimal health risks. To establish parasite conservation, we propose an extension of population viability analysis for host-parasite assemblages to assess extinction risk. In the direst cases, ex situ breeding programs for parasites should be evaluated to maximize success without undermining host protection. Though parasitic species pose a considerable conservation challenge, adaptations to conservation tools will help protect parasite biodiversity in the face of

  7. The membrane paradigm for black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.H.; Thorne, K.S.

    1988-01-01

    It is now widely accepted that black holes exist and have an astrophysical role, in particular as the likely power source of quasars. To understand this role with ease, the authors and their colleagues have developed a new paradigm for black holes - a new way to picture, think about and describe them. As far as possible it treats black holes as ordinary astrophysical objects, made of real material. A black hole in this description is a spherical or oblate surface made of a thin, electrically conducting membrane. It was the author's quest to understand the Blandford-Znajek process intuitively that led them to create the membrane paradigm. Their strategy was to translate the general-relativistic mathematics of black holes into the same language of three-dimensional space that is used for magnetized plasmas and to create a new set of black-hole diagrams and pictures to go along with the language. 9 figs

  8. Design spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    Digital technologies and media are becoming increasingly embodied and entangled in the spaces and places at work and at home. However, our material environment is more than a geometric abstractions of space: it contains familiar places, social arenas for human action. For designers, the integration...... of digital technology with space poses new challenges that call for new approaches. Creative alternatives to traditional systems methodologies are called for when designers use digital media to create new possibilities for action in space. Design Spaces explores how design and media art can provide creative...... alternatives for integrating digital technology with space. Connecting practical design work with conceptual development and theorizing, art with technology, and usesr-centered methods with social sciences, Design Spaces provides a useful research paradigm for designing ubiquitous computing. This book...

  9. The future of management: The NASA paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Philip R.

    1992-01-01

    Prototypes of 21st century management, especially for large scale enterprises, may well be found within the aerospace industry. The space era inaugurated a number of projects of such scope and magnitude that another type of management had to be created to ensure successful achievement. The challenges will be not just in terms of technology and its management, but also human and cultural in dimension. Futurists, students of management, and those concerned with technological administration would do well to review the literature of emerging space management for its wider implications. NASA offers a paradigm, or demonstrated model, of future trends in the field of management at large. More research is needed on issues of leadership for Earth based project in space and space based programs with managers there. It is needed to realize that large scale technical enterprises, such as are undertaken in space, require a new form of management. NASA and other responsible agencies are urged to study excellence in space macromanagement, including the necessary multidisciplinary skills. Two recommended targets are the application of general living systems theory and macromanagement concepts for space stations in the 1990s.

  10. Mars: Detaching of the Free Water Signature (FWS) Presence Regions on the Base of HEND/ODYSSEY Data and Their Correlation with Some Permafrost Features from MOC Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmin, R. O.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Litvak, M. L.; Boynton, M. V.; Saunders, R. S.

    2003-01-01

    The first results from global mapping of the neutron albedo from Mars by HEND instrument have shown the noticeable deficit of both the epithermal (EN) and the fast (FN) neutrons counts rate in the high latitudes regions of both hemispheres of the planet. The deficit is indicative for high enriching of the surface regolith by hydrogen, which may correspond to amount of any water phases and forms. The objectives of our study are the spatial and temporal variations of the free water (ice) signature in the Martian surface layer on the base of HEND/ODYSSEY data and their correlation with spatial spreading of some permafrost features, mapped on the base of MOC images. For the study we used the results of the global mapping (pixel 5 x5 ) of EN and FN albedo, realized by HEND/ODYSSEY in the period from 17 February to 10 December 2002 year.

  11. The Consumption Paradigm in Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Ardianto

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available This article elaborates consumption paradigm in marketing. In background, this paper reviews different perspectives of consumption: economic perspective and marketing perspective. In ontology, this work describes various issues regarding consumption view. In epistemology, this article demonstrates how marketers especially researches explore the consumption phenomena. In methodology, the article describes experiential marketing –one of applied consumption paradigm in marketing, which could be an alternative choice of marketing practices.

  12. Role of Congress in the High Level Radioactive Waste Odyssey: The Wisdom and Will of the Congress - 13096

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieth, Donald L.; Voegele, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Congress has had a dual role with regard to high level radioactive waste, being involved in both its creation and its disposal. A significant amount of time has passed between the creation of the nation's first high level radioactive waste and the present day. The pace of addressing its remediation has been highly irregular. Congress has had to consider the technical, regulatory, and political issues and all have had specific difficulties. It is a true odyssey framed by an imperative and accountability, by a sense of urgency, by an ability or inability to finish the job and by consequences. Congress had set a politically acceptable course by 1982. However, President Obama intervened in the process after he took office in January 2009. Through the efforts of his Administration, by the end of 2012, the US government has no program to dispose of high level radioactive waste and no reasonable prospect of a repository for high level radioactive waste. It is not obvious how the US government program will be reestablished or who will assume responsibility for leadership. The ultimate criteria for judging the consequences are 1) the outcome of the ongoing NRC's Nuclear Waste Confidence Rulemaking and 2) the concomitant permissibility of nuclear energy supplying electricity from operating reactors in the US. (authors)

  13. Role of Congress in the High Level Radioactive Waste Odyssey: The Wisdom and Will of the Congress - 13096

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieth, Donald L. [DOE/NVOO Project Manager for Yucca Mountain, 1982 thru 1987, 1154 Cheltenham Place, Maineville, OH 45039 (United States); Voegele, Michael D. [Nye County Nuclear Waste Repository Project Office, 7404 Oak Grove Ave, Las Vegas, NV 89117 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Congress has had a dual role with regard to high level radioactive waste, being involved in both its creation and its disposal. A significant amount of time has passed between the creation of the nation's first high level radioactive waste and the present day. The pace of addressing its remediation has been highly irregular. Congress has had to consider the technical, regulatory, and political issues and all have had specific difficulties. It is a true odyssey framed by an imperative and accountability, by a sense of urgency, by an ability or inability to finish the job and by consequences. Congress had set a politically acceptable course by 1982. However, President Obama intervened in the process after he took office in January 2009. Through the efforts of his Administration, by the end of 2012, the US government has no program to dispose of high level radioactive waste and no reasonable prospect of a repository for high level radioactive waste. It is not obvious how the US government program will be reestablished or who will assume responsibility for leadership. The ultimate criteria for judging the consequences are 1) the outcome of the ongoing NRC's Nuclear Waste Confidence Rulemaking and 2) the concomitant permissibility of nuclear energy supplying electricity from operating reactors in the US. (authors)

  14. Space space space

    CERN Document Server

    Trembach, Vera

    2014-01-01

    Space is an introduction to the mysteries of the Universe. Included are Task Cards for independent learning, Journal Word Cards for creative writing, and Hands-On Activities for reinforcing skills in Math and Language Arts. Space is a perfect introduction to further research of the Solar System.

  15. Fueling a Third Paradigm of Education: The Pedagogical Implications of Digital, Social and Mobile Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlik, John V.

    2015-01-01

    Emerging technologies are fueling a third paradigm of education. Digital, networked and mobile media are enabling a disruptive transformation of the teaching and learning process. This paradigm challenges traditional assumptions that have long characterized educational institutions and processes, including basic notions of space, time, content,…

  16. Detection and Characterization of Single-Trial fMRI BOLD Responses : Paradigm Free Mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaudes, Cesar Caballero; Petridou, Natalia; Dryden, Ian L.; Bai, Li; Francis, Susan T.; Gowland, Penny A.

    This work presents a novel method of mapping the brain's response to single stimuli in space and time without prior knowledge of the paradigm timing: paradigm free mapping (PFM). This method is based on deconvolution of the hemodynamic response from the voxel time series assuming a linear response

  17. Paradigm Shifts in Ophthalmic Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebag, J; Sadun, Alfredo A; Pierce, Eric A

    2016-08-01

    Future advances in ophthalmology will see a paradigm shift in diagnostics from a focus on dysfunction and disease to better measures of psychophysical function and health. Practical methods to define genotypes will be increasingly important and non-invasive nanotechnologies are needed to detect molecular changes that predate histopathology. This is not a review nor meant to be comprehensive. Specific topics have been selected to illustrate the principles of important paradigm shifts that will influence the future of ophthalmic diagnostics. It is our impression that future evaluation of vision will go beyond visual acuity to assess ocular health in terms of psychophysical function. The definition of disease will incorporate genotype into what has historically been a phenotype-centric discipline. Non-invasive nanotechnologies will enable a paradigm shift from disease detection on a cellular level to a sub-cellular molecular level. Vision can be evaluated beyond visual acuity by measuring contrast sensitivity, color vision, and macular function, as these provide better insights into the impact of aging and disease. Distortions can be quantified and the psychophysical basis of vision can be better evaluated than in the past by designing tests that assess particular macular cell function(s). Advances in our understanding of the genetic basis of eye diseases will enable better characterization of ocular health and disease. Non-invasive nanotechnologies can assess molecular changes in the lens, vitreous, and macula that predate visible pathology. Oxygen metabolism and circulatory physiology are measurable indices of ocular health that can detect variations of physiology and early disease. This overview of paradigm shifts in ophthalmology suggests that the future will see significant improvements in ophthalmic diagnostics. The selected topics illustrate the principles of these paradigm shifts and should serve as a guide to further research and development. Indeed

  18. The synthesis paradigm in genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, William R

    2014-02-01

    Experimental genetics with model organisms and mathematically explicit genetic theory are generally considered to be the major paradigms by which progress in genetics is achieved. Here I argue that this view is incomplete and that pivotal advances in genetics--and other fields of biology--are also made by synthesizing disparate threads of extant information rather than generating new information from experiments or formal theory. Because of the explosive expansion of information in numerous "-omics" data banks, and the fragmentation of genetics into numerous subdisciplines, the importance of the synthesis paradigm will likely expand with time.

  19. Transmission pricing: paradigms and methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirmohammadi, Dariush [Pacific Gas and Electric Co., San Francisco, CA (United States); Vieira Filho, Xisto; Gorenstin, Boris [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pereira, Mario V.P. [Power System Research, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    In this paper we describe the principles of several paradigms and methodologies for pricing transmission services. The paper outlines some of the main characteristics of these paradigms and methodologies such as where they may be used for best results. Due to their popularity, power flow based MW-mile and short run marginal cost pricing methodologies will be covered in some detail. We conclude the paper with examples of the application of these two pricing methodologies for pricing transmission services in Brazil. (author) 25 refs., 2 tabs.

  20. CNN a paradigm for complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Chua, Leon O

    1998-01-01

    Revolutionary and original, this treatise presents a new paradigm of EMERGENCE and COMPLEXITY, with applications drawn from numerous disciplines, including artificial life, biology, chemistry, computation, physics, image processing, information science, etc.CNN is an acronym for Cellular Neural Networks when used in the context of brain science, or Cellular Nonlinear Networks, when used in the context of emergence and complexity. A CNN is modeled by cells and interactions: cells are defined as dynamical systems and interactions are defined via coupling laws. The CNN paradigm is a universal Tur

  1. Space, myth and cinematography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambardzumov, Arsen

    2016-12-01

    There exist both ancient and modern myths. The competition of good and evil, sanctity, mythic hero character, etc. make up those myths. Connection between the myth and literature, art and mainly cinematography is highly essential. Hollywood is a striking example of that connection, in other words "A Dream Factory". The mythic component in American films is obvious. It refers to the product structure which is frequently created by mythic rules. One of its striking examples is D. Lucas's film "Star wars. Episode IV - New Hope" (1977): The film plot is built on the struggle between the good and the evil. On one hand those are the representatives of the Empire with Darth Vader and princess Leia with her devotees on the other. The space has played a unique role for Greek philosophers as well. It was the symbol of perfection and grace. The attempt to approach this perfection, the desire to see the internal similarity besides the external one has been reflected in S. Kubrick's film "2001: Space Odyssey" (1968). Showing the space distance director looks for perfection in us which lies in the harmony of truth, human and nature.

  2. Literature in Focus - A Zeptospace Odyssey: A Journey into the Physics of the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Library

    2010-01-01

    By Gian Francesco Giudice (CERN) Oxford University Press, 2009 At this very moment the most ambitious scientific experiment of all time is beginning, and yet its precise aims are little understood by the general public. This book aims to provide an everyman’s guide for understanding and following the discoveries that will take place within the next few years at the Large Hadron Collider project at CERN. The reader is invited to share an insider’s view of the theory of particle physics, and is equipped to appreciate the scale of the intellectual revolution that is about to take place. The technological innovations required to build the LHC are among the most astonishing aspects of this scientific adventure, and they too are described here as part of the LHC story. The book culminates with an outline of the scientific aims and expectations at the LHC. Does the mysterious Higgs boson exist? Does space hide supersymmetry or extend into extra dimensions? How can colliding protons at the LHC...

  3. The Institutional Paradigm of Human Capital Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolomiiets Viktoriia М.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The formation of the modern conception of human capital is connected with the development of post-industrial information society, knowledge economy and digital economy. The main role in analyzing of the content and role of human capital can play a new institutional economic theory. It is determined that the methodology of research of paradigm change in economic science remains the subject of discussion. The conception of institutional paradigm of human capital development can be attributed to the new economy, the development of which is carried out on the condition that the employee is not always alienated from the relationships of ownership: he himself becomes the owner of the «new» economic resources. The factors of education along with the factors of health care which are determining in the development of human capital are researched. Special attention is paid to education, as it acts as an intellectual capital of the new economy, where knowledge and skills become the «intellectual 5D printer», producing the modern human capital. The transition to a new, post-industrial economy is characterized by a major long-term tendency: the progress of knowledge and the increasing complexity of the socio-economic life; created by powerful factors of information and computer technologies and leading to expansion of global economic space.

  4. A new guiding paradigm for waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suter, Peter

    2003-01-01

    New situations call for a revision of strategies in the waste recycling and recovery sector. The guiding paradigm is that the evaluation and optimization of strategies ought to be integral, i.e. it ought to incorporate all steps from cradle to grave, all cost components and also to take into account all environmental aspects, as well as resource depletion. Furthermore, all variants of a comparison must have the same output and the same boundaries in space and time. Total cost (comprising also environmental damage and resource depletion) is proposed here as the evaluation function; environmental damage can be made operational by the DALY concept (Hofstetter P. Perspectives in life cycle impact assessment. Boston: Kluwer Academic, 1998) ('disability adjusted loss of life years') accounting for the years of life lost due to premature death, to illness or annoyance. The search for optimal strategies in the waste sector evidently requires the solution of a system with an enormous number of parameters; the method of genetic algorithms may represent a suitable solution paradigm, leading to the result in a reasonable computing time

  5. Programming Language: Concepts and Paradigms

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Lizama, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    The article presents the concepts that govern around the programming languages and the paradigms of the programming and the influence in the development of the software. El artículo presenta los conceptos que rigen a los lenguajes de programación y los paradigmas de la programación y como estos influyen en el desarrollo del software.

  6. Understanding the land management paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    There is a worldwide need to build understanding of the land management paradigm and for institutional development to establish sustainable national concepts. This includes creation and adoption of a policy on land development, and an approach that combines the land administration...

  7. Artificial life, the new paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Paez, Jose Jesus

    1998-01-01

    A chronological synthesis of the most important facts is presented in the theoretical development and computational simulation that they have taken to the formation of a new paradigm that is known as artificial life; their characteristics and their main investigation lines are analyzed. Finally, a description of its work is made in the National University of Colombia

  8. The Federated Satellite Systems paradigm: Concept and business case evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golkar, Alessandro; Lluch i Cruz, Ignasi

    2015-06-01

    This paper defines the paradigm of Federated Satellite Systems (FSS) as a novel distributed space systems architecture. FSS are networks of spacecraft trading previously inefficiently allocated and unused resources such as downlink bandwidth, storage, processing power, and instrument time. FSS holds the promise to enhance cost-effectiveness, performance and reliability of existing and future space missions, by networking different missions and effectively creating a pool of resources to exchange between participants in the federation. This paper introduces and describes the FSS paradigm, and develops an approach integrating mission analysis and economic assessments to evaluate the feasibility of the business case of FSS. The approach is demonstrated on a case study on opportunities enabled by FSS to enhance space exploration programs, with particular reference to the International Space Station. The application of the proposed methodology shows that the FSS concept is potentially able to create large commercial markets of in-space resources, by providing the technical platform to offer the opportunity for spacecraft to share or make use of unused resources within their orbital neighborhood. It is shown how the concept is beneficial to satellite operators, space agencies, and other stakeholders of the space industry to more flexibly interoperate space systems as a portfolio of assets, allowing unprecedented collaboration among heterogeneous types of missions.

  9. 'Doctor Google' ending the diagnostic odyssey in lysosomal storage disorders: parents using internet search engines as an efficient diagnostic strategy in rare diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwman, Machtelt G; Teunissen, Quirine G A; Wijburg, Frits A; Linthorst, Gabor E

    2010-08-01

    The expansion of the internet has resulted in widespread availability of medical information for both patients and physicians. People increasingly spend time on the internet searching for an explanation, diagnosis or treatment for their symptoms. Regarding rare diseases, the use of the internet may be an important tool in the diagnostic process. The authors present two cases in which concerned parents made a correct diagnosis of a lysosomal storage disorder in their child by searching the internet after a long doctor's delay. These cases illustrate the utility of publicly available internet search engines in diagnosing rare disorders and in addition illustrate the lengthy diagnostic odyssey which is common in these disorders.

  10. Policy paradigms, transnationalism, and domestic politics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Skogstad, Grace Darlene

    2011-01-01

    Policy Paradigms, Transnationalism, and Domestic Politics offers a variety of perspectives on the development of policy paradigms -- the ideas that structure thinking about what can and should be done in a policy domain...

  11. Black hole evaporation: a paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashtekar, Abhay; Bojowald, Martin

    2005-01-01

    A paradigm describing black hole evaporation in non-perturbative quantum gravity is developed by combining two sets of detailed results: (i) resolution of the Schwarzschild singularity using quantum geometry methods and (ii) time evolution of black holes in the trapping and dynamical horizon frameworks. Quantum geometry effects introduce a major modification in the traditional spacetime diagram of black hole evaporation, providing a possible mechanism for recovery of information that is classically lost in the process of black hole formation. The paradigm is developed directly in the Lorentzian regime and necessary conditions for its viability are discussed. If these conditions are met, much of the tension between expectations based on spacetime geometry and structure of quantum theory would be resolved

  12. Three Paradigms of Social Assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Marc Daigneault

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available “Ideas,” which are defined as the normative and cognitive beliefs of actors, are fundamental to a full understanding of the welfare state and, in particular, of social assistance. However, policy ideas have been neglected in most typologies of social assistance regimes. Based on a selective review of the literature, this article proposes a brief but systematic analysis of policy paradigms in the field of social assistance. Three ideal types that emphasize the ideational dimension of social assistance are analyzed, namely, the entitlement, workfare, and activation paradigms. The value of the typology lies in its utility for characterizing the ideational orientation of social assistance regimes. Specifically, the typology provides a yardstick for measuring the ideas of policy actors with respect to social assistance and can facilitate the conduct of case studies, comparative research, and causal analyses on this policy sector.

  13. Exploring Paradigms of Crime Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soothill, Keith; Christoffersen, Mogens N.; Hussain, Azhar

    2010-01-01

    Using Danish registers for a 1980 birth cohort of 29,944 males with parental information and following up these cases for 25 years, the study considers four paradigms of crime reduction (parental child rearing, structural factors around adolescence, locality and individual resources). Focusing on...... have more widespread benefits, but the assumed causal links need to be further explored. The use of population registers, under controlled conditions, provides an important window on criminal careers....

  14. Storytelling, advertising and paradigm fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, David

    2012-01-01

    'The art of storytelling in the modern age is fundamentally important. So, how we create stories for a screen-based culture is vitally important to master' (Hegarty, 2011, p.96-97). This paper explores the potential benefit of fusing aspects of creative writing with the curriculum of the BA Creative Advertising programme (BACAP) at Leeds College of Art (LCA) in order to address Sir John Hegarty's assertion. In particular it will focus on the characteristics of the 'classical paradigms' us...

  15. Mandarin functional MRI Language paradigms

    OpenAIRE

    Ci, He; van Graan, Andre; Gonz?lvez, Gloria; Thompson, Pamela; Hill, Andrea; Duncan, John S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective The objective of this study was to implement convenient, fast, and accurate Mandarin task paradigms for functional MRI, and to locate the Chinese language functional areas in frontal and temporal lobes. Materials and Methods Nineteen healthy Chinese volunteers participated in this study, which utilized a block design with four language tasks: auditory naming (AN), picture naming (PN), verbal fluency?character (VFC), and verbal fluency?letter (VFL). All functional images wer...

  16. Insights into the extremotolerance of Acinetobacter radioresistens 50v1, a gram-negative bacterium isolated from the Mars Odyssey spacecraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, K B; Derecho, I; Wong, T; Tran, H M; Huynh, T D; La Duc, M T; Venkateswaran, K; Mogul, R

    2012-09-01

    The microbiology of the spacecraft assembly process is of paramount importance to planetary exploration, as the biological contamination that can result from remote-enabled spacecraft carries the potential to impact both life-detection experiments and extraterrestrial evolution. Accordingly, insights into the mechanisms and range of extremotolerance of Acinetobacter radioresistens 50v1, a Gram-negative bacterium isolated from the surface of the preflight Mars Odyssey orbiter, were gained by using a combination of microbiological, enzymatic, and proteomic methods. In summary, A. radioresistens 50v1 displayed a remarkable range of survival against hydrogen peroxide and the sequential exposures of desiccation, vapor and plasma phase hydrogen peroxide, and ultraviolet irradiation. The survival is among the highest reported for non-spore-forming and Gram-negative bacteria and is based upon contributions from the enzyme-based degradation of H(2)O(2) (catalase and alkyl hydroperoxide reductase), energy management (ATP synthase and alcohol dehydrogenase), and modulation of the membrane composition. Together, the biochemical and survival features of A. radioresistens 50v1 support a potential persistence on Mars (given an unintended or planned surface landing of the Mars Odyssey orbiter), which in turn may compromise the scientific integrity of future life-detection missions.

  17. The challenges of neural mind-reading paradigms

    OpenAIRE

    Vilarroya, Oscar

    2013-01-01

    Neural mind-reading studies, based on multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) methods, are providing exciting new studies. Some of the results obtained with these paradigms have raised high expectations, such as the possibility of creating brain reading devices. However, such hopes are based on the assumptions that: (a) the BOLD signal is a marker of neural activity; (b) the BOLD pattern identified by a MVPA is a neurally sound pattern; (c) the MVPA's feature space is a good mapping of the neura...

  18. About hypotheses and paradigms: exploring the Discreetness-Chance Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaellis, Eugene

    2006-01-01

    Hypotheses generally conform to paradigms which, over time, change, usually tardily, after they have become increasingly difficult to sustain under the impact of non-conforming evidence and alternative hypotheses, but more important, when they no longer are comfortably ensconced in the surrounding social-economic-political-cultural milieu. It is asserted that this milieu is the most important factor in shaping scientific theorizing. Some examples are cited: the rejection of the evidence that the world orbits around the sun (suspected by Pythagoras) in favor of centuries-long firm adherence to the Ptolemaic geocentric system; the early acceptance of Natural Selection in spite of its tautological essence and only conjectural supporting evidence, because it justified contemporaneous social-political ideologies as typified by, e.g., Spencer and Malthus. Economic, social, and cultural factors are cited as providing the ground, i.e., ideational substrate, for what is cited as the Discreetness-Chance Paradigm (DCP), that has increasingly dominated physics, biology, and medicine for over a century and which invokes small, discrete packets of energy/matter (quanta, genes, microorganisms, aberrant cells) functioning within an environment of statistical, not determined, causality. There is speculation on a possible paradigmatic shift from the DCP, which has fostered the proliferation, parallel with ("splitting") taxonomy, of alleged individual disease entities, their diagnoses, and, when available, their specific remedies, something particularly prominent in, e.g., psychiatry's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, a codified compendium of alleged mental and behavioral disorders, but evident in any textbook of diagnosis and treatment of physical ailments. This presumed paradigm shift may be reflected in Western medicine, presently increasingly empirical and atomized, towards a growing acceptance of a more generalized, subject-oriented, approach to health and disease, a non

  19. 2050: A Pricing Odyssey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faruqui, Ahmad

    2006-10-15

    The author uses the Rip Van Winkle approach favored by marketers to gaze, clear-eyed, into the future - say, the year 2050 - to visualize alternative demand-response possibilities. Dare we go California Dreamin' of a distant utopia - or is it inevitable that pricing myopia will keep us from attaining the fulfillment of many of our career goals? (author)

  20. Paradigm for new scientific technology; Shinkagaku gijutsu paradigm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shindo, Y [National Chemical Lab. for Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-01-05

    This paper reviews the current status from the standpoint of chemical engineers facing the coming of the 21st century, and surveys the paradigm for new scientific technologies. The criticism is mixed with unique opinions everywhere, such as `departure of students from scientific and engineering faculties is none other than the result of a market principle`, `national burden of trillions of yens should not be spent only under a justice of advancement of the science`, and `the global civilization itself has no other way but to change from the conventional expansive development type of the western country style to the internal development type of the oriental country style`. Values that define the paradigm for new scientific technologies may include such keywords as saturation in technology, baseless expansion of research projects, criticism on science, market principle, and centering human being. It should be looked at seriously that profit from research and development should exceed the cast invested therein in the future, and scientific technologies that serve truly the society should be aimed at. These efforts will result in one of the large pillars that support the future in which creation of new functions is aimed at as a result of structuring the new systems. Trying to overcome the environmental problems is one of them.

  1. Modeling urban landscape: New paradigms and challenges in territorial representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheyla Aguilar de Santana

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to give a brief background on the production of urban space considering the social functions of the city, the needs of contemporary urban reforms and the need for tools that assist in decision making. This state of the art about the production space justifies the current studies on the development of geoprocessing tools, techniques and methodologies that attempt the needs of creating interpretive portraits of urban landscapes to facilitate dialogue between urban technical, administrators and community. In this sense, it is presented how GIS has been working within the context of urban planning and appointed the new challenges and paradigms of territorial representation.

  2. The Paradigm of Distributed Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    This presentation aims to focus on and develop the notion of distributed creativity from a cultural psychological perspective. It will start by outlining the need for a cultural psychological paradigm of creative expression and argue that this perspective is primarily concerned with what can...... be called ‘distributed creativity’. Drawing on related literature on distributed cognition (Hutchins, 2000), I will consider here the three inter-related ways in which creative action is distributed: across people, across people and objects, and across time. This particular understanding of creativity...

  3. Psychiatry beyond the current paradigm.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bracken, Pat

    2012-12-01

    A series of editorials in this Journal have argued that psychiatry is in the midst of a crisis. The various solutions proposed would all involve a strengthening of psychiatry\\'s identity as essentially \\'applied neuroscience\\'. Although not discounting the importance of the brain sciences and psychopharmacology, we argue that psychiatry needs to move beyond the dominance of the current, technological paradigm. This would be more in keeping with the evidence about how positive outcomes are achieved and could also serve to foster more meaningful collaboration with the growing service user movement.

  4. The detour paradigm in animal cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabadayi, Can; Bobrowicz, Katarzyna; Osvath, Mathias

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we review one of the oldest paradigms used in animal cognition: the detour paradigm. The paradigm presents the subject with a situation where a direct route to the goal is blocked and a detour must be made to reach it. Often being an ecologically valid and a versatile tool, the detour paradigm has been used to study diverse cognitive skills like insight, social learning, inhibitory control and route planning. Due to the relative ease of administrating detour tasks, the paradigm has lately been used in large-scale comparative studies in order to investigate the evolution of inhibitory control. Here we review the detour paradigm and some of its cognitive requirements, we identify various ecological and contextual factors that might affect detour performance, we also discuss developmental and neurological underpinnings of detour behaviors, and we suggest some methodological approaches to make species comparisons more robust.

  5. Heavy-Lift for a New Paradigm in Space Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Bruce; Burkey, Martin

    2010-01-01

    NASA is developing an unprecedented heavy-lift capability to enable human exploration beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). This capability could also significantly enhance numerous other missions of scientific, national security, and commercial importance. That capability is currently configured as the Ares V cargo launch vehicle. This capability will eclipse the capability the United States lost with the retirement of the Saturn V. It is capable of launching roughly 53 percent more payload mass to trans lunar injection (TLI) and 30 percent more payload mass to LEO than its Apollo Program predecessor. Ares V is a major element of NASA's Constellation Program, which also includes the Ares I crew launch vehicle (CLV), Orion crew exploration vehicle (CEV), and a lunar lander for crew and cargo. As currently configured, Ares V will be capable of launching 413,800 pounds (187.7 mT) to LEO, 138,500 pounds (63 mT) direct to the Moon or 156,700 pounds (71.1 mT) in its dual-launch architecture role with Ares I. Its 33-foot (10 m) shroud provides unprecedented payload volume. Assessment of astronomy and planetary science payload requirements since spring 2008 has indicated that a Saturn V-class heavy-lift vehicle has the potential to support a range of payloads and missions. This vehicle configuration enables some missions previously considered difficult or impossible and enhances many others. Collaborative design/architecture inputs, exchanges, and analyses have already begun between scientists and payload developers. This early dialogue between NASA engineers and payload designers allows both communities to shape their designs and operational concepts to be mutually supportive to the extent possible with the least financial impact. This paper provides an overview of the capabilities of a heavy-lift vehicle to launch payloads with increased mass and/or volume and reduce technical and cost risk in both design and operations.

  6. ENVIRONMENTALISM AND CLASSIC PARADIGMS OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    D. D. Miniaeva

    2014-01-01

    This article examines an environmentalism integration process into Three classical paradigms of international relations theory (Liberalism, Realism and Marxism) into Three classical paradigms of international relations theory (Liberalism, Realism and Marxism). The main purpose of this study is to reveal the result of this integration. Methods used in this article include analysis and comparison of "ecological" paradigms on selected parameters (the nature of international relations, actors, ta...

  7. THE PLOT OF HUSBAND’S RETURN TO HIS WIFE’S WEDDING IN "THE ODYSSEY" BY HOMER AND IN THE SLAVIC AND RUSSIAN EPIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana G. Malchukova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the plot of husband’s return to his wife’s wedding embodied both in the millenary Ancient epic literature represented by the "Odyssey" of Homer, and in the Russian and Slavic epic. The study of Homer’s epic heritage, conducted over the years, includes a huge number of works of scientists around the world. Comparative-historical, comparative-genetic and comparative-typological studies found a link between oral folk tradition and epic poetry written by an author. The current international science is developing the hypothesis that professionally individual Homeric poems, which are at least 850 years old, were created in the ancient, oral poetry improvisation in a precise format of hexameter. The study of the Russian epic has less history, but the researches in this field have revealed the presence of Late Antiquity elements in the Slavic environment. These elements along with paganism and Christianity became the source of the people’s spiritual culture. The plot "the return of her husband", which is analyzed in the article, is widely-spread in folklore of many nations, and appeared rudimentarily in "The Odyssey". The western and eastern variants of this theme are diverse in genre structure and stylistic features. In Russian tradition the plot is presented in a large thematic variety "Dobrynya and Alyosha", which evolves into the epic genre due to contamination, small inserts in the epic genre. As a result, the great volume brings together the olden time and the ancient epic, creating intermediate forms comparable with the author’s imitations.

  8. The Oral Paradigm and Snapchat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oren Soffer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this short essay, I argue that the ephemeral nature of emerging instant-messaging applications, such as Snapchat, applies an oral paradigm. While online discourse of computer-mediated communication shares many qualities with oral communication, the case of ephemeral applications is unique, as the oral features are already integrated in the application technology design and as orality is often implemented on highly visual products. Snapchat applies technology that fades visual contents as if they were spoken words fading in the air after utterance. Moreover, Snapchat’s promise to delete all messages from its database after they are viewed echoes a key characteristic of primary oral culture: that is, the inability (and in our case, the obligation not to store knowledge. In this, Snapchat demonstrates counter-logic to the contemporary grammar of new media, which is based on information aggregation.

  9. Toward a New Energy Paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farhad Mahmud

    2006-01-01

    More than 50% of the developing world does not have access to electricity. It is our belief that it is as much a problem of distribution as of production. The traditional approach of power distribution through a national grid system is remarkably slow. Alternate methods are not sought because of an implicit assumption that it is an area that would necessarily involve large infra-structural undertaking. However, the traditional distribution paradigm can be challenged by new developments in fuel cell technology that can open up the possibility of involvement of small private initiatives in the distribution of power in remote areas where grid penetration has not taken place. This would require distribution re-engineering in an innovative and practical way based on advancement in new technology (fuel cells in our case). Our business approach would require a shift in focus away from production to distribution in addressing the issue. (authors)

  10. Shield calculations, optimization vs. paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornejo D, N.; Hernandez S, A.; Martinez G, A.

    2006-01-01

    Many shieldings have been designed under the criteria of 'Maximum dose rates of project'. It has created the paradigm of those 'low dose rates', for the one which not few specialists would consider unacceptable levels of dose rate superior to the units of μSv.h -1 , independently of the exposure times. At the present time numerous shieldings are being designed considering dose restrictions in real times of exposure. After these new shieldings, the dose rates could be notably superior to those after traditional shieldings, without it implies inadequate designs or constructive errors. In the work significant differences in levels of dose rates and thickness of shieldings estimated by both methods for some typical facilities. It was concluded that the use of real times of exposure is more adequate for the optimization of the Radiological Protection, although this method demands bigger care in its application. (Author)

  11. Shielding calculations. Optimization vs. Paradigms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornejo Diaz, Nestor; Hernandez Saiz, Alejandro; Martinez Gonzalez, Alina

    2005-01-01

    Many radiation shielding barriers in Cuba have been designed according to the criterion of Maxi-mum Projected Dose Rates. This fact has created the paradigm of low dose rates. Because of this, dose rate levels greater than units of Sv.h-1 would be considered unacceptable by many specialists, regardless of the real exposure times. Nowadays many shielding barriers are being designed using dose constraints in real exposure times. Behind the new barriers, dose rates could be notably greater than those behind the traditional ones, and it does not imply inadequate designs or constructive errors. In this work were obtained significant differences in dose rate levels and shield-ing thicknesses calculated by both methods for some typical installations. The work concludes that real exposure time approach is more adequate in order to optimise Radiation Protection, although this method should be carefully applied

  12. Emerging Paradigms in Machine Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Lakhmi; Howlett, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This  book presents fundamental topics and algorithms that form the core of machine learning (ML) research, as well as emerging paradigms in intelligent system design. The  multidisciplinary nature of machine learning makes it a very fascinating and popular area for research.  The book is aiming at students, practitioners and researchers and captures the diversity and richness of the field of machine learning and intelligent systems.  Several chapters are devoted to computational learning models such as granular computing, rough sets and fuzzy sets An account of applications of well-known learning methods in biometrics, computational stylistics, multi-agent systems, spam classification including an extremely well-written survey on Bayesian networks shed light on the strengths and weaknesses of the methods. Practical studies yielding insight into challenging problems such as learning from incomplete and imbalanced data, pattern recognition of stochastic episodic events and on-line mining of non-stationary ...

  13. Paradigm transition in cosmic plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfven, H.

    1982-01-01

    In situ measurements in the magnetospheres together with general advancement in plasma physics are now necessitating introduction of a number of effects that have been recently discovered or earlier neglected. Examples are: electric double layers (like in the lower magnetosphere); thin current layer (like in the magnetopause) giving space a cellular structure; current produced filaments (e.g., in prominences, solar corona and interstellar clouds). Further it is important to use the electric current (particle) description and to study the whole circuit in which the current flows. The pinch effect cannot be neglected as is now usually done. The critical velocity phenomenon is essential, for example for the band structure of solar system. Theory of dusty plasmas is important. The result is a change in so many theories in cosmic plasma physics that it is appropriate to speak of an introduction of a new paradigm. This should be based on empirical knowledge from magnetospheric and laboratory investigations. Its application to astrophysics in general, including cosmology, will necessarily lead to a revision of, e.g., the present theories of the formation of stars, planets and satellites. It is doubtful whether the big bang cosmology will survive. (Auth.)

  14. Paradigm transition in cosmic plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfven, H.

    1982-06-01

    In situ measurements in the magnetospheres together with general advancement in plasma physics are now necessitating introduction of a number of effects that have been recently discovered or earlier neglected. Examples are: 1) Electric double layers (like in the lower magnetosphere) 2) Thin current layer (like in the magnetopause) giving space a cellular structure. 3) Current produced filaments (e.g. in prominences, solar corona and interstellar clouds). 4) Further it is important to use the electric current (particle) description and to study the whole circuit in which the current flows. 5) The pinch effect cannot be neglected as is now usually done. 6) The critical velocity phenomenon is essential, for example for the band structure of solar systems. 7) Theory of dusty plasmas is important. The result is a change in so many theories in cosmic plasma physics that it is appropriate to speak of an introduction of a new paradigm. This should be based on empirical knowledge from magnetospheric and laboratory investigations. Its application to astrophysics in general, including cosmology, will necessarily lead to a revision of e.g. the present theories of the formation of stars, planets and satellites. It is doubtful whether the big bang cosmology will survive. (Author)

  15. Is This the Paradigm Shift We Need?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirvis, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Dr. Woocher's essay, states Mirvis, is seminal in the field of Jewish education. It proposes a new paradigm for Jewish education in North America. This proposed paradigm is supported by a comprehensive multi-disciplinary research drawing on literature from education, philosophy, history, sociology, psychology, and economics. The essay reflects a…

  16. Testing the membrane paradigm with holography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, J.; Heller, M.P.; Pinzani-Fokeeva, N.

    2015-01-01

    One version of the membrane paradigm states that, as far as outside observers are concerned, black holes can be replaced by a dissipative membrane with simple physical properties located at the stretched horizon. We demonstrate that such a membrane paradigm is incomplete in several aspects. We argue

  17. Programming Paradigms in Computer Science Education

    OpenAIRE

    Bolshakova, Elena

    2005-01-01

    Main styles, or paradigms of programming – imperative, functional, logic, and object-oriented – are shortly described and compared, and corresponding programming techniques are outlined. Programming languages are classified in accordance with the main style and techniques supported. It is argued that profound education in computer science should include learning base programming techniques of all main programming paradigms.

  18. Towards a New Paradigm of Moral Personhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimer, Jeremy A.; Walker, Lawrence J.

    2008-01-01

    Moral psychology is between paradigms. Kohlberg's model of moral rationality has proved inadequate in explaining action; yet its augmentation--moral personality--awaits empirical embodiment. This article addresses some critical issues in developing a comprehensive empirical paradigm of moral personhood. Is a first-person or a third-person…

  19. Changing the Safety and Mission Assurance (S and MA) Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Roy W.; Safie, Fayssal M.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the change in the work and impact of the Safety and Mission Assurance directorate at Marshall Space Flight Center. It reviews the background and the reasons given for a strong Safety & Mission Assurance presence in all planning for space flight. This was pointed out by the Rogers Commission Report after the Space Challenger accident, by the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) and by a 2006 NASA Exploration Safety Study (NESS) Team. The overall objective of the work in this area was to improve and maintain S&MA expertise and skills. Training for this work was improved and the S&MA organization was reorganized. This has resulted in a paradigm shift for NASA's safety efforts, which is described. The presentation then reviews the impact of the new S&MA work in the Ares I design and development.

  20. Understanding paradigms used for nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Kathryn; Olson, Joanne K

    2006-02-01

    The aims of this paper are to add clarity to the discussion about paradigms for nursing research and to consider integrative strategies for the development of nursing knowledge. Paradigms are sets of beliefs and practices, shared by communities of researchers, which regulate inquiry within disciplines. The various paradigms are characterized by ontological, epistemological and methodological differences in their approaches to conceptualizing and conducting research, and in their contribution towards disciplinary knowledge construction. Researchers may consider these differences so vast that one paradigm is incommensurable with another. Alternatively, researchers may ignore these differences and either unknowingly combine paradigms inappropriately or neglect to conduct needed research. To accomplish the task of developing nursing knowledge for use in practice, there is a need for a critical, integrated understanding of the paradigms used for nursing inquiry. We describe the evolution and influence of positivist, postpositivist, interpretive and critical theory research paradigms. Using integrative review, we compare and contrast the paradigms in terms of their philosophical underpinnings and scientific contribution. A pragmatic approach to theory development through synthesis of cumulative knowledge relevant to nursing practice is suggested. This requires that inquiry start with assessment of existing knowledge from disparate studies to identify key substantive content and gaps. Knowledge development in under-researched areas could be accomplished through integrative strategies that preserve theoretical integrity and strengthen research approaches associated with various philosophical perspectives. These strategies may include parallel studies within the same substantive domain using different paradigms; theoretical triangulation to combine findings from paradigmatically diverse studies; integrative reviews; and mixed method studies. Nurse scholars are urged to

  1. Self-organized criticality paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, I.; Stoeckel, J.; Hron, M.; Horacek, J.; Jakubka, K.; Kryska, L.

    2000-01-01

    According to the paradigm of the Self-Organized Criticality (SOC), the anomalous transport in tokamaks is caused by fast transient processes - avalanches. One of the manifestations of these phenomena should be 1/f decay of electrostatic fluctuations power spectra in a certain frequency range. In this paper, the frequency spectra of floating potential, density and fluctuation-induced flux, measured by poloidal and radial arrays of Langmuir probes on the CASTOR tokamak, are presented. The floating potential and the fluctuation-induced flux decay from 30 kHz up to 100 kHz as f -1 . The plasma density decays as f -1 in a more narrow band, 20 to 40 kHz. The possible limitation of SOC behavior for frequencies higher than 100 kHz due to intermittency is stressed. For this reason the Probability Distribution Functions (PDFs) of floating potential fluctuations were computed at different time scales using wavelet transform. A clear departure of the computed PDFs from Gaussianity, which is a classical signature of intermittency, is observed at time scales under 10 μs (100 kHz). (author)

  2. MDMA and the "ecstasy paradigm".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Jon C

    2014-01-01

    For nearly 30 years, there has been a steady flow of research papers highlighting the dangers of MDMA and the implications for ecstasy users. After such a long time, it would be reasonable to expect that these dangers would be obvious due to the large number of ecstasy users. The available evidence does not indicate that there are millions of ecstasy users experiencing any problems linked to their ecstasy use. The "precautionary principle" suggests that, in the absence of knowing for certain, "experts" should argue that MDMA be avoided. However, this may have been taken too far, as the dire warnings do not seem to be reducing with the lack of epidemiological evidence of clinically relevant problems. The "ecstasy paradigm" is one way of articulating this situation, in that the needs of research funders and publication bias lead to a specific set of subcultural norms around what information is acceptable in the public domain. By digging a little deeper, it is easy to find problems with the evidence base that informs the public debate around MDMA. The key question is whether it is acceptable to maintain this status quo given the therapeutic potential of MDMA.

  3. Cancer: shift of the paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenstein, Anatoly V

    2008-12-01

    Cancer is usually considered to be a by-product of design limitations of a multicellular organism and its intrinsic fallibility. However, recent data prompt a revision of some established notions about carcinogenesis and form a new paradigm of carcinogenesis as a highly conserved biological phenomenon - a programmed death of an organism. This altruistic program, which is unleashed when mutagenesis surpasses a certain critical threshold, gives a population the important benefit acting as a guardian of the gene pool against the spread of certain mutant genes. A growing body of evidence supports this point of view: (i) epigenetic changes leading to cancer arise early, simultaneously in many cells and look like deterministic regulation; (ii) concept of cancer stem cell suggests a view of carcinogenesis not as vague transformation but as well known differentiation; (iii) tumor/host relations usually perceived as antagonistic are, in reality, synergistic; (iv) death of an individual from cancer is predetermined and results apparently from a specific activity (killer function) of cancer cell and (v) evolutionary conservation indicates that cancer comes with a general advantage that explains its evolutionary success. A holistic approach to carcinogenesis suggests new avenues of research and new therapeutic strategy.

  4. Synergetic Paradigm of Geopolitical Confrontation in the Postmodern Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey N. Teplyakov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes current state and mechanisms of geopolitical struggle in postmodern information age that has come. The author judges from assumption that entirely new postmodern society appeared with expansion of information technology, accompanied by cardinal changes in mechanisms of political power. Information technologies have become one of the most important factors contributing to the transformation of modern society from industrial to informational (post-industrial. In modern conditions, ensuring national and global security is a comprehensive process that includes not only measures to ensure information and economic security individually, but also such an integrated component as providing both information and economic security. The author suggests that modem geopolitical confrontation is carried out based on the synergetic paradigm. The main tool is information and energy influence on enemy system weaknesses using information space control, organizing negative information campaigns and applying economic sanctions. If the main focus of geopolitical struggle in modern era was forced expansion of the territory, in information postmodern age control over economic and information space has become priority among forms of geopolitical struggle. Military expansion of modern era becomes substituted by information and economic expansionism of postmodern using synergetic paradigm of geopolitical confrontation in order to control and capture the opponent's political space.

  5. Ostracism Online: A social media ostracism paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Wouter; Levordashka, Ana; Ruff, Johanna R; Kraaijeveld, Steven; Lueckmann, Jan-Matthis; Williams, Kipling D

    2015-06-01

    We describe Ostracism Online, a novel, social media-based ostracism paradigm designed to (1) keep social interaction experimentally controlled, (2) provide researchers with the flexibility to manipulate the properties of the social situation to fit their research purposes, (3) be suitable for online data collection, (4) be convenient for studying subsequent within-group behavior, and (5) be ecologically valid. After collecting data online, we compared the Ostracism Online paradigm with the Cyberball paradigm (Williams & Jarvis Behavior Research Methods, 38, 174-180, 2006) on need-threat and mood questionnaire scores (van Beest & Williams Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 91, 918-928, 2006). We also examined whether ostracized targets of either paradigm would be more likely to conform to their group members than if they had been included. Using a Bayesian analysis of variance to examine the individual effects of the different paradigms and to compare these effects across paradigms, we found analogous effects on need-threat and mood. Perhaps because we examined conformity to the ostracizers (rather than neutral sources), neither paradigm showed effects of ostracism on conformity. We conclude that Ostracism Online is a cost-effective, easy to use, and ecologically valid research tool for studying the psychological and behavioral effects of ostracism.

  6. Evolution of the radiological protection paradigms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sordi, Gian Maria A.A.

    2009-01-01

    We consider as initial radiological protection paradigms those in vigour after the release of the atomic energy for pacific usages in 1955. In that occasion, only one paradigm was introduced, presently named dose limitation system. After arguing about the basis that raised the paradigm, we introduced the guidance, that is, the measurements to be implemented to comply with the paradigm. In that occasion, they were two, i.e., the radiation dose monitoring and the workplace classification. Afterwards, the reasons that caused the radiological protection paradigms changes in force until 1995 are discussed. The initial paradigm was modified introducing the justification and the optimization principles, adding that the radiological protection should be economical and effective. The guidance also increased to four: personal monitoring, workplace classification, reference level and workers classification. Afterwards, we give the main justifications for the present paradigms that besides the formers were added the dose constraints, the potential exposure and the annual risk limits. Due to these modifications, the workers classifications were eliminated from the guidance, but the potential exposure and the search for the dose constraints were added. Eventually, we discuss the tendencies for the next future and the main changes introduced by the ICRP in the Publication 103, 2007. (author)

  7. The Cognitive Paradigm Ontology: Design and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Angela R.

    2013-01-01

    We present the basic structure of the Cognitive Paradigm Ontology (CogPO) for human behavioral experiments. While the experimental psychology and cognitive neuroscience literature may refer to certain behavioral tasks by name (e.g., the Stroop paradigm or the Sternberg paradigm) or by function (a working memory task, a visual attention task), these paradigms can vary tremendously in the stimuli that are presented to the subject, the response expected from the subject, and the instructions given to the subject. Drawing from the taxonomy developed and used by the BrainMap project (www.brainmap.org) for almost two decades to describe key components of published functional imaging results, we have developed an ontology capable of representing certain characteristics of the cognitive paradigms used in the fMRI and PET literature. The Cognitive Paradigm Ontology is being developed to be compliant with the Basic Formal Ontology (BFO), and to harmonize where possible with larger ontologies such as RadLex, NeuroLex, or the Ontology of Biomedical Investigations (OBI). The key components of CogPO include the representation of experimental conditions focused on the stimuli presented, the instructions given, and the responses requested. The use of alternate and even competitive terminologies can often impede scientific discoveries. Categorization of paradigms according to stimulus, response, and instruction has been shown to allow advanced data retrieval techniques by searching for similarities and contrasts across multiple paradigm levels. The goal of CogPO is to develop, evaluate, and distribute a domain ontology of cognitive paradigms for application and use in the functional neuroimaging community. PMID:21643732

  8. Gas transmission : a paradigm shift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornelson, D.W.

    1997-01-01

    The evolution of energy markets in North America was discussed. The investment opportunities that are possible in a deregulated energy market, be it in production or in the generation of energy commodities, in the development of midstream infrastructure, or in the provision of energy services, were outlined. Deregulation of crude oil, natural gas and electricity has resulted in significant changes in the structure of energy markets and the way in which customers are served. One of the advantages of competition regarding power generation is that it has turned energy into a commodity which has resulted in greater customer choice and efficiency. As one example of midstream infrastructure development, the Alliance Pipeline project was described. This project was conceived as a means to enhance the value of western Canadian natural gas. The 1,900 mile pipeline will run from British Columbia, through Alberta into Chicago where it will interconnect with the North American gas transmission grid. The pipeline is an efficient means of transporting energy from Western Canada to North American markets, and Alliance, as a lowest cost transporter, will continue to put pressure on the traditional infrastructure to become even more competitive at the margin. As such, Alliance represents a paradigm shift in energy transportation, and serves as an excellent example of the type of investment opportunity that a deregulated market can provide. It was suggested that innovation and competition in a deregulated North American energy market will continue to increase. As electricity is deregulated, the energy market will respond more quickly to changes in supply and demand than it did in the past, in an effort to satisfy the needs of investors and customers. This will provide increased opportunities for restructuring and further competition

  9. PARADIGM OF EDUCATION FOR THE INFORMATION SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy M. Bogachkov

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Considering total crisis in education in Informational Age, we suggest that to overcome the crisis, it is necessary to promote pedagogical science up from "pre-paradigm stage” to the "paradigm stage". For this purpose it is necessary to separate the "educational science" from "education." “Educational paradigm” in such study will be the subject of the science. The key concepts for the "pedagogical paradigm" should be the concepts of "educational practice", "class of problems" and "educational text". We offer some axioms around these concepts.

  10. The Prerequisites for a Degrowth Paradigm Shift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch-Hansen, Hubert

    2018-01-01

    What would it take for a degrowth paradigm shift to take place? Drawing on contemporary critical political economy scholarship, this article identifies four prerequisites for socio-economic paradigm shifts: deep crisis, an alternative political project, a comprehensive coalition of social forces...... currently facing humanity. On the other hand, the prospects for a degrowth paradigm shift remain bleak: unlike political projects that became hegemonic in the past, degrowth has neither support from a comprehensive coalition of social forces nor any consent to its agenda among the broader population....

  11. Beyond desertification: New paradigms for dryland landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The dryland desertification paradigm focuses on losses of ecosystem services accompanying transitions from grasslands to systems dominated by bare ground or woody plants unpalatable for domestic livestock. However, recent studies reveal complex transitions across a range of environmental conditions ...

  12. The safety implications of emerging software paradigms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suski, G.J.; Persons, W.L.; Johnson, G.L.

    1994-10-01

    This paper addresses some of the emerging software paradigms that may be used in developing safety-critical software applications. Paradigms considered in this paper include knowledge-based systems, neural networks, genetic algorithms, and fuzzy systems. It presents one view of the software verification and validation activities that should be associated with each paradigm. The paper begins with a discussion of the historical evolution of software verification and validation. Next, a comparison is made between the verification and validation processes used for conventional and emerging software systems. Several verification and validation issues for the emerging paradigms are discussed and some specific research topics are identified. This work is relevant for monitoring and control at nuclear power plants

  13. Major Development Communication Paradigms and Practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    info

    major paradigms of development and communication practices on graphic ... mobilize, educate and persuade target audience to support human development ... facilitates the understanding of the themes, issues and facts of a campaign.

  14. Paradigms and pragmatism: approaches to medical statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, M J

    2000-01-01

    Until recently, the dominant philosophy of science was that due to Karl Popper, with its doctrine that the proper task of science was the formulation of hypotheses followed by attempts at refuting them. In spite of the close analogy with significance testing, these ideas do not fit well with the practice of medical statistics. The same can be said of the later philosophy of Thomas Kuhn, who maintains that science proceeds by way of revolutionary upheavals separated by periods of relatively pedestrian research which are governed by what Kuhn refers to as paradigms. Through there have been paradigm shifts in the history of statistics, a degree of continuity can also be discerned. A current paradigm shift is embodied in the spread of Bayesian ideas. It may be that a future paradigm will emphasise the pragmatic approach to statistics that is associated with the name of Daniel Schwartz.

  15. New Indivisible Planetary Science Paradigm: Consequence of Questioning Popular Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvin Herndon, J.

    2014-05-01

    Progress in science involves replacing less precise understanding with more precise understanding. In science and in science education one should always question popular ideas; ask "What's wrong with this picture?" Finding limitations, conflicts or circumstances that require special ad hoc consideration sometimes is the key to making important discoveries. For example, from thermodynamic considerations, I found that the 'standard model of solar system formation' leads to insufficiently massive planetary cores. That understanding led me to discover a new indivisible planetary science paradigm. Massive-core planets formed by condensing and raining-out from within giant gaseous protoplanets at high pressures and high temperatures, accumulating heterogeneously on the basis of volatility with liquid core-formation preceding mantle-formation; the interior states of oxidation resemble that of the Abee enstatite chondrite. Core-composition was established during condensation based upon the relative solubilities of elements, including uranium, in liquid iron in equilibrium with an atmosphere of solar composition at high pressures and high temperatures. Uranium settled to the central region and formed planetary nuclear fission reactors, producing heat and planetary magnetic fields. Earth's complete condensation included a ~300 Earth-mass gigantic gas/ice shell that compressed the rocky kernel to about 66% of Earth's present diameter. T-Tauri eruptions, associated with the thermonuclear ignition of the Sun, stripped the gases away from the Earth and the inner planets. The T-Tauri outbursts stripped a portion of Mercury's incompletely condensed protoplanet and transported it to the region between Mars and Jupiter where it fused with in-falling oxidized condensate from the outer regions of the Solar System, forming the parent matter of ordinary chondrite meteorites, the main-Belt asteroids, and veneer for the inner planets, especially Mars. With its massive gas/ice shell

  16. A Viable Paradigm for Quantum Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Jagdish

    2010-10-01

    After a brief discussion of the EPR paradox, Bell's inequality, and Aspect's experiment, arguments will be presented in favor of the following statements: ``As it stands, Quantum mechanics is incomplete. There is further hidden structure, which would involve variables. No influence can move faster than light. The wave function is one whole thing and any change in its structure instantly influences its outcomes. Bell's theorem has not been applied correctly. There is a better paradigm.'' The said paradigm will be presented.

  17. International business and the eclectic paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The eclectic paradigm has become the dominant theoretical basis in the study of international business, multinational corporations and internationalization since 1980. However, developments such as economic globalization and the subsequent growth of global and alliance capitalism have fundamentally......, finance, evolutionary economics, resource-based theory or strategic management? Can it be utilized to explain new developments in international business and economics? Do these require new ideas and concepts to be integrated within the eclectic paradigm? What are the new challenges to which international...

  18. Project management: a new service delivery paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. van der Walt

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In line with international trends in governance, the South African Government’s initial focus on the development of policy frameworks, structures and systems in order to give effect to the values and principles of the Constitution, shifted to the most critical issue, namely service delivery. The Government became increasingly aware that a significant expansion in the scope and quality of service provision was not possible with traditional delivery settings and approaches. There is growing evidence that there is a need for a significant departure from conventional approaches and that a leap into a new service delivery paradigm is necessary. Increasingly this new paradigm highlights the need to further develop the government’s project management skills and applications with a view to achieving improved delivery capability. In this article the focus will be placed on the changing service delivery paradigm – from an “old” traditional model through the transition to a “new” paradigm. This paradigm is shaped by international and national trends and events in government. The contribution and advantages of project management applications for effective governance are highlighted and the article concludes with an explanation of project management organisational arrangements necessary to support the new paradigm.

  19. The Underlying Social Dynamics of Paradigm Shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Sickert, Carlos; Cosmelli, Diego; Claro, Francisco; Fuentes, Miguel Angel

    2015-01-01

    We develop here a multi-agent model of the creation of knowledge (scientific progress or technological evolution) within a community of researchers devoted to such endeavors. In the proposed model, agents learn in a physical-technological landscape, and weight is attached to both individual search and social influence. We find that the combination of these two forces together with random experimentation can account for both i) marginal change, that is, periods of normal science or refinements on the performance of a given technology (and in which the community stays in the neighborhood of the current paradigm); and ii) radical change, which takes the form of scientific paradigm shifts (or discontinuities in the structure of performance of a technology) that is observed as a swift migration of the knowledge community towards the new and superior paradigm. The efficiency of the search process is heavily dependent on the weight that agents posit on social influence. The occurrence of a paradigm shift becomes more likely when each member of the community attaches a small but positive weight to the experience of his/her peers. For this parameter region, nevertheless, a conservative force is exerted by the representatives of the current paradigm. However, social influence is not strong enough to seriously hamper individual discovery, and can act so as to empower successful individual pioneers who have conquered the new and superior paradigm.

  20. The Underlying Social Dynamics of Paradigm Shifts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rodriguez-Sickert

    Full Text Available We develop here a multi-agent model of the creation of knowledge (scientific progress or technological evolution within a community of researchers devoted to such endeavors. In the proposed model, agents learn in a physical-technological landscape, and weight is attached to both individual search and social influence. We find that the combination of these two forces together with random experimentation can account for both i marginal change, that is, periods of normal science or refinements on the performance of a given technology (and in which the community stays in the neighborhood of the current paradigm; and ii radical change, which takes the form of scientific paradigm shifts (or discontinuities in the structure of performance of a technology that is observed as a swift migration of the knowledge community towards the new and superior paradigm. The efficiency of the search process is heavily dependent on the weight that agents posit on social influence. The occurrence of a paradigm shift becomes more likely when each member of the community attaches a small but positive weight to the experience of his/her peers. For this parameter region, nevertheless, a conservative force is exerted by the representatives of the current paradigm. However, social influence is not strong enough to seriously hamper individual discovery, and can act so as to empower successful individual pioneers who have conquered the new and superior paradigm.

  1. Active training paradigm for motor imagery BCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junhua; Zhang, Liqing

    2012-06-01

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) allows the use of brain activities for people to directly communicate with the external world or to control external devices without participation of any peripheral nerves and muscles. Motor imagery is one of the most popular modes in the research field of brain-computer interface. Although motor imagery BCI has some advantages compared with other modes of BCI, such as asynchronization, it is necessary to require training sessions before using it. The performance of trained BCI system depends on the quality of training samples or the subject engagement. In order to improve training effect and decrease training time, we proposed a new paradigm where subjects participated in training more actively than in the traditional paradigm. In the traditional paradigm, a cue (to indicate what kind of motor imagery should be imagined during the current trial) is given to the subject at the beginning of a trial or during a trial, and this cue is also used as a label for this trial. It is usually assumed that labels for trials are accurate in the traditional paradigm, although subjects may not have performed the required or correct kind of motor imagery, and trials may thus be mislabeled. And then those mislabeled trials give rise to interference during model training. In our proposed paradigm, the subject is required to reconfirm the label and can correct the label when necessary. This active training paradigm may generate better training samples with fewer inconsistent labels because it overcomes mistakes when subject's motor imagination does not match the given cues. The experiments confirm that our proposed paradigm achieves better performance; the improvement is significant according to statistical analysis.

  2. Cost-estimating relationships for space programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandell, Humboldt C., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Cost-estimating relationships (CERs) are defined and discussed as they relate to the estimation of theoretical costs for space programs. The paper primarily addresses CERs based on analogous relationships between physical and performance parameters to estimate future costs. Analytical estimation principles are reviewed examining the sources of errors in cost models, and the use of CERs is shown to be affected by organizational culture. Two paradigms for cost estimation are set forth: (1) the Rand paradigm for single-culture single-system methods; and (2) the Price paradigms that incorporate a set of cultural variables. For space programs that are potentially subject to even small cultural changes, the Price paradigms are argued to be more effective. The derivation and use of accurate CERs is important for developing effective cost models to analyze the potential of a given space program.

  3. Cancer research in need of a scientific revolution: Using `paradigm ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It has been proposed that science proceeds not only by accumulating data but also through paradigm shifts. Here, we propose to use the concept of `paradigm shift' as a method of investigation when dominant paradigms fail to achieve their promises. The first step in using the `paradigm shift' method in cancer research ...

  4. ENVIRONMENTALISM AND CLASSIC PARADIGMS OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. D. Miniaeva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines an environmentalism integration process into Three classical paradigms of international relations theory (Liberalism, Realism and Marxism into Three classical paradigms of international relations theory (Liberalism, Realism and Marxism. The main purpose of this study is to reveal the result of this integration. Methods used in this article include analysis and comparison of "ecological" paradigms on selected parameters (the nature of international relations, actors, targets, tools, processes. Results of research show that the beginning of the XXI century is distinguished by the development of new types of political concepts that explain interaction of elements in modern international relations in the area of environmental protection. The reason of these changes lies in the phenomena of environmentalism integration into Three paradigms of international relations. However, we cannot say that any of the examined paradigms accumulated all features of environmentalism without their modification. Better to say, it's rather similar to adaptation of environmental ideas. Therefore, to understand modern international relations processes, it is necessary to take into account their environmental element. Purchase on Elibrary.ru > Buy nowDOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2070-7568-2014-3-4

  5. Understanding Mixed Emotions: Paradigms and Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreibig, Sylvia D.; Gross, James J.

    2017-01-01

    In this review, we examine the paradigms and measures available for experimentally studying mixed emotions in the laboratory. For eliciting mixed emotions, we describe a mixed emotions film library that allows for the repeated elicitation of a specific homogeneous mixed emotional state and appropriately matched pure positive, pure negative, and neutral emotional states. For assessing mixed emotions, we consider subjective and objective measures that fall into univariate, bivariate, and multivariate measurement categories. As paradigms and measures for objectively studying mixed emotions are still in their early stages, we conclude by outlining future directions that focus on the reliability, temporal dynamics, and response coherence of mixed emotions paradigms and measures. This research will build a strong foundation for future studies and significantly advance our understanding of mixed emotions. PMID:28804752

  6. A New Paradigm for Chemical Engineering?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    evidence of this change comes from the jobs taken by graduating chemical engineering professionals in North America, Europe, and some of the Asian countries. In terms of where the graduating chemical engineers are going to work, a clear shift from the commodity chemical industry to the product oriented...... businesses has been observed. There is an increasing trend within the chemical industry to focus on products and the sustainable processes that can make them. Do these changes point to a paradigm shift in chemical engineering as a discipline? Historically, two previous paradigm shifts in chemical engineering...... corresponded to major shifts in chemical engineering as a discipline, which affected not only the education of chemical engineers, but also the development of chemical engineering as a discipline. Has the time come for a new paradigm shift that will prepare the current and future chemical engineering graduates...

  7. Display Sharing: An Alternative Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    The current Johnson Space Center (JSC) Mission Control Center (MCC) Video Transport System (VTS) provides flight controllers and management the ability to meld raw video from various sources with telemetry to improve situational awareness. However, maintaining a separate infrastructure for video delivery and integration of video content with data adds significant complexity and cost to the system. When considering alternative architectures for a VTS, the current system's ability to share specific computer displays in their entirety to other locations, such as large projector systems, flight control rooms, and back supporting rooms throughout the facilities and centers must be incorporated into any new architecture. Internet Protocol (IP)-based systems also support video delivery and integration. IP-based systems generally have an advantage in terms of cost and maintainability. Although IP-based systems are versatile, the task of sharing a computer display from one workstation to another can be time consuming for an end-user and inconvenient to administer at a system level. The objective of this paper is to present a prototype display sharing enterprise solution. Display sharing is a system which delivers image sharing across the LAN while simultaneously managing bandwidth, supporting encryption, enabling recovery and resynchronization following a loss of signal, and, minimizing latency. Additional critical elements will include image scaling support, multi -sharing, ease of initial integration and configuration, integration with desktop window managers, collaboration tools, host and recipient controls. This goal of this paper is to summarize the various elements of an IP-based display sharing system that can be used in today's control center environment.

  8. A New Control Paradigm for Stochastic Differential Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Matthias J. A.

    This study presents a novel comprehensive approach to the control of dynamic systems under uncertainty governed by stochastic differential equations (SDEs). Large Deviations (LD) techniques are employed to arrive at a control law for a large class of nonlinear systems minimizing sample path deviations. Thereby, a paradigm shift is suggested from point-in-time to sample path statistics on function spaces. A suitable formal control framework which leverages embedded Freidlin-Wentzell theory is proposed and described in detail. This includes the precise definition of the control objective and comprises an accurate discussion of the adaptation of the Freidlin-Wentzell theorem to the particular situation. The new control design is enabled by the transformation of an ill-posed control objective into a well-conditioned sequential optimization problem. A direct numerical solution process is presented using quadratic programming, but the emphasis is on the development of a closed-form expression reflecting the asymptotic deviation probability of a particular nominal path. This is identified as the key factor in the success of the new paradigm. An approach employing the second variation and the differential curvature of the effective action is suggested for small deviation channels leading to the Jacobi field of the rate function and the subsequently introduced Jacobi field performance measure. This closed-form solution is utilized in combination with the supplied parametrization of the objective space. For the first time, this allows for an LD based control design applicable to a large class of nonlinear systems. Thus, Minimum Large Deviations (MLD) control is effectively established in a comprehensive structured framework. The construction of the new paradigm is completed by an optimality proof for the Jacobi field performance measure, an interpretive discussion, and a suggestion for efficient implementation. The potential of the new approach is exhibited by its extension

  9. The cloud paradigm applied to e-Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilaplana, Jordi; Solsona, Francesc; Abella; Filgueira, Rosa; Rius, Josep

    2013-03-14

    Cloud computing is a new paradigm that is changing how enterprises, institutions and people understand, perceive and use current software systems. With this paradigm, the organizations have no need to maintain their own servers, nor host their own software. Instead, everything is moved to the cloud and provided on demand, saving energy, physical space and technical staff. Cloud-based system architectures provide many advantages in terms of scalability, maintainability and massive data processing. We present the design of an e-health cloud system, modelled by an M/M/m queue with QoS capabilities, i.e. maximum waiting time of requests. Detailed results for the model formed by a Jackson network of two M/M/m queues from the queueing theory perspective are presented. These results show a significant performance improvement when the number of servers increases. Platform scalability becomes a critical issue since we aim to provide the system with high Quality of Service (QoS). In this paper we define an architecture capable of adapting itself to different diseases and growing numbers of patients. This platform could be applied to the medical field to greatly enhance the results of those therapies that have an important psychological component, such as addictions and chronic diseases.

  10. The cloud paradigm applied to e-Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Cloud computing is a new paradigm that is changing how enterprises, institutions and people understand, perceive and use current software systems. With this paradigm, the organizations have no need to maintain their own servers, nor host their own software. Instead, everything is moved to the cloud and provided on demand, saving energy, physical space and technical staff. Cloud-based system architectures provide many advantages in terms of scalability, maintainability and massive data processing. Methods We present the design of an e-health cloud system, modelled by an M/M/m queue with QoS capabilities, i.e. maximum waiting time of requests. Results Detailed results for the model formed by a Jackson network of two M/M/m queues from the queueing theory perspective are presented. These results show a significant performance improvement when the number of servers increases. Conclusions Platform scalability becomes a critical issue since we aim to provide the system with high Quality of Service (QoS). In this paper we define an architecture capable of adapting itself to different diseases and growing numbers of patients. This platform could be applied to the medical field to greatly enhance the results of those therapies that have an important psychological component, such as addictions and chronic diseases. PMID:23496912

  11. Comparing the OpenMP, MPI, and Hybrid Programming Paradigm on an SMP Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Gabriele; Jin, Hao-Qiang; anMey, Dieter; Hatay, Ferhat F.

    2003-01-01

    Clusters of SMP (Symmetric Multi-Processors) nodes provide support for a wide range of parallel programming paradigms. The shared address space within each node is suitable for OpenMP parallelization. Message passing can be employed within and across the nodes of a cluster. Multiple levels of parallelism can be achieved by combining message passing and OpenMP parallelization. Which programming paradigm is the best will depend on the nature of the given problem, the hardware components of the cluster, the network, and the available software. In this study we compare the performance of different implementations of the same CFD benchmark application, using the same numerical algorithm but employing different programming paradigms.

  12. School on Cloud: Towards a Paradigm Shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsopoulos, Kostis C.; Kotsanis, Yannis C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the basic concept of the EU Network School on Cloud: Namely, that present conditions require a new teaching and learning paradigm based on the integrated dimension of education, when considering the use of cloud computing. In other words, it is suggested that there is a need for an integrated approach which is simultaneously…

  13. Den postmoderna stadens två paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tom

    2005-01-01

    the attention of politicians, planners and architects today is focused on the individual, not the collective. But the policy of the third way has no counterpart in an urbanism torn between two paradigms. Tom Nielsen paints the picture of what has to urban development since the welfare state...

  14. Redesigning Higher Education: Embracing a New Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, William R.; Watson, Sunnie Lee

    2014-01-01

    Higher education is under enormous pressure to transform itself and embrace a new paradigm. Operating under an outdated model that no longer aligns with the realities of modern society, institutions of higher education are recognizing the need to drastically remake themselves or possibly cease to exist. This article explores the current landscape…

  15. A postfoundationalist research paradigm of practical theology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Kyu Park

    2010-10-01

    This article examines and argues for postfoundationalism – transversal reason, interdisciplinarity and interpreted experience – as a viable theological option against rigid foundationalism and relativistic nonfoundationalism. Also discussed are the process and the interdisciplinary nature of practical theology. It is suggested that narrative research and social constructionism should be part of the research paradigm of postfoundational practical theology.

  16. New Paradigms for Computer Aids to Invention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langston, M. Diane

    Many people are interested in computer aids to rhetorical invention and want to know how to evaluate an invention aid, what the criteria are for a good one, and how to assess the trade-offs involved in buying one product or another. The frame of reference for this evaluation is an "old paradigm," which treats the computer as if it were…

  17. Diet and Cancer: The Fourth Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter C. Willett, MD, DrPH, an international expert in diet and nutrition, with posts as a Professor of Epidemiology and Nutrition and Chairman of the Department of Nutrition at Harvard School of Public Health and as Professor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School, presented "Diet and Cancer: The Fourth Paradigm".

  18. Challenging paradigms in estuarine ecology and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, M.; Whitfield, A. K.

    2011-10-01

    For many years, estuarine science has been the 'poor relation' in aquatic research - freshwater scientists ignored estuaries as they tended to get confused by salt and tides, and marine scientists were more preoccupied by large open systems. Estuaries were merely regarded by each group as either river mouths or sea inlets respectively. For the past four decades, however, estuaries (and other transitional waters) have been regarded as being ecosystems in their own right. Although often not termed as such, this has led to paradigms being generated to summarise estuarine structure and functioning and which relate to both the natural science and management of these systems. This paper defines, details and affirms these paradigms that can be grouped into those covering firstly the science (definitions, scales, linkages, productivity, tolerances and variability) and secondly the management (pressures, valuation, health and services) of estuaries. The more 'science' orientated paradigms incorporate the development and types of ecotones, the nature of stressed and variable systems (with specific reference to resilience and redundancy), the relationship between generalists and specialists produced by environmental tolerance, the relevance of scale in relation to functioning and connectivity, the sources of production and degree of productivity, the biodiversity-ecosystem functioning and the stress-subsidy debates. The more 'management' targeted paradigms include the development and effects of exogenic unmanaged pressures and endogenic managed pressures, the perception of health and the ability to manage estuaries (related to internal and external influences), and the influence of all of these on the production of ecosystem services and societal benefits.

  19. THE NEW PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION PARADIGM DIRECTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    CHERVYAKOVA OLHA VOLODYMYRIVNA

    2017-01-01

    This article presents aspects of public administration paradigm of using disciplinary matrix, a public management model based on a feedback mechanism in the subject-subject interaction, which is the basis of theoretical and methodological establishment in public administration science (Public administration) in Ukraine.

  20. Trace elements as paradigms of developmental neurotoxicants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Herz, Katherine T

    2015-01-01

    Trace elements have contributed unique insights into developmental neurotoxicity and serve as paradigms for such adverse effects. Many trace elements are retained in the body for long periods and can be easily measured to assess exposure by inexpensive analytical methods that became available...

  1. 06472 Abstracts Collection - XQuery Implementation Paradigms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boncz, Peter A.; Grust, Torsten; Siméon, Jerome; Boncz, P.A.; Grust, T.; Siméon, J.; van Keulen, Maurice

    From 19.11.2006 to 22.11.2006, the Dagstuhl Seminar 06472 ``XQuery Implementation Paradigms'' was held in the International Conference and Research Center (IBFI), Schloss Dagstuhl. During the seminar, several participants presented their current research, and ongoing work and open problems were

  2. Answer Set Programming and Other Computing Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yunsong

    2013-01-01

    Answer Set Programming (ASP) is one of the most prominent and successful knowledge representation paradigms. The success of ASP is due to its expressive non-monotonic modeling language and its efficient computational methods originating from building propositional satisfiability solvers. The wide adoption of ASP has motivated several extensions to…

  3. Toward an Ecological Paradigm in Adventure Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beringer, Almut

    2004-01-01

    Many forms of adventure therapy, in particular wilderness therapy, rely on challenges in the outdoors to achieve objectives of client change. While nature is drawn on as a medium for therapy and healing, some adventure therapists give nature little if any mention when it comes to explaining therapeutic success. The dominant paradigm in psychology…

  4. ACCOUNTING PARADIGMS WHICH FAVOR HISTORICAL COST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Gabriel CRISTEA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Henning Kirkegaard shows that the evolution of accounting is to shift from one paradigm to another . Business continuity perspective should guide the company into the future , without confine it exclusively in the past. Accounting in its classical form , however, can not be dissociated from the historical cost evaluation .

  5. On the solitary wave paradigm for tsunamis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Per A.; Fuhrman, David R.; Schäffer, Hemming Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Since the 1970s, solitary waves have commonly been used to model tsunamis especially in experimental and mathematical studies. Unfortunately, the link to geophysical scales is not well established, and in this work we question the geophysical relevance of this paradigm. In part 1, we simulate...

  6. Evolving conservation paradigms for the Anthropocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariel E. Lugo

    2014-01-01

    The Anthropocene will have fundamental effects on the species composition, function, and structure of the ecosystems of the world. Land management agencies such as the USDA Forest Service will need to adapt their policies and conservation activities to avoid engaging in continuous conflict with natural processes and unfamiliar biotic assemblages. Conservation paradigms...

  7. A new paradigm for doing Reformed dogmatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. J. Spykman

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available When discussing Reformational Theology: A New Paradigm for Doing Dogmatics some people may call it my opus magnum. Perhaps time 'will tell. The book has only recently - early 1992 - entered the marketplace of theological ideas. How critic readers and reviewers respond will go a long way toward settling the case.

  8. Moral Developmental Science between Changing Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Monika

    2012-01-01

    This review encompasses a time-span of about 50 years of research on morality and moral development. It discusses Kohlberg's (1984) work as a milestone that constituted the cognitive developmental viewpoint of morality and that dominated research for about three decades. In this paradigm the role of reasoning and deliberation was emphasized as the…

  9. Paradigms of Interaction Between Culture and Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Bahrani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Political thought as a normative knowledge seeks a good society and the means for its realization. Accordingly, every intellectual paradigm introduces us a social and individual situation which is the best. This model, itself requires a dramatic change in the culture and flourishes it. In another words, there is a necessary relationship between the elements of political thought and the culture in every society. This relationship is twofold, so it is impossible to indicate whether which aspect is the first. So every paradigm feeds some special elements into the current culture of society, while there is it feedback. It is important that political thought goes in search of condition for cultural flourishing which is according whit the criteria of good society. This paper focuses on most important paradigm in political thought history and shows the trend in which indicates the relationships between political thought and culture. This trend looks at human beings as "citizen", then "the individual"; and in the modem era, paradigms of "critical modem", "postmodern", and "communitarian" has a key role in prospering the realm of culture.

  10. Fourth Generation War: Paradigm for Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    PARADIGM FOR CHANGE by Ghanshyam Singh Katoch June 2005 Thesis Advisor : Kalev Sepp Second Reader...Approved by: Kalev Sepp Thesis Advisor Douglas Borer Second Reader Gordon McCormick Chairman, Department of Defense...combination of all the resources of the government, not just the army. d. Economy of Effort A Robo -Soldier is a small, tracked, electrically powered vehicle

  11. Operationalizing Social Justice Counseling: Paradigm to Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Judith A.

    2011-01-01

    Social justice counseling, like all humanistic models, recognizes the dignity of each human being, affirms the right of all people to choose and work toward their own goals, and asserts the importance of service to community. The social justice paradigm brings a special emphasis on the role of the environment. (Contains 1 figure and 1 table.)

  12. Hysteresis, Discrete Memory, and Nonlinear Wave Propagation in Rock: A New Paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guyer, R.A.; McCall, K.R.; Boitnott, G.N.

    1995-01-01

    The structural elements in a rock are characterized by their density in Preisach-Mayergoyz space (PM space). This density is found for a Berea sandstone from stress-strain data and used to study the response of the sandstone to elaborate pressure protocols. Hysteresis with discrete memory, in agreement with experiment, is found. The relationship between strain, quasistatic modulus, and dynamic modulus is established. Nonlinear wave propagation, the production of copious harmonics, and nonlinear attenuation are demonstrated. PM space is shown to be the central construct in a new paradigm for the description of the elastic behavior of consolidated materials

  13. Public Project Portfolio Optimization under a Participatory Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Fernandez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new democracy paradigm is emerging through participatory budgeting exercises, which can be defined as a public space in which the government and the society agree on how to adapt the priorities of the citizenship to the public policy agenda. Although these priorities have been identified and they are likely to be reflected in a ranking of public policy actions, there is still a challenge of solving a portfolio problem of public projects that should implement the agreed agenda. This work proposes two procedures for optimizing the portfolio of public actions with the information stemming from the citizen participatory exercise. The selection of the method depends on the information about preferences collected from the participatory group. When the information is sufficient, the method behaves as an instrument of legitimate democracy. The proposal performs very well in solving two real-size examples.

  14. A New Globalization Paradigm: World Unity or Alternatives for Development?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Shvydanenko

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the conceptual foundations of the modern global economic system of development. It reflects the cyclical nature of changes to and the details of global integration processes. The creation of a global economy from a multi-paradigmatic angle is briefly outlined, taking into account the modern paradigms of globalization and the predominance of alternatives to the future development of a global economic space. The article investigates the development of a new type of world economy, a multi-system with a proven role for linkages and a more consolidated world economy. The article reveals the initial conditions for and main qualitative changes related to the integrated development of a complex network of interdependent national societies and macro-regional geo-economic structures. The article also reveals changes in the configuration of those factors that provide competitiveness for these societies and geo-economic formations.

  15. The Challenges of Neural Mind-reading Paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar eVilarroya

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Neural mind-reading studies, based on multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA methods, are providing exciting new studies. Some of the results obtained with these paradigms have raised high expectations, such as the possibility of creating brain reading devices. However, such hopes are based on the assumptions that: a the BOLD signal is a marker of neural activity; b the BOLD pattern identified by a MVPA is a neurally sound pattern; c the MVPA’s feature space is a good mapping of the neural representation of a stimulus, and d the pattern identified by a MVPA corresponds to a representation. I examine here the challenges that still have to be met before fully accepting such assumptions.

  16. The challenges of neural mind-reading paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilarroya, Oscar

    2013-01-01

    Neural mind-reading studies, based on multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) methods, are providing exciting new studies. Some of the results obtained with these paradigms have raised high expectations, such as the possibility of creating brain reading devices. However, such hopes are based on the assumptions that: (a) the BOLD signal is a marker of neural activity; (b) the BOLD pattern identified by a MVPA is a neurally sound pattern; (c) the MVPA's feature space is a good mapping of the neural representation of a stimulus, and (d) the pattern identified by a MVPA corresponds to a representation. I examine here the challenges that still have to be met before fully accepting such assumptions.

  17. The Impact of The Fractal Paradigm on Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cola, L.

    2001-12-01

    Being itself somewhat fractal, Benoit Mandelbrot's magnum opus THE FRACTAL GEOMETRY OF NATURE may be deconstructed in many ways, including geometrically, systematically, and epistemologically. Viewed as a work of geography it may be used to organize the major topics of interest to scientists preoccupied with the understanding of real-world space in astronomy, geology, meteorology, hydrology, and biology. We shall use it to highlight such recent geographic accomplishments as automated feature detection, understanding urban growth, and modeling the spread of disease in space and time. However, several key challenges remain unsolved, among them: 1. It is still not possible to move continuously from one map scale to another so that objects change their dimension smoothly. I.e. as a viewer zooms in on a map the zero-dimensional location of a city should gradually become a 2-dimensional polygon, then a network of 1-dimensional streets, then 3-dimensional buildings, etc. 2. Spatial autocorrelation continues to be regarded more as an econometric challenge than as a problem of scaling. Similarities of values among closely-spaced observation is not so much a problem to be overcome as a source of information about spatial structure. 3. Although the fractal paradigm is a powerful model for data analysis, its ideas and techniques need to be brought to bear on the problems of understanding such hierarchies as ecosystems (the flow networks of energy and matter), taxonomies (biological classification), and knowledge (hierarchies of bureaucratic information, networks of linked data, etc).

  18. Changing the Dominant Paradigm in Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Lourdes Mollo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the discussion proposed by the World Academy of Art & Science (WAAS about the need to build a new paradigm to confront the challenges of the global society and to move across to a New Society discussing specific problems related to economic globalization and proposing changes. The ways in which economic orthodoxy and heterodoxy analyze the role of the State and the question of sustainability of development and the problems of environmental sustainability depend on their different views or theoretical arguments about the role of the market. The article contrasts the mainstream economics arguments to support the free market context of globalization with Post-Keynesian and Marxist’s skeptical or critical views. Finally, it proposes some strategies to face the critical aspects analyzed making suggestions to move to another dominant economic paradigm.

  19. [Assistance to the climacteric woman: new paradigms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzi, Dino Roberto Soares De; Catan, Lenita Binelli; Moreira, Karen; Artico, Graziela Rech

    2009-01-01

    Population aging is a demographic reality for Brazil. Consequently, in the next years it is expected a progressive increase in seeking health care services in the country by women with complaints related to climacterium. Parallel to it, assistance at this part of woman's life has been going through a paradigm shift which has imposed to health professionals a change of attitude in relation to this stage of woman's life. Today it is acknowledged that the climacterium is influenced by biological, psychosocial and cultural factors, whose knowledge is fundamental for planning a more qualified and humanized care. This article proposes a reflection on the paradigm shifts in assistance at climacterium, highlighting important aspects as multidisciplinarity and interdisciplinarity, so as to serve better this portion of population, and provide it with more integrated and individualized care, bringing together knowledge and sensitivity, and always aiming at a better quality of life.

  20. Inhabiting compassion: A pastoral theological paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil C. Zylla

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Inspired by the vision of care in Vincent van Gogh’s depiction of the parable of the Good Samaritan, this article offers a paradigm for inhabiting compassion. Compassion is understood in this article as a moral emotion that is also a pathocentric virtue. This definition creates a dynamic view of compassion as a desire to alleviate the suffering of others, the capacity to act on behalf of others and a commitment to sustain engagement with the suffering other. To weave this vision of compassion as a habitus rather than a theoretical construct, the article develops three phases of compassion: seeing, companioning and sighing. This framework deepens and augments a pastoral theological paradigm of compassion with the aim of inculcating an inhabited compassion in caregivers and the communities in which they participate.

  1. BMS invariance and the membrane paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penna, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    The Bondi-van der Burg-Metzner-Sachs (BMS) group is the asymptotic symmetry group of asymptotically flat spacetime. It is infinite dimensional and entails an infinite number of conservation laws. According to the black hole membrane paradigm, null infinity (in asymptotically flat spacetime) and black hole event horizons behave like fluid membranes. The fluid dynamics of the membrane is governed by an infinite set of symmetries and conservation laws. Our main result is to point out that the infinite set of symmetries and conserved charges of the BMS group and the membrane paradigm are the same. This relationship has several consequences. First, it sheds light on the physical interpretation of BMS conservation laws. Second, it generalizes the BMS conservation laws to arbitrary subregions of arbitrary null surfaces. Third, it clarifies the identification of the superrotation subgroup of the BMS group. We briefly comment on the black hole information problem.

  2. Radiation a new paradigm... Societal impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutcliffe, Jill

    2010-01-01

    Latency is associated with the time lag it takes for the health effects resulting from exposure to ionising radiation to show up. However, the term latency can also be applied to the time it takes for a policy to be implemented. This length of time has been suggested as broadly 40-year process. Given that radioactivity was identified and named in 1896, three paradigms are identified and examined from 1896 to 2016 and the criteria for a 4th paradigm suggested for the period 2017-2056. The review examines the changes that have taken place in scientific understanding and in public trust, a few key developments and the associated establishment of the related organisational infrastructure designed to collate and assess the evidence.

  3. Paradigms of modern radio-biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grodzins'kij, D.M.

    2005-01-01

    The basic paradigms of modern radio-biology are considered as models of pictures of essence of radio-biology problems and methods of their decision. It is marked on absolute heuristics of these ascending conceptual assertions and their assistance to subsequent development of experimental science. That has the concrete display in the decision of actual tasks of protection of people from action of ionizing radiation

  4. The Knowledge Society: A Sustainability Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naim Hamdija Afgan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper defines the knowledge society as a human structured organisation based on contemporary developed knowledge and representing new quality of life support systems. It implies the need for a full understanding of distribution of knowledge, access to information and the capability to transfer information into a knowledge. The understanding of knowledge is the central challenge when defining a knowledge society. From our present perception of knowledge society, it is of interest to emphasize the role of the knowledge society in future development of human society. The life support systems are essential pillars of human society development. In this respect knowledge society represents a new paradigm for future development and it is strongly correlated to sustainable development. For this reason the sustainability paradigm of knowledge society is a potential frame for human society development leading to social cohesion, economic competitiveness and stability, use of resources and economic development, safeguarding biodiversity and the ecosystem.In order to verify the mutual relation between knowledge society and sustainability, we have to introduce the difference between these two terms. The knowledge society is based on the agglomeration of eco-knowledge, env-knowledge and soc-knowledge, it may be evaluated as the complex knowledge of quality of life support systems. We have to introduce metrics which will allow us to present knowledge as the paradigm of the number of indicators for verifying progress made.Sustainability metrics are designed to consolidate measures of economic, environmental and social performance of any system. It can be understood as a pattern for evaluation of the available knowledge about systems and their performance. In particular the decision-making process for the selection of the system under consideration must be based on the available knowledge. The link between knowledge and sustainability makes it possible for

  5. Agricultural Economics and Qualitative Research: Incompatible Paradigms?

    OpenAIRE

    Vera Bitsch

    2000-01-01

    The disciplinary paradigm of agricultural economics emphasizes rational behavior in a world constrained by scarce resources. The research practice focuses on the quantitative modeling of optimization behavior. These models, though, only offer limited support to practitioners in solving real-world problems. Qualitative research approaches contribute to this task, particularly with research in developing countries. Participatory action research was introduced in the seventies; case studies have...

  6. Doing smooth pursuit paradigms in Windows 7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilms, Inge Linda

    predict strengths or deficits in perception and attention. However, smooth pursuit movements have been difficult to study and very little normative data is available for smooth pursuit performance in children and adults. This poster describes the challenges in setting up a smooth pursuit paradigm...... in Windows 7 with live capturing of eye movements using a Tobii TX300 eye tracker. In particular, the poster describes the challenges and limitations created by the hardware and the software...

  7. What Do Ecological Paradigms Offer to Conservation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ale, S.B.; Howe, H.F.; Ale, S.B.; Howe, H.F.

    2010-01-01

    Ecological theory provides applications to biodiversity management but often falls short of expectations. One possibility is that heuristic theories of a young science are too immature. Logistic growth predicts a carrying capacity, but fisheries managed with the Lotka-Volterra paradigm continue to collapse. A second issue is that general predictions may not be useful. The theory of island biogeography predicts species richness but does not predict community composition. A third possibility is that the theory itself may not have much to do with nature, or that empirical parameterization is too difficult to know. The meta population paradigm is relevant to conservation, but meta populations might not be common in nature. For instance, empirical parameterization within the meta population paradigm is usually infeasible. A challenge is to determine why ecology fails to match needs of managers sometimes but helps at other. Managers may expect too much of paradigmatic blueprints, while ecologists believe them too much. Those who implement biodiversity conservation plans need simple, pragmatic guidelines based on science. Is this possible. What is possible An eclectic review of theory and practice demonstrate the power and weaknesses of the ideas that guide conservation and attempt to identify reasons for prevailing disappointment.

  8. Toward a Metatheoretical Integration of Developmental Paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark W. Antley

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows how a partial consilience might be achieved in the field of human development by means of principles from general systems theory. The author concurs with Sameroff (1989 that it is possible to interpret the mechanistic, organisimic, and contextualist paradigms/worldviews (Goldhaber, 2000; Pepper, 1970 in terms of general systems theory. The author selects a major developmentalist from each paradigm and interprets that scholar’s work in terms of systems principles. The following developmentalists were selected: Arnold Sameroff (contextualism, Erik Erickson (organicism, and Albert Bandura (mechanism. The systems principles employed are wholeness and order, self-stabilization, self-reorganization, hierarchical interaction, and dialectical contradiction (Sameroff, 1989. The author addresses the conflicting presuppositions of the major paradigms in order to provide for their theoretical subsuming under systems theory. Finally, the author notes areas of inconsistency that will need to be resolved in the future and calls for further scholarship to translate developmental theory in terms of general systems theory for the benefit of students, scholars, consultants and other practitioners familiar with systems theory.

  9. Marketing communications: Qualitative and quantitative paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzelac Nikola

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on key issues in relation to the choice of basic language of communication of marketing as a practical and academic field. Principally, marketing managers prefer descriptive way of expression, but they should use the advantages of language of numbers much more. By doing so, they will advance decision-making process - and the communication with finance and top management. In this regard, models offered by academic community could be helpful. This especially pertains to those positive or normative verbal approaches and models in which mathematics and statistical solutions have been embedded, as well as to those which emphasize financial criteria in decision-making. Concerning the process of creation and verification of scientific knowledge, the choice between languages of words and numbers is the part of much wider dimension, because it is inseparable from the decision on basic research orientation. Quantitative paradigm is more appropriate for hypotheses testing, while qualitative paradigm gives greater contribution in their generation. Competition factor could become the key driver of changes by which existing "parallel worlds" of main paradigms would be integrating, for the sake of disciplinary knowledge advancement.

  10. Paradigm Adherence and Personality Correlates across Mental Health Professions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Laura Anne

    2012-01-01

    Paradigm adherence has been developed as a meta-theoretical approach to organize and to classify the multitude of different theories of counseling and psychotherapy. Four paradigms have been identified in the literature: The Organic-Medical, The Psychological, The Systemic-Relational, and the Social Constructivist paradigms. Only one other study…

  11. Linking aims, paradigm and method in nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Catherine; Hunter, Andrew; Meskell, Pauline

    2012-01-01

    To explore the use of paradigms as ontological and philosophical guides for conducting PhD research. A paradigm can help to bridge the aims of a study and the methods to achieve them. However, choosing a paradigm can be challenging for doctoral researchers: there can be ambiguity about which paradigm is suitable for a particular research question and there is a lack of guidance on how to shape the research process for a chosen paradigm. The authors discuss three paradigms used in PhD nursing research: post-positivism, interpretivism and pragmatism. They compare each paradigm in relation to its ontology, epistemology and methodology, and present three examples of PhD nursing research studies to illustrate how research can be conducted using these paradigms in the context of the research aims and methods. The commonalities and differences between the paradigms and their uses are highlighted. Creativity and flexibility are important when deciding on a paradigm. However, consistency and transparency are also needed to ensure the quality and rigour necessary for conducting nursing research. When choosing a suitable paradigm, the researcher should ensure that the ontology, epistemology and methodology of the paradigm are manifest in the methods and research strategies employed.

  12. The Imperative Paradigm of Korowai, a language of West Papua

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Lourens; Aikhenvald, Alexandra; Dixon, R.M.W

    2017-01-01

    The imperative paradigm of Korowai, a Papuan language of West Papua, is the richest independent verb paradigm of Korowai: it makes more tense, aspect, mood, person and number distinctions than all other verb paradigms. This formal richness is matched by functional richness: imperatives are used in a

  13. 2001, the ATLAS Cryostat Odyssey

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    After a journey of several thousand kilometres, over sea and land, by canal and highway, the cryogenics barrel of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter finally arrived at CERN last week. Installed in Hall 180, the cryogenics barrel of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter will be fitted out to take the central superconducting solenoid and the electromagnetic calorimeter. On Monday 2 July, different French police units and EDF officials were once again keeping careful watch around the hairpin bends of the road twisting down from the Col de la Faucille: a special load weighing 100 tonnes, 7 metres high, 5.8 metres wide and 7.2 metres long was being brought down into the Pays de Gex to the Meyrin site of CERN. This time the destination was the ATLAS experiment. A huge blue tarpaulin cover concealed the cryogenics barrel of the experiment's liquid argon electromagnetic calorimeter. The cryostat consists of a vacuum chamber, a cylinder that is 5.5 metres in diameter, 7 metres long, and a concentric cold chamber ...

  14. The White Adolescent's Drug Odyssey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipton, Douglas S.; Marel, Rozanne

    1980-01-01

    Presents a "typical" case history of a White middle-class teenager who becomes involved with marihuana and subsequently begins to abuse other drugs. Sociological findings from other research are interspersed in the anecdotal account. (GC)

  15. Paradigm Shift in Language Teaching and Language Teacher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Ferreira do Vale Borges

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I intend to conduct a short literature review and discussion about paradigm shift in language teaching and language teacher education from Cartesian to the complexity paradigm. For that, I use the Kuhnian notion of scientific revolution to present a short compilation of works related to paradigm shift in different sciences, including psychology, linguistics and, more emphatically, applied linguistics. The main proposal is to show the evolutions of paradigm shift in language and social sciences and its impact on the emergence of the complexity paradigm in language teaching and language teacher education fields.

  16. Disruptive Space Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Benson, Jim

    2004-01-01

    In 1997 "The Innovator’s Dilemma" by Clayton M. Christensen became a popular book in the small satellite and launch vehicle communities. But like the weather, every one talks about “Disruptive Technology” but few do anything about it. In the ‘70s and ‘80s, people were looking for “Paradigm Shifts,” and since the resurrection of Donald Rumsfeld, a recent watchword has been “Transformational Technology.” But today’s buzzword is now “Responsive Space Systems.”

  17. Towards new paradigms for the treatment of hypobaric decompression sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dart, T S; Butler, W

    1998-04-01

    Altitude induced (hypobaric) decompression sickness (DCS) has long been treated with ground level oxygen and U.S. Navy Treatment Tables 5 and 6. These treatment tables originate from surface excursion diving and, when implemented, require significant resource allocation. Although they are effective treatment regimens, these tables were not developed for treating hypobaric DCS which has an etiology similar to saturation diving DCS. In this review, different treatment options for hypobaric DCS are presented. These options include more aggressive use of ground level oxygen and treatment tables using a maximum pressure of 2 atmospheres (ATA). Specific attention is given to USAF Table VIII, an experimental hypobaric DCS treatment-table, and space suit overpressurization treatment. This paradigm shift for DCS treatment is based on a projected increase in hypobaric DCS treatment from exposure to low pressure during several operational conditions: cruise flight in the next generation aircraft (e.g., F-22); high altitude, unpressurized flight by special operations forces; and the extraordinary amount of extravehicular activity (EVA) required to construct the international space station. Anticipating the need to treat DCS encountered during these and other activities, it is proposed that 2 ATA or less hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment conjoined with new collapsible chamber technology can be used to address these issues in a safe and cost effective fashion.

  18. Miniaturized high performance sensors for space plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, D.T.

    1996-01-01

    Operating under ever more constrained budgets, NASA has turned to a new paradigm for instrumentation and mission development in which smaller, faster, better, cheaper is of primary consideration for future space plasma investigations. The author presents several examples showing the influence of this new paradigm on sensor development and discuss certain implications for the scientific return from resource constrained sensors. The author also discusses one way to improve space plasma sensor performance which is to search out new technologies, measurement techniques and instrument analogs from related fields including among others, laboratory plasma physics

  19. SCHOOL ECONOMY IN THE INVENTING EDUCATION PARADIGM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy Alexandrovich Lepeshev

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Requirements applied to specialists for working in the sixth wave of innovation, i.e. Industry 4.0, determines the necessity of education system improvement concerning training solution and, as a result, creation of inventive ideas. Today in our country this process is stimulated by various competitions, including financing for the implementation of results. In training programs knowledge approach still prevails. The corresponding methods, along with stimulation, are included into educational programs in leading foreign educational institutions, mostly at universities. If in previous decades mostly divergent methods were studied (morphological analysis, the focal objects method, synectics, etc., then now the leading place is taken by theory of inventive problem solving – TRIZ created in the former USSR by G.S. Altshuller in connection with the increasing leading corporations requirement for specialists in TRIZ. This fact gives Russia essential competitive advantages in the innovative way of development. For effective use of this advantage it is important to form the TRIZ-based innovative thinking beginning from school days. For this purpose authors developed new methods in TRIZ-pedagogics, uniting metasubject results (in higher education institutions – competences into the system of innovative thinking. As a result, both educational and economic effects are achieved: the intellectual property created in educational process. For schools it is the possibility of significant improvement of financing causing importance of new mechanisms of intellectual property fixation, protection and implementation. Recommendations about creation of such system are provided in the article. Purpose Defining the opportunities and ways of improving economic effectiveness of educational activities in the paradigm of inventive education. Tasks: – analysis of school education institutions experience in implementation of approaches preceding the inventing education

  20. Urgency of changing paradigms in radiation hygiene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudritskij, Yu.K.; Karpov, V.I.; Georgievskij, A.B.

    1991-01-01

    A problem has been raised on the necessity to substitute the linear-nonthreshold hypothesis as a paradigm of radiation hygiene for the hypothesis of the biological effectiveness of ionizing irradiations. A comparison of the methodological substantiation for both hypotheses and a conception of 'acceptable risk' has been carried out. It is suggested that the possibility of theoretical substantiation of safety standards for the radiational factor on the basis of adatational hypothesis be acknowledged instead of the linear - nonthreshold conception which has lost its historic significance

  1. Causal hydrodynamics and the membrane paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natsuume, Makoto

    2008-01-01

    We obtain the relaxation time for the shear viscous stress for various geometries using the 'membrane paradigm' formula proposed recently. We consider the generic Schwarzschild-anti-de Sitter black holes (SAdS), the generic Dp-brane, the Klebanov-Tseytlin (KT) geometry, and the N=2* theory. The formula is the 'shear mode' result and is not fully trustable, but it may be helpful to learn some generic behaviors about the relaxation time. For example, a simple formula summarizes all known results for SAdS, and a single expression summarizes the results for the Dp-brane and the KT geometry.

  2. In search of a new paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lars K.

    2005-01-01

    In this review of research priorities, presented for the European Commission, food allergy is established as a disease with a considerable impact on modern society. Research paradigms have changed from establishing basic symptomatology and diagnostic methods over allergen characterization to a risk...... mechanisms in the cross-field between immunology and gastroenterology. Research priorities should include the molecular basis of cross-reactivity, the digestion and maintenance of antigenicity, the genetics of food allergy, and the immune response to food antigens and effects on the gastrointestinal immune...

  3. Three paradigms for the analysis of corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Vannucci

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades a growing awareness emerged of the relevance of corruption as an hidden factor which may negatively affect political and economic decision-making processes. In spite of a lively scientific debate there is no general consensus on a commonly accepted definition of what corruption is.The A. distinguishes three main paradigms, focusing on different (though not irreconcilable variables.The first is the economic paradigm, which usually takes the principal-agent model of corruption as its founding pillar. In this paradigm corruption is considered the outcome of rational individual choices, and its spread within a certain organization is influenced by the factors defining the structure of expected costs and rewards.A second approach – the cultural paradigm – looks at the differences in cultural traditions, social norms and interiorized values which shape individuals’ moral preferences and consideration of his social and institutional role. These are a leading forces that can push a corrupt public or private agent (not to violate legal norms.A third neo-institutional approach considers also mechanisms which allow the internal regulation of social interactions within corrupt networks, and their effects on individuals’ beliefs and preferences. Though the corrupt agreements cannot be enforced with legal sanctions, several informal, non-written rules, contractual provisos and conventions may regulate the corrupt exchange between agent and corruptor.The A. underlines that corruption is the outcome of a multitude of individual and collective choices which change public opinion towards corruption and its diffusion throughout the state, markets and civil society. There is no univocal recipe to deal with anti-bribery measures, since corruption is a complex and multifaceted phenomenon.Reforms aimed at dismantling systemic corruption have to be finely tuned against its hidden governance structures, i.e. its internal regulation of

  4. Chua's circuit a paradigm for chaos

    CERN Document Server

    1993-01-01

    For uninitiated researchers, engineers, and scientists interested in a quick entry into the subject of chaos, this book offers a timely collection of 55 carefully selected papers covering almost every aspect of this subject. Because Chua's circuit is endowed with virtually every bifurcation phenomena reported in the extensive literature on chaos, and because it is the only chaotic system which can be easily built by a novice, simulated in a personal computer, and tractable mathematically, it has become a paradigm for chaos, and a vehicle for illustrating this ubiquitous phenomenon. Its supreme

  5. La odisea de la modernización en el Ecuador: dos momentos de su desarrollo Ecuador's modernization odyssey: Two moments of its development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Paladines

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A lo largo de los siglos, el proceso de modernización del Ecuador ha estado bajo la mira de políticos, gobernantes, maestros, pensadores e historiadores. El primer paso de esta odisea se dio a mediados del S. XVIII y se presentó como ruptura y enfrentamiento con el pasado, en diversas áreas y tuvo como trasfondos la muerte del sistema colonial y el anuncio de nuevos referentes, fuerzas, actores y formas de organizar la realidad. De dimensiones de cambio tan colosales como la 'ilustrada' terminó por constituirse la propuesta implantada por la Revolución liberal, a inicios del siglo XX. Este proyecto por construir un mundo moderno requirió desplegar actividades al menos en cinco frentes: el de integración o consolidación de un estado nacional; el de creación de un estado secular o laico; el de constitu­ción de un estado liberal; el de edificación de una sociedad y una educación laica y el de fortalecimiento de un estado burgués. Hoy como en otras ocasiones diversas áreas se presentan en aguda crisis y necesitadas de profundas transformaciones. Es posible que la modernización no sea más que una modernización de fachada, una 'modernización tradicionalista'. ¿Cuáles son los problemas que tuvieron los procesos de modernización? ¿Cuáles son los factores que permitirían superar las limitaciones de siempre? Una vez más, ¿el nuevo proceso de modernización excluirá de sus beneficios a muchos y alcanzará para muy pocos?Abstract Along the centuries the modernization process of Ecuador has been under scrutiny by politicians, rulers, teachers, intellectuals, and historians. The first step of this odyssey took place about the middle of the XVIII century under the shape of rupture and confrontation with the past in several areas, and with the background of a dying colonial system and the announcement of different patterns, forces, actors, and ways of organizing reality. The liberal Revolution at the beginning of the XX century

  6. RENEGOTIATION MINING CONTRACT: LEGAL PARADIGM RECONSTRUCTION EFFORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilang -

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Renegotiation contract mining is not a priori notion that was born but is driven by the fact that empirical Work Contract (KK and coal mining concessions of the Works Agreement (Cca that are valid for this resulted in profits which are not comparable between countries with investors (domestic and foreign. In addition, Law No. 4 of 2009 about Mineral and Coal Mining (minerba through article 169 have been injected that though the mining contracts during the validity of this, still respected until the end, however, if the implementation of these contracts give rise to distortions for the national interest, then the Government must encourage the investors to do Renegotiation against existing contracts to comply with legislation minerba forever within a period of one year since the enactment of the legislation this minerba. Renegotiation mining contracts that have been approved on the fact of the matter is simply an attempt to reconstruct the ruling paradigm, so with that paradigm shift, both parties can reach the intersection for the benefit of both parties, i.e. the parties proportionately Indonesia suffered no losses on the one hand, and the benefit of the domestic and foreign investors remain in reasonable limits on the other. 

  7. Consumers’ Empowerement for a New Marketing Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Danciu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The marketing practices of the companies show that not all of them are observing ethical and moral standards and they manipulate the consumers. This paper has as main goal to examine the most usual unethical techniques, the present status of consumers’ power and how more power could work for a new marketing paradigm. There are many unethical marketing techniques which could be found in deceptive product recipes, packaging, promotion, prices and in other areas. Most consumers have no appropriate powers and tools to counteract the manipulation techniques and feel they have fewer rights than the marketers. The current state of empowerment of the consumer show that the European consumers are not in the best position in the market as the Consumer Empowerment Index proves. This matter of facts emphasizes a strong need for a better empowerment of the consumers. The consumer which has more power and wisely use it could improve the balance of power in the market. But the consumers should have a proactive buying behavior in order to get such results. These revolutionary consumers attack the structural roots of the social, economic and political problems which produces a new market ideology as a part of the new tier of transnational institutional ideology. This consumer behavior may have a strong influence toward a new marketing paradigm.

  8. Osteoporosis: Modern Paradigms for Last Century's Bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Marlena C; Wolber, Frances M

    2016-06-17

    The skeleton is a metabolically active organ undergoing continuously remodelling. With ageing and menopause the balance shifts to increased resorption, leading to a reduction in bone mineral density and disruption of bone microarchitecture. Bone mass accretion and bone metabolism are influenced by systemic hormones as well as genetic and lifestyle factors. The classic paradigm has described osteoporosis as being a "brittle bone" disease that occurs in post-menopausal, thin, Caucasian women with low calcium intakes and/or vitamin D insufficiency. However, a study of black women in Africa demonstrated that higher proportions of body fat did not protect bone health. Isoflavone interventions in Asian postmenopausal women have produced inconsistent bone health benefits, due in part to population heterogeneity in enteric bacterial metabolism of daidzein. A comparison of women and men in several Asian countries identified significant differences between countries in the rate of bone health decline, and a high incidence rate of osteoporosis in both sexes. These studies have revealed significant differences in genetic phenotypes, debunking long-held beliefs and leading to new paradigms in study design. Current studies are now being specifically designed to assess genotype differences between Caucasian, Asian, African, and other phenotypes, and exploring alternative methodology to measure bone architecture.

  9. Imaging deductive reasoning and the new paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oaksford, Mike

    2015-01-01

    There has been a great expansion of research into human reasoning at all of Marr’s explanatory levels. There is a tendency for this work to progress within a level largely ignoring the others which can lead to slippage between levels (Chater et al., 2003). It is argued that recent brain imaging research on deductive reasoning—implementational level—has largely ignored the new paradigm in reasoning—computational level (Over, 2009). Consequently, recent imaging results are reviewed with the focus on how they relate to the new paradigm. The imaging results are drawn primarily from a recent meta-analysis by Prado et al. (2011) but further imaging results are also reviewed where relevant. Three main observations are made. First, the main function of the core brain region identified is most likely elaborative, defeasible reasoning not deductive reasoning. Second, the subtraction methodology and the meta-analytic approach may remove all traces of content specific System 1 processes thought to underpin much human reasoning. Third, interpreting the function of the brain regions activated by a task depends on theories of the function that a task engages. When there are multiple interpretations of that function, interpreting what an active brain region is doing is not clear cut. It is concluded that there is a need to more tightly connect brain activation to function, which could be achieved using formalized computational level models and a parametric variation approach. PMID:25774130

  10. Passage of American shad: paradigms and realities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haro, Alex; Castro-Santos, Theodore

    2012-01-01

    Despite more than 250 years of development, the passage of American shad Alosa sapidissima at dams and other barriers frequently remains problematic. Few improvements in design based on knowledge of the swimming, schooling, and migratory behaviors of American shad have been incorporated into passage structures. Large-scale technical fishways designed for the passage of adult salmonids on the Columbia River have been presumed to have good performance for American shad but have never been rigorously evaluated for this species. Similar but smaller fishway designs on the East Coast frequently have poor performance. Provision of effective downstream passage for both juvenile and postspawning adult American shad has been given little consideration in most passage projects. Ways to attract and guide American shad to both fishway entrances and downstream bypasses remain marginally understood. The historical development of passage structures for American shad has resulted in assumptions and paradigms about American shad behavior and passage that are frequently unsubstantiated by supporting data or appropriate experimentation. We propose that many of these assumptions and paradigms are either unfounded or invalid and that significant improvements to American shad upstream and downstream passage can be made via a sequential program of behavioral experimentation, application of experimental results to the physical and hydraulic design of new structures, and controlled tests of large-scale prototype structures in the laboratory and field.

  11. New paradigms of Game Theory from globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Esquivel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Games Theory constitutes a model by means every player tries to predict what they will make the other players in reply to his own actions, and to optimize the result of the above mentioned actions in his benefit knowing that the others are thinking to about the same form. The development of the theory supposed a boom after the World War II, which happened of analyzing exclusively competitive behaviors to considering situations with competitive and cooperative characteristics. Nevertheless, the advance of the humanity and the disappearance of both geopolitical blocks have eliminated the balance of power and have produced the emergence of a world the most based on the exclusive conquest of the power. This has originated the model change and dilemmas, happening from the most cooperative models (Prisoner’s Dilemma or from the models of the Cold War (Dilemma of the Gallina up to reaching the dilemmas of the Leader or of the Hero. This change of paradigm owes to the extension of the globalization, which originates an immeasurable loss of economic, social, political power, of human rights, which they have affected negatively to the poor people. In this paper is studied the change of paradigm caused by the consequences of the globalization and the geopolitical transformations in a monopolar world, analyzing the consequences on the basis of the Theory of Games.

  12. Tolerance of sexual harassment: a laboratory paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelone, David J; Mitchell, Damon; Carola, Kara

    2009-12-01

    The present study attempted to develop a laboratory analogue for the study of tolerance for sexual harassment by using an online speed-dating paradigm. In that context, the relation between participants' sexual harassment attitudes, perpetrator attractiveness, perpetrator status, and perceived dating potential of the perpetrator were examined as factors influencing participants' tolerance of sexually harassing behavior. Participants were 128 female college students from a small northeastern public university. Results indicated that attractiveness, high social status, and attitudinal beliefs about sexual harassment were all predictive of tolerance for sexual harassment, providing preliminary support for the validity of this paradigm. In addition, participants' self reported likelihood to date a bogus male dating candidate was also predictive of tolerance for sexual harassment, over and above the aforementioned variables, suggesting that dating potential can play a role in perceptions of sexual harassment. Further, this experiment demonstrated that perceptions of sexual harassment can be assessed using the in vivo measurement of behavior. In addition, using an online environment not only provides a contemporary spin and adds a greater degree of external validity compared to other sexual harassment analogues, it also reduces any risk of potential physical sexual contact for participants.

  13. Colloidal paradigm in supercapattery electrode systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kunfeng; Xue, Dongfeng

    2018-01-01

    Among decades of development, electrochemical energy storage systems are now sorely in need of a new design paradigm at the nano size and ion level to satisfy the higher energy and power demands. In this review paper, we introduce a new colloidal electrode paradigm for supercapattery that integrates multiple-scale forms of matter, i.e. ion clusters, colloidal ions, and nanosized materials, into one colloid system, coupled with multiple interactions, i.e. electrostatic, van der Waals forces, and chemical bonding, thus leading to the formation of many redox reactive centers. This colloidal electrode not only keeps the original ionic nature in colloidal materials, but also creates a new attribute of high electroactivity. Colloidal supercapattery is a perfect application example of the novel colloidal electrode, leading to higher specific capacitance than traditional electrode materials. The high electroactivity of the colloidal electrode mainly comes from the contribution of exposed reactive centers, owing to the confinement effect of carbon and a binder matrix. Systematic and thorough research on the colloidal system will significantly promote the development of fundamental science and the progress of advanced energy storage technology.

  14. Understanding emerging treatment paradigms in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breedveld, Ferdinand C; Combe, Bernard

    2011-05-25

    Treatment strategies for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) will continue to evolve as new drugs are developed, as new data become available, and as our potential to achieve greater and more consistent outcomes becomes more routine. Many patients will find both symptom relief and modest control of their disease with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), yet this course of therapy is clearly not effective in all patients. In fact, despite strong evidence that intensive treatment in the early stages of RA can slow or stop disease progression and may prevent disability, many patients continue to be managed in a stepwise manner and are treated with an ongoing monotherapy regimen with DMARDs. There is now a large body of evidence demonstrating the success of treating RA patients with anti-TNF therapy, usually in combination with methotrexate. As a result of the increased use of anti-TNF therapy, treatment paradigms have changed - and our practice is beginning to reflect this change. In the present review, we summarize the salient points of several recently proposed and emerging treatment paradigms with an emphasis on how these strategies may impact future practice.

  15. Tourism development and the degrowth paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriotis Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to look at alternatives to the classic models of development by exploring the paradigm of degrowth in a tourism context. Degrowth touted as an alternative to mainstream paradigms of development, aims to ensure a high quality of life for people in a society where work, production and consumption are reduced. As a weapon to the problems accrued by capitalism, degrowth reorients the current unsustainable and inequitable path through the transition to a smaller economy with less production and consumption. By arguing that natural limits to growth of many destinations have already been surpassed and their carrying capacity levels have been reached, degrowth proposes the abandonment of growth which promotes nothing other than a quest for profits on part of the owners of capital and results in disastrous implications for the environment and the humanity. As a philosophical concept and movement, degrowth is revolutionary and anticapitalist directed to sustainable change which results from an interest in locality and place, small and medium-sized enterprises, employment generation and reduction in working hours, ecology and quality of life, decommodification of tourism activity, carbon reduction in transport, changed pattern of production and consumption, and high priority in the travel experience.

  16. Special Feature: Epistemological Paradigms in Evaluation: Implications for Practice. Section 3: "Paradigm Complementarity" Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamis-Gould, Edna; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Three studies are presented, which illustrate situations in which researchers and funders agreed on the primacy of either the experimental or pragmatic paradigms but acknowledged a role for the other. The studies involved evaluations of mental health care, information systems, and a curriculum for behavioral and academic dysfunction. (SLD)

  17. «ORBITE LEO»: PRÉCISION, PERTES, PARADIGMES ET PLÉONASMES DANS LA TRADUCTION DES SIGLES DE L’ORBITOLOGIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam RENWICK

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A corpus based study of French texts in the domain of space sciences reveals several paradigms using unexplained English technical terms and, indicating that the reader is expected to be familiar with this terminology. Using examples from orbitology, the different paradigms are detailed, and numerous sequences are shown to contain repetitions French and English. Such repetition runs counter to the precept of terminology facilitating precise and efficient communication between experts. It it proposed that although such repetitions might be considered pleonastic, their presence demonstrates a degree of integration according to French grammatical principles and paradigms.

  18. Quantitative analysis of distributed control paradigms of robot swarms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngo, Trung Dung

    2010-01-01

    describe the physical and simulated robots, experiment scenario, and experiment setup. Third, we present our robot controllers based on behaviour based and neural network based paradigms. Fourth, we graphically show their experiment results and quantitatively analyse the results in comparison of the two......Given a task of designing controller for mobile robots in swarms, one might wonder which distributed control paradigms should be selected. Until now, paradigms of robot controllers have been within either behaviour based control or neural network based control, which have been recognized as two...... mainstreams of controller design for mobile robots. However, in swarm robotics, it is not clear how to determine control paradigms. In this paper we study the two control paradigms with various experiments of swarm aggregation. First, we introduce the two control paradigms for mobile robots. Second, we...

  19. Information processing as a paradigm for decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, Daniel M; Kelso, Evan

    2015-01-03

    For decades, the dominant paradigm for studying decision making--the expected utility framework--has been burdened by an increasing number of empirical findings that question its validity as a model of human cognition and behavior. However, as Kuhn (1962) argued in his seminal discussion of paradigm shifts, an old paradigm cannot be abandoned until a new paradigm emerges to replace it. In this article, we argue that the recent shift in researcher attention toward basic cognitive processes that give rise to decision phenomena constitutes the beginning of that replacement paradigm. Models grounded in basic perceptual, attentional, memory, and aggregation processes have begun to proliferate. The development of this new approach closely aligns with Kuhn's notion of paradigm shift, suggesting that this is a particularly generative and revolutionary time to be studying decision science.

  20. Thought Suppression Research Methods: Paradigms, Theories, Methodological Concerns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niczyporuk Aneta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It is hard to provide an unequivocal answer to the question of whether or not thought suppression is effective. Two thought suppression paradigms - the “white bear” paradigm and the think/no-think paradigm - give mixed results. Generally, “white bear” experiments indicate that thought suppression is counterproductive, while experiments in the think/no-think paradigm suggest that it is possible to effectively suppress a thought. There are also alternative methods used to study thought suppression, for instance the directed forgetting paradigm or the Stroop task. In the article, I describe the research methods used to explore thought suppression efficacy. I focus on the “white bear” and the think/no-think paradigms and discuss theories proposed to explain the results obtained. I also consider the internal and external validity of the methods used.

  1. Fitting methods to paradigms: are ergonomics methods fit for systems thinking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Paul M; Walker, Guy H; M Read, Gemma J; Goode, Natassia; Stanton, Neville A

    2017-02-01

    The issues being tackled within ergonomics problem spaces are shifting. Although existing paradigms appear relevant for modern day systems, it is worth questioning whether our methods are. This paper asks whether the complexities of systems thinking, a currently ubiquitous ergonomics paradigm, are outpacing the capabilities of our methodological toolkit. This is achieved through examining the contemporary ergonomics problem space and the extent to which ergonomics methods can meet the challenges posed. Specifically, five key areas within the ergonomics paradigm of systems thinking are focused on: normal performance as a cause of accidents, accident prediction, system migration, systems concepts and ergonomics in design. The methods available for pursuing each line of inquiry are discussed, along with their ability to respond to key requirements. In doing so, a series of new methodological requirements and capabilities are identified. It is argued that further methodological development is required to provide researchers and practitioners with appropriate tools to explore both contemporary and future problems. Practitioner Summary: Ergonomics methods are the cornerstone of our discipline. This paper examines whether our current methodological toolkit is fit for purpose given the changing nature of ergonomics problems. The findings provide key research and practice requirements for methodological development.

  2. Analysis and study of data security in the Internet of Things paradigm from a Blockchain technology approach

    OpenAIRE

    Rull Aixa, David

    2018-01-01

    This project is a space of information and knowledge of the IoT paradigm and Blockchain technology with the analysis of the most relevant research articles and the study of the most important threats of IoT technologies and scenarios. In addition, it offers an overview of the current state of the paradigm from the perspective of security and the opportunities that its combination with Blockchain technology can bring to our society. Aquest projecte és un espai d'informació i coneixement ...

  3. Vascular access surveillance: case study of a false paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, William D; Moist, Louise; Lok, Charmaine E

    2013-01-01

    The hemodialysis vascular access surveillance controversy provides a case study of how enthusiasm for a new test or treatment can lead to adoption of a false paradigm. Paradigms are the beliefs and assumptions shared by those in a field of knowledge, and are commonly included in clinical practice guidelines. The guidelines of the National Kidney Foundation Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative recommend that arteriovenous vascular accesses undergo routine surveillance for detection and correction of stenosis. This recommendation is based on the paradigm that surveillance of access blood flow or dialysis venous pressure combined with correction of stenosis improves access outcomes. However, the quality of evidence that supports this paradigm has been widely criticized. We tested the validity of the surveillance paradigm by applying World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for evaluating screening tests to a literature review of published vascular access studies. These criteria include four components: undesired condition, screening test, intervention, and desired outcome. The WHO criteria show that surveillance as currently practiced fails all four components and provides little or no significant benefit, suggesting that surveillance is a false paradigm. Once a paradigm is established, however, challenges to its validity are usually resisted even as new evidence indicates the paradigm is not valid. Thus, it is paramount to apply rigorous criteria when developing guidelines. Regulators may help promote needed changes in paradigms when cost and safety considerations coincide. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. [The template principle: paradigm of modern genetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inge-Vechtomov, S G

    2013-01-01

    The idea of continuity in living systems, which was initially developed in mid-19th century, reached its peak in 1928 thanks to N.K. Koltsov, who proposed the template principle in chromosome reproduction. The determination of genetic functions of nucleic acids and the advent of molecular genetics led to F. Crick's statement of the central dogma of molecular biology in 1958. This dogma became a contemporary version of the template principle (templates of the first order). The discovery of "protein inheritance" underlay the notion of steric or conformational templates (second order) for reproducing conformation in a number of proteins. The template principle supplemented by this notion claims to be the main paradigm of modern genetics.

  5. Toxicogenomics: A New Paradigm for Nanotoxicity Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Sourabh; Saquib, Quaiser; Ahmad, Bilal; Ansari, Sabiha M; Azam, Ameer; Musarrat, Javed

    2018-01-01

    The wider applications of nanoparticles (NPs) has evoked a world-wide concern due to their possible risk of toxicity in humans and other organisms. Aggregation and accumulation of NPs into cell leads to their interaction with biological macromolecules including proteins, nucleic acids and cellular organelles, which eventually induce toxicological effects. Application of toxicogenomics to investigate molecular pathway-based toxicological consequences has opened new vistas in nanotoxicology research. Indeed, genomic approaches appeared as a new paradigm in terms of providing information at molecular levels and have been proven to be as a powerful tool for identification and quantification of global shifts in gene expression. Toxicological responses of NPs have been discussed in this chapter with the aim to provide a clear understanding of the molecular mechanism of NPs induced toxicity both in in vivo and in vitro test models.

  6. A new paradigm of modern central banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Szunke

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The changes in the modern monetary policy, which took place at the beginning of the twenty-first century, in response to the global financial crisis led to the transformation of the place and the role of central banks. The strategic aim of the central monetary institutions has become preventing financial instability. So far, central banks have defined financial stability as a public good, which took care independently of other monetary purposes (Pyka, 2010. Unconventional monetary policy resulted in changes the global central banking. The aim of the study is to identify a new paradigm of the role and place of the central bank in the financial system and its new responsibilities, aimed at countering financial instability.

  7. Introduction: Science, Sexuality, and Psychotherapy: Shifting Paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerbone, Armand R

    2017-08-01

    This introduction presents an overview of the current issue (73, 8) of Journal of Clinical Psychology: In Session. This issue features a series of articles, with clinical cases, each presented to illustrate the challenges faced by individuals and couples whose sexual and gender identities and expressions do not comport with traditional and cultural norms. These articles also document the challenges to the therapists who treat them. Considered individually, each article underscores the need to recognize the importance of evidence in guiding psychotherapy in cases involving sexuality. The discussions in each article offer recommendations meant to help and guide psychotherapists. Considered collectively, they raise important questions and considerations about shifting paradigms of human sexuality. Implications for assessment and treatment of cases involving sexuality and gender identity are discussed and recommended. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. The Rational Relevance of the Diffuse Paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Dinu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Processes like the globalization consistency and learning about society are screened by diffuse concepts such as those taking the last steps of the industrial civilization and hierarchically ordered world through hegemony. This is why the meaning of globalization is given by deviant trends, like globalism, and the knowledge society is taken for the tools promoted by itself, such as the internet. This does not imply only approximations of meaning but rather the vanity of change, preserving the status quo represented by the pre-global world or the adversity principle. Historicism of paradigm cannot be avoided. Evolvement towards something else, announced by globalization is implacable, and the new ordinating principle, the one of competition, opens the opportunity horizon to global world.

  9. The Rational Relevance of the Diffuse Paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Dinu

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Processes like the globalization consistency and learning about society are screened by diffuse concepts such as those taking the last steps of the industrial civilization and hierarchically ordered world through hegemony. This is why the meaning of globalization is given by deviant trends, like globalism, and the knowledge society is taken for the tools promoted by itself, such as the internet. This does not imply only approximations of meaning but rather the vanity of change, preserving the status quo represented by the pre-global world or the adversity principle. Historicism of paradigm cannot be avoided. Evolvement towards something else, announced by globalization is implacable, and the new ordinating principle, the one of competition, opens the opportunity horizon to global world

  10. Systems healthcare: a holistic paradigm for tomorrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiandaca, Massimo S; Mapstone, Mark; Connors, Elenora; Jacobson, Mireille; Monuki, Edwin S; Malik, Shaista; Macciardi, Fabio; Federoff, Howard J

    2017-12-19

    Systems healthcare is a holistic approach to health premised on systems biology and medicine. The approach integrates data from molecules, cells, organs, the individual, families, communities, and the natural and man-made environment. Both extrinsic and intrinsic influences constantly challenge the biological networks associated with wellness. Such influences may dysregulate networks and allow pathobiology to evolve, resulting in early clinical presentation that requires astute assessment and timely intervention for successful mitigation. Herein, we describe the components of relevant biological systems and the nature of progression from at-risk to manifest disease. We illustrate the systems approach by examining two relevant clinical examples: Alzheimer's and cardiovascular diseases. The implications of systems healthcare management are examined through the lens of economics, ethics, policy and the law. Finally, we propose the need to develop new educational paradigms to enhance the training of the health professional in an era of systems medicine.

  11. Wind power, policy learning and paradigm change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szarka, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this article is to study how policy learning has led to new understandings of ways to support renewable energies, based on experience in the wind power sector. Drawing on analysis of the literature and informed by field-work in the wind power sector in Denmark, France and the UK, it explores the extent to which policy learning over the medium term has brought us closer to models that integrate economic, environmental and societal desiderata into renewables policy in a manner congruent with the sustainable development aspirations espoused by the European Union and its constituent states. It contributes to policy theory development by arguing in favour of a new policy paradigm that reaches beyond measures to increase production capacity per se to embrace both the institutional dynamics of innovation processes and the fostering of societal engagement in implementation processes

  12. Ubiquitous health in practice: the interreality paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaggioli, Andrea; Raspelli, Simona; Grassi, Alessandra; Pallavicini, Federica; Cipresso, Pietro; Wiederhold, Brenda K; Riva, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a new ubiquitous computing paradigm for behavioral health care: "Interreality". Interreality integrates assessment and treatment within a hybrid environment, that creates a bridge between the physical and virtual worlds. Our claim is that bridging virtual experiences (fully controlled by the therapist, used to learn coping skills and emotional regulation) with real experiences (allowing both the identification of any critical stressors and the assessment of what has been learned) using advanced technologies (virtual worlds, advanced sensors and PDA/mobile phones) may improve existing psychological treatment. To illustrate the proposed concept, a clinical scenario is also presented and discussed: Daniela, a 40 years old teacher, with a mother affected by Alzheimer's disease.

  13. An Instrumental Paradigm for Ubiquitous Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted

    2008-01-01

    will require comprehensive experimental user centred development. Originality/Value -- This research offers a new way of thinking interaction, suited for the dynamism of modern computing. Take away message -- Through a strong foundation in activity theory and ecological psychology a new paradigm for ubiquitous...... shortcomings of some of the restrictive assumptions contemporary graphical user interfaces are built upon. Research approach -- Based on activity theory and ecological psychology a conceptual model for ubiquitous interaction is proposed and iteratively challenged and developed through actual implementation....... Findings/Design -- The project will ultimately shed light on how an understanding of interaction form activity theory and ecological psychology maps to an implementation of a new conceptual model for interaction with technology. Research limitations/Implications -- Implementation of an actual system...

  14. Social Media Guidelines and the News Paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blumell, Lindsey; Hellmueller, Lea; Etter, Michael

    Social network use continues to increase in the majority of regions around the world, with a global increase of 17.6% in 2012, and another projected 12.6% in 2014 (digital.org, 2014). Social media have also been incorporated into daily routines of American journalists, with 53.8% reporting...... that they use microblogs like Twitter on a regular basis to both gather and disseminate information (Willnat & Weaver, 2014). The aim of this study is to investigate how social media, more specifically, social media guidelines, implemented at the organizational level intercede with journalism practices...... and if these guidelines challenge the news paradigm. While using social media have been a “loop-hole” of sorts to disseminating political information in countries that have strong censorship (the Arab Spring being a premiere example, Eltantawy & Wiest, 2011; Lotan, Graeff, Ananny, Gaffney, & Pearce, 2011), journalists...

  15. Implementing the Bayesian paradigm in risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aven, T.; Kvaloey, J.T.

    2002-01-01

    The Bayesian paradigm comprises a unified and consistent framework for analyzing and expressing risk. Yet, we see rather few examples of applications where the full Bayesian setting has been adopted with specifications of priors of unknown parameters. In this paper, we discuss some of the practical challenges of implementing Bayesian thinking and methods in risk analysis, emphasizing the introduction of probability models and parameters and associated uncertainty assessments. We conclude that there is a need for a pragmatic view in order to 'successfully' apply the Bayesian approach, such that we can do the assignments of some of the probabilities without adopting the somewhat sophisticated procedure of specifying prior distributions of parameters. A simple risk analysis example is presented to illustrate ideas

  16. [Meta-legal paradigms of nanomedicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Alvarez, Salvador

    2012-01-01

    Nanomedicine is the Nanotechnology applied in the field of Medicine. Nanomedicine includes a wide range of technologies applied to devices, materials, medical procedures and treatment modalities are being developed, in some cases, through the convergence of living and nonliving materials. The developments in this scientific field are the prelude of a new era in health where Nanotechnology will provide, in a short period of time, substantial benefits for the general welfare and health of people with serious and incurable diseases using other more traditional medical treatments. This is, in brief, the object of this research that has been focused in the study of the ethical-legal paradigms that should inform the developments and expectations generated by medical applications of Nanotechnology.

  17. The complexity paradigm in management reconceptualizing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Slavica P.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Chaos and complexity theory is a special, functionalist systems approach to dealing with complex, dynamic, nonlinear systems. Through treating organizations as complex, with their environments coevolving, nonlinear systems, complexity theory is aimed at creative research of their erratic nature. When an organization is in a state of bounded instability, at the edge of chaos, order and disorder are intertwined, its behavior is irregular and unpredictable but has some pattern. According to the complexity paradigm organizations have to strive to avoid the equilibrium states of stability and instability. They have instead to strive to remain in a state of bounded instability, at the edge of chaos, where they are able to display their full potential for creativity and innovation.

  18. Conductivity in the gravity dual to massive ABJM and the membrane paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Arcos, Cristhiam; Nastase, Horatiu; Rojas, Francisco; Murugan, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the effect of the massive deformation of the ABJM model on the calculation of conductivity of the dual theory. We show that some of the difficulties presented by the dual geometry, in particular the construction of black holes therein, can be at least partially circumvented by adopting a membrane paradigm-like computation of the conductivity, which requires us to know just the effect of the deformation on the horizon of a black hole in AdS 4 . The deformation at the horizon itself is found by first deforming the flat space near the horizon, and then using the corresponding solution near the horizon as initial conditions for the Einstein’s equations. We find the same result, showing an increase in conductivity, using two types of membrane paradigm computations

  19. Optimal brain network synchrony visualization: application in an alcoholism paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakkalis, Vangelis; Tsiaras, Vassilis; Zervakis, Michalis; Tollis, Ioannis

    2007-01-01

    Although Electroencephalographic (EEG) signal synchronization studies have been a topic of increasing interest lately, there is no similar effort in the visualization of such measures. In this direction a graph-theoretic approach devised to study and stress the coupling dynamics of task-performing dynamical networks is proposed. Both linear and nonlinear interdependence measures are investigated in an alcoholism paradigm during mental rehearsal of pictures, which is known to reflect synchronization impairment. More specifically, the widely used magnitude squared coherence; phase synchronization and a robust nonlinear state-space generalized synchronization assessment method are investigated. This paper mostly focuses on a signal-based technique of selecting the optimal visualization threshold using surrogate datasets to correctly identify the most significant correlation patterns. Furthermore, a graph statistical parameter attempts to capture and quantify collective motifs present in the functional brain network. The results are in accordance with previous psychophysiology studies suggesting that an alcoholic subject has impaired synchronization of brain activity and loss of lateralization during the rehearsal process, most prominently in alpha (8-12 Hz) band, as compared to a control subject. Lower beta (13-30 Hz) synchronization was also evident in the alcoholic subject.

  20. Major Gravitational Phenomena Explained by the Micro-Quanta Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelini M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Some major problems of physics, which remained unsolved within classical and rel- ativistic gravitation theories, are explained adopting the quantum gravity interaction descending from the micro-quanta paradigm. The energy source of the gravitational power P g r , which heats and contracts the Bok’s gas globules harbouring the future stars, is identified and defined as well as the gravitational power generated on the solid / fluid planets. Calculations are carried out to make the comparison between P g r predicted for the solar giant planets and the measured infrared radiation power P int coming from the interior. The case of planets with solid crust (Earth, etc. requires a particular attention due to the threat to stability produced by the thermal dilatation. An analysis is done of the Earth’s planetary equilibrium which may be attained eliminating the temperature rise through the migration of hot internal magma across the crust fractured by earth- quakes. The temperatures observed up to 420,000 years ago in Antartica through Vostok and Epica ice cores suggest the possibility that the Earth gravitational power P g r may be radiated in space through these temperature cycles (Glacial Eras. In this general frame the Earth’s high seismicity and the dynamics of Plate tectonics may find their origin.

  1. Major Gravitational Phenomena Explained by the Micro-Quanta Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelini M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Some major problems of physics, which remained unsolved within classical and relativistic gravitation theories, are explained adopting the quantum gravity interaction descending from the micro-quanta paradigm. The energy source of the gravitational power $P_{gr}$, which heats and contracts the Bok's gas globules harbouring the future stars, is identified and defined as well as the gravitational power generated on the solid/fluid planets. Calculations are carried out to make the comparison between $P_{gr}$ predicted for the solar giant planets and the measured infrared radiation power $P_{int}$ coming from the interior. The case of planets with solid crust (Earth, etc. requires a particular attention due to the threat to stability produced by the thermal dilatation. An analysis is done of the Earth's planetary equilibrium which may be attained eliminating the temperature rise through the migration of hot internal magma across the crust fractured by earthquakes. The temperatures observed up to 420,000 years ago in Antartica through Vostok and Epica ice cores suggest the possibility that the Earth gravitational power $P_{gr}$ may be radiated in space through these temperature cycles (Glacial Eras. In this general frame the Earth's high seismicity and the dynamics of Plate tectonics may find their origin.

  2. Three main paradigms of simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imani, Vandad; Haataja, Keijo; Toivanen, Pekka

    2018-04-01

    Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) is one of the most challenging research areas within computer and machine vision for automated scene commentary and explanation. The SLAM technique has been a developing research area in the robotics context during recent years. By utilizing the SLAM method robot can estimate the different positions of the robot at the distinct points of time which can indicate the trajectory of robot as well as generate a map of the environment. SLAM has unique traits which are estimating the location of robot and building a map in the various types of environment. SLAM is effective in different types of environment such as indoor, outdoor district, Air, Underwater, Underground and Space. Several approaches have been investigated to use SLAM technique in distinct environments. The purpose of this paper is to provide an accurate perceptive review of case history of SLAM relied on laser/ultrasonic sensors and camera as perception input data. In addition, we mainly focus on three paradigms of SLAM problem with all its pros and cons. In the future, use intelligent methods and some new idea will be used on visual SLAM to estimate the motion intelligent underwater robot and building a feature map of marine environment.

  3. The vulnerability to schizophrenia mainstream research paradigms and phenomenological directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanghellini, Giovanni; Fusar-Poli, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Early psychopathological attempts to characterize the vulnerability to schizophrenia were based on the phenomenological method. From the beginning, phenomenologically-oriented psychopathologists have searched the basic vulnerability underlying schizophrenic phenomena in two main domains: depersonalization and derealisation/desocialization. Schizophrenic persons undergo a special kind of depersonalisation: the living body becomes a functioning body, a thing-like mechanism in which feelings, perceptions, and actions take place as if they happened in an outer space. They also endure a special kind of derealisation/de-socialization: the interpersonal scene becomes like a theatre stage, pervaded with a sense of unreality, on which the main actor is unaware of the plot, out of touch with the role he is acting and unable to make sense of the objects he encounters and of what the other people are doing. Many years later, the mainstream research paradigms employed to investigate the vulnerability concept in schizophrenic psychosis have included genetic studies, birth cohort studies, psychosis proneness, and clinical high risk. We will review these studies and conclude with an outline of future research directions focusing on three main features of the psychopathology of early schizophrenia: anomalies of the pre-reflexive self and of the social self (intersubjectivity), and existential re-orientation.

  4. Development of a neural net paradigm that predicts simulator sickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allgood, G.O.

    1993-03-01

    A disease exists that affects pilots and aircrew members who use Navy Operational Flight Training Systems. This malady, commonly referred to as simulator sickness and whose symptomatology closely aligns with that of motion sickness, can compromise the use of these systems because of a reduced utilization factor, negative transfer of training, and reduction in combat readiness. A report is submitted that develops an artificial neural network (ANN) and behavioral model that predicts the onset and level of simulator sickness in the pilots and aircrews who sue these systems. It is proposed that the paradigm could be implemented in real time as a biofeedback monitor to reduce the risk to users of these systems. The model captures the neurophysiological impact of use (human-machine interaction) by developing a structure that maps the associative and nonassociative behavioral patterns (learned expectations) and vestibular (otolith and semicircular canals of the inner ear) and tactile interaction, derived from system acceleration profiles, onto an abstract space that predicts simulator sickness for a given training flight.

  5. The search for understanding: the role of paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Marcella; Dowling, Maura; Millar, Michelle

    2018-03-16

    Kuhn's ( 1962 ) acknowledgement of a paradigm as a way that scientists make sense of their world and its reality gave recognition to the idea of 'paradigm shift'. This shift exposes the transience of paradigm development shaped by societal and scientific evolution. This ongoing evolutionary development provides the researcher with many paradigms to consider regarding how research is undertaken and the search for understanding achieved. An understanding of paradigm development is necessary when planning a study and can shape the search for understanding. It is hoped that the discussion presented here will assist novice and experienced researchers in articulating the rationales for their paradigm choices. An overview of the dominant paradigms is presented, reflecting ongoing paradigm development shaped by ontological, epistemological and methodological perspectives. Potential paradigm choices that shape research aims, objectives and focus in the search for understanding are considered. The inherent debates about paradigm shift, division, war and synthesis leave the researcher many perspectives to consider. Articulating the world views underpinning constructivism, interpretivism and pragmatism is particularly challenging because of the blurring of boundaries between them. The evolutionary nature of paradigmatic development has provided nurse researchers with the opportunity for methodological openness to the myriad research approaches, methods and designs that they may choose to answer their research question. However, it is imperative that researchers consider their ontological stances and the nature of their research questions. This is challenging in constructivism, interpretivism and pragmatism, where there is often an overlap of paradigm world views. ©2018 RCN Publishing Company Ltd. All rights reserved. Not to be copied, transmitted or recorded in any way, in whole or part, without prior permission of the publishers.

  6. Affective Computing used in an imaging interaction paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Nette

    2003-01-01

    This paper combines affective computing with an imaging interaction paradigm. An imaging interaction paradigm means that human and computer communicates primarily by images. Images evoke emotions in humans, so the computer must be able to behave emotionally intelligent. An affective image selection...

  7. Paradigms: How Far Does Research in Distributed Leadership "Stretch"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, David

    2010-01-01

    Burrell and Morgan's widely-cited "Sociological Paradigms and Organizational Analysis" is applied here to research on distributed leadership in education. Nearly all of the extant research is regulatory, not radical; and the evidence which it has generated falls broadly within the paradigm of interpretivism. Few studies have generated the…

  8. Industry 4.0 and the New Simulation Modelling Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodič Blaž

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: The aim of this paper is to present the influence of Industry 4.0 on the development of the new simulation modelling paradigm, embodied by the Digital Twin concept, and examine the adoption of the new paradigm via a multiple case study involving real-life R&D cases involving academia and industry.

  9. Disability Is Not Measles: New Research Paradigms in Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioux, Marcia H., Ed.; Bach, Michael, Ed.

    This book is the product of a forum titled New Research Directions and Paradigms, held at the Congress of the International Association for the Scientific Study of Mental Deficiency in Australia in August 1992. The book presents 13 chapters, all written within a critical paradigm for disability research which critiques the reification of…

  10. Paradigms in the Gerontology Classroom: Connections and Challenges to Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Leslie

    2012-01-01

    The article explores paradigms for approaching course content to be studied in the classroom. These paradigms, or global views about what is of interest or importance and ways of knowing, relate to key questions in gerontology, such as what is the relevant domain/content to be studied, what is the central level of analysis or action, what are…

  11. Interaction between Social Categories in the Composite Face Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenfeng; Ren, Naixin; Young, Andrew W.; Liu, Chang Hong

    2018-01-01

    The composite face paradigm (Young, Hellawell, & Hay, 1987) is widely used to demonstrate holistic perception of faces (Rossion, 2013). In the paradigm, parts from different faces (usually the top and bottom halves) are recombined. The principal criterion for holistic perception is that responses involving the component parts of composites in…

  12. Modularity beyond Perception: Evidence from the PRP Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magen, Hagit; Cohen, Asher

    2010-01-01

    The Dimension Action (DA) model asserts that the visual system is modular, and that each task involves multiple-response mechanisms rather than a unitary-response selection mechanism. The model has been supported by evidence from single-task interference paradigms. We use the psychological refractory period paradigm and show that dual-task…

  13. [Nursing knowledge: the evolution of scientific philosophies and paradigm trends].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Hsuan-Man; Wang, Hui-Ling; Chang, Yun-Hsuan; Chen, Chung-Hey

    2010-02-01

    Different aspects of philosophy are derived from different paradigms that contain various main points, some of which are repeated or overlap. Belief and practice are two components of a paradigm that provide perspective and framework and lead to nursing research. Changes in healthcare have popularized empirical and evidence-based research in the field of nursing research. However, the evidence-base study approach has given rise to a certain level of debate. Until now, no standard paradigm has been established for the nursing field, as different professionals use different paradigms in their studies. Such provides certain limitations as well as advantages. The quantitative aspects of a nursing paradigm were developed by Peplau and Henderson (1950) and Orem (1980). Such remained the standard until 1990, when Guba and Parse proposed qualitative viewpoints in contextual features. Therefore, the nursing paradigm has made great contributions to the development of knowledge in nursing care, although debate continues due to incomplete knowledge attributable to the presentation of knowledge and insight within individually developed paradigms. It is better to apply multiple paradigms to different research questions. It is suggested that better communication amongst experts regarding their individual points of view would help nursing members to integrate findings within the global pool of knowledge and allow replication over multiple studies.

  14. Critical evaluation of paradigms for modelling integrated supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dam, K.H.; Adhitya, A.; Srinivasan, R.; Lukszo, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Contemporary problems in process systems engineering often require model-based decision support tool. Among the various modelling paradigms, equation-based models and agent-based models are widely used to develop dynamic models of systems. Which is the most appropriate modelling paradigm for a

  15. A new learning paradigm: learning using privileged information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vapnik, Vladimir; Vashist, Akshay

    2009-01-01

    In the Afterword to the second edition of the book "Estimation of Dependences Based on Empirical Data" by V. Vapnik, an advanced learning paradigm called Learning Using Hidden Information (LUHI) was introduced. This Afterword also suggested an extension of the SVM method (the so called SVM(gamma)+ method) to implement algorithms which address the LUHI paradigm (Vapnik, 1982-2006, Sections 2.4.2 and 2.5.3 of the Afterword). See also (Vapnik, Vashist, & Pavlovitch, 2008, 2009) for further development of the algorithms. In contrast to the existing machine learning paradigm where a teacher does not play an important role, the advanced learning paradigm considers some elements of human teaching. In the new paradigm along with examples, a teacher can provide students with hidden information that exists in explanations, comments, comparisons, and so on. This paper discusses details of the new paradigm and corresponding algorithms, introduces some new algorithms, considers several specific forms of privileged information, demonstrates superiority of the new learning paradigm over the classical learning paradigm when solving practical problems, and discusses general questions related to the new ideas.

  16. Formal Epistemology and New Paradigm Psychology of Reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfeifer, Niki; Douven, Igor

    This position paper advocates combining formal epistemology and the new paradigm psychology of reasoning in the studies of conditionals and reasoning with uncertainty. The new paradigm psychology of reasoning is characterized by the use of probability theory as a rationality framework instead of

  17. A Comparison of Two Paradigms for Distributed Shared Memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levelt, W.G.; Kaashoek, M.F.; Bal, H.E.; Tanenbaum, A.S.

    1992-01-01

    Two paradigms for distributed shared memory on loosely‐coupled computing systems are compared: the shared data‐object model as used in Orca, a programming language specially designed for loosely‐coupled computing systems, and the shared virtual memory model. For both paradigms two systems are

  18. Exponential time paradigms through the polynomial time lens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drucker, A.; Nederlof, J.; Santhanam, R.; Sankowski, P.; Zaroliagis, C.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a general approach to modelling algorithmic paradigms for the exact solution of NP-hard problems. Our approach is based on polynomial time reductions to succinct versions of problems solvable in polynomial time. We use this viewpoint to explore and compare the power of paradigms such as

  19. Researching Style: Epistemology, Paradigm Shifts and Research Interest Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    This paper identifies the need for a deliberate approach to theory building in the context of researching cognitive and learning style differences in human performance. A case for paradigm shift and a focus upon research epistemology is presented, building upon a recent critique of style research. A proposal for creating paradigm shift is made,…

  20. A Practical Examination of Two Diverse Research Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Robert A.

    2007-01-01

    This manuscript examines the practical differences between quantitative and qualitative inquiry by comparing the differences between one article from each paradigm. Quantitative research differs greatly from qualitative inquiry in purpose, assumptions, methodology, and representation. While quantitative research has been the dominant paradigm for…

  1. Underlying Paradigms in Student Affairs Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guido, Florence M.; Chavez, Alicia Fedelina; Lincoln, Yvonna S.

    2010-01-01

    Student affairs professionals benefit from understanding paradigms, worldviews, and ways of being among diverse faculty, staff, and students. It is challenging to understand core differences of paradigms, design student affairs practice and research in congruence with or across specific philosophies, and work effectively with individuals operating…

  2. A Critical Evaluation of the Paradigm Approach in Sepedi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Abstract: This article gives a critical evaluation of the paradigm approach of the Groot Noord-. Sotho Woordeboek to the lemmatisation of verbs and nouns derived from verbs. The verb stem -roba. 'break' with its complicated system of derivations will be taken as a case in point. The paradigm presented for -roba will be ...

  3. The World Religions Paradigm Time for a Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    The teaching of religions has long relied on the World Religions paradigm to guide curricula throughout education, which has led to a widening gap, on the one hand, between what is taught in schools and in universities and, on the other, between research and teaching. While the World Religions paradigm has allowed the inclusion of non-Christian…

  4. The Question of Work: Adolescent Literature and the Eriksonian Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgan, Mary

    1988-01-01

    Suggests that focusing on paradigms of work--the way it is described, together with the thematic implications it embodies--can be useful in teaching literature to young adults. Examines how examples from literature illustrate Erik H. Erikson's paradigm of the psychosocial stages of development in late childhood and adolescence. (MM)

  5. A Paradigm for Learning in a World of Continuous Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Through ongoing rapid-fire changes in the nature of communications, the social, professional, and political landscapes of our time are rapidly transforming. But the prevailing paradigm in most schools and school systems is a relic of the industrial revolution. Schools and school systems must adopt a new paradigm for learning if they are to remain…

  6. Sexual Violence through a Social Justice Paradigm: Framing and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Luoluo; Marine, Susan B.

    2018-01-01

    In this chapter, we explore the factors that support the occurrence of sexual violence, including the role of interlocking systems of oppression. Traditional conceptions of "prevention" are deconstructed, a social justice paradigm for addressing sexual violence is advanced, and examples of how the paradigm can be applied to practice are…

  7. The Membrane Paradigm and black-hole thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorne, K.S.

    1986-01-01

    A brief overview is given of the theoretical underpinnings of the Membrane Paradigm for black-hole physics. Then those underpinnings are used to elucidate the Paradigm's view that the laws of black-hole thermodynamics (including the statistical origin of black-hole entropy) are just a special case of the laws of thermodynamics for an ordinary, rotating, thermal reservoir

  8. Towards a Paradigm Shift in Educational Research: A Case of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The postcolonial theory paradigm guided the study. The article reviews literature on the postcolonial theory with the objective of illustrating how this research paradigm may be employed in the field of education in a postcolonial context. The origin, purpose and relevance of the postcolonial theory are brought to the fore as ...

  9. Motor imagery enhancement paradigm using moving rubber hand illusion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minsu Song; Jonghyun Kim

    2017-07-01

    Motor imagery (MI) has been widely used in neurorehabilitation and brain computer interface. The size of event-related desynchronization (ERD) is a key parameter for successful motor imaginary rehabilitation and BCI adaptation. Many studies have used visual guidance for enhancement/ amplification of motor imagery ERD amplitude, but their enhancements were not significant. We propose a novel ERD enhancing paradigm using body-ownership illusion, or also known as rubber hand illusion (RHI). The system was made by motorized, moving rubber hand which can simulate wrist extension. The amplifying effects of the proposed RHI paradigm were evaluated by comparing ERD sizes of the proposed paradigm with motor imagery and actual motor execution paradigms. The comparison result shows that the improvement of ERD size due to the proposed paradigm was statistically significant (pparadigms.

  10. A Cultural Paradigm--Learning by Observing and Pitching In.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogoff, Barbara; Mejía-Arauz, Rebeca; Correa-Chávez, Maricela

    2015-01-01

    We discuss Learning by Observing and Pitching In (LOPI) as a cultural paradigm that provides an interesting alternative to Assembly-Line Instruction for supporting children's learning. Although LOPI may occur in all communities, it appears to be especially prevalent in many Indigenous and Indigenous-heritage communities of the Americas. We explain key features of this paradigm, previewing the chapters of this volume, which examine LOPI as it occurs in the lives of families and communities. In this introductory chapter, we focus especially on one feature of the paradigm that plays an important role in its uptake and maintenance in families, institutions, and communities-the nature of assessment. We consider the power of the dominant paradigm and the challenges in making paradigm shifts. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Revisiting System Paradigms from the Viewpoint of Manufacturing Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuming Bi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A system paradigm is an abstract representation of system; it includes system architecture used to determine the types and numbers of components and their relations in the system. The design of system paradigm relies on customers’ requirements and the characteristics of the manufacturing environment. Many system paradigms and design guidelines have been proposed for a variety of customers’ needs including functions, cost, quality, personalization, and lead time of products. However, the consideration of sustainability becomes essential to today’s manufacturing systems; a new challenge is how to evolve existing paradigms to accommodate the requirements of sustainability. In contrast to ample research activities on system paradigms in past decades, recent studies on system paradigms have been restricted, partially due to unclear research directions. Limited works can be found on conceiving new manufacturing system paradigms from the perspective of sustainability; most of the related literature concerns the new requirements of sustainability. The objectives of this work are (i to examine the requirements of manufacturing systems in a wider scope; (ii to revisit existing paradigms to clarify their limitations and bottlenecks; and eventually (iii to identify some research directions, which will lead to a solution of sustainable manufacturing. To achieve these objectives, firstly, a brief description of today’s manufacturing environment is provided. Secondly, the requirements of sustainability are discussed, and the relevant researches on system sustainability are surveyed. Thirdly, the reconfigurable system paradigm is focused, and the gaps between a reconfigurable manufacturing system and a sustainable manufacturing system are discussed. Finally, the future endeavors towards to the next-generation manufacturing system paradigms are discussed.

  12. Anthropology of music: Paradigms and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rašić Miloš

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Music represents a relational category, in the sense that people write meaning into it, and later by the means of the same music they write the meaning into other people. Therefore, I regard music as a cultural construct. Music does not possess universal meanings, but it forms its numerous meanings in different cultural environments, as well as in different individual perceptions. In anthropology, music is not studied in relation to its musical characteristics or aesthetical values. Anthropologists study its role in a wider social system, and strive to understand, by analysing the role of music in a society, the social and cultural system it belongs to - musical structure is less important here. The goal of the paper is to give an overview of the paradigms in ethnology and anthropology which have been used in studying music. In addition, a hypothetical-theoretical framework for studying music in institutions is set. Although the theory of hubs, which is presented here as a potential framework for studying music in institutions, is exemplified by traditional music, it can be applied to any genre of music. The basic theoretical framework offered by the authors Nadia Kiwan and Hanna Mainhof has been supplemented by certain parts which the author thought appropriate for studying music in institutions, both in ethnological and anthropological discourse.

  13. Changing the paradigm for engineering ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Jon Alan

    2014-12-01

    Modern philosophy recognizes two major ethical theories: deontology, which encourages adherence to rules and fulfillment of duties or obligations; and consequentialism, which evaluates morally significant actions strictly on the basis of their actual or anticipated outcomes. Both involve the systematic application of universal abstract principles, reflecting the culturally dominant paradigm of technical rationality. Professional societies promulgate codes of ethics with which engineers are expected to comply (deontology), while courts and the public generally assign liability to engineers primarily in accordance with the results of their work, whether intended or unintended (consequentialism). A third option, prominent in ancient philosophy, has reemerged recently: virtue ethics, which recognizes that sensitivity to context and practical judgment are indispensable in particular concrete situations, and therefore rightly focuses on the person who acts, rather than the action itself. Beneficial character traits--i.e., virtues--are identified within a specific social practice in light of the internal goods that are unique to it. This paper proposes a comprehensive framework for implementing virtue ethics within engineering.

  14. International trade disputes in modern regulatory paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Gordeeva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the latest trends observed in the area of contradictory relations between countries with regard to international trade, which cause changes in the paradigm of international trade disputes. It has been found out that any state of inconsistent relations between the countries is recently characterized as a «trade war». It has been analyzed the notions of «dispute», «conflict», «war» according to international regulatory documents and determined the applicability of these terms depending on a number of criteria. It has been studied the evolution of the objects of international trade disputes since the time of ancient Greece until today, and new trends based on this have been revealed with regard to use of trade policy instruments that cause disputes between countries. Several specific examples of international trade disputes and causes of their occurrence have been considered. A quantitative analysis of international trade disputes in general and in relations between the leading countries in terms of a number of the trade disputes in which they were involved has been performed.

  15. Inflationary paradigm in trouble after Planck2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ijjas, Anna, E-mail: aijjas@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); University Observatory Munich, 81679 Munich (Germany); Steinhardt, Paul J., E-mail: steinh@princeton.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Princeton Center for Theoretical Science, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Loeb, Abraham, E-mail: aloeb@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-06-25

    Recent results from the Planck satellite combined with earlier observations from WMAP, ACT, SPT and other experiments eliminate a wide spectrum of more complex inflationary models and favor models with a single scalar field, as reported by the Planck Collaboration. More important, though, is that all the simplest inflaton models are disfavored statistically relative to those with plateau-like potentials. We discuss how a restriction to plateau-like models has three independent serious drawbacks: it exacerbates both the initial conditions problem and the multiverse-unpredictability problem and it creates a new difficulty that we call the inflationary “unlikeliness problem.” Finally, we comment on problems reconciling inflation with a standard model Higgs, as suggested by recent LHC results. In sum, we find that recent experimental data disfavors all the best-motivated inflationary scenarios and introduces new, serious difficulties that cut to the core of the inflationary paradigm. Forthcoming searches for B-modes, non-Gaussianity and new particles should be decisive.

  16. Bitters: Time for a New Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael K. McMullen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In plant-based medical systems, bitter tasting plants play a key role in managing dyspepsia. Yet when it comes to defining their mechanism of activity, herbalists and pharmacologists are split between two theories: one involves cephalic elicited vagal responses while the other comprises purely local responses. Recent studies indicate that bitters elicit a range of cephalic responses which alter postprandial gastric phase haemodynamics. Caffeine and regular coffee (Coffea arabica semen, L. increase heart rate whereas gentian (Gentiana lutea radix, L. and wormwood (Artemisia absinthium herba L. increase tonus in the vascular resistance vessels. Following meals increased cardiac activity acts to support postprandial hyperaemia and maintain systemic blood pressure. The increased vascular tonus acts in parallel with the increased cardiac activity and in normal adults this additional pressor effect results in a reduced cardiac workload. The vascular response is a sympathetic reflex, evident after 5 minutes and dose dependent. Thus gentian and wormwood elicit cephalic responses which facilitate rather than stimulate digestive activity when postprandial hyperaemia is inadequate. Encapsulated caffeine elicits cardiovascular responses indicating that gastrointestinal bitter receptors are functionally active in humans. However, neither encapsulated gentian nor wormwood elicited cardiovascular responses during the gastric phase. These findings provide the platform for a new evidence-based paradigm.

  17. Bitters: Time for a New Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Michael K; Whitehouse, Julie M; Towell, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    In plant-based medical systems, bitter tasting plants play a key role in managing dyspepsia. Yet when it comes to defining their mechanism of activity, herbalists and pharmacologists are split between two theories: one involves cephalic elicited vagal responses while the other comprises purely local responses. Recent studies indicate that bitters elicit a range of cephalic responses which alter postprandial gastric phase haemodynamics. Caffeine and regular coffee (Coffea arabica semen, L.) increase heart rate whereas gentian (Gentiana lutea radix, L.) and wormwood (Artemisia absinthium herba L.) increase tonus in the vascular resistance vessels. Following meals increased cardiac activity acts to support postprandial hyperaemia and maintain systemic blood pressure. The increased vascular tonus acts in parallel with the increased cardiac activity and in normal adults this additional pressor effect results in a reduced cardiac workload. The vascular response is a sympathetic reflex, evident after 5 minutes and dose dependent. Thus gentian and wormwood elicit cephalic responses which facilitate rather than stimulate digestive activity when postprandial hyperaemia is inadequate. Encapsulated caffeine elicits cardiovascular responses indicating that gastrointestinal bitter receptors are functionally active in humans. However, neither encapsulated gentian nor wormwood elicited cardiovascular responses during the gastric phase. These findings provide the platform for a new evidence-based paradigm.

  18. Diverticular Disease: Traditional and Evolving Paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamanna, Lenore; Moran, Patricia E

    Diverticular disease includes diverticulosis, which are sac protrusions of the intestinal mucosa, and diverticulitis, inflammation of the diverticula. Diverticular disease is listed as one of the top 10 leading physician diagnoses for gastrointestinal disorders in outpatient clinic visits in the United States. There are several classifications of diverticular disease ranging from asymptomatic diverticulosis to diverticulitis with complications. Several theories are linked to the development of diverticula which includes the physiology of the colon itself, collagen cross-linking, and recently challenged, low-fiber intake. The differential diagnoses of lower abdominal pain in addition to diverticular disease have overlapping signs and symptoms, which can make a diagnosis challenging. Identification of the distinct signs and symptoms of each classification will assist the practitioner in making the correct diagnosis and lead to appropriate management. The findings from recent studies have changed the paradigm of diverticular disease. The purpose of this article is to discuss traditional dogma and evolving concepts in the pathophysiology, prevention, and management of diverticular disease. Practitioners must be knowledgeable about diverticular disease for improved outcomes.

  19. Biofabrication: a 21st century manufacturing paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mironov, V; Trusk, T; Markwald, R; Kasyanov, V; Little, S; Swaja, R

    2009-01-01

    Biofabrication can be defined as the production of complex living and non-living biological products from raw materials such as living cells, molecules, extracellular matrices, and biomaterials. Cell and developmental biology, biomaterials science, and mechanical engineering are the main disciplines contributing to the emergence of biofabrication technology. The industrial potential of biofabrication technology is far beyond the traditional medically oriented tissue engineering and organ printing and, in the short term, it is essential for developing potentially highly predictive human cell- and tissue-based technologies for drug discovery, drug toxicity, environmental toxicology assays, and complex in vitro models of human development and diseases. In the long term, biofabrication can also contribute to the development of novel biotechnologies for sustainable energy production in the future biofuel industry and dramatically transform traditional animal-based agriculture by inventing 'animal-free' food, leather, and fur products. Thus, the broad spectrum of potential applications and rapidly growing arsenal of biofabrication methods strongly suggests that biofabrication can become a dominant technological platform and new paradigm for 21st century manufacturing. The main objectives of this review are defining biofabrication, outlining the most essential disciplines critical for emergence of this field, analysis of the evolving arsenal of biofabrication technologies and their potential practical applications, as well as a discussion of the common challenges being faced by biofabrication technologies, and the necessary conditions for the development of a global biofabrication research community and commercially successful biofabrication industry. (topical review)

  20. Biofabrication: a 21st century manufacturing paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironov, V; Trusk, T; Kasyanov, V; Little, S; Swaja, R; Markwald, R

    2009-06-01

    Biofabrication can be defined as the production of complex living and non-living biological products from raw materials such as living cells, molecules, extracellular matrices, and biomaterials. Cell and developmental biology, biomaterials science, and mechanical engineering are the main disciplines contributing to the emergence of biofabrication technology. The industrial potential of biofabrication technology is far beyond the traditional medically oriented tissue engineering and organ printing and, in the short term, it is essential for developing potentially highly predictive human cell- and tissue-based technologies for drug discovery, drug toxicity, environmental toxicology assays, and complex in vitro models of human development and diseases. In the long term, biofabrication can also contribute to the development of novel biotechnologies for sustainable energy production in the future biofuel industry and dramatically transform traditional animal-based agriculture by inventing 'animal-free' food, leather, and fur products. Thus, the broad spectrum of potential applications and rapidly growing arsenal of biofabrication methods strongly suggests that biofabrication can become a dominant technological platform and new paradigm for 21st century manufacturing. The main objectives of this review are defining biofabrication, outlining the most essential disciplines critical for emergence of this field, analysis of the evolving arsenal of biofabrication technologies and their potential practical applications, as well as a discussion of the common challenges being faced by biofabrication technologies, and the necessary conditions for the development of a global biofabrication research community and commercially successful biofabrication industry.

  1. Revisiting cytogenetic paradigms armed with new tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornforth, M.N.

    2003-01-01

    It could be argued that most of the fundamental tenets of radiation biology were either discovered, or subsequently confirmed, by observing eukaryotic chromosomes under the microscope. These include, but are certainly not limited to, dose-response relationships with respect to intensity (dose rate/dose fractionation) and radiation quality (LET/track structure). Chromosome aberrations are exquisitely sensitive indicators of radiation damage, and provide quantitative information of biological effect on a cell-by-cell-basis. As such, they have long been a favored endpoint for theoreticians, thereby figuring prominently in the development of generalized models of radiation action. Most of these seminal contributions to radiation biology occurred over a period of time when cytogenetic techniques were, of course, less refined than today. Considering the increasing rate at which technological advances have been made available to the researcher over the past few years, a reexamination of some of the radiological principles that cytogenetics helped to found seems in order. As an example of such effort, this talk will center around improvements to the use of whole chromosome painting by FISH- principally combinatorial painting techniques like mFISH and SKY- for the purposes of examining in greater detail structural aberrations to chromosomes produced following exposure to ionizing radiations of differing quality and intensity. This and related approaches by various laboratories around the world have turned up a few surprise discoveries that do not always fit established paradigms, and which serve to sharpen arguments that have been used to buttress existing models of aberration formation

  2. Spirituality in Contemporary Paradigms: An Integrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monir Ramezani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: As two of the most prominent cultural components, spirituality and religion give sense to our human values, conducts, and experiences. The spiritual dimension is one of the four significant aspects of holistic care. However, the diversity of views has resulted in different interpretations of the reality of spirituality and its origins and consequences. Aim: This study aimed to examine the available approaches and paradigms in the realm of spirituality. Method: In the present integrative review, the initial search was performed in national and international databases, including Science Direct, PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, Sage, Medline, Wiley, SID, MagIran, IranMedex, and IranDoc, using the keyword, "spirituality", without considering any time limits. Articles relevant to the objectives of the study were then fully reviewed. Results: Since ancient times, spirituality has been sporadically discussed in human intellectual and artistic artifacts. This concept was expanded as an independent, systematic, and conscious movement since the second half of the 19th century in Europe, USA, and Canada. The three prominent approaches to spirituality include religious, secular, and holistic health perspectives. Implications for Practice: Despite the growing interest in research on spirituality, it is difficult to reach a unanimous decision about this concept. However, it should be noted that spiritual concerns cannot be disregarded, considering the holistic perspective to humanity as the building block of holistic nursing care. Overall, every patient is a unique human being whose spiritual needs are affected by his/her cultural beliefs and values.

  3. A LEGO paradigm for virtual accelerator concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrianov, S.; Ivanov, A.; Podzyvalov, E.

    2012-01-01

    The paper considers basic features of a Virtual Accelerator concept based on LEGO paradigm. This concept involves three types of components: different mathematical models for accelerator design problems, integrated beam simulation packages (i. e. COSY, MAD, OptiM and others), and a special class of virtual feedback instruments similar to real control systems (EPICS). All of these components should inter-operate for more complete analysis of control systems and increased fault tolerance. The Virtual Accelerator is an information and computing environment which provides a framework for analysis based on these components that can be combined in different ways. Corresponding distributed computing services establish interaction between mathematical models and low level control system. The general idea of the software implementation is based on the Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) that allows using cloud computing technology and enables remote access to the information and computing resources. The Virtual Accelerator allows a designer to combine powerful instruments for modeling beam dynamics in a friendly way including both self-developed and well-known packages. In the scope of this concept the following is also proposed: the control system identification, analysis and result verification, visualization as well as virtual feedback for beam line operation. The architecture of the Virtual Accelerator system itself and results of beam dynamics studies are presented. (authors)

  4. Integrated reporting – innovation in accounting paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosława Kwiecień

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article is an introduction to the issues and results of a new trend in interdisciplinary research, which is integrated reporting. „Violated balance”, characteristic of contemporary global economy, forces us to seek solutions oriented to symbiosis between economic, social and environmental progress, which is the basis for fundamental changes in mental models that determine the way the economic organization oper-ates. On the basis of literature studies, as well as management (of innovation, knowledge, etc. science studies and research on changes in legal regulations of accounting, one can venture to say that the change in accounting paradigms is an innovation which stems from legal requirements. Legislation stimulates conceptuality, including information management, standardization of accounting, etc. Innovation theory refers to technological, organizational and market changes, so a question ariseswhether this theory can be applied to accounting practices as well? In this way an idea emerged for inves-tigating the question if the implementation of legal regulations such as International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS or the standards of the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI is a manifestation of the inno-vation theory in the development of accounting systems, especially in reporting.

  5. Citizen utilities: The emerging power paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Jemma; Newman, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The emergence of citizen-based power systems in an integrated grid has been anticipated for decades. We can reveal how this is emerging in practice due to the significant uptake of solar photovoltaics (solar PV) and now battery storage in Perth, Australia. The high cost of electricity, high radiant energy levels and easy access to cheap Chinese technology, has led to dramatic buying during Perth's recent boomtown years. The traditional uni-directional power system is rapidly disrupting and this paper assesses where this may lead and what it means for the grid. Results of detailed monitoring in a solar powered house along with the impact of a battery storage system show the impact on the traditional grid is substantial but it will still be needed and must therefore adapt to the new distributed, bi-directional energy system. Surveys and price trajectories reveal how the trends to solar power storage will continue and how a citizen utility paradigm will emerge as the future grid building block using new blockchain support systems. Responses from utilities are then see to be fight, flight or innovate. - Highlights: • Citizen based power systems are emerging in Perth, Western Australia. • Solar power and battery storage systems are disrupting traditional utilities. • The grid will still have a role in the new, distributed power system. • The new system will lead to economic localism and the democratisation of power.

  6. An automated paradigm for Drosophila visual psychophysics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Evans

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mutations that cause learning and memory defects in Drosophila melanogaster have been found to also compromise visual responsiveness and attention. A better understanding of attention-like defects in such Drosophila mutants therefore requires a more detailed characterization of visual responsiveness across a range of visual parameters. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We designed an automated behavioral paradigm for efficiently dissecting visual responsiveness in Drosophila. Populations of flies walk through multiplexed serial choice mazes while being exposed to moving visuals displayed on computer monitors, and infra-red fly counters at the end of each maze automatically score the responsiveness of a strain. To test our new design, we performed a detailed comparison between wild-type flies and a learning and memory mutant, dunce(1. We first confirmed that the learning mutant dunce(1 displays increased responsiveness to a black/green moving grating compared to wild type in this new design. We then extended this result to explore responses to a wide range of psychophysical parameters for moving gratings (e.g., luminosity, contrast, spatial frequency, velocity as well as to a different stimulus, moving dots. Finally, we combined these visuals (gratings versus dots in competition to investigate how dunce(1 and wild-type flies respond to more complex and conflicting motion effects. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We found that dunce(1 responds more strongly than wild type to high contrast and highly structured motion. This effect was found for simple gratings, dots, and combinations of both stimuli presented in competition.

  7. Current treatment paradigms in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, J F

    2000-06-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has traditionally been treated using the pyramid approach, in which non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the first-line treatment and disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) are introduced relatively late in the disease. This approach is no longer valid. Previously regarded as a benign disease, RA is now recognized as causing substantial morbidity and mortality, as do the NSAIDs used in treatment. DMARDs are more effective in controlling the pain and disability of RA than NSAIDs, and are often no more toxic. The current treatment paradigm emphasizes early, consistent use of DMARDs. A 'sawtooth' strategy of DMARD use has been proposed, in which a rising but low level of disability triggers a change in therapy. Determining the most clinically useful DMARD combinations and the optimal sequence of DMARD use requires effectiveness studies, Bayesian approaches and analyses of long-term outcomes. Such approaches will allow optimization of multiple drug therapies in RA, and should substantially improve the long-term outcome for many patients.

  8. Paradigms and Paradoxes: Dawn at Vesta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Carol; Russell, Christopher; Mittlefehldt, David

    2014-05-01

    While confirming the paradigm of Vesta as the parent body of the HED meteorites, measurements by Dawn have discovered many unexpected aspects of the vestan surface. First, an olivine layer was not found in the bottom of the large basin near the south pole of Vesta where excavation of the mantle was thought to have occurred. In fact, while patches of olivine have been found in the north, it is rare on the surface. Secondly, while Vesta has little gravity and appears to have completely differentiated, it is not completely dry. Morphological evidence from the walls and floors of some craters suggest transient fluid flows and pits formed by devolatization, implying a substantial amount of accessible water. The question is, did this water derive from internal or external sources? Thirdly, transport of material to the surface of Vesta from elsewhere in the asteroid belt appears as dark material buried near the top of the regolith of Vesta. This may have arrived in a single large impact and been spread around the surface and buried, later to be re-excavated. However, this is not the only scenario possible for the source of this material. Meteoritical evidence from howardites shows that debris from multiple types of impactors are present in the vestan regolith. In short, Dawn's observations of Vesta have been both reassuring but unsettling at the same time.

  9. Personal Space Regulation in Williams Syndrome: The Effect of Familiarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lough, Emma; Flynn, Emma; Riby, Deborah M.

    2016-01-01

    Personal space refers to a protective barrier that we strive to maintain around our body. We examined personal space regulation in young people with Williams syndrome (WS) and their typically developing, chronological age-matched peers using a parent report questionnaire and a stop-distance paradigm. Individuals with WS were reported by their…

  10. Neighborhood spaces

    OpenAIRE

    D. C. Kent; Won Keun Min

    2002-01-01

    Neighborhood spaces, pretopological spaces, and closure spaces are topological space generalizations which can be characterized by means of their associated interior (or closure) operators. The category NBD of neighborhood spaces and continuous maps contains PRTOP as a bicoreflective subcategory and CLS as a bireflective subcategory, whereas TOP is bireflectively embedded in PRTOP and bicoreflectively embedded in CLS. Initial and final structures are described in these categories, and it is s...

  11. Four-level conservative finite-difference schemes for Boussinesq paradigm equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolkovska, N.

    2013-10-01

    In this paper a two-parametric family of four level conservative finite difference schemes is constructed for the multidimensional Boussinesq paradigm equation. The schemes are explicit in the sense that no inner iterations are needed for evaluation of the numerical solution. The preservation of the discrete energy with this method is proved. The schemes have been numerically tested on one soliton propagation model and two solitons interaction model. The numerical experiments demonstrate that the proposed family of schemes has second order of convergence in space and time steps in the discrete maximal norm.

  12. Conceptual Foundations for the Formation of a New Paradigm for Socio-Economic Development of Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turskyj Ihor V.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to define the theoretical and methodological foundations and practical basis for the process of forming a new paradigm of regional development, in particular the features of classical and modern theories of regional development in the aspect of the formation of factors for intensifying the social and humanitarian development of entrepreneurship in regions. There noted an increase in the role of humanitarian values and social factors in the economic development of regions in the existing paradigms of regional development, which makes it necessary to concentrate research on the development of the humanitarian and social spheres in close interrelation with economic development. Based on the research and analysis of internal and external factors of the regional economic development, a set of key factors for the development of the knowledge economy in regions is defined. The study of regional approaches to regional development has led to the conclusion that, under current conditions, the existing paradigms of regional development should be improved taking into account the realities of the emergence of new economic systems based on human capital and knowledge, as well as on the introduction of the component of social and humanitarian space of the region into the analysis of regional development processes.

  13. A nomenclature paradigm for benign midmembranous vocal fold lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Clark A; Gartner-Schmidt, Jackie; Hathaway, Bridget; Simpson, C Blake; Postma, Gregory N; Courey, Mark; Sataloff, Robert T

    2012-06-01

    There is a significant lack of uniform agreement regarding nomenclature for benign vocal fold lesions (BVFLs). This confusion results in difficulty for clinicians communicating with their patients and with each other. In addition, BVFL research and comparison of treatment methods are hampered by the lack of a detailed and uniform BVFL nomenclature. Clinical consensus conferences were held to develop an initial BVFL nomenclature paradigm. Perceptual video analysis was performed to validate the stroboscopy component of the paradigm. The culmination of the consensus conferences and the video-perceptual analysis was used to evaluate the BVFL nomenclature paradigm using a retrospective review of patients with BVFL. An initial BVFL nomenclature paradigm was proposed utilizing detailed definitions relating to vocal fold lesion morphology, stroboscopy, response to voice therapy and intraoperative findings. Video-perceptual analysis of stroboscopy demonstrated that the proposed binary stroboscopy system used in the BVFL nomenclature paradigm was valid and widely applicable. Retrospective review of 45 patients with BVFL followed to the conclusion of treatment demonstrated that slight modifications of the initial BVFL nomenclature paradigm were required. With the modified BVFL nomenclature paradigm, 96% of the patients fit into the predicted pattern and definitions of the BVFL nomenclature system. This study has validated a multidimensional BVFL nomenclature paradigm. This vocal fold nomenclature paradigm includes nine distinct vocal fold lesions: vocal fold nodules, vocal fold polyp, pseudocyst, vocal fold cyst (subepithelial or ligament), nonspecific vocal fold lesion, vocal fold fibrous mass (subepithelial or ligament), and reactive lesion. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  14. Innovative technological paradigm-based approach towards biofuel feedstock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Jiuping; Li, Meihui

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • DAS was developed through an innovative approach towards literature mining and technological paradigm theory. • A novel concept of biofuel feedstock development paradigm (BFDP) is proposed. • The biofuel production diffusion velocity model gives predictions for the future. • Soft path appears to be the driving force for the new paradigm shift. • An integrated biofuel production feedstock system is expected to play a significant role in a low-carbon sustainable future. - Abstract: Biofuels produced from renewable energy biomass are playing a more significant role because of the environmental problems resulting from the use of fossil fuels. However, a major problem with biofuel production is that despite the range of feedstock that can be used, raw material availability varies considerably. By combining a series of theories and methods, the research objective of this study is to determine the current developments and the future trends in biofuel feedstock. By combining technological paradigm theory with literature mining, it was found that biofuel feedstock production development followed a three-stage trajectory, which was in accordance with the traditional technological paradigm – the S-curve. This new curve can be divided into BFDP (biofuel feedstock development paradigm) competition, BFDP diffusion, and BFDP shift. The biofuel production diffusion velocity model showed that there has been constant growth from 2000, with the growth rate reaching a peak in 2008, after which time it began to drop. Biofuel production worldwide is expected to remain unchanged until 2030 when a paradigm shift is expected. This study also illustrates the results of our innovative procedure – a combination of the data analysis system and the technological paradigm theory – for the present biofuel feedstock soft path that will lead to this paradigm shift, with integrated biofuel production feedstock systems expected to be a significant new trend.

  15. GRB 110731A within the IGC paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primorac Daria

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bright gamma-ray burst (GRB 110731A was simultaneously observed by Fermi and Swift observatories, with a follow up optical observation which inferred the redshift of z = 2.83. Thus, available data are spanning from optical to high energy (GeV emission. We analyze these data within the induced gravitational collapse (IGC paradigm, recently introduced to explain temporal coincidence of some long GRBs with type Ic supernovae. The case of binary-driven hypcrnova (BdHN assumes a close system, which starts as an evolved core - neutron star binary. After the core-collapse event, the new NS - black hole system is formed, emitting the GRB in the process. We performed the time-resolved and time-integrated analysis of the Fermi data. Preliminary results gave isotropic energy Eiso = 6.05 × 1053 erg and the total P-GRB energy of Ep–GRB = 3.7 × 1052 erg. At transparency point we found a Lorentz factor Γ ~ 2.17 × 103 laboratory radius of 8.33 x 1013 cm, P-GRB observed temperature of 168 keV and a baryon load B = 4.35 × 10-4. Simulated light-curve and prompt emission spectra showed the average circum burst medium density to be n ~ 0.03 particles per cm3. We reproduced the X-ray light-curve within the rest-frame of the source, finding the common late power-law behavior, with α = –1.22. Considering these results, we interpret GRB 110731A as a member of a BdHNe group.

  16. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: Evolving paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonardo, Amedeo; Nascimbeni, Fabio; Maurantonio, Mauro; Marrazzo, Alessandra; Rinaldi, Luca; Adinolfi, Luigi Elio

    2017-01-01

    In the last years new evidence has accumulated on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) challenging the paradigms that had been holding the scene over the previous 30 years. NAFLD has such an epidemic prevalence as to make it impossible to screen general population looking for NAFLD cases. Conversely, focusing on those cohorts of individuals exposed to the highest risk of NAFLD could be a more rational approach. NAFLD, which can be diagnosed with either non-invasive strategies or through liver biopsy, is a pathogenically complex and clinically heterogeneous disease. The existence of metabolic as opposed to genetic-associated disease, notably including ”lean NAFLD” has recently been recognized. Moreover, NAFLD is a systemic condition, featuring metabolic, cardiovascular and (hepatic/extra-hepatic) cancer risk. Among the clinico-laboratory features of NAFLD we discuss hyperuricemia, insulin resistance, atherosclerosis, gallstones, psoriasis and selected endocrine derangements. NAFLD is a precursor of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and metabolic syndrome and progressive liver disease develops in T2D patients in whom the course of disease is worsened by NAFLD. Finally, lifestyle changes and drug treatment options to be implemented in the individual patient are also critically discussed. In conclusion, this review emphasizes the new concepts on clinical and pathogenic heterogeneity of NAFLD, a systemic disorder with a multifactorial pathogenesis and protean clinical manifestations. It is highly prevalent in certain cohorts of individuals who are thus potentially amenable to selective screening strategies, intensive follow-up schedules for early identification of liver-related and extrahepatic complications and in whom earlier and more aggressive treatment schedules should be carried out whenever possible. PMID:29085206

  17. Local seafood: rethinking the direct marketing paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua S. Stoll

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Faced with strict regulations, rising operational costs, depleted stocks, and competition from less expensive foreign imports, many fishers are pursuing new ways to market and sell their catch. Direct marketing arrangements can increase the ex-vessel value of seafood and profitability of operations for fishers by circumventing dominant wholesale chains of custody and capturing the premium that customers are willing to pay for local seafood. Our analysis goes beyond a paradigm that understands direct marketing arrangements as solely economic tools to consider how these emerging business configurations create a set of conditions that can result in increased bonding and bridging capital among fishers by incentivizing cooperation, communication, and information production and organization. To build our case, we report on the economic value being generated for fishers in a cooperatively owned and operated direct marketing arrangement in eastern North Carolina. Over the course of 2 years, fishers participating in the Walking Fish community-supported fishery received 33% more revenue for their catch compared to the average monthly ex-vessel price of finfish and shellfish landed in the surrounding region, and an additional 14% to 18% more per dollar by way of year-end profit sharing. We argue that these economic benefits create an incentive to participate, resulting in cooperation among fishers and increased communication skills that foster bonding and bridging capital that put fishers in a position to identify and respond to challenges that threaten the social-ecological resilience of the systems within which they operate. We suggest that "institutional starters" like these can play a critical role in increasing the resilience of social-ecological systems, including fisheries.

  18. Cooperate! A paradigm shift for health equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wei-Ching; Fraser, Joy H

    2017-02-21

    The role of competition and cooperation in relation to the goal of health equity is examined in this paper. The authors explain why the win-lose mentality associated with avoidable competition is ethically questionable and less effective than cooperation in achieving positive outcomes, particularly as it relates to health and health equity. Competition, which differentiates winners from losers, often with the winner-takes-all reward system, inevitably leads to a few winners and many losers, resulting in social inequality, which, in turn, engenders and perpetuates health inequity.Competitive market-driven approaches to healthcare-brought about by capitalism, neo-liberalization, and globalization, based primarily on a competitive framework-are shown to have contributed to growing inequities with respect to the social determinants of health, and have undermined equal opportunity to access health care and achieve health equity. It is possible to redistribute income and wealth to reduce social inequality, but globalization poses increasing challenges to policy makers. John Stuart Mill provided a passionate, philosophical defense of cooperatives, followed by Karl Polanyi who offered an insightful critique of both state socialism and especially the self-regulating market, thereby opening up the cooperative way of shaping the future. We cite Hannah Arendt's "the banality of evil" to characterize the tragic concept of "ethical fading" witnessed in business and everyday life all over the world, often committed (without thinking and reflecting) by ordinary people under competitive pressures.To promote equity in health for all, we recommend the adoption of a radically new cooperation paradigm, applied whenever possible, to everything in our daily lives.

  19. Electromagnetic servoing-a new tracking paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichl, Tobias; Gardiazabal, José; Navab, Nassir

    2013-08-01

    Electromagnetic (EM) tracking is highly relevant for many computer assisted interventions. This is in particular due to the fact that the scientific community has not yet developed a general solution for tracking of flexible instruments within the human body. Electromagnetic tracking solutions are highly attractive for minimally invasive procedures, since they do not require line of sight. However, a major problem with EM tracking solutions is that they do not provide uniform accuracy throughout the tracking volume and the desired, highest accuracy is often only achieved close to the center of tracking volume. In this paper, we present a solution to the tracking problem, by mounting an EM field generator onto a robot arm. Proposing a new tracking paradigm, we take advantage of the electromagnetic tracking to detect the sensor within a specific sub-volume, with known and optimal accuracy. We then use the more accurate and robust robot positioning for obtaining uniform accuracy throughout the tracking volume. Such an EM servoing methodology guarantees optimal and uniform accuracy, by allowing us to always keep the tracked sensor close to the center of the tracking volume. In this paper, both dynamic accuracy and accuracy distribution within the tracking volume are evaluated using optical tracking as ground truth. In repeated evaluations, the proposed method was able to reduce the overall error from 6.64±7.86 mm to a significantly improved accuracy of 3.83±6.43 mm. In addition, the combined system provides a larger tracking volume, which is only limited by the reach of the robot and not the much smaller tracking volume defined by the magnetic field generator.

  20. Autonomous vehicles: from paradigms to technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionita, Silviu

    2017-10-01

    Mobility is a basic necessity of contemporary society and it is a key factor in global economic development. The basic requirements for the transport of people and goods are: safety and duration of travel, but also a number of additional criteria are very important: energy saving, pollution, passenger comfort. Due to advances in hardware and software, automation has penetrated massively in transport systems both on infrastructure and on vehicles, but man is still the key element in vehicle driving. However, the classic concept of ‘human-in-the-loop’ in terms of ‘hands on’ in driving the cars is competing aside from the self-driving startups working towards so-called ‘Level 4 autonomy’, which is defined as “a self-driving system that does not requires human intervention in most scenarios”. In this paper, a conceptual synthesis of the autonomous vehicle issue is made in connection with the artificial intelligence paradigm. It presents a classification of the tasks that take place during the driving of the vehicle and its modeling from the perspective of traditional control engineering and artificial intelligence. The issue of autonomous vehicle management is addressed on three levels: navigation, movement in traffic, respectively effective maneuver and vehicle dynamics control. Each level is then described in terms of specific tasks, such as: route selection, planning and reconfiguration, recognition of traffic signs and reaction to signaling and traffic events, as well as control of effective speed, distance and direction. The approach will lead to a better understanding of the way technology is moving when talking about autonomous cars, smart/intelligent cars or intelligent transport systems. Keywords: self-driving vehicle, artificial intelligence, deep learning, intelligent transport systems.

  1. GRB 110731A within the IGC paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primorac, Daria; Ruffini, Remo; Pisani, Giovanni Battista; Aimuratov, Yerlan; Biancol, Carlo Luciano; Karlica, Mile; Melon Fuksman, Julio David; Moradi, Rahim; Muccino, Marco; Penacchioni, Ana Virginia; Rueda, Jorge Armando; Wang, Yu

    2018-01-01

    Bright gamma-ray burst (GRB) 110731A was simultaneously observed by Fermi and Swift observatories, with a follow up optical observation which inferred the redshift of z = 2.83. Thus, available data are spanning from optical to high energy (GeV) emission. We analyze these data within the induced gravitational collapse (IGC) paradigm, recently introduced to explain temporal coincidence of some long GRBs with type Ic supernovae. The case of binary-driven hypcrnova (BdHN) assumes a close system, which starts as an evolved core - neutron star binary. After the core-collapse event, the new NS - black hole system is formed, emitting the GRB in the process. We performed the time-resolved and time-integrated analysis of the Fermi data. Preliminary results gave isotropic energy Eiso = 6.05 × 1053 erg and the total P-GRB energy of Ep-GRB = 3.7 × 1052 erg. At transparency point we found a Lorentz factor Γ 2.17 × 103 laboratory radius of 8.33 x 1013 cm, P-GRB observed temperature of 168 keV and a baryon load B = 4.35 × 10-4. Simulated light-curve and prompt emission spectra showed the average circum burst medium density to be n 0.03 particles per cm3. We reproduced the X-ray light-curve within the rest-frame of the source, finding the common late power-law behavior, with α = -1.22. Considering these results, we interpret GRB 110731A as a member of a BdHNe group.

  2. Contemporary paradigms for research related to women's mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, Shelley Anne; Letourneau, Nicole Lyn; Stoppard, Janet M

    2010-04-01

    Mental health problems are serious health concerns that affect women across diverse settings internationally. Knowledge of this population historically has been informed by research using a positivist approach. This article is a critical examination of contemporary paradigms for research related to women's mental health. We begin the article with an introduction to women's mental health, followed by an overview of the postpositivist, critical theory, and constructivist paradigms. We then present a critical examination of the benefits and limitations of these paradigms in relation to the study of women's mental health. We conclude with implications for research and practice.

  3. Innovation Policy Development and the Emergence of New Innovation Paradigms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanev, Stoyan; Knudsen, Mette Præst; Bisgaard, Tanja

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present article is to discuss innovation policy issues related to three emerging innovation paradigms: user-driven innovation, open innovation, and value cocreation. It provides a summary of insights based on innovation policy practices and challenges in Denmark. The choice...... of Danish innovation policy practices is not accidental. In 2008 Denmark implemented 40 different national innovation programs by allocating about 400 million euros. Since the three emerging paradigms have become globally relevant, the discussion of Danish policy development challenges and practices...... is expected to be insightful for innovation experts from other developed countries that are currently dealing with the adoption of these paradigms....

  4. A flow paradigm in heavy-ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Li

    2018-04-01

    The success of hydrodynamics in high energy heavy-ion collisions leads to a flow paradigm, to understand the observed features of harmonic flow in terms of the medium collective expansion with respect to initial state geometrical properties. In this review, we present some essential ingredients in the flow paradigm, including the hydrodynamic modeling, the characterization of initial state geometry and the medium response relations. The extension of the flow paradigm to small colliding systems is also discussed. Supported by Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada

  5. Stealing a ride on a comet to the sun: spaceship's 10-year, 4bn mile odyssey: European craft's audacious trip will give insight into our origins

    CERN Multimedia

    Radford, T

    2003-01-01

    "Some time in the next two weeks, European scientists hope to launch a spaceship the size of a delivery van and lob it across more than 4 billion miles of space to rendezvous 10 years from now with a dark lump of rock and ice the size of a city block" (1 page).

  6. Cryptic species as a window into the paradigm shift of the species concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fišer, Cene; Robinson, Christopher T; Malard, Florian

    2018-02-01

    The species concept is the cornerstone of biodiversity science, and any paradigm shift in the delimitation of species affects many research fields. Many biologists now are embracing a new "species" paradigm as separately evolving populations using different delimitation criteria. Individual criteria can emerge during different periods of speciation; some may never evolve. As such, a paradigm shift in the species concept relates to this inherent heterogeneity in the speciation process and species category-which is fundamentally overlooked in biodiversity research. Cryptic species fall within this paradigm shift: they are continuously being reported from diverse animal phyla but are poorly considered in current tests of ecological and evolutionary theory. The aim of this review is to integrate cryptic species in biodiversity science. In the first section, we address that the absence of morphological diversification is an evolutionary phenomenon, a "process" counterpart to the long-studied mechanisms of morphological diversification. In the next section regarding taxonomy, we show that molecular delimitation of cryptic species is heavily biased towards distance-based methods. We also stress the importance of formally naming of cryptic species for better integration into research fields that use species as units of analysis. Finally, we show that incorporating cryptic species leads to novel insights regarding biodiversity patterns and processes, including large-scale biodiversity assessments, geographic variation in species distribution and species coexistence. It is time for incorporating multicriteria species approaches aiming to understand speciation across space and taxa, thus allowing integration into biodiversity conservation while accommodating for species uncertainty. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Efficacy and safety of alirocumab in patients with hypercholesterolemia not adequately controlled with non-statin lipid-lowering therapy or the lowest strength of statin: ODYSSEY NIPPON study design and rationale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teramoto, Tamio; Kondo, Akira; Kiyosue, Arihiro; Harada-Shiba, Mariko; Ishigaki, Yasushi; Tobita, Kimimasa; Kawabata, Yumiko; Ozaki, Asuka; Baccara-Dinet, Marie T; Sata, Masataka

    2017-06-17

    Statins are generally well-tolerated and serious side effects are infrequent, but some patients experience adverse events and reduce their statin dose or discontinue treatment altogether. Alirocumab is a highly specific, fully human monoclonal antibody to proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), which can produce substantial and sustained reductions of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). The randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, phase 3 ODYSSEY NIPPON study will explore alirocumab 150 mg every 4 weeks (Q4W) in 163 Japanese patients with hypercholesterolemia who are on the lowest-strength dose of atorvastatin (5 mg/day) or are receiving a non-statin lipid-lowering therapy (LLT) (fenofibrate, bezafibrate, ezetimibe, or diet therapy alone). Hypercholesterolemia is defined as LDL-C ≥ 100 mg/dL (2.6 mmol/L) in patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia or non-familial hypercholesterolemia with a history of documented coronary heart disease, or ≥120 mg/dL (3.1 mmol/L) in patients with non-familial hypercholesterolemia classified as primary prevention category III (i.e. high-risk patients). During the 12-week double-blind treatment period, patients will be randomized (1:1:1) to receive alirocumab subcutaneously (SC) 150 mg Q4W alternating with placebo for alirocumab Q4W, or alirocumab 150 mg SC every 2 weeks (Q2W), or SC placebo Q2W. The primary efficacy endpoint is the percentage change in calculated LDL-C from baseline to week 12. The long-term safety and tolerability of alirocumab will also be investigated. The ODYSSEY NIPPON study will provide insights into the efficacy and safety of alirocumab 150 mg Q4W or 150 mg Q2W among Japanese patients with hypercholesterolemia who are on the lowest-strength dose of atorvastatin, or are receiving a non-statin LLT (including diet therapy alone). ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT02584504.

  8. Sacred Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelstein, Pamela

    2018-01-01

    A space can be sacred, providing those who inhabit a particular space with sense of transcendence-being connected to something greater than oneself. The sacredness may be inherent in the space, as for a religious institution or a serene place outdoors. Alternatively, a space may be made sacred by the people within it and events that occur there. As medical providers, we have the opportunity to create sacred space in our examination rooms and with our patient interactions. This sacred space can be healing to our patients and can bring us providers opportunities for increased connection, joy, and gratitude in our daily work.

  9. Sobolev spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, Robert A

    2003-01-01

    Sobolev Spaces presents an introduction to the theory of Sobolev Spaces and other related spaces of function, also to the imbedding characteristics of these spaces. This theory is widely used in pure and Applied Mathematics and in the Physical Sciences.This second edition of Adam''s ''classic'' reference text contains many additions and much modernizing and refining of material. The basic premise of the book remains unchanged: Sobolev Spaces is intended to provide a solid foundation in these spaces for graduate students and researchers alike.* Self-contained and accessible for readers in other disciplines.* Written at elementary level making it accessible to graduate students.

  10. Expanding the Telepresence Paradigm to the UNOLS Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, D.; Scowcroft, G.

    2014-12-01

    The Inner Space Center (ISC) at the University of Rhode Island Graduate School of Oceanography (URI-GSO) has been at the forefront of developing the tools, techniques, and protocols for telepresence-enabled ocean science exploration and education programs. Working primarily with the Ocean Exploration Trust's E/V Nautilus and the NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer, the ISC facility and staff have supported dozens of research cruises with significant shore-based support, while delivering related educational programming across the globe. Through a partnership with the University National Oceanographic Laboratory System (UNOLS), the ISC is broadening its reach and capabilities to serve vessels in the U.S. academic research fleet, managed by UNOLS. The ISC has developed and used a portable shipboard "mobile telepresence unit" (MTU) on several UNOLS ships to support projects led by ocean scientists that employed the telepresence paradigm as part of their research and outreach programs. Utilizing the ISC facilities provides opportunities for effective, successful broader impact activities and shore-based remote science connectivity. With new UNOLS ships coming online, including the R/V Sikuliaq, the R/V Neil Armstrong, and the R/V Sally Ride, in addition to future Regional Class Research Vessels (RCRVs), telepresence capability has become a technical requirement for a variety of reasons. Older vessels are being retrofit with this forward-looking technology, and URI's research vessel, the R/V Endeavor, has been recently configured with technology to support telepresence operations. This presentation will provide an overview of the future of telepresence technology, its use in ocean science research and education, and advantages for using this capability to support broader impact activities. In addition, ISC successes, challenges, and lessons learned in employing telepresence technologies and methodologies onboard the academic research fleet will be discussed.

  11. Metabolic engineering: the ultimate paradigm for continuous pharmaceutical manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Vikramaditya G; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2014-07-01

    Research and development (R&D) expenditures by pharmaceutical companies doubled over the past decade, yet candidate attrition rates and development times rose markedly during this period. Understandably, companies have begun downsizing their pipelines and diverting investments away from R&D in favor of manufacturing. It is estimated that transitioning to continuous manufacturing could enable companies to compete for a share in emerging markets. Accordingly, the model for continuous manufacturing that has emerged commences with the conversion of late-stage intermediates into the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) in a series of continuous flow reactors, followed by continuous solid processing to form finished tablets. The use of flow reactions for API synthesis will certainly generate purer products at higher yields in shorter times compared to equivalent batch reactions. However, transitioning from batch to flow configuration simply alleviates transport limitations within the reaction milieu. As the catalogue of reactions used in flow syntheses is a subset of batch-based chemistries, molecules such as natural products will continue to evade drug prospectors. Also, it is uncertain whether flow synthesis can deliver improvements in the atom and energy economies of API production at the scales that would achieve the levels of revenue growth targeted by companies. Instead, it is argued that implementing metabolic engineering for the production of oxidized scaffolds as gateway molecules for flow-based addition of electrophiles is a more effective and scalable strategy for accessing natural product chemical space. This new paradigm for manufacturing, with metabolic engineering as its engine, would also permit rapid optimization of production variables and allow facile scale-up from gram to ton scale to meet material requirements for clinical trials, thus recasting manufacturing as a tool for discovery. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Paradigms of communication ethics by Juozas Keliuotis

    OpenAIRE

    Gudauskas, Andrius

    2015-01-01

    The actual principles of social communication and media ethics have a power to support public communication among people. The existing patterns of human behaviour can determine real and concrete conduct both in public space and limited groups. Ethics usually appears in accordance with certain specified ideological or moral views. In Lithuania, Keliuotis (1902–1983) was the first to propose a value system for the sphere of mass media. This system is based on pursuing ideals, which lead to unit...

  13. Environment and Architecture - a Paradigm Shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Battista, Valerio

    The interaction of human cultures and the built environment allows a wide range of interpretations and has been studied inside the domain of many disciplines. This paper discusses three interpretations descending from a systemic approach to the question: - architecture as an "emergence" of the settlement system; - place (and space) as an "accumulator" of time and a "flux" of systems; - landscape as one representation/description of the human settlement. Architecture emerges as a new physical conformation or layout, or as a change in a specific site, arising from actions and representations of political, religious, economical or social powers, being shaped at all times by the material culture belonging to a specific time and place in the course of human evolution. Any inhabited space becomes over time a place as well as a landscape, i.e. a representation of the settlement and a relationship between setting and people. Therefore, any place owns a landscape which, in turn, is a system of physical systems; it could be defined as a system of sites that builds up its own structure stemming from the orographical features and the geometry of land surfaces that set out the basic characters of its space.

  14. Clinical fMRI of language function in aphasic patients: Reading paradigm successful, while word generation paradigm fails

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engstroem, Maria; Landtblom, Anne-Marie; Ragnehed, Mattias; Lundberg, Peter (Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV), Linkoeping Univ., Linkoeping (Sweden)), e-mail: maria.engstrom@liu.se; Karlsson, Marie; Crone, Marie (Dept. of Clinical and Experimental Medicine/Logopedics, Linkoeping Univ., Linkoeping (Sweden)); Antepohl, Wolfram (Dept. of Clinical and Experimental Medicine/Rehabilitation, Linkoeping Univ., Linkoeping (Sweden))

    2010-07-15

    Background: In fMRI examinations, it is very important to select appropriate paradigms assessing the brain function of interest. In addition, the patients' ability to perform the required cognitive tasks during fMRI must be taken into account. Purpose: To evaluate two language paradigms, word generation and sentence reading for their usefulness in examinations of aphasic patients and to make suggestions for improvements of clinical fMRI. Material and Methods: Five patients with aphasia after stroke or trauma sequelae were examined by fMRI. The patients' language ability was screened by neurolinguistic tests and elementary pre-fMRI language tests. Results: The sentence-reading paradigm succeeded to elicit adequate language-related activation in perilesional areas whereas the word generation paradigm failed. These findings were consistent with results on the behavioral tests in that all patients showed very poor performance in phonemic fluency, but scored well above mean at a reading comprehension task. Conclusion: The sentence-reading paradigm is appropriate to assess language function in this patient group, while the word-generation paradigm seems to be inadequate. In addition, it is crucial to use elementary pre-fMRI language tests to guide the fMRI paradigm decision.

  15. Clinical fMRI of language function in aphasic patients: Reading paradigm successful, while word generation paradigm fails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engstroem, Maria; Landtblom, Anne-Marie; Ragnehed, Mattias; Lundberg, Peter; Karlsson, Marie; Crone, Marie; Antepohl, Wolfram

    2010-01-01

    Background: In fMRI examinations, it is very important to select appropriate paradigms assessing the brain function of interest. In addition, the patients' ability to perform the required cognitive tasks during fMRI must be taken into account. Purpose: To evaluate two language paradigms, word generation and sentence reading for their usefulness in examinations of aphasic patients and to make suggestions for improvements of clinical fMRI. Material and Methods: Five patients with aphasia after stroke or trauma sequelae were examined by fMRI. The patients' language ability was screened by neurolinguistic tests and elementary pre-fMRI language tests. Results: The sentence-reading paradigm succeeded to elicit adequate language-related activation in perilesional areas whereas the word generation paradigm failed. These findings were consistent with results on the behavioral tests in that all patients showed very poor performance in phonemic fluency, but scored well above mean at a reading comprehension task. Conclusion: The sentence-reading paradigm is appropriate to assess language function in this patient group, while the word-generation paradigm seems to be inadequate. In addition, it is crucial to use elementary pre-fMRI language tests to guide the fMRI paradigm decision.

  16. Ares V: Shifting the Payload Design Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumrall, Phil; Creech, Steve; Cockrell, Charles E.

    2009-01-01

    NASA is designing the Ares V heavy-lift cargo launch vehicle to send more crew and cargo to more places on the lunar surface than the 1960s-era Saturn V and to provide ongoing support for a permanent lunar outpost. This uncrewed cargo vehicle is designed to operate together with the Ares I crew vehicle (Figure 1). In addition to this role, however, its unmatched mass and volume capability represent a national asset for exploration, science, and commerce. The Ares V also enables or significantly enhances a large class of space missions not thought possible by scientists and engineers since the Saturn V program ended over 30 years ago. Compared to current systems, it will offer approximately five times the mass and volume to most orbits and locations. This should allow prospective mission planners to build robust payloads with margins that are three to five times the industry norm. The space inside the planned payload shroud has enough usable volume to launch the volumetric equivalent of approximately 10 Apollo Lunar Modules or approximately five equivalent Hubble Space Telescopes. This mass and volume capability to low-Earth orbit (LEO) enables a host of new scientific and observation platforms, such as telescopes, satellites, planetary and solar missions, as well as being able to provide the lift for future large in-space infrastructure missions, such as space based solar power and mining, Earth asteroid defense, propellant depots, etc. In addition, payload designers may also have the option of simplifying their designs or employing Ares V s payload as dumb mass to reduce technical and operational risk. The Ares V team is engaging the potential payload community now, two to three years before System Requirements Review (SRR), in order to better understand the additional requirements from the payload community that could be accommodated in the Ares V design in its conceptual phase. This paper will discuss the Ares V reference mission and capability, as well as its

  17. A new paradigm of knowledge management: Crowdsourcing as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new paradigm of knowledge management: Crowdsourcing as emergent research and development. ... Southern African Business Review ... Drawing from knowledge management theory, this paper argues that the knowledge aggregation ...

  18. Information retrieval for children based on the aggregated search paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte Torres, Sergio

    This report presents research to develop information services for children by expanding and adapting current Information retrieval technologies according to the search characteristics and needs of children. Concretely, we will employ the aggregated search paradigm as theoretical framework. The

  19. Cosmological horizons as new examples of the membrane paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Tower

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we aim to provide new examples of the application and the generality of the membrane paradigm. The membrane paradigm is a formalism for studying the event horizon of black holes. After analyzing it with some technical details and realizing it in the Reissner–Nordström black hole, we apply the paradigm to cosmological horizons, first to the pure de Sitter horizon, and then to the trapping horizon of the Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker Universe. In the latter case, the cosmological stretched horizon is oblique, thus the running of the renormalization parameter is nonzero in the timelike direction and gives a correction to the membrane pressure. In this paradigm, the cosmological equations come from continuity equations of the membrane fluid and the bulk fluid respectively. (paper)

  20. Paradigm shift in psychiatry: what may it involve?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valent, Paul

    2018-02-01

    This study aims to examine the potential nature of an ongoing paradigm shift in psychiatry that has been suggested to be occurring. New findings in traumatology and neuroscience do form a potential platform for a paradigm shift. Prior conflicting paradigms are suggested to be due to biases arising from mental structures themselves. A new wholist perspective is proposed, which makes sense of and incorporates previous paradigms, and coheres recent understanding of right- and left-brain functioning and biopsychosocial traumatic processes and their ramifications. The perspective makes sense of the great variety of post-traumatic manifestations ranging from somatic to meaning-making dysfunctions. The wholist perspective may well be an important step in solidifying a fresh paradigmatic perspective in psychiatry.

  1. The "extended mind" approach for a new paradigm of psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Tetsuya

    2010-12-01

    In this paper, I would like to propose the idea of "extended mind" for a new paradigm of psychology. Kohler (Integrative Psychology & Behavioral Science 44:39-57, 2010) correctly pointed out the serious problems of the machine paradigm, and proposed the "organic" view as a new paradigm. But the term "organic" signifying the processes inside the body, is inadequate to express the characteristic of human mind. The recent philosophy of mind suggests that the mind is realized neither only in the brain nor only in the body, but in the whole system of brain-body-environment, namely, in the "extended mind". The characteristic of human mind resides in the interaction with the mediating tools, artifacts, and the humanized environment. We should propose an "extended mind approach" or an "ecological approach to humanized environment" as a new paradigm for a psychology.

  2. Toward an Afro-Centric indigenous HCI paradigm

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Winschiers-Theophilus, H

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Current human–computer interaction (HCI) paradigms are deeply rooted in a Western epistemology that attests its partiality and bias of its embedded assumptions, values, definitions, techniques, and derived frameworks and models. Thus tensions...

  3. [Reconstituting evaluation methods based on both qualitative and quantitative paradigms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Hiroaki; Okubo, Suguru; Yoshie, Satoru; Kai, Ichiro

    2011-01-01

    Debate about the relationship between quantitative and qualitative paradigms is often muddled and confusing and the clutter of terms and arguments has resulted in the concepts becoming obscure and unrecognizable. In this study we conducted content analysis regarding evaluation methods of qualitative healthcare research. We extracted descriptions on four types of evaluation paradigm (validity/credibility, reliability/credibility, objectivity/confirmability, and generalizability/transferability), and classified them into subcategories. In quantitative research, there has been many evaluation methods based on qualitative paradigms, and vice versa. Thus, it might not be useful to consider evaluation methods of qualitative paradigm are isolated from those of quantitative methods. Choosing practical evaluation methods based on the situation and prior conditions of each study is an important approach for researchers.

  4. [New Paradigms? Current Trends within National and International Psychotherapy Research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauß, Bernhard

    2015-09-01

    This article is devoted to the question which paradigms currently determine psychotherapy and psychotherapy research, and if there are indicators of paradigm changes in this field. The question of the efficacy and effectiveness (including the effectiveness of a transfer of psychotherapeutic knowledge to service) is specifically focussed as well as the question of the central therapeutic factors and the significance of the person of the therapist. It is argued that there are really some signals of a paradigm switch, with a turn away from controlled outcome research, representing only a minor part of patients in need of psychotherapy, towards a more specific process oriented research, also considering differential effects of the therapist. The most prominent indicator of a paradigm change is reflected by an increasing influence of patient oriented psychotherapy research which - consequently - should also be supported by the insurances as well as the funding organisations. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Japan as a Paradigm for U.S. Homeland Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ruth, Allen C

    2006-01-01

    ...) is in full swing and the United States is engaged around the world. These factors provide valid reasons for the United States to research other countries' homeland security paradigms to provide a contrast in methods of combating terrorism...

  6. Scaling, Similarity, and the Fourth Paradigm for Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Clark, Martyn; Samaniego, Luis; Verhoest, Niko E. C.; van Emmerik, Tim; Uijlenhoet, Remko; Achieng, Kevin; Franz, Trenton E.; Woods, Ross

    2017-01-01

    In this synthesis paper addressing hydrologic scaling and similarity, we posit that roadblocks in the search for universal laws of hydrology are hindered by our focus on computational simulation (the third paradigm), and assert that it is time for hydrology to embrace a fourth paradigm of data-intensive science. Advances in information-based hydrologic science, coupled with an explosion of hydrologic data and advances in parameter estimation and modelling, have laid the foundation for a data-driven framework for scrutinizing hydrological scaling and similarity hypotheses. We summarize important scaling and similarity concepts (hypotheses) that require testing, describe a mutual information framework for testing these hypotheses, describe boundary condition, state flux, and parameter data requirements across scales to support testing these hypotheses, and discuss some challenges to overcome while pursuing the fourth hydrological paradigm. We call upon the hydrologic sciences community to develop a focused effort towards adopting the fourth paradigm and apply this to outstanding challenges in scaling and similarity.

  7. The prevalence of disability among children: paradigms and estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudrick, Nancy R

    2002-11-01

    Every examination of disability among children must first grapple with definition of disability. The challenges to identifying disability among children involve not only determining the appropriate paradigm for defining disability, but also applying that paradigm to children in a meaningful way. This discussion of the prevalence of disability among children starts by examining the various paradigms utilized to identify disability and how they are interpreted when applied to children. Estimates of the prevalence of childhood disability, under different definitions of disability are presented. The goal of the discussion is to illustrate the sensitivity of the estimates of disability prevalence to the particular definition and data set used. Finally, the potential influence of the choice of paradigm on further measurement and service delivery is outlined.

  8. Indian Science Culture Needs a Paradigm Shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Om P

    2017-06-01

    am sure such a cultural change and paradigm shift from the status quo does not need extra funds and can be surely ushered in without money.

  9. Skin-Inspired Electronics: An Emerging Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sihong; Oh, Jin Young; Xu, Jie; Tran, Helen; Bao, Zhenan

    2018-05-15

    Future electronics will take on more important roles in people's lives. They need to allow more intimate contact with human beings to enable advanced health monitoring, disease detection, medical therapies, and human-machine interfacing. However, current electronics are rigid, nondegradable and cannot self-repair, while the human body is soft, dynamic, stretchable, biodegradable, and self-healing. Therefore, it is critical to develop a new class of electronic materials that incorporate skinlike properties, including stretchability for conformable integration, minimal discomfort and suppressed invasive reactions; self-healing for long-term durability under harsh mechanical conditions; and biodegradability for reducing environmental impact and obviating the need for secondary device removal for medical implants. These demands have fueled the development of a new generation of electronic materials, primarily composed of polymers and polymer composites with both high electrical performance and skinlike properties, and consequently led to a new paradigm of electronics, termed "skin-inspired electronics". This Account covers recent important advances in skin-inspired electronics, from basic material developments to device components and proof-of-concept demonstrations for integrated bioelectronics applications. To date, stretchability has been the most prominent focus in this field. In contrast to strain-engineering approaches that extrinsically impart stretchability into inorganic electronics, intrinsically stretchable materials provide a direct route to achieve higher mechanical robustness, higher device density, and scalable fabrication. The key is the introduction of strain-dissipation mechanisms into the material design, which has been realized through molecular engineering (e.g., soft molecular segments, dynamic bonds) and physical engineering (e.g., nanoconfinement effect, geometric design). The material design concepts have led to the successful demonstrations of

  10. Comunication: the Paradigms of symmetry, antisymmetry anda asymmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Winfried Nöth

    2011-01-01

    The paper examines how the process of communication is represented (a) in the etymology of the conceptof communication, (b) in everyday metaphors of communication, and (c) in 20th century theories andmodels of communication. These reflect this paradox in three different scenarios: the paradigms ofsymmetry, antisymmetry and asymmetry. The dead end into which communication theory is led by theproponents of the latter paradigm is contrasted with some solutions offered by Charles S. Peirce’scommu...

  11. Black hole mass formula in the membrane paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, José P. S.; Zaslavskii, Oleg B.

    2018-03-01

    The membrane paradigm approach adopts a timelike surface, stretched out off the null event horizon, to study several important black hole properties. We use this powerful tool to give a direct derivation of the black hole mass formula in the static and stationary cases without and with electric field. Since here the membrane is a self-gravitating material system, we go beyond the usual applicability on test particles and test fields of the paradigm.

  12. Historical ESWT Paradigms Are Overcome: A Narrative Review

    OpenAIRE

    Lohrer, Heinz; Nauck, Tanja; Korakakis, Vasileios; Malliaropoulos, Nikos

    2016-01-01

    Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy (ESWT) is a conservative treatment modality with still growing interest in musculoskeletal disorders. This narrative review aims to present an overview covering 20-year development in the field of musculoskeletal ESWT. Eight historical paradigms have been identified and put under question from a current perspective: energy intensity, focus size, anesthesia, imaging, growth plates, acuteness, calcifications, and number of sessions. All paradigms as set in a hi...

  13. Pins and posters: paradigms for content publication on situated displays

    OpenAIRE

    José, Rui; Pinto, Helder; Siva, Bruno; Melro, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Public display systems are still far from being a communication medium that people can appropriate to serve diverse communication goals. Moving towards open displays will require new publication paradigms that can overcome the challenges of meaningful engagement and enable users to fully understand and control the entire publication process. In this paper, we report on the study of two novel and complimentary communication paradigms for public displays inspired by the metaphors of pin badges ...

  14. Innovative character of marketing paradigm of education governance

    OpenAIRE

    E. G. Sytnychenko

    2014-01-01

    The most common methodological basis for creating marketing paradigm of public education management is the allocation of general forms of marketing to management activities. Immediate methodological basis for the formation of the said paradigm was synthesis of marketing concepts and management activities. Educational marketing is a cognitive foundation of values reorientation of all forms of regulation to meet the social and educational needs of the individual. In this sense, marketing manage...

  15. Sustainable intensification: A new paradigm for African agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    The Montpellier Panel

    2013-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa faces a rapid population growth that drives food demand and scarcity together with scarcity in natural resources such as land, water, and soil fertility. This Montpellier Panel report identifies the paradigm of sustainable intensification as a framework to address both of these issues. It provides a comprehensive overview of the sustainable intensification paradigm, which seeks to utilize existing land to maximize yields, incomes, and nutrition while minimizing negative ext...

  16. Paradigms in the Recovery of Estuarine and Coastal Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, Carlos M.; Borja, Ángel; Carstensen, Jacob; Elliott, Michael S.; Krause-Jensen, Dorte; Marbà, Núria

    2015-01-01

    © 2013, Coastal and Estuarine Research Federation. Following widespread deterioration of coastal ecosystems since the 1960s, current environmental policies demand ecosystem recovery and restoration. However, vague definitions of recovery and untested recovery paradigms complicate efficient stewardship of coastal ecosystems. We critically examine definitions of recovery and identify and test the implicit paradigms against well-documented cases studies based on a literature review. The study hi...

  17. The World is Not Enough (WINE): Harvesting Local Resources for Eternal Exploration of Space, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The paradigm of exploration is changing. Smaller, smarter, and more efficient systems are being developed that could do as well as large, expensive, and heavy...

  18. The string-pulling paradigm in comparative psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Ivo F; Osvath, Mathias

    2015-05-01

    String pulling is one of the most widely used paradigms in comparative psychology. First documented 2 millennia ago, it has been a well-established scientific paradigm for a century. More than 160 bird and mammal species have been tested in over 200 studies with countless methodological variations. The paradigm can be used to address a wide variety of issues on animal cognition; for example, what animals understand about contact and connection as well as whether they rely on perceptual feedback, grasp the functionality of strings, generalize across conditions, apply their knowledge flexibly, and possess insight. Mammals are typically tested on a horizontal configuration, birds on a vertical one, making the studies difficult to compare; in particular, pulling a string vertically requires better coordination and attention. A species' performance on the paradigm is often influenced by its ecology, especially concerning whether limbs are used for foraging. Many other factors can be of importance and should be considered. The string-pulling paradigm is easy to administer, vary, and apply to investigate a wide array of cognitive abilities. Although it can be and has been used to compare species, divergent methods and unclear reporting have limited its comparative utility. With increasing research standards, the paradigm is expected to become an even more fundamental tool in comparative psychology. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Long-term reliability of the visual EEG Poffenberger paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Patrick; Ocklenburg, Sebastian; Mochalski, Lisa; Schlüter, Caroline; Güntürkün, Onur; Genc, Erhan

    2017-07-14

    The Poffenberger paradigm is a simple perception task that is used to estimate the speed of information transfer between the two hemispheres, the so-called interhemispheric transfer time (IHTT). Although the original paradigm is a behavioral task, it can be combined with electroencephalography (EEG) to assess the underlying neurophysiological processes during task execution. While older studies have supported the validity of both paradigms for investigating interhemispheric interactions, their long-term reliability has not been assessed systematically before. The present study aims to fill this gap by determining both internal consistency and long-term test-retest reliability of IHTTs produced by using the two different versions of the Poffenberger paradigm in a sample of 26 healthy subjects. The results show high reliability for the EEG Poffenberger paradigm. In contrast, reliability measures for the behavioral Poffenberger paradigm were low. Hence, our results indicate that electrophysiological measures of interhemispheric transfer are more reliable than behavioral measures; the later should be used with caution in research investigating inter-individual differences of neurocognitive measures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis - Towards a new paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaschke, Thomas; Hay, Geoffrey J; Kelly, Maggi; Lang, Stefan; Hofmann, Peter; Addink, Elisabeth; Queiroz Feitosa, Raul; van der Meer, Freek; van der Werff, Harald; van Coillie, Frieke; Tiede, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    The amount of scientific literature on (Geographic) Object-based Image Analysis - GEOBIA has been and still is sharply increasing. These approaches to analysing imagery have antecedents in earlier research on image segmentation and use GIS-like spatial analysis within classification and feature extraction approaches. This article investigates these development and its implications and asks whether or not this is a new paradigm in remote sensing and Geographic Information Science (GIScience). We first discuss several limitations of prevailing per-pixel methods when applied to high resolution images. Then we explore the paradigm concept developed by Kuhn (1962) and discuss whether GEOBIA can be regarded as a paradigm according to this definition. We crystallize core concepts of GEOBIA, including the role of objects, of ontologies and the multiplicity of scales and we discuss how these conceptual developments support important methods in remote sensing such as change detection and accuracy assessment. The ramifications of the different theoretical foundations between the ' per-pixel paradigm ' and GEOBIA are analysed, as are some of the challenges along this path from pixels, to objects, to geo-intelligence. Based on several paradigm indications as defined by Kuhn and based on an analysis of peer-reviewed scientific literature we conclude that GEOBIA is a new and evolving paradigm.

  1. New radiobiological, radiation risk and radiation protection paradigms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodhead, Dudley T.

    2010-01-01

    The long-standing conventional paradigm for radiobiology has formed a logical basis for the standard paradigm for radiation risk of cancer and heritable effects and, from these paradigms, has developed the internationally applied system for radiation protection, but with many simplifications, assumptions and generalizations. A variety of additional radiobiological phenomena that do not conform to the standard paradigm for radiobiology may have potential implications for radiation risk and radiation protection. It is suggested, however, that the current state of knowledge is still insufficient for these phenomena, individually or collectively, to be formulated systematically into a new paradigm for radiobiology. Additionally, there is at present lack of direct evidence of their relevance to risk for human health, despite attractive hypotheses as to how they might be involved. Finally, it remains to be shown how incorporation of such phenomena into the paradigm for radiation protection would provide sufficient added value to offset disruption to the present widely applied system. Further research should aim for better mechanistic understanding of processes such as radiation-induced genomic instability (for all radiation types) and bystander effects (particularly for low-fluence high-LET particles) and also priority should be given to confirmation, or negation, of the relevance of the processes to human health risks from radiation.

  2. A knowledge-centered paradigm for operations and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perin, C.

    2005-01-01

    A paradigm premised on the reactor design basis and on its systems, structures, and components also governs nuclear power plant operations. This machine-centered paradigm emphasizes a functional and discipline-based division of responsibilities, which can create hierarchical 'silos' and 'stovepipes' inhibiting the development and lateral exchange of knowledge about safety-critical system interactions. A knowledge-centered paradigm instead encourages the timely development, analysis, and exchange of information about system conditions and their likely consequences. This new paradigm puts operational focus on the importance of operating experience, informative root cause analyses, effective corrective actions, and cross-discipline exchange and cooperation. Although the knowledge-centered paradigm is already central to three main strategies of risk reduction, it is less likely to be recognized as such in terms of priorities, resources, and training: configuration control, control room operations, and root cause analysis. To maintain the capacity for safe shutdown and to preserve public trust, the knowledge-centered paradigm places as high a priority on interactions of safety-critical knowledge as it does on interactions of safety-critical systems, structures, and components. (author)

  3. Network management paradigm in education as a component of information society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Kolesnic

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Network organization has always existed, but that today information technologies create the material basis for the penetration of this type of structure in all areas. This allows to interpret the formation of a network management paradigm as one of the innovative processes of information society . The effects on the development of the virtual environment in the form of a network society leads to the fact that traditional forms of management education change it its own characteristics and there are conditions for the effective use of new forms of governance, it is connected with the network nature of education as a space object management. In practice, the process of modernization of the existing network of educational institutions and organizations that generally means use of information technology and the significant decline in the share of traditional hierarchical forms of control by increasing the share of collective polyarchical forms. Today, the introduction of a network management paradigm of education is performed primarily as a stochastic process of entering educational institutions in the space of network society. The main methodological shortcomings of network management in education is the lack of understanding of its specificity in the context of providing social impact of educational activities. Promising area of implementation of network management in education is the use of targeted management practices that focus on the development of very specific forms of network co­operation in education.

  4. Zero Kelvin Big Bang, an Alternative Paradigm: I. Logic and the Cosmic Fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Royce

    2011-11-01

    This is the first of three papers describing an alternative paradigm of cosmogony, the beginning and evolution of the universe. The Zero Kelvin Big Bang (ZKBB) theory is compared to the prevailing Standard Big Bang (SBB) paradigm, and challenges the notion that our universe is "all there is." Logic suggests that the Big Bang was not a creation event, but that the universe did have a beginning: a "cosmic fabric" of pre- existing matter, in pre-existing space. Instead, the Zero Kelvin Big Bang was a transitional event between that "beginning" and what would become our universe. Extrapolating entropy back in time (as SBB does for matter and energy), and applying simple logic, suggests a "cosmic fabric" of the simplest, stable particles of matter, at the lowest energy state possible: singlet state, spin-oriented atomic hydrogen at zero kelvin, at a density of, at most, only a few atoms per cubic meter of space, infinite and (almost) eternal. Papers II and III describe the condensation of part of the cosmic fabric into a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) as Lemaître's primeval atom, followed by an implosion- explosion Big Bang.

  5. The phonological mistake and 5D paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Crispiani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the first part of this article I present a background in scientific studies on dyslexia, from cognitive science to the neuropedagogical perspective. In this investigation the analysis of mental processes is the most important thanks to comparison with genetic research. In the second part, the dyslexic condition is seen from the perspective of the neuro-motor approach, named the Praxic Motor Theory, which improves neural circuits and inter-hemispherical exchange, electrical transmission and evoked potentials. In this perspective, the dyslexia condition is a disorder related to lack of coordination, including disorganization in space-time and lateral dominance. The phonological hypothesis referring to a lack of sign-sound association in dyslexia is inappropriate, as the term phonology has been intended in English literature as a more complex process and not simply an association between phoneme and grapheme. It is related to access to the word, groups of sounds, rather than single sounds. In this sense the dyslexic reader does not make a phonological mistake in terms of association, but a kinetic-motor one, in space-time from left to right.

  6. Physical Alternative to the Dark Energy Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapar A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The physical nature of the presently dominating enigmatic dark energy in the expanding universe is demonstrated to be explainable as an excess of the kinetic energy with respect to its potential energy. According to traditional Friedman cosmology, any non-zero value of the total energy integral is ascribed to the space curvature. However, as we show, in the flat universe the total energy also can be different from zero. Initially, a very small excess of kinetic energy originates from the early universe. The present observational data show that our universe has probably a flat space with an excess of kinetic energy. The evolutionary scenario shows that the universe presently is in the transitional stage where its radial coordinate expansion approaches the velocity of light. A possibility of the closed Bubble universe with the local Big Bang and everlasting expansion is demonstrated. Dark matter can be essentially contributed by the non-relativistic massive neutrinos, which have cooled to very low temperatures and velocities thus favoring the formation of the observed broad equipotential wells in galaxies.

  7. Composite paradigms in medicine: analysing Gillies' claim of reclassification of disease without paradigm shift in the case of Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Joseph

    2012-09-01

    Since the publication of Kuhn's The Structure of Scientific Revolutions in 1962, the notion of paradigms has shaped the way that philosophy views scientific discovery and how changes in what is regarded as empirical fact occur. This drew heavily on examples from the history of the natural sciences to support Kuhn's hypothesis. However, some argue that medicine is different from the natural sciences. Gillies has proposed another theory of how paradigms apply to medicine; that of composite paradigms. In doing so, Gillies uses the example of Helicobacter pylori and the shift from the excess-acid theory to the current bacterial-infection theory of gastric ulcers to illustrate these fundamental differences between medicine and the natural sciences. Upon analysis of Gillies' claim, it is evident that traditional Kuhnian paradigms are also composite and that the manner in which Gillies proposes disease is classified is insufficient in describing medicine. Furthermore, new local paradigms are demonstrably introduced and the change was accompanied by many of the markers of paradigmatic change including changes in worldview, resistance, incommensurability and the introduction of new questions that could not have existed under the previous paradigm. Whilst this change may not be on the scale of the Chemical revolution, it can still be considered paradigm shift. Thagard also proposes an alternate view of discovery using the case of H. pylori. This has much in common with Kuhnian paradigms but Thagard's theory offers further elucidation and refinement. This allows it to better characterise all of the associated features of discovery relevant in the case of H. pylori, thus provides a preferable tool for examination of this important recent discovery. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Using Common Graphics Paradigms Implemented in a Java Applet to Represent Complex Scheduling Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaap, John; Meyer, Patrick; Davis, Elizabeth

    1997-01-01

    The experiments planned for the International Space Station promise to be complex, lengthy and diverse. The scarcity of the space station resources will cause significant competition for resources between experiments. The scheduling job facing the Space Station mission planning software requires a concise and comprehensive description of the experiments' requirements (to ensure a valid schedule) and a good description of the experiments' flexibility (to effectively utilize available resources). In addition, the continuous operation of the station, the wide geographic dispersion of station users, and the budgetary pressure to reduce operations manpower make a low-cost solution mandatory. A graphical representation of the scheduling requirements for station payloads implemented via an Internet-based application promises to be an elegant solution that addresses all of these issues. The graphical representation of experiment requirements permits a station user to describe his experiment by defining "activities" and "sequences of activities". Activities define the resource requirements (with alternatives) and other quantitative constraints of tasks to be performed. Activities definitions use an "outline" graphics paradigm. Sequences define the time relationships between activities. Sequences may also define time relationships with activities of other payloads or space station systems. Sequences of activities are described by a "network" graphics paradigm. The bulk of this paper will describe the graphical approach to representing requirements and provide examples that show the ease and clarity with which complex requirements can be represented. A Java applet, to run in a web browser, is being developed to support the graphical representation of payload scheduling requirements. Implementing the entry and editing of requirements via the web solves the problems introduced by the geographic dispersion of users. Reducing manpower is accomplished by developing a concise

  9. Increasing Product Confidence-Shifting Paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Marla; Kashyap, Vishal; Cheung, Mee-Shew

    2015-01-01

    Leaders in the pharmaceutical, medical device, and food industries expressed a unilateral concern over product confidence throughout the total product lifecycle, an unsettling fact for these leaders to manage given that their products affect the lives of millions of people each year. Fueled by the heparin incident of intentional adulteration in 2008, initial efforts for increasing product confidence were focused on improving the confidence of incoming materials, with a belief that supplier performance must be the root cause. As in the heparin case, concern over supplier performance extended deep into the supply chain to include suppliers of the suppliers-which is often a blind spot for pharmaceutical, device, and food manufacturers. Resolved to address the perceived lack of supplier performance, these U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-regulated industries began to adopt the supplier relationship management strategy, developed by the automotive industry, that emphasizes "management" of suppliers for the betterment of the manufacturers. Current product and supplier management strategies, however, have not led to a significant improvement in product confidence. As a result of the enduring concern by industry leaders over the lack of product confidence, Xavier University launched the Integrity of Supply Initiative in 2012 with a team of industry leaders and FDA officials. Through a methodical research approach, data generated by the pharmaceutical, medical device, and food manufacturers surprisingly pointed to themselves as a source of the lack of product confidence, and revealed that manufacturers either unknowingly increase the potential for error or can control/prevent many aspects of product confidence failure. It is only through this paradigm shift that manufacturers can work collaboratively with their suppliers as equal partners, instead of viewing their suppliers as "lesser" entities needing to be controlled. The basis of this shift provides manufacturers

  10. TIPS (trigger an IIF paradigm shift)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilcup, P.E. Glen [Intel Corporation, MS: F9-016, 4100 Sara Road, Rio Rancho, NM 87124 (United States)]. E-mail: glen.w.kilcup@intel.com; Hickox, Dick [Intel Corporation, MS: F9-016, 4100 Sara Road, Rio Rancho, NM 87124 (United States); Reynaga, Adolfo [Intel Corporation, MS: F9-016, 4100 Sara Road, Rio Rancho, NM 87124 (United States)

    2007-04-11

    Challenge: New Mexico Corporate Services (NMCS) recordable injuries have been averaging 2-4 per year for the last 5 years with no statistical improvement. However, we believe all NM employees must go home incident and injury free every day and just as healthy as they came to work. In addition, we have received feedback from several sources, that indicates some employees are reluctant to report injuries. These indicators showed us that continuing our current strategies, making incremental improvement and changes, would not give us the improvement desired. We needed a paradigm shift to get everyone completely engaged in the IIF (Incident and Injury Free) culture, in order to achieve true IIF results. Methods/Strategies: We formed a small (3-person) taskforce consisting of safety representatives from EHS, Site Services and CS Operations. We reviewed 5 years worth of data to determine what was injuring our people. We also decided to review all injuries, not simply those classified as recordable by OSHA standards. First we identified the types of injury information needed to get a true picture of our safety issues. We analyzed IRB (Incident Review Board) data showing us the following factors and whether any of them contributed to the injury: - Date - Incident Description - Severity - Root Cause - Type of Injury - Season - Work Group/Shift - Area - Improper evaluation of hazard - Inadequate work procedures - Incorrect Mental Model - Inadequate PPE Requirement - Failure to Follow or Unaware of PPE Requirement - Shortcut or Schedule Pressure - Last or First Day of Shift or Adjacent to Holiday - OT - Aggravate Existing Condition - Inadequate Training or Passdown - Experience in Task - Corrective Action Taken - Overall Quality of Response. Once this information was collected for all injuries in an Excel file, we graphed it several ways to help reveal trends: - Shift 7 had double the injuries of shift 5 - Night shift injuries were relatively high but lower than Shift 7 -Shift

  11. TIPS (trigger an IIF paradigm shift)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilcup, P.E. Glen; Hickox, Dick; Reynaga, Adolfo

    2007-01-01

    Challenge: New Mexico Corporate Services (NMCS) recordable injuries have been averaging 2-4 per year for the last 5 years with no statistical improvement. However, we believe all NM employees must go home incident and injury free every day and just as healthy as they came to work. In addition, we have received feedback from several sources, that indicates some employees are reluctant to report injuries. These indicators showed us that continuing our current strategies, making incremental improvement and changes, would not give us the improvement desired. We needed a paradigm shift to get everyone completely engaged in the IIF (Incident and Injury Free) culture, in order to achieve true IIF results. Methods/Strategies: We formed a small (3-person) taskforce consisting of safety representatives from EHS, Site Services and CS Operations. We reviewed 5 years worth of data to determine what was injuring our people. We also decided to review all injuries, not simply those classified as recordable by OSHA standards. First we identified the types of injury information needed to get a true picture of our safety issues. We analyzed IRB (Incident Review Board) data showing us the following factors and whether any of them contributed to the injury: - Date - Incident Description - Severity - Root Cause - Type of Injury - Season - Work Group/Shift - Area - Improper evaluation of hazard - Inadequate work procedures - Incorrect Mental Model - Inadequate PPE Requirement - Failure to Follow or Unaware of PPE Requirement - Shortcut or Schedule Pressure - Last or First Day of Shift or Adjacent to Holiday - OT - Aggravate Existing Condition - Inadequate Training or Passdown - Experience in Task - Corrective Action Taken - Overall Quality of Response. Once this information was collected for all injuries in an Excel file, we graphed it several ways to help reveal trends: - Shift 7 had double the injuries of shift 5 - Night shift injuries were relatively high but lower than Shift 7 -Shift

  12. TIPS (trigger an IIF paradigm shift).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilcup P E, Glen; Hickox, Dick; Reynaga, Adolfo

    2007-04-11

    New Mexico Corporate Services (NMCS) recordable injuries have been averaging 2-4 per year for the last 5 years with no statistical improvement. However, we believe all NM employees must go home incident and injury free every day and just as healthy as they came to work. In addition, we have received feedback from several sources, that indicates some employees are reluctant to report injuries. These indicators showed us that continuing our current strategies, making incremental improvement and changes, would not give us the improvement desired. We needed a paradigm shift to get everyone completely engaged in the IIF (Incident & Injury Free) culture, in order to achieve true IIF results. We formed a small (3-person) taskforce consisting of safety representatives from EHS, Site Services and CS Operations. We reviewed 5 years worth of data to determine what was injuring our people. We also decided to review all injuries, not simply those classified as recordable by OSHA standards. First we identified the types of injury information needed to get a true picture of our safety issues. We analyzed IRB (Incident Review Board) data showing us the following factors and whether any of them contributed to the injury: - Date - Incident Description - Severity - Root Cause - Type of Injury - Season - Work Group/Shift - Area - Improper evaluation of hazard - Inadequate work procedures - Incorrect Mental Model - Inadequate PPE Requirement - Failure to Follow or Unaware of PPE Requirement - Shortcut or Schedule Pressure - Last or First Day of Shift or Adjacent to Holiday - OT - Aggravate Existing Condition - Inadequate Training or Passdown - Experience in Task - Corrective Action Taken - Overall Quality of Response. Once this information was collected for all injuries in an Excel file, we graphed it several ways to help reveal trends: Shift 7 had double the injuries of shift 5. Night shift injuries were relatively high but lower than Shift 7. Shift 5 had no severe (recordable

  13. The Nebular Hypothesis - A False Paradigm Misleading Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, L. S.

    2005-05-01

    ignored in the belief this comparatively small volume is insignificant relative to Earth's total mass and gravity. This misconception led to outdated gravitational constants and trajectories for "slingshotted" space missions that approached Earth closer than anticipated because the daily increase in mass increases Earth's gravitational pull. Today's philosophy assumes comets, meteoroids, asteroids and planets are different types of objects because of their varied sizes and appearances, but when all solar bodies are arranged by size they form a continuum from irregular meteoroids (remnants of comets) to spherical asteroids and planets. When meteoroids reach diameters of 500-600 kilometers, they become spherical-the critical threshold at which gravity can focus total molecular weight of any body omnidirectionally onto its exact center to initiate compressive heating and melting of originally cold rock core, producing magma, H2O and other gases. The Accreation concept assumes all solar bodies are different-sized objects of the same species, each having reached its present size and chemical composition by amalgamation and accretion. Each is at a different stage of growth but destined to become larger until it reaches the size of another sun (star). This is universal planetary growth controlled by gravity, but initiated by the trajectory imparted at its supernova birth and chance capture by some larger body elsewhere in the Universe. Like the paradigm shift from geocentrism to heliocentrism sparked by Copernicus in 1543, the time has come for a new paradigm to put scientific research on a more productive course toward TRUTH. The new concept of Accreation (creation by accretion) is offered as a replacement for the now defunct nebular hypothesis.

  14. The conflicts and dialogues among techno-developmental, ecological, and indigenous paradigms in a globalized modernity: A case study of the U'wa people's resistance against oil development in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Taehwa

    The literature regarding indigenous eco-politics often provides only a partial explanation about interactions among indigenous peoples, environmental NGOs, and players of resource extraction activities. The dissertation argues that previous studies often fossilize indigenous people in time and space by treating them and their worldviews as static. Against this background, the dissertation draws on paradigm analysis and demonstrates how this approach can help tease out the dynamism and complexity inherent to the interactions between paradigm actors, thus helping us reanalyze indigenous peoples and their paradigms as dynamic and evolving venues for creative possibilities. Extensive literature review and field observation are utilized to examine the case study of interactions among the U'wa, environmental NGOs, Occidental Petroleum, Ecopetrol, and the Colombian government. The case study reveals that oil development activities have heralded sharp conflicts among various paradigm actors. It shows how such conflicts and ensuing dialogues among paradigm actors have led to paradigm changes over time and across scales of organization. We find that the U'wa indigenous paradigm poses a legal, political, and cultural challenge to the techno-developmental paradigm of oil development. We find further that paradigm conflicts are both opportunities and challenges for the U'wa to engage with the modern legal system of Colombia. The case study also reveals that complementarities between paradigms are useful starting points for coalitions between the U'wa and environmental NGOs. The ability to cross scales of socio-political organization enabled by modern communication technologies has helped the U'wa and environmental NGOs to successfully challenge the dominant paradigm and its resource extraction activities. However, it also shows that additional political conditions are necessary for successful coalitions between two actors. The case study demonstrates that the U

  15. Space Commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    A robust and competitive commercial space sector is vital to continued progress in space. The United States is committed to encouraging and facilitating the growth of a U.S. commercial space sector that supports U.S. needs, is globally competitive, and advances U.S. leadership in the generation of new markets and innovation-driven entrepreneurship. Energize competitive domestic industries to participate in global markets and advance the development of: satellite manufacturing; satellite-based services; space launch; terrestrial applications; and increased entrepreneurship. Purchase and use commercial space capabilities and services to the maximum practical extent Actively explore the use of inventive, nontraditional arrangements for acquiring commercial space goods and services to meet United States Government requirements, including measures such as public-private partnerships, . Refrain from conducting United States Government space activities that preclude, discourage, or compete with U.S. commercial space activities. Pursue potential opportunities for transferring routine, operational space functions to the commercial space sector where beneficial and cost-effective.

  16. Learning Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Falmagne, Jean-Claude

    2011-01-01

    Learning spaces offer a rigorous mathematical foundation for practical systems of educational technology. Learning spaces generalize partially ordered sets and are special cases of knowledge spaces. The various structures are investigated from the standpoints of combinatorial properties and stochastic processes. Leaning spaces have become the essential structures to be used in assessing students' competence of various topics. A practical example is offered by ALEKS, a Web-based, artificially intelligent assessment and learning system in mathematics and other scholarly fields. At the heart of A

  17. A Case-Conference Exercise to Facilitate Understanding of Paradigms in Abnormal Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafosse, Jose M.; Zinser, Michael C.

    2002-01-01

    In this article we describe an in-class case-conference exercise designed to enhance the teaching of paradigms in abnormal psychology courses. The primary pedagogical goals are to increase awareness of how paradigms are applied in real-life settings; better distinguish between paradigms; and recognize how paradigms influence understanding of…

  18. Reexamining unconscious response priming: A liminal-prime paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avneon, Maayan; Lamy, Dominique

    2018-03-01

    Research on the limits of unconscious processing typically relies on the subliminal-prime paradigm. However, this paradigm is limited in the issues it can address. Here, we examined the implications of using the liminal-prime paradigm, which allows comparing unconscious and conscious priming with constant stimulation. We adapted an iconic demonstration of unconscious response priming to the liminal-prime paradigm. On the one hand, temporal attention allocated to the prime and its relevance to the task increased the magnitude of response priming. On the other hand, the longer RTs associated with the dual task inherent to the paradigm resulted in response priming being underestimated, because unconscious priming effects were shorter-lived than conscious-priming effects. Nevertheless, when the impact of long RTs was alleviated by considering the fastest trials or by imposing a response deadline, conscious response priming remained considerably larger than unconscious response priming. These findings suggest that conscious perception strongly modulates response priming. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Complexity: a potential paradigm for a health promotion discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Marie-Claude; Richard, Lucie

    2014-06-01

    Health promotion underpins a distancing from narrow, simplifying health approaches associated with the biomedical model. However, it has not yet succeeded in formally establishing its theoretical, epistemological and methodological foundations on a single paradigm. The complexity paradigm, which it has yet to broach head-on, might provide it with a disciplinary matrix in line with its implicit stances and basic values. This article seeks to establish complexity's relevance as a paradigm that can contribute to the development of a health promotion discipline. The relevance of complexity is justified primarily by its matching with several implicit epistemological and methodological/theoretical stances found in the cardinal concepts and principles of health promotion. The transcendence of ontological realism and determinism as well as receptiveness in respect of the reflexivity that complexity encompasses are congruent with the values of social justice, participation, empowerment and the concept of positive health that the field promotes. Moreover, from a methodological and theoretical standpoint, complexity assumes a holistic, contextual and transdisciplinary approach, toward which health promotion is tending through its emphasis on ecology and interdisciplinary action. In a quest to illustrate our position, developmental evaluation is presented as an example of practice stemming from a complexity paradigm that can be useful in the evaluation of health promotion initiatives. In short, we argue that it would be advantageous for health promotion to integrate this paradigm, which would provide it with a formal framework appropriate to its purposes and concerns.

  20. e-Science Paradigm for Astroparticle Physics at KISTI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kihyeon Cho

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information (KISTI has been studying the e-Science paradigm. With its successful application to particle physics, we consider the application of the paradigm to astroparticle physics. The Standard Model of particle physics is still not considered perfect even though the Higgs boson has recently been discovered. Astrophysical evidence shows that dark matter exists in the universe, hinting at new physics beyond the Standard Model. Therefore, there are efforts to search for dark matter candidates using direct detection, indirect detection, and collider detection. There are also efforts to build theoretical models for dark matter. Current astroparticle physics involves big investments in theories and computing along with experiments. The complexity of such an area of research is explained within the framework of the e-Science paradigm. The idea of the e-Science paradigm is to unify experiment, theory, and computing. The purpose is to study astroparticle physics anytime and anywhere. In this paper, an example of the application of the paradigm to astrophysics is presented.

  1. Connecting traditional sciences with the OLAP and data mining paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guergachi, Aziz A.

    2003-03-01

    The paradigms of OLAP, multidimensional modeling and data mining have first emerged in the areas of market analysis and finance to address various needs of people working in these areas. Does this mean that they are useful and applicable in these areas only? Or, can they also be applicable in the other more traditional areas of science and engineering? What characterize the systems for which these paradigms are suitable? What are the goals of these paradigms? How do they relate to the traditional body of knowledge that has been developed throughout the centuries in the areas of mathematics, statistics, systems science and engineering? Where, how and to what extent can we leverage the conventional wisdom that has been accumulated in the aforementioned disciplines to develop a foundational basis for the above paradigms? The goal of this paper is to address these questions at the foundational level. We argue that the paradigms of OLAP, multidimensional modeling and data mining can also be applied successfully to complex engineering systems, such as membrane-based water/wastewater treatment plants, for example. We develop mathematically-based axiomatic definition of the concepts of 'dimension,' 'dimension level,' 'dimension hierarchy' and 'measure' using set theory and equivalence relations.

  2. The Paradigm of Critical Realism: Approach to an Interdisciplinary Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Tavana

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The debate of method of recognition in humanities, social and nature science is one of the apprehensions of Scientists in Wisdom Domain –especially in the modern world. This apprehension, before all things was of appearing in the paradigm of methodoligical between the advocates of the paradigms of positivism with having a share of the natural science. They used to values of naturalism in social and human studies. Additionally, testing and observation and repetition are present as the main terms of recognition. In front, the difference between human studies and natural science is important for the advocates of hermeneutic paradigm. Also, they speak about the methodology of interpretation (understanding of human and social phenomenon. But, in the second half of 20th century another paradigms was established as the Critical realism. This paradigm is tried to parther from the methodoloigcal binary and has a share from the recognition of ontological positivism and epistemological hermeneutics attain to a procedure of interdisciplinary about recognition. So, on the basis of this subject, this article mentioned this question that: would the critical realism receive as the methodology in interdisciplinary? Method of the Article is postulate. This article reasoned that multilayer ontology and epistemology redounded to multilayer methodology that could build up the knowledge of interdisciplinary.

  3. Hygrothermal optimisation of museum storage spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janssen, Hans; Christensen, Jørgen Erik

    2013-01-01

    Despite the large economic and ecologic costs, museum storage spaces are often equipped with extensive air conditioning, to provide the desired stable interior climate. The new “passive conditioning” paradigm aims at resolving these costs: a high-hygrothermal-inertia building with a high-hygrothe......Despite the large economic and ecologic costs, museum storage spaces are often equipped with extensive air conditioning, to provide the desired stable interior climate. The new “passive conditioning” paradigm aims at resolving these costs: a high-hygrothermal-inertia building with a high...... and ecologic cost of conditioning, the paper finally assesses “concentrated dehumidification”: dehumidification during a part of the day only, while leaving the humidity free-running during the rest of the day. It is established that the hygric inertia of the interior air, building walls and stored objects...

  4. Space Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horneck, Gerda; Klaus, David M.; Mancinelli, Rocco L.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: The responses of microorganisms (viruses, bacterial cells, bacterial and fungal spores, and lichens) to selected factors of space (microgravity, galactic cosmic radiation, solar UV radiation, and space vacuum) were determined in space and laboratory simulation experiments. In general, microorganisms tend to thrive in the space flight environment in terms of enhanced growth parameters and a demonstrated ability to proliferate in the presence of normally inhibitory levels of antibiotics. The mechanisms responsible for the observed biological responses, however, are not yet fully understood. A hypothesized interaction of microgravity with radiation-induced DNA repair processes was experimentally refuted. The survival of microorganisms in outer space was investigated to tackle questions on the upper boundary of the biosphere and on the likelihood of interplanetary transport of microorganisms. It was found that extraterrestrial solar UV radiation was the most deleterious factor of space. Among all organisms tested, only lichens (Rhizocarpon geographicum and Xanthoria elegans) maintained full viability after 2 weeks in outer space, whereas all other test systems were inactivated by orders of magnitude. Using optical filters and spores of Bacillus subtilis as a biological UV dosimeter, it was found that the current ozone layer reduces the biological effectiveness of solar UV by 3 orders of magnitude. If shielded against solar UV, spores of B. subtilis were capable of surviving in space for up to 6 years, especially if embedded in clay or meteorite powder (artificial meteorites). The data support the likelihood of interplanetary transfer of microorganisms within meteorites, the so-called lithopanspermia hypothesis. PMID:20197502

  5. Space psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parin, V. V.; Gorbov, F. D.; Kosmolinskiy, F. P.

    1974-01-01

    Psychological selection of astronauts considers mental responses and adaptation to the following space flight stress factors: (1) confinement in a small space; (2) changes in three dimensional orientation; (3) effects of altered gravity and weightlessness; (4) decrease in afferent nerve pulses; (5) a sensation of novelty and danger; and (6) a sense of separation from earth.

  6. Borel Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Berberian, S K

    2002-01-01

    A detailed exposition of G.W. Mackey's theory of Borel spaces (standard, substandard, analytic), based on results in Chapter 9 of Bourbaki's General Topology. Appended are five informal lectures on the subject (given at the CIMPA/ICPAM Summer School, Nice, 1986), sketching the connection between Borel spaces and representations of operator algebras.

  7. Charting Relations between Intersectionality Theory and the Neurodiversity Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Rose Strand

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores central elements and applications of intersectionality theory and the neurodiversity paradigm. First, the histories and tenets of intersectionality theory and neurodiversity paradigm are provided. Then, areas are explored where each of the two approaches might further engage with the principles of the other. Finally, the essay concludes by broadly considering the efforts made by the Black Lives Matter movement and the Autistic Self Advocacy Network to bring attention to and end police violence as both networks employ and attend to elements of intersectionality and neurodiversity. The way these two networks draw on both intersectionality and neurodiversity to further their mission could be a possible site for scholars to consider in the interest of advancing dialogues between intersectionality theory and the neurodiversity paradigm. Ultimately, the essay calls for a continued exploration of the potentials for intersectionality and neurodiversity to complement and complicate one another, both in terms of theoretical development and coalition building.

  8. Conjugal conflict and violence: a review and theoretical paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smilkstein, G; Aspy, C B; Quiggins, P A

    1994-02-01

    Conjugal violence has been described as having multiple etiologies. The variables are so numerous that intervention and research protocols are difficult to effect. This paper proposes a paradigm that establishes conjugal conflict and violence as separate entities. According to the paradigm, conjugal conflict is viewed as "an inevitable part of human association," whereas conjugal violence is determined to be a learned behavioral tactic that is employed as a coping strategy when an individual's conflict threshold potential is exceeded. Evidence will be offered that violence is learned from family of origin and from observing what is common or accepted practice in the community. Use of this paradigm would give primacy to community education programs that advance the concept of conflict resolution through rational discourse.

  9. Convergent paradigms for visual neuroscience and dissociative identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Mark L; Manning, Rana L

    2009-01-01

    Although dissociative identity disorder, a condition in which multiple individuals appear to inhabit a single body, is a recognized psychiatric disorder, patients may yet encounter health professionals who declare that they simply "do not believe in multiple personalities." This article explores the proposal that resistance to the disorder represents a failure to apply an appropriate paradigm from which the disorder should be interpreted. Trauma and sociocognitive explanations of dissociative identity disorder are contrasted. The trauma hypothesis is further differentiated into paradigms in which trauma affects a defense mechanism, and one in which trauma serves to inhibit the normal integration sequence of parallel processes of the self in childhood. This latter paradigm is shown to be broadly consistent with current models of cortical processing in another system, the cortical visual system.

  10. Pins and posters: Paradigms for content publication on situated displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    José, Rui; Pinto, Hélder; Silva, Bruno; Melro, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Public-display systems are still far from being a medium for meeting people's diverse communication goals. Moving toward open displays will require publication paradigms that can overcome the challenges of meaningful engagement and enable users to fully understand and control the publication process. The metaphors of pins and posters have inspired two complementary paradigms for public displays. Researchers implemented these paradigms in the Instant Places system, which they deployed on 10 displays in diverse urban locations for six months. They collected user and system data regarding the users' practices. The findings improve the understanding of what might drive user-generated content in networks of urban displays. Such knowledge can inform the design of tools and procedures for situated publication in public displays.

  11. Toward a patient-based paradigm for blood transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, Albert; Vamvakas, Eleftherios

    2014-01-01

    The current "manufacturing paradigm" of transfusion practice has detached transfusion from the clinical environment. As an example, fresh whole blood in large-volume hemorrhage may be superior to whole blood reconstituted from multiple components. Multicomponent apheresis can overcome logistical difficulties in matching patient needs with fresh component availability and can deliver the benefits of fresh whole blood. Because of the different transfusion needs of patients in emerging economies and the vulnerability of these blood systems to emerging infections, fresh whole blood and multicomponent apheresis can better meet patient needs when compared with transplants of the "manufacturing paradigm". We propose that patient blood management, along with panels of repeat, paid, accredited apheresis and fresh whole-blood donors can be used in emerging economies to support decentralized blood services. This alternative transfusion-medicine paradigm could eventually also be adopted by established economies to focus transfusion medicine on local patient needs and to alleviate the problem of the aging volunteer donor base.

  12. Embracing the new paradigm of assessment in residency training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringsted, C; Østergaard, D; Scherpbier, A

    2003-01-01

    Assessment of clinical competence is facing a paradigm shift in more than one sense. The shift relates to test content, which increasingly covers a broader spectrum of competences than mere medical expertise, and to test methods, with an increasing focus on testing performance in realistic settings....... Also there is a shift in the concept of assessment in that instruction and assessment are no longer seen as being separate in time and purpose, but as integral parts of the learning process. The nature of the new paradigm for assessment is well described but the challenge to programme directors...... is to specify the evaluation situations and develop appropriate methods. This paper describes the intrinsic rational validation process in outlining an assessment programme for first-year anaesthesiology residency training according to the new paradigm. The applicability to other residency programmes and higher...

  13. Cryptocurrency Networks: A New P2P Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi Delgado-Segura

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available P2P networks are the mechanism used by cryptocurrencies to disseminate system information while keeping the whole system as much decentralized as possible. Cryptocurrency P2P networks have new characteristics that propose new challenges and avoid some problems of existing P2P networks. By characterizing the most relevant cryptocurrency network, Bitcoin, we provide details on different properties of cryptocurrency networks and their similarities and differences with standard P2P network paradigms. Our study allows us to conclude that cryptocurrency networks present a new paradigm of P2P networks due to the mechanisms they use to achieve high resilience and security. With this new paradigm, interesting research lines can be further developed, both in the focused field of P2P cryptocurrency networks and also when such networks are combined with other distributed scenarios.

  14. Language-learning disabilities: Paradigms for the nineties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiig, E H

    1991-01-01

    We are beginning a decade, during which many traditional paradigms in education, special education, and speech-language pathology will undergo change. Among paradigms considered promising for speech-language pathology in the schools are collaborative language intervention and strategy training for language and communication. This presentation introduces management models for developing a collaborative language intervention process, among them the Deming Management Method for Total Quality (TQ) (Deming 1986). Implementation models for language assessment and IEP planning and multicultural issues are also introduced (Damico and Nye 1990; Secord and Wiig in press). While attention to processes involved in developing and implementing collaborative language intervention is paramount, content should not be neglected. To this end, strategy training for language and communication is introduced as a viable paradigm. Macro- and micro-level process models for strategy training are featured and general issues are discussed (Ellis, Deshler, and Schumaker 1989; Swanson 1989; Wiig 1989).

  15. Space engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Harold L.

    1991-01-01

    Human productivity was studied for extravehicular tasks performed in microgravity, particularly including in-space assembly of truss structures and other large objects. Human factors research probed the anthropometric constraints imposed on microgravity task performance and the associated workstation design requirements. Anthropometric experiments included reach envelope tests conducted using the 3-D Acoustic Positioning System (3DAPS), which permitted measuring the range of reach possible for persons using foot restraints in neutral buoyancy, both with and without space suits. Much neutral buoyancy research was conducted using the support of water to simulate the weightlessness environment of space. It became clear over time that the anticipated EVA requirement associated with the Space Station and with in-space construction of interplanetary probes would heavily burden astronauts, and remotely operated robots (teleoperators) were increasingly considered to absorb the workload. Experience in human EVA productivity led naturally to teleoperation research into the remote performance of tasks through human controlled robots.

  16. Polemological Paradigm of Hybrid War Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Dodonov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the methodological problems and manipulative mechanisms of hybrid warfare. Owing to the polemological (from πολέμιος — war and λόγος — study approach the authors managed to systematize and summarize the theories of war and peace, clarify contemporary western concepts of warfare, outline the specifi cs of the Russian view on the hybrid war concept, assess the signifi cance of information and manipulation technologies for hybrid wars, analyze a number of geopolitical and socio-cultural dimensions of modern hybrid wars. The polemology is a branch of science, which studies the nature of armed confl icts and wars, their role in time and space, cycles, intensity, scope, scale, and causative relations and their classifi cation. Polemology deals with the wars and armed confl icts of the past, present and future. Novel hybrid wars take a respective place among them. They involve using all available warfare, regular and irregular, cyber and those allowing for the use of weapons of mass destruction, and also information, psychological and propaganda war using the latest information and media technologies. According to the classical approach, the state is the only subject of military actions, but today its role has changed dramatically under the infl uence of other political and economic supranational and trans-border factors. For the purpose of studying wars and armed confl icts from the polemological perspective it means the need to focus on social changes in all the areas of human life, on considering various elements of the political, economic or even technological context, which infl uence the war as a social phenomenon.

  17. Space solar power for powering a space elevator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laubscher, B. E. (Bryan E.); Kellum, M. J. (Mervyn J.)

    2004-01-01

    The Space Elevator (SE) represents a major paradigm shift in space access. If the SE's promise of low cost access can be realized, everything becomes economically more feasible to accomplish in space. In this paper we describe a Space Solar Power (SSP) system capable of powering the climbers of an SE. The initial SE will use laser power beaming from floating platforms near the SE platform. This study outlines an SSP system, based near the SE at geosynchronous altitude (GEO), which powers the climbers traversing the elevator. Such a system would reduce the SE system's dependence on fuel supply from land for its power beaming facilities. Moreover, since deploying SSP systems is anticipated to be a major use for SE's, SSP's could represent an elegant solution to the problem of SE energy consumption. SSP systems for sending usable power to Earth have been designed for well over 30 years. Technologies pertinent to SSP systems are continually evolving. This slightly different application carries the added requirements of aiming the beamed power at a moving target and sending the power in a form the climbers can use. Systems considered include beaming power to the climbers directly from a traditional SSP and reflecting sunlight onto the climbers. One of our designs includes a very new technology, optical rectennas. Mars SEs are conceived as having space-based power systems. Therefore, it is important to consider the problems that will be encountered in these types of applications.

  18. Bayesian evidence and predictivity of the inflationary paradigm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubitosi, Giulia; Lagos, Macarena; Magueijo, João [Theoretical Physics, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London, SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom); Allison, Rupert, E-mail: g.gubitosi@imperial.ac.uk, E-mail: m.lagos13@imperial.ac.uk, E-mail: j.magueijo@imperial.ac.uk, E-mail: rupert.allison@astro.ox.ac.uk [Astrophysics, University of Oxford, DWB, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we consider the issue of paradigm evaluation by applying Bayes' theorem along the following nested hierarchy of progressively more complex structures: i) parameter estimation (within a model), ii) model selection and comparison (within a paradigm), iii) paradigm evaluation. In such a hierarchy the Bayesian evidence works both as the posterior's normalization at a given level and as the likelihood function at the next level up. Whilst raising no objections to the standard application of the procedure at the two lowest levels, we argue that it should receive a considerable modification when evaluating paradigms, when testability and fitting data are equally important. By considering toy models we illustrate how models and paradigms that are difficult to falsify are always favoured by the Bayes factor. We argue that the evidence for a paradigm should not only be high for a given dataset, but exceptional with respect to what it would have been, had the data been different. With this motivation we propose a measure which we term predictivity , as well as a prior to be incorporated into the Bayesian framework, penalising unpredictivity as much as not fitting data. We apply this measure to inflation seen as a whole, and to a scenario where a specific inflationary model is hypothetically deemed as the only one viable as a result of information alien to cosmology (e.g. Solar System gravity experiments, or particle physics input). We conclude that cosmic inflation is currently hard to falsify, but that this could change were external/additional information to cosmology to select one of its many models. We also compare this state of affairs to bimetric varying speed of light cosmology.

  19. Critical examination of RHIC paradigms - mostly high pT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tannenbaum, M.I.

    2009-01-01

    A critical examination of RHIC paradigms is presented. Topics include: search for a critical point with a low energy scan; the lack of understanding of radiative processes in a medium in QCD compared in detail to examples from QED; the reason why some physicists started to measure particles at large p T in the 1960's; a review of the discovery of hard-scattering in p-p collisions in the 1970's via single-inclusive and two-particle correlations and application of these techniques at RHIC. Several paradigms in both soft and hard physics which are popular at RHIC are discussed and challenged.

  20. Software engineering frameworks for the cloud computing paradigm

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmood, Zaigham

    2013-01-01

    This book presents the latest research on Software Engineering Frameworks for the Cloud Computing Paradigm, drawn from an international selection of researchers and practitioners. The book offers both a discussion of relevant software engineering approaches and practical guidance on enterprise-wide software deployment in the cloud environment, together with real-world case studies. Features: presents the state of the art in software engineering approaches for developing cloud-suitable applications; discusses the impact of the cloud computing paradigm on software engineering; offers guidance an

  1. Why empowerment does not empower: the bankruptcy of current paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belasco, J A; Gorham, G

    1996-03-01

    As a result of the rapid changes taking place in health care, nurse leaders are more challenged than ever to assume a new and different kind of leadership. Under the current paradigm, leaders are responsible for the performance of their people. Leaders do things TO the organization and the people in it. That paradigm of leader responsibility for other people's performance, given today's circumstances, guarantees organizational failure. A radical transformation in leadership thinking must take place. The leader's job is to get the people to be responsible for their own performance.

  2. Paradigm shift from cartography to geo-communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Lars

    2007-01-01

    This paper argues that the domain of GIS, cartography, geo-information etc. is facing a paradigm shift. The implication of a paradigm shift is a complete and necessary re-definition of e.g. the philosophical foundation of the system, as well as with a major upgrade and readjustment of procedures......-information is actually not possible at all without having a usage (a project identity and a purpose) in mind. Objective and neutral geo-information does not exist. Therefore the overall philosophy of the geo-domain will be that it is a communication discipline....

  3. Place of great extinctions in the new ecological paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. Я. Кипоренко

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper demonstrates importance of the knowledge of the causes and consequences of the Great extinctions that occurred before the origin of man, in the formation of a new environmental paradigm. Were described methodological foundations of paleoecological studies. Were analyzed the fossilized remains found directly by the authors on the territory of Ukraine. In the development of new environmental paradigm is necessary to consider knowledge of the great extinction (the knowledge of the past, because it is an event, that can be used not only to study past, as well as predicting the same events in the future

  4. Fingerprints of primordial universe paradigms as features in density perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xingang

    2011-01-01

    Experimentally distinguishing different primordial universe paradigms that lead to the Big Bang model is an outstanding challenge in modern cosmology and astrophysics. We show that a generic type of signals that exist in primordial universe models can be used for such purpose. These signals are induced by tiny oscillations of massive fields and manifest as features in primordial density perturbations. They are capable of recording the time-dependence of the scale factor of the primordial universe, and therefore provide direct evidence for specific paradigm. These signals present special opportunities and challenges for experiments and data analyses.

  5. Dynamics of systems and change in the accounting paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luis Juliao Rossi

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this document is to demonstrate the potential of the dynamics of systems as a thinking trend which may help in the understanding process and the construction of an accounting paradigm change. This objective is framed inside a wider purpose: to propase interdisciplinary encounters that contribute to the necessary paradigm change. The described problem is studied from the «System Thinking», which is an approach with theoretical framework and representation and simulation tools related to the tapie.

  6. Human resources management in the national energy system from the new social paradigm perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marian-Boruga, Carmen

    2009-01-01

    For many people, what matters is the change at the level of the strong structures of society - institutions, social groups and infrastructure. The space of real, essential change is considered to be the one of normative or morphological type. The opposed point of view considers that the real change is the one within the value domain: what people think and represent is more important than what is easily measured in the frame of social life. The changes from the value domain are most often seen as intangible precondition of restructuring the tangible level of social life, the one given by behaviours, institutions, infrastructure, etc. The paradigm of change is defined as being a mental model of answering the questions on necessity, finality and instrument of change. The mono-dimensional paradigm of change remains dominant at social level and it is defined through necessity and impossibility to continue in the same way. This paradigm practically manifested through confrontation between two subspaces: social subspace of optimism and social subspace of pessimism. The identification of social aggression is realized by understanding the relationship between social legislation as aggression form and profit. In the Romanian society, the population perception consists of an increasing of the aggressiveness, pushing the limits of certitude of aggression to the area of negative risk. The aggression value of the person is a function (f) with a value of aggression/non aggression specific to the type of his personality (Pna) and of the satisfaction degree given by the organization (S). The paper presents the aggressive and non aggressive typologies present within social and organization environment according to the Mayers-Briggs model with a focus on Romanian nuclear organizations. (author)

  7. Synergetic motor control paradigm for optimizing energy efficiency of multijoint reaching via tacit learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashibe, Mitsuhiro; Shimoda, Shingo

    2014-01-01

    A human motor system can improve its behavior toward optimal movement. The skeletal system has more degrees of freedom than the task dimensions, which incurs an ill-posed problem. The multijoint system involves complex interaction torques between joints. To produce optimal motion in terms of energy consumption, the so-called cost function based optimization has been commonly used in previous works.Even if it is a fact that an optimal motor pattern is employed phenomenologically, there is no evidence that shows the existence of a physiological process that is similar to such a mathematical optimization in our central nervous system.In this study, we aim to find a more primitive computational mechanism with a modular configuration to realize adaptability and optimality without prior knowledge of system dynamics.We propose a novel motor control paradigm based on tacit learning with task space feedback. The motor command accumulation during repetitive environmental interactions, play a major role in the learning process. It is applied to a vertical cyclic reaching which involves complex interaction torques.We evaluated whether the proposed paradigm can learn how to optimize solutions with a 3-joint, planar biomechanical model. The results demonstrate that the proposed method was valid for acquiring motor synergy and resulted in energy efficient solutions for different load conditions. The case in feedback control is largely affected by the interaction torques. In contrast, the trajectory is corrected over time with tacit learning toward optimal solutions.Energy efficient solutions were obtained by the emergence of motor synergy. During learning, the contribution from feedforward controller is augmented and the one from the feedback controller is significantly minimized down to 12% for no load at hand, 16% for a 0.5 kg load condition.The proposed paradigm could provide an optimization process in redundant system with dynamic-model-free and cost-function-free approach

  8. The Realist Paradigm Of Energy Diplomacy In The Russian Scientific Tradition And Its Practical Applicability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. О. Reinhardt

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays energy diplomacy tends to be one of most relevant and important fields of applied research in International Relations. It is characterized by an interdisciplinary approach being an intersection of political and economic theory, international law, energetics, theory of diplomacy, as well as other fields. Still, numerous research works in the given area both in Russia and abroad are characterized by a number of controversies, such as absence of a common theoretical, methodological basis and conventional terminology, as well as lack of consistency in the choice of scientific paradigms, which leads to divergence of research results and hinders the comparability of the latter. Along with that, in terms of scientific policy it is worth mentioning the absence of a common scientific space in the above field of research, which tends to be shaped by national research cultures and traditions. Throughout the 2000-2010s representatives of the MGIMO scientific school have accumulated experience in dealing with problems of energy diplomacy. However, most of the existing works do not specify the selected political theory paradigms, such as, for instance, realism, liberalism or constructivism. With no intention to conduct a comparative analysis of the aforementioned concepts, the authors of the article outline the key theoretical findings of political realism as the most suitable paradigm for explaining, analyzing and eventually forecasting the recent trends and phenomena given the current geopolitical and economical juncture. They prove the applicability of the proposed model to the OPEC case study and demonstrate its potential practical usefulness for policy-makers in foreign affairs and international energy relations.

  9. Synergetic motor control paradigm for optimizing energy efficiency of multijoint reaching via tacit learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashibe, Mitsuhiro; Shimoda, Shingo

    2014-01-01

    A human motor system can improve its behavior toward optimal movement. The skeletal system has more degrees of freedom than the task dimensions, which incurs an ill-posed problem. The multijoint system involves complex interaction torques between joints. To produce optimal motion in terms of energy consumption, the so-called cost function based optimization has been commonly used in previous works.Even if it is a fact that an optimal motor pattern is employed phenomenologically, there is no evidence that shows the existence of a physiological process that is similar to such a mathematical optimization in our central nervous system.In this study, we aim to find a more primitive computational mechanism with a modular configuration to realize adaptability and optimality without prior knowledge of system dynamics.We propose a novel motor control paradigm based on tacit learning with task space feedback. The motor command accumulation during repetitive environmental interactions, play a major role in the learning process. It is applied to a vertical cyclic reaching which involves complex interaction torques.We evaluated whether the proposed paradigm can learn how to optimize solutions with a 3-joint, planar biomechanical model. The results demonstrate that the proposed method was valid for acquiring motor synergy and resulted in energy efficient solutions for different load conditions. The case in feedback control is largely affected by the interaction torques. In contrast, the trajectory is corrected over time with tacit learning toward optimal solutions.Energy efficient solutions were obtained by the emergence of motor synergy. During learning, the contribution from feedforward controller is augmented and the one from the feedback controller is significantly minimized down to 12% for no load at hand, 16% for a 0.5 kg load condition.The proposed paradigm could provide an optimization process in redundant system with dynamic-model-free and cost-function-free approach.

  10. Space polypropulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellett, B. J.; Griffin, D. K.; Bingham, R.; Campbell, R. N.; Forbes, A.; Michaelis, M. M.

    2008-05-01

    Hybrid space propulsion has been a feature of most space missions. Only the very early rocket propulsion experiments like the V2, employed a single form of propulsion. By the late fifties multi-staging was routine and the Space Shuttle employs three different kinds of fuel and rocket engines. During the development of chemical rockets, other forms of propulsion were being slowly tested, both theoretically and, relatively slowly, in practice. Rail and gas guns, ion engines, "slingshot" gravity assist, nuclear and solar power, tethers, solar sails have all seen some real applications. Yet the earliest type of non-chemical space propulsion to be thought of has never been attempted in space: laser and photon propulsion. The ideas of Eugen Saenger, Georgii Marx, Arthur Kantrowitz, Leik Myrabo, Claude Phipps and Robert Forward remain Earth-bound. In this paper we summarize the various forms of nonchemical propulsion and their results. We point out that missions beyond Saturn would benefit from a change of attitude to laser-propulsion as well as consideration of hybrid "polypropulsion" - which is to say using all the rocket "tools" available rather than possibly not the most appropriate. We conclude with three practical examples, two for the next decades and one for the next century; disposal of nuclear waste in space; a grand tour of the Jovian and Saturnian moons - with Huygens or Lunoxod type, landers; and eventually mankind's greatest space dream: robotic exploration of neighbouring planetary systems.

  11. "With" Not "About"--Emerging Paradigms for Research in a Cross-Cultural Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    This paper will examine questions and considerations regarding research design and methodology. For researchers working within an Indigenous domain, it is important to recognize the historical legacy left by researchers of the past as well as the impact of a new generation of Indigenous researchers who are speaking back to the Academy about…

  12. Knowledge spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Doignon, Jean-Paul

    1999-01-01

    Knowledge spaces offer a rigorous mathematical foundation for various practical systems of knowledge assessment. An example is offered by the ALEKS system (Assessment and LEarning in Knowledge Spaces), a software for the assessment of mathematical knowledge. From a mathematical standpoint, knowledge spaces generalize partially ordered sets. They are investigated both from a combinatorial and a stochastic viewpoint. The results are applied to real and simulated data. The book gives a systematic presentation of research and extends the results to new situations. It is of interest to mathematically oriented readers in education, computer science and combinatorics at research and graduate levels. The text contains numerous examples and exercises and an extensive bibliography.

  13. Space Bugz!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birke, Alexander; Schoenau-Fog, Henrik; Reng, Lars

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents Space Bugz! - a novel crowd game for large venues or cinemas that utilises the audience's smartphones as controllers for the game. This paper explains what crowd gaming is and describes how the approach used in Space Bugz! enables more advanced gameplay concepts and individual...... player control than current technologies allow. The gameplay of Space Bugz! is then explained along with the technical architecture of the game. After this, the iterative design process used to create the game is described together with future perspectives. The article concludes with links to a video...

  14. Providing space imagery to public on DVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyon, J. J.

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory has been in the forefront of DVD-ROM usage ever since the technology became commercially available. In this presentation, the speaker will illustrate the vital role that DVD-R plays and describe the system architecture, which supports the Mars Odyssey mission.

  15. A new call for quality. Shifting the paradigm for development policy in Greece through competitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelos Psilopoulos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is following up on Kouzelis, Psilopoulou and Psilopoulos (2010, where it was partly suggested that skipping architectural competitions in favour of a quantitative (i.e., fiscal approach was a prevailing paradigm for the building procurement policy in Greece at the time. Here the aim is to trace a notable shift from that paradigm by reviewing three case studies: the case of the UpTo35 competition conducted as part of a private development scheme, the case of two ideas competitions organized by architecture review GreekArchitects.gr as part of an open discourse on politics and urban issues, and finally a general turn in policy by the ‘Ministry of Environment, Energy and Climate Change including a new legislative framework aiming to establish a central role for architectural competitions in the development of public space. As these cases are studied in terms of narrative inquiry, the focus will be primarily on the incentives behind them and a proposal that they all find themselves on common ground by the narrative of simply ‘breaking with past practices’, in addition to introducing the notion of quality, not by prescribing it in qualificatory terms but rather by simply supporting and safeguarding it in both policy and will.

  16. Change of the reading paradigm in the age of e-book

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vita Mozuraite

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the very end of the 20th century one can notice the rapid change of the reading paradigm. What meaning can one find in the question “do you read?” This change was influenced by development of ICT, information flood in the electronic space, growing popularity of WWW and possibility to receive information in different ways at the same time. The first mentioned factor affected even the physiology of reading, and children today read in slightly different way in comparison to adults who were introduced to computers in their adulthood. Availability of texts published on the internet raises a question, what kind of relation is between process of reading on the internet and browsing the internet. Could we say that reading a vook is the same thing as reading a book? The third factor – offering information in a few different ways – changes the speed of reading and perception of information. How all those factors can affect not only publishing and reading of books, but also the change of reading paradigm in the nearest future? This paper discusses some of these questions.

  17. The Face-to-Face Light Detection Paradigm: A New Methodology for Investigating Visuospatial Attention Across Different Face Regions in Live Face-to-Face Communication Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Laura A; Malloy, Daniel M; Cone, John M; Hendrickson, David L

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a novel paradigm for studying the cognitive processes used by listeners within interactive settings. This paradigm places the talker and the listener in the same physical space, creating opportunities for investigations of attention and comprehension processes taking place during interactive discourse situations. An experiment was conducted to compare results from previous research using videotaped stimuli to those obtained within the live face-to-face task paradigm. A headworn apparatus is used to briefly display LEDs on the talker's face in four locations as the talker communicates with the participant. In addition to the primary task of comprehending speeches, participants make a secondary task light detection response. In the present experiment, the talker gave non-emotionally-expressive speeches that were used in past research with videotaped stimuli. Signal detection analysis was employed to determine which areas of the face received the greatest focus of attention. Results replicate previous findings using videotaped methods.

  18. Space dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corno, S.E.

    1995-01-01

    Analytical methods for Space Dynamics of fission reactors, are presented. It is shown how a few sample problems in space dynamics can be solved, within the one and two group diffusion model, by purely analytical tools, essentially based on Laplace transform and complex Green function techniques. A quite suggestive generalization of this approach, applicable to the fluid core reactors, whose fuel is undergoing a violent mixing, is reported and briefly discussed. (author)

  19. Inhabiting compassion: A pastoral theological paradigm | Zylla | HTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inspired by the vision of care in Vincent van Gogh's depiction of the parable of the Good Samaritan, this article offers a paradigm for inhabiting compassion. Compassion is understood in this article as a moral emotion that is also a pathocentric virtue. This definition creates a dynamic view of compassion as a desire to ...

  20. The New Aid Paradigm: A Case of Policy Incoherence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.G. Dijkstra (Geske)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractFrom around 2000 onwards, donors and recipient governments embarked upon a new aid paradigm. The most important elements include increased selectivity in the aid allocation, more ownership of recipient countries based on nationally elaborated Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs),

  1. Identity based marketing: a new balanced marketing paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alsem, K.J.; Kostelijk, Erik Jan

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to propose a fundamentally new extension of the marketing paradigm. This is theoretically and practically necessary since in the authors' view there is an insufficient balance between customer and brand thinking. Design/methodology/approach – While the

  2. Understanding the Intersections of Paradigm, Meta-Theory, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Researchers rely on theories to guide the research process. Theories provide directions in formulating research questions and in the interpretation of findings. The choice of theory to guide inquiry must relate to research paradigm and corresponding meta-theory. However, many beginning scholars experience difficulty in ...

  3. Consumers and Makers: Exploring Opposing Paradigms of Millennial College Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    The political and technological circumstances of the past two decades have culminated in opposing epistemic paradigms of college readiness, where millennial students' conceptual understanding of "learning" is both narrowed to meet the demands of school systems bound to accountability and amplified by a rapidly evolving digital world. The…

  4. Embracing the Learning Paradigm to Foster Systems Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habron, Geoffrey; Goralnik, Lissy; Thorp, Laurie

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Michigan State University developed an undergraduate, academic specialization in sustainability based on the learning paradigm. The purpose of this paper is to share initial findings on assessment of systems thinking competency. Design/methodology/approach: The 15-week course served 14 mostly third and fourth-year students. Assessment of…

  5. Models for predicting the inflectional paradigm of Croatian words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Šnajder

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Morphological analysis is a prerequisite for many natural language processing tasks. For inflectionally rich languages such as Croatian, morphological analysis typically relies on a morphological lexicon, which lists the lemmas and their paradigms. However, a real-life morphological analyzer must also be able to handle properly the out-of-vocabulary words. We address the task of predicting the correct inflectional paradigm of unknown Croatian words. We frame this as a supervised machine learning problem: we train a classifier to predict whether a candidate lemma-paradigm pair is correct based on a number of string- and corpus-based features. The candidate lemma-paradigm pairs are generated using a handcrafted morphology grammar. Our aim is to examine the machine learning aspect of the problem: we test a comprehensive set of features and evaluate the classification accuracy using different feature subsets. We show that satisfactory classification accuracy (92% can be achieved with SVM using a combination of string- and corpus-based features. On a per word basis, the F1-score is 53% and accuracy is 70%, which outperforms a frequency-based baseline by a wide margin. We discuss a number of possible directions for future research.

  6. Port Harcourt Medical Journal, a paradigm shift | Eke | Port Harcourt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Port Harcourt Medical Journal, a paradigm shift. N Eke. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0795-3038.179439 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors ...

  7. L ocating the doctoral study in the 'paradigm skirmishes': Challenges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is important to understand the thought patterns of students and supervisors that underlie the choice of paradigm and determine the progression of doctoral studies as an integral part of articulating scholarship at the doctoral level and subsequently, to completing the research. This paper traces a student's and a supervisor's ...

  8. Leveling the Playing Field: The Normed-Opportunity Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Alicia; Cormier, Bret T.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the practices, beliefs, and attitudes of secondary teachers in order to identify factors that led to success for non-dominant-group students. We found a unique paradigm among educators whose students of color and/or poverty showed no achievement gap. Rather than coming from a deficit perspective or one expecting assimilation, those…

  9. The National Terminology Services: a new paradigm | Jordaan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The new dispensation in South Africa necessitated a paradigm shift at the National Terminology Services (NTS). Being part of the Central Government, the NTS has to implement policy as laid down by the government of the day. Former policy, processes and products are described as well as the vision and objectives for the ...

  10. Power distribution in the face of the new energy paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desama, Claude

    2012-01-01

    After the challenge of the liberalization of the domestic market of the energy which put an end to the vertically integrated structures, the managers of the distribution networks must now face the energy transition i.e. to substitution from a supply from electricity centralized by intermittent productions related to renewable energies. The article approaches the possible solutions to face this new energy paradigm

  11. Paradigm Changes in Linguistics: From Reductionism to Holism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigand, Edda

    2011-01-01

    Linguistics like any science has undergone a series of paradigm changes, one of the most important being the change from the view of language as a sign system to that of language-in-use. In the face of the progress made in the natural and social sciences in recent years, from biology to economics, the question has to be posed where linguistics and…

  12. Innovative Assessment Paradigm to Enhance Student Learning in Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Maaddawy, Tamer

    2017-01-01

    Incorporation of student self-assessment (SSA) in engineering education offers opportunities to support and encourage learner-led-learning. This paper presents an innovative assessment paradigm that integrates formative, summative, and SSA to enhance student learning. The assessment innovation was implemented in a senior-level civil engineering…

  13. Beyond Criminal Justice: Toward a New Paradigm for Political ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Beyond Criminal Justice: Toward a New Paradigm for Political Settlement in Africa. Mass violence in contemporary Africa typically occurs in cycles. Months or years after one wave of violence is brought to an end, another wave overtakes it. Peace agreements are swept away and yesterday's victims emerge as today's ...

  14. Exploring paradigms of crime reduction: An empirical longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soothill, University of Lancaster, Keith; Christoffersen, Mogens; Azhar, Hussain

    on offenders with first-time convictions for shoplifting (n=1,778), for violence (n=1,585) and for burglary (n=1,208), all four paradigms made a contribution to risk of first time offending for all three crimes. The counter factual analysis indicated that a focus on structural issues within a society may have...

  15. The human dynamic clamp as a paradigm for social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Guillaume; de Guzman, Gonzalo C; Tognoli, Emmanuelle; Kelso, J A Scott

    2014-09-02

    Social neuroscience has called for new experimental paradigms aimed toward real-time interactions. A distinctive feature of interactions is mutual information exchange: One member of a pair changes in response to the other while simultaneously producing actions that alter the other. Combining mathematical and neurophysiological methods, we introduce a paradigm called the human dynamic clamp (HDC), to directly manipulate the interaction or coupling between a human and a surrogate constructed to behave like a human. Inspired by the dynamic clamp used so productively in cellular neuroscience, the HDC allows a person to interact in real time with a virtual partner itself driven by well-established models of coordination dynamics. People coordinate hand movements with the visually observed movements of a virtual hand, the parameters of which depend on input from the subject's own movements. We demonstrate that HDC can be extended to cover a broad repertoire of human behavior, including rhythmic and discrete movements, adaptation to changes of pacing, and behavioral skill learning as specified by a virtual "teacher." We propose HDC as a general paradigm, best implemented when empirically verified theoretical or mathematical models have been developed in a particular scientific field. The HDC paradigm is powerful because it provides an opportunity to explore parameter ranges and perturbations that are not easily accessible in ordinary human interactions. The HDC not only enables to test the veracity of theoretical models, it also illuminates features that are not always apparent in real-time human social interactions and the brain correlates thereof.

  16. Solar Ethics: A New Paradigm for Environmental Ethics and Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Michael A.; Hung, Ruyu

    2009-01-01

    This article provides grounds for a new paradigm of environmental ethics and education based on the centrality of the sun and solar system--a shift from anthropocentrism to solar systemism. The article provides some grounds for this shift from the physical sciences that considers the planet Earth as part of a wider system that is dependent upon…

  17. In Search of a New Paradigm for Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schejbal, David

    2012-01-01

    In this essay I argue that online education, artificial intelligence, and market pressures are driving higher education to adopt the industrial model and to find a new paradigm for delivering education at low costs. In addition, there is tremendous pressure from the federal government to make universities more accountable while making higher…

  18. Trends in global development paradigms and the ramifications in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The recent Sustainable Development Goals draw from the antecedents of colonialism, economic growth and development, people-centred development, sustainable development, and globalization. The implications for policy are key issues in regard to the analytical meaning of the co-existing paradigms and the destination ...

  19. Youth, physical activity and leisure education: Need for a paradigm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The publication of the Surgeon General's Report (1996) on Physical Activity and Health by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services recommended a paradigm shift during the 21st Century from prescribing exercise for fitness, to promoting physical activity and leisure education as an active approach to good ...

  20. The Usefulness of a Suggested Paradigm for Improving Paragraph Coherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Fiona Kwai-peng

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to explore the effectiveness of a paradigm to teach native Cantonese-speaking university students the hierarchical structure of expository prose to improve paragraph coherence. Most of the diagnostic argumentative essays the participants in this study wrote in the course were incoherent, failing to meet readers' expectation of…

  1. Linear and Nonlinear Career Models: Metaphors, Paradigms, and Ideologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzanell, Patrice M.; Goldzwig, Steven R.

    1991-01-01

    Examines the linear or bureaucratic career models (dominant in career research, metaphors, paradigms, and ideologies) which maintain career myths of flexibility and individualized routes to success in organizations incapable of offering such versatility. Describes nonlinear career models which offer suggestive metaphors for re-visioning careers…

  2. TQM Paradigm for Higher Education in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Janette; Valenzuela, Madonna; Ayuyao, Nunilon

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Critical success factors (CSFs) in total quality management (TQM) implementation are vital to the quality improvement of organizations, including higher education institutions (HEIs). The present study aims to attempt to develop a TQM paradigm contextualized to HEIs in the Philippine setting. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 309…

  3. Quantum ergonomics: shifting the paradigm of the systems agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Guy H; Salmon, Paul M; Bedinger, Melissa; Stanton, Neville A

    2017-02-01

    A paradigm is an accepted world view. If we do not continually question our paradigm then wider trends and movements will overtake the discipline leaving it ill adapted to future challenges. This Special Issue is an opportunity to keep systems thinking at the forefront of ergonomics theory and practice. Systems thinking prompts us to ask whether ergonomics, as a discipline, has been too timid? Too preoccupied with the resolution of immediate problems with industrial-age methods when, approaching fast, are developments which could render these operating assumptions an irrelevance. Practical case studies are presented to show how abstract systems problems can be tackled head-on to deliver highly innovative and cost-effective insights. The strategic direction of the discipline foregrounds high-quality systems problems. These are something the discipline is well able to respond to provided that the appropriate operating paradigms are selected. Practitioner Summary: High-quality systems problems are the future of the discipline. How do we convert obtuse sounding systems concepts into practical interventions? In this paper, the essence of systems thinking is distilled and practical case studies used to demonstrate the benefits of this new paradigm.

  4. A Systemic Integration of Technology for New-Paradigm Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, William R.; Watson, Sunnie Lee; Reigeluth, Charles M.

    2012-01-01

    Educational reform efforts have failed to create widespread improvement. The authors argue that rather than trying to improve the existing system of education, a new learner-centered paradigm is needed that supports individualized learning. Such a significantly different system of education will require the systemic application of technology to…

  5. Academic Performance, School Desertion and Emotional Paradigm in University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, Emma Rosa Cruz; Barrientos, Laura Gática; Castro, Patricia Eugenia García; García, Jesús Hernández

    2010-01-01

    The present work aims to describe academic performance, school desertion and the emotional paradigm of the university students of the accounting school of the Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla (FCPBUAP). We have found that low academic performance is related to students' economic deficiency, which affects their concentration on their…

  6. Bacteria Hunt: Evaluating multi-paradigm BCI interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mühl, C.; Gürkök, Hayrettin; Plass - Oude Bos, D.; Thurlings, Marieke E.; Scherffig, Lasse; Duvinage, Matthieu; Elbakyan, Alexandra A.; Kang, SungWook; Poel, Mannes; Heylen, Dirk K.J.

    The multimodal, multi-paradigm brain-computer interfacing (BCI) game Bacteria Hunt was used to evaluate two aspects of BCI interaction in a gaming context. One goal was to examine the effect of feedback on the ability of the user to manipulate his mental state of relaxation. This was done by having

  7. Paradigm shifts in orthodontic treatment with mini-implant anchorage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnny Joung-Lin Liaw

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available After the applications of mini-implant anchorage, the envelope of orthodontic treatment was expanded and some treatment modes were changed because of more predictable tooth movement with empowered anchorage. The author tried to share his experience of TADs applications for clarifying the paradigm shifts of orthodontic treatment assisted with the mini-implant anchorage.

  8. Multi-level programming paradigm for extreme computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petiton, S.; Sato, M.; Emad, N.; Calvin, C.; Tsuji, M.; Dandouna, M.

    2013-01-01

    In order to propose a framework and programming paradigms for post peta-scale computing, on the road to exa-scale computing and beyond, we introduced new languages, associated with a hierarchical multi-level programming paradigm, allowing scientific end-users and developers to program highly hierarchical architectures designed for extreme computing. In this paper, we explain the interest of such hierarchical multi-level programming paradigm for extreme computing and its well adaptation to several large computational science applications, such as for linear algebra solvers used for reactor core physic. We describe the YML language and framework allowing describing graphs of parallel components, which may be developed using PGAS-like language such as XMP, scheduled and computed on supercomputers. Then, we propose experimentations on supercomputers (such as the 'K' and 'Hooper' ones) of the hybrid method MERAM (Multiple Explicitly Restarted Arnoldi Method) as a case study for iterative methods manipulating sparse matrices, and the block Gauss-Jordan method as a case study for direct method manipulating dense matrices. We conclude proposing evolutions for this programming paradigm. (authors)

  9. A Longitudinal analysis of the Porterian paradigm utilization in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Sehnem

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to investigate to what extent Michael Porter's ideas keep attracting the interest of Brazilian researchers vis-à-vis other possibilities. In this research, we conceptualize Porter's paradigm by the the following elements: strategic groups, generic strategies, model of the five forces and value chain. Weanalyzed conferece communications to EnANPAD¿s, from 1998 to 2008, and to 3Es, from 2003to 2007. The results indicate a decline in the use of the porterian paradigm as the main axis of research in strategy. The generic strategies and the model of five forces are the elements of Porter's paradigm most employed, while the concepts of strategic groups and value chain are the ones that received less attention by researchers. The analysis of methodology and purpose of comunications indicates that the "porterian life" in Brazil was characterized by the acritical use of its concepts in order to describe the reality of the strategy in Brazil. There are no evidences of consistent and systematic attempts to test or adapt the porterian paradigm for the Brazilian context. And results indicate no evidences that this trend will be reversed.

  10. Governance Paradigms of Public Universities: An International Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Joe

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to develop a conceptual model of the wider influencing forces impacting the governance paradigms of public universities. It draws on the multi-theoretical governance concept and seeks to identify these forces through the lens of chief audit executives using a qualitative research approach. The interview data supported by published…

  11. EPISTEMOLOGY IN THE CONTEXT OF THE MODERN BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTIONAL PARADIGM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. S. Tokovenko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the work is finding the reasonability of using bio-evolutionary paradigm for researching ratio morphic cognitive activity. Methodology. Methodological grounds consist of the original principles and conceptual apparatus of evolutionary epistemology. Scientific novelty. The article identifies opportunities for using of biological and evolutionary paradigm to study the peculiarities of ratiomorphic cognitive backgrounds and their influence on the formation and development of human knowledge. Conclusions. The article concludes that together with the idea of hyper cycles (feedback loop with mutual transmission of information in cognitive process the concept of ratiomorphic cognitive backgrounds, as well as attempts to examine cognitive processes based on the scientific criteria (empirical verification, explanatory power and ability to predict should be certainly considered as a positive contribution to the development of evolutionary epistemology into modern epistemological research. However, it is also indicated the fact of narrowing the heuristic possibilities of this epistemological direction because of excessive metaphor of bio-evolutionary paradigm. Further development of evolutionary epistemological research is considered in shifting the emphasis from biological and evolutionary towards cultural and evolutionary paradigm.

  12. Problems with a False Recognition Paradigm for Developmental Memory Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindauer, Barbara K.; Paris, Scott G.

    1976-01-01

    Developmental changes in memory organization based on synonym and antonym relationships were examined in three experiments. Subjects were 64 second graders and 64 sixth graders. Some inadequacies of a false recognition paradigm for developmental research are identified and some alternative analyses are proposed. (Author/JH)

  13. Think globally, research locally: paradigms and place in agroecological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Heather L; Smith, Alex A; Farmer, James R

    2014-10-01

    Conducting science for practical ends implicates scientists, whether they wish it or not, as agents in social-ecological systems, raising ethical, economic, environmental, and political issues. Considering these issues helps scientists to increase the relevance and sustainability of research outcomes. As we rise to the worthy call to connect basic research with food production, scientists have the opportunity to evaluate alternative food production paradigms and consider how our research funds and efforts are best employed. In this contribution, we review some of the problems produced by science conducted in service of industrial agriculture and its associated economic growth paradigm. We discuss whether the new concept of "ecological intensification" can rescue the industrial agriculture/growth paradigm and present an emerging alternative paradigm of decentralized, localized, biodiversity-promoting agriculture for a steady-state economy. This "custom fit" agriculture engages constructively with complex and highly localized ecosystems, and we draw from examples of published work to demonstrate how ecologists can contribute by using approaches that acknowledge local agricultural practices and draw on community participation. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  14. Understanding and Applying Research Paradigms in Educational Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivunja, Charles; Kuyini, Ahmed Bawa

    2017-01-01

    The concept of research paradigm is one that many higher degree research students, and even early career researchers, find elusive to articulate, and challenging to apply in their research proposals. Adopting an ethnographic and hermeneutic methodology, the present paper draws upon our experiences as lecturers in Research Methods over many years,…

  15. Aspects of Theories, Frameworks and Paradigms in Mathematics Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoilescu, Dorian

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses major theoretical debates and paradigms from the last decades in general education and their specific influences in mathematics education contexts. Behaviourism, cognitive science, constructivism, situated cognition, critical theory, place-based learning, postmodernism and poststructuralism and their significant aspects in…

  16. Trends in global development paradigms and the ramifications in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since the 1950s, Ghana has rolled out a number of development paradigms in a bid to ... the general systems theory and spatial processes of rural–urban migration in ..... The processes embody nodes (countries, regional blocs, and cardinal ... interconnectedness (as in networking including relationships among the nodes).

  17. Identity-based marketing : A new balanced marketing paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alsem, K.J.; Kostelijk, E.J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to propose a fundamentally new extension of the marketing paradigm. This is theoretically and practically necessary since in the authors' view there is an insufficient balance between customer and brand thinking. Design/methodology/approach - While the

  18. What Philanthropy's Paradigm Shift Means for Higher Ed Fundraising

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCully, George

    2015-01-01

    This is an unprecedented era of human history, in which simultaneous transformations of every technically advanced field are being driven by the powerful technological revolution in information and communications. Technically, these transformative changes are "paradigm shifts"--a distinct kind of historical change in which the governing…

  19. The maturing of the quality improvement paradigm in the SEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basili, Victor R.

    1993-01-01

    The Software Engineering Laboratory uses a paradigm for improving the software process and product, called the quality improvement paradigm. This paradigm has evolved over the past 18 years, along with our software development processes and product. Since 1976, when we first began the SEL, we have learned a great deal about improving the software process and product, making a great many mistakes along the way. Quality improvement paradigm, as it is currently defined, can be broken up into six steps: characterize the current project and its environment with respect to the appropriate models and metrics; set the quantifiable goals for successful project performance and improvement; choose the appropriate process model and supporting methods and tools for this project; execute the processes, construct the products, and collect, validate, and analyze the data to provide real-time feedback for corrective action; analyze the data to evaluate the current practices, determine problems, record findings, and make recommendations for future project improvements; and package the experience gained in the form of updated and refined models and other forms of structured knowledge gained from this and prior projects and save it in an experience base to be reused on future projects.

  20. Discussing discourse modalities in argument theory : Reconsidering a paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hoven, P.J.

    2018-01-01

    This article analyzes a statement by Blair that the conditions of interpretation of visual expression are indeterminate to a much greater degree than is the case with verbal expression. We argue that this proposition reveals a somewhat hidden paradigm about what argument theory is or should be. This

  1. A Technical/Strategic Paradigm for Online Executive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Marlene A.; Keaveney, Susan M.

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the development and delivery of online courses for the executive education audience. The goal is to introduce a new framework, the technical/strategic paradigm, that will help educators to identify the pedagogical needs of disparate executive groups and adjust their online course development plans accordingly. We describe…

  2. A nonmusical paradigm for identifying absolute pitch possessors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, David A.; Olson, Ingrid R.; Marks, Lawrence E.; Gore, John C.

    2004-09-01

    The ability to identify and reproduce sounds of specific frequencies is remarkable and uncommon. The etiology and defining characteristics of this skill, absolute pitch (AP), have been very controversial. One theory suggests that AP requires a specific type of early musical training and that the ability to encode and remember tones depends on these learned musical associations. An alternate theory argues that AP may be strongly dependent on hereditary factors and relatively independent of musical experience. To date, it has been difficult to test these hypotheses because all previous paradigms for identifying AP have required subjects to employ knowledge of musical nomenclature. As such, these tests are insensitive to the possibility of discovering AP in either nonmusicians or musicians of non-Western training. Based on previous literature in pitch memory, a paradigm is presented that is intended to distinguish between AP possessors and nonpossessors independent of the subjects' musical experience. The efficacy of this method is then tested with 20 classically defined AP possessors and 22 nonpossessors. Data from these groups strongly support the validity of the paradigm. The use of a nonmusical paradigm to identify AP may facilitate research into many aspects of this phenomenon.

  3. A movement ecology paradigm for unifying organismal movement research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Ran; Getz, Wayne M; Revilla, Eloy; Holyoak, Marcel; Kadmon, Ronen; Saltz, David; Smouse, Peter E

    2008-12-09

    Movement of individual organisms is fundamental to life, quilting our planet in a rich tapestry of phenomena with diverse implications for ecosystems and humans. Movement research is both plentiful and insightful, and recent methodological advances facilitate obtaining a detailed view of individual movement. Yet, we lack a general unifying paradigm, derived from first principles, which can place movement studies within a common context and advance the development of a mature scientific discipline. This introductory article to the Movement Ecology Special Feature proposes a paradigm that integrates conceptual, theoretical, methodological, and empirical frameworks for studying movement of all organisms, from microbes to trees to elephants. We introduce a conceptual framework depicting the interplay among four basic mechanistic components of organismal movement: the internal state (why move?), motion (how to move?), and navigation (when and where to move?) capacities of the individual and the external factors affecting movement. We demonstrate how the proposed framework aids the study of various taxa and movement types; promotes the formulation of hypotheses about movement; and complements existing biomechanical, cognitive, random, and optimality paradigms of movement. The proposed framework integrates eclectic research on movement into a structured paradigm and aims at providing a basis for hypothesis generation and a vehicle facilitating the understanding of the causes, mechanisms, and spatiotemporal patterns of movement and their role in various ecological and evolutionary processes. "Now we must consider in general the common reason for moving with any movement whatever." (Aristotle, De Motu Animalium, 4th century B.C.).

  4. A Paradigm Shift for Educational Administrators: The Total Quality Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, M. J.

    This paper reviews the major ideas of the seminal total quality management theorists, such as Deming, Crosby, Juran, Ishikawa, and Imai, to illustrate how total quality management is applicable to education. It is argued that there is a need for a paradigm shift in educational administration. The first part reviews current Australian societal…

  5. The spin glasses: the paradigm of the complex systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz-Lorenzo, J.J.

    1997-01-01

    The solution of the spin glasses in the Mean Field approximation gives some interesting characteristics such as the existence of an infinite number of pure states organized in an ultrametric way (like in Taxonomy). These properties raise the spin glasses to a paradigm of the complex systems. (Author) 7 refs

  6. Cloud Manufacturing Service Paradigm for Group Manufacturing Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingtao Zhou

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The continuous refinement of specialization requires that the group manufacturing company must be constantly focused on how to concentrate its core resources in special sphere to form its core competitive advantage. However, the resources in enterprise group are usually distributed in different subsidiary companies, which means they cannot be fully used, constraining the competition and development of the enterprise. Conducted as a response to a need for cloud manufacturing studies, systematic and detailed studies on cloud manufacturing schema for group companies are carried out in this paper. A new hybrid private clouds paradigm is proposed to meet the requirements of aggregation and centralized use of heterogeneous resources and business units distributed in different subsidiary companies. After the introduction of the cloud manufacturing paradigm for enterprise group and its architecture, this paper presents a derivation from the abstraction of paradigm and framework to the application of a practical evaluative working mechanism. In short, the paradigm establishes an effective working mechanism to translate collaborative business process composed by the activities into cloud manufacturing process composed by services so as to create a foundation resulting in mature traditional project monitoring and scheduling technologies being able to be used in cloud manufacturing project management.

  7. The 'Turn to Parenting': Paradigm shift or work in progress?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopman, M.; Knijn, G.C.M.

    In the field of child and youth support, preventive and parent-oriented support programs are currently emphasized. This is understood as a new paradigm of parenting support, which is sometimes referred to as “the turn to parenting.” Using Campbell’s (Annual Review of Sociology, 28:21–38, 2002),

  8. Health Paradigm Shifts in the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Miguel DeAngulo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of systems theory and the study of complexity to medicine and human health allows for a more comprehensive understanding and a more holistic view of what it means to be human. Such application overcomes the limitations of the traditional, fragmented understanding of phenomena and problems based on the mechanistic or Newtonian worldview. It recognizes that phenomena are interrelated, and that individual parts cannot be understood by only focusing on the analysis of their individual qualities. Rather, the individual parts can only be understood in relation to the whole and by being analyzed in the context of their interaction with the whole. The door is opened to previously unimagined models of thinking.In the 20th Century there have been shifts in the paradigms that have governed medicine and human health in the modern western world. There has been a shift from the focus on specific biological analysis and pathological diagnostics to complex human interactions with the environment and with sociopolitical and economic processes. There are complex models of systems in immunology, in neuroscience, and in genetics, as well as complex ways of understanding interactions as in epidemic modeling, in social media technologies, socioeconomic factors, and artificial intelligence.In this paper we describe three paradigms of the health-disease process that in some degree correspond to the historical development of modern medicine and healthcare over the previous century. The oldest paradigm focused on specific disease mechanisms and treatment. This gave way to paradigms that historically were broader and more inclusive, such as “international health”. The international health paradigm focused primarily on the control of epidemics across national borders and considered government as the only health actor. However, this perspective has come to be seen as excessively reductionist and excluded many critical components essential to a robust

  9. Further Evidence in Support of the Universal Nilpotent Grammatical Computational Paradigm of Quantum Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcer, Peter J.; Rowlands, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Further evidence is presented in favour of the computational paradigm, conceived and constructed by Rowlands and Diaz, as detailed in Rowlands' book Zero to Infinity (2007), and in particular the authors' paper 'The Grammatical Universe: the Laws of Thermodynamics and Quantum Entanglement'. The paradigm, which has isomorphic group and algebraic quantum mechanical language interpretations, not only predicts the well-established facts of quantum physics, the periodic table, chemistry / valence and of molecular biology, whose understanding it extends; it also provides an elegant, simple solution to the unresolved quantum measurement problem. In this fundamental paradigm, all the computational constructs / predictions that emerge, follow from the simple fact, that, as in quantum mechanics, the wave function is defined only up to an arbitrary fixed phase. This fixed phase provides a simple physical understanding of the quantum vacuum in quantum field theory, where only relative phases, known to be able to encode 3+1 relativistic space-time geometries, can be measured. It is the arbitrary fixed measurement standard, against which everything that follows is to be measured, even though the standard itself cannot be, since nothing exists against which to measure it. The standard, as an arbitrary fixed reference phase, functions as the holographic basis for a self-organized universal quantum process of emergent novel fermion states of matter where, following each emergence, the arbitrary standard is re-fixed anew so as to provide a complete history / holographic record or hologram of the current fixed past, advancing an unending irreversible evolution, such as is the evidence of our senses. The fermion states, in accord with the Pauli exclusion principle, each correspond to a unique nilpotent symbol in the infinite alphabet (which specifies the grammar in this nilpotent universal computational rewrite system (NUCRS) paradigm); and the alphabet, as Hill and Rowlands

  10. An Urban Colour Space in the Context of Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Zheleznyak

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A colour space is seen as an actual discourse when discussing problems of formation and inhabitation of the modern city environment. The key aspect of such understanding is an activity-cultural interpretation of the urban environment colouristics proposed by the author, which allows building of an integral sphere of colour existence. This model of working with colour includes basic components and structures a colour space, while matching up all the elements (basic paradigms that provide proper functioning and development of the colour space; mechanisms of formation of colour paradigms; processes of formation and transformation of cultural norms and stereotypes; the culture of colour as a holistic unit that penetrates the variety of colour space forms, as well as the reality of colour establishment in the framework of human culture; the urban colouristics as a material and virtual, artificial and natural, organized and spontaneously appearing colour reality together with professional and conventional visions of it, etc..

  11. Illuminating Spaces in the Classroom with Qualitative GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battista, Geoffrey A.; Manaugh, Kevin

    2018-01-01

    As social and postmodern ontologies continue to shape our definition of space, undergraduate instructors have struggled to incorporate these paradigms in the geography classroom. Recent research suggests that practical applications using field work, qualitative research, and geographic information science can augment students' understanding of…

  12. Exploiting differentiated tuple distribution in shared data spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Russello, G.; Chaudron, M.R.V.; Steen, van M.; Danelutto, M.; Vanneschi, M.

    2004-01-01

    The shared data space model has proven to be an effective paradigm for building distributed applications. However, building an efficient distributed implementation remains a challenge. A plethora of different implementations exists. Each of them has a specific policy for distributing data across

  13. State Space Reduction for Model Checking Agent Programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.-S.T.Q. Jongmans (Sung-Shik); K.V. Hindriks; M.B. van Riemsdijk; L. Dennis; O. Boissier; R.H. Bordini (Rafael)

    2012-01-01

    htmlabstractState space reduction techniques have been developed to increase the efficiency of model checking in the context of imperative programming languages. Unfortunately, these techniques cannot straightforwardly be applied to agents: the nature of states in the two programming paradigms

  14. public spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The topic of this issue is PUBLIC SPACES. It is familiar and clear to every citizen. The streets and courtyards as childhood experiences remain with us forever. And these are the places where we come with our parents at weekends, where we meet friends, where we have dates and where we already come for a walk with our children.The history of public spaces is long and captivating. It was the main city squares where the most important events took place in history. The Agoras of Ancient Greece and the Roman Forums, the squares of Vatican, Paris and London, Moscow and Saint Petersburg… Greve, Trafalgar, Senate, Palace, Red, Bolotnaya – behind every name there is life of capitals, countries and nations.Public spaces, their shapes, image and development greatly influence the perception of the city as a whole. Both visitors and inhabitants can see in public spaces not only the visage but the heart, the soul and the mind of the city.Unfortunately, sometimes we have to prove the value of public spaces and defend them from those who consider them nothing but a blank space, nobody’s land destined for barbarous development.What should happen to make citizens perceive public spaces as their own and to make authorities consider development and maintenance of squares and parks their priority task against the  background of increasing competition between cities and the fight for human capital? Lately they more often say about “a high-quality human capital”. And now, when they say “the city should be liveable” they add “for all groups of citizens, including the creative class”.

  15. Space Rescue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratore, John F.

    2007-01-01

    Space Rescue has been a topic of speculation for a wide community of people for decades. Astronauts, aerospace engineers, diplomats, medical and rescue professionals, inventors and science fiction writers have all speculated on this problem. Martin Caidin's 1964 novel Marooned dealt with the problems of rescuing a crew stranded in low earth orbit. Legend at the Johnson Space Center says that Caidin's portrayal of a Russian attempt to save the American crew played a pivotal role in convincing the Russians to join the real joint Apollo-Soyuz mission. Space Rescue has been a staple in science fiction television and movies portrayed in programs such as Star Trek, Stargate-SG1 and Space 1999 and movies such as Mission To Mars and Red Planet. As dramatic and as difficult as rescue appears in fictional accounts, in the real world it has even greater drama and greater difficulty. Space rescue is still in its infancy as a discipline and the purpose of this chapter is to describe the issues associated with space rescue and the work done so far in this field. For the purposes of this chapter, the term space rescue will refer to any system which allows for rescue or escape of personnel from situations which endanger human life in a spaceflight operation. This will span the period from crew ingress prior to flight through crew egress postlanding. For the purposes of this chapter, the term primary system will refer to the spacecraft system that a crew is either attempting to escape from or from which an attempt is being made to rescue the crew.

  16. A Semiotic Analysis of the Gender Equality Paradigm. Case study: the Gender Pay Gap Campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mădălina Manolache

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Within the new European space of identity, attitude and action challenges, syntagms such as “unity in diversity” or “equal pay for work of equal value” have become identitarian brands for social groups with a high-level of self-awareness. Having the social semiotics (Kress, van Leeuwen [1996] 2006 as theoretical background, we focused our analysis on the gender equality paradigm. The empirical data were provided by four visual texts of the Gender Pay Gap campaign, initiated by the European Commission in March 2009, in order to map the new European “puzzle-space” . The analysis showed the importance of compositional, representational and interactive meanings within the European discourse on equality of chances and gender.

  17. Cyclic “deja vu” of real estate industry development paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yas’kova Natal’ya Yur’evna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The practical projections of cyclic theories are of a great interest. Our preferences moved again from apartment houses and vertical cities to low-rise buildings. Circles set the development vector for natural, human sciences and sciences on society. The article researches the problem of cyclic development of scientific schools and their innovation ideas in the sphere of space-territory property development. The phases of the cycle were researched on the example of Bauhaus architecture school. This enables to reveal the demands and specifics of the development of new technological platforms, as well as to create the effective formats of public-private partnership. Cyclicity of business activity development under the conditions of awareness of the evolution of senses of interdisciplinary approaches utilization permits to produce the adequate development paradigm.

  18. Underground spaces/cybernetic spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Novljan

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A modern city space is a space where in the vertical and horizontal direction dynamic, non-linear processes exist, similar as in nature. Alongside the “common” city surface, cities have underground spaces as well that are increasingly affecting the functioning of the former. It is the space of material and cybernetic communication/transport. The psychophysical specifics of using underground places have an important role in their conceptualisation. The most evident facts being their limited volume and often limited connections to the surface and increased level of potential dangers of all kinds. An efficient mode for alleviating the effects of these specific features are artistic interventions, such as: shape, colour, lighting, all applications of the basic principles of fractal theory.

  19. Space solar power satellite systems with a space elevator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellum, M. J. (Mervyn J.); Laubscher, B. E. (Bryan E.)

    2004-01-01

    The Space Elevator (SE) represents a major paradigm shift in mankind's access to outer space. If the SE's promise of low-cost access to space can be realized, the economics of space-based business endeavors becomes much more feasible. In this paper, we describe a Solar Power Satellite (SPS) system and estimate its costs within the context of an SE. We also offer technical as well as financial comparisons between SPS and terrestrial solar photovoltaic technologies. Even though SPS systems have been designed for over 35 years, technologies pertinent to SPS systems are continually evolving. One of the designs we present includes an evolving technology, optical rectennas. SPS systems could be a long-term energy source that is clean, technologically feasible, and virtually limitless. Moreover, electrical energy could be distributed inexpensively to remote areas where such power does not currently exist, thereby raising the quality of life of the people living in those areas. The energy 'playing field' will be leveled across the world and the resulting economic growth will improve the lot of humankind everywhere.

  20. Misrepresenting Religious Education's Past and Present in Looking Forward: Gearon Using Kuhn's Concepts of Paradigm, Paradigm Shift and Incommensurability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Robert

    2015-01-01

    In looking to the future, some writers on religious education (RE) have attempted to evaluate current approaches to the subject. Some have characterised any significant change in approach as a "paradigm shift", a term derived from Thomas Kuhn's work in the philosophy of science. This article examines the uses of the terms…

  1. The Risk-Benefit Paradigm vs the Causal Exposure Paradigm: LDL as a primary cause of vascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Peter P; Thanassoulis, George; Williams, Ken; Furberg, Curt D; Sniderman, Allan

    2014-01-01

    All current guidelines use the 10-year risk of a cardiovascular event to select subjects for statin primary preventive therapy. Benefit from therapy is stated to be determined by risk with the result that statin primary preventive therapy is initiated only when the risk of a cardiovascular event over the next decade exceeds a specified level. Thus all current guidelines are based primarily on the Risk-Benefit paradigm of primary prevention. The recent American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology guidelines differ from others in basing selection for statin therapy virtually exclusively on risk except for those few subjects with markedly elevated levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). The Causal Exposure paradigm differs from the Risk-Benefit paradigm in that the objective of therapy is to prevent the anatomic disease within arterial walls that produces cardiovascular risk. Moreover, the anatomic disease and, therefore, the cardiovascular risk, is a function of the injurious action of the causal factors of vascular disease, such as blood pressure and LDL, on the arterial wall over long periods. In this article, we explain the strengths and weaknesses of both paradigms to provide a more secure framework to compare the strengths and weaknesses in the different cholesterol guidelines with particular emphasis on the evidence that the cardiovascular risk and the benefit from statin therapy is related to the level of LDL. Copyright © 2014 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Port – FEZ bundles as spaces of global articulation: the case of Tianjin, China

    OpenAIRE

    James J Wang; Daniel Olivier

    2006-01-01

    The authors examine possible ways to enhance interdisciplinary dialogue between transport geography and economic geography, its parent discipline. In the context of emerging paradigms of global production seeking to capture the outsourcing process with developing countries, the port – free-trade zone bundle is suggested as a valid intersect between spaces of production and spaces of circulation. Such zones act as interfaces between local and global spaces: they are spaces of global articulati...

  3. Keep at bay!--Abnormal personal space regulation as marker of paranoia in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoretsanitis, G; Kutynia, A; Stegmayer, K; Strik, W; Walther, S

    2016-01-01

    During threat, interpersonal distance is deliberately increased. Personal space regulation is related to amygdala function and altered in schizophrenia, but it remains unknown whether it is particularly associated with paranoid threat. We compared performance in two tests on personal space between 64 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and 24 matched controls. Patients were stratified in those with paranoid threat, neutral affect or paranoid experience of power. In the stop-distance paradigm, participants indicated the minimum tolerable interpersonal distance. In the fixed-distance paradigm, they indicated the level of comfort at fixed interpersonal distances. Paranoid threat increased interpersonal distance two-fold in the stop-distance paradigm, and reduced comfort ratings in the fixed-distance paradigm. In contrast, patients experiencing paranoid power had high comfort ratings at any distance. Patients with neutral affect did not differ from controls in the stop-distance paradigm. Differences between groups remained when controlling for gender and positive symptom severity. Among schizophrenia patients, the stop-distance paradigm detected paranoid threat with 93% sensitivity and 83% specificity. Personal space regulation is not generally altered in schizophrenia. However, state paranoid experience has distinct contributions to personal space regulation. Subjects experiencing current paranoid threat share increased safety-seeking behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Environmental spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Gutzon

    Using the development of intergovernmental environmental cooperation in the Baltic Sea area as a concrete example, the aim of this study is to explore how the 'environment' in situations of environmental interdependence is identified and institutionalised as political-geographical objects....... 'Environmental interdependence' is to this end conceptualised as a tension between 'political spaces' of discrete state territories and 'environmental spaces' of spatially nested ecosystems. This tension between geographies of political separateness and environmental wholeness is the implicit or explicit basis...... for a large and varied literature. But in both its critical and problemsolving manifestations, this literature tends to naturalise the spatiality of environmental concerns: environmental spaces are generally taken for granted. On the suggestion that there is a subtle politics to the specification...

  5. Tsirelson's space

    CERN Document Server

    Casazza, Peter G

    1989-01-01

    This monograph provides a structure theory for the increasingly important Banach space discovered by B.S. Tsirelson. The basic construction should be accessible to graduate students of functional analysis with a knowledge of the theory of Schauder bases, while topics of a more advanced nature are presented for the specialist. Bounded linear operators are studied through the use of finite-dimensional decompositions, and complemented subspaces are studied at length. A myriad of variant constructions are presented and explored, while open questions are broached in almost every chapter. Two appendices are attached: one dealing with a computer program which computes norms of finitely-supported vectors, while the other surveys recent work on weak Hilbert spaces (where a Tsirelson-type space provides an example).

  6. Space doubt

    OpenAIRE

    Rega, Joseph Mark

    2003-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Comunicação e Expressão. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Inglês e Literatura Correspondente. The recent surge in cyberspace science fiction follows previous trends within the genre, i.e. those connected with future city-space and outer space, and is an inevitable result of economic forces. There has always been a close relationship between capitalism and spatial expansion, compelled by technological innovations that ha...

  7. Transit space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raahauge, Kirsten Marie

    2008-01-01

    This article deals with representations of one specific city, Århus, Denmark, especially its central district. The analysis is based on anthropological fieldwork conducted in Skåde Bakker and Fedet, two well-off neighborhoods. The overall purpose of the project is to study perceptions of space...... and the interaction of cultural, social, and spatial organizations, as seen from the point of view of people living in Skåde Bakker and Fedet. The focus is on the city dwellers’ representations of the central district of Århus with specific reference to the concept of transit space. When applied to various Århusian...

  8. Matrotrophy and placentation in invertebrates: a new paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrovsky, Andrew N; Lidgard, Scott; Gordon, Dennis P; Schwaha, Thomas; Genikhovich, Grigory; Ereskovsky, Alexander V

    2016-08-01

    Matrotrophy, the continuous extra-vitelline supply of nutrients from the parent to the progeny during gestation, is one of the masterpieces of nature, contributing to offspring fitness and often correlated with evolutionary diversification. The most elaborate form of matrotrophy-placentotrophy-is well known for its broad occurrence among vertebrates, but the comparative distribution and structural diversity of matrotrophic expression among invertebrates is wanting. In the first comprehensive analysis of matrotrophy across the animal kingdom, we report that regardless of the degree of expression, it is established or inferred in at least 21 of 34 animal phyla, significantly exceeding previous accounts and changing the old paradigm that these phenomena are infrequent among invertebrates. In 10 phyla, matrotrophy is represented by only one or a few species, whereas in 11 it is either not uncommon or widespread and even pervasive. Among invertebrate phyla, Platyhelminthes, Arthropoda and Bryozoa dominate, with 162, 83 and 53 partly or wholly matrotrophic families, respectively. In comparison, Chordata has more than 220 families that include or consist entirely of matrotrophic species. We analysed the distribution of reproductive patterns among and within invertebrate phyla using recently published molecular phylogenies: matrotrophy has seemingly evolved at least 140 times in all major superclades: Parazoa and Eumetazoa, Radiata and Bilateria, Protostomia and Deuterostomia, Lophotrochozoa and Ecdysozoa. In Cycliophora and some Digenea, it may have evolved twice in the same life cycle. The provisioning of developing young is associated with almost all known types of incubation chambers, with matrotrophic viviparity more widespread (20 phyla) than brooding (10 phyla). In nine phyla, both matrotrophic incubation types are present. Matrotrophy is expressed in five nutritive modes, of which histotrophy and placentotrophy are most prevalent. Oophagy, embryophagy and

  9. Stroke mimics under the drip-and-ship paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Sonal; Vora, Nirav; Edgell, Randall C; Allam, Hesham; Alawi, Aws; Koehne, Jennifer; Kumar, Abhay; Feen, Eliahu; Cruz-Flores, Salvador; Alshekhlee, Amer

    2014-01-01

    Recent reports suggested better outcomes associated with the drip-and-ship paradigm for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) treated with thrombolysis. We hypothesized that a higher rate of stroke mimics (SM) among AIS treated in nonspecialized stroke centers that are transferred to comprehensive centers is responsible for such outcomes. Consecutive patients treated with thrombolysis according to the admission criteria were reviewed in a single comprehensive stroke center over 1 academic year (July 1, 2011 to June 30, 2012). Information on the basic demographic, hospital complications, psychiatric diagnoses, and discharge disposition was collected. We identified those patients who were treated at a facility and then transferred to the tertiary center (ie, drip-and-ship paradigm). In addition to comparative and adjusted analysis to identify predictors for SM, a stratified analysis by the drip-and-ship status was performed. One hundred twenty patients were treated with thrombolysis for AIS included in this analysis; 20 (16.7%) were discharged with the final diagnosis of SM; 14 of those had conversion syndrome and 6 patients had other syndromes (seizures, migraine, and hypoglycemia). Patients with SM were younger (55.6 ± 15.0 versus 69.4 ± 14.9, P = .0003) and more likely to harbor psychiatric diagnoses (45% versus 9%; P ≤ .0001). Eighteen of 20 SM patients (90%) had the drip-and-ship treatment paradigm compared with 65% of those with AIS (P = .02). None of the SM had hemorrhagic complications, and all were discharged to home. Predictors of SM on adjusted analysis included the drip-and-ship paradigm (odds ratio [OR] 12.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.78, 92.1) and history of any psychiatric illness (OR 12.08; 95% CI 3.14, 46.4). Eighteen of 83 drip-and-ship patients (21.7%) were diagnosed with SM compared with 2 of 37 patients (5.4%) presented directly to the hub hospital (P = .02). The drip-and-ship paradigm and any psychiatric history predict the diagnosis of

  10. Part I. Development of a concept inventory addressing students' beliefs and reasoning difficulties regarding the greenhouse effect, Part II. Distribution of chlorine measured by the Mars Odyssey Gamma Ray Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, John Michael

    chlorine on Mars measured by the Mars Odyssey Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS). The distribution of chlorine is heterogeneous across the surface, with a concentration of high chlorine centered over the Medusa Fossae Formation. The distribution of chlorine correlates positively with hydrogen and negatively with silicon and thermal inertia. Four mechanisms (aeolian, volcanic, aqueous, and hydrothermal) are discussed as possible factors influencing the distribution of chlorine measured within the upper few tens of centimeters of the surface.

  11. The Lunar Magma Ocean (LMO) Paradigm Versus the Realities of Lunar Anorthosites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiman, A. H.; Gross, J.

    2018-05-01

    The paradigm of the Lunar Magma Ocean (LMO) is inconsistent with much chemical and compositional data on lunar anorthosites. The paradigm of serial anorthosite diapirism is more consistent, though not a panacea.

  12. Corporate social capital and strategic management paradigm : a contingency view on organizational performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenders, Roger Th.A.J.; Gabbay, Shaul M.; Fiegenbaum, Avi

    2001-01-01

    The strategic management paradigm explains organizational performance through the alignment between environment, strategy, and reference points. We extend this paradigm by incorporating the role of interorganizational networks on firm performance, thus integrating strategic management and corporate

  13. Into Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN PUMIN

    2010-01-01

    @@ China plans to launch an unmanned space module,Tiangong 1,in 2011,said Qi Faren,the chief designer of China's Shenzhou spacecraft,at the sidelines of the annual plenary session of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference(CPPCC),the country's top political advisory body,on March 3.

  14. Training Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Margery

    2010-01-01

    Creating a balanced learning space for employees is about more than trying different types of seating. It is a challenge that an affect how well employees absorb the lessons and whether they will be able to product better results for the company. The possible solutions are as diverse as the learners. This article describes how three companies…

  15. Space Gerontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miquel, J. (Editor); Economos, A. C. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Presentations are given which address the effects of space flght on the older person, the parallels between the physiological responses to weightlessness and the aging process, and experimental possibilities afforded by the weightless environment to fundamental research in gerontology and geriatrics.

  16. Trading Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cort, Cliff

    2006-01-01

    Education administrators face the dual dilemma of crowded, aging facilities and tightening capital budgets. The challenge is to build the necessary classroom, laboratory and activity space while minimizing the length and expense of the construction process. One solution that offers an affordable alternative is modular construction, a method that…

  17. Space research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tempelmayer, A.

    2000-01-01

    Space research in Austria began since 1969 and has its roots in Graz. An overview of the projects performed by Austrian organizations such as local network interconnection via satellites systems, MIGMAS (Microanalysis station), ALP-SAT (Autonomous Libration Point-Satellite), MIDAS (Micro-imaging dust analysis system), among others are described. (nevyjel)

  18. Space Conquest

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    An old water tank from the time of the ISR is being converted into a temporary store for ATLAS muon chambers. This is the last chapter in the big programme by the PH Department to make better use of space at CERN.

  19. A heretic's view of the object-oriented paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Per

    1998-01-01

    A basic assumption of the object-oriented paradigm of computer programming and database thinking is that objects (including classes) are dynamic: classes have objects as instances which can be created, modified, and deleted. I argue that this leads to unnecessary conceptual difficulties, and sugg......A basic assumption of the object-oriented paradigm of computer programming and database thinking is that objects (including classes) are dynamic: classes have objects as instances which can be created, modified, and deleted. I argue that this leads to unnecessary conceptual difficulties......, and suggest that although real world entities are undeniably dynamic and perishable, much may be gained by assuming that the objects we use for thinking about them are static. This, it is submitted, may prove to facilitate both practical system development and theoretical pursuits of a mathematically sound...... object-oriented data model....

  20. Philosophy of science and the emerging paradigm: implications for hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osowiec, Darlene A

    2014-01-01

    Within the hypnosis field, there is a disparity between clinical and research worldviews. Clinical practitioners work with patients who are dealing with serious, often unique, real-world problems-lived experience. Researchers adhere to objective measurements, standardization, data, and statistics. Although there is overlap, an ongoing divergence can be counterproductive to the hypnosis field and to the larger professional and social contexts. The purpose of this article is: (1) to examine some of the major assumptions, the history, and the philosophy that undergird the definition of science, which was constructed in the mid-17th century; (2) to discover how science is a product of prevailing social forces and is undergoing a paradigm shift; and (3) to understand the more encompassing, holistic paradigm with implications for the hypnosis field.