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Sample records for space nuclear session

  1. 9. Biennial session of nuclear physics

    1987-03-01

    As every two years the 9th biennial session of nuclear physics shall try to make a survey of the recent experimental developments as well as the evolution of the theoretical ideas in Nuclear Physics. Communications are indexed and analysed separately

  2. 78 FR 53497 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Closed Session

    2013-08-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation... Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee Special Closed Session. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 10(a...), notice is hereby given of a special closed session of the Commercial Space Transportation Advisory...

  3. Y-Notes; Introductory Sessions on Nuclear Technology

    2001-01-01

    This chapter is divided into next parts: What is 'Y-Notes ; Young generation opening session; Nuclear education and transfer of know-how; Nuclear technology; Other applications of nuclear technology; Nuclear programs and technical cooperation; Political aspects; Environment and safety; Communication and public perception; Economics; Fuel cycle challenges; Video

  4. Research on design of dialogue session concerning nuclear technology

    Karikawa, Daisuke; Takahashi, Makoto; Yagi, Ekou; Toba, Tae; Kitamura, Masaharu

    2010-01-01

    Toward resolving nuclear conflict, deep dialogue sessions among stakeholders having different opinions concerning nuclear technology are strongly required. In order to realize a fair and constructive dialogue session, it is necessary to pay attention to the design of the dialogue session, e.g., participant selection, agenda setting, facilitation, and rules of dialogue. The basic requirements for a dialogue session have been proposed in this study based on theoretical and empirical analyses of previous dialogue sessions on nuclear issues. The theoretical analysis has been performed based on various aspects concerning defects in nuclear communication mentioned in science and technology studies. The empirical analysis has been performed by analyzing participants' responses and by systematizing practical findings of previous dialogues. The proposed requirements for a dialogue session were utilized for the design and operation of a preliminary attempt of a dialogue session named 'Open Forum for Nuclear Communication.' Through the analysis of data, such as minutes and recorded conversations collected after the session, it has been confirmed that the prespecified requirements have been satisfied. In addition, the participants' responses have shown a high acceptance for an open forum. According to these results, the basic validity and effectiveness of the proposed requirements in the design of a dialogue session have been successfully demonstrated. (author)

  5. 2011 annual meeting on nuclear technology. Pt. 4. Topical sessions

    Schoenfelder, Christian; Dams, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Summary report on the Topical Session of the Annual Conference on Nuclear Technology held in Berlin, 17 to 19 May 2011: - Nuclear Competence in Germany and Europe. The Topical Session: - Sodium Cooled Fast Reactors -- will be covered in a report in a further issue of atw. The reports on the Topical Sessions: - CFD-Simulations for Safety Relevant Tasks; and - Final Disposal: From Scientific Basis to Application; - Characteristics of a High Reliability Organization (HRO) Considering Experience Gained from Events at Nuclear Power Stations -- have been covered in atw 7, 8/9, and 10 (2011). (orig.)

  6. Environmental crimes at the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Facility. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Investigations and Oversight of the Committee on Science, Space and Technology, US House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, Second Session, Volume I

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Documented here are the executive session: September 10, 11, 17, 18, 23 [11:00 a.m.], 24, 25, 30, 1992 and the public session: September 23 [2:15 p.m.]; October 2, 5, 1992 of the hearings on the Environmental Crimes at the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Facility. This document is Volume I of the hearings

  7. Nuclear power in space

    Aftergood, S.; Hafemeister, D.W.; Prilutsky, O.F.; Rodionov, S.N.; Primack, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear reactors have provided energy for satellites-with nearly disastrous results. Now the US government is proposing to build nuclear-powered boosters to launch Star Wars defenses. These authors represent scientific groups that are opposed to the use of nuclear power in near space. The authors feel that the best course for space-borne reactors is to ban them from Earth orbit and use them in deep space

  8. IAEA to hold special session on nuclear terrorism

    2001-01-01

    Experts from around the world are meeting at the IAEA this week for an international symposium on nuclear safeguards, verification, and security. A special session on 2 November focuses on the issue of combating nuclear terrorism. The Special Session, which will bring together experts on nuclear terrorism from around the world, will deal with the following issues: The Psychology of terrorism; Intelligence, police and border protection; Guarding nuclear reactors and material from terrorists and thieves; The threat of nuclear terrorism: Nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices; The threat of nuclear terrorism: Intentional dispersal of radioactive material - Sabotage of fixed installations or transport systems; The Legal Framework: Treaties and Conventions, Laws; Regulations and Codes of Practice; IAEA Nuclear Security and Safety Programmes

  9. Summary of sessions on nuclear astrophysics

    Rolfs, C.

    In the minds of some there exists the patronizing belief that nuclear physics is a mature science. The same is not believed about nuclear astrophysics, which has been an active branch of astrophysics for over fifty years, but is now in the midst of an exciting revival in experimental and theoretical research around the world. The ultimate goal is to understand how nuclear processes generate the energy of stars over their lifetimes and, in doing so, synthesize heavier elements from the primordial hydrogen and helium produced in the Big Bang, which led to the expanding universe. Impressive progress has been made in this goal and this was rewarded. However, there are major puzzles, such as the solar neutrino problem to name just one, which challenge the fundaments of the field. To solve these problems, new nuclear physics data are needed employing novel experimental techniques such as radioactive ion beams and underground accelerator facilities. Without such new data, much of the work done so far will - in an optimistic view - be incomplete and - in a pessimistic view - be possibly wrong. Thus, new data do not represent a fine structure information or a cleaning-up job, but they represent the major next step in this exciting field&

  10. 8. Biennial session on nuclear physics

    1985-01-01

    In this biennial, some importance have been accorded deliberately to heavy ion experiment planning at very high energy and on results than can be waited for. Besides these collisions, different subjects are dealt with such as kaon scattering, hot nuclei, electron channeling photon and pion reactions in light nuclei, new forms of radioactivity, exotic nuclei, theoretical processing of nuclear dynamics, bag models, and pionic atoms [fr

  11. Within-session spacing improves delayed recall in children.

    Zigterman, Jessica R; Simone, Patricia M; Bell, Matthew C

    2015-01-01

    Multiple retrievals of a memory over a spaced manner improve long-term memory performance in infants, children, younger and older adults; however, few studies have examined spacing effects with young school-age children. To expand the understanding of the spacing benefit in children, the current study presented weakly associated English word-pairs to children aged 7-11 and cued their recall two times immediately (massed), after a delay of 5 or 10 items (spaced) or not at all (control). After this encoding session with or without two retrievals, participants were tested two times for memory of all word-pairs: immediately and 30 minutes after the encoding session. Multiple retrievals significantly improved memory on the tests. However, words repeated in a spaced design were remembered at higher rates than those that were massed, while gap size between repetitions (5 or 10) did not differentially impact performance. The data show that a within-session spacing strategy can benefit children's ability to remember word-pairs after 30 minutes. Thus, asking students to recall what they have learned within a lesson is a technique that can be used in a classroom to improve long-term recall.

  12. Nuclear power in space

    Anghaie, S.

    2007-01-01

    The development of space nuclear power and propulsion in the United States started in 1955 with the initiation of the ROVER project. The first step in the ROVER program was the KIWI project that included the development and testing of 8 non-flyable ultrahigh temperature nuclear test reactors during 1955-1964. The KIWI project was precursor to the PHOEBUS carbon-based fuel reactor project that resulted in ground testing of three high power reactors during 1965-1968 with the last reactor operated at 4,100 MW. During the same time period a parallel program was pursued to develop a nuclear thermal rocket based on cermet fuel technology. The third component of the ROVER program was the Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Applications (NERVA) that was initiated in 1961 with the primary goal of designing the first generation of nuclear rocket engine based on the KIWI project experience. The fourth component of the ROVER program was the Reactor In-Flight Test (RIFT) project that was intended to design, fabricate, and flight test a NERVA powered upper stage engine for the Saturn-class lunch vehicle. During the ROVER program era, the Unites States ventured in a comprehensive space nuclear program that included design and testing of several compact reactors and space suitable power conversion systems, and the development of a few light weight heat rejection systems. Contrary to its sister ROVER program, the space nuclear power program resulted in the first ever deployment and in-space operation of the nuclear powered SNAP-10A in 1965. The USSR space nuclear program started in early 70's and resulted in deployment of two 6 kWe TOPAZ reactors into space and ground testing of the prototype of a relatively small nuclear rocket engine in 1984. The US ambition for the development and deployment of space nuclear powered systems was resurrected in mid 1980's and intermittently continued to date with the initiation of several research programs that included the SP-100, Space Exploration

  13. INC93: international nuclear congress. Technical sessions summaries

    Boulton, J.

    1993-01-01

    The conference dealt mainly with safety, environmental and human aspects of nuclear energy, including waste management. This volume consists of summaries of the technical sessions contained in Volumes 2 and 3. The individual papers have also been abstracted separately for INIS, with the summaries abridged

  14. INC93: international nuclear congress. Technical sessions summaries

    Boulton, J

    1994-12-31

    The conference dealt mainly with safety, environmental and human aspects of nuclear energy, including waste management. This volume consists of summaries of the technical sessions contained in Volumes 2 and 3. The individual papers have also been abstracted separately for INIS, with the summaries abridged.

  15. 78 FR 70093 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee-Closed Session

    2013-11-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation... Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee Special Closed Session. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 10(a...), notice is hereby given of a special closed session of the Commercial Space Transportation Advisory...

  16. 76 FR 4412 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee-Closed Session

    2011-01-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation... Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee Special Closed Session. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 10(a... Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee (COMSTAC). The special closed session will be an...

  17. Nuclear Power in Space.

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Nuclear Energy Office.

    Research has shown that nuclear radioisotope power generators can supply compact, reliable, and efficient sources of energy for a broad range of space missions. These missions range from televising views of planetary surfaces to communicating scientific data to Earth. This publication presents many applications of the advancing technology and…

  18. Space Nuclear Reactor Engineering

    Poston, David Irvin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-06

    We needed to find a space reactor concept that could be attractive to NASA for flight and proven with a rapid turnaround, low-cost nuclear test. Heat-pipe-cooled reactors coupled to Stirling engines long identified as the easiest path to near-term, low-cost concept.

  19. Summary session D-3 - Nuclear based electric power technologies

    Hansen, K.

    1991-01-01

    There is a consensus among the authors in this session that nuclear power offers very great environmental benefits over conventional means of electric energy production. The papers deal largely with the key issues involved in capturing these potential benefits. The issues include: nuclear safety, nuclear power economics, and the regulation of the industry. Research and development for the future will concentrate on enhanced safety through simplified designs that reduce hardware, while taking advantage of natural processes for heat removal. Cost reductions will be achieved via simplification and imporved plant capacity. Long-duration generation cycles are anticipated for all reactor designs. An unresolved challenge for the future is the role of nuclear power in lesser developed countries. Current plants are too large and complex for use in small grids. It is unclear whether or not small, easy-to-operate, and ultrasafe systems can be made available. Until the industry regains commercial success, efforts in these directions are unlikely

  20. Ninth Argentine congress on biology and nuclear medicine; fourth Southernmost sessions of ALASBIMN (Latin-American Association of Biology and Nuclear Medicine); first Spanish-Argentine congress on nuclear medicine; first Argentine sessions on nuclear cardiology

    1991-01-01

    This work deals with all the papers presented at the 9. Argentine congress on biology and nuclear medicine; IV Southernmost sessions of ALASBIMN; I Spanish-Argentine congress on nuclear medicine and I Sessions Argentine sessions on nuclear cardiology held in Buenos Aires, Argentina, from October 14 - 18, 1991

  1. Nuclear waste disposal in space

    Burns, R. E.; Causey, W. E.; Galloway, W. E.; Nelson, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    Work on nuclear waste disposal in space conducted by the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and contractors are reported. From the aggregate studies, it is concluded that space disposal of nuclear waste is technically feasible.

  2. Astronomy and Space Technologies, WILGA 2012; EuCARD Sessions

    Romaniuk, R S

    2012-01-01

    Wilga Sessions on HEP experiments, astroparticle physics and accelerator technology were organized under the umbrella of the EU FP7 Project EuCARD – European Coordination for Accelerator Research and Development. This paper is the first part (out of five) of the research survey of WILGA Symposium work, May 2012 Edition, concerned with photonics and electronics applications in astronomy and space technologies. It presents a digest of chosen technical work results shown by young researchers from different technical universities from this country during the Jubilee XXXth SPIE-IEEE Wilga 2012, May Edition, symposium on Photonics and Web Engineering. Topical tracks of the symposium embraced, among others, nanomaterials and nanotechnologies for photonics, sensory and nonlinear optical fibers, object oriented design of hardware, photonic metrology, optoelectronics and photonics applications, photonics-electronics co-design, optoelectronic and electronic systems for astronomy and high energy physics experiments, JE...

  3. Annual meeting on nuclear technology '96. Technical session: Energy costs

    1996-08-01

    The two papers of this session deal with the costs of two different energy generation systems, one is based on photovoltaic energy conversion, and the other is the nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear energy generation. The author shows that the costs of these two energy systems in Germany are much more governed by decisions taken in the political domain than is the case in other countries. Although German science and technology in these two engineering fields hold a top rank worldwide, the high costs that seem inevitable in Germany are expected to be a major reason why the photovoltaic industry will have to leave the country and go abroad to exploit the better chances there. (DG) [de

  4. Nuclear Energy in Space Exploration

    Seaborg, Glenn T.

    1968-01-01

    Nuclear space programs under development by the Atomic Energy Commission are reviewed including the Rover Program, systems for nuclear rocket propulsion and, the SNAP Program, systems for generating electric power in space. The letters S-N-A-P stands for Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power. Some of the projected uses of nuclear systems in space are briefly discussed including lunar orbit, lunar transportation from lunar orbit to lunar surface and base stations; planetary exploration, and longer space missions. The limitations of other sources of energy such as solar, fuel cells, and electric batteries are discussed. The excitement and visionary possibilities of the Age of Space are discussed.

  5. Recent space nuclear power systems

    Takizuka, Takakazu; Yasuda, Hideshi; Hishida, Makoto

    1991-01-01

    For the advance of mankind into the space, the power sources of large output are indispensable, and it has been considered that atomic energy is promising as compared with solar energy and others. Accordingly in USA and USSR, the development of the nuclear power generation systems for space use has been carried out since considerable years ago. In this report, the general features of space nuclear reactors are shown, and by taking the system for the SP-100 project being carried out in USA as the example, the contents of the recent design regarding the safety as an important factor are discussed. Moreover, as the examples of utilizing space nuclear reactors, the concepts of the power source for the base on the moon, the sources of propulsive power for the rockets used for Mars exploration and others, the remote power transmission system by laser in the space and so on are explained. In September, 1988, the launching of a space shuttle of USA was resumed, and the Jupiter explorer 'Galileo' and the space telescope 'Hubble' were successfully launched. The space station 'Mir' of USSR has been used since February, 1986. The history of the development of the nuclear power generation systems for space use is described. (K.I.)

  6. Space nuclear reactor power plants

    Buden, D.; Ranken, W.A.; Koenig, D.R.

    1980-01-01

    Requirements for electrical and propulsion power for space are expected to increase dramatically in the 1980s. Nuclear power is probably the only source for some deep space missions and a major competitor for many orbital missions, especially those at geosynchronous orbit. Because of the potential requirements, a technology program on space nuclear power plant components has been initiated by the Department of Energy. The missions that are foreseen, the current power plant concept, the technology program plan, and early key results are described

  7. Space nuclear reactor safety

    Damon, D.; Temme, M.; Brown, N.

    1990-01-01

    Definition of safety requirements and design features of the SP-100 space reactor power system has been guided by a mission risk analysis. The analysis quantifies risk from accidental radiological consequences for a reference mission. Results show that the radiological risk from a space reactor can be made very low. The total mission risk from radiological consequences for a shuttle-launched, earth orbit SP-100 mission is estimated to be 0.05 Person-REM (expected values) based on a 1 mREM/yr de Minimus dose. Results are given for each mission phase. The safety benefits of specific design features are evaluated through risk sensitivity analyses

  8. Avoiding Surgical Skill Decay : A Systematic Review on the Spacing of Training Sessions

    Cecilio-Fernandes, Dario; Cnossen, Fokie; Jaarsma, Debbie A D C; Tio, René A

    OBJECTIVE: Spreading training sessions over time instead of training in just 1 session leads to an improvement of long-term retention for factual knowledge. However, it is not clear whether this would also apply to surgical skills. Thus, we performed a systematic review to find out whether spacing

  9. Nuclear power in Europe. Session 1985-86. 18. report

    1986-01-01

    Oral and written evidence received by the Committee in 14 sessions over the months January - June 1986 from at least 20 organizations or individuals has been collected together in this one volume. Memoranda are printed and a verbatim account of the subsequent examination of witnesses is given. (UK) (author)

  10. 2008 annual meeting on nuclear technology: topical sessions. Pt. 2. Construction of the final repository KONRAD

    Broeskamp, H.

    2008-01-01

    Summary report by Dipl.-Ing. Holger Broeskamp on the Topical Session ''Constructing the Final Repository KONRAD'' of the Annual Conference on Nuclear Technology held in Hamburg, May 27-29, 2008. (orig.)

  11. Summary [of Work Session on Nuclear Power] with selected comments

    Brooks, H.

    1982-01-01

    Panelists agreed that nuclear power has such serious economical and political problems that some countries may eliminate it as an option, but they did not agree on the causes of the problems. The panel outlined 11 developments (including economic growth, new oil disruptions, and improved nuclear safeguards) that would be helpful in revitalizing the nuclear industry. A review of technical and institutional issues covers the comparative economics and risks of nuclear power, nuclear fuel resources, small reactors for developing countries, spent fuel management and reprocessing, proliferation, public participation, and advanced technologies. From their conclusions, the panel recommended improvements in international reporting and risk assessment, stabilized regulations, safeguards reform, standardized design, and better public information and input

  12. Avoiding Surgical Skill Decay: A Systematic Review on the Spacing of Training Sessions.

    Cecilio-Fernandes, Dario; Cnossen, Fokie; Jaarsma, Debbie A D C; Tio, René A

    Spreading training sessions over time instead of training in just 1 session leads to an improvement of long-term retention for factual knowledge. However, it is not clear whether this would also apply to surgical skills. Thus, we performed a systematic review to find out whether spacing training sessions would also improve long-term retention of surgical skills. We searched the Medline, PsycINFO, Embase, Eric, and Web of Science online databases. We only included articles that were randomized trials with a sample of medical trainees acquiring surgical motor skills in which the spacing effect was reported. The quality and bias of the articles were assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration's risk of bias assessment tool. With respect to the spacing effect, 1955 articles were retrieved. After removing duplicates and articles that did not meet the inclusion criteria, 11 articles remained. The overall quality of the experiments was "moderate." Trainees in the spaced condition scored higher in a retention test than students in the massed condition. Our systematic review showed evidence that spacing training sessions improves long-term surgical skills retention when compared to massed practice. However, the optimal gap between the re-study sessions is unclear. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Nuclear Energy for Space Exploration

    Houts, Michael G.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear power and propulsion systems can enable exciting space exploration missions. These include bases on the moon and Mars; and the exploration, development, and utilization of the solar system. In the near-term, fission surface power systems could provide abundant, constant, cost-effective power anywhere on the surface of the Moon or Mars, independent of available sunlight. Affordable access to Mars, the asteroid belt, or other destinations could be provided by nuclear thermal rockets. In the further term, high performance fission power supplies could enable both extremely high power levels on planetary surfaces and fission electric propulsion vehicles for rapid, efficient cargo and crew transfer. Advanced fission propulsion systems could eventually allow routine access to the entire solar system. Fission systems could also enable the utilization of resources within the solar system. Fusion and antimatter systems may also be viable in the future

  14. Nuclear dynamics in phase space

    Di Toro, M.

    1984-07-01

    We present a unified semiclassical picture of nuclear dynamics, from collective states to heavy ion physics, based on a study of the time evolution of the Wigner distribution function. We discuss in particular the mean field dynamics, in this ''quantal'' phase space, which is ruled by the nuclear Vlasov equation. Simple approximate solutions are worked out for rotational and vibrational collective motions. Giant resonances are shown to be quite well described as scaling modes, which are equivalent to a lowest multipole (up to 1sub(max)=2) distortions of the momentum distribution. Applications are shown to heavy ion physics to study giant resonances on high spin states and dynamical collective effects in subthreshold π-production. Several possible extensions and in particular the inclusion of two-body collision terms are finally discussed

  15. Fourth session: perspectives and internationalization of nuclear research

    Bugat, S.; Girardin, G.; Vitanza, C.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the atomic simulation is to deduce the behaviour of irradiated materials from the effects of irradiation at the atomic scale that are well understood. The main difficulties and recent breakthroughs concerning the simulation of the primary damage and the microstructure due to irradiation and of the hardening effect of irradiation are reviewed. It is shown that simulation tools are far to be able to replace real irradiation experiments but their maturity is so high that they will allow us to optimize the design and operations of irradiation experiments in a near future. The second article is dedicated to the Norwegian Halden research reactor that was at the very beginning of its operating life (1958) an irradiation facility broadly open to the international nuclear community. The Halden reactor is a boiling reactor, cooled and moderated with heavy water (14 m 3 ) and whose thermal power output is 20 MW. The steam generated (30 tons/h) is used to operate a paper mill. 12 experimental loops with in-core test rigs are available. In 1999 about 68% of the studies performed at Halden was dedicated to high burnup fuels and 32% to materials. (A.C.)

  16. Waste management '76 nuclear overview session industry viewpoint

    Carson, A.B.

    1976-01-01

    Lack of firm policy decisions and implementing regulations and program plans related to nuclear fuel cycle by-product wastes has become a major deterrent to progress in the constructive utilization of fission energy. In any event, the mismatch between waste management program accomplishments and perceived requirements has increased rather than decreased over recent years. Multi-agency programs and industry participation as well, at higher levels of effort than in the past, are required and are being initiated, but useful and lasting decisions still are some time off. From industry's viewpoint, all of the agency and industry programs related to waste management must be based on (a) a common view that no constructive activity is going to have zero personnel or environmental impact and that there generally will be a finite level of impact or risk to public health and safety that can be considered acceptable, and (b) consistent and rational consideration of what the levels of impact or risk are that can be considered acceptable in various circumstances. Regulatory requirements finally imposed must be related in some rational way to actual effects and their acceptable levels. Sound bases for timely decisions also require recognition of the fact that ''full and complete demonstration'' is not often really practical or necessary. Demonstration requirements for particular circumstances must be clearly defined and related to functional importance, extent of supporting technology and experience and other such rational factors. Finally, it is recognized that there are nontechnical issues the resolution of which are just as necessary to progress as the technical ones. However, such issues should not be allowed to lead to decisions or actions which are phenomenologically unsound or technically unsupported. After all, you might as well fall flat on your face as lean too far over backward

  17. Nuclear energy in the space: panorama 1985

    Corcuera, R.P.

    1985-01-01

    A panoramic view of different areas where nuclear energy can be applied in space is given. These are: radioisotope thermoelectric generators, nuclear reactors for space stations, space crafts and air crafts. The principal difficulties are pointed out and the safety aspect is emphasized. (author)

  18. Topical Session on Funding Issues in Connection with Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Plants - 9 November 2004

    2006-01-01

    Set up by the Radioactive Waste Management Committee (RWMC), the WPDD brings together senior representatives of national organisations who have a broad overview of Decommissioning and Dismantling (D and D) issues through their work as regulators, implementers, R and D experts or policy makers. These include representatives from regulatory authorities, industrial decommissioners from the NEA Co-operative Programme on Exchange of Scientific and Technical Information on Nuclear Installation Decommissioning Projects (CPD), and cross-representation from the other NEA Committees. The EC is a member of the WPDD and the IAEA is participating as an observer. This broad participation provides good possibilities for the co-ordination efforts amongst activities in the international programmes. At its fifth meeting, in Paris, 8-10 November 2004, the WPDD held a topical session on the 'Funding Issues in Connection with Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Plants'. This report documents the topical session on Funding. An agenda of the Topical session can be found in Appendix 1. The topical session was meant to provide an exchange of information and experience on the following issues: Ethical Values; Actual Experiences of Fund Setting and Management; Uncertainties in Funding. At the end of each session time was allotted for a plenary discussion. The Rapporteur reviewed the main points and the lessons learnt at the end of the whole Topical Session. The Topical Session is documented as follows. A summary of the presentations, the country reports, the discussions and the key issues and lessons learnt is given in the main part of this report. The agenda of the Topical session can be found in Appendix 1 and the full papers supporting each presentation are given in Appendix 2. The national presentations on 'Actual experiences of Fund Setting and Management' in session 2 can be found in Appendix 3 and the national presentations on 'Uncertainties in Funding' in session 3 can be found in

  19. Overview of space nuclear technologies and the American Nuclear Society

    Singleterry, R.C. Jr.

    2000-01-01

    The American Nuclear Society (ANS) has seen an aspect of the universe where nuclear technology is the best energy source available for power, transportation, etc. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been exploiting this aspect of the universe by sending machines and humans into it and exploring, colonizing, industrializing, developing, inhabiting, etc. Space is the final frontier, and nuclear technology is the best suited for today's or the next century's space exploration and development. Many aspects of nuclear technology and its uses in space will be needed. ANS encompasses these and many more aspects of nuclear technology, and all have some role to play in the exploration and development of space. It should be ANS's intent to be an advisory body to NASA on the nuclear aspects of space exploration

  20. Space nuclear power and man's extraterrestrial civilization

    Angelo, J.J.; Buden, D.

    1983-01-01

    This paper examines leading space nuclear power technology candidates. Particular emphasis is given the heat-pipe reactor technology currently under development at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. This program is aimed at developing a 10-100 kWe, 7-year lifetime space nuclear power plant. As the demand for space-based power reaches megawatt levels, other nuclear reactor designs including: solid core, fluidized bed, and gaseous core, are considered

  1. Nuclear reactor refuelable in space

    El-Genk, M.S.; Buden, D.; Mims, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a gas cooled nuclear reactor suitable for use in space. It comprises a lightweight structure comprising a plurality of at least three sections, each sector comprising a container for a reactor core separate and distinct from the reactor cores of the other sectors, each sector being capable of operating on its own and in cooperation with one or more of the other sectors and each sector having a common juncture with every other structure; and means associated with each sector independently introducing gas coolant into and extracting coolant from each sector to cool the core therein, wherein in event of failure of the cooling system of a core in a sector, one or more of the other sectors comprise means for conducting heat away from the failed sector core and means for convecting the heat away, and wherein operation of the one or more other sectors is maintained

  2. A philosophy for space nuclear systems safety

    Marshall, A.C.

    1992-01-01

    The unique requirements and contraints of space nuclear systems require careful consideration in the development of a safety policy. The Nuclear Safety Policy Working Group (NSPWG) for the Space Exploration Initiative has proposed a hierarchical approach with safety policy at the top of the hierarchy. This policy allows safety requirements to be tailored to specific applications while still providing reassurance to regulators and the general public that the necessary measures have been taken to assure safe application of space nuclear systems. The safety policy used by the NSPWG is recommended for all space nuclear programs and missions

  3. Coordinating Space Nuclear Research Advancement and Education

    Bess, John D.; Webb, Jonathon A.; Gross, Brian J.; Craft, Aaron E.

    2009-01-01

    The advancement of space exploration using nuclear science and technology has been a goal sought by many individuals over the years. The quest to enable space nuclear applications has experienced many challenges such as funding restrictions; lack of political, corporate, or public support; and limitations in educational opportunities. The Center for Space Nuclear Research (CSNR) was established at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) with the mission to address the numerous challenges and opportunities relevant to the promotion of space nuclear research and education.1 The CSNR is operated by the Universities Space Research Association and its activities are overseen by a Science Council comprised of various representatives from academic and professional entities with space nuclear experience. Program participants in the CSNR include academic researchers and students, government representatives, and representatives from industrial and corporate entities. Space nuclear educational opportunities have traditionally been limited to various sponsored research projects through government agencies or industrial partners, and dedicated research centers. Centralized research opportunities are vital to the growth and development of space nuclear advancement. Coordinated and focused research plays a key role in developing the future leaders in the space nuclear field. The CSNR strives to synchronize research efforts and provide means to train and educate students with skills to help them excel as leaders.

  4. Nuclear Propulsion for Space (Rev.)

    Corliss, William R; Schwenk, Francis C

    1971-01-01

    The operation of nuclear rockets and a description of the development of nuclear rockets in the U.S. is given. Early developments and Project Rover, Project Pluto, and the NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application) Program are detailed. The Nuclear Rocket Development Station facilities in Nevada are described. The possibilities and advantages of using nuclear rockets for missions beginning from an earth orbit and moving outward toward higher earth orbits, the moon, and the planets are discussed.

  5. Space tourism: A flight of fantasy or the next major space product? Paper session 3: Products

    Stone, Barbara A.

    1994-01-01

    In the euphoria of the early 1980's, a number of creative proposals for nontraditional uses of space were suggested. Taking tourists to space, possibly as early as the 1990's, was one such proposal. While it is now obvious that wherever explorers go, tourists (and hoteliers, restauranteurs, and tour guides) will someday follow. This paper discusses past and present efforts to promote space as a tourist destination.

  6. Nuclear Space Power Systems Materials Requirements

    Buckman, R.W. Jr.

    2004-01-01

    High specific energy is required for space nuclear power systems. This generally means high operating temperatures and the only alloy class of materials available for construction of such systems are the refractory metals niobium, tantalum, molybdenum and tungsten. The refractory metals in the past have been the construction materials selected for nuclear space power systems. The objective of this paper will be to review the past history and requirements for space nuclear power systems from the early 1960's through the SP-100 program. Also presented will be the past and present status of refractory metal alloy technology and what will be needed to support the next advanced nuclear space power system. The next generation of advanced nuclear space power systems can benefit from the review of this past experience. Because of a decline in the refractory metal industry in the United States, ready availability of specific refractory metal alloys is limited

  7. Present status of space nuclear reactor

    Kaneko, Yoshihiko

    1996-01-01

    USA and former USSR led space development, and had the experience of launching nuclear reactor satellites. In USA, the research and development of space nuclear reactor were advanced mainly by NASA, and in 1965, the nuclear reactor for power source ''SNAP-10A'' was launched and put on the orbit around the earth. Thereafter, the reactor was started up, and the verifying test at 500 We was successfully carried out. Also for developing the reactor for thermal propulsion, NERVA/ROVER project was done till 1973, and the technological basis was established. The space Exploration Initiative for sending mankind to other solar system planets than the earth is the essential point of the future projects. In former USSR, the ground experiment of the reactor for 800 We power source ''Romashka'', the development of the reactor for 10 kWe power source ''Topaz-1 and 2'', the flight of the artificial satellites, Cosmos 954 and Cosmos 1900, on which nuclear reactors were mounted, and the operation of 33 ocean-monitoring satellites ''RORSAT'' using small fast reactors were carried out. The mission of space development and the nuclear reactors as power source, the engineering of space nuclear reactors, the present status and the trend of space nuclear reactor development, and the investigation by the UN working group on the safety problem of space nuclear reactors are described. (K.I.)

  8. Training sessions for radiation protection. A singular occasion to analyze the risk perception by nuclear workers

    Escudie, M.

    1986-04-01

    The training sessions for radiation protection - given on the one hand to employees of the decontamination and storage action section, of the nuclear center of Saclay, and on the other hand to technicians of low and medium activity laboratories - represent a goog ground to test hypotheses mentioned at the origin of the analysis of the perception of risk by the nuclear workers undertaken by the Laboratoire d'Etude du Facteur Humain (L.E.F.H., Human Factor Analysis Laboratory) of the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA, Atomic Energy Commission of France)

  9. System survivability in nuclear and space environments

    Rudie, N.J.

    1987-01-01

    Space systems must operate in the hostile natural environment of space. In the event of a war, these systems may also be exposed to the radiation environments created by the explosions of nuclear warheads. The effects of these environments on a space system and hardening techniques are discussed in the paper

  10. Spaced sessions of avoidance extinction reduce spontaneous recovery and promote infralimbic cortex activation.

    Tapias-Espinosa, Carles; Kádár, Elisabet; Segura-Torres, Pilar

    2018-01-15

    Extinction-based therapies (EBT) are the psychological treatments of choice for certain anxiety disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder. However, some patients relapse and suffer spontaneous recovery (SR) of anxiety symptoms and persistence of avoidance behaviour, which underlines the need for improving EBT. In rats, recent evidence has highlighted the relevance of the temporal distribution of extinction sessions in reducing SR of auditory fear conditioning, although it has seldom been studied in procedures involving proactive avoidance responses, such as two-way active avoidance conditioning (TWAA). We examined whether the temporal distribution of two extinction sessions separated by 24h or 7days (contiguous versus spaced extinction paradigms, respectively), influences SR after 28days of a TWAA task. c-Fos expression, as a marker of neuronal activation, was also measured by immunohistochemistry 90min after the SR test in the amygdala and the medial prefrontal cortex. The temporal distribution of extinction sessions did not affect the degree of extinction learning. However, only the rats that underwent the 7-day spaced extinction paradigm maintained the level of extinction in the long term, showing no SR in TWAA. This behavioural finding was consistent with a greater number of c-Fos-labelled neurons in the infralimbic cortex in the 7-day group, and in the Lateral and Central nuclei of the amygdala in the 24-hour group. These findings show that a time-spaced extinction paradigm reduces the spontaneous recovery of active avoidance behaviour, and that this behavioural advantage appears to be related to the activation of the infralimbic cortex. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. 48{sup th} Annual meeting on nuclear technology (AMNT 2017). Key topic / Enhanced safety and operation excellence. Technical session: Operation and safety of nuclear installations, fuel

    Hollands, Thorsten [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) gGmbH, Garching (Germany). Bereich Reaktorsicherheitsforschung

    2017-12-15

    The sessions Fuel and Materials and Containment and SFP, as part of the Technical Sessions Operation and Safety of Nuclear Installations, Fuel implemented in the Key Topic Enhanced Safety and Operation Excellence were chaired by Dr. Thorsten Hollands (Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) gGmbH) and Dr. Erwin Fischer (PreussenElektra GmbH) who was the keynote coordinator for the Technical Sessions. Both sessions consist of a keynote lecture followed by technical presentations.

  12. Space nuclear power: a strategy for tomorrow

    Buden, D.; Angelo, J. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Energy: reliable, portable, abundant and low cost will be a most critical factor, perhaps the sine qua non, for the unfolding of man's permanent presence in space. Space-based nuclear power, in turn, is a key technology for developing such space platforms and the transportation systems necessary to service them. A strategy for meeting space power requirements is the development of a 100-kW(e) nuclear reactor system for high earth orbit missions, transportation from Shuttle orbits to geosynchronous orbit, and for outer planet exploration. The component technology for this nuclear power plant is now underway at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. As permanent settlements are established on the Moon and in space, multimegawatt power plants will be needed. This would involve different technology similar to terrestrial nuclear power plants

  13. Annual meeting on nuclear technology '85. Technical session on nuclear power plant simulators. Jahrestagung Kerntechnik '85. Fachsitzung Simulatoren bei Kernkraftwerken

    1987-01-01

    The ten lectures read at this Technical Session deal with nuclear power plant simulators and their functions for the training of control room personnel, with test facilities for analysis and simulation of incidents and the relevant plant behaviour, and with the computer codes for fast simulation of reactor processes. The papers explain in particular the HAMMLAB project, the COSIMA fast core simulator, and the OPAL simulator for the KWU convoy process information system named PRINS.

  14. Space nuclear power systems, Part 2

    El-Genk, M.S.; Hoover, M.D.

    1992-01-01

    This volume, number two of three, contains the reviewed and edited papers were being presented at the Ninth Symposium in Albuquerque, New Mexico, 12--16 January 1992. The objective of the symposium, and hence these volumes, is to summarize the state of knowledge in the area of space nuclear power and propulsion and to provide a forum at which the most recent findings and important new developments can be presented and discussed. Topics included is this volume are: reactor and power systems control; thermionic energy conversion; space missions and power needs; key issues in nuclear and propulsion; nuclear thermal propulsion; manufacturing and processing; thermal management; space nuclear safety; and nuclear testing and production facilities

  15. Transactions of the fifth symposium on space nuclear power systems

    El-Genk, M.S.; Hoover, M.D. (eds.)

    1988-01-01

    This paper contains the presented papers at the fourth symposium on space nuclear power systems. Topics of these paper include: space nuclear missions and applications, reactors and shielding, nuclear electric and nuclear propulsion, high-temperature materials, instrumentation and control, energy conversion and storage, space nuclear fuels, thermal management, nuclear safety, simulation and modeling, and multimegawatt system concepts. (LSP)

  16. Transactions of the fourth symposium on space nuclear power systems

    El-Genk, M.S.; Hoover, M.D. (eds.)

    1987-01-01

    This paper contains the presented papers at the fourth symposium on space nuclear power systems. Topics of these papers include: space nuclear missions and applications, reactors and shielding, nuclear electric and nuclear propulsion, refractory alloys and high-temperature materials, instrumentation and control, energy conversion and storage, space nuclear fuels, thermal management, nuclear safety, simulation and modeling, and multimegawatt system concepts. (LSP)

  17. Nuclear-electric power in space

    Truscello, V.C.; Davis, H.S.

    1984-01-01

    Because direct-broadcast satellites, air-traffic-control radar satellites, industrial processing on subsequent versions of the space station, and long range excursions to other planets using nuclear-electric propulsion systems, all space missions for which current power-supply systems are not sufficient. NASA and the DOE therefore have formed a joint program to develop the technology required for nuclear-reactor space power plants. After investigating potential space missions in the given range, the project will develop the technology to build such systems. High temperatures pose problems, ''hot shoes'' and ''cold shoes'', a Stirling engine dynamic system, and critical heat-transfer problems are all discussed. The nuclear reactor system for space as now envisioned is schematicized

  18. Proceedings of the 21st DOE/NRC nuclear air cleaning conference; Volume 2, Sessions 9--16

    First, M.W. [ed.] [Harvard Univ., Boston, MA (United States). Harvard Air Cleaning Lab.

    1991-02-01

    The 21st meeting of the Department of Energy/Nuclear Regulatory Commission (DOE/NRC) Nuclear Air Cleaning Conference was held in San Diego, CA on August 13--16, 1990. The proceedings have been published as a two volume set. Volume 2 contains sessions covering adsorbents, nuclear codes and standards, modelling, filters, safety, containment venting and a review of nuclear air cleaning programs around the world. Also included is the list of attendees and an index of authors and speakers. (MHB)

  19. International Conference-Session of the Section of Nuclear Physics of the Physical Sciences Division of RAS

    2014-01-01

    From November 17 to 21, 2014 the Section of Nuclear Physics of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the National Research Nuclear University MEPhI will hold in MEPhI, Moscow, the International Conference-Session of SNP PSD RAS "Physics of Fundamental Interactions". The program of the session covers basic theoretical and experimental aspects of particle physics and related problems of nuclear physics and cosmology, and will consist of 30-minute highlight and review talks as well as 10-15-minute contributed reports. All highlight talks and part of contributed reports will be presented at plenary sessions of the conference. The remaining reports will be presented at the sections which will be formed after receiving of abstracts. On the recommendation of the Organizing Committee reports and talks containing new unpublished results will be published in special issues of journals "Nuclear Physics" and "Nuclear Physics and Engineering". For the institutions belonging to the Rosatom s...

  20. Nuclear propulsion for the space exploration initiative

    Stanley, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    President Bush's speech of July 20, 1989, outlining a goal to go back to the moon and then Mars initiated the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). The US Department of Defense (DOD), US Department of Energy (DOE), and NASA have been working together in the planning necessary to initiate a program to develop a nuclear propulsion system. Applications of nuclear technology for in-space transfer of personnel and cargo between Earth orbit and lunar or Martian orbit are being considered as alternatives to chemical propulsion systems. Mission and system concept studies conducted over the past 30 yr have consistently indicated that use of nuclear technology can substantially reduce in-space propellant requirements. A variety of nuclear technology options are currently being studied, including nuclear thermal rockets, nuclear electrical propulsion systems, and hybrid nuclear thermal rockets/nuclear electric propulsion concepts. Concept performance in terms of thrust, weight, power, and efficiency are dependent, and appropriate concept application is mission dependent (i.e., lunar, Mars, cargo, personnel, trajectory, transit time, payload). A comprehensive evaluation of mission application, technology performance capability and maturity, technology development programmatics, and safety characteristics is required to optimize both technology and mission selection to support the Presidential initiative

  1. Annual meeting on nuclear technology '92. Technical session 'Nuclear energy discussion'

    1992-05-01

    The report contains the six special papers red at the 1992 annual conference on nuclear engineering at Karlsruhe, all of which are individually retrievable from the database. They deal with the following subjects: historical development of the basic trends of technology criticism; communication problems in connection with the conveying of technical facts; psycho-sociological patterns of technology anxiety-mental infection or risk consciousness; field of tension between technology and journalism; handling of insecurities; ethical justifiability of nuclear energy use. (HSCH) [de

  2. Overview of nuclear waste disposal in space

    Rice, E.E.; Priest, C.C.

    1981-01-01

    One option receiving consideration by the Department of Energy (DOE) is the space disposal of certain high-level nuclear wastes. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is assessing the space disposal option in support of DOE studies on alternatives for nuclear waste management. The space disposal option is viewed as a complement, since total disposal of fuel rods from commercial power plants is not considered to be economically practical with Space Shuttle technology. The space disposal of certain high-level wastes may, however, provide reduced calculated and perceived risks. The space disposal option in conjunction with terrestrial disposal may offer a more flexible and lower risk overall waste management system. For the space disposal option to be viable, it must be demonstrated that the overall long-term risks associated with this activity, as a complement to the mined geologic repository, would be significantly less than the long-term risk associated with disposing of all the high-level waste. The long-term risk benefit must be achieved within an acceptable short-term and overall program cost. This paper briefly describes space disposal alternatives, the space disposal destination, possible waste mixes and forms, systems and typical operations, and the energy and cost analysis

  3. NUCLEAR THERMIONIC SPACE POWER SYSTEMS

    Howard, R. C.; Rasor, N. S.

    1963-03-15

    The various concepts for utilizing thermionic conversion in space reactor power plants are described and evaluated. The problems (and progress toward their solution) of the in-core concept, particularly, are considered. Progress in thermionic conversion technology is then reviewed from both the hardware and research points of view. Anticipated progress in thermionic conversion and the possible consequences for the performance of electrical propulsion systems are summarized. 46 references. (D.C.W.)

  4. The nuclear energy use in Space

    Raepsaet, X.

    2002-01-01

    Two ways of the nuclear energy use are possible in spatial applications. The first one is the electric power production to supply satellites, space vehicles or electric propulsion. The second one, less obvious, is the thermal-nuclear propulsion where the nuclear reactor is a thermal exchanger for a gas. These two applications are presented in this paper, with two examples of projects realized in collaboration of the CNES and the CEA: ERATO as an electrical generator and MAPS as the nucleo-thermal propulsion. (A.L.B.)

  5. Missions and planning for nuclear space power

    Buden, D.

    1979-01-01

    Requirements for electrical and propulsion power for space are expected to increase dramatically in the 1980s. Nuclear power is probably the only source for some deep space missions and a major competitor for many orbital missions, especially those at geosynchronous orbit. Because of the potential requirements, a technology program on reactor components has been initiated by the Department of Energy. The missions that are foreseen, the current reactor concept, and the technology program plan are described

  6. Space nuclear tug mission applications

    Hodge, J.R.; Rauen, L.A.

    1996-01-01

    An initial assessment indicates that the NEBA-1 and NEBA-3 bimodal reactor designs can be integrated into a reusable tug which is capable of supporting many missions including GSO delivery, GSO retrieval, lunar trajectory deliveries, interplanetary deliveries, and a variety of satellite servicing. The tug close-quote s nuclear thermal propulsion provides timely transport and payload delivery, with GSO deliveries on the order of 3 endash 7 days. In general, the tug may provide a number of potential benefits to users. The tug may, for example, extend the life of an existing on-orbit spacecraft, boost spacecraft which were not delivered to their operational orbit, offer increased payload capability, or possibly allow payloads to launch on smaller less expensive launch vehicles. Reusing the tug for 5 or 10 missions requires total reactor burn times of 50 and 100 hours, respectively. Shielding, boom structure, and radiator requirements were identified as key factors in the configuration layout. Economic feasibility is still under evaluation, but preliminary estimates indicate that average flight costs may range from $32 M to $34 M for a 10-mission vehicle and from $39 M to $42 M for a 5-mission vehicle. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  7. Telerobotic technology for nuclear and space applications

    Herndon, J.N.; Hamel, W.R.

    1987-03-01

    Telerobotic development efforts at Oak Ridge National Laboratory are extensive and relatively diverse. Current efforts include development of a prototype space telerobot system for the NASA Langley Research Center and development and large-scale demonstration of nuclear fuel cycle teleoperators in the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program. This paper presents an overview of the efforts in these major programs. 10 refs., 8 figs

  8. 11-th International conference Nuclear power safety and nuclear education - 2009. Abstracts. Part 1. Session: Safety of nuclear technology; Innovative nuclear systems and fuel cycle; Nuclear knowledge management

    2009-01-01

    The book includes abstracts of the 11-th International conference Nuclear power safety and nuclear education - 2009 (29 Sep - 2 Oct, 2009, Obninsk). Problems of safety of nuclear technology are discussed, innovative nuclear systems and fuel cycles are treated. Abstracts on professional education for nuclear power and industry are presented. Nuclear knowledge management are discussed

  9. Session 31B - Panel: Opportunities in the UK with the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA)

    Benda, Gary; Hayes, David; Gorham, Ron; Wareing, Mark; Simper, Adrian; Selby, Terry

    2006-01-01

    The NDA participated in a panel session 31B on Wednesday afternoon starting at 3:15. The NDA is a non-departmental public body, set up in April 2005 under the Energy Act 2004 to take strategic responsibility for the UK's nuclear legacy. Details of their organization and history are located on their web site at www.nda.gov.uk. Also copies of their Power Point presentations made at WM'06 are available on their web site. Their core objective is to ensure that the 20 civil public sector nuclear sites under our ownership are decommissioned and cleaned up safely, securely, cost effectively and in ways that protect the environment for this and future generations. They lead the development of a unified and coherent decommissioning strategy, working in partnership with regulators and site licensees to achieve best value, optimum impact on local communities, and the highest environmental standards. The NDA's main task is the decommissioning and clean up of civil nuclear sites. If the Government decides it is necessary, however, the Energy Act 2004 allows the NDA to take responsibility for sites currently operated by, or on behalf of, the Ministry of Defence (MoD). Resources will then be transferred from the MoD to meet the costs of clean up. The NDA made a number of presentations to allow conference delegates the opportunity to understand some of the major aspects of their work and to interact with NDA staff. These included the following topics and gave opportunity for audience discussion: - A brief presentation to update on progress by the NDA; - Outline of low level waste management and the prioritisation process; - Discussion of the competition schedule related to low level waste management and the Drigg site. The following presentations and handout were delivered in various sessions of the conference as noted below and are available on their web page including the WM'06 Plenary Session presentation by Sir Anthony Cleaver, Chairman of the NDA. During Session 31B, the

  10. Booster Sessions Enhance the Long-Term Effectiveness of Spaced Retrieval in Older Adults with Probable Alzheimer's Disease

    Cherry, Katie E.; Hawley, Karri S.; Jackson, Erin M.; Boudreaux, Emily O.

    2009-01-01

    Six older adults with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) were trained to recall a name-face association using the spaced retrieval technique. In this study, we retested these persons in a 6-month follow-up program. For half of the participants, three booster sessions were administered at 6, 12, and 18 weeks after original training to promote…

  11. Wavelet analysis of the nuclear phase space

    Jouault, B.; Sebille, F.; Mota, V. de la

    1997-12-31

    The description of transport phenomena in nuclear matter is addressed in a new approach based on the mathematical theory of wavelets and the projection methods of statistical physics. The advantage of this framework is to offer the opportunity to use information concepts common to both the formulation of physical properties and the mathematical description. This paper focuses on two features, the extraction of relevant informations using the geometrical properties of the underlying phase space and the optimization of the theoretical and numerical treatments based on convenient choices of the representation spaces. (author). 34 refs.

  12. Wavelet analysis of the nuclear phase space

    Jouault, B.; Sebille, F.; Mota, V. de la.

    1997-01-01

    The description of transport phenomena in nuclear matter is addressed in a new approach based on the mathematical theory of wavelets and the projection methods of statistical physics. The advantage of this framework is to offer the opportunity to use information concepts common to both the formulation of physical properties and the mathematical description. This paper focuses on two features, the extraction of relevant informations using the geometrical properties of the underlying phase space and the optimization of the theoretical and numerical treatments based on convenient choices of the representation spaces. (author)

  13. Power conditioning for space nuclear reactor systems

    Berman, Baruch

    1987-01-01

    This paper addresses the power conditioning subsystem for both Stirling and Brayton conversion of space nuclear reactor systems. Included are the requirements summary, trade results related to subsystem implementation, subsystem description, voltage level versus weight, efficiency and operational integrity, components selection, and shielding considerations. The discussion is supported by pertinent circuit and block diagrams. Summary conclusions and recommendations derived from the above studies are included.

  14. SPACE MAINTENANCE OF NUCLEAR ROCKET PROPULSION VEHICLES

    Marjon, P. L.

    1963-08-15

    Maintenance and repair of spacecraft are discussed from the hardware viewpoint. Interior operations are rather straight forward, but study results show that space suits are not sufficient for exterior repair work. Evaluation of worker requirements leads to a maintenance capsule concept. Capsule application is depicted in contrasting situations: repair of meteoroid damage and nuclear engine replacement. Radiation shielding is also considered. (D.C.W.)

  15. Impact loading of a space nuclear powerplant

    Evgeny I. Kraus

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Preferred formulation of the problem in two space dimensions are described for solving the three fundamental equations of mechanics (conservation of mass, conservation of momentum, and conservation of energy. Models of the behavior of materials provide the closure to the three fundamentals equations for applications to problems in compressible fluid flow and solid mechanics. Models of fracture and damage are described. A caloric model of the equation of state is proposed to describe thermodynamic properties of solid materials with the phase transitions. Two-dimensional problems of a high-velocity impact of a space nuclear propulsion system reactor are solved. High-velocity impact problems of destruction of reactor are solved for the two cases: 1 at its crash landing on the Earth surface (the impact velocity being up to 400 m/s; 2 at its impact (with velocity up to 16 km/s with the space debris fragments.

  16. Proceedings of the Jorge Andre Swieca Summer School; 4. Experimental Nuclear Physics Session

    1990-01-01

    These proceedings present works on experimental nuclear physics, activation analysis, nuclear interactions, neutron physics, nuclear moments, inelastic scattering, lattices and chemical analysis. (L.C.J.A.)

  17. Time-space structure of nuclear safety

    Miya, Kenzo

    2003-01-01

    New idea to analyze the structure of nuclear safety and to investigate functioning property of hierarchical principle is applied to nuclear safety in this paper. The nuclear safety is expressed by three principles such as 1) the action and subject are partitioned and classified by time and space, 2) introduction of hierarchy with three strata to the closed object and hierarchy with many strata to the open object and 3) application of 'element, relation and abstraction' to the engineering system as a framework of intellectual activity. For example, prevention of core melt is the closed object and it is obtained by acting hierarchies with three strata (operation stop, cooling and closing radiation) as the safety functions. Prevention of increase of accident is open object, so that, space hierarchy with many strata of prevention is used for the safety security of reactor. The safety security method of reactor consists of three processes, that is 1) the basic process to make clear the continuous operating time on the basis of regular inspection, 2) the action process of operating ECCS to prevent core damage accident, when a large leakage happens and 3) many strata prevention process of stopping a leak in the environment. (S.Y.)

  18. Performance Criteria of Nuclear Space Propulsion Systems

    Shepherd, L. R.

    Future exploration of the solar system on a major scale will require propulsion systems capable of performance far greater than is achievable with the present generation of rocket engines using chemical propellants. Viable missions going deeper into interstellar space will be even more demanding. Propulsion systems based on nuclear energy sources, fission or (eventually) fusion offer the best prospect for meeting the requirements. The most obvious gain coming from the application of nuclear reactions is the possibility, at least in principle, of obtaining specific impulses a thousandfold greater than can be achieved in chemically energised rockets. However, practical considerations preclude the possibility of exploiting the full potential of nuclear energy sources in any engines conceivable in terms of presently known technology. Achievable propulsive power is a particularly limiting factor, since this determines the acceleration that may be obtained. Conventional chemical rocket engines have specific propulsive powers (power per unit engine mass) in the order of gigawatts per tonne. One cannot envisage the possibility of approaching such a level of performance by orders of magnitude in presently conceivable nuclear propulsive systems. The time taken, under power, to reach a given terminal velocity is proportional to the square of the engine's exhaust velocity and the inverse of its specific power. An assessment of various nuclear propulsion concepts suggests that, even with the most optimistic assumptions, it could take many hundreds of years to attain the velocities necessary to reach the nearest stars. Exploration within a range of the order of a thousand AU, however, would appear to offer viable prospects, even with the low levels of specific power of presently conceivable nuclear engines.

  19. Space nuclear power systems for extraterrestrial basing

    Lance, J.R.; Chi, J.W.H.

    1989-01-01

    Previous studies of nuclear and non-nuclear power systems for lunar bases are compared with recent studies by others. Power levels from tens of kW e for early base operation up to 2000 kW e for a self-sustaining base with a Closed Environment Life Support System (CELSS) are considered. Permanent lunar or Martian bases will require the use of multiple nuclear units connected to loads with a power transmission and distribution system analogous to earth-based electric utility systems. A methodology used for such systems is applied to the lunar base system to examine the effects of adding 100 kW e SP-100 class and/or larger nuclear units when a reliability criterion is imposed. The results show that resource and logistic burdens can be reduced by using 1000 kW e units early in the base growth scenario without compromising system reliability. Therefore, both technologies being developed in two current programs (SP-100 and NERVA Derivative Reactor (NDR) technology for space power) can be used effectively for extraterrestrial base power systems. Recent developments in NDR design that result in major reductions in reactor mass are also described. (author)

  20. Spacing extinction sessions as a behavioral technique for preventing relapse in an animal model of voluntary actions.

    Bernal-Gamboa, Rodolfo; Gámez, A Matías; Nieto, Javier

    2018-06-01

    Instrumental extinction has been proposed as a model for understanding the suppression of problematic voluntary actions. Consequently, it has been suggested that response recovery after extinction could model relapse. Four experiments with rats used a free operant procedure to explore the impact of spacing extinction sessions on spontaneous recovery, renewal, reinstatement, and rapid reacquisition of extinguished lever-pressing. Initially, in all experiments, hungry rats were trained to perform two responses (R1 and R2) for food. Then, all responses underwent extinction. For R1, rats experienced a longer intersession interval (72 h) than for R2 (24 h). During the final restoration test, it was observed that using spaced extinction sessions reduced spontaneous recovery, renewal, and reinstatement. However, implementing a longer intersession interval throughout extinction exposure did not slow the rate of reacquisition of operant responses. The present findings suggest that in most cases extinction is more enduring when the extinction sessions are spaced. Since expanding the intersession interval during extinction might be interpreted as conducting extinction in multiple temporal contexts, the overall pattern of results was explained based on contextual modulation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. SP-100 space nuclear power system

    Given, R.W.; Morgan, R.E.; Chi, J.W.H.; Westinghouse Electric Corp., Madison, PA)

    1984-01-01

    A baseline design concept for a 100 kWe nuclear reactor space power system is described. The concept was developed under contract from JPL as part of a joint program of the DOE, DOD, and NASA. The major technical and safety constraints influencing the selection of reactor operating parameters are discussed. A lithium-cooled compact fast reactor was selected as the best candidate system. The material selected for the thermoelectric conversion system was silicon germanium (SiGe) with gallium phosphide doping. Attention is given to the improved safety of the seven in-core control rod configuration

  2. Nuclear Cross Sections for Space Radiation Applications

    Werneth, C. M.; Maung, K. M.; Ford, W. P.; Norbury, J. W.; Vera, M. D.

    2015-01-01

    The eikonal, partial wave (PW) Lippmann-Schwinger, and three-dimensional Lippmann-Schwinger (LS3D) methods are compared for nuclear reactions that are relevant for space radiation applications. Numerical convergence of the eikonal method is readily achieved when exact formulas of the optical potential are used for light nuclei (A = 16) and the momentum-space optical potential is used for heavier nuclei. The PW solution method is known to be numerically unstable for systems that require a large number of partial waves, and, as a result, the LS3D method is employed. The effect of relativistic kinematics is studied with the PW and LS3D methods and is compared to eikonal results. It is recommended that the LS3D method be used for high energy nucleon-nucleus reactions and nucleus-nucleus reactions at all energies because of its rapid numerical convergence and stability for both non-relativistic and relativistic kinematics.

  3. Nuclear power 1996: potential for further development. Session reports of the annual meeting on nuclear technology, May 21-23, 1996 in Mannheim

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    For the third time, the 'Rosengarten', the congress center of the city of Mannheim, was the venue of the Annual Nuclear Conference, this year on May 21-23, 1996. Attendance showed a slight increase, and the organizers, Deutsches Atomforum (DAtF) and the Kerntechnische Gesellschaft (KTG), welcomed more than 1000 participants at the world's biggest event of this kind. The program was arranged in the traditional, proven format, with plenary sessions on the first day, and technical sessions, poster sessions, special events, and technical excursions on the other two days. These proceedings were accompanied by an exhibition arranged by vendors, suppliers, and service companies. Following the summary of the plenary day published on pp. 385-95 in atw 6/96, the survey in this issue covers the technical sessions as seen by the rapporteurs. (orig.) [de

  4. Nuclear power 1997: Assured know-how. Session reports of the annual meeting on nuclear technology, May 13-15, 1997, in Aachen

    Bernnat, W.; Vayssier, G.; Unger, H.; Huettmann, A.; Sassenhagen, U.; Eickelpasch, N.; Eidens, J.

    1997-01-01

    After 1986 the 'Eurogress' of Aachen, was the venue of the Annual Nuclear Conference, this year on May 15, 1997. Attendance showed a slight increase, and the organizers. Deutsches Atomforum (DAtF) and the Kerntechnische Gesellschaft (KTG), welcomed more than 1000 participants at the world's biggest event of this kind. The program was arranged in the traditional proven format, with plenary sessions on the first day, and technical sessions, poster sessions, special events, and technical excursions on the other two days. These proceedings were accompanied by an exhibition arranged by vendors, suppliers, and service companies. Following the summary of the plenary day published on pp. 375 to 386 in atw 7/97, the survey in this issue covers the technical sessions as seen by the rapporteurs. (orig.) [de

  5. Science opportunities through nuclear power in space

    Harris, H.M.

    1995-01-01

    With the downsizing or outright elimination of nuclear power capability in space in progress, it is important to understand what this means to science in therms of capability cost. This paper is a survey of the scientific possibilities inherent in the potential availability of between 15 to 30 kW through electrical nuclear power in space. The approach taken has been to interview scientists involved in space-research, especially those whose results are dependent or proportional to power availability and to survey previous work in high-power spacecraft and space-based science instruments. In addition high level studies were done to gather metrics about what kind and quantity of science could be achieved throughout the entire solar system assuming the availability in the power amounts quoted above. It is concluded that: (1) Sustained high power using a 10--30 kW reactor would allow the capture of an unprecedented amount of data on planetary objects through the entire solar system. (2) High power science means high qualtiy data through higher resolution of radars, optics and the sensitivity of many types of instruments. (3) In general, high power in the range of 10--30 kW provides for an order-of-magnitude increase of resolution of synthetic aperture radars over other planetary radars. (4) High power makes possible the use of particle accelerators to probe the atomic structure of planetary surface, particularly in the dim, outer regions of the solar system. (5) High power means active cooling is possible for devices that must operate at low temperature under adverse conditions. (6) High power with electric propulsion provides the mission flexibility to vary observational viewpoints and select targets of opportunity. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  6. ICENES '91:Sixth international conference on emerging nuclear energy systems

    1991-01-01

    This document contains the program and abstracts of the sessions at the Sixth International Conference on Emerging Nuclear Energy Systems held June 16--21, 1991 at Monterey, California. These sessions included: The plenary session, fission session, fission and nonelectric session, poster session 1P; (space propulsion, space nuclear power, electrostatic confined fusion, fusion miscellaneous, inertial confinement fusion, μ-catalyzed fusion, and cold fusion); Advanced fusion session, space nuclear session, poster session 2P, (nuclear reactions/data, isotope separation, direct energy conversion and exotic concepts, fusion-fission hybrids, nuclear desalting, accelerator waste-transmutation, and fusion-based chemical recycling); energy policy session, poster session 3P (energy policy, magnetic fusion reactors, fission reactors, magnetically insulated inertial fusion, and nuclear explosives for power generation); exotic energy storage and conversion session; and exotic energy storage and conversion; review and closing session

  7. Propulsion of space ships by nuclear explosion

    Linhart, J. G.; Kravárik, J.

    2005-01-01

    Recent progress in the research on deuterium-tritium (D-T) inertially confined microexplosions encourages one to reconsider the nuclear propulsion of spaceships based on the concept originally proposed in the Orion project. We discuss first the acceleration of medium-sized spaceships by D-T explosions whose output is in the range of 0.1 10 t of TNT. The launching of such a ship into an Earth orbit or beyond by a large nuclear explosion in an underground cavity is sketched out in the second section of the paper, and finally we consider a hypothetical Mars mission based on these concepts. In the conclusion it is argued that propulsion based on the Orion concept only is not the best method for interplanetary travel owing to the very large number of nuclear explosion required. A combination of a super gun and subsequent rocket propulsion using advanced chemical fuels appears to be the best solution for space flights of the near future.

  8. International Seminar on Nuclear War and Planetary Emergencies : 46th Session : The Role of Science in the Third Millennium

    2014-01-01

    Proceedings of the 46th Session of the International Seminars on Nuclear War and Planetary Emergencies held in "E. Majorana" Centre for Scientific Culture, Erice, Sicily. This Seminar has again gathered, in 2013, over 100 scientists from 43 countries in an interdisciplinary effort that has been going on for the last 32 years, to examine and analyze planetary problems which had been followed up, all year long, by the World Federation of Scientists' Permanent Monitoring Panels.

  9. A One Chip Hardened Solution for High Speed SpaceWire System Implementations. Session: Components

    Marshall, Joseph R.; Berger, Richard W.; Rakow, Glenn P.

    2007-01-01

    An Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) that implements the SpaceWire protocol has been developed in a radiation hardened 0.25 micron CMOS technology. This effort began in March 2003 as a joint development between the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and BAE Systems. The BAE Systems SpaceWire ASIC is comprised entirely of reusable core elements, many of which are already flight-proven. It incorporates a router with 4 SpaceWire ports and two local ports, dual PC1 bus interfaces, a microcontroller, 32KB of internal memory, and a memory controller for additional external memory use. The SpaceWire cores are also reused in other ASICs under development. The SpaceWire ASIC is planned for use on the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES)-R, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) and other missions. Engineering and flight parts have been delivered to programs and users. This paper reviews the SpaceWire protocol and those elements of it that have been built into the current and next SpaceWire reusable cores and features within the core that go beyond the current standard and can be enabled or disabled by the user. The adaptation of SpaceWire to BAE Systems' On Chip Bus (OCB) for compatibility with the other reusable cores will be reviewed and highlighted. Optional configurations within user systems and test boards will be shown. The physical implementation of the design will be described and test results from the hardware will be discussed. Application of this ASIC and other ASICs containing the SpaceWire cores and embedded microcontroller to Plug and Play and reconfigurable implementations will be described. Finally, the BAE Systems roadmap for SpaceWire developments will be updated, including some products already in design as well as longer term plans.

  10. Thermionic reactors for space nuclear power

    Homeyer, W. G.; Merrill, M. H.; Holland, J. W.; Fisher, C. R.; Allen, D. T.

    1985-01-01

    Thermionic reactor designs for a variety of space power applications spanning the range from 5 kWe to 3 MWe are described. In all of these reactors, nuclear heat is converted directly to electrical energy in thermionic fuel elements (TFEs). A circulating reactor coolant carries heat from the core of TFEs directly to a heat rejection radiator system. The recent design of a thermionic reactor to meet the SP-100 requirements is emphasized. Design studies of reactors at other power levels show that the same TFE can be used over a broad range in power, and that design modifications can extend the range to many megawatts. The design of the SP-100 TFE is similar to that of TFEs operated successfully in test reactors, but with design improvements to extend the operating lifetime to seven years.

  11. Proceedings of the 21st DOE/NRC Nuclear Air Cleaning Conference; Sessions 1--8

    First, M.W. [ed.] [Harvard Univ., Boston, MA (United States). Harvard Air Cleaning Lab.

    1991-02-01

    Separate abstracts have been prepared for the papers presented at the meeting on nuclear facility air cleaning technology in the following specific areas of interest: air cleaning technologies for the management and disposal of radioactive wastes; Canadian waste management program; radiological health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis; filter testing; US standard codes on nuclear air and gas treatment; European community nuclear codes and standards; chemical processing off-gas cleaning; incineration and vitrification; adsorbents; nuclear codes and standards; mathematical modeling techniques; filter technology; safety; containment system venting; and nuclear air cleaning programs around the world. (MB)

  12. Titanium Loop Heat Pipes for Space Nuclear Radiators, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will develop titanium Loop Heat Pipes (LHPs) that can be used in low-mass space nuclear radiators, such as...

  13. Thermophotovoltaic Energy Conversion in Space Nuclear Reactor Power Systems

    Presby, Andrew L

    2004-01-01

    .... This has potential benefits for space nuclear reactor power systems currently in development. The primary obstacle to space operation of thermophotovoltaic devices appears to be the low heat rejection temperatures which necessitate large radiator areas...

  14. Nuclear Waste Transportation Safety Act of 1979. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Science, Technology, and Space of the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, United States Senate, Ninety-Sixth Congress, first session on S. 535, July 18-20, 1979

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Transportation Safety Act of 1979 provides for the safe transportation of nuclear waste and nuclear fuel. The issues evaluated during the hearing included: (1) The Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 conveyed to the NRC the prior existing authority of the former Atomic Energy Commission to regulate transportation of radioactive nuclear fuel and nuclear waste. The Hazardous Material Transportation Act of 1974 consolidated within the Department of Transportation the regulatory authority for safety and transportation of all hazardous substances, including radioactive materials; should consultation and coordination between these regulating authorities continue to be used. (2) The specific areas of transportation regulation involved in this combination; (3) Should the Department of Transportation (DOT) become a separate office; (4) Is security against theft and sabotage necessary and realistically attainable; (5) Should DOT be responsible for assuring a coordinated Federal-State emergency response plan for possible nuclear related transportation emergencies; and (6) Is the Federal grant program of S. 535 necessary and adequate

  15. Nuclear space power safety and facility guidelines study

    Mehlman, W.F.

    1995-01-01

    This report addresses safety guidelines for space nuclear reactor power missions and was prepared by The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) under a Department of Energy grant, DE-FG01-94NE32180 dated 27 September 1994. This grant was based on a proposal submitted by the JHU/APL in response to an open-quotes Invitation for Proposals Designed to Support Federal Agencies and Commercial Interests in Meeting Special Power and Propulsion Needs for Future Space Missionsclose quotes. The United States has not launched a nuclear reactor since SNAP 10A in April 1965 although many Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) have been launched. An RTG powered system is planned for launch as part of the Cassini mission to Saturn in 1997. Recently the Ballistic Missile Defense Office (BMDO) sponsored the Nuclear Electric Propulsion Space Test Program (NEPSTP) which was to demonstrate and evaluate the Russian-built TOPAZ II nuclear reactor as a power source in space. As of late 1993 the flight portion of this program was canceled but work to investigate the attributes of the reactor were continued but at a reduced level. While the future of space nuclear power systems is uncertain there are potential space missions which would require space nuclear power systems. The differences between space nuclear power systems and RTG devices are sufficient that safety and facility requirements warrant a review in the context of the unique features of a space nuclear reactor power system

  16. Panel session on the state of the art in nuclear reactor technology

    Roche, R.

    1977-01-01

    The state of the art in the technology of pressure vessels and piping of the primary cooling circuit of nuclear steam supply systems is discussed. Design and analysis are considered in the frame of the two types of nuclear reactor retained in France (PWR and the pool type LMFBR). Designing nuclear pressure vessels asks for some more specific Codes and Standards than for conventional vessels, and the stress analysis complementing by a direct comparison between operating loads and failure loads is a mandatory practice in France. As for pool type LMFBR, the structural problems of the nuclear vessel are essentially due to component shape, small thickness, and large stress range

  17. Nuclear Reactors for Space Power, Understanding the Atom Series.

    Corliss, William R.

    The historical development of rocketry and nuclear technology includes a specific description of Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power (SNAP) programs. Solar cells and fuel cells are considered as alternative power supplies for space use. Construction and operation of space power plants must include considerations of the transfer of heat energy to…

  18. Nuclear modules for space electric propulsion

    Difilippo, F.C.

    1998-01-01

    The analysis of interplanetary cargo and piloted missions requires the calculations of the performances and masses of subsystems to be integrated in a final design. In a preliminary and scoping stage the designer needs to evaluate options in an iterative way by using simulations that run fast on a computer. As a consequence of a collaborative agreement between the National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), ORNL has been involved in the development of models and calculational procedures for the analysis (neutronic and thermal hydraulic) of power sources for nuclear electric propulsion. The nuclear modules will be integrated into the whole simulation of the nuclear electric propulsion system. The vehicles use either a Brayton direct-conversion cycle, using the heated helium from a NERVA-type reactor, or a potassium Rankine cycle, with the working fluid heated on the secondary side of a heat exchanger and lithium on the primary side coming from a fast reactor. Given a set of input conditions, the codes calculate composition, dimensions, volumes, and masses of the core, reflector, control system, pressure vessel, neutron and gamma shields, as well as the thermal hydraulic conditions of the coolant, clad and fuel. Input conditions are power, core life, pressure and temperature of the coolant at the inlet of the core, either the temperature of the coolant at the outlet of the core or the coolant mass flow and the fluences and integrated doses at the cargo area. Using state-of-the-art neutron cross sections and transport codes, a database was created for the neutronic performance of both reactor designs. The free parameters of the models are the moderator/fuel mass ratio for the NERVA reactor and the enrichment and the pitch of the lattice for the fast reactor. Reactivity and energy balance equations are simultaneously solved to find the reactor design. Thermalhydraulic conditions are calculated by solving the one

  19. Potential refractory alloy requirements for space nuclear power applications

    Cooper, R.H. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    In reviewing design requirements for refractory alloys for space nuclear applications, several key points are identified. First, the successful utilization of refractory alloys is considered an enabling requirement for the successful deployment of high efficiency, lightweight, and small space nuclear systems. Second, the recapture of refractory alloy nuclear technology developed in the 1960s and early 1970s appears to be a pacing activity in the successful utilization of refractory alloys. Third, the successful application of refractory alloys for space nuclear applications will present a significant challenge to both the materials and the systems design communities

  20. AREVA Technical Days (ATD) session 2: operations of the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle

    2002-01-01

    These technical days organized by the Areva Group aims to explain the group activities in a technological and economic point of view, to provide an outlook of worldwide energy trends and challenges and to present each of their businesses in a synthetic manner. This second session deals with the reprocessing business, back-end financing mechanisms, technology transfer, environmental management, risk management programs, research and development contribution to waste volume reductions, issues and outlook of nuclear wastes, comparison of the open and closed cycles. (A.L.B.)

  1. Application of nuclear photon engines for deep-space exploration

    Gulevich, Andrey V.; Ivanov, Eugeny A.; Kukharchuk, Oleg F.; Poupko, Victor Ya.; Zrodnikov, Anatoly V.

    2001-01-01

    Conception of using the nuclear photon rocket engines for deep space exploration is proposed. Some analytical estimations have been made to illustrate the possibility to travel to 100-10000 AU using a small thrust photon engine. Concepts of high temperature nuclear reactors for the nuclear photon engines are also discussed

  2. Contribution to case study session 1, PIME 89[Nuclear energy in Sweden

    Sokolowski, Evelyn [KSU (Sweden)

    1989-07-01

    Analysing the arguments of the antinuclear movement in general, one is suprized to find that they are mostly of a pseudo-scientific nature. There is no hesitation to talk about 'half-life', 'kilowatts' or 'critical mass', let alone'Down's syndrome' or 'childhood leukemia'. Obviously, 'facts' are believed to impress more than ideological arguments. Judging from the success of the anti-nuclear movement, the hypothesis is correct. Information from nuclear industry lacks the doomsday note and drama that catches the attention of the media and the public. While the anti-nuclear message has the character of a virus, 'nucler' might instead be considered a vaccine - it does not cause much commotion when administered but has an extended protective effect. Most anti-nuclear arguments are variations of a few predictable themes: radiation, accidents, waste, proliferation, and economy. This could be considered to be in favour of 'nuclear'. It should be considred that there is frequent need for quick response.

  3. Legal Implications of Nuclear Propulsion for Space Objects

    Pop, V.

    2002-01-01

    This paper is intended to examine nuclear propulsion concepts such as "Project Orion", "Project Daedalus", NERVA, VASIMIR, from the legal point of view. The UN Principles Relevant to the Use of Nuclear Power Sources in Outer Space apply to nuclear power sources in outer space devoted to the generation of electric power on board space objects for non-propulsive purposes, and do not regulate the use of nuclear energy as a means of propulsion. However, nuclear propulsion by means of detonating atomic bombs (ORION) is, in principle, banned under the 1963 Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space, and Under Water. The legality of use of nuclear propulsion will be analysed from different approaches - historical (i.e. the lawfulness of these projects at the time of their proposal, at the present time, and in the future - in the light of the mutability and evolution of international law), spatial (i.e. the legal regime governing peaceful nuclear explosions in different spatial zones - Earth atmosphere, Earth orbit, Solar System, and interstellar space), and technical (i.e, the legal regime applicable to different nuclear propulsion techniques, and to the various negative effects - e.g. damage to other space systems as an effect of the electromagnetic pulse, etc). The paper will analyse the positive law, and will also come with suggestions "de lege ferenda".

  4. Nuclear power life cycle management, managing nuclear knowledge, and nuclear security. Introductory statement to the 5th scientific forum during the 46th session of the IAEA General Conference. Vienna, 17 September 2002

    ElBaradei, M.

    2002-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the introductory statement made by the Director General of the IAEA at the 5th scientific forum organized during the 46th session of the IAEA General Conference, Vienna, 17 september 2002, on the nuclear power life cycle management, managing nuclear knowledge, and nuclear security. In the area of nuclear power life cycle management two aspects were emphasized: licence extension and facility decommissioning. Nuclear knowledge management includes ensuring the continued availability of the qualified personnel. Nuclear security must be considered for all nuclear applications, in a manner that encompasses all phases of nuclear activity - the use, storage and transport of nuclear and other radioactive material, as well as the design, operation, and decommissioning of nuclear facilities

  5. Nuclear power costs. Ninety-Fifth Congress. Second session. House report No. 95-1090

    1978-01-01

    Contrary to widespread belief, nuclear power is no longer a cheap energy source. In fact, when the still unknown costs of radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel management, decommissioning and perpetual care are finally included in the rate base, nuclear power may prove to be much more expensive than conventional energy sources such as coal, and may well not be economically competitive with safe, renewable resource energy alternatives such as solar power. Nuclear power is the only energy technology which has a major capitalization cost at the outset of the fuel cycle and at the end of the fuel cycle. As the cost of nuclear energy continues to climb, and as a solution to the problems of radioactive waste management continues to elude government and industry, States such as California are rejecting the increased use of nuclear power and favoring the greater use of renewable energy technologies. These developments and others discussed in this report raise major questions for Federal decisionmakers about how best to cope with the Nation's energy crisis in the years ahead. Practical recommendations aimed at greater economy, efficiency, and effectiveness in government actions are proposed

  6. Planning for a space infrastructure for disposal of nuclear space power systems

    Angelo, J. Jr.; Albert, T.E.; Lee, J.

    1989-01-01

    The development of safe, reliable, and compact power systems is vital to humanity's exploration, development, and, ultimately, civilization of space. Nuclear power systems appear to present to offer the only practical option of compact high-power systems. From the very beginning of US space nuclear power activities, safety has been a paramount requirement. Assurance of nuclear safety has included prelaunch ground handling operations, launch, and space operations of nuclear power sources, and more recently serious attention has been given to postoperational disposal of spent or errant nuclear reactor systems. The purpose of this paper is to describe the progress of a project to utilize the capabilities of an evolving space infrastructure for planning for disposal of space nuclear systems. Project SIREN (Search, Intercept, Retrieve, Expulsion - Nuclear) is a project that has been initiated to consider post-operational disposal options for nuclear space power systems. The key finding of Project SIREN was that although no system currently exists to affect the disposal of a nuclear space power system, the requisite technologies for such a system either exist or are planned for part of the evolving space infrastructure

  7. Space nuclear reactors: energy gateway into the next millennium

    Angelo, J.A. Jr.; Buden, D.

    1981-01-01

    Power - reliable, abundant and economic - is the key to man's conquest of the Solar System. Space activities of the next few decades will be highlighted by the creation of the extraterrestrial phase of human civilization. Nuclear power is needed both to propel massive quantities of materials through cislunar and eventually translunar space, and to power the sophisticated satellites, space platforms, and space stations of tomorrow. To meet these anticipated future space power needs, the Los Alamos National Laboratory is developing components for a compact, 100-kW(e) heat pipe nuclear reactor. The objectives of this program are to develop components for a space nuclear power plant capable of unattended operation for 7 to 10 years; having a reliability of greater than 0.95; and weighing less than 1910 kg. In addition, this heat pipe reactor is also compatible for launch by the US Space Transportation System

  8. A nuclear training simulator implementing a capability for multiple, concurrent-training sessions

    Groeneveld, B.J.; Nannister, D.G.; Estes, K.R.; Johnsen, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Simulator at the Test Reactor Area of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has recently been upgraded to reflect plant installation of a distributed control system (DCS). The ATR Simulator re-design implements traditional needs for software extensibility and plant installation prototyping, but the driving force behind its new design was an instruction requirement for multiple, concurrent-training sessions. Support is provided for up to three concurrent, independent or interacting, training sessions of reactor, balance of plant, and experiment loop operators. This capability has been achieved by modifying the existing design to consistently apply client-server, parent-child, and peer-to-peer processing technologies, and then to encapsulate concurrency software into all interfaces. When the resulting component-oriented design is linked with build and runtime flexibility in a distributed computing environment, traditional needs for extensibility and parallel software and scenario development are satisfied with minimal additional effort. Sensible configuration management practices coupled with the ability to perform piecewise system builds also greatly facilitate prototyping of plant changes prior to installation

  9. Proceedings of the 7th International Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal-Hydraulics NURETH-7. Sessions 17-24

    Block, R.C.; Feiner, F. [American Nuclear Society, La Grange Park, IL (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Technical papers accepted for presentation at the Seventh International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal-Hydraulics are included in the present Proceedings. Except for the invited papers in the plenary session, all other papers are contributed papers. The topics of the meeting encompass all major areas of nuclear thermal-hydraulics, including analytical and experimental works on the fundamental mechanisms of fluid flow and heat transfer, the development of advanced mathematical and numerical methods, and the application of advancements in the field in the development of novel reactor concepts. Because of the complex nature of nuclear reactors and power plants, several papers deal with the combined issues of thermal-hydraulics and reactor/power-plant safety, core neutronics and/or radiation. The participation in the conference by the authors from several countries and four continents makes the Proceedings a comprehensive review of the recent progress in the field of nuclear reactor thermal-hydraulics worldwide. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  10. Proceedings of the 7th International Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal-Hydraulics NURETH-7. Sessions 17-24

    Block, R.C.; Feiner, F.

    1995-09-01

    Technical papers accepted for presentation at the Seventh International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal-Hydraulics are included in the present Proceedings. Except for the invited papers in the plenary session, all other papers are contributed papers. The topics of the meeting encompass all major areas of nuclear thermal-hydraulics, including analytical and experimental works on the fundamental mechanisms of fluid flow and heat transfer, the development of advanced mathematical and numerical methods, and the application of advancements in the field in the development of novel reactor concepts. Because of the complex nature of nuclear reactors and power plants, several papers deal with the combined issues of thermal-hydraulics and reactor/power-plant safety, core neutronics and/or radiation. The participation in the conference by the authors from several countries and four continents makes the Proceedings a comprehensive review of the recent progress in the field of nuclear reactor thermal-hydraulics worldwide. Individual papers have been cataloged separately

  11. 48{sup th} Annual meeting on nuclear technology (AMNT 2017). Key topic / Enhanced safety and operation excellence. Focus session: International operational experience

    Mohrbach, Ludger [VGB PowerTech e.V., Essen (Germany). Abteilung ' ' N' ' ; Gottschling, Helge

    2017-11-15

    Summary report on the Key Topic Enhanced Safety and Operation Excellence: Focus Session: International Operational Experience and the Nuclear Energy Campus of the 48{sup th} Annual Meeting on Nuclear Technology (AMNT 2017) held in Berlin, 16 to 17 May 2017.

  12. Future NASA mission applications of space nuclear power

    Bennett, G.L.; Mankins, J.; McConnell, D.G.; Reck, G.M.

    1990-01-01

    Recent studies sponsored by NASA show a continuing need for space nuclear power. A recently completed study considered missions such as a Jovian grand tour, a Uranus or Neptune orbiter and probe, and a Pluto flyby that can only be done with nuclear power. There are studies for missions beyond the outer boundaries of the solar system at distances of 100 to 1000 astronomical units. The NASA 90-day study on the space exploration initiative identified a need for nuclear reactors to power lunar surface bases and radioisotope power sources for use in lunar or Martian rovers, as well as considering options for advanced, nuclear propulsion systems for human missions to Mars

  13. NSSS vendors session

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    A transcription of a question and answer session at the 1982 Nuclear Commerce Conference was presented. Standardization of nuclear power plant design, and the effects it would have on Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensing and regulations, was of particular interest. Forecasts of the demand for nuclear power for the rest of this country were also discussed

  14. Reference nuclear data for space technology

    Burrows, T.W.; Holden, N.E.; Pearlstein, S.

    1977-01-01

    Specialized bibliographic searches, data compilations, and data evaluations help the basic and applied research scientist in his work. The National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC) collates and analyzes nuclear physics information, and is concerned with the timely production and revision of reference nuclear data. A frequently revised reference data base in computerized form has the advantage of large quantities of data available without publication delays. The information normally handled by coordinated efforts of NNDC consists of neutron, charged-particle, nuclear structure, radioactive decay, and photonuclear data. 2 figures

  15. Proceedings of the 2. Nuclear Physics Session of the Jorge Andre Swieca Summer School - v. 1

    1985-01-01

    Several lectures on the field of Nuclear Physics are presented in a pedagogical way. In all of them an introduction is given, mainly on the basis of Quantum Mechanics and Elementary Particles. Whenever is possible the models are compared with the available experimental data. (L.C.) [pt

  16. Nuclear fuel cycle issues and challenges. Scientific forum during the 48th Regular Session of the IAEA General Conference. Session summaries and reports

    2004-01-01

    The three sessions of the forum focused on: Advanced Fuel Cycles and Reactor Concepts; Waste and Spent Fuel Management Issues; and Research Reactor Fuel Cycle and Related Issues. Twelve detailed presentations were made by leading experts, followed by panellists' comments and discussion with participants

  17. Nuclear terrorism: How real is the threat? Keynote address/session 1

    Schmid, A.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: 1. The paper will be based on Open Source materials and focus mainly on non-state actors such as terrorist, criminal, guerrilla and other, including religious, groups. 2. It will discuss the trafficking of highly enriched nuclear materials and less radioactive materials in the post-Cold war period, focusing on the smuggling from the former Soviet Union and from former Warsaw Pact countries. 3. The capabilities of terrorist and other groups in acquiring, handling and delivering nuclear and radiological materials will be addressed. 4. The intentions of various groups to use such weapons are explored and the goals they might pursue will be analysed. 5. Forecasts about the future will be made, based on the incident database of the Terrorism Prevention Branch and other databases and on scenarios which are currently discussed. (author)

  18. Preventing nuclear explosive testing. Submitted to the House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    H.J. Resolution 3 banning the testing of nuclear weapons over 150 kilotons seeks to slow the arms race by urging Congress to ratify the 1974 Threshold Test Ban Treaty and the 1976 Peaceful Nuclear Explosions Treaty and urging the President to resume negotiations with the Soviet Union. The House Foreign Affairs Committee report supports the concept after a series of hearings with verification experts and the weapons and intelligence establishments. Verification and weapons reliability were the key issues of concern, but the committee concluded that politics rather than technology prevented a comprehensive test ban. The report also includes the reminder in the minority view that talks were suspended after the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and that scientists need further testing to make weapons safer and less vulnerable to terrorist action

  19. Problems of space-time behaviour of nuclear reactors

    Obradovic, D.

    1966-01-01

    This paper covers a review of literature and mathematical methods applied for space-time behaviour of nuclear reactors. The review of literature is limited to unresolved problems and trends of actual research in the field of reactor physics [sr

  20. Development of nuclear power. Minutes of evidence, Monday, 2 April 1984, session 1983-84

    1984-01-01

    The following matters were discussed: responsibilities of the (UK) Department of Energy and the UKAEA for nuclear power development; operational objectives and control principles; planning and review of programmes; financial aspects and audit of UKAEA; fast reactor programme with special reference to proposed commercial demonstration fast reactor (CDFR); international cooperation in fast reactor research and development; radioactive waste management; economics of programme items. (U.K.)

  1. Summary of the Fourth International Nuclear Emergency Exercise (INEX-4) and Topical Session

    2014-01-01

    The INEX-4 consequence management exercise, part of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's ongoing series of International Nuclear Emergency Exercises (INEX), was developed under the auspices of the NEA/CRPPH Working Party on Nuclear Emergency Matters (WPNEM) in response to members desire to better prepare for the longer-term response to a nuclear or radiological emergency. The INEX-4 exercise was designed to allow participants to investigate the national and, in some cases, international arrangements for responding to widespread radiological contamination of the urban environment from a radiological dispersal device (or dirty bomb) and the consequence management issues likely to be raised in the medium to longer term after such an event. The experiences of participating countries were gathered through an evaluation questionnaire and are summarised in this report. The INEX-4 series was developed in 2008, and conducted throughout 2010 and 2011 with 17 participating countries using the INEX-4 scenario for an event involving a radiological dispersal device. An INEX-4 evaluation questionnaire was developed to document the process and results of the exercise, which was designed mainly to test emergency responses/actions related to consequence management and transition to recovery. The conclusions drawn from the INEX-4 experiences varied greatly, but this was to be expected given the nature of the scenario and the involvement of organisations outside of the nuclear community. The evaluation questionnaires completed by each participating country provided detailed information on the national approaches taken with respect to each of the exercise objectives and on issues relating to the international interfaces between countries. In collaboration with the NEA Secretariat, staff from the United States Department of Energy (DOE) reviewed each completed questionnaire to identify and summarise the essential information derived from the exercise for consideration by WPNEM members

  2. Nuclear power plant wastes in space?

    Gertsenshtejn, M.E.; Klavdiev, V.V.

    1992-01-01

    Project of radioactive waste disposal into space by electric gun is discussed. The basic disadvantages of the project should include contamination of the near-the-earth space with radioactive containers as well as physical and technical difficulties related to developing electrical gun the shell of which should have the velocity exceeding 5 km/s. Idea of actinide gas atomization in the faraway space by multiply usable apparatus is proposed as alternative solution for the problem of radioactive waste disposal

  3. Recent advances in nuclear powered electric propulsion for space exploration

    Cassady, R. Joseph; Frisbee, Robert H.; Gilland, James H.; Houts, Michael G.; LaPointe, Michael R.; Maresse-Reading, Colleen M.; Oleson, Steven R.; Polk, James E.; Russell, Derrek; Sengupta, Anita

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear and radioisotope powered electric thrusters are being developed as primary in space propulsion systems for potential future robotic and piloted space missions. Possible applications for high-power nuclear electric propulsion include orbit raising and maneuvering of large space platforms, lunar and Mars cargo transport, asteroid rendezvous and sample return, and robotic and piloted planetary missions, while lower power radioisotope electric propulsion could significantly enhance or enable some future robotic deep space science missions. This paper provides an overview of recent US high-power electric thruster research programs, describing the operating principles, challenges, and status of each technology. Mission analysis is presented that compares the benefits and performance of each thruster type for high priority NASA missions. The status of space nuclear power systems for high-power electric propulsion is presented. The paper concludes with a discussion of power and thruster development strategies for future radioisotope electric propulsion systems

  4. Recent advances in nuclear powered electric propulsion for space exploration

    Cassady, R. Joseph [Aerojet Corp., Redmond, CA (United States); Frisbee, Robert H. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA (United States); Gilland, James H. [Ohio Aerospace Institute, Cleveland, OH (United States); Houts, Michael G. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); LaPointe, Michael R. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States)], E-mail: michael.r.lapointe@nasa.gov; Maresse-Reading, Colleen M. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA (United States); Oleson, Steven R. [NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, OH (United States); Polk, James E. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA (United States); Russell, Derrek [Northrop Grumman Space Technology, Redondo Beach, CA (United States); Sengupta, Anita [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2008-03-15

    Nuclear and radioisotope powered electric thrusters are being developed as primary in space propulsion systems for potential future robotic and piloted space missions. Possible applications for high-power nuclear electric propulsion include orbit raising and maneuvering of large space platforms, lunar and Mars cargo transport, asteroid rendezvous and sample return, and robotic and piloted planetary missions, while lower power radioisotope electric propulsion could significantly enhance or enable some future robotic deep space science missions. This paper provides an overview of recent US high-power electric thruster research programs, describing the operating principles, challenges, and status of each technology. Mission analysis is presented that compares the benefits and performance of each thruster type for high priority NASA missions. The status of space nuclear power systems for high-power electric propulsion is presented. The paper concludes with a discussion of power and thruster development strategies for future radioisotope electric propulsion systems.

  5. Development of nuclear power. Thirty-second report from the Committee, session 1983-84

    1984-01-01

    The report falls under the headings: introduction; the UK Atomic Energy Authority - role and accountability; the Department of Energy's control arrangements; UKAEA internal control of programmes and projects; the fast reactor programme; general; summary of specific conclusions. Minutes of evidence before the committee cover the following matters relating to the development of nuclear power in the United Kingdom: the relevant activities and responsibilities of the Department of Energy and the UKAEA; programme planning and control; CEGB activities; fast reactors; radioactive waste management; economics. (U.K.)

  6. The role of nuclear power and nuclear propulsion in the peaceful exploration of space

    2005-09-01

    This publication has been produced within the framework of the IAEA's innovative reactor and fuel cycle technology development activities. It elucidates the role that peaceful space related nuclear power research and development could play in terrestrial innovative reactor and fuel cycle technology development initiatives. This review is a contribution to the Inter-Agency Meeting on Outer Space Activities, and reflects the stepped up efforts of the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space to further strengthen cooperation between international organizations in space related activities. Apart from fostering information exchange within the United Nations organizations, this publication aims at finding new potential fields for innovative reactor and fuel cycle technology development. In assessing the status and reviewing the role of nuclear power in the peaceful exploration of space, it also aims to initiate a discussion on the potential benefits of space related nuclear power technology research and development to the development of innovative terrestrial nuclear systems

  7. Outer space and nuclear deterrence: problems and prospects

    Gasparini Alves, P.

    1993-01-01

    The presentation deals with the role of outer-space applications and prospects for near future developments in nuclear deterrence. Outer space capabilities of United Sates, Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, China, and United Kingdom as well as other states are analyzed. Conceptual problems of offensive and defensive doctrines are reviewed together with legal implications

  8. Evaluating Russian space nuclear reactor technology for United States applications

    Polansky, G.F.; Schmidt, G.L.; Voss, S.S.; Reynolds, E.L.

    1994-01-01

    Space nuclear power and nuclear electric propulsion are considered important technologies for planetary exploration, as well as selected earth orbit applications. The Nuclear Electric Propulsion Space Test Program (NEPSTP) was intended to provide an early flight demonstration of these technologies at relatively low cost through extensive use of existing Russian technology. The key element of Russian technology employed in the program was the Topaz II reactor. Refocusing of the activities of the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO), combined with budgetary pressures, forced the cancellation of the NEPSTP at the end of the 1993 fiscal year. The NEPSTP was faced with many unique flight qualification issues. In general, the launch of a spacecraft employing a nuclear reactor power system complicates many spacecraft qualification activities. However, the NEPSTP activities were further complicated because the reactor power system was a Russian design. Therefore, this program considered not only the unique flight qualification issues associated with space nuclear power, but also with differences between Russian and United States flight qualification procedures. This paper presents an overview of the NEPSTP. The program goals, the proposed mission, the spacecraft, and the Topaz II space nuclear power system are described. The subject of flight qualification is examined and the inherent difficulties of qualifying a space reactor are described. The differences between United States and Russian flight qualification procedures are explored. A plan is then described that was developed to determine an appropriate flight qualification program for the Topaz II reactor to support a possible NEPSTP launch

  9. Estimating inhalation hazards for space nuclear power systems

    Hoover, M.D.; Cuddihy, R.G.; Seiler, F.Z.

    1989-01-01

    Minimizing inhalation hazards is a major consideration in the design, development, transportation, handling, testing, storage, launch, use, and ultimate disposition of nuclear space power systems (NSPSs). An accidental dispersion of 238 Pu is of concern for missions involving the radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) or lightweight radioisotope heater units. Materials of concern for missions involving a nuclear reactor might include other radionuclides, such as uranium, or chemically toxic materials, such as beryllium or lithium. This paper provides an overview of some of the current approaches and uncertainties associated with estimating inhalation hazards from potential NSPS accidents. The question of whether inhalation risks can be acceptable for nuclear space power systems is still open and active. The inherently low toxicity of the uranium fuel of a space nuclear reactor is a desirable feature of that option. The extensive engineering and testing that have contributed to the current generation of plutonium RTGs provide a measure of confidence that dispersion of the RTG fuel would be unlikely in an accident. The use of nuclear reactors or RTGs in space, however, requires society to assume a risk (albeit low) for dispersion of the fuel material. It can be argued that any additional risks from the use of nuclear power in space are far less than the risks we face daily

  10. Opening up the future in space with nuclear power

    Buden, D.; Angelo, J. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Man's extraterrestrial development is dependent on abundant power. For example, space-based manufacturing facilities are projected to have a power demand of 300 kWe by the end of this Century, and several megawatts in the early part of next millennium. The development of the lunar resource base will result in power needs ranging from an initial 100 kW(e) to many megawatts. Human visits to Mars could be achieved using a multimegawatt nuclear electric propulsion system or high thrust nuclear rockets. Detailed exploration of the solar system will also be greatly enhanced by the availability of large nuclear electric propulsion systems. All of these activities will require substantial increases in space power - hundreds of kilowatts to many megawatts. The challenge is clear: how to effectively use nuclear energy to support humanity's expansion into space

  11. Soviet space nuclear reactor incidents - Perception versus reality

    Bennett, Gary L.

    1992-01-01

    Since the Soviet Union reportedly began flying nuclear power sources in 1965 it has had four publicly known accidents involving space reactors, two publicly known accidents involving radioisotope power sources and one close call with a space reactor (Cosmos 1900). The reactor accidents, particularly Cosmos 954 and Cosmos 1402, indicated that the Soviets had adopted burnup as their reentry philosophy which is consistent with the U.S. philosophy from the 1960s and 1970s. While quantitative risk analyses have shown that the Soviet accidents have not posed a serious risk to the world's population, concerns still remain about Soviet space nuclear safety practices.

  12. Man--machine interface issues for space nuclear power systems

    Nelson, W.R.; Haugset, K.

    1991-01-01

    The deployment of nuclear reactors in space necessitates an entirely new set of guidelines for the design of the man--machine interface (MMI) when compared to earth-based applications such as commerical nuclear power plants. Although the design objectives of earth- and space-based nuclear power systems are the same, that is, to produce electrical power, the differences in the application environments mean that the operator's role will be significantly different for space-based systems. This paper explores the issues associated with establishing the necessary MMI guidelines for space nuclear power systems. The generic human performance requirements for space-based systems are described, and the operator roles that are utilized for the operation of current and advanced earth-based reactors are briefly summarized. The development of a prototype advanced control room, the Integrated Surveillance and Control System (ISACS) at the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Halden Reactor Project is introduced. Finally, preliminary ideas for the use of the ISACS system as a test bed for establishing MMI guidelines for space nuclear systems are presented

  13. Session summaries

    Sudo, Y.

    2002-01-01

    In the summary session, possible international activities in the field of basic studies on high-temperature engineering were discussed within the framework of the OECD/NEA Nuclear Science Committee (NSC). It was recommended to include topics relevant to fission-product behaviour and safety issues of HTGR in next meeting, in addition to the topics discussed in this meeting. The chairperson of the last session summarised the recommendations to be presented to the NSC into the following five topics as possible international activities: - Basic studies on behaviour of irradiated graphite/carbon and ceramic materials including their composites under both operation and storage conditions. - Development of in-core material characterisation and instrumentation methods. - Improvement in material properties through high-temperature irradiation. - Basic studies on HTGR fuel fabrication and performance including fission-product release. - Basic studies on safety issues of HTGR. It was also recommended that a further information exchange meeting focused on the organisation of the interactive collaboration activity with regard to the above topics be planned in 2003, tentatively in Oarai, Japan. (author)

  14. Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) Air Force facility

    Beck, David F.

    The Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) Program is an initiative within the US Air Force to acquire and validate advanced technologies that could be used to sustain superior capabilities in the area or space nuclear propulsion. The SNTP Program has a specific objective of demonstrating the feasibility of the particle bed reactor (PBR) concept. The term PIPET refers to a project within the SNTP Program responsible for the design, development, construction, and operation of a test reactor facility, including all support systems, that is intended to resolve program technology issues and test goals. A nuclear test facility has been designed that meets SNTP Facility requirements. The design approach taken to meet SNTP requirements has resulted in a nuclear test facility that should encompass a wide range of nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) test requirements that may be generated within other programs. The SNTP PIPET project is actively working with DOE and NASA to assess this possibility.

  15. Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Test Facilities Subpanel. Final report

    Allen, G.C.; Warren, J.W.; Martinell, J.; Clark, J.S.; Perkins, D.

    1993-04-01

    On 20 Jul. 1989, in commemoration of the 20th anniversary of the Apollo 11 lunar landing, President George Bush proclaimed his vision for manned space exploration. He stated, 'First for the coming decade, for the 1990's, Space Station Freedom, the next critical step in our space endeavors. And next, for the new century, back to the Moon. Back to the future. And this time, back to stay. And then, a journey into tomorrow, a journey to another planet, a manned mission to Mars.' On 2 Nov. 1989, the President approved a national space policy reaffirming the long range goal of the civil space program: to 'expand human presence and activity beyond Earth orbit into the solar system.' And on 11 May 1990, he specified the goal of landing Astronauts on Mars by 2019, the 50th anniversary of man's first steps on the Moon. To safely and ever permanently venture beyond near Earth environment as charged by the President, mankind must bring to bear extensive new technologies. These include heavy lift launch capability from Earth to low-Earth orbit, automated space rendezvous and docking of large masses, zero gravity countermeasures, and closed loop life support systems. One technology enhancing, and perhaps enabling, the piloted Mars missions is nuclear propulsion, with great benefits over chemical propulsion. Asserting the potential benefits of nuclear propulsion, NASA has sponsored workshops in Nuclear Electric Propulsion and Nuclear Thermal Propulsion and has initiated a tri-agency planning process to ensure that appropriate resources are engaged to meet this exciting technical challenge. At the core of this planning process, NASA, DOE, and DOD established six Nuclear Propulsion Technical Panels in 1991 to provide groundwork for a possible tri-agency Nuclear Propulsion Program and to address the President's vision by advocating an aggressive program in nuclear propulsion. To this end the Nuclear Electric Propulsion Technology Panel has focused it energies

  16. Legal and Regulatroy Obstacles to Nuclear Fission Technology in Space

    Force, Melissa K.

    2013-09-01

    In forecasting the prospective use of small nuclear reactors for spacecraft and space-based power stations, the U.S. Air Force describes space as "the ultimate high ground," providing access to every part of the globe. But is it? A report titled "Energy Horizons: United States Air Force Energy Science &Technology Vision 2011-2026," focuses on core Air Force missions in space energy generation, operations and propulsion and recognizes that investments into small modular nuclear fission reactors can be leveraged for space-based systems. However, the report mentions, as an aside, that "potential catastrophic outcomes" are an element to be weighed and provides no insight into the monumental political and legal will required to overcome the mere stigma of nuclear energy, even when referring only to the most benign nuclear power generation systems - RTGs. On the heels of that report, a joint Department of Energy and NASA team published positive results from the demonstration of a uranium- powered fission reactor. The experiment was perhaps most notable for exemplifying just how effective the powerful anti-nuclear lobby has been in the United States: It was the first such demonstration of its kind in nearly fifty years. Space visionaries must anticipate a difficult war, consisting of multiple battles that must be waged in order to obtain a license to fly any but the feeblest of nuclear power sources in space. This paper aims to guide the reader through the obstacles to be overcome before nuclear fission technology can be put to use in space.

  17. Case-study session 1. Mass media and public information on nuclear energy and radiation: Striving for two-way confidence and understanding. Introduction by session chairman

    SanLaholma, Juhani

    1989-01-01

    The ENS Information Committee carried out an assessment of public opinion and news media. The conclusions of this assessment are presented. The ENS recognized fully the significant role of the news media in reflecting public opinion in the nuclear field. It was concluded that it is worthwhile and important for the nuclear organizations to consider why unverified, even false, information appears so often in the media. The study emphasized that the nuclear organizations' relations with the news media are of high significance. ENS emphasized that it is important for the nuclear sector sector to pursue an active and frank information policy with the news media. ENS recognized that it is our task to prepare and provide the news media and the public with prompt, correct and objective information it is endless work but, at the same time, our only way of winning and attaining credibility and confidence among the public

  18. Materials from seminar session of the 3.general assembly of Polish Nuclear Society; 3.Walny Zjazd Polskiego Towarzystwa Nukleonicznego. Materialy sesji seminaryjnej

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This publication edited as a scientific report of the Institute of Atomic Energy contains papers presented on the seminar session accompanying the 3rd General Assembly of Polish Nuclear Society. Five of these are dealing with the present situation in Poland in the framework of the following subjects: foreseeing electricity demand as a significant factor of development of electricity generation sector and nuclear option choice; present state and development trends of nuclear technique applications in industry, agriculture, health and environment protection; radioactive waste management especially related to the storage of spent fuel from EWA and MARIA research reactors; present educational problems in nuclear science and technology. The problems of nuclear power could not be excluded from the session, although it does not exist in Poland and no plans foresee it currently. The paper on nuclear power contains an extensive summary of nuclear power development worldwide, its safety problems, economic competitiveness and public acceptance. The so called ``Sellafield phenomenon`` considering the growth of leukaemia deaths of children living near that reprocessing plant in England has been commented in mass media criticizing nuclear energy application. The paper on this problem present the results of investigations and hypotheses on reasons having caused this phenomenon. The declaration of the International Council of Nuclear Societies on the role of nuclear science and technology in supporting the development is also included in the report.

  19. Advanced materials for space nuclear power systems

    Titran, R.H.; Grobstein, T.L.

    1991-01-01

    Research on monolithic refractory metal alloys and on metal matrix composites is being conducted at the NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, in support of advanced space power systems. The overall philosophy of the research is to develop and characterize new high-temperature power conversion and radiator materials and to provide spacecraft designers with material selection options and design information. Research on three candidate materials (carbide strengthened niobium alloy PWC-11 for fuel cladding, graphite fiber reinforced copper matrix composites (Gr/Cu) for heat rejection fins, and tungsten fiber reinforced niobium matrix composites (W/NB) for fuel containment and structural supports) considered for space power system applications is discussed. Each of these types of materials offers unique advantages for space power applications

  20. Nuclear space power and propulsion requirements and issues

    Swerdling, M.; Isenberg, L.

    1995-01-01

    The use of nuclear power in space is going through a low point. The kinds of missions that would use nuclear power are expensive and there are few new expensive missions. Both NASA and DoD are in a mode of cheaper, faster, better, which means using what is available as much as possible and only incorporating new technology to reduce mission cost. NASA is performing Mission to Planet Earth and detailed exploration missions of Mars. These NASA missions can be done with solar-battery power subsystems and there is no need for nuclear power. The NASA mission to Pluto does require nuclear radioisotope power. Ways to reduce the power subsystem cost and the power level are being investigated. NASA is studying ways to explore beyond Mars with solar-battery power because of the cost and uncertainty in the availability and launchability of nuclear space power systems. The DoD missions are all in earth orbit and can be done with solar-battery systems. The major DoD requirement at present is to reduce costs of all their space missions. One way to do this is to develop highly efficient upper stage boosters that can be integrated with lower cost Earth to low orbit stages and still place their payloads in to higher orbits. One attractive upper stage is a nuclear bimodal (propulsion and power) engine to accomplished lower booster cost to place space assets in GEO. However this is not being pursued because of DOE's new policy not to fund nuclear space power research and development as well as the difficulty in obtaining launch approval for nuclear propulsion and power systems

  1. Nuclear space power systems for orbit raising and maneuvering

    Buden, D.; Sullivan, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    Reference is made to recent studies which have shown that direct thrust nuclear rockets for routine orbit raising and near-earth space tug missions are probably not cost-effective. The need for additional trade-off studies and comparisons of direct-thrust nuclear systems with chemical systems to clarify the role of nuclear rockets in missions requiring rapid orbit maneuvering is stressed. Attention is confined here to nuclear electric propulsion considerations. Low-mass nuclear power plants are constructed to optimize nuclear electric propulsion systems. Electric power levels from 100 kilowatts to as much as several megawatts are desirable. The goals for the power plant specific mass are 20-30 kg/kW at the lower powers to 2-4 kg/kW at the higher powers

  2. Nuclear technology for the year 2000

    1987-01-01

    Eighteen papers and abstracts are presented under the following session headings: space nuclear power, health physics and dosimetry, nuclear design and thermal hydraulics, nuclear diagnostics, and fusion technology and plasma physics. The papers were processed separately for the data base

  3. Nuclear modules for space electric propulsion

    Difilippo, F.C.

    1998-01-01

    Analysis of interplanetary cargo and piloted missions requires calculations of the performances and masses of subsystems to be integrated in a final design. In a preliminary and scoping stage the designer needs to evaluate options iteratively by using fast computer simulations. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in the development of models and calculational procedures for the analysis (neutronic and thermal hydraulic) of power sources for nuclear electric propulsion. The nuclear modules will be integrated into the whole simulation of the nuclear electric propulsion system. The vehicles use either a Brayton direct-conversion cycle, using the heated helium from a NERVA-type reactor, or a potassium Rankine cycle, with the working fluid heated on the secondary side of a heat exchanger and lithium on the primary side coming from a fast reactor. Given a set of input conditions, the codes calculate composition. dimensions, volumes, and masses of the core, reflector, control system, pressure vessel, neutron and gamma shields, as well as the thermal hydraulic conditions of the coolant, clad and fuel. Input conditions are power, core life, pressure and temperature of the coolant at the inlet of the core, either the temperature of the coolant at the outlet of the core or the coolant mass flow and the fluences and integrated doses at the cargo area. Using state-of-the-art neutron cross sections and transport codes, a database was created for the neutronic performance of both reactor designs. The free parameters of the models are the moderator/fuel mass ratio for the NERVA reactor and the enrichment and the pitch of the lattice for the fast reactor. Reactivity and energy balance equations are simultaneously solved to find the reactor design. Thermalhydraulic conditions are calculated by solving the one-dimensional versions of the equations of conservation of mass, energy, and momentum with compressible flow. 10 refs., 1 tab

  4. Multimegawatt nuclear systems for space power

    Dearien, J.A.; Whitbeck, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    The conceptual design and performance capability requirements of multi-MW nuclear powerplants for SDI systems are considered. The candidate powerplant configurations encompass Rankine, Brayton, and thermionic cycles; these respectively provide the lightest to heaviest system masses, since reactor and shield masses represent only 10-30 percent of total closed power system weight for the Rankine and Brayton systems. Many of the gas reactor concepts entertained may be operated in dual mode, thereby furnishing both long term low power and high power for short periods. Heat rejection is identified as the most important technology, since about 50 percent of the total closed mass is constituted by the heat rejection system. 9 references

  5. Assessment of nuclear reactor concepts for low power space applications

    Klein, Andrew C.; Gedeon, Stephen R.; Morey, Dennis C.

    1988-01-01

    The results of a preliminary small reactor concepts feasibility and safety evaluation designed to provide a first order validation of the nuclear feasibility and safety of six small reactor concepts are given. These small reactor concepts have potential space applications for missions in the 1 to 20 kWe power output range. It was concluded that low power concepts are available from the U.S. nuclear industry that have the potential for meeting both the operational and launch safety space mission requirements. However, each design has its uncertainties, and further work is required. The reactor concepts must be mated to a power conversion technology that can offer safe and reliable operation.

  6. Application of nuclear-physics methods in space materials science

    Novikov, L. S.; Voronina, E. N.; Galanina, L. I.; Chirskaya, N. P.

    2017-07-01

    The brief history of the development of investigations at the Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University (SINP MSU) in the field of space materials science is outlined. A generalized scheme of a numerical simulation of the radiation impact on spacecraft materials and elements of spacecraft equipment is examined. The results obtained by solving some of the most important problems that modern space materials science should address in studying nuclear processes, the interaction of charged particles with matter, particle detection, the protection from ionizing radiation, and the impact of particles on nanostructures and nanomaterials are presented.

  7. Heat pipe nuclear reactor for space power

    Koening, D. R.

    1976-01-01

    A heat-pipe-cooled nuclear reactor has been designed to provide 3.2 MWth to an out-of-core thermionic conversion system. The reactor is a fast reactor designed to operate at a nominal heat-pipe temperature of 1675 K. Each reactor fuel element consists of a hexagonal molybdenum block which is bonded along its axis to one end of a molybdenum/lithium-vapor heat pipe. The block is perforated with an array of longitudinal holes which are loaded with UO2 pellets. The heat pipe transfers heat directly to a string of six thermionic converters which are bonded along the other end of the heat pipe. An assembly of 90 such fuel elements forms a hexagonal core. The core is surrounded by a thermal radiation shield, a thin thermal neutron absorber, and a BeO reflector containing boron-loaded control drums.

  8. Closing session

    2014-01-01

    This part makes a summary of the different sessions and discussions of the workshop in a series of slide presentations: Summary of Opening Session; Summary of Session 1: Analysis of External Hazard Potential; Summary of session 2: Specific features of analysis and modeling of particular natural external hazards; Summary of session-3: Practices and research efforts on natural external events PSA; Summary of session 4: Modeling of NPP response to natural external events in PSA; Summary of session 5: Seismic Risk Analysis; Summary of session 6: Use of external events PSA with the focus on regulatory body role; Facilitated discussion 1 summary: Where do we stand in the analysis of external events?; Summary Facilitated Discussion 2: Findings and Good Practices for External Events Analysis

  9. RECENT ACTIVITIES AT THE CENTER FOR SPACE NUCLEAR RESEARCH FOR DEVELOPING NUCLEAR THERMAL ROCKETS

    O'Brien, Robert C.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear power has been considered for space applications since the 1960s. Between 1955 and 1972 the US built and tested over twenty nuclear reactors/ rocket-engines in the Rover/NERVA programs. However, changes in environmental laws may make the redevelopment of the nuclear rocket more difficult. Recent advances in fuel fabrication and testing options indicate that a nuclear rocket with a fuel form significantly different from NERVA may be needed to ensure public support. The Center for Space Nuclear Research (CSNR) is pursuing development of tungsten based fuels for use in a NTR, for a surface power reactor, and to encapsulate radioisotope power sources. The CSNR Summer Fellows program has investigated the feasibility of several missions enabled by the NTR. The potential mission benefits of a nuclear rocket, historical achievements of the previous programs, and recent investigations into alternatives in design and materials for future systems will be discussed.

  10. Safety Framework for Nuclear Power Source Applications in Outer Space

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear power sources (NPS) for use in outer space have been developed and used in space applications where unique mission requirements and constraints on electrical power and thermal management precluded the use of non-nuclear power sources. Such missions have included interplanetary missions to the outer limits of the Solar System, for which solar panels were not suitable as a source of electrical power because of the long duration of these missions at great distances from the Sun. According to current knowledge and capabilities, space NPS are the only viable energy option to power some space missions and significantly enhance others. Several ongoing and foreseeable missions would not be possible without the use of space NPS. Past, present and foreseeable space NPS applications include radioisotope power systems (for example, radioisotope thermoelectric generators and radioisotope heater units) and nuclear reactor systems for power and propulsion. The presence of radioactive materials or nuclear fuels in space NPS and their consequent potential for harm to people and the environment in Earth's biosphere due to an accident require that safety should always be an inherent part of the design and application of space NPS. NPS applications in outer space have unique safety considerations compared with terrestrial applications. Unlike many terrestrial nuclear applications, space applications tend to be used infrequently and their requirements can vary significantly depending upon the specific mission. Mission launch and outer space operational requirements impose size, mass and other space environment limitations not present for many terrestrial nuclear facilities. For some applications, space NPS must operate autonomously at great distances from Earth in harsh environments. Potential accident conditions resulting from launch failures and inadvertent re-entry could expose NPS to extreme physical conditions. These and other unique safety considerations for the use of

  11. Applicability of trends in nuclear safety analysis to space nuclear power systems

    Bari, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    A survey is presented of some current trends in nuclear safety analysis that may be relevant to space nuclear power systems. This includes: lessons learned from operating power reactor safety and licensing; approaches to the safety design of advanced and novel reactors and facilities; the roles of risk assessment, extremely unlikely accidents, safety goals/targets; and risk-benefit analysis and communication

  12. Preliminary risk benefit assessment for nuclear waste disposal in space

    Rice, E. E.; Denning, R. S.; Friedlander, A. L.; Priest, C. C.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the recent work of the authors on the evaluation of health risk benefits of space disposal of nuclear waste. The paper describes a risk model approach that has been developed to estimate the non-recoverable, cumulative, expected radionuclide release to the earth's biosphere for different options of nuclear waste disposal in space. Risk estimates for the disposal of nuclear waste in a mined geologic repository and the short- and long-term risk estimates for space disposal were developed. The results showed that the preliminary estimates of space disposal risks are low, even with the estimated uncertainty bounds. If calculated release risks for mined geologic repositories remain as low as given by the U.S. DOE, and U.S. EPA requirements continue to be met, then no additional space disposal study effort in the U.S. is warranted at this time. If risks perceived by the public are significant in the acceptance of mined geologic repositories, then consideration of space disposal as a complement to the mined geologic repository is warranted.

  13. Nuclear reactors for space electric power

    Buden, D.

    1978-06-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory is studying reactor power plants for space applications in the late 1980s and 1990s. The study is concentrating on high-temperature, compact, fast reactors that can be coupled with various radiation shielding systems and thermoelectric, dynamic, or thermionic electric power conversion systems, depending on the mission. Lifetimes of 7 to 10 yr at full power, at converter operating temperatures of 1275 to 1675 0 K, are being studied. The systems are being designed such that no single-failure modes exist that will cause a complete loss of power. In fact, to meet the long lifetimes, highly redundant design features are being emphasized. Questions have been raised about safety since the COSMOS 954 incident. ''Fail-safe'' means to prevent exposure of the population to radioactive material, meeting the environmental guidelines established by the U.S. Government have been and continue to be a necessary requirement for any space reactor program. The major safety feature to prevent prelaunch and launch radioactive material hazards is not operating the reactor before achieving the prescribed orbit. Design features in the reactor ensure that accidental criticality cannot occur. High orbits (above 400 to 500 nautical miles) have sufficient lifetimes to allow radioactive elements to decay to safe levels. The major proposed applications for satellites with reactors in Earth orbit are in geosynchronous orbit (19,400 nautical miles). In missions at geosynchronous orbit, where orbital lifetimes are practically indefinite, the safety considerations are negligible. Orbits below 400 to 500 nautical miles are the ones where a safety issue is involved in case of satellite malfunction. The potential missions, the question of why reactors are being considered as a prime power candidate, reactor features, and safety considerations will be discussed

  14. Comparison between a 13-session and one-time program on Korea elementary, middle and high school students' understanding of nuclear power

    Han, Eun Ok; Choi, Yoon Seok; Lim, Young Khi

    2017-01-01

    To help future generations make accurate value judgments about nuclear power generation and radiation, this study will provide an effective education plan suitable for South Korea by applying and analyzing programs for the understanding of nuclear power within the diversely operated programs in the current Korean education system. This study analyzed the difference in educational effects by operating a 13-session regular curriculum for one semester and a one-session short-term curriculum from March to July 2016. As a result of operating a 13-session model school and a one-time educational program to analyze behavior changes against the traditional learning model, it was found that all elementary, middle and high school students showed higher acceptability of nuclear power in South Korea. The variation was greater for the model school than the short-term program. To prevent future generations from making biased policy decisions stemming from fear regarding nuclear power, it is necessary to bolster their value judgments in policy decisions by acquiring sufficient information about nuclear power generation and radiation through educational programs

  15. Comparison between a 13-session and one-time program on Korea elementary, middle and high school students' understanding of nuclear power

    Han, Eun Ok; Choi, Yoon Seok [Dept. of Education and Research, Korea Academy of Nuclear Safety, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Young Khi [Dept. of Radiological Science, Gachon University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    To help future generations make accurate value judgments about nuclear power generation and radiation, this study will provide an effective education plan suitable for South Korea by applying and analyzing programs for the understanding of nuclear power within the diversely operated programs in the current Korean education system. This study analyzed the difference in educational effects by operating a 13-session regular curriculum for one semester and a one-session short-term curriculum from March to July 2016. As a result of operating a 13-session model school and a one-time educational program to analyze behavior changes against the traditional learning model, it was found that all elementary, middle and high school students showed higher acceptability of nuclear power in South Korea. The variation was greater for the model school than the short-term program. To prevent future generations from making biased policy decisions stemming from fear regarding nuclear power, it is necessary to bolster their value judgments in policy decisions by acquiring sufficient information about nuclear power generation and radiation through educational programs.

  16. Wavelet analysis of the nuclear phase space

    Jouault, B.; Sebille, F.; De La Mota, V.

    1997-01-01

    The description of complex systems requires to select and to compact the relevant information. The wavelet theory constitutes an appropriate framework for defining adapted representation bases obtained from a controlled hierarchy of approximations. The optimization of the wavelet analysis depend mainly on the chosen analysis method and wavelet family. Here the analysis of the harmonic oscillator wave function was carried out by considering a Spline bi-orthogonal wavelet base which satisfy the symmetry requirements and can be approximated by simple analytical functions. The goal of this study was to determine a selection criterion allowing to minimize the number of elements considered for an optimal description of the analysed functions. An essential point consists in utilization of the wavelet complementarity and of the scale functions in order to reproduce the oscillating and peripheral parts of the wave functions. The wavelet base representation allows defining a sequence of approximations of the density matrix. Thus, this wavelet representation of the density matrix offers an optimal base for describing both the static nuclear configurations and their time evolution. This information compacting procedure is performed in a controlled manner and preserves the structure of the system wave functions and consequently some of its quantum properties

  17. Annual meeting on nuclear technology '88. Technical session on focal points of the atomic energy law and the radiation protection law in 1988

    1988-06-01

    This issue of Annual Meeting on Nuclear Technology reports presents the papers of the technical session on 'Focal points of the atomic energy law and the radiation protection law in 1988'. The titles are: Is there a binding link between decisions of the atomic energy authority and criminal law? Conclusions to be drawn from the Alkem case court decision. - Recent developments in atomic energy law. - Current radiation protection law. - Codetermination at plant level in a nuclear installation. - The legal position of foreigners from neigbour countries in the field of atomic energy law. The licensing of nuclear installations near the border. (RST) [de

  18. AREVA Technical Days (ATD) session 2: operations of the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle; AREVA Technical Days (ATD) session 2: les activites du pole Aval du cycle du combustible nucleaire

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    These technical days organized by the Areva Group aims to explain the group activities in a technological and economic point of view, to provide an outlook of worldwide energy trends and challenges and to present each of their businesses in a synthetic manner. This second session deals with the reprocessing business, back-end financing mechanisms, technology transfer, environmental management, risk management programs, research and development contribution to waste volume reductions, issues and outlook of nuclear wastes, comparison of the open and closed cycles. (A.L.B.)

  19. Safety program considerations for space nuclear reactor systems

    Cropp, L.O.

    1984-08-01

    This report discusses the necessity for in-depth safety program planning for space nuclear reactor systems. The objectives of the safety program and a proposed task structure is presented for meeting those objectives. A proposed working relationship between the design and independent safety groups is suggested. Examples of safety-related design philosophies are given

  20. Forty years of the Institute for Nuclear Research (Scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 22 December 2010)

    2011-01-01

    On 22 December 2010, the scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), devoted to the 40th anniversary of the Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS, was held at the Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS in Troitsk. The agenda of the session announced on the website www.gpad.ac.ru of the RAS Physical Sciences Division listed the following reports: (1) Matveev V A (Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS, Moscow) ''Introductory word''; (2) Gavrin V N (Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS, Moscow) ''Contribution of the SAGE results to the understanding of solar physics and neutrino physics''; (3) Domogatsky G V (Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS, Moscow) ''Baikal neutrino experiment''; (4) Tkachev I I (Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS, Moscow) ''Observation of the Greisen - Zatsepin - Kuz'min effect at the Telescope Array Observatory''; (5) Kudenko Yu G (Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS, Moscow) ''Neutrino T2K experiment: the first results''; (6) Sadykov R A (Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS, Moscow) ''Fields of study of condensed media at the neutron facility at the INR, RAS''; (7) Zhuikov B L (Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS, Moscow) ''Production of isotopes at the INR, RAS: reality and prospects''. The papers written on the base of reports 1-5 and 7 are published below. In addition, the paper ''High-power diode-pumped alkali lasers'' by A M Shalagin is published. The paper is based on the report presented at the scientific session of the General Assembly of the Physical Sciences Division, RAS (13 December 2010) devoted to the 50th anniversary of the laser, the main materials of the session having been published in Usp. Fiz. Nauk 181 (8) 867 (2011) [Phys. Usp. 54 837 (2011)]. . Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences turns 40, V A Matveev Physics-Uspekhi, 2011, Volume 54, Number 9, Pages 939-940 . The Russian-American gallium experiment SAGE, V N Gavrin Physics-Uspekhi, 2011, Volume 54

  1. Criterion for the nuclearity of spaces of functions of infinite number of variables

    Gali, I.M.

    1977-08-01

    The paper formulates a new necessary and sufficient condition for the nuclearity of spaces of infinite number of variables, and defines new nuclear spaces which play an important role in the field of functional analysis and quantum field theory. Also the condition for nuclearity of the infinite weighted tensor product of nuclear spaces is given

  2. Communicating with the public: space of nuclear technology

    Maffei, Patricia Martinez; Aquino, Afonso Rodrigues; Gordon, Ana Maria Pinho Leite; Oliveira, Rosana Lagua de; Padua, Rafael Vicente de; Vieira, Martha Marques Ferreira; Vicente, Roberto, E-mail: pmaffei@ipen.br, E-mail: araquino@usp.br, E-mail: amgordon@ipen.br, E-mail: rloliveira@ipen.br, E-mail: rpadua@ipen.br, E-mail: mmvieira@ipen.br, E-mail: rvicente@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    For two decades the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN) has been developing activities for popularization of its R and D activities in the nuclear field. Some of the initiatives already undertaken by IPEN are lectures at schools, guided visits to IPEN facilities, printed informative material, FAQ page in the Web, and displays in annual meetings and technology fairs highlighting its achievements. In order to consolidate these initiatives, IPEN is planning to have a permanent Space of Nuclear Technology (SNT), aiming at introducing students, teachers and the general public to the current applications of nuclear technology in medicine, industry, research, electric power generation, etc. It is intended as an open room to the public and will have a permanent exhibit with historical, scientific, technical and cultural developments of nuclear technology and will also feature temporary exhibitions about specific themes. The space will display scientific material in different forms to allow conducting experiments to demonstrate some of the concepts associated with the properties of nuclear energy, hands-on programs and activities that can be customized to the students' grade level and curriculum. (author)

  3. Communicating with the public: space of nuclear technology

    Maffei, Patricia Martinez; Aquino, Afonso Rodrigues; Gordon, Ana Maria Pinho Leite; Oliveira, Rosana Lagua de; Padua, Rafael Vicente de; Vieira, Martha Marques Ferreira; Vicente, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    For two decades the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN) has been developing activities for popularization of its R and D activities in the nuclear field. Some of the initiatives already undertaken by IPEN are lectures at schools, guided visits to IPEN facilities, printed informative material, FAQ page in the Web, and displays in annual meetings and technology fairs highlighting its achievements. In order to consolidate these initiatives, IPEN is planning to have a permanent Space of Nuclear Technology (SNT), aiming at introducing students, teachers and the general public to the current applications of nuclear technology in medicine, industry, research, electric power generation, etc. It is intended as an open room to the public and will have a permanent exhibit with historical, scientific, technical and cultural developments of nuclear technology and will also feature temporary exhibitions about specific themes. The space will display scientific material in different forms to allow conducting experiments to demonstrate some of the concepts associated with the properties of nuclear energy, hands-on programs and activities that can be customized to the students' grade level and curriculum. (author)

  4. Preserving the nuclear option: The AIAA position paper on space nuclear power

    Allen, D.M.; Bennett, G.L.; El-Genk, M.S.; Newhouse, A.R.; Rose, M.F.; Rovang, R.D.

    1996-01-01

    In response to published reports about the decline in funding for space nuclear power, the Board of Directors of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) approved a position paper in March 1995 that recommends (1) development and support of an integrated space nuclear power program by DOE, NASA and DoD; (2) Congressional support for the program; (3) advocacy of the program by government and industry leaders; and (4) continuation of cooperation between the U.S. and other countries to advance nuclear power source technology and to promote safety. This position paper has been distributed to various people having oversight of the U.S. space nuclear power program. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  5. 8th symposium on space nuclear power systems

    Brandhorst, H. W.

    1991-01-01

    The future appears rich in missions that will extend the frontiers of knowledge, human presence in space, and opportunities for profitable commerce. Key to the success of these ventures is the availability of plentiful, cost effective electric power and assured, low cost access to space. While forecasts of space power needs are problematic, an assessment of future needs based on terrestrial experience has been made. These needs fall into three broad categories: survival, self sufficiency, and industrialization. The cost of delivering payloads to orbital locations from LEO to Mars has been determined and future launch cost reductions projected. From these factors, then, projections of the performance necessary for future solar and nuclear space power options has been made. These goals are largely dependent upon orbital location and energy storage needs. Finally the cost of present space power systems has been determined and projections made for future systems

  6. Key issues in space nuclear power challenges for the future

    Brandhorst, Henry W., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The future appears rich in missions that will extend the frontiers of knowledge, human presence in space, and opportunities for profitable commerce. Key to the success of these ventures is the availability of plentiful, cost effective electric power and assured, low cost access to space. While forecasts of space power needs are problematic, an assessment of future needs based on terrestrial experience has been made. These needs fall into three broad categories: survival, self sufficiency, and industrialization. The cost of delivering payloads to orbital locations from LEO to Mars has been determined and future launch cost reductions projected. From these factors, then, projections of the performance necessary for future solar and nuclear space power options has been made. These goals are largely dependent upon orbital location and energy storage needs. Finally the cost of present space power systems has been determined and projections made for future systems.

  7. Refractory alloy technology for space nuclear power applications

    Cooper, R.H. Jr.; Hoffman, E.E.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose of this symposium is twofold: (1) to review and document the status of refractory alloy technology for structural and fuel-cladding applications in space nuclear power systems, and (2) to identify and document the refractory alloy research and development needs for the SP-100 Program in both the short and the long term. In this symposium, an effort was made to recapture the space reactor refractory alloy technology that was cut off in midstream around 1973 when the national space nuclear reactor program began in the early 1960s, was terminated. The six technical areas covered in the program are compatibility, processing and production, welding and component fabrication, mechanical and physical properties, effects of irradiation, and machinability. The refractory alloys considered are niobium, molybdenum, tantalum, and tungsten. Thirteen of the 14 pages have been abstracted separately. The remaining paper summarizes key needs for further R and D on refractory alloys

  8. Refractory alloy technology for space nuclear power applications

    Cooper, R.H. Jr.; Hoffman, E.E. (eds.)

    1984-01-01

    Purpose of this symposium is twofold: (1) to review and document the status of refractory alloy technology for structural and fuel-cladding applications in space nuclear power systems, and (2) to identify and document the refractory alloy research and development needs for the SP-100 Program in both the short and the long term. In this symposium, an effort was made to recapture the space reactor refractory alloy technology that was cut off in midstream around 1973 when the national space nuclear reactor program began in the early 1960s, was terminated. The six technical areas covered in the program are compatibility, processing and production, welding and component fabrication, mechanical and physical properties, effects of irradiation, and machinability. The refractory alloys considered are niobium, molybdenum, tantalum, and tungsten. Thirteen of the 14 pages have been abstracted separately. The remaining paper summarizes key needs for further R and D on refractory alloys. (DLC)

  9. Proposal of space reactor for nuclear electric propulsion system

    Nishiyama, Takaaki; Nagata, Hidetaka; Nakashima, Hideki

    2009-01-01

    A nuclear reactor installed in spacecrafts is considered here. The nuclear reactor could stably provide an enough amount of electric power in deep space missions. Most of the nuclear reactors that have been developed up to now in the United States and the former Soviet Union have used uranium with 90% enrichment of 235 U as a fuel. On the other hand, in Japan, because the uranium that can be used is enriched to below 20%, the miniaturization of the reactor core is difficult. A Light-water nuclear reactor is an exception that could make the reactor core small. Then, the reactor core composition and characteristic are evaluated for the cases with the enrichment of the uranium fuel as 20%. We take up here Graphite reactor, Light-water reactor, and Sodium-cooled one. (author)

  10. Scientific forum during the 46th regular session of the IAEA General Conference. Topical issues: Nuclear Power - Life Cycle Management; Managing Nuclear Knowledge; Nuclear Security. Programme and synopses

    2002-01-01

    In response to the recommendations of several Agency advisory committees, to address issues related to nuclear power life cycle management, knowledge management in the field of nuclear power, and security of radiation sources and other nuclear material the IAEA is organizing the scientific forum to be held during the General Conference. The purpose of the meeting is to sharpen awareness and understanding of the emerging concerns about the aging of nuclear power plants, maintenance and preservation of knowledge and expertise in nuclear science, technology and applications, to emphasise the significance of security and physical protection of radiation sources and other radioactive material, and to better comprehend the role of the Agency in these processes

  11. Fourth session: perspectives and internationalization of nuclear research; Session 4: Les perspectives, l'internationalisation de la R and D

    Bugat, S. [Electricite de France, 77 - Moret sur Loing (France); Girardin, G. [AREVA-FRAMATOME-ANP, Centre Technique, NFTC, 71 - Le Creusot (France); Vitanza, C. [Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development, Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA), 75 - Paris (France)

    2005-07-01

    The purpose of the atomic simulation is to deduce the behaviour of irradiated materials from the effects of irradiation at the atomic scale that are well understood. The main difficulties and recent breakthroughs concerning the simulation of the primary damage and the microstructure due to irradiation and of the hardening effect of irradiation are reviewed. It is shown that simulation tools are far to be able to replace real irradiation experiments but their maturity is so high that they will allow us to optimize the design and operations of irradiation experiments in a near future. The second article is dedicated to the Norwegian Halden research reactor that was at the very beginning of its operating life (1958) an irradiation facility broadly open to the international nuclear community. The Halden reactor is a boiling reactor, cooled and moderated with heavy water (14 m{sup 3}) and whose thermal power output is 20 MW. The steam generated (30 tons/h) is used to operate a paper mill. 12 experimental loops with in-core test rigs are available. In 1999 about 68% of the studies performed at Halden was dedicated to high burnup fuels and 32% to materials. (A.C.)

  12. Co-Chairs’ Summary of Technical Session 3B. Nuclear Forensic Science: Synergies with Other Disciplines I

    Nizamska, M.; Roger, I.

    2015-01-01

    Scientific disciplines, including radiochemistry, provide a technical foundation for the science of nuclear forensics. In addition, analytical chemistry, pathology and nuclear material measurements all contribute to the technical spectrum encompassing a nuclear forensic capability. Subject matter experts versed in the former production of nuclear material may contribute to improved understanding of process streams of interest to a nuclear forensic examination

  13. SP-100 nuclear space power systems with application to space commercialization

    Smith, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to familiarize the Space Commercialization Community with the status and characteristics of the SP-100 space nuclear power system. The program is a joint undertaking by the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy and NASA. The goal of the program is to develop, validate, and demonstrate the technology for space nuclear power systems in the range of 10 to 1000 kWe electric for use in the future civilian and military space missions. Also discussed are mission applications which are enhanced and/or enabled by SP-100 technology and how this technology compares to that of more familiar solar power systems. The mission applications include earth orbiting platforms and lunar/Mars surface power

  14. Nuclear reactor descriptions for space power systems analysis

    Mccauley, E. W.; Brown, N. J.

    1972-01-01

    For the small, high performance reactors required for space electric applications, adequate neutronic analysis is of crucial importance, but in terms of computational time consumed, nuclear calculations probably yield the least amount of detail for mission analysis study. It has been found possible, after generation of only a few designs of a reactor family in elaborate thermomechanical and nuclear detail to use simple curve fitting techniques to assure desired neutronic performance while still performing the thermomechanical analysis in explicit detail. The resulting speed-up in computation time permits a broad detailed examination of constraints by the mission analyst.

  15. On convergence of nuclear and correlation operators in Hilbert space

    Kubrusly, C.S.

    1985-01-01

    The convergence of sequences of nuclear operators on a separable Hilbert space is studied. Emphasis is given to trace-norm convergence, which is a basic property in stochastic systems theory. Obviously trace-norm convergence implies uniform convergence. The central theme of the paper focus the opposite way, by investigating when convergence in a weaker topology turns out to imply convergence in a stronger topology. The analysis carried out here is exhaustive in the following sense. All possible implications within a selected set of asymptotic properties for sequences of nuclear operators are established. The special case of correlation operators is also considered in detail. (Author) [pt

  16. Probing electron correlation and nuclear dynamics in Momentum Space

    Deleuze, M S; Hajgato, B; Morini, F; Knippenberg, S

    2010-01-01

    Orbital imaging experiments employing Electron Momentum Spectroscopy are subject to many complications, such as distorted wave effects, conformational mobility in the electronic ground state, ultra-fast nuclear dynamics in the final state, or a dispersion of the ionization intensity over electronically excited (shake-up) configurations of the cation. The purpose of the present contribution is to illustrate how a proper treatment of these complications enables us to probe in momentum space the consequences of electron correlation and nuclear dynamics in neutral and cationic states.

  17. Applications of nuclear-powered thermoelectric generators in space

    Rowe, D.M.

    1991-01-01

    The source of electrical power which enables information to be transmitted from the space crafts Voyager 1 and 2 back to Earth after a time period of more than a decade and at a distance of more than a billion miles is known as an RTG (radioisotope thermoelectric generator). It utilises the Seebeck effect in producing electricity from heat. In essence it consists of a large number of semiconductor thermocouples connected electrically in series and thermally in parallel. A temperature difference is maintained across the thermocouples by providing a heat source, which in the case of an RTG is a radioactive isotope, and the heat sink is space. The combination of an energy-conversion system, free of moving parts and a long-life, high energy-density heat source, provides a supply of electrical power typically in the range of tens to hundred of watts and which operates reliably over extended periods of time. An electric power source, based upon thermoelectric conversion by which utilises a nuclear reactor as a heat source, has also been deployed in space and a 100-kW system is being developed to provide electrical power to a variety of commercial and military projects including SDI. Developments in thermoelectrics that have taken place in the western world during the past 30 years are primarily due to United States interest and involvement in the exploration of space. This paper reviews US applications of nuclear-powered thermoelectric generators in space. (author)

  18. Nuclear safety as applied to space power reactor systems

    Cummings, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    Current space nuclear power reactor safety issues are discussed with respect to the unique characteristics of these reactors. An approach to achieving adequate safety and a perception of safety is outlined. This approach calls for a carefully conceived safety program which makes uses of lessons learned from previous terrestrial power reactor development programs. This approach includes use of risk analyses, passive safety design features, and analyses/experiments to understand and control off-design conditions. The point is made that some recent accidents concerning terrestrial power reactors do not imply that space power reactors cannot be operated safety

  19. A Review of Tribomaterial Technology for Space Nuclear Power Systems

    Stanford, Malcolm K.

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has recently proposed a nuclear closed-cycle electric power conversion system for generation of 100-kW of electrical power for space exploration missions. A critical issue is the tribological performance of sliding components within the power conversion unit that will be exposed to neutron radiation. This paper presents a review of the main considerations that have been made in the selection of solid lubricants for similar applications in the past as well as a recommendations for continuing development of the technology.

  20. Nuclear spectroscopy in large shell model spaces: recent advances

    Kota, V.K.B.

    1995-01-01

    Three different approaches are now available for carrying out nuclear spectroscopy studies in large shell model spaces and they are: (i) the conventional shell model diagonalization approach but taking into account new advances in computer technology; (ii) the recently introduced Monte Carlo method for the shell model; (iii) the spectral averaging theory, based on central limit theorems, in indefinitely large shell model spaces. The various principles, recent applications and possibilities of these three methods are described and the similarity between the Monte Carlo method and the spectral averaging theory is emphasized. (author). 28 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs

  1. Nuclear alkali metal Rankine power systems for space applications

    Moyers, J.C.; Holcomb, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear power systems utilizing alkali metal Rankine power conversion cycles offer the potential for high efficiency, lightweight space power plants. Conceptual design studies are being carried out for both direct and indirect cycle systems for steady state space power applications. A computational model has been developed for calculating the performance, size, and weight of these systems over a wide range of design parameters. The model is described briefly and results from parametric design studies, with descriptions of typical point designs, are presented in this paper

  2. Primary loop simulation of the SP-100 space nuclear reactor

    Borges, Eduardo M.; Braz Filho, Francisco A.; Guimaraes, Lamartine N.F.

    2011-01-01

    Between 1983 and 1992 the SP-100 space nuclear reactor development project for electric power generation in a range of 100 to 1000 kWh was conducted in the USA. Several configurations were studied to satisfy different mission objectives and power systems. In this reactor the heat is generated in a compact core and refrigerated by liquid lithium, the primary loops flow are controlled by thermoelectric electromagnetic pumps (EMTE), and thermoelectric converters produce direct current energy. To define the system operation point for an operating nominal power, it is necessary the simulation of the thermal-hydraulic components of the space nuclear reactor. In this paper the BEMTE-3 computer code is used to EMTE pump design performance evaluation to a thermalhydraulic primary loop configuration, and comparison of the system operation points of SP-100 reactor to two thermal powers, with satisfactory results. (author)

  3. Nuclear Waste Disposal in Space: BEP's Best Hope?

    Coopersmith, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    The best technology is worthless if it cannot find a market Beam energy propulsion (BEP) is a very promising technology, but faces major competition from less capable but fully developed conventional rockets. Rockets can easily handle projected markets for payloads into space. Without a new, huge demand for launch capability, BEP is unlikely to gain the resources it needs for development and application. Launching tens of thousands of tons of nuclear waste into space for safe and permanent disposal will provide that necessary demand while solving a major problem on earth. Several options exist to dispose of nuclear waste, including solar orbit, lunar orbit, soft lunar landing, launching outside the solar system, and launching into the sun

  4. Systems aspects of a space nuclear reactor power system

    Jaffe, L.; Fujita, T.; Beatty, R.; Bhandari, P.; Chow, E.; Deininger, W.; Ewell, R.; Grossman, M.; Bloomfield, H.; Heller, J.

    1988-01-01

    Various system aspects of a 300-kW nuclear reactor power system for spacecraft have been investigated. Special attention is given to the cases of a reusable OTV and a space-based radar. It is demonstrated that the stowed length of the power system is important to mission design, and that orbital storage for months to years may be needed for missions involving orbital assembly.

  5. Systems integration processes for space nuclear electric propulsion systems

    Olsen, C.S.; Rice, J.W.; Stanley, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    The various components and subsystems that comprise a nuclear electric propulsion system should be developed and integrated so that each functions ideally and so that each is properly integrated with the other components and subsystems in the optimum way. This paper discusses how processes similar to those used in the development and intergration of the subsystems that comprise the Multimegawatt Space Nuclear Power System concepts can be and are being efficiently and effectively utilized for these purposes. The processes discussed include the development of functional and operational requirements at the system and subsystem level; the assessment of individual nuclear power supply and thruster concepts and their associated technologies; the conduct of systems integration efforts including the evaluation of the mission benefits for each system; the identification and resolution of concepts development, technology development, and systems integration feasibility issues; subsystem, system, and technology development and integration; and ground and flight subsystem and integrated system testing

  6. The role of nuclear reactors in space exploration and development

    Lipinski, R.J.

    2000-07-01

    The United States has launched more than 20 radioisotopic thermoelectric generators (RTGs) into space over the past 30 yr but has launched only one nuclear reactor, and that was in 1965. Russia has launched more than 30 reactors. The RTGs use the heat of alpha decay of {sup 238}Pu for power and typically generate <1 kW of electricity. Apollo, Pioneer, Voyager, Viking, Galileo, Ulysses, and Cassini all used RTGs. Space reactors use the fission energy of {sup 235}U; typical designs are for 100 to 1000 kW of electricity. The only US space reactor launch (SNAP-10A) was a demonstration mission. One reason for the lack of space reactor use by the United States was the lack of space missions that required high power. But, another was the assumed negative publicity that would accompany a reactor launch. The net result is that all space reactor programs after 1970 were terminated before an operating space reactor could be developed, and they are now many years from recovering the ability to build them. Two major near-term needs for space reactors are the human exploration of Mars and advanced missions to and beyond the orbit of Jupiter. To help obtain public acceptance of space reactors, one must correct some of the misconceptions concerning space reactors and convey the following facts to the public and to decision makers: Space reactors are 1000 times smaller in power and size than a commercial power reactor. A space reactor at launch is only as radioactive as a pile of dirt 60 m (200 ft) across. A space reactor contains no plutonium at launch. It does not become significantly radioactive until it is turned on, and it will be engineered so that no launch accident can turn it on, even if that means fueling it after launch. The reactor will not be turned on until it is in a high stable orbit or even on an earth-escape trajectory for some missions. The benefits of space reactors are that they give humanity a stairway to the planets and perhaps the stars. They open a new

  7. Lightweight Radiator for in Space Nuclear Electric Propulsion

    Craven, Paul; Tomboulian, Briana; SanSoucie, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) is a promising option for high-speed in-space travel due to the high energy density of nuclear fission power sources and efficient electric thrusters. Advanced power conversion technologies may require high operating temperatures and would benefit from lightweight radiator materials. Radiator performance dictates power output for nuclear electric propulsion systems. Game-changing propulsion systems are often enabled by novel designs using advanced materials. Pitch-based carbon fiber materials have the potential to offer significant improvements in operating temperature, thermal conductivity, and mass. These properties combine to allow advances in operational efficiency and high temperature feasibility. An effort at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center to show that woven high thermal conductivity carbon fiber mats can be used to replace standard metal and composite radiator fins to dissipate waste heat from NEP systems is ongoing. The goals of this effort are to demonstrate a proof of concept, to show that a significant improvement of specific power (power/mass) can be achieved, and to develop a thermal model with predictive capabilities making use of constrained input parameter space. A description of this effort is presented.

  8. Safety considerations for the use of nuclear power in space

    Sewell, D.C.

    1985-01-01

    A little over twenty years ago Norris Bradbury, then Director of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, gave a luncheon speech at the American Nuclear Society Meeting on Aerospace Nuclear Safety here in Albuquerque, New Mexico. His subject was Safety in Science. His opening statement is well worth recalling. He said, ''...science - by which I mean both science and technology - has historically generated new hazards and, equally historically, invented new safeties for mankind. It has produced a safer way of life, a lesser dependence on man's physical frailities.'' He went on to say, ''Wherever science has made an advance it has developed a new hazard, but in general the new hazards have been less overall than the hazards made obsolete by the new development.'' I think that these are excellent thoughts to keep in mind as we embark on a program for increased use of nuclear power in space. That does not mean that the safe operation of new nuclear space power systems will come automatically. It will not. We must work at it continually to make these new systems meet acceptable safety standards

  9. Nuclear safety policy working group recommendations on nuclear propulsion safety for the space exploration initiative

    Marshall, Albert C.; Lee, James H.; Mcculloch, William H.; Sawyer, J. Charles, Jr.; Bari, Robert A.; Cullingford, Hatice S.; Hardy, Alva C.; Niederauer, George F.; Remp, Kerry; Rice, John W.

    1993-01-01

    An interagency Nuclear Safety Working Group (NSPWG) was chartered to recommend nuclear safety policy, requirements, and guidelines for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) nuclear propulsion program. These recommendations, which are contained in this report, should facilitate the implementation of mission planning and conceptual design studies. The NSPWG has recommended a top-level policy to provide the guiding principles for the development and implementation of the SEI nuclear propulsion safety program. In addition, the NSPWG has reviewed safety issues for nuclear propulsion and recommended top-level safety requirements and guidelines to address these issues. These recommendations should be useful for the development of the program's top-level requirements for safety functions (referred to as Safety Functional Requirements). The safety requirements and guidelines address the following topics: reactor start-up, inadvertent criticality, radiological release and exposure, disposal, entry, safeguards, risk/reliability, operational safety, ground testing, and other considerations.

  10. The role of nuclear reactors in space exploration and development

    Lipinski, R.J.

    2000-01-01

    The United States has launched more than 20 radioisotopic thermoelectric generators (RTGs) into space over the past 30 yr but has launched only one nuclear reactor, and that was in 1965. Russia has launched more than 30 reactors. The RTGs use the heat of alpha decay of 238 Pu for power and typically generate 235 U; typical designs are for 100 to 1000 kW of electricity. The only US space reactor launch (SNAP-10A) was a demonstration mission. One reason for the lack of space reactor use by the United States was the lack of space missions that required high power. But, another was the assumed negative publicity that would accompany a reactor launch. The net result is that all space reactor programs after 1970 were terminated before an operating space reactor could be developed, and they are now many years from recovering the ability to build them. Two major near-term needs for space reactors are the human exploration of Mars and advanced missions to and beyond the orbit of Jupiter. To help obtain public acceptance of space reactors, one must correct some of the misconceptions concerning space reactors and convey the following facts to the public and to decision makers: Space reactors are 1000 times smaller in power and size than a commercial power reactor. A space reactor at launch is only as radioactive as a pile of dirt 60 m (200 ft) across. A space reactor contains no plutonium at launch. It does not become significantly radioactive until it is turned on, and it will be engineered so that no launch accident can turn it on, even if that means fueling it after launch. The reactor will not be turned on until it is in a high stable orbit or even on an earth-escape trajectory for some missions. The benefits of space reactors are that they give humanity a stairway to the planets and perhaps the stars. They open a new frontier for their children and their grandchildren. They pave the way for all life on earth to move out into the solar system. At one time, humans built

  11. Nuclear data needs for the space exploration initiative

    Howe, S.D.; Auchampaugh, G.

    1991-01-01

    On July 20, 1989, the President of the United States announced a new direction for the US Space Program. The new Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) is intended to emplace a permanent base on the Lunar surface and a manned outpost on the Mars surface by 2019. In order to achieve this ambitious challenge, new, innovative and robust technologies will have to be developed to support crew operations. Nuclear power and propulsion have been recognized as technologies that are at least mission enhancing and, in some scenarios, mission enabling. Because of the extreme operating conditions present in a nuclear rocket core, accurate modeling of the rocket will require cross section data sets which do not currently exist. In order to successfully achieve the goals of the SEI, major obstacles inherent in long duration space travel will have to be overcome. One of these obstacles is the radiation environment to which the astronauts will be exposed. In general, an unshielded crew will be exposed to roughly one REM per week in free space. For missions to Mars, the total dose could exceed more than one-half the total allowed lifetime level. Shielding of the crew may be possible, but accurate assessments of shield composition and thickness are critical if shield masses are to be kept at acceptable levels. In addition, the entire ship design may be altered by the differential neutron production by heavy ions (Galactic Cosmic Rays) incident on ship structures. The components of the radiation environment, current modeling capability and envisioned experiments will be discussed

  12. Review of Nuclear Physics Experiments for Space Radiation

    Norbury, John W.; Miller, Jack; Adamczyk, Anne M.; Heilbronn, Lawrence H.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Blattnig, Steve R.; Norman, Ryan B.; Guetersloh, Stephen B.; Zeitlin, Cary J.

    2011-01-01

    Human space flight requires protecting astronauts from the harmful effects of space radiation. The availability of measured nuclear cross section data needed for these studies is reviewed in the present paper. The energy range of interest for radiation protection is approximately 100 MeV/n to 10 GeV/n. The majority of data are for projectile fragmentation partial and total cross sections, including both charge changing and isotopic cross sections. The cross section data are organized into categories which include charge changing, elemental, isotopic for total, single and double differential with respect to momentum, energy and angle. Gaps in the data relevant to space radiation protection are discussed and recommendations for future experiments are made.

  13. Dream missions space colonies, nuclear spacecraft and other possibilities

    van Pelt, Michel

    2017-01-01

    This book takes the reader on a journey through the history of extremely ambitious, large and complex space missions that never happened. What were the dreams and expectations of the visionaries behind these plans, and why were they not successful in bringing their projects to reality thus far? As spaceflight development progressed, new technologies and ideas led to pushing the boundaries of engineering and technology though still grounded in real scientific possibilities. Examples are space colonies, nuclear-propelled interplanetary spacecraft, space telescopes consisting of multiple satellites and canon launch systems. Each project described in this book says something about the dreams and expectations of their time, and their demise was often linked to an important change in the cultural, political and social state of the world. For each mission or spacecraft concept, the following will be covered: • Description of the design. • Overview of the history of the concept and the people involved. • Why it...

  14. Validation of nuclear models used in space radiation shielding applications

    Norman, Ryan B.; Blattnig, Steve R.

    2013-01-01

    A program of verification and validation has been undertaken to assess the applicability of models to space radiation shielding applications and to track progress as these models are developed over time. In this work, simple validation metrics applicable to testing both model accuracy and consistency with experimental data are developed. The developed metrics treat experimental measurement uncertainty as an interval and are therefore applicable to cases in which epistemic uncertainty dominates the experimental data. To demonstrate the applicability of the metrics, nuclear physics models used by NASA for space radiation shielding applications are compared to an experimental database consisting of over 3600 experimental cross sections. A cumulative uncertainty metric is applied to the question of overall model accuracy, while a metric based on the median uncertainty is used to analyze the models from the perspective of model development by examining subsets of the model parameter space.

  15. Panel Session

    Bertelsen, Olav Wedege

    2004-01-01

    In this panel session, four researchers will discuss the role of a theoretical foundation, in particular AT, in the design of information technology based artefacts. The general discussion will take of from a specific examination of the ActAD approach.......In this panel session, four researchers will discuss the role of a theoretical foundation, in particular AT, in the design of information technology based artefacts. The general discussion will take of from a specific examination of the ActAD approach....

  16. Vital role of nuclear data in space missions

    Tripathi, R.K.

    2008-01-01

    Nasa has a new vision for space exploration in the 21. Century encompassing a broad range of human and robotic missions including missions to Moon, Mars and beyond. Exposure from the hazards of severe space radiation in deep space long duration missions is a critical design driver. Thus, protection from the hazards of severe space radiation is of paramount importance for the new vision. Accurate risk assessments critically depend on the accuracy of the input information about the interaction of ions with materials, electronics and tissues. We have discussed some of the state-of-the-art cross sections database at Nasa and have demonstrated the role nuclear interaction plays in space missions. The impact of the cross sections on space missions has been shown by the assessment of dose exposure on Moon surface behind a number of materials with increasing hydrogen contents known to be a better radiation shielding material. In addition we have examined an approach to introduce reliability based design methods into shield evaluation and optimization procedure as a means to assess and control the uncertainties in shield design. Applications to Lunar missions for short and long-term duration display a large impact on the design outcome and the choice of the materials. For short duration missions all the examined materials have similar performance. However, for career astronauts who are exposed to longer duration space radiation over the period of time the choice of material plays a very critical role. Computational procedures based on deterministic solution of the Boltzmann equation are well suited for such procedures allowing optimization processes to be implemented, evaluation of biologically important rare events,and rapid analysis of possible shield optimization outcomes resulting from the biological model uncertainty parameter space

  17. Immediate tasks in realization of 52-53 Sessions of United Nations Organization General Assembly resolution on Semipalatinsk nuclear test site

    Ibraev, S.

    2000-01-01

    The author points out, that ecological heritage of Semipalatinsk test site is not studied, scattered investigations does not give objective assessment about radiation situation in the region. Only operations of close down of wells on the base of inter-state agreement between Republic of Kazakhstan and the United States of America were carried out. There are following main rehabilitation measures on liquidation of nuclear tests consequences in the region: study, deactivation and re-cultivation of populated territories; study of radioactive contamination level in underground waters and definition radionuclides migration by biological chain for taking preventative measures. It is noted, that citizens of the region with gratitude took solution of 52-53 Sessions of United Nations Organization General Assembly 'On liquidation of nuclear tests consequences on Semipalatinsk nuclear test site

  18. Proposed advanced satellite applications utilizing space nuclear power systems

    Bailey, P.G.; Isenberg, L.

    1990-01-01

    A review of the status of space nuclear reactor systems and their possible applications is presented. Such systems have been developed over the past twenty years and are capable of use in various military and civilian applications in the 5-1000 kWe power range. The capabilities and limitations of the currently proposed nuclear reactor systems are summarized. Safety issues are shown to be identified, and if properly addressed should not pose a hindrance. Applications are summarized for the federal and civilian community. These applications include both low and high altitude satellite surveillance missions, communications satellites, planetary probes, low and high power lunar and planetary base power systems, broad-band global telecommunications, air traffic control, and high-definition television

  19. Systems aspects of a space nuclear reactor power system

    Jaffe, L.; Fujita, T.; Beatty, R.

    1988-01-01

    Selected systems aspects of a 300 kW nuclear reactor power system for spacecraft have been studied. The approach included examination of two candidate missions and their associated spacecraft, and a number of special topics dealing with the power system design and operation. The missions considered were a reusable orbital transfer vehicle and a space-based radar. The special topics included: Power system configuration and scaling, launch vehicle integration, operating altitude, orbital storage, start-up, thawing, control, load following, procedures in case of malfunction, restart, thermal and nuclear radiation to other portions of the spacecraft, thermal stresses between subsystems, boom and cable designs, vibration modes, attitude control, reliability, and survivability. Among the findings are that the stowed length of the power system is important to mission design and that orbital storage for months to years may be needed for missions involving orbital assembly

  20. Improved Nuclear Reactor and Shield Mass Model for Space Applications

    Robb, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    New technologies are being developed to explore the distant reaches of the solar system. Beyond Mars, solar energy is inadequate to power advanced scientific instruments. One technology that can meet the energy requirements is the space nuclear reactor. The nuclear reactor is used as a heat source for which a heat-to-electricity conversion system is needed. Examples of such conversion systems are the Brayton, Rankine, and Stirling cycles. Since launch cost is proportional to the amount of mass to lift, mass is always a concern in designing spacecraft. Estimations of system masses are an important part in determining the feasibility of a design. I worked under Michael Barrett in the Thermal Energy Conversion Branch of the Power & Electric Propulsion Division. An in-house Closed Cycle Engine Program (CCEP) is used for the design and performance analysis of closed-Brayton-cycle energy conversion systems for space applications. This program also calculates the system mass including the heat source. CCEP uses the subroutine RSMASS, which has been updated to RSMASS-D, to estimate the mass of the reactor. RSMASS was developed in 1986 at Sandia National Laboratories to quickly estimate the mass of multi-megawatt nuclear reactors for space applications. In response to an emphasis for lower power reactors, RSMASS-D was developed in 1997 and is based off of the SP-100 liquid metal cooled reactor. The subroutine calculates the mass of reactor components such as the safety systems, instrumentation and control, radiation shield, structure, reflector, and core. The major improvements in RSMASS-D are that it uses higher fidelity calculations, is easier to use, and automatically optimizes the systems mass. RSMASS-D is accurate within 15% of actual data while RSMASS is only accurate within 50%. My goal this summer was to learn FORTRAN 77 programming language and update the CCEP program with the RSMASS-D model.

  1. Nuclear safety as applied to space power reactor systems

    Cummings, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    To develop a strategy for incorporating and demonstrating safety, it is necessary to enumerate the unique aspects of space power reactor systems from a safety standpoint. These features must be differentiated from terrestrial nuclear power plants so that our experience can be applied properly. Some ideas can then be developed on how safe designs can be achieved so that they are safe and perceived to be safe by the public. These ideas include operating only after achieving a stable orbit, developing an inherently safe design, ''designing'' in safety from the start and managing the system development (design) so that it is perceived safe. These and other ideas are explored further in this paper

  2. Static and dynamic high power, space nuclear electric generating systems

    Wetch, J.R.; Begg, L.L.; Koester, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    Space nuclear electric generating systems concepts have been assessed for their potential in satisfying future spacecraft high power (several megawatt) requirements. Conceptual designs have been prepared for reactor power systems using the most promising static (thermionic) and the most promising dynamic conversion processes. Component and system layouts, along with system mass and envelope requirements have been made. Key development problems have been identified and the impact of the conversion process selection upon thermal management and upon system and vehicle configuration is addressed. 10 references

  3. CVD refractory metals and alloys for space nuclear power application

    Yang, L.; Gulden, T.D.; Watson, J.F.

    1984-01-01

    CVD technology has made significant contributions to the development of space nuclear power systems during the period 1962 to 1972. For the in-core thermionic concept, CVD technology is essential to the fabrication of the tungsten electron emitter. For the liquid metal cooled fuel pin using uranium nitride as fuel and T-111 and Nb-1 Zr as cladding, a tungsten barrier possibly produced by CVD methods is essential to the fuel-cladding compatibility at the designed operating temperature. Space power reactors may use heat pipes to transfer heat from the reactor core to the conversion system. CVD technology has been used for fabricating the heat pipe used as cross-flow heat exchanger, including the built-in channels on the condenser wall for liquid lithium return. 28 references, 17 figures

  4. Space Agriculture for Recovery of Fukushima from the Nuclear Disaster

    Yamashita, Masamichi; Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Hasegawa, Katsuya; Kanazawa, Shinjiro; Oshima, Tairo

    2012-07-01

    Space agriculture is an engineering challenge to realize life support functions on distant planetary bodies under their harsh environment. After the nuclear disaster in Fukushima, its land was heavily contaminated by radioactive cesium and other nuclei. We proposed the use of space agriculture to remediate the contaminated land. Since materials circulation in the human dominant system should remove sodium from metabolic waste at processing fertilizer for crop plants, handling of sodium and potassium ions in agro-ecosystem has been one of major research targets of space agriculture. Cesium resembles to potassium as alkaline metal. Knowledge on behavior of sodium/potassium in agro-ecosystem might contribute to Fukushima. Reduction of volume of contaminated biomass made by hyperthermophilic aerobic composting bacterial system is another proposal from space agriculture. Volume and mass of plant bodies should be reduced for safe storage of nuclear wastes. Capacity of the storage facility will be definitely limited against huge amount of contaminated soil, plants and others. For this purpose, incineration of biomass first choice. The process should be under the lowered combustion temperature and with filters to confine radioactive ash to prevent dispersion of radioactive cesium. Biological combustion made by hyperthermophilic aerobic composting bacterial system might offer safe alternative for the volume reduction of plant biomass. Scientific evidence are demanded for Fukushima in order to to judge health risks of the low dose rate exposure and their biological mechanism. Biology and medicine for low dose rate exposure have been intensively studied for space exploration. The criteria of radiation exposure for general public should be remained as 1 mSv/year, because people has no merit at being exposed. However, the criteria of 1,200 mSv for life long, which is set to male astronaut, age of his first flight after age 40, might be informative to people for understanding

  5. Government observations on the fourth report from the Committee (Session 1989-90) on the cost of nuclear power

    1990-01-01

    This report consists of the government's response to the Energy Committee's conclusions about the cost of nuclear power generation in the United Kingdom and the practicalities involved in the possible privatisation of the nuclear power industry. The report was published on 5th December 1990. The report covers the process of privatisation criticisms of Kleinwort Benson, arrangements accounting for and calculating costs of nuclear power and the risks associated with nuclear generating capacity, the Fossil Fuel Levy, some issues particular to Scotland and Sizewell B power station. (author)

  6. AREVA Technical Days (ATD) session 4: operations of the front-end division of the nuclear fuel cycle

    2004-01-01

    These technical days organized by the Areva Group aims to explain the group activities in a technological and economic point of view, to provide an outlook of worldwide energy trends and challenges and to present each of their businesses in a synthetic manner. This fourth session deals with the strategic and financial significance of the Areva mining operations, the Areva chemistry business, the Areva enrichment business and the Areva fuel business. (A.L.B.)

  7. Breakout Sessions

    CERN. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    Participants are split into small groups for detailed discussion on their chosen topic. To register please click on 'See details' link from the agenda and then on the link to send an email to the session for which you would like to book. Please don't change the subject line of the email.

  8. Power conversion for a microreactor: a nuclear space application

    Guimaraes, Lamartine N.F.; Camillo, Giannino P.; Nascimento, Jamil A.; Borges, Eduardo M.; Placco, Guilherme M.

    2009-01-01

    Generating nuclear power in space is of fundamental importance if it is desired to realize some aggressive type of exploration. Basically, at Earth orbit (either LEO or GEO) most applications tend to use solar panels, which are just fine, in spite of problems such as vibration, non optimal light incidence angle and non electricity generation due to Earth's shadow. For deep space exploration the nuclear power is been considered as a strong candidate and maybe the only one. The Institute for Advanced Studies is conducting the TERRA project that tracks the developments in the area and, also, intends to develop the key technologies that will allow such a machine to be build with indigenous technology. TERRA stands for TEcnologia de Reatores Rapidos Avancados. This project, at its first stage aims at the specification of the microreactor fuel element with its possible geometrical arrangements. Also for this stage a gas Brayton closed cycle is being considered as a heat conversion to electricity and/or propulsion effect. The basic idea is to adapt an open loop aeronautic gas turbine to operate as a closed loop gas Turbine. This arrangement will use heat pipes as a cold source, or a heat rejection passive system. Up to this point a lot has been done in terms of numerical and graphical development. It is expected that some built up will be happening during this year. An account of this work will be presented at the conference. (author)

  9. Technology development for nuclear power generation for space application

    Guimaraes, Lamartine N.F.; Ribeiro, Guilherme B.; Braz Filho, Francisco A.; Nascimento, Jamil A.; Placco, Guilherme M.

    2015-01-01

    For a few years now, the TERRA project is developing several technology pieces to foster nuclear space applications. In this way, a nuclear reactor concept has been developed as a first proposal. Together, the problem of heat to electricity conversion has been addressed. A closed Brayton cycle is being built and a Stirling machine is being worked out and perfected. In addition, two types of heat pipes are being look at. One related with high temperature made of Mo13Re, an especial alloy. And a second one made of copper, which mainly could be used as a passive heat rejection. In this way, all major areas of interest in a micro station to be used in space has been addressed. A new passive technology has been inferred and is related with Tesla turbine or its evolution, known as multi fluid passive turbine. This technology has the potential to either: improve the Brayton cycle or its efficiency. In this paper, some details are discussed and some will be shown during the presentation, as the work evolve. (author)

  10. Technology development for nuclear power generation for space application

    Guimaraes, Lamartine N.F.; Ribeiro, Guilherme B.; Braz Filho, Francisco A.; Nascimento, Jamil A.; Placco, Guilherme M., E-mail: guimarae@ieav.cta.br, E-mail: lamartine.guimaraes@pq.cnpq.br [Instituto de Estudos Avancados (IEAv), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Divisao de Energia Nuclear; Faria, Saulo M. de [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (ITA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    For a few years now, the TERRA project is developing several technology pieces to foster nuclear space applications. In this way, a nuclear reactor concept has been developed as a first proposal. Together, the problem of heat to electricity conversion has been addressed. A closed Brayton cycle is being built and a Stirling machine is being worked out and perfected. In addition, two types of heat pipes are being look at. One related with high temperature made of Mo13Re, an especial alloy. And a second one made of copper, which mainly could be used as a passive heat rejection. In this way, all major areas of interest in a micro station to be used in space has been addressed. A new passive technology has been inferred and is related with Tesla turbine or its evolution, known as multi fluid passive turbine. This technology has the potential to either: improve the Brayton cycle or its efficiency. In this paper, some details are discussed and some will be shown during the presentation, as the work evolve. (author)

  11. Advanced Thermophotovoltaic Devices for Space Nuclear Power Systems

    Wernsman, Bernard; Mahorter, Robert G.; Siergiej, Richard; Link, Samuel D.; Wehrer, Rebecca J.; Belanger, Sean J.; Fourspring, Patrick; Murray, Susan; Newman, Fred; Taylor, Dan; Rahmlow, Tom

    2005-01-01

    Advanced thermophotovoltaic (TPV) modules capable of producing > 0.3 W/cm2 at an efficiency > 22% while operating at a converter radiator and module temperature of 1228 K and 325 K, respectively, have been made. These advanced TPV modules are projected to produce > 0.9 W/cm2 at an efficiency > 24% while operating at a converter radiator and module temperature of 1373 K and 325 K, respectively. Radioisotope and nuclear (fission) powered space systems utilizing these advanced TPV modules have been evaluated. For a 100 We radioisotope TPV system, systems utilizing as low as 2 general purpose heat source (GPHS) units are feasible, where the specific power for the 2 and 3 GPHS unit systems operating in a 200 K environment is as large as ∼ 16 We/kg and ∼ 14 We/kg, respectively. For a 100 kWe nuclear powered (as was entertained for the thermoelectric SP-100 program) TPV system, the minimum system radiator area and mass is ∼ 640 m2 and ∼ 1150 kg, respectively, for a converter radiator, system radiator and environment temperature of 1373 K, 435 K and 200 K, respectively. Also, for a converter radiator temperature of 1373 K, the converter volume and mass remains less than 0.36 m3 and 640 kg, respectively. Thus, the minimum system radiator + converter (reactor and shield not included) specific mass is ∼ 16 kg/kWe for a converter radiator, system radiator and environment temperature of 1373 K, 425 K and 200 K, respectively. Under this operating condition, the reactor thermal rating is ∼ 1110 kWt. Due to the large radiator area, the added complexity and mission risk needs to be weighed against reducing the reactor thermal rating to determine the feasibility of using TPV for space nuclear (fission) power systems

  12. Summary: Hadron dynamics sessions

    Carroll, A.S.; Londergan, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    Four sessions on Hadron Dynamics were organized at this Workshop. The first topic, QCD Exclusive Reactions and Color Transparency, featured talks by Ralston, Heppelman and Strikman; the second, QCD and Inclusive Reactions had talks by Garvey, Speth and Kisslinger. The third dynamics session, Medium Modification of Elementary Interactions had contributions from Kopeliovich, Alves and Gyulassy; the fourth session Pre-QCD Dynamics and Scattering, had talks by Harris, Myhrer and Brown. An additional joint Spectroscopy/Dynamics session featured talks by Zumbro, Johnson and McClelland. These contributions are reviewed briefly in this summary. Two additional joint sessions between Dynamics and η physics are reviewed by the organizers of the Eta sessions. In such a brief review there is no way the authors can adequately summarize the details of the physics presented here. As a result, they concentrate only on brief impressionistic sketches of the physics topics discussed and their interrelations. They include no bibliography in this summary, but simply refer to the talks given in more detail in the Workshop proceedings. They focus on topics which were common to several presentations in these sessions. First, nuclear and particle descriptions of phenomena are now clearly converging, in both a qualitative and quantitative sense; they show several examples of this convergence. Second, an important issue in hadron dynamics is the extent to which elementary interactions are modified in nuclei at high energies and/or densities, and they illustrate some of these medium effects. Finally, they focus on those dynamical issues where hadron facilities can make an important, or even a unique, contribution to the knowledge of particle and nuclear physics

  13. Session 1984-1985. Radioactive waste. Minutes of evidence, Monday 13 May 1985. British Nuclear Fuels plc

    1985-01-01

    The Environment Select Committee of the House of Commons received a memorandum from British Nuclear Fuels plc on the treatment and preparation for disposal of radioactive wastes, under the headings: introduction; waste categories; waste management policy; waste arisings; waste treatment plans; appendix I - British Nuclear Fuels plc; appendix II - the nuclear fuel cycle for Magnox, AGR and LWR reactors; appendix III - control of liquid radioactive discharges from Sellafield and their environmental impact. Representatives of BNF plc were examined on the subject of the memorandum and the minutes of evidence are recorded.

  14. Session 1984-85. Radioactive waste. Minutes of evidence, Monday 13 May 1985. British Nuclear Fuels plc

    1985-01-01

    The Environment Select Committee of the House of Commons received a memorandum from British Nuclear Fuels plc on the treatment and preparation for disposal of radioactive wastes, under the headings: introduction; waste categories; waste management policy; waste arisings; waste treatment plans; appendix I - British Nuclear Fuels plc; appendix II - the nuclear fuel cycle for Magnox, AGR and LWR reactors; appendix III - control of liquid radioactive discharges from Sellafield and their environmental impact. Representatives of BNF plc were examined on the subject of the memorandum and the minutes of evidence are recorded. (U.K.)

  15. 48{sup th} Annual meeting on nuclear technology (AMNT 2017). Key topic / Enhanced safety and operation excellence. Focus session: Uncertainty analyses in reactor core simulations

    Zwermann, Winfried [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) gGmbH, Garching (Germany). Forschungszentrum

    2017-12-15

    The supplementation of reactor simulations by uncertainty analyses is becoming increasingly important internationally due to the fact that the reliability of simulation calculations can be significantly increased by the quantification of uncertainties in comparison to the use of so-called conservative methods (BEPU- ''Best-Estimate plus Uncertainties''). While systematic uncertainty analyses for thermo-hydraulic calculations have been performed routinely for a long time, methods for taking into account uncertainties in nuclear data, which are the basis for neutron transport calculations, are under development. The Focus Session Uncertainty Analyses in Reactor Core Simulations was intended to provide an overview of international research and development with respect to supplementing reactor core simulations with uncertainty and sensitivity analyses, in research institutes as well as within the nuclear industry. The presented analyses not only focused on light water reactors, but also on advanced reactor systems. Particular emphasis was put on international benchmarks in the field. The session was chaired by Winfried Zwermann (Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit).

  16. Shielding considerations for advanced space nuclear reactor systems

    Angelo, J.P. Jr.; Buden, D.

    1982-01-01

    To meet the anticipated future space power needs, the Los Alamos National Laboratory is developing components for a compact, 100 kW/sub e/-class heat pipe nuclear reactor. The reactor uses uranium dioxide (UO 2 ) as its fuel, and is designed to operate around 1500 k. Heat pipes are used to remove thermal energy from the core without the use of pumps or compressors. The reactor heat pipes transfer mal energy to thermoelectric conversion elements that are advanced versions of the converters used on the enormously successful Voyager missions to the outer planets. Advanced versions of this heat pipe reactor could also be used to provide megawatt-level power plants. The paper reviews the status of this advanced heat pipe reactor and explores the radiation environments and shielding requirements for representative manned and unmanned applications

  17. Hyperon interaction in free space and nuclear matter

    Dhar, Madhumita; Lenske, Horst [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Justus- Liebig-University Giessen (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Baryon-baryon interactions within the SU(3)-octet are investigated in free space and nuclear matter.A meson exchange model based on SU(3) symmetry is used for determining the interaction. The Bethe-Salpeter equations are solved in a 3-D reduction scheme. In-medium effect has been incorporated by including a two particle Pauli projector operator in the scattering equation. The coupling of the various channels of total strangeness S and conserved total charge is studied in detail. Special attention is paid to the physical thresholds. The density dependence of interaction is clearly seen in the variation of the in-medium low-energy parameters. The approach is compared to descriptions derived from chiral-EFT and other meson-exchange models e.g. the Nijmegen and the Juelich model.

  18. Hyperon interaction in free space and nuclear matter

    Dhar, Madhumita [Justus-Liebig University Giessen (Germany); Lenske, Horst [Justus-Liebig University Giessen (Germany); GSI, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    A new approach to the SU(3) flavour symmetric meson-exchange model is introduced to describe free space baryon-baryon interaction. The Bethe-Salpeter equations are solved in a 3-D reduction scheme. The coupling of the various channels of total strangeness S and conserved total charge Q is studied in detail. Special attention is paid to the physical thresholds. The derived vacuum interaction has then been used to derive nuclear medium effect by employing the Pauli projector operator in 3-D reduced Bethe-Salpeter equation. The in-medium properties of the interaction are clearly seen in the variation of the in-medium low-energy parameters as a function of density.

  19. Space nuclear thermal propulsion test facilities accommodation at INEL

    Hill, T.J.; Reed, W.C.; Welland, H.J.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Air Force (USAF) has proposed to develop the technology and demonstrate the feasibility of a particle bed reactor (PBR) propulsion system that could be used to power an advanced upper stage rocket engine. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is cooperating with the USAF in that it would host the test facility if the USAF decides to proceed with the technology demonstration. Two DOE locations have been proposed for testing the PBR technology, a new test facility at the Nevada Test Site, or the modification and use of an existing facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The preliminary evaluations performed at the INEL to support the PBR technology testing has been completed. Additional evaluations to scope the required changes or upgrade needed to make the proposed USAF PBR test facility meet the requirements for testing Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) nuclear thermal propulsion engines are underway

  20. Space nuclear thermal propulsion test facilities accommodation at INEL

    Hill, Thomas J.; Reed, William C.; Welland, Henry J.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Air Force (USAF) has proposed to develop the technology and demonstrate the feasibility of a particle bed reactor (PBR) propulsion system that could be used to power an advanced upper stage rocket engine. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is cooperating with the USAF in that it would host the test facility if the USAF decides to proceed with the technology demonstration. Two DOE locations have been proposed for testing the PBR technology, a new test facility at the Nevada Test Site, or the modification and use of an existing facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The preliminary evaluations performed at the INEL to support the PBR technology testing has been completed. Additional evaluations to scope the required changes or upgrade needed to make the proposed USAF PBR test facility meet the requirements for testing Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) nuclear thermal propulsion engines are underway.

  1. Multimegawatt space nuclear power open-cycle MHD-facility

    Pavshuk, V.A.; Panchenko, V.P.

    2008-01-01

    Paper presents the results of the efforts to calculate the characteristics, the layout and the engineering design of the open cycle space power propulsion on the basis of the high-temperature nuclear reactor for a nuclear rocket engine and the Faraday 20 MW capacity MHD-generator. The IVG-1 heterogeneous channel-vessel reactor ensuring in the course of the experiments hydrogen heating up to 3100 K, up to 5 MPa pressure at the reactor core outlet, up to 5 kg/s flowsheet, up to 220 MW thermal power served as a reactor is considered. One determined the MHD-generator basic parameters, namely: the portion of Cs dope was equal to 20%, the outlet stagnation pressure - 2 MPa, the electric conductivity - ≅30 S/m, the Mach number - ≅0.7, the magnetic field induction - 6 T, the capacity - 20 MW, the specific power removal - ∼4 MJ/kg. Paper describes the design of the MHD-facility with the working fluid momentless discharge and its basic characteristics [ru

  2. Space nuclear power requirements for ozone layer modification

    Dolan, T.J.

    1991-01-01

    This work estimates the power requirements for using photochemical processes driven by space nuclear power to counteract the Earth's ozone layer depletion. The total quantity of ozone (O 3 ) in the Earth's atmosphere is estimated to be about 4.7 x 10 37 molecules. The ozone production and destruction rates in the stratosphere are both on the order of 4.9 x 10 31 molecules/s, differing by a small fraction so that the net depletion rate is about 0.16 to 0.26% per year. The delivered optical power requirement for offsetting this depletion is estimated to be on the order of 3 GW. If the power were produced by satellite reactors at 800 km altitude (orbit decay time ∼ 300 years), some means of efficient power beaming would be needed to deliver the power to stratospheric levels (10--50 km). Ultraviolet radiation at 140--150 nm could have higher absorption rates in O 2 (leading to production of atomic oxygen, which can combine with O 2 to form O 3 ) than in ozone (leading to photodissociation of O 3 ). Potential radiation sources include H 2 lasers and direct nuclear pumping of ultraviolet fluorescers. 5 refs

  3. High-temperature turbopump assembly for space nuclear thermal propulsion

    Overholt, David M.

    1993-01-01

    The development of a practical, high-performance nuclear rocket by the U.S. Air Force Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) program places high priority on maximizing specific impulse (ISP) and thrust-to-weight ratio. The operating parameters arising from these goals drive the propellant-pump design. The liquid hydrogen propellant is pressurized and pumped to the reactor inlet by the turbopump assembly (TPA). Rocket propulsion is effected by rapid heating of the propellant from 100 K to thousands of degrees in the particle-bed reactor (PBR). The exhausted propellant is then expanded through a high-temperature nozzle. One approach to achieve high performance is to use an uncooled carbon-carbon nozzle and duct turbine inlet. The high-temperature capability is obtained by using carbon-carbon throughout the TPA hot section. Carbon-carbon components in development include structural parts, turbine nozzles/stators, and turbine rotors. The technology spinoff is applicable to conventional liquid propulsion engines plus a wide variety of other turbomachinery applications.

  4. Carbon-carbon turbopump concept for Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    Overholt, David M.

    1993-06-01

    The U.S. Air Force Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) program is placing high priority on maximizing specific impulse (ISP) and thrust-to-weight ratio in the development of a practical high-performance nuclear rocket. The turbopump design is driven by these goals. The liquid hydrogen propellant is pressurized and pumped to the reactor inlet by the turbopump assembly (TPA). Rocket propulsion is from rapid heating of the propellant from 180 R to thousands of degrees in the particle bed reactor (PBR). The exhausted propellant is then expanded through a high-temperature nozzle. A high-performance approach is to use an uncooled carbon-carbon nozzle and duct turbine inlet. Carbon-carbon components are used throughout the TPA hot section to obtain the high-temperature capability. Several carbon-carbon components are in development including structural parts, turbine nozzles/stators, and turbine rotors. The technology spinoff is applicable to conventional liquid propulsion engines and many other turbomachinery applications.

  5. High-temperature turbopump assembly for space nuclear thermal propulsion

    Overholt, D.M.

    1993-01-01

    The development of a practical, high-performance nuclear rocket by the U.S. Air Force Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) program places high priority on maximizing specific impulse (ISP) and thrust-to-weight ratio. The operating parameters arising from these goals drive the propellant-pump design. The liquid hydrogen propellant is pressurized and pumped to the reactor inlet by the turbopump assembly (TPA). Rocket propulsion is effected by rapid heating of the propellant from 100 K to thousands of degrees in the particle-bed reactor (PBR). The exhausted propellant is then expanded through a high-temperature nozzle. One approach to achieve high performance is to use an uncooled carbon-carbon nozzle and duct turbine inlet. The high-temperature capability is obtained by using carbon-carbon throughout the TPA hot section. Carbon-carbon components in development include structural parts, turbine nozzles/stators, and turbine rotors. The technology spinoff is applicable to conventional liquid propulsion engines plus a wide variety of other turbomachinery applications

  6. Carbon-carbon turbopump concept for Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    Overholt, D.M.

    1993-06-01

    The U.S. Air Force Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) program is placing high priority on maximizing specific impulse (ISP) and thrust-to-weight ratio in the development of a practical high-performance nuclear rocket. The turbopump design is driven by these goals. The liquid hydrogen propellant is pressurized and pumped to the reactor inlet by the turbopump assembly (TPA). Rocket propulsion is from rapid heating of the propellant from 180 R to thousands of degrees in the particle bed reactor (PBR). The exhausted propellant is then expanded through a high-temperature nozzle. A high-performance approach is to use an uncooled carbon-carbon nozzle and duct turbine inlet. Carbon-carbon components are used throughout the TPA hot section to obtain the high-temperature capability. Several carbon-carbon components are in development including structural parts, turbine nozzles/stators, and turbine rotors. The technology spinoff is applicable to conventional liquid propulsion engines and many other turbomachinery applications. 3 refs

  7. Session 2: Machine studies

    Assmann, R.W.; Papotti, G.

    2012-01-01

    This document summarizes the talks and discussion that took place in the second session of the Chamonix 2012 workshop concerning results from machine studies performed in 2011. The session consisted of the following presentations: -) LHC experience with different bunch spacings by G. Rumolo; -) Observations of beam-beam effects in MDs in 2011 by W. Herr; -) Beam-induced heating/ bunch length/RF and lessons for 2012 by E. Metral; -) Lessons in beam diagnostics by R. Jones; -) Quench margins by M. Sapinski; and -) First demonstration with beam of the Achromatic Telescopic Squeeze (ATS) by S. Fartoukh. (authors)

  8. Spacing grid intended for nuclear reactor fuel assemblies

    Patterson, J.F.; Flora, B.S.

    1977-01-01

    This invention concerns a new improved type of spacing grid that can be used in nuclear reactor fuel assemblies. Under the invention a spacing grid is provided, preferably of the bimetallic type. This grid includes a set of flexible inconel strips positioned by structural 'zircalloy' fittings, having relatively low neutron absorption characteristics in comparison with systems where the flexible strips are welded in position, or where the spring forms an integral part of the structure. The openings for the fuel elements which are defined by the structural fittings intercrossing are fitted internally with bosses which work in conjunction with a spring directed downwards as from the flexible strip so as to position the individual fuel rods in their respective openings inside the grid structure. These flexible strips are arranged in rows extending in directions which depend on the particular design of the fuel asembly and which contain flexible components so distributed that the loads of the individual springs tend to equalize each other mutually. The reaction load exerting itself on the supporting structure is reduced to the minimum, and this results in a lesser distortion in the reactor and an equalisation of the spring loads [fr

  9. Progress in space nuclear reactor power systems technology development - The SP-100 program

    Davis, H. S.

    1984-01-01

    Activities related to the development of high-temperature compact nuclear reactors for space applications had reached a comparatively high level in the U.S. during the mid-1950s and 1960s, although only one U.S. nuclear reactor-powered spacecraft was actually launched. After 1973, very little effort was devoted to space nuclear reactor and propulsion systems. In February 1983, significant activities toward the development of the technology for space nuclear reactor power systems were resumed with the SP-100 Program. Specific SP-100 Program objectives are partly related to the determination of the potential performance limits for space nuclear power systems in 100-kWe and 1- to 100-MW electrical classes. Attention is given to potential missions and applications, regimes of possible space power applicability, safety considerations, conceptual system designs, the establishment of technical feasibility, nuclear technology, materials technology, and prospects for the future.

  10. Session Introduction

    Eliane Lessner, Co-Chair:

    2009-03-01

    A panel discussion session providing a worldwide assessment of the status and experiences of women in physics, paying attention to the different cultures and environments they work in and to how the age of the physicist affects their perspective. We will hear about women physicists in Korea in particular and Asia in general, in Egypt in particular and Africa in general, and in the Caribbean. Six invited speakers will present analyses of the progress being made in promoting women in physics from their personal experiences and as assessed from their participation in the Third International Conference on Women In Physics (ICWIP2008) convened in Seoul, Korea in October 2008. From Albania to Zimbabwe, with representation of all the continents, ICWIP2008 congregated 283 women and men physicists from 57 countries to share the participants' scientific accomplishments and evaluate international progress in improving the status of women in physics. This three-hour session is organized jointly by the Committee on the Status of Women in Physics of the APS (CSWP) and the Forum on International Physics of the APS (FIP). Audience participation in the panel discussion will be strongly encouraged.

  11. Session 1984-85. Radioactive waste. Minutes of evidence, Monday 17 June 1985. Nuclear Industry Radioactive Waste Executive

    1985-01-01

    The Environment Select Committee of the House of Commons received a memorandum from the Nuclear Industry Radioactive Waste Executive, on the management and disposal of radioactive waste arising in the UK, under the headings: introduction; the structure of NIREX; the nature of radioactive waste; plans for the disposal of low and intermediate level wastes. Representatives of NIREX were examined on the subject of the memorandum and the minutes of evidence are recorded. (U.K.)

  12. ICALEPS 2005 : opening session

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    ICALEPCS 2005, the tenth International Conference on Accelerator and Large Experimental Physics Control Systems, will be held in Geneva, Switzerland, 10-14 Oct. 2005 at the International Conference Center Geneva (CICG). ICALEPCS 2005 thus falls in the year that UNESCO has declared the "World Year of Physics". ICALEPCS covers all aspects of control and operation of Experimental Physics facilities such as particle accelerators, particle detectors, optical telescopes, radio telescopes, nuclear fusion facilities like Tokamaks, nuclear reactors, lasers, etc .... Opening session by . A. Daneels (CERN): Introducting ICALEPCS 2005 . C.Lamprecht (Republic & State of Geneva): Welcome speech . J. Lister (EPFL): Welcome speech . J. Engelen (CERN): The machine and experiment challenges of LHC

  13. Proceedings of the Topical Session on Applying Decommissioning Experience to the Design and Operation of New Nuclear Power Plants. Topical Session of the 9. Meeting of the WPDD Held in Senec, Slovak Republic 12-13 November 2008

    Noviello, Luigi; O'Sullivan, Patrick; Laurent, Gerard; Tuomisto, Harri; Metcalfe, Doug; Duncan, Allan

    2009-01-01

    At its ninth meeting, the WPDD held a topical session on Applying Decommissioning Experience to the Design and Operation of New Plants. In preparation for this, a survey was issued to reactor design organisations, electricity producers and safety authorities and responses were compiled into a summary report that provided a basis for discussion at the topical session. This report is in two parts: Part A documents the topical session, summarising the main points from the presentations and discussions and including the rapporteurs' reports. Part B provides a summary compilation of the responses received to the survey undertaken prior to the topical session. The topical session facilitated an exchange of information and experience between policy makers, regulators, electricity producers, design organisations and decommissioners on approaches and experiences to taking account of decommissioning considerations in the design of third generation reactor systems

  14. Non-nuclear power sources for deep space

    Kennel, E.B.; Tang, C.; Santarius, J.F.

    1998-07-01

    Electric propulsion and non-nuclear power can be used in tandem as a replacement for the current chemical booster and radioisotope thermoelectric generators now in use for deep space applications (i.e., to the asteroid belt and beyond). In current generation systems, electric propulsion is usually considered to be impractical because of the lack of high power for deep space, and non-nuclear power is thought to be impractical partly due to its high mass. However, when taken in combination, a solar powered electric upper stage can provide ample power and propulsion capability for use in deep space. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) systems have generally been selected for missions only when other systems are absolutely unavailable. The disadvantages of radioisotopes include the need for nuclear safety as another dimension of concern in payload integration; the lack of assured availability of plutonium in the post-cold-war world; the enormous cost of plutonium-238; and the system complexity introduced by the need to continuously cool the system during the pre-launch phase. A conservative estimate for the total power for the solar array at beginning of life (BOL) may be in the range of 25 kW in order to provide 500 W continuous power at Jupiter. The availability of {approximately} 25 kW(e) in earth orbit raises the interesting possibility of coupling electric propulsion units to this free electric power. If electric propulsion is used to raise the probe from low-earth-orbit to an earth-escape trajectory, the system could actually save on low-earth orbit mass. Electric propulsion could be used by itself in a spiral trajectory orbit raising maneuver to earth escape velocity, or it could be used in conjunction with a chemical upper stage (either solid rocket or liquid), which would boost the payload to an elliptical orbit. The concept is to begin the Earth-Jupiter trip with a swing-by near the Sun close to the orbit of Venus and perhaps even closer if thermal

  15. Engineering thermal engine rocket adventurer for space nuclear application

    Nam, Seung H.; Suh, Kune Y.; Kang, Seong G.

    2008-01-01

    The conceptual design for the first-of-a-kind engineering of Thermal Engine Rocket Adventure (TERA) is described. TERA comprising the Battery Omnibus Reactor Integral System (BORIS) as the heat resource and the Space Propulsion Reactor Integral System (SPRIS) as the propulsion system, is one of the advanced Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) engine utilizing hydrogen (H 2 ) propellant being developed at present time. BORIS in this application is an open cycle high temperature gas cooled reactor that has eighteen fuel elements for propulsion and one fuel element for electricity generation and propellant pumping. Each fuel element for propulsion has its own small nozzle. The nineteen fuel elements are arranged into hexagonal prism shape in the core and surrounded by outer Be reflector. The TERA maximum power is 1,000 MW th , specific impulse 1,000 s, thrust 250,000 N, and the total mass is 550 kg including the reactor, turbo pump and auxiliaries. Each fuel element comprises the fuel assembly, moderators, pressure tube and small nozzle. The TERA fuel assembly is fabricated of 93% enriched 1.5 mm (U, Zr, Nb)C wafers in 25.3% voided Square Lattice Honeycomb (SLHC). The H 2 propellant passes through these flow channels. This study is concerned with thermohydrodynamic analysis of the fuel element for propulsion with hypothetical axial power distribution because nuclear analysis of TERA has not been performed yet. As a result, when the power distribution of INSPI's M-SLHC is applied to the fuel assembly, the local heat concentration of fuel is more serious and the pressure of the initial inlet H 2 is higher than those of constant average power distribution applied. This means the fuel assembly geometry of 1.5 mm fuel wafers and 25.3% voided SLHC needs to be changed in order to reduce thermal and mechanical shocks. (author)

  16. Summary of space nuclear reactor power systems, 1983--1992

    Buden, D.

    1993-08-11

    This report summarizes major developments in the last ten years which have greatly expanded the space nuclear reactor power systems technology base. In the SP-100 program, after a competition between liquid-metal, gas-cooled, thermionic, and heat pipe reactors integrated with various combinations of thermoelectric thermionic, Brayton, Rankine, and Stirling energy conversion systems, three concepts:were selected for further evaluation. In 1985, the high-temperature (1,350 K), lithium-cooled reactor with thermoelectric conversion was selected for full scale development. Since then, significant progress has been achieved including the demonstration of a 7-y-life uranium nitride fuel pin. Progress on the lithium-cooled reactor with thermoelectrics has progressed from a concept, through a generic flight system design, to the design, development, and testing of specific components. Meanwhile, the USSR in 1987--88 orbited a new generation of nuclear power systems beyond the, thermoelectric plants on the RORSAT satellites. The US has continued to advance its own thermionic fuel element development, concentrating on a multicell fuel element configuration. Experimental work has demonstrated a single cell operating time of about 1 1/2-y. Technology advances have also been made in the Stirling engine; an advanced engine that operates at 1,050 K is ready for testing. Additional concepts have been studied and experiments have been performed on a variety of systems to meet changing needs; such as powers of tens-to-hundreds of megawatts and highly survivable systems of tens-of-kilowatts power.

  17. Summary of space nuclear reactor power systems, 1983--1992

    Buden, D.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes major developments in the last ten years which have greatly expanded the space nuclear reactor power systems technology base. In the SP-100 program, after a competition between liquid-metal, gas-cooled, thermionic, and heat pipe reactors integrated with various combinations of thermoelectric thermionic, Brayton, Rankine, and Stirling energy conversion systems, three concepts:were selected for further evaluation. In 1985, the high-temperature (1,350 K), lithium-cooled reactor with thermoelectric conversion was selected for full scale development. Since then, significant progress has been achieved including the demonstration of a 7-y-life uranium nitride fuel pin. Progress on the lithium-cooled reactor with thermoelectrics has progressed from a concept, through a generic flight system design, to the design, development, and testing of specific components. Meanwhile, the USSR in 1987--88 orbited a new generation of nuclear power systems beyond the, thermoelectric plants on the RORSAT satellites. The US has continued to advance its own thermionic fuel element development, concentrating on a multicell fuel element configuration. Experimental work has demonstrated a single cell operating time of about 1 1/2-y. Technology advances have also been made in the Stirling engine; an advanced engine that operates at 1,050 K is ready for testing. Additional concepts have been studied and experiments have been performed on a variety of systems to meet changing needs; such as powers of tens-to-hundreds of megawatts and highly survivable systems of tens-of-kilowatts power

  18. Nuclear Regulatory Commission authorizations for Fiscal Years 1984 and 1985. House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, First Session

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    H.R. 2510, as amended, authorizes $466.8 million to cover Nuclear Regulatory Commission salaries and expenses for fiscal year 1984 and $460 million for the following year in a two-year authorization. The bill substitutes certain expenditures for those recommended in the NRC request, while keeping the funding level the same. The committee report reviews and summarizes the two-year budget appropriation and the hearings before giving a section-by-section analysis. It notes that 46% is earmarked for waste management, and emphasizes the safety factors which have caused delays in construction and modifications in existing plants. 13 tables

  19. Nuclear reactor power as applied to a space-based radar mission

    Jaffe, L.; Beatty, R.; Bhandari, P.; Chow, E.; Deininger, W.; Ewell, R.; Fujita, T.; Grossman, M.; Bloomfield, H.; Heller, J.

    1988-01-01

    A space-based radar mission and spacecraft are examined to determine system requirements for a 300 kWe space nuclear reactor power system. The spacecraft configuration and its orbit, launch vehicle, and propulsion are described. Mission profiles are addressed, and storage in assembly orbit is considered. Dynamics and attitude control and the problems of nuclear and thermal radiation are examined.

  20. Space nuclear reactor system diagnosis: Knowledge-based approach

    Ting, Y.T.D.

    1990-01-01

    SP-100 space nuclear reactor system development is a joint effort by the Department of Energy, the Department of Defense and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The system is designed to operate in isolation for many years, and is possibly subject to little or no remote maintenance. This dissertation proposes a knowledge based diagnostic system which, in principle, can diagnose the faults which can either cause reactor shutdown or lead to another serious problem. This framework in general can be applied to the fully specified system if detailed design information becomes available. The set of faults considered herein is identified based on heuristic knowledge about the system operation. The suitable approach to diagnostic problem solving is proposed after investigating the most prevalent methodologies in Artificial Intelligence as well as the causal analysis of the system. Deep causal knowledge modeling based on digraph, fault-tree or logic flowgraph methodology would present a need for some knowledge representation to handle the time dependent system behavior. A proposed qualitative temporal knowledge modeling methodology, using rules with specified time delay among the process variables, has been proposed and is used to develop the diagnostic sufficient rule set. The rule set has been modified by using a time zone approach to have a robust system design. The sufficient rule set is transformed to a sufficient and necessary one by searching the whole knowledge base. Qualitative data analysis is proposed in analyzing the measured data if in a real time situation. An expert system shell - Intelligence Compiler is used to develop the prototype system. Frames are used for the process variables. Forward chaining rules are used in monitoring and backward chaining rules are used in diagnosis

  1. Analysis of space systems study for the space disposal of nuclear waste study report. Volume 2: Technical report

    1981-01-01

    Reasonable space systems concepts were systematically identified and defined and a total system was evaluated for the space disposal of nuclear wastes. Areas studied include space destinations, space transportation options, launch site options payload protection approaches, and payload rescue techniques. Systems level cost and performance trades defined four alternative space systems which deliver payloads to the selected 0.85 AU heliocentric orbit destination at least as economically as the reference system without requiring removal of the protective radiation shield container. No concepts significantly less costly than the reference concept were identified.

  2. Annual meeting on nuclear technology '92. Technical session 'Nuclear energy discussion'. Proceedings. Jahrestagung Kerntechnik '92. Fachsitzung 'Kernenergie-Diskussion'. Berichtsheft

    1992-05-01

    The report contains the six special papers red at the 1992 annual conference on nuclear engineering at Karlsruhe, all of which are individually retrievable from the database. They deal with the following subjects: historical development of the basic trends of technology criticism; communication problems in connection with the conveying of technical facts; psycho-sociological patterns of technology anxiety-mental infection or risk consciousness; field of tension between technology and journalism; handling of insecurities; ethical justifiability of nuclear energy use. (HSCH).

  3. Space nuclear reactor shields for manned and unmanned applications

    McKissock, B.I.; Bloomfield, H.S.

    1990-01-01

    Missions which use nuclear reactor power systems require radiation shielding of payload and/or crew areas to predetermined dose rates. Since shielding can become a significant fraction of the total mass of the system, it is of interest to show the effect of various parameters on shield thickness and mass for manned and unmanned applications. Algorithms were developed to give the thicknesses needed if reactor thermal power, separation distances and dose rates are given as input. The thickness algorithms were combined with models for four different shield geometries to allow tradeoff studies of shield volume and mass for a variety of manned and unmanned missions. The shield design tradeoffs presented in this study include the effects of: higher allowable dose rates; radiation hardened electronics; shorter crew exposure times; shield geometry; distance of the payload and/or crew from the reactor; and changes in the size of the shielded area. Specific NASA missions that were considered in this study include unmanned outer planetary exploration, manned advanced/evolutionary space station and advanced manned lunar base. (author)

  4. Space nuclear reactor shields for manned and unmanned applications

    Mckissock, B.I.; Bloomfield, H.S.

    1989-01-01

    Missions which use nuclear reactor power systems require radiation shielding of payload and/or crew areas to predetermined dose rates. Since shielding can become a significant fraction of the total mass of the system, it is of interest to show the effect of various parameters on shield thickness and mass for manned and unmanned applications. Algorithms were developed to give the thicknesses needed if reactor thermal power, separation distances, and dose rates are given as input. The thickness algorithms were combined with models for four different shield geometries to allow tradeoff studies of shield volume and mass for a variety of manned and unmanned missions. Shield design tradeoffs presented in this study include the effects of: higher allowable dose rates; radiation hardened electronics; shorter crew exposure times; shield geometry; distance of the payload and/or crew from the reactor; and changes in the size of the shielded area. Specific NASA missions that were considered in this study include unmanned outer planetary exploration, manned advanced/evolutionary space station, and advanced manned lunar base

  5. Radionuclide inventories for short run-time space nuclear reactor systems

    Coats, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    Space Nuclear Reactor Systems, especially those used for propulsion, often have expected operation run times much shorter than those for land-based nuclear power plants. This produces substantially different radionuclide inventories to be considered in the safety analyses of space nuclear systems. This presentation describes an analysis utilizing ORIGEN2 and DKPOWER to provide comparisons among representative land-based and space systems. These comparisons enable early, conceptual considerations of safety issues and features in the preliminary design phases of operational systems, test facilities, and operations by identifying differences between the requirements for space systems and the established practice for land-based power systems. Early indications are that separation distance is much more effective as a safety measure for space nuclear systems than for power reactors because greater decay of the radionuclide activity occurs during the time to transport the inventory a given distance. In addition, the inventories of long-lived actinides are very low for space reactor systems

  6. The American College of nuclear physicians 18th annual meeting and scientific sessions DOE day: Substance abuse and nuclear medicine abstracts

    1992-02-01

    Despite the enormous personal and social cost Of substance abuse, there is very little knowledge with respect to the mechanisms by which these drugs produce addiction as well as to the mechanisms of toxicity. Similarly, there is a lack of effective therapeutic intervention to treat the drug abusers. In this respect, nuclear medicine could contribute significantly by helping to gather information using brain imaging techniques about mechanisms of drug addiction which, in turn, could help design better therapeutic interventions, and by helping in the evaluation and diagnosis of organ toxicity from the use of drugs of abuse. This volume contains six short descriptions of presentations made at the 18th Meeting of the American College of Nuclear Physicians -- DOE Day: Substance Abuse and Nuclear Medicine.

  7. The American College of nuclear physicians 18th annual meeting and scientific sessions DOE day: Substance abuse and nuclear medicine abstracts

    1992-02-01

    Despite the enormous personal and social cost Of substance abuse, there is very little knowledge with respect to the mechanisms by which these drugs produce addiction as well as to the mechanisms of toxicity. Similarly, there is a lack of effective therapeutic intervention to treat the drug abusers. In this respect, nuclear medicine could contribute significantly by helping to gather information using brain imaging techniques about mechanisms of drug addiction which, in turn, could help design better therapeutic interventions, and by helping in the evaluation and diagnosis of organ toxicity from the use of drugs of abuse. This volume contains six short descriptions of presentations made at the 18th Meeting of the American College of Nuclear Physicians -- DOE Day: Substance Abuse and Nuclear Medicine

  8. Near-Earth space hazards and their detection (Scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 27 March 2013)

    2013-08-01

    A scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), titled "Near-Earth space hazards and their detection", was held on 27 March 2013 at the conference hall of the Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS. The agenda posted on the website of the Physical Sciences Division, RAS, http://www.gpad.ac.ru, included the following reports: (1) Emel'yanenko V V, Shustov B M (Institute of Astronomy, RAS, Moscow) "The Chelyabinsk event and the asteroid-comet hazard"; (2) Chugai N N (Institute of Astronomy, RAS, Moscow) "A physical model of the Chelyabinsk event"; (3) Lipunov V M (Lomonosov Moscow State University, Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Moscow) "MASTER global network of optical monitoring"; (4) Beskin G M (Special Astrophysical Observatory, RAS, Arkhyz, Karachai-Cirkassian Republic) "Wide-field optical monitoring systems with subsecond time resolution for the detection and study of cosmic threats". The expanded papers written on the base of oral reports 1 and 4 are given below. • The Chelyabinsk event and the asteroid-comet hazard, V V Emel'yanenko, B M Shustov Physics-Uspekhi, 2013, Volume 56, Number 8, Pages 833-836 • Wide-field subsecond temporal resolution optical monitoring systems for the detection and study of cosmic hazards, G M Beskin, S V Karpov, V L Plokhotnichenko, S F Bondar, A V Perkov, E A Ivanov, E V Katkova, V V Sasyuk, A Shearer Physics-Uspekhi, 2013, Volume 56, Number 8, Pages 836-842

  9. Prevention of the use of legal trafficking for nuclear material and radioactive sources smuggling. Keynote address/session 9

    Kravchenko, N.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Countries like Russia, which have a large nuclear industry, export a significant number of radioactive sources and substances. Some of them are nuclear material. In general, it is the task of the customs inspectors to verify that the content of the shipment is in agreement with the declaration (as safeguards inspectors verify operators declarations). In case of other goods, this is easy. The consignment can be opened and the content can be seen and compared with the declaration. In the case of radioactive shipments this cannot be done. The radioactive substance is in a shielded container and opening is often only possible in a hot cell. Opening of the package and measurement of the removed source in presence of the customs inspector is impossible because the customs control begins only after the declaration has been registered. Therefore, the Russian customs authorities have contracted a company to develop a gamma spectrometer, which can be used to verify the source, even if inside the shielded shipping container. Throughout the country - where many shipments or receivables take place - there are 18 customs offices, equipped with gamma spectrometers and special software. If a container arrives for customs inspection, its design is called from a database. Then the gamma spectrum outside the container is measured and the measured gamma peak energy and intensity is compared with the expected, which is calculated by software based on the design information of the container. This approach works well. Several cases were already discovered in Russia, where there were attempts to use legal shipments for smuggling radioactive sources. I would like to mention some technical problems concerning control of legal export and import of radioactive sources: a) There are not enough commercial suppliers which offer the needed equipment; because of lack of competition prices for the equipment are too high. b) Presently available equipment is mainly based on HPGE cooled

  10. Deep boreholes. An alternative for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel? Report from KASAM's question-and-answer session on 14-15 March 2007

    2009-03-01

    On 14-15 March 2007, KASAM held a hearing for the purpose of thoroughly examining deep boreholes as a method for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Some of the questions that were raised were: What are the technical, geological and hydrological premises and possibilities? What are the risks from different viewpoints and what values underlie different views of the potential and suitability of deep boreholes? This report is a summary of the seminar. KASAM has made a selection of contributions and questions from the debate that took place on the basis of their relevance to the purpose of the seminar. The report generally follows the chronological lecture-and debate format of the seminar, but has been edited according to different issues rather than according to when different persons spoke. Chapter 2 describes a number of premises and criteria in the Environmental Code's and the Nuclear Activities Act's requirements on alternatives reporting. The chapter also contains a description of what the deep borehole concept entails and a discussion of the geoscientific premises. In addition, the chapter describes how different values can influence the choice of final disposal method. Chapters 3-6 describe and discuss technology and long-term safety, the viewpoints of the supervisory authorities on deep boreholes and safety philosophy via lectures followed by questions by KASAM's questioners and the audience. On the evening of 14 March, representatives of the seven parliamentary parties discussed their preparations and standpoints for an upcoming national debate on the final disposal of nuclear waste. This discussion is also reproduced in the report as Chapter 7. The main points from a concluding panel debate and discussion are presented in Chapter 8. In conclusion, Chapter 9 contains some reflections on various arguments proffered during the question-and-answer session, questions on which agreement seems to exist, and where there are differences of opinion. Speakers

  11. Proposed principles on the use of nuclear power sources in space

    Bennett, G.L.

    1988-01-01

    Since the 1978 reentry of the Soviet satellite Cosmos 954, the United Nations has been discussing the use of nuclear power sources in outer space. Most of these deliberations have taken place in the U.N. Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, its two subcommittees (Scientific and Technical Subcommittee and Legal Subcommittee) and their associated working groups. This paper focuses on the technical agreements reached by the Working Group on the Use of Nuclear Power Sources in Outer Space (WGNPS), the legal principles agreed to by the Legal Subcommittee, and relevant treaties on the use of outer space and the use of nuclear power. To date the conclusion reached by the WGNPS in its 1981 report represents a succinct statement of U.N. consensus and of the U.S. position: The Working Group reaffirmed its previous conclusion that nuclear power sources can be used safely in outer space, provided that all necessary safety precautions are met

  12. TH-E-9A-01: Medical Physics 1.0 to 2.0, Session 4: Computed Tomography, Ultrasound and Nuclear Medicine

    Samei, E; Nelson, J [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Hangiandreou, N [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Medical Physics 2.0 is a bold vision for an existential transition of clinical imaging physics in face of the new realities of value-based and evidencebased medicine, comparative effectiveness, and meaningful use. It speaks to how clinical imaging physics can expand beyond traditional insular models of inspection and acceptance testing, oriented toward compliance, towards team-based models of operational engagement, prospective definition and assurance of effective use, and retrospective evaluation of clinical performance. Organized into four sessions of the AAPM, this particular session focuses on three specific modalities as outlined below. CT 2.0: CT has been undergoing a dramatic transition in the last few decades. While the changes in the technology merits discussions of their own, an important question is how clinical medical physicists are expected to effectively engage with the new realities of CT technology and practice. Consistent with the upcoming paradigm of Medical Physics 2.0, this CT presentation aims to provide definitions and demonstration of the components of the new clinical medical physics practice pertaining CT. The topics covered include physics metrics and analytics that aim to provide higher order clinicallyrelevant quantification of system performance as pertains to new (and not so new) technologies. That will include the new radiation and dose metrics (SSDE, organ dose, risk indices), image quality metrology (MTF/NPS/d’), task-based phantoms, and the effect of patient size. That will follow with a discussion of the testing implication of new CT hardware (detectors, tubes), acquisition methods (innovative helical geometries, AEC, wide beam CT, dual energy, inverse geometry, application specialties), and image processing and analysis (iterative reconstructions, quantitative CT, advanced renditions). The presentation will conclude with a discussion of clinical and operational aspects of Medical Physics 2.0 including training and

  13. TH-E-9A-01: Medical Physics 1.0 to 2.0, Session 4: Computed Tomography, Ultrasound and Nuclear Medicine

    Samei, E; Nelson, J; Hangiandreou, N

    2014-01-01

    Medical Physics 2.0 is a bold vision for an existential transition of clinical imaging physics in face of the new realities of value-based and evidencebased medicine, comparative effectiveness, and meaningful use. It speaks to how clinical imaging physics can expand beyond traditional insular models of inspection and acceptance testing, oriented toward compliance, towards team-based models of operational engagement, prospective definition and assurance of effective use, and retrospective evaluation of clinical performance. Organized into four sessions of the AAPM, this particular session focuses on three specific modalities as outlined below. CT 2.0: CT has been undergoing a dramatic transition in the last few decades. While the changes in the technology merits discussions of their own, an important question is how clinical medical physicists are expected to effectively engage with the new realities of CT technology and practice. Consistent with the upcoming paradigm of Medical Physics 2.0, this CT presentation aims to provide definitions and demonstration of the components of the new clinical medical physics practice pertaining CT. The topics covered include physics metrics and analytics that aim to provide higher order clinicallyrelevant quantification of system performance as pertains to new (and not so new) technologies. That will include the new radiation and dose metrics (SSDE, organ dose, risk indices), image quality metrology (MTF/NPS/d’), task-based phantoms, and the effect of patient size. That will follow with a discussion of the testing implication of new CT hardware (detectors, tubes), acquisition methods (innovative helical geometries, AEC, wide beam CT, dual energy, inverse geometry, application specialties), and image processing and analysis (iterative reconstructions, quantitative CT, advanced renditions). The presentation will conclude with a discussion of clinical and operational aspects of Medical Physics 2.0 including training and

  14. Space Nuclear Power Public and Stakeholder Risk Communication

    Dawson, Sandra M.; Sklar, Maria

    2005-01-01

    The 1986 Challenger accident coupled with the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident increased public concern about the safety of spacecraft using nuclear technology. While three nuclear powered spacecraft had been launched before 1986 with little public interest, future nuclear powered missions would see significantly more public concern and require NASA to increase its efforts to communicate mission risks to the public. In 1987 a separate risk communication area within the Launch Approval Planning Group of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory was created to address public concern about the health, environmental, and safety risks of NASA missions. The lessons learned from the risk communication strategies developed for the nuclear powered Galileo, Ulysses, and Cassini missions are reviewed in this paper and recommendations are given as to how these lessons can be applied to future NASA missions that may use nuclear power systems and other potentially controversial NASA missions.

  15. Absolute nuclear material assay using count distribution (LAMBDA) space

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2012-06-05

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  16. Nuclear systems in space? Does/will the public accept them?

    Finger, Harold B.

    1993-01-01

    Public attitudes toward the use of nuclear energy on earth and in space are discussed. Survey data are presented which show that the public believes nuclear energy should play an important role in our energy supply. However, based on broad attitude research, there should be no expectation that the public will accept or support the use of nuclear energy unless it meets special needs and offers special and significant benefits. It is proposed that a public information program be adopted that results in getting recognition and support for the space program broadly and for the missions that benefit substantially from or require nuclear energy for their accomplishment.

  17. Space-Based Counterforce in the Second Nuclear Age

    2015-04-01

    but also open wide the gates of the solar system to large-scale human exploration and development. Instead of offering only a dark age of...by the Scaled Composites SpaceShipOne vehicle that won the Ansari X-PRIZE in 2004 or Virgin Galactic’s space tourism vehicle SpaceShipTwo. It was

  18. Western Region American Nuclear Society regional student conference, April 12-14, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Abstracts of papers presented at the conference are contained in this proceedings. Topics of technical sessions included fusion and space reactors, numerical and computer modeling, nuclear medicine and radiation effects, and general nuclear technology

  19. Western Region American Nuclear Society regional student conference, April 12-14, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Abstracts of papers presented at the conference are contained in this proceedings. Topics of technical sessions included fusion and space reactors, numerical and computer modeling, nuclear medicine and radiation effects, and general nuclear technology. (GHT)

  20. Near-Earth space hazards and their detection (Scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 27 March 2013)

    2013-01-01

    A scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), titled N ear-Earth space hazards and their detection , was held on 27 March 2013 at the conference hall of the Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS. The agenda posted on the website of the Physical Sciences Division, RAS, http://www.gpad.ac.ru, included the following reports: (1) Emel'yanenko V V, Shustov B M (Institute of Astronomy, RAS, Moscow) T he Chelyabinsk event and the asteroid-comet hazard ; (2) Chugai N N (Institute of Astronomy, RAS, Moscow) A physical model of the Chelyabinsk event ; (3) Lipunov V M (Lomonosov Moscow State University, Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Moscow) M ASTER global network of optical monitoring ; (4) Beskin G M (Special Astrophysical Observatory, RAS, Arkhyz, Karachai-Cirkassian Republic) W ide-field optical monitoring systems with subsecond time resolution for the detection and study of cosmic threats . The expanded papers written on the base of oral reports 1 and 4 are given below. • The Chelyabinsk event and the asteroid-comet hazard, V V Emel'yanenko, B M Shustov Physics-Uspekhi, 2013, Volume 56, Number 8, Pages 833–836 • Wide-field subsecond temporal resolution optical monitoring systems for the detection and study of cosmic hazards, G M Beskin, S V Karpov, V L Plokhotnichenko, S F Bondar, A V Perkov, E A Ivanov, E V Katkova, V V Sasyuk, A Shearer Physics-Uspekhi, 2013, Volume 56, Number 8, Pages 836–842 (conferences and symposia)

  1. Case-study session 2: Nuclear facilities and local information. The way we work with public relations at the Oskarshamn nuclear power plant

    Wahlberg, Lars-Goeran

    1989-01-01

    The Oskarshamn NPP is owned by OKG Aktiebolag, the only private company in Sweden operating NPPs. The site is situated 350 kilometres south of Stockholm, in the community of Oskarshamn with 30 000 inhabitants and in the county of Kalmar with about 250 000 inhabitants. OKG now owns and operates three BWRs of ABB Atom design, with a total net production of 15 TWh/year, i.e. 1 - 12% of the total electricity generation in Sweden. OKG also operates CLAB that is owned by SKB. On the site, SKB has now decided to build a hard-rock laboratory 500 metres down in the bedrock. OKG is the nuclear pioneer of Sweden, the first reactor has been in operation since 1972. Company policy has always been maximum open communication and encouraging the employees to engage themselves into debates about energy and nuclear and into social life as a whole. OKG also sponsors several cultural and sport events in Oskarshamn. The goal is to create confidence between society and the plant. Two different areas of influence are defined: organization of the information department taking care of both external and internal information which is considered an essential part of the work

  2. Case-study session 2: Nuclear facilities and local information. The way we work with public relations at the Oskarshamn nuclear power plant

    Wahlberg, Lars-Goeran [OKG Aktiebolag, S-570 93 Figeholm (Sweden)

    1989-07-01

    The Oskarshamn NPP is owned by OKG Aktiebolag, the only private company in Sweden operating NPPs. The site is situated 350 kilometres south of Stockholm, in the community of Oskarshamn with 30 000 inhabitants and in the county of Kalmar with about 250 000 inhabitants. OKG now owns and operates three BWRs of ABB Atom design, with a total net production of 15 TWh/year, i.e. 1 - 12% of the total electricity generation in Sweden. OKG also operates CLAB that is owned by SKB. On the site, SKB has now decided to build a hard-rock laboratory 500 metres down in the bedrock. OKG is the nuclear pioneer of Sweden, the first reactor has been in operation since 1972. Company policy has always been maximum open communication and encouraging the employees to engage themselves into debates about energy and nuclear and into social life as a whole. OKG also sponsors several cultural and sport events in Oskarshamn. The goal is to create confidence between society and the plant. Two different areas of influence are defined: organization of the information department taking care of both external and internal information which is considered an essential part of the work.

  3. Proceedings of the Tenth Symposium on Space Nuclear Power and Propulsion

    El-Genk, M.S.; Hoover, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    This symposium included topics on space nuclear power. Various aspectsof design of propulsion and power systems were presented. From theProceedings, two hundred and twelve papers were abstracted for the database

  4. Ground test facility for nuclear testing of space reactor subsystems

    Quapp, W.J.; Watts, K.D.

    1985-01-01

    Two major reactor facilities at the INEL have been identified as easily adaptable for supporting the nuclear testing of the SP-100 reactor subsystem. They are the Engineering Test Reactor (ETR) and the Loss of Fluid Test Reactor (LOFT). In addition, there are machine shops, analytical laboratories, hot cells, and the supporting services (fire protection, safety, security, medical, waste management, etc.) necessary to conducting a nuclear test program. This paper presents the conceptual approach for modifying these reactor facilities for the ground engineering test facility for the SP-100 nuclear subsystem. 4 figs

  5. Space nuclear safety program. Progress report, October 1983

    Bronisz, S.E.

    1984-03-01

    This technical monthly report covers studies related to the use of 238 PuO 2 in radioisotope power systems carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory

  6. Deep boreholes. An alternative for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel? Report from KASAM's question-and-answer session on 14-15 March 2007

    2009-03-15

    On 14-15 March 2007, KASAM held a hearing for the purpose of thoroughly examining deep boreholes as a method for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Some of the questions that were raised were: What are the technical, geological and hydrological premises and possibilities? What are the risks from different viewpoints and what values underlie different views of the potential and suitability of deep boreholes? This report is a summary of the seminar. KASAM has made a selection of contributions and questions from the debate that took place on the basis of their relevance to the purpose of the seminar. The report generally follows the chronological lecture-and debate format of the seminar, but has been edited according to different issues rather than according to when different persons spoke. Chapter 2 describes a number of premises and criteria in the Environmental Code's and the Nuclear Activities Act's requirements on alternatives reporting. The chapter also contains a description of what the deep borehole concept entails and a discussion of the geoscientific premises. In addition, the chapter describes how different values can influence the choice of final disposal method. Chapters 3-6 describe and discuss technology and long-term safety, the viewpoints of the supervisory authorities on deep boreholes and safety philosophy via lectures followed by questions by KASAM's questioners and the audience. On the evening of 14 March, representatives of the seven parliamentary parties discussed their preparations and standpoints for an upcoming national debate on the final disposal of nuclear waste. This discussion is also reproduced in the report as Chapter 7. The main points from a concluding panel debate and discussion are presented in Chapter 8. In conclusion, Chapter 9 contains some reflections on various arguments proffered during the question-and-answer session, questions on which agreement seems to exist, and where there are differences of

  7. The problem of space nuclear power sources collisions with artificial space objects in near-earth orbits

    Gafarov, A.A.

    1993-01-01

    Practically all space objects with onboard nuclear power sources stay in earth satellite orbits with an orbital lifetime long enough to reduce their radioactivity to levels presenting no danger for the Earth population. One of the reasons for orbit lifetime reduction can be collisions with other space objects in near-earth orbits. The possible consequence of collisions can be partial, or even complete, destruction of the spacecraft with an onboard nuclear power source; as well as delivery of additional impulse both to the spacecraft and its fragments. It is shown that collisions in orbit do not cause increase of radiation hazard for the Earth population if there is aerodynamic breakup of nuclear power sources into fragments of safe sizes during atmospheric reentry

  8. AREVA Technical Days (ATD) session 4: operations of the front-end division of the nuclear fuel cycle; AREVA Technical Days (ATD) session 4: les activites du pole Amont

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    These technical days organized by the Areva Group aims to explain the group activities in a technological and economic point of view, to provide an outlook of worldwide energy trends and challenges and to present each of their businesses in a synthetic manner. This fourth session deals with the strategic and financial significance of the Areva mining operations, the Areva chemistry business, the Areva enrichment business and the Areva fuel business. (A.L.B.)

  9. Status of the initiative to create a nuclear-weapon-free space in Central and Eastern Europe

    Sychou, A.

    1997-01-01

    The aims of Belarus proposal for creating the nuclear-weapon-free zone in Central and Eastern Europe which has already been reflected in official documents of the 51st session of the UN General Assembly are described. This could reaffirm the intention of the European States to move towards the final goal of achieving general and complete nuclear disarmament under efficient international control

  10. Analysis of space systems for the space disposal of nuclear waste follow-on study. Volume 2: Technical report

    1982-01-01

    The space option for disposal of certain high-level nuclear wastes in space as a complement to mined geological repositories is studied. A brief overview of the study background, scope, objective, guidelines and assumptions, and contents is presented. The determination of the effects of variations in the waste mix on the space systems concept to allow determination of the space systems effect on total system risk benefits when used as a complement to the DOE reference mined geological repository is studied. The waste payload system, launch site, launch system, and orbit transfer system are all addressed. Rescue mission requirements are studied. The characteristics of waste forms suitable for space disposal are identified. Trajectories and performance requirements are discussed.

  11. NASA universities advanced space design program, focus on nuclear engineering

    Lyon, W.F. III; George, J.A.; Alred, J.W.; Peddicord, K.L.

    1987-01-01

    In January 1985, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), in affiliation with the Universities Space Research Association (USRA), inaugurated the NASA Universities Advanced Space Design Program. The purpose of the program was to encourage participating universities to utilize design projects for the senior and graduate level design courses that would focus on topics relevant to the nation's space program. The activities and projects being carried out under the NASA Universities Advanced Space Design Program are excellent experiences for the participants. This program is a well-conceived, well-planned effort to achieve the maximum benefit out of not only the university design experience but also of the subsequent summer programs. The students in the university design classes have the opportunity to investigate dramatic and new concepts, which at the same time have a place in a program of national importance. This program could serve as a very useful model for the development of university interaction with other federal agencies

  12. Scientific conference proceedings. Session 3

    Bartosek, V.

    1985-01-01

    The Radiochemical Technology session met at UJV Rez on June 7, 1985 to hear 13 papers of which 11 were incorporated in INIS. The papers inform of results attained in the field of processing liquid radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants, processing spent nuclear fuel using the fluoride process, of the separation of fission products by dicarbolide extraction, the chemistry of complex uranium compounds, etc. The cooperation of UJV with VUJE and VUCHZ is also dealt with. (E.S.)

  13. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) Development Activities at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center - 2006 Accomplishments

    Ballard, Richard O.

    2007-01-01

    In 2005-06, the Prometheus program funded a number of tasks at the NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to support development of a Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) system for future manned exploration missions. These tasks include the following: 1. NTP Design Develop Test & Evaluate (DDT&E) Planning 2. NTP Mission & Systems Analysis / Stage Concepts & Engine Requirements 3. NTP Engine System Trade Space Analysis and Studies 4. NTP Engine Ground Test Facility Assessment 5. Non-Nuclear Environmental Simulator (NTREES) 6. Non-Nuclear Materials Fabrication & Evaluation 7. Multi-Physics TCA Modeling. This presentation is a overview of these tasks and their accomplishments

  14. Assessment of Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Facility and Capability Needs

    James Werner

    2014-07-01

    The development of a Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) system rests heavily upon being able to fabricate and demonstrate the performance of a high temperature nuclear fuel as well as demonstrating an integrated system prior to launch. A number of studies have been performed in the past which identified the facilities needed and the capabilities available to meet the needs and requirements identified at that time. Since that time, many facilities and capabilities within the Department of Energy have been removed or decommissioned. This paper provides a brief overview of the anticipated facility needs and identifies some promising concepts to be considered which could support the development of a nuclear thermal propulsion system. Detailed trade studies will need to be performed to support the decision making process.

  15. Use of nuclear data for space and aeronautic designs

    Palau, M.C.; Carriere, Th.; Buard, B.; Weulersse, C.; Saigne, F.; Wrobel, F.

    2008-01-01

    Until recently, the effects of radiation environment on on-board electronics on launchers and aircraft had not been seriously taken into account. The situation has changed. And one of the most significant effects observed on on-board electronics is what we call Single Event Upset (SEU). This talk explains how the combination of electrical sensitivity of components and nuclear physics is important in the calculation of SEU rates, and emphasizes the aspects of nuclear physics useful to give the probability for a dangerous event to occur. Some circumvention methods will be rapidly identified. (authors)

  16. Use of nuclear data for space and aeronautic designs

    Palau, M.C.; Carriere, Th. [Astrium ST, 78 - Les Mureaux (France); Buard, B.; Weulersse, C. [EADS IN, 92 - Suresnes (France); Saigne, F. [CEM2, 34 - Montpellier (France); Wrobel, F. [Nice Univ., LPES (France)

    2008-07-01

    Until recently, the effects of radiation environment on on-board electronics on launchers and aircraft had not been seriously taken into account. The situation has changed. And one of the most significant effects observed on on-board electronics is what we call Single Event Upset (SEU). This talk explains how the combination of electrical sensitivity of components and nuclear physics is important in the calculation of SEU rates, and emphasizes the aspects of nuclear physics useful to give the probability for a dangerous event to occur. Some circumvention methods will be rapidly identified. (authors)

  17. Space Nuclear Facility test capability at the Baikal-1 and IGR sites Semipalatinsk-21, Kazakhstan

    Hill, T. J.; Stanley, M. L.; Martinell, J. S.

    1993-01-01

    The International Space Technology Assessment Program was established 1/19/92 to take advantage of the availability of Russian space technology and hardware. DOE had two delegations visit CIS and assess its space nuclear power and propulsion technologies. The visit coincided with the Conference on Nuclear Power Engineering in Space Nuclear Rocket Engines at Semipalatinsk-21 (Kurchatov, Kazakhstan) on Sept. 22-25, 1992. Reactor facilities assessed in Semipalatinski-21 included the IVG-1 reactor (a nuclear furnace, which has been modified and now called IVG-1M), the RA reactor, and the Impulse Graphite Reactor (IGR), the CIS version of TREAT. Although the reactor facilities are being maintained satisfactorily, the support infrastructure appears to be degrading. The group assessment is based on two half-day tours of the Baikals-1 test facility and a brief (2 hr) tour of IGR; because of limited time and the large size of the tour group, it was impossible to obtain answers to all prepared questions. Potential benefit is that CIS fuels and facilities may permit USA to conduct a lower priced space nuclear propulsion program while achieving higher performance capability faster, and immediate access to test facilities that cannot be available in this country for 5 years. Information needs to be obtained about available data acquisition capability, accuracy, frequency response, and number of channels. Potential areas of interest with broad application in the U.S. nuclear industry are listed.

  18. Issues and insights of PRA methodology in nuclear and space applications

    Hsu, F.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents some important issues and technical insights on the scope, conceptual framework, and essential elements of nuclear power plant Probabilistic Risk Assessments (PRAs) and that of the PRAs in general applications of the aerospace industry, such as the Space Shuttle PRA being conducted by NASA. Discussions are focused on various lessons learned in nuclear power plant PRA applications and their potential applicability to the PRAs in the aerospace and launch vehicle systems. Based on insights gained from PRA projects for nuclear power plants and from the current Space Shuttle PRA effort, the paper explores the commonalities and the differences between the conduct of the different PRAs and the key issues and risk insights derived from extensive modeling practices in both industries of nuclear and space. (author)

  19. Space Nuclear Safety Program: Progress report, January-March 1987

    Lewin, R. (ed.); George, T.G. (comp.)

    1988-07-01

    This quarterly report describes studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems, which were carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Most of the studies discussed are ongoing; the results and conclusions described may change as the work progresses.

  20. Space nuclear safety program: Progress report, April-June 1987

    George, T.G. (comp.)

    1988-07-01

    This quarterly report describes studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems, carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Most of the studies discussed are ongoing; the results and conclusions described may change as the work progresses.

  1. Space nuclear safety program: Progress report, July--September 1987

    George, T.G. (comp.)

    1989-02-01

    This quarterly report describes studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems, carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. The studies discussed are ongoing; the results and conclusions described may change as the work progresses. 20 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Assessment of ceramic composites for MMW space nuclear power systems

    Besmann, T.M.

    1987-01-01

    Proposed multimegawatt nuclear power systems which operate at high temperatures, high levels of stress, and in hostile environments, including corrosive working fluids, have created interest in the use of ceramic composites as structural materials. This report assesses the applicability of several ceramic composites in both Brayton and Rankine cycle power systems. This assessment considers an equilibrium thermodynamic analysis and also a nonequilibrium assessment. (FI)

  3. Space nuclear-safety program, November 1982. Progress report

    Bronisz, S.E.

    1983-05-01

    This technical monthly report covers studies related to the use of 238 PuO 2 in radioisotope power systems carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Most of the studies discussed here are ongoing. Results and conclusions described may change as the work continues

  4. Space nuclear safety program. Progress report, July 1983

    Bronisz, S.E.

    1983-11-01

    This technical monthly report covers studies related to the use of 238 PuO 2 in radioisotope power systems carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Most of the studies discussed here are ongoing. Results and conclusions described may change as the work continues

  5. Concepts for space nuclear multi-mode reactors

    Myrabo, L.; Botts, T.E.; Powell, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    A number of nuclear multi-mode reactor power plants are conceptualized for use with solid core, fixed particle bed and rotating particle bed reactors. Multi-mode systems generate high peak electrical power in the open cycle mode, with MHD generator or turbogenerator converters and cryogenically stored coolants. Low level stationkeeping power and auxiliary reactor cooling (i.e., for the removal of reactor afterheat) are provided in a closed cycle mode. Depending on reactor design, heat transfer to the low power converters can be accomplished by heat pipes, liquid metal coolants or high pressure gas coolants. Candidate low power conversion cycles include Brayton turbogenerator, Rankine turbogenerator, thermoelectric and thermionic approaches. A methodology is suggested for estimating the system mass of multi-mode nuclear power plants as a function of peak electric power level and required mission run time. The masses of closed cycle nuclear and open cycle chemical power systems are briefly examined to identify the regime of superiority for nuclear multi-mode systems. Key research and technology issues for such power plants are also identified

  6. Space nuclear-safety program. Progress report, January 1983

    Bronisz, S.E.

    1983-06-01

    This technical monthly report covers studies related to the use of 238 PuO 2 in radioisotope power systems carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Most of the studies discussed here are ongoing. Results and conclusions described may change as the work continues

  7. Space Nuclear Safety Program. Progress report, March 1984

    Zocher, R.W.; George, T.G.

    1985-08-01

    This technical monthly report covers studies related to the use of 238 PuO 2 in radioisotope power systems carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos Laboratory. They are divided into: general-purpose heat source, lightweight radioisotope heater unit, and safety technology program. 43 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Overview of the U. S. flight safety process for space nuclear power

    Bennett, G.L.

    1981-01-01

    The two current types of nuclear power sources used in U. S. spacecraft are described along with the flight safety philosophies governing their use. In the case of radioisotope thermoelectric generators, the design philosophy consists of containment, immobilization, and recovery of the nuclear materials. For reactors, the emphasis is on maintaining a subcritical configuration in all credible accident environments. To document the safety activities, a safety analysis report is prepared for each mission. These reports, which are based on the probabilistic risk assessment methodology pioneered by the space nuclear safety community, are subjected to an interagency safety review before a recommendation is made to approve the launch of a nuclear-powered spacecraft

  9. Nuclear technology for the year 2000

    1987-01-01

    Eighteen papers and abstracts are presented under the following session headings: space nuclear power, health physics and dosimetry, nuclear design and thermal hydraulics, nuclear diagnostics, and fusion technology and plasma physics. The papers were processed separately for the data base. (DLC)

  10. Phase-space exploration in nuclear giant resonance decay

    Drozdz, S.; Nishizaki, S.; Wambach, J.; Speth, J.

    1995-01-01

    The rate of phase-space exploration in the decay of isovector and isoscalar giant quadrupole resonances in 40 Ca is analyzed. The study is based on the time dependence of the survival probability and of the spectrum of generalized entropies evaluated in the space of one-particle--one-hole (1p-1h) and 2p-2h states. Three different cases for the level distribution of 2p-2h background states, corresponding to (a) high degeneracy, (b) classically regular motion, and (c) classically chaotic motion, are studied. In the latter case the isovector excitation evolves almost statistically while the isoscalar excitation remains largely localized, even though it penetrates the whole available phase space

  11. Nuclear alkali metal Rankine power systems for space applications

    Moyers, J.C.; Holcomb, R.S.

    1986-08-01

    Nucler power systems utilizing alkali metal Rankine power conversion cycles offer the potential for high efficiency, lightweight space power plants. Conceptual design studies are being carried out for both direct and indirect cycle systems for steady state space power applications. A computational model has been developed for calculating the performance, size, and weight of these systems over a wide range of design parameters. The model is described briefly and results from parametric design studies, with descriptions of typical point designs, are presented in this paper

  12. Advanced Space Nuclear Reactors from Fiction to Reality

    Popa-Simil, L.

    The advanced nuclear power sources are used in a large variety of science fiction movies and novels, but their practical development is, still, in its early conceptual stages, some of the ideas being confirmed by collateral experiments. The novel reactor concept uses the direct conversion of nuclear energy into electricity, has electronic control of reactivity, being surrounded by a transmutation blanket and very thin shielding being small and light that at its very limit may be suitable to power an autonomously flying car. It also provides an improved fuel cycle producing minimal negative impact to environment. The key elements started to lose the fiction attributes, becoming viable actual concepts and goals for the developments to come, and on the possibility to achieve these objectives started to become more real because the theory shows that using the novel nano-technologies this novel reactor might be achievable in less than a century.

  13. Thermal radiation in gas core nuclear reactors for space propulsion

    Slutz, S.A.; Gauntt, R.O.; Harms, G.A.; Latham, T.; Roman, W.; Rodgers, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    A diffusive model of the radial transport of thermal radiation out of a cylindrical core of fissioning plasma is presented. The diffusion approximation is appropriate because the opacity of uranium is very high at the temperatures of interest (greater than 3000 K). We make one additional simplification of assuming constant opacity throughout the fuel. This allows the complete set of solutions to be expressed as a single function. This function is approximated analytically to facilitate parametric studies of the performance of a test module of the nuclear light bulb gas-core nuclear-rocket-engine concept, in the Annular Core Research Reactor at Sandia National Laboratories. Our findings indicate that radiation temperatures in range of 4000-6000 K are attainable, which is sufficient to test the high specific impulse potential (approximately 2000 s) of this concept. 15 refs

  14. Space Nuclear Safety Program. Progress report, November 1983

    Bronisz, S.E.

    1984-06-01

    This technical monthly report covers studies related to the use of 238 PuO 2 in radioisotope power systems carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Topics discussed include: safety-verification impact tests; explosion test; fragment test; leaking fueled clads; effects of fresh water and seawater or PuO 2 pellets; and impact tests of 5 watt radioisotope thermoelectric generator

  15. Feasibility of Low Enriched Uranium Fuel for Space Nuclear Propulsion

    Venneri, Paolo; Kim, Yonghee [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The purpose of this initial study is to create a baseline with which to perform further analysis and to build a solid understanding of the neutronic characteristics of a solid core for the nuclear thermal rocket. Once consistency with work done at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is established, this paper will provide a study of other fuel types, such as low and medium-enriched uranium fuels. This paper will examine how the implementation of each fuel type affects the multiplication factor of the reactor, and will then explore different possibilities for alterations needed to accommodate their successful usage. The reactor core analysis was done using the MCNP5 code. While this study has not shown that the SNRE can be easily retrofitted for low-enriched U fuel, it has made a detailed study of the SNRE, and identified the difficulties of the implementation of low-enriched fuels in small nuclear rockets. These difficulties are the need for additional moderation and fuel mass in order to achieve a critical mass. Neither of these is insurmountable. Future work includes finding the best method by which to increase the internal moderation of the reactor balanced with appropriate sizing to prevent neutron leakage. Both of these are currently being studied. This paper will present a study of the Small Nuclear Rocket Engine (SNRE) and the feasibility of using low enriched Uranium (LEU) instead of the traditional high enriched Uranium (HEU) fuels.

  16. Water Matters - Making a Difference with Nuclear Techniques, 20 September 2011, Vienna, Austria. 14th Scientific Forum during the 55th Session of the IAEA General Conference

    Amano, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text: I am very pleased to welcome you to the 2011 IAEA Scientific Forum, which is devoted to the issue of nuclear techniques related to water. It is a special pleasure for me to be joined by such a distinguished panel in the opening session: Secretary Chu, Mr Banerjee and Vice Minister Bourrouet Vargas. I know you will be anxious to hear what these very knowledgeable speakers have to say, so I will be brief. The IAEA Scientific Forum is a valuable platform to highlight the important work which the Agency does in sustainable development. This side of the Agency's work does not get the same attention as our activities in nuclear safeguards, safety and security - but it is just as important, and of great value to the countries which benefit. Having focussed on cancer control last year, I thought nuclear techniques related to water would be an appropriate subject for this year's Forum. To quote the title of this event, Water Matters. There is virtually no area of human activity that does not depend on water. It is vital for human health, for agriculture, for industrial production, for technological development. Water is the stuff of life, but in so many parts of the world it is a source of serious problems. Many regions face acute water shortages, of which the current African drought is just the latest tragic example. One billion people have no access to adequate drinking water. Five million - mainly children - die each year due to water-borne diseases. Those numbers are expected to rise. By contrast, Pakistan is once again grappling with serious flooding, which has caused hundreds of deaths, forced millions of people from their homes and washed away vital crops. In many regions, pollution is a threat to the world's most precious natural resource - our oceans and seas. These are the source of much of our food and are vital for maintaining global climate balance. For over half a century, the IAEA has been deploying its unique expertise in using nuclear techniques

  17. Nuclear disassembly time scales using space time correlations

    Durand, D.; Colin, J.; Lecolley, J.F.; Meslin, C.; Aboufirassi, M.; Bougault, R.; Brou, R. [Caen Univ., 14 (France). Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire; Bilwes, B.; Cosmo, F. [Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France); Galin, J. [Grand Accelerateur National d`Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France); and others

    1996-09-01

    The lifetime, {tau}, with respect to multifragmentation of highly excited nuclei is deduced from the analysis of strongly damped Pb+Au collisions at 29 MeV/u. The method is based on the study of space-time correlations induced by `proximity` effects between fragments emitted by the two primary products of the reaction and gives the time between the re-separation of the two primary products and the subsequent multifragment decay of one partner. (author). 2 refs.

  18. Nuclear disassembly time scales using space time correlations

    Durand, D.; Colin, J.; Lecolley, J.F.; Meslin, C.; Aboufirassi, M.; Bougault, R.; Brou, R.; Galin, J.; and others.

    1996-01-01

    The lifetime, τ, with respect to multifragmentation of highly excited nuclei is deduced from the analysis of strongly damped Pb+Au collisions at 29 MeV/u. The method is based on the study of space-time correlations induced by 'proximity' effects between fragments emitted by the two primary products of the reaction and gives the time between the re-separation of the two primary products and the subsequent multifragment decay of one partner. (author)

  19. Nuclear power in space. Use of reactors and radioactive substances as power sources in satellites and space probes

    Hoestbaeck, Lars

    2008-11-01

    Today solar panels are the most common technique to supply power to satellites. Solar panels will work as long as the power demand of the satellite is limited and the satellite can be equipped with enough panels, and kept in an orbit that allows enough sunlight to hit the panels. There are various types of space missions that do not fulfil these criteria. With nuclear power these types of missions can be powered regardless of the sunlight and as early as 1961 the first satellite with a nuclear power source was placed in orbit. Out of seventy known space missions that has made use of nuclear power, ten have had some kind of failure. In no case has the failure been associated with the nuclear technology used. This report discusses to what degree satellites with nuclear power are a source for potential radioactive contamination of Swedish territory. It is not a discussion for or against nuclear power in space. Neither is it an assessment of consequences if radioactive material from a satellite would reach the earth's surface. Historically two different kinds of Nuclear Power Sources (NPS) have been used to generate electric power in space. The first is the reactor where the energy is derived from nuclear fission of 235 U and the second is the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) where electricity is generated from the heat of naturally decaying radionuclides. NPS has historically only been used in space by United States and the Soviet Union (and in one failing operation Russia). Nuclear Power Sources have been used in three types of space objects: satellites, space probes and moon/Mars vehicles. USA has launched one experimental reactor into orbit, all other use of NPS by the USA has been RTG:s. The Soviet Union, in contrast, only launched a few RTG:s but nearly forty reactors. The Soviet use of NPS is less transparent than the use in USA and some data published on Soviet systems are more or less well substantiated assessments. It is likely that also future

  20. Status of the CNES-CEA joint program on space nuclear Brayton systems

    Carre, F.; Proust, E.; Chaudourne, S.; Keirle, P.; Tilliette, Z.; Vrillon, B.

    1989-01-01

    A Cooperative program between the French Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) and the Commissariat a l'Engergie Atomique (CEA) was initiated in 1983, to investigate the possible development of 20 to 200 kWe space nuclear power systems to be launched by the next version of the European launcher, Ariane V. After completion in 1986 of preliminary conceptual studies of a reference 200 kWe turboelectric power system, an additional 3 year study phase was decided, with the double objective of assessing the potential advantage of nuclear power systems versus solar photovoltaic or dynamic systems in the 20 kWe power range, and comparing various reactor candidate technologies and systems options for 20 kWe space nuclear power systems, likely to meet the projected energy needs of future European space missions. The results of this study are discussed by the authors

  1. Space nuclear-power reactor design based on combined neutronic and thermal-fluid analyses

    Koenig, D.R.; Gido, R.G.; Brandon, D.I.

    1985-01-01

    The design and performance analysis of a space nuclear-power system requires sophisticated analytical capabilities such as those developed during the nuclear rocket propulsion (Rover) program. In particular, optimizing the size of a space nuclear reactor for a given power level requires satisfying the conflicting requirements of nuclear criticality and heat removal. The optimization involves the determination of the coolant void (volume) fraction for which the reactor diameter is a minimum and temperature and structural limits are satisfied. A minimum exists because the critical diameter increases with increasing void fraction, whereas the reactor diameter needed to remove a specified power decreases with void fraction. The purpose of this presentation is to describe and demonstrate our analytical capability for the determination of minimum reactor size. The analysis is based on combining neutronic criticality calculations with OPTION-code thermal-fluid calculations

  2. General-purpose heat source project and space nuclear safety and fuels program. Progress report

    Maraman, W.J.

    1979-12-01

    This formal monthly report covers the studies related to the use of 238 PuO 2 in radioisotopic power systems carried out for the Advanced Nuclear Systems and Projects Division of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. The two programs involved are general-purpose heat source development and space nuclear safety and fuels. Most of the studies discussed hear are of a continuing nature. Results and conclusions described may change as the work continues

  3. Ultrahigh temperature vapor core reactor-MHD system for space nuclear electric power

    Maya, Isaac; Anghaie, Samim; Diaz, Nils J.; Dugan, Edward T.

    1991-01-01

    The conceptual design of a nuclear space power system based on the ultrahigh temperature vapor core reactor with MHD energy conversion is presented. This UF4 fueled gas core cavity reactor operates at 4000 K maximum core temperature and 40 atm. Materials experiments, conducted with UF4 up to 2200 K, demonstrate acceptable compatibility with tungsten-molybdenum-, and carbon-based materials. The supporting nuclear, heat transfer, fluid flow and MHD analysis, and fissioning plasma physics experiments are also discussed.

  4. Direct Estimation of Power Distribution in Reactors for Nuclear Thermal Space Propulsion

    Aldemir, Tunc; Miller, Don W.; Burghelea, Andrei

    2004-02-01

    A recently proposed constant temperature power sensor (CTPS) has the capability to directly measure the local power deposition rate in nuclear reactor cores proposed for space thermal propulsion. Such a capability reduces the uncertainties in the estimated power peaking factors and hence increases the reliability of the nuclear engine. The CTPS operation is sensitive to the changes in the local thermal conditions. A procedure is described for the automatic on-line calibration of the sensor through estimation of changes in thermal .conditions.

  5. Human Factors and Information Operation for a Nuclear Power Space Vehicle

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Brown-Van Hoozer, S. Alenka

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes human-interactive systems needed for a crew nuclear-enabled space mission. A synthesis of aircraft engine and nuclear power plant displays, biofeedback of sensory input, virtual control, brain mapping for control process and manipulation, and so forth are becoming viable solutions. These aspects must maintain the crew's situation awareness and performance, which entails a delicate function allocation between crew and automation. (authors)

  6. Wigner-Kirkwood expansion of the phase-space density for half infinite nuclear matter

    Durand, M.; Schuck, P.

    1987-01-01

    The phase space distribution of half infinite nuclear matter is expanded in a ℎ-series analogous to the low temperature expansion of the Fermi function. Besides the usual Wigner-Kirkwood expansion, oscillatory terms are derived. In the case of a Woods-Saxon potential, a smallness parameter is defined, which determines the convergence of the series and explains the very rapid convergence of the Wigner-Kirkwood expansion for average (nuclear) binding energies

  7. Historical perspectives - The role of the NASA Lewis Research Center in the national space nuclear power programs

    Bloomfield, H. S.; Sovie, R. J.

    1991-01-01

    The history of the NASA Lewis Research Center's role in space nuclear power programs is reviewed. Lewis has provided leadership in research, development, and the advancement of space power and propulsion systems. Lewis' pioneering efforts in nuclear reactor technology, shielding, high temperature materials, fluid dynamics, heat transfer, mechanical and direct energy conversion, high-energy propellants, electric propulsion and high performance rocket fuels and nozzles have led to significant technical and management roles in many natural space nuclear power and propulsion programs.

  8. Historical perspectives: The role of the NASA Lewis Research Center in the national space nuclear power programs

    Bloomfield, H. S.; Sovie, R. J.

    1991-01-01

    The history of the NASA Lewis Research Center's role in space nuclear power programs is reviewed. Lewis has provided leadership in research, development, and the advancement of space power and propulsion systems. Lewis' pioneering efforts in nuclear reactor technology, shielding, high temperature materials, fluid dynamics, heat transfer, mechanical and direct energy conversion, high-energy propellants, electric propulsion and high performance rocket fuels and nozzles have led to significant technical and management roles in many national space nuclear power and propulsion programs.

  9. S. 1304: DOE Nuclear Safety and Environment Act. Introduced in the Senate of the United States, One Hundred First Congress, First Session, July 12, 1989

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    A bill was introduced to enhance nuclear safety at Department of Energy nuclear facilities, to modify certain functions of the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board, to apply the provisions of OSHA to certain Department of Energy nuclear facilities, to clarify the jurisdiction and powers of Government agencies dealing with nuclear wastes, to ensure independent research on the effects of radiation on human beings, to encourage a process of environmental compliance and cleanup at these facilities, and to protect communities that contain these facilities

  10. Status of the CNES-CEA joint program on space nuclear Brayton systems

    Carre, F.; Proust, E.; Chaudourne, S.; Keirle, P.; Tilliette, Z.; Vrillon, B.

    1989-01-01

    A cooperative program between the French Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) and the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) was initiated in 1983, to investigate the possible development of 20 to 200 kWe space nuclear power systems to be launched by the next version of the European launcher, Ariane V. After completion in 1986 of preliminary conceptual studies of a reference 200 kWe turbo-electric power system, an additional 3 year study phase was decided, with the double objective of assessing the potential advantage of nuclear power systems versus solar photovoltaic or dynamic systems in the 20 kWe power range, and comparing various reactor candidate technologies and system options for 20 kWe space nuclear power systems, likely to meet the projected energy needs of future European space missions. A comprehensive program including conceptual design studies, operating transient analyses and technology base assessment, is currently applied to a few reference concepts of 20 kWe nuclear Brayton and thermoelectric systems, in order to establish sound technical and economical bases for selecting the design options and the development strategy of a first space nuclear power system in Europe

  11. Heat-electricity convertion systems for a Brazilian space micro nuclear reactor

    Guimaraes, Lamartine N.F.; Marcelino, Natalia B.; Placco, Guilherme M.; Nascimento, Jamil A.; Borges, Eduardo M., E-mail: guimarae@ieav.cta.br, E-mail: lamartine.guimaraes@pq.cnpq.br, E-mail: jamil@ieav.cta.br, E-mail: jalnsgf@outlook.com, E-mail: borges.em@hotmail.com, E-mail: ecorborges@hotmail.com, E-mail: ivayolini@gmail.com, E-mail: guilherme_placco@ig.com.br [Instituto de Estudos Avancados (IEAv/DCTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Barrios Junior, Ary Garcia, E-mail: arygarcia89@yahoo.com [Faculdade de Tecnologia Sao Francisco (FATESF), Jacarei, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    This contribution will discuss the evolution work in the development of thermal cycles to allow the development of heat-electricity conversion for the Brazilian space micro nuclear Reactor. Namely, innovative core and nuclear fuel elements, Brayton cycle, Stirling engine, heat pipes, passive multi-fluid turbine, among others. This work is basically to set up the experimental labs that will allow the specification and design of the space equipment. Also, some discussion of the cost so far, and possible other applications will be presented. (author)

  12. Heat-electricity convertion systems for a Brazilian space micro nuclear reactor

    Guimaraes, Lamartine N.F.; Marcelino, Natalia B.; Placco, Guilherme M.; Nascimento, Jamil A.; Borges, Eduardo M.; Barrios Junior, Ary Garcia

    2013-01-01

    This contribution will discuss the evolution work in the development of thermal cycles to allow the development of heat-electricity conversion for the Brazilian space micro nuclear Reactor. Namely, innovative core and nuclear fuel elements, Brayton cycle, Stirling engine, heat pipes, passive multi-fluid turbine, among others. This work is basically to set up the experimental labs that will allow the specification and design of the space equipment. Also, some discussion of the cost so far, and possible other applications will be presented. (author)

  13. Space Nuclear Power Plant Pre-Conceptual Design Report, For Information

    B. Levine

    2006-01-27

    This letter transmits, for information, the Project Prometheus Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) Pre-Conceptual Design Report completed by the Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT). This report documents the work pertaining to the Reactor Module, which includes integration of the space nuclear reactor with the reactor radiation shield, energy conversion, and instrumentation and control segments. This document also describes integration of the Reactor Module with the Heat Rejection segment, the Power Conditioning and Distribution subsystem (which comprise the SNPP), and the remainder of the Prometheus spaceship.

  14. A Programmatic and Engineering Approach to the Development of a Nuclear Thermal Rocket for Space Exploration

    Bordelon, Wayne J., Jr.; Ballard, Rick O.; Gerrish, Harold P., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    With the announcement of the Vision for Space Exploration on January 14, 2004, there has been a renewed interest in nuclear thermal propulsion. Nuclear thermal propulsion is a leading candidate for in-space propulsion for human Mars missions; however, the cost to develop a nuclear thermal rocket engine system is uncertain. Key to determining the engine development cost will be the engine requirements, the technology used in the development and the development approach. The engine requirements and technology selection have not been defined and are awaiting definition of the Mars architecture and vehicle definitions. The paper discusses an engine development approach in light of top-level strategic questions and considerations for nuclear thermal propulsion and provides a suggested approach based on work conducted at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center to support planning and requirements for the Prometheus Power and Propulsion Office. This work is intended to help support the development of a comprehensive strategy for nuclear thermal propulsion, to help reduce the uncertainty in the development cost estimate, and to help assess the potential value of and need for nuclear thermal propulsion for a human Mars mission.

  15. Lightweight power bus for a baseload nuclear reactor in space

    Oberly, C.E.; Massie, L.D.; Hoffman, D.J.

    1989-01-01

    Space environmental interactions with the power distribution/power processing subsystem can become a serious problem for power systems rated at 10's to 100's of kilowatts. Utilization of ceramic superconductors at 1000 A/cm/sup 2/, which has already been demonstrated at 77 K in a conductor configuration may eliminate both bus mass and distribution voltage problems in a high power satellite. The analytical results presented here demonstrate that a superconducting coaxial power transmission bus offers significant benefits in reduced distribution voltage and mass

  16. Space nuclear safety and fuels program. Progress report, December 1980

    Bronisz, S.E.

    1981-02-01

    This formal monthly report covers the studies related to the use of 238 PuO 2 in radioisotopic power systems carried out for the Space and Terrestrial Systems Division of the US Department of Energy by the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Most of the studies discussed here are of a continuing nature. Results and conclusions described may change as the work continues. Published reference to the results cited in this report should not be made without the explicit permission of the person in charge of the work

  17. The outlook for application of powerful nuclear thermionic reactor -powered space electric jet propulsion engines

    Semyonov, Y.P.; Bakanov, Y.A.; Synyavsky, V.V.; Yuditsky, V.D.

    1997-01-01

    This paper summarizes main study results for application of powerful space electric jet propulsion unit (EJPUs) which is powered by Nuclear Thermionic Power Unit (NTPU). They are combined in Nuclear Power/Propulsion Unit (NPPU) which serves as means of spacecraft equipment power supply and spacecraft movement. Problems the paper deals with are the following: information satellites delivery and their on-orbit power supply during 10-15 years, removal of especially hazardous nuclear wastes, mining of asteroid resources and others. Evaluations on power/time/mass relationship for this type of mission are given. EJPU parameters are compatible with Russian existent or being under development launch vehicle. (author)

  18. An interagency space nuclear propulsion safety policy for SEI - Issues and discussion

    Marshall, A. C.; Sawyer, J. C., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    An interagency Nuclear Safety Policy Working Group (NSPWG) was chartered to recommend nuclear safety policy, requirements, and guidelines for the Space Exploration Initiative nuclear propulsion program to facilitate the implementation of mission planning and conceptual design studies. The NSPWG developed a top level policy to provide the guiding principles for the development and implementation of the nuclear propulsion safety program and the development of Safety Functional Requirements. In addition, the NSPWG reviewed safety issues for nuclear propulsion and recommended top level safety requirements and guidelines to address these issues. Safety topics include reactor start-up, inadvertent criticality, radiological release and exposure, disposal, entry, safeguards, risk/reliability, operational safety, ground testing, and other considerations. In this paper the emphasis is placed on the safety policy and the issues and considerations that are addressed by the NSPWG recommendations.

  19. Heat resistant materials and their feasibility issues for a space nuclear transportation system

    Olsen, C.S.

    1991-01-01

    A number of nuclear propulsion concepts based on solid-core nuclear propulsion are being evaluated for a nuclear propulsion transportation system to support the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) involving the reestablishment of a manned lunar base and the subsequent exploration of Mars. These systems will require high-temperature materials to meet the operating conditions with appropriate reliability and safety built into these systems through the selection and testing of appropriate materials. The application of materials for nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) and nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) systems and the feasibility issues identified for their use will be discussed. Some mechanical property measurements have been obtained, and compatibility tests were conducted to help identify feasibility issues. 3 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  20. Graph Transformation for Consolidation of Creativity Sessions Results

    Dolog, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Graph transformation approach for consolidation of creativity sessions results is part of the FP7 EU/IST project idSpace: Tooling of and training for collaborative, distributed product innovation. The goal of graph transformation approach is to provide a tool for merging results of various sessions...... (such as brainstorming sessions), which are represented as graphs, when the session participants- are physically distributed....

  1. Dossier space travel. Nuclear fuel shuttle; Dossier ruimtevaart. Splijtstofshuttle

    Klomp, H.

    2011-03-11

    The space shuttle will be making its last flight this year, but a successor has not yet been arranged. All alternatives that were reviewed by the American government in the last decades have in common that they use chemical combustion as means of propulsion. A serious next step in human spaceflight requires a more sturdy propulsion system: atomic explosions. [Dutch] De spaceshuttle maakt dit jaar zijn laatste vlucht, maar een opvolger is er nog niet. Alle alternatieven die de Amerikaanse overheid de afgelopen decennia de revue heeft laten passeren, hebben gemeen dat ze als stuwmiddel gebruikmaken van chemische verbranding. Voor een serieuze stap voorwaarts in de bemande ruimtevaart is een steviger voortstuwingssysteem nodig: atoomexplosies.

  2. Instrumentation and Controls evaluation for space nuclear power systems

    Anderson, J.L.; Oakes, L.C.

    1984-01-01

    Design of control and protection systems should be coordinated with the design of the neutronic, thermal-hydraulic, and mechanical aspects of the core and plant at the earliest possible stage of concept development. An integrated systematic design approach is necessary to prevent uncoordinated choices in one technology area from imposing impractical or impossible requirements in another. Significant development and qualification will be required for virtually every aspect of reactor control and instrumentation. In-core instrumentation widely used in commercial light water reactors will not likely be usable in the higher temperatures of a space power plant. Thermocouples for temperature measurement and gamma thermometers for flux measurement appear to be the only viable candidates. Recent developments in ex-core neutron detectors may provide achievable alternatives to in-core measurements. Reliable electronic equipment and high-temperature actuators will require major development efforts

  3. Status report on nuclear reactors for space electric power

    Buden, D.

    1978-01-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory is studying reactor power plants for space applications in the late 1980s and 1990s. The study is concentrating on high-temperature, compact, fast reactors that can be coupled with various radiation shielding systems and thermoelectric, dynamic, or thermionic electric power conversion systems, depending on the mission. Increased questions have been raised about safety since the COSMOS 954 incident. High orbits (above 400 to 500 nautical miles) have sufficient lifetimes to allow radioactive elements to decay to safe levels. The major proposed applications for satellites with reactors in Earth orbit are in geosynchronous orbit (19,400 nautical miles). In missions at geosynchronous orbit where orbital lifetimes are practically indefinite, the safety considerations are negligible. The potential missions, why reactors are being considered as a prime power candidate, reactor features, and safety considerations are discussed

  4. Nuclear Waste Issues. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Energy and Power of the Committee on Energy and Commerce, US House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, First Session, on H.R. 2888 and H.R. 2967, June 11, 1987

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    Proceedings of the hearings before the Subcommittee on Energy and Power of the Committee on Energy and Commerce held on two separate dates as the first sessions on bills H.R. 2888 and H.R. 2967 are recorded here. These bills would suspend certain activities of the Department of Energy (DOE) under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 and would establish a nuclear waste policy review commission and an office of the nuclear waste negotiator. The hearings on 11 June 1987 examined the DOE's proposal to build a monitored retrievable storage facility (MRS) in Tennessee on the site of the Clinch Breeder Reactor. The General Accounting Office has questioned the adequacy of the DOE's study that recommended building the MRS. Testimony was presented by representatives of the American Nuclear Council; Community and Economic Development Division, General Accounting Office; Wisconsin Radioactive Waste Review Board; Washington Nuclear Waste Board; Sierra Club; Department of Health and Environment, State of Tennessee; Texas Nuclear Waste Programs Office; the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the DOE. The Governor of Washington, Hon. Marilyn Lloyd, and Hon. Bart Gordon presented testimony. The concerns of the testimony were that the DOE was not ready to build the MRS - not enough study had been done to merit spending hugh amounts of money. Testimony on the two bills was not very supportive of the bills as they had been sponsored

  5. Advanced nuclear technologies. Hearing before a subcommittee of the Committee on Appropriations, United States Senate, One Hundred Fifth Congress, First Session, Special Hearing

    1999-01-01

    This hearing focuses on the subject of advanced nuclear technologies; in particular, two aspects are of interest: The renewal of nuclear power in this country and furthering technologies for the future use of nuclear power. Several witnesses testified. Some topics covered by the witnesses were: reactor technologies; proliferation; and radioactive waste management

  6. Overview of CNES-CEA joint programme on space nuclear Brayton systems

    Carre, F.; Proust, E.; Chaudourne, S.; Keirle, P.; Tilliette, Z.; Vrillon, B.

    1990-01-01

    In 1982, a cooperative programme on space nuclear power systems was initiated between the French Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) and the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA), to assess the feasibility, lead time, cost, competitiveness and development prospects for space nuclear power systems (SPS) in the 20 to 200 kWe range. The present three-year study phase is primarily oriented toward the assessment of various reactor candidate technologies and system design options for nuclear SPS in the 20 kWe class, which corresponds to the expected power needs of the first European space missions, anticipated to begin in 2005. This paper presents an overview of the present programme phase, with emphasis on design studies of three reference design concepts for 20 kWe turboelectric nuclear power systems selected so as to cover a wide range of reactor temperatures and corresponding technologies. The systems differ mainly in their nuclear reactors which are: the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder derivative or UO 2 /Na/Stainless steel -650 0 C; the High Temperature Gas-cooled derivative or UO 2 /direct cycle/super alloys - 850 0 C; and the UN/Li/MoRe alloy - 1120 0 C. All three systems use a Brayton cycle with recuperation for power conversion. (author)

  7. ALKASYS, Rankine-Cycle Space Nuclear Power System

    2001-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: The program ALKASYS is used for the creation of design concepts of multimegawatt space power systems that employ potassium Rankine power conversion cycles. 2 - Method of solution: ALKASYS calculates performance and design characteristics and mass estimates for the major subsystems composing the total power system. Design and engineering performance characteristics are determined by detailed engineering procedures rather than by empirical algorithms. Mass estimates are developed using basic design principles augmented in some cases by empirical coefficients determined from the literature. The reactor design is based on a fast spectrum, metallic-clad rod fuel element containing UN pellets. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: ALKASYS was developed primarily for the analysis of systems with electric power in the range from 1,000 to 25,000 kW(e) and full-power life from 1 to 10 years. The program should be used with caution in systems that are limited by heat flux (which might indicate need for extended surfaces on fuel elements) or criticality (which might indicate the need for other geometries or moderators)

  8. The space distribution of neutrons generated in massive lead target by relativistic nuclear beam

    Chultem, D.; Damdinsuren, Ts.; Enkh-Gin, L.; Lomova, L.; Perelygin, V.; Tolstov, K.

    1993-01-01

    The present paper is devoted to implementation of solid state nuclear track detectors in the research of the neutron generation in extended lead spallation target. Measured neutrons space distribution inside the lead target and neutron distribution in the thick water moderator are assessed. (Author)

  9. Analysis of nuclear waste disposal in space, phase 3. Volume 1: Executive summary of technical report

    Rice, E. E.; Miller, N. E.; Yates, K. R.; Martin, W. E.; Friedlander, A. L.

    1980-01-01

    The objectives, approach, assumptions, and limitations of a study of nuclear waste disposal in space are discussed with emphasis on the following: (1) payload characterization; (2) safety assessment; (3) health effects assessment; (4) long-term risk assessment; and (5) program planning support to NASA and DOE. Conclusions are presented for each task.

  10. Various technical and legal aspects of nuclear power sources in outer space

    Boeck, H.; Summerer, L.

    2001-12-01

    Since the very first days of space exploration, nuclear power was considered as an alternative to solar cells for the generation of energy in space. Especially for larger exploration missions beyond Mars, nuclear power sources (NPS) are almost unavoidable. NPS are developed, produced and flown on a continuous basis since almost 40 years by the USA and the Soviet Union, now Russia. While the technological capabilities certainly exist within Europe, Europe has not developed space nuclear power sources. This work is structured in four parts, enlightening this subject from different viewpoints on the European level. In a first chapter, European centres researching in the broader field of this technology are listed. A second chapter deals with the properties and hazards connected with plutonium, the element used in Radioisotope Thermal Generators (RTG). Recent technological developments in the field of RTG are reviewed in chapter 4, while chapter 3 deals with the international legal implications of the use of nuclear power sources in outer space. Refs. 30 (author)

  11. Application of Recommended Design Practices for Conceptual Nuclear Fusion Space Propulsion Systems

    Williams, Craig H.

    2004-01-01

    An AIAA Special Project Report was recently produced by AIAA's Nuclear and Future Flight Propulsion Technical Committee and is currently in peer review. The Report provides recommended design practices for conceptual engineering studies of nuclear fusion space propulsion systems. Discussion and recommendations are made on key topics including design reference missions, degree of technological extrapolation and concomitant risk, thoroughness in calculating mass properties (nominal mass properties, weight-growth contingency and propellant margins, and specific impulse), and thoroughness in calculating power generation and usage (power-flow, power contingencies, specific power). The report represents a general consensus of the nuclear fusion space propulsion system conceptual design community and proposes 15 recommendations. This paper expands on the Report by providing specific examples illustrating how to apply each of the recommendations.

  12. Space nuclear power system and the design of the nuclear electric propulsion OTV

    Buden, D.; Garrison, P.W.

    1984-01-01

    Payload increases of three to five times that of the Shuttle/Centaur can be achieved using nuclear electric propulsion. Various nuclear power plant options being pursued by the SP-100 Program are described. These concepts can grow from 100 kW/sub e/ to 1MW/sub e/ output. Spacecraft design aspects are addressed, including thermal interactions, plume interactions, and radiation fluences. A baseline configuration is described accounting for these issues. Safety aspects of starting the OTV transfer from an altitude of 300 km indicate no significant additional risk to the biosphere

  13. National Assembly - 2012-2013 regular session, 255. sitting, Sitting of Thursday 30 May 2013, verbatim record: Debate on nuclear safety

    Chevet, Pierre-Franck; Repussard, Jacques; Miniere, Dominique; Chanteguet, Jean-Paul; Batho, Delphine; Baupin, Denis; Chassaigne, Andre; Bouillon, Christophe; Mariton, Herve; Sas, Eva; Reynier, Franck; Roig, Frederic; Lambert, Francois-Michel; Valter, Clotilde; Massonneau, Veronique; Pompili, Barbara; Laponche, Bernard; Molac, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This document publishes the verbatim of a debate on nuclear safety in the French National Assembly. Interveners who belong to different parties and to different bodies and institutions (notably ASN, IRSN, EDF), of researchers, notably discussed the degradation of nuclear safety in France, the necessary review of the French nuclear safety framework, the implication of the ASN in the debate on energy transition, the nuclear plant lifetime, the present governance of nuclear safety, the ageing issue, the renewal of personnel abilities and qualifications, the issue of subcontracting, the possibility of a nuclear accident in France, the role of the different bodies and institutions, the evolution of the French nuclear fleet. Questions and answers are also reported

  14. The International Safety Framework for nuclear power source applications in outer space-Useful and substantial guidance

    Summerer, L.; Wilcox, R. E.; Bechtel, R.; Harbison, S.

    2015-06-01

    In 2009, the International Safety Framework for Nuclear Power Source Applications in Outer Space was adopted, following a multi-year process that involved all major space faring nations under the auspices of a partnership between the UN Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space and the International Atomic Energy Agency. The Safety Framework reflects an international consensus on best practices to achieve safety. Following the 1992 UN Principles Relevant to the Use of Nuclear Power Sources in Outer Space, it is the second attempt by the international community to draft guidance promoting the safety of applications of nuclear power sources in space missions. NPS applications in space have unique safety considerations compared with terrestrial applications. Mission launch and outer space operational requirements impose size, mass and other space environment limitations not present for many terrestrial nuclear facilities. Potential accident conditions could expose nuclear power sources to extreme physical conditions. The Safety Framework is structured to provide guidance for both the programmatic and technical aspects of safety. In addition to sections containing specific guidance for governments and for management, it contains technical guidance pertinent to the design, development and all mission phases of space NPS applications. All sections of the Safety Framework contain elements directly relevant to engineers and space mission designers for missions involving space nuclear power sources. The challenge for organisations and engineers involved in the design and development processes of space nuclear power sources and applications is to implement the guidance provided in the Safety Framework by integrating it into the existing standard space mission infrastructure of design, development and operational requirements, practices and processes. This adds complexity to the standard space mission and launch approval processes. The Safety Framework is deliberately

  15. Summary of spin physics sessions

    Roser, T.

    1988-01-01

    The list of topics in the many talks given during the Spin Physics sessions of this Intersections conference is nearly as long as the one of this conference: P and T Violation NN Interaction πp and πd Elastic Scattering Nuclear Matter Spin Effects Muon (g-2) Polarized Proton Beams Polarized Gas Targets This points to the almost trivial fact that spin is fundamental to our understanding of nuclear and particle physics. I will discuss in some detail only four of these topics. Needless to say this choice is very much personally biased and I apologize to all the speakers whose excellent contributions I did not include

  16. Analysis of experimental data on relativistic nuclear collisions in the Lobachevsky space

    Baldin, A.A.; Baldina, Eh.G.; Kladnitskaya, E.N.; Rogachevskij, O.V.

    2004-01-01

    Relativistic nuclear collisions are considered in terms of relative 4-velocity and rapidity space (the Lobachevsky space). The connection between geometric relations in the Lobachevsky space and measurable (experimentally determined) kinematic characteristics (transverse momentum, longitudinal rapidity, square relative 4-velocity b ik , etc.) is discussed. The experimental data obtained using the propane bubble chamber are analyzed on the basis of triangulation in the Lobachevsky space. General properties of relativistic invariants distributions characterizing the geometric position of particles in the Lobachevsky space are discussed. The transition energy region is considered on the basis of relativistic approach to experimental data on multiparticle processes. Possible applications of the obtained results for planning of experimental research and analysis of data on multiple particle production are discussed

  17. Effluent Containment System for space thermal nuclear propulsion ground test facilities

    1995-08-01

    This report presents the research and development study work performed for the Space Reactor Power System Division of the U.S. Department of Energy on an innovative ECS that would be used during ground testing of a space nuclear thermal rocket engine. A significant portion of the ground test facilities for a space nuclear thermal propulsion engine are the effluent treatment and containment systems. The proposed ECS configuration developed recycles all engine coolant media and does not impact the environment by venting radioactive material. All coolant media, hydrogen and water, are collected, treated for removal of radioactive particulates, and recycled for use in subsequent tests until the end of the facility life. Radioactive materials removed by the treatment systems are recovered, stored for decay of short-lived isotopes, or packaged for disposal as waste. At the end of the useful life, the facility will be decontaminated and dismantled for disposal

  18. Shutdown and degradation: Space computers for nuclear application, verification of radiation hardness. Final report

    Eichhorn, E.; Gerber, V.; Schreyer, P.

    1995-01-01

    (1) Employment of those radiation hard electronics which are already known in military and space applications. (2) The experience in space-flight shall be used to investigate nuclear technology areas, for example, by using space electronics to prove the range of applications in nuclear radiating environments. (3) Reproduction of a computer developed for telecommunication satellites; proof of radiation hardness by radiation tests. (4) At 328 Krad (Si) first failure of radiation tolerant devices with 100 Krad (Si) hardness guaranteed. (5) Using radiation hard devices of the same type you can expect applications at doses of greater than 1 Mrad (Si). Electronic systems applicable for radiation categories D, C and lower part of B for manipulators, vehicles, underwater robotics. (orig.) [de

  19. Radiation risk from the nuclear power installation of space vehicle in case of reentry to the atmosphere

    Mikheenko, S.G.

    1994-01-01

    Main directions of space using of nuclear power are considered. Nuclear energy has found many applications in space projects. The first application is the use of nuclear energy for the production of electricity in space and the second main application is the use of nuclear power for propulsion purposes in space flight. History of usage nuclear power systems in space technic is shown. Today there are 54 satellites with NPS in space near the Earth. The main principle of radical solution of the problem of radiation safety is based on the accommodation of space objects with nuclear units in orbits, such that the ballistic lifetime is greater than the time necessary for complete decay of the accumulated radioactivity. Radiation safety on various stages of space nuclear systems exploitation is discussed. If Main System Ensuring Radiation Safety is failed, it must operates Reserved System Ensuring Radiation Safety. Concrete development of a booster system for nuclear unit and a system for the reactor destruction in order to ensure aerodynamic destruction of fuel has been realized in satellite of 'Cosmos' series. The investigations on reserved system ensuring radiation safety in Moscow Physical - Engineering Institute are discussed. The results show that we can in principle ensure the radiation safety in accordance to ICRP recommendations. (author)

  20. India-Pakistan nuclear issues. Hearing before the Committee on Foreign Relations, United States Senate, Ninety-Sixth Congress, second session March 18, 1980

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    The proceedings of Hearings on nuclear issues between the US, India and Pakistan are included in this volume. The committee wants to explore with the administration precisely where matters stand with India and Pakistan on nuclear issues, what policy alternatives the administration may be considering with respect to those issues, and how the administration intends to relate its actions on nuclear matters to other US foreign policy issues

  1. Post-Session Authentication

    Ahmed, Naveed; Jensen, Christian D.

    2012-01-01

    Entity authentication provides confidence in the claimed identity of a peer entity, but the manner in which this goal is achieved results in different types of authentication. An important factor in this regard is the order between authentication and the execution of the associated session....... In this paper, we consider the case of post-session authentication, where parties authenticate each other at the end of their interactive session. This use of authentication is different from session-less authentication (e.g., in RFID) and pre-session authentication (e.g., for access control.) Post......-session authentication, although a new term, is not a new concept; it is the basis of at least a few practical schemes. We, for the first time, systematically study it and present the underlying authentication model. Further, we show that an important class of problems is solvable using post-session authentication...

  2. Technical Guidance from the International Safety Framework for Nuclear Power Source Applications in Outer Space for Design and Development Phases

    Summerer, Leopold

    2014-08-01

    In 2009, the International Safety Framework for Nuclear Power Source Applications in Outer Space [1] has been adopted, following a multi-year process that involved all major space faring nations in the frame of the International Atomic Energy Agency and the UN Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space. The safety framework reflects an international consensus on best practices. After the older 1992 Principles Relevant to the Use of Nuclear Power Sources in Outer Space, it is the second document at UN level dedicated entirely to space nuclear power sources.This paper analyses aspects of the safety framework relevant for the design and development phases of space nuclear power sources. While early publications have started analysing the legal aspects of the safety framework, its technical guidance has not yet been subject to scholarly articles. The present paper therefore focuses on the technical guidance provided in the safety framework, in an attempt to assist engineers and practitioners to benefit from these.

  3. Space nuclear power plant technology development philosophy for a ground engineering phase

    Buden, D.; Trapp, T.J.; Los Alamos National Lab., NM)

    1985-01-01

    The development of a space qualified nuclear power plant is proceeding from the technical assessment and advancement phase to the ground engineering phase. In this new phase, the selected concept will be matured by the completion of activities needed before protoflight units can be assembled and qualified for first flight applications. This paper addresses a possible philosophy to arrive at the activities to be performed during the ground engineering phase. The philosophy is derived from what we believe a potential user of nuclear power would like to see completed before commitment to a flight development phase. 5 references

  4. General-purpose heat source project and space nuclear safety fuels program. Progress report, February 1980

    Maraman, W.J.

    1980-05-01

    This formal monthly report covers the studies related to the use of 238 PuO 2 in radioisotopic power systems carried out for the Advanced Nuclear Systems and Projects Division of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. The two programs involved are: General-Purpose Heat Source Development and Space Nuclear Safety and Fuels. Most of the studies discussed here are of a continuing nature. Results and conclusions described may change as the work continues. Published reference to the results cited in this report should not be made without the explicit permission of the person in charge of the work

  5. Space nuclear power plant technology development philosophy for a ground engineering phase

    Buden, D.; Trapp, T.J.

    1985-01-01

    The development of a space qualified nuclear power plant is proceeding from the Technical Assessment and Advancement Phase to the Ground Engineering Phase. In this new phase, the selected concept will be matured by the completion of activities needed before protoflight units can be assembled and qualified for first flight applications. This paper addresses a possible philosophy to arrive at the activities to be performed during the Ground Engineering Phase. The philosophy is derived from what we believe a potential user of nuclear power would like to see completed before commitment to a flight development phase

  6. H.R. 3521: Nuclear Facilities Occupational Safety Improvement Act of 1989. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundredth First Congress, First Session, October 25, 1989

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    Bill H.R.3521 was introduced in the House of Representatives of the United States on October 25, 1989. The purpose of this Act and the amendments made by this Act are to improve and enforce standards for employee health and safety at Department of Energy nuclear facilities. Congress finds that worker health and safety at Department of Energy nuclear facilities could be made substantially safer by applying standards developed by experts in the field of occupational health and safety. A section-by-section analysis makes up most of the report with emphasis on the following: application of OSHA to DOE nuclear facilities; cooperation with inspections and investigations; transfer and allocation of appropriations and personnel; worker training requirements; performance of NIOSH functions at DOE nuclear facilities; medical examinations of employees; and labor-management health and safety committees at DOE nuclear facilities

  7. Feasibility of space disposal of radioactive nuclear waste. 2: Technical summary

    1974-01-01

    The feasibility of transporting radioactive waste produced in the process of generating electricity in nuclear powerplants into space for ultimate disposal was investigated at the request of the AEC as a NASA in-house effort. The investigation is part of a broad AEC study of methods for long-term storage or disposal of radioactive waste. The results of the study indicate that transporting specific radioactive wastes, particularly the actinides with very long half-lives, into space using the space shuttle/tug as the launch system, appears feasible from the engineering and safety viewpoints. The space transportation costs for ejecting the actinides out of the solar system would represent less than a 5-percent increase in the average consumer's electric bill.

  8. An evaluation of some special techniques for nuclear waste disposal in space

    Mackay, J. S.

    1973-01-01

    A preliminary examination is reported of several special ways for space disposal of nuclear waste material which utilize the radioactive heat in the waste to assist in the propulsion for deep space trajectories. These include use of the wastes in a thermoelectric generator (RTG) which operates an electric propulsion device and a radioisotope - thermal thruster which uses hydrogen or ammonia as the propellant. These propulsive devices are compared to the space tug and the space tug/solar electric propulsion combination for disposal of waste on a solar system escape trajectory. Such comparisons indicate that the waste-RTG approach has considerable potential provided the combined specific mass of the waste container - RTG system does not exceed approximately 150 kg/kw sub e. Several exploratory numerical calculations have been made for high earth orbit and Earth escape destinations.

  9. A nuclear waste deposit in space - the ultimate solution for low-cost and safe disposal

    Ruppe, H.O.; Hayn, D.; Braitinger, M.; Schmucker, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    The disposal of nuclear high-active waste (HAW) is representative for the problem of burdening the environment with highly active or toxic waste products at present and in the future. Safe disposal methods on Earth are technically very difficult to achieve and the costs of establishment and maintenance of such plants are extremely high. Furthermore the emotionally based rejection by a wide sector of the population gives sufficient reason to look for new solutions. Here, space technology can offer a real alternative - a waste deposit in space. With the Space Transportation System, which shall soon be operative, and the resulting high flight frequencies it will be possible to transport all future HAW into space at economical casts. (orig.) [de

  10. Preliminary risk assessment for nuclear waste disposal in space. Volume I. Executive summary of technical report

    Rice, E.E.; Denning, R.S.; Friedlander, A.L.

    1982-01-01

    Three major conclusions come from this preliminary risk assessment of nuclear waste disposal in space. Preliminary estimates of space disposal risk are low, even with the estimated uncertainty bounds. If calculated mined geologic repository (MGR) release risks remain low, and the EPA requirements continue to be met, then no additional space disposal study effort is warranted. If risks perceived by the public are significant in the acceptance of mined geologic repositories, then consideration of space disposal as an MGR complement is warranted. As a result of this study, the following recommendations are made to NASA and the US DOE: During the continued evaluation of the mined geologic repository risk over the years ahead by DOE, if any significant increase in the calculated health risk is predicted for the MGR, then space disposal should be reevaluated at that time. The risks perceived by the public for the MGR should be evaluated on a broad basis by an independent organization to evaluate acceptance. If, in the future, MGR risks are found to be significant due to some presently unknown technical or social factor, and space disposal is selected as an alternative that may be useful in mitigating the risks, then the following space disposal study activities are recommended: improvement in chemical processing technology for wastes; payload accident response analysis; risk uncertainty analysis for both MGR and space disposal; health risk modeling that includes pathway and dose estimates; space disposal cost modeling; assessment of space disposal perceived (by public) risk benefit; and space systems analysis supporting risk and cost modeling

  11. Space and Terrestrial Power System Integration Optimization Code BRMAPS for Gas Turbine Space Power Plants With Nuclear Reactor Heat Sources

    Juhasz, Albert J.

    2007-01-01

    In view of the difficult times the US and global economies are experiencing today, funds for the development of advanced fission reactors nuclear power systems for space propulsion and planetary surface applications are currently not available. However, according to the Energy Policy Act of 2005 the U.S. needs to invest in developing fission reactor technology for ground based terrestrial power plants. Such plants would make a significant contribution toward drastic reduction of worldwide greenhouse gas emissions and associated global warming. To accomplish this goal the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project (NGNP) has been established by DOE under the Generation IV Nuclear Systems Initiative. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) was designated as the lead in the development of VHTR (Very High Temperature Reactor) and HTGR (High Temperature Gas Reactor) technology to be integrated with MMW (multi-megawatt) helium gas turbine driven electric power AC generators. However, the advantages of transmitting power in high voltage DC form over large distances are also explored in the seminar lecture series. As an attractive alternate heat source the Liquid Fluoride Reactor (LFR), pioneered at ORNL (Oak Ridge National Laboratory) in the mid 1960's, would offer much higher energy yields than current nuclear plants by using an inherently safe energy conversion scheme based on the Thorium --> U233 fuel cycle and a fission process with a negative temperature coefficient of reactivity. The power plants are to be sized to meet electric power demand during peak periods and also for providing thermal energy for hydrogen (H2) production during "off peak" periods. This approach will both supply electric power by using environmentally clean nuclear heat which does not generate green house gases, and also provide a clean fuel H2 for the future, when, due to increased global demand and the decline in discovering new deposits, our supply of liquid fossil fuels will have been used up. This is

  12. Application of NASA Kennedy Space Center system assurance analysis methodology to nuclear power plant systems designs

    Page, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    The Kennedy Space Center (KSC) entered into an agreement with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to conduct a study to demonstrate the feasibility and practicality of applying the KSC System Assurance Analysis (SAA) methodology to nuclear power plant systems designs. In joint meetings of KSC and Duke Power personnel, an agreement was made to select to CATAWBA systems, the Containment Spray System and the Residual Heat Removal System, for the analyses. Duke Power provided KSC with a full set a Final Safety Analysis Reports as well as schematics for the two systems. During Phase I of the study the reliability analyses of the SAA were performed. During Phase II the hazard analyses were performed. The final product of Phase II is a handbook for implementing the SAA methodology into nuclear power plant systems designs. The purpose of this paper is to describe the SAA methodology as it applies to nuclear power plant systems designs and to discuss the feasibility of its application. The conclusion is drawn that nuclear power plant systems and aerospace ground support systems are similar in complexity and design and share common safety and reliability goals. The SAA methodology is readily adaptable to nuclear power plant designs because of it's practical application of existing and well known safety and reliability analytical techniques tied to an effective management information system

  13. System modeling for the advanced thermionic initiative single cell thermionic space nuclear reactor

    Lee, H.H.; Lewis, B.R.; Klein, A.C.; Pawlowski, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    Incore thermionic space reactor design concepts which operate in a nominal power output range of 20 to 40 kWe are described. Details of the neutronics, thermionic, shielding, and heat rejection performance are presented. Two different designs, ATI-Driven and ATI-Driverless, are considered. Comparison of the core overall performance of these two configurations are described. The comparison of these two cores includes the overall conversion efficiency, reactor mass, shield mass, and heat rejection mass. An overall system design has been developed to model the advanced incore thermionic energy conversion based nuclear reactor systems for space applications in this power range

  14. Post-Session Authentication

    Ahmed , Naveed; Jensen , Christian ,

    2012-01-01

    Part 1: Full Papers; International audience; Entity authentication provides confidence in the claimed identity of a peer entity, but the manner in which this goal is achieved results in different types of authentication. An important factor in this regard is the order between authentication and the execution of the associated session. In this paper, we consider the case of post-session authentication, where parties authenticate each other at the end of their interactive session. This use of a...

  15. Realizing "2001: A Space Odyssey": Piloted Spherical Torus Nuclear Fusion Propulsion

    Williams, Craig H.; Dudzinski, Leonard A.; Borowski, Stanley K.; Juhasz, Albert J.

    2005-01-01

    A conceptual vehicle design enabling fast, piloted outer solar system travel was created predicated on a small aspect ratio spherical torus nuclear fusion reactor. The initial requirements were satisfied by the vehicle concept, which could deliver a 172 mt crew payload from Earth to Jupiter rendezvous in 118 days, with an initial mass in low Earth orbit of 1,690 mt. Engineering conceptual design, analysis, and assessment was performed on all major systems including artificial gravity payload, central truss, nuclear fusion reactor, power conversion, magnetic nozzle, fast wave plasma heating, tankage, fuel pellet injector, startup/re-start fission reactor and battery bank, refrigeration, reaction control, communications, mission design, and space operations. Detailed fusion reactor design included analysis of plasma characteristics, power balance/utilization, first wall, toroidal field coils, heat transfer, and neutron/x-ray radiation. Technical comparisons are made between the vehicle concept and the interplanetary spacecraft depicted in the motion picture 2001: A Space Odyssey.

  16. S. 2258: Independent Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Act of 1990. Introduced in the Senate of the United States, One Hundredth First Congress, Second Session, March 8, 1990

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    This bill was introduced into the United States Senate March 8, 1990. The purpose of the bill is to amend the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 to allow commercial nuclear utilities that have contracts with the Secretary of Energy under section 302 of that Act to receive credits to offset the cost of storing spent fuel that the Secretary is unable to accept for storage on and after January 31, 1998. The credits will be deducted from each remittance of a person's fee payments to the Nuclear Waste Fund and will be in the amount of 0.56 mil per kilowatt-hour for electricity generated by the person's civilian nuclear power reactor and sold during the period the person is eligible for the credit

  17. Nuclear design analysis of square-lattice honeycomb space nuclear rocket engine

    Widargo, Reza; Anghaie, Samim

    1999-01-01

    The square-lattice honeycomb reactor is designed based on a cylindrical core that is determined to have critical diameter and length of 0.50 m and 0.50 c, respectively. A 0.10-cm thick radial graphite reflector, in addition to a 0.20-m thick axial graphite reflector are used to reduce neutron leakage from the reactor. The core is fueled with solid solution of 93% enriched (U, Zr, Nb)C, which is one of several ternary uranium carbides that are considered for this concept. The fuel is to be fabricated as 2 mm grooved (U, Zr, Nb)C wafers. The fuel wafers are used to form square-lattice honeycomb fuel assemblies, 0.10 m in length with 30% cross-sectional flow area. Five fuel assemblies are stacked up axially to form the reactor core. Based on the 30% void fraction, the width of the square flow channel is about 1.3 mm. The hydrogen propellant is passed through these flow channels and removes the heat from the reactor core. To perform nuclear design analysis, a series of neutron transport and diffusion codes are used. The preliminary results are obtained using a simple four-group cross-section model. To optimize the nuclear design, the fuel densities are varied for each assembly. Tantalum, hafnium and tungsten are considered and used as a replacement for niobium in fuel material to provide water submersion sub-criticality for the reactor. Axial and radial neutron flux and power density distributions are calculated for the core. Results of the neutronic analysis indicate that the core has a relatively fast spectrum. From the results of the thermal hydraulic analyses, eight axial temperature zones are chosen for the calculation of group average cross-sections. An iterative process is conducted to couple the neutronic calculations with the thermal hydraulics calculations. Results of the nuclear design analysis indicate that a compact core can be designed based on ternary uranium carbide square-lattice honeycomb fuel. This design provides a relatively high thrust to weight

  18. Thermal control of high energy nuclear waste, space option. [mathematical models

    Peoples, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    Problems related to the temperature and packaging of nuclear waste material for disposal in space are explored. An approach is suggested for solving both problems with emphasis on high energy density waste material. A passive cooling concept is presented which utilized conduction rods that penetrate the inner core. Data are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the rods and the limit of their capability. A computerized thermal model is discussed and developed for the cooling concept.

  19. Gamow state vectors as functionals over subspaces of the nuclear space

    Bohm, A.

    1979-12-01

    Exponentially decaying Gamow state vectors are obtained from S-matrix poles in the lower half of the second sheet, and are defined as functionals over a subspace of the nuclear space, PHI. Exponentially growing Gamow state vectors are obtained from S-matrix poles in the upper half of the second sheet, and are defined as functionals over another subspace of PHI. On functionals over these two subspaces the dynamical group of time development splits into two semigroups

  20. Problems of space-time behaviour of nuclear reactors; Problemi prostorno-vremenskog ponasanja nuklearnih reaktora

    Obradovic, D [Institut za nuklearne nauke ' Boris Kidric' , Vinca, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1966-07-01

    This paper covers a review of literature and mathematical methods applied for space-time behaviour of nuclear reactors. The review of literature is limited to unresolved problems and trends of actual research in the field of reactor physics. Dat je pregled literature i matematickih metoda koje se koriste prilikom tretiranja prostorno-vremenskog ponasanja nuklearnih reaktora. Pregled literature ogranicen je na jos neresene probleme i pravce u kojima su danas usmerena istrazivanja u ovoj oblasti fizike nuklearnih reaktora (author)

  1. Chemical thermodynamic assessment of the Li-U-O system for possible space nuclear applications

    Besmann, T.M.; Cooper, R.H. Jr.

    1985-06-01

    A thermochemical assessment of possible oxide fuel-lithium coolant interactions in conceptual 100-kW(e) space nuclear power reactors has been performed. Results of the evaluation indicate that in the event of a cladding breach the fuel and coolant will interact with extremely negative consequences. The lithium has the potential to reduce the fuel to metallic uranium. Differences in temperature within the coolant loop can drive oxygen and uranium transport processes

  2. Evaluation of the U.S. strategic nuclear triad. Hearing before the Committee on Governmental Affairs, United States Senate, One Hundred Third Congress, First Session, June 10, 1993

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    These hearings address the issue of the US nuclear deterrent bassed on a triad of land-based, air-based, and sea-based ability to deliver nuclear weapons and how the decisions about such a policy were made. The goal is to apply this information to consideration about new weapons systems. Testimony is from the following: Chelimsky, General Accounting Office; Perry, Deputy Secretary of Defense. Written testimony and documents comprise a large part of the hearing

  3. Moderator configuration options for a low-enriched uranium fueled Kilowatt-class Space Nuclear Reactor

    King, Jeffrey C.; Mencarini, Leonardo de Holanda; Guimaraes, Lamartine N. F.

    2015-01-01

    The Brazilian Air Force, through its Institute for Advanced Studies (Instituto de Estudos Avancados, IEAv/DCTA), and the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) are studying the feasibility of a space nuclear reactor with a power of 1-5 kW e and fueled with Low-Enriched Uranium (LEU). This type of nuclear reactor would be attractive to signatory countries of the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) or commercial interests. A LEU-fueled space reactor would avoid the security concerns inherent with Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) fuel. As an initial step, the HEU-fueled Kilowatt Reactor Using Stirling Technology (KRUSTY) designed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory serves as a basis for a similar reactor fueled with LEU fuel. Using the computational code MCNP6 to predict the reactor neutronics performance, the size of the resulting reactor fueled with 19.75 wt% enriched uranium-10 wt% molybdenum alloy fuel is adjusted to match the excess reactivity of KRUSTY. Then, zirconium hydride moderator is added to the core to reduce the size of the reactor. This work presents the preliminary results of the computational modeling, with special emphasis on the comparison between homogeneous and heterogeneous moderator systems, in terms of the core diameter required to meet a specific multiplication factor (k eff = 1.035). This comparison illustrates the impact of moderator configuration on the size and performance of a LEU-fueled kilowatt-class space nuclear reactor. (author)

  4. Moderator configuration options for a low-enriched uranium fueled Kilowatt-class Space Nuclear Reactor

    King, Jeffrey C., E-mail: kingjc@mines.edu [Nuclear Science and Engineering Program, Colorado School of Mines (CSM), Golden, CO (United States); Mencarini, Leonardo de Holanda; Guimaraes, Lamartine N. F., E-mail: guimaraes@ieav.cta.br, E-mail: mencarini@ieav.cta.br [Instituto de Estudos Avancados (IEAV), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Divisao de Energia Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    The Brazilian Air Force, through its Institute for Advanced Studies (Instituto de Estudos Avancados, IEAv/DCTA), and the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) are studying the feasibility of a space nuclear reactor with a power of 1-5 kW{sub e} and fueled with Low-Enriched Uranium (LEU). This type of nuclear reactor would be attractive to signatory countries of the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) or commercial interests. A LEU-fueled space reactor would avoid the security concerns inherent with Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) fuel. As an initial step, the HEU-fueled Kilowatt Reactor Using Stirling Technology (KRUSTY) designed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory serves as a basis for a similar reactor fueled with LEU fuel. Using the computational code MCNP6 to predict the reactor neutronics performance, the size of the resulting reactor fueled with 19.75 wt% enriched uranium-10 wt% molybdenum alloy fuel is adjusted to match the excess reactivity of KRUSTY. Then, zirconium hydride moderator is added to the core to reduce the size of the reactor. This work presents the preliminary results of the computational modeling, with special emphasis on the comparison between homogeneous and heterogeneous moderator systems, in terms of the core diameter required to meet a specific multiplication factor (k{sub eff} = 1.035). This comparison illustrates the impact of moderator configuration on the size and performance of a LEU-fueled kilowatt-class space nuclear reactor. (author)

  5. Nuclear power supplies: their potential and the practical problems to their achievement for space missions

    Colston, B.W.; Brehm, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    The anticipated growth of the space station power requirement provides a good example of the problem the space nuclear power supply developers have to contend with: should a reactor power supply be developed that attempts to be all things to all missions, i.e., is highly flexible in its ability to meet a wide variety of missions, or should the development of a reactor system await a specific mission definition and be customized to this mission. This leads, of course, to a chicken-and-egg situation. For power requirements of several hundreds of kilowatts or more, no nuclear power source exists or is even far enough along in the definition stage (much less the development stage) for NASA to reasonably assume probable availability within the next 10 years. The real problem of space nuclear power is this ''chicken-and-egg'' syndrome: DOE will not develop a space reactor system for NASA without a firm mission, and NASA will not specify a firm mission requiring a space reactor because such a system doesn't exist and is perceived not to be developable within the time frame of the mission. The problem is how to break this cycle. The SP-100 program has taken an important first step to breaking this cycle, but this program is much more design-specific than what is required to achieve a broad technology base and latitude in achievable power level. In contrast to the SP-100 approach, a wider perspective is required: the development of the appropriate technologies for power levels can be broken into ranges, say, from 100 kWe to 1000 kWe, and from 1000 kWe to 10,000 kWe

  6. The Public Poster Session

    Levine-Rasky, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    This note describes the use of a student poster session as an innovative approach to student learning. The local context for the assignment is provided, followed by a description of the course for which the poster was prepared, details about the assignment including its evaluation, and practical considerations for planning a poster session. The…

  7. Ethics case reflection sessions: Enablers and barriers.

    Bartholdson, Cecilia; Molewijk, Bert; Lützén, Kim; Blomgren, Klas; Pergert, Pernilla

    2018-03-01

    In previous research on ethics case reflection (ECR) sessions about specific cases, healthcare professionals in childhood cancer care were clarifying their perspectives on the ethical issue to resolve their main concern of consolidating care. When perspectives were clarified, consequences in the team included 'increased understanding', 'group strengthening' and 'decision grounding'. Additional analysis of the data was needed on conditions that could contribute to the quality of ECR sessions. The aim of this study was to explore conditions for clarifying perspectives during ECR sessions. Data were collected from observations and interviews and the results emerged from an inductive analysis using grounded theory. Participants and research context: Six observations during ECR sessions and 10 interviews were performed with healthcare professionals working in childhood cancer care and advanced paediatric homecare. Ethical considerations: The study was approved by a regional ethical review board. Participants were informed about their voluntary involvement and that they could withdraw their participation without explaining why. Two categories emerged: organizational enablers and barriers and team-related enablers and barriers. Organizational enablers and barriers included the following sub-categories: the timing of the ECR session, the structure during the ECR session and the climate during the ECR session. Sub-categories to team-related enablers and barriers were identified as space for inter-professional perspectives, varying levels of ethical skills and space for the patient's and the family's perspectives. Space for inter-professional perspectives included the dominance of a particular perspective that can result from hierarchical positions. The medical perspective is relevant for understanding the child's situation but should not dominate the ethical reflection. Conditions for ECR sessions have been explored and the new knowledge can be used when training

  8. Aerosol core nuclear reactor for space-based high energy/power nuclear-pumped lasers

    Prelas, M.A.; Boody, F.P.; Zediker, M.S.

    1987-01-01

    An aerosol core reactor concept can overcome the efficiency and/or chemical activity problems of other fuel-reactant interface concepts. In the design of a laser using the nuclear energy for a photon-intermediate pumping scheme, several features of the aerosol core reactor concept are attractive. First, the photon-intermediate pumping concept coupled with photon concentration methods and the aerosol fuel can provide the high power densities required to drive high energy/power lasers efficiently (about 25 to 100 kW/cu cm). Secondly, the intermediate photons should have relatively large mean free paths in the aerosol fuel which will allow the concept to scale more favorably. Finally, the aerosol core reactor concept can use materials which should allow the system to operate at high temperatures. An excimer laser pumped by the photons created in the fluorescer driven by a self-critical aerosol core reactor would have reasonable dimensions (finite cylinder of height 245 cm and radius of 245 cm), reasonable laser energy (1 MJ in approximately a 1 millisecond pulse), and reasonable mass (21 kg uranium, 8280 kg moderator, 460 kg fluorescer, 450 kg laser medium, and 3233 kg reflector). 12 references

  9. Availability of niobium and tantalum-base alloy products for space nuclear reactors

    Kumar, P.K.; Huber, L.H.

    1986-01-01

    In order to provide orbiting electrical power generators for use in Space, current US efforts are focusing on fast neutron flux nuclear power systems; these systems would generate in excess of 100 kW, yet be compact enough to be economically carried into Space by NASA's Space Shuttle. Considerable data on physical, mechanical and corrosion properties are available for the Nb and Ta-base alloys that are prime candidates for such structural components. However, most of these data pertain to the metallurgical state of the art of the 1965-1975 time period; therefore, they have to be reviewed and updated as appropriate to reflect present processing and manufacturing technology. This article summarizes this state of the art, making reasonable projections as well for ongoing improvements and their probable impact on alloy properties achievable in the 1990's

  10. Reflected kinetics model for nuclear space reactor kinetics and control scoping calculations

    Washington, K.E.

    1986-05-01

    The objective of this research is to develop a model that offers an alternative to the point kinetics (PK) modelling approach in the analysis of space reactor kinetics and control studies. Modelling effort will focus on the explicit treatment of control drums as reactivity input devices so that the transition to automatic control can be smoothly done. The proposed model is developed for the specific integration of automatic control and the solution of the servo mechanism problem. The integration of the kinetics model with an automatic controller will provide a useful tool for performing space reactor scoping studies for different designs and configurations. Such a tool should prove to be invaluable in the design phase of a space nuclear system from the point of view of kinetics and control limitations.

  11. Analysis of nuclear waste disposal in space, phase 3. Volume 2: Technical report

    Rice, E. E.; Miller, N. E.; Yates, K. R.; Martin, W. E.; Friedlander, A. L.

    1980-01-01

    The options, reference definitions and/or requirements currently envisioned for the total nuclear waste disposal in space mission are summarized. The waste form evaluation and selection process is documented along with the physical characteristics of the iron nickel-base cermet matrix chosen for disposal of commercial and defense wastes. Safety aspects of radioisotope thermal generators, the general purpose heat source, and the Lewis Research Center concept for space disposal are assessed as well as the on-pad catastrophic accident environments for the uprated space shuttle and the heavy lift launch vehicle. The radionuclides that contribute most to long-term risk of terrestrial disposal were determined and the effects of resuspension of fallout particles from an accidental release of waste material were studied. Health effects are considered. Payload breakup and rescue technology are discussed as well as expected requirements for licensing, supporting research and technology, and safety testing.

  12. Reflected kinetics model for nuclear space reactor kinetics and control scoping calculations

    Washington, K.E.

    1986-05-01

    The objective of this research is to develop a model that offers an alternative to the point kinetics (PK) modelling approach in the analysis of space reactor kinetics and control studies. Modelling effort will focus on the explicit treatment of control drums as reactivity input devices so that the transition to automatic control can be smoothly done. The proposed model is developed for the specific integration of automatic control and the solution of the servo mechanism problem. The integration of the kinetics model with an automatic controller will provide a useful tool for performing space reactor scoping studies for different designs and configurations. Such a tool should prove to be invaluable in the design phase of a space nuclear system from the point of view of kinetics and control limitations

  13. Multiparty Asynchronous Session Types

    Honda, Kohei; Yoshida, Nobuko; Carbone, Marco

    2016-01-01

    . This work extends the foregoing theories of binary session types to multiparty, asynchronous sessions, which often arise in practical communication-centered applications. Presented as a typed calculus for mobile processes, the theory introduces a new notion of types in which interactions involving multiple......Communication is a central elements in software development. As a potential typed foundation for structured communication-centered programming, session types have been studied over the past decade for a wide range of process calculi and programming languages, focusing on binary (two-party) sessions...... peers are directly abstracted as a global scenario. Global types retain the friendly type syntax of binary session types while specifying dependencies and capturing complex causal chains of multiparty asynchronous interactions. A global type plays the role of a shared agreement among communication peers...

  14. Human factors and nuclear space technology in long-term exploration

    Brown-VanHoozer, S.A.; VanHoozer, W.R.

    2000-01-01

    Allocation of manual versus automated tasks for operation and maintenance of nuclear power systems in space will be crucial at the onset and at the return of a space flight. Such factors as space adaptation syndrome (SAS), a temporary space motion sickness that has affected 40 to 50% of crew members on past space flights, can result in lost effort ranging from a few hours to a full day. This could have a significant impact on manual performance where high levels of execution are likely to be required in the very early stages of the mission. Other considerations involving higher-level behavioral phenomena such as interpersonal and group processes, individual belief systems, social and motivational factors, and (subjective) cognitive function have received little attention; nevertheless these will be essential elements for success in long-term exploration. Understanding that long-term space flight missions may create groups that become unique societies distinct unto themselves will test current ethical, moral, and social belief systems, requiring one to examine the amalgamation as well as organizational structures for the safety and balance of the crew

  15. Nuclear energy for space: Past CEA activities and ongoing OPUS studies

    Raepsaet, Xavier; Marion, Denis; Valentian, Dominique

    2006-01-01

    Since the beginning of space activities, solar and nuclear energy have been identified as the only available options for extended missions according to present knowledge. Both types have been used extensively for missions on Earth orbit, interplanetary space and planetary/lunar surface. However, the intensity of solar irradiation decreases with the square of the distance from the Sun. Future scientific and human explorations will take benefits of using a safe in-space nuclear reactor for providing both sufficient electric energy and efficient performance for a space propulsion. The first part of the paper presents a brief status of the different types of nuclear power sources, their characteristics and their field of applications. Previous CEA's projects of space nuclear fission reactors that have been studied in the past will also be discussed; the ERATO project in the 80's (design of a Nuclear Electric Propulsion system of 20 to 200 kWe) and the MAPS project in the 90's (definition of a Nuclear Thermal Propulsion system of 300 MWth for 72 kN of thrust). According to the recent road-maps, CEA decided to maintain a waking state in its spatial nuclear activities by carrying out some conceptual design studies of Nuclear Electric Power systems in the range of 100-500 kWe. The second part of the paper describes the main characteristics of this Optimized Propulsion Unit System (OPUS studies) and its different components. These characteristics, the basic options of the OPUS system that have been selected and the reasons associated to those choices are examined. Especially, the nuclear reactor has been defined considering the possible synergies with the next generation of terrestrial nuclear reactor (International Generation IV Forum). After two successive sets of studies, two different versions of this nuclear system have emerged. The first one is a fast, high-temperature helium cooled reactor, coupled to a direct reheated Brayton cycle. This version is technically the

  16. Preliminary neutronic design of spock reactor: A nuclear system for space power generation

    Burgio, N.; Santagata, A.; Cumo, M.; Fasano, A.; Frullini, M.

    2007-01-01

    Aim of this paper is to preliminary investigates the neutronic features of an upgrade of the MAUS [1] nuclear reactor whose core will be able to supply a thermoelectric converter in order to generate 30 kW of electricity for space applications. The neutronic layout of SPOCK (Space Power Core Ka) is a compact, MOX fuelled, liquid metal cooled and totally reflected fast reactor with a control system based on neutron absorption. Spock, that during the heart and launch operation must be maintained in sub-critical state, has to start up in the outer space at 40 K temperatures with the coolant in a solid state and it will reach the operating steady condition at the maximum temperature of 1300 K with the coolant in the liquid state. The main design goal is to maintains, in the operating conditions of a typical space mission, the control of the appropriate criticality margin versus temperature and coolant physical state. For this purpose, a neutronic/thermal-hydraulic calculation chain able to assists the entire design process must be set up. As preliminary recognition, MCNPX 2.5.0 and FLUENT calculations were carried out. The emerging key features of SPOCK are: an equilateral triangular mesh of 91 cylindrical UO 2 fuel rods with a Molybdenum clad ensured by two grids of the same material, cooled by liquid Sodium and contained in an AISI 316 L vessel. The core is totally wrapped by a Beryllium reflector that hosts six absorber (B 4 C) rotating control rods. The reactor shape is cylindrical (radius = 30 cm and height = 60 cm) with a total mass of 275 kg. The excess reactivity was of 5000 PCM at 1300 K. A preliminary evaluation of the control rods worth and a power spatial distribution were also discussed. Through the definition of an ideal reference K e ff value at 300 K for the actual SPOCK configuration, a sensitivity analysis on various cross sections data and material physical properties was performed for the given mission temperature range, allowing consideration on

  17. Prospects for the use of thermionic nuclear power plants for interorbital transfers of space vehicles in near space

    Andreev, P.V.; Zhabotinskii, E.E.; Nikonov, A.M.

    1993-01-01

    In a previous study the authors considered the use of thermionic nuclear power plants with a thermal reactor for interorbital transfers of space vehicles by electrojet propulsion systems (EJPSs), opening up broad prospects for putting payloads into a high orbit with relatively inexpensive means for a launch into a reference orbit, e.g., the Proton launch vehicle. This is of major importance for the commercial use of space technology, in particular, for erecting technological platforms for the production of various materials. In the work reported here the authors continue the study of interorbital transfers and explore the potentialities of thermionic NPPs with a thermal reactor and with a fast reactor. In boosted operation the electrical power of the latter may reach several hundred kilowatts. What type of NPP is desirable for testing an electrojet propulsion system in interorbital transfers from a reference orbit to a high orbit, providing that the time is limited, depends on the class of the launch vehicle characterized by the mass M o that the vehicle can carry into the reference orbit, where radiation safety conditions allow the NPP to be started up. Results of studies are presented that give an idea of the rational choice of type of thermionic NPP for the organization in interorbital transfers

  18. Proceedings of the 7th International Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal-Hydraulics NURETH-7. Volume 3, Sessions 12-16

    Block, R.C.; Feiner, F. [comps.] [American Nuclear Society, La Grange Park, IL (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This document, Volume 3, includes papers presented at the 7th International Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal-Hydraulics (NURETH-7) September 10--15, 1995 at Saratoga Springs, N.Y. The following subjects are discussed: Progress in analytical and experimental work on the fundamentals of nuclear thermal-hydraulics, the development of advanced mathematical and numerical methods, ad the application of advancements in the field in the development of novel reactor concepts. Also combined issues of thermal-hydraulics and reactor/power-plant safety, core neutronics and/or radiation. Selected abstracts have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  19. Proceedings of the 7th International Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal-Hydraulics NURETH-7. Volume 2, Sessions 6-11

    Block, R.C.; Feiner, F. [comps.] [American Nuclear Society, La Grange Park, IL (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This document, Volume 2, includes papers presented at the 7th International Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal-Hydraulics (NURETH-7) September 10--15, 1995 at Saratoga Springs, N.Y. The following subjects are discussed: Progress in analytical and experimental work on the fundamentals of nuclear thermal-hydraulics, the development of advanced mathematical and numerical methods, and the application of advancements in the field in the development of novel reactor concepts. Also combined issues of thermal-hydraulics and reactor/power-plant safety, core neutronics and/or radiation. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  20. Proceedings of the 7th International Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal-Hydraulics NURETH-7. Volume 1, Sessions 1-5

    Block, R.C.; Feiner, F.

    1995-09-01

    This document, Volume 1, includes papers presented at the 7th International Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal-Hydraulics (NURETH-7) September 10--15, 1995 at Saratoga Springs, N.Y. The following subjects are discussed: Progress in analytical and experimental work on the fundamentals of nuclear thermal-hydraulics, the development of advanced mathematical and numerical methods, and the application of advancements in the field in the development of novel reactor concepts. Also combined issues of thermal-hydraulics and reactor/power-plant safety, core neutronics and/or radiation. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  1. Proceedings of the 7th International Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal-Hydraulics NURETH-7. Volume 1, Sessions 1-5

    Block, R.C.; Feiner, F. [comps.] [American Nuclear Society, La Grange Park, IL (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This document, Volume 1, includes papers presented at the 7th International Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal-Hydraulics (NURETH-7) September 10--15, 1995 at Saratoga Springs, N.Y. The following subjects are discussed: Progress in analytical and experimental work on the fundamentals of nuclear thermal-hydraulics, the development of advanced mathematical and numerical methods, and the application of advancements in the field in the development of novel reactor concepts. Also combined issues of thermal-hydraulics and reactor/power-plant safety, core neutronics and/or radiation. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  2. Nuclear Enforcement Accountability Act of 1994. Introduced in the Senate of the United States, One Hundred Third Congress, Second Session, August 11, 1994

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    The proposed legislative text of the Nuclear Enforcement Accountability Act provides for judicial review of Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Decisions on petitions for enforcement actions, and for other purposes. Modern statutes regulating hazards to the human health and the environment provide for private citizens to participate in the enforcement of the requirements of those statutes. In contrast, this right does not exist for the Atomic Energy Act of 1954. The bill improves the ability of the public to participate in the NRC decisions regarding enforcement of the Atomic Energy Act

  3. Serving human needs: Nuclear technology for sustainable development. Scientific forum during the 45th regular session of the IAEA General Conference. Programme and extended abstracts

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this year's Scientific Forum is to increase Member States' awareness that technical co-operation in non-power applications can produce cost-effective solutions to high-priority problems of sustainable development. The major themes covered include nuclear applications in food production and preservation, human and animal health, pest control and eradication

  4. Serving human needs: Nuclear technology for sustainable development. Scientific forum during the 45th regular session of the IAEA General Conference. Programme and extended abstracts

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The objective of this year's Scientific Forum is to increase Member States' awareness that technical co-operation in non-power applications can produce cost-effective solutions to high-priority problems of sustainable development. The major themes covered include nuclear applications in food production and preservation, human and animal health, pest control and eradication.

  5. H.R. 1526: A Bill to the Defense Nuclear Waste Cleanup Privatization Act. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred Fourth Congress, First session

    1995-01-01

    This report discusses a bill to authorize the Secretary of Energy to enter into privatization arrangements for activities carried out in connection with defense nuclear facilities, and for other purposes like: waste remediation and environmental restoration, including treatment, storage, and disposal; technical services; energy production; utility services; effluent treatment; general storage; fabrication and maintenance; and research and testing

  6. Flow of ideal fluid through a central region of a nuclear reactor wire-spaced fuel subassembly

    Schmid, J.

    1991-04-01

    The results are given of calculations of the flow of an ideal fluid through the central region of a nuclear reactor wire-spaced fuel subassembly. The computer code used is briefly described. (author). 10 figs., 4 refs

  7. Verification of codes used for the nuclear safety assessment of the small space heterogeneous reactors with zirconium hydride moderator

    Glushkov, E.S.; Gomin, E.A.; Kompaniets, G.V.

    1994-01-01

    Computer codes used for assessment of nuclear safety for space NPP are compared taking as an example small-sized heterogeneous reactor with zirconium hydride moderator of the Topaz-2 facility. The code verifications are made for five different variants

  8. A closed Brayton power conversion unit concept for nuclear electric propulsion for deep space missions

    Joyner, Claude Russell II; Fowler, Bruce; Matthews, John

    2003-01-01

    In space, whether in a stable satellite orbit around a planetary body or traveling as a deep space exploration craft, power is just as important as the propulsion. The need for power is especially important for in-space vehicles that use Electric Propulsion. Using nuclear power with electric propulsion has the potential to provide increased payload fractions and reduced mission times to the outer planets. One of the critical engineering and design aspects of nuclear electric propulsion at required mission optimized power levels is the mechanism that is used to convert the thermal energy of the reactor to electrical power. The use of closed Brayton cycles has been studied over the past 30 or years and shown to be the optimum approach for power requirements that range from ten to hundreds of kilowatts of power. It also has been found to be scalable to higher power levels. The Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) engine power conversion unit (PCU) is the most flexible for a wide range of power conversion needs and uses state-of-the-art, demonstrated engineering approaches. It also is in use with many commercial power plants today. The long life requirements and need for uninterrupted operation for nuclear electric propulsion demands high reliability from a CBC engine. A CBC engine design for use with a Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) system has been defined based on Pratt and Whitney's data from designing long-life turbo-machines such as the Space Shuttle turbopumps and military gas turbines and the use of proven integrated control/health management systems (EHMS). An integrated CBC and EHMS design that is focused on using low-risk and proven technologies will over come many of the life-related design issues. This paper will discuss the use of a CBC engine as the power conversion unit coupled to a gas-cooled nuclear reactor and the design trends relative to its use for powering electric thrusters in the 25 kWe to 100kWe power level

  9. Test Facilities and Experience on Space Nuclear System Developments at the Kurchatov Institute

    Ponomarev-Stepnoi, Nikolai N.; Garin, Vladimir P.; Glushkov, Evgeny S.; Kompaniets, George V.; Kukharkin, Nikolai E.; Madeev, Vicktor G.; Papin, Vladimir K.; Polyakov, Dmitry N.; Stepennov, Boris S.; Tchuniyaev, Yevgeny I.; Tikhonov, Lev Ya.; Uksusov, Yevgeny I.

    2004-01-01

    The complexity of space fission systems and rigidity of requirement on minimization of weight and dimension characteristics along with the wish to decrease expenditures on their development demand implementation of experimental works which results shall be used in designing, safety substantiation, and licensing procedures. Experimental facilities are intended to solve the following tasks: obtainment of benchmark data for computer code validations, substantiation of design solutions when computational efforts are too expensive, quality control in a production process, and 'iron' substantiation of criticality safety design solutions for licensing and public relations. The NARCISS and ISKRA critical facilities and unique ORM facility on shielding investigations at the operating OR nuclear research reactor were created in the Kurchatov Institute to solve the mentioned tasks. The range of activities performed at these facilities within the implementation of the previous Russian nuclear power system programs is briefly described in the paper. This experience shall be analyzed in terms of methodological approach to development of future space nuclear systems (this analysis is beyond this paper). Because of the availability of these facilities for experiments, the brief description of their critical assemblies and characteristics is given in this paper

  10. Lessons Learned for Space Safety from the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    Nogami, Manami; Miki, Masami; Mitsui, Masami; Kawada, Ysuhiro; Takeuchi, Nobuo

    2013-09-01

    On March 11 2011, Tohoku Region Pacific Coast Earthquake hit Japan and caused the devastating damage. The Fukushima Nuclear Power Station (NPS) was also severely damaged.The Japanese NPSs are designed based on the detailed safety requirements and have multiple-folds of hazard controls to the catastrophic hazards as in space system. However, according to the initial information from the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) and the Japanese government, the larger-than-expected tsunami and subsequent events lost the all hazard controls to the release of radioactive materials.At the 5th IAASS, Lessons Learned from this disaster was reported [1] mainly based on the "Report of the Japanese Government to the IAEA Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Safety" [2] published by Nuclear Emergency Response Headquarters in June 2011, three months after the earthquake.Up to 2012 summer, the major investigation boards, including the Japanese Diet, the Japanese Cabinet and TEPCO, published their final reports, in which detailed causes of this accident and several recommendations are assessed from each perspective.In this paper, the authors examine to introduce the lessons learned to be applied to the space safety as findings from these reports.

  11. The TERRA project, a space nuclear micro-reactor case study

    Guimaraes, Lamartine N.F.; Nascimento, Jamil A.; Borges, Eduardo M.; Lobo, Paulo D. Castro, E-mail: guimarae@ieav.cta.br, E-mail: jamil@ieav.cta.br, E-mail: eduardo@ieav.cta.br [Divisao de Energia Nuclear. Instituto de Estudos Avancados, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Placco, Guilherme M.; Barrios Junior, Ary G. [Faculdade de Tecnologia Sao Francisco (FATESF), Jacarei, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The TEcnologia de Reatores Rapidos Avancados project, also known as TERRA Project is been conducted by the Institute for Advanced Studies IEAv. The TERRA project has a general objective of understanding and developing the key technologies that will allow (Brazil) the use of nuclear technology to generate electricity in space. This electricity may power several space systems and/or a type of plasma based engine. Also, the type of reactor intended for space may be used for power generation in very inhospitable environment such as the ocean floor. Some of the mentioned technologies may include: Brayton cycles, Stirling engines, heat pipes and its coupled systems, nuclear fuel technology, new materials and several others. Once there is no mission into which apply this technology, at this moment, this research may be conducted in many forms and ways. The fact remains that when this technology becomes needed there will be no way that we (Brazilians) will be able to buy it from. This technology, in this sense, is highly strategic and will be the key to commercially explore deep space. Therefore, there is the need to face the development problems and solve them, to gain experience with our own rights and wrongs. This paper will give a brief overview of what has been done so far, on experimental facilities and hardware that could support space system development, including a Brayton cycle test facility, Tesla turbine testing, and Stirling engine development and modeling. Our great problem today is lack of human resources. To attend that problem we are starting a new graduate program that will allow overcoming that, given the proper time frame. (author)

  12. The TERRA project, a space nuclear micro-reactor case study

    Guimaraes, Lamartine N.F.; Nascimento, Jamil A.; Borges, Eduardo M.; Lobo, Paulo D. Castro; Placco, Guilherme M.; Barrios Junior, Ary G.

    2011-01-01

    The TEcnologia de Reatores Rapidos Avancados project, also known as TERRA Project is been conducted by the Institute for Advanced Studies IEAv. The TERRA project has a general objective of understanding and developing the key technologies that will allow (Brazil) the use of nuclear technology to generate electricity in space. This electricity may power several space systems and/or a type of plasma based engine. Also, the type of reactor intended for space may be used for power generation in very inhospitable environment such as the ocean floor. Some of the mentioned technologies may include: Brayton cycles, Stirling engines, heat pipes and its coupled systems, nuclear fuel technology, new materials and several others. Once there is no mission into which apply this technology, at this moment, this research may be conducted in many forms and ways. The fact remains that when this technology becomes needed there will be no way that we (Brazilians) will be able to buy it from. This technology, in this sense, is highly strategic and will be the key to commercially explore deep space. Therefore, there is the need to face the development problems and solve them, to gain experience with our own rights and wrongs. This paper will give a brief overview of what has been done so far, on experimental facilities and hardware that could support space system development, including a Brayton cycle test facility, Tesla turbine testing, and Stirling engine development and modeling. Our great problem today is lack of human resources. To attend that problem we are starting a new graduate program that will allow overcoming that, given the proper time frame. (author)

  13. A probabilistic approach to safety/reliability of space nuclear power systems

    Medford, G.; Williams, K.; Kolaczkowski, A.

    1989-01-01

    An ongoing effort is investigating the feasibility of using probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) modeling techniques to construct a living model of a space nuclear power system. This is being done in conjunction with a traditional reliability and survivability analysis of the SP-100 space nuclear power system. The initial phase of the project consists of three major parts with the overall goal of developing a top-level system model and defining initiating events of interest for the SP-100 system. The three major tasks were performing a traditional survivability analysis, performing a simple system reliability analysis, and constructing a top-level system fault-tree model. Each of these tasks and their interim results are discussed in this paper. Initial results from the study support the conclusion that PRA modeling techniques can provide a valuable design and decision-making tool for space reactors. The ability of the model to rank and calculate relative contributions from various failure modes allows design optimization for maximum safety and reliability. Future efforts in the SP-100 program will see data development and quantification of the model to allow parametric evaluations of the SP-100 system. Current efforts have shown the need for formal data development and test programs within such a modeling framework

  14. United States-People's Republic of China nuclear agreement. Hearing before the Committee on Foreign Relations, United States Senate, Ninety-Ninth Congress First Session, October 9, 1985

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Representatives of the diplomatic, arms control, and international departments, as well as DOE and private individuals and organizations testified at a hearing on a proposal for a nuclear agreement with China. The variety of witnesses enabled committee members to consider political, commercial, and legal aspects in addition to non-proliferation issues. Witnesses described the business opportunities, but warned of the need for adequate safeguards in view of China's past policy of favoring proliferation and its history of unstable foreign and domestic policy. DOE Secretary Herrington spoke in favor of the agreement as a opportunity to expand the use of nuclear energy and reduce world dependence on conventional fuels. DOE indicated satisfaction that China shares US proliferation concerns. Insertions of prepared statements for the record follow the testimony of the 13 witnesses

  15. Session 8: biofuels; Session 8: Les biocarburants

    Botte, J.M.

    2006-01-15

    Here are given the summaries of the speeches of Mr Daniel Le Breton (Total): the transports of the future: the role of biofuels; of Mr Pierre Rouveirolles (Renault): the future expectations and needs; of Mr Frederic Monot (IFP): the developments of new generations of biofuels from biomass; of Mr Willem Jan Laan (Unilever): the use of bio resources for food and fuel: a fair competition? All these speeches have been presented at the AFTP yearly days (12-13 october 2005) on the session 8 concerning the biofuels. (O.M.)

  16. ENC'98 world nuclear congress and exhibition, RECOD 98 the fifth international conference on recycling, conditioning and disposal. Transactions. Volume 1. Opening session

    1998-01-01

    ENC'98, this four yearly conference - held alongside the world's largest nuclear exhibition - is one of a small number of major international meetings to attract delegates from right across the nuclear energy spectrum. As such, the event provides an invaluable opportunity to take stock of the industry's position in the energy market, measure its technological progress, devise strategies that will help secure its long-term future, and assess its standing with the general public - a factor which we all know will have a bearing on its very survival. Looking back over the four years that have gone by since the last ENC, it is easy to conclude from figures on power station construction, electricity output and market share, that nuclear has, at best, stood still. But, as we all know, statistics can mislead or fail to convey the full picture. In many countries the privatisation of power utilities and liberalization of the energy market is throwing down the commercial gauntlet. The industry, I am happy to say, is responding with vigour. Up-rating programmes, improvement in fuel performance and equipment upgrades are among the many measures successfully being taken to reduce costs and improve competitiveness while maintaining the highest standards of safety. Add to this the advances being made in new reactor technology, improvements in cross border collaboration, joint venture arrangements and progress on the harmonization of regulatory standards, and we have a sound basis for believing a more outward looking industry, far from marking time, is in a state of healthy transition. (author)

  17. Application of NASA Kennedy Space Center System Assurance Analysis methodology to nuclear power plant systems designs

    Page, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    In May of 1982, the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) entered into an agreement with the NRC to conduct a study to demonstrate the feasibility and practicality of applying the KSC System Assurance Analysis (SAA) methodology to nuclear power plant systems designs. North Carolina's Duke Power Company expressed an interest in the study and proposed the nuclear power facility at CATAWBA for the basis of the study. In joint meetings of KSC and Duke Power personnel, an agreement was made to select two CATAWBA systems, the Containment Spray System and the Residual Heat Removal System, for the analyses. Duke Power provided KSC with a full set of Final Safety Analysis Reports (FSAR) as well as schematics for the two systems. During Phase I of the study the reliability analyses of the SAA were performed. During Phase II the hazard analyses were performed. The final product of Phase II is a handbook for implementing the SAA methodology into nuclear power plant systems designs. The purpose of this paper is to describe the SAA methodology as it applies to nuclear power plant systems designs and to discuss the feasibility of its application. (orig./HP)

  18. Celebrating the tenth conference session

    1966-01-01

    Full text: This number of the Bulletin appears during a month when the tenth regular session of the Agency's General Conference is being held. It is fitting that among the special arrangements made to give added significance to such an historical landmark should be an opening address by Herr Franz Jonas, Federal President of the host country, Austria. The Festsaal of the Kongresszentrum, in the Hofburg, has now been the centre for every annual session held in Austria, except the first. On that occasion, recorded in the photograph on the cover, the Konzerthaus was made available. A commemorative series of talks dealing with topics of particular interest in the international development of the peaceful uses of atomic energy, delivered by scientists of world distinction was another idea which will add much profound thought to the records of nuclear energy. Under the chairmanship of Professor L.C. Prado, with Dr. W.B. Lewis as Moderator, the subjects chosen by the participants were : The Impact of Atomic Energy in our Society - Sir John Cockcroft; Nuclear Power Systems and their Technical Potentialities - Prof. Alexandre Leipunski; The Commercial Future of Nuclear Power - Dr. William Webster; Nuclear Science in Life Sciences - Dr. A.R. Gopal-Ayengar; Fundamental Research in Atomic Energy Centres - Prof. Louis Neel. These speeches will be reproduced in full in the Agency's Atomic Energy Review. The pages of this issue of the Bulletin are intended to give indications of the stage which the Agency has now reached in some, but by no means all, of its activities in promoting the techniques of atomic energy for the benefit of mankind. (author)

  19. Fabrication of Cerium Oxide and Uranium Oxide Microspheres for Space Nuclear Power Applications

    Jeffrey A. Katalenich; Michael R. Hartman; Robert C. O' Brien

    2013-02-01

    Cerium oxide and uranium oxide microspheres are being produced via an internal gelation sol-gel method to investigate alternative fabrication routes for space nuclear fuels. Depleted uranium and non-radioactive cerium are being utilized as surrogates for plutonium-238 (Pu-238) used in radioisotope thermoelectric generators and for enriched uranium required by nuclear thermal rockets. While current methods used to produce Pu-238 fuels at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) involve the generation of fine powders that pose a respiratory hazard and have a propensity to contaminate glove boxes, the sol-gel route allows for the generation of oxide microsphere fuels through an aqueous route. The sol-gel method does not generate fine powders and may require fewer processing steps than the LANL method with less operator handling. High-quality cerium dioxide microspheres have been fabricated in the desired size range and equipment is being prepared to establish a uranium dioxide microsphere production capability.

  20. CFD Analysis of Square Flow Channel in Thermal Engine Rocket Adventurer for Space Nuclear Application

    Nam, S. H.; Suh, K. Y.; Kang, S. G.

    2008-01-01

    Solar system exploration relying on chemical rockets suffers from long trip time and high cost. In this regard nuclear propulsion is an attractive option for space exploration. The performance of Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) is more than twice that of the best chemical rocket. Resorting to the pure hydrogen (H 2 ) propellant the NTRs can possibly achieve as high as 1,000 s of specific impulse (I sp ) representing the ratio of the thrust over the fuel consumption rate, as compared to only 425 s of H 2 /O 2 rockets. If we reflect on the mission to Mars, NTRs would reduce the round trip time to less than 300 days, instead of over 600 days with chemical rockets. This work presents CFD analysis of one Fuel Element (FE) of Thermal Engine Rocket Adventurer (TERA). In particular, one Square Flow Channel (SFC) is analyzed in Square Lattice Honeycomb (SLHC) fuel to examine the effects of mass flow rate on rocket performance

  1. Mission needs and system commonality for space nuclear power and propulsion

    Buden, D.; Zuppero, A.; Redd, L.

    1993-01-01

    Nuclear power enables or significantly enhances a variety of space missions whether near-Earth, or for solar system exploration, lunar-Mars exploration and recovery of near-Earth resources. Performance optimizations for individual missions leads to a large number of power and propulsion systems to be developed. However, the realities of the budget and schedules indicates that the number of nuclear systems that will be developed are limited. One needs to seek the ''minimum requirements'' to do a job rather than the last ounce of performance, and areas of commonality. To develop a minimum number of systems to meet the overall DoD, NASA, and commercial needs, the broad spectrum of requirements has been examined along with cost drivers

  2. A Spherical Torus Nuclear Fusion Reactor Space Propulsion Vehicle Concept for Fast Interplanetary Travel

    Williams, Craig H.; Borowski, Stanley K.; Dudzinski, Leonard A.; Juhasz, Albert J.

    1998-01-01

    A conceptual vehicle design enabling fast outer solar system travel was produced predicated on a small aspect ratio spherical torus nuclear fusion reactor. Initial requirements were for a human mission to Saturn with a greater than 5% payload mass fraction and a one way trip time of less than one year. Analysis revealed that the vehicle could deliver a 108 mt crew habitat payload to Saturn rendezvous in 235 days, with an initial mass in low Earth orbit of 2,941 mt. Engineering conceptual design, analysis, and assessment was performed on all ma or systems including payload, central truss, nuclear reactor (including divertor and fuel injector), power conversion (including turbine, compressor, alternator, radiator, recuperator, and conditioning), magnetic nozzle, neutral beam injector, tankage, start/re-start reactor and battery, refrigeration, communications, reaction control, and in-space operations. Detailed assessment was done on reactor operations, including plasma characteristics, power balance, power utilization, and component design.

  3. Thermohydraulic Design Analysis Modeling for Korea Advanced NUclear Thermal Engine Rocket for Space Application

    Nam, Seung Hyun; Choi, Jae Young; Venneria, Paolo F.; Jeong, Yong Hoon; Chang, Soon Heung [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Space exploration is a realistic and profitable goal for long-term humanity survival, although the harsh space environment imposes lots of severe challenges to space pioneers. To date, almost all space programs have relied upon Chemical Rockets (CRs) rating superior thrust level to transit from the Earth's surface to its orbit. However, CRs inherently have insurmountable barrier to carry out deep space missions beyond Earth's orbit due to its low propellant efficiency, and ensuing enormous propellant requirement and launch costs. Meanwhile, nuclear rockets typically offer at least two times the propellant efficiency of a CR and thus notably reduce the propellant demand. Particularly, a Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) is a leading candidate for near-term manned missions to Mars and beyond because it satisfies a relatively high thrust as well as a high efficiency. The superior efficiency of NTRs is due to both high energy density of nuclear fuel and the low molecular weight propellant of Hydrogen (H{sub 2}) over the chemical reaction by-products. A NTR uses thermal energy released from a nuclear fission reactor to heat the H{sub 2} propellant and then exhausted the highly heated propellant through a propelling nozzle to produce thrust. A propellant efficiency parameter of rocket engines is specific impulse (I{sub s}p) which represents the ratio of the thrust over the propellant consumption rate. If the average exhaust H{sub 2} temperature of a NTR is around 3,000 K, the I{sub s}p can be achieved as high as 1,000 s as compared with only 450 - 500 s of the best CRs. For this reason, NTRs are favored for various space applications such as orbital tugs, lunar transports, and manned missions to Mars and beyond. The best known NTR development effort was conducted from 1955 to1974 under the ROVER and NERVA programs in the USA. These programs had successfully designed and tested many different reactors and engines. After these projects, the researches on NERVA derived

  4. Shock and vibration tests of uranium mononitride fuel pellets for a space power nuclear reactor

    Adams, D. W.

    1972-01-01

    Shock and vibration tests were conducted on cylindrically shaped, depleted, uranium mononitride (UN) fuel pellets. The structural capabilities of the pellets were determined under exposure to shock and vibration loading which a nuclear reactor may encounter during launching into space. Various combinations of diametral and axial clearances between the pellets and their enclosing structures were tested. The results of these tests indicate that for present fabrication of UN pellets, a diametral clearance of 0.254 millimeter and an axial clearance of 0.025 millimeter are tolerable when subjected to launch-induced loads.

  5. Spacing grids for a fuel pencil bundle in a nuclear reactor assembly

    Feutrel, Claude.

    1977-01-01

    This invention relates to the lattices forming the spacing of a bundle of clad fuel pencils in a nuclear reactor assembly, particularly in a water cooled or fast reactor, the purpose of such lattices being to maintain these pencils parallel with respect to each other and according to a given lattice arrangement, whilst also providing these pencils with a flexible support according to different successive areas apportioned with their length in order to present them from vibrating under the effect of the circulation of a liquid coolant environment flowing in contact with these pencils [fr

  6. MCNP benchmark analyses of critical experiments for space nuclear thermal propulsion

    Selcow, E.C.; Cerbone, R.J.; Ludewig, H.

    1993-01-01

    The particle-bed reactor (PBR) system is being developed for use in the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) Program. This reactor system is characterized by a highly heterogeneous, compact configuration with many streaming pathways. The neutronics analyses performed for this system must be able to accurately predict reactor criticality, kinetics parameters, material worths at various temperatures, feedback coefficients, and detailed fission power and heating distributions. The latter includes coupled axial, radial, and azimuthal profiles. These responses constitute critical inputs and interfaces with the thermal-hydraulics design and safety analyses of the system

  7. Risk knowledge and risk attitudes regarding nuclear energy sources in space

    Maharik, M.; Fischhoff, B.

    1993-01-01

    A series of four studies examined the relationship between how much people know about the risks of using nuclear energy sources in space and how they feel about the technology. The authors found that the more people know, the more favorable they are -- except for two groups of people selected from organizations with strong pro-industry or pro-environment positions. These results suggest that a technology will get a more favorable hearing if it can get its message out -- providing that it has a legitimate story to tell and that the situation has not become too polarized already. The limits to these conclusions are discussed. 19 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  8. Annular air space effects on nuclear waste canister temperatures in a deep geologic waste repository

    Lowry, W.E.; Cheung, H.; Davis, B.W.

    1980-01-01

    Air spaces in a deep geologic repository for nuclear high level waste will have an important effect on the long-term performance of the waste package. The important temperature effects of an annular air gap surrounding a high level waste canister are determined through 3-D numerical modeling. Air gap properties and parameters specifically analyzed and presented are the air gap size, surfaces emissivity, presence of a sleeve, and initial thermal power generation rate; particular emphasis was placed on determining the effect of these variables have on the canister surface temperature. Finally a discussion based on modeling results is presented which specifically relates the results to NRC regulatory considerations

  9. Design of particle bed reactors for the space nuclear thermal propulsion program

    Ludewig, H.; Powell, J.R.; Todosow, M.; Maise, G.; Barletta, R.; Schweitzer, D.G.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the design for the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) that was considered for the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) Program. The methods of analysis and their validation are outlined first. Monte Carlo methods were used for the physics analysis, several new algorithms were developed for the fluid dynamics, heat transfer and transient analysis; and commercial codes were used for the stress analysis. We carried out a critical experiment, prototypic of the PBR to validate the reactor physics; blowdown experiments with beds of prototypic dimensions were undertaken to validate the power-extraction capabilities from particle beds. In addition, materials and mechanical design concepts for the fuel elements were experimentally validated. (author)

  10. Nuclear geophysics in space and atmospheric reserch at INPE/BRAZIl

    Nordemann, D.J.R.; Pereira, E.B.; Marinho, E.V.A.; Sircilli Neto, F.

    1986-05-01

    During the last years, INPE's research in Nuclear Geophysics has developed in fields of interest to the Institute, the scientific community and the society in general. In the space research field it may be considered as a contribution to the history of meteorite falls in our planet or possible collision with big meteorites which may have been the cause of important effects such as biological extinction and extraterrestrial matter gathering. In the atmospheric research field, spatial and temporal variations of radon measurements in the lower atmosphere allow correlations from micrometeorology to worlwide scale through mesoscale, in the interpretation of phenomena which deal with the dynamics of air masses. (Author) [pt

  11. Case-study, session 2. Nuclear facilities and local information. Speech by Lennart Franzon (together with L.G. Wahlberg, OKG)

    Franzon, Lennart; Wahlberg, L.G.

    1989-01-01

    Forsmark NPP is situated 100 miles north of Stockholm on the east coast. The plant has 3 units of about 1 000 MWe each. The annual net production is about 16% of the Swedish electric power consumption. Forsmark was the only Swedish nuclear power plant not yet operating at all at the time of te nuclear power referendum in 1980. The neighbourhood of Forsmark means a radius of about 50 miles from the station, which means about 100 000 inhabitants, including a lot of summer house owners. The first building in use in Forsmark 1973 - seven years before operation start - was a visitors center. Since then 400 000 people have visited Forsmark. The visitors programmes are the most important activities towards the Swedes. To let visitors into a reactor hall balcony, a few meters above the high level waste close to the reactor, is a good way to explain the nuclear power. Many visitors also feel privileged when they together with their friends are able to investigate the radiation protection monitors, where the Chernobyl disaster was detected for the first time outside the Soviet Union in April 1986. Since 1983 both positive and negative aspect of reactor operation are advertised. Data related to electricity supply availability, employment, radiation doses of the employees, radioactive release into air and sea, operational problems, events etc. are all published by the operator in the local newspapers quarterly. The experience is that negative publicity, based on authority reports has decreased. It was found that the most important for the owner/operator is to have the initiative all the time. Similar to Oskarshamn Power Group Forsmark edits a magazine - Forsmarks Tidning - twice a year since 1980, the year of operation start. The magazine is distributed to about 65.000 homes, to authorities, politicians, employees, private companies, etc. About 50% of the neighbours read the magazine. This is considered as success. Through the years of operation of Forsmark it was founds that

  12. Space Nuclear Power and Propulsion - a basic Tool for the manned Exploration of the Solar System

    Frischauf, Norbert; Hamilton, Booz Allen

    2004-01-01

    Humanity has started to explore space more than 40 years ago. Numerous spacecraft have left the Earth in this endeavour, but while unmanned spacecraft were already sent out on missions, where they would eventually reach the outer limits of the Solar System, manned exploration has always been confined to the tiny bubble of the Earth's gravitational well, stretching out at maximum to our closest celestial companion - the Moon - during the era of the Apollo programme in the late 60's and early 70's. When mankind made its giant leap, the exploration of our cosmic neighbour was seen as the initial step for the manned exploration of the whole Solar System. Consequently ambitious research and development programmes were undertaken at that time to enable what seemed to be the next logical steps: the establishment of a permanent settled base on the Moon and the first manned mission to Mars in the 80's. Nuclear space power and propulsion played an important role in these entire future scenarios, hence ambitious development programmes were undertaken to make these technologies available. Unfortunately the 70's-paradigm shift in space policies did not only bring an end to the Apollo programme, but it also brought a complete halt to all of these technology programmes and confined the human presence in space to a tiny bubble including nothing more than the Earth's sphere and a mere shell of a few hundred kilometres of altitude, too small to even include the Moon. Today, after more than three decades, manned exploration of the Solar System has become an issue again and so are missions to Moon and Mars. However, studies and analyses show that all of these future plans are hampered by today's available propulsion systems and by the problematic of solar power generation at distances at and beyond of Mars, a problem, however, that can readily be solved by the utilisation of space nuclear reactors and propulsion systems. This paper intends to provide an overview on the various fission

  13. Advances in defining a closed brayton conversion system for future ARIANE 5 space nuclear power applications

    Tilliette, Z.P.

    1986-06-01

    The present European ARIANE space program will expand into the large ARIANE 5 launch vehicle from 1995. It is assumed that important associated missions would require the generation of 200 kWe or more in space during several years at the very beginning of the next century. It is the reason why, in 1983, the French C.N.E.S. (Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales) and C.E.A. (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique) have initiated preliminary studies of a space nuclear power system. The currently selected conversion system is a closed Brayton cycle. Reasons for this choice are given: high efficiency of a dynamic system; monophasic, inert working fluid; extensive turbomachinery experience, etc... A key aspect of the project is the adaptation to the heat rejection conditions, namely to the radiator geometry which depends upon the dimensions of the ARIANE 5 spacecraft. In addition to usual concepts already studied for space applications, another cycle arrangement is being investigated which could offer satisfactory compromises among many considerations, increase the efficiency of the system and make it more attractive as far as the specific mass (kg/kWe), the specific radiator area (m 2 /kWe) and various technological aspects are concerned. Comparative details are presented

  14. Space and time optimization of nuclear reactors by means of the Pontryagin principle

    Anton, V.

    1979-01-01

    A numerical method is being presented for solving space dependent optimization problems concerning a functional for one dimensional geometries in the few group diffusion approximation. General dimensional analysis was applied to derive relations for the maximum of a functional and the limiting values of the constraints. Two procedures were given for calculating the anisotropic diffusion coefficients in order to improve the results of the diffusion approximation. In this work two procedures were presented for collapsing the microscopic multigroup cross sections, one general and another specific to the space dependent optimization problems solved by means of the Pontryagin maximum principle. Neutron spectrum optimization is performed to ensure the burnup of Pu 239 isotope produced in a thermal nuclear reactor. A procedure is also given for the minimization of finite functional set by means of the Pontryagin maximum principle. A method for determining the characteristics of fission Pseudo products is formulated in one group and multigroup cases. This method is applied in the optimization of the burnup in nuclear reactors with fuel electric cells. A procedure to mjnimze the number of the fuel burnup equations is described. The optimization problems presented and solved in this work point to the efficiency of the maximum principle. Each problem on method presented in the various chapters is accompanied by considerations concerning dual problems and possibilities of further research development. (author)

  15. Gaseous-fuel nuclear reactor research for multimegawatt power in space

    Thom, K.; Schneider, R. T.; Helmick, H. H.

    1977-01-01

    In the gaseous-fuel reactor concept, the fissile material is contained in a moderator-reflector cavity and exists in the form of a flowing gas or plasma separated from the cavity walls by means of fluid mechanical forces. Temperatures in excess of structural limitations are possible for low-specific-mass power and high-specific-impulse propulsion in space. Experiments have been conducted with a canister filled with enriched UF6 inserted into a beryllium-reflected cavity. A theoretically predicted critical mass of 6 kg was measured. The UF6 was also circulated through this cavity, demonstrating stable reactor operation with the fuel in motion. Because the flowing gaseous fuel can be continuously processed, the radioactive waste in this type of reactor can be kept small. Another potential of fissioning gases is the possibility of converting the kinetic energy of fission fragments directly into coherent electromagnetic radiation, the nuclear pumping of lasers. Numerous nuclear laser experiments indicate the possibility of transmitting power in space directly from fission energy. The estimated specific mass of a multimegawatt gaseous-fuel reactor power system is from 1 to 5 kg/kW while the companion laser-power receiver station would be much lower in specific mass.

  16. Thermodynamics Properties of Binary Gas Mixtures for Brayton Space Nuclear Power System

    You Ersheng; Shi Lei; Zhang Zuoyi

    2014-01-01

    Space nuclear power system with closed Brayton cycle has the potential advantages of high cycle efficiency. It can be achieved to limit the specific mass of the system with a competitive design scheme, so as to strengthen the advantage of the nuclear energy applying in space propulsion and electric generating compared to solar or chemical propellant. Whereby, the thermodynamic properties of working fluids have a significant influence on the performance of the plant. Therefore, two binary mixtures helium-nitrogen and helium-carbon dioxide are introduced to analysis the variation in the transport and heat transfer capacity of working fluids. Based on the parameters of pure gases, the heat transfer coefficient, pressure losses and aerodynamic loading are calculated as a function of mole fraction at the temperature of 400 K and 1200 K, as well as the typical operating pressure of 2 MPa. Results indicated that the mixture of helium-carbon dioxide with a mole fraction of 0.4 is a more attractive choice for the high heat transfer coefficient, low aerodynamic loading and acceptable pressure losses in contrast to helium-nitrogen and other mixing ratios of helium-carbon dioxide. Its heat transfer coefficient is almost 20% more than that of pure helium and the normalized aerodynamic loading is less than 34% at 1200 K. However; the pressure losses are a little higher with ~3.5 times those of pure helium. (author)

  17. Thermodynamic analysis and optimization of a Closed Regenerative Brayton Cycle for nuclear space power systems

    Ribeiro, Guilherme B.; Braz Filho, Francisco A.; Guimarães, Lamartine N.F.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear power systems turned to space electric propulsion differ strongly from usual ground-based power systems regarding the importance of overall size and mass. For propulsion power systems, size and mass are essential drivers that should be minimized during conception processes. Considering this aspect, this paper aims the development of a design-based model of a Closed Regenerative Brayton Cycle that applies the thermal conductance of the main components in order to predict the energy conversion performance, allowing its use as a preliminary tool for heat exchanger and radiator panel sizing. The centrifugal-flow turbine and compressor characterizations were achieved using algebraic equations from literature data. A binary mixture of Helium–Xenon with molecular weight of 40 g/mole is applied and the impact of the components sizing in the energy efficiency is evaluated in this paper, including the radiator panel area. Moreover, an optimization analysis based on the final mass of heat the exchangers is performed. - Highlights: • A design-based model of a Closed Brayton Cycle is proposed for nuclear space needs. • Turbomachinery efficiency presented a strong influence on the system efficiency. • Radiator area presented the highest potential to increase the system efficiency. • There is maximum system efficiency for each total mass of heat exchangers. • Size or efficiency optimization was performed by changing heat exchanger proportion.

  18. Conduct and results of the Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel's evaluation of the Ulysses space mission

    Sholtis, J.A. Jr.; Gray, L.B.; Huff, D.A.; Klug, N.P.; Winchester, R.O.

    1991-01-01

    The recent 6 October 1990 launch and deployment of the nuclear-powered Ulysses spacecraft from the Space Shuttle Discovery culminated an extensive safety review and evaluation effort by the Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel (INSRP). After more than a year of detailed independent review, study, and analysis, the INSRP prepared a Safety Evaluation Report (SER) on the Ulysses mission, in accordance with Presidential Directive-National Security Council memorandum 25. The SER, which included a review of the Ulysses Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) and an independent characterization of the mission risks, was used by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in its decision to request launch approval as well as by the Executive Office of the President in arriving at a launch decision based on risk-benefit considerations. This paper provides an overview of the Ulysses mission and the conduct as well as the results of the INSRP evaluation. While the mission risk determined by the INSRP in the SER was higher than that characterized by the Ulysses project in the FSAR, both reports indicated that the radiological risks were relatively small. In the final analysis, the SER proved to be supportive of a positive launch decision. The INSRP evaluation process has demonstrated its effectiveness numerous times since the 1960s. In every case, it has provided the essential ingredients and perspective to permit an informed launch decision at the highest level of our Government

  19. Session 1984-85. Radioactive waste. Minutes of evidence, Wednesday 15 May 1985, National Radiological Protection Board, HM Nuclear Installations Inspectorate

    1985-01-01

    The Environment Select Committee of the House of Commons received a memorandum from the National Radiological Protection Board entitled 'Radioactive effluents and solid wastes - a summary of NRPB work on standards, assessments and research', under the headings introduction; development of standards (ICRP; NEA Expert Group; IAEA; NRPB; cost-benefit analysis; critical-group; transport regulations); assessments of the radiological impact of waste management practices (including matters connected with the operation of the Sellafield reprocessing plant, BNF plc); research on environmental transfer processes and dosimetry; general conclusions; references. A representative of NRPB was examined on the subject of the memorandum and the minutes of evidence are recorded. A memorandum was also received from the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (Health and Safety Executive) under the headings: introduction; the site licence; radioactive waste management policy and NII; quantities and forms of waste and methods of disposal; financial, administrative and political aspects; transport. Representatives of the NII were examined, and the minutes of evidence are recorded.

  20. Nuclear waste disposal. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Nuclear Regulation of the Committee on Environment and Public Works, United States Senate, Ninety-Sixth Congress, second session, January 23-24, 1980

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    The proceedings of Hearings on the Federal nuclear waste program are recorded in this volume. The Hearings examine the nation's failure to implement a plan for disposing of radioactive wastes. Addressed is the role of the states in decisions on siting, construction, and operating a nuclear waste repository. Witnesses include representatives of the DOE, NRC, Council on Environmental Quality, the nuclear industry, and public interest groups

  1. Summary of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Sessions

    Harris, J.W.

    1988-07-01

    This paper briefly discusses the topics covered in the relativistic heavy ion in sessions. The prime motivation for these investigations is the possibility of forming quark matter, therefore the formation of a quark-gluon plasma. Topics on suppression of J//psi/ production, th equation of state of nuclear matter, transverse energy distributions and two pion interferometry techniques are discussed. 38 refs

  2. Nuclear reactor power for a space-based radar. SP-100 project

    Bloomfield, Harvey; Heller, Jack; Jaffe, Leonard; Beatty, Richard; Bhandari, Pradeep; Chow, Edwin; Deininger, William; Ewell, Richard; Fujita, Toshio; Grossman, Merlin

    1986-01-01

    A space-based radar mission and spacecraft, using a 300 kWe nuclear reactor power system, has been examined, with emphasis on aspects affecting the power system. The radar antenna is a horizontal planar array, 32 X 64 m. The orbit is at 61 deg, 1088 km. The mass of the antenna with support structure is 42,000 kg; of the nuclear reactor power system, 8,300 kg; of the whole spacecraft about 51,000 kg, necessitating multiple launches and orbital assembly. The assembly orbit is at 57 deg, 400 km, high enough to provide the orbital lifetime needed for orbital assembly. The selected scenario uses six Shuttle launches to bring the spacecraft and a Centaur G upper-stage vehicle to assembly orbit. After assembly, the Centaur places the spacecraft in operational orbit, where it is deployed on radio command, the power system started, and the spacecraft becomes operational. Electric propulsion is an alternative and allows deployment in assembly orbit, but introduces a question of nuclear safety.

  3. The approach to risk analysis in three industries: nuclear power, space systems, and chemical process

    Garrick, B.J.

    1988-01-01

    The aerospace, nuclear power, and chemical processing industries are providing much of the incentive for the development and application of advanced risk analysis techniques to engineered systems. Risk analysis must answer three basic questions: What can go wrong? How likely is it? and What are the consequences? The result of such analyses is not only a quantitative answer to the question of 'What is the risk', but, more importantly, a framework for intelligent and visible risk management. Because of the societal importance of the subject industries and the amount of risk analysis activity involved in each, it is interesting to look for commonalities, differences, and, hopefully, a basis for some standardization. Each industry has its strengths: the solid experience base of the chemical industry, the extensive qualification and testing procedures of the space industry, and the integrative and quantitative risk and reliability methodologies developed for the nuclear power industry. In particular, most advances in data handling, systems interaction modeling, and uncertainty analysis have come from the probabilistic risk assessment work in the nuclear safety field. In the final analysis, all three industries would greatly benefit from a more deliberate technology exchange program in the rapidly evolving discipline of quantitative risk analysis. (author)

  4. Independent Safety Assessment of the TOPAZ-II space nuclear reactor power system (Revised)

    1993-09-01

    The Independent Safety Assessment described in this study report was performed to assess the safety of the design and launch plans anticipated by the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) in 1993 for a Russian-built, U.S.-modified, TOPAZ-II space nuclear reactor power system. Its conclusions, and the bases for them, were intended to provide guidance for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) management in the event that the DOD requested authorization under section 91b. of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, for possession and use (including ground testing and launch) of a nuclear-fueled, modified TOPAZ-II. The scientists and engineers who were engaged to perform this assessment are nationally-known nuclear safety experts in various disciplines. They met with participants in the TOPAZ-II program during the spring and summer of 1993 and produced a report based on their analysis of the proposed TOPAZ-II mission. Their conclusions were confined to the potential impact on public safety and did not include budgetary, reliability, or risk-benefit analyses

  5. The Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Program: Propulsion for the twenty first century

    Bleeker, G.; Moody, J.; Kesaree, M.

    1993-01-01

    As mission requirements approach the limits of the chemical propulsion systems, new engines must be investigated that can meet the advanced mission requirements of higher payload fractions, higher velocities, and consequently higher specific Impulses (Isp). The propulsion system that can meet these high demands is a nuclear thermal rocket engine. This engine generates the thrust by expanding/existing the hydrogen, heated from the energy derived from the fission process in a reactor, through a nozzle. The Department of Defense (DoD), however, initiated a new nuclear rocket development program in 1987 for ballistic missile defense application. The Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) Program that seeks to improve on the technology of ROVER/NERVA grew out of this beginning and has been managed by the Air Force, with the involvement of DoE and NASA. The goal of the SNTP Program is to develop an engine to meet potential Air Force requirements for upper stage engine, bimodal propulsion/power applications, and orbital transfer vehicles, as well as the NASA requirements for possible missions to the Moon and Mars. During the entire life of the program, the DoD has considered safety to be of paramount importance, and is following all national environmental policies

  6. Linearly Refined Session Types

    Pedro Baltazar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Session types capture precise protocol structure in concurrent programming, but do not specify properties of the exchanged values beyond their basic type. Refinement types are a form of dependent types that can address this limitation, combining types with logical formulae that may refer to program values and can constrain types using arbitrary predicates. We present a pi calculus with assume and assert operations, typed using a session discipline that incorporates refinement formulae written in a fragment of Multiplicative Linear Logic. Our original combination of session and refinement types, together with the well established benefits of linearity, allows very fine-grained specifications of communication protocols in which refinement formulae are treated as logical resources rather than persistent truths.

  7. The Legal Regime of Nuclear Power Satellites-A Problem at the Cross-Roads of Nuclear Law and Space Law

    Courteix, S.

    1992-01-01

    The number of nuclear-powered satellites rises constantly and, recalling the fear generated by the crash of the Cosmos 954 satellite, the author points out that radioactive debris falling on earth could represent as great a hazard as accidental releases of radioactive material from land-based nuclear installations. Such satellites, therefore, can be governed by both space law and nuclear law. On the basis of international conventions applicable in the two fields and also with reference to the Law of the Sea and environmental law, the article analyses preventive and radiation protection measures as well as emergency plans and also raises the problem of liability and compensation for damage. (NEA)

  8. Workshop: poster session

    Schell, W.R.; Colgan, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    The poster session consisted of a microcosm of projects encompassing the wide range of problems in the radioecology of natural and semi-natural ecosystems. The authors presented a brief resume of the poster at a plenary session during which highlights were pointed out. The range of studies covered microbial transfer, fungi, insects herbicides, lichens, solid speciation of cesium, soil properties, plant cover, transfer factors from soil to plants, uptake by sludge fertilizers, fertilizer remediation and compartmental models for soil-plant uptake. (author)

  9. A design study of reactor core optimization for direct nuclear heat-to-electricity conversion in a space power reactor

    Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Takahashi, Makoto; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Takeoka, Satoshi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan); Nakagawa, Masayuki; Kugo, Teruhiko

    1998-01-01

    To propose a new design concept of a nuclear reactor used in the space, research has been conducted on the conceptual design of a new nuclear reactor on the basis of the following three main concepts: (1) Thermionic generation by thermionic fuel elements (TFE), (2) reactivity control by rotary reflector, and (3) reactor cooling by liquid metal. The outcomes of the research are: (1) A calculation algorithm was derived for obtaining convergent conditions by repeating nuclear characteristic calculation and thermal flow characteristic calculation for the space nuclear reactor. (2) Use of this algorithm and the parametric study established that a space nuclear reactor using 97% enriched uranium nitride as the fuel and lithium as the coolant and having a core with a radius of about 25 cm, a height of about 50 cm and a generation efficiency of about 7% can probably be operated continuously for at least more than ten years at 100 kW only by reactivity control by rotary reflector. (3) A new CAD/CAE system was developed to assist design work to optimize the core characteristics of the space nuclear reactor comprehensively. It is composed of the integrated design support system VINDS using virtual reality and the distributed system WINDS to collaboratively support design work using Internet. (N.H.)

  10. Session 1984-85. Radioactive waste. Minutes of evidence, Wednesday 15 May 1985, National Radiological Protection Board, HM Nuclear Installations Inspectorate

    1985-01-01

    The Environment Select Committee of the House of Commons received a memorandum from the National Radiological Protection Board entitled 'Radioactive effluents and solid wastes - a summary of NRPB work on standards, assessments and research', under the headings introduction; development of standards (ICRP; NEA Expert Group; IAEA; NRPB; cost-benefit analysis; critical-group; transport regulations); assessments of the radiological impact of waste management practices (including matters connected with the operation of the Sellafield reprocessing plant, BNF plc); research on environmental transfer processes and dosimetry; general conclusions; references. A representative of NRPB was examined on the subject of the memorandum and the minutes of evidence are recorded. A memorandum was also received from the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (Health and Safety Executive) under the headings: introduction; the site licence; radioactive waste management policy and NII; quantities and forms of waste and methods of disposal; financial, administrative and political aspects; transport. Representatives of the NII were examined, and the minutes of evidence are recorded. (U.K.)

  11. The Role of Nuclear Fragmentation in Particle Therapy and Space Radiation Protection.

    Zeitlin, Cary; La Tessa, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    The transport of the so-called HZE particles (those having high charge, Z, and energy, E) through matter is crucially important both in space radiation protection and in the clinical setting where heavy ions are used for cancer treatment. HZE particles are usually considered those having Z > 1, though sometimes Z > 2 is meant. Transport physics is governed by two types of interactions, electromagnetic (ionization energy loss) and nuclear. Models of transport, such as those used in treatment planning and space mission planning must account for both effects in detail. The theory of electromagnetic interactions is well developed, but nucleus-nucleus collisions are so complex that no fundamental physical theory currently describes them. Instead, interaction models are generally anchored to experimental data, which in some areas are far from complete. The lack of fundamental physics knowledge introduces uncertainties in the calculations of exposures and their associated risks. These uncertainties are greatly compounded by the much larger uncertainties in biological response to HZE particles. In this article, we discuss the role of nucleus-nucleus interactions in heavy charged particle therapy and in deep space, where astronauts will receive a chronic low dose from galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) and potentially higher short-term doses from sporadic, unpredictable solar energetic particles (SEPs). GCRs include HZE particles; SEPs typically do not and we, therefore, exclude them from consideration in this article. Nucleus-nucleus collisions can result in the breakup of heavy ions into lighter ions. In space, this is generally beneficial because dose and dose equivalent are, on the whole, reduced in the process. The GCRs can be considered a radiation field with a significant high-LET component; when they pass through matter, the high-LET component is attenuated, at the cost of a slight increase in the low-LET component. Not only are the standard measures of risk

  12. Session 7: Reserve

    Bailey, R.; Crockford, G.

    2001-01-01

    The reserve session was devoted to some issues that came up through the workshop, which were grouped into three main areas: The Global Accelerator Network, Problems of stress and how to get organized to minimize them, What should an operations group be responsible for? This paper summarizes the discussions that took place. (author)

  13. Session 2: Availability

    Uythoven, J

    2012-01-01

    This session concentrated on the main players affecting the availability of the LHC: the Quench Protection System (QPS), the cryogenics system, the regularly foreseen technical stops and the effect of radiation on equipment failures. A forecast for operation in 2012 was made for all these items.

  14. Summary of Session 3

    Fleischer, J.

    2004-01-01

    In Session 3, the speakers were dealing with the following topics: Automatization of Feynman Diagram Calculations (FDC), Event generators, Analytical approaches to FDC and various Mathematical innovations related to different physical problems. A more general, 'brainstorming', talk was given by J. Vermaseren as first talk

  15. Summary of Session III

    Furman, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    This is a summary of the talks presented in Session III ''Simulations of Electron-Cloud Build Up'' of the Mini-Workshop on Electron-Cloud Simulations for Proton and Positron Beams ECLOUD-02, held at CERN, 15-18 April 2002

  16. Abstracts of SIG Sessions.

    Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Includes abstracts of 18 special interest group (SIG) sessions. Highlights include natural language processing, information science and terminology science, classification, knowledge-intensive information systems, information value and ownership issues, economics and theories of information science, information retrieval interfaces, fuzzy thinking…

  17. Innovative nuclear thermal rocket concept utilizing LEU fuel for space application

    Nam, Seung Hyun; Venneri, Paolo; Choi, Jae Young; Jeong, Yong Hoon; Chang, Soon Heung

    2015-01-01

    Space is one of the best places for humanity to turn to keep learning and exploiting. A Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) is a viable and more efficient option for human space exploration than the existing Chemical Rockets (CRs) which are highly inefficient for long-term manned missions such as to Mars and its satellites. NERVA derived NTR engines have been studied for the human missions as a mainstream in the United States of America (USA). Actually, the NERVA technology has already been developed and successfully tested since 1950s. The state-of-the-art technology is based on a Hydrogen gas (H_2) cooled high temperature reactor with solid core utilizing High-Enriched Uranium (HEU) fuel to reduce heavy metal mass and to use fast or epithermal neutron spectrums enabling simple core designs. However, even though the NTR designs utilizing HEU is the best option in terms of rocket performance, they inevitably provoke nuclear proliferation obstacles on all Research and Development (R and D) activities by civilians and non-nuclear weapon states, and its eventual commercialization. To surmount the security issue to use HEU fuel for a NTR, a concept of the innovative NTR engine, Korea Advanced NUclear Thermal Engine Rocket utilizing Low-Enriched Uranium fuel (KANUTER-LEU) is presented in this paper. The design goal of KANUTER-LEU is to make use of a LEU fuel for its compact reactor, but does not sacrifice the rocket performance relative to the traditional NTRs utilizing HEU. KANUTER-LEU mainly consists of a fission reactor utilizing H_2 propellant, a propulsion system and an optional Electricity Generation System as a bimodal engine. To implement LEU fuel for the reactor, the innovative engine adopts W-UO_2 CERMET fuel to drastically increase uranium density and thermal neutron spectrum to improve neutron economy in the core. The moderator and structural material selections also consider neutronic and thermo-physical characteristics to reduce non-fission neutron loss and

  18. Whistleblower Issues in the Nuclear Industry. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Clean Air and Nuclear Regulation of the Committee on Environment and Public Works, United States Senate, One Hundred Third Congress, First Session, July 15, 1993

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    This hearing concerns NRC's treatment of whistleblowers in the nuclear industry. Whistleblowers are defined as people who inform the NRC of nuclear safety concerns, or people who allege that they were intimidated and harassed by their employer because they raised safety issues. Testimony from the following is included in this volume: P. Blanch; A.W. Dahlbergy III CEO Georgia Power Co.; J. Goldberg, President, Nuclear Division, Florida Power and Light; A. Mosbaugh; Hon. Ivan Selin, NRC; Hon. David C. Williams, Inspector General, NRC

  19. Nuclear-fuel-cycle policy and the future of nuclear power. Oversight hearing before the Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations of the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, House of Representatives, Ninety-Seventh Congress, First Session, October 23, 1981

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    Edward Teller, Ralph Nader, and a panel from Merrill Lynch, Pierce, Fenner, and Smith were among the 12 witnesses at this hearing on the Reagan administration's decision to eliminate the ban on plutonium reprocessing and its effect on the nuclear industry's future. Subcommittee Chairman Edward J. Markey asked for comments on safety question, recent plant cancellations, contributions that nuclear power can make in relieving oil dependence in the transportation sector, proliferation, and the inconsistency of subsidizing nuclear while imposing a free-market philosophy on solar, coal, and conservation. The testimony if followed by an appendix of additional material submitted for the record

  20. MCNP benchmark analyses of critical experiments for the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion program

    Selcow, E.C.; Cerbone, R.J.; Ludewig, H.; Mughabghab, S.F.; Schmidt, E.; Todosow, M.; Parma, E.J.; Ball, R.M.; Hoovler, G.S.

    1993-01-01

    Benchmark analyses have been performed of Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) critical experiments (CX) using the MCNP radiation transport code. The experiments have been conducted at the Sandia National Laboratory reactor facility in support of the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) program. The test reactor is a nineteen element water moderated and reflected thermal system. A series of integral experiments have been carried out to test the capabilities of the radiation transport codes to predict the performance of PBR systems. MCNP was selected as the preferred radiation analysis tool for the benchmark experiments. Comparison between experimental and calculational results indicate close agreement. This paper describes the analyses of benchmark experiments designed to quantify the accuracy of the MCNP radiation transport code for predicting the performance characteristics of PBR reactors

  1. Safety culture: a comparative study of space, nuclear and oil-gas sectors

    Morais, David; Assis, Altair Souza de

    2008-01-01

    Full text:We access in this paper the safety culture methodology adopted by three different industrial sectors: Nuclear, space/aeronautics and oil-gas, in Brazil. In this work, It is evaluated the planning, training, personal monitoring and the interaction between the technical personal, such as engineers and physicists, with human ones, such social workers and physiologists, key factor to understand the efficacy of the local safety culture pattern. The research is made through the analysis of the relevant manuals and interviewing the safety, human areas personal, and regulatory managers, concerned with/related to safety/working with safety culture at the specific industrial sector. It is compared the efficacies and the official regulatory vision on the issue, for the different sectors, in order to detect confluences and divergences and, so, to propose a model that better treat the safety culture as a global industrial value. (author)

  2. 10 KWe dual-mode space nuclear power system for military and scientific applications

    Malloy, J.; Westerman, K.; Rochow, R.; Scoles, S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses a 10 KWe dual-mode space power system concept which has been identified and is based on INEL's Small Externally-fueled Heat Pipe Thermionic Reactor (SEHPTR) concept. This power system will enhance user capabilities by providing reliable electric power and by providing two propulsion systems; electric power for an arc-jet electric propulsion system and direct thrust by heating hydrogen propellant inside the reactor. The low thrust electric thrusters allow efficient station keeping and long-term maneuvering. This paper will focus on the nuclear power system design, including: the reactor with its UO 2 fuel in tungsten clad, 36 thermionic heat pipe modules (THPMs) which produce electricity within the reactor and remove waste heat, radiation shielding, waste heat radiators, and reactivity control systems. The use of non-vented fuel elements for short lifetime missions (under five years) will be described

  3. Nuclear characteristics of epoxy resin as a space environment neutron shielding

    Adeli, Ruhollah [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Central Iran Research Complex; Shirmardi, Seyed Pezhman [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Radiation Application Research School; Mazinani, Saideh [Amirkabir Nanotechnology Research Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ahmadi, Seyed Javad [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Nuclear Fuel Cycle Research School

    2017-03-15

    In recent years many investigations have been done for choosing applicable light neutron shielding in space environmental applications. In this study, we have considered the neutron radiation-protective characteristics of neat epoxy resin, a thermoplastic polymer material and have compared it with various candidate materials in neutron radiation protection such as Al 6061 alloy and Polyethylene. The aim of this investigation is the effect of type of moderator for fast neutron, notwithstanding neutron absorbers fillers. The nuclear interactions and the effective dose at shields have been studied with the Monte Carlo N-Particle transport code (MCNP), using variance reductions to reduce the relative error. Among the candidates, polymer matrix showed a better performance in attenuating fast neutrons and caused a lower neutron and secondary photon effective dose.

  4. MCNP benchmark analyses of critical experiments for the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion program

    Selcow, Elizabeth C.; Cerbone, Ralph J.; Ludewig, Hans; Mughabghab, Said F.; Schmidt, Eldon; Todosow, Michael; Parma, Edward J.; Ball, Russell M.; Hoovler, Gary S.

    1993-01-01

    Benchmark analyses have been performed of Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) critical experiments (CX) using the MCNP radiation transport code. The experiments have been conducted at the Sandia National Laboratory reactor facility in support of the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) program. The test reactor is a nineteen element water moderated and reflected thermal system. A series of integral experiments have been carried out to test the capabilities of the radiation transport codes to predict the performance of PBR systems. MCNP was selected as the preferred radiation analysis tool for the benchmark experiments. Comparison between experimental and calculational results indicate close agreement. This paper describes the analyses of benchmark experiments designed to quantify the accuracy of the MCNP radiation transport code for predicting the performance characteristics of PBR reactors.

  5. Heat exchanger optimization of a closed Brayton cycle for nuclear space propulsion

    Ribeiro, Guilherme B.; Guimaraes, Lamartine N.F.; Braz Filho, Francisco A., E-mail: gbribeiro@ieav.cta.br, E-mail: guimarae@ieav.cta.br, E-mail: braz@ieav.cta.br [Instituto de Estudos Avancados (IEAV), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Divisao de Energia Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    Nuclear power systems turned to space electric propulsion differs strongly from usual ground-based power systems regarding the importance of overall size and weight. For propulsion power systems, weight and efficiency are essential drivers that should be managed during conception phase. Considering that, this paper aims the development of a thermal model of a closed Brayton cycle that applies the thermal conductance of heat exchangers in order to predict the energy conversion performance. The centrifugal-flow turbine and compressor characterization were achieved using algebraic equations from literature data. The binary mixture of He-Xe with molecular weight of 40 g/mole is applied and the impact of heat exchanger optimization in thermodynamic irreversibilities is evaluated in this paper. (author)

  6. Heat exchanger optimization of a closed Brayton cycle for nuclear space propulsion

    Ribeiro, Guilherme B.; Guimaraes, Lamartine N.F.; Braz Filho, Francisco A.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear power systems turned to space electric propulsion differs strongly from usual ground-based power systems regarding the importance of overall size and weight. For propulsion power systems, weight and efficiency are essential drivers that should be managed during conception phase. Considering that, this paper aims the development of a thermal model of a closed Brayton cycle that applies the thermal conductance of heat exchangers in order to predict the energy conversion performance. The centrifugal-flow turbine and compressor characterization were achieved using algebraic equations from literature data. The binary mixture of He-Xe with molecular weight of 40 g/mole is applied and the impact of heat exchanger optimization in thermodynamic irreversibilities is evaluated in this paper. (author)

  7. Nuclear safety considerations in the conceptual design of a fast reactor for space electric power and propulsion

    Hsieh, T.-M.; Koenig, D. R.

    1977-01-01

    Some nuclear safety aspects of a 3.2 mWt heat pipe cooled fast reactor with out-of-core thermionic converters are discussed. Safety related characteristics of the design including a thin layer of B4C surrounding the core, the use of heat pipes and BeO reflector assembly, the elimination of fuel element bowing, etc., are highlighted. Potential supercriticality hazards and countermeasures are considered. Impacts of some safety guidelines of space transportation system are also briefly discussed, since the currently developing space shuttle would be used as the primary launch vehicle for the nuclear electric propulsion spacecraft.

  8. CFD Analysis of Square Flow Channel in Thermal Engine Rocket Adventurer for Space Nuclear Application

    Nam, S. H.; Suh, K. Y. [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, S. G. [PHILOSOPHIA, Inc., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-10-15

    Solar system exploration relying on chemical rockets suffers from long trip time and high cost. In this regard nuclear propulsion is an attractive option for space exploration. The performance of Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) is more than twice that of the best chemical rocket. Resorting to the pure hydrogen (H{sub 2}) propellant the NTRs can possibly achieve as high as 1,000 s of specific impulse (I{sub sp}) representing the ratio of the thrust over the fuel consumption rate, as compared to only 425 s of H{sub 2}/O{sub 2} rockets. If we reflect on the mission to Mars, NTRs would reduce the round trip time to less than 300 days, instead of over 600 days with chemical rockets. This work presents CFD analysis of one Fuel Element (FE) of Thermal Engine Rocket Adventurer (TERA). In particular, one Square Flow Channel (SFC) is analyzed in Square Lattice Honeycomb (SLHC) fuel to examine the effects of mass flow rate on rocket performance.

  9. Nuclear Energy Gradients for Internally Contracted Complete Active Space Second-Order Perturbation Theory: Multistate Extensions.

    Vlaisavljevich, Bess; Shiozaki, Toru

    2016-08-09

    We report the development of the theory and computer program for analytical nuclear energy gradients for (extended) multistate complete active space perturbation theory (CASPT2) with full internal contraction. The vertical shifts are also considered in this work. This is an extension of the fully internally contracted CASPT2 nuclear gradient program recently developed for a state-specific variant by us [MacLeod and Shiozaki, J. Chem. Phys. 2015, 142, 051103]; in this extension, the so-called λ equation is solved to account for the variation of the multistate CASPT2 energies with respect to the change in the amplitudes obtained in the preceding state-specific CASPT2 calculations, and the Z vector equations are modified accordingly. The program is parallelized using the MPI3 remote memory access protocol that allows us to perform efficient one-sided communication. The optimized geometries of the ground and excited states of a copper corrole and benzophenone are presented as numerical examples. The code is publicly available under the GNU General Public License.

  10. Adaptability of Brayton cycle conversion systems to fast, epithermal and thermal spectrum space nuclear reactors

    Tilliette, Z.P.

    1988-01-01

    The two French Government Agencies C.N.E.S. (Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales) and C.E.A. (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique) are carrying out joint preliminary studies on space nuclear power systems for future ARIANE 5 launch vehicle applications. The Brayton cycle is the reference conversion system, whether the heat source is a liquid metal-cooled (NaK, Na or Li) reactor or a gas-cooled direct cycle concept. The search for an adequate utilization of this energy conversion means has prompted additional evaluations featuring the definition of satisfactory cycle conditions for these various kinds of reactor concepts. In addition to firstly studied fast and epithermal spectrum ones, thermal spectrum reactors can offer an opportunity of bringing out some distinctive features of the Brayton cycle, in particular for the temperature conditioning of the efficient metal hydrides (ZrH, Li/sub 7/H) moderators. One of the purposes of the paper is to confirm the potential of long lifetime ZrH moderated reactors associated with a gas cycle and to assess the thermodynamical consequences for both Nak(Na)-cooled or gas-cooled nuclear heat sources. This investigation is complemented by the definition of appropriate reactor arrangements which could be presented on a further occasion

  11. The rationale/benefits of nuclear thermal rocket propulsion for NASA's lunar space transportation system

    Borowski, Stanley K.

    1994-09-01

    The solid core nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) represents the next major evolutionary step in propulsion technology. With its attractive operating characteristics, which include high specific impulse (approximately 850-1000 s) and engine thrust-to-weight (approximately 4-20), the NTR can form the basis for an efficient lunar space transportation system (LTS) capable of supporting both piloted and cargo missions. Studies conducted at the NASA Lewis Research Center indicate that an NTR-based LTS could transport a fully-fueled, cargo-laden, lunar excursion vehicle to the Moon, and return it to low Earth orbit (LEO) after mission completion, for less initial mass in LEO than an aerobraked chemical system of the type studied by NASA during its '90-Day Study.' The all-propulsive NTR-powered LTS would also be 'fully reusable' and would have a 'return payload' mass fraction of approximately 23 percent--twice that of the 'partially reusable' aerobraked chemical system. Two NTR technology options are examined--one derived from the graphite-moderated reactor concept developed by NASA and the AEC under the Rover/NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application) programs, and a second concept, the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR). The paper also summarizes NASA's lunar outpost scenario, compares relative performance provided by different LTS concepts, and discusses important operational issues (e.g., reusability, engine 'end-of life' disposal, etc.) associated with using this important propulsion technology.

  12. General-purpose heat source project and space nuclear safety and fuels program. Progress report

    Maraman, W.J.

    1980-02-01

    Studies related to the use of 238 PuO 2 in radioisotopic power systems carried out for the Advanced Nuclear Systems and Projects Division of LASL are presented. The three programs involved are: general-purpose heat source development; space nuclear safety; and fuels program. Three impact tests were conducted to evaluate the effects of a high temperature reentry pulse and the use of CBCF on impact performance. Additionally, two 238 PuO 2 pellets were encapsulated in Ir-0.3% W for impact testing. Results of the clad development test and vent testing are noted. Results of the environmental tests are summarized. Progress on the Stirling isotope power systems test and the status of the improved MHW tests are indicated. The examination of the impact failure of the iridium shell of MHFT-65 at a fuel pass-through continued. A test plan was written for vibration testing of the assembled light-weight radioisotopic heater unit. Progress on fuel processing is reported

  13. The nuclear energy use in Space; Utilisation de l'energie nucleaire dans l'espace

    Raepsaet, X. [CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France). Dept. de Mecanique et de Technologie; Pempie, P. [Centre National d' Etudes Spatiales (CNES), 91 - Evry (France)

    2002-07-01

    Two ways of the nuclear energy use are possible in spatial applications. The first one is the electric power production to supply satellites, space vehicles or electric propulsion. The second one, less obvious, is the thermal-nuclear propulsion where the nuclear reactor is a thermal exchanger for a gas. These two applications are presented in this paper, with two examples of projects realized in collaboration of the CNES and the CEA: ERATO as an electrical generator and MAPS as the nucleo-thermal propulsion. (A.L.B.)

  14. Session 1 - discussion

    Wells, C.; Richards, K.M.; McKerrow, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    This discussion session of the Landfill Gas-Energy and Environment 90 Conference covered the landfill gas potential, the setting up of the Non-Fossil Fuel Obligation; anticipated developments in the post 1998 period, the problem of smell for those who live near a landfill, and the length of time a landfill site is productive in terms of gas evolution. Relevant regulations in California are briefly discussed. (author)

  15. Megawatt Class Nuclear Space Power Systems (MCNSPS) conceptual design and evaluation report. Volume 2, technologies 1: Reactors, heat transport, integration issues

    Wetch, J. R.

    1988-01-01

    The objectives of the Megawatt Class Nuclear Space Power System (MCNSPS) study are summarized and candidate systems and subsystems are described. Particular emphasis is given to the heat rejection system and the space reactor subsystem.

  16. A feasibility assessment of nuclear reactor power system concepts for the NASA Growth Space Station

    Bloomfield, H. S.; Heller, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    A preliminary feasibility assessment of the integration of reactor power system concepts with a projected growth Space Station architecture was conducted to address a variety of installation, operational, disposition and safety issues. A previous NASA sponsored study, which showed the advantages of Space Station - attached concepts, served as the basis for this study. A study methodology was defined and implemented to assess compatible combinations of reactor power installation concepts, disposal destinations, and propulsion methods. Three installation concepts that met a set of integration criteria were characterized from a configuration and operational viewpoint, with end-of-life disposal mass identified. Disposal destinations that met current aerospace nuclear safety criteria were identified and characterized from an operational and energy requirements viewpoint, with delta-V energy requirement as a key parameter. Chemical propulsion methods that met current and near-term application criteria were identified and payload mass and delta-V capabilities were characterized. These capabilities were matched against concept disposal mass and destination delta-V requirements to provide a feasibility of each combination.

  17. Load-Following Voltage Controller Design for a Static Space Nuclear Power System

    Parlos, Alexander G.; Onbasioglou, Fetiye O.; Metzger, John D.

    2000-01-01

    The reliability of static space nuclear power systems (SNPSs) could be improved through the use of backup devices in addition to shunt regulators, as currently proposed for load following. Shunt regulator failure leading to reactor shutdown is possible, as is the possible need to deliver somewhat higher power level to the load than originally expected. A backup system is proposed in SNPSs to eliminate the possibility of a single-point failure in the shunt regulators and to increase the overall system power delivery capability despite changing mission needs and component characteristics. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the feasibility of such a backup device for voltage regulation in static SNPSs that is capable of overcoming system variations resulting from operation at different power levels. A dynamic compensator is designed using the Linear Quadratic Gaussian with Loop Transfer Recovery method. The resulting compensators are gain scheduled using the SNPS electric power as the scheduling variable, resulting in a nonlinear compensator. The performance of the gain-scheduled compensator is investigated extensively using an SNPS simulator. The simulations demonstrate the effects of the fuel temperature reactivity coefficient variations on the load-following capabilities of the SNPS. Robustness analysis results demonstrate that the proposed controller exhibits significant operational flexibility, and it can be considered for long-term space mission requiring significant levels of autonomy

  18. A feasibility assessment of nuclear reactor power system concepts for the NASA growth Space Station

    Bloomfield, H.S.; Heller, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    A preliminary feasibility assessment of the integration of reactor power system concepts with a projected growth space station architecture was conducted to address a variety of installation, operational, disposition and safety issues. A previous NASA sponsored study, which showed the advantages of space station related concepts, served as the basis for this study. A study methodology was defined and implemented to assess compatible combinations of reactor power installation concepts, disposal destinations, and propulsion methods. Three installation concepts that met a set of integration criteria were characterized from a configuration and operational viewpoint, with end-of-life disposal mass identified. Disposal destinations that met current aerospace nuclear safety criteria were identified and characterized from an operational and energy requirements viewpoint, with delta-V energy requirement as a key parameter. Chemical propulsion methods that met current and near-term application criteria were identified and payload mass and delta-V capabilities were characterized. These capabilities were matched against concept disposal mass and destination delta-V requirements to provide a feasibility of each combination

  19. An overview of the Nuclear Electric Propulsion Space Test Program (NEPSTP) satellite

    Voss, S.S.; Reynolds, E.L.

    1994-01-01

    Early in 1992 the idea of purchasing a Russian designed and fabricated space reactor power system and integrating it with a US designed satellite went from fiction to reality with the purchase of the first two Topaz II reactors by the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (now the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO)). The New Mexico Alliance was formed to establish a ground test facility in which to perform nonnuclear systems testing of the Topaz II, and to evaluate the Topaz II system for flight testing with respect to safety, performance, and operability. In conjunction, SDIO requested that the Applied Physics Laboratory in Laurel, MD propose a mission and design a satellite in which the Topaz II could be used as the power source. The outcome of these two activities was the design of the Nuclear Electric Propulsion Space Test Program (NEPSTP) satellite which combines a modified Russian Topaz II power system with a US designed satellite to achieve a specified mission. Due to funding reduction within the SDIO, the Topaz II flight program was postponed indefinitely at the end of Fiscal year 1993. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the NEPSTP mission and the satellite design at the time the flight program ended

  20. Review of hazardous chemical regulation at nuclear facilities by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and other federal agencies. Hearing before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Government Operations, House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session, March 14, 1986

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Seven witnesses from agencies and the nuclear industry testified on the status of chemical regulation at nuclear facilities, the potential for accidents, and the quality of emergency plans in the event of a release of chemical substances. Impetus for the review came from incidents at Kerr-McGhee's Sequoyah plant in Oklahoma and the release of uranium hexafluoride, as well as a pattern of accidents which occur after the potential hazard has already been identified. The witnesses included Richard Krimm of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, James Makris of the Environmental Protection Agency, John Miles of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Nunxio Palladino of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and representatives of DOE and Kerr-McGee. Additional materials submitted for the record follows the testimony

  1. Evaluation of High Energy Nuclear Data of Importance for Use in Accelerator and Space Technology

    Lee, Young Ouk

    2005-10-01

    New evaluation were performed for neutron- and proton-induced reactions for energies up to 250 400 MeV on C-12, N-14, O-16, Al-27, Si-28, Ca-40, Ar-40, Fe-54,58, Ni-64, Cu-63,65, Zr-90, Pb-208, Th-232, U-233,234,236, and Cm-243246. The evaluated results are then applied to the accelerator and space technology. A set of optical model parameters were optimized by searching a number of adjustable coefficients with the Simulated Annealing(SA) method for the spherical nuclei. A parameterization of the empirical formula was proposed to describe the proton-nucleus non-elastic cross sections of high-priority elements for space shielding purpose for proton energies from reaction threshold up to 400 MeV, which was then implemented into the fast scoping space shielding code CHARGE, based on the results of the optical model analysis utilizing up-to-date measurements. For proton energies up to 400 MeV covering most of the incident spectrum for trapped protons and solar energetic particle events, energy-angle spectra of secondary neutrons produced from the proton-induced neutron production reaction were prepared. The evaluated cross section set was applied to the thick target yield (TTY) and promp radiation benchmarks for the accelerator shielding. As for the assessment of the radiological impact of the accelerator to the environment, relevant nuclear reaction cross sections for the activation of the air were recommended among the author's evaluations and existing library based on the available measurements

  2. Evaluation of High Energy Nuclear Data of Importance for Use in Accelerator and Space Technology

    Lee, Young Ouk

    2005-10-15

    New evaluation were performed for neutron- and proton-induced reactions for energies up to 250 400 MeV on C-12, N-14, O-16, Al-27, Si-28, Ca-40, Ar-40, Fe-54,58, Ni-64, Cu-63,65, Zr-90, Pb-208, Th-232, U-233,234,236, and Cm-243246. The evaluated results are then applied to the accelerator and space technology. A set of optical model parameters were optimized by searching a number of adjustable coefficients with the Simulated Annealing(SA) method for the spherical nuclei. A parameterization of the empirical formula was proposed to describe the proton-nucleus non-elastic cross sections of high-priority elements for space shielding purpose for proton energies from reaction threshold up to 400 MeV, which was then implemented into the fast scoping space shielding code CHARGE, based on the results of the optical model analysis utilizing up-to-date measurements. For proton energies up to 400 MeV covering most of the incident spectrum for trapped protons and solar energetic particle events, energy-angle spectra of secondary neutrons produced from the proton-induced neutron production reaction were prepared. The evaluated cross section set was applied to the thick target yield (TTY) and promp radiation benchmarks for the accelerator shielding. As for the assessment of the radiological impact of the accelerator to the environment, relevant nuclear reaction cross sections for the activation of the air were recommended among the author's evaluations and existing library based on the available measurements.

  3. Session Report - S. Voinis (Andra)

    Voinis, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    The session addressed key issues related to the industrial feasibility of construction. It covered the implementer and regulator points of view. The conclusions derive from three presentations completed by the outcomes of six WG. At the Morsleben Repository, Germany, the licensing of the closure of the repository has been initiated by BfS. The closure concept is based on extensive backfilling with salt concrete complemented by seals. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of constructing such a seal structure an in-situ experiment is performed in a drift of the repository. In the UK, the framework for implementing geological disposal of the higher activity radioactive waste is described in the White Paper published by the UK Government in June 2008. The process to site a facility will be staged and based on voluntarism and partnership with local communities. This process is in its early stage. The paper outlines the work being undertaken by the NDA. In canada, Ontario Power Generation (OPG) has submitted information required for a CNSC licence to prepare the site and construct a DGR for the disposal of low and intermediate level waste from the operation of their nuclear power reactors. That submission includes an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), as required for a Panel Review under the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act (CEAA), and the information required for a licence application under the NSCA Regulations. Discussions between the proponent and the regulator in the pre-licensing phase, clarified CNSC expectations for the characterization of the site and for the development of the EIS and application. They also helped to ensure that OPG understood these expectations. Outcomes WG session-1: - Start with construction but during operational phase: Simultaneous construction and operation activities. - Need for technical requirements/criteria: So that it can be judged whether 'products' meet the requirements; LT safety issues to be considered during

  4. SRTC criticality safety technical review: Nuclear criticality safety evaluation 94-02, uranium solidification facility pencil tank module spacing

    Rathbun, R.

    1994-01-01

    Review of NMP-NCS-94-0087, ''Nuclear Criticality Safety Evaluation 94-02: Uranium Solidification Facility Pencil Tank Module Spacing (U), April 18, 1994,'' was requested of the SRTC Applied Physics Group. The NCSE is a criticality assessment to show that the USF process module spacing, as given in Non-Conformance Report SHM-0045, remains safe for operation. The NCSE under review concludes that the module spacing as given in Non-Conformance Report SHM-0045 remains in a critically safe configuration for all normal and single credible abnormal conditions. After a thorough review of the NCSE, this reviewer agrees with that conclusion

  5. The Role of Nuclear Fragmentation in Particle Therapy and Space Radiation Protection

    Cary eZeitlin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The transport of so-called HZE particles (those having high charge, Z, and energy, E through matter is crucially important both in space radiation protection and in the clinical setting where heavy ions are used for cancer treatment. Transport physics is governed by two types of interactions, electromagnetic (ionization energy loss and nuclear. Models of transport such as those used in treatment planning and space mission planning must account for both effects in detail. The theory of electromagnetic interactions is well developed, but nucleus-nucleus collisions are so complex that no fundamental physical theory currently describes them. Instead, interaction models are generally anchored to experimental data, which in some areas are far from complete. The lack of fundamental physics knowledge introduces uncertainties in the calculations of exposures and their associated risks. These uncertainties are greatly compounded by the much larger uncertainties in biological response to HZE particles. In this article, we discuss the role of nucleus-nucleus interactions in heavy charged particle therapy and in deep space, where astronauts will receive a chronic low dose from Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs and potentially higher short-term doses from sporadic, unpredictable Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs. GCRs include HZE particles; SEPs typically do not and we therefore exclude them from consideration in this article. Nucleus-nucleus collisions can result in the breakup of heavy ions into lighter ions. In space, this is generally beneficial because dose and dose equivalent are, on the whole, reduced in the process. The GCRs can be considered a radiation field with a significant high-LET component; when they pass through matter, the high-LET component is attenuated, at the cost of a slight increase in the low-LET component. Not only are the standard measures of risk reduced by fragmentation, but it can be argued that fragmentation also reduces the

  6. 98th LHCC meeting Agenda OPEN Session and CLOSED Session

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    OPEN Session on Wednesday, 8 July at 9h00-11h00 in Main Auditorium, Live webcast, followed by CLOSED Session, Conference room 160-1-009 11h20-17h00. CLOSED Session continued on Thursday, 9 July at 9h00-12h30

  7. Electron and muon physics sessions: Summary

    Montgomery, H.E.

    1988-06-01

    The electromagnetic interaction needs no introduction as a probe of the structure of systems on many scales. The continued use of this technique dominated the sessions on Electron and Muon Physics at the Samoset Meeting. The experimental results continue to stimulate large numbers of theorists and the results on polarized deep inelastic muon scattering and their various interpretations permeated beyond these sessions. The breadth of physics attacked with electrons and muons makes a summary such as this rather peculiar. As one of my nuclear physics friends (I think) commented after my summary, ''it was interesting to see Nuclear Physics from a long distance with the telescope inverted.'' The comment may well be applied to this written version of the summary talk. 21 refs

  8. Test and Evaluation of Fiber Optic Sensors for High-Radiation Space Nuclear Power Applications

    Klemer, Daniel; Fielder, Robert S.; Stinson-Bagby, Kelly L.

    2004-01-01

    Fiber optic sensors can be used to measure a number of parameters, including temperature, strain, pressure and flow, for instrumentation and control of space nuclear power systems. In the past, this technology has often been rejected for use in such a high-radiation environment based on early experiments that revealed a number of degradation phenomena, including radiation-induced fiber attenuation, or 'graying', and Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) fading and wavelength shift. However, this paper reports the results of recent experimental testing that demonstrates readability of fiber optic sensors to extremely high levels of neutron and gamma radiation. Both distributed Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors and single-point Extrinsic Fabry Perot Interferometer (EFPI) sensors were continuously monitored over a 2-month period, during which they were exposed to combined neutron and gamma radiation in both in-core and ex-core positions within a nuclear reactor. Total exposure reached approximately 2 x 10 19 cm -2 fast neutron (E > 1 MeV) fluence and 8.7 x 10 8 Gy gamma for in-core sensors. FBG sensors were interrogated using a standard Luna Innovations FBG measurement system, which is based on optical frequency-domain reflectometer (OFDR) technology. Approximately 74% of the 19 FBG sensors located at the core centerline in the in-core position exhibited sufficient signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) to remain readable even after receiving the maximum dose. EFPI sensors were spectrally interrogated using a broadband probe source operating in the 830 nm wavelength region. While these single-point sensors failed early in the test, important additional fiber spectral transmission data was collected, which indicates that interrogation of EFPI sensors in alternate wavelength regions may allow significant improvement in sensor longevity for operation in high-radiation environments. This work was funded through a Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) contract with the Nasa Glenn Research

  9. Regulation and construction of nuclear powerplants: South Texas Nuclear Project. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations of the Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, House of Representatives, Ninety-sixth Congress, Second Session

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    On September 23, 1980, the Subcommittee of Oversight and Investigation held a congressional hearing to discuss the regulation and construction of the South Texas Nuclear Power Plant project. Discussion included recommendations to prevent problems, like the problem encountered at Three Mile Island, from occurring during construction and operation. The chairman of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission discussed the procedure for inspection and regulation process. One power plant at the South Texas project experienced significant problems because of an inadequate quality assurance and quality control program. These difficulties caused delay in construction, increased cost, and raised questions of safety. The problems encountered at Three Mile Island and at the first plant of the South Texas project provided the reasons for this congressional hearing

  10. Use of nuclear space technology of direct energy conversion for terrestrial application

    Chitaykin, V.I.; Meleta, Ye.A.; Yarygin, V.I.; Mikheyev, A.S.; Tulin, S.M.

    2000-01-01

    In due time the SSC RF-IPPE exercised the scientific supervision and directly participated in the development, fabrication, space flight test and maintenance of the direct energy conversion nuclear power plants (NPP) for space application under the 'BUK' and 'TOPAZ' programs. We have used the acquired experience and the high technologies developed for the 'BUK' NPP with a thermoelectric conversion of thermal (nuclear) energy into electrical one in the development under the order of RAO 'GAZPROM' of the natural gas fired self contained thermoelectric current sources (AIT-500) and heat and electricity sources (TEP-500). These are intended for electrochemical rust protection of gas pipelines and for the electricity and heat supply to the telemetric and microwave-link systems located along the gas pipelines. Of special interest at the moment are the new developments of self contained current sources with the electrical output of ∼500 Wel for new gas pipelines being constructed under the projects such as the 'Yamal-Europe' project. The electrochemical rust protection of gas pipelines laying on unsettled and non-electrified territory of arctic regions of Russia is performed by means of the so-called Cathodic Protection Stations (CPS). Accounting for a complex of rather rigid requirements imposed by arctic operating conditions, the most attractive sources of electricity supply to the CPS are the thermoelectric heat-into-electricity converters and the generators (TEG). This paper deals with the essential results of the development, investigation and testing of unconventional TEGs using the low-temperature bismuth-tellurium thermoelectric batteries assembled together as tubular thermoelectric batteries with a radial ring geometry built into the gas-heated thermoelectric modules, which are collected to make up either the thermoelectric plants for heat and electricity supply or the self contained power sources. One of the peculiarities of these plants is the combination of

  11. Nuclear Inter Jura '91: nuclear law and nuclear energy for the future

    1992-01-01

    The 1991 congress of the International Nuclear Law Association took as its subject Nuclear Law and Nuclear Energy for the future. As well as individual reports, there were four sessions each covering the report of one or more working groups. The first session investigated licensing and decommissioning, while the second focussed on insurance and liability. The third session was devoted to nuclear supply and commerce at an international level. Finally radiological protection and nuclear waste management was discussed in the fourth session. (UK)

  12. Hyperon interaction in free space and nuclear matter within a SU(3) based meson exchange model

    Dhar, Madhumita

    2016-06-15

    To establish the connection between free space and in-medium hyperon-nucleon interactions is the central issue of this thesis. The guiding principle is flavor SU(3) symmetry which is exploited at various levels. In first step hyperon-nucleon and hyperon- hyperon interaction boson exchange potential in free space are introduced. A new parameter set applicable for the complete baryon octet has been derived leading to an updated one-boson- exchange model, utilizing SU(3) flavor symmetry, optimizing the number of free parameters involved, and revising the set of mesons included. The scalar, pseudoscalar, and vector SU(3) meson octets are taken into account. T-matrices are calculated by solving numerically coupled linear systems of Lippmann-Schwinger equations obtained from a 3-D reduced Bethe-Salpeter equation. Coupling constants were determined by χ{sup 2} fits to the world set of scattering data. A good description of the few available data is achieved within the imposed SU(3) constraints. Having at hand a consistently derived vacuum interaction we extend the approach next to investigations of the in-medium properties of hyperon interaction, avoiding any further adjustments. Medium effect in infinite nuclear matter are treated microscopically by recalculating T-matrices by an medium-modified system of Lippmann-Schwinger equations. A particular important role is played by the Pauli projector accounting for the exclusion principle. The presence of a background medium induces a weakening of the vacuum interaction amplitudes. Especially coupled channel mixing is found to be affected sensitively by medium. Investigation on scattering lengths and effective range parameters are revealing the density dependence of the interaction on a quantitative level.

  13. System modeling and reactor design studies of the Advanced Thermionic Initiative space nuclear reactor

    Lee, H.H.; Abdul-Hamid, S.; Klein, A.C.

    1996-01-01

    In-core thermionic space reactor design concepts that operate at a nominal power output range of 20 to 50 kW(electric) are described. Details of the neutronic, thermionic, thermal hydraulics, and shielding performance are presented. Because of the strong absorption of thermal neutrons by natural tungsten and the large amount of natural tungsten within the reactor core, two designs are considered. An overall system design code has been developed at Oregon State University to model advanced in-core thermionic energy conversion-based nuclear reactor systems for space applications. The results show that the driverless single-cell Advanced Thermionic Initiative (ATI) configuration, which does not have driver fuel rods, proved to be more efficient than the driven core, which has driver rods. The results also show that the inclusion of the true axial and radial power distribution decrease the overall conversion efficiency. The flattening of the radial power distribution by three different methods would lead to a higher efficiency. The results show that only one TFE works at the optimum emitter temperature; all other TFEs are off the optimum performance and result in a 40% decrease of the efficiency of the overall system. The true axial profile is significantly different as there is a considerable amount of neutron leakage out of the top and bottom of the reactor. The analysis reveals that the axial power profile actually has a chopped cosine shape. For this axial profile, the reactor core overall efficiency for the driverless ATI reactor version is found to be 5.84% with a total electrical power of 21.92 kW(electric). By considering the true axial power profile instead of the uniform power profile, each TFE loses ∼80 W(electric)

  14. Modified parity space averaging approaches for online cross-calibration of redundant sensors in nuclear reactors

    Moath Kassim

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available To maintain safety and reliability of reactors, redundant sensors are usually used to measure critical variables and estimate their averaged time-dependency. Nonhealthy sensors can badly influence the estimation result of the process variable. Since online condition monitoring was introduced, the online cross-calibration method has been widely used to detect any anomaly of sensor readings among the redundant group. The cross-calibration method has four main averaging techniques: simple averaging, band averaging, weighted averaging, and parity space averaging (PSA. PSA is used to weigh redundant signals based on their error bounds and their band consistency. Using the consistency weighting factor (C, PSA assigns more weight to consistent signals that have shared bands, based on how many bands they share, and gives inconsistent signals of very low weight. In this article, three approaches are introduced for improving the PSA technique: the first is to add another consistency factor, so called trend consistency (TC, to include a consideration of the preserving of any characteristic edge that reflects the behavior of equipment/component measured by the process parameter; the second approach proposes replacing the error bound/accuracy based weighting factor (Wa with a weighting factor based on the Euclidean distance (Wd, and the third approach proposes applying Wd,TC,andC, all together. Cold neutron source data sets of four redundant hydrogen pressure transmitters from a research reactor were used to perform the validation and verification. Results showed that the second and third modified approaches lead to reasonable improvement of the PSA technique. All approaches implemented in this study were similar in that they have the capability to (1 identify and isolate a drifted sensor that should undergo calibration, (2 identify a faulty sensor/s due to long and continuous missing data range, and (3 identify a healthy sensor. Keywords: Nuclear Reactors

  15. Evolution of systems concepts for a 100 kWe class space nuclear power system

    Katucki, R.; Josloff, A.; Kirpich, A.; Florio, F.

    1985-01-01

    Conceptual designs for the SP-100 space nuclear power system have been prepared that meet baseline, backup and growth program scenarios. Near-term advancement in technology was considered in the design of the baseline concept. An improved silicon-germanium thermoelectric technique is used to convert the heat from a fast-spectrum, liquid lithium cooled reactor. This system produces a net power of 100 kWe with a 10-year end of life, under the specific constraints of area and volume. Output of the backup concept is estimated to be 60 kWe for a 10-year end of life. This system differs from the naseline concept because currently available thermoelectric conversion is used from energy supplied by a liquid sodium cooled reactor. The growth concept uses Stirling engine conversion to produce 100 kWe within the constraints of mass and volume. The growth concept can be scaled up to produce a 1 MWe output that uses the same type reactor developed for the baseline concept. Assessments made for each of the program scenarios indicate the key development efforts needed to initiate detailed design and hardware program phases. Development plans were prepared for each scenario that detail the work elements and show the program activities leading to a state of flight readiness

  16. Evolution of systems concepts for a 100 kWe class Space Nuclear Power System

    Katucki, R.; Josloff, A.; Kirpich, A.; Florio, F.

    1985-01-01

    Conceptual designs for the SP-100 Space Nuclear Power System have been prepared that meet baseline, backup and growth program scenarios. Near-term advancement in technology was considered in the design of the Baseline Concept. An improved silicon-germanium thermoelectric technique is used to convert the heat from a fast-spectrum, liquid lithium cooled reactor. This system produces a net power of 100 kWe with a 10-year end of life, under the specific constraints of area and volume. Output of the Backup Concept is estimated to be 60 kWe for a 10-year end of life. This system differs from the Baseline Concept because currently available thermoelectric conversion is used from energy supplied by a liquid sodium cooled reactor. The Growth Concept uses Stirling engine conversion to produce 100 kWe within the constraints of mass and volume. The Growth Concept can be scaled up to produce a 1 MWe output that uses the same type reactor developed for the Baseline Concept. Assessments made for each of the program scenarios indicate the key development efforts needed to initiate detailed design and hardware program phases. Development plans were prepared for each scenario that detail the work elements and show the program activities leading to a state of flight readiness.

  17. Low-temperature thermionics in space nuclear power systems with the safe-type fast reactor

    Zrodnikov, A.V.; Yarygin, V.I.; Lazarenko, G.E.; Zabudko, A.N.; Ovcharenko, M.K.; Pyshko, A.P.; Mironov, V.S.; Kuznetsov, R.V.

    2007-01-01

    The potentialities of the use of the low-temperature thermionic converters (TIC) with the emitter temperature ≤ 1500 K in the space nuclear power system (SNPS) with the SAFE-type (Safe Affordable Fission Engine) fast reactor proposed and developed by common efforts of American experts have been considered. The main directions of the 'SAFE-300-TEG' SNPS (300 kW(thermal)) design update by replacing the thermoelectric converters with the low-temperature high-performance thermionic converters (with the barrier index V B ≤ 1.9 eV and efficiency ≥ 10%) meant for a long-term operation (5 years at least) as the components of the SAFE-300-TIC SNPS for a Lunar base have been discussed. The concept of the SNPS with the SAFE-type fast reactor and low-temperature TICs with specific electric power of about 1.45 W/cm 2 as the components of the SAFE-300-TIC system meeting the Nasa's initial requirements to a Lunar base with the electric power demand of about 30 kW(electrical) for robotic mission has been considered. The results, involving optimization and mass-and-size estimation, show that the SAFE-300-TIC system meets the initial requirements by Nasa to the lunar base power supply. The main directions of the system update aimed at the output electric power increase up to 100 kW(electrical) have also been presented. (authors)

  18. Summary of particle bed reactor designs for the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Program

    Powell, J. R.; Ludewig, H.; Todosow, M.

    1993-09-01

    A summary report of the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) designs considered for the space nuclear thermal propulsion program has been prepared. The first chapters outline the methods of analysis, and their validation. Monte Carlo methods are used for the physics analysis, several new algorithms are used for the fluid dynamics heat transfer and engine system analysis, and commercially available codes are used for the stress analysis. A critical experiment, prototypic of the PBR was used for the physics validation, and blowdown experiments using fuel beds of prototypic dimensions were used to validate the power extraction capabilities from particle beds. In all four different PBR rocket reactor designs were studied to varying degrees of detail. They varied in power from 400 MW to 2000 MW. These designs were all characterized by a negative prompt coefficient, due to Doppler feedback, and the feedback due to moderator heat up varied from slightly negative to slightly positive. In all practical cases, the coolant worth was positive, although core configurations with negative coolant worth could be designed. In all practical cases the thrust/weight ratio was greater than 20.

  19. Nuclear Regulatory Commission inspection program and the Oyster Creek, N.J., nuclear facility. Hearings before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Government Operations, House of Representatives, Ninety-Sixth Congress, second session

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    One of the most significant, but little noticed conclusions of the studies of the Three Mile Island accident-including both the Kemeny and Rogovin studies- is that the nuclear industry is just the same. In fact, those groups found that the NRC and the industry have long been aware that there are poor performances and weak utilities in the nuclear power business, just as there are comparatively stronger nuclear licensees. The distressing fact, however, is that the NRC has never yet been able to come to grips with the implications of that raw observation. The agency has been reluctant for years to arrive at any system of grading or ranking utilities to reflect their competence and quality of management. The NRC program being examined in these hearings is an effort to strengthen the regulatory process by at least identifying the consistently weaker utilities in an objective fashion and accelerating the enforcement and regulatory attention to those utilities. It is an important effort and one that deserves congressional support. The subcommittee will actually be examining two programs that the NRC plans to mesh. First, there is the overall effort to objectively assess the performances of licensees. This is called the systematic assessment of licensee performance, which NRC witnesses will describe. Second, there is the new group within the Inspection and Enforcement Division of NRC, called the Performance Appraisal Branch. This group, from which there are two representatives, is a new specialized team with veteran NRC inspectors. This PAB team performs indepth inspections at selected sites to assess the licensee's overall management strengths and weaknesses

  20. Session Types at the Mirror

    Luca Padovani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We (redefine session types as projections of process behaviors with respect to the communication channels they use. In this setting, we give session types a semantics based on fair testing. The outcome is a unified theory of behavioral types that shares common aspects with conversation types and that encompass features of both dyadic and multi-party session types. The point of view we provide sheds light on the nature of session types and gives us a chance to reason about them in a framework where every notion, from well-typedness to the subtyping relation between session types, is semantically -rather than syntactically- grounded.

  1. Astronauts and cosmonauts during emergency bailout training session

    1994-01-01

    Using small life rafts, several cosmonauts and astronauts participating in joint Russia - United States space missions take part in an emergency bailout training session in the JSC Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) 25-feet-deep pool. In the

  2. Astronauts Armstrong and Scott during photo session outside KSC

    1966-01-01

    Astronauts Neil A. Armstrong (left), command pilot, and David R. Scott, pilot, the Gemini 8 prime crew, during a photo session outside the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Mission Control Center. They are standing in front of a radar dish.

  3. Preliminary Thermo-hydraulic Core Design Analysis of Korea Advanced Nuclear Thermal Engine Rocket for Space Application

    Nam, Seung Hyun; Lee, Jeong Ik; Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Nclear rockets improve the propellant efficiency more than twice compared to CRs and thus significantly reduce the propellant requirement. The superior efficiency of nuclear rockets is due to the combination of the huge energy density and a single low molecular weight propellant utilization. Nuclear Thermal Rockets (NTRs) are particularly suitable for manned missions to Mars because it satisfies a relatively high thrust as well as a high propellant efficiency. NTRs use thermal energy released from a nuclear fission reactor to heat a single low molecular weight propellant, i. e., Hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and then exhausted the extremely heated propellant through a thermodynamic nozzle to produce thrust. A propellant efficiency parameter of rocket engines is specific impulse (I{sub sp}) which represents the ratio of the thrust over the rate of propellant consumption. The difference of I{sub sp} makes over three times propellant savings of NTRs for a manned Mars mission compared to CRs. NTRs can also be configured to operate bimodally by converting the surplus nuclear energy to auxiliary electric power required for the operation of a spacecraft. Moreover, the concept and technology of NTRs are very simple, already proven, and safe. Thus, NTRs can be applied to various space missions such as solar system exploration, International Space Station (ISS) transport support, Near Earth Objects (NEOs) interception, etc. Nuclear propulsion is the most promising and viable option to achieve challenging deep space missions. Particularly, the attractions of a NTR include excellent thrust and propellant efficiency, bimodal capability, proven technology, and safe and reliable performance. The ROK has also begun the research for space nuclear systems as a volunteer of the international space race and a major world nuclear energy country. KANUTER is one of the advanced NTR engines currently under development at KAIST. This bimodal engine is operated in two modes of propulsion with 100 MW

  4. General-purpose heat source project and space nuclear safety and fuels program. Progress reportt, January 1980

    Maraman, W.J.

    1980-04-01

    This formal monthly report covers the studies related to the use of 238 PuO 2 in radioisotopic power systems carried out for the Advanced Nuclear Systems and Projects Division of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. The two programs involved are the general-purpose heat source development and space nuclear safety and fuels. Most of the studies discussed here are of a continuing nature. Results and conclusions described may change as the work continues. Published reference to the results cited in this report should not be made without the explicit permission of the person in charge of the work

  5. Compatibility of Space Nuclear Power Plant Materials in an Inert He/Xe Working Gas Containing Reactive Impurities

    MM Hall

    2006-01-01

    A major materials selection and qualification issue identified in the Space Materials Plan is the potential for creating materials compatibility problems by combining dissimilar reactor core, Brayton Unit and other power conversion plant materials in a recirculating, inert He/Xe gas loop containing reactive impurity gases. Reported here are results of equilibrium thermochemical analyses that address the compatibility of space nuclear power plant (SNPP) materials in high temperature impure He gas environments. These studies provide early information regarding the constraints that exist for SNPP materials selection and provide guidance for establishing test objectives and environments for SNPP materials qualification testing

  6. Technical session keynote address

    Irish, J.T.

    1995-01-01

    The nuclear industry faces many impacting challenges. First among them is staying competitive with non-nuclear generating options. In the last couple of years, we have seen early shutdowns of plants that could not produce our product cheaply or reliably enough to compete with the other options. Although there have been substantial variations in both the volume of waste disposed and its curie content, the volume has generally been decreasing. This decrease is likely due to economic factors which encourage volume reduction by decontamination and recycle, compaction, better administrative controls, and incineration. It appears that the threat of having to pay the surcharge may have affected the trends between 1985 and 1990. Even accounting for the dramatic 70-75% reduction in disposal volume that had occurred over the last 10 years, base disposal cost have nearly quadrupled. Most of this increase has been attributable to rising federal and state surcharges. The rising cost associated with low-level waste disposal site development threaten economic competitiveness. Successfully responding to competition in the nuclear power industry is a serious and important issue that is being confronted by all

  7. Space nuclear reactor concepts for avoidance of a single point failure

    El-Genk, M. S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents three space nuclear reactor concepts for future exploration missions requiring electrical power of 10's to 100's kW, for 7-10 years. These concepts avoid a single point failure in reactor cooling; and they could be used with a host of energy conversion technologies. The first is lithium or sodium heat pipes cooled reactor. The heat pipes operate at a fraction of their prevailing capillary or sonic limit. Thus, when a number of heat pipes fail, those in the adjacent modules remove their heat load, maintaining reactor core adequately cooled. The second is a reactor with a circulating liquid metal coolant. The reactor core is divided into six identical sectors, each with a separate energy conversion loop. The sectors in the reactor core are neurotically coupled, but hydraulically decoupled. Thus, when a sector experiences a loss of coolant, the fission power generated in it will be removed by the circulating coolant in the adjacent sectors. In this case, however, the reactor fission power would have to decrease to avoid exceeding the design temperature limits in the sector with a failed loop. These two reactor concepts are used with energy conversion technologies, such as advanced Thermoelectric (TE), Free Piston Stirling Engines (FPSE), and Alkali Metal Thermal-to- Electric Conversion (AMTEC). Gas cooled reactors are a better choice to use with Closed Brayton Cycle engines, such as the third reactor concept to be presented in the paper. It has a sectored core that is cooled with a binary mixture of He-Xe (40 gm/mole). Each of the three sectors in the reactor has its own CBC and neutronically, but not hydraulically, coupled to the other sectors

  8. TERRA: a nuclear reactor to help explore space, deep ocean and difficult access locations

    Guimarães, Lamartine N.F.; Ribeiro, Guilherme Borges; Araújo, Élvis Falcão de; Braz Filho, Francisco Antônio; Leite, Valeria S.F.O.; Dias, Artur Flávio, E-mail: guimarae@ieav.cta.br [Instituto de Estudos Avançados (IEAv), São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Divisão de Energia Nuclear; Nascimento, Jamil Alves do; Placco, Guilherme M. [Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica (PGCTE/ITA), São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Pós-Graduação em Ciência e Tecnologia Espacial

    2017-07-01

    The TERRA (Tecnologia de Reatores Rápidos Avançados) project, is a Brazilian effort to develop the enabling technologies to generate electric power in space. Those technologies are: an independent reactor core concept, a Stirling convertor to handle power in the range of 0.1 to 200 kW and a Brayton convertor to handle power in the range 200 to 1000 kW. Besides those technologies, it is also looked into heat pipes design and passive multi fluid turbines. The first reactor core concept was finish in 2016. A complete paper is being prepared and it is in the review process at this moment. A developed Stirling machine works quite reasonably. A second copy of this Stirling machine was built and is now undergoing testing. The Brayton cycle initial design project was intended to use a gas furnace to simulate the nuclear heat. A design retrofit was necessary and decision was made to change the furnace from gas to electric. A detail electric design project was requested to the market. This detail design was delivered august 2016. It is hoped that the 300 kW electric furnace will be procured in 2018. A couple of new APUs was received in November 2016. One of these APUs will be used in the actual Brayton cycle under construction. 18 kg of Mo13Re was acquired for materials testing. A copper/water thermosyphon was developed and it is the first step to produce heat pipes. A new workbench is under development to test the passive multi fluid turbine. A passive multi fluid turbine is an evolution of the Tesla turbine. All these developments will be presented at the conference with a little more of detail. (author)

  9. TERRA: a nuclear reactor to help explore space, deep ocean and difficult access locations

    Guimarães, Lamartine N.F.; Ribeiro, Guilherme Borges; Araújo, Élvis Falcão de; Braz Filho, Francisco Antônio; Leite, Valeria S.F.O.; Dias, Artur Flávio; Nascimento, Jamil Alves do; Placco, Guilherme M.

    2017-01-01

    The TERRA (Tecnologia de Reatores Rápidos Avançados) project, is a Brazilian effort to develop the enabling technologies to generate electric power in space. Those technologies are: an independent reactor core concept, a Stirling convertor to handle power in the range of 0.1 to 200 kW and a Brayton convertor to handle power in the range 200 to 1000 kW. Besides those technologies, it is also looked into heat pipes design and passive multi fluid turbines. The first reactor core concept was finish in 2016. A complete paper is being prepared and it is in the review process at this moment. A developed Stirling machine works quite reasonably. A second copy of this Stirling machine was built and is now undergoing testing. The Brayton cycle initial design project was intended to use a gas furnace to simulate the nuclear heat. A design retrofit was necessary and decision was made to change the furnace from gas to electric. A detail electric design project was requested to the market. This detail design was delivered august 2016. It is hoped that the 300 kW electric furnace will be procured in 2018. A couple of new APUs was received in November 2016. One of these APUs will be used in the actual Brayton cycle under construction. 18 kg of Mo13Re was acquired for materials testing. A copper/water thermosyphon was developed and it is the first step to produce heat pipes. A new workbench is under development to test the passive multi fluid turbine. A passive multi fluid turbine is an evolution of the Tesla turbine. All these developments will be presented at the conference with a little more of detail. (author)

  10. Dark current spectroscopy of space and nuclear environment induced displacement damage defects in pinned photodiode based CMOS image sensors

    Belloir, Jean-Marc

    2016-01-01

    CMOS image sensors are envisioned for an increasing number of high-end scientific imaging applications such as space imaging or nuclear experiments. Indeed, the performance of high-end CMOS image sensors has dramatically increased in the past years thanks to the unceasing improvements of microelectronics, and these image sensors have substantial advantages over CCDs which make them great candidates to replace CCDs in future space missions. However, in space and nuclear environments, CMOS image sensors must face harsh radiation which can rapidly degrade their electro-optical performances. In particular, the protons, electrons and ions travelling in space or the fusion neutrons from nuclear experiments can displace silicon atoms in the pixels and break the crystalline structure. These displacement damage effects lead to the formation of stable defects and to the introduction of states in the forbidden bandgap of silicon, which can allow the thermal generation of electron-hole pairs. Consequently, non ionizing radiation leads to a permanent increase of the dark current of the pixels and thus a decrease of the image sensor sensitivity and dynamic range. The aim of the present work is to extend the understanding of the effect of displacement damage on the dark current increase of CMOS image sensors. In particular, this work focuses on the shape of the dark current distribution depending on the particle type, energy and fluence but also on the image sensor physical parameters. Thanks to the many conditions tested, an empirical model for the prediction of the dark current distribution induced by displacement damage in nuclear or space environments is experimentally validated and physically justified. Another central part of this work consists in using the dark current spectroscopy technique for the first time on irradiated CMOS image sensors to detect and characterize radiation-induced silicon bulk defects. Many types of defects are detected and two of them are identified

  11. Decision on the Exclusion of Small Quantities of Nuclear Substances outside a Nuclear Installation from the Application of the Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy (This Decision was adopted at the 133. Session of the Steering Committee for Nuclear Energy held on 3-4 November 2016.)

    2017-01-01

    The steering committee, having regard to the Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy of 29 July 1960, as amended by the Additional Protocol of 28 January 1964, by the Protocol of 16 November 1982 and by the Protocol of 12 February 2004, and, in particular, Article 1(b) thereof; considering that, by virtue of that Article, the Steering Committee may, if in its view the small extent of the risks involved so warrants, exclude any nuclear installation, nuclear fuel or nuclear substances from the application of the Paris Convention; considering that nuclear substances in transport or use outside a nuclear installation, within defined limits and under specifically prescribed conditions during transport, should, in view of the small extent of the risks involved, be excluded from the application of the Paris Convention; having regard to its Decision of 18 October 2007 on the Exclusion of Small Quantities of Nuclear Substances outside a Nuclear Installation from the Application of the Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy of 29 July 1960 as amended; considering that the 2005 Edition of the Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material of the International Atomic Energy Agency referred to in the Annex to the above-mentioned Decision, has been replaced by revised editions, the most recent of which is the 2012 Edition, which is used as the basis for corresponding national and international regulations in this field; considering the need for a decision the annex of which is in line with the 2012 Edition of those Regulations; decides: 1. Nuclear substances which are consigned by an operator to a recipient for use shall be excluded from the application of the Paris Convention for the period during which they are outside a nuclear installation provided that the consignment, when leaving a nuclear installation, complies with the provisions set forth in the Annex to this Decision and with other relevant

  12. Formal description of the OSI session layer: session service

    van Sinderen, Marten J.; van Eijk, P.H.J.; Vissers, C.A.; Diaz, M.

    1989-01-01

    The LOTOS formal description of the OSI session service is presented on basis of specification samples from the full description, giving account of how specification styles and session service architectural elements are reflected in the description. Both information (data types) and process

  13. Third session: new projects

    Iracane, D.; Dupuy, J.P.; Perotto, G.; Ithurralde, G.; Cabrillat, J.C.; Becle, D.; Pivet, S.; Minguet, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    The RJH (Jules Horowitz reactor) is a 100 MWth research reactor, cooled and moderated by water, that has been designed to operate with high density (8 g U/cm 3 ) and low enrichment fuel (19.75%) uranium molybdenum fuel. Its main neutron performances are expected to be: -) maximum fast neutron flux (E > 0.907 MeV) in the sample: 5.10 14 n/cm 2 /s, -) maximum thermal neutron flux (E 14 n/cm 2 /s, and -) maximal neutron damage: 16 dpa/year. RJH that will be built on the Cea's site of Cadarache, is scheduled to enter into service in 2014, it will take over the activities of the Osiris reactor and its operating life is planned to be over 50 years long. The Cabri research reactor is located on the Cadarache site, it has been operating since 1962 and is now undergoing important upgrading operations whose aim is to make the facility fit to study the behaviour of new nuclear fuels in accidental situations. The RES test reactor is a facility whose aim is to qualify nuclear fuels and core configurations of existing propulsion reactors onboard of aircraft carriers or submarines and to propose innovative concepts for future propulsion reactors. (A.C.)

  14. Analysis of space systems for the space disposal of nuclear waste follow-on study. Volume 1. Executive summary

    1982-01-01

    The following major conclusions resulted from this study: Parameters for the reference cermet waste form are available only by analogy. Detail design of the waste payload would require determination of actual waste form properties. Billet configuration constraints for the cermet waste form limit waste payload packing efficiency to slightly under 75% net volume, resulting in a 20% increase in the number of flights and subsequent increases in both cost and risk. Alternative systems for waste mixes requiring low launch rates (technetium-99, iodine-129) can make effective use of the existing 65K space transportation system in either single- or dual-launch scenarios. A trade study involving a comprehensive comparison of life cycle costs would be required to select the optimum orbit transfer system for low-launch-rate systems. This was not a part of the present effort due to selection of the cermet waste form as the reference for the study. The reference space system offers the best combination of cost, risk, and alignment with ongoing NASA technology development for disposal of the reference cermet waste form within specified system safety guidelines

  15. Preliminary assessment of the thermal effects of an annular air space surrounding an emplaced nuclear waste canister

    Davis, B.W.

    1979-01-01

    Modeling results have previously shown that the presence of a large air space (e.g., a repository room) within a nuclear waste repository is expected to cause a waste canister's temperature to remain cooler than it would otherwise be. Results presented herein show that an annular air space surrounding the waste canisters can have similar cooling effects under certain prescribable conditions; for a 16 ft x 1 ft diameter canister containing 650 PWR rods which initially generate a total of 4.61 kw, analysis will show that annular air spaces greater than 11 in will permit the canister surface to attain peak temperatures lower than that which would result from a zero-gap/perfect thermal contact. It was determined that the peak radial temperature gradient in the salt varies in proportion to the inverse of the drill hole radius. Thermal radiation is shown to be the dominant mode of heat transfer across an annular air space during the first two years after emplacement. Finally, a methodology is presented which will allow investigators to easily model radiation and convection heat transfer through air spaces by treating the space as a conduction element that possesses non-linear temperature dependent conductivity

  16. High-Fidelity Space-Time Adaptive Multiphysics Simulations in Nuclear Engineering

    Solin, Pavel [Univ. of Reno, NV (United States); Ragusa, Jean [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2014-03-09

    We delivered a series of fundamentally new computational technologies that have the potential to significantly advance the state-of-the-art of computer simulations of transient multiphysics nuclear reactor processes. These methods were implemented in the form of a C++ library, and applied to a number of multiphysics coupled problems relevant to nuclear reactor simulations.

  17. High-Fidelity Space-Time Adaptive Multiphysics Simulations in Nuclear Engineering

    Solin, Pavel; Ragusa, Jean

    2014-01-01

    We delivered a series of fundamentally new computational technologies that have the potential to significantly advance the state-of-the-art of computer simulations of transient multiphysics nuclear reactor processes. These methods were implemented in the form of a C++ library, and applied to a number of multiphysics coupled problems relevant to nuclear reactor simulations.

  18. Stennis supports LCROSS sessions

    2009-01-01

    Stennis Space Center personnel supported a pair of events marking NASA's Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) mission Oct. 9. Stennis participated in daylong activities at the Russell C. Davis Planetarium in Jackson, Miss., and the Kenner (La.) Planetarium Megadome Cinema, providing exhibits, videos and educational activities for students at both sites. The LCROSS mission involved crashing two objects into the moon in order to search for evidence of lunar water ice, an important resource for future sustainable exploration. Pictured at the Kenner planetarium are students from Emily C. Watkins and St. John the Baptist Parish schools at Kenner.

  19. Review for session K - benchmarks

    McCracken, A.K.

    1980-01-01

    Eight of the papers to be considered in Session K are directly concerned, at least in part, with the Pool Critical Assembly (P.C.A.) benchmark at Oak Ridge. The remaining seven papers in this session, the subject of this review, are concerned with a variety of topics related to the general theme of Benchmarks and will be considered individually

  20. Experiments: session 1 Summary

    Lamont, M; Ball, A

    2014-01-01

    The European Strategy for Particle Physics (ESPP) has recently recommended the exploitation of the full potential of the LHC, including the high-luminosity upgrade of the machine and detectors. Given this, the physics motivation for the upgrades is outlined. The limitations of the present detectors given the proposed medium term upgrades are recalled. The proposed HL-LHC performance parameters together with these detector limitations motivate the need for major upgrades. The required detector upgrades as foreseen at present are briefly sketched. Despite the upgrades the HL-LHC parameter space remains challenging and possible mitigation measures are discussed. The requirements of ALICE and LHCb in the HL-LHC era are presented. Finally an attempt is made to sketch the long-term LHC schedule given the known constraints in the lead-up to the HL-LHC upgrades