WorldWideScience

Sample records for space mapping topography

  1. The Space-Time Topography of English Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duman, Steve

    2016-01-01

    English speakers talk and think about Time in terms of physical space. The past is behind us, and the future is in front of us. In this way, we "map" space onto Time. This dissertation addresses the specificity of this physical space, or its topography. Inspired by languages like Yupno (Nunez, et al., 2012) and Bamileke-Dschang (Hyman,…

  2. Phase-space topography characterization of nonlinear ultrasound waveforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghan-Niri, Ehsan; Al-Beer, Helem

    2018-03-01

    Fundamental understanding of ultrasound interaction with material discontinuities having closed interfaces has many engineering applications such as nondestructive evaluation of defects like kissing bonds and cracks in critical structural and mechanical components. In this paper, to analyze the acoustic field nonlinearities due to defects with closed interfaces, the use of a common technique in nonlinear physics, based on a phase-space topography construction of ultrasound waveform, is proposed. The central idea is to complement the "time" and "frequency" domain analyses with the "phase-space" domain analysis of nonlinear ultrasound waveforms. A nonlinear time series method known as pseudo phase-space topography construction is used to construct equivalent phase-space portrait of measured ultrasound waveforms. Several nonlinear models are considered to numerically simulate nonlinear ultrasound waveforms. The phase-space response of the simulated waveforms is shown to provide different topographic information, while the frequency domain shows similar spectral behavior. Thus, model classification can be substantially enhanced in the phase-space domain. Experimental results on high strength aluminum samples show that the phase-space transformation provides a unique detection and classification capabilities. The Poincaré map of the phase-space domain is also used to better understand the nonlinear behavior of ultrasound waveforms. It is shown that the analysis of ultrasound nonlinearities is more convenient and informative in the phase-space domain than in the frequency domain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Mapping Bedrock Topography using Electromagnetic Profiling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mapping Bedrock Topography using Electromagnetic Profiling. ... will be constructed The area under study is within the Abakaliki Shales Geologic Formation. ... micaceous sandstone; micaceous siltstone, sandy shales and shelly limestone.

  4. Dysconnection topography in schizophrenia revealed with state-space analysis of EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalili, Mahdi; Lavoie, Suzie; Deppen, Patricia; Meuli, Reto; Do, Kim Q; Cuénod, Michel; Hasler, Martin; De Feo, Oscar; Knyazeva, Maria G

    2007-10-24

    The dysconnection hypothesis has been proposed to account for pathophysiological mechanisms underlying schizophrenia. Widespread structural changes suggesting abnormal connectivity in schizophrenia have been imaged. A functional counterpart of the structural maps would be the EEG synchronization maps. However, due to the limits of currently used bivariate methods, functional correlates of dysconnection are limited to the isolated measurements of synchronization between preselected pairs of EEG signals. To reveal a whole-head synchronization topography in schizophrenia, we applied a new method of multivariate synchronization analysis called S-estimator to the resting dense-array (128 channels) EEG obtained from 14 patients and 14 controls. This method determines synchronization from the embedding dimension in a state-space domain based on the theoretical consequence of the cooperative behavior of simultaneous time series-the shrinking of the state-space embedding dimension. The S-estimator imaging revealed a specific synchronization landscape in schizophrenia patients. Its main features included bilaterally increased synchronization over temporal brain regions and decreased synchronization over the postcentral/parietal region neighboring the midline. The synchronization topography was stable over the course of several months and correlated with the severity of schizophrenia symptoms. In particular, direct correlations linked positive, negative, and general psychopathological symptoms to the hyper-synchronized temporal clusters over both hemispheres. Along with these correlations, general psychopathological symptoms inversely correlated within the hypo-synchronized postcentral midline region. While being similar to the structural maps of cortical changes in schizophrenia, the S-maps go beyond the topography limits, demonstrating a novel aspect of the abnormalities of functional cooperation: namely, regionally reduced or enhanced connectivity. The new method of

  5. Dysconnection topography in schizophrenia revealed with state-space analysis of EEG.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Jalili

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The dysconnection hypothesis has been proposed to account for pathophysiological mechanisms underlying schizophrenia. Widespread structural changes suggesting abnormal connectivity in schizophrenia have been imaged. A functional counterpart of the structural maps would be the EEG synchronization maps. However, due to the limits of currently used bivariate methods, functional correlates of dysconnection are limited to the isolated measurements of synchronization between preselected pairs of EEG signals.To reveal a whole-head synchronization topography in schizophrenia, we applied a new method of multivariate synchronization analysis called S-estimator to the resting dense-array (128 channels EEG obtained from 14 patients and 14 controls. This method determines synchronization from the embedding dimension in a state-space domain based on the theoretical consequence of the cooperative behavior of simultaneous time series-the shrinking of the state-space embedding dimension. The S-estimator imaging revealed a specific synchronization landscape in schizophrenia patients. Its main features included bilaterally increased synchronization over temporal brain regions and decreased synchronization over the postcentral/parietal region neighboring the midline. The synchronization topography was stable over the course of several months and correlated with the severity of schizophrenia symptoms. In particular, direct correlations linked positive, negative, and general psychopathological symptoms to the hyper-synchronized temporal clusters over both hemispheres. Along with these correlations, general psychopathological symptoms inversely correlated within the hypo-synchronized postcentral midline region. While being similar to the structural maps of cortical changes in schizophrenia, the S-maps go beyond the topography limits, demonstrating a novel aspect of the abnormalities of functional cooperation: namely, regionally reduced or enhanced connectivity.The new

  6. Simultaneous topography imaging and broadband nanomechanical mapping on atomic force microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianwei; Zou, Qingze

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, an approach is proposed to achieve simultaneous imaging and broadband nanomechanical mapping of soft materials in air by using an atomic force microscope. Simultaneous imaging and nanomechanical mapping are needed, for example, to correlate the morphological and mechanical evolutions of the sample during dynamic phenomena such as the cell endocytosis process. Current techniques for nanomechanical mapping, however, are only capable of capturing static elasticity of the material, or the material viscoelasticity in a narrow frequency band around the resonant frequency(ies) of the cantilever used, not competent for broadband nanomechanical mapping, nor acquiring topography image of the sample simultaneously. These limitations are addressed in this work by enabling the augmentation of an excitation force stimuli of rich frequency spectrum for nanomechanical mapping in the imaging process. Kalman-filtering technique is exploited to decouple and split the mixed signals for imaging and mapping, respectively. Then the sample indentation generated is quantified online via a system-inversion method, and the effects of the indentation generated and the topography tracking error on the topography quantification are taken into account. Moreover, a data-driven feedforward-feedback control is utilized to track the sample topography. The proposed approach is illustrated through experimental implementation on a polydimethylsiloxane sample with a pre-fabricated pattern.

  7. Effect of surface topography and morphology on space charge packets in polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yuanxiang; Wang Yunshan; Sun Qinghua; Wang Ninghua

    2009-01-01

    Polyethylene (PE) is a major kind of internal insulating material. With great progresses of space charge measurement technologies in the last three decades, lots of researches are focused on space charge in PE. The heat pressing and annealing condition of polyethylene affect its morphology obviously. During the heat pressing, the surface of PE forms different surface topographies because of different substrate materials. Surface topography has great relation to the epitaxial crystallization layer and influences the space charge characteristic of PE dramatically. This paper studied the formation process of different surface topographies and their micrographic characters in low density polyethylene (LDPE). pulsed electro-acoustic (PEA) method was used to measure the space charge distribution of samples with different surface topographies and morphologies in LDPE. The effect of surface topography and morphology to space charge packet were studied. The surface topography has great influence on space charge packet polarity and morphology has influence on both movement speed rate and polarity of space charge packet.

  8. Mapping the Topography of Europa: The Galileo-Clipper Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Paul M.

    2014-11-01

    The renewed effort to return to Europa for global mapping and landing site selection raises the question: What do we know about Europa topography and how do we know it? The question relates to geologic questions of feature formation, to the issue of ice shell thickness, mechanical strength, and internal activity, and to landing hazards. Our topographic data base for Europa is sparse indeed (no global map is possible), but we are not without hope. Two prime methods have been employed in our mapping program are stereo image and shape-from-shading (PC) slope analyses. On Europa, we are fortunate that many PC-DEM areas are also controlled by stereo-DEMs, mitigating the long-wavelength uncertainties in the PC data. Due to the Galileo antenna malfunction, mapping is limited to no more than 20% of the surface, far less than for any of the inner planets. Thirty-seven individual mapping sites have been identified, scattered across the globe, and all have now been mapped. Excellent stereo mapping is possible at all Sun angles, if resolution is below ~350 m. PC mapping is possible at Sun angles greater than ~60 degrees, if emission angles are less than ~40 degrees. The only extended contiguous areas of topographic mapping larger than 150 km across are the two narrow REGMAP mapping mosaics extending pole-to-pole along longitudes 85 and 240 W. These are PC-only and subject to long-wavelength uncertainties and errors, especially in the north/south where oblique imaging produces layover. Key findings include the mean slopes of individual terrain types (Schenk, 2009), topography across chaos (Schenk and Pappalardo, 2004), topography of craters and inferences for ice shell thickness (Schenk, 2002; Schenk and Turtle, 2009), among others. A key discovery, despite the limited data, is that Europan terrains rarely have topographic amplitude greater than 250 meters, but that regionally Europa has imprinted on it topographic amplitudes of +/- 1 km, in the form of raised plateaus and

  9. Topography of the complete corticopontine projection: From experiments to principal maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trygve B Leergaard

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The mammalian brain is characterized by orderly spatial distribution of its cellular components, commonly referred to as topographical organization. The topography of cortical and subcortical maps is thought to represent functional or computational properties. In the present investigation, we have studied map transformations and organizing principles in the projections from the cerebral cortex to the pontine nuclei, with emphasis on the mapping of the cortex as a whole onto the pontine nuclei. Following single or multiple axonal tracer injections into different cortical regions, three-dimensional (3-D distributions of anterogradely labeled axons in the pontine nuclei were mapped. All 3-D reconstructed data sets were normalized to a standardized local coordinate system for the pontine nuclei and uploaded in a database application (FACCS, Functional Anatomy of the Cerebro-Cerebellar System, available via The Rodent Brain Workbench, http://www.rbwb.org. The database application allowed flexible use of the data in novel combinations, and use of a previously published data sets. Visualization of different combinations of data was used to explore alternative principles of organization. As a result of these analyses, a principal map of the topography of corticopontine projections was developed. This map followed the organization of early spatiotemporal gradients present in the cerebral cortex and the pontine nuclei. With the principal map for corticopontine projections, a fairly accurate prediction of pontine target area can be made for any site of origin in the cerebral cortex. The map and the underlying shared data sets represent a basis for modeling of topographical organization and structure-function relationships in this system.

  10. Effect of Misalignment between Successive Corneal Videokeratography Maps on the Repeatability of Topography Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, FangJun; Wang, JunJie; Huang, JinHai; Yu, Ye; Deng, ManLi; Li, LinNa; Yu, AYong; Wang, QinMei; Davey, Pinakin Gunvant; Elsheikh, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To improve the reliability of corneal topographic data through the development of a method to estimate the magnitude of misalignment between successive corneal videokeratography (VK) maps and eliminate the effect of misalignment on the repeatability of topography data. Methods Anterior and posterior topography maps were recorded twice for 124 healthy eyes of 124 participants using a Pentacam, and the repeatability of measurements was assessed by calculating the differences in elevation between each two sets of data. The repeatability of measurements was re-assessed following the determination of the magnitude of misalignment components (translational displacements: x0, y0 and z0, and rotational displacements: α, β and γ) between each two data sets and using them to modify the second data set within each pair based on an Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. The method simultaneously considered the anterior and posterior maps taken for the same eye since they were assumed to have the same set of misalignment components. A new parameter, named Combined Misalignment parameter (CM), has been developed to combine the effect of all six misalignment components on topography data and so enable study of the association between misalignment and the data repeatability test results. Results The repeatability tests resulted in average root mean square (RMS) differences in elevation data of 8.46±2.75 μm before ICP map matching when simultaneously considering anterior and posterior surfaces. With map matching and misalignment correction, the differences decreased to 7.28±2.58 μm (P = 0.00). When applied to only the anterior maps, misalignment correction led to a more pronounced reduction in elevation data differences from 4.58±1.84 μm to 2.97±1.29 μm (P = 0.00). CM was found to be associated with the repeatability error (P = 0.00), with posterior maps being responsible for most of the error due to their relatively lower accuracy compared to anterior maps

  11. Rapid mapping of ultrafine fault zone topography with structure from motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kendra; Nissen, Edwin; Saripalli, Srikanth; Arrowsmith, J. Ramón; McGarey, Patrick; Scharer, Katherine M.; Williams, Patrick; Blisniuk, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    Structure from Motion (SfM) generates high-resolution topography and coregistered texture (color) from an unstructured set of overlapping photographs taken from varying viewpoints, overcoming many of the cost, time, and logistical limitations of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) and other topographic surveying methods. This paper provides the first investigation of SfM as a tool for mapping fault zone topography in areas of sparse or low-lying vegetation. First, we present a simple, affordable SfM workflow, based on an unmanned helium balloon or motorized glider, an inexpensive camera, and semiautomated software. Second, we illustrate the system at two sites on southern California faults covered by existing airborne or terrestrial LiDAR, enabling a comparative assessment of SfM topography resolution and precision. At the first site, an ∼0.1 km2 alluvial fan on the San Andreas fault, a colored point cloud of density mostly >700 points/m2 and a 3 cm digital elevation model (DEM) and orthophoto were produced from 233 photos collected ∼50 m above ground level. When a few global positioning system ground control points are incorporated, closest point vertical distances to the much sparser (∼4 points/m2) airborne LiDAR point cloud are mostly 530 points/m2 and a 2 cm DEM and orthophoto were produced from 450 photos taken from ∼60 m above ground level. Closest point vertical distances to existing terrestrial LiDAR data of comparable density are mostly geomorphic offsets related to past earthquakes as well as rapid response mapping or long-term monitoring of faulted landscapes.

  12. Application of X-ray topography to USSR and Russian space materials science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shul'pina, I L; Prokhorov, I A; Serebryakov, Yu A; Bezbakh, I Zh

    2016-05-01

    The authors' experience of the application of X-ray diffraction imaging in carrying out space technological experiments on semiconductor crystal growth for the former USSR and for Russia is reported, from the Apollo-Soyuz programme (1975) up to the present day. X-ray topography was applied to examine defects in crystals in order to obtain information on the crystallization conditions and also on their changes under the influence of factors of orbital flight in space vehicles. The data obtained have promoted a deeper understanding of the conditions and mechanisms of crystallization under both microgravity and terrestrial conditions, and have enabled the elaboration of terrestrial methods of highly perfect crystal growth. The use of X-ray topography in space materials science has enriched its methods in the field of digital image processing of growth striations and expanded its possibilities in investigating the inhomogeneity of crystals.

  13. Geology, Bedrock - BEDROCK_TOPOGRAPHY_MM36_IN: Bedrock Topography Contours, Indiana (Indiana Geological Survey, 1:500,000, Line Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Bedrock topography was converted from the original published map, Indiana Geological Survey Miscellaneous Map 36. The contours define the elevation/topography of the...

  14. Functional Topography of Human Corpus Callosum: An fMRI Mapping Study

    OpenAIRE

    Fabri, Mara; Polonara, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    The concept of a topographical map of the corpus callosum (CC) has emerged from human lesion studies and from electrophysiological and anatomical tracing investigations in other mammals. Over the last few years a rising number of researchers have been reporting functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activation in white matter, particularly the CC. In this study the scope for describing CC topography with fMRI was explored by evoking activation through simple sensory stimulation and moto...

  15. Mapping the Topography of Mercury with MESSENGER Laser Altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoli; Cavanaugh, John F.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Smith, David E..; Zubor, Maria T.

    2012-01-01

    The Mercury Laser Altimeter onboard MESSENGER involves unique design elements that deal with the challenges of being in orbit around Mercury. The Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) is one of seven instruments on NASA's MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft. MESSENGER was launched on 3 August 2004, and entered into orbit about Mercury on 18 March 2011 after a journey through the inner solar system. This involved six planetary flybys, including three of Mercury. MLA is designed to map the topography and landforms of Mercury's surface. It also measures the planet's forced libration (motion about the spin axis), which helps constrain the state of the core. The first science measurements from orbit taken with MLA were made on 29 March 2011 and continue to date. MLA had accumulated about 8.3 million laser ranging measurements to Mercury's surface, as of 31 July 2012, i.e., over six Mercury years (528 Earth days). Although MLA is the third planetary lidar built at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), MLA must endure a much harsher thermal environment near Mercury than the previous instruments on Mars and Earth satellites. The design of MLA was derived in part from that of the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter on Mars Global Surveyor. However, MLA must range over greater distances and often in off-nadir directions from a highly eccentric orbit. In MLA we use a single-mode diode-pumped Nd:YAG (neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet) laser that is highly collimated to maintain a small footprint on the planet. The receiver has both a narrow field of view and a narrow spectral bandwidth to minimize the amount of background light detected from the sunlit hemisphere of Mercury. We achieve the highest possible receiver sensitivity by employing the minimum receiver detection threshold.

  16. Mapping Palaeohydrography in Deserts: Contribution from Space-Borne Imaging Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Paillou

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Space-borne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR has the capability to image subsurface features down to several meters in arid regions. A first demonstration of this capability was performed in the Egyptian desert during the early eighties, thanks to the first Shuttle Imaging Radar mission. Global coverage provided by recent SARs, such as the Japanese ALOS/PALSAR sensor, allowed the mapping of vast ancient hydrographic systems in Northern Africa. We present a summary of palaeohydrography results obtained using PALSAR data over large deserts such as the Sahara and the Gobi. An ancient river system was discovered in eastern Lybia, connecting in the past the Kufrah oasis to the Mediterranean Sea, and the terminal part of the Tamanrasett river was mapped in western Mauritania, ending with a large submarine canyon. In southern Mongolia, PALSAR images combined with topography analysis allowed the mapping of the ancient Ulaan Nuur lake. We finally show the potentials of future low frequency SAR sensors by comparing L-band (1.25 GHz and P-band (435 MHz airborne SAR acquisitions over a desert site in southern Tunisia.

  17. Incorporating Topography into Landscape Continuity Analysis—Hong Kong Island as a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matan E. Singer

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The increase in population and the expansion of built-up areas into natural and agricultural areas results in more than just loss of open spaces surrounding cities. Reduced accessibility to nature, visual intrusion of buildings into natural viewsheds, and changes in runoff requires us to assess these impacts on open spaces. Our aim in this paper was to examine and demonstrate how topography can be incorporated into modeling and analyzing environmental impacts of cities. Taking Hong Kong Island as a case study, we used historical topographic maps to map changes in the built-up areas between 1930 and 2006. We analyzed changes in three variables representing different kinds of human impacts: landscape continuity, visibility of built-up areas, and runoff from built-up areas. We show that consideration of topography (both natural and artificial is critical to understand spatial patterns of land use and of human impacts on open spaces. The methods employed here can be applied to examine and visualize the potential effects of future and proposed development plans.

  18. Mapping Indigenous Settlement Topography in the Caribbean Using Drones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Till F. Sonnemann

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The archaeology of Amerindian settlements in the Caribbean has mostly been identified through scatters of artefacts; predominantly conglomerations of shells, ceramics and lithics. While archaeological material may not always be visible on the surface, particular settlement patterns may be identifiable by a topography created through cultural action: earthen mounds interchanging with mostly circular flattened areas. In northern Hispaniola, recent foot surveys have identified more than 200 pre-colonial sites of which several have been mapped in high resolution. In addition, three settlements with topographical characteristics have been extensively excavated, confirming that the mounds and flattened areas may have had a cultural connotation in this region. Without the availability of high resolution LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging data, a photogrammetric approach using UAS (unmanned aircraft system, commonly known as drones can fill the knowledge gap on a local scale, providing fast and reliable data collection and precise results. After photogrammetric processing, digital clearance of vegetation, and extraction of the georeferenced DEM (digital elevation model and orthophoto, filters and enhancements provide an opportunity to visualize the results in GIS. The outcome provides an overview of site size, and distribution of mounds and flattened areas. Measurement of the topographic changes in a variety of past settlements defines likely zones of habitat, and provides clues on the actual dimensions and density of living space. Understanding the relation of the mounds and adjacent flat areas within their environment allows a discussion on how, and for what purpose, the settlement was founded at a particular location, and provides clues about its spatial organization.

  19. An Integrated Use of Topography with RSI in Gully Mapping, Shandong Peninsula, China

    OpenAIRE

    He, Fuhong; Wang, Tao; Gu, Lijuan; Li, Tao; Jiang, Weiguo; Shao, Hongbo

    2014-01-01

    Taking the Quickbird optical satellite imagery of the small watershed of Beiyanzigou valley of Qixia city, Shandong province, as the study data, we proposed a new method by using a fused image of topography with remote sensing imagery (RSI) to achieve a high precision interpretation of gully edge lines. The technique first transformed remote sensing imagery into HSV color space from RGB color space. Then the slope threshold values of gully edge line and gully thalweg were gained through field...

  20. BedMachine v3: Complete Bed Topography and Ocean Bathymetry Mapping of Greenland From Multibeam Echo Sounding Combined With Mass Conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morlighem, M.; Williams, C. N.; Rignot, E.

    2017-01-01

    Greenland's bed topography is a primary control on ice flow, grounding line migration, calving dynamics, and subglacial drainage. Moreover, fjord bathymetry regulates the penetration of warm Atlantic water (AW) that rapidly melts and undercuts Greenland's marine‐terminating glaciers. Here we...... present a new compilation of Greenland bed topography that assimilates seafloor bathymetry and ice thickness data through a mass conservation approach. A new 150 m horizontal resolution bed topography/bathymetric map of Greenland is constructed with seamless transitions at the ice/ocean interface......, yielding major improvements over previous data sets, particularly in the marine‐terminating sectors of northwest and southeast Greenland. Our map reveals that the total sea level potential of the Greenland ice sheet is 7.42 ± 0.05 m, which is 7 cm greater than previous estimates. Furthermore, it explains...

  1. Common Fixed Points of Mappings and Set-Valued Mappings in Symmetric Spaces with Application to Probabilistic Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    M. Aamri; A. Bassou; S. Bennani; D. El Moutawakil

    2007-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to give some common fixed point theorems of mappings and set-valued mappings of a symmetric space with some applications to probabilistic spaces. In order to get these results, we define the concept of E-weak compatibility between set-valued and single-valued mappings of a symmetric space.

  2. New Mars free-air and Bouguer gravity: Correlation with topography, geology and large impact basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Herbert; Bills, Bruce G.; Kiefer, Walter S.; Nerem, R. Steven; Roark, James H.; Zuber, Maria T.

    1993-01-01

    Free-air and Bouguer gravity anomalies from a 50x50 field (MGM635), derived at the Goddard Space Flight Center, with global topography, geology, and the distribution of large impact basins was compared. The free-air gravity anomalies were derived from re-analysis of Viking Orbiter and Mariner 9 tracking data and have a spatial resolution of 250-300 km. Bouguer anomalies were calculated using a 50x50 expansion of the current Mars topography and the GSFC degree 50 geoid as the equipotential reference surface. Rotational flattening was removed using a moment of inertia of 0.365 and the corrections from Table B2 of Sleep and Phillips. Crustal density and mean density were assumed to be 2.9 and 3.93 gm/cm(sup 3). The spherical harmonic topography used has zero mean elevation, and differs from the USGS maps by about 2 km. Comparisons with global geology use a simplified map with about 1/3 the number of units on the current maps. For correlation with impact basins, the recent compilation by Schultz and Frey was used.

  3. BedMachine v3: Complete Bed Topography and Ocean Bathymetry Mapping of Greenland From Multibeam Echo Sounding Combined With Mass Conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morlighem, M.; Williams, C. N.; Rignot, E.

    2017-01-01

    Greenland's bed topography is a primary control on ice flow, grounding line migration, calving dynamics, and subglacial drainage. Moreover, fjord bathymetry regulates the penetration of warm Atlantic water (AW) that rapidly melts and undercuts Greenland's marine‐terminating glaciers. Here we...... present a new compilation of Greenland bed topography that assimilates seafloor bathymetry and ice thickness data through a mass conservation approach. A new 150 m horizontal resolution bed topography/bathymetric map of Greenland is constructed with seamless transitions at the ice/ocean interface...

  4. A new planetary mapping for future space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karachevtseva, Irina; Kokhanov, Alexander; Rodionova, Janna; Zubarev, Anatoliy; Nadezhdina, Irina; Kreslavsky, Mikhail; Oberst, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    The wide studies of Solar system, including different planetary bodies, were announced by new Russian space program. Their geodesy and cartography support provides by MIIGAiK Extraterrestrial Laboratory (http://mexlab.miigaik.ru/eng) in frames of the new project "Studies of Fundamental Geodetic Parameters and Topography of Planets and Satellites". The objects of study are satellites of the outer planets (satellites of Jupiter - Europa, Calisto and Ganymede; Saturnine satellite Enceladus), some planets (Mercury and Mars) and the satellites of the terrestrial planets - Phobos (Mars) and the Moon (Earth). The new research project, which started in 2014, will address the following important scientific and practical tasks: - Creating new three-dimensional geodetic control point networks of satellites of the outer planets using innovative photogrammetry techniques; - Determination of fundamental geodetic parameters and study size, shape, and spin parameters and to create the basic framework for research of their surfaces; - Studies of relief of planetary bodies and comparative analysis of general surface characteristics of the Moon, Mars, and Mercury, as well as studies of morphometric parameters of volcanic formations on the Moon and Mars; - Modeling of meteoritic bombardment of celestial bodies and the study of the dynamics of particle emissions caused by a meteorite impacts; - Development of geodatabase for studies of planetary bodies, including creation of object catalogues, (craters and volcanic forms, etc.), and thematic mapping using GIS technology. The significance of the project is defined both by necessity of obtaining fundamental characteristics of the Solar System bodies, and practical tasks in preparation for future Russian and international space missions to the Jupiter system (Laplace-P and JUICE), the Moon (Luna-Glob and Luna-Resource), Mars (Exo-Mars), Mercury (Bepi-Colombo), and possible mission to Phobos (project Boomerang). For cartographic support of

  5. Photogrammetric portrayal of Mars topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S.S.C.

    1979-01-01

    Special photogrammetric techniques have been developed to portray Mars topography, using Mariner and Viking imaging and nonimaging topographic information and earth-based radar data. Topography is represented by the compilation of maps at three scales: global, intermediate, and very large scale. The global map is a synthesis of topographic information obtained from Mariner 9 and earth-based radar, compiled at a scale of 1:25,000,000 with a contour interval of 1 km; it gives a broad quantitative view of the planet. At intermediate scales, Viking Orbiter photographs of various resolutions are used to compile detailed contour maps of a broad spectrum of prominent geologic features; a contour interval as small as 20 m has been obtained from very high resolution orbital photography. Imagery from the Viking lander facsimile cameras permits construction of detailed, very large scale (1:10) topographic maps of the terrain surrounding the two landers; these maps have a contour interval of 1 cm. This paper presents several new detailed topographic maps of Mars.-Author

  6. Ordered and isomorphic mapping of periodic structures in the parametrically forced logistic map

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maranhão, Dariel M., E-mail: dariel@ifsp.edu.br [Departamento de Ciências e Matemática, Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia de São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Diretoria de Informática, Universidade Nove de Julho, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2016-09-23

    Highlights: • A direct description of the internal structure of a periodic window in terms of winding numbers is proposed. • Periodic structures in parameter spaces are mapped in a recurrent and isomorphic way. • Sequences of winding numbers show global and local organization of periodic domains. - Abstract: We investigate the periodic domains found in the parametrically forced logistic map, the classical logistic map when its control parameter changes dynamically. Phase diagrams in two-parameter spaces reveal intricate periodic structures composed of patterns of intersecting superstable orbits curves, defining the cell of a periodic window. Cells appear multifoliated and ordered, and they are isomorphically mapped when one changes the map parameters. Also, we identify the characteristics of simplest cell and apply them to other more complex, discussing how the topography on parameter space is affected. By use of the winding number as defined in periodically forced oscillators, we show that the hierarchical organization of the periodic domains is manifested in global and local scales.

  7. The T?lz Temporal Topography Study: Mapping the visual field across the life span. Part II: Cognitive factors shaping visual field maps

    OpenAIRE

    Poggel, Dorothe A.; Treutwein, Bernhard; Calmanti, Claudia; Strasburger, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Part I described the topography of visual performance over the life span. Performance decline was explained only partly by deterioration of the optical apparatus. Part II therefore examines the influence of higher visual and cognitive functions. Visual field maps for 95 healthy observers of static perimetry, double-pulse resolution (DPR), reaction times, and contrast thresholds, were correlated with measures of visual attention (alertness, divided attention, spatial cueing), visual search, an...

  8. Gently dipping normal faults identified with Space Shuttle radar topography data in central Sulawesi, Indonesia, and some implications for fault mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    Space-shuttle radar topography data from central Sulawesi, Indonesia, reveal two corrugated, domal landforms, covering hundreds to thousands of square kilometers, that are bounded to the north by an abrupt transition to typical hilly to mountainous topography. These domal landforms are readily interpreted as metamorphic core complexes, an interpretation consistent with a single previous field study, and the abrupt northward transition in topographic style is interpreted as marking the trace of two extensional detachment faults that are active or were recently active. Fault dip, as determined by the slope of exhumed fault footwalls, ranges from 4?? to 18??. Application of critical-taper theory to fault dip and hanging-wall surface slope, and to similar data from several other active or recently active core complexes, suggests a theoretical limit of three degrees for detachment-fault dip. This result appears to conflict with the dearth of seismological evidence for slip on faults dipping less than ~. 30??. The convex-upward form of the gently dipping fault footwalls, however, allows for greater fault dip at depths of earthquake initiation and dominant energy release. Thus, there may be no conflict between seismological and mapping studies for this class of faults. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  9. The Tölz Temporal Topography Study: mapping the visual field across the life span. Part II: cognitive factors shaping visual field maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggel, Dorothe A; Treutwein, Bernhard; Calmanti, Claudia; Strasburger, Hans

    2012-08-01

    Part I described the topography of visual performance over the life span. Performance decline was explained only partly by deterioration of the optical apparatus. Part II therefore examines the influence of higher visual and cognitive functions. Visual field maps for 95 healthy observers of static perimetry, double-pulse resolution (DPR), reaction times, and contrast thresholds, were correlated with measures of visual attention (alertness, divided attention, spatial cueing), visual search, and the size of the attention focus. Correlations with the attentional variables were substantial, particularly for variables of temporal processing. DPR thresholds depended on the size of the attention focus. The extraction of cognitive variables from the correlations between topographical variables and participant age substantially reduced those correlations. There is a systematic top-down influence on the aging of visual functions, particularly of temporal variables, that largely explains performance decline and the change of the topography over the life span.

  10. ATM Coastal Topography-Mississippi, 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayegandhi, Amar; Yates, Xan; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, A.H.; Klipp, Emily S.; Wright, C. Wayne

    2009-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived first-surface (FS) topography were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of the Mississippi coastline, from Lakeshore to Petit Bois Island, acquired September 9-10, 2001. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative scanning lidar instrument originally developed by NASA, and known as the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), was used during data acquisition. The ATM system is a scanning lidar system that measures high-resolution topography of the land surface and incorporates a green-wavelength laser operating at pulse rates of 2 to 10 kilohertz. Measurements from the laser-ranging device are coupled with data acquired from inertial navigation system (INS) attitude sensors and differentially corrected global positioning system (GPS) receivers to measure topography of the surface at accuracies of +/-15 centimeters. The nominal ATM platform is a Twin Otter or P-3 Orion aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the ATM system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight-line definition, flight-path plotting, lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS

  11. ATM Coastal Topography-Alabama 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayegandhi, Amar; Yates, Xan; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, A.H.; Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Klipp, Emily S.; Wright, C. Wayne

    2009-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived first surface (FS) topography were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of the Alabama coastline, acquired October 3-4, 2001. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative scanning Lidar instrument originally developed by NASA, and known as the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), was used during data acquisition. The ATM system is a scanning Lidar system that measures high-resolution topography of the land surface, and incorporates a green-wavelength laser operating at pulse rates of 2 to 10 kilohertz. Measurements from the laser ranging device are coupled with data acquired from inertial navigation system (INS) attitude sensors and differentially corrected global positioning system (GPS) receivers to measure topography of the surface at accuracies of +/-15 centimeters. The nominal ATM platform is a Twin Otter or P-3 Orion aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the ATM system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of Lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for pre-survey flight line definition, flight path plotting, Lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is routinely used to create maps that

  12. Topography of the Betics: crustal thickening, dynamic topography and relief inheritance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janowski, Marianne; Loget, Nicolas; Bellahsen, Nicolas; Husson, Laurent; Le Pourhiet, Laetitia; Meyer, Bertrand

    2017-04-01

    The main mechanism that explains high orogenic topographies is the isostatic adjustment due to crustal thickening. However in the Betic Cordillera (South Spain), the present-day elevation and crustal thickness are not correlated. That is at odds with the general premise of isostasy and requires reappraising the question of the driving mechanisms leading to the current topography. The Betics are located at the western edge of the alpine Mediterranean belt. Its Cenozoic orogenic building was disrupted by a major crustal thinning event induced by a slab rollback in the internal zones (Alboran domain) during Neogene. Topography was largely levelled and flooded by the sea during Neogene extension, and then has been folded since the Late Tortonian inversion. The present-day topography shows flat summits still preserved from fluvial regression in the internal zones (central and eastern Betics). These low-relief surfaces may be inherited from the Neogene planation toward sea-level as rocks cooling histories inferred from low-temperature thermochronology seem to point it out. Post-Tortonian shortening estimated thanks to a crustal-scale N-S cross-section in the eastern Betics (at the Sierra Nevada longitude) does not exceed few kilometers which is much lower than the shortening required by isostatic equilibrium, and is thus insufficient to explain the post-Tortonian topography building. We tested the hypothesis that mantle dynamics could in fact be an important mechanism that explains the topography of the Betics. We first computed the residual topography (i.e. the non-isostatic component of the elevation) using the most recent published Moho mapping of the area. In the western Betics, our results show important negative residual topography (down to -3 km) possibly associated with the west-Alboran slab suction. In the eastern Betics however, positive residual topography is important (up to +3 km) and can be explained by the dynamic mantle support of the topography, possibly

  13. Terrain Classification on Venus from Maximum-Likelihood Inversion of Parameterized Models of Topography, Gravity, and their Relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggers, G. L.; Lewis, K. W.; Simons, F. J.; Olhede, S.

    2013-12-01

    Venus does not possess a plate-tectonic system like that observed on Earth, and many surface features--such as tesserae and coronae--lack terrestrial equivalents. To understand Venus' tectonics is to understand its lithosphere, requiring a study of topography and gravity, and how they relate. Past studies of topography dealt with mapping and classification of visually observed features, and studies of gravity dealt with inverting the relation between topography and gravity anomalies to recover surface density and elastic thickness in either the space (correlation) or the spectral (admittance, coherence) domain. In the former case, geological features could be delineated but not classified quantitatively. In the latter case, rectangular or circular data windows were used, lacking geological definition. While the estimates of lithospheric strength on this basis were quantitative, they lacked robust error estimates. Here, we remapped the surface into 77 regions visually and qualitatively defined from a combination of Magellan topography, gravity, and radar images. We parameterize the spectral covariance of the observed topography, treating it as a Gaussian process assumed to be stationary over the mapped regions, using a three-parameter isotropic Matern model, and perform maximum-likelihood based inversions for the parameters. We discuss the parameter distribution across the Venusian surface and across terrain types such as coronoae, dorsae, tesserae, and their relation with mean elevation and latitudinal position. We find that the three-parameter model, while mathematically established and applicable to Venus topography, is overparameterized, and thus reduce the results to a two-parameter description of the peak spectral variance and the range-to-half-peak variance (in function of the wavenumber). With the reduction the clustering of geological region types in two-parameter space becomes promising. Finally, we perform inversions for the JOINT spectral variance of

  14. Expressions for tidal conversion at seafloor topography using physical space integrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schorghofer, Norbert

    2010-01-01

    The barotropic tide interacts with seafloor topography to generate internal gravity waves. Equations for streamfunction and power conversion are derived in terms of integrals over the topography in spatial coordinates. The slope of the topography does not need to be small. Explicit equations are derived up to second order in slope for general topography, and conversion by a bell-shaped topography is calculated analytically to this order. A concise formalism using Hilbert transforms is developed, the minimally converting topographic shape is discussed, and a numerical scheme for the evaluation of power conversion is designed that robustly deals with the singular integrand.

  15. Comparison of elevation derived from insar data with dem from topography map in Son Dong, Bac Giang, Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Duy

    2012-07-01

    Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) are used in many applications in the context of earth sciences such as in topographic mapping, environmental modeling, rainfall-runoff studies, landslide hazard zonation, seismic source modeling, etc. During the last years multitude of scientific applications of Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (InSAR) techniques have evolved. It has been shown that InSAR is an established technique of generating high quality DEMs from space borne and airborne data, and that it has advantages over other methods for the generation of large area DEM. However, the processing of InSAR data is still a challenging task. This paper describes InSAR operational steps and processing chain for DEM generation from Single Look Complex (SLC) SAR data and compare a satellite SAR estimate of surface elevation with a digital elevation model (DEM) from Topography map. The operational steps are performed in three major stages: Data Search, Data Processing, and product Validation. The Data processing stage is further divided into five steps of Data Pre-Processing, Co-registration, Interferogram generation, Phase unwrapping, and Geocoding. The Data processing steps have been tested with ERS 1/2 data using Delft Object-oriented Interferometric (DORIS) InSAR processing software. Results of the outcome of the application of the described processing steps to real data set are presented.

  16. Fine-scale topography in sensory systems: insights from Drosophila and vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Takuya; Ye, Bing

    2015-09-01

    To encode the positions of sensory stimuli, sensory circuits form topographic maps in the central nervous system through specific point-to-point connections between pre- and postsynaptic neurons. In vertebrate visual systems, the establishment of topographic maps involves the formation of a coarse topography followed by that of fine-scale topography that distinguishes the axon terminals of neighboring neurons. It is known that intrinsic differences in the form of broad gradients of guidance molecules instruct coarse topography while neuronal activity is required for fine-scale topography. On the other hand, studies in the Drosophila visual system have shown that intrinsic differences in cell adhesion among the axon terminals of neighboring neurons instruct the fine-scale topography. Recent studies on activity-dependent topography in the Drosophila somatosensory system have revealed a role of neuronal activity in creating molecular differences among sensory neurons for establishing fine-scale topography, implicating a conserved principle. Here we review the findings in both Drosophila and vertebrates and propose an integrated model for fine-scale topography.

  17. Pre-LBA CABARE Mapped Land Surface and Vegetation Characteristics, Rondonia, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Surface parameter digital maps of vegetation, soil, and topography were obtained for Rondonia, Brazil, covering the 5x5 degree region bounded by 13-8...

  18. Venus gravity anomalies and their correlations with topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjogren, W. L.; Bills, B. G.; Birkeland, P. W.; Esposito, P. B.; Konopliv, A. R.; Mottinger, N. A.; Ritke, S. J.; Phillips, R. J.

    1983-01-01

    This report provides a summary of the high-resolution gravity data obtained from the Pioneer Venus Orbiter radio tracking data. Gravity maps, covering a 70 deg latitude band through 360 deg of longitude, are displayed as line-of-sight and vertical gravity. Topography converted to gravity and Bouguer gravity maps are also shown in both systems. Topography to gravity ratios are made over several regions of the planet. There are markedly different ratios for the Aphrodite area as compared to the Beta and Atla areas.

  19. A New Lunar Topographic Map of the Moon by KAGUYA-LALT: The First Precise Topography of the Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, H.; Ishihara, Y.; Noda, H.; Goossens, S.; Tazawa, S.; Kawano, N.; Sasaki, S.; Oberst, J.

    2008-12-01

    The Japanese lunar explorer KAGUYA (SELENE) was launched successfully on September 14th, 2007. A laser altimeter (LALT) is on board the main orbiter of KAGUYA. The objectives of LALT are (1) determination of lunar global figure, (2) studies in internal structure and surface processes, (3) exploration of the lunar pole regions, and (4) reduction of lunar occultation data. LALT transmits laser pulses whose time width is about 20 nano-seconds and pulse interval is 1 second. Range accuracy is up to 5m. The range data are transformed to the topography of the moon with the aid of position and attitude data of the main orbiter. From the end of December 2007, LALT started continuous operation and a global topography map with unprecedented resolution was produced. Lunar mean radius is estimated as 1737.15±0.01 km and the COM-COF offset is 1.94 km based on the spherical harmonic model STM359_grid-02 derived from LALT topography. The amplitude of the power spectrum of STM359_grid-02 is larger than that of the previous model at L>30 degrees, which may reflect the process of basin formation and/or crustal evolution. In the polar regions where previous CLEMENTINE altimeter did not cover, many topographic features that were difficult to see on the imagery from spacecraft or ground based radar are discovered. The sunlit rate in the lunar polar regions is estimated by using the polar topographic map made from LALT topography. We found that i) the highest sunlit rate is 93~96 % in both polar regions and ii) the eternal shadow area is smaller than previous estimations. These results will be of great use for the planning of the lunar polar exploration in near future.

  20. Topography changes monitoring of small islands using camera drone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, E.

    2017-12-01

    Drone aerial photogrammetry was conducted for monitoring topography changes of small islands in the east sea of Korea. Severe weather and sea wave is eroding the islands and sometimes cause landslide and falling rock. Due to rugged cliffs in all direction and bad accessibility, ground based survey methods are less efficient in monitoring topography changes of the whole area. Camera drones can provide digital images and movie in every corner of the islands, and drone aerial photogrammetry is powerful to get precise digital surface model (DSM) for a limited area. We have got a set of digital images to construct a textured 3D model of the project area every year since 2014. Flight height is in less than 100m from the top of those islands to get enough ground sampling distance (GSD). Most images were vertically captured with automatic flights, but we also flied drones around the islands with about 30°-45° camera angle for constructing 3D model better. Every digital image has geo-reference, but we set several ground control points (GCPs) on the islands and their coordinates were measured with RTK surveying methods to increase the absolute accuracy of the project. We constructed 3D textured model using photogrammetry tool, which generates 3D spatial information from digital images. From the polygonal model, we could get DSM with contour lines. Thematic maps such as hill shade relief map, aspect map and slope map were also processed. Those maps make us understand topography condition of the project area better. The purpose of this project is monitoring topography change of these small islands. Elevation difference map between DSMs of each year is constructed. There are two regions showing big negative difference value. By comparing constructed textured models and captured digital images around these regions, it is checked that a region have experienced real topography change. It is due to huge rock fall near the center of the east island. The size of fallen rock can be

  1. Gamut mapping in a high-dynamic-range color space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preiss, Jens; Fairchild, Mark D.; Ferwerda, James A.; Urban, Philipp

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel approach of tone mapping as gamut mapping in a high-dynamic-range (HDR) color space. High- and low-dynamic-range (LDR) images as well as device gamut boundaries can simultaneously be represented within such a color space. This enables a unified transformation of the HDR image into the gamut of an output device (in this paper called HDR gamut mapping). An additional aim of this paper is to investigate the suitability of a specific HDR color space to serve as a working color space for the proposed HDR gamut mapping. For the HDR gamut mapping, we use a recent approach that iteratively minimizes an image-difference metric subject to in-gamut images. A psychophysical experiment on an HDR display shows that the standard reproduction workflow of two subsequent transformations - tone mapping and then gamut mapping - may be improved by HDR gamut mapping.

  2. Pre-LBA CABARE Mapped Land Surface and Vegetation Characteristics, Rondonia, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Surface parameter digital maps of vegetation, soil, and topography were obtained for Rondonia, Brazil, covering the 5x5 degree region bounded by 13-8 degrees S and...

  3. Mapping spaces and automorphism groups of toric noncommutative spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Gwendolyn E.; Schenkel, Alexander; Szabo, Richard J.

    2017-09-01

    We develop a sheaf theory approach to toric noncommutative geometry which allows us to formalize the concept of mapping spaces between two toric noncommutative spaces. As an application, we study the `internalized' automorphism group of a toric noncommutative space and show that its Lie algebra has an elementary description in terms of braided derivations.

  4. Clinical Validation of Point-Source Corneal Topography in Keratoplasty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrijling, A C L; Braaf, B.; Snellenburg, J.J.; de Lange, F.; Zaal, M.J.W.; van der Heijde, G.L.; Sicam, V.A.D.P.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To validate the clinical performance of point-source corneal topography (PCT) in postpenetrating keratoplasty (PKP) eyes and to compare it with conventional Placido-based topography. Methods. Corneal elevation maps of the anterior corneal surface were obtained from 20 post-PKP corneas using

  5. Linking topography to tonotopy in the mouse auditory thalamocortical circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hackett, Troy A; Rinaldi Barkat, Tania; O'Brien, Barbara M J

    2011-01-01

    The mouse sensory neocortex is reported to lack several hallmark features of topographic organization such as ocular dominance and orientation columns in primary visual cortex or fine-scale tonotopy in primary auditory cortex (AI). Here, we re-examined the question of auditory functional topography...... the tonotopic axis in the slice produced an orderly shift of voltage-sensitive dye (VSD) signals along the AI tonotopic axis, demonstrating topography in the mouse thalamocortical circuit that is preserved in the slice. However, compared with BF maps of neuronal spiking activity, the topographic order...... of subthreshold VSD maps was reduced in layer IV and even further degraded in layer II/III. Therefore, the precision of AI topography varies according to the source and layer of the mapping signal. Our findings further bridge the gap between in vivo and in vitro approaches for the detailed cellular study...

  6. EAARL Coastal Topography--Cape Canaveral, Florida, 2009: First Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonisteel-Cormier, J.M.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Plant, Nathaniel; Wright, C.W.; Nagle, D.B.; Serafin, K.S.; Klipp, E.S.

    2011-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived first-surface (FS) topography datasets were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Kennedy Space Center, FL. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the eastern Florida coastline beachface, acquired on May 28, 2009. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative airborne lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multispectral color-infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for sub-meter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine aircraft, but the instrument was deployed on a Pilatus PC-6. A single pilot, a lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed

  7. Space Mapping With Adaptive Response Correction for Microwave Design Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koziel, S.; Bandler, J.W.; Madsen, Kaj

    2009-01-01

    at which the term was calculated, as in the surrogate model optimization process. In this paper, an adaptive response correction scheme is presented to work in conjunction with space-mapping optimization algorithms. This technique is designed to alleviate the difficulties of the standard output space......Output space mapping is a technique introduced to enhance the robustness of the space-mapping optimization process in case the space-mapped coarse model cannot provide sufficient matching with the fine model. The technique often works very well; however, in some cases it fails. Especially...

  8. Mappings with closed range and finite dimensional linear spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyahen, S.O.

    1984-09-01

    This paper looks at two settings, each of continuous linear mappings of linear topological spaces. In one setting, the domain space is fixed while the range space varies over a class of linear topological spaces. In the second setting, the range space is fixed while the domain space similarly varies. The interest is in when the requirement that the mappings have a closed range implies that the domain or range space is finite dimensional. Positive results are obtained for metrizable spaces. (author)

  9. Spike voltage topography in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi-Pooya, Ali A; Asadollahi, Marjan; Shimamoto, Shoichi; Lorenzo, Matthew; Sperling, Michael R

    2016-07-15

    We investigated the voltage topography of interictal spikes in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) to see whether topography was related to etiology for TLE. Adults with TLE, who had epilepsy surgery for drug-resistant seizures from 2011 until 2014 at Jefferson Comprehensive Epilepsy Center were selected. Two groups of patients were studied: patients with mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) on MRI and those with other MRI findings. The voltage topography maps of the interictal spikes at the peak were created using BESA software. We classified the interictal spikes as polar, basal, lateral, or others. Thirty-four patients were studied, from which the characteristics of 340 spikes were investigated. The most common type of spike orientation was others (186 spikes; 54.7%), followed by lateral (146; 42.9%), polar (5; 1.5%), and basal (3; 0.9%). Characteristics of the voltage topography maps of the spikes between the two groups of patients were somewhat different. Five spikes in patients with MTS had polar orientation, but none of the spikes in patients with other MRI findings had polar orientation (odds ratio=6.98, 95% confidence interval=0.38 to 127.38; p=0.07). Scalp topographic mapping of interictal spikes has the potential to offer different information than visual inspection alone. The present results do not allow an immediate clinical application of our findings; however, detecting a polar spike in a patient with TLE may increase the possibility of mesial temporal sclerosis as the underlying etiology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. ATM Coastal Topography-Florida 2001: Eastern Panhandle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Xan; Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, A.H.; Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Klipp, Emily S.; Wright, C. Wayne

    2009-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived first surface (FS) topography were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of the eastern Florida panhandle coastline, acquired October 2, 2001. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative scanning Lidar instrument originally developed by NASA, and known as the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), was used during data acquisition. The ATM system is a scanning Lidar system that measures high-resolution topography of the land surface and incorporates a green-wavelength laser operating at pulse rates of 2 to 10 kilohertz. Measurements from the laser-ranging device are coupled with data acquired from inertial navigation system (INS) attitude sensors and differentially corrected global positioning system (GPS) receivers to measure topography of the surface at accuracies of +/-15 centimeters. The nominal ATM platform is a Twin Otter or P-3 Orion aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the ATM system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of Lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight line definition, flight path plotting, Lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is routinely used to create

  11. ATM Coastal Topography-Florida 2001: Western Panhandle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Xan; Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, A.H.; Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Klipp, Emily S.; Wright, C. Wayne

    2009-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived first surface (FS) topography were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of the western Florida panhandle coastline, acquired October 2-4 and 7-10, 2001. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative scanning Lidar instrument originally developed by NASA, and known as the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), was used during data acquisition. The ATM system is a scanning Lidar system that measures high-resolution topography of the land surface and incorporates a green-wavelength laser operating at pulse rates of 2 to 10 kilohertz. Measurements from the laser-ranging device are coupled with data acquired from inertial navigation system (INS) attitude sensors and differentially corrected global positioning system (GPS) receivers to measure topography of the surface at accuracies of +/-15 centimeters. The nominal ATM platform is a Twin Otter or P-3 Orion aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the ATM system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of Lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight line definition, flight path plotting, Lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is routinely used

  12. Airborne Lidar Simulator for the Lidar Surface Topography (LIST) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Anthony W.; Krainak, Michael A.; Abshire, James B.; Cavanaugh, John; Valett, Susan; Ramos-Izquierdo, Luis

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, the National Research Council (NRC) completed its first decadal survey for Earth science at the request of NASA, NOAA, and USGS. The Lidar Surface Topography (LIST) mission is one of fifteen missions recommended by NRC, whose primary objectives are to map global topography and vegetation structure at 5 m spatial resolution, and to acquire global surface height mapping within a few years. NASA Goddard conducted an initial mission concept study for the LIST mission in 2007, and developed the initial measurement requirements for the mission.

  13. Submonotone mappings in Banach spaces and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiev, P.G.

    1995-11-01

    The notions 'submonotone' and 'strictly submonotone' mapping, introduced by J. Spingarn in R n , are extended in a natural way to arbitrary Banach spaces. Several results about monotone operators are proved for submonotone and strictly submonotone ones: Rockafellar's result about local boundedness of monotone operators; Kenderov's result about single-valuedness and upper-semicontinuity almost everywhere of monotone operators in Asplund spaces; minimality (as w * - cusco mappings) of maximal strictly submonotone mappings, etc. It is shown that subdifferentials of various classes non-convex functions defined as pointwise suprema of quasi-differentiable functions possess submonotone properties. Results about generic differentiability of such functions are obtained (among them are new generalizations of an Ekeland and Lebourg's theorem). Applications are given to the properties of the distance function in a Banach space with uniformly Gateaux differentiable norm. (author). 29 refs

  14. Effects of Topography-driven Micro-climatology on Evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, D. D.; Boll, J.; Wagenbrenner, N. S.

    2017-12-01

    The effects of spatial-temporal variation of climatic conditions on evaporation in micro-climates are not well defined. Current spatially-based remote sensing and modeling for evaporation is limited for high resolutions and complex topographies. We investigated the effect of topography-driven micro-climatology on evaporation supported by field measurements and modeling. Fourteen anemometers and thermometers were installed in intersecting transects over the complex topography of the Cook Agronomy Farm, Pullman, WA. WindNinja was used to create 2-D vector maps based on recorded observations for wind. Spatial analysis of vector maps using ArcGIS was performed for analysis of wind patterns and variation. Based on field measurements, wind speed and direction show consequential variability based on hill-slope location in this complex topography. Wind speed and wind direction varied up to threefold and more than 45 degrees, respectively for a given time interval. The use of existing wind models enables prediction of wind variability over the landscape and subsequently topography-driven evaporation patterns relative to wind. The magnitude of the spatial-temporal variability of wind therefore resulted in variable evaporation rates over the landscape. These variations may contribute to uneven crop development patterns observed during the late growth stages of the agricultural crops at the study location. Use of hill-slope location indexes and appropriate methods for estimating actual evaporation support development of methodologies to better define topography-driven heterogeneity in evaporation. The cumulative effects of spatially-variable climatic factors on evaporation are important to quantify the localized water balance and inform precision farming practices.

  15. Coding space-time stimulus dynamics in auditory brain maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunyan eWang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Sensory maps are often distorted representations of the environment, where ethologically-important ranges are magnified. The implication of a biased representation extends beyond increased acuity for having more neurons dedicated to a certain range. Because neurons are functionally interconnected, non-uniform representations influence the processing of high-order features that rely on comparison across areas of the map. Among these features are time-dependent changes of the auditory scene generated by moving objects. How sensory representation affects high order processing can be approached in the map of auditory space of the owl’s midbrain, where locations in the front are over-represented. In this map, neurons are selective not only to location but also to location over time. The tuning to space over time leads to direction selectivity, which is also topographically organized. Across the population, neurons tuned to peripheral space are more selective to sounds moving into the front. The distribution of direction selectivity can be explained by spatial and temporal integration on the non-uniform map of space. Thus, the representation of space can induce biased computation of a second-order stimulus feature. This phenomenon is likely observed in other sensory maps and may be relevant for behavior.

  16. Review of the Space Mapping Approach to Engineering Optimization and Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakr, M. H.; Bandler, J. W.; Madsen, Kaj

    2000-01-01

    We review the Space Mapping (SM) concept and its applications in engineering optimization and modeling. The aim of SM is to avoid computationally expensive calculations encountered in simulating an engineering system. The existence of less accurate but fast physically-based models is exploited. S......-based Modeling (SMM). These include Space Derivative Mapping (SDM), Generalized Space Mapping (GSM) and Space Mapping-based Neuromodeling (SMN). Finally, we address open points for research and future development....

  17. Convergence of Hybrid Space Mapping Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kaj; Søndergaard, Jacob

    2004-01-01

    may be poor, or the method may even fail to converge to a stationary point. We consider a convex combination of the space mapping technique with a classical optimization technique. The function to be optimized has the form \\$H \\$\\backslash\\$circ f\\$ where \\$H: \\$\\backslash\\$dR\\^m \\$\\backslash......\\$mapsto \\$\\backslash\\$dR\\$ is convex and \\$f: \\$\\backslash\\$dR\\^n \\$\\backslash\\$mapsto \\$\\backslash\\$dR\\^m\\$ is smooth. Experience indicates that the combined method maintains the initial efficiency of the space mapping technique. We prove that the global convergence property of the classical technique is also...

  18. An anatomical and functional topography of human auditory cortical areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle eMoerel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available While advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI throughout the last decades have enabled the detailed anatomical and functional inspection of the human brain non-invasively, to date there is no consensus regarding the precise subdivision and topography of the areas forming the human auditory cortex. Here, we propose a topography of the human auditory areas based on insights on the anatomical and functional properties of human auditory areas as revealed by studies of cyto- and myelo-architecture and fMRI investigations at ultra-high magnetic field (7 Tesla. Importantly, we illustrate that - whereas a group-based approach to analyze functional (tonotopic maps is appropriate to highlight the main tonotopic axis - the examination of tonotopic maps at single subject level is required to detail the topography of primary and non-primary areas that may be more variable across subjects. Furthermore, we show that considering multiple maps indicative of anatomical (i.e. myelination as well as of functional properties (e.g. broadness of frequency tuning is helpful in identifying auditory cortical areas in individual human brains. We propose and discuss a topography of areas that is consistent with old and recent anatomical post mortem characterizations of the human auditory cortex and that may serve as a working model for neuroscience studies of auditory functions.

  19. Shuttle Topography Data Inform Solar Power Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The next time you flip on a light switch, there s a chance that you could be benefitting from data originally acquired during the Space Shuttle Program. An effort spearheaded by Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) in 2000 put together the first near-global elevation map of the Earth ever assembled, which has found use in everything from 3D terrain maps to models that inform solar power production. For the project, called the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), engineers at JPL designed a 60-meter mast that was fitted onto Shuttle Endeavour. Once deployed in space, an antenna attached to the end of the mast worked in combination with another antenna on the shuttle to simultaneously collect data from two perspectives. Just as having two eyes makes depth perception possible, the SRTM data sets could be combined to form an accurate picture of the Earth s surface elevations, the first hight-detail, near-global elevation map ever assembled. What made SRTM unique was not just its surface mapping capabilities but the completeness of the data it acquired. Over the course of 11 days, the shuttle orbited the Earth nearly 180 times, covering everything between the 60deg north and 54deg south latitudes, or roughly 80 percent of the world s total landmass. Of that targeted land area, 95 percent was mapped at least twice, and 24 percent was mapped at least four times. Following several years of processing, NASA released the data to the public in partnership with NGA. Robert Crippen, a member of the SRTM science team, says that the data have proven useful in a variety of fields. "Satellites have produced vast amounts of remote sensing data, which over the years have been mostly two-dimensional. But the Earth s surface is three-dimensional. Detailed topographic data give us the means to visualize and analyze remote sensing data in their natural three-dimensional structure, facilitating a greater understanding of the features

  20. Cokriging surface elevation and seismic refraction data for bedrock topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyquist, J.E.; Doll, W.E.; Davis, R.K.; Hopkins, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    Analysis of seismic refraction data collected at a proposed site of the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) Facility showed a strong correlation between surface and bedrock topography. By combining seismically determined bedrock elevation data with surface elevation data using cokriging, we were able to significantly improve our map of bedrock topography without collecting additional seismic data

  1. Relationship of Aphasia and Topography of Cerebrovascular Territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ghandehari

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Aphasia is a common manifestation of stroke and evaluation of relationships of aphasia and brain topography could lead to better understanding of cognitive neurophysiology.Consecutive 100 stroke patients with aphasia admitted in Valie Asr hospital, Khorasan in 2003 enrulled in this prospective study. Diagnosis of stroke and aphasia was made by a neurolosist and topography of involved cerebrovascular territories confirmed by topographic maps of brain in CT scan. Global, Broca and Wernicke subtypes of aphasia constituted 52%, 40% and 6% of the cases respectively. Based on the usual nourishment of Broca and Wernicke areas by anterior and posterior cortical branches of the middle cerebral artery, 79% of Global, 47% of Broca and 50% of Wernicke aphasias had a compatible infarct topography. Other cases had no congruent infarct topography with involved linguistic area of their brain. Specific cerebrovascular topography for subtypes of aphasia in stroke patients was not found. The effects of cerebrovascular lesions on linguistic functions are not predictable by their topography in CT scan.

  2. Cognitive “Boy stories”: urban folklore and urban topographies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Žikić

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The culturally cognitive perception of Belgrade’s topographies is considered through its deployment, symbolic use and narrative foundation. As the explanatory material-one football-media incident, the use of certain areas of the city in a spectacleceremonial manner, knowledge and lore of certain elements of the Belgrade topographies and the organization of «the football Belgrade»-were considered. The attitude is taken that the topography of a city is a multifaceted cultural constituent, whose structure of particular meaning, as a part of cultural communication, is determined by the very fact it is an urban space. Physical aspects of spatial-ness are reduced to relationism, i.e. it has a meaning for the cultural communication only when the elements of urban topographies are brought into correlation. Other characteristics of physical spatial-ness are irrelevant for such communication. Meaning relations in which elements of urban topographies exist are formed on the very fact of them being urban, that is, the afore mentioned denotation that is ascribed to space, stems from those cultural features and artifacts that are associated in a given milieu with certain concrete elements of urban topographies.

  3. Space mapping optimization algorithms for engineering design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koziel, Slawomir; Bandler, John W.; Madsen, Kaj

    2006-01-01

    A simple, efficient optimization algorithm based on space mapping (SM) is presented. It utilizes input SM to reduce the misalignment between the coarse and fine models of the optimized object over a region of interest, and output space mapping (OSM) to ensure matching of response and first...... to a benchmark problem. In comparison with SMIS, the models presented are simple and have a small number of parameters that need to be extracted. The new algorithm is applied to the optimization of coupled-line band-pass filter....

  4. Mapping Spaces, Centralizers, and p-Local Finite Groups of Lie Type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laude, Isabelle

    We study the space of maps from the classifying space of a finite p-group to theBorel construction of a finite group of Lie type G in characteristic p acting on itsbuilding. The first main result is a description of the homology with Fp-coefficients,showing that the mapping space, up to p...... between a finite p-group and theuncompleted classifying space of the p-local finite group coming from a finite groupof Lie type in characteristic p, providing some of the first results in this uncompletedsetting.......-completion, is a disjoint union indexedover the group homomorphism up to conjugation of classifying spaces of centralizersof p-subgroups in the underlying group G. We complement this description bydetermining the actual homotopy groups of the mapping space. These resultstranslate to descriptions of the space of maps...

  5. ATM Coastal Topography-Texas, 2001: UTM Zone 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klipp, Emily S.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, A.H.; Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Yates, Xan; Wright, C. Wayne

    2009-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived first-surface (FS) topography were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the Texas coastline within UTM zone 14, acquired October 12-13, 2001. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative scanning lidar instrument originally developed by NASA, and known as the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), was used during data acquisition. The ATM system is a scanning lidar system that measures high-resolution topography of the land surface and incorporates a green-wavelength laser operating at pulse rates of 2 to 10 kilohertz. Measurements from the laser-ranging device are coupled with data acquired from inertial navigation system (INS) attitude sensors and differentially corrected global positioning system (GPS) receivers to measure topography of the surface at accuracies of +/-15 centimeters. The nominal ATM platform is a Twin Otter or P-3 Orion aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the ATM system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight-line definition, flight-path plotting, lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is used

  6. Mapping surface properties of sinusoidal roughness standards by TPM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X; Rubert, P

    2005-01-01

    We report our investigation on the surface properties of sinusoidal roughness standards made from pure electroformed nickel. Two specimens having a sinusoidal profile with nominal R a of 0.36 μm and a peak spacing of 25 μm are chosen for this investigation. One specimen is further treated with a hard protective coating of nickel-boron. The surface topography, friction, hardness and Young's modulus of the specimens were measured by a novel instrument, the multi-function Tribological Probe Microscope (TPM). The results show that hardness of these two specimens is 14.1 GPa for uncoated specimen and 25.7 GPa for the coated one, while the Young's modulus is 188 GPa and 225 GPa, respectively. The ramping force was set to 3mN for both the specimens and the effect of the tip penetration was investigated by comparing the topography measurements before and after hardness mapping. It has been found out that there is no significant change in the averaged profiles over the scanned area, which indicates the topography distortion seen in the multi-function mapping, is recoverable. Cross correlation between topography and its corresponding hardness/Young's modulus has been carried out and the result will be discussed in the paper

  7. EAARL Topography - George Washington Birthplace National Monument 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, John C.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Wright, C. Wayne; Stevens, Sara; Yates, Xan

    2009-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived bare earth (BE) and first surface (FS) topography were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL; the National Park Service (NPS), Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network, Kingston, RI; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of the George Washington Birthplace National Monument in Virginia, acquired on March 26, 2008. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative airborne Lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) Lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive Lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multi-spectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for submeter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a Lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL

  8. OpenTopography: Enabling Online Access to High-Resolution Lidar Topography Data and Processing Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Christopher; Nandigam, Viswanath; Baru, Chaitan; Arrowsmith, J. Ramon

    2013-04-01

    High-resolution topography data acquired with lidar (light detection and ranging) technology are revolutionizing the way we study the Earth's surface and overlying vegetation. These data, collected from airborne, tripod, or mobile-mounted scanners have emerged as a fundamental tool for research on topics ranging from earthquake hazards to hillslope processes. Lidar data provide a digital representation of the earth's surface at a resolution sufficient to appropriately capture the processes that contribute to landscape evolution. The U.S. National Science Foundation-funded OpenTopography Facility (http://www.opentopography.org) is a web-based system designed to democratize access to earth science-oriented lidar topography data. OpenTopography provides free, online access to lidar data in a number of forms, including the raw point cloud and associated geospatial-processing tools for customized analysis. The point cloud data are co-located with on-demand processing tools to generate digital elevation models, and derived products and visualizations which allow users to quickly access data in a format appropriate for their scientific application. The OpenTopography system is built using a service-oriented architecture (SOA) that leverages cyberinfrastructure resources at the San Diego Supercomputer Center at the University of California San Diego to allow users, regardless of expertise level, to access these massive lidar datasets and derived products for use in research and teaching. OpenTopography hosts over 500 billion lidar returns covering 85,000 km2. These data are all in the public domain and are provided by a variety of partners under joint agreements and memoranda of understanding with OpenTopography. Partners include national facilities such as the NSF-funded National Center for Airborne Lidar Mapping (NCALM), as well as non-governmental organizations and local, state, and federal agencies. OpenTopography has become a hub for high-resolution topography

  9. A strong open mapping theorem for surjections from cones onto Banach spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeu, de M.F.E.; Messerschmidt, H.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    We show that a continuous additive positively homogeneous map from a closed not necessarily proper cone in a Banach space onto a Banach space is an open map precisely when it is surjective. This generalization of the usual Open Mapping Theorem for Banach spaces is then combined with Michael's

  10. Harmonic maps of the hyperbolic space and development of singularities in wave maps and Yang-Mills fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cazenave, T.; Shatah, J.; Tahvildar-Zadeh, A.S.

    1998-01-01

    In this article we explore some of the connections between the theories of Yang-Mills fields, wave maps, and harmonic maps. It has been shown that the search for similarity solutions of wave maps leads to harmonic maps of the hyperbolic space. On the other hand, Glassey and Strauss have shown that the equations for an SO(3)-equivariant Yang-Mills connection on the Minkowski space R 3,1 with gauge group SU(2) reduce to a certain nonlinear wave equation, which we can now identify as a wave map on R 1,1 . More generally, we will here show the reduction under equivariance of a Yang-Mills system on the Minkowski space R n,1 to a wave map system on R n-2,1 in the specific case of SO(n) bundles with SO(n) symmetry. We then prove for odd n the existence of equivariant harmonic maps from the hyperbolic space H n that are smooth at the ideal boundary of H n , thus establishing the existence of similarity solutions for equivariant wave maps and Yang-Mills fields. As a consequence we show that for n ≥ 7, it is possible to have a wave map into a negatively curved target manifold that develops from smooth initial data and blows up in finite time, in sharp contrast to the elliptic case of harmonic maps. Finally we show how these singular solutions can be lifted to one dimension higher to produce singular travelling waves. (orig.)

  11. High-Resolution Reciprocal Space Mapping for Characterizing Deformation Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantleon, Wolfgang; Wejdemann, Christian; Jakobsen, Bo

    2014-01-01

    With high-angular resolution three-dimensional X-ray diffraction (3DXRD), quantitative information is gained about dislocation structures in individual grains in the bulk of a macroscopic specimen by acquiring reciprocal space maps. In high-resolution 3D reciprocal space maps of tensile......-deformed copper, individual, almost dislocation-free subgrains are identified from high-intensity peaks and distinguished by their unique combination of orientation and elastic strain; dislocation walls manifest themselves as a smooth cloud of lower intensity. The elastic strain shows only minor variations within...... dynamics is followed in situ during varying loading conditions by reciprocal space mapping: during uninterrupted tensile deformation, formation of subgrains is observed concurrently with broadening of Bragg reflections shortly after the onset of plastic deformation. When the traction is terminated, stress...

  12. Mapping Theory - a mapping of the theoretical territory related to a contemporary concept of public space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Shelley

    2008-01-01

    This working paper maps the theoretical territory of public space - urban public space - in a contemporary urban context. By finding, selecting, registering and examining existing theoretical stand points, the paper founds a basis for the creation of theory in an architectural discourse and for t......This working paper maps the theoretical territory of public space - urban public space - in a contemporary urban context. By finding, selecting, registering and examining existing theoretical stand points, the paper founds a basis for the creation of theory in an architectural discourse...

  13. Influence of local topography on precision irrigation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precision irrigation management is currently accomplished using spatial information about soil properties through soil series maps or electrical conductivity (EC measurements. Crop yield, however, is consistently influenced by local topography, both in rain-fed and irrigated environments. Utilizing ...

  14. The Effect of Topography on the Exposure of Airless Bodies to Space Radiation: Phobos Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, T. J.; Wang, Y.; Guo, J.; Schwadron, N.; Cooper, J. F.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.; Spence, H. E.; Jordan, A.; Sturner, S. J.; Glenar, D. A.; Wilson, J. K.

    2017-12-01

    The surfaces of airless bodies, such as the Moon and Phobos (innermost Martian moon), are directly exposed to the surrounding space environment, including energetic particle radiation from both the ever-present flux of galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) and episodic bursts of solar energetic particles (SEPs). Characterizing this radiation exposure is critical to our understanding of the evolution of these bodies from space weathering processes, such as radiation damage of regolith, radiolysis of organics and volatiles, and dielectric breakdown. Similarly, this also has important implications for the long-term radiation exposure of future astronauts and equipment on the surface. In this study, the focus is the influence of Phobian topography on the direct exposure of Phobos to space radiation. For a given point on its surface, this exposure depends on: (i) the solid angle subtended by the sky, (ii) the solid angle of the sky blocked by Mars, and (iii) the energy and angular distributions of ambient energetic particle populations. The sky solid angle, determined using the elevation of the local horizon calculated from a digital elevation model (DEM), can be significantly reduced around topographic lows, such as crater floors, or increased near highs like crater rims. The DEM used in this study was produced using images from the Mars Express High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC), and has the highest available spatial resolution ( 100m). The proximity of Phobos to Mars means the Martian disk appears large in the Phobian sky, but this only effects the moon's near side due its tidally locked orbit. Only isotropic distributions of energetic particles are initially considered, which is typically a reasonable assumption for GCRs and sometimes for SEPs. Observations of the radiation environments on Mars by Curiosity's Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD), and the Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation (CRaTER) onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) at the Moon

  15. A consistent data set of Antarctic ice sheet topography, cavity geometry, and global bathymetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Timmermann

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sub-ice shelf circulation and freezing/melting rates in ocean general circulation models depend critically on an accurate and consistent representation of cavity geometry. Existing global or pan-Antarctic topography data sets have turned out to contain various inconsistencies and inaccuracies. The goal of this work is to compile independent regional surveys and maps into a global data set. We use the S-2004 global 1-min bathymetry as the backbone and add an improved version of the BEDMAP topography (ALBMAP bedrock topography for an area that roughly coincides with the Antarctic continental shelf. The position of the merging line is individually chosen in different sectors in order to capture the best of both data sets. High-resolution gridded data for ice shelf topography and cavity geometry of the Amery, Fimbul, Filchner-Ronne, Larsen C and George VI Ice Shelves, and for Pine Island Glacier are carefully merged into the ambient ice and ocean topographies. Multibeam survey data for bathymetry in the former Larsen B cavity and the southeastern Bellingshausen Sea have been obtained from the data centers of Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI, British Antarctic Survey (BAS and Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (LDEO, gridded, and blended into the existing bathymetry map. The resulting global 1-min Refined Topography data set (RTopo-1 contains self-consistent maps for upper and lower ice surface heights, bedrock topography, and surface type (open ocean, grounded ice, floating ice, bare land surface. The data set is available in NetCDF format from the PANGAEA database at doi:10.1594/pangaea.741917.

  16. EAARL Topography-Vicksburg National Military Park 2007: First Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Segura, Martha; Yates, Xan

    2009-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived first-surface (FS) topography were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL; the National Park Service (NPS), Gulf Coast Network, Lafayette, LA; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of the Vicksburg National Military Park in Mississippi, acquired on September 12, 2007. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative airborne Lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) Lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive Lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multi-spectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for submeter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a Lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the resulting data were then

  17. EAARL Coastal Topography-Pearl River Delta 2008: First Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Miner, Michael D.; Michael, D.; Yates, Xan; Bonisteel, Jamie M.

    2009-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived first surface (FS) topography were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL; the University of New Orleans (UNO), Pontchartrain Institute for Environmental Sciences (PIES), New Orleans, LA; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the Pearl River Delta in Louisiana and Mississippi, acquired March 9-11, 2008. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative airborne Lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) Lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive Lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multi-spectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for submeter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a Lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the

  18. EAARL Coastal Topography-Pearl River Delta 2008: Bare Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Miner, Michael D.; Yates, Xan; Bonisteel, Jamie M.

    2009-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived bare earth (BE) topography were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL; the University of New Orleans (UNO), Pontchartrain Institute for Environmental Sciences (PIES), New Orleans, LA; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the Pearl River Delta in Louisiana and Mississippi, acquired March 9-11, 2008. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative airborne Lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) Lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive Lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multi-spectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for submeter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a Lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the

  19. Linear Mapping of Numbers onto Space Requires Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anobile, Giovanni; Cicchini, Guido Marco; Burr, David C.

    2012-01-01

    Mapping of number onto space is fundamental to mathematics and measurement. Previous research suggests that while typical adults with mathematical schooling map numbers veridically onto a linear scale, pre-school children and adults without formal mathematics training, as well as individuals with dyscalculia, show strong compressive,…

  20. ATM Coastal Topography-Texas, 2001: UTM Zone 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klipp, Emily S.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, A.H.; Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Yates, Xan; Wright, C. Wayne

    2009-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived first-surface (FS) topography were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the Texas coastline within UTM zone 15, from Matagorda Peninsula to Galveston Island, acquired October 12-13, 2001. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative scanning lidar instrument originally developed by NASA, and known as the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), was used during data acquisition. The ATM system is a scanning lidar system that measures high-resolution topography of the land surface and incorporates a green-wavelength laser operating at pulse rates of 2 to 10 kilohertz. Measurements from the laser-ranging device are coupled with data acquired from inertial navigation system (INS) attitude sensors and differentially corrected global positioning system (GPS) receivers to measure topography of the surface at accuracies of +/-15 centimeters. The nominal ATM platform is a Twin Otter or P-3 Orion aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the ATM system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight-line definition, flight-path plotting, lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant

  1. Roles of Fog and Topography in Redwood Forest Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, E. J.; Asner, G. P.

    2017-12-01

    Spatial variability of water in forests is a function of both climatic gradients that control water inputs and topo-edaphic variation that determines the flows of water belowground, as well as interactions of climate with topography. Coastal redwood forests are hydrologically unique because they are influenced by coastal low clouds, or fog, that is advected onto land by a strong coastal-to-inland temperature difference. Where fog intersects the land surface, annual water inputs from summer fog drip can be greater than that of winter rainfall. In this study, we take advantage of mapped spatial gradients in forest canopy water storage, topography, and fog cover in California to better understand the roles and interactions of fog and topography in the hydrology of redwood forests. We test a conceptual model of redwood forest hydrology with measurements of canopy water content derived from high-resolution airborne imaging spectroscopy, topographic variables derived from high-resolution LiDAR data, and fog cover maps derived from NASA MODIS data. Landscape-level results provide insight into hydrological processes within redwood forests, and cross-site analyses shed light on their generality.

  2. Recent trends in space mapping technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandler, John W.; Cheng, Qingsha S.; Hailu, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    We review recent trends in the art of Space Mapping (SM) technology for modeling and design of engineering devices and systems. The SM approach aims at achieving a satisfactory solution with a handful of computationally expensive so-called "fine" model evaluations. SM procedures iteratively update...

  3. Study on the mapping of dark matter clustering from real space to redshift space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Yi; Song, Yong-Seon, E-mail: yizheng@kasi.re.kr, E-mail: ysong@kasi.re.kr [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 34055 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-01

    The mapping of dark matter clustering from real space to redshift space introduces the anisotropic property to the measured density power spectrum in redshift space, known as the redshift space distortion effect. The mapping formula is intrinsically non-linear, which is complicated by the higher order polynomials due to indefinite cross correlations between the density and velocity fields, and the Finger-of-God effect due to the randomness of the peculiar velocity field. Whilst the full higher order polynomials remain unknown, the other systematics can be controlled consistently within the same order truncation in the expansion of the mapping formula, as shown in this paper. The systematic due to the unknown non-linear density and velocity fields is removed by separately measuring all terms in the expansion directly using simulations. The uncertainty caused by the velocity randomness is controlled by splitting the FoG term into two pieces, 1) the ''one-point' FoG term being independent of the separation vector between two different points, and 2) the ''correlated' FoG term appearing as an indefinite polynomials which is expanded in the same order as all other perturbative polynomials. Using 100 realizations of simulations, we find that the Gaussian FoG function with only one scale-independent free parameter works quite well, and that our new mapping formulation accurately reproduces the observed 2-dimensional density power spectrum in redshift space at the smallest scales by far, up to k ∼ 0.2 Mpc{sup -1}, considering the resolution of future experiments.

  4. Study on the mapping of dark matter clustering from real space to redshift space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Yi; Song, Yong-Seon

    2016-01-01

    The mapping of dark matter clustering from real space to redshift space introduces the anisotropic property to the measured density power spectrum in redshift space, known as the redshift space distortion effect. The mapping formula is intrinsically non-linear, which is complicated by the higher order polynomials due to indefinite cross correlations between the density and velocity fields, and the Finger-of-God effect due to the randomness of the peculiar velocity field. Whilst the full higher order polynomials remain unknown, the other systematics can be controlled consistently within the same order truncation in the expansion of the mapping formula, as shown in this paper. The systematic due to the unknown non-linear density and velocity fields is removed by separately measuring all terms in the expansion directly using simulations. The uncertainty caused by the velocity randomness is controlled by splitting the FoG term into two pieces, 1) the ''one-point' FoG term being independent of the separation vector between two different points, and 2) the ''correlated' FoG term appearing as an indefinite polynomials which is expanded in the same order as all other perturbative polynomials. Using 100 realizations of simulations, we find that the Gaussian FoG function with only one scale-independent free parameter works quite well, and that our new mapping formulation accurately reproduces the observed 2-dimensional density power spectrum in redshift space at the smallest scales by far, up to k ∼ 0.2 Mpc -1 , considering the resolution of future experiments.

  5. Enhanced surrogate models for statistical design exploiting space mapping technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koziel, Slawek; Bandler, John W.; Mohamed, Achmed S.

    2005-01-01

    We present advances in microwave and RF device modeling exploiting Space Mapping (SM) technology. We propose new SM modeling formulations utilizing input mappings, output mappings, frequency scaling and quadratic approximations. Our aim is to enhance circuit models for statistical analysis...

  6. Construction of harmonic maps between pseudo-Riemannian spheres and hyperbolic spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konderak, J.

    1988-09-01

    Defined here is an orthogonal multiplication for vector spaces with indefinite nondegenerate scalar product. This is then used, via the Hopf construction, to obtain harmonic maps between pseudo-Riemannian spheres and hyperbolic spaces. Examples of harmonic maps are constructed using Clifford algebras. (author). 6 refs

  7. Mapping Theory - a mapping of the theoretical territory related to a contemporary concept of public space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Shelley

    2008-01-01

    This working paper maps the theoretical territory of public space - urban public space - in a contemporary urban context. By finding, selecting, registering and examining existing theoretical stand points, the paper founds a basis for the creation of theory in an architectural discourse and for t......This working paper maps the theoretical territory of public space - urban public space - in a contemporary urban context. By finding, selecting, registering and examining existing theoretical stand points, the paper founds a basis for the creation of theory in an architectural discourse...... and for the examination of new spatial constellations for further research in public space. In addition to this, the appendices of the working paper are a kind of database for sources and source analyses....

  8. Maps of space in human frontoparietal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerde, Trenton A; Curtis, Clayton E

    2013-12-01

    Prefrontal cortex (PFC) and posterior parietal cortex (PPC) are neural substrates for spatial cognition. We here review studies in which we tested the hypothesis that human frontoparietal cortex may function as a priority map. According to priority map theory, objects or locations in the visual world are represented by neural activity that is proportional to their attentional priority. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we first identified topographic maps in PFC and PPC as candidate priority maps of space. We then measured fMRI activity in candidate priority maps during the delay periods of a covert attention task, a spatial working memory task, and a motor planning task to test whether the activity depended on the particular spatial cognition. Our hypothesis was that some, but not all, candidate priority maps in PFC and PPC would be agnostic with regard to what was being prioritized, in that their activity would reflect the location in space across tasks rather than a particular kind of spatial cognition (e.g., covert attention). To test whether patterns of delay period activity were interchangeable during the spatial cognitive tasks, we used multivariate classifiers. We found that decoders trained to predict the locations on one task (e.g., working memory) cross-predicted the locations on the other tasks (e.g., covert attention and motor planning) in superior precentral sulcus (sPCS) and in a region of intraparietal sulcus (IPS2), suggesting that these patterns of maintenance activity may be interchangeable across the tasks. Such properties make sPCS in frontal cortex and IPS2 in parietal cortex viable priority map candidates, and suggest that these areas may be the human homologs of the monkey frontal eye field (FEF) and lateral intraparietal area (LIP). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Soil texture derived from topography in North-eastern Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Laurent, François; Poccard-Chapuis, René; Plassin, Sophie; Pimentel Martinez, Gustavo

    2017-01-01

    We present a 1:100,000 scale soil texture map of Paragominas county (Pará, Brazil), covering 19,330 km2. The method allows rapid production of a soil texture map of a large area where the strength of a duricrust controls the relief. It is based on an easily accessible explanatory variable, topography, which is represented using a Digital Elevation Model. The method makes it possible to map the spatial distribution of the texture of the topsoil layer. Modelling was complemented by field observ...

  10. Discussion on the 3D visualizing of 1:200 000 geological map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaopeng

    2018-01-01

    Using United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) terrain data as digital elevation model (DEM), overlap scanned 1:200 000 scale geological map, program using Direct 3D of Microsoft with C# computer language, the author realized the three-dimensional visualization of the standard division geological map. User can inspect the regional geology content with arbitrary angle, rotating, roaming, and can examining the strata synthetical histogram, map section and legend at any moment. This will provide an intuitionistic analyzing tool for the geological practitioner to do structural analysis with the assistant of landform, dispose field exploration route etc.

  11. Efficient characterization of phase space mapping in axially symmetric optical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbero, Sergio; Portilla, Javier

    2018-01-01

    Phase space mapping, typically between an object and image plane, characterizes an optical system within a geometrical optics framework. We propose a novel conceptual frame to characterize the phase mapping in axially symmetric optical systems for arbitrary object locations, not restricted to a specific object plane. The idea is based on decomposing the phase mapping into a set of bivariate equations corresponding to different values of the radial coordinate on a specific object surface (most likely the entrance pupil). These equations are then approximated through bivariate Chebyshev interpolation at Chebyshev nodes, which guarantees uniform convergence. Additionally, we propose the use of a new concept (effective object phase space), defined as the set of points of the phase space at the first optical element (typically the entrance pupil) that are effectively mapped onto the image surface. The effective object phase space provides, by means of an inclusion test, a way to avoid tracing rays that do not reach the image surface.

  12. The Dawn Topography Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, C. A.; Jaumann, R.; Nathues, A.; Sierks, H.; Roatsch, T.; Preusker, E; Scholten, F.; Gaskell, R. W.; Jorda, L.; Keller, H.-U.; hide

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the Dawn topography investigation is to derive the detailed shapes of 4 Vesta and 1 Ceres in order to create orthorectified image mosaics for geologic interpretation, as well as to study the asteroids' landforms, interior structure, and the processes that have modified their surfaces over geologic time. In this paper we describe our approaches for producing shape models, plans for acquiring the needed image data for Vesta, and the results of a numerical simulation of the Vesta mapping campaign that quantify the expected accuracy of our results. Multi-angle images obtained by Dawn's framing camera will be used to create topographic models with 100 m/pixel horizontal resolution and 10 m height accuracy at Vesta, and 200 m/pixel horizontal resolution and 20 m height accuracy at Ceres. Two different techniques, stereophotogrammetry and stereophotoclinometry, are employed to model the shape; these models will be merged with the asteroidal gravity fields obtained by Dawn to produce geodetically controlled topographic models for each body. The resulting digital topography models, together with the gravity data, will reveal the tectonic, volcanic and impact history of Vesta, and enable co-registration of data sets to determine Vesta's geologic history. At Ceres, the topography will likely reveal much about processes of surface modification as well as the internal structure and evolution of this dwarf planet.

  13. Intrinsic functional brain mapping in reconstructed 4D magnetic susceptibility (χ) data space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zikuan; Calhoun, Vince

    2015-02-15

    By solving an inverse problem of T2*-weighted magnetic resonance imaging for a dynamic fMRI study, we reconstruct a 4D magnetic susceptibility source (χ) data space for intrinsic functional mapping. A 4D phase dataset is calculated from a 4D complex fMRI dataset. The background field and phase wrapping effect are removed by a Laplacian technique. A 3D χ source map is reconstructed from a 3D phase image by a computed inverse MRI (CIMRI) scheme. A 4D χ data space is reconstructed by repeating the 3D χ source reconstruction for each time point. A functional map is calculated by a temporal correlation between voxel signals in the 4D χ space and the timecourse of the task paradigm. With a finger-tapping experiment, we obtain two 3D functional mappings in the 4D magnitude data space and in the reconstructed 4D χ data space. We find that the χ-based functional mapping reveals co-occurrence of bidirectional responses in a 3D activation map that is different from the conventional magnitude-based mapping. The χ-based functional mapping can also be achieved by a 3D deconvolution of a phase activation map. Based on a subject experimental comparison, we show that the 4D χ tomography method could produce a similar χ activation map as obtained by the 3D deconvolution method. By removing the dipole effect and other fMRI technological contaminations, 4D χ tomography provides a 4D χ data space that allows a more direct and truthful functional mapping of a brain activity. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. EAARL Coastal Topography-Assateague Island National Seashore, 2008: Bare Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Stevens, Sara; Yates, Xan; Klipp, Emily S.

    2009-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived bare-earth (BE) topography were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL; the National Park Service (NPS), Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network, Kingston, RI; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of the Assateague Island National Seashore in Maryland and Virginia, acquired March 24-25, 2008. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative airborne lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multi-spectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for sub-meter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the

  15. EAARL Coastal Topography-Assateague Island National Seashore, 2008: First Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Stevens, Sara; Yates, Xan; Klipp, Emily S.

    2009-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived first-surface (FS) topography were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL; the National Park Service (NPS), Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network, Kingston, RI; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of the Assateague Island National Seashore in Maryland and Virginia, acquired March 24-25, 2008. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative airborne lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multi-spectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for sub-meter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the

  16. EAARL Coastal Topography - Northern Gulf of Mexico, 2007: Bare Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kathryn E.L.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Wright, C. Wayne; Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Brock, John C.

    2009-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived bare earth (BE) topography were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL; the National Park Service (NPS), Gulf Coast Network, Lafayette, LA; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. The purpose of this project is to provide highly detailed and accurate datasets of select barrier islands and peninsular regions of Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida, acquired on June 27-30, 2007. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative airborne Lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) Lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive Lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multi-spectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit which provide for submeter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a Lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using

  17. Venus gravity and topography: 60th degree and order model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopliv, A. S.; Borderies, N. J.; Chodas, P. W.; Christensen, E. J.; Sjogren, W. L.; Williams, B. G.; Balmino, G.; Barriot, J. P.

    1993-01-01

    We have combined the most recent Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) and Magellan (MGN) data with the earlier 1978-1982 PVO data set to obtain a new 60th degree and order spherical harmonic gravity model and a 120th degree and order spherical harmonic topography model. Free-air gravity maps are shown over regions where the most marked improvement has been obtained (Ishtar-Terra, Alpha, Bell and Artemis). Gravity versus topography relationships are presented as correlations per degree and axes orientation.

  18. Conformal maps between pseudo-Finsler spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voicu, Nicoleta

    The paper aims to initiate a systematic study of conformal mappings between Finsler spacetimes and, more generally, between pseudo-Finsler spaces. This is done by extending several results in pseudo-Riemannian geometry which are necessary for field-theoretical applications and by proposing a technique that reduces some problems involving pseudo-Finslerian conformal vector fields to their pseudo-Riemannian counterparts. Also, we point out, by constructing classes of examples, that conformal groups of flat (locally Minkowskian) pseudo-Finsler spaces can be much richer than both flat Finslerian and pseudo-Euclidean conformal groups.

  19. Fixed point theorems for generalized α -β-weakly contraction mappings in metric spaces and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Abdul; Mongkolkeha, Chirasak; Sintunavarat, Wutiphol

    2014-01-01

    We extend the notion of generalized weakly contraction mappings due to Choudhury et al. (2011) to generalized α-β-weakly contraction mappings. We show with examples that our new class of mappings is a real generalization of several known classes of mappings. We also establish fixed point results for such mappings in metric spaces. Applying our new results, we obtain fixed point results on ordinary metric spaces, metric spaces endowed with an arbitrary binary relation, and metric spaces endowed with graph.

  20. Global Correlation and Non-Correlation of Topography with Color and Reflectance on Pluto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Paul M.; Beyer, Ross A.; Moore, Jeffrey M.; Young, Leslie; Ennico, Kimberly; Olkin, Catherine; Weaver, Harold A.; Stern, S. Alan; New Horizons Geology and Geophysics Team

    2017-10-01

    A key objective of the New Horizons mission at Pluto in July 2015 was completion of global maps of surface brightness and color patterns (covering 78% of surface) and topography (covering ~42%) of Pluto and its large moon Charon. The first calibrated and registered versions of these maps have now been completed for posting in the PDS this fall (with a peer-reviewed report on these products to be submitted). Rich in detail, investigation into the roles of local topography and insolation are ongoing (e.g., Lewis et al., 2017). Here we focus on the data sets and links between elevation and global color and brightness patterns and the global mapping revealed by them. In the “north,” yellowish deposits correlate with non-depressed portions of an eroded polar topographic dome ~600 km wide & 2-3 km high (e.g., Young et al., 2017). The broad dark band along the equator forming Cthulhu Macula to the west of Sputnik Planitia is topographically indistinguishable from the vast smooth lightly cratered plains to the north, indicating that latitude is the primary control, not topography. The curious lack of dark material along the equatorial band east of Sputnik Planitia may be partly due to topography of Eastern Tombaugh Regio, which is ~500 m above eroded plains the north and Cthulhu Macula itself. To the south of Cthulhu Macula, plains are slightly brighter, which correlates with a modest rise in topography of Macula, however, an abrupt increase in reflectance correlates with the edge of elevated plateau that rises 2-3 km above the plains. The areas with the strongest signature in the CH4-band are associated with bladed terrain, the highest standing geologic unit in absolute elevation. Similar colored amoeboid-shaped units are evident along the equator in the low-resolution mapping areas, indicating their probable occurrence elsewhere. Thus, while many of Pluto’s major color and albedo features correlate well with topography and are thus controlled by it, some

  1. Fixed Point Theorems for Generalized α-β-Weakly Contraction Mappings in Metric Spaces and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Latif

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We extend the notion of generalized weakly contraction mappings due to Choudhury et al. (2011 to generalized α-β-weakly contraction mappings. We show with examples that our new class of mappings is a real generalization of several known classes of mappings. We also establish fixed point results for such mappings in metric spaces. Applying our new results, we obtain fixed point results on ordinary metric spaces, metric spaces endowed with an arbitrary binary relation, and metric spaces endowed with graph.

  2. The Tölz Temporal Topography Study: mapping the visual field across the life span. Part I: the topography of light detection and temporal-information processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggel, Dorothe A; Treutwein, Bernhard; Calmanti, Claudia; Strasburger, Hans

    2012-08-01

    Temporal performance parameters vary across the visual field. Their topographical distributions relative to each other and relative to basic visual performance measures and their relative change over the life span are unknown. Our goal was to characterize the topography and age-related change of temporal performance. We acquired visual field maps in 95 healthy participants (age: 10-90 years): perimetric thresholds, double-pulse resolution (DPR), reaction times (RTs), and letter contrast thresholds. DPR and perimetric thresholds increased with eccentricity and age; the periphery showed a more pronounced age-related increase than the center. RT increased only slightly and uniformly with eccentricity. It remained almost constant up to the age of 60, a marked change occurring only above 80. Overall, age was a poor predictor of functionality. Performance decline could be explained only in part by the aging of the retina and optic media. In Part II, we therefore examine higher visual and cognitive functions.

  3. EAARL coastal topography and imagery–Western Louisiana, post-Hurricane Rita, 2005: First surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonisteel-Cormier, Jamie M.; Wright, Wayne C.; Fredericks, Alexandra M.; Klipp, Emily S.; Nagle, Doug B.; Sallenger, Asbury H.; Brock, John C.

    2013-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced color-infrared (CIR) imagery and elevation measurements of lidar-derived first-surface (FS) topography datasets were produced by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, St. Petersburg, Florida, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, Virginia. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the Louisiana coastline beachface, acquired post-Hurricane Rita on September 27-28 and October 2, 2005. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative airborne lidar instrument originally developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multispectral color-infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for sub-meter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL

  4. Airborne Instrument Simulator for the Lidar Surface Topography (LIST) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Anthony W.; Krainak, Michael A.; Harding, David J.; Abshire, James B.; Sun, Xiaoli; Cavanaugh, John; Valett, Susan; Ramos-Izquierdo, Luis

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, the National Research Council (NRC) completed its first decadal survey for Earth science at the request of NASA, NOAA, and USGS. The Lidar Surface Topography (LIST) mission is one of fifteen missions recommended by NRC, whose primary objectives are to map global topography and vegetation structure at 5 m spatial resolution, and to acquire global coverage with a few years. NASA Goddard conducted an initial mission concept study for the LIST mission 2007, and developed the initial measurement requirements for the mission.

  5. The Relationship between Trail Running Withdrawals and Race Topography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonini Philippe Roberta

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Context: A growing amount of recent research in sport psychology has focused on trying to understand withdrawals from ultra-races. However, according to the Four E approach, the studies underestimated the embedded components of these experiences and particularly how they were linked to the specific environmental conditions in which the experiences occurred. Objective: This study aimed to characterize trail running withdrawals in relationship to race topography. Design: Qualitative design, involving self-confrontation interviews and use of a race map. Setting: Use of the race map for description of the race activity and self-confrontation interviews took place 1–3 days after the races. Participants: Ten runners who withdrew during an ultra-trail race. Data Collection and Analysis: Data on past activity traces and experiences were elicited from self-confrontation interviews. Data were coded and compared to identify common sequences and then each type of sequence was counted with regard to race topography. Results: Results showed that each sequence was related to runners’ particular possibilities for acting, feeling, and thinking, which were in turn embedded in the race topography. These sequences allowed the unfolding of the activity and increased its overall effectiveness in relation to the constraints of this specific sport. Conclusion: This study allowed us to highlight important information on how ultra-trail runners manage their races in relationship to the race environment and more specifically to its topography. The result will also help us to recommend potential adjustments to ultra-trail runners’ performance-oriented training and preparation.

  6. Your space or mine? Mapping self in time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany M Christian

    Full Text Available While humans are capable of mentally transcending the here and now, this faculty for mental time travel (MTT is dependent upon an underlying cognitive representation of time. To this end, linguistic, cognitive and behavioral evidence has revealed that people understand abstract temporal constructs by mapping them to concrete spatial domains (e.g. past=backward, future=forward. However, very little research has investigated factors that may determine the topographical characteristics of these spatiotemporal maps. Guided by the imperative role of episodic content for retrospective and prospective thought (i.e., MTT, here we explored the possibility that the spatialization of time is influenced by the amount of episodic detail a temporal unit contains. In two experiments, participants mapped temporal events along mediolateral (Experiment 1 and anterioposterior (Experiment 2 spatial planes. Importantly, the temporal units varied in self-relevance as they pertained to temporally proximal or distal events in the participant's own life, the life of a best friend or the life of an unfamiliar other. Converging evidence from both experiments revealed that the amount of space used to represent time varied as a function of target (self, best friend or unfamiliar other and temporal distance. Specifically, self-time was represented as occupying more space than time pertaining to other targets, but only for temporally proximal events. These results demonstrate the malleability of space-time mapping and suggest that there is a self-specific conceptualization of time that may influence MTT as well as other temporally relevant cognitive phenomena.

  7. Nearly auto-parallel maps and conservation laws on curved spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacaru, S.

    1994-01-01

    The theory of nearly auto-parallel maps (na-maps, generalization of conformal transforms) of Einstein-Cartan spaces is formulated. The transformation laws of geometrical objects and gravitational and matter field equations under superpositions of na-maps are considered. A special attention is paid to the very important problem of definition of conservation laws for gravitational fields. (Author)

  8. Period mappings with applications to symplectic complex spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Kirschner, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Extending Griffiths’ classical theory of period mappings for compact Kähler manifolds, this book develops and applies a theory of period mappings of “Hodge-de Rham type” for families of open complex manifolds. The text consists of three parts. The first part develops the theory. The second part investigates the degeneration behavior of the relative Frölicher spectral sequence associated to a submersive morphism of complex manifolds. The third part applies the preceding material to the study of irreducible symplectic complex spaces. The latter notion generalizes the idea of an irreducible symplectic manifold, dubbed an irreducible hyperkähler manifold in differential geometry, to possibly singular spaces. The three parts of the work are of independent interest, but intertwine nicely.

  9. An Introduction to the Space Mapping Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakr, Mohamed H.; Bandler, John W.; Madsen, Kaj

    2001-01-01

    The space mapping technique is intended for optimization of engineering models which involve very expensive function evaluations. It is assumed that two different models of the same physical system are available: Besides the expensive model of primary interest (denoted the fine model), access to ...

  10. Common fixed point theorems for weakly compatible mappings in fuzzy metric spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunny Chauhan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to prove a common fixed point theorem for a pair of weakly compatible mappings in fuzzy metric space by using the (CLRg property. An example is also furnished which demonstrates the validity of our main result. As an application to our main result, we present a fixed point theorem for two finite families of self mappings in fuzzy metric space by using the notion of pairwise commuting. Our results improve the results of Sedghi, Shobe and Aliouche [A common fixed point theorem for weakly compatible mappings in fuzzy metric spaces, Gen. Math. 18(3 (2010, 3-12 MR2735558].

  11. Simulating cosmic microwave background maps in multiconnected spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riazuelo, Alain; Uzan, Jean-Philippe; Lehoucq, Roland; Weeks, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the computation of cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies in a universe with multiconnected spatial sections and focuses on the implementation of the topology in standard CMB computer codes. The key ingredient is the computation of the eigenmodes of the Laplacian with boundary conditions compatible with multiconnected space topology. The correlators of the coefficients of the decomposition of the temperature fluctuation in spherical harmonics are computed and examples are given for spatially flat spaces and one family of spherical spaces, namely, the lens spaces. Under the hypothesis of Gaussian initial conditions, these correlators encode all the topological information of the CMB and suffice to simulate CMB maps

  12. Statistical probabilistic mapping in the individual brain space: decreased metabolism in epilepsy with FDG PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jung Su; Lee, Jae Sung; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul; Lee, Dong Soo

    2005-01-01

    In the statistical probabilistic mapping, commonly, differences between two or more groups of subjects are statistically analyzed following spatial normalization. However, to our best knowledge, there is few study which performed the statistical mapping in the individual brain space rather than in the stereotaxic brain space, i.e., template space. Therefore, in the current study, a new method for mapping the statistical results in the template space onto individual brain space has been developed. Four young subjects with epilepsy and their age-matched thirty normal healthy subjects were recruited. Both FDG PET and T1 structural MRI was scanned in these groups. Statistical analysis on the decreased FDG metabolism in epilepsy was performed on the SPM with two sample t-test (p < 0.001, intensity threshold 100). To map the statistical results onto individual space, inverse deformation was performed as follows. With SPM deformation toolbox, DCT (discrete cosine transform) basis-encoded deformation fields between individual T1 images and T1 MNI template were obtained. Afterward, inverse of those fields, i.e., inverse deformation fields were obtained. Since both PET and T1 images have been already normalized in the same MNI space, inversely deformed results in PET is on the individual brain MRI space. By applying inverse deformation field on the statistical results of the PET, the statistical map of decreased metabolism in individual spaces were obtained. With statistical results in the template space, localization of decreased metabolism was in the inferior temporal lobe, which was slightly inferior to the hippocampus. The statistical results in the individual space were commonly located in the hippocampus, where the activation should be decreased according to a priori knowledge of neuroscience. With our newly developed statistical mapping on the individual spaces, the localization of the brain functional mapping became more appropriate in the sense of neuroscience

  13. Statistical probabilistic mapping in the individual brain space: decreased metabolism in epilepsy with FDG PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jung Su; Lee, Jae Sung; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul; Lee, Dong Soo [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    In the statistical probabilistic mapping, commonly, differences between two or more groups of subjects are statistically analyzed following spatial normalization. However, to our best knowledge, there is few study which performed the statistical mapping in the individual brain space rather than in the stereotaxic brain space, i.e., template space. Therefore, in the current study, a new method for mapping the statistical results in the template space onto individual brain space has been developed. Four young subjects with epilepsy and their age-matched thirty normal healthy subjects were recruited. Both FDG PET and T1 structural MRI was scanned in these groups. Statistical analysis on the decreased FDG metabolism in epilepsy was performed on the SPM with two sample t-test (p < 0.001, intensity threshold 100). To map the statistical results onto individual space, inverse deformation was performed as follows. With SPM deformation toolbox, DCT (discrete cosine transform) basis-encoded deformation fields between individual T1 images and T1 MNI template were obtained. Afterward, inverse of those fields, i.e., inverse deformation fields were obtained. Since both PET and T1 images have been already normalized in the same MNI space, inversely deformed results in PET is on the individual brain MRI space. By applying inverse deformation field on the statistical results of the PET, the statistical map of decreased metabolism in individual spaces were obtained. With statistical results in the template space, localization of decreased metabolism was in the inferior temporal lobe, which was slightly inferior to the hippocampus. The statistical results in the individual space were commonly located in the hippocampus, where the activation should be decreased according to a priori knowledge of neuroscience. With our newly developed statistical mapping on the individual spaces, the localization of the brain functional mapping became more appropriate in the sense of neuroscience.

  14. NEPR Geographic Zone Map 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This geographic zone map was created by interpreting satellite and aerial imagery, seafloor topography (bathymetry model), and the new NEPR Benthic Habitat Map...

  15. Multimedia Mapping using Continuous State Space Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehn-Schiøler, Tue

    2004-01-01

    In this paper a system that transforms speech waveforms to animated faces are proposed. The system relies on continuous state space models to perform the mapping, this makes it possible to ensure video with no sudden jumps and allows continuous control of the parameters in 'face space'. Simulations...... are performed on recordings of 3-5 sec. video sequences with sentences from the Timit database. The model is able to construct an image sequence from an unknown noisy speech sequence fairly well even though the number of training examples are limited....

  16. Fixed Points of Expansive Type Mappings in 2-Banach Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabha Chouhan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In present paper, we define expansive mappings in 2-Banach space and prove some common unique fixed point theorems which are the extension of results of Wang et al. [12] and Rhoades [9] in 2-Banach space.

  17. Common Fixed Points of Generalized Cocyclic Mappings in Complex Valued Metric Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujahid Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present fixed point results of mappings satisfying generalized contractive conditions in complex valued metric spaces. As an application, we obtain a common fixed point of a pair of weakly compatible mappings. Some common fixed point results of generalized contractive-type mappings involved in cocyclic representation of a nonempty subset of a complex valued metric space are also obtained. Some examples are also presented to support the results proved herein. These results extend and generalize many results in the existing literature.

  18. Expanding the Impact of Photogrammetric Topography Through Improved Data Archiving and Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, C. J.; Arrowsmith, R.; Nandigam, V.

    2016-12-01

    Centimeter to decimeter-scale 2.5 to 3D sampling of the Earth surface topography coupled with the potential for photorealistic coloring of point clouds and texture mapping of meshes enables a wide range of science applications. Not only is the configuration and state of the surface as imaged valuable, but repeat surveys enable quantification of topographic change (erosion, deposition, and displacement) caused by various geologic processes. We are in an era of ubiquitous point clouds which come from both active sources such as laser scanners and radar as well as passive scene reconstruction via structure from motion (SfM) photogrammetry. With the decreasing costs of high-resolution topography (HRT) data collection, via methods such as SfM, the number of researchers collecting these data is increasing. These "long-tail" topographic data are of modest size but great value, and challenges exist to making them widely discoverable, shared, annotated, cited, managed and archived. Presently, there are no central repositories or services to support storage and curation of these datasets. The NSF funded OpenTopography (OT) employs cyberinfrastructure including large-scale data management, high-performance computing, and service-oriented architectures, to provide efficient online access to large HRT (mostly lidar) datasets, metadata, and processing tools. With over 200 datasets and 12,000 registered users, OT is well positioned to provide curation for community collected photogrammetric topographic data. OT is developing a "Community DataSpace", a service built on a low cost storage cloud (e.g. AWS S3) to make it easy for researchers to upload, curate, annotate and distribute their datasets. The system's ingestion workflow will extract metadata from data uploaded; validate it; assign a digital object identifier (DOI); and create a searchable catalog entry, before publishing via the OT portal. The OT Community DataSpace will enable wider discovery and utilization of these HRT

  19. Managing the explosion of high resolution topography in the geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Christopher; Nandigam, Viswanath; Arrowsmith, Ramon; Phan, Minh; Gross, Benjamin

    2017-04-01

    Centimeter to decimeter-scale 2.5 to 3D sampling of the Earth surface topography coupled with the potential for photorealistic coloring of point clouds and texture mapping of meshes enables a wide range of science applications. Not only is the configuration and state of the surface as imaged valuable, but repeat surveys enable quantification of topographic change (erosion, deposition, and displacement) caused by various geologic processes. We are in an era of ubiquitous point clouds that come from both active sources such as laser scanners and radar as well as passive scene reconstruction via structure from motion (SfM) photogrammetry. With the decreasing costs of high-resolution topography (HRT) data collection, via methods such as SfM and UAS-based laser scanning, the number of researchers collecting these data is increasing. These "long-tail" topographic data are of modest size but great value, and challenges exist to making them widely discoverable, shared, annotated, cited, managed and archived. Presently, there are no central repositories or services to support storage and curation of these datasets. The U.S. National Science Foundation funded OpenTopography (OT) Facility employs cyberinfrastructure including large-scale data management, high-performance computing, and service-oriented architectures, to provide efficient online access to large HRT (mostly lidar) datasets, metadata, and processing tools. With over 225 datasets and 15,000 registered users, OT is well positioned to provide curation for community collected high-resolution topographic data. OT has developed a "Community DataSpace", a service built on a low cost storage cloud (e.g. AWS S3) to make it easy for researchers to upload, curate, annotate and distribute their datasets. The system's ingestion workflow will extract metadata from data uploaded; validate it; assign a digital object identifier (DOI); and create a searchable catalog entry, before publishing via the OT portal. The OT Community

  20. The three-dimensional elemental distribution based on the surface topography by confocal 3D-XRF analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Longtao; Qin, Min; Wang, Kai; Peng, Shiqi; Sun, Tianxi; Liu, Zhiguo [Beijing Normal University, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing (China); Lin, Xue [Northwest University, School of Cultural Heritage, Xi' an (China)

    2016-09-15

    Confocal three-dimensional micro-X-ray fluorescence (3D-XRF) is a good surface analysis technology widely used to analyse elements and elemental distributions. However, it has rarely been applied to analyse surface topography and 3D elemental mapping in surface morphology. In this study, a surface adaptive algorithm using the progressive approximation method was designed to obtain surface topography. A series of 3D elemental mapping analyses in surface morphology were performed in laboratories to analyse painted pottery fragments from the Majiayao Culture (3300-2900 BC). To the best of our knowledge, for the first time, sample surface topography and 3D elemental mapping were simultaneously obtained. Besides, component and depth analyses were also performed using synchrotron radiation confocal 3D-XRF and tabletop confocal 3D-XRF, respectively. The depth profiles showed that the sample has a layered structure. The 3D elemental mapping showed that the red pigment, black pigment, and pottery coat contain a large amount of Fe, Mn, and Ca, respectively. From the 3D elemental mapping analyses at different depths, a 3D rendering was obtained, clearly showing the 3D distributions of the red pigment, black pigment, and pottery coat. Compared with conventional 3D scanning, this method is time-efficient for analysing 3D elemental distributions and hence especially suitable for samples with non-flat surfaces. (orig.)

  1. The three-dimensional elemental distribution based on the surface topography by confocal 3D-XRF analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, Longtao; Qin, Min; Wang, Kai; Peng, Shiqi; Sun, Tianxi; Liu, Zhiguo; Lin, Xue

    2016-01-01

    Confocal three-dimensional micro-X-ray fluorescence (3D-XRF) is a good surface analysis technology widely used to analyse elements and elemental distributions. However, it has rarely been applied to analyse surface topography and 3D elemental mapping in surface morphology. In this study, a surface adaptive algorithm using the progressive approximation method was designed to obtain surface topography. A series of 3D elemental mapping analyses in surface morphology were performed in laboratories to analyse painted pottery fragments from the Majiayao Culture (3300-2900 BC). To the best of our knowledge, for the first time, sample surface topography and 3D elemental mapping were simultaneously obtained. Besides, component and depth analyses were also performed using synchrotron radiation confocal 3D-XRF and tabletop confocal 3D-XRF, respectively. The depth profiles showed that the sample has a layered structure. The 3D elemental mapping showed that the red pigment, black pigment, and pottery coat contain a large amount of Fe, Mn, and Ca, respectively. From the 3D elemental mapping analyses at different depths, a 3D rendering was obtained, clearly showing the 3D distributions of the red pigment, black pigment, and pottery coat. Compared with conventional 3D scanning, this method is time-efficient for analysing 3D elemental distributions and hence especially suitable for samples with non-flat surfaces. (orig.)

  2. Basement Surface Faulting and Topography for Savannah River Site and Vicinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cumbest, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    This report integrates the data from more than 60 basement borings and over 100 miles of seismic reflection profiling acquired on the Savannah River Site to map the topography of the basement (unweathered rock) surface and faulting recorded on this surface

  3. Contractive type non-self mappings on metric spaces of hyperbolic type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciric, Ljubomir B.

    2006-05-01

    Let (X,d) be a metric space of hyperbolic type and K a nonempty closed subset of X. In this paper we study a class of mappings from K into X (not necessarily self-mappings on K), which are defined by the contractive condition (2.1) below, and a class of pairs of mappings from K into X which satisfy the condition (2.28) below. We present fixed point and common fixed point theorems which are generalizations of the corresponding fixed point theorems of Ciric [L.B. Ciric, Quasi-contraction non-self mappings on Banach spaces, Bull. Acad. Serbe Sci. Arts 23 (1998) 25-31; L.B. Ciric, J.S. Ume, M.S. Khan, H.K.T. Pathak, On some non-self mappings, Math. Nachr. 251 (2003) 28-33], Rhoades [B.E. Rhoades, A fixed point theorem for some non-self mappings, Math. Japon. 23 (1978) 457-459] and many other authors. Some examples are presented to show that our results are genuine generalizations of known results from this area.

  4. Generalized fixed point theorems for compatible mappings with some types in fuzzy metric spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Yeol Je; Sedghi, Shaban; Shobe, Nabi

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we give some new definitions of compatible mappings of types (I) and (II) in fuzzy metric spaces and prove some common fixed point theorems for four mappings under the condition of compatible mappings of types (I) and (II) in complete fuzzy metric spaces. Our results extend, generalize and improve the corresponding results given by many authors.

  5. Bioactivity-guided mapping and navigation of chemical space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renner, S.; Otterlo, van W.A.L.; Seoane, M.D.; Möcklinghoff, S.; Hofmann, B.; Wetzel, S.; Schuffenhauer, A.; Ertl, P.; Oprea, T.I.; Steinhilber, D.; Brunsveld, L.; Rauh, D.; Waldmann, H.

    2009-01-01

    The structure- and chemistry-based hierarchical organization of library scaffolds in tree-like arrangements provides a valid, intuitive means to map and navigate chemical space. We demonstrate that scaffold trees built using bioactivity as the key selection criterion for structural simplification

  6. High resolution, monochromatic x-ray topography capability at CHESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finkelstein, K. D., E-mail: kdf1@cornell.edu; Pauling, A.; Brown, Z. [CHESS, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States); Jones, R. [Department of Physics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Tarun, A.; Misra, D. S. [IIa Technologies (Singapore); Jupitz, S. [St. Mary’s College of Maryland, St. Mary’s City, MD (United States); Sagan, D. C. [CLASSE, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2016-07-27

    CHESS has a monochromatic x-ray topography capability serving continually expanding user interest. The setup consists of a beam expanding monochromator, 6-circle diffactometer, and CHESS designed CMOS camera with real time sample-alignment capability. This provides rocking curve mapping with angle resolution as small as 2 µradians, spatial resolution to 3 microns, and field of view up to 7mm. Thus far the capability has been applied for: improving CVD-diamond growth, evaluating perfection of ultra-thin diamond membranes, correlating performance of diamond-based electronics with crystal defect structure, and defect analysis of single crystal silicon carbide. This paper describes our topography system, explains its capabilities, and presents experimental results from several applications.

  7. High resolution, monochromatic x-ray topography capability at CHESS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finkelstein, K. D.; Pauling, A.; Brown, Z.; Jones, R.; Tarun, A.; Misra, D. S.; Jupitz, S.; Sagan, D. C.

    2016-01-01

    CHESS has a monochromatic x-ray topography capability serving continually expanding user interest. The setup consists of a beam expanding monochromator, 6-circle diffactometer, and CHESS designed CMOS camera with real time sample-alignment capability. This provides rocking curve mapping with angle resolution as small as 2 µradians, spatial resolution to 3 microns, and field of view up to 7mm. Thus far the capability has been applied for: improving CVD-diamond growth, evaluating perfection of ultra-thin diamond membranes, correlating performance of diamond-based electronics with crystal defect structure, and defect analysis of single crystal silicon carbide. This paper describes our topography system, explains its capabilities, and presents experimental results from several applications.

  8. Comparing two maps by Geographer Robert de Vaugondy that represent the Kingdom of Portugal in the 18th century (1751 with the current mapping of the country as regards its topography, hydrography, shoreline definition and settlements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Pais Neves Dos Santos

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In our paper “Estudo de dois Mapas do Geografo Robert de Vaugondy relativos ao Reino de Portugal do Século XVIII (1751” (Study on two maps by Geographer Robert de Vaugondy representing the Kingdom of Portugal in the 18th century, published in Revista Semina: Ciências Sociais e Humanas, Vol. 34, Issue No 1, 2013, we tried to give an explanation for the administrative divisions that appear in those maps. After having studied a number of texts dedicated to the period in question and other related documents, we came to the conclusion that the most logic explanation for those divisions is that they represent ecclesiastical divisions. In this paper, we go further in our analysis and compare these two maps with some current maps of Portugal, taking into account its topography, hydrography, shoreline definition and settlements. Although there are some errors in his maps, we can conclude that Robert de Vaugondy’s work, in terms of his knowledge and geographic representation of Portugal, was the best anyone could do at the time, and we restate the idea that the two maps represent ecclesiastical divisions.

  9. AFM topographies of densely packed nanoparticles: a quick way to determine the lateral size distribution by autocorrelation function analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fekete, L.; Kůsová, K.; Petrák, V.; Kratochvílová, I.

    2012-01-01

    The distribution of sizes is one of the basic characteristics of nanoparticles. Here, we propose a novel way to determine the lateral distribution of sizes from AFM topographies. Our algorithm is based on the autocorrelation function and can be applied both on topographies containing spatially separated and densely packed nanoparticles as well as on topographies of polycrystalline films. As no manual treatment is required, this algorithm can be easily automatable for batch processing. The algorithm works in principle with any kind of spatially mapped information (AFM current maps, optical microscope images, etc.), and as such has no size limitations. However, in the case of AFM topographies, the tip/sample convolution effects will be the factor limiting the smallest size to which the algorithm is applicable. Here, we demonstrate the usefulness of this algorithm on objects with sizes ranging between 20 nm and 1.5 μm.

  10. An integrated use of topography with RSI in gully mapping, Shandong Peninsula, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fuhong; Wang, Tao; Gu, Lijuan; Li, Tao; Jiang, Weiguo; Shao, Hongbo

    2014-01-01

    Taking the Quickbird optical satellite imagery of the small watershed of Beiyanzigou valley of Qixia city, Shandong province, as the study data, we proposed a new method by using a fused image of topography with remote sensing imagery (RSI) to achieve a high precision interpretation of gully edge lines. The technique first transformed remote sensing imagery into HSV color space from RGB color space. Then the slope threshold values of gully edge line and gully thalweg were gained through field survey and the slope data were segmented using thresholding, respectively. Based on the fused image in combination with gully thalweg thresholding vectors, the gully thalweg thresholding vectors were amended. Lastly, the gully edge line might be interpreted based on the amended gully thalweg vectors, fused image, gully edge line thresholding vectors, and slope data. A testing region was selected in the study area to assess the accuracy. Then accuracy assessment of the gully information interpreted by both interpreting remote sensing imagery only and the fused image was performed using the deviation, kappa coefficient, and overall accuracy of error matrix. Compared with interpreting remote sensing imagery only, the overall accuracy and kappa coefficient are increased by 24.080% and 264.364%, respectively. The average deviations of gully head and gully edge line are reduced by 60.448% and 67.406%, respectively. The test results show the thematic and the positional accuracy of gully interpreted by new method are significantly higher. Finally, the error sources for interpretation accuracy by the two methods were analyzed.

  11. An Integrated Use of Topography with RSI in Gully Mapping, Shandong Peninsula, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuhong He

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking the Quickbird optical satellite imagery of the small watershed of Beiyanzigou valley of Qixia city, Shandong province, as the study data, we proposed a new method by using a fused image of topography with remote sensing imagery (RSI to achieve a high precision interpretation of gully edge lines. The technique first transformed remote sensing imagery into HSV color space from RGB color space. Then the slope threshold values of gully edge line and gully thalweg were gained through field survey and the slope data were segmented using thresholding, respectively. Based on the fused image in combination with gully thalweg thresholding vectors, the gully thalweg thresholding vectors were amended. Lastly, the gully edge line might be interpreted based on the amended gully thalweg vectors, fused image, gully edge line thresholding vectors, and slope data. A testing region was selected in the study area to assess the accuracy. Then accuracy assessment of the gully information interpreted by both interpreting remote sensing imagery only and the fused image was performed using the deviation, kappa coefficient, and overall accuracy of error matrix. Compared with interpreting remote sensing imagery only, the overall accuracy and kappa coefficient are increased by 24.080% and 264.364%, respectively. The average deviations of gully head and gully edge line are reduced by 60.448% and 67.406%, respectively. The test results show the thematic and the positional accuracy of gully interpreted by new method are significantly higher. Finally, the error sources for interpretation accuracy by the two methods were analyzed.

  12. Optimization of friction stir welding using space mapping and manifold mapping-an initial study of thermal aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders Astrup; Bendsøe, Martin P.; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to optimize a thermal model of a friction stir welding process by finding optimal welding parameters. The optimization is performed using space mapping and manifold mapping techniques in which a coarse model is used along with the fine model to be optimized. Different...

  13. Harmonic mapping character of Rosen's bimetric theory of gravity and the geometry of its harmonic mapping space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoeger, W.R.; Whitman, A.P.; Knill, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    After showing that Rosen's bimetric theory of gravity is a harmonic map, the geometry of the ten-dimensional harmonic mapping space (HMS), and of its nine-dimensional symmetric submanifolds, which are the leaves of the codimension one foliation of the HMS, is detailed. Both structures are global affinely symmetric spaces. For each, the metric, connections, and Riemann, Ricci, and scalar curvatures are given. The Killing vectors in each case are also worked out and related to the ''conserved quantities'' naturally associated with the harmonic mapping character of the theory. The structure of the Rosen HMS is very much like that determined by the DeWitt metric on the six-dimensional Wheeler superspace of all positive definite three-dimensional metrics. It is clear that a slight modification of the Rosen HMS metric will yield the corresponding metric on the space of all four-dimensional metrics of Lorentz signature. Finally, interesting avenues of further research are indicated, particularly with respect to the structure and comparison of Lagrangian-based gravitational theories which are similar to Einstein's general relativity

  14. Common fixed point theorems for fuzzy mappings in metric space under φ-contraction condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Donia, H.M.

    2007-01-01

    Some common fixed point theorems for multi-valued mappings under φ-contraction condition have been studied by Rashwan [Rashwan RA, Ahmed MA. Fixed points for φ-contraction type multivalued mappings. J Indian Acad Math 1995;17(2):194-204]. Butnariu [Butnariu D. Fixed point for fuzzy mapping. Fuzzy Sets Syst 1982;7:191-207] and Helipern [Hilpern S. Fuzzy mapping and fixed point theorem. J Math Anal Appl 1981;83:566-9] also, discussed some fixed point theorems for fuzzy mappings in the category of metric spaces. In this paper, we discussed some common fixed point theorems for fuzzy mappings in metric space under φ-contraction condition. Our investigation are related to the fuzzy form of Hausdorff metric which is a basic tool for computing Hausdorff dimensions. These dimensions help in understanding ε ∞ -space [El-Naschie MS. On the unification of the fundamental forces and complex time in the ε ∞ -space. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2000;11:1149-62] and are used in high energy physics [El-Naschie MS. Wild topology hyperbolic geometry and fusion algebra of high energy particle physics. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2002;13:1935-45

  15. Common fixed point theorems for fuzzy mappings in metric space under {phi}-contraction condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abu-Donia, H.M. [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Zagazig (Egypt)

    2007-10-15

    Some common fixed point theorems for multi-valued mappings under {phi}-contraction condition have been studied by Rashwan [Rashwan RA, Ahmed MA. Fixed points for {phi}-contraction type multivalued mappings. J Indian Acad Math 1995;17(2):194-204]. Butnariu [Butnariu D. Fixed point for fuzzy mapping. Fuzzy Sets Syst 1982;7:191-207] and Helipern [Hilpern S. Fuzzy mapping and fixed point theorem. J Math Anal Appl 1981;83:566-9] also, discussed some fixed point theorems for fuzzy mappings in the category of metric spaces. In this paper, we discussed some common fixed point theorems for fuzzy mappings in metric space under {phi}-contraction condition. Our investigation are related to the fuzzy form of Hausdorff metric which is a basic tool for computing Hausdorff dimensions. These dimensions help in understanding {epsilon} {sup {infinity}}-space [El-Naschie MS. On the unification of the fundamental forces and complex time in the {epsilon} {sup {infinity}}-space. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2000;11:1149-62] and are used in high energy physics [El-Naschie MS. Wild topology hyperbolic geometry and fusion algebra of high energy particle physics. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2002;13:1935-45].

  16. Space-time interdependence: evidence against asymmetric mapping between time and space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhenguang G; Connell, Louise

    2015-03-01

    Time and space are intimately related, but what is the real nature of this relationship? Is time mapped metaphorically onto space such that effects are always asymmetric (i.e., space affects time more than time affects space)? Or do the two domains share a common representational format and have the ability to influence each other in a flexible manner (i.e., time can sometimes affect space more than vice versa)? In three experiments, we examined whether spatial representations from haptic perception, a modality of relatively low spatial acuity, would lead the effect of time on space to be substantially stronger than the effect of space on time. Participants touched (but could not see) physical sticks while listening to an auditory note, and then reproduced either the length of the stick or the duration of the note. Judgements of length were affected by concurrent stimulus duration, but not vice versa. When participants were allowed to see as well as touch the sticks, however, the higher acuity of visuohaptic perception caused the effects to converge so length and duration influenced each other to a similar extent. These findings run counter to the spatial metaphor account of time, and rather support the spatial representation account in which time and space share a common representational format and the directionality of space-time interaction depends on the perceptual acuity of the modality used to perceive space. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. High Resolution Topography Analysis on Threading Edge Dislocations in 4H-SiC Epilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamata, I.; Nagano, M.; Tsuchida, H.; Chen, Y.; Dudley, M.

    2009-01-01

    Threading edge dislocations (TEDs) in a 4H-SiC epitaxial layer are investigated using high-resolution synchrotron topography. Six types of TED image are confirmed to correspond to the Burgers vector directions by a comparison of computer simulated images and observed topography images in crystal boundaries. Using a mapping method, a wide spatial distribution of the six types of TED is examined in a quarter section of a 2-inch wafer.

  18. COMPARAÇÃO ENTRE DADOS ALTIMÉTRICOS SHUTTLE RADAR TOPOGRAPHY MISSION , CARTAS TOPOGRÁFICAS E GPS: NUMA ÁREA COM RELEVO ESCARPADO

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo da Silva Pinheiro

    2006-01-01

    Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) flown with Space Shuttle Endeavour, which was launched on 11 February 2000 , aimed to obtain the Earth digital elevation data (DEM). These data were acquired using Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) in C (5.6cm – 5.3GHz) and X (3.1cm – 9.6GHz) bands. This paper presents a comparative analysis of elevation data from SRTM and Topographic map (1:50.000) with Differential - GPS field data. The study was conducted in Planalto das Araucárias ar...

  19. AlphaSpace: Fragment-Centric Topographical Mapping To Target Protein–Protein Interaction Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Inhibition of protein–protein interactions (PPIs) is emerging as a promising therapeutic strategy despite the difficulty in targeting such interfaces with drug-like small molecules. PPIs generally feature large and flat binding surfaces as compared to typical drug targets. These features pose a challenge for structural characterization of the surface using geometry-based pocket-detection methods. An attractive mapping strategy—that builds on the principles of fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD)—is to detect the fragment-centric modularity at the protein surface and then characterize the large PPI interface as a set of localized, fragment-targetable interaction regions. Here, we introduce AlphaSpace, a computational analysis tool designed for fragment-centric topographical mapping (FCTM) of PPI interfaces. Our approach uses the alpha sphere construct, a geometric feature of a protein’s Voronoi diagram, to map out concave interaction space at the protein surface. We introduce two new features—alpha-atom and alpha-space—and the concept of the alpha-atom/alpha-space pair to rank pockets for fragment-targetability and to facilitate the evaluation of pocket/fragment complementarity. The resulting high-resolution interfacial map of targetable pocket space can be used to guide the rational design and optimization of small molecule or biomimetic PPI inhibitors. PMID:26225450

  20. Dose mapping in working space of KORI unit 1 using MCNPX code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C. W.; Shin, C. H.; Kim, J. G. [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, S. Y. [Innovative Techonology Center for Radiation Safety, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Radiation field analysis in nuclear power plant mainly depends on actual measurements. In this study, the analysis using computational calculation is performed to overcome the limits of measurement and provide the initial information for unfolding. The radiation field mapping is performed, which makes it possible to analyze the trends of the radiation filed for whole space. By using MCNPX code, containment building inside is modeled for KORI unit 1 cycle 21 under operation. Applying the neutron spectrum from the operating reactor as a radiation source, the ambient doses are calculated in the whole space, containment building inside, for neutron and photon fields. Dose mapping is performed for three spaces, 6{approx}20, 20{approx}44, 44{approx}70 ft from bottom of the containment building. The radiation distribution in dose maps shows the effects from structures and materials of components. With this dose maps, radiation field analysis contained the region near the detect position. The analysis and prediction are possible for radiation field from other radiation source or operating cycle.

  1. EAARL Coastal Topography - Northern Gulf of Mexico, 2007: First Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kathryn E.L.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Wright, C. Wayne; Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Brock, John C.

    2009-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived first surface (FS) elevation data were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL; the National Park Service (NPS), Gulf Coast Network, Lafayette, LA; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. The project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of select barrier islands and peninsular regions of Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida, acquired June 27-30, 2007. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative airborne Lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) Lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive Lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multi-spectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit which provide for submeter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a Lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system

  2. Fixed Point of Generalized Eventual Cyclic Gross in Fuzzy Norm Spaces for Contractive Mappings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. M. Mohsenialhosseini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We define generalized eventual cyclic gross contractive mapping in fuzzy norm spaces, which is a generalization of the eventual cyclic gross contractions. Also we prove the existence of a fixed point for this type of contractive mapping on fuzzy norm spaces.

  3. Dynamic Topography Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moresi, Louis

    2015-04-01

    Dynamic Topography Revisited Dynamic topography is usually considered to be one of the trinity of contributing causes to the Earth's non-hydrostatic topography along with the long-term elastic strength of the lithosphere and isostatic responses to density anomalies within the lithosphere. Dynamic topography, thought of this way, is what is left over when other sources of support have been eliminated. An alternate and explicit definition of dynamic topography is that deflection of the surface which is attributable to creeping viscous flow. The problem with the first definition of dynamic topography is 1) that the lithosphere is almost certainly a visco-elastic / brittle layer with no absolute boundary between flowing and static regions, and 2) the lithosphere is, a thermal / compositional boundary layer in which some buoyancy is attributable to immutable, intrinsic density variations and some is due to thermal anomalies which are coupled to the flow. In each case, it is difficult to draw a sharp line between each contribution to the overall topography. The second definition of dynamic topography does seem cleaner / more precise but it suffers from the problem that it is not measurable in practice. On the other hand, this approach has resulted in a rich literature concerning the analysis of large scale geoid and topography and the relation to buoyancy and mechanical properties of the Earth [e.g. refs 1,2,3] In convection models with viscous, elastic, brittle rheology and compositional buoyancy, however, it is possible to examine how the surface topography (and geoid) are supported and how different ways of interpreting the "observable" fields introduce different biases. This is what we will do. References (a.k.a. homework) [1] Hager, B. H., R. W. Clayton, M. A. Richards, R. P. Comer, and A. M. Dziewonski (1985), Lower mantle heterogeneity, dynamic topography and the geoid, Nature, 313(6003), 541-545, doi:10.1038/313541a0. [2] Parsons, B., and S. Daly (1983), The

  4. Topography and geology site effects from the intensity prediction model (ShakeMap) for Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Puy Papí Isaba, María; Jia, Yan; Weginger, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    The seismicity in Austria can be categorized as moderated. Despite the fact that the hazard seems to be rather low, earthquakes can cause great damage and losses, specially in densely populated and industrialized areas. It is well known, that equations which predict intensity as a function of magnitude and distance, among other parameters, are useful tool for hazard and risk assessment. Therefore, this study aims to determine an empirical model of the ground shaking intensities (ShakeMap) of a series of earthquakes occurred in Austria between 1000 and 2014. Furthermore, the obtained empirical model will lead to further interpretation of both, contemporary and historical earthquakes. A total of 285 events, which epicenters were located in Austria, and a sum of 22.739 reported macreoseismic data points from Austria and adjoining countries, were used. These events are enclosed in the period 1000-2014 and characterized by having a local magnitude greater than 3. In the first state of the model development, the data was careful selected, e.g. solely intensities equal or greater than III were used. In a second state the data was adjusted to the selected empirical model. Finally, geology and topography corrections were obtained by means of the model residuals in order to derive intensity-based site amplification effects.

  5. ATM Coastal Topography-Louisiana, 2001: UTM Zone 15 (Part 1 of 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Xan; Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, A.H.; Klipp, Emily S.; Wright, C. Wayne

    2010-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived first-surface (FS) topography were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the Louisiana coastline beach face within UTM Zone 15, from Isles Dernieres to Grand Isle, acquired September 7 and 10, 2001. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative scanning lidar instrument originally developed by NASA, and known as the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), was used during data acquisition. The ATM system is a scanning lidar system that measures high-resolution topography of the land surface and incorporates a green-wavelength laser operating at pulse rates of 2 to 10 kilohertz. Measurements from the laser-ranging device are coupled with data acquired from inertial navigation system (INS) attitude sensors and differentially corrected global positioning system (GPS) receivers to measure topography of the surface at accuracies of +/-15 centimeters. The nominal ATM platform is a Twin Otter or P-3 Orion aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the ATM system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight-line definition, flight-path plotting, lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last

  6. ATM Coastal Topography - Louisiana, 2001: UTM Zone 16 (Part 2 of 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Xan; Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, Asbury H.; Klipp, Emily S.; Wright, C. Wayne

    2009-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived first-surface (FS) topography were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the Louisiana coastline beach face within UTM Zone 16, from Grand Isle to the Chandeleur Islands, acquired September 7 and 9, 2001. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative scanning lidar instrument originally developed by NASA, and known as the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), was used during data acquisition. The ATM system is a scanning lidar system that measures high-resolution topography of the land surface and incorporates a green-wavelength laser operating at pulse rates of 2 to 10 kilohertz. Measurements from the laser-ranging device are coupled with data acquired from inertial navigation system (INS) attitude sensors and differentially corrected global positioning system (GPS) receivers to measure topography of the surface at accuracies of +/-15 centimeters. The nominal ATM platform is a Twin Otter or P-3 Orion aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the ATM system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight-line definition, flight-path plotting, lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and

  7. On Some Isomorphisms between Bounded Linear Maps and Non-Commutative Lp-Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. J. Atto

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We define a particular space of bounded linear maps using a Von Neumann algebra and some operator spaces. By this, we prove some isomorphisms, and using interpolation in some particular cases, we get analogue of non-commutative Lp spaces.

  8. Mapping Theory - a mapping of the theoretical territory related to a contemporary concept of public space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Shelley

    2008-01-01

    This working paper maps the theoretical territory of public space - urban public space - in a contemporary urban context. By finding, selecting, registering and examining existing theoretical stand points, the paper founds a basis for the creation of theory in an architectural discourse...... and for the examination of new spatial constellations for further research in public space. In addition to this, the appendices of the working paper are a kind of database for sources and source analyses....

  9. Common Fixed Points of Generalized Rational Type Cocyclic Mappings in Multiplicative Metric Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujahid Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present fixed point result of mappings satisfying a generalized rational contractive condition in the setup of multiplicative metric spaces. As an application, we obtain a common fixed point of a pair of weakly compatible mappings. Some common fixed point results of pair of rational contractive types mappings involved in cocyclic representation of a nonempty subset of a multiplicative metric space are also obtained. Some examples are presented to support the results proved herein. Our results generalize and extend various results in the existing literature.

  10. Surface topography of 1€ coin measured by stereo-PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gholami-Hatam, E.; Lamehi-Rachti, M.; Vavpetič, P.; Grlj, N.; Pelicon, P.

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate the stereo-PIXE method by measurement of surface topography of the relief details on 1€ coin. Two X-ray elemental maps were simultaneously recorded by two X-ray detectors positioned at the left and the right side of the proton microbeam. The asymmetry of the yields in the pixels of the two X-ray maps occurs due to different photon attenuation on the exit travel path of the characteristic X-rays from the point of emission through the sample into the X-ray detectors. In order to calibrate the inclination angle with respect to the X-ray asymmetry, a flat inclined surface model was at first applied for the sample in which the matrix composition and the depth elemental concentration profile is known. After that, the yield asymmetry in each image pixel was transferred into corresponding local inclination angle using calculated dependence of the asymmetry on the surface inclination. Finally, the quantitative topography profile was revealed by integrating the local inclination angle over the lateral displacement of the probing beam

  11. NOS Bathymetric Maps

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This collection of bathymetric contour maps which represent the seafloor topography includes over 400 individual titles and covers US offshore areas including Hawaii...

  12. Influence of dynamic topography on landscape evolution and passive continental margin stratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xuesong; Salles, Tristan; Flament, Nicolas; Rey, Patrice

    2017-04-01

    Quantifying the interaction between surface processes and tectonics/deep Earth processes is one important aspect of landscape evolution modelling. Both observations and results from numerical modelling indicate that dynamic topography - a surface expression of time-varying mantle convection - plays a significant role in shaping landscape through geological time. Recent research suggests that dynamic topography also has non-negligible effects on stratigraphic architecture by modifying accommodation space available for sedimentation. In addition, dynamic topography influences the sediment supply to continental margins. We use Badlands to investigate the evolution of a continental-scale landscape in response to transient dynamic uplift or subsidence, and to model the stratigraphic development on passive continental margins in response to sea-level change, thermal subsidence and dynamic topography. We consider a circularly symmetric landscape consisting of a plateau surrounded by a gently sloping continental plain and a continental margin, and a linear wave of dynamic topography. We analyze the evolution of river catchments, of longitudinal river profiles and of the χ values to evaluate the dynamic response of drainage systems to dynamic topography. We calculate the amount of cumulative erosion and deposition, and sediment flux at shoreline position, as a function of precipitation rate and erodibility coefficient. We compute the stratal stacking pattern and Wheeler diagram on vertical cross-sections at the continental margin. Our results indicate that dynamic topography 1) has a considerable influence on drainage reorganization; 2) contributes to shoreline migration and the distribution of depositional packages by modifying the accommodation space; 3) affects sediment supply to the continental margin. Transient dynamic topography contributes to the migration of drainage divides and to the migration of the mainstream in a drainage basin. The dynamic uplift

  13. The vortex filament in the Minkowski 3-space and generalized bi-Schrödinger maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Qing; Wang Wei; Liu Xiangping

    2012-01-01

    By extending the concept of generalized bi-Schrödinger maps to the case that the target manifold is a para-Kähler manifold, we show that the third-order timelike and spacelike correction models of the vortex filament in the Minkowski 3-space are equivalent to the generalized bi-Schrödinger maps from R to the hyperbolic 2-space H 2 and the de Sitter 2-space S 1,1 , respectively. As a consequence, all three typical second to fourth order integrable systems of the AKNS hierarchy are interpreted in a unified way in terms of generalized bi-Schrödinger maps. Based on this exploitation and a general discussion of the generalized bi-Schödinger maps from R into an arbitrary Riemannian surface, we reveal a property of generalized bi-Schrödinger maps that is not admitted for Schrödinger maps. (paper)

  14. The effects of lithology and base level on topography in the northern alpine foreland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Sebastian; Robl, Jörg; Prasicek, Günther; Salcher, Bernhard; Keil, Melanie

    2018-07-01

    The evolution of topography is driven by climate and tectonics, and strongly influenced by substrate properties and different base levels. The contributions of these factors may vary in space and time and are thus difficult to disentangle. Our study area, the Hausruck-Kobernaußerwald range, has a rather uniform climatic and tectonic history but is drained by rivers with different base levels and consists of contrasting sedimentary rocks, mainly due to different sedimentation environments. This makes them an ideal location to study the effects of lithology and base level on topography. To decipher the roles of these influences, we used a high-resolution digital elevation model and performed a series of morphometric analyses. Longitudinal river profiles indicate that all channels in the study area, independent from base level, bed rock and overall morphological expression, are well graded. Hypsometry shows no evidence for base level effects on the present topography, while variations in the hypsometric curves coincide with lithological differences. This is also reflected in contrasts of mean elevation and slope distributions. Lithology-dependent variations in channel concavity and catchment-wide hypsometric integrals show that lithology controls both channel incision and hillslope processes in the study area. Our results further indicate that variations in channel and catchment metrics are not linked to the prevalence of different rock types alone, but to different successions of lithological units along the channels and within the catchments. Variations in channel slope and geomorphological mapping suggest that lithology-dependent landsliding is the dominant process causing the observed large-scale landscape diversity in the Hausruck-Kobernaußerwald range.

  15. EAARL Coastal Topography-Mississippi and Alabama Barrier Islands, Post-Hurricane Gustav, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonisteel-Cormier, J.M.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Wright, C.W.; Sallenger, A.H.; Brock, J.C.; Nagle, D.B.; Klipp, E.S.; Vivekanandan, Saisudha; Fredericks, Xan; Segura, Martha

    2010-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived bare-earth (BE) and first-surface (FS) topography datasets were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, St. Petersburg, FL; the National Park Service (NPS), Gulf Coast Network, Lafayette, LA; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the Mississippi and Alabama barrier islands, acquired post-Hurricane Gustav (September 2008 hurricane) on September 8, 2008. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative airborne lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multispectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for sub-meter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the

  16. Flow Around Steep Topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Flow around steep topography T. M. Shaun Johnston Scripps Institution of Oceanography University of California, San Diego 9500 Gilman Drive, M...tall, steep, submarine topography and islands. During the Flow Encountering Abrupt Topography (FLEAT) DRI, investigators will determine: • Whether...estimates from making accurate statistical/deterministic predictions at ᝺ km resolution around submarine topography and islands? How can we

  17. A general number-to-space mapping deficit in developmental dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, S; Sury, D; Moeller, K; Rubinsten, O; Nuerk, H-C

    2015-01-01

    Previous research on developmental dyscalculia (DD) suggested that deficits in the number line estimation task are related to a failure to represent number magnitude linearly. This conclusion was derived from the observation of logarithmically shaped estimation patterns. However, recent research questioned this idea of an isomorphic relationship between estimation patterns and number magnitude representation. In the present study, we evaluated an alternative hypothesis: impairments in the number line estimation task are due to a general deficit in mapping numbers onto space. Adults with DD and a matched control group had to learn linear and non-linear layouts of the number line via feedback. Afterwards, we assessed their performance how well they learnt the new number-space mappings. We found irrespective of the layouts worse performance of adults with DD. Additionally, in case of the linear layout, we observed that their performance did not differ from controls near reference points, but that differences between groups increased as the distance to reference point increased. We conclude that worse performance of adults with DD in the number line task might be due a deficit in mapping numbers onto space which can be partly overcome relying on reference points. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A mapping of drug space from the viewpoint of small molecule metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Corey Adams

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Small molecule drugs target many core metabolic enzymes in humans and pathogens, often mimicking endogenous ligands. The effects may be therapeutic or toxic, but are frequently unexpected. A large-scale mapping of the intersection between drugs and metabolism is needed to better guide drug discovery. To map the intersection between drugs and metabolism, we have grouped drugs and metabolites by their associated targets and enzymes using ligand-based set signatures created to quantify their degree of similarity in chemical space. The results reveal the chemical space that has been explored for metabolic targets, where successful drugs have been found, and what novel territory remains. To aid other researchers in their drug discovery efforts, we have created an online resource of interactive maps linking drugs to metabolism. These maps predict the "effect space" comprising likely target enzymes for each of the 246 MDDR drug classes in humans. The online resource also provides species-specific interactive drug-metabolism maps for each of the 385 model organisms and pathogens in the BioCyc database collection. Chemical similarity links between drugs and metabolites predict potential toxicity, suggest routes of metabolism, and reveal drug polypharmacology. The metabolic maps enable interactive navigation of the vast biological data on potential metabolic drug targets and the drug chemistry currently available to prosecute those targets. Thus, this work provides a large-scale approach to ligand-based prediction of drug action in small molecule metabolism.

  19. A mapping of drug space from the viewpoint of small molecule metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, James Corey; Keiser, Michael J; Basuino, Li; Chambers, Henry F; Lee, Deok-Sun; Wiest, Olaf G; Babbitt, Patricia C

    2009-08-01

    Small molecule drugs target many core metabolic enzymes in humans and pathogens, often mimicking endogenous ligands. The effects may be therapeutic or toxic, but are frequently unexpected. A large-scale mapping of the intersection between drugs and metabolism is needed to better guide drug discovery. To map the intersection between drugs and metabolism, we have grouped drugs and metabolites by their associated targets and enzymes using ligand-based set signatures created to quantify their degree of similarity in chemical space. The results reveal the chemical space that has been explored for metabolic targets, where successful drugs have been found, and what novel territory remains. To aid other researchers in their drug discovery efforts, we have created an online resource of interactive maps linking drugs to metabolism. These maps predict the "effect space" comprising likely target enzymes for each of the 246 MDDR drug classes in humans. The online resource also provides species-specific interactive drug-metabolism maps for each of the 385 model organisms and pathogens in the BioCyc database collection. Chemical similarity links between drugs and metabolites predict potential toxicity, suggest routes of metabolism, and reveal drug polypharmacology. The metabolic maps enable interactive navigation of the vast biological data on potential metabolic drug targets and the drug chemistry currently available to prosecute those targets. Thus, this work provides a large-scale approach to ligand-based prediction of drug action in small molecule metabolism.

  20. Extracting Hydrologic Understanding from the Unique Space-time Sampling of the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickles, C.; Zhao, Y.; Beighley, E.; Durand, M. T.; David, C. H.; Lee, H.

    2017-12-01

    The Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission is jointly developed by NASA, the French space agency (CNES), with participation from the Canadian and UK space agencies to serve both the hydrology and oceanography communities. The SWOT mission will sample global surface water extents and elevations (lakes/reservoirs, rivers, estuaries, oceans, sea and land ice) at a finer spatial resolution than is currently possible enabling hydrologic discovery, model advancements and new applications that are not currently possible or likely even conceivable. Although the mission will provide global cover, analysis and interpolation of the data generated from the irregular space/time sampling represents a significant challenge. In this study, we explore the applicability of the unique space/time sampling for understanding river discharge dynamics throughout the Ohio River Basin. River network topology, SWOT sampling (i.e., orbit and identified SWOT river reaches) and spatial interpolation concepts are used to quantify the fraction of effective sampling of river reaches each day of the three-year mission. Streamflow statistics for SWOT generated river discharge time series are compared to continuous daily river discharge series. Relationships are presented to transform SWOT generated streamflow statistics to equivalent continuous daily discharge time series statistics intended to support hydrologic applications using low-flow and annual flow duration statistics.

  1. Memory matters: influence from a cognitive map on animal space use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautestad, Arild O

    2011-10-21

    A vertebrate individual's cognitive map provides a capacity for site fidelity and long-distance returns to favorable patches. Fractal-geometrical analysis of individual space use based on collection of telemetry fixes makes it possible to verify the influence of a cognitive map on the spatial scatter of habitat use and also to what extent space use has been of a scale-specific versus a scale-free kind. This approach rests on a statistical mechanical level of system abstraction, where micro-scale details of behavioral interactions are coarse-grained to macro-scale observables like the fractal dimension of space use. In this manner, the magnitude of the fractal dimension becomes a proxy variable for distinguishing between main classes of habitat exploration and site fidelity, like memory-less (Markovian) Brownian motion and Levy walk and memory-enhanced space use like Multi-scaled Random Walk (MRW). In this paper previous analyses are extended by exploring MRW simulations under three scenarios: (1) central place foraging, (2) behavioral adaptation to resource depletion (avoidance of latest visited locations) and (3) transition from MRW towards Levy walk by narrowing memory capacity to a trailing time window. A generalized statistical-mechanical theory with the power to model cognitive map influence on individual space use will be important for statistical analyses of animal habitat preferences and the mechanics behind site fidelity and home ranges. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. EAARL Coastal Topography and Imagery-Naval Live Oaks Area, Gulf Islands National Seashore, Florida, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, David B.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Yates, Xan; Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Klipp, Emily S.; Segura, Martha

    2010-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced color-infrared (CIR) imagery and elevation measurements of lidar-derived bare-earth (BE) topography, first-surface (FS) topography, and canopy-height (CH) datasets were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), St. Petersburg Science Center, St. Petersburg, FL; the National Park Service (NPS), Gulf Coast Network, Lafayette, LA; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of the Naval Live Oaks Area in Florida's Gulf Islands National Seashore, acquired June 30, 2007. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative airborne lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multispectral CIR camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for sub-meter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area

  3. Real-space mapping of electronic orbitals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Löffler, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.loeffler@tuwien.ac.at [Department for Materials Science and Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, L8S 4M1 Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); University Service Centre for Transmission Electron Microscopy, TU Vienna, Wiedner Hauptstraße 8-10/E057B, 1040 Wien (Austria); Institute for Solid State Physics, TU Vienna, Wiedner Hauptstraße 8-10/E138, 1040 Wien (Austria); Bugnet, Matthieu; Gauquelin, Nicolas [Department for Materials Science and Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, L8S 4M1 Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Lazar, Sorin [FEI Electron Optics, Achtseweg Noord 5, 5651 GG Eindhoven (Netherlands); Assmann, Elias; Held, Karsten [Institute for Solid State Physics, TU Vienna, Wiedner Hauptstraße 8-10/E138, 1040 Wien (Austria); Botton, Gianluigi A. [Department for Materials Science and Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, L8S 4M1 Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Schattschneider, Peter [University Service Centre for Transmission Electron Microscopy, TU Vienna, Wiedner Hauptstraße 8-10/E057B, 1040 Wien (Austria); Institute for Solid State Physics, TU Vienna, Wiedner Hauptstraße 8-10/E138, 1040 Wien (Austria)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Electronic orbitals in Rutile are mapped using STEM-EELS. • Inelastic scattering simulations are performed for the experimental conditions. • The experiments and the simulations are found to be in excellent agreement. - Abstract: Electronic states are responsible for most material properties, including chemical bonds, electrical and thermal conductivity, as well as optical and magnetic properties. Experimentally, however, they remain mostly elusive. Here, we report the real-space mapping of selected transitions between p and d states on the Ångström scale in bulk rutile (TiO{sub 2}) using electron energy-loss spectrometry (EELS), revealing information on individual bonds between atoms. On the one hand, this enables the experimental verification of theoretical predictions about electronic states. On the other hand, it paves the way for directly investigating electronic states under conditions that are at the limit of the current capabilities of numerical simulations such as, e.g., the electronic states at defects, interfaces, and quantum dots.

  4. Topography of generalized periodic epileptiform discharges in postanoxic nonconvulsive status epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellariou, Dimitris Fotis; Kostopoulos, George Kostantinos; Richardson, Mark Philip; Koutroumanidis, Michalis

    2017-12-01

    We studied slow (≤2.5 Hz) nonevolving generalized periodic epileptiform discharges (GPEDs) in the electroencephalogram (EEG) of comatose patients after cardiac arrest (CA) in search of evidence that could assist early diagnosis of possible hypoxic nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) and its differentiation from terminal brain anoxia (BA), which can present with a similar EEG pattern. We investigated the topography of the GPEDs in the first post-CA EEGs of 13 patients, using voltage-mapping, and compared findings between two patients with NCSE and GPEDs > 2.5 Hz (group 1), and 11 with GPEDs ≤ 2 Hz, of whom six had possible NCSE (group 2) and five had terminal BA (group 3). Voltage mapping showed frontal maximum for the negative phase of the GPEDs in all patients of groups 1 and 2, but not in any of the patients of group 3, who invariably showed maximization of the negative phase posteriorly. Morphology, amplitude, and duration of the GPEDs varied across the groups, without distinctive features for possible NCSE. These findings provide evidence that, in hypoxic coma after CA with slow GPEDs, anterior topography of the maximum GPED negativity on voltage mapping may be a distinctive biomarker for possible NCSE contributing to the coma.

  5. Airborne laser altimeter measurements of landscape topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    Measurements of topography can provide a wealth of information on landscape properties for managing hydrologic and geologic systems and conserving natural and agricultural resources. This article discusses the application of an airborne laser altimeter to measure topography and other landscape surface properties. The airborne laser altimeter makes 4000 measurements per second with a vertical recording resolution of 5 cm. Data are collected digitally with a personal computer. A video camera, borehole sighted with the laser, records an image for locating flight lines. GPS data are used to locate flight line positions on the landscape. Laser data were used to measure vegetation canopy topography, height, cover, and distribution and to measure microtopography of the land surface and gullies with depths of 15–20 cm. Macrotopography of landscape profiles for segments up to 4 km were in agreement with available topographic maps but provided more detail. Larger gullies with and without vegetation, and stream channel cross sections and their associated floodplains have also been measured and reported in other publications. Landscape segments for any length could be measured for either micro- or macrotopography. Airborne laser altimeter measurements of landscape profiles can provide detailed information on landscape properties or specific needs that will allow better decisions on the design and location of structures (i.e., roads, pipe, and power lines) and for improving the management and conservation of natural and agricultural landscapes. (author)

  6. Cooperative simulation of lithography and topography for three-dimensional high-aspect-ratio etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Takashi; Yagisawa, Takashi; Furukawa, Shinichi; Taguchi, Takafumi; Nojima, Shigeki; Murakami, Sadatoshi; Tamaoki, Naoki

    2018-06-01

    A topography simulation of high-aspect-ratio etching considering transports of ions and neutrals is performed, and the mechanism of reactive ion etching (RIE) residues in three-dimensional corner patterns is revealed. Limited ion flux and CF2 diffusion from the wide space of the corner is found to have an effect on the RIE residues. Cooperative simulation of lithography and topography is used to solve the RIE residue problem.

  7. SMOS brightness data indicate ice thickness hence bedrock topography in east antarctica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels; Kristensen, Steen Savstrup

    2017-01-01

    In order to evaluate a potential calibration target for spaceborne L-band radiometer systems, a 350 × 350 km area near the Concordia station on the East Antarctica plateau was mapped by an airborne L-band radiometer. Unexpectedly, the area showed significant brightness temperature spatial...... variations, well correlated with bedrock topography, hence ice thickness. Using SMOS data over a poorly known part of Antarctica, ice thickness in this area has been assessed, and an existing bedrock map has been improved....

  8. Fixed point iterations for strictly hemi-contractive maps in uniformly smooth Banach spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidume, C.E.; Osilike, M.O.

    1993-05-01

    It is proved that the Mann iteration process converges strongly to the fixed point of a strictly hemi-contractive map in real uniformly smooth Banach spaces. The class of strictly hemi-contractive maps includes all strictly pseudo-contractive maps with nonempty fixed point sets. A related result deals with the Ishikawa iteration scheme when the mapping is Lipschitzian and strictly hemi-contractive. Our theorems generalize important known results. (author). 29 refs

  9. Determining Coastal Mean Dynamic Topography by Geodetic Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianliang

    2017-11-01

    In geodesy, coastal mean dynamic topography (MDT) was traditionally determined by spirit leveling technique. Advances in navigation satellite positioning (e.g., GPS) and geoid determination enable space-based leveling with an accuracy of about 3 cm at tide gauges. Recent CryoSat-2, a satellite altimetry mission with synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and SAR interferometric measurements, extends the space-based leveling to the coastal ocean with the same accuracy. However, barriers remain in applying the two space-based geodetic methods for MDT determination over the coastal ocean because current geoid modeling focuses primarily on land as a substitute to spirit leveling to realize the vertical datum.

  10. Estimating Antarctica land topography from GRACE gravity and ICESat altimetry data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, I.; Chao, B. F.; Chen, Y.

    2009-12-01

    We propose a new method combining GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) gravity and ICESat (Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite) altimetry data to estimate the land topography for Antarctica. Antarctica is the fifth-largest continent in the world and about 98% of Antarctica is covered by ice, where in-situ measurements are difficult. Some experimental airborne radar and ground-based radar data have revealed very limited land topography beneath heavy ice sheet. To estimate the land topography for the full coverage of Antarctica, we combine GRACE data that indicate the mass distribution, with data of ICESat laser altimetry that provide high-resolution mapping of ice topography. Our approach is actually based on some geological constraints: assuming uniform densities of the land and ice considering the Airy-type isostasy. In the beginning we construct an initial model for the ice thickness and land topography based on the BEDMAP ice thickness and ICESat data. Thereafter we forward compute the model’s gravity field and compare with the GRACE observed data. Our initial model undergoes the adjustments to improve the fit between modeled results and the observed data. Final examination is done by comparing our results with previous but sparse observations of ice thickness to reconfirm the reliability of our results. As the gravitational inversion problem is non-unique, our estimating result is just one of all possibilities constrained by available data in optimal way.

  11. Contribution of x-ray topography and high-resolution diffraction to the study of defects in SiC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudley, Michael; Huang Xianrong; Vetter, William M

    2003-01-01

    A short review is presented of the various synchrotron white beam x-ray topography (SWBXT) imaging techniques developed for characterization of silicon carbide (SiC) crystals and thin films. These techniques, including back-reflection topography, reticulography, transmission topography, and a set of section topography techniques, are demonstrated to be particularly powerful for imaging hollow-core screw dislocations (micropipes) and closed-core threading screw dislocations, as well as other defects, in SiC. The geometrical diffraction mechanism commonly underlying these imaging processes is emphasized for understanding the nature and origins of these defects. Also introduced is the application of SWBXT combined with high-resolution x-ray diffraction techniques to complete characterization of 3C/4H or 3C/6H SiC heterostructures, including polytype identification, 3C variant mapping, and accurate lattice mismatch measurements

  12. A new method for mapping perceptual biases across visual space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlayson, Nonie J; Papageorgiou, Andriani; Schwarzkopf, D Samuel

    2017-08-01

    How we perceive the environment is not stable and seamless. Recent studies found that how a person qualitatively experiences even simple visual stimuli varies dramatically across different locations in the visual field. Here we use a method we developed recently that we call multiple alternatives perceptual search (MAPS) for efficiently mapping such perceptual biases across several locations. This procedure reliably quantifies the spatial pattern of perceptual biases and also of uncertainty and choice. We show that these measurements are strongly correlated with those from traditional psychophysical methods and that exogenous attention can skew biases without affecting overall task performance. Taken together, MAPS is an efficient method to measure how an individual's perceptual experience varies across space.

  13. Determination of atmospheric parameters to estimate global radiation in areas of complex topography: Generation of global irradiation map

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batlles, F.J.; Bosch, J.L. [Dpto. Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Almeria, 04120 Almeria (Spain); Tovar-Pescador, J. [Dpto. Fisica, Universidad de Jaen, 23071 Jaen (Spain); Martinez-Durban, M. [Dpto. Ingenieria Lenguajes y Computacion, Universidad de Almeria, 04120 Almeria (Spain); Ortega, R. [Dpto. Edafologia y Quimica Agricola, Universidad de Almeria, 04120 Almeria (Spain); Miralles, I. [Dpto. Edafologia y Quimica Agricola, Universidad de Granada, 28071 Granada (Spain)

    2008-02-15

    Incoming shortwave solar radiation is an important parameter in environmental applications. A detailed spatial and temporal analysis of global solar radiation on the earth surface is needed in many applications, ranging from solar energy uses to the study of agricultural, forest and biological processes. At local scales, the topography is the most important factor in the distribution of solar radiation on the surface. The variability of the elevation, the surface orientation and the obstructions due to elevations are a source of great local differences in insolation and, consequently, in other variables as ground temperature. For this reason, several models based on GIS techniques have been recently developed, integrating topography to obtain the solar radiation on the surface. In this work, global radiation is analyzed with the Solar Analyst, a model implemented on ArcView, that computes the topographic parameters: altitude, latitude, slope and orientation (azimuth) and shadow effects. Solar Analyst uses as input parameters the diffuse fraction and the transmittance. These parameters are not usually available in radiometric networks in mountainous areas. In this work, a method to obtain both parameters from global radiation is proposed. Global radiation data obtained in two networks of radiometric stations is used: one located in Sierra Magina Natural Park (Spain) with 11 stations and another one located on the surroundings of Sierra Nevada Natural Park (Spain) with 14 stations. Daily solar irradiation is calculated from a digital terrain model (DTM), the daily diffuse fraction, K, and daily atmospheric transmittivity, {tau}. Results provided by the model have been compared with measured values. An overestimation for high elevations is observed, whereas low altitudes present underestimation. The best performance was also reported during summer months, and the worst results were obtained during winter. Finally, a yearly global solar irradiation map has been

  14. Orbital tomography: Molecular band maps, momentum maps and the imaging of real space orbitals of adsorbed molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Offenbacher, Hannes; Lüftner, Daniel; Ules, Thomas; Reinisch, Eva Maria; Koller, Georg, E-mail: georg.koller@uni-graz.at; Puschnig, Peter; Ramsey, Michael G., E-mail: michael.ramsey@uni-graz.at

    2015-10-01

    Highlights: • Orbital tomography within the plane wave final state approximation. • One electron orbital predictions versus angle resolved photoemission experiment. • Geometric and electronic structure of organic thin films elucidated by ARUPS. • Influence of molecular conformation and orientation on ARUPS. • Retrieval of sexiphenyl and pentacene orbitals in real space. - Abstract: The frontier orbitals of molecules are the prime determinants of their chemical, optical and electronic properties. Arguably, the most direct method of addressing the (filled) frontier orbitals is ultra-violet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS). Although UPS is a mature technique from the early 1970s on, the angular distribution of the photoemitted electrons was thought to be too complex to be analysed quantitatively. Recently angle resolved UPS (ARUPS) work on conjugated molecules both, in ordered thick films and chemisorbed monolayers, has shown that the angular (momentum) distribution of the photocurrent from orbital emissions can be simply understood. The approach, based on the assumption of a plane wave final state is becoming known as orbital tomography. Here we will demonstrate, with selected examples of pentacene (5A) and sexiphenyl (6P), the potential of orbital tomography. First it will be shown how the full angular distribution of the photocurrent (momentum map) from a specific orbital is related to the real space orbital by a Fourier transform. Examples of the reconstruction of 5A orbitals will be given and the procedure for recovering the lost phase information will be outlined. We then move to examples of sexiphenyl where we interrogate the original band maps of thick sexiphenyl in the light of our understanding of orbital tomography that has developed since then. With comparison to theoretical simulations of the molecular band maps, the molecular conformation and orientation will be concluded. New results for the sexiphenyl monolayer on Al(1 1 0) will then be

  15. A model expansion criterion for treating surface topography in ray path calculations using the eikonal equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Ting; Zhang, Zhongjie

    2014-01-01

    Irregular surface topography has revolutionized how seismic traveltime is calculated and the data are processed. There are two main schemes for dealing with an irregular surface in the seismic first-arrival traveltime calculation: (1) expanding the model and (2) flattening the surface irregularities. In the first scheme, a notional infill medium is added above the surface to expand the physical space into a regular space, as required by the eikonal equation solver. Here, we evaluate the chosen propagation velocity in the infill medium through ray path tracking with the eikonal equation-solved traveltime field, and observe that the ray paths will be physically unrealistic for some values of this propagation velocity. The choice of a suitable propagation velocity in the infill medium is crucial for seismic processing of irregular topography. Our model expansion criterion for dealing with surface topography in the calculation of traveltime and ray paths using the eikonal equation highlights the importance of both the propagation velocity of the infill physical medium and the topography gradient. (paper)

  16. Comparison of phase unwrapping algorithms for topography reconstruction based on digital speckle pattern interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanbo; Cui, Xiaoqian; Wang, Hongbei; Zhao, Mengge; Ding, Hongbin

    2017-10-01

    Digital speckle pattern interferometry (DSPI) can diagnose the topography evolution in real-time, continuous and non-destructive, and has been considered as a most promising technique for Plasma-Facing Components (PFCs) topography diagnostic under the complicated environment of tokamak. It is important for the study of digital speckle pattern interferometry to enhance speckle patterns and obtain the real topography of the ablated crater. In this paper, two kinds of numerical model based on flood-fill algorithm has been developed to obtain the real profile by unwrapping from the wrapped phase in speckle interference pattern, which can be calculated through four intensity images by means of 4-step phase-shifting technique. During the process of phase unwrapping by means of flood-fill algorithm, since the existence of noise pollution, and other inevitable factors will lead to poor quality of the reconstruction results, this will have an impact on the authenticity of the restored topography. The calculation of the quality parameters was introduced to obtain the quality-map from the wrapped phase map, this work presents two different methods to calculate the quality parameters. Then quality parameters are used to guide the path of flood-fill algorithm, and the pixels with good quality parameters are given priority calculation, so that the quality of speckle interference pattern reconstruction results are improved. According to the comparison between the flood-fill algorithm which is suitable for speckle pattern interferometry and the quality-guided flood-fill algorithm (with two different calculation approaches), the errors which caused by noise pollution and the discontinuous of the strips were successfully reduced.

  17. On Some Maps in Supra Topological Ordered Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Al-shami, Tareq Mohammed

    2018-01-01

    In [6] the notion of supra semi open sets was presented and some of its properties were discussed. In this study, we introduce and investigate four main concepts namely supra continuous (supra open, supra closed, supra homeomorphism) maps via supra topological ordered spaces. Our findings in this work generalize some previous results in ([1], [13]). Many examples are considered to show the concepts introduced and main results obtained herein.

  18. Spatial Topography of Individual-Specific Cortical Networks Predicts Human Cognition, Personality, and Emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Ru; Li, Jingwei; Orban, Csaba; Sabuncu, Mert R; Liu, Hesheng; Schaefer, Alexander; Sun, Nanbo; Zuo, Xi-Nian; Holmes, Avram J; Eickhoff, Simon B; Yeo, B T Thomas

    2018-06-06

    Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) offers the opportunity to delineate individual-specific brain networks. A major question is whether individual-specific network topography (i.e., location and spatial arrangement) is behaviorally relevant. Here, we propose a multi-session hierarchical Bayesian model (MS-HBM) for estimating individual-specific cortical networks and investigate whether individual-specific network topography can predict human behavior. The multiple layers of the MS-HBM explicitly differentiate intra-subject (within-subject) from inter-subject (between-subject) network variability. By ignoring intra-subject variability, previous network mappings might confuse intra-subject variability for inter-subject differences. Compared with other approaches, MS-HBM parcellations generalized better to new rs-fMRI and task-fMRI data from the same subjects. More specifically, MS-HBM parcellations estimated from a single rs-fMRI session (10 min) showed comparable generalizability as parcellations estimated by 2 state-of-the-art methods using 5 sessions (50 min). We also showed that behavioral phenotypes across cognition, personality, and emotion could be predicted by individual-specific network topography with modest accuracy, comparable to previous reports predicting phenotypes based on connectivity strength. Network topography estimated by MS-HBM was more effective for behavioral prediction than network size, as well as network topography estimated by other parcellation approaches. Thus, similar to connectivity strength, individual-specific network topography might also serve as a fingerprint of human behavior.

  19. Reconstruction of Laser-Induced Surface Topography from Electron Backscatter Diffraction Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Patrick G; Echlin, McLean P; Pollock, Tresa M; De Graef, Marc

    2017-08-01

    We demonstrate that the surface topography of a sample can be reconstructed from electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) patterns collected with a commercial EBSD system. This technique combines the location of the maximum background intensity with a correction from Monte Carlo simulations to determine the local surface normals at each point in an EBSD scan. A surface height map is then reconstructed from the local surface normals. In this study, a Ni sample was machined with a femtosecond laser, which causes the formation of a laser-induced periodic surface structure (LIPSS). The topography of the LIPSS was analyzed using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and reconstructions from EBSD patterns collected at 5 and 20 kV. The LIPSS consisted of a combination of low frequency waviness due to curtaining and high frequency ridges. The morphology of the reconstructed low frequency waviness and high frequency ridges matched the AFM data. The reconstruction technique does not require any modification to existing EBSD systems and so can be particularly useful for measuring topography and its evolution during in situ experiments.

  20. Optical method for mapping the transverse phase space of a charged particle beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorito, R.B.; Shkvarunets, A.G.; O'Shea, P.G.

    2002-01-01

    We are developing an all optical method to map the transverse phase space map of a charged particle beam. Our technique employs OTR interferometry (OTRI) in combination with a scanning pinhole to make local orthogonal (x,y) divergence and trajectory angle measurements as function of position within the transverse profile of the beam. The localized data allows a reconstruction of the horizontal and vertical phase spaces of the beam. We have also demonstrated how single and multiple pinholes can in principle be used to make such measurements simultaneously

  1. Mapping a Heartland Breyten Breytenbach's 'Zone of Bastardisation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It analyses the way in which Breyten Breytenbach returns to the formative topography of his childhood and maps his Western Cape “Heartland” in Dog Heart (1998). The article shows how his conception of identity in terms of topography and writing in terms of nomadism finds expression in the rhizomic narrative structure of ...

  2. The Topography of Mars: Understanding the Surface of Mars Through the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derby, C. A.; Neumann, G. A.; Sakimoto, S. E.

    2001-12-01

    The Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter has been orbiting Mars since 1997 and has measured the topography of Mars with a meter of vertical accuracy. This new information has improved our understanding of both the surface and the interior of Mars. The topographic globe and the labeled topographic map of Mars illustrate these new data in a format that can be used in a classroom setting. The map is color shaded to show differences in elevation on Mars, presenting Mars with a different perspective than traditional geological and geographic maps. Through the differences in color, students can see Mars as a three-dimensional surface and will be able to recognize features that are invisible in imagery. The accompanying lesson plans are designed for middle school science students and can be used both to teach information about Mars as a planet and Mars in comparison to Earth, fitting both the solar system unit and the Earth science unit in a middle school curriculum. The lessons are referenced to the National Benchmark standards for students in grades 6-8 and cover topics such as Mars exploration, the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter, resolution and powers of 10, gravity, craters, seismic waves and the interior structure of a planet, isostasy, and volcanoes. Each lesson is written in the 5 E format and includes a student content activity and an extension showing current applications of Mars and MOLA data. These activities can be found at http://ltpwww.gsfc.nasa.gov/education/resources.html. Funding for this project was provided by the Maryland Space Grant Consortium and the MOLA Science Team, Goddard Space Flight Center.

  3. Convergence theorems for quasi-contractive maps in uniformly convex spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidume, C.E.; Osilike, M.O.

    1992-04-01

    Let K be a nonempty closed convex and bounded subset of a real uniformly convex Banach space E of modulus of convexity of power type q≥2. Let T by a quasi-contractive mapping of K into itself. It is proved that each of two well known fixed point iteration methods (the Mann and the Ishikawa iteration methods) converges strongly, without any compactness assumption on the domain of the map, to the unique fixed point of T in K. Our theorems generalize important known results. (author). 22 refs

  4. A Space-Mapping Framework for Engineering Optimization: Theory and Implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koziel, Slawomir; Bandler, John W.; Madsen, Kaj

    2006-01-01

    a region of interest. Output space mapping ensures the matching of responses and first-order derivatives between the mapped coarse model and the fine model at the current iteration point in the optimization process. We provide theoretical results that show the importance of the explicit use of sensitivity...... information to the convergence properties of our family of algorithms. Our algorithm is demonstrated on the optimization of a microstrip band-pass filter, a band-pass filter with double-coupled resonators and a seven-section impedance transformer. We describe the novel user-oriented software package SMF...

  5. Estimating Hydraulic Resistance for Floodplain Mapping and Hydraulic Studies from High-Resolution Topography: Physical and Numerical Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minear, J. T.

    2017-12-01

    One of the primary unknown variables in hydraulic analyses is hydraulic resistance, values for which are typically set using broad assumptions or calibration, with very few methods available for independent and robust determination. A better understanding of hydraulic resistance would be highly useful for understanding floodplain processes, forecasting floods, advancing sediment transport and hydraulic coupling, and improving higher dimensional flood modeling (2D+), as well as correctly calculating flood discharges for floods that are not directly measured. The relationship of observed features to hydraulic resistance is difficult to objectively quantify in the field, partially because resistance occurs at a variety of scales (i.e. grain, unit and reach) and because individual resistance elements, such as trees, grass and sediment grains, are inherently difficult to measure. Similar to photogrammetric techniques, Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS, also known as Ground-based LiDAR) has shown great ability to rapidly collect high-resolution topographic datasets for geomorphic and hydrodynamic studies and could be used to objectively quantify the features that collectively create hydraulic resistance in the field. Because of its speed in data collection and remote sensing ability, TLS can be used both for pre-flood and post-flood studies that require relatively quick response in relatively dangerous settings. Using datasets collected from experimental flume runs and numerical simulations, as well as field studies of several rivers in California and post-flood rivers in Colorado, this study evaluates the use of high-resolution topography to estimate hydraulic resistance, particularly from grain-scale elements. Contrary to conventional practice, experimental laboratory runs with bed grain size held constant but with varying grain-scale protusion create a nearly twenty-fold variation in measured hydraulic resistance. The ideal application of this high-resolution topography

  6. Estimating floodwater depths from flood inundation maps and topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Sagy; Brakenridge, G. Robert; Kettner, Albert; Bates, Bradford; Nelson, Jonathan M.; McDonald, Richard R.; Huang, Yu-Fen; Munasinghe, Dinuke; Zhang, Jiaqi

    2018-01-01

    Information on flood inundation extent is important for understanding societal exposure, water storage volumes, flood wave attenuation, future flood hazard, and other variables. A number of organizations now provide flood inundation maps based on satellite remote sensing. These data products can efficiently and accurately provide the areal extent of a flood event, but do not provide floodwater depth, an important attribute for first responders and damage assessment. Here we present a new methodology and a GIS-based tool, the Floodwater Depth Estimation Tool (FwDET), for estimating floodwater depth based solely on an inundation map and a digital elevation model (DEM). We compare the FwDET results against water depth maps derived from hydraulic simulation of two flood events, a large-scale event for which we use medium resolution input layer (10 m) and a small-scale event for which we use a high-resolution (LiDAR; 1 m) input. Further testing is performed for two inundation maps with a number of challenging features that include a narrow valley, a large reservoir, and an urban setting. The results show FwDET can accurately calculate floodwater depth for diverse flooding scenarios but also leads to considerable bias in locations where the inundation extent does not align well with the DEM. In these locations, manual adjustment or higher spatial resolution input is required.

  7. A System of Generalized Variational Inclusions Involving a New Monotone Mapping in Banach Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinlin Guan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a new monotone mapping in Banach spaces, which is an extension of the -monotone mapping studied by Nazemi (2012, and we generalize the variational inclusion involving the -monotone mapping. Based on the new monotone mapping, we propose a new proximal mapping which combines the proximal mapping studied by Nazemi (2012 with the mapping studied by Lan et al. (2011 and show its Lipschitz continuity. Based on the new proximal mapping, we give an iterative algorithm. Furthermore, we prove the convergence of iterative sequences generated by the algorithm under some appropriate conditions. Our results improve and extend corresponding ones announced by many others.

  8. Influence of Fault-Controlled Topography on Fluvio-Deltaic Sedimentary Systems in Eberswalde Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Melissa S.; Gupta, Sanjeev; Bell, James F., III; Warner, Nicholas H.

    2011-01-01

    Eberswalde crater was selected as a candidate landing site for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission based on the presence of a fan-shaped sedimentary deposit interpreted as a delta. We have identified and mapped five other candidate fluvio -deltaic systems in the crater, using images and digital terrain models (DTMs) derived from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) and Context Camera (CTX). All of these systems consist of the same three stratigraphic units: (1) an upper layered unit, conformable with (2) a subpolygonally fractured unit, unconformably overlying (3) a pitted unit. We have also mapped a system of NNE-trending scarps interpreted as dip-slip faults that pre-date the fluvial -lacustrine deposits. The post-impact regional faulting may have generated the large-scale topography within the crater, which consists of a Western Basin, an Eastern Basin, and a central high. This topography subsequently provided depositional sinks for sediment entering the crater and controlled the geomorphic pattern of delta development.

  9. Augmented paper maps: Exploring the design space of a mixed reality system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paelke, Volker; Sester, Monika

    Paper maps and mobile electronic devices have complementary strengths and shortcomings in outdoor use. In many scenarios, like small craft sailing or cross-country trekking, a complete replacement of maps is neither useful nor desirable. Paper maps are fail-safe, relatively cheap, offer superior resolution and provide large scale overview. In uses like open-water sailing it is therefore mandatory to carry adequate maps/charts. GPS based mobile devices, on the other hand, offer useful features like automatic positioning and plotting, real-time information update and dynamic adaptation to user requirements. While paper maps are now commonly used in combination with mobile GPS devices, there is no meaningful integration between the two, and the combined use leads to a number of interaction problems and potential safety issues. In this paper we explore the design space of augmented paper maps in which maps are augmented with additional functionality through a mobile device to achieve a meaningful integration between device and map that combines their respective strengths.

  10. Beyond the usual mapping functions in GPS, VLBI and Deep Space tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriot, Jean-Pierre; Serafini, Jonathan; Sichoix, Lydie

    2014-05-01

    We describe here a new algorithm to model the water contents of the atmosphere (including ZWD) from GPS slant wet delays relative to a single receiver. We first make the assumption that the water vapor contents are mainly governed by a scale height (exponential law), and secondly that the departures from this decaying exponential can be mapped as a set of low degree 3D Zernike functions (w.r.t. space) and Tchebyshev polynomials (w.r.t. time.) We compare this new algorithm with previous algorithms known as mapping functions in GPS, VLBI and Deep Space tracking and give an example with data acquired over a one day time span at the Geodesy Observatory of Tahiti.

  11. SUVI Thematic Maps: A new tool for space weather forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J. M.; Seaton, D. B.; Darnel, J.

    2017-12-01

    The new Solar Ultraviolet Imager (SUVI) instruments aboard NOAA's GOES-R series satellites collect continuous, high-quality imagery of the Sun in six wavelengths. SUVI imagers produce at least one image every 10 seconds, or 8,640 images per day, considerably more data than observers can digest in real time. Over the projected 20-year lifetime of the four GOES-R series spacecraft, SUVI will provide critical imagery for space weather forecasters and produce an extensive but unwieldy archive. In order to condense the database into a dynamic and searchable form we have developed solar thematic maps, maps of the Sun with key features, such as coronal holes, flares, bright regions, quiet corona, and filaments, identified. Thematic maps will be used in NOAA's Space Weather Prediction Center to improve forecaster response time to solar events and generate several derivative products. Likewise, scientists use thematic maps to find observations of interest more easily. Using an expert-trained, naive Bayesian classifier to label each pixel, we create thematic maps in real-time. We created software to collect expert classifications of solar features based on SUVI images. Using this software, we compiled a database of expert classifications, from which we could characterize the distribution of pixels associated with each theme. Given new images, the classifier assigns each pixel the most appropriate label according to the trained distribution. Here we describe the software to collect expert training and the successes and limitations of the classifier. The algorithm excellently identifies coronal holes but fails to consistently detect filaments and prominences. We compare the Bayesian classifier to an artificial neural network, one of our attempts to overcome the aforementioned limitations. These results are very promising and encourage future research into an ensemble classification approach.

  12. Topography. Ch. 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chikawa, Jun-Ichi; Kuriyama, Masao

    1991-01-01

    The uniqueness of synchrotron X-ray topography does not lie in new theoretical or experimental notions about the topographic method, but in the characteristics of this new source as a critical optical element. At most synchrotron facilities, the spectrum ranging from 5 keV (2.5A) to 30 keV (0.4A0 can be made available for topography. A synchrotron-radiation source gives tunability (choice of wavelengths) and pulsed time structure with highly collimated an intense photon beams. The continuous spectrum and excellent collimation have made white-beam X-ray topography a practical reality. The high intensity of the synchrotron X-ray source, even after beam monochromatization and further collimation, permits time-dependent observation of kinetics. By selecting the mono-chromatized wavelength close to an absorption edge of an element in the sample crystal, the topographic data selectively emphasize or de-emphasize structures related to that element. For full use of such properties of synchrotron radiation, however, development of new optical systems and imaging detectors is required, and is in progress at most synchrotron facilities. This chapter covers a brief review of X-ray topography, its basic principles, and the necessary X-ray optical and imaging systems. The capability of synchrotron-radiation topography is demonstrated with some recent results. (author). 118 refs.; 22 figs

  13. Northeast Puerto Rico and Culebra Island - Geographic Zone Map 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This geographic zone map was created by interpreting satellite and aerial imagery, seafloor topography (bathymetry model), and the new NEPR Benthic Habitat Map...

  14. Topography-modified refraction: adjustment of treated cylinder amount and axis to the topography versus standard clinical refraction in myopic topography-guided LASIK

    OpenAIRE

    Alpins, Noel

    2017-01-01

    Noel Alpins1,2 1NewVision Clinics, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 2Department Ophthalmology, Melbourne University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia It is encouraging to see the results in the article by Kanellopoulos “Topography-modified refraction (TMR): adjustment of treated cylinder amount and axis to the topography versus standard clinical refraction in myopic topography-guided LASIK”,1 where the combination of refractive and corneal data in the treatment parameters pro...

  15. Contractive maps on normed linear spaces and their applications to nonlinear matrix equations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reurings, M.C.B.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper the author gives necessary and sufficient conditions under which a map is a contraction on a certain subset of a normed linear space. These conditions are already well known for maps on intervals in R. Using the conditions and Banach's fixed point theorem a fixed point theorem can be

  16. A three-dimensional Dirichlet-to-Neumann operator for water waves over topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, D.; Nachbin, A.

    2018-06-01

    Surface water waves are considered propagating over highly variable non-smooth topographies. For this three dimensional problem a Dirichlet-to-Neumann (DtN) operator is constructed reducing the numerical modeling and evolution to the two dimensional free surface. The corresponding Fourier-type operator is defined through a matrix decomposition. The topographic component of the decomposition requires special care and a Galerkin method is provided accordingly. One dimensional numerical simulations, along the free surface, validate the DtN formulation in the presence of a large amplitude, rapidly varying topography. An alternative, conformal mapping based, method is used for benchmarking. A two dimensional simulation in the presence of a Luneburg lens (a particular submerged mound) illustrates the accurate performance of the three dimensional DtN operator.

  17. Using 3D Printers to Model Earth Surface Topography for Increased Student Understanding and Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thesenga, David; Town, James

    2014-05-01

    In February 2000, the Space Shuttle Endeavour flew a specially modified radar system during an 11-day mission. The purpose of the multinational Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) was to "obtain elevation data on a near-global scale to generate the most complete high-resolution digital topographic database of Earth" by using radar interferometry. The data and resulting products are now publicly available for download and give a view of the landscape removed of vegetation, buildings, and other structures. This new view of the Earth's topography allows us to see previously unmapped or poorly mapped regions of the Earth as well as providing a level of detail that was previously unknown using traditional topographic mapping techniques. Understanding and appreciating the geographic terrain is a complex but necessary requirement for middle school aged (11-14yo) students. Abstract in nature, topographic maps and other 2D renderings of the Earth's surface and features do not address the inherent spatial challenges of a concrete-learner and traditional methods of teaching can at times exacerbate the problem. Technological solutions such as 3D-imaging in programs like Google Earth are effective but lack the tactile realness that can make a large difference in learning comprehension and retention for these young students. First developed in the 1980's, 3D printers were not commercial reality until recently and the rapid rise in interest has driven down the cost. With the advent of sub US1500 3D printers, this technology has moved out of the high-end marketplace and into the local office supply store. Schools across the US and elsewhere in the world are adding 3D printers to their technological workspaces and students have begun rapid-prototyping and manufacturing a variety of projects. This project attempted to streamline the process of transforming SRTM data from a GeoTIFF format by way of Python code. The resulting data was then inputted into a CAD-based program for

  18. Common fixed points for generalized contractive mappings in cone metric spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassen Aydi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to establish coincidence point and common fixed point results for four maps satisfying generalized weak contractions in cone metric spaces. Also, an example is given to illustrate our results.

  19. Reciprocal space mapping by spot profile analyzing low energy electron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer zu Heringdorf, Frank-J.; Horn-von Hoegen, Michael

    2005-01-01

    We present an experimental approach for the recording of two-dimensional reciprocal space maps using spot profile analyzing low energy electron diffraction (SPA-LEED). A specialized alignment procedure eliminates the shifting of LEED patterns on the screen which is commonly observed upon variation of the electron energy. After the alignment, a set of one-dimensional sections through the diffraction pattern is recorded at different energies. A freely available software tool is used to assemble the sections into a reciprocal space map. The necessary modifications of the Burr-Brown computer interface of the two Leybold and Omicron type SPA-LEED instruments are discussed and step-by-step instructions are given to adapt the SPA 4.1d software to the changed hardware. Au induced faceting of 4 deg. vicinal Si(001) is used as an example to demonstrate the technique

  20. Cognitive Mapping Based on Conjunctive Representations of Space and Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiping Zeng

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available It is a challenge to build robust simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM system in dynamical large-scale environments. Inspired by recent findings in the entorhinal–hippocampal neuronal circuits, we propose a cognitive mapping model that includes continuous attractor networks of head-direction cells and conjunctive grid cells to integrate velocity information by conjunctive encodings of space and movement. Visual inputs from the local view cells in the model provide feedback cues to correct drifting errors of the attractors caused by the noisy velocity inputs. We demonstrate the mapping performance of the proposed cognitive mapping model on an open-source dataset of 66 km car journey in a 3 km × 1.6 km urban area. Experimental results show that the proposed model is robust in building a coherent semi-metric topological map of the entire urban area using a monocular camera, even though the image inputs contain various changes caused by different light conditions and terrains. The results in this study could inspire both neuroscience and robotic research to better understand the neural computational mechanisms of spatial cognition and to build robust robotic navigation systems in large-scale environments.

  1. MapSentinel: Can the Knowledge of Space Use Improve Indoor Tracking Further?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruoxi Jia

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Estimating an occupant’s location is arguably the most fundamental sensing task in smart buildings. The applications for fine-grained, responsive building operations require the location sensing systems to provide location estimates in real time, also known as indoor tracking. Existing indoor tracking systems require occupants to carry specialized devices or install programs on their smartphone to collect inertial sensing data. In this paper, we propose MapSentinel, which performs non-intrusive location sensing based on WiFi access points and ultrasonic sensors. MapSentinel combines the noisy sensor readings with the floormap information to estimate locations. One key observation supporting our work is that occupants exhibit distinctive motion characteristics at different locations on the floormap, e.g., constrained motion along the corridor or in the cubicle zones, and free movement in the open space. While extensive research has been performed on using a floormap as a tool to obtain correct walking trajectories without wall-crossings, there have been few attempts to incorporate the knowledge of space use available from the floormap into the location estimation. This paper argues that the knowledge of space use as an additional information source presents new opportunities for indoor tracking. The fusion of heterogeneous information is theoretically formulated within the Factor Graph framework, and the Context-Augmented Particle Filtering algorithm is developed to efficiently solve real-time walking trajectories. Our evaluation in a large office space shows that the MapSentinel can achieve accuracy improvement of 31 . 3 % compared with the purely WiFi-based tracking system.

  2. Automated classifications of topography from DEMs by an unsupervised nested-means algorithm and a three-part geometric signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwahashi, J.; Pike, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    An iterative procedure that implements the classification of continuous topography as a problem in digital image-processing automatically divides an area into categories of surface form; three taxonomic criteria-slope gradient, local convexity, and surface texture-are calculated from a square-grid digital elevation model (DEM). The sequence of programmed operations combines twofold-partitioned maps of the three variables converted to greyscale images, using the mean of each variable as the dividing threshold. To subdivide increasingly subtle topography, grid cells sloping at less than mean gradient of the input DEM are classified by designating mean values of successively lower-sloping subsets of the study area (nested means) as taxonomic thresholds, thereby increasing the number of output categories from the minimum 8 to 12 or 16. Program output is exemplified by 16 topographic types for the world at 1-km spatial resolution (SRTM30 data), the Japanese Islands at 270??m, and part of Hokkaido at 55??m. Because the procedure is unsupervised and reflects frequency distributions of the input variables rather than pre-set criteria, the resulting classes are undefined and must be calibrated empirically by subsequent analysis. Maps of the example classifications reflect physiographic regions, geological structure, and landform as well as slope materials and processes; fine-textured terrain categories tend to correlate with erosional topography or older surfaces, coarse-textured classes with areas of little dissection. In Japan the resulting classes approximate landform types mapped from airphoto analysis, while in the Americas they create map patterns resembling Hammond's terrain types or surface-form classes; SRTM30 output for the United States compares favorably with Fenneman's physical divisions. Experiments are suggested for further developing the method; the Arc/Info AML and the map of terrain classes for the world are available as online downloads. ?? 2006 Elsevier

  3. Texture-based segmentation with Gabor filters, wavelet and pyramid decompositions for extracting individual surface features from areal surface topography maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senin, Nicola; Leach, Richard K; Pini, Stefano; Blunt, Liam A

    2015-01-01

    Areal topography segmentation plays a fundamental role in those surface metrology applications concerned with the characterisation of individual topography features. Typical scenarios include the dimensional inspection and verification of micro-structured surface features, and the identification and characterisation of localised defects and other random singularities. While morphological segmentation into hills or dales is the only partitioning operation currently endorsed by the ISO specification standards on surface texture metrology, many other approaches are possible, in particular adapted from the literature on digital image segmentation. In this work an original segmentation approach is introduced and discussed, where topography partitioning is driven by information collected through the application of texture characterisation transforms popular in digital image processing. Gabor filters, wavelets and pyramid decompositions are investigated and applied to a selected set of test cases. The behaviour, performance and limitations of the proposed approach are discussed from the viewpoint of the identification and extraction of individual surface topography features. (paper)

  4. Urban forest topographical mapping using UAV LIDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putut Ash Shidiq, Iqbal; Wibowo, Adi; Kusratmoko, Eko; Indratmoko, Satria; Ardhianto, Ronni; Prasetyo Nugroho, Budi

    2017-12-01

    Topographical data is highly needed by many parties, such as government institution, mining companies and agricultural sectors. It is not just about the precision, the acquisition time and data processing are also carefully considered. In relation with forest management, a high accuracy topographic map is necessary for planning, close monitoring and evaluating forest changes. One of the solution to quickly and precisely mapped topography is using remote sensing system. In this study, we test high-resolution data using Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) collected from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) to map topography and differentiate vegetation classes based on height in urban forest area of University of Indonesia (UI). The semi-automatic and manual classifications were applied to divide point clouds into two main classes, namely ground and vegetation. There were 15,806,380 point clouds obtained during the post-process, in which 2.39% of it were detected as ground.

  5. Understanding the mechanisms of solid-water reactions through analysis of surface topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandstra, Joel Z; Brantley, Susan L

    2015-12-01

    The topography of a reactive surface contains information about the reactions that form or modify the surface and, therefore, it should be possible to characterize reactivity using topography parameters such as surface area, roughness, or fractal dimension. As a test of this idea, we consider a two-dimensional (2D) lattice model for crystal dissolution and examine a suite of topography parameters to determine which may be useful for predicting rates and mechanisms of dissolution. The model is based on the assumption that the reactivity of a surface site decreases with the number of nearest neighbors. We show that the steady-state surface topography in our model system is a function of, at most, two variables: the ratio of the rate of loss of sites with two neighbors versus three neighbors (d(2)/d(3)) and the ratio of the rate of loss of sites with one neighbor versus three neighbors (d(1)/d(3)). This means that relative rates can be determined from two parameters characterizing the topography of a surface provided that the two parameters are independent of one another. It also means that absolute rates cannot be determined from measurements of surface topography alone. To identify independent sets of topography parameters, we simulated surfaces from a broad range of d(1)/d(3) and d(2)/d(3) and computed a suite of common topography parameters for each surface. Our results indicate that the fractal dimension D and the average spacing between steps, E[s], can serve to uniquely determine d(1)/d(3) and d(2)/d(3) provided that sufficiently strong correlations exist between the steps. Sufficiently strong correlations exist in our model system when D>1.5 (which corresponds to D>2.5 for real 3D reactive surfaces). When steps are uncorrelated, surface topography becomes independent of step retreat rate and D is equal to 1.5. Under these conditions, measures of surface topography are not independent and any single topography parameter contains all of the available mechanistic

  6. Free Space Computation From Stochastic Occupancy Grids Based On Iconic Kalman Filtered Disparity Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høilund, Carsten; Moeslund, Thomas B.; Madsen, Claus B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a method for determining the free space in a scene as viewed by a vehicle-mounted camera. Using disparity maps from a stereo camera and known camera motion, the disparity maps are first filtered by an iconic Kalman filter, operating on each pixel individually, thereby reducing...

  7. Mapping of sea bottom topography over western offshore, India using TOPEX/ERS-1 altimeter data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mohanty, K.K.; Majumdar, T.J.; Kunte, P.D.; Srivastava, A.K.

    topography in SSH. Cross-over corrections are applied to account for the orbital error in the altimetric observation. The corrected SSH has been used as an approximation to the marine geoid. The bathymetry is related with the geoid through a convolution model...

  8. Ice Motion and Topography Near Margin Areas of Kamb Ice Stream, Antarctica, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes ice motion and topography measurements that were taken by measuring movement and altitude of poles set in the West Antarctic Ice Shelf. The...

  9. Seabed maps showing topography, ruggedness, backscatter intensity, sediment mobility, and the distribution of geologic substrates in Quadrangle 6 of the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary Region offshore of Boston, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Page C.; Gallea, Leslie B.

    2015-11-10

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Marine Sanctuary Program, has conducted seabed mapping and related research in the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary (SBNMS) region since 1993. The area is approximately 3,700 square kilometers (km2) and is subdivided into 18 quadrangles. Seven maps, at a scale of 1:25,000, of quadrangle 6 (211 km2) depict seabed topography, backscatter, ruggedness, geology, substrate mobility, mud content, and areas dominated by fine-grained or coarse-grained sand. Interpretations of bathymetric and seabed backscatter imagery, photographs, video, and grain-size analyses were used to create the geology-based maps. In all, data from 420 stations were analyzed, including sediment samples from 325 locations. The seabed geology map shows the distribution of 10 substrate types ranging from boulder ridges to immobile, muddy sand to mobile, rippled sand. Mapped substrate types are defined on the basis of sediment grain-size composition, surface morphology, sediment layering, the mobility or immobility of substrate surfaces, and water depth range. This map series is intended to portray the major geological elements (substrates, topographic features, processes) of environments within quadrangle 6. Additionally, these maps will be the basis for the study of the ecological requirements of invertebrate and vertebrate species that utilize these substrates and guide seabed management in the region.

  10. Fixed Points of α-Admissible Mappings in Cone Metric Spaces with Banach Algebra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Malhotra

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce the $\\alpha$-admissible mappings in the setting of cone metric spaces equipped with Banach algebra and solid cones. Our results generalize and extend several known results of metric and cone metric spaces. An example is presented which illustrates and shows the significance of results proved herein.

  11. SRTM Data Release for Eurasia, Index Map and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The colored regions of this map show the extent of digital elevation data recently released by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). This release includes data for most of Europe and Asia plus numerous islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. SRTM flew on board the Space Shuttle Endeavour in February 2000 and used an interferometric radar system to map the topography of Earth's landmass between latitudes 56 degrees south and 60 degrees north.The data were processed into geographic 'tiles,' each of which represents one by one degree of latitude and longitude. A degree of latitude measures 111 kilometers (69 miles) north-south, and a degree of longitude measures 111 kilometers or less east-west, decreasing away from the equator. The data are being released to the public on a continent-by-continent basis. This Eurasia segment includes 5,940 tiles, more than a third of the total data set. Previous releases covered North America and South America. Forthcoming releases will include Africa-Arabia and Australia plus an 'Islands' release for those islands not included in the continental releases. Together these data releases constitute the world's first high-resolution, near-global elevation model. The resolution of the publicly released data is three arcseconds (1/1,200 of a degree of latitude and longitude), which is about 90 meters (295 feet).European coverage in the current data release stretches eastward from the British Isles and the Iberian Peninsula in the west, across the Alps and Carpathian Mountains, as well as the Northern European Plain, to the Ural and Caucasus Mountains bordering Asia. The Asian coverage includes a great diversity of landforms, including the Tibetan Plateau, Tarin Basin, Mongolian Plateau, and the mountains surrounding Lake Baikal, the world's deepest lake. Mt. Everest in the Himalayas, at 8,848 meters (29,029 feet) is the world's highest mountain. From India's Deccan Plateau, to Southeast Asia, coastal China, and Korea, various

  12. Geocosmos: mapping outer space into a hollow earth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelkader, M.A. (Alexandria, Egypt)

    1983-04-01

    The authors regards the earth's surface as a sphere and applies a purely mathematical mapping taking outer space in the Copernican universe (C) into a hollow earth, Geocosmos (G). The enormous galaxies and other remote objects are mapped inside as microscopic objects, and the moon as by far the largest of the celestial objects, all of which revolve daily around the earth's axis. Straight rays of light are mapped as arcs of circles, so that all celestial phenomena appear to inside observers in G just as they do to outside observers in C. He next considers the hypothesis that, conversely, the actual universe is this finite G. Then there seems to be no way of testing this, except by drilling a hole right through the earth's centre. However, in C the origin of cosmic rays of super-high energies is very controversial, whereas in G it is unequivocal. The idea of G was first conceived qualitatively by Karl E. Neupert in 1900; this revival is somewhat different. The main appeal of G stems from the very grave difficulty of believing in the fantastic vastness of C, and the consequent reduction of the earth to an infinitesimal.

  13. Rapid-Response or Repeat-Mode Topography from Aerial Structure from Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissen, E.; Johnson, K. L.; Fitzgerald, F. S.; Morgan, M.; White, J.

    2014-12-01

    This decade has seen a surge of interest in Structure-from-Motion (SfM) as a means of generating high-resolution topography and coregistered texture maps from stereo digital photographs. Using an unstructured set of overlapping photographs captured from multiple viewpoints and minimal GPS ground control, SfM solves simultaneously for scene topography and camera positions, orientations and lens parameters. The use of cheap unmanned aerial vehicles or tethered helium balloons as camera platforms expedites data collection and overcomes many of the cost, time and logistical limitations of LiDAR surveying, making it a potentially valuable tool for rapid response mapping and repeat monitoring applications. We begin this presentation by assessing what data resolutions and precisions are achievable using a simple aerial camera platform and commercial SfM software (we use the popular Agisoft Photoscan package). SfM point clouds generated at two small (~0.1 km2), sparsely-vegetated field sites in California compare favorably with overlapping airborne and terrestrial LiDAR surveys, with closest point distances of a few centimeters between the independent datasets. Next, we go on to explore the method in more challenging conditions, in response to a major landslide in Mesa County, Colorado, on 25th May 2014. Photographs collected from a small UAV were used to generate a high-resolution model of the 4.5 x 1 km landslide several days before an airborne LiDAR survey could be organized and flown. An initial estimate of the mass balance of the landslide could quickly be made by differencing this model against pre-event topography generated using stereo photographs collected in 2009 as part of the National Agricultural Imagery Program (NAIP). This case study therefore demonstrates the rich potential offered by this technique, as well as some of the challenges, particularly with respect to the treatment of vegetation.

  14. Optimization of Antennas using a Hybrid Genetic-Algorithm Space-Mapping Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantoja, M.F.; Bretones, A.R.; Meincke, Peter

    2006-01-01

    A hybrid global-local optimization technique for the design of antennas is presented. It consists of the subsequent application of a Genetic Algorithm (GA) that employs coarse models in the simulations and a space mapping (SM) that refines the solution found in the previous stage. The technique...

  15. The Effect of Substrate Topography on Direct Reprogramming of Fibroblasts to Induced Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulangara, Karina; Adler, Andrew F.; Wang, Hong; Chellappan, Malathi; Hammett, Ellen; Yasuda, Ryohei; Leong, Kam W.

    2014-01-01

    Cellular reprogramming holds tremendous potential for cell therapy and regenerative medicine. Recently, fibroblasts have been directly converted into induced neurons (iNs) by overexpression of the neuronal transcription factors Ascl1, Brn2 and Myt1L. Hypothesizing that cell-topography interactions could influence the fibroblast-to-neuron reprogramming process, we investigated the effects of various topographies on iNs produced by direct reprogramming. Final iN purity and conversion efficiency were increased on micrograting substrates. Neurite branching was increased on microposts and decreased on microgratings, with a simplified dendritic arbor characterized by the reduction of MAP2+ neurites. Neurite outgrowth increased significantly on various topographies. DNA microarray analysis detected 20 differentially expressed genes in iNs reprogrammed on smooth versus microgratings, and quantitative PCR (qPCR) confirmed the upregulation of Vip and downregulation of Thy1 and Bmp5 on microgratings. Electrophysiology and calcium imaging verified the functionality of these iNs. This study demonstrates the potential of applying topographical cues to optimize cellular reprogramming. PMID:24709523

  16. Using matrix peaks to map topography: Increased mass resolution and enhanced sensitivity in chemical imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McDonnell, Liam A.; Mize, Todd H.; Luxembourg, Stefan L.; Koster, Sander; Eijkel, Gert B.; Verpoorte, Elisabeth; De Rooij, Nico F.; Heeren, Ron M. A.

    2003-01-01

    It is well known in secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) that sample topography leads to decreased mass resolution. Specifically, the ion's time of flight is dependent on where it was generated. Here, using matrix-enhanced SIMS, it is demonstrated that, in addition to increasing the yield of

  17. Classical and quantum investigations of four-dimensional maps with a mixed phase space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Systems with more than two degrees of freedom are of fundamental importance for the understanding of problems ranging from celestial mechanics to molecules. Due to the dimensionality the classical phase-space structure of such systems is more difficult to understand than for systems with two or fewer degrees of freedom. This thesis aims for a better insight into the classical as well as the quantum mechanics of 4D mappings representing driven systems with two degrees of freedom. In order to analyze such systems, we introduce 3D sections through the 4D phase space which reveal the regular and chaotic structures. We introduce these concepts by means of three example mappings of increasing complexity. After a classical analysis the systems are investigated quantum mechanically. We focus especially on two important aspects: First, we address quantum mechanical consequences of the classical Arnold web and demonstrate how quantum mechanics can resolve this web in the semiclassical limit. Second, we investigate the quantum mechanical tunneling couplings between regular and chaotic regions in phase space. We determine regular-to-chaotic tunneling rates numerically and extend the fictitious integrable system approach to higher dimensions for their prediction. Finally, we study resonance-assisted tunneling in 4D maps.

  18. In-situ investigations of structural changes during cyclic loading by high resolution reciprocal space mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichs, Annika M.; Thiel, Felix; Lienert, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    dislocation structures can be identified using advanced electron microscopy and synchrotron techniques. A detailed characterization of the microstructure during cyclic loading by in-situ monitoring the internal structure within individual grains with high energy x-rays can help to understand and predict...... the materials behavior during cyclic deformation and to improve the material design. While monitoring macroscopic stress and strain during cyclic loading, reciprocal space maps of diffraction peaks from single grains are obtained with high resolution. High Resolution Reciprocal Space Mapping was applied...

  19. Medical Geography and Topography Works: the first environmental studies in a specific city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Lúcia de Araújo Ferreira

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The natural environment and the geographical circumstances set the basis for the development of an hygiene-oriented thinking and led physicians to investigate and diagnose the regional and urban space between the eighteenth and twentieth centuries. These ideas were systematically compiled in works known as Medical Geography and Topography Works which, when known throughout the world, ended up becoming precise descriptions of the cities' territory, providing a spatial account of diseases and identifying their nature, evolution and treatment. Besides recovering the origin of these treaties and stressing their importance as amongst the first "geographical" investigations of urban space, this work aims to include Brazil, and specifically the city of Natal (in northeast Brazil within the context of these analyses, with special emphasis on the work entitled Topography of Natal and its Medical Geography authored by doctor Januário Cicco in 1920.

  20. Atom Interferometer Technologies in Space for Gravity Mapping and Gravity Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jason; Chiow, Sheng-Wey; Kellogg, James; Kohel, James; Yu, Nan

    2015-05-01

    Atom interferometers utilize the wave-nature of atomic gases for precision measurements of inertial forces, with potential applications ranging from gravity mapping for planetary science to unprecedented tests of fundamental physics with quantum gases. The high stability and sensitivity intrinsic to these devices already place them among the best terrestrial sensors available for measurements of gravitational accelerations, rotations, and gravity gradients, with the promise of several orders of magnitude improvement in their detection sensitivity in microgravity. Consequently, multiple precision atom-interferometer-based projects are under development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, including a dual-atomic-species interferometer that is to be integrated into the Cold Atom Laboratory onboard the International Space Station and a highly stable gravity gradiometer in a transportable design relevant for earth science measurements. We will present JPL's activities in the use of precision atom interferometry for gravity mapping and gravitational wave detection in space. Our recent progresses bringing the transportable JPL atom interferometer instrument to be competitive with the state of the art and simulations of the expected capabilities of a proposed flight project will also be discussed. This research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  1. Fixed point iterations for quasi-contractive maps in uniformly smooth Banach spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidume, C.E.; Osilike, M.O.

    1992-05-01

    Two well-known fixed point iteration methods are applied to approximate fixed points of quasi-contractive maps in real uniformly smooth Banach spaces. While our theorems generalize important known results, our method is of independent interest. (author). 25 refs

  2. Two New Iterative Methods for a Countable Family of Nonexpansive Mappings in Hilbert Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Changsong

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider two new iterative methods for a countable family of nonexpansive mappings in Hilbert spaces. We proved that the proposed algorithms strongly converge to a common fixed point of a countable family of nonexpansive mappings which solves the corresponding variational inequality. Our results improve and extend the corresponding ones announced by many others.

  3. The topography of the environment alters the optimal search strategy for active particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Giorgio; Volpe, Giovanni

    2017-10-01

    In environments with scarce resources, adopting the right search strategy can make the difference between succeeding and failing, even between life and death. At different scales, this applies to molecular encounters in the cell cytoplasm, to animals looking for food or mates in natural landscapes, to rescuers during search and rescue operations in disaster zones, and to genetic computer algorithms exploring parameter spaces. When looking for sparse targets in a homogeneous environment, a combination of ballistic and diffusive steps is considered optimal; in particular, more ballistic Lévy flights with exponent α≤1 are generally believed to optimize the search process. However, most search spaces present complex topographies. What is the best search strategy in these more realistic scenarios? Here, we show that the topography of the environment significantly alters the optimal search strategy toward less ballistic and more Brownian strategies. We consider an active particle performing a blind cruise search for nonregenerating sparse targets in a 2D space with steps drawn from a Lévy distribution with the exponent varying from α=1 to α=2 (Brownian). We show that, when boundaries, barriers, and obstacles are present, the optimal search strategy depends on the topography of the environment, with α assuming intermediate values in the whole range under consideration. We interpret these findings using simple scaling arguments and discuss their robustness to varying searcher's size. Our results are relevant for search problems at different length scales from animal and human foraging to microswimmers' taxis to biochemical rates of reaction.

  4. Riemannian metric optimization on surfaces (RMOS) for intrinsic brain mapping in the Laplace-Beltrami embedding space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahm, Jin Kyu; Shi, Yonggang

    2018-05-01

    Surface mapping methods play an important role in various brain imaging studies from tracking the maturation of adolescent brains to mapping gray matter atrophy patterns in Alzheimer's disease. Popular surface mapping approaches based on spherical registration, however, have inherent numerical limitations when severe metric distortions are present during the spherical parameterization step. In this paper, we propose a novel computational framework for intrinsic surface mapping in the Laplace-Beltrami (LB) embedding space based on Riemannian metric optimization on surfaces (RMOS). Given a diffeomorphism between two surfaces, an isometry can be defined using the pullback metric, which in turn results in identical LB embeddings from the two surfaces. The proposed RMOS approach builds upon this mathematical foundation and achieves general feature-driven surface mapping in the LB embedding space by iteratively optimizing the Riemannian metric defined on the edges of triangular meshes. At the core of our framework is an optimization engine that converts an energy function for surface mapping into a distance measure in the LB embedding space, which can be effectively optimized using gradients of the LB eigen-system with respect to the Riemannian metrics. In the experimental results, we compare the RMOS algorithm with spherical registration using large-scale brain imaging data, and show that RMOS achieves superior performance in the prediction of hippocampal subfields and cortical gyral labels, and the holistic mapping of striatal surfaces for the construction of a striatal connectivity atlas from substantia nigra. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Geomorphic Unit Tool (GUT): Applications of Fluvial Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, N.; Bangen, S. G.; Wheaton, J. M.; Bouwes, N.; Wall, E.; Saunders, C.; Bennett, S.; Fortney, S.

    2017-12-01

    Geomorphic units are the building blocks of rivers and represent distinct habitat patches for many fluvial organisms. We present the Geomorphic Unit Toolkit (GUT), a flexible GIS geomorphic unit mapping tool, to generate maps of fluvial landforms from topography. GUT applies attributes to landforms based on flow stage (Tier 1), topographic signatures (Tier 2), geomorphic characteristics (Tier 3) and patch characteristics (Tier 4) to derive attributed maps at the level of detail required by analysts. We hypothesize that if more rigorous and consistent geomorphic mapping is conducted, better correlations between physical habitat units and ecohydraulic model results will be obtained compared to past work. Using output from GUT for coarse bed tributary streams in the Columbia River Basin, we explore relationships between salmonid habitat and geomorphic spatial metrics. We also highlight case studies of how GUT can be used to showcase geomorphic impact from large wood restoration efforts. Provided high resolution topography exists, this tool can be used to quickly assess changes in fluvial geomorphology in watersheds impacted by human activities.

  6. Ecclesiastical architecture, topography, and religious communication in the Bolivian highlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Windus

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the role of architecture, topography, and space for the religious communication and the creation of sacred space in the colonial Bolivian altiplano. It scrutinizes different forms and techniques of representation of Christian and Andean concepts in religious architectures, like churches and churchyards. Moreover, taking into account the case of the Andean town of Carabuco, its topographical characteristics, architectural artifacts and the representation of both in a visual source of the 17th century, it sheds new light on the processes of communication and appropriation of religious knowledge in a colonial contact zone.

  7. How the structural architecture of the Eurasian continental margin affects the structure, seismicity, and topography of the south central Taiwan fold-and-thrust belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Dennis; Alvarez-Marron, Joaquina; Biete, Cristina; Kuo-Chen, Hao; Camanni, Giovanni; Ho, Chun-Wei

    2017-07-01

    Studies of mountain belts worldwide show that along-strike changes are common in their foreland fold-and-thrust belts. These are typically caused by processes related to fault reactivation and/or fault focusing along changes in sedimentary sequences. The study of active orogens, like Taiwan, can also provide insights into how these processes influence transient features such as seismicity and topography. In this paper, we trace regional-scale features from the Eurasian continental margin in the Taiwan Strait into the south central Taiwan fold-and-thrust belt. We then present newly mapped surface geology, P wave velocity maps and sections, seismicity, and topography data to test the hypothesis of whether or not these regional-scale features of the margin are contributing to along-strike changes in structural style, and the distribution of seismicity and topography in this part of the Taiwan fold-and-thrust belt. These data show that the most important along-strike change takes place at the eastward prolongation of the upper part of the margin necking zone, where there is a causal link between fault reactivation, involvement of basement in the thrusting, concentration of seismicity, and the formation of high topography. On the area correlated with the necking zone, the strike-slip reactivation of east northeast striking extensional faults is causing sigmoidal offset of structures and topography along two main zones. Here basement is not involved in the thrusting; there is weak focusing of seismicity and localized development of topography. We also show that there are important differences in structure, seismicity, and topography between the margin shelf and its necking zone.

  8. A geocosmos: mapping outer space into a hollow earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelkader, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    The authors regards the earth's surface as a sphere and applies a purely mathematical mapping taking outer space in the Copernican universe (C) into a hollow earth, Geocosmos (G). The enormous galaxies and other remote objects are mapped inside as microscopic objects, and the moon as by far the largest of the celestial objects, all of which revolve daily around the earth's axis. Straight rays of light are mapped as arcs of circles, so that all celestial phenomena appear to inside observers in G just as they do to outside observers in C. He next considers the hypothesis that, conversely, the actual universe is this finite G. Then there seems to be no way of testing this, except by drilling a hole right through the earth's centre. However, in C the origin of cosmic rays of super-high energies is very controversial, whereas in G it is unequivocal. The idea of G was first conceived qualitatively by Karl E. Neupert in 1900; this revival is somewhat different. The main appeal of G stems from the very grave difficulty of believing in the fantastic vastness of C, and the consequent reduction of the earth to an infinitesimal. (Auth.)

  9. Common fixed point theorems for finite number of mappings without continuity and compatibility on intuitionistic fuzzy metric spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Sushil; Deshpande, Bhavana

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to prove some common fixed point theorems for finite number of discontinuous, noncompatible mappings on noncomplete intuitionistic fuzzy metric spaces. Our results extend, generalize and intuitionistic fuzzify several known results in fuzzy metric spaces. We give an example and also give formulas for total number of commutativity conditions for finite number of mappings.

  10. Topsoil moisture mapping using geostatistical techniques under different Mediterranean climatic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Murillo, J F; Hueso-González, P; Ruiz-Sinoga, J D

    2017-10-01

    Soil mapping has been considered as an important factor in the widening of Soil Science and giving response to many different environmental questions. Geostatistical techniques, through kriging and co-kriging techniques, have made possible to improve the understanding of eco-geomorphologic variables, e.g., soil moisture. This study is focused on mapping of topsoil moisture using geostatistical techniques under different Mediterranean climatic conditions (humid, dry and semiarid) in three small watersheds and considering topography and soil properties as key factors. A Digital Elevation Model (DEM) with a resolution of 1×1m was derived from a topographical survey as well as soils were sampled to analyzed soil properties controlling topsoil moisture, which was measured during 4-years. Afterwards, some topography attributes were derived from the DEM, the soil properties analyzed in laboratory, and the topsoil moisture was modeled for the entire watersheds applying three geostatistical techniques: i) ordinary kriging; ii) co-kriging considering as co-variate topography attributes; and iii) co-kriging ta considering as co-variates topography attributes and gravel content. The results indicated topsoil moisture was more accurately mapped in the dry and semiarid watersheds when co-kriging procedure was performed. The study is a contribution to improve the efficiency and accuracy of studies about the Mediterranean eco-geomorphologic system and soil hydrology in field conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Towards a Rigorous Formulation of the Space Mapping Technique for Engineering Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koziel, Slawek; Bandler, John W.; Madsen, Kaj

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with the Space Mapping (SM) approach to engineering design optimization. We attempt here a theoretical justification of methods that have already proven efficient in solving practical problems, especially in the RF and microwave area. A formal definition of optimization algorithm...

  12. Learning topography with Tangible Landscape games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrasova, A.; Tabrizian, P.; Harmon, B. A.; Petras, V.; Millar, G.; Mitasova, H.; Meentemeyer, R. K.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding topography and its representations is crucial for correct interpretation and modeling of surface processes. However, novice earth science and landscape architecture students often find reading topographic maps challenging. As a result, many students struggle to comprehend more complex spatial concepts and processes such as flow accumulation or sediment transport.We developed and tested a new method for teaching hydrology, geomorphology, and grading using Tangible Landscape—a tangible interface for geospatial modeling. Tangible Landscape couples a physical and digital model of a landscape through a real-time cycle of hands-on modeling, 3D scanning, geospatial computation, and projection. With Tangible Landscape students can sculpt a projection-augmented topographic model of a landscape with their hands and use a variety of tangible objects to immediately see how they are changing geospatial analytics such as contours, profiles, water flow, or landform types. By feeling and manipulating the shape of the topography, while seeing projected geospatial analytics, students can intuitively learn about 3D topographic form, its representations, and how topography controls physical processes. Tangible Landscape is powered by GRASS GIS, an open source geospatial platform with extensive libraries for geospatial modeling and analysis. As such, Tangible Landscape can be used to design a wide range of learning experiences across a large number of geoscience disciplines.As part of a graduate level course that teaches grading, 16 students participated in a series of workshops, which were developed as serious games to encourage learning through structured play. These serious games included 1) diverting rain water to a specified location with minimal changes to landscape, 2) building different combinations of landforms, and 3) reconstructing landscapes based on projected contour information with feedback.In this poster, we will introduce Tangible Landscape, and

  13. Geologic structure of shallow maria. [topography of lunar maria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehon, R. A.; Waskom, J. A.

    1975-01-01

    Isopach maps and structural contour maps of the eastern mare basins (30 deg N to 30 deg S; 0 deg to 100 deg E), constructed from measurements of partially buried craters, are presented and discussed. The data, which are sufficiently scattered to yield gross thickness variations, are restricted to shallow maria with less than 1500-2000 m of mare basalts. The average thickness of basalt in the irregular maria is between 200 and 400 m. Correlations between surface topography, basalt thickness, and basin floor structure are apparent in most of the basins that were studied. The mare surface is commonly depressed in regions of thick mare basalts; mare ridges are typically located in regions of pronounced thickness changes; and arcuate mare rilles are confined to thin mare basalts. Most surface structures are attributed to shallow stresses developed within the mare basalts during consolidation and volume reduction.

  14. Measurement of Air Pollution from Satellites (MAPS) Space Radar Laboratory - 1 (SRL1) Carbon Monoxide Second by Second data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MAPS Overview The MAPS experiment measures the global distribution of carbon monoxide (CO) mixing ratios in the free troposphere. Because of MAPS' previous flights...

  15. Measurement of Air Pollution from Satellites (MAPS) Space Radar Laboratory - 2 (SRL2) Carbon Monoxide Second by Second data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MAPS Overview The MAPS experiment measures the global distribution of carbon monoxide (CO) mixing ratios in the free troposphere. Because of MAPS' previous flights...

  16. Measuring topographies from conventional SEM acquisitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qiwei; Roux, Stéphane; Latourte, Félix; Hild, François; Loisnard, Dominique; Brynaert, Nicolas

    2018-04-27

    The present study extends the stereoscopic imaging principle for estimating the surface topography to two orientations, namely, normal to the electron beam axis and inclined at 70° as suited for EBSD analyses. In spite of the large angle difference, it is shown that the topography can be accurately determined using regularized global Digital Image Correlation. The surface topography is compared to another estimate issued from a 3D FIB-SEM procedure where the sample surface is first covered by a Pt layer, and its initial topography is progressively revealed from successive FIB-milling. These two methods are successfully compared on a 6% strained steel specimen in an in situ mechanical test. This analysis is supplemented by a third approach estimating the change of topography from crystal rotations as measured from successive EBSD images. This last technique ignores plastic deformation, and thus only holds in an elastic regime. For the studied example, despite the large plastic flow, it is shown that crystal rotation already accounts for a significant part of the deformation-induced topography. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Visualizing Dynamic Data with Maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashima, Daisuke; Kobourov, Stephen G; Hu, Yifan

    2012-09-01

    Maps offer a familiar way to present geographic data (continents, countries), and additional information (topography, geology), can be displayed with the help of contours and heat-map overlays. In this paper, we consider visualizing large-scale dynamic relational data by taking advantage of the geographic map metaphor. We describe a map-based visualization system which uses animation to convey dynamics in large data sets, and which aims to preserve the viewer's mental map while also offering readable views at all times. Our system is fully functional and has been used to visualize user traffic on the Internet radio station last.fm, as well as TV-viewing patterns from an IPTV service. All map images in this paper are available in high-resolution at [1] as are several movies illustrating the dynamic visualization.

  18. The role of extreme orbits in the global organization of periodic regions in parameter space for one dimensional maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Diogo Ricardo da, E-mail: diogo_cost@hotmail.com [Departamento de Física, UNESP – Universidade Estadual Paulista, Av. 24A, 1515, Bela Vista, 13506-900, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil); Hansen, Matheus [Departamento de Física, UNESP – Universidade Estadual Paulista, Av. 24A, 1515, Bela Vista, 13506-900, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil); Instituto de Física, Univ. São Paulo, Rua do Matão, Cidade Universitária, 05314-970, São Paulo – SP (Brazil); Guarise, Gustavo [Departamento de Física, UNESP – Universidade Estadual Paulista, Av. 24A, 1515, Bela Vista, 13506-900, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil); Medrano-T, Rene O. [Departamento de Ciências Exatas e da Terra, UNIFESP – Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Rua São Nicolau, 210, Centro, 09913-030, Diadema, SP (Brazil); Department of Mathematics, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Leonel, Edson D. [Departamento de Física, UNESP – Universidade Estadual Paulista, Av. 24A, 1515, Bela Vista, 13506-900, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil); Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics, Strada Costiera 11, 34151 Trieste (Italy)

    2016-04-22

    We show that extreme orbits, trajectories that connect local maximum and minimum values of one dimensional maps, play a major role in the parameter space of dissipative systems dictating the organization for the windows of periodicity, hence producing sets of shrimp-like structures. Here we solve three fundamental problems regarding the distribution of these sets and give: (i) their precise localization in the parameter space, even for sets of very high periods; (ii) their local and global distributions along cascades; and (iii) the association of these cascades to complicate sets of periodicity. The extreme orbits are proved to be a powerful indicator to investigate the organization of windows of periodicity in parameter planes. As applications of the theory, we obtain some results for the circle map and perturbed logistic map. The formalism presented here can be extended to many other different nonlinear and dissipative systems. - Highlights: • Extreme orbits and the organization of periodic regions in parameter space. • One-dimensional dissipative mappings. • The circle map and also a time perturbed logistic map were studied.

  19. The role of extreme orbits in the global organization of periodic regions in parameter space for one dimensional maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Diogo Ricardo da; Hansen, Matheus; Guarise, Gustavo; Medrano-T, Rene O.; Leonel, Edson D.

    2016-01-01

    We show that extreme orbits, trajectories that connect local maximum and minimum values of one dimensional maps, play a major role in the parameter space of dissipative systems dictating the organization for the windows of periodicity, hence producing sets of shrimp-like structures. Here we solve three fundamental problems regarding the distribution of these sets and give: (i) their precise localization in the parameter space, even for sets of very high periods; (ii) their local and global distributions along cascades; and (iii) the association of these cascades to complicate sets of periodicity. The extreme orbits are proved to be a powerful indicator to investigate the organization of windows of periodicity in parameter planes. As applications of the theory, we obtain some results for the circle map and perturbed logistic map. The formalism presented here can be extended to many other different nonlinear and dissipative systems. - Highlights: • Extreme orbits and the organization of periodic regions in parameter space. • One-dimensional dissipative mappings. • The circle map and also a time perturbed logistic map were studied.

  20. Approximation of fixed points of Lipschitz pseudo-contractive mapping in Banach spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidume, C.E.

    1988-01-01

    Let K be a subset of a real Banach space X. A mapping T:K → X is called pseudo-contractive if the inequality ||x-y|| ≤ ||(1+r)(x-y)-r(Tx-Ty)|| holds for all x,y in K and r > 0. Fixed points of Lipschitz pseudo-contractive maps are approximated under appropriate conditions, by an iteration process of the type introduced by W.R. Mann. This gives an affirmative answer to the problem stated by T.L. Hicks and J.R. Rubicek (J. Math. Anal. Appl. 59 (1977) 504). (author). 28 refs

  1. Strong Convergence of Hybrid Algorithm for Asymptotically Nonexpansive Mappings in Hilbert Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juguo Su

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid algorithms for constructing fixed points of nonlinear mappings have been studied extensively in recent years. The advantage of this methods is that one can prove strong convergence theorems while the traditional iteration methods just have weak convergence. In this paper, we propose two types of hybrid algorithm to find a common fixed point of a finite family of asymptotically nonexpansive mappings in Hilbert spaces. One is cyclic Mann's iteration scheme, and the other is cyclic Halpern's iteration scheme. We prove the strong convergence theorems for both iteration schemes.

  2. ANALYSIS OF RADAR AND OPTICAL SPACE BORNE DATA FOR LARGE SCALE TOPOGRAPHICAL MAPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Tampubolon

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Normally, in order to provide high resolution 3 Dimension (3D geospatial data, large scale topographical mapping needs input from conventional airborne campaigns which are in Indonesia bureaucratically complicated especially during legal administration procedures i.e. security clearance from military/defense ministry. This often causes additional time delays besides technical constraints such as weather and limited aircraft availability for airborne campaigns. Of course the geospatial data quality is an important issue for many applications. The increasing demand of geospatial data nowadays consequently requires high resolution datasets as well as a sufficient level of accuracy. Therefore an integration of different technologies is required in many cases to gain the expected result especially in the context of disaster preparedness and emergency response. Another important issue in this context is the fast delivery of relevant data which is expressed by the term “Rapid Mapping”. In this paper we present first results of an on-going research to integrate different data sources like space borne radar and optical platforms. Initially the orthorectification of Very High Resolution Satellite (VHRS imagery i.e. SPOT-6 has been done as a continuous process to the DEM generation using TerraSAR-X/TanDEM-X data. The role of Ground Control Points (GCPs from GNSS surveys is mandatory in order to fulfil geometrical accuracy. In addition, this research aims on providing suitable processing algorithm of space borne data for large scale topographical mapping as described in section 3.2. Recently, radar space borne data has been used for the medium scale topographical mapping e.g. for 1:50.000 map scale in Indonesian territories. The goal of this on-going research is to increase the accuracy of remote sensing data by different activities, e.g. the integration of different data sources (optical and radar or the usage of the GCPs in both, the optical and the

  3. An interactive GIS based tool on Chinese history and its topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konda, Ashish Reddy

    The aim of the thesis is to demonstrate how China was attacked by the foreign powers, the rise and fall of the empires, the border conflicts with India, Russia, Vietnam and territorial disputes in South China Sea. This thesis is focused on creating a GIS tool showcasing the modern Chinese history, which includes the major wars fought during that period. This tool is developed using the features of Google Maps that shows the location of the wars. The topography of China is also represented on the interactive Google Map by creating layers for rivers, mountain ranges and deserts. The provinces with highest population are also represented on the Google Map with circles. The application also shows the historical events in chronological order using a timeline feature. This has been implemented using JQuery, JavaScript, HTML5 and CSS. Chinese culture and biographies of important leaders are also included in this thesis, which is embedded with pictures and videos.

  4. Fixed Points of Multivalued Contractive Mappings in Partial Metric Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rahim Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present fixed point results of multivalued mappings in the framework of partial metric spaces. Some examples are presented to support the results proved herein. Our results generalize and extend various results in the existing literature. As an application of our main result, the existence and uniqueness of bounded solution of functional equations arising in dynamic programming are established.

  5. Topography-modified refraction (TMR): adjustment of treated cylinder amount and axis to the topography versus standard clinical refraction in myopic topography-guided LASIK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanellopoulos, Anastasios John

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the safety, efficacy, and contralateral eye comparison of topography-guided myopic LASIK with two different refraction treatment strategies. Private clinical ophthalmology practice. A total of 100 eyes (50 patients) in consecutive cases of myopic topography-guided LASIK procedures with the same refractive platform (FS200 femtosecond and EX500 excimer lasers) were randomized for treatment as follows: one eye with the standard clinical refraction (group A) and the contralateral eye with the topographic astigmatic power and axis (topography-modified treatment refraction; group B). All cases were evaluated pre- and post-operatively for the following parameters: refractive error, best corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), topography (Placido-disk based) and tomography (Scheimpflug-image based), wavefront analysis, pupillometry, and contrast sensitivity. Follow-up visits were conducted for at least 12 months. Mean refractive error was -5.5 D of myopia and -1.75 D of astigmatism. In group A versus group B, respectively, the average UDVA improved from 20/200 to 20/20 versus 20/16; post-operative CDVA was 20/20 and 20/13.5; 1 line of vision gained was 27.8% and 55.6%; and 2 lines of vision gained was 5.6% and 11.1%. In group A, 27.8% of eyes had over -0.50 diopters of residual refractive astigmatism, in comparison to 11.7% in group B ( P Topography-modified refraction (TMR): topographic adjustment of the amount and axis of astigmatism treated, when different from the clinical refraction, may offer superior outcomes in topography-guided myopic LASIK. These findings may change the current clinical paradigm of the optimal subjective refraction utilized in laser vision correction.

  6. Mapping urban green open space in Bontang city using QGIS and cloud computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agus, F.; Ramadiani; Silalahi, W.; Armanda, A.; Kusnandar

    2018-04-01

    Digital mapping techniques are available freely and openly so that map-based application development is easier, faster and cheaper. A rapid development of Cloud Computing Geographic Information System makes this system can help the needs of the community for the provision of geospatial information online. The presence of urban Green Open Space (GOS) provide great benefits as an oxygen supplier, carbon-binding agent and can contribute to providing comfort and beauty of city life. This study aims to propose a platform application of GIS Cloud Computing (CC) of Bontang City GOS mapping. The GIS-CC platform uses the basic map available that’s free and open source. The research used survey method to collect GOS data obtained from Bontang City Government, while application developing works Quantum GIS-CC. The result section describes the existence of GOS Bontang City and the design of GOS mapping application.

  7. Use of IKONOS Data for Mapping Cultural Resources of Stennis Space Center, Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Giardino, Marco

    2002-01-01

    Cultural resource surveys are important for compliance with Federal and State law. Stennis Space Center (SSC) in Mississippi is researching, developing, and validating remote sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS) methods for aiding cultural resource assessments on the center's own land. The suitability of IKONOS satellite imagery for georeferencing scanned historic maps is examined in this viewgraph presentation. IKONOS data can be used to map historic buildings and farmland in Gainsville, MS, and plan archaeological surveys.

  8. The space of harmonic maps of S2 into S4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loo, B.

    1989-05-01

    Every branched superminimal surface of area 4πd in S 4 is shown to arise from a pair of meromorphic functions (f 1 ,f 2 ) of bidegree (d,d) such that f 1 and f 2 have the same ramification divisor. Conditions under which branched superminimal surfaces can be generated from such pairs of functions are derived. For each d ≥ 1 the space of harmonic maps (i.e branched superminimal immersions) of S 2 into S 4 of harmonic degree d is shown to be a connected space of complex dimension 2d+4. (author). 18 refs

  9. GNSS reflectometry aboard the International Space Station: phase-altimetry simulation to detect ocean topography anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semmling, Maximilian; Leister, Vera; Saynisch, Jan; Zus, Florian; Wickert, Jens

    2016-04-01

    An ocean altimetry experiment using Earth reflected GNSS signals has been proposed to the European Space Agency (ESA). It is part of the GNSS Reflectometry Radio Occultation Scatterometry (GEROS) mission that is planned aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Altimetric simulations are presented that examine the detection of ocean topography anomalies assuming GNSS phase delay observations. Such delay measurements are well established for positioning and are possible due to a sufficient synchronization of GNSS receiver and transmitter. For altimetric purpose delays of Earth reflected GNSS signals can be observed similar to radar altimeter signals. The advantage of GNSS is the synchronized separation of transmitter and receiver that allow a significantly increased number of observation per receiver due to more than 70 GNSS transmitters currently in orbit. The altimetric concept has already been applied successfully to flight data recorded over the Mediterranean Sea. The presented altimetric simulation considers anomalies in the Agulhas current region which are obtained from the Region Ocean Model System (ROMS). Suitable reflection events in an elevation range between 3° and 30° last about 10min with ground track's length >3000km. Typical along-track footprints (1s signal integration time) have a length of about 5km. The reflection's Fresnel zone limits the footprint of coherent observations to a major axis extention between 1 to 6km dependent on the elevation. The altimetric performance depends on the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the reflection. Simulation results show that precision is better than 10cm for SNR of 30dB. Whereas, it is worse than 0.5m if SNR goes down to 10dB. Precision, in general, improves towards higher elevation angles. Critical biases are introduced by atmospheric and ionospheric refraction. Corresponding correction strategies are still under investigation.

  10. EAARL coastal topography-western Florida, post-Hurricane Charley, 2004: seamless (bare earth and submerged.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayegandhi, Amar; Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Wright, C. Wayne; Sallenger, A.H.; Brock, John C.; Yates, Xan

    2010-01-01

    Project Description These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived seamless (bare-earth and submerged) topography were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Coastal and Marine Geology Program (CMGP), St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the western Florida coastline beachface, acquired post-Hurricane Charley on August 17 and 18, 2004. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative airborne lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multispectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for sub-meter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the resulting data were then

  11. Topography- and management-mediated resource gradients maintain rare and common plant diversity around paddy terraces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uematsu, Yuta; Ushimaru, Atushi

    2013-09-01

    Examining the causes of interspecific differences in susceptibility to bidirectional land-use changes (land abandonment and use-intensification) is important for understanding the mechanisms of global biodiversity loss in agricultural landscapes. We tested the hypothesis that rare (endangered) plant species prefer wet and oligotrophic areas within topography- and management-mediated resource (soil water content, nutrient, and aboveground biomass) gradients, making them more susceptible to both abandonment and use-intensification of agricultural lands. We demonstrated that topography and management practices generated resource gradients in seminatural grasslands around traditional paddy terraces. Terraced topography and management practices produced a soil moisture gradient within levees and a nutrient gradient within paddy terraces. Both total and rare species diversity increased with soil water content. Total species diversity increased in more eutrophied areas with low aboveground biomass, whereas rare species diversity was high under oligotrophic conditions. Rare and common species were differentially distributed along the human-induced nutrient gradient, with rare species preferring wet, nutrient-poor environments in the agricultural landscapes studied. We suggest that conservation efforts should concentrate on wet, nutrient-poor areas within such landscapes, which can be located easily using land-use and topography maps. This strategy would reduce the costs of finding and conserving rare grassland species in a given agricultural landscape.

  12. A Hybrid Genetic-Algorithm Space-Mapping Tool for the Optimization of Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantoja, Mario Fernández; Meincke, Peter; Bretones, Amelia Rubio

    2007-01-01

    A hybrid global-local optimization technique for the design of antennas is presented. It consists of the subsequent application of a genetic algorithm (GA) that employs coarse models in the simulations and a space mapping (SM) that refines the solution found in the previous stage. The technique...

  13. Space-mapping techniques applied to the optimization of a safety isolating transformer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.V. Tran; S. Brisset; D. Echeverria (David); D.J.P. Lahaye (Domenico); P. Brochet

    2007-01-01

    textabstractSpace-mapping optimization techniques allow to allign low-fidelity and high-fidelity models in order to reduce the computational time and increase the accuracy of the solution. The main idea is to build an approximate model from the difference of response between both models. Therefore

  14. Incorporating Topography into Landscape Continuity Analysis—Hong Kong Island as a Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Levin, Noam; Singer, Matan; Lai, Poh

    2013-01-01

    The increase in population and the expansion of built-up areas into natural and agricultural areas results in more than just loss of open spaces surrounding cities. Reduced accessibility to nature, visual intrusion of buildings into natural viewsheds, and changes in runoff requires us to assess these impacts on open spaces. Our aim in this paper was to examine and demonstrate how topography can be incorporated into modeling and analyzing environmental impacts of cities. Taking Hong Kong Islan...

  15. Geologic map of the Zarkashan-Anguri copper and gold deposits, Ghazni Province, Afghanistan, modified from the 1968 original map compilation of E.P. Meshcheryakov and V.P. Sayapin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Stephen G.; Stettner, Will R.; Masonic, Linda M.; Moran, Thomas W.

    2011-01-01

    This map is a modified version of Geological map of the area of Zarkashan-Anguri gold deposits, scale 1:50,000, which was compiled by E.P. Meshcheryakov and V.P. Sayapin in 1968. Scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Afghan Geological Survey and the Task Force for Business and Stability Operations of the U.S. Department of Defense, studied the original document and related reports and also visited the field area in April 2010. This modified map, which includes a cross section, illustrates the geologic setting of the Zarkashan-Anguri copper and gold deposits. The map reproduces the topology (contacts, faults, and so forth) of the original Soviet map and cross section and includes modifications based on our examination of that and other documents, and based on observations made and sampling undertaken during our field visit. (Refer to the Introduction and the References in the Map PDF for an explanation of our methodology and for complete citations of the original map and related reports.) Elevations on the cross section are derived from the original Soviet topography and may not match the newer topography used on the current map.

  16. Mapping of Cu and Pb Contaminations in Soil Using Combined Geochemistry, Topography, and Remote Sensing: A Case Study in the Le’an River Floodplain, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Gao

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metal pollution in soil is becoming a widely concerning environmental problem in China. The aim of this study is to integrate multiple sources of data, namely total Cu and Pb contents, digital elevation model (DEM data, remote sensing image and interpreted land-use data, for mapping the spatial distribution of total Cu and Pb contamination in top soil along the Le’an River and its branches. Combined with geographical analyses and watershed delineation, the source and transportation route of pollutants are identified. Regions at high risk of Cu or Pb pollution are suggested. Results reveal that topography is the major factor that controls the spatial distribution of Cu and Pb. Watershed delineation shows evidence that the streamflow resulting from rainfall is the major carrier of metal pollutants.

  17. Greenland's 20th Century retreat illuminated - great spatial variability with strong connections to subglacial topography and fjord bathymetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjork, A. A.; Kjeldsen, K. K.; Boeckel, M. V.; Korsgaard, N. J.; Fenty, I. G.; Khan, S. A.; Mouginot, J.; Morlighem, M.; Rignot, E. J.; Dowdeswell, J. A.; Kjaer, K. H.

    2017-12-01

    Mass loss acceleration from the Greenland Ice Sheet is a dominant contributor in recent global sea-level rise, and has been for several decades. While ice sheet wide mass loss has recently been documented from the end of the Little Ice Age (c. 1900 CE) to the 1980s, the detailed changes during this period remain poorly known. In this study, we map glacier margins of Greenland's 310 largest outlet glaciers in order to get the full picture of the 20th Century mass loss. We take advantage of the rich history of aerial photography over Greenland and combine photos from archives in Denmark, Norway, United Kingdom, and United States. We supplement the historical aerial photographs with declassified US spy satellite imagery and recent satellite imagery to document glacial retreat and advance on a decadal scale. With recent advances in bathymetry mapping and subglacial topography mapping, we are able to show that spatial differences in retreat throughout the last 100 years are largely controlled by the underlying topography. Our study further highlights hotspots of past rapid mass loss in Greenland, and discusses implications for periods of regional stability and advance.

  18. Power laws for gravity and topography of Solar System bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermakov, A.; Park, R. S.; Bills, B. G.

    2017-12-01

    When a spacecraft visits a planetary body, it is useful to be able to predict its gravitational and topographic properties. This knowledge is important for determining the level of perturbations in spacecraft's motion as well as for planning the observation campaign. It has been known for the Earth that the power spectrum of gravity follows a power law, also known as the Kaula rule (Kaula, 1963; Rapp, 1989). A similar rule was derived for topography (Vening-Meinesz, 1951). The goal of this paper is to generalize the power law that can characterize the gravity and topography power spectra for bodies across a wide range of size. We have analyzed shape power spectra of the bodies that have either global shape and gravity field measured. These bodies span across five orders of magnitude in their radii and surface gravities and include terrestrial planets, icy moons and minor bodies. We have found that despite having different internal structure, composition and mechanical properties, the topography power spectrum of these bodies' shapes can be modeled with a similar power law rescaled by the surface gravity. Having empirically found a power law for topography, we can map it to a gravity power law. Special care should be taken for low-degree harmonic coefficients due to potential isostatic compensation. For minor bodies, uniform density can be assumed. The gravity coefficients are a linear function of the shape coefficients for close-to-spherical bodoes. In this case, the power law for gravity will be steeper than the power law of topography due to the factor (2n+1) in the gravity expansion (e.g. Eq. 10 in Wieczorek & Phillips, 1998). Higher powers of topography must be retained for irregularly shaped bodies, which breaks the linearity. Therefore, we propose the following procedure to derive an a priori constraint for gravity. First, a surface gravity needs to be determined assuming typical density for the relevant class of bodies. Second, the scaling coefficient of the

  19. Topography Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  20. Reciprocal-space mapping for simultaneous determination of texture and stress in thin films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimek, Daniel; Kužel, R.; Rafaja, D.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 4 (2006), s. 487-501 ISSN 0021-8898 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : texture * stress * X-ray diffraction * reciprocal space mapping Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.495, year: 2006

  1. A Silicon d-spacing Mapping Measurement System With Resolution of 10-9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaowei; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Fugimoto, Hiroyuki; Waseda, Atsushi; Takatomi, Toshikazu

    2010-01-01

    For determination of the Avogadro's number, a self-referenced lattice comparator established at the Photon Factory to deal with a d-spacing mapping measurement over the cross section of a 4 ∼ 5 inches FZ silicon rod. For uncertainty of 1x10 -8 of the unit cell volume, it is necessary to measure lattice parameter of silicon with resolution of 3x10 -9 at least. In this paper, we report the principle of our lattice comparator, characterize our measurement system, and show some mapping measurement results of FZ silicon with resolution of 3x10 -9 .

  2. A Trust Region Aggressive Space Mapping Algorithm for EM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakr., M.; Bandler, J. W.; Biernacki, R.

    1998-01-01

    A robust new algorithm for electromagnetic (EM) optimization of microwave circuits is presented. The algorithm (TRASM) integrates a trust region methodology with the aggressive space mapping (ASM). The trust region ensures that each iteration results in improved alignment between the coarse....... This suggested step exploits all the available EM simulations for improving the uniqueness of parameter extraction. The new algorithm was successfully used to design a number of microwave circuits. Examples include the EM optimization of a double-folded stub filter and of a high-temperature superconducting (HTS...

  3. Space Mapping and Beyond: Knowledge-Driven Microwave Design Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koziel, Slawomir; Madsen, Kaj

    2012-01-01

    in such a low-fidelity model allows us to dramatically reduce the number of EM simulations necessary to find a satisfactory design. Here, we review the concept of knowledge-driven design as well as specific design techniques, including space mapping, simulation-based tuning, and various response correction...... models that can replace the CPU-intensive EM-simulated structure of interest in the search for optimum design. The surrogate models exploiting physically-based low-fidelity models (e.g., circuit equivalents) can be particularly efficient: the knowledge about the structure under design embedded...

  4. Mapping from Speech to Images Using Continuous State Space Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehn-Schiøler, Tue; Hansen, Lars Kai; Larsen, Jan

    2005-01-01

    In this paper a system that transforms speech waveforms to animated faces are proposed. The system relies on continuous state space models to perform the mapping, this makes it possible to ensure video with no sudden jumps and allows continuous control of the parameters in 'face space...... a subjective point of view the model is able to construct an image sequence from an unknown noisy speech sequence even though the number of training examples are limited.......'. The performance of the system is critically dependent on the number of hidden variables, with too few variables the model cannot represent data, and with too many overfitting is noticed. Simulations are performed on recordings of 3-5 sec.\\$\\backslash\\$ video sequences with sentences from the Timit database. From...

  5. Surface Micro Topography Replication in Injection Moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arlø, Uffe Rolf; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Kjær, Erik Michael

    2005-01-01

    The surface micro topography of injection moulded plastic parts can be important for aesthetical and technical reasons. The quality of replication of mould surface topography onto the plastic surface depends among other factors on the process conditions. A study of this relationship has been...... carried out with rough EDM (electrical discharge machining) mould surfaces, a PS grade, and by applying established three-dimensional topography parameters. Significant quantitative relationships between process parameters and topography parameters were established. It further appeared that replication...

  6. Measuring surface topography with scanning electron microscopy. I. EZEImage: a program to obtain 3D surface data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponz, Ezequiel; Ladaga, Juan Luis; Bonetto, Rita Dominga

    2006-04-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is widely used in the science of materials and different parameters were developed to characterize the surface roughness. In a previous work, we studied the surface topography with fractal dimension at low scale and two parameters at high scale by using the variogram, that is, variance vs. step log-log graph, of a SEM image. Those studies were carried out with the FERImage program, previously developed by us. To verify the previously accepted hypothesis by working with only an image, it is indispensable to have reliable three-dimensional (3D) surface data. In this work, a new program (EZEImage) to characterize 3D surface topography in SEM has been developed. It uses fast cross correlation and dynamic programming to obtain reliable dense height maps in a few seconds which can be displayed as an image where each gray level represents a height value. This image can be used for the FERImage program or any other software to obtain surface topography characteristics. EZEImage also generates anaglyph images as well as characterizes 3D surface topography by means of a parameter set to describe amplitude properties and three functional indices for characterizing bearing and fluid properties.

  7. Surface Topography Hinders Bacterial Surface Motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yow-Ren; Weeks, Eric R; Ducker, William A

    2018-03-21

    We demonstrate that the surface motility of the bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, is hindered by a crystalline hemispherical topography with wavelength in the range of 2-8 μm. The motility was determined by the analysis of time-lapse microscopy images of cells in a flowing growth medium maintained at 37 °C. The net displacement of bacteria over 5 min is much lower on surfaces containing 2-8 μm hemispheres than on flat topography, but displacement on the 1 μm hemispheres is not lower. That is, there is a threshold between 1 and 2 μm for response to the topography. Cells on the 4 μm hemispheres were more likely to travel parallel to the local crystal axis than in other directions. Cells on the 8 μm topography were less likely to travel across the crowns of the hemispheres and were also more likely to make 30°-50° turns than on flat surfaces. These results show that surface topography can act as a significant barrier to surface motility and may therefore hinder surface exploration by bacteria. Because surface exploration can be a part of the process whereby bacteria form colonies and seek nutrients, these results help to elucidate the mechanism by which surface topography hinders biofilm formation.

  8. Mappability of drug-like space: towards a polypharmacologically competent map of drug-relevant compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorov, Pavel; Gaspar, Helena; Marcou, Gilles; Varnek, Alexandre; Horvath, Dragos

    2015-12-01

    Intuitive, visual rendering—mapping—of high-dimensional chemical spaces (CS), is an important topic in chemoinformatics. Such maps were so far dedicated to specific compound collections—either limited series of known activities, or large, even exhaustive enumerations of molecules, but without associated property data. Typically, they were challenged to answer some classification problem with respect to those same molecules, admired for their aesthetical virtues and then forgotten—because they were set-specific constructs. This work wishes to address the question whether a general, compound set-independent map can be generated, and the claim of "universality" quantitatively justified, with respect to all the structure-activity information available so far—or, more realistically, an exploitable but significant fraction thereof. The "universal" CS map is expected to project molecules from the initial CS into a lower-dimensional space that is neighborhood behavior-compliant with respect to a large panel of ligand properties. Such map should be able to discriminate actives from inactives, or even support quantitative neighborhood-based, parameter-free property prediction (regression) models, for a wide panel of targets and target families. It should be polypharmacologically competent, without requiring any target-specific parameter fitting. This work describes an evolutionary growth procedure of such maps, based on generative topographic mapping, followed by the validation of their polypharmacological competence. Validation was achieved with respect to a maximum of exploitable structure-activity information, covering all of Homo sapiens proteins of the ChEMBL database, antiparasitic and antiviral data, etc. Five evolved maps satisfactorily solved hundreds of activity-based ligand classification challenges for targets, and even in vivo properties independent from training data. They also stood chemogenomics-related challenges, as cumulated responsibility

  9. Mapping of the Available Chemical Space versus the Chemical Universe of Lead-Like Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Arkadii; Horvath, Dragos; Afonina, Valentina; Marcou, Gilles; Reymond, Jean-Louis; Varnek, Alexandre

    2018-03-20

    This is, to our knowledge, the most comprehensive analysis to date based on generative topographic mapping (GTM) of fragment-like chemical space (40 million molecules with no more than 17 heavy atoms, both from the theoretically enumerated GDB-17 and real-world PubChem/ChEMBL databases). The challenge was to prove that a robust map of fragment-like chemical space can actually be built, in spite of a limited (≪10 5 ) maximal number of compounds ("frame set") usable for fitting the GTM manifold. An evolutionary map building strategy has been updated with a "coverage check" step, which discards manifolds failing to accommodate compounds outside the frame set. The evolved map has a good propensity to separate actives from inactives for more than 20 external structure-activity sets. It was proven to properly accommodate the entire collection of 40 m compounds. Next, it served as a library comparison tool to highlight biases of real-world molecules (PubChem and ChEMBL) versus the universe of all possible species represented by FDB-17, a fragment-like subset of GDB-17 containing 10 million molecules. Specific patterns, proper to some libraries and absent from others (diversity holes), were highlighted. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Effects of surface topography on SERS response: Correlating nanoscopy with spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sumit Kumar; Ghosh, Manash; Chowdhury, Joydeep

    2018-05-01

    This paper reports for the first time the hidden correlation between the topographical features of the bilayer Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) film substrates of stearic acid (SA) incubated in Au@Ag nanocolloids over various dipping times (DTs) with their corresponding SERS responses. The topographies of the as prepared substrates are investigated from the statistical considerations in terms of lateral correlation length, interface width, Hurst and Lyapnov exponents. The real space of the substrates are mapped directly from the FESEM and AFM images of the bilayer LB film of SA immersed in Au@Ag nanocolloids over various DTs ranging between 6 and 72 h. The SERS spectra of the Rhodamine 6G molecules adsorbed on the as prepared substrates have been reported. The statistical parameters of the substrates that exhibit maximum SERS efficacy have been suggested. The far field distributions in presence and in absence of Raman dipole together with spatial distribution of the near field from the hottest spot of the as prepared substrate have also been reported. To our knowledge, this is the first report that links nanoscopy with SERS spectroscopy from statistical considerations and is expected to open a new window towards the fabrication of more efficient and reproducible SERS active substrates in future endeavours.

  11. Can single molecule localization microscopy be used to map closely spaced RGD nanodomains?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdie Mollazade

    Full Text Available Cells sense and respond to nanoscale variations in the distribution of ligands to adhesion receptors. This makes single molecule localization microscopy (SMLM an attractive tool to map the distribution of ligands on nanopatterned surfaces. We explore the use of SMLM spatial cluster analysis to detect nanodomains of the cell adhesion-stimulating tripeptide arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD. These domains were formed by the phase separation of block copolymers with controllable spacing on the scale of tens of nanometers. We first determined the topology of the block copolymer with atomic force microscopy (AFM and then imaged the localization of individual RGD peptides with direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (dSTORM. To compare the data, we analyzed the dSTORM data with DBSCAN (density-based spatial clustering application with noise. The ligand distribution and polymer topology are not necessary identical since peptides may attach to the polymer outside the nanodomains and/or coupling and detection of peptides within the nanodomains is incomplete. We therefore performed simulations to explore the extent to which nanodomains could be mapped with dSTORM. We found that successful detection of nanodomains by dSTORM was influenced by the inter-domain spacing and the localization precision of individual fluorophores, and less by non-specific absorption of ligands to the substratum. For example, under our imaging conditions, DBSCAN identification of nanodomains spaced further than 50 nm apart was largely independent of background localisations, while nanodomains spaced closer than 50 nm required a localization precision of ~11 nm to correctly estimate the modal nearest neighbor distance (NDD between nanodomains. We therefore conclude that SMLM is a promising technique to directly map the distribution and nanoscale organization of ligands and would benefit from an improved localization precision.

  12. Effects of upper mantle heterogeneities on the lithospheric stress field and dynamic topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osei Tutu, Anthony; Steinberger, Bernhard; Sobolev, Stephan V.; Rogozhina, Irina; Popov, Anton A.

    2018-05-01

    The orientation and tectonic regime of the observed crustal/lithospheric stress field contribute to our knowledge of different deformation processes occurring within the Earth's crust and lithosphere. In this study, we analyze the influence of the thermal and density structure of the upper mantle on the lithospheric stress field and topography. We use a 3-D lithosphere-asthenosphere numerical model with power-law rheology, coupled to a spectral mantle flow code at 300 km depth. Our results are validated against the World Stress Map 2016 (WSM2016) and the observation-based residual topography. We derive the upper mantle thermal structure from either a heat flow model combined with a seafloor age model (TM1) or a global S-wave velocity model (TM2). We show that lateral density heterogeneities in the upper 300 km have a limited influence on the modeled horizontal stress field as opposed to the resulting dynamic topography that appears more sensitive to such heterogeneities. The modeled stress field directions, using only the mantle heterogeneities below 300 km, are not perturbed much when the effects of lithosphere and crust above 300 km are added. In contrast, modeled stress magnitudes and dynamic topography are to a greater extent controlled by the upper mantle density structure. After correction for the chemical depletion of continents, the TM2 model leads to a much better fit with the observed residual topography giving a good correlation of 0.51 in continents, but this correction leads to no significant improvement of the fit between the WSM2016 and the resulting lithosphere stresses. In continental regions with abundant heat flow data, TM1 results in relatively small angular misfits. For example, in western Europe the misfit between the modeled and observation-based stress is 18.3°. Our findings emphasize that the relative contributions coming from shallow and deep mantle dynamic forces are quite different for the lithospheric stress field and dynamic

  13. Energy content of stormtime ring current from phase space mapping simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, M.W.; Schulz, M.; Lyons, L.R.

    1993-01-01

    The authors perform a model study to account for the increase in energy content of the trapped-particle population which occurs during the main phase of major geomagnetic storms. They consider stormtime particle transport in the equatorial region of the magnetosphere. They start with a phase space distribution of the ring current before the storm, created by a steady state transport model. They then use a previously developed guiding center particle simulation to map the stormtime ring current phase space, following Liouville's theorem. This model is able to account for the ten to twenty fold increase in energy content of magnetospheric ions during the storm

  14. Bodily maps of emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nummenmaa, Lauri; Glerean, Enrico; Hari, Riitta; Hietanen, Jari K

    2014-01-14

    Emotions are often felt in the body, and somatosensory feedback has been proposed to trigger conscious emotional experiences. Here we reveal maps of bodily sensations associated with different emotions using a unique topographical self-report method. In five experiments, participants (n = 701) were shown two silhouettes of bodies alongside emotional words, stories, movies, or facial expressions. They were asked to color the bodily regions whose activity they felt increasing or decreasing while viewing each stimulus. Different emotions were consistently associated with statistically separable bodily sensation maps across experiments. These maps were concordant across West European and East Asian samples. Statistical classifiers distinguished emotion-specific activation maps accurately, confirming independence of topographies across emotions. We propose that emotions are represented in the somatosensory system as culturally universal categorical somatotopic maps. Perception of these emotion-triggered bodily changes may play a key role in generating consciously felt emotions.

  15. Topography of the Moon from the Clementine Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Lemoine, Frank G.

    1997-01-01

    Range measurements from the lidar instrument carried aboard the Clementine spacecraft have been used to produce an accurate global topographic model of the Moon. This paper discusses the function of the lidar; the acquisition, processing, and filtering of observations to produce a global topographic model; and the determination of parameters that define the fundamental shape of the Moon. Our topographic model: a 72nd degree and order spherical harmonic expansion of lunar radii, is designated Goddard Lunar Topography Model 2 (GLTM 2). This topographic field has an absolute vertical accuracy of approximately 100 m and a spatial resolution of 2.5 deg. The field shows that the Moon can be described as a sphere with maximum positive and negative deviations of approx. 8 km, both occurring on the farside, in the areas of the Korolev and South Pole-Aitken (S.P.-Aitken) basins. The amplitude spectrum of the topography shows more power at longer wavelengths as compared to previous models, owing to more complete sampling of the surface, particularly the farside. A comparison of elevations derived from the Clementine lidar to control point elevations from the Apollo laser altimeters indicates that measured relative topographic heights generally agree to within approx. 200 in over the maria. While the major axis of the lunar gravity field is aligned in the Earth-Moon direction, the major axis of topography is displaced from this line by approximately 10 deg to the cast and intersects the farside 24 deg north of the equator. The magnitude of impact basin topography is greater than the lunar flattening (approx. 2 km) and equatorial ellipticity (approx. 800 m), which imposes a significant challenge to interpreting the lunar figure. The floors of mare basins are shown to lie close to an equipotential surface, while the floors of unflooded large basins, except for S.P.-Aitken, lie above this equipotential. The radii of basin floors are thus consistent with a hydrostatic mechanism

  16. Shallow flows with bottom topography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijst, van G.J.F.; Kamp, L.P.J.; Theunissen, R.; Rodi, W.; Uhlmann, M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses laboratory experiments and numerical simulations of dipolar vortex flows in a shallow fluid layer with bottom topography. Two cases are considered: a step topography and a linearly sloping bottom. It is found that viscous effects – i.e., no-slip conditions at the non-horizontal

  17. A New General Iterative Method for a Finite Family of Nonexpansive Mappings in Hilbert Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singthong Urailuk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a new general iterative method by using the -mapping for finding a common fixed point of a finite family of nonexpansive mappings in the framework of Hilbert spaces. A strong convergence theorem of the purposed iterative method is established under some certain control conditions. Our results improve and extend the results announced by many others.

  18. Two-dimensional T2 distribution mapping in rock core plugs with optimal k-space sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Dan; Balcom, Bruce J

    2012-07-01

    Spin-echo single point imaging has been employed for 1D T(2) distribution mapping, but a simple extension to 2D is challenging since the time increase is n fold, where n is the number of pixels in the second dimension. Nevertheless 2D T(2) mapping in fluid saturated rock core plugs is highly desirable because the bedding plane structure in rocks often results in different pore properties within the sample. The acquisition time can be improved by undersampling k-space. The cylindrical shape of rock core plugs yields well defined intensity distributions in k-space that may be efficiently determined by new k-space sampling patterns that are developed in this work. These patterns acquire 22.2% and 11.7% of the k-space data points. Companion density images may be employed, in a keyhole imaging sense, to improve image quality. T(2) weighted images are fit to extract T(2) distributions, pixel by pixel, employing an inverse Laplace transform. Images reconstructed with compressed sensing, with similar acceleration factors, are also presented. The results show that restricted k-space sampling, in this application, provides high quality results. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Progress in diode-pumped alexandrite lasers as a new resource for future space lidar missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damzen, M. J.; Thomas, G. M.; Teppitaksak, A.; Minassian, A.

    2017-11-01

    Satellite-based remote sensing using laser-based lidar techniques provides a powerful tool for global 3-D mapping of atmospheric species (e.g. CO2, ozone, clouds, aerosols), physical attributes of the atmosphere (e.g. temperature, wind speed), and spectral indicators of Earth features (e.g. vegetation, water). Such information provides a valuable source for weather prediction, understanding of climate change, atmospheric science and health of the Earth eco-system. Similarly, laser-based altimetry can provide high precision ground topography mapping and more complex 3-D mapping (e.g. canopy height profiling). The lidar technique requires use of cutting-edge laser technologies and engineered designs that are capable of enduring the space environment over the mission lifetime. The laser must operate with suitably high electrical-to-optical efficiency and risk reduction strategy adopted to mitigate against laser failure or excessive operational degradation of laser performance.

  20. Simultaneous topography and tomography of latent fingerprints using full-field swept-source optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Satish Kumar; Singh Mehta, Dalip; Anand, Arun; Shakher, Chandra

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate simultaneous topography and tomography of latent fingerprints using full-field swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT). The swept-source OCT system comprises a superluminescent diode (SLD) as broad-band light source, an acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) as frequency tuning device, and a compact, nearly common-path interferometer. Both the amplitude and the phase map of the interference fringe signal are reconstructed. Optical sectioning of the latent fingerprint sample is obtained by selective Fourier filtering and the topography is retrieved from the phase map. Interferometry, selective filtering, low coherence and hence better resolution are some of the advantages of the proposed system over the conventional fingerprint detection techniques. The present technique is non-invasive in nature and does not require any physical or chemical processing. Therefore, the quality of the sample does not alter and hence the same fingerprint can be used for other types of forensic test. Exploitation of low-coherence interferometry for fingerprint detection itself provides an edge over other existing techniques as fingerprints can even be lifted from low-reflecting surfaces. The proposed system is very economical and compact.

  1. Increasing the Impact of High-Resolution Lidar Topography Through Online Data Access and Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, C. J.; Nandigam, V.; Baru, C.; Arrowsmith, R.

    2013-12-01

    Topography data acquired with lidar (light detection and ranging) technology are revolutionizing the way we study the Earth's surface and overlying vegetation. These data, collected from satellite, airborne, tripod, or mobile-mounted scanners have emerged as a fundamental tool for research on topics including earthquake hazards, hillslope processes, and cyrosphere change. The U.S. National Science Foundation-funded OpenTopography (OT) Facility (http://www.opentopography.org) is a web-based system designed to democratize access to earth science-oriented lidar topography data. OT provides free, online access to lidar data in a number of forms, including the point cloud and associated geospatial-processing tools for customized analysis. The point cloud data are co-located with on-demand processing tools to generate digital elevation models, and derived products and visualizations which allow users to quickly access data in a format appropriate for their scientific application. The OT system is built using a service-oriented architecture (SOA) that leverages cyberinfrastructure resources at the San Diego Supercomputer Center at the University of California San Diego to allow users, regardless of expertise, to access these massive lidar datasets and derived raster data products for use in research and teaching. OT hosts over 600 billion lidar returns covering more than 120,000 km2. These data are provided by a variety of partners under joint agreements and memoranda of understanding with OT. Partners include national facilities such as the NSF-funded National Center for Airborne Lidar Mapping (NCALM), as well as non-governmental organizations and local, state, and federal agencies. OT has become a hub for high-resolution topography resources. Datasets hosted by other organizations, as well as lidar-specific software, can be registered into the OT catalog, providing users a 'one-stop shop' for such information. OT is also a partner on the NASA Lidar Access System (NLAS

  2. A comparison of spatial analysis methods for the construction of topographic maps of retinal cell density.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Garza-Gisholt

    Full Text Available Topographic maps that illustrate variations in the density of different neuronal sub-types across the retina are valuable tools for understanding the adaptive significance of retinal specialisations in different species of vertebrates. To date, such maps have been created from raw count data that have been subjected to only limited analysis (linear interpolation and, in many cases, have been presented as iso-density contour maps with contour lines that have been smoothed 'by eye'. With the use of stereological approach to count neuronal distribution, a more rigorous approach to analysing the count data is warranted and potentially provides a more accurate representation of the neuron distribution pattern. Moreover, a formal spatial analysis of retinal topography permits a more robust comparison of topographic maps within and between species. In this paper, we present a new R-script for analysing the topography of retinal neurons and compare methods of interpolating and smoothing count data for the construction of topographic maps. We compare four methods for spatial analysis of cell count data: Akima interpolation, thin plate spline interpolation, thin plate spline smoothing and Gaussian kernel smoothing. The use of interpolation 'respects' the observed data and simply calculates the intermediate values required to create iso-density contour maps. Interpolation preserves more of the data but, consequently includes outliers, sampling errors and/or other experimental artefacts. In contrast, smoothing the data reduces the 'noise' caused by artefacts and permits a clearer representation of the dominant, 'real' distribution. This is particularly useful where cell density gradients are shallow and small variations in local density may dramatically influence the perceived spatial pattern of neuronal topography. The thin plate spline and the Gaussian kernel methods both produce similar retinal topography maps but the smoothing parameters used may affect

  3. A comparison of spatial analysis methods for the construction of topographic maps of retinal cell density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza-Gisholt, Eduardo; Hemmi, Jan M; Hart, Nathan S; Collin, Shaun P

    2014-01-01

    Topographic maps that illustrate variations in the density of different neuronal sub-types across the retina are valuable tools for understanding the adaptive significance of retinal specialisations in different species of vertebrates. To date, such maps have been created from raw count data that have been subjected to only limited analysis (linear interpolation) and, in many cases, have been presented as iso-density contour maps with contour lines that have been smoothed 'by eye'. With the use of stereological approach to count neuronal distribution, a more rigorous approach to analysing the count data is warranted and potentially provides a more accurate representation of the neuron distribution pattern. Moreover, a formal spatial analysis of retinal topography permits a more robust comparison of topographic maps within and between species. In this paper, we present a new R-script for analysing the topography of retinal neurons and compare methods of interpolating and smoothing count data for the construction of topographic maps. We compare four methods for spatial analysis of cell count data: Akima interpolation, thin plate spline interpolation, thin plate spline smoothing and Gaussian kernel smoothing. The use of interpolation 'respects' the observed data and simply calculates the intermediate values required to create iso-density contour maps. Interpolation preserves more of the data but, consequently includes outliers, sampling errors and/or other experimental artefacts. In contrast, smoothing the data reduces the 'noise' caused by artefacts and permits a clearer representation of the dominant, 'real' distribution. This is particularly useful where cell density gradients are shallow and small variations in local density may dramatically influence the perceived spatial pattern of neuronal topography. The thin plate spline and the Gaussian kernel methods both produce similar retinal topography maps but the smoothing parameters used may affect the outcome.

  4. A global, high-resolution data set of ice sheet topography, cavity geometry, and ocean bathymetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Janin; Timmermann, Ralph; Arndt, Jan Erik; Savstrup Kristensen, Steen; Mayer, Christoph; Morlighem, Mathieu; Steinhage, Daniel

    2016-10-01

    The ocean plays an important role in modulating the mass balance of the polar ice sheets by interacting with the ice shelves in Antarctica and with the marine-terminating outlet glaciers in Greenland. Given that the flux of warm water onto the continental shelf and into the sub-ice cavities is steered by complex bathymetry, a detailed topography data set is an essential ingredient for models that address ice-ocean interaction. We followed the spirit of the global RTopo-1 data set and compiled consistent maps of global ocean bathymetry, upper and lower ice surface topographies, and global surface height on a spherical grid with now 30 arcsec grid spacing. For this new data set, called RTopo-2, we used the General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans (GEBCO_2014) as the backbone and added the International Bathymetric Chart of the Arctic Ocean version 3 (IBCAOv3) and the International Bathymetric Chart of the Southern Ocean (IBCSO) version 1. While RTopo-1 primarily aimed at a good and consistent representation of the Antarctic ice sheet, ice shelves, and sub-ice cavities, RTopo-2 now also contains ice topographies of the Greenland ice sheet and outlet glaciers. In particular, we aimed at a good representation of the fjord and shelf bathymetry surrounding the Greenland continent. We modified data from earlier gridded products in the areas of Petermann Glacier, Hagen Bræ, and Sermilik Fjord, assuming that sub-ice and fjord bathymetries roughly follow plausible Last Glacial Maximum ice flow patterns. For the continental shelf off Northeast Greenland and the floating ice tongue of Nioghalvfjerdsfjorden Glacier at about 79° N, we incorporated a high-resolution digital bathymetry model considering original multibeam survey data for the region. Radar data for surface topographies of the floating ice tongues of Nioghalvfjerdsfjorden Glacier and Zachariæ Isstrøm have been obtained from the data centres of Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Operation Icebridge (NASA

  5. High-resolution ice thickness and bed topography of a land-terminating section of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindbäck, K.; Pettersson, R.; Doyle, S. H.

    2014-01-01

    We present ice thickness and bed topography maps with high spatial resolution (250 to 500 m) of a and-terminating section of the Greenland Ice Sheet derived from combined ground-based and airborne radar surveys. The data have a total area of ~12000 km2 and cover the whole ablation area of the out...

  6. Surface micro topography replication in injection moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arlø, Uffe Rolf

    Thermoplastic injection moulding is a widely used industrial process that involves surface generation by replication. The surface topography of injection moulded plastic parts can be important for aesthetical or technical reasons. With the emergence of microengineering and nanotechnology additional...... importance of surface topography follows. In general the replication is not perfect and the topography of the plastic part differs from the inverse topography of the mould cavity. It is desirable to be able to control the degree of replication perfection or replication quality. This requires an understanding...... of the physical mechanisms of replication. Such understanding can lead to improved process design and facilitate in-line process quality control with respect to surface properties. The purpose of the project is to identify critical factors that affect topography replication quality and to obtain an understanding...

  7. Precise mapping of annual river bed changes based on airborne laser bathymetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandlburger, Gottfried; Wieser, Martin; Pfeifer, Norbert; Pfennigbauer, Martin; Steinbacher, Frank; Aufleger, Markus

    2014-05-01

    Airborne Laser Bathymtery (ALB) is a method for capturing relatively shallow water bodies from the air using a pulsed green laser (wavelength=532nm). While this technique was first used for mapping coastal waters only, recent progress in sensor technology has opened the field to apply ALB to running inland waters. Especially for alpine rivers the precise mapping of the channel topography is a challenging task as the flow velocities are often high and the area is difficult and/or dangerous to access by boat or by feet. Traditional mapping techniques like tachymetry or echo sounding fail in such situations while ALB provides, both, high spot position accuracy in the cm range and high spatial resolution in the dm range. Furthermore, state-of-the-art ALB systems allow simultaneous mapping of the river bed and the riparian area and, therefore, represent a comprehensive and efficient technology for mapping the entire floodplain area. The maximum penetration depth depends on, both, water turbidity and bottom reflectivity. Consequently, ALB provides the highest accuracy and resolution over bright gravel rivers with relatively clear water. We demonstrate the capability of ALB for precise mapping of river bed changes based on three flight campaigns in April, May and October 2013 at the River Pielach (Lower Austria) carried out with Riegl's VQ-820-G topo-bathymetric laser scanner. Operated at a flight height of 600m above ground with a pulse repetition rate of 510kHz (effective measurement rate 200kHz) this yielded a mean point spacing within the river bed of 20cm (i.e. point density: 25 points/m2). The positioning accuracy of the river bed points is approx. 2-5cm and depends on the overall ranging precision (20mm), the quality of the water surface model (derived from the ALB point cloud), and the signal intensity (decreasing with water depth). All in all, the obtained point cloud allowed the derivation of a dense grid model of the channel topography (0.25m cell size) for all

  8. Global snowline and mountain topography: a contrasted view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagnac, Jean-Daniel; Herman, Frédéric; Valla, Pierre

    2013-04-01

    The examination of the relationship between Earth's topography and present and past climate (i.e., long-term elevation of glaciers Equilibrium Line Altitude) reveals that the elevation of mountain ranges may be limited or controlled by glaciations (e.g. Porter, 1989). This is of prime importance, because glacial condition would lead to a limit the mountain development, hence the accumulation of gravitational energy and prevent the development of further glacial conditions as well as setting the erosion in (peri)glacial environments. In this study, we examine the relationships between topography and the global Equilibrium Line Altitude of alpine glaciers around the world (~ long term snowline, i.e. the altitude where the ice mass balance is null). This analysis reinforce a global study previously published (Champagnac et al., 2012), and provide a much finer view of the climate-topography-tectonics relationships. Specifically, two main observations can be drawn: 1) The distance between the (averaged and maximum) topography, and the ELA decreases pole ward the poles, and even become reversed (mean elevation above to ELA) at high latitude. Correlatively, the elevation of very large portion of land at mid-latitude cannot be related to glaciations, simply because it was never glaciated (large distance between topography and long-term mean ELA). The maximum distance between the ELA and the topography is greater close to the equator and decreases poleward. In absence of glacial and periglacial erosion, this trend cannot have its origin in glacial and periglacial processes. Moreover, the ELA elevation shows a significant (1000~1500m) depression in the intertropical zone. This depression of the ELA is not reflected at all in the topography 2) The distribution of relief on Earth, if normalized by the mean elevation of mountain ranges (as a proxy for available space to create relief, see Champagnac et al., 2012 for details) shows a latitudinal band of greater relief between

  9. SECTION 6.2 SURFACE TOPOGRAPHY ANALYSIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seah, M. P.; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2005-01-01

    Surface physical analysis, i.e. topography characterisation, encompasses measurement, visualisation, and quantification. This is critical for both component form and for surface finish at macro-, micro- and nano-scales. The principal methods of surface topography measurement are stylus profilometry......, optical scanning techniques, and scanning probe microscopy (SPM). These methods, based on acquisition of topography data from point by point scans, give quantitative information of heights with respect to position. Based on a different approach, the so-called integral methods produce parameters...

  10. A learning heuristic for space mapping and searching self-organizing systems using adaptive mesh refinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Carolyn L.

    2014-09-01

    In a complex self-organizing system, small changes in the interactions between the system's components can result in different emergent macrostructures or macrobehavior. In chemical engineering and material science, such spontaneously self-assembling systems, using polymers, nanoscale or colloidal-scale particles, DNA, or other precursors, are an attractive way to create materials that are precisely engineered at a fine scale. Changes to the interactions can often be described by a set of parameters. Different contiguous regions in this parameter space correspond to different ordered states. Since these ordered states are emergent, often experiment, not analysis, is necessary to create a diagram of ordered states over the parameter space. By issuing queries to points in the parameter space (e.g., performing a computational or physical experiment), ordered states can be discovered and mapped. Queries can be costly in terms of resources or time, however. In general, one would like to learn the most information using the fewest queries. Here we introduce a learning heuristic for issuing queries to map and search a two-dimensional parameter space. Using a method inspired by adaptive mesh refinement, the heuristic iteratively issues batches of queries to be executed in parallel based on past information. By adjusting the search criteria, different types of searches (for example, a uniform search, exploring boundaries, sampling all regions equally) can be flexibly implemented. We show that this method will densely search the space, while preferentially targeting certain features. Using numerical examples, including a study simulating the self-assembly of complex crystals, we show how this heuristic can discover new regions and map boundaries more accurately than a uniformly distributed set of queries.

  11. Mapping the environmental and biogeographic complexity of the Amazon basin using remote sensing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streher, A. S.; Cordeiro, C. L. O.; Silva, T. S. F.

    2017-12-01

    Mapping environmental envelopes onto geographical space has been classically important for understanding biogeographical patterns. Knowing the biotic and abiotic limits defining these envelopes, we can better understand the requirements limiting species distributions. Most present efforts in this regard have focused on single-species distribution models, but the current breadth and accessibility of quantitative, spatially explicit environmental information can also be explored from an environment-first perspective. We thus used remote sensing to determine the occurrence of environmental discontinuities in the Amazon region and evaluated if such discontinuities may act as barriers to determine species distribution and range limits, forming clear environmental envelopes. We combined data on topography (SRTM), precipitation (CHIRPS), vegetation descriptors (PALSAR-1 backscattering, biomass, NDVI) and temperature (MODIS), using object-based image analysis and unsupervised learning to map environmental envelopes. We identified 14 environmental envelopes for the Amazon sensu latissimo region, mainly delimited by changes in vegetation, topography and precipitation. The resulting envelopes were compared to the distribution of 120 species of Trogonidae, Galbulidae, Bucconidae, Cebidae, Hylidae and Lecythidaceae, amounting to 22,649 occurrence records within the Amazonregion. We determined species prevalence in each envelope by calculating the ratio between species relative frequency per envelope and envelope relative frequency (area) in the complete map. Values closer to 1 indicate a high degree of prevalence. We found strong envelope associations (prevalence > 0.5) for 20 species (17% of analyzed taxa). Although several biogeographical and ecological factors will influence the distribution of a species, our results show that not only geographical barriers, but also modern environmental discontinuities may limit the distribution of some species., and may have also done so

  12. Asymmetric three-dimensional topography over mantle plumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burov, Evgueni; Gerya, Taras

    2014-09-04

    The role of mantle-lithosphere interactions in shaping surface topography has long been debated. In general, it is supposed that mantle plumes and vertical mantle flows result in axisymmetric, long-wavelength topography, which strongly differs from the generally asymmetric short-wavelength topography created by intraplate tectonic forces. However, identification of mantle-induced topography is difficult, especially in the continents. It can be argued therefore that complex brittle-ductile rheology and stratification of the continental lithosphere result in short-wavelength modulation and localization of deformation induced by mantle flow. This deformation should also be affected by far-field stresses and, hence, interplay with the 'tectonic' topography (for example, in the 'active/passive' rifting scenario). Testing these ideas requires fully coupled three-dimensional numerical modelling of mantle-lithosphere interactions, which so far has not been possible owing to the conceptual and technical limitations of earlier approaches. Here we present new, ultra-high-resolution, three-dimensional numerical experiments on topography over mantle plumes, incorporating a weakly pre-stressed (ultra-slow spreading), rheologically realistic lithosphere. The results show complex surface evolution, which is very different from the smooth, radially symmetric patterns usually assumed as the canonical surface signature of mantle upwellings. In particular, the topography exhibits strongly asymmetric, small-scale, three-dimensional features, which include narrow and wide rifts, flexural flank uplifts and fault structures. This suggests a dominant role for continental rheological structure and intra-plate stresses in controlling dynamic topography, mantle-lithosphere interactions, and continental break-up processes above mantle plumes.

  13. FIREBALL-2: Pioneering Space UV Baryon Mapping (Lead Institution)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Christopher

    This is the lead proposal of a multi-institutional submission. The Faint Intergalactic-medium Redshifted Emission Balloon (FIREBall-2) is designed to discover and map faint emission from the Intergalactic Medium (IGM) for low redshift galaxies. This balloon is a modification of FIREBall-1 (FB-1), a path-finding mission built by our team with two successful flights. FB-1 provided the strongest constrains on IGM emission available from any instrument at the time. FIREBall-2 has been significantly upgraded compared to FB-1, and is nearly ready for integration and testing before an anticipated Spring 2016 launch from Ft. Sumner, New Mexico. The spectrograph has been redesigned and an upgraded detector system including a groundbreaking high QE, low-noise, UV CCD detector is under final testing and will improve instrument performance by more than an order of magnitude. CNES is providing the spectrograph, gondola, and flight support team, with construction of all components nearly complete. The initial FIREBall-2 launch is now scheduled for Spring 2016. FIREBall-2 combines several innovations: -First ever multi-object UV spectrograph -Arcsecond quality balloon pointing system, developed from scratch, improved from FB-1 -Partnership of national space agencies (NASA & CNES); highly leveraged NASA resources -A Schmidt corrector built into the UV grating for better optical performance and throughput -A total of four women trained in space experimental astrophysics, including 3 Columbia Ph.Ds. and 1 Caltech Ph.D. -A total of 7 graduate students trained on FIREBall-1 (3) and FIREBall-2 (4), with opportunities for more in future flights. FIREBall-2 will test key technologies and science strategies for a future mission to map IGM emission. Its flights will provide important training for the next generation of space astrophysicists working in UV instrumentation. Most importantly, FIREBall-2 will detect emission from the CGM of nearby galaxies, providing the first census of the

  14. High-speed X-ray topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckers, W.; Oppolzer, H.

    1977-01-01

    The investigation of lattice defects in semiconductor crystals by conventional X-ray diffraction topography is very time-consuming. Exposure times can be reduced by using high-intensity X-rays and X-ray image intensifiers. The described system comprises a high-power rotating-anode X-ray tube, a remote-controlled X-ray topography camera, and a television system operating with an X-ray sensing VIDICON. System performance is demonstrated with reference to exploratory examples. The exposure time for photographic plates is reduced to 1/20 and for the X-ray TV system (resolution of the order of 30 μm) to 1/100 relative to that required when using a conventional topography system. (orig.) [de

  15. Traveltime computation and imaging from rugged topography in 3D TTI media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shaoyong; Wang, Huazhong; Yang, Qinyong; Fang, Wubao

    2014-02-01

    Foothill areas with rugged topography are of great potential for oil and gas seismic exploration, but subsurface imaging in these areas is very challenging. Seismic acquisition with larger offset and wider azimuth is necessary for seismic imaging in complex areas. However, the scale anisotropy in this case must be taken into account. To generalize the pre-stack depth migration (PSDM) to 3D transversely isotropic media with vertical symmetry axes (VTI) and tilted symmetry axes (TTI) from rugged topography, a new dynamic programming approach for the first-arrival traveltime computation method is proposed. The first-arrival time on every uniform mesh point is calculated based on Fermat's principle with simple calculus techniques and a systematic mapping scheme. In order to calculate the minimum traveltime, a set of nonlinear equations is solved on each mesh point, where the group velocity is determined by the group angle. Based on the new first-arrival time calculation method, the corresponding PSDM and migration velocity analysis workflow for 3D anisotropic media from rugged surface is developed. Numerical tests demonstrate that the proposed traveltime calculation method is effective in both VTI and TTI media. The migration results for 3D field data show that it is necessary to choose a smooth datum to remove the high wavenumber move-out components for PSDM with rugged topography and take anisotropy into account to achieve better images.

  16. Controlled surface topography regulates collective 3D migration by epithelial-mesenchymal composite embryonic tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jiho; Shawky, Joseph H; Kim, YongTae; Hazar, Melis; LeDuc, Philip R; Sitti, Metin; Davidson, Lance A

    2015-07-01

    Cells in tissues encounter a range of physical cues as they migrate. Probing single cell and collective migratory responses to physically defined three-dimensional (3D) microenvironments and the factors that modulate those responses are critical to understanding how tissue migration is regulated during development, regeneration, and cancer. One key physical factor that regulates cell migration is topography. Most studies on surface topography and cell mechanics have been carried out with single migratory cells, yet little is known about the spreading and motility response of 3D complex multi-cellular tissues to topographical cues. Here, we examine the response to complex topographical cues of microsurgically isolated tissue explants composed of epithelial and mesenchymal cell layers from naturally 3D organized embryos of the aquatic frog Xenopus laevis. We control topography using fabricated micropost arrays (MPAs) and investigate the collective 3D migration of these multi-cellular systems in these MPAs. We find that the topography regulates both collective and individual cell migration and that dense MPAs reduce but do not eliminate tissue spreading. By modulating cell size through the cell cycle inhibitor Mitomycin C or the spacing of the MPAs we uncover how 3D topographical cues disrupt collective cell migration. We find surface topography can direct both single cell motility and tissue spreading, altering tissue-scale processes that enable efficient conversion of single cell motility into collective movement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Memory Space / Time Lived in Representation to Mental Maps: The Case of School Project "our neighborhood, our place"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinei Pereira da Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The representations and memory of living space are essential to developing mental maps and cartographic documents. In this regard this investigation as a primary objective to understand how mind maps can contribute pedagogically classes in Geography and History as well, breaking the dichotomy space / time. From the point of view of theoretical and methodological the research relied on the analysis of the school project “Our Neighborhood, Our Place” developed at the Municipal School “Vereador Hamilton Teodoro” in Governador Valadares (MG, along with a group of 7th grades from elementary school and the articulation of authors who discuss the concepts of representation, memory, space and place.

  18. Measurement of Air Pollution from Satellites (MAPS) Space Radar Laboratory - 2 (SRL2) Carbon Monoxide 5 degree by 5 degree data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MAPS OverviewThe MAPS experiment measures the global distribution of carbon monoxide (CO) mixing ratios in the free troposphere. Because of MAPS' previous flights on...

  19. Corneal topography measurements for biometric applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Nathan D.

    The term biometrics is used to describe the process of analyzing biological and behavioral traits that are unique to an individual in order to confirm or determine his or her identity. Many biometric modalities are currently being researched and implemented including, fingerprints, hand and facial geometry, iris recognition, vein structure recognition, gait, voice recognition, etc... This project explores the possibility of using corneal topography measurements as a trait for biometric identification. Two new corneal topographers were developed for this study. The first was designed to function as an operator-free device that will allow a user to approach the device and have his or her corneal topography measured. Human subject topography data were collected with this device and compared to measurements made with the commercially available Keratron Piccolo topographer (Optikon, Rome, Italy). A third topographer that departs from the standard Placido disk technology allows for arbitrary pattern illumination through the use of LCD monitors. This topographer was built and tested to be used in future research studies. Topography data was collected from 59 subjects and modeled using Zernike polynomials, which provide for a simple method of compressing topography data and comparing one topographical measurement with a database for biometric identification. The data were analyzed to determine the biometric error rates associated with corneal topography measurements. Reasonably accurate results, between three to eight percent simultaneous false match and false non-match rates, were achieved.

  20. Ocean Dynamic Topography from GPS - Galathea-3 First results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Olesen, Arne Vestergaard; Forsberg, René

    2010-01-01

    From August 14, 2006–April 24, 2007 the Danish expedition called Galathea-3 circumnavigated the globe. The Danish Technical University, DTU space, participated in the expedition with two experiments on-board. From Perth in Australia to Copenhagen Denmark measurements of the exact position and mov...... to permanent currents in the ocean. Comparison with the DNSC08 mean dynamic topography derived from satellite altimetry across the Gulf Stream yields agreement on the 20 cm level, which is a very satisfactory preliminary result calling for further refinement of the technique....

  1. Historical development of synchrotron x-ray diffraction topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawado, Seiji

    2011-01-01

    After a short history of X-ray diffraction topography, from the early stage of laboratory X-ray topography to recent synchrotron-radiation applications, is described, the development of science and technology for the synchrotron X-ray topography and its industrial applications are reviewed in more detail. In addition, the recent trend to synchrotron topography research is clarified on the basis of several data obtained from 256 papers which have been published since 2000. (author)

  2. Topography and diffractometry station in synchrotron radiation beam of the VEPP-4 storage ring. Topography of garnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kub, I.; Poltsarova, M.; Panchenko, V.E.

    1987-01-01

    Advantages of synchrotron radiation (SR) spectrum of the VEhPP-4 storage ring for X-ray topography and diffractometry are shown. The description of ''Topography and diffractometry'' station in SR dump station of the VEhPP storage ring is presented, peculiarities of X-ray topography method used are discussed. X-ray topographic images of gadolinium-gallium and manganese-germanium garnets taken on the VEhPP SR are given in comparison with conventional images taken using X-ray tubes and SR of the VEhPP-3 storage ring

  3. Multiscale Study of Currents Affected by Topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Multiscale Study of Currents Affected by Topography ...the effects of topography on the ocean general and regional circulation with a focus on the wide range of scales of interactions. The small-scale...details of the topography and the waves, eddies, drag, and turbulence it generates (at spatial scales ranging from meters to mesoscale) interact in the

  4. Evolution of dislocation structures following a change in loading conditions studied by in situ high resolution reciprocal space mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wejdemann, Christian

    or to a strain of 7% at a temperature of -196 ○C, and the samples were characterized by electron microscopy and mechanical tests. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the pre-deformation produced a characteristic dislocation cell structure consisting of regions with relatively high dislocation density...... the pre-deformation axis. In the X-ray diffraction experiments a technique was employed with which it is possible to obtain high-resolution reciprocal space maps from individual bulk grains. The high-resolution reciprocal space maps contain features related to the dislocation structure in the grains......: A spread-out ‘cloud’ of low intensity caused by diffraction from the dislocation walls and a number of sharp peaks of high intensity caused by diffraction from the individual subgrains. By acquiring reciprocal space maps at a number of different strain levels the evolution of the dislocation structures can...

  5. Weakly Compatible Mappings along with $CLR_{S}$ property in Fuzzy Metric Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Manro

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to use newly introduced property, which is so called common limit in the range $(CLR_{S}$ for four self-mappings, and prove some theorems which satisfy this property. Moreover, we establish some new existence of a common fixed point theorem for generalized contractive mappings in fuzzy metric spaces by using this new property and give some examples to support our results. Ours results does not require condition of closeness of range and so our theorems generalize, unify, and extend many results in literature. Our results improve and extend the results of Cho et al. [4], Pathak et al. [20] and Imdad et. al. [10] besides several known results.

  6. A fixed point theorem for uniformly locally contractive mappings in a C-chainable cone rectangular metric space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bessem Samet

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Azam, Arshad and Beg [ Banach contraction principle on cone rectangular metric spaces, Appl. Anal. Discrete Math. 2009] introduced the notion of cone rectangular metric spaces by replacing the triangular inequality of a cone metric space by a rectangular inequality. In this paper, we introduce the notion of c-chainable cone rectangular metric space and we establish a fixed point theorem for uniformly locally contractive mappings in such spaces. An example is given to illustrate our obtained result.

  7. Geologic map of the Shaida deposit and Misgaran prospect, Herat Province, Afghanistan, modified from the 1973 original map compilation of V.I. Tarasenko and others

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Robert D.; Stettner, Will R.; Masonic, Linda M.; Moran, Thomas W.

    2014-01-01

    This map is a modified version of Geological map and map of useful minerals, Shaida area, scale 1:50,000, which was compiled by V.I. Tarasenko, N.I. Borozenets, and others in 1973. Scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Afghan Geological Survey and the Task Force for Business and Stability Operations of the U.S. Department of Defense, studied the original document and related reports and also visited the field area in August 2010.This modified map illustrates the geological structure of the Shaida copper-lead-zinc deposit and Misgaran copper-lead-zinc prospect in western Afghanistan and includes cross sections of the same area. The map reproduces the topology (contacts, faults, and so forth) of the original Soviet map and cross sections and includes modifications based on our examination of these documents and on observations made during our field visit. Elevations on the cross sections are derived from the original Soviet topography and might not match the newer topography used on the current map. We have attempted to translate the original Russian terminology and rock classification into modern English geologic usage as literally as possible without changing any genetic or process-oriented implications in the original descriptions. We also use the age designations from the original map.The unit colors on the map and cross sections differ from the colors shown on the original version. The units are colored according to the color and pattern scheme of the Commission for the Geological Map of the World (CGMW) (http://www.ccgm.org).

  8. Functional topography of single cortical cells: an intracellular approach combined with optical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzás, P; Eysel, U T; Kisvárday, Z F

    1998-11-01

    Pyramidal cells mediating long-range corticocortical connections have been assumed to play an important role in visual perceptual mechanisms [C.D. Gilbert, Horizontal integration and cortical dynamics, Neuron 9 (1992) 1-13]. However, no information is available as yet on the specificity of individual pyramidal cells with respect to functional maps, e.g., orientation map. Here, we show a combination of techniques with which the functional topography of single pyramidal neurons can be explored in utmost detail. To this end, we used optical imaging of intrinsic signals followed by intracellular recording and staining with biocytin in vivo. The axonal and dendritic trees of the labelled neurons were reconstructed in three dimensions and aligned with corresponding functional orientation maps. The results indicate that, contrary to the sharp orientation tuning of neurons shown by the recorded spike activity, the efferent connections (axon terminal distribution) of the same pyramidal cells were found to terminate at a much broader range of orientations. Copyright 1998 Elsevier Science B.V.

  9. Future of Space Astronomy: A Global Road Map for the Next Decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubertini, Pietro; Gehrels, Neil; Corbett, Ian; DeBernardis, Paolo; Machado, Marcos; Griffin, Matt; Hauser, Michael; Manchanda, Ravinder K.; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Zhang, Shuang-Nan; hide

    2012-01-01

    The use of space techniques continues to play a key role in the advance of astrophysics by providing access to the entire electromagnetic spectrum from the radio observations to the high energy gamma rays. The increasing size, complexity and cost of large space observatories places a growing emphasis on international collaboration. Furthermore, combining existing and future datasets from space and ground based observatories is an emerging mode of powerful and relatively inexpensive research to address problems that can only be tackled by the application of large multi-wavelength observations. If the present set of space and ground-based astronomy facilities today is impressive and complete, with space and ground based astronomy telescopes nicely complementing each other, the situation becomes concerning and critical in the next 10-20 years. In fact, only a few main space missions are planned, possibly restricted to JWST and, perhaps, WFIRST and SPICA, since no other main facilities are already recommended. A "Working Group on the Future of Space Astronomy" was established at the 38th COSPAR Assembly held in Bremen, Germany in July 2010. The purpose of this Working Group was to establish a roadmap for future major space missions to complement future large ground-based telescopes. This paper presents the results of this study including a number of recommendations and a road map for the next decades of Space Astronomy research.

  10. Electricity Consumption Risk Map - The use of Urban Climate Mapping for smarter analysis: Case study for Birmingham, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes Azevedo, Juliana; Burghardt, René; Chapman, Lee; Katzchner, Lutz; Muller, Catherine L.

    2015-04-01

    Climate is a key driving factor in energy consumption. However, income, vegetation, building mass structure, topography also impact on the amount of energy consumption. In a changing climate, increased temperatures are likely to lead to increased electricity consumption, affecting demand, distribution and generation. Furthermore, as the world population becomes more urbanized, increasing numbers of people will need to deal with not only increased temperatures from climate change, but also from the unintentional modification of the urban climate in the form of urban heat islands. Hence, climate and climate change needs to be taken into account for future urban planning aspects to increase the climate and energy resilience of the community and decrease the future social and economic costs. Geographical Information Systems provide a means to create urban climate maps as part of the urban planning process. Geostatistical analyses linking these maps with demographic and social data, enables a geo-statistical analysis to identify linkages to high-risk groups of the community and vulnerable areas of town and cities. Presently, the climatope classification is oriented towards thermal aspects and the ventilation quality (roughness) of the urban areas but can also be adapted to take into account other structural "environmental factors". This study aims to use the climatope approach to predict areas of potential high electricity consumption in Birmingham, UK. Several datasets were used to produce an average surface temperature map, vegetation map, land use map, topography map, building height map, built-up area roughness calculations, an average air temperature map and a domestic electricity consumption map. From the correlations obtained between the layers it is possible to average the importance of each factor and create a map for domestic electricity consumption to understand the influence of environmental aspects on spatial energy consumption. Based on these results city

  11. Neurocognitive stages of spatial cognitive mapping measured during free exploration of a large-scale virtual environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plank, Markus; Snider, Joseph; Kaestner, Erik; Halgren, Eric; Poizner, Howard

    2015-02-01

    Using a novel, fully mobile virtual reality paradigm, we investigated the EEG correlates of spatial representations formed during unsupervised exploration. On day 1, subjects implicitly learned the location of 39 objects by exploring a room and popping bubbles that hid the objects. On day 2, they again popped bubbles in the same environment. In most cases, the objects hidden underneath the bubbles were in the same place as on day 1. However, a varying third of them were misplaced in each block. Subjects indicated their certainty that the object was in the same location as the day before. Compared with bubble pops revealing correctly placed objects, bubble pops revealing misplaced objects evoked a decreased negativity starting at 145 ms, with scalp topography consistent with generation in medial parietal cortex. There was also an increased negativity starting at 515 ms to misplaced objects, with scalp topography consistent with generation in inferior temporal cortex. Additionally, misplaced objects elicited an increase in frontal midline theta power. These findings suggest that the successive neurocognitive stages of processing allocentric space may include an initial template matching, integration of the object within its spatial cognitive map, and memory recall, analogous to the processing negativity N400 and theta that support verbal cognitive maps in humans. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Functional analysis screening for multiple topographies of problem behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Marlesha C; Fahmie, Tara A

    2018-04-23

    The current study evaluated a screening procedure for multiple topographies of problem behavior in the context of an ongoing functional analysis. Experimenters analyzed the function of a topography of primary concern while collecting data on topographies of secondary concern. We used visual analysis to predict the function of secondary topographies and a subsequent functional analysis to test those predictions. Results showed that a general function was accurately predicted for five of six (83%) secondary topographies. A specific function was predicted and supported for a subset of these topographies. The experimenters discuss the implication of these results for clinicians who have limited time for functional assessment. © 2018 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  13. State space modeling of time-varying contemporaneous and lagged relations in connectivity maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Peter C M; Beltz, Adriene M; Gates, Kathleen M; Wilson, Stephen J

    2016-01-15

    Most connectivity mapping techniques for neuroimaging data assume stationarity (i.e., network parameters are constant across time), but this assumption does not always hold true. The authors provide a description of a new approach for simultaneously detecting time-varying (or dynamic) contemporaneous and lagged relations in brain connectivity maps. Specifically, they use a novel raw data likelihood estimation technique (involving a second-order extended Kalman filter/smoother embedded in a nonlinear optimizer) to determine the variances of the random walks associated with state space model parameters and their autoregressive components. The authors illustrate their approach with simulated and blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 30 daily cigarette smokers performing a verbal working memory task, focusing on seven regions of interest (ROIs). Twelve participants had dynamic directed functional connectivity maps: Eleven had one or more time-varying contemporaneous ROI state loadings, and one had a time-varying autoregressive parameter. Compared to smokers without dynamic maps, smokers with dynamic maps performed the task with greater accuracy. Thus, accurate detection of dynamic brain processes is meaningfully related to behavior in a clinical sample. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Importance of dynamic topography in Himalaya-Tibetan plateau region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, A.; Singh, S.

    2017-12-01

    Himalaya-Tibetan plateau region has the highest topography in the world. Various studies have been done to understand the mechanisms responsible for sustaining this high topography. However, the existence of dynamic topography in this region is still uncertain, though there have been some studies exploring the role of channel flow in lower crust leading to some topography. We investigated the role of radial mantle flow in this region by studying the relationship between geoid and topography. High geoid-to-topography ratios (GTR) were observed along the Himalayas suggesting deeper compensation mechanisms. However, further north, the geoid and topography relationship became a lot more complex as high as well as low GTR values were observed. The high GTR regions also coincided with area of high filtered free air gravity anomalies, indicating dynamic support. We also looked at the spectral components of gravity, geoid and topography, and calculated response functions to distinguish between different compensation mechanisms. We estimated the average elastic thickness of the whole region to be around 40 km from coherence and admittance studies. The GTR and admittance-coherence studies suggest deeper mass anomalies playing a role in supporting the topography along Himalayas and the area between Altyn Tagh and Kunlun faults.

  15. On effects of topography in rotating flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmann, Fabian; Noir, Jerome; Jackson, Andrew

    2017-11-01

    Both, seismological studies and geodynamic arguments suggest that there is significant topography at the core mantle boundary (CMB). This leads to the question whether the topography of the CMB could influence the flow in the Earth's outer core. As a preliminary experiment, we investigate the effects of bottom topography in the so-called Spin-Up, where motion of a contained fluid is created by a sudden increase of rotation rate. Experiments are performed in a cylindrical container mounted on a rotating table and quantitative results are obtained with particle image velocimetry. Several horizontal length scales of topography (λ) are investigated, ranging from cases where λ is much smaller then the lateral extend of the experiment (R) to cases where λ is a fraction of R. We find that there is an optimal λ that creates maximum dissipation of kinetic energy. Depending on the length scale of the topography, kinetic energy is either dissipated in the boundary layer or in the bulk of the fluid. Two different phases of fluid motion are present: a starting flow in the from of solid rotation (phase I), which is later replaced by meso scale vortices on the length scale of bottom topography (phase II).

  16. Impact of lithospheric rheology on surface topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, K.; Becker, T. W.

    2017-12-01

    The expression of mantle flow such as due to a buoyant plume as surface topography is a classical problem, yet the role of rheological complexities could benefit from further exploration. Here, we investigate the topographic expressions of mantle flow by means of numerical and analytical approaches. In numerical modeling, both conventional, free-slip and more realistic, stress-free boundary conditions are applied. For purely viscous rheology, a high viscosity lithosphere will lead to slight overestimates of topography for certain settings, which can be understood by effectively modified boundary conditions. Under stress-free conditions, numerical and analytical results show that the magnitude of dynamic topography decreases with increasing lithosphere thickness (L) and viscosity (ηL), as L-1 and ηL-3. The wavelength of dynamic topography increases linearly with L and (ηL/ ηM) 1/3. We also explore the time-dependent interactions of a rising plume with the lithosphere. For a layered lithosphere with a decoupling weak lower crust embedded between stronger upper crust and lithospheric mantle, dynamic topography increases with a thinner and weaker lower crust. The dynamic topography saturates when the decoupling viscosity is 3-4 orders lower than the viscosity of upper crust and lithospheric mantle. We further explore the role of visco-elastic and visco-elasto-plastic rheologies.

  17. The influence of tactile cognitive maps on auditory space perception in sighted persons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Tonelli

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We have recently shown that vision is important to improve spatial auditory cognition. In this study we investigate whether touch is as effective as vision to create a cognitive map of a soundscape. In particular we tested whether the creation of a mental representation of a room, obtained through tactile exploration of a 3D model, can influence the perception of a complex auditory task in sighted people. We tested two groups of blindfolded sighted people – one experimental and one control group – in an auditory space bisection task. In the first group the bisection task was performed three times: specifically, the participants explored with their hands the 3D tactile model of the room and were led along the perimeter of the room between the first and the second execution of the space bisection. Then, they were allowed to remove the blindfold for a few minutes and look at the room between the second and third execution of the space bisection. Instead, the control group repeated for two consecutive times the space bisection task without performing any environmental exploration in between. Considering the first execution as a baseline, we found an improvement in the precision after the tactile exploration of the 3D model. Interestingly, no additional gain was obtained when room observation followed the tactile exploration, suggesting that no additional gain was obtained by vision cues after spatial tactile cues were internalized. No improvement was found between the first and the second execution of the space bisection without environmental exploration in the control group, suggesting that the improvement was not due to task learning. Our results show that tactile information modulates the precision of an ongoing space auditory task as well as visual information. This suggests that cognitive maps elicited by touch may participate in cross-modal calibration and supra-modal representations of space that increase implicit knowledge about sound

  18. Measuring and Mapping the Topography of the Florida Everglades for Ecosystem Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmond, Gregory B.

    2003-01-01

    One of the major issues facing ecosystem restoration and management of the Greater Everglades is the availability and distribution of clean, fresh water. The South Florida ecosystem encompasses an area of approximately 28,000 square kilometers and supports a human population that exceeds 5 million and is continuing to grow. The natural systems of the Kissimmee-Okeechobee-Everglades watershed compete for water resources primarily with the region's human population and urbanization, and with the agricultural and tourism industries. Surface water flow modeling and ecological modeling studies are important means of providing scientific information needed for ecosystem restoration planning and modeling. Hydrologic and ecological models provide much-needed predictive capabilities for evaluating management options for parks, refuges, and land acquisition and for understanding the impacts of land management practices in surrounding areas. These models require various input data, including elevation data that very accurately define the topography of the Florida Everglades.

  19. Vector model for mapping of visual space to subjective 4-D sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matuzevicius, Dalius; Vaitkevicius, Henrikas

    2014-01-01

    Here we present a mathematical model of binocular vision that maps a visible physical world to a subjective perception of it. The subjective space is a set of 4-D vectors whose components are outputs of four monocular neurons from each of the two eyes. Monocular neurons have one of the four types of concentric receptive fields with Gabor-like weighting coefficients. Next this vector representation of binocular vision is implemented as a pool of neurons where each of them is selective to the object's particular location in a 3-D visual space. Formally each point of the visual space is being projected onto a 4-D sphere. Proposed model allows determination of subjective distances in depth and direction, provides computational means for determination of Panum's area and explains diplopia and allelotropia

  20. Participatory Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    2016-01-01

    practice. In particular, mapping environmental damage, endangered species, and human-made disasters has become one focal point for environmental knowledge production. This type of digital map has been highlighted as a processual turn in critical cartography, whereas in related computational journalism...... of a geo-visualization within information mapping that enhances embodiment in the experience of the information. InfoAmazonia is defined as a digitally created map-space within which journalistic practice can be seen as dynamic, performative interactions between journalists, ecosystems, space, and species...

  1. Mars topography: bulk statistics and spectral scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikora, V.; Goring, D.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we present a systematic study of the Mars topography focusing on the statistical distributions and maps of the 5 deg.x 5 deg.cell-averaged mean elevations, standard deviations, skewness and kurtosis coefficients, and power spectra. Altogether, the obtained data suggest that at a 5 deg.x 5 deg.cell scale a large portion of the Martian surface may be reasonably considered as a Gaussian random field with a three-range spectrum consisting: (1) a high-energy low-wave-number range (∼0.003 -1 ) where the spectrum may deviate from a power law and attain a maximum; (2) scaling range 1 (∼0.03 -1 ) where the spectrum may be well approximated as S(k)∝k -β 1 ; and (3) scaling range 2 (∼(0.2-0.3) -1 ) where the spectrum may be also approximated as a power function but with a different exponent, i.e., S(k)∝k -β 2 . The most probable values for the exponents are β 1 =(2.2-2.4) and β 2 =3.8. The data show that the separation of these two scaling ranges most frequently occurs at L c ∼3.3 km. At a scale larger than the 5 deg.x 5 deg.cell scale the topography is highly intermittent with patchy spatial distributions of the key statistical moments. This patchiness is superimposed with systematic north-to-south trends in statistical properties, reflecting the crustal dichotomy of the planet and large-scale differences in the surface-forming processes

  2. Optomechanical stability design of space optical mapping camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fuqiang; Cai, Weijun; Zhang, Fengqin; Li, Na; Fan, Junjie

    2018-01-01

    According to the interior orientation elements and imaging quality requirements of mapping application to mapping camera and combined with off-axis three-mirror anastigmat(TMA) system, high optomechanical stability design of a space optical mapping camera is introduced in this paper. The configuration is a coaxial TMA system used in off-axis situation. Firstly, the overall optical arrangement is described., and an overview of the optomechanical packaging is provided. Zerodurglass, carbon fiber composite and carbon-fiber reinforced silicon carbon (C/SiC) are widely used in the optomechanical structure, because their low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) can reduce the thermal sensitivity of the mirrors and focal plane. Flexible and unloading support are used in reflector and camera supporting structure. Epoxy structural adhesives is used for bonding optics to metal structure is also introduced in this paper. The primary mirror is mounted by means of three-point ball joint flexures system, which is attach to the back of the mirror. Then, In order to predict flexural displacements due to gravity, static finite element analysis (FEA) is performed on the primary mirror. The optical performance peak-to-valley (PV) and root-mean-square (RMS) wavefront errors are detected before and after assemble. Also, the dynamic finite element analysis(FEA) of the whole optical arrangement is carried out as to investigate the performance of optomechanical. Finally, in order to evaluate the stability of the design, the thermal vacuum test and vibration test are carried out and the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) and elements of interior orientation are presented as the evaluation index. Before and after the thermal vacuum test and vibration test, the MTF, focal distance and position of the principal point of optical system are measured and the result is as expected.

  3. Phytoplankton global mapping from space with a support vector machine algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boissieu, Florian; Menkes, Christophe; Dupouy, Cécile; Rodier, Martin; Bonnet, Sophie; Mangeas, Morgan; Frouin, Robert J.

    2014-11-01

    In recent years great progress has been made in global mapping of phytoplankton from space. Two main trends have emerged, the recognition of phytoplankton functional types (PFT) based on reflectance normalized to chlorophyll-a concentration, and the recognition of phytoplankton size class (PSC) based on the relationship between cell size and chlorophyll-a concentration. However, PFTs and PSCs are not decorrelated, and one approach can complement the other in a recognition task. In this paper, we explore the recognition of several dominant PFTs by combining reflectance anomalies, chlorophyll-a concentration and other environmental parameters, such as sea surface temperature and wind speed. Remote sensing pixels are labeled thanks to coincident in-situ pigment data from GeP&CO, NOMAD and MAREDAT datasets, covering various oceanographic environments. The recognition is made with a supervised Support Vector Machine classifier trained on the labeled pixels. This algorithm enables a non-linear separation of the classes in the input space and is especially adapted for small training datasets as available here. Moreover, it provides a class probability estimate, allowing one to enhance the robustness of the classification results through the choice of a minimum probability threshold. A greedy feature selection associated to a 10-fold cross-validation procedure is applied to select the most discriminative input features and evaluate the classification performance. The best classifiers are finally applied on daily remote sensing datasets (SeaWIFS, MODISA) and the resulting dominant PFT maps are compared with other studies. Several conclusions are drawn: (1) the feature selection highlights the weight of temperature, chlorophyll-a and wind speed variables in phytoplankton recognition; (2) the classifiers show good results and dominant PFT maps in agreement with phytoplankton distribution knowledge; (3) classification on MODISA data seems to perform better than on SeaWIFS data

  4. Traveltime computation and imaging from rugged topography in 3D TTI media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Shaoyong; Wang, Huazhong; Yang, Qinyong; Fang, Wubao

    2014-01-01

    Foothill areas with rugged topography are of great potential for oil and gas seismic exploration, but subsurface imaging in these areas is very challenging. Seismic acquisition with larger offset and wider azimuth is necessary for seismic imaging in complex areas. However, the scale anisotropy in this case must be taken into account. To generalize the pre-stack depth migration (PSDM) to 3D transversely isotropic media with vertical symmetry axes (VTI) and tilted symmetry axes (TTI) from rugged topography, a new dynamic programming approach for the first-arrival traveltime computation method is proposed. The first-arrival time on every uniform mesh point is calculated based on Fermat's principle with simple calculus techniques and a systematic mapping scheme. In order to calculate the minimum traveltime, a set of nonlinear equations is solved on each mesh point, where the group velocity is determined by the group angle. Based on the new first-arrival time calculation method, the corresponding PSDM and migration velocity analysis workflow for 3D anisotropic media from rugged surface is developed. Numerical tests demonstrate that the proposed traveltime calculation method is effective in both VTI and TTI media. The migration results for 3D field data show that it is necessary to choose a smooth datum to remove the high wavenumber move-out components for PSDM with rugged topography and take anisotropy into account to achieve better images. (paper)

  5. Corneal topography with an aberrometry-topography system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mülhaupt, Michael; Dietzko, Sven; Wolffsohn, James; Bandlitz, Stefan

    2018-05-07

    To investigate the agreement between the central corneal radii and corneal eccentricity measurements generated by the new Wave Analyzer 700 Medica (WAV) compared to the Keratograph 4 (KER) and to test the repeatability of the instruments. 20 subjects (10 male, mean age 29.1 years, range 21-50 years) were recruited from the students and staff of the Cologne School of Optometry. Central corneal radii for the flat (r c/fl ) and steep (r c/st ) meridian as well as corneal eccentricity for the nasal (e nas ), temporal (e temp ), inferior (e inf ) and superior (e sup ) directions were measured using WAV and KER by one examiner in a randomized order. Central radii of the flat (r c/fl ) and steep (r c/st ) meridian measured with both instruments were statically significantly correlated (r = 0.945 and r = 0.951; p  0.05). Limits of agreement (LoA) indicate a better repeatability for the KER compared to WAV. Corneal topography measurements captured with the WAV were strongly correlated with the KER. However, due to the differences in measured corneal radii and eccentricities, the devices cannot be used interchangeably. For corneal topography the KER demonstrated better repeatability. Copyright © 2018 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Zebrafish brain mapping--standardized spaces, length scales, and the power of N and n.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Paul R; Hendry, Aenea C; Lowe, Andrew S

    2015-06-01

    Mapping anatomical and functional parameters of the zebrafish brain is moving apace. Research communities undertaking such studies are becoming ever larger and more diverse. The unique features, tools, and technologies associated with zebrafish are propelling them as the 21st century model organism for brain mapping. Uniquely positioned as a vertebrate model system, the zebrafish enables imaging of anatomy and function at different length scales from intraneuronal compartments to sparsely distributed whole brain patterns. With a variety of diverse and established statistical modeling and analytic methods available from the wider brain mapping communities, the richness of zebrafish neuroimaging data is being realized. The statistical power of population observations (N) within and across many samples (n) projected onto a standardized space will provide vast databases for data-driven biological approaches. This article reviews key brain mapping initiatives at different levels of scale that highlight the potential of zebrafish brain mapping. By way of introduction to the next wave of brain mappers, an accessible introduction to the key concepts and caveats associated with neuroimaging are outlined and discussed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Learning From Philadelphia: Topographies of HIV/AIDS Media Assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    For this contribution to the special issue on "Mapping Queer Bioethics," the author employs an array of public health and popular media texts (especially Jonathan Demme's film Philadelphia) to challenge the construction and reconstruction of HIV-positive bodies as sites of bioethical concern. In outlining notions of "digital restoration," the author argues that there has been of late a remapping of the first decade of the HIV/AIDS pandemic through media projects assembled from archived materials. Accordingly, the author suggests that in the first decades of the 2000s, we have witnessed a media-archaeological turn, whereby old materials have been reassembled for commemorative purposes that oftentimes perform a reshaping of the topography of the first decade of the AIDS pandemic.

  8. Realizing spaces as path-component spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Banakh, Taras; Brazas, Jeremy

    2018-01-01

    The path component space of a topological space $X$ is the quotient space $\\pi_0(X)$ whose points are the path components of $X$. We show that every Tychonoff space $X$ is the path-component space of a Tychonoff space $Y$ of weight $w(Y)=w(X)$ such that the natural quotient map $Y\\to \\pi_0(Y)=X$ is a perfect map. Hence, many topological properties of $X$ transfer to $Y$. We apply this result to construct a compact space $X\\subset \\mathbb{R}^3$ for which the fundamental group $\\pi_1(X,x_0)$ is...

  9. Crater topography on Titan: Implications for landscape evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neish, C.; Kirk, R.; Lorenz, R.; Bray, V.; Schenk, P.; Stiles, B.; Turtle, E.; Cassini Radar Team

    2012-04-01

    craters on Titan (gray diamonds) compared to similarly sized, fresh craters on Ganymede (central peaks, +; central pits, *) and a handful of relaxed craters (black squares) from Bray et al. (2012). References: Bray, V., et al.: "Ganymede crater dimensions - implications for central peak and central pit formation and development". Icarus, Vol. 217, pp. 115-129, 2012. Neish, C.D., Lorenz, R.D.: "Titan’s global crater population: A new assessment". Planetary and Space Science, Vol. 60, pp. 26-33, 2012. Schenk, P.M., et al.: "Ages and interiors: the cratering record of the Galilean satellites". In: Bagenal, F., McKinnon, W.B. (Eds.), Jupiter: The Planet, Satellites, and Magnetosphere, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 427-456, 2004. Stiles, B.W., et al.: "Determining Titan surface topography from Cassini SAR data". Icarus, Vol. 202, pp. 584-598, 2009. Wood, C.A., et al.: "Impact craters on Titan". Icarus, Vol. 206, pp. 334-344, 2010.

  10. A common fixed point theorem for weakly compatible mappings in Menger probabilistic quasi metric space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badridatt Pant

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we prove a common fixed point theorem for finite number of self mappings in Menger probabilistic quasi metric space. Our result improves and extends the results of Rezaiyan et al. [A common fixed point theorem in Menger probabilistic quasi-metric spaces, Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 37 (2008 1153-1157.], Miheţ [A note on a fixed point theorem in Menger probabilistic quasi-metric spaces, Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 40 (2009 2349-2352], Pant and Chauhan [Fixed points theorems in Menger probabilistic quasi metric spaces using weak compatibility, Internat. Math. Forum 5 (6 (2010 283-290] and Sastry et al. [A fixed point theorem in Menger PQM-spaces using weak compatibility, Internat. Math. Forum 5 (52 (2010 2563-2568

  11. A Novel Low-cost, Ka-band, High Altitude, Multi-Baseline Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Sensor for Surface Water Ocean Topography, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NRC Decadal Survey recommended the Surface Water Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission to address terrestrial fresh water hydrology and physical oceanography...

  12. Mapping topographic plant location properties using a dense matching approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederheiser, Robert; Rutzinger, Martin; Lamprecht, Andrea; Bardy-Durchhalter, Manfred; Pauli, Harald; Winkler, Manuela

    2017-04-01

    Within the project MEDIALPS (Disentangling anthropogenic drivers of climate change impacts on alpine plant species: Alps vs. Mediterranean mountains) six regions in Alpine and in Mediterranean mountain regions are investigated to assess how plant species respond to climate change. The project is embedded in the Global Observation Research Initiative in Alpine Environments (GLORIA), which is a well-established global monitoring initiative for systematic observation of changes in the plant species composition and soil temperature on mountain summits worldwide to discern accelerating climate change pressures on these fragile alpine ecosystems. Close-range sensing techniques such as terrestrial photogrammetry are well suited for mapping terrain topography of small areas with high resolution. Lightweight equipment, flexible positioning for image acquisition in the field, and independence on weather conditions (i.e. wind) make this a feasible method for in-situ data collection. New developments of dense matching approaches allow high quality 3D terrain mapping with less requirements for field set-up. However, challenges occur in post-processing and required data storage if many sites have to be mapped. Within MEDIALPS dense matching is used for mapping high resolution topography for 284 3x3 meter plots deriving information on vegetation coverage, roughness, slope, aspect and modelled solar radiation. This information helps identifying types of topography-dependent ecological growing conditions and evaluating the potential for existing refugial locations for specific plant species under climate change. This research is conducted within the project MEDIALPS - Disentangling anthropogenic drivers of climate change impacts on alpine plant species: Alps vs. Mediterranean mountains funded by the Earth System Sciences Programme of the Austrian Academy of Sciences.

  13. Geologic mapping in Greenland with polarimetric SAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall, Jørgen; Madsen, Søren Nørvang; Brooks, C. K.

    1995-01-01

    The application of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) for geologic mapping in Greenland is investigated by the Danish Center for Remote Sensing (DCRS) in co-operation with the Danish Lithosphere Centre (DLC). In 1994 a pilot project was conducted in East Greenland. The Danish airborne SAR, EMISAR...... mapping is complicated by an extreme topography leading to massive shadowing, foreshortening and layover. An artifact characterised by high cross-polarisation is observed behind many sharp mountain ridges. A multi-reflection hypothesis has been investigated without finding the ultimate proof...

  14. Origin of bending in uncoated microcantilever - Surface topography?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakshmoji, K.; Prabakar, K.; Tripura Sundari, S.; Jayapandian, J.; Tyagi, A. K.; Sundar, C. S.

    2014-01-01

    We provide direct experimental evidence to show that difference in surface topography on opposite sides of an uncoated microcantilever induces bending, upon exposure to water molecules. Examination on opposite sides of the microcantilever by atomic force microscopy reveals the presence of localized surface features on one side, which renders the induced stress non-uniform. Further, the root mean square inclination angle characterizing the surface topography shows a difference of 73° between the opposite sides. The absence of deflection in another uncoated microcantilever having similar surface topography confirms that in former microcantilever bending is indeed induced by differences in surface topography

  15. DARC: Mapping Surface Topography by Ray-Casting for Effective Virtual Screening at Protein Interaction Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowthaman, Ragul; Miller, Sven A; Rogers, Steven; Khowsathit, Jittasak; Lan, Lan; Bai, Nan; Johnson, David K; Liu, Chunjing; Xu, Liang; Anbanandam, Asokan; Aubé, Jeffrey; Roy, Anuradha; Karanicolas, John

    2016-05-12

    Protein-protein interactions represent an exciting and challenging target class for therapeutic intervention using small molecules. Protein interaction sites are often devoid of the deep surface pockets presented by "traditional" drug targets, and crystal structures reveal that inhibitors typically engage these sites using very shallow binding modes. As a consequence, modern virtual screening tools developed to identify inhibitors of traditional drug targets do not perform as well when they are instead deployed at protein interaction sites. To address the need for novel inhibitors of important protein interactions, here we introduce an alternate docking strategy specifically designed for this regime. Our method, termed DARC (Docking Approach using Ray-Casting), matches the topography of a surface pocket "observed" from within the protein to the topography "observed" when viewing a potential ligand from the same vantage point. We applied DARC to carry out a virtual screen against the protein interaction site of human antiapoptotic protein Mcl-1 and found that four of the top-scoring 21 compounds showed clear inhibition in a biochemical assay. The Ki values for these compounds ranged from 1.2 to 21 μM, and each had ligand efficiency comparable to promising small-molecule inhibitors of other protein-protein interactions. These hit compounds do not resemble the natural (protein) binding partner of Mcl-1, nor do they resemble any known inhibitors of Mcl-1. Our results thus demonstrate the utility of DARC for identifying novel inhibitors of protein-protein interactions.

  16. Cortical topography of intracortical inhibition influences the speed of decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilimzig, Claudia; Ragert, Patrick; Dinse, Hubert R

    2012-02-21

    The neocortex contains orderly topographic maps; however, their functional role remains controversial. Theoretical studies have suggested a role in minimizing computational costs, whereas empirical studies have focused on spatial localization. Using a tactile multiple-choice reaction time (RT) task before and after the induction of perceptual learning through repetitive sensory stimulation, we extend the framework of cortical topographies by demonstrating that the topographic arrangement of intracortical inhibition contributes to the speed of human perceptual decision-making processes. RTs differ among fingers, displaying an inverted U-shaped function. Simulations using neural fields show the inverted U-shaped RT distribution as an emergent consequence of lateral inhibition. Weakening inhibition through learning shortens RTs, which is modeled through topographically reorganized inhibition. Whereas changes in decision making are often regarded as an outcome of higher cortical areas, our data show that the spatial layout of interaction processes within representational maps contributes to selection and decision-making processes.

  17. Real-Space Analysis of Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Topography Datasets Using Sparse Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyama, Masamichi J.; Hukushima, Koji

    2018-04-01

    A sparse modeling approach is proposed for analyzing scanning tunneling microscopy topography data, which contain numerous peaks originating from the electron density of surface atoms and/or impurities. The method, based on the relevance vector machine with L1 regularization and k-means clustering, enables separation of the peaks and peak center positioning with accuracy beyond the resolution of the measurement grid. The validity and efficiency of the proposed method are demonstrated using synthetic data in comparison with the conventional least-squares method. An application of the proposed method to experimental data of a metallic oxide thin-film clearly indicates the existence of defects and corresponding local lattice distortions.

  18. Detailed Mapping of Historical and Preinstrumental Earthquake Ruptures in Central Asia Using Multi-Scale, Multi-Platform Photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, A. J.; Walker, R. T.; Parsons, B.; Ren, Z.; Ainscoe, E. A.; Abdrakhmatov, K.; Mackenzie, D.; Arrowsmith, R.; Gruetzner, C.

    2016-12-01

    In regions of the planet with long historical records, known past seismic events can be attributed to specific fault sources through the identification and measurement of single-event scarps in high-resolution imagery and topography. The level of detail captured by modern remote sensing is now sufficient to map and measure complete earthquake ruptures that were originally only sparsely mapped or overlooked entirely. We can thus extend the record of mapped earthquake surface ruptures into the preinstrumental period and capture the wealth of information preserved in the numerous historical earthquake ruptures throughout regions like Central Asia. We investigate two major late 19th and early 20th century earthquakes that are well located macroseismically but whose fault sources had proved enigmatic in the absence of detailed imagery and topography. We use high-resolution topographic models derived from photogrammetry of satellite, low-altitude, and ground-based optical imagery to map and measure the coseismic scarps of the 1889 M8.3 Chilik, Kazakhstan and 1932 M7.6 Changma, China earthquakes. Measurement of the scarps on the combined imagery and topography reveals the extent and slip distribution of coseismic rupture in each of these events, showing both earthquakes involved multiple faults with variable kinematics. We use a 1-m elevation model of the Changma fault derived from Pleiades satellite imagery to map the changing kinematics of the 1932 rupture along strike. For the 1889 Chilik earthquake we use 1.5-m SPOT-6 satellite imagery to produce a regional elevation model of the fault ruptures, from which we identify three distinct, intersecting fault systems that each have >20 km of fresh, single-event scarps. Along sections of each of these faults we construct high resolution (330 points per sq m) elevation models using quadcopter- and helikite-mounted cameras. From the detailed topography we measure single-event oblique offsets of 6-10 m, consistent with the large

  19. Approximating fixed points for nonself mappings in CAT(0) spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Razani Abdolrahman; Shabani Saeed

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Suppose K is a nonempty closed convex subset of a complete CAT(0) space X with the nearest point projection P from X onto K. Let T : K → X be a nonself mapping, satisfying Condition (E) with F(T): = {x ∈ K : Tx = x} ≠ ∅. Suppose {xn} is generated iteratively by x1 ∈ K, xn+1 = P ((1 - αn)xn ⊕ αnTP [(1 - βn)xn ⊕ βnTxn]),n ≥ 1, where {αn} and {βn} are real sequences in [ε, 1 - ε] for some ε W...

  20. Using stochastic space-time models to map extreme precipitation in southern Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Costa

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The topographic characteristics and spatial climatic diversity are significant in the South of continental Portugal where the rainfall regime is typically Mediterranean. Direct sequential cosimulation is proposed for mapping an extreme precipitation index in southern Portugal using elevation as auxiliary information. The analysed index (R5D can be considered a flood indicator because it provides a measure of medium-term precipitation total. The methodology accounts for local data variability and incorporates space-time models that allow capturing long-term trends of extreme precipitation, and local changes in the relationship between elevation and extreme precipitation through time. Annual gridded datasets of the flood indicator are produced from 1940 to 1999 on 800 m×800 m grids by using the space-time relationship between elevation and the index. Uncertainty evaluations of the proposed scenarios are also produced for each year. The results indicate that the relationship between elevation and extreme precipitation varies locally and has decreased through time over the study region. In wetter years the flood indicator exhibits the highest values in mountainous regions of the South, while in drier years the spatial pattern of extreme precipitation has much less variability over the study region. The uncertainty of extreme precipitation estimates also varies in time and space, and in earlier decades is strongly dependent on the density of the monitoring stations network. The produced maps will be useful in regional and local studies related to climate change, desertification, land and water resources management, hydrological modelling, and flood mitigation planning.

  1. Investigating the Importance of 3D Structure & Topography in Seismic Deformation Modeling: Case Study of the April 2015 Nepal Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, L.; Gharti, H. N.; Tromp, J.

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, observations of deformation at plate boundaries have been greatly improved by the development of techniques in space geodesy. However, models of seismic deformation remain limited and are unable to account for realistic 3D structure in topography and material properties. We demonstrate the importance of 3D structure using a spectral-element method that incorporates fault geometry, topography, and heterogeneous material properties in a (non)linear viscoelastic domain. Our method is benchmarked against Okada's analytical technique and the PyLith software package. The April 2015 Nepal earthquake is used as a case study to examine whether 3D structure can affect the predictions of seismic deformation models. We find that the inclusion of topography has a significant effect on our results.

  2. Mapping of forest types confined to the lay of land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Farber

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The principles for the formation of forest typological classification and outlines promising areas for development, allowing to solve problems of not only inventory and forest management, but also mapping forest types are discussed in the paper. The analysis is performed by interpreting the concept of «natural regularity» proposed by D. L. Armand (1975. It is shown when the left side of the pattern is a set of indicators of site condition, structure of forest typological constructions will take into account not only the static indicators of the stands, but also their location, the origin and direction of the succession. For relatively similar climatic conditions, the indicators of the lay of land mainly limit the environment of formation of vegetation cover. The method of mapping forest types provides for consideration of site condition and indicators of stands of forest types. Testing is conducted on a test axis West-Sayan forest district, located in the mountains of southern Siberia. Conjugation types of forests, indicators of the topography revealed through the analysis of literary sources and characteristics of forest types accompanying diagnostic table (Smagin et al., 1980. The work is done in a GIS environment using DEM SRTM and Landsat space images. For indexing locations, the inputs are accepted: altitude (gradation 100 m, flat location, slope up to 20° and 20° slopes with northern and southern exposure. Classification of pixels of satellite images is conducted by the method of unsupervised classification separately for each scene, the high-altitude zone and location, which allows increase of the quality of interpretation, because the types of forests are confined to the topography. However completely avoiding mistakes is not possible. The main reasons are an inaccuracy of the DEM and the hit in one class of spectral brightness of different objects of interpretation. The map legend includes characteristics of the terrain, description

  3. A community dataspace for distribution and processing of "long tail" high resolution topography data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, C. J.; Nandigam, V.; Arrowsmith, R.

    2016-12-01

    Topography is a fundamental observable for Earth and environmental science and engineering. High resolution topography (HRT) is revolutionary for Earth science. Cyberinfrastructure that enables users to discover, manage, share, and process these data increases the impact of investments in data collection and catalyzes scientific discovery.National Science Foundation funded OpenTopography (OT, www.opentopography.org) employs cyberinfrastructure that includes large-scale data management, high-performance computing, and service-oriented architectures, providing researchers with efficient online access to large, HRT (mostly lidar) datasets, metadata, and processing tools. HRT data are collected from satellite, airborne, and terrestrial platforms at increasingly finer resolutions, greater accuracy, and shorter repeat times. There has been a steady increase in OT data holdings due to partnerships and collaborations with various organizations with the academic NSF domain and beyond.With the decreasing costs of HRT data collection, via methods such as Structure from Motion, the number of researchers collecting these data is increasing. Researchers collecting these "long- tail" topography data (of modest size but great value) face an impediment, especially with costs associated in making them widely discoverable, shared, annotated, cited, managed and archived. Also because there are no existing central repositories or services to support storage and curation of these datasets, much of it is isolated and difficult to locate and preserve. To overcome these barriers and provide efficient centralized access to these high impact datasets, OT is developing a "Community DataSpace", a service built on a low cost storage cloud, (e.g. AWS S3) to make it easy for researchers to upload, curate, annotate and distribute their datasets. The system's ingestion workflow will extract metadata from data uploaded; validate it; assign a digital object identifier (DOI); and create a searchable

  4. Electronic Cigarette Topography in the Natural Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, R J; Hensel, E C; Morabito, P N; Roundtree, K A

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a clinical, observational, descriptive study to quantify the use patterns of electronic cigarette users in their natural environment. Previously published work regarding puff topography has been widely indirect in nature, and qualitative rather than quantitative, with the exception of three studies conducted in a laboratory environment for limited amounts of time. The current study quantifies the variation in puffing behaviors among users as well as the variation for a given user throughout the course of a day. Puff topography characteristics computed for each puffing session by each subject include the number of subject puffs per puffing session, the mean puff duration per session, the mean puff flow rate per session, the mean puff volume per session, and the cumulative puff volume per session. The same puff topography characteristics are computed across all puffing sessions by each single subject and across all subjects in the study cohort. Results indicate significant inter-subject variability with regard to puffing topography, suggesting that a range of representative puffing topography patterns should be used to drive machine-puffed electronic cigarette aerosol evaluation systems.

  5. Algorithmic Mapping and Characterization of the Drug-Induced Phenotypic-Response Space of Parasites Causing Schistosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rahul; Beasley, Rachel; Long, Thavy; Caffrey, Conor R

    2018-01-01

    Neglected tropical diseases, especially those caused by helminths, constitute some of the most common infections of the world's poorest people. Amongst these, schistosomiasis (bilharzia or 'snail fever'), caused by blood flukes of the genus Schistosoma, ranks second only to malaria in terms of human impact: two hundred million people are infected and close to 800 million are at risk of infection. Drug screening against helminths poses unique challenges: the parasite cannot be cloned and is difficult to target using gene knockouts or RNAi. Consequently, both lead identification and validation involve phenotypic screening, where parasites are exposed to compounds whose effects are determined through the analysis of the ensuing phenotypic responses. The efficacy of leads thus identified derives from one or more or even unknown molecular mechanisms of action. The two most immediate and significant challenges that confront the state-of-the-art in this area are: the development of automated and quantitative phenotypic screening techniques and the mapping and quantitative characterization of the totality of phenotypic responses of the parasite. In this paper, we investigate and propose solutions for the latter problem in terms of the following: (1) mathematical formulation and algorithms that allow rigorous representation of the phenotypic response space of the parasite, (2) application of graph-theoretic and network analysis techniques for quantitative modeling and characterization of the phenotypic space, and (3) application of the aforementioned methodology to analyze the phenotypic space of S. mansoni - one of the etiological agents of schistosomiasis, induced by compounds that target its polo-like kinase 1 (PLK 1) gene - a recently validated drug target. In our approach, first, bio-image analysis algorithms are used to quantify the phenotypic responses of different drugs. Next, these responses are linearly mapped into a low- dimensional space using Principle

  6. Mapping the determinants of health inequalities in social space: can Bourdieu help us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatrell, Anthony C; Popay, Jennie; Thomas, Carol

    2004-09-01

    Considerable research effort has been devoted to describing and explaining, at a variety of spatial scales, geographical inequalities in health outcomes within the developed world. Following Bourdieu, we argue that structures of the social world may be revealed in different kinds of 'social' space. We outline the relational thinking that underlies these ideas. We then 'map', using correspondence analysis (on which Bourdieu himself drew), the structure of social space according to the differential availability of some forms of capital, across four study areas in north-west England. We use logistic regression analysis to explain variation in psychological morbidity (GHQ-score) and then portray the significant predictors of morbidity using multiple correspondence analysis. The area of residence of the survey respondents is used to associate them with particular locations in these social spaces.

  7. Theoretical evaluation of accuracy in position and size of brain activity obtained by near-infrared topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Toshiyuki; Kato, Toshinori; Okada, Eiji

    2004-01-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) topography can obtain a topographical distribution of the activated region in the brain cortex. Near-infrared light is strongly scattered in the head, and the volume of tissue sampled by a source-detector pair on the head surface is broadly distributed in the brain. This scattering effect results in poor resolution and contrast in the topographic image of the brain activity. In this study, a one-dimensional distribution of absorption change in a head model is calculated by mapping and reconstruction methods to evaluate the effect of the image reconstruction algorithm and the interval of measurement points for topographic imaging on the accuracy of the topographic image. The light propagation in the head model is predicted by Monte Carlo simulation to obtain the spatial sensitivity profile for a source-detector pair. The measurement points are one-dimensionally arranged on the surface of the model, and the distance between adjacent measurement points is varied from 4 mm to 28 mm. Small intervals of the measurement points improve the topographic image calculated by both the mapping and reconstruction methods. In the conventional mapping method, the limit of the spatial resolution depends upon the interval of the measurement points and spatial sensitivity profile for source-detector pairs. The reconstruction method has advantages over the mapping method which improve the results of one-dimensional analysis when the interval of measurement points is less than 12 mm. The effect of overlapping of spatial sensitivity profiles indicates that the reconstruction method may be effective to improve the spatial resolution of a two-dimensional reconstruction of topographic image obtained with larger interval of measurement points. Near-infrared topography with the reconstruction method potentially obtains an accurate distribution of absorption change in the brain even if the size of absorption change is less than 10 mm

  8. The Effects of Topography on Time Domain Controlled-Source Electromagnetic Data as it Applies to Impact Crater Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, M. S.

    2008-05-01

    Controlled-source electromagnetic geophysical methods provide a noninvasive means of characterizing subsurface structure. In order to properly model the geologic subsurface with a controlled-source time domain electromagnetic (TDEM) system in an extreme topographic environment we must first see the effects of topography on the forward model data. I run simulations using the Texas A&M University (TAMU) finite element (FEM) code in which I include true 3D topography. From these models we see the limits of how much topography we can include before our forward model can no longer give us accurate data output. The simulations are based on a model of a geologic half space with no cultural noise and focus on topography changes associated with impact crater sites, such as crater rims and central uplift. Several topographical variations of the model are run but the main constant is that there is only a small conductivity change on the range of 10-1 s/m between the host medium and the geologic body within. Asking the following questions will guide us through determining the limits of our code: What is the maximum step we can have before we see fringe effects in our data? At what location relative to the body does the topography cause the most effect? After we know the limits of the code we can develop new methods to increase the limits that will allow us to better image the subsurface using TDEM in extreme topography.

  9. Shared protection based virtual network mapping in space division multiplexing optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huibin; Wang, Wei; Zhao, Yongli; Zhang, Jie

    2018-05-01

    Space Division Multiplexing (SDM) has been introduced to improve the capacity of optical networks. In SDM optical networks, there are multiple cores/modes in each fiber link, and spectrum resources are multiplexed in both frequency and core/modes dimensions. Enabled by network virtualization technology, one SDM optical network substrate can be shared by several virtual networks operators. Similar with point-to-point connection services, virtual networks (VN) also need certain survivability to guard against network failures. Based on customers' heterogeneous requirements on the survivability of their virtual networks, this paper studies the shared protection based VN mapping problem and proposes a Minimum Free Frequency Slots (MFFS) mapping algorithm to improve spectrum efficiency. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can optimize SDM optical networks significantly in terms of blocking probability and spectrum utilization.

  10. PDB-Explorer: a web-based interactive map of the protein data bank in shape space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xian; Awale, Mahendra; Zasso, Michaël; Kostro, Daniel; Patiny, Luc; Reymond, Jean-Louis

    2015-10-23

    The RCSB Protein Data Bank (PDB) provides public access to experimentally determined 3D-structures of biological macromolecules (proteins, peptides and nucleic acids). While various tools are available to explore the PDB, options to access the global structural diversity of the entire PDB and to perceive relationships between PDB structures remain very limited. A 136-dimensional atom pair 3D-fingerprint for proteins (3DP) counting categorized atom pairs at increasing through-space distances was designed to represent the molecular shape of PDB-entries. Nearest neighbor searches examples were reported exemplifying the ability of 3DP-similarity to identify closely related biomolecules from small peptides to enzyme and large multiprotein complexes such as virus particles. The principle component analysis was used to obtain the visualization of PDB in 3DP-space. The 3DP property space groups proteins and protein assemblies according to their 3D-shape similarity, yet shows exquisite ability to distinguish between closely related structures. An interactive website called PDB-Explorer is presented featuring a color-coded interactive map of PDB in 3DP-space. Each pixel of the map contains one or more PDB-entries which are directly visualized as ribbon diagrams when the pixel is selected. The PDB-Explorer website allows performing 3DP-nearest neighbor searches of any PDB-entry or of any structure uploaded as protein-type PDB file. All functionalities on the website are implemented in JavaScript in a platform-independent manner and draw data from a server that is updated daily with the latest PDB additions, ensuring complete and up-to-date coverage. The essentially instantaneous 3DP-similarity search with the PDB-Explorer provides results comparable to those of much slower 3D-alignment algorithms, and automatically clusters proteins from the same superfamilies in tight groups. A chemical space classification of PDB based on molecular shape was obtained using a new atom-pair 3

  11. Unified theory of fermion pair to boson mappings in full and truncated spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginocchio, J.N.; Johnson, C.W.

    1995-01-01

    After a brief review of various mappings of fermion pairs to bosons, we rigorously derive a general approach. Following the methods of Marumori and Otsuka, Arima, and Iachello, our approach begins with mapping states and constructs boson representations that preserve fermion matrix elements. In several cases these representations factor into finite, Hermitian boson images times a projection or norm operator that embodies the Pauli principle. We pay particular attention to truncated boson spaces, and describe general methods for constructing Hermitian and approximately finite boson image Hamiltonians. This method is akin to that of Otsuka, Arima, and Iachello introduced in connection with the interacting boson model, but is more rigorous, general, and systematic

  12. An Embodiment Perspective on Number-Space Mapping in 3.5-year-old Dutch Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordende, Jaccoline E.; Volman, M(Chiel). J. M.; Leseman, Paul P. M.; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H.

    2017-01-01

    Previous research suggests that block adding, subtracting and counting direction are early forms of number-space mapping. In this study, an embodiment perspective on these skills was taken. Embodiment theory assumes that cognition emerges through sensory-motor interaction with the environment. In line with this assumption, it was investigated if…

  13. Characterizing smoking topography of cannabis in heavy users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stitzer, Maxine L.; Vandrey, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Little is known about the smoking topography characteristics of heavy cannabis users. Such measures may be able to predict cannabis use-related outcomes and could be used to validate self-reported measures of cannabis use. Objectives The current study was conducted to measure cannabis smoking topography characteristics during periods of ad libitum use and to correlate topography assessments with measures of self-reported cannabis use, withdrawal and craving during abstinence, and cognitive task performance. Methods Participants (N=20) completed an inpatient study in which they alternated between periods of ad libitum cannabis use and abstinence. Measures of self-reported cannabis use, smoking topography, craving, withdrawal, and sleep measures were collected. Results Participants smoked with greater intensity (e.g., greater volume, longer duration) on initial cigarette puffs with a steady decline on subsequent puffs. Smoking characteristics were significantly correlated with severity of withdrawal, notably sleep quality and architecture, and craving during abstinence, suggesting dose-related effects of cannabis use on these outcomes. Smoking characteristics generally were not significantly associated with cognitive performance. Smoking topography measures were significantly correlated with self-reported measures of cannabis use, indicating validity of these assessments, but topography measures were more sensitive than self-report in predicting cannabis-related outcomes. Conclusions A dose–effect relationship between cannabis consumption and outcomes believed to be clinically important was observed. With additional research, smoking topography assessments may become a useful clinical tool. PMID:21922170

  14. A Novel Low-cost, Ka-band, High Altitude, Multi-Baseline Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Sensor for Surface Water Ocean Topography, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal presents the Ka-band SWOT Phenomenology Airborne Radar (KaSPAR) to support the surface water ocean topography (SWOT) mission for science and algorithm...

  15. Mean Dynamic Topography of the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Sinead Louise; Mcadoo, David C.; Laxon, Seymour W.; Zwally, H. Jay; Yi, Donghui; Ridout, Andy; Giles, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    ICESat and Envisat altimetry data provide measurements of the instantaneous sea surface height (SSH) across the Arctic Ocean, using lead and open water elevation within the sea ice pack. First, these data were used to derive two independent mean sea surface (MSS) models by stacking and averaging along-track SSH profiles gathered between 2003 and 2009. The ICESat and Envisat MSS data were combined to construct the high-resolution ICEn MSS. Second, we estimate the 5.5-year mean dynamic topography (MDT) of the Arctic Ocean by differencing the ICEn MSS with the new GOCO02S geoid model, derived from GRACE and GOCE gravity. Using these satellite-only data we map the major features of Arctic Ocean dynamical height that are consistent with in situ observations, including the topographical highs and lows of the Beaufort and Greenland Gyres, respectively. Smaller-scale MDT structures remain largely unresolved due to uncertainties in the geoid at short wavelengths.

  16. Lateral topography for reducing effective dose in low-dose chest CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Dong-Ho; Lim, Daekeon; Hwang, Wi-Sub; Park, Seong-Hoon; Jeong, Ok-man; Kang, Kyung Wook; Kang, Hohyung

    2013-06-01

    The purposes of this study were to assess radiation exposure during low-dose chest CT by using lateral topography and to compare the lateral topographic findings with findings obtained with anteroposterior topography alone and anteroposterior and lateral topography combined. From November 2011 to February 2012, 210 male subjects were enrolled in the study. Age, weight, and height of the men were recorded. All subjects were placed into one of three subgroups based on the type of topographic image obtained: anteroposterior topography, lateral topography, and both anteroposterior and lateral topography. Imaging was performed with a 128-MDCT scanner. CT, except for topography, was the same for all subjects. A radiologist analyzed each image, recorded scan length, checked for any insufficiencies in the FOV, and calculated the effective radiation dose. One-way analysis of variance and multiple comparisons were used to compare the effective radiation exposure and scan length between groups. The mean scan length in the anteroposterior topography group was significantly greater than that of the lateral topography group and the combined anteroposterior and lateral topography group (p topography group (0.735 ± 0.033 mSv) was significantly lower than that for the anteroposterior topography group (0.763 ± 0.038 mSv) and the combined anteroposterior and lateral topography group (0.773 ± 0.038) (p < 0.001). Lateral topographic low-dose CT was associated with a lower effective radiation dose and scan length than either anteroposterior topographic low-dose chest CT or low-dose chest CT with both anteroposterior and lateral topograms.

  17. Iodine and freeze-drying enhanced high-resolution MicroCT imaging for reconstructing 3D intraneural topography of human peripheral nerve fascicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Liwei; Guo, Yongze; Qi, Jian; Zhu, Qingtang; Gu, Liqiang; Zheng, Canbin; Lin, Tao; Lu, Yutong; Zeng, Zitao; Yu, Sha; Zhu, Shuang; Zhou, Xiang; Zhang, Xi; Du, Yunfei; Yao, Zhi; Lu, Yao; Liu, Xiaolin

    2017-08-01

    The precise annotation and accurate identification of the topography of fascicles to the end organs are prerequisites for studying human peripheral nerves. In this study, we present a feasible imaging method that acquires 3D high-resolution (HR) topography of peripheral nerve fascicles using an iodine and freeze-drying (IFD) micro-computed tomography (microCT) method to greatly increase the contrast of fascicle images. The enhanced microCT imaging method can facilitate the reconstruction of high-contrast HR fascicle images, fascicle segmentation and extraction, feature analysis, and the tracing of fascicle topography to end organs, which define fascicle functions. The complex intraneural aggregation and distribution of fascicles is typically assessed using histological techniques or MR imaging to acquire coarse axial three-dimensional (3D) maps. However, the disadvantages of histological techniques (static, axial manual registration, and data instability) and MR imaging (low-resolution) limit these applications in reconstructing the topography of nerve fascicles. Thus, enhanced microCT is a new technique for acquiring 3D intraneural topography of the human peripheral nerve fascicles both to improve our understanding of neurobiological principles and to guide accurate repair in the clinic. Additionally, 3D microstructure data can be used as a biofabrication model, which in turn can be used to fabricate scaffolds to repair long nerve gaps. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Mapping the space radiation environment in LEO orbit by the SATRAM Timepix payload on board the Proba-V satellite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granja, Carlos, E-mail: carlos.granja@utef.cvut.cz; Polansky, Stepan

    2016-07-07

    Detailed spatial- and time-correlated maps of the space radiation environment in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) are produced by the spacecraft payload SATRAM operating in open space on board the Proba-V satellite from the European Space Agency (ESA). Equipped with the hybrid semiconductor pixel detector Timepix, the compact radiation monitor payload provides the composition and spectral characterization of the mixed radiation field with quantum-counting and imaging dosimetry sensitivity, energetic charged particle tracking, directionality and energy loss response in wide dynamic range in terms of particle types, dose rates and particle fluxes. With a polar orbit (sun synchronous, 98° inclination) at the altitude of 820 km the payload samples the space radiation field at LEO covering basically the whole planet. First results of long-period data evaluation in the form of time-and spatially-correlated maps of total dose rate (all particles) are given.

  19. Global Attractivity Results for Mixed-Monotone Mappings in Partially Ordered Complete Metric Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalabušić S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We prove fixed point theorems for mixed-monotone mappings in partially ordered complete metric spaces which satisfy a weaker contraction condition than the classical Banach contraction condition for all points that are related by given ordering. We also give a global attractivity result for all solutions of the difference equation , where satisfies mixed-monotone conditions with respect to the given ordering.

  20. A Scalable Infrastructure for Lidar Topography Data Distribution, Processing, and Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, C. J.; Nandigam, V.; Krishnan, S.; Phan, M.; Cowart, C. A.; Arrowsmith, R.; Baru, C.

    2010-12-01

    High-resolution topography data acquired with lidar (light detection and ranging) technology have emerged as a fundamental tool in the Earth sciences, and are also being widely utilized for ecological, planning, engineering, and environmental applications. Collected from airborne, terrestrial, and space-based platforms, these data are revolutionary because they permit analysis of geologic and biologic processes at resolutions essential for their appropriate representation. Public domain lidar data collection by federal, state, and local agencies are a valuable resource to the scientific community, however the data pose significant distribution challenges because of the volume and complexity of data that must be stored, managed, and processed. Lidar data acquisition may generate terabytes of data in the form of point clouds, digital elevation models (DEMs), and derivative products. This massive volume of data is often challenging to host for resource-limited agencies. Furthermore, these data can be technically challenging for users who lack appropriate software, computing resources, and expertise. The National Science Foundation-funded OpenTopography Facility (www.opentopography.org) has developed a cyberinfrastructure-based solution to enable online access to Earth science-oriented high-resolution lidar topography data, online processing tools, and derivative products. OpenTopography provides access to terabytes of point cloud data, standard DEMs, and Google Earth image data, all co-located with computational resources for on-demand data processing. The OpenTopography portal is built upon a cyberinfrastructure platform that utilizes a Services Oriented Architecture (SOA) to provide a modular system that is highly scalable and flexible enough to support the growing needs of the Earth science lidar community. OpenTopography strives to host and provide access to datasets as soon as they become available, and also to expose greater application level functionalities to

  1. X-ray reciprocal space mapping of GaAs.AIAs quantum wires and quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darhuber, A.A.; Koppensteiner, E.; Bauer, G.; Wang, P.D.; Song, Y.P.; Sotomayor Torres, C.M.; Holland, M.C.

    1995-01-01

    Periodic arrays of 150 and 175 nm-wide GaAs–AlAs quantum wires and quantum dots were investigated, fabricated by electron beam lithography, and SiCl4/O2 reactive ion etching, by means of reciprocal space mapping using triple axis x-ray diffractometry. From the x-ray data the lateral periodicity of

  2. A Virtual Map to Support People Who Are Blind in Navigation through Real Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahav, Orly; Schloerb, David W.; Kumar, Siddarth; Srinivasan, Mandayam A.

    2011-01-01

    Most of the spatial information needed by sighted people to construct cognitive maps of spaces is gathered through the visual channel. Unfortunately, people who are blind lack the ability to collect the required spatial information in advance. The use of virtual reality as a learning and rehabilitation tool for people with disabilities has been on…

  3. The image of public space on planned housing based on environmental and behavior cognition mapping (case study: Cemara Asri Estate)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirfalini Aulia, Dwira; Zahara, Aina

    2018-03-01

    Public spaces in a planned housing is a place of social interaction for every visitor of public space. The research on public space image uses four public spaces that meet the criteria of public space such as pedestrian sidewalks, public park, water front and worship place. Research on the perception of public space is interesting to investigate because housing development is part of the forming of a society that should design with proper architectural considerations. The purpose of this research is to know the image of public space on the planned housing in Medan City based on the mapping of environmental and behavior cognition and to know the difference between the image that happened to four group respondent. The research method of architecture used in this research is a descriptive qualitative method with case study approach (most similar case). Analysis of data used using mental maps and questionnaires. Then the image of public space is formed based on the elements of public space, wayfinding, route choice, and movement. The image difference that occurs to the housing residents and architecture students, design and planning are outstanding, visitors to the public housing space is good, people who have never visited the public space is inadequate.

  4. A Novel Transfer Learning Method Based on Common Space Mapping and Weighted Domain Matching

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Ru-Ze; Xie, Wei; Li, Weizhi; Wang, Hongqi; Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Taylor, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel learning framework for the problem of domain transfer learning. We map the data of two domains to one single common space, and learn a classifier in this common space. Then we adapt the common classifier to the two domains by adding two adaptive functions to it respectively. In the common space, the target domain data points are weighted and matched to the target domain in term of distributions. The weighting terms of source domain data points and the target domain classification responses are also regularized by the local reconstruction coefficients. The novel transfer learning framework is evaluated over some benchmark cross-domain data sets, and it outperforms the existing state-of-the-art transfer learning methods.

  5. A Novel Transfer Learning Method Based on Common Space Mapping and Weighted Domain Matching

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Ru-Ze

    2017-01-17

    In this paper, we propose a novel learning framework for the problem of domain transfer learning. We map the data of two domains to one single common space, and learn a classifier in this common space. Then we adapt the common classifier to the two domains by adding two adaptive functions to it respectively. In the common space, the target domain data points are weighted and matched to the target domain in term of distributions. The weighting terms of source domain data points and the target domain classification responses are also regularized by the local reconstruction coefficients. The novel transfer learning framework is evaluated over some benchmark cross-domain data sets, and it outperforms the existing state-of-the-art transfer learning methods.

  6. Early human bone response to laser metal sintering surface topography: a histologic report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangano, Carlo; Piattelli, Adriano; d'Avila, Susana; Iezzi, Giovanna; Mangano, Francesco; Onuma, Tatiana; Shibli, Jamil Awad

    2010-01-01

    This histologic report evaluated the early human bone response to a direct laser metal sintering implant surface retrieved after a short period of healing. A selective laser sintering procedure using a Ti-6Al-4V alloy powder with a particle size of 25-45 microm prepared this surface topography. One experimental microimplant was inserted into the anterior mandible of a patient during conventional implant surgery of the jaw. The microimplant and surrounding tissues were removed after 2 months of unloaded healing and were prepared for histomorphometric analysis. Histologically, the peri-implant bone appeared in close contact with the implant surface, whereas marrow spaces could be detected in other areas along with prominently stained cement lines. The mean of bone-to-implant contact was 69.51%. The results of this histologic report suggest that the laser metal sintering surface could be a promising alternative to conventional implant surface topographies.

  7. Interactive Mapping on Virtual Terrain Models Using RIMS (Real-time, Interactive Mapping System)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardin, T.; Cowgill, E.; Gold, R. D.; Hamann, B.; Kreylos, O.; Schmitt, A.

    2006-12-01

    Recent and ongoing space missions are yielding new multispectral data for the surfaces of Earth and other planets at unprecedented rates and spatial resolution. With their high spatial resolution and widespread coverage, these data have opened new frontiers in observational Earth and planetary science. But they have also precipitated an acute need for new analytical techniques. To address this problem, we have developed RIMS, a Real-time, Interactive Mapping System that allows scientists to visualize, interact with, and map directly on, three-dimensional (3D) displays of georeferenced texture data, such as multispectral satellite imagery, that is draped over a surface representation derived from digital elevation data. The system uses a quadtree-based multiresolution method to render in real time high-resolution (3 to 10 m/pixel) data over large (800 km by 800 km) spatial areas. It allows users to map inside this interactive environment by generating georeferenced and attributed vector-based elements that are draped over the topography. We explain the technique using 15 m ASTER stereo-data from Iraq, P.R. China, and other remote locations because our particular motivation is to develop a technique that permits the detailed (10 m to 1000 m) neotectonic mapping over large (100 km to 1000 km long) active fault systems that is needed to better understand active continental deformation on Earth. RIMS also includes a virtual geologic compass that allows users to fit a plane to geologic surfaces and thereby measure their orientations. It also includes tools that allow 3D surface reconstruction of deformed and partially eroded surfaces such as folded bedding planes. These georeferenced map and measurement data can be exported to, or imported from, a standard GIS (geographic information systems) file format. Our interactive, 3D visualization and analysis system is designed for those who study planetary surfaces, including neotectonic geologists, geomorphologists, marine

  8. Development of a prototype mesoscale computer model incorporating treatment of topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apsimon, H.; Kitson, K.; Fawcett, M.; Goddard, A.J.H.

    1984-01-01

    Models are available for simulating dispersal of accidental releases, using mass-consistent wind-fields and accounting for site-specific topography. These techniques were examined critically to see if they might be improved, and to assess their limitations. An improved model, windfield adjusted for topography (WAFT), was developed (with advantages over MATHEW used in the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability - ARAC system). To simulate dispersion in the windfields produced by WAFT and calculate time integrated air concentrations and dry and wet deposition the TOMCATS model was developed. It treats the release as an assembly of pseudo-particles using Monte Carlo techniques to simulate turbulent displacements. It allows for larger eddy effects in the horizontal turbulence spectrum. Wet deposition is calculated using inhomogeneous rainfields evolving in time and space. The models were assessed, applying them to hypothetical releases in complex terrain, using typical data applicable in accident conditions, and undertaking sensitivity studies. One finds considerable uncertainty in results produced by these models. Although useful for post-facto analysis, such limitations cast doubt on their advantages, relative to simpler techniques, during an actual emergency

  9. Space time modelling of air quality for environmental-risk maps: A case study in South Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Amilcar; Pereira, Maria J.

    2007-10-01

    Since the 1960s, there has been a strong industrial development in the Sines area, on the southern Atlantic coast of Portugal, including the construction of an important industrial harbour and of, mainly, petrochemical and energy-related industries. These industries are, nowadays, responsible for substantial emissions of SO2, NOx, particles, VOCs and part of the ozone polluting the atmosphere. The major industries are spatially concentrated in a restricted area, very close to populated areas and natural resources such as those protected by the European Natura 2000 network. Air quality parameters are measured at the emissions' sources and at a few monitoring stations. Although air quality parameters are measured on an hourly basis, the lack of representativeness in space of these non-homogeneous phenomena makes even their representativeness in time questionable. Hence, in this study, the regional spatial dispersion of contaminants is also evaluated, using diffusive-sampler (Radiello Passive Sampler) campaigns during given periods. Diffusive samplers cover the entire space extensively, but just for a limited period of time. In the first step of this study, a space-time model of pollutants was built, based on a stochastic simulation-direct sequential simulation-with local spatial trend. The spatial dispersion of the contaminants for a given period of time-corresponding to the exposure time of the diffusive samplers-was computed by ordinary kriging. Direct sequential simulation was applied to produce equiprobable spatial maps for each day of that period, using the kriged map as a spatial trend and the daily measurements of pollutants from the monitoring stations as hard data. In the second step, the following environmental risk and costs maps were computed from the set of simulated realizations of pollutants: (i) maps of the contribution of each emission to the pollutant concentration at any spatial location; (ii) costs of badly located monitoring stations.

  10. Radioactive Mapping Contaminant of Alpha on The Air in Space of Repair of Hot Cell and Medium Radioactivity Laboratory in Radio metallurgy Installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusuf-Nampira; Endang-Sukesi; S-Wahyuningsih; R-Budi-Santoso

    2007-01-01

    Hot cell and space of acid laboratory medium activity in Radio metallurgy Installation are used for the examination preparation of fuel nuclear post irradiation. The sample examined is dangerous radioactive material representing which can disseminate passing air stream. The dangerous material spreading can be pursued by arranging air stream from laboratory space to examination space. To know the performance the air stream arrangement is hence conducted by radioactive mapping contaminant of alpha in laboratory / space of activity place, for example, medium activity laboratory and repair space. This mapping radioactivity contaminant is executed with the measurement level of the radioactivity from sample air taken at various height with the distance of 1 m, various distance and from potential source as contaminant spreading access. The mapping result indicate that a little spreading of radioactive material happened from acid cupboard locker to laboratory activity up to distance of 3 m from acid cupboard locker and spreading of radioactive contaminant from goods access door of the hot cell 104 to repair space reach the distance of 2 m from goods door access. Level of the radioactive contamination in the space was far under maximum limitation allowed (20 Bq / m 3 ). (author)

  11. EAARL Coastal Topography-Fire Island National Seashore, New York, Post-Nor'Ida, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayegandhi, Amar; Vivekanandan, Saisudha; Brock, J.C.; Wright, C.W.; Nagle, D.B.; Bonisteel-Cormier, J.M.; Fredericks, Xan; Stevens, Sara

    2010-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived bare-earth (BE) and first-surface (FS) topography datasets were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Park Service (NPS), Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network, Kingston, RI. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the Fire Island National Seashore in New York, acquired post-Nor'Ida (November 2009 nor'easter) on December 4, 2009. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative airborne lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multispectral color-infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for sub-meter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine aircraft, but the instrument was deployed on a Pilatus PC-6. A single pilot, a lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne

  12. Three-dimensional magnetotelluric inversion including topography using deformed hexahedral edge finite elements, direct solvers and data space Gauss-Newton, parallelized on SMP computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordy, M. A.; Wannamaker, P. E.; Maris, V.; Cherkaev, E.; Hill, G. J.

    2014-12-01

    We have developed an algorithm for 3D simulation and inversion of magnetotelluric (MT) responses using deformable hexahedral finite elements that permits incorporation of topography. Direct solvers parallelized on symmetric multiprocessor (SMP), single-chassis workstations with large RAM are used for the forward solution, parameter jacobians, and model update. The forward simulator, jacobians calculations, as well as synthetic and real data inversion are presented. We use first-order edge elements to represent the secondary electric field (E), yielding accuracy O(h) for E and its curl (magnetic field). For very low frequency or small material admittivity, the E-field requires divergence correction. Using Hodge decomposition, correction may be applied after the forward solution is calculated. It allows accurate E-field solutions in dielectric air. The system matrix factorization is computed using the MUMPS library, which shows moderately good scalability through 12 processor cores but limited gains beyond that. The factored matrix is used to calculate the forward response as well as the jacobians of field and MT responses using the reciprocity theorem. Comparison with other codes demonstrates accuracy of our forward calculations. We consider a popular conductive/resistive double brick structure and several topographic models. In particular, the ability of finite elements to represent smooth topographic slopes permits accurate simulation of refraction of electromagnetic waves normal to the slopes at high frequencies. Run time tests indicate that for meshes as large as 150x150x60 elements, MT forward response and jacobians can be calculated in ~2.5 hours per frequency. For inversion, we implemented data space Gauss-Newton method, which offers reduction in memory requirement and a significant speedup of the parameter step versus model space approach. For dense matrix operations we use tiling approach of PLASMA library, which shows very good scalability. In synthetic

  13. The role of topography and lateral velocity heterogeneities on near-source scattering and ground-motion variability

    KAUST Repository

    Imperatori, W.

    2015-07-28

    The scattering of seismic waves travelling in the Earth is not only caused by random velocity heterogeneity but also by surface topography. Both factors are known to strongly affect ground-motion complexity even at relatively short distance from the source. In this study, we simulate ground motion with a 3-D finite-difference wave propagation solver in the 0–5 Hz frequency band using three topography models representative of the Swiss alpine region and realistic heterogeneous media characterized by the Von Karman correlation functions. Subsequently, we analyse and quantify the characteristics of the scattered wavefield in the near-source region. Our study shows that both topography and velocity heterogeneity scattering may excite large coda waves of comparable relative amplitude, especially at around 1 Hz, although large variability in space may occur. Using the single scattering model, we estimate average QC values in the range 20–30 at 1 Hz, 36–54 at 1.5 Hz and 62–109 at 3 Hz for constant background velocity models with no intrinsic attenuation. In principle, envelopes of topography-scattered seismic waves can be qualitatively predicted by theoretical back-scattering models, while forward- or hybrid-scattering models better reproduce the effects of random velocity heterogeneity on the wavefield. This is because continuous multiple scattering caused by small-scale velocity perturbations leads to more gentle coda decay and envelope broadening, while topography abruptly scatters the wavefield once it impinges the free surface. The large impedance contrast also results in more efficient mode mixing. However, the introduction of realistic low-velocity layers near the free surface increases the complexity of ground motion dramatically and indicates that the role of topography in elastic waves scattering can be relevant especially in proximity of the source. Long-period surface waves can form most of the late coda, especially when intrinsic attenuation is taken

  14. Advanced in-production hotspot prediction and monitoring with micro-topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanton, P.; Hasan, T.; Lakcher, A.; Le-Gratiet, B.; Prentice, C.; Simiz, J.-G.; La Greca, R.; Depre, L.; Hunsche, S.

    2017-03-01

    At 28nm technology node and below, hot spot prediction and process window control across production wafers have become increasingly critical to prevent hotspots from becoming yield-limiting defects. We previously established proof of concept for a systematic approach to identify the most critical pattern locations, i.e. hotspots, in a reticle layout by computational lithography and combining process window characteristics of these patterns with across-wafer process variation data to predict where hotspots may become yield impacting defects [1,2]. The current paper establishes the impact of micro-topography on a 28nm metal layer, and its correlation with hotspot best focus variations across a production chip layout. Detailed topography measurements are obtained from an offline tool, and pattern-dependent best focus (BF) shifts are determined from litho simulations that include mask-3D effects. We also establish hotspot metrology and defect verification by SEM image contour extraction and contour analysis. This enables detection of catastrophic defects as well as quantitative characterization of pattern variability, i.e. local and global CD uniformity, across a wafer to establish hotspot defect and variability maps. Finally, we combine defect prediction and verification capabilities for process monitoring by on-product, guided hotspot metrology, i.e. with sampling locations being determined from the defect prediction model and achieved prediction accuracy (capture rate) around 75%

  15. Small-angle X-ray scattering tensor tomography: model of the three-dimensional reciprocal-space map, reconstruction algorithm and angular sampling requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebi, Marianne; Georgiadis, Marios; Kohlbrecher, Joachim; Holler, Mirko; Raabe, Jörg; Usov, Ivan; Menzel, Andreas; Schneider, Philipp; Bunk, Oliver; Guizar-Sicairos, Manuel

    2018-01-01

    Small-angle X-ray scattering tensor tomography, which allows reconstruction of the local three-dimensional reciprocal-space map within a three-dimensional sample as introduced by Liebi et al. [Nature (2015), 527, 349-352], is described in more detail with regard to the mathematical framework and the optimization algorithm. For the case of trabecular bone samples from vertebrae it is shown that the model of the three-dimensional reciprocal-space map using spherical harmonics can adequately describe the measured data. The method enables the determination of nanostructure orientation and degree of orientation as demonstrated previously in a single momentum transfer q range. This article presents a reconstruction of the complete reciprocal-space map for the case of bone over extended ranges of q. In addition, it is shown that uniform angular sampling and advanced regularization strategies help to reduce the amount of data required.

  16. Radon risk mapping of the Czech Republic on a scale 1:50000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnet, I.; Miksova, J.; Tomas, R.; Karenova, J.

    2000-01-01

    A new type of radon risk maps on a scale 1:50000 was published in the Czech Republic. Maps are based on the vectorized contours of' geological units and rock types and field soil gas radon measurements from the radon database. Radon risk is expressed in four categories. More detailed topography enables to predict the radon risk from bedrock in the intravilans of villages and towns. (author)

  17. Experiments on topographies lacking tidal conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Leo; Paci, Alexandre; Yuan, Bing

    2015-11-01

    In a stratified sea, internal tides are supposedly generated when the tide passes over irregular topography. It has been shown that for any given frequency in the internal wave band there are an infinite number of exceptions to this rule of thumb. This ``stealth-like'' property of the topography is due to a subtle annihilation of the internal waves generated during the surface tide's passage over the irregular bottom. We here demonstrate this in a lab-experiment. However, for any such topography, subsequently changing the surface tide's frequency does lead to tidal conversion. The upshot of this is that a tidal wave passing over an irregular bottom is for a substantial part trapped to this irregularity, and only partly converted into freely propagating internal tides. Financially supported by the European Community's 7th Framework Programme HYDRALAB IV.

  18. Spatial Field Variability Mapping of Rice Crop using Clustering Technique from Space Borne Hyperspectral Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moharana, S.; Dutta, S.

    2015-12-01

    Precision farming refers to field-specific management of an agricultural crop at a spatial scale with an aim to get the highest achievable yield and to achieve this spatial information on field variability is essential. The difficulty in mapping of spatial variability occurring within an agriculture field can be revealed by employing spectral techniques in hyperspectral imagery rather than multispectral imagery. However an advanced algorithm needs to be developed to fully make use of the rich information content in hyperspectral data. In the present study, potential of hyperspectral data acquired from space platform was examined to map the field variation of paddy crop and its species discrimination. This high dimensional data comprising 242 spectral narrow bands with 30m ground resolution Hyperion L1R product acquired for Assam, India (30th Sept and 3rd Oct, 2014) were allowed for necessary pre-processing steps followed by geometric correction using Hyperion L1GST product. Finally an atmospherically corrected and spatially deduced image consisting of 112 band was obtained. By employing an advanced clustering algorithm, 12 different clusters of spectral waveforms of the crop were generated from six paddy fields for each images. The findings showed that, some clusters were well discriminated representing specific rice genotypes and some clusters were mixed treating as a single rice genotype. As vegetation index (VI) is the best indicator of vegetation mapping, three ratio based VI maps were also generated and unsupervised classification was performed for it. The so obtained 12 clusters of paddy crop were mapped spatially to the derived VI maps. From these findings, the existence of heterogeneity was clearly captured in one of the 6 rice plots (rice plot no. 1) while heterogeneity was observed in rest of the 5 rice plots. The degree of heterogeneous was found more in rice plot no.6 as compared to other plots. Subsequently, spatial variability of paddy field was

  19. X-ray Reciprocal Space Mapping of Graded Al x Ga1 - x N Films and Nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanchu, Hryhorii V; Kuchuk, Andrian V; Kladko, Vasyl P; Ware, Morgan E; Mazur, Yuriy I; Zytkiewicz, Zbigniew R; Belyaev, Alexander E; Salamo, Gregory J

    2016-12-01

    The depth distribution of strain and composition in graded Al x Ga1 - x N films and nanowires (NWs) are studied theoretically using the kinematical theory of X-ray diffraction. By calculating [Formula: see text] reciprocal space maps (RSMs), we demonstrate significant differences in the intensity distributions from graded Al x Ga1 - x N films and NWs. We attribute these differences to relaxation of the substrate-induced strain on the NWs free side walls. Finally, we demonstrate that the developed X-ray reciprocal space map model allows for reliable depth profiles of strain and Al composition determination in both Al x Ga1 - x N films and NWs.

  20. Deconstructing the shallow internal structure of the Moon using GRAIL gravity and LOLA topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuber, M. T.

    2015-12-01

    Globally-distributed, high-resolution gravity and topography observations of the Moon from the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission and Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) instrument aboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft afford the unprecedented opportunity to explore the shallow internal structure of the Moon. Gravity and topography can be combined to produce Bouguer gravity that reveals the distribution of mass in the subsurface, with high degrees in the spherical harmonic expansion of the Bouguer anomalies sensitive to shallowest structure. For isolated regions of the lunar highlands and several basins we have deconstructed the gravity field and mapped the subsurface distribution of density anomalies. While specified spherical harmonic degree ranges can be used to estimate contributions at different depths, such analyses require considerable caution in interpretation. A comparison of filtered Bouguer gravity with forward models of disk masses with plausible densities illustrates the interdependencies of the gravitational power of density anomalies with depth and spatial scale. The results have implications regarding the limits of interpretation of lunar subsurface structure.

  1. Lunar Map Catalog

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Map Catalog includes various maps of the moon's surface, including Apollo landing sites; earthside, farside, and polar charts; photography index maps; zone...

  2. Fusing Multiscale Charts into 3D ENC Systems Based on Underwater Topography and Remote Sensing Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to propose an approach to fuse multiscale charts into three-dimensional (3D electronic navigational chart (ENC systems based on underwater topography and remote sensing image. This is the first time that the fusion of multiscale standard ENCs in the 3D ENC system has been studied. First, a view-dependent visualization technology is presented for the determination of the display condition of a chart. Second, a map sheet processing method is described for dealing with the map sheet splice problem. A process order called “3D order” is designed to adapt to the characteristics of the chart. A map sheet clipping process is described to deal with the overlap between the adjacent map sheets. And our strategy for map sheet splice is proposed. Third, the rendering method for ENC objects in the 3D ENC system is introduced. Fourth, our picking-up method for ENC objects is proposed. Finally, we implement the above methods in our system: automotive intelligent chart (AIC 3D electronic chart display and information systems (ECDIS. And our method can handle the fusion problem well.

  3. Magnetoresistance sensitivity mapping of the localized response of contiguous and lead-overlaid sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankar, Sandra

    2003-01-01

    Magnetoresistance sensitivity mapping (MSM) was used to investigate the local response of magnetic recording sensors without convolution of the writer, magnetic media and data channel. From a 2D map of the local sensor response, the intrinsic pulse shape and magnetic track profile are readily obtained. Pulse-width is a concern for high data rate since if pulse-width is too broad, individual transitions become difficult to distinguish. Track profiles are important because due to the small difference between magnetic write-width and magnetic read-width, side reading will lead to an increase in noise. Three experiments are discussed: the dependence of the pulse-width (PW50) of the standard contiguous junction (CJ) design on shield-to-shield spacing; a comparison of the pulse shape of lead-overlaid (LOL) and CJ designs; and a comparison of the magnetic track profile (including track-width and skirt ratio) of LOL and CJ designs. The LOL design offers an increased sensitivity; however, as seen from MSM, the penalties are broadening of the track and pulse profiles. These are a direct result of the finite current in the lead overlay region and an increased shield-to-shield spacing in that region. The MSM image shows a curvature, which is associated with the topography of the top shield due to the lead overlay

  4. Diffusion processes in bombardment-induced surface topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, R.S.

    1984-01-01

    A treatment is given of the problem of surface diffusion processes occurring during surface topography development, whenever a surface is simultaneously seeded with impurities and ion bombarded. The development of controllable topography and the importance of surface diffusion parameters, which can be obtained during these studies, are also analyzed. 101 refs.; 7 figs.; 2 tabs

  5. Common Fixed Points for Asymptotic Pointwise Nonexpansive Mappings in Metric and Banach Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pasom

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Let C be a nonempty bounded closed convex subset of a complete CAT(0 space X. We prove that the common fixed point set of any commuting family of asymptotic pointwise nonexpansive mappings on C is nonempty closed and convex. We also show that, under some suitable conditions, the sequence {xk}k=1∞ defined by xk+1=(1-tmkxk⊕tmkTmnky(m-1k, y(m-1k=(1-t(m-1kxk⊕t(m-1kTm-1nky(m-2k,y(m-2k=(1-t(m-2kxk⊕t(m-2kTm-2nky(m-3k,…,y2k=(1-t2kxk⊕t2kT2nky1k,y1k=(1-t1kxk⊕t1kT1nky0k,y0k=xk,  k∈N, converges to a common fixed point of T1,T2,…,Tm where they are asymptotic pointwise nonexpansive mappings on C, {tik}k=1∞ are sequences in [0,1] for all i=1,2,…,m, and {nk} is an increasing sequence of natural numbers. The related results for uniformly convex Banach spaces are also included.

  6. Convergence of an implicit iteration process for a finite family of asymptotically quasi-nonexpansive mappings in convex metric spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurucharan Singh Saluja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we give some necessary and sufficient conditions for an implicit iteration process with errors for a finite family of asymptotically quasi-nonexpansive mappings converging to a common fixed of the mappings in convex metric spaces. Our results extend and improve some recent results of Sun, Wittmann, Xu and Ori, and Zhou and Chang.

  7. Topography and Mechanical Property Mapping of International Simple Glass Surfaces with Atomic Force Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, Eric M [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative Nanomechanical Peak Force (PF-QNM) TappingModeTM atomic force microscopy measurements are presented for the first time on polished glass surfaces. The PF-QNM technique allows for topography and mechanical property information to be measured simultaneously at each pixel. Results for the international simple glass which represents a simplified version of SON68 glass suggests an average Young s modulus of 78.8 15.1 GPa is within the experimental error of the modulus measured for SON68 glass (83.6 2 GPa) with conventional approaches. Application of the PF-QNM technique will be extended to in situ glass corrosion experiments with the goal of gaining atomic-scale insights into altered layer development by exploiting the mechanical property differences that exist between silica gel (e.g., altered layer) and pristine glass surface.

  8. Toroidal vortices over isolated topography in geophysical flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshel, Konstantin V; Ryzhov, Evgeny A; Zyryanov, Valery N

    2014-01-01

    This work deals with a model of a topographically trapped vortex appearing over isolated topography in a geophysical flow. The main feature of the study is that we pay special attention to the vertical structure of a topographically trapped vortex. The model considered allows one to study the vertical motion which is known not to be negligible in many cases. Given topography in the form of an isolated cylinder, and radial symmetry and stationarity of a uniform flow, in the linear approximation, we formulate a boundary value problem that determines all the components of the velocity field through a six-order differential operator, and nonincreasing boundary conditions at the center of the topography, and at infinity. The eigenvalues of the boundary value problem correspond to bifurcation points, in which the flow becomes unstable, hence non-negligible vertical velocities occur. We formulate a condition for the boundary value problem to have a discrete spectrum of these bifurcation points, and hence to be solvable. Conducting a series of test calculations, we show that the resulting vortex lies in the vicinity of topography, and can attain the distance up to half of the topography characteristic radius. (papers)

  9. A NEW HIGH RESOLUTION OPTICAL METHOD FOR OBTAINING THE TOPOGRAPHY OF FRACTURE SURFACES IN ROCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Ogilvie

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Surface roughness plays a major role in the movement of fluids through fracture systems. Fracture surface profiling is necessary to tune the properties of numerical fractures required in fluid flow modelling to those of real rock fractures. This is achieved using a variety of (i mechanical and (ii optical techniques. Stylus profilometry is a popularly used mechanical method and can measure surface heights with high precision, but only gives a good horizontal resolution in one direction on the fracture plane. This method is also expensive and simultaneous coverage of the surface is not possible. Here, we describe the development of an optical method which images cast copies of rough rock fractures using in-house developed hardware and image analysis software (OptiProf™ that incorporates image improvement and noise suppression features. This technique images at high resolutions, 15-200 μm for imaged areas of 10 × 7.5 mm and 100 × 133 mm, respectively and a similar vertical resolution (15 μm for a maximum topography of 4 mm. It uses in-house developed hardware and image analysis (OptiProf™ software and is cheap and non-destructive, providing continuous coverage of the fracture surface. The fracture models are covered with dye and fluid thicknesses above the rough surfaces converted into topographies using the Lambert-Beer Law. The dye is calibrated using 2 devices with accurately known thickness; (i a polycarbonate tile with wells of different depths and (ii a wedge-shaped vial made from silica glass. The data from each of the two surfaces can be combined to provide an aperture map of the fracture for the scenario where the surfaces touch at a single point or any greater mean aperture. The topography and aperture maps are used to provide data for the generation of synthetic fractures, tuned to the original fracture and used in numerical flow modelling.

  10. Merging field mapping and modeling to interpret the lithofacies variations from unsteady ash-rich pyroclastic density currents on uneven topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doronzo, Domenico; Dellino, Pierfrancesco; Sulpizio, Roberto; Lucchi, Federico

    2017-04-01

    In order to obtain significant volcanological results from computer simulations of explosive eruptions, one either needs a systematic statistical approach to test a wide range of initial and boundary conditions, or needs using a well-constrained field case study. Here we followed the second approach, using data obtained from field mapping of the Grotta dei Palizzi 2 pyroclastic deposits (Vulcano Island, Italy) as input for numerical modeling. This case study deals with impulsive phreatomagmatic explosions that generated ash-rich pyroclastic density currents, interacting with the high topographic obstacle of the La Fossa Caldera rim. We demonstrate that by merging field data with 3D numerical simulation it is possible to highlight the details of the dynamical current-terrain interaction, and to interpret the lithofacies variations of the associated deposits as a function of topography-induced sedimentation rate. Results suggest that a value of the sedimentation rate lower than 5 kg/m2s at the bed load can still be sheared by the overlying current, producing tractional structures in the deposit. Instead, a sedimentation rate in excess of that threshold can preclude the formation of tractional structures, producing thick massive deposits. We think that the approach used in this study could be applied to other case studies to confirm or refine such threshold value of the sedimentation rate, which is to be considered as an upper value as for the limitations of the numerical model.

  11. Soil erodibility mapping using three approaches in the Tangiers province –Northern Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamza Iaaich

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil erodibility is a key factor in assessing soil loss rates. In fact, soil loss is the most occurring land degradation form in Morocco, affecting rural and urban vulnerable areas. This work deals with large scale mapping of soil erodibility using three mapping approaches: (i the CORINE approach developed for Europe by the JRC; (ii the UNEP/FAO approach developed within the frame of the United Nations Environmental Program for the Mediterranean area; (iii the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE K factor. Our study zone is the province of Tangiers, North-West of Morocco. For each approach, we mapped and analyzed different erodibility factors in terms of parent material, topography and soil attributes. The thematic maps were then integrated using a Geographic Information System to elaborate a soil erodibility map for each of the three approaches. Finally, the validity of each approach was checked in the field, focusing on highly eroded areas, by confronting the estimated soil erodibility and the erosion state as observed in the field. We used three statistical indicators for validation: overall accuracy, weighted Kappa factor and omission/commission errors. We found that the UNEP/FAO approach, based principally on lithofacies and topography as mapping inputs, is the most adapted for the case of our study zone, followed by the CORINE approach. The USLE K factor underestimated the soil erodibility, especially for highly eroded areas.

  12. Reproducibility of UAV-based earth surface topography based on structure-from-motion algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapuyt, François; Vanacker, Veerle; Van Oost, Kristof

    2014-05-01

    A representation of the earth surface at very high spatial resolution is crucial to accurately map small geomorphic landforms with high precision. Very high resolution digital surface models (DSM) can then be used to quantify changes in earth surface topography over time, based on differencing of DSMs taken at various moments in time. However, it is compulsory to have both high accuracy for each topographic representation and consistency between measurements over time, as DSM differencing automatically leads to error propagation. This study investigates the reproducibility of reconstructions of earth surface topography based on structure-from-motion (SFM) algorithms. To this end, we equipped an eight-propeller drone with a standard reflex camera. This equipment can easily be deployed in the field, as it is a lightweight, low-cost system in comparison with classic aerial photo surveys and terrestrial or airborne LiDAR scanning. Four sets of aerial photographs were created for one test field. The sets of airphotos differ in focal length, and viewing angles, i.e. nadir view and ground-level view. In addition, the importance of the accuracy of ground control points for the construction of a georeferenced point cloud was assessed using two different GPS devices with horizontal accuracy at resp. the sub-meter and sub-decimeter level. Airphoto datasets were processed with SFM algorithm and the resulting point clouds were georeferenced. Then, the surface representations were compared with each other to assess the reproducibility of the earth surface topography. Finally, consistency between independent datasets is discussed.

  13. The role of extreme orbits in the global organization of periodic regions in parameter space for one dimensional maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Diogo Ricardo; Hansen, Matheus; Guarise, Gustavo; Medrano-T, Rene O.; Leonel, Edson D.

    2016-04-01

    We show that extreme orbits, trajectories that connect local maximum and minimum values of one dimensional maps, play a major role in the parameter space of dissipative systems dictating the organization for the windows of periodicity, hence producing sets of shrimp-like structures. Here we solve three fundamental problems regarding the distribution of these sets and give: (i) their precise localization in the parameter space, even for sets of very high periods; (ii) their local and global distributions along cascades; and (iii) the association of these cascades to complicate sets of periodicity. The extreme orbits are proved to be a powerful indicator to investigate the organization of windows of periodicity in parameter planes. As applications of the theory, we obtain some results for the circle map and perturbed logistic map. The formalism presented here can be extended to many other different nonlinear and dissipative systems.

  14. Effects of realistic topography on the ground motion of the Colombian Andes - A case study at the Aburrá Valley, Antioquia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, Doriam; Bielak, Jacobo; Serrano, Ricardo; Gómez, Juan; Jaramillo, Juan

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a set of deterministic 3-D ground motion simulations for the greater metropolitan area of Medellín in the Aburrá Valley, an earthquake-prone region of the Colombian Andes that exhibits moderate-to-strong topographic irregularities. We created the velocity model of the Aburrá Valley region (version 1) using the geological structures as a basis for determining the shear wave velocity. The irregular surficial topography is considered by means of a fictitious domain strategy. The simulations cover a 50 × 50 × 25 km3 volume, and four Mw = 5 rupture scenarios along a segment of the Romeral fault, a significant source of seismic activity in Colombia. In order to examine the sensitivity of ground motion to the irregular topography and the 3-D effects of the valley, each earthquake scenario was simulated with three different models: (i) realistic 3-D velocity structure plus realistic topography, (ii) realistic 3-D velocity structure without topography, and (iii) homogeneous half-space with realistic topography. Our results show how surface topography affects the ground response. In particular, our findings highlight the importance of the combined interaction between source-effects, source-directivity, focusing, soft-soil conditions, and 3-D topography. We provide quantitative evidence of this interaction and show that topographic amplification factors can be as high as 500 per cent at some locations. In other areas within the valley, the topographic effects result in relative reductions, but these lie in the 0-150 per cent range.

  15. Different Stimuli, Different Spatial Codes: A Visual Map and an Auditory Rate Code for Oculomotor Space in the Primate Superior Colliculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jungah; Groh, Jennifer M.

    2014-01-01

    Maps are a mainstay of visual, somatosensory, and motor coding in many species. However, auditory maps of space have not been reported in the primate brain. Instead, recent studies have suggested that sound location may be encoded via broadly responsive neurons whose firing rates vary roughly proportionately with sound azimuth. Within frontal space, maps and such rate codes involve different response patterns at the level of individual neurons. Maps consist of neurons exhibiting circumscribed receptive fields, whereas rate codes involve open-ended response patterns that peak in the periphery. This coding format discrepancy therefore poses a potential problem for brain regions responsible for representing both visual and auditory information. Here, we investigated the coding of auditory space in the primate superior colliculus(SC), a structure known to contain visual and oculomotor maps for guiding saccades. We report that, for visual stimuli, neurons showed circumscribed receptive fields consistent with a map, but for auditory stimuli, they had open-ended response patterns consistent with a rate or level-of-activity code for location. The discrepant response patterns were not segregated into different neural populations but occurred in the same neurons. We show that a read-out algorithm in which the site and level of SC activity both contribute to the computation of stimulus location is successful at evaluating the discrepant visual and auditory codes, and can account for subtle but systematic differences in the accuracy of auditory compared to visual saccades. This suggests that a given population of neurons can use different codes to support appropriate multimodal behavior. PMID:24454779

  16. Flight dynamics facility operational orbit determination support for the ocean topography experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolvin, D. T.; Schanzle, A. F.; Samii, M. V.; Doll, C. E.

    1991-01-01

    The Ocean Topography Experiment (TOPEX/POSEIDON) mission is designed to determine the topography of the Earth's sea surface across a 3 yr period, beginning with launch in June 1992. The Goddard Space Flight Center Dynamics Facility has the capability to operationally receive and process Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) tracking data. Because these data will be used to support orbit determination (OD) aspects of the TOPEX mission, the Dynamics Facility was designated to perform TOPEX operational OD. The scientific data require stringent OD accuracy in navigating the TOPEX spacecraft. The OD accuracy requirements fall into two categories: (1) on orbit free flight; and (2) maneuver. The maneuver OD accuracy requirements are of two types; premaneuver planning and postmaneuver evaluation. Analysis using the Orbit Determination Error Analysis System (ODEAS) covariance software has shown that, during the first postlaunch mission phase of the TOPEX mission, some postmaneuver evaluation OD accuracy requirements cannot be met. ODEAS results also show that the most difficult requirements to meet are those that determine the change in the components of velocity for postmaneuver evaluation.

  17. OBJECT-SPACE MULTI-IMAGE MATCHING OF MOBILE-MAPPING-SYSTEM IMAGE SEQUENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. C. Chen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an object-space multi-image matching procedure of terrestrial MMS (Mobile Mapping System image sequences to determine the coordinates of an object point automatically and reliably. This image matching procedure can be applied to find conjugate points of MMS image sequences efficiently. Conventional area-based image matching methods are not reliable to deliver accurate matching results for this application due to image scale variations, viewing angle variations, and object occlusions. In order to deal with these three matching problems, an object space multi-image matching is proposed. A modified NCC (Normalized Cross Correlation coefficient is proposed to measure the similarity of image patches. A modified multi-window matching procedure will also be introduced to solve the problem of object occlusion. A coarse-to-fine procedure with a combination of object-space multi-image matching and multi-window matching is adopted. The proposed procedure has been implemented for the purpose of matching terrestrial MMS image sequences. The ratio of correct matches of this experiment was about 80 %. By providing an approximate conjugate point in an overlapping image manually, most of the incorrect matches could be fixed properly and the ratio of correct matches was improved up to 98 %.

  18. Clustering, Hierarchical Organization, and the Topography of Abstract and Concrete Nouns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua eTroche

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The empirical study of language has historically relied heavily upon concrete word stimuli. By definition, concrete words evoke salient perceptual associations that fit well within feature-based, sensorimotor models of word meaning. In contrast, many theorists argue that abstract words are disembodied in that their meaning is mediated through language. We investigated word meaning as distributed in multidimensional space using hierarchical cluster analysis. Participants (N=365 rated target words (n=400 English nouns across 12 cognitive dimensions (e.g., polarity, ease of teaching, emotional valence. Factor reduction revealed three latent factors, corresponding roughly to perceptual salience, affective association, and magnitude. We plotted the original 400 words for the three latent factors. Abstract and concrete words showed overlap in their topography but also differentiated themselves in semantic space. This topographic approach to word meaning offers a unique perspective to word concreteness.

  19. Clustering, hierarchical organization, and the topography of abstract and concrete nouns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troche, Joshua; Crutch, Sebastian; Reilly, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    The empirical study of language has historically relied heavily upon concrete word stimuli. By definition, concrete words evoke salient perceptual associations that fit well within feature-based, sensorimotor models of word meaning. In contrast, many theorists argue that abstract words are "disembodied" in that their meaning is mediated through language. We investigated word meaning as distributed in multidimensional space using hierarchical cluster analysis. Participants (N = 365) rated target words (n = 400 English nouns) across 12 cognitive dimensions (e.g., polarity, ease of teaching, emotional valence). Factor reduction revealed three latent factors, corresponding roughly to perceptual salience, affective association, and magnitude. We plotted the original 400 words for the three latent factors. Abstract and concrete words showed overlap in their topography but also differentiated themselves in semantic space. This topographic approach to word meaning offers a unique perspective to word concreteness.

  20. X-ray diffraction topography. Stages and tendencies of development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shul'pina, I.L.

    2000-01-01

    The physical foundation of X-ray diffraction topography, its methods, the achievements in image theory, the stages of evolution were described in this review. It was found that modern topography is well along in development associated with the use of third-generation synchrotron radiation and with its adaptation to advance materials and problems of materials science. Some proposals about prospects for X-ray topography progress in the future have been made [ru

  1. Structural characterization of self-assembled semiconductor islands by three-dimensional X-ray diffraction mapping in reciprocal space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holy, V.; Mundboth, K.; Mokuta, C.; Metzger, T.H.; Stangl, J.; Bauer, G.; Boeck, T.; Schmidbauer, M.

    2008-01-01

    For the first time self-organized epitaxially grown semiconductor islands were investigated by a full three-dimensional mapping of the scattered X-ray intensity in reciprocal space. Intensity distributions were measured in a coplanar diffraction geometry around symmetric and asymmetric Bragg reflections. The 3D intensity maps were compared with theoretical simulations based on continuum-elasticity simulations of internal strains in the islands and on kinematical scattering theory whereby local chemical composition and strain profiles of the islands were retrieved

  2. Incidence and Outcomes of Optical Zone Enlargement and Recentration After Previous Myopic LASIK by Topography-Guided Custom Ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinstein, Dan Z; Archer, Timothy J; Carp, Glenn I; Stuart, Alastair J; Rowe, Elizabeth L; Nesbit, Andrew; Moore, Tara

    2018-02-01

    To report the incidence, visual and refractive outcomes, optical zone enlargement, and recentration using topography-guided CRS-Master TOSCA II software with the MEL 80 excimer laser (Carl Zeiss Meditec AG, Jena, Germany) after primary myopic laser refractive surgery. Retrospective analysis of 73 eyes (40 patients) with complaints of night vision disturbances due to either a decentration or small optical zone following a primary myopic laser refractive surgery procedure using the MEL 80 laser. Multiple ATLAS topography scans were imported into the CRS-Master software for topography-guided ablation planning. The topography-guided re-treatment procedure was performed as either a LASIK flap lift, a new LASIK flap, a side cut only, or photorefractive keratectomy. Axial curvature maps were analyzed using a fixed grid and set of concentric circles superimposed to measure the topographic optical zone diameter and centration. Follow-up was 12 months. The incidence of use in the population of myopic treatments during the study period was 0.79% (73 of 9,249). The optical zone diameter was increased by 11% from a mean of 5.65 to 6.32 mm, with a maximum change of 2 mm in one case. Topographic decentration was reduced by 64% from a mean of 0.58 to 0.21 mm. There was a 44% reduction in spherical aberration, 53% reduction in coma, and 39% reduction in total higher order aberrations. A subjective improvement in night vision symptoms was reported by 93%. Regarding efficacy, 82% of eyes reached 20/20 and 100% reached 20/32 (preoperative CDVA was 20/20 or better in 90%). Regarding safety, no eyes lost two lines of CDVA and 27% gained one line. Regarding predictability, 71% of re-treatments were within ±0.50 diopters. Topography-guided ablation was effective in enlarging the optical zone, recentering the optical zone, and reducing higher order aberrations. Topography-guided custom ablation appears to be an effective method for re-treatment procedures of symptomatic patients after

  3. Human Mind Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Tom

    2016-01-01

    When students generate mind maps, or concept maps, the maps are usually on paper, computer screens, or a blackboard. Human Mind Maps require few resources and little preparation. The main requirements are space where students can move around and a little creativity and imagination. Mind maps can be used for a variety of purposes, and Human Mind…

  4. Smoking topography and abstinence in adult female smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Erin A; Saladin, Michael E; Baker, Nathaniel L; Carpenter, Matthew J; Gray, Kevin M

    2013-12-01

    Preliminary evidence, within both adults and adolescents, suggests that the intensity with which cigarettes are smoked (i.e., smoking topography) is predictive of success during a cessation attempt. These reports have also shown topography to be superior compared to other variables, such as cigarettes per day, in the prediction of abstinence. The possibility that gender may influence this predictive relationship has not been evaluated but may be clinically useful in tailoring gender-specific interventions. Within the context of a clinical trial for smoking cessation among women, adult daily smokers completed a laboratory session that included a 1-hour ad libitum smoking period in which measures of topography were collected (N=135). Participants were then randomized to active medication (nicotine patch vs. varenicline) and abstinence was monitored for 4weeks. Among all smoking topography measures and all abstinence outcomes, a moderate association was found between longer puff duration and greater puff volume and continued smoking during the active 4-week treatment phase, but only within the nicotine patch group. Based on the weak topography-abstinence relationship among female smokers found in the current study, future studies should focus on explicit gender comparisons to examine if these associations are specific to or more robust in male smokers. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Mapping geogenic radon potential by regression kriging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pásztor, László [Institute for Soil Sciences and Agricultural Chemistry, Centre for Agricultural Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Department of Environmental Informatics, Herman Ottó út 15, 1022 Budapest (Hungary); Szabó, Katalin Zsuzsanna, E-mail: sz_k_zs@yahoo.de [Department of Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Science, Szent István University, Páter Károly u. 1, Gödöllő 2100 (Hungary); Szatmári, Gábor; Laborczi, Annamária [Institute for Soil Sciences and Agricultural Chemistry, Centre for Agricultural Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Department of Environmental Informatics, Herman Ottó út 15, 1022 Budapest (Hungary); Horváth, Ákos [Department of Atomic Physics, Eötvös University, Pázmány Péter sétány 1/A, 1117 Budapest (Hungary)

    2016-02-15

    Radon ({sup 222}Rn) gas is produced in the radioactive decay chain of uranium ({sup 238}U) which is an element that is naturally present in soils. Radon is transported mainly by diffusion and convection mechanisms through the soil depending mainly on the physical and meteorological parameters of the soil and can enter and accumulate in buildings. Health risks originating from indoor radon concentration can be attributed to natural factors and is characterized by geogenic radon potential (GRP). Identification of areas with high health risks require spatial modeling, that is, mapping of radon risk. In addition to geology and meteorology, physical soil properties play a significant role in the determination of GRP. In order to compile a reliable GRP map for a model area in Central-Hungary, spatial auxiliary information representing GRP forming environmental factors were taken into account to support the spatial inference of the locally measured GRP values. Since the number of measured sites was limited, efficient spatial prediction methodologies were searched for to construct a reliable map for a larger area. Regression kriging (RK) was applied for the interpolation using spatially exhaustive auxiliary data on soil, geology, topography, land use and climate. RK divides the spatial inference into two parts. Firstly, the deterministic component of the target variable is determined by a regression model. The residuals of the multiple linear regression analysis represent the spatially varying but dependent stochastic component, which are interpolated by kriging. The final map is the sum of the two component predictions. Overall accuracy of the map was tested by Leave-One-Out Cross-Validation. Furthermore the spatial reliability of the resultant map is also estimated by the calculation of the 90% prediction interval of the local prediction values. The applicability of the applied method as well as that of the map is discussed briefly. - Highlights: • A new method

  6. Mapping geogenic radon potential by regression kriging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pásztor, László; Szabó, Katalin Zsuzsanna; Szatmári, Gábor; Laborczi, Annamária; Horváth, Ákos

    2016-01-01

    Radon ( 222 Rn) gas is produced in the radioactive decay chain of uranium ( 238 U) which is an element that is naturally present in soils. Radon is transported mainly by diffusion and convection mechanisms through the soil depending mainly on the physical and meteorological parameters of the soil and can enter and accumulate in buildings. Health risks originating from indoor radon concentration can be attributed to natural factors and is characterized by geogenic radon potential (GRP). Identification of areas with high health risks require spatial modeling, that is, mapping of radon risk. In addition to geology and meteorology, physical soil properties play a significant role in the determination of GRP. In order to compile a reliable GRP map for a model area in Central-Hungary, spatial auxiliary information representing GRP forming environmental factors were taken into account to support the spatial inference of the locally measured GRP values. Since the number of measured sites was limited, efficient spatial prediction methodologies were searched for to construct a reliable map for a larger area. Regression kriging (RK) was applied for the interpolation using spatially exhaustive auxiliary data on soil, geology, topography, land use and climate. RK divides the spatial inference into two parts. Firstly, the deterministic component of the target variable is determined by a regression model. The residuals of the multiple linear regression analysis represent the spatially varying but dependent stochastic component, which are interpolated by kriging. The final map is the sum of the two component predictions. Overall accuracy of the map was tested by Leave-One-Out Cross-Validation. Furthermore the spatial reliability of the resultant map is also estimated by the calculation of the 90% prediction interval of the local prediction values. The applicability of the applied method as well as that of the map is discussed briefly. - Highlights: • A new method, regression

  7. PIV technique implementation for wind mapping in complex topographies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, Kamran; Hangan, Horia; Rasouli, Ashkan

    2008-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to demonstrate PIV's capability to provide a detailed characterization of the flow field over complex topographic terrain in a large boundary layer wind tunnel setup. Two-dimensional velocity fields were measured in horizontal and vertical planes over a 1:3000 scaled topographic model. The non-uniform seed distribution was found to be a major issue which could affect the PIV velocity vectors. A novel scheme was developed to automatically detect the regions with low seed density and exclude them from further analysis. The mean and turbulent velocities obtained from PIV and previous hotwire measurements are compared and show good agreement. The study shows that PIV can be successfully used to measure flow over complex geometries in large wind tunnel setups, enabling the flow structure to be mapped with a very high spatial resolution

  8. Recent advances in engineering topography mediated antibacterial surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Jafar; Chatterjee, Kaushik

    2015-09-01

    The tendency of bacterial cells to adhere and colonize a material surface leading to biofilm formation is a fundamental challenge underlying many different applications including microbial infections associated with biomedical devices and products. Although, bacterial attachment to surfaces has been extensively studied in the past, the effect of surface topography on bacteria-material interactions has received little attention until more recently. We review the recent progress in surface topography based approaches for engineering antibacterial surfaces. Biomimicry of antibacterial surfaces in nature is a popular strategy. Whereas earlier endeavors in the field aimed at minimizing cell attachment, more recent efforts have focused on developing bactericidal surfaces. However, not all such topography mediated bactericidal surfaces are necessarily cytocompatible thus underscoring the need for continued efforts for research in this area for developing antibacterial and yet cytocompatible surfaces for use in implantable biomedical applications. This mini-review provides a brief overview of the current strategies and challenges in the emerging field of topography mediated antibacterial surfaces.

  9. Silk Film Topography Directs Collective Epithelial Cell Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Mark I.

    2012-01-01

    The following study provides new insight into how surface topography dictates directed collective epithelial cell sheet growth through the guidance of individual cell movement. Collective cell behavior of migrating human corneal limbal-epithelial cell sheets were studied on highly biocompatible flat and micro-patterned silk film surfaces. The silk film edge topography guided the migratory direction of individual cells making up the collective epithelial sheet, which resulted in a 75% increase in total culture elongation. This was due to a 3-fold decrease in cell sheet migration rate efficiency for movement perpendicular to the topography edge. Individual cell migration direction is preferred in the parallel approach to the edge topography where localization of cytoskeletal proteins to the topography’s edge region is reduced, which results in the directed growth of the collective epithelial sheet. Findings indicate customized biomaterial surfaces may be created to direct both the migration rate and direction of tissue epithelialization. PMID:23185573

  10. Percolation, statistical topography, and transport in random media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isichenko, M.B.

    1992-01-01

    A review of classical percolation theory is presented, with an emphasis on novel applications to statistical topography, turbulent diffusion, and heterogeneous media. Statistical topography involves the geometrical properties of the isosets (contour lines or surfaces) of a random potential ψ(x). For rapidly decaying correlations of ψ, the isopotentials fall into the same universality class as the perimeters of percolation clusters. The topography of long-range correlated potentials involves many length scales and is associated either with the correlated percolation problem or with Mandelbrot's fractional Brownian reliefs. In all cases, the concept of fractal dimension is particularly fruitful in characterizing the geometry of random fields. The physical applications of statistical topography include diffusion in random velocity fields, heat and particle transport in turbulent plasmas, quantum Hall effect, magnetoresistance in inhomogeneous conductors with the classical Hall effect, and many others where random isopotentials are relevant. A geometrical approach to studying transport in random media, which captures essential qualitative features of the described phenomena, is advocated

  11. Gravity Terrain Effect of the Seafloor Topography in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lun-Tao Tong Tai-Rong Guo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Gravity terrain correction is used to compensate for the gravitational effects of the topography residual to the Bouguer plate. The seafloor topography off the eastern offshore of Taiwan is extremely rugged, and the depth of the sea bottom could be greater than 5000 m. In order to evaluate the terrain effect caused by the seafloor topography, a modern computer algorithm is used to calculate the terrain correction based on the digital elevation model (DEM.

  12. Spectral analysis of the gravity and topography of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bills, Bruce G.; Frey, Herbert V.; Kiefer, Walter S.; Nerem, R. Steven; Zuber, Maria T.

    1993-01-01

    New spherical harmonic models of the gravity and topography of Mars place important constraints on the structure and dynamics of the interior. The gravity and topography models are significantly phase coherent for harmonic degrees n less than 30 (wavelengths greater than 700 km). Loss of coherence below that wavelength is presumably due to inadequacies of the models, rather than a change in behavior of the planet. The gravity/topography admittance reveals two very different spectral domains: for n greater than 4, a simple Airy compensation model, with mean depth of 100 km, faithfully represents the observed pattern; for degrees 2 and 3, the effective compensation depths are 1400 and 550 km, respectively, strongly arguing for dynamic compensation at those wavelengths. The gravity model has been derived from a reanalysis of the tracking data for Mariner 9 and the Viking Orbiters, The topography model was derived by harmonic analysis of the USGS digital elevation model of Mars. Before comparing gravity and topography for internal structure inferences, we must ensure that both are consistently referenced to a hydrostatic datum. For the gravity, this involves removal of hydrostatic components of the even degree zonal coefficients. For the topography, it involves adding the degree 4 equipotential reference surface, to get spherically referenced values, and then subtracting the full degree 50 equipotential. Variance spectra and phase coherence of orthometric heights and gravity anomalies are addressed.

  13. Multi-source least-squares reverse time migration with topography

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Dongliang; Schuster, Gerard T.; Zhan, Ge

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate an accurate method for calculating LSM images from data recorded on irregular topography. Our results with both the Marmousi and Foothill models with steep topography suggest the effectiveness of this method.

  14. Multi-source least-squares reverse time migration with topography

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Dongliang

    2013-09-22

    We demonstrate an accurate method for calculating LSM images from data recorded on irregular topography. Our results with both the Marmousi and Foothill models with steep topography suggest the effectiveness of this method.

  15. Effect of ion irradiation on the structure and the surface topography of carbon fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ligacheva, E.A.; Galyaeva, L.V.; Gavrilov, N.V.; Belykh, T.A.; Ligachev, A.E.; Sokhoreva, V.V.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of C + ion irradiation (40 keV, 10 15 - 10 19 cm -2 ) on the structure and surface topography of high-module carbon fibers is investigated. Interplanar distance and internal stress values are found to be minimal at a radiation dose of 10 17 cm -2 , the height of a layer pack being practically unchanged. The relief of ion irradiated carbon fiber surface constitutes regularly repetitive valleys and ridges spaced parallel with the fiber axis [ru

  16. Disentangling the Role of Climate, Topography and Vegetation in Species Richness Gradients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario R Moura

    Full Text Available Environmental gradients (EG related to climate, topography and vegetation are among the most important drivers of broad scale patterns of species richness. However, these different EG do not necessarily drive species richness in similar ways, potentially presenting synergistic associations when driving species richness. Understanding the synergism among EG allows us to address key questions arising from the effects of global climate and land use changes on biodiversity. Herein, we use variation partitioning (also know as commonality analysis to disentangle unique and shared contributions of different EG in explaining species richness of Neotropical vertebrates. We use three broad sets of predictors to represent the environmental variability in (i climate (annual mean temperature, temperature annual range, annual precipitation and precipitation range, (ii topography (mean elevation, range and coefficient of variation of elevation, and (iii vegetation (land cover diversity, standard deviation and range of forest canopy height. The shared contribution between two types of EG is used to quantify synergistic processes operating among EG, offering new perspectives on the causal relationships driving species richness. To account for spatially structured processes, we use Spatial EigenVector Mapping models. We perform analyses across groups with distinct dispersal abilities (amphibians, non-volant mammals, bats and birds and discuss the influence of vagility on the partitioning results. Our findings indicate that broad scale patterns of vertebrate richness are mainly affected by the synergism between climate and vegetation, followed by the unique contribution of climate. Climatic factors were relatively more important in explaining species richness of good dispersers. Most of the variation in vegetation that explains vertebrate richness is climatically structured, supporting the productivity hypothesis. Further, the weak synergism between topography and

  17. Optimization of Thermal Aspects of Friction Stir Welding – Initial Studies Using a Space Mapping Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders Astrup; Bendsøe, Martin P.; Schmidt, Henrik Nikolaj Blicher

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to optimize a thermal model of a friction stir welding process. The optimization is performed using a space mapping technique in which an analytical model is used along with the FEM model to be optimized. The results are compared to traditional gradient based optimization...

  18. World Gravity Map: a set of global complete spherical Bouguer and isostatic anomaly maps and grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvalot, S.; Balmino, G.; Briais, A.; Kuhn, M.; Peyrefitte, A.; Vales, N.; Biancale, R.; Gabalda, G.; Reinquin, F.

    2012-04-01

    We present here a set of digital maps of the Earth's gravity anomalies (surface free air, Bouguer and isostatic), computed at Bureau Gravimetric International (BGI) as a contribution to the Global Geodetic Observing Systems (GGOS) and to the global geophysical maps published by the Commission for the Geological Map of the World (CGMW) with support of UNESCO and other institutions. The Bouguer anomaly concept is extensively used in geophysical interpretation to investigate the density distributions in the Earth's interior. Complete Bouguer anomalies (including terrain effects) are usually computed at regional scales by integrating the gravity attraction of topography elements over and beyond a given area (under planar or spherical approximations). Here, we developed and applied a worldwide spherical approach aimed to provide a set of homogeneous and high resolution gravity anomaly maps and grids computed at the Earth's surface, taking into account a realistic Earth model and reconciling geophysical and geodetic definitions of gravity anomalies. This first version (1.0) has been computed by spherical harmonics analysis / synthesis of the Earth's topography-bathymetry up to degree 10800. The detailed theory of the spherical harmonics approach is given in Balmino et al., (Journal of Geodesy, 2011). The Bouguer and terrain corrections have thus been computed in spherical geometry at 1'x1' resolution using the ETOPO1 topography/bathymetry, ice surface and bedrock models from the NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) and taking into account precise characteristics (boundaries and densities) of major lakes, inner seas, polar caps and of land areas below sea level. Isostatic corrections have been computed according to the Airy-Heiskanen model in spherical geometry for a constant depth of compensation of 30km. The gravity information given here is provided by the Earth Geopotential Model (EGM2008), developed at degree 2160 by the National Geospatial

  19. Mapping Plant Functional Types over Broad Mountainous Regions: A Hierarchical Soft Time-Space Classification Applied to the Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danlu Cai

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Research on global climate change requires plant functional type (PFT products. Although several PFT mapping procedures for remote sensing imagery are being used, none of them appears to be specifically designed to map and evaluate PFTs over broad mountainous areas which are highly relevant regions to identify and analyze the response of natural ecosystems. We present a methodology for generating soft classifications of PFTs from remotely sensed time series that are based on a hierarchical strategy by integrating time varying integrated NDVI and phenological information with topography: (i Temporal variability: a Fourier transform of a vegetation index (MODIS NDVI, 2006 to 2010. (ii Spatial partitioning: a primary image segmentation based on a small number of thresholds applied to the Fourier amplitude. (iii Classification by a supervised soft classification step is based on a normalized distance metric constructed from a subset of Fourier coefficients and complimentary altitude data from a digital elevation model. Applicability and effectiveness is tested for the eastern Tibetan Plateau. A classification nomenclature is determined from temporally stable pixels in the MCD12Q1 time series. Overall accuracy statistics of the resulting classification reveal a gain of about 7% from 64.4% compared to 57.7% by the MODIS PFT products.

  20. Simultaneous noncontact topography and electrochemical imaging by SECM/SICM featuring ion current feedback regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yasufumi; Shevchuk, Andrew I; Novak, Pavel; Murakami, Yumi; Shiku, Hitoshi; Korchev, Yuri E; Matsue, Tomokazu

    2010-07-28

    We described a hybrid system of scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) and scanning ion conductance microscopy (SICM) with ion current feedback nanopositioning control for simultaneous imaging of noncontact topography and spatial distribution of electrochemical species. A nanopipette/nanoring electrode probe provided submicrometer resolution of the electrochemical measurement on surfaces with complex topology. The SECM/SICM probe had an aperture radius of 220 nm. The inner and outer radii of the SECM Au nanoring electrode were 330 and 550 nm, respectively. Characterization of the probe was performed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV), and approach curve measurements. SECM/SICM was applied to simultaneous imaging of topography and electrochemical responses of enzymes (horse radish peroxidase (HRP) and glucose oxidase (GOD)) and single live cells (A6 cells, superior cervical ganglion (SCG) cells, and cardiac myocytes). The measurements revealed the distribution of activity of the enzyme spots on uneven surfaces with submicrometer resolution. SECM/SICM acquired high resolution topographic images of cells together with the map of electrochemical signals. This combined technique was also applied to the evaluation of the permeation property of electroactive species through cellular membranes.

  1. Elucidating Dynamical Processes Relevant to Flow Encountering Abrupt Topography (FLEAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Encountering Abrupt Topography (FLEAT) Bo Qiu Dept of Oceanography, University of Hawaii at Manoa 1000 Pope Rd. Honolulu, HI 96822 phone: (808) 956...c) to explore relevant dynamics by using both simplified models and OGCM output with realistic topography and surface boundary conditions...scale abyssal circulation, we propose to use the Hallberg Isopycnal Model (HIM). The HIM allows sloping isopycnals to interact with bottom topography

  2. KARIN: The Ka-Band Radar Interferometer for the Proposed Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban-Fernandez, Daniel; Peral, Eva; McWatters, Dalia; Pollard, Brian; Rodriguez, Ernesto; Hughes, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Over the last two decades, several nadir profiling radar altimeters have provided our first global look at the ocean basin-scale circulation and the ocean mesoscale at wavelengths longer than 100 km. Due to sampling limitations, nadir altimetry is unable to resolve the small wavelength ocean mesoscale and sub-mesoscale that are responsible for the vertical mixing of ocean heat and gases and the dissipation of kinetic energy from large to small scales. The proposed Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission would be a partnership between NASA, CNES (Centre National d'Etudes Spaciales) and the Canadian Space Agency, and would have as one of its main goals the measurement of ocean topography with kilometer-scale spatial resolution and centimeter scale accuracy. In this paper, we provide an overview of all ocean error sources that would contribute to the SWOT mission.

  3. Implications for anomalous mantle pressure and dynamic topography from lithospheric stress patterns in the North Atlantic Realm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffer, Christian; Nielsen, Søren Bom

    2016-08-01

    With convergent plate boundaries at some distance, the sources of the lithospheric stress field of the North Atlantic Realm are mainly mantle tractions at the base of the lithosphere, lithospheric density structure and topography. Given this, we estimate horizontal deviatoric stresses using a well-established thin sheet model in a global finite element representation. We adjust the lithospheric thickness and the sub-lithospheric pressure iteratively, comparing modelled in plane stress with the observations of the World Stress Map. We find that an anomalous mantle pressure associated with the Iceland and Azores melt anomalies, as well as topography are able to explain the general pattern of the principle horizontal stress directions. The Iceland melt anomaly overprints the classic ridge push perpendicular to the Mid Atlantic ridge and affects the conjugate passive margins in East Greenland more than in western Scandinavia. The dynamic support of topography shows a distinct maximum of c. 1000 m in Iceland and amounts <150 m along the coast of south-western Norway and 250-350 m along the coast of East Greenland. Considering that large areas of the North Atlantic Realm have been estimated to be sub-aerial during the time of break-up, two components of dynamic topography seem to have affected the area: a short-lived, which affected a wider area along the rift system and quickly dissipated after break-up, and a more durable in the close vicinity of Iceland. This is consistent with the appearance of a buoyancy anomaly at the base of the North Atlantic lithosphere at or slightly before continental breakup, relatively fast dissipation of the fringes of this, and continued melt generation below Iceland.

  4. Nanotubular topography enhances the bioactivity of titanium implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jingyan; Zhang, Xinchun; Yan, Wangxiang; Chen, Zhipei; Shuai, Xintao; Wang, Anxun; Wang, Yan

    2017-08-01

    Surface modification on titanium implants plays an important role in promoting mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) response to enhance osseointegration persistently. In this study, nano-scale TiO 2 nanotube topography (TNT), micro-scale sand blasted-acid etched topography (SLA), and hybrid sand blasted-acid etched/nanotube topography (SLA/TNT) were fabricated on the surfaces of titanium implants. Although the initial cell adherence at 60 min among TNT, SLA and TNT/SLA was not different, SLA and SLA/TNT presented to be rougher and suppressed the proliferation of MSC. TNT showed hydrophilic surface and balanced promotion of cellular functions. After being implanted in rabbit femur models, TNT displayed the best osteogenesis inducing ability as well as strong bonding strength to the substrate. These results indicate that nano-scale TNT provides favorable surface topography for improving the clinical performance of endosseous implants compared with micro and hybrid micro/nano surfaces, suggesting a promising and reliable surface modification strategy of titanium implants for clinical application. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Transverse phase space mapping of relativistic electron beams using optical transition radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Le Sage

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Optical transition radiation (OTR has proven to be a versatile and effective diagnostic for measuring the profile, divergence, and emittance of relativistic electron beams with a wide range of parameters. Diagnosis of the divergence of modern high brightness beams is especially well suited to OTR interference (OTRI techniques, where multiple dielectric or metal foils are used to generate a spatially coherent interference pattern. Theoretical analysis of measured OTR and OTRI patterns allows precise measurement of electron beam emittance characteristics. Here we describe an extension of this technique to allow mapping of divergence characteristics as a function of transverse coordinates within a measured beam. We present the first experimental analysis of the transverse phase space of an electron beam using all optical techniques. Comparing an optically masked portion of the beam to the entire beam, we measure different angular spread and average direction of the particles. Direct measurement of the phase-space ellipse tilt angle has been demonstrated using this optical masking technique.

  6. Topography on a subcellular scale modulates cellular adhesions and actin stress fiber dynamics in tumor associated fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azatov, Mikheil; Sun, Xiaoyu; Suberi, Alexandra; Fourkas, John T.; Upadhyaya, Arpita

    2017-12-01

    Cells can sense and adapt to mechanical properties of their environment. The local geometry of the extracellular matrix, such as its topography, has been shown to modulate cell morphology, migration, and proliferation. Here we investigate the effect of micro/nanotopography on the morphology and cytoskeletal dynamics of human pancreatic tumor-associated fibroblast cells (TAFs). We use arrays of parallel nanoridges with variable spacings on a subcellular scale to investigate the response of TAFs to the topography of their environment. We find that cell shape and stress fiber organization both align along the direction of the nanoridges. Our analysis reveals a strong bimodal relationship between the degree of alignment and the spacing of the nanoridges. Furthermore, focal adhesions align along ridges and form preferentially on top of the ridges. Tracking actin stress fiber movement reveals enhanced dynamics of stress fibers on topographically patterned surfaces. We find that components of the actin cytoskeleton move preferentially along the ridges with a significantly higher velocity along the ridges than on a flat surface. Our results suggest that a complex interplay between the actin cytoskeleton and focal adhesions coordinates the cellular response to micro/nanotopography.

  7. Preliminary results of an examination of electronic cigarette user puff topography: the effect of a mouthpiece-based topography measurement device on plasma nicotine and subjective effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spindle, Tory R; Breland, Alison B; Karaoghlanian, Nareg V; Shihadeh, Alan L; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    Electronic cigarettes (ECIGs) heat a nicotine-containing solution; the resulting aerosol is inhaled by the user. Nicotine delivery may be affected by users' puffing behavior (puff topography), and little is known about the puff topography of ECIG users. Puff topography can be measured using mouthpiece-based computerized systems. However, the extent to which a mouthpiece influences nicotine delivery and subjective effects in ECIG users is unknown. Plasma nicotine concentration, heart rate, and subjective effects were measured in 13 experienced ECIG users who used their preferred ECIG and liquid (≥ 12 mg/ml nicotine) during 2 sessions (with or without a mouthpiece). In both sessions, participants completed an ECIG use session in which they were instructed to take 10 puffs with 30-second inter-puff intervals. Puff topography was recorded in the mouthpiece condition. Almost all measures of the effects of ECIG use were independent of topography measurement. Collapsed across session, mean plasma nicotine concentration increased by 16.8 ng/ml, and mean heart rate increased by 8.5 bpm (ps topography measurement equipment, ECIG-using participants took larger and longer puffs with lower flow rates. In experienced ECIG users, measuring ECIG topography did not influence ECIG-associated nicotine delivery or most measures of withdrawal suppression. Topography measurement systems will need to account for the low flow rates observed for ECIG users. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Ekman effects in a rotating flow over bottom topography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zavala Sansón, L.; Heijst, van G.J.F.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a general two-dimensional model for rotating barotropic flows over topography. The model incorporates in a vorticity–stream function formulation both inviscid topography effects, associated with stretching and squeezing of fluid columns enforced by their motion over variable

  9. Personal attitudes toward time: The relationship between temporal focus, space-time mappings and real life experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Heng; Cao, Yu

    2017-06-01

    What influences how people implicitly associate "past" and "future" with "front" and "back?" Whereas previous research has shown that cultural attitudes toward time play a role in modulating space-time mappings in people's mental models (de la Fuente, Santiago, Román, Dumitrache & Casasanto, 2014), we investigated real life experiences as potential additional influences on these implicit associations. Participants within the same single culture, who are engaged in different intermediate-term educational experiences (Study 1), long-term living experiences (Study 2), and short-term visiting experiences (Study 3), showed their distinct differences in temporal focus, thereby influencing their implicit spatializations of time. Results across samples suggest that personal attitudes toward time related to real life experiences may influence people's space-time mappings. The findings we report on shed further light on the high flexibility of human conceptualization system. While culture may exert an important influence on temporal focus, a person's conceptualization of time may be attributed to a culmination of factors. © 2017 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Mapping groundwater availability and adequacy in the Lower Zambezi River basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Pérez-Lapeña

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater plays an important role as a source of water for various socio-economic uses and environmental requirements in the lower Zambezi basin in Mozambique. Hence it is important to know its availability and adequacy in space to inform decision making for sustainable water management practices. For a derivation of a Groundwater Availability map and a Groundwater Adequacy map we adapted the DRASTIC methodology in a GIS environment to determine how different parameters, such as precipitation, topography, soil drainage, land use and vegetation cover, aquifer characteristics and groundwater quality affect (i groundwater recharge on a long-term sustainable basis, (ii the short-term abstraction potential and (iii the long-term adequacy of groundwater utilization for domestic use. Results showed that groundwater availability in the Zambezi basin varies mostly from medium to low, with highest potential along the perennial rivers and in the delta where it plays a crucial role in environmental preservation. The southern margin of the Zambezi River shows low groundwater availability and also presents low adequacy for domestic use due to poor groundwater quality. The results from this study will be used in determining the most promising future development pathways and select the most attractive strategic development plans of the Mozambican government for the Lower Zambezi basin.

  11. A model for the parabolic slices Per1(e2πip/q) in moduli space of quadratic rational maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhre, Eva

    2010-01-01

    The notion of relatedness loci in the parabolic slices Per1(e2πip/q) in moduli space of quadratic rational maps is introduced. They are counterparts of the disconnectedness or escape locus in the slice of quadratic polynomials. A model for these loci is presented, and a strategy of proof of the f......The notion of relatedness loci in the parabolic slices Per1(e2πip/q) in moduli space of quadratic rational maps is introduced. They are counterparts of the disconnectedness or escape locus in the slice of quadratic polynomials. A model for these loci is presented, and a strategy of proof...... of the faithfulness of the model is given....

  12. Surface analysis of titanium dental implants with different topographies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva M.H. Prado da

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Cylindrical dental implants made of commercially pure titanium were analysed in four different surface finishes: as-machined, Al2O3 blasted with Al2O3 particles, plasma-sprayed with titanium beads and electrolytically coated with hydroxyapatite. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM with Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDX revealed the topography of the surfaces and provided qualitative results of the chemical composition of the different implants. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS was used to perform chemical analysis on the surface of the implants while Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy (LSM produced topographic maps of the analysed surfaces. Optical Profilometry was used to quantitatively characterise the level of roughness of the surfaces. The implant that was plasma-sprayed and the hydroxyapatite coated implant showed the roughest surface, followed by the implant blasted with alumina and the as-machined implant. Some remnant contamination from the processes of blasting, coating and cleaning was detected by XPS.

  13. Space Telescope and Optical Reverberation Mapping Project.I. Ultraviolet Observations of the Seyfert 1 Galaxy NGC 5548 with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on Hubble Space Telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Rosa, G.; Peterson, B.M.; Ely, J.; Kriss, G.A.; Crenshaw, D.M.; Horne, K.; Korista, K.T.; Netzer, H.; Pogge, R.W.; Arévalo, P.; Barth, A.J.; Bentz, M.C.; Brandt, W.N.; Breeveld, A.A.; Brewer, B.J.; Dalla Bontà, E.; De Lorenzo-Cáceres, A.; Denney, K.D.; Dietrich, M.; Edelson, R.; Evans, P.A.; Fausnaugh, M.M.; Gehrels, N.; Gelbord, J.M.; Goad, M.R.; Grier, C.J.; Grupe, D.; Hall, P.B.; Kaastra, J.; Kelly, B.C.; Kennea, J.A.; Kochanek, C.S.; Lira, P.; Mathur, S.; McHardy, I.M.; Nousek, J.A.; Pancoast, A.; Papadakis, I.; Pei, L.; Schimoia, J.S.; Siegel, M.; Starkey, D.; Treu, T.; Uttley, P.; Vaughan, S.; Vestergaard, M.; Villforth, C.; Yan, H.; Young, S.; Zu, Y.

    2015-01-01

    We describe the first results from a six-month long reverberation-mapping experiment in the ultraviolet based on 171 observations of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 5548 with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope. Significant correlated variability is found in the continuum and

  14. Assessing Mand Topography Preference When Developing a Functional Communication Training Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunnavatana, S Shanun; Wolfe, Katie; Aguilar, Alexandra N

    2018-05-01

    Functional communication training (FCT) is a common function-based behavioral intervention used to decrease problem behavior by teaching an alternative communication response. Therapists often arbitrarily select the topography of the alternative response, which may influence long-term effectiveness of the intervention. Assessing individual mand topography preference may increase treatment effectiveness and promote self-determination in the development of interventions. This study sought to reduce arbitrary selection of FCT mand topography by determining preference during response training and acquisition for two adults with autism who had no functional communication skills. Both participants demonstrated a clear preference for one mand topography during choice probes, and the preferred topography was then reinforced during FCT to reduce problem behavior and increase independent communication. The implications of the results for future research on mand selection during FCT are discussed.

  15. Using the Remote Sensing and GIS Technology for Erosion Risk Mapping of Kartalkaya Dam Watershed in Kahramanmaras, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah E. Akay

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The soil erosion is the most serious environmental problem in watershed areas in Turkey. The main factors affecting the amount of soil erosion include vegetation cover, topography, soil, and climate. In order to describe the areas with high soil erosion risks and to develop adequate erosion prevention measures in the watersheds of dams, erosion risk maps should be generated considering these factors. Remote Sensing (RS and Geographic Information System (GIS technologies were used for erosion risk mapping in Kartalkaya Dam Watershed of Kahramanmaras, Turkey, based on the methodology implemented in COoRdination of INformation on the Environment (CORINE model. ASTER imagery was used to generate a land use/cover classification in ERDAS Imagine. The digital maps of the other factors (topography, soil types, and climate were generated in ArcGIS v9.2, and were then integrated as CORINE input files to produce erosion risk maps. The results indicate that 33.82%, 35.44%, and 30.74% of the study area were under low, moderate, and high actual erosion risks, respectively. The CORINE model integrated with RS and GIS technologies has great potential for producing accurate and inexpensive erosion risk maps in Turkey.

  16. Remote sensing sensors and applications in environmental resources mapping and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melesse, Assefa M.; Weng, Qihao; Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Senay, Gabriel B.

    2007-01-01

    The history of remote sensing and development of different sensors for environmental and natural resources mapping and data acquisition is reviewed and reported. Application examples in urban studies, hydrological modeling such as land-cover and floodplain mapping, fractional vegetation cover and impervious surface area mapping, surface energy flux and micro-topography correlation studies is discussed. The review also discusses the use of remotely sensed-based rainfall and potential evapotranspiration for estimating crop water requirement satisfaction index and hence provides early warning information for growers. The review is not an exhaustive application of the remote sensing techniques rather a summary of some important applications in environmental studies and modeling.

  17. Lunar Topography: Results from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Gregory; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Mazarico, Erwan

    2012-01-01

    The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) has been operating nearly continuously since July 2009, accumulating over 6 billion measurements from more than 2 billion in-orbit laser shots. LRO's near-polar orbit results in very high data density in the immediate vicinity of the lunar poles, with full coverage at the equator from more than 12000 orbital tracks averaging less than 1 km in spacing at the equator. LRO has obtained a global geodetic model of the lunar topography with 50-meter horizontal and 1-m radial accuracy in a lunar center-of-mass coordinate system, with profiles of topography at 20-m horizontal resolution, and 0.1-m vertical precision. LOLA also provides measurements of reflectivity and surface roughness down to its 5-m laser spot size. With these data LOLA has measured the shape of all lunar craters 20 km and larger. In the proposed extended mission commencing late in 2012, LOLA will concentrate observations in the Southern Hemisphere, improving the density of the polar coverage to nearly 10-m pixel resolution and accuracy to better than 20 m total position error. Uses for these data include mission planning and targeting, illumination studies, geodetic control of images, as well as lunar geology and geophysics. Further improvements in geodetic accuracy are anticipated from the use of re ned gravity fields after the successful completion of the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission in 2012.

  18. Global maps of the CRUST 2.0 crustal components stripped gravity disturbances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tenzer, R.; Hamayun, K.; Vajda, P.

    2009-01-01

    We use the CRUST 2.0 crustal model and the EGM08 geopotential model to compile global maps of the gravity disturbances corrected for the gravitational effects (attractions) of the topography and of the density contrasts of the oceans, sediments, ice, and the remaining crust down to the Moho

  19. Mapping the Pareto optimal design space for a functionally deimmunized biotherapeutic candidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvat, Regina S; Parker, Andrew S; Choi, Yoonjoo; Bailey-Kellogg, Chris; Griswold, Karl E

    2015-01-01

    The immunogenicity of biotherapeutics can bottleneck development pipelines and poses a barrier to widespread clinical application. As a result, there is a growing need for improved deimmunization technologies. We have recently described algorithms that simultaneously optimize proteins for both reduced T cell epitope content and high-level function. In silico analysis of this dual objective design space reveals that there is no single global optimum with respect to protein deimmunization. Instead, mutagenic epitope deletion yields a spectrum of designs that exhibit tradeoffs between immunogenic potential and molecular function. The leading edge of this design space is the Pareto frontier, i.e. the undominated variants for which no other single design exhibits better performance in both criteria. Here, the Pareto frontier of a therapeutic enzyme has been designed, constructed, and evaluated experimentally. Various measures of protein performance were found to map a functional sequence space that correlated well with computational predictions. These results represent the first systematic and rigorous assessment of the functional penalty that must be paid for pursuing progressively more deimmunized biotherapeutic candidates. Given this capacity to rapidly assess and design for tradeoffs between protein immunogenicity and functionality, these algorithms may prove useful in augmenting, accelerating, and de-risking experimental deimmunization efforts.

  20. Toeplitz Operators, Pseudo-Homogeneous Symbols, and Moment Maps on the Complex Projective Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Antonio Morales-Ramos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Following previous works for the unit ball due to Nikolai Vasilevski, we define quasi-radial pseudo-homogeneous symbols on the projective space and obtain the corresponding commutativity results for Toeplitz operators. A geometric interpretation of these symbols in terms of moment maps is developed. This leads us to the introduction of a new family of symbols, extended pseudo-homogeneous, that provide larger commutative Banach algebras generated by Toeplitz operators. This family of symbols provides new commutative Banach algebras generated by Toeplitz operators on the unit ball.

  1. Differences in Spatial Knowledge of Individuals with Blindness When Using Audiotactile Maps, Using Tactile Maps, and Walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Konstantinos; Barouti, Marialena; Koustriava, Eleni

    2018-01-01

    To examine how individuals with visual impairments understand space and the way they develop cognitive maps, we studied the differences in cognitive maps resulting from different methods and tools for spatial coding in large geographical spaces. We examined the ability of 21 blind individuals to create cognitive maps of routes in unfamiliar areas…

  2. The Proposed Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Lee-Lueng; Alsdorf, Douglas; Rodriguez, Ernesto; Morrow, Rosemary; Mognard, Nelly; Vaze, Parag; Lafon, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    A new space mission concept called Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) is being developed jointly by a collaborative effort of the international oceanographic and hydrological communities for making high-resolution measurement of the water elevation of both the ocean and land surface water to answer the questions about the oceanic submesoscale processes and the storage and discharge of land surface water. The key instrument payload would be a Ka-band radar interferometer capable of making high-resolution wide-swath altimetry measurement. This paper describes the proposed science objectives and requirements as well as the measurement approach of SWOT, which is baselined to be launched in 2019. SWOT would demonstrate this new approach to advancing both oceanography and land hydrology and set a standard for future altimetry missions.

  3. AFM friction and adhesion mapping of the substructures of human hair cuticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, James R.; Tsibouklis, John; Nevell, Thomas G.; Breakspear, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Using atomic force microscopy, values of the microscale friction coefficient, the tip (silicon nitride) - surface adhesion force and the corresponding adhesion energy, for the substructures that constitute the surface of human hair (European brown hair) have been determined from Amonton plots. The values, mapped for comparison with surface topography, corresponded qualitatively with the substructures’ plane surface characteristics. Localised maps and values of the frictional coefficient, extracted avoiding scale edge effects, are likely to inform the formulation of hair-care products and treatments.

  4. Refining the ischemic penumbra with topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirugnanachandran, Tharani; Ma, Henry; Singhal, Shaloo; Slater, Lee-Anne; Davis, Stephen M; Donnan, Geoffrey A; Phan, Thanh

    2018-04-01

    It has been 40 years since the ischemic penumbra was first conceptualized through work on animal models. The topography of penumbra has been portrayed as an infarcted core surrounded by penumbral tissue and an extreme rim of oligemic tissue. This picture has been used in many review articles and textbooks before the advent of modern imaging. In this paper, we review our understanding of the topography of the ischemic penumbra from the initial experimental animal models to current developments with neuroimaging which have helped to further define the temporal and spatial evolution of the penumbra and refine our knowledge. The concept of the penumbra has been successfully applied in clinical trials of endovascular therapies with a time window as long as 24 h from onset. Further, there are reports of "good" outcome even in patients with a large ischemic core. This latter observation of good outcome despite having a large core requires an understanding of the topography of the penumbra and the function of the infarcted regions. It is proposed that future research in this area takes departure from a time-dependent approach to a more individualized tissue and location-based approach.

  5. Quantum baker maps with controlled-not coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallejos, Raul O; Santoro, Pedro R del; Almeida, Alfredo M Ozorio de

    2006-01-01

    The characteristic stretching and squeezing of chaotic motion is linearized within the finite number of phase space domains which subdivide a classical baker map. Tensor products of such maps are also chaotic, but a more interesting generalized baker map arises if the stacking orders for the factor maps are allowed to interact. These maps are readily quantized, in such a way that the stacking interaction is entirely attributed to primary qubits in each map, if each jth subsystem has Hilbert space dimension D j 2 n j . We here study the particular example of two baker maps that interact via a controlled-not interaction, which is a universal gate for quantum computation. Numerical evidence indicates that the control subspace becomes an ideal Markovian environment for the target map in the limit of large Hilbert space dimension

  6. Description of two-process surface topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabon, W; Pawlus, P

    2014-01-01

    After two machining processes, a large number of surface topography measurements were made using Talyscan 150 stylus measuring equipment. The measured samples were divided into two groups. The first group contained two-process surfaces of random nature, while the second group used random-deterministic textures of random plateau parts and portions of deterministic valleys. For comparison, one-process surfaces were also analysed. Correlation and regression analysis was used to study the dependencies among surface texture parameters in 2D and 3D systems. As the result of this study, sets of parameters describing multi-process surface topography were obtained for two-process surfaces of random and of random-deterministic types. (papers)

  7. The correlation of the results of capacitance mapping and of sheet resistance mapping in semi-insulating 6H-SiC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Shenghuang; Chen Zhiming; Liang Peng; Jiang Dong; Xie Huajie; Yang Ying

    2010-01-01

    A combination of complex surface capacitance mapping and sheet resistance mapping is applied to establish the origin of resistance variations on semi-insulating (SI) 6H-SiC substrates. The direct correlation between the capacitance quadrature and the sheet resistance is found in vanadium-doped SI samples. Regions with low capacitance quadrature show high sheet resistance. This indicates, associated with the nonhomogeneity of sheet resistance on the substrate, that the quality of crystallization is not good enough, which also leads to resistivity nonhomogeneity when comparing with different types of deep defects. According to the capacitance mapping, the region with bad crystallization quality has a high radio absorption coefficient. Another correlation is established between the capacitance in-phase and sheet resistance for the vanadium-doped sample. In this sample, the capacitance in-phase map shows not only the surface topography, but also the same distribution trend as the sheet resistance, namely, regions of high capacitance in-phase reveal high sheet resistance.

  8. Gemstones and geosciences in space and time. Digital maps to the "Chessboard classification scheme of mineral deposits"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, Harald G.; Weber, Berthold

    2013-12-01

    The gemstones, covering the spectrum from jeweler's to showcase quality, have been presented in a tripartite subdivision, by country, geology and geomorphology realized in 99 digital maps with more than 2600 mineralized sites. The various maps were designed based on the "Chessboard classification scheme of mineral deposits" proposed by Dill (2010a, 2010b) to reveal the interrelations between gemstone deposits and mineral deposits of other commodities and direct our thoughts to potential new target areas for exploration. A number of 33 categories were used for these digital maps: chromium, nickel, titanium, iron, manganese, copper, tin-tungsten, beryllium, lithium, zinc, calcium, boron, fluorine, strontium, phosphorus, zirconium, silica, feldspar, feldspathoids, zeolite, amphibole (tiger's eye), olivine, pyroxenoid, garnet, epidote, sillimanite-andalusite, corundum-spinel - diaspore, diamond, vermiculite-pagodite, prehnite, sepiolite, jet, and amber. Besides the political base map (gems by country) the mineral deposit is drawn on a geological map, illustrating the main lithologies, stratigraphic units and tectonic structure to unravel the evolution of primary gemstone deposits in time and space. The geomorphological map is to show the control of climate and subaerial and submarine hydrography on the deposition of secondary gemstone deposits. The digital maps are designed so as to be plotted as a paper version of different scale and to upgrade them for an interactive use and link them to gemological databases.

  9. Far-UV Spectral Mapping of Lunar Composition, Porosity, and Space Weathering: LRO Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retherford, K. D.; Greathouse, T. K.; Mandt, K.; Gladstone, R.; Liu, Y.; Hendrix, A. R.; Hurley, D.; Cahill, J. T.; Stickle, A. M.; Egan, A.; Kaufmann, D. E.; Grava, C.; Pryor, W. R.

    2016-12-01

    Far ultraviolet reflectance measurements of the Moon, icy satellites, comets, and asteroids obtained within the last decade have ushered in a new era of scientific advancement for UV surface investigations. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) has demonstrated an innovative nightside observing technique, putting a new light on permanently shadowed regions (PSRs) and other features on the Moon. Dayside far-UV albedo maps complement the nightside data, and LRO's polar orbit and high data downlink capabilities enable searches for diurnal variations in spectral signals. We'll discuss the strengths of the far-UV reflectance imaging spectroscopy technique with respect to several new LAMP results. Detections of water frost and hydration signatures near 165 nm, for example, provide constraints on composition that complement infrared spectroscopy, visible imaging, neutron spectroscopy, radar, and other techniques. At far-UV wavelengths a relatively blue spectral slope is diagnostic of space weathering, which is opposite of the spectral reddening indicator of maturity at wavelengths longward of 180 nm. By utilizing natural diffuse illumination sources on the nightside the far-UV technique is able to identify relative increases in porosity within the PSRs, and provides an additional tool for determining relative surface ages. Prospects for future studies are further enabled by a new, more sensitive dayside operating mode enacted during the present LRO mission extension.

  10. Unveiling topographical changes using LiDAR mapping capability: case study of Belaga in Sarawak, East-Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganendra, T. R.; Khan, N. M.; Razak, W. J.; Kouame, Y.; Mobarakeh, E. T.

    2016-06-01

    The use of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) remote sensing technology to scan and map landscapes has proven to be one of the most popular techniques to accurately map topography. Thus, LiDAR technology is the ultimate method of unveiling the surface feature under dense vegetation, and, this paper intends to emphasize the diverse techniques that can be utilized to elucidate topographical changes over the study area, using multi-temporal airborne full waveform LiDAR datasets collected in 2012 and 2014. Full waveform LiDAR data offers access to an almost unlimited number of returns per shot, which enables the user to explore in detail topographical changes, such as vegetation growth measurement. The study also found out topography changes at the study area due to earthwork activities contributing to soil consolidation, soil erosion and runoff, requiring cautious monitoring. The implications of this study not only concurs with numerous investigations undertaken by prominent researchers to improve decision making, but also corroborates once again that investigations employing multi-temporal LiDAR data to unveil topography changes in vegetated terrains, produce more detailed and accurate results than most other remote sensing data.

  11. Topographic Map of Quadrangle 3464, Shahrak (411) and Kasi (412) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohannon, Robert G.

    2006-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Minor artifacts resulting from the auto-contouring technique are present. Streams were auto-generated from the SRTM data in TNTmips as flow paths. Flow paths were limited in number by their Horton value on a quadrangle-by-quadrangle basis. Peak elevations were averaged over an area measuring 85 m by 85 m (represented by one pixel), and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding point on the ground. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Because cultural features were not derived from the SRTM base, they do not match it precisely. Province boundaries are not exactly located. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The open-file report (OFR) numbers for each quadrangle range in sequence from 1092 - 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS

  12. Topographic Map of Quadrangle 3266, Ourzgan (519) and Moqur (520) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohannon, Robert G.

    2006-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Minor artifacts resulting from the auto-contouring technique are present. Streams were auto-generated from the SRTM data in TNTmips as flow paths. Flow paths were limited in number by their Horton value on a quadrangle-by-quadrangle basis. Peak elevations were averaged over an area measuring 85 m by 85 m (represented by one pixel), and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding point on the ground. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Because cultural features were not derived from the SRTM base, they do not match it precisely. Province boundaries are not exactly located. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The open-file report (OFR) numbers for each quadrangle range in sequence from 1092 - 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS

  13. Topographic Map of Quadrangle 3568, Polekhomri (503) and Charikar (504) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohannon, Robert G.

    2006-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Minor artifacts resulting from the auto-contouring technique are present. Streams were auto-generated from the SRTM data in TNTmips as flow paths. Flow paths were limited in number by their Horton value on a quadrangle-by-quadrangle basis. Peak elevations were averaged over an area measuring 85 m by 85 m (represented by one pixel), and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding point on the ground. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Because cultural features were not derived from the SRTM base, they do not match it precisely. Province boundaries are not exactly located. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The open-file report (OFR) numbers for each quadrangle range in sequence from 1092 - 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS

  14. Topographic Map of Quadrangle 3366, Gizab (513) and Nawer (514) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohannon, Robert G.

    2006-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Minor artifacts resulting from the auto-contouring technique are present. Streams were auto-generated from the SRTM data in TNTmips as flow paths. Flow paths were limited in number by their Horton value on a quadrangle-by-quadrangle basis. Peak elevations were averaged over an area measuring 85 m by 85 m (represented by one pixel), and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding point on the ground. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Because cultural features were not derived from the SRTM base, they do not match it precisely. Province boundaries are not exactly located. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The open-file report (OFR) numbers for each quadrangle range in sequence from 1092 - 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS

  15. Topographic Map of Quadrangle 3162, Chakhansur (603) and Kotalak (604) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohannon, Robert G.

    2006-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Minor artifacts resulting from the auto-contouring technique are present. Streams were auto-generated from the SRTM data in TNTmips as flow paths. Flow paths were limited in number by their Horton value on a quadrangle-by-quadrangle basis. Peak elevations were averaged over an area measuring 85 m by 85 m (represented by one pixel), and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding point on the ground. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Because cultural features were not derived from the SRTM base, they do not match it precisely. Province boundaries are not exactly located. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The open-file report (OFR) numbers for each quadrangle range in sequence from 1092 - 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS

  16. Topographic Map of Quadrangle 3164, Lashkargah (605) and Kandahar (606) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohannon, Robert G.

    2006-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Minor artifacts resulting from the auto-contouring technique are present. Streams were auto-generated from the SRTM data in TNTmips as flow paths. Flow paths were limited in number by their Horton value on a quadrangle-by-quadrangle basis. Peak elevations were averaged over an area measuring 85 m by 85 m (represented by one pixel), and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding point on the ground. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Because cultural features were not derived from the SRTM base, they do not match it precisely. Province boundaries are not exactly located. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The open-file report (OFR) numbers for each quadrangle range in sequence from 1092 - 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS

  17. Worldwide complete spherical Bouguer and isostatic anomaly maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvalot, S.; Balmino, G.; Briais, A.; Peyrefitte, A.; Vales, N.; Biancale, R.; Gabalda, G.; Reinquin, F.

    2011-12-01

    We present here a set of digital maps of the Earth's gravity anomalies (surface "free air", Bouguer and isostatic), computed at Bureau Gravimetric International (BGI) as a contribution to the Global Geodetic Observing Systems (GGOS) and to the global geophysical maps published by the Commission for the Geological Map of the World (CGMW). The free air and Bouguer anomaly concept is extensively used in geophysical interpretation to investigate the density distributions in the Earth's interior. Complete Bouguer anomalies (including terrain effects) are usually computed at regional scales by integrating the gravity attraction of topography elements over and beyond a given area (under planar or spherical approximations). Here, we developed and applied a worldwide spherical approach aimed to provide a set of homogeneous and high resolution gravity anomaly maps and grids computed at the Earth's surface, taking into account a realistic Earth model and reconciling geophysical and geodetic definitions of gravity anomalies. This first version (1.0) has been computed by spherical harmonics analysis / synthesis of the Earth's topography-bathymetry up to degree 10800. The detailed theory of the spherical harmonics approach is given in Balmino et al., (Journal of Geodesy, submitted). The Bouguer and terrain corrections have thus been computed in spherical geometry at 1'x1' resolution using the ETOPO1 topography/bathymetry, ice surface and bedrock models from the NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) and taking into account precise characteristics (boundaries and densities) of major lakes, inner seas, polar caps and of land areas below sea level. Isostatic corrections have been computed according to the Airy Heiskanen model in spherical geometry for a constant depth of compensation of 30km. The gravity information given here is provided by the Earth Geopotential Model (EGM2008), developed at degree 2160 by the National Geospatial Intelligence Agency (NGA) (Pavlis

  18. Role of Acute Lesion Topography in Initial Ischemic Stroke Severity and Long-Term Functional Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ona; Cloonan, Lisa; Mocking, Steven J T; Bouts, Mark J R J; Copen, William A; Cougo-Pinto, Pedro T; Fitzpatrick, Kaitlin; Kanakis, Allison; Schaefer, Pamela W; Rosand, Jonathan; Furie, Karen L; Rost, Natalia S

    2015-09-01

    Acute infarct volume, often proposed as a biomarker for evaluating novel interventions for acute ischemic stroke, correlates only moderately with traditional clinical end points, such as the modified Rankin Scale. We hypothesized that the topography of acute stroke lesions on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging may provide further information with regard to presenting stroke severity and long-term functional outcomes. Data from a prospective stroke repository were limited to acute ischemic stroke subjects with magnetic resonance imaging completed within 48 hours from last known well, admission NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS), and 3-to-6 months modified Rankin Scale scores. Using voxel-based lesion symptom mapping techniques, including age, sex, and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging lesion volume as covariates, statistical maps were calculated to determine the significance of lesion location for clinical outcome and admission stroke severity. Four hundred ninety subjects were analyzed. Acute stroke lesions in the left hemisphere were associated with more severe NIHSS at admission and poor modified Rankin Scale at 3 to 6 months. Specifically, injury to white matter (corona radiata, internal and external capsules, superior longitudinal fasciculus, and uncinate fasciculus), postcentral gyrus, putamen, and operculum were implicated in poor modified Rankin Scale. More severe NIHSS involved these regions, as well as the amygdala, caudate, pallidum, inferior frontal gyrus, insula, and precentral gyrus. Acute lesion topography provides important insights into anatomic correlates of admission stroke severity and poststroke outcomes. Future models that account for infarct location in addition to diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging volume may improve stroke outcome prediction and identify patients likely to benefit from aggressive acute intervention and personalized rehabilitation strategies. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Topography measurements for determining the decay factors in surface replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, J; Zheng, A; Vorburger, T V; Rubert, P

    2008-01-01

    The electro-forming technique is used at National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for the production of standard reference material (SRM) 2461 standard casings to support nationwide ballistics measurement traceability and measurement quality control in the US. In order to ensure that the SRM casings are produced with virtually the same surface topography, it is necessary to test the decay factors of the replication process. Twenty-six replica casings are replicated from the same master casing for the decay factor tests. The NIST topography measurement system is used for measurements and correlations of surface topography. The topography decays are quantified by the cross-correlation function maximum CCF max . Based on the test, it is expected that 256 SRM casings can be replicated from the same master with CCF max values higher than 95%

  20. Influence of surface topography on the sputtering yields of silver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Jisheng; Wang Zhenxia; Tao Zhenlan; Zhang Jiping

    1992-01-01

    The sputtering yields of silver have been measured as a function of the fluence of incident Ar + ions (27 keV) using the collector technique and RBS analysis. The irradiated surface was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It is shown that the sputtering yields of surfaces with topography are enhanced relative to smooth surfaces of silver, but the extent of the enhancement depends on the irradiation dose. The experimental results can be explained assuming that the surface topography and sputtering yield are a function of incident angle. It is obvious that the surface topography is an important factor to influence the sputtering yield. The term ''apparent sputtering yield'' has specifically been used when referring to the experimental sputtering yield of a surface with topography, to emphasize the difference with a smooth surface. (orig.)

  1. Fractal-like thickness and topography of the salt layer in a pillows province of the southern North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez Maya, K.; Mitchell, N. C.; Huuse, M.

    2017-12-01

    Salt topography and thickness variations are important for testing theories of how halokinetic deformation proceeds. The ability to predict thickness variations of salt at small scale is also important for reservoir evaluations, as breach of the salt layer can lead to loss of petroleum fluids and can be difficult to evaluate from seismic reflection data. Relevant to these issues, we here report analysis of data on salt layer topography and thickness from the southern North Sea, where the salt is organized into pillows. These data were derived by the Geological Survey of the Netherlands (TNO) from industry 3D seismic reflection data combined with a dense network of well information. Highs and lows in the topography of the upper salt interface occur spaced over a variety of lengthscales. Power spectral analysis of the interface topography reveals a simple inverse power law relationship between power spectral density and spatial wave number. The relationship suggests that the interface is a self-affine fractal with a fractal dimension of 2.85. A similar analysis of the salt layer thickness also suggests a fractal-like power law. Whereas the layer thickness power law is unsurprising as the underlying basement topography dominates the thickness and it also has a fractal-like power spectrum, the salt topography is not so easily explained as not all the basement faults are overlaid by salt pillows, instead some areas of the dataset salt thinning overlies faults. We consider instead whether a spatially varied loading of the salt layer may have caused this fractal-like geometry. Varied density and thickness of overburdening layers seem unlikely causes, as thicknesses of layers and their reflectivities do not vary sympathetically with the topography of the interface. The composition of the salt layer varies with the relative proportions of halite and denser anhydrite and other minerals. Although limited in scope and representing the mobilized salt layer, the information from

  2. Monitoring microstructural evolution in-situ during cyclic deformation by high resolution reciprocal space mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichs, Annika Martina; Thiel, Felix; Fischer, Torben

    2017-01-01

    The recently developed synchrotron technique High Resolution Reciprocal Space Mapping (HRRSM) is used to characterize the deformation structures evolving during cyclic deformation of commercially pure, polycrystalline aluminium AA1050. Insight into the structural reorganization within single grains...... is gained by in-situ monitoring of the microstructural evolution during cyclic deformation. By HRRSM, a large number of individual subgrains can be resolved within individual grains in the bulk of polycrystalline specimens and their fate, their individual orientation and elastic stresses, tracked during...

  3. Titan's Topography and Shape at the End of the Cassini Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corlies, P.; Hayes, A. G.; Birch, S. P. D.; Lorenz, R.; Stiles, B. W.; Kirk, R.; Poggiali, V.; Zebker, H.; Iess, L.

    2017-12-01

    With the conclusion of the Cassini mission, we present an updated topographic map of Titan, including all the available altimetry, SARtopo, and stereophotogrammetry topographic data sets available from the mission. We use radial basis functions to interpolate the sparse data set, which covers only ˜9% of Titan's global area. The most notable updates to the topography include higher coverage of the poles of Titan, improved fits to the global shape, and a finer resolution of the global interpolation. We also present a statistical analysis of the error in the derived products and perform a global minimization on a profile-by-profile basis to account for observed biases in the input data set. We find a greater flattening of Titan than measured, additional topographic rises in Titan's southern hemisphere and better constrain the possible locations of past and present liquids on Titan's surface.

  4. Mapping the space of genomic signatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lila Kari

    Full Text Available We propose a computational method to measure and visualize interrelationships among any number of DNA sequences allowing, for example, the examination of hundreds or thousands of complete mitochondrial genomes. An "image distance" is computed for each pair of graphical representations of DNA sequences, and the distances are visualized as a Molecular Distance Map: Each point on the map represents a DNA sequence, and the spatial proximity between any two points reflects the degree of structural similarity between the corresponding sequences. The graphical representation of DNA sequences utilized, Chaos Game Representation (CGR, is genome- and species-specific and can thus act as a genomic signature. Consequently, Molecular Distance Maps could inform species identification, taxonomic classifications and, to a certain extent, evolutionary history. The image distance employed, Structural Dissimilarity Index (DSSIM, implicitly compares the occurrences of oligomers of length up to k (herein k = 9 in DNA sequences. We computed DSSIM distances for more than 5 million pairs of complete mitochondrial genomes, and used Multi-Dimensional Scaling (MDS to obtain Molecular Distance Maps that visually display the sequence relatedness in various subsets, at different taxonomic levels. This general-purpose method does not require DNA sequence alignment and can thus be used to compare similar or vastly different DNA sequences, genomic or computer-generated, of the same or different lengths. We illustrate potential uses of this approach by applying it to several taxonomic subsets: phylum Vertebrata, (superkingdom Protista, classes Amphibia-Insecta-Mammalia, class Amphibia, and order Primates. This analysis of an extensive dataset confirms that the oligomer composition of full mtDNA sequences can be a source of taxonomic information. This method also correctly finds the mtDNA sequences most closely related to that of the anatomically modern human (the Neanderthal

  5. Topography-guided photorefractive keratectomy for irregular astigmatism after small incision lenticule extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivarsen, Anders; Hjortdal, Jesper Ø

    2014-06-01

    To report the outcome of topography-guided photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) after complicated small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE). Retrospective case series of 5 eyes with irregular topography and ghost images after complicated SMILE. All eyes received transepithelial topography-guided PRK. Two eyes were treated with 0.02% mitomycin C. Patients were examined after a minimum of 3 months with evaluation of uncorrected (UDVA) and corrected (CDVA) distance visual acuity, Pentacam tomography (Oculus Optikgeräte, Wetzlar, Germany), and whole-eye aberrometry. In 3 eyes, subjective symptoms were diminished and UDVA, CDVA, topography, and corneal wavefront aberrations were improved. The remaining 2 eyes developed significant haze with worsened topography and wavefront aberrations. One eye experienced a two-line reduction in CDVA. Eyes with haze development had not been treated with mitomycin C. Transepithelial topography-guided PRK may reduce visual symptoms after complicated SMILE if postoperative haze can be controlled. To reduce the risk of haze development, application of mitomycin C may be considered. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. The applicability of space imagery to the small-scale topographic mapping of developing countries: A case study — the Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, G.; El Niweiri, A. E. H.

    After reviewing the current status of topographic mapping in Sudan, the paper considers the possible applications of space inagery to the topographic mapping of the country at 1 : 100,000 scale. A comprehensive series of tests of the geometric accuracy and interpretability of six types of space imagery taken by the Landsat MSS, RBV and TM sensors, the MOMS scanner, the ESA Metric Camera and NASA's Large Format Camera have been conducted over a test area established in the Red Sea Hills area of Sudan supplemented by further interpretation tests carried out over the area of Khartoum and the Gezira. The results of these tests are given together with those from comparative tests carried out with other images acquired by the same sensors over test areas in developed countries (UK and USA). Further collateral information on topographic mapping at 1 : 100,000 scale from SPOT imagery has been provided by the Ordnance Survey based on its tests and experience in North Yemen. The paper concludes with an analysis of the possibilities of mapping the main (non-equatorial) area of Sudan at 1 : 100,000 scale based on the results of the extensive series of tests reported in the paper and elsewhere. Consideration is also given to the infrastructure required to support such a programme.

  7. UV laser micromachining of ceramic materials: formation of columnar topographies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, V.; Vilar, R.; Conde, O.

    2001-01-01

    Laser machining is increasingly appearing as an alternative for micromachining of ceramics. Using ceramic materials using excimer lasers can result in smooth surfaces or in the formation of cone-like or columnar topography. Potential applications of cone-shaped or columnar surface topography include, for example, light trapping in anti-reflection coatings and improvement of adhesion bonding between ceramic materials. In this communication results of a comparative study of surface topography change during micromachining of several ceramic materials with different ablation behaviors are reported. (orig.)

  8. A Support Vector Machine for Landslide Susceptibility Mapping in Gangwon Province, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saro Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the support vector machine (SVM was applied and validated by using the geographic information system (GIS in order to map landslide susceptibility. In order to test the usefulness and effectiveness of the SVM, two study areas were carefully selected: the PyeongChang and Inje areas of Gangwon Province, Korea. This is because, not only did many landslides (2098 in PyeongChang and 2580 in Inje occur in 2006 as a result of heavy rainfall, but the 2018 Winter Olympics will be held in these areas. A variety of spatial data, including landslides, geology, topography, forest, soil, and land cover, were identified and collected in the study areas. Following this, the spatial data were compiled in a GIS-based database through the use of aerial photographs. Using this database, 18 factors relating to topography, geology, soil, forest and land use, were extracted and applied to the SVM. Next, the detected landslide data were randomly divided into two sets; one for training and the other for validation of the model. Furthermore, a SVM, specifically a type of data-mining classification model, was applied by using radial basis function kernels. Finally, the estimated landslide susceptibility maps were validated. In order to validate the maps, sensitivity analyses were carried out through area-under-the-curve analysis. The achieved accuracies from the SVM were approximately 81.36% and 77.49% in the PyeongChang and Inje areas, respectively. Moreover, a sensitivity assessment of the factors was performed. It was found that all of the factors, except for soil topography, soil drainage, soil material, soil texture, timber diameter, timber age, and timber density for the PyeongChang area, and timber diameter, timber age, and timber density for the Inje area, had relatively positive effects on the landslide susceptibility maps. These results indicate that SVMs can be useful and effective for landslide susceptibility analysis.

  9. Fixed Point Theory for Lipschitzian-type Mappings with Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sahu, D R; Agarwal, Ravi P

    2009-01-01

    Offers a systematic presentation of Lipschitzian-type mappings in metric and Banach spaces. This book covers some basic properties of metric and Banach spaces. It also provides background in terms of convexity, smoothness and geometric coefficients of Banach spaces including duality mappings and metric projection mappings.

  10. Metric modular spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Chistyakov, Vyacheslav

    2015-01-01

    Aimed toward researchers and graduate students familiar with elements of functional analysis, linear algebra, and general topology; this book contains a general study of modulars, modular spaces, and metric modular spaces. Modulars may be thought of as generalized velocity fields and serve two important purposes: generate metric spaces in a unified manner and provide a weaker convergence, the modular convergence, whose topology is non-metrizable in general. Metric modular spaces are extensions of metric spaces, metric linear spaces, and classical modular linear spaces. The topics covered include the classification of modulars, metrizability of modular spaces, modular transforms and duality between modular spaces, metric  and modular topologies. Applications illustrated in this book include: the description of superposition operators acting in modular spaces, the existence of regular selections of set-valued mappings, new interpretations of spaces of Lipschitzian and absolutely continuous mappings, the existe...

  11. The influence of surface topography on Kelvin probe force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadewasser, S; Leendertz, C; Streicher, F; Lux-Steiner, M Ch

    2009-01-01

    Long-range electrostatic forces govern the imaging mechanism in electrostatic force microscopy as well as in Kelvin probe force microscopy. To improve the analysis of such images, simulations of the electrostatic field distribution have been performed in the past using a flat surface and a cone-shaped tip. However, the electrostatic field distribution between a tip and a sample depends strongly on the surface topography, which has been neglected in previous studies. It is therefore of general importance to study the influence of sample topography features on Kelvin probe force microscopy images, which we address here by performing finite element simulations. We show how the surface potential measurement is influenced by surface steps and surface grooves, considering potential variations in the form of a potential peak and a potential step. The influence of the topography on the measurement of the surface potential is found to be rather small compared to a typical experimental resolution. Surprisingly, in the case of a coinciding topography and potential step an improvement of the potential profile due to the inclusion of the topography is observed. Finally, based on the obtained results, suggestions for the realization of KPFM measurement are given.

  12. Fringe-shifting single-projector moiré topography application for cotyle implantate abrasion measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rössler, Tomáš; Hrabovský, Miroslav; Pluháček, František

    2005-08-01

    The cotyle implantate is abraded in the body of patient and its shape changes. Information about the magnitude of abrasion is contained in the result contour map of the implantate. The locations and dimensions of abraded areas can be computed from the contours deformation. The method called the single-projector moire topography was used for the contour lines determination. The theoretical description of method is given at first. The design of the experimental set-up follows. The light grating projector was developed to realize the periodic structure on the measured surface. The method of fringe-shifting was carried out to increase the data quantity. The description of digital processing applied to the moire grating images is introduced at the end together with the examples of processed images.

  13. Digitizing topography map of pulau panjang Banten, using ArcGIS 9.2 and surfer 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ari Nugroho and Yarianto SBS

    2010-01-01

    In supporting the site safety and feasibility assessment of the Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), has been created the topographical map based on Geographic Information System (GIS). This map was created from the primary spatial data compilation resulting from the topographical survey of Pulo Panjang Island in February 2009. A personal computer installed with ArcGIS version 9.2 from Environmental System Research Institute (ESRI) and Surfer version 8 was used to support the activity. ArcGIS 9.2 was used to compile and process an extra-terrestrial spatial data from Global Positioning System (GPS) Real Time Kinematic (RTK) while surfer 8 was used to create a contour from orthometric elevation data. The result of this activity is a topographical map of Pulo Panjang in digital data which integrated, duplicable, informative, and editable. (author)

  14. Payload topography camera of Chang'e-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Guo-Bin; Liu, En-Hai; Zhao, Ru-Jin; Zhong, Jie; Zhou, Xiang-Dong; Zhou, Wu-Lin; Wang, Jin; Chen, Yuan-Pei; Hao, Yong-Jie

    2015-01-01

    Chang'e-3 was China's first soft-landing lunar probe that achieved a successful roving exploration on the Moon. A topography camera functioning as the lander's “eye” was one of the main scientific payloads installed on the lander. It was composed of a camera probe, an electronic component that performed image compression, and a cable assembly. Its exploration mission was to obtain optical images of the lunar topography in the landing zone for investigation and research. It also observed rover movement on the lunar surface and finished taking pictures of the lander and rover. After starting up successfully, the topography camera obtained static images and video of rover movement from different directions, 360° panoramic pictures of the lunar surface around the lander from multiple angles, and numerous pictures of the Earth. All images of the rover, lunar surface, and the Earth were clear, and those of the Chinese national flag were recorded in true color. This paper describes the exploration mission, system design, working principle, quality assessment of image compression, and color correction of the topography camera. Finally, test results from the lunar surface are provided to serve as a reference for scientific data processing and application. (paper)

  15. Engaging the Applications Community of the future Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, M.; Andral, A.; Dejus, M.; Hossain, F.; Peterson, C.; Beighley, E.; Pavelsky, T.; Chao, Y.; Doorn, B.; Bronner, E.; Houpert, L.

    2015-04-01

    NASA and the French space agency, CNES, with contributions from the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) and United Kingdom Space Agency (UKSA) are developing new wide swath altimetry technology that will cover most of the world's ocean and surface freshwater bodies. The proposed Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission will have the capability to make observations of surface water (lakes, rivers, wetland) heights and measurements of ocean surface topography with unprecedented spatial coverage, temporal sampling, and spatial resolution compared to existing technologies. These data will be useful for monitoring the hydrologic cycle, flooding, and characterizing human impacts on a changing environment. The applied science community is a key element in the success of the SWOT mission, demonstrating the high value of the science and data products in addressing societal issues and needs. The SWOT applications framework includes a working group made up of applications specialists, SWOT science team members, academics and SWOT Project members to promote applications research and engage a broad community of potential SWOT data users. A defined plan and a guide describing a program to engage early adopters in using proxies for SWOT data, including sophisticated ocean and hydrology simulators, an airborne analogue for SWOT (AirSWOT), and existing satellite datasets, are cornerstones for the program. A user survey is in development and the first user workshop was held in 2015, with annual workshops planned. The anticipated science and engineering advances that SWOT will provide can be transformed into valuable services to decision makers and civic organizations focused on addressing global disaster risk reduction initiatives and potential science-based mitigation activities for water resources challenges of the future. With the surface water measurements anticipated from SWOT, a broad range of applications can inform inland and coastal managers and marine operators of

  16. Spray-coatable negative photoresist for high topography MEMS applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, Markus; Haas, Sven; Schwenzer, Falk; Schwenzer, Gunther; Reuter, Danny; Geßner, Thomas; Voigt, Anja; Gruetzner, Gabi

    2017-01-01

    In microsystem technology, the lithographical processing of substrates with a topography is very important. Interconnecting lines, which are routed over sloped topography sidewalls from the top of the protecting wafer to the contact pads of the device wafer, are one example of patterning over a topography. For structuring such circuit paths, a photolithography process, and therefore a process for homogeneous photoresist coating, is required. The most flexible and advantageous way of depositing a homogeneous photoresist film over structures with high topography steps is spray-coating. As a pattern transfer process for circuit paths in cavities, the lift-off process is widely used. A negative resist, like ma-N (MRT) or AZnLOF (AZ) is favoured for lift-off processes due to the existing negative angle of the sidewalls. Only a few sprayable negative photoresists are commercially available. In this paper, the development of a novel negative resist spray-coating based on a commercially available single-layer lift-off resist for spin-coating, especially for the patterning of structures inside the cavity and on the cavity wall, is presented. A variety of parameters influences the spray-coating process, and therefore the patterning results. Besides the spray-coating tool and the parameters, the composition of the resist solution itself also influences the coating results. For homogeneous resist coverage over the topography of the substrate, different solvent combinations for diluting the resist solution, different chuck temperatures during the coating process, and also the softbake conditions, are all investigated. The solvent formulations and the process conditions are optimized with respect to the homogeneity of the resist coverage on the top edge of the cavities. Finally, the developed spray-coating process, the resist material and the process stability are demonstrated by the following applications: (i) lift-off, (ii) electroplating, (iii) the wet and (iv) the dry

  17. One perspective on spatial variability in geologic mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markewich, H.W.; Cooper, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the differences between geologic mapping and soil mapping, and how the resultant maps are interpreted. The role of spatial variability in geologic mapping is addressed only indirectly because in geologic mapping there have been few attempts at quantification of spatial differences. This is largely because geologic maps deal with temporal as well as spatial variability and consider time, age, and origin, as well as composition and geometry. Both soil scientists and geologists use spatial variability to delineate mappable units; however, the classification systems from which these mappable units are defined differ greatly. Mappable soil units are derived from systematic, well-defined, highly structured sets of taxonomic criteria; whereas mappable geologic units are based on a more arbitrary heirarchy of categories that integrate many features without strict values or definitions. Soil taxonomy is a sorting tool used to reduce heterogeneity between soil units. Thus at the series level, soils in any one series are relatively homogeneous because their range of properties is small and well-defined. Soil maps show the distribution of soils on the land surface. Within a map area, soils, which are often less than 2 m thick, show a direct correlation to topography and to active surface processes as well as to parent material.

  18. High & mighty: Implicit associations between space and social status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie eGagnon

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Figurative language, the built environment, and our perceptuo-motor experiences frequently associate social status with physical space. Linguistic references such as high status or climbing the corporate ladder, and built places such as the U.S. Capitol building link social and physical hierarchies. In three experiments we examine the source and extent of these associations by testing whether people implicitly associate abstract social status indicators with concrete representations of spatial topography (level versus mountainous land and relatively abstract representations of cardinal direction (south and north. Experiment 1 demonstrates speeded performance during an Implicit Association Test (IAT; Greenwald et al., 1998 when average social status is paired with level topography and high status with mountainous topography. Experiments 2 and 3 demonstrate a similar effect but with relatively abstract representations of cardinal direction (south and north, with speeded performance when average and powerful social status are paired with south and north coordinate space, respectively. Abstract concepts of social status are perceived and understood in an inherently spatial world, resulting in powerful associations between abstract social concepts and concrete and abstract notions of physical axes. These associations may prove influential in guiding daily judgments and actions.

  19. Does Dry Eye Affect Repeatability of Corneal Topography Measurements?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysun Şanal Doğan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the repeatability of corneal topography measurements in dry eye patients and healthy controls. Materials and Methods: Participants underwent consecutive corneal topography measurements (Sirius; Costruzione Strumenti Oftalmici, Florence, Italy. Two images with acquisition quality higher than 90% were accepted. The following parameters were evaluated: minimum and central corneal thickness, aqueous depth, apex curvature, anterior chamber volume, horizontal anterior chamber diameter, iridocorneal angle, cornea volume, and average simulated keratometry. Repeatability was assessed by calculating intra-class correlation coefficient. Results: Thirty-three patients with dry eye syndrome and 40 healthy controls were enrolled to the study. The groups were similar in terms of age (39 [18-65] vs. 30.5 [18-65] years, p=0.198 and gender (M/F: 4/29 vs. 8/32, p=0.366. Intra-class correlation coefficients among all topography parameters within both groups showed excellent repeatability (>0.90. Conclusion: The anterior segment measurements provided by the Sirius corneal topography system were highly repeatable for dry eye patients and are sufficiently reliable for clinical practice and research.

  20. Does Dry Eye Affect Repeatability of Corneal Topography Measurements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğan, Aysun Şanal; Gürdal, Canan; Köylü, Mehmet Talay

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the repeatability of corneal topography measurements in dry eye patients and healthy controls. Participants underwent consecutive corneal topography measurements (Sirius; Costruzione Strumenti Oftalmici, Florence, Italy). Two images with acquisition quality higher than 90% were accepted. The following parameters were evaluated: minimum and central corneal thickness, aqueous depth, apex curvature, anterior chamber volume, horizontal anterior chamber diameter, iridocorneal angle, cornea volume, and average simulated keratometry. Repeatability was assessed by calculating intra-class correlation coefficient. Thirty-three patients with dry eye syndrome and 40 healthy controls were enrolled to the study. The groups were similar in terms of age (39 [18-65] vs. 30.5 [18-65] years, p=0.198) and gender (M/F: 4/29 vs. 8/32, p=0.366). Intra-class correlation coefficients among all topography parameters within both groups showed excellent repeatability (>0.90). The anterior segment measurements provided by the Sirius corneal topography system were highly repeatable for dry eye patients and are sufficiently reliable for clinical practice and research.

  1. Modeling the topography of the salar de Uyuni, Bolivia as an equipotential surface of Earth’s gravity field

    OpenAIRE

    Borsa, Adrian

    2008-01-01

    The salar de Uyuni is a massive dry salt lake that lies at the lowest point of an internal drainage basin in the Bolivian Altiplano. A kinematic GPS survey of the salar in September 2002 found a topographic range of only 80 cm over a 54 × 45 km area and subtle surface features that appeared to correlate with mapped gravity. In order to confirm the correlation between topography and gravity/geopotential, we use local gravity measurements and the EGM96 global geopotential model to construct a c...

  2. Topography and Volcanology of the Huangtsuishan Volcano Subgroup, Northern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ming Lai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Combining the shaded relief topography model and the slope map from the Digital Terrain Model (DTM images, toporaphical map, field occurrences and petrography, the volcanic sequences of the Huangtsuishan Volcano Subgroup (HVS can be constructed. Two types of volcanic centers can be identified in this area. One is the Tachienhou volcanic dome, which may be located in the center of an older caldera. The other is the Huangtsui composite volcano, which is composed of interbedding lava flows and pyroclastic deposits with a volcanic crater named the Huangtsui pond at the summit. Eight lava plateaus radiated from Mts. Huangtsui and Tachienhou to the north and the east can be distinguished based on the DTM images. The volcanic deposits are comprised of four lithofacies, the lava flows, pyroclastic breccias, tuffs and lahars on the base of field occurrences. At least thirteen layers of lava flow, named the H1 to H13 can be recognized in the HVS and can be reconstructed and categorized into four stages. An old and large volcano erupted lava flows to form the products of stages one and two, then collapsed to form a caldera with a dome for the third stage. The latest stage of lava flow was poured out from the Huangtsui volcano, which formed a crater at the summit.

  3. Back to the future: Rational maps for exploring acetylcholine receptor space and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessier, Christian J G; Emlaw, Johnathon R; Cao, Zhuo Qian; Pérez-Areales, F Javier; Salameh, Jean-Paul J; Prinston, Jethro E; McNulty, Melissa S; daCosta, Corrie J B

    2017-11-01

    Global functions of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, such as subunit cooperativity and compatibility, likely emerge from a network of amino acid residues distributed across the entire pentameric complex. Identification of such networks has stymied traditional approaches to acetylcholine receptor structure and function, likely due to the cryptic interdependency of their underlying amino acid residues. An emerging evolutionary biochemistry approach, which traces the evolutionary history of acetylcholine receptor subunits, allows for rational mapping of acetylcholine receptor sequence space, and offers new hope for uncovering the amino acid origins of these enigmatic properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Mapping number to space in the two hemispheres of the avian brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugani, Rosa; Vallortigara, Giorgio; Regolin, Lucia

    2016-09-01

    Pre-verbal infants and non-human animals associate small numbers with the left space and large numbers with the right space. Birds and primates, trained to identify a given position in a sagittal series of identical positions, whenever required to respond on a left/right oriented series, referred the given position starting from the left end. Here, we extended this evidence by selectively investigating the role of either cerebral hemisphere, using the temporary monocular occlusion technique. In birds, lacking the corpus callosum, visual input is fed mainly to the contralateral hemisphere. We trained 4-day-old chicks to identify the 4th element in a sagittal series of 10 identical elements. At test, the series was identical but left/right oriented. Test was conducted in right monocular, left monocular or binocular condition of vision. Right monocular chicks pecked at the 4th right element; left monocular and binocular chicks pecked at the 4th left element. Data on monocular chicks demonstrate that both hemispheres deal with an ordinal (sequential) task. Data on binocular chicks indicate that the left bias is linked to a right hemisphere dominance, that allocates the attention toward the left hemispace. This constitutes a first step towards understanding the neural basis of number space mapping. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. On in-vivo skin topography metrology and replication techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, B-G; Blunt, L; Thomas, T R

    2005-01-01

    Human skin metrology is an area of growing interest for many disciplines both in research and for commercial purposes. Changes in the skin topography are an early stage diagnosis tool not only for diseases but also give indication of the response to medical and cosmetic treatment. This paper focuses on the evaluation of in vivo and in vitro methodologies for accurate measurements of skin and outlines the quantitative characterisation of the skin topography. The study shows the applicability of in-vivo skin topography characterisation and also the advantages and limitations compared to conventional replication techniques. Finally, aspects of stripe projection methodology and 3D characterisation are discussed as a background to the proposed methodology in this paper

  6. Three-dimensional nanomechanical mapping of amorphous and crystalline phase transitions in phase-change materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grishin, Ilja; Huey, Bryan D; Kolosov, Oleg V

    2013-11-13

    The nanostructure of micrometer-sized domains (bits) in phase-change materials (PCM) that undergo switching between amorphous and crystalline phases plays a key role in the performance of optical PCM-based memories. Here, we explore the dynamics of such phase transitions by mapping PCM nanostructures in three dimensions with nanoscale resolution by combining precision Ar ion beam cross-sectional polishing and nanomechanical ultrasonic force microscopy (UFM) mapping. Surface and bulk phase changes of laser written submicrometer to micrometer sized amorphous-to-crystalline (SET) and crystalline-to-amorphous (RESET) bits in chalcogenide Ge2Sb2Te5 PCM are observed with 10-20 nm lateral and 4 nm depth resolution. UFM mapping shows that the Young's moduli of crystalline SET bits exceed the moduli of amorphous areas by 11 ± 2%, with crystalline content extending from a few nanometers to 50 nm in depth depending on the energy of the switching pulses. The RESET bits written with 50 ps pulses reveal shallower depth penetration and show 30-50 nm lateral and few nanometer vertical wavelike topography that is anticorrelated with the elastic modulus distribution. Reverse switching of amorphous RESET bits results in the full recovery of subsurface nanomechanical properties accompanied with only partial topography recovery, resulting in surface corrugations attributed to quenching. This precision sectioning and nanomechanical mapping approach could be applicable to a wide range of amorphous, nanocrystalline, and glass-forming materials for 3D nanomechanical mapping of amorphous-crystalline transitions.

  7. Lectures on quasiconformal mappings

    CERN Document Server

    Ahlfors, Lars V

    2006-01-01

    Lars Ahlfors's Lectures on Quasiconformal Mappings, based on a course he gave at Harvard University in the spring term of 1964, was first published in 1966 and was soon recognized as the classic it was shortly destined to become. These lectures develop the theory of quasiconformal mappings from scratch, give a self-contained treatment of the Beltrami equation, and cover the basic properties of Teichm�ller spaces, including the Bers embedding and the Teichm�ller curve. It is remarkable how Ahlfors goes straight to the heart of the matter, presenting major results with a minimum set of prerequisites. Many graduate students and other mathematicians have learned the foundations of the theories of quasiconformal mappings and Teichm�ller spaces from these lecture notes. This edition includes three new chapters. The first, written by Earle and Kra, describes further developments in the theory of Teichm�ller spaces and provides many references to the vast literature on Teichm�ller spaces and quasiconformal ...

  8. MAPPING OF THE RUSSIAN NORTHERN SEAS BOTTOM RELIEF USING DIGITAL ELEVATION MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Koshel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The task of the project is the design of the digital elevation models (DEM of the bottoms of Barents Sea, Pechora Sea, and the White Sea. Accuracy (resolution of DEMs allows for adequate delineation of morphological structures and peculiarities of the sea bottoms and the design of bathymetrical and derivative maps. DEMs of the sea bottom were compiled using data from navigation charts of different scales, where additional isobaths were drawn manually taking into account the classification features of the bottom topography forms. Next procedures were carried out: scanning of these charts, processing of scanned images, isobaths vectorization and creation of attribute tables, vector layers transformation to geographical coordinates as well editing, merging and joining of the map sheets, correction of geometry and attributes. For generation of digital model of bottom topography it is important to choose algorithm which allows for representation all of the sea bottom features expressed by isobaths in most details. The original algorithm based on fast calculation of distances to the two different nearest isobaths was used. Interpretation of isolines as vector linear objects is the main peculiarity of this algorithm. The resulted DEMs were used to design bathymetrical maps of Barents Sea of 1:2 500 000 scale, Pechora Sea of 1:1 000 000 scale, and White Sea of 1:750 000 scale. Different derivative maps were compiled based on DEM of the White Sea.

  9. Topographic Map of Quadrangle 3564, Chahriaq (Joand) (405) and Gurziwan (406) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohannon, Robert G.

    2006-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Minor artifacts resulting from the auto-contouring technique are present. Streams were auto-generated from the SRTM data in TNTmips as flow paths. Flow paths were limited in number by their Horton value on a quadrangle-by-quadrangle basis. Peak elevations were averaged over an area measuring 85 m by 85 m (represented by one pixel), and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding point on the ground. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Because cultural features were not derived from the SRTM base, they do not match it precisely. Province boundaries are not exactly located. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The open-file report (OFR) numbers for each quadrangle range in sequence from 1092 - 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS

  10. Topographic Map of Quadrangle 3364, Pasa-Band (417) and Kejran (418) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohannon, Robert G.

    2006-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Minor artifacts resulting from the auto-contouring technique are present. Streams were auto-generated from the SRTM data in TNTmips as flow paths. Flow paths were limited in number by their Horton value on a quadrangle-by-quadrangle basis. Peak elevations were averaged over an area measuring 85 m by 85 m (represented by one pixel), and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding point on the ground. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Because cultural features were not derived from the SRTM base, they do not match it precisely. Province boundaries are not exactly located. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The open-file report (OFR) numbers for each quadrangle range in sequence from 1092 - 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS

  11. Topographic Map of Quadrangle 3466, Lal-Sarjangal (507) and Bamyan (508) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohannon, Robert G.

    2006-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Minor artifacts resulting from the auto-contouring technique are present. Streams were auto-generated from the SRTM data in TNTmips as flow paths. Flow paths were limited in number by their Horton value on a quadrangle-by-quadrangle basis. Peak elevations were averaged over an area measuring 85 m by 85 m (represented by one pixel), and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding point on the ground. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Because cultural features were not derived from the SRTM base, they do not match it precisely. Province boundaries are not exactly located. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The open-file report (OFR) numbers for each quadrangle range in sequence from 1092 - 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS

  12. Topographic Map of Quadrangle 3670, Jam-Kashem (223) and Zebak (224) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohannon, Robert G.

    2006-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Minor artifacts resulting from the auto-contouring technique are present. Streams were auto-generated from the SRTM data in TNTmips as flow paths. Flow paths were limited in number by their Horton value on a quadrangle-by-quadrangle basis. Peak elevations were averaged over an area measuring 85 m by 85 m (represented by one pixel), and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding point on the ground. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Because cultural features were not derived from the SRTM base, they do not match it precisely. Province boundaries are not exactly located. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The open-file report (OFR) numbers for each quadrangle range in sequence from 1092 - 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS

  13. Topographic Map of Quadrangle 3166, Jaldak (701) and Maruf-Nawa (702) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohannon, Robert G.

    2006-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Minor artifacts resulting from the auto-contouring technique are present. Streams were auto-generated from the SRTM data in TNTmips as flow paths. Flow paths were limited in number by their Horton value on a quadrangle-by-quadrangle basis. Peak elevations were averaged over an area measuring 85 m by 85 m (represented by one pixel), and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding point on the ground. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Because cultural features were not derived from the SRTM base, they do not match it precisely. Province boundaries are not exactly located. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The open-file report (OFR) numbers for each quadrangle range in sequence from 1092 - 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS

  14. Topographic Map of Quadrangle 3362, Shin-Dand (415) and Tulak (416) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohannon, Robert G.

    2006-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Minor artifacts resulting from the auto-contouring technique are present. Streams were auto-generated from the SRTM data in TNTmips as flow paths. Flow paths were limited in number by their Horton value on a quadrangle-by-quadrangle basis. Peak elevations were averaged over an area measuring 85 m by 85 m (represented by one pixel), and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding point on the ground. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Because cultural features were not derived from the SRTM base, they do not match it precisely. Province boundaries are not exactly located. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The open-file report (OFR) numbers for each quadrangle range in sequence from 1092 - 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS

  15. Topographic Map of Quadrangle 3462, Herat (409) and Chesht-Sharif (410) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohannon, Robert G.

    2006-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Minor artifacts resulting from the auto-contouring technique are present. Streams were auto-generated from the SRTM data in TNTmips as flow paths. Flow paths were limited in number by their Horton value on a quadrangle-by-quadrangle basis. Peak elevations were averaged over an area measuring 85 m by 85 m (represented by one pixel), and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding point on the ground. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Because cultural features were not derived from the SRTM base, they do not match it precisely. Province boundaries are not exactly located. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The open-file report (OFR) numbers for each quadrangle range in sequence from 1092 - 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS

  16. The evolution of Tharsis: Implications of gravity, topography, and tectonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerdt, W.B.; Golombek, M.P.

    1990-01-01

    Dominating the Western Hemisphere of Mars, the Tharsis rise is an elongate area centered on Syria Planum that ascends as much as 8 to 10 km above the datum. It is intensely fractured by long, narrow grabens that extend radially hundreds of kilometers beyond the rise and is ringed by mostly concentric wrinkle ridges that formed over 2,000 km from the center of the rise. Its size, involving a full hemisphere of Mars, gives it a central role in the thermo-tectonic evolution of the planet and has stimulated a number of studies attempting to determine the sequence of events responsible for this feature. The constraints that gravity and topography data place on the current structure of Tharsis, along with insights into its development derived from comparisons of detailed regional mapping of faulting with theoretical deformation models are reviewed. Finally, a self-consistent model for the structure of Tharsis is proposed

  17. Investigating Flow Features Near Abrupt Topography in the Mariana Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Investigating Flow Features Near Abrupt Topography in...waves generated by flow over topography and mesoscale eddies generated by flow past islands. Having identified the prime locations in the region for such

  18. The application of confocal technology based on polycapillary X-ray optics in surface topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Guangcui; Sun, Tianxi; Liu, Zhiguo; Yuan, Hao; Li, Yude; Liu, Hehe; Zhao, Weigang; Zhang, Ruixia; Min, Qin; Peng, Song

    2013-01-01

    A confocal micro-X-ray fluorescence (MXRF) technology based on polycapillary X-ray optics was proposed for determining surface topography. This confocal topography method involves elemental sensitivity and can be used to classify the objects according to their elemental composition while obtaining their surface topography. To improve the spatial resolution of this confocal topography technology, the center of the confocal micro-volume was overlapped with the output focal spot of the polycapillary X-ray, focusing the lens in the excitation channel. The input focal spot of the X-ray lens parallel to the detection channel was used to determine the surface position of the sample. The corresponding surface adaptive algorithm was designed to obtain the surface topography. The surface topography of a ceramic chip was obtained. This confocal MXRF surface topography method could find application in the materials sciences

  19. Relação entre solo, vegetação e topografia em área de cerrado (Parque Estadual de Vassununga, SP: como se expressa em mapeamentos? The relationship among soil, vegetation and topography in a cerrado area (Vassununga State Park, SP: how well is it expressed in maps ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Guidão Cruz Ruggiero

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram investigadas as relações entre mapas de fitofisionomias, solos e topografia, na Gleba Pé-de-Gigante (21º37'30''S; 47º37'30''W, SP. A área estudada constitui a planície de inundação do córrego Paulicéia e colinas no entorno, onde predominam fisionomias de cerrado, havendo também manchas de floresta estacional, floresta ripária e campo úmido, sobre solos predominantemente arenosos. As cartas temáticas analisadas compreenderam: a mapa pré-existente de fisionomias de vegetação, b mapa hipsométrico, baseado em curvas de nível de 5 em 5 m e c mapa de solos, feito a partir de dados químicos e físicos do solo (amostras coletadas em 54 pontos, nas profundidades: 0-5, 5-25, 40-60 e 80-100 cm e fotografias aéreas (1988, 1:40.000. Os mapas foram re-classificados, para se obter diferentes níveis de detalhamento, e cruzados, em sistema de informação geográfica. Nas tabelas de contingência, geradas a partir dos cruzamentos, foi aplicado o teste de Qui-quadrado e obtido o valor de correlação de Cramér, para investigar a relação entre os mapeamentos. A floresta estacional semidecídua se mostrou fortemente associada à classe geral de Latossolos, e o campo cerrado às altitudes de 620-650 m, provavelmente associado à dinâmica sub-superficial da água. O detalhamento da informação mapeada nos temas analisados não garantiu melhores resultados à interpretação de suas relações, pois as classes fitofisionômicas não respondem diretamente, nem isoladamente, à topografia ou à classificação usual dos solos.Relationships among vegetation, soil and topography maps were investigated in the Pé-de-Gigante Reserve (21º37'30''S; 47º37'30''W, SP. The studied area is the Paulicéia river basin, where soils are predominantly sandy and the vegetation includes a gradient of savanna physiognomies and patches of semideciduous forest, wet fields, and riparian forest. The cartographic material included: a pre-existent vegetation

  20. Some fixed point theorems for weakly compatible mappings in Non-Archimedean Menger probabilistic metric spaces via common limit range property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunny Chauhan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we utilize the notion of common limit range property in Non-Archimedean Menger PM-spaces and prove some fixed point theorems for two pairs of weakly compatible mappings. Some illustrative examples are furnished to support our results. As an application to our main result, we present a common fixed point theorem for four finite families of self mappings. Our results improve and extend several known results existing in the literature.