WorldWideScience

Sample records for space invited review

  1. Invited Review Article: Advanced light microscopy for biological space research

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vos, Winnok H.; Beghuin, Didier; Schwarz, Christian J.; Jones, David B.; van Loon, Jack J. W. A.; Bereiter-Hahn, Juergen; Stelzer, Ernst H. K.

    2014-10-01

    As commercial space flights have become feasible and long-term extraterrestrial missions are planned, it is imperative that the impact of space travel and the space environment on human physiology be thoroughly characterized. Scrutinizing the effects of potentially detrimental factors such as ionizing radiation and microgravity at the cellular and tissue level demands adequate visualization technology. Advanced light microscopy (ALM) is the leading tool for non-destructive structural and functional investigation of static as well as dynamic biological systems. In recent years, technological developments and advances in photochemistry and genetic engineering have boosted all aspects of resolution, readout and throughput, rendering ALM ideally suited for biological space research. While various microscopy-based studies have addressed cellular response to space-related environmental stressors, biological endpoints have typically been determined only after the mission, leaving an experimental gap that is prone to bias results. An on-board, real-time microscopical monitoring device can bridge this gap. Breadboards and even fully operational microscope setups have been conceived, but they need to be rendered more compact and versatile. Most importantly, they must allow addressing the impact of gravity, or the lack thereof, on physiologically relevant biological systems in space and in ground-based simulations. In order to delineate the essential functionalities for such a system, we have reviewed the pending questions in space science, the relevant biological model systems, and the state-of-the art in ALM. Based on a rigorous trade-off, in which we recognize the relevance of multi-cellular systems and the cellular microenvironment, we propose a compact, but flexible concept for space-related cell biological research that is based on light sheet microscopy.

  2. Invited Review Article: Advanced light microscopy for biological space research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Vos, Winnok H.; Beghuin, Didier; Schwarz, Christian J.; Jones, David B.; Loon, Jack J. W. A. van; Bereiter-Hahn, Juergen; Stelzer, Ernst H. K.

    2014-01-01

    As commercial space flights have become feasible and long-term extraterrestrial missions are planned, it is imperative that the impact of space travel and the space environment on human physiology be thoroughly characterized. Scrutinizing the effects of potentially detrimental factors such as ionizing radiation and microgravity at the cellular and tissue level demands adequate visualization technology. Advanced light microscopy (ALM) is the leading tool for non-destructive structural and functional investigation of static as well as dynamic biological systems. In recent years, technological developments and advances in photochemistry and genetic engineering have boosted all aspects of resolution, readout and throughput, rendering ALM ideally suited for biological space research. While various microscopy-based studies have addressed cellular response to space-related environmental stressors, biological endpoints have typically been determined only after the mission, leaving an experimental gap that is prone to bias results. An on-board, real-time microscopical monitoring device can bridge this gap. Breadboards and even fully operational microscope setups have been conceived, but they need to be rendered more compact and versatile. Most importantly, they must allow addressing the impact of gravity, or the lack thereof, on physiologically relevant biological systems in space and in ground-based simulations. In order to delineate the essential functionalities for such a system, we have reviewed the pending questions in space science, the relevant biological model systems, and the state-of-the art in ALM. Based on a rigorous trade-off, in which we recognize the relevance of multi-cellular systems and the cellular microenvironment, we propose a compact, but flexible concept for space-related cell biological research that is based on light sheet microscopy

  3. Invited Review Article: Advanced light microscopy for biological space research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Vos, Winnok H., E-mail: winnok.devos@uantwerpen.be [Laboratory of Cell Biology and Histology, Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Antwerp, Antwerp (Belgium); Cell Systems and Imaging Research Group, Department of Molecular Biotechnology, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Beghuin, Didier [Lambda-X, Nivelles (Belgium); Schwarz, Christian J. [European Space Agency (ESA), ESTEC, TEC-MMG, Noordwijk (Netherlands); Jones, David B. [Institute for Experimental Orthopaedics and Biomechanics, Philipps University, Marburg (Germany); Loon, Jack J. W. A. van [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery/Oral Pathology, VU University Medical Center and Department of Oral Cell Biology, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bereiter-Hahn, Juergen; Stelzer, Ernst H. K. [Physical Biology, BMLS (FB15, IZN), Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    As commercial space flights have become feasible and long-term extraterrestrial missions are planned, it is imperative that the impact of space travel and the space environment on human physiology be thoroughly characterized. Scrutinizing the effects of potentially detrimental factors such as ionizing radiation and microgravity at the cellular and tissue level demands adequate visualization technology. Advanced light microscopy (ALM) is the leading tool for non-destructive structural and functional investigation of static as well as dynamic biological systems. In recent years, technological developments and advances in photochemistry and genetic engineering have boosted all aspects of resolution, readout and throughput, rendering ALM ideally suited for biological space research. While various microscopy-based studies have addressed cellular response to space-related environmental stressors, biological endpoints have typically been determined only after the mission, leaving an experimental gap that is prone to bias results. An on-board, real-time microscopical monitoring device can bridge this gap. Breadboards and even fully operational microscope setups have been conceived, but they need to be rendered more compact and versatile. Most importantly, they must allow addressing the impact of gravity, or the lack thereof, on physiologically relevant biological systems in space and in ground-based simulations. In order to delineate the essential functionalities for such a system, we have reviewed the pending questions in space science, the relevant biological model systems, and the state-of-the art in ALM. Based on a rigorous trade-off, in which we recognize the relevance of multi-cellular systems and the cellular microenvironment, we propose a compact, but flexible concept for space-related cell biological research that is based on light sheet microscopy.

  4. Invited Review Article: Advanced light microscopy for biological space research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vos, W.H.; Beghuin, D.; Schwarz, C.J.; Jones, D.B.; van Loon, J.J.W.A.; Bereiter-Hahn, J.; Stelzer, E.H.K.

    2014-01-01

    As commercial space flights have become feasible and long-term extraterrestrial missions are planned, it is imperative that the impact of space travel and the space environment on human physiology be thoroughly characterized. Scrutinizing the effects of potentially detrimental factors such as

  5. Invited review article: advanced light microscopy for biological space research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vos, W.H.; Beghuin, D.; Schwarz, C.J.; Jones, D.B.; van Loon, J.J.W.A.; Bereiter-Hahn, J.; Stelzer, E.H.K.

    2014-01-01

    As commercial space flights have become feasible and long-term extraterrestrial missions are planned, it is imperative that the impact of space travel and the space environment on human physiology be thoroughly characterized. Scrutinizing the effects of potentially detrimental factors such as

  6. Invited review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sangild, Per Torp; Thymann, Thomas; Schmidt, Mette

    2013-01-01

    with NEC may require resection of the necrotic parts of the intestine, leading to short bowel syndrome (SBS), characterised by reduced digestive capacity, fluid loss, and dependency on parenteral nutrition. This review presents the preterm pig as a translational model in pediatric gastroenterology that has...

  7. Invited review nonmulberry silk biopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, S C; Kundu, Banani; Talukdar, Sarmistha; Bano, Subia; Nayak, Sunita; Kundu, Joydip; Mandal, Biman B; Bhardwaj, Nandana; Botlagunta, Mahendran; Dash, Biraja C; Acharya, Chitrangada; Ghosh, Ananta K

    2012-06-01

    The silk produced by silkworms are biopolymers and can be classified into two types--mulberry and nonmulberry. Mulberry silk of silkworm Bombyx mori has been extensively explored and used for century old textiles and sutures. But for the last few decades it is being extensively exploited for biomedical applications. However, the transformation of nonmulberry silk from being a textile commodity to biomaterials is relatively new. Within a very short period of time, the combination of load bearing capability and tensile strength of nonmulberry silk has been equally envisioned for bone, cartilage, adipose, and other tissue regeneration. Adding to its advantage is its diverse morphology, including macro to nano architectures with controllable degradation and biocompatibility yields novel natural material systems in vitro. Its follow on applications involve sustained release of model compounds and anticancer drugs. Its 3D cancer models provide compatible microenvironment systems for better understanding of the cancer progression mechanism and screening of anticancer compounds. Diversely designed nonmulberry matrices thus provide an array of new cutting age technologies, which is unattainable with the current synthetic materials that lack biodegradability and biocompatibility. Scientific exploration of nonmulberry silk in tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, and biotechnological applications promises advancement of sericulture industries in India and China, largest nonmulberry silk producers of the world. This review discusses the prospective biomedical applications of nonmulberry silk proteins as natural biomaterials. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Invited review article: the electrostatic plasma lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharov, Alexey

    2013-02-01

    The fundamental principles, experimental results, and potential applications of the electrostatic plasma lens for focusing and manipulating high-current, energetic, heavy ion beams are reviewed. First described almost 50 years ago, this optical beam device provides space charge neutralization of the ion beam within the lens volume, and thus provides an effective and unique tool for focusing high current beams where a high degree of neutralization is essential to prevent beam blow-up. Short and long lenses have been explored, and a lens in which the magnetic field is provided by rare-earth permanent magnets has been demonstrated. Applications include the use of this kind of optical tool for laboratory ion beam manipulation, high dose ion implantation, heavy ion accelerator injection, in heavy ion fusion, and other high technology.

  9. Invited Review Article: Pump-probe microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jesse W.; Robles, Francisco E.; Warren, Warren S.

    2016-01-01

    Multiphoton microscopy has rapidly gained popularity in biomedical imaging and materials science because of its ability to provide three-dimensional images at high spatial and temporal resolution even in optically scattering environments. Currently the majority of commercial and home-built devices are based on two-photon fluorescence and harmonic generation contrast. These two contrast mechanisms are relatively easy to measure but can access only a limited range of endogenous targets. Recent developments in fast laser pulse generation, pulse shaping, and detection technology have made accessible a wide range of optical contrasts that utilize multiple pulses of different colors. Molecular excitation with multiple pulses offers a large number of adjustable parameters. For example, in two-pulse pump-probe microscopy, one can vary the wavelength of each excitation pulse, the detection wavelength, the timing between the excitation pulses, and the detection gating window after excitation. Such a large parameter space can provide much greater molecular specificity than existing single-color techniques and allow for structural and functional imaging without the need for exogenous dyes and labels, which might interfere with the system under study. In this review, we provide a tutorial overview, covering principles of pump-probe microscopy and experimental setup, challenges associated with signal detection and data processing, and an overview of applications. PMID:27036751

  10. Invited Review Article: Pump-probe microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Martin C., E-mail: Martin.Fischer@duke.edu; Wilson, Jesse W.; Robles, Francisco E. [Department of Chemistry, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Warren, Warren S. [Departments of Chemistry, Biomedical Engineering, Physics, and Radiology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Multiphoton microscopy has rapidly gained popularity in biomedical imaging and materials science because of its ability to provide three-dimensional images at high spatial and temporal resolution even in optically scattering environments. Currently the majority of commercial and home-built devices are based on two-photon fluorescence and harmonic generation contrast. These two contrast mechanisms are relatively easy to measure but can access only a limited range of endogenous targets. Recent developments in fast laser pulse generation, pulse shaping, and detection technology have made accessible a wide range of optical contrasts that utilize multiple pulses of different colors. Molecular excitation with multiple pulses offers a large number of adjustable parameters. For example, in two-pulse pump-probe microscopy, one can vary the wavelength of each excitation pulse, the detection wavelength, the timing between the excitation pulses, and the detection gating window after excitation. Such a large parameter space can provide much greater molecular specificity than existing single-color techniques and allow for structural and functional imaging without the need for exogenous dyes and labels, which might interfere with the system under study. In this review, we provide a tutorial overview, covering principles of pump-probe microscopy and experimental setup, challenges associated with signal detection and data processing, and an overview of applications.

  11. Microwave Interferometric Radiometry in Remote Sensing: an Invited Historical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Neira, M.; LeVine, D. M.; Kerr, Y.; Skou, N.; Peichl, M.; Camps, A.; Corbella, I.; Hallikainen, M.; Font, J.; Wu, J.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The launch of the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission on 2 November 2009 marked a milestone in remote sensing for it was the first time a radiometer capable of acquiring wide field of view images at every single snapshot, a unique feature of the synthetic aperture technique, made it to space. The technology behind such an achievement was developed, thanks to the effort of a community of researchers and engineers in different groups around the world. It was only because of their joint work that SMOS finally became a reality. The fact that the European Space Agency, together with CNES (Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales) and CDTI (Centro para el Desarrollo Tecnológico e Industrial), managed to get the project through should be considered a merit and a reward for that entire community. This paper is an invited historical review that, within a very limited number of pages, tries to provide insight into some of the developments which, one way or another, are imprinted in the name of SMOS.

  12. Invitation

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Monday, 11 October Gala-Concert to celebrate 50 years of CERN Jack Liebeck (violin) and Katya Apekisheva (piano) Works by C. Debussy, S. Prokofiev, and L. van Beethoven CERN, Main Auditorium, 20:00 For CERN staff and their families With the assistance of PPARC (UK) Free tickets available at the CERN Press Office (50-1-048). Maximum four tickets per person. For more information on the performers, see: http://www.jackliebeck.com/CERN50/JL.htm http://www.jackliebeck.com/CERN50/KA.htm The "WIENER SCHUBERTBUND" celebrates CERN's 50th "DEUTSCHE MESSE" By Franz Schubert performed by the "WIENER SCHUBERTBUND" On the occasion of the Organization's Fiftieth Anniversary, Mr Hans-Walter Gérard Schober, Honorary Consul-General of Austria in Geneva, is pleased to invite all those working at CERN to a mass at which Franz Schubert's German Mass will be sung by the Vienna Schubert Choral Society. This renown men's choir, founded in 1863. Eminent composers, including Richard Strauss, Wilhelm Kinzel, a...

  13. Particle precipitaion into the thermosphere (invited review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiff, P.H.

    1986-01-01

    A review of research on particle precipitation into the thermosphere is presented. Particle precipitation plays an important role in thermospheric dynamics, often being both the most important ionization source and the most important heat source, comparable to Joule heating rates in the auroral zones and typically exceeding solar ultraviolet as an ionization mechanism in the nightside auroral zones and winter polar caps. Rees (1963) has shown that, roughly speaking, one electron-ion pair is produced by each 35 eV of incident electron energy flux; thus, over half of the incident electron energy flux goes into heating rather than into ionization. Precipitating ions also can produce ionization, also requiring roughly 35 eV per pair; however, since ion energy fluxes are typically much weaker than electron fluxes, they have often been neglected. The particle precipitation into the thermosphere is both an important ionization source and an important heat source; since the globally integrated value can vary over more than a factor of ten, and the instantaneous local rate can vary over nearly three orders of magnitude global, maps of precipitation rates are extremely important for predicting thermospheric weather

  14. Invited review: Epidemics on social networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Kuperman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Since its first formulations almost a century ago, mathematical models fordisease spreading contributed to understand, evaluate and control the epidemic processes.They promoted a dramatic change in how epidemiologists thought of the propagation of infectious diseases.In the last decade, when the traditional epidemiological models seemed to be exhausted, new types of models were developed.These new models incorporated concepts from graph theory to describe and model the underlying social structure.Many of these works merely produced a more detailed extension of the previous results, but some otherstriggered a completely new paradigm in the mathematical study of epidemic processes. In this review, we will introduce the basicconcepts of epidemiology, epidemic modeling and networks, to finally provide a brief description of the mostrelevant results in the field.Received: 6 April 2013, Accepted: 3 June 2013; Edited by: G. Mindlin; DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4279/PIP.050003Cite as: M N Kuperman, Papers in Physics 5, 050003 (2013

  15. Youth Voices on Global Citizenship: Deliberating across Canada in an Online Invited Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Lynette; Pashby, Karen; Godwaldt, Terry

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the processes of youth engagement in an "invited space" for Canadian secondary school students. The organizers created a participatory citizenship education space in which Canadian students discussed their views and visions and developed their policy position on global citizenship and global citizenship education.…

  16. Presenting Critical Space Weather Information to Customers and Stakeholders (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viereck, R. A.; Singer, H. J.; Murtagh, W. J.; Rutledge, B.

    2013-12-01

    Space weather involves changes in the near-Earth space environment that impact technological systems such as electric power, radio communication, satellite navigation (GPS), and satellite opeartions. As with terrestrial weather, there are several different kinds of space weather and each presents unique challenges to the impacted technologies and industries. But unlike terrestrial weather, many customers are not fully aware of space weather or how it impacts their systems. This issue is further complicated by the fact that the largest space weather events occur very infrequently with years going by without severe storms. Recent reports have estimated very large potential costs to the economy and to society if a geomagnetic storm were to cause major damage to the electric power transmission system. This issue has come to the attention of emergency managers and federal agencies including the office of the president. However, when considering space weather impacts, it is essential to also consider uncertainties in the frequency of events and the predicted impacts. The unique nature of space weather storms, the specialized technologies that are impacted by them, and the disparate groups and agencies that respond to space weather forecasts and alerts create many challenges to the task of communicating space weather information to the public. Many customers that receive forecasts and alerts are highly technical and knowledgeable about the subtleties of the space environment. Others know very little and require ongoing education and explanation about how a space weather storm will affect their systems. In addition, the current knowledge and understanding of the space environment that goes into forecasting storms is quite immature. It has only been within the last five years that physics-based models of the space environment have played important roles in predictions. Thus, the uncertainties in the forecasts are quite large. There is much that we don't know about space

  17. Real-space Berry phases: Skyrmion soccer (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everschor-Sitte, Karin; Sitte, Matthias

    2014-05-01

    Berry phases occur when a system adiabatically evolves along a closed curve in parameter space. This tutorial-like article focuses on Berry phases accumulated in real space. In particular, we consider the situation where an electron traverses a smooth magnetic structure, while its magnetic moment adjusts to the local magnetization direction. Mapping the adiabatic physics to an effective problem in terms of emergent fields reveals that certain magnetic textures, skyrmions, are tailormade to study these Berry phase effects.

  18. Real-space Berry phases: Skyrmion soccer (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everschor-Sitte, Karin, E-mail: karin@physics.utexas.edu; Sitte, Matthias [The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Physics, 2515 Speedway, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2014-05-07

    Berry phases occur when a system adiabatically evolves along a closed curve in parameter space. This tutorial-like article focuses on Berry phases accumulated in real space. In particular, we consider the situation where an electron traverses a smooth magnetic structure, while its magnetic moment adjusts to the local magnetization direction. Mapping the adiabatic physics to an effective problem in terms of emergent fields reveals that certain magnetic textures, skyrmions, are tailormade to study these Berry phase effects.

  19. Real-space Berry phases: Skyrmion soccer (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everschor-Sitte, Karin; Sitte, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Berry phases occur when a system adiabatically evolves along a closed curve in parameter space. This tutorial-like article focuses on Berry phases accumulated in real space. In particular, we consider the situation where an electron traverses a smooth magnetic structure, while its magnetic moment adjusts to the local magnetization direction. Mapping the adiabatic physics to an effective problem in terms of emergent fields reveals that certain magnetic textures, skyrmions, are tailormade to study these Berry phase effects

  20. Invited review, recent developments in brachytherapy source dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meigooni, A.S.

    2004-01-01

    Application of radioactive isotopes is the treatment of choice around the globe for many cancer sites. In this technique, the accuracy of the radiation delivery is highly dependent on the accuracy of radiation dosimetry around individual brachytherapy sources. Moreover, in order to have compatible clinical results, an identical method of source dosimetry must be employed across the world. This problem has been recently addressed by task group 43 from the American Association of Medical Physics with a protocol for dosimetric characterization of brachytherapy sources. This new protocol has been further updated using published data from international sources, by a new Task Group from the American Association of Medical Physics. This has resulted in an updated protocol known as TG43U1 that has been published in March 2004 issue of Medical Physics. The goal of this presentation is to review the original Task Group 43 protocol and associated algorithms for brachytherapy source dosimetry. In addition, the shortcomings of the original protocol that has been resolved in the updated recommendation will be highlighted. I am sure that this is not the end of the line and more work is needed to complete this task. I invite the scientists to join this task and complete the project, with the hope of much better clinical results for cancer patients

  1. Polarization speckles and generalized Stokes vector wave: a review [invited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takeda, Mitsuo; Wang, Wei; Hanson, Steen Grüner

    2010-01-01

    We review some of the statistical properties of polarization-related speckle phenomena, with an introduction of a less known concept of polarization speckles and their spatial degree of polarization. As a useful means to characterize twopoint vector field correlations, we review the generalized...... Stokes parameters proposed by Korotkova and Wolf, and introduce its time-domain representation to describe the space-time evolution of the correlation between random electric vector fields at two different space-time points. This time-domain generalized Stokes vector, with components similar to those...... of the beam coherence polarization matrix proposed by Gori, is shown to obey the wave equation in exact analogy to a coherence function of scalar fields. Because of this wave nature, the time-domain generalized Stokes vector is referred to as generalized Stokes vector wave in this paper....

  2. Book Review: Invitation to Topological Robotics by Michael Farber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raussen, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Book Review: Invitaton to Topological Robotics by Michael Farber. Zurich Lectures in Advanced Mathematics, European Mathematical Society (2008), ISBN 978-3-03719-054-8......Book Review: Invitaton to Topological Robotics by Michael Farber. Zurich Lectures in Advanced Mathematics, European Mathematical Society (2008), ISBN 978-3-03719-054-8...

  3. Invited Review Article: The Chandra X-ray Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Daniel A.

    2014-06-01

    The Chandra X-ray Observatory is an orbiting x-ray telescope facility. It is one of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's four "Great Observatories" that collectively have carried out astronomical observations covering the infrared through gamma-ray portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. Chandra is used by astronomers world-wide to acquire imaging and spectroscopic data over a nominal 0.1-10 keV (124-1.24 Å) range. We describe the three major parts of the observatory: the telescope, the spacecraft systems, and the science instruments. This article will emphasize features of the design and development driven by some of the experimental considerations unique to x-ray astronomy. We will update the on-orbit performance and present examples of the scientific highlights.

  4. Invited review: Genetic and genomic mouse models for livestock research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Arends

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge about the function and functioning of single or multiple interacting genes is of the utmost significance for understanding the organism as a whole and for accurate livestock improvement through genomic selection. This includes, but is not limited to, understanding the ontogenetic and environmentally driven regulation of gene action contributing to simple and complex traits. Genetically modified mice, in which the functions of single genes are annotated; mice with reduced genetic complexity; and simplified structured populations are tools to gain fundamental knowledge of inheritance patterns and whole system genetics and genomics. In this review, we briefly describe existing mouse resources and discuss their value for fundamental and applied research in livestock.

  5. Invited review: Fermented milk as antihypertensive functional food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Barrientos, L M; Hernández-Mendoza, A; Torres-Llanez, M J; González-Córdova, A F; Vallejo-Córdoba, B

    2016-06-01

    Over the past decade, interest has risen in fermented dairy foods that promote health and could prevent diseases such as hypertension. This biological effect has mainly been attributed to bioactive peptides encrypted within dairy proteins that can be released during fermentation with specific lactic acid bacteria or during gastrointestinal digestion. The most studied bioactive peptides derived from dairy proteins are antihypertensive peptides; however, a need exists to review the different studies dealing with the evaluation of antihypertensive fermented milk before a health claim may be associated with the product. Thus, the objective of this overview was to present available information related to the evaluation of fermented milk containing antihypertensive peptides by in vitro and in vivo studies, which are required before a fermented functional dairy product may be introduced to the market. Although commercial fermented milks with antihypertensive effects exist, these are scarce and most are based on Lactobacillus helveticus. Thus, a great opportunity is available for the development of functional dairy products with new lactic acid bacteria that support heart health through blood pressure- and heart rate-lowering effects. Hence, the consumer may be willing to pay a premium for foods with important functional benefits. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Invited review: Opportunities for genetic improvement of metabolic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryce, J E; Parker Gaddis, K L; Koeck, A; Bastin, C; Abdelsayed, M; Gengler, N; Miglior, F; Heringstad, B; Egger-Danner, C; Stock, K F; Bradley, A J; Cole, J B

    2016-09-01

    Metabolic disorders are disturbances to one or more of the metabolic processes in dairy cattle. Dysfunction of any of these processes is associated with the manifestation of metabolic diseases or disorders. In this review, data recording, incidences, genetic parameters, predictors, and status of genetic evaluations were examined for (1) ketosis, (2) displaced abomasum, (3) milk fever, and (4) tetany, as these are the most prevalent metabolic diseases where published genetic parameters are available. The reported incidences of clinical cases of metabolic disorders are generally low (less than 10% of cows are recorded as having a metabolic disease per herd per year or parity/lactation). Heritability estimates are also low and are typically less than 5%. Genetic correlations between metabolic traits are mainly positive, indicating that selection to improve one of these diseases is likely to have a positive effect on the others. Furthermore, there may also be opportunities to select for general disease resistance in terms of metabolic stability. Although there is inconsistency in published genetic correlation estimates between milk yield and metabolic traits, selection for milk yield may be expected to lead to a deterioration in metabolic disorders. Under-recording and difficulty in diagnosing subclinical cases are among the reasons why interest is growing in using easily measurable predictors of metabolic diseases, either recorded on-farm by using sensors and milk tests or off-farm using data collected from routine milk recording. Some countries have already initiated genetic evaluations of metabolic disease traits and currently most of these use clinical observations of disease. However, there are opportunities to use clinical diseases in addition to predictor traits and genomic information to strengthen genetic evaluations for metabolic health in the future. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. - Invited Review - Calcium Digestibility and Metabolism in Pigs*

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Vega, J. C.; Stein, H. H.

    2014-01-01

    Calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) are minerals that have important physiological functions in the body. For formulation of diets for pigs, it is necessary to consider an appropriate Ca:P ratio for an adequate absorption and utilization of both minerals. Although both minerals are important, much more research has been conducted on P digestibility than on Ca digestibility. Therefore, this review focuses on aspects that are important for the digestibility of Ca. Only values for apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of Ca have been reported in pigs, whereas values for both ATTD and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P in feed ingredients have been reported. To be able to determine STTD values for Ca it is necessary to determine basal endogenous losses of Ca. Although most Ca is absorbed in the small intestine, there are indications that Ca may also be absorbed in the colon under some circumstances, but more research to verify the extent of Ca absorption in different parts of the intestinal tract is needed. Most P in plant ingredients is usually bound to phytate. Therefore, plant ingredients have low digestibility of P due to a lack of phytase secretion by pigs. During the last 2 decades, inclusion of microbial phytase in swine diets has improved P digestibility. However, it has been reported that a high inclusion of Ca reduces the efficacy of microbial phytase. It is possible that formation of insoluble calcium-phytate complexes, or Ca-P complexes, not only may affect the efficacy of phytase, but also the digestibility of P and Ca. Therefore, Ca, P, phytate, and phytase interactions are aspects that need to be considered in Ca digestibility studies. PMID:25049919

  8. EDITORIAL: Invited review and topical lectures from the 13th International Congress on Plasma Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagorodny, A.; Kocherga, O.

    2007-05-01

    The 13th International Congress on Plasma Physics (ICPP 2006) was organized, on behalf of the International Advisory Committee of the ICPP series, by the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and the Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics (BITP) and held in Kiev, Ukraine, 22 26 May 2006. The Congress Program included the topics: fundamental problems of plasma physics; fusion plasmas; plasmas in astrophysics and space physics; plasmas in applications and technologies; complex plasmas. A total of 305 delegates from 30 countries took part in the Congress. The program included 9 invited review lectures, 32 invited topical and 313 contributed papers (60 of which were selected for oral presentation). The Congress Program was the responsibility of the International Program Committee: Anatoly Zagorodny (Chairman) Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Ukraine Olha Kocherga (Scientific Secretary) Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Ukraine Boris Breizman The University of Texas at Austin, USA Iver Cairns School of Physics, University of Sydney, Australia Tatiana Davydova Institute for Nuclear Research, Ukraine Tony Donne FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics, Rijnhuizen, The Netherlands Nikolai S Erokhin Space Research Institute of RAS, Russia Xavier Garbet CEA, France Valery Godyak OSRAM SYLVANIA, USA Katsumi Ida National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan Alexander Kingsep Russian Research Centre `Kurchatov Institute', Russia E P Kruglyakov Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Russia Gregor Morfill Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Germany Osamu Motojima National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan Jef Ongena ERM-KMS, Brussels and EFDA-JET, UK Konstantyn Shamrai Institute for Nuclear Research, Ukraine Raghvendra Singh Institute for Plasma Research, India Konstantyn Stepanov Kharkiv Institute of Physics and Technology, Ukraine Masayoshi Tanaka National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan Nodar Tsintsadze Physics Institute, Georgia The

  9. Radiation damage effects in solids special topic volume with invited peer reviewed papers only

    CERN Document Server

    Virk, Hardev Singh

    2013-01-01

    Public interest and concern about radiation damage effects has increased during recent times. Nuclear radiation proved to be a precursor for the study of radiation damage effects in solids. In general, all types of radiation, e.g. X-ray, gamma ray, heavy ions, fission fragments and neutrons produce damage effects in materials. Radiation damage latent tracks in solids find applications in nuclear and elementary particle physics, chemistry, radiobiology, earth sciences, nuclear engineering, and a host of other areas such as nuclear safeguards, virus counting, ion track filters, uranium exploration and archaeology. Radiation dosimetry and reactor shielding also involve concepts based on radiation damage in solids. This special volume consists of ten Chapters, including Review and Research Papers on various topics in this field.Physical scientists known to be investigating the effects of radiation on material were invited to contribute research and review papers on the areas of their specialty. The topics include...

  10. Invited Article: Characterization of background sources in space-based time-of-flight mass spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, J. A.; Gershman, D. J.; Gloeckler, G.; Lundgren, R. A.; Zurbuchen, T. H.; Orlando, T. M.; McLain, J.; Steiger, R. von

    2014-01-01

    For instruments that use time-of-flight techniques to measure space plasma, there are common sources of background signals that evidence themselves in the data. The background from these sources may increase the complexity of data analysis and reduce the signal-to-noise response of the instrument, thereby diminishing the science value or usefulness of the data. This paper reviews several sources of background commonly found in time-of-flight mass spectrometers and illustrates their effect in actual data using examples from ACE-SWICS and MESSENGER-FIPS. Sources include penetrating particles and radiation, UV photons, energy straggling and angular scattering, electron stimulated desorption of ions, ion-induced electron emission, accidental coincidence events, and noise signatures from instrument electronics. Data signatures of these sources are shown, as well as mitigation strategies and design considerations for future instruments

  11. Earth & Space Science in the Next Generation Science Standards: Promise, Challenge, and Future Actions. (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyle, E. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) are a step forward in ensuring that future generations of students become scientifically literate. The NGSS document builds from the National Science Education Standards (1996) and the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) science framework of 2005. Design teams for the Curriculum Framework for K-12 Science Education were to outline the essential content necessary for students' science literacy, considering the foundational knowledge and the structure of each discipline in the context of learning progressions. Once draft standards were developed, two issues emerged from their review: (a) the continual need to prune 'cherished ideas' within the content, such that only essential ideas were represented, and (b) the potential for prior conceptions of Science & Engineering Practices (SEP) and cross-cutting concepts (CCC) to limit overly constrain performance expectations. With the release of the NGSS, several challenges are emerging for geoscience education. First, the traditional emphasis of Earth science in middle school has been augmented by new standards for high school that require major syntheses of concepts. Second, the integration of SEPs into performance expectations places an increased burden on teachers and curriculum developers to organize instruction around the nature of inquiry in the geosciences. Third, work is needed to define CCCs in Earth contexts, such that the unique structure of the geosciences is best represented. To ensure that the Earth & Space Science standards are implemented through grade 12, two supporting structures must be developed. In the past, many curricular materials claimed that they adhered to the NSES, but in some cases this match was a simple word match or checklist that bore only superficial resemblance to the standards. The structure of the performance expectations is of sufficient sophistication to ensure that adherence to the standards more than a casual exercise. Claims

  12. The role of space charge compensation for ion beam extraction and ion beam transport (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spädtke, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Depending on the specific type of ion source, the ion beam is extracted either from an electrode surface or from a plasma. There is always an interface between the (almost) space charge compensated ion source plasma, and the extraction region in which the full space charge is influencing the ion beam itself. After extraction, the ion beam is to be transported towards an accelerating structure in most cases. For lower intensities, this transport can be done without space charge compensation. However, if space charge is not negligible, the positive charge of the ion beam will attract electrons, which will compensate the space charge, at least partially. The final degree of Space Charge Compensation (SCC) will depend on different properties, like the ratio of generation rate of secondary particles and their loss rate, or the fact whether the ion beam is pulsed or continuous. In sections of the beam line, where the ion beam is drifting, a pure electrostatic plasma will develop, whereas in magnetic elements, these space charge compensating electrons become magnetized. The transport section will provide a series of different plasma conditions with different properties. Different measurement tools to investigate the degree of space charge compensation will be described, as well as computational methods for the simulation of ion beams with partial space charge compensation

  13. The systems approach for applying artificial intelligence to space station automation (Invited Paper)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grose, Vernon L.

    1985-12-01

    The progress of technology is marked by fragmentation -- dividing research and development into ever narrower fields of specialization. Ultimately, specialists know everything about nothing. And hope for integrating those slender slivers of specialty into a whole fades. Without an integrated, all-encompassing perspective, technology becomes applied in a lopsided and often inefficient manner. A decisionary model, developed and applied for NASA's Chief Engineer toward establishment of commercial space operations, can be adapted to the identification, evaluation, and selection of optimum application of artificial intelligence for space station automation -- restoring wholeness to a situation that is otherwise chaotic due to increasing subdivision of effort. Issues such as functional assignments for space station task, domain, and symptom modules can be resolved in a manner understood by all parties rather than just the person with assigned responsibility -- and ranked by overall significance to mission accomplishment. Ranking is based on the three basic parameters of cost, performance, and schedule. This approach has successfully integrated many diverse specialties in situations like worldwide terrorism control, coal mining safety, medical malpractice risk, grain elevator explosion prevention, offshore drilling hazards, and criminal justice resource allocation -- all of which would have otherwise been subject to "squeaky wheel" emphasis and support of decision-makers.

  14. Space station automation: the role of robotics and artificial intelligence (Invited Paper)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, W. T.; Firschein, O.

    1985-12-01

    Automation of the space station is necessary to make more effective use of the crew, to carry out repairs that are impractical or dangerous, and to monitor and control the many space station subsystems. Intelligent robotics and expert systems play a strong role in automation, and both disciplines are highly dependent on a common artificial intelligence (Al) technology base. The AI technology base provides the reasoning and planning capabilities needed in robotic tasks, such as perception of the environment and planning a path to a goal, and in expert systems tasks, such as control of subsystems and maintenance of equipment. This paper describes automation concepts for the space station, the specific robotic and expert systems required to attain this automation, and the research and development required. It also presents an evolutionary development plan that leads to fully automatic mobile robots for servicing satellites. Finally, we indicate the sequence of demonstrations and the research and development needed to confirm the automation capabilities. We emphasize that advanced robotics requires AI, and that to advance, AI needs the "real-world" problems provided by robotics.

  15. Invited Review. Combustion instability in spray-guided stratified-charge engines. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fansler, Todd D. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Reuss, D. L. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Sick, V. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Dahms, R. N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-02-02

    Our article reviews systematic research on combustion instabilities (principally rare, random misfires and partial burns) in spray-guided stratified-charge (SGSC) engines operated at part load with highly stratified fuel -air -residual mixtures. Results from high-speed optical imaging diagnostics and numerical simulation provide a conceptual framework and quantify the sensitivity of ignition and flame propagation to strong, cyclically varying temporal and spatial gradients in the flow field and in the fuel -air -residual distribution. For SGSC engines using multi-hole injectors, spark stretching and locally rich ignition are beneficial. Moreover, combustion instability is dominated by convective flow fluctuations that impede motion of the spark or flame kernel toward the bulk of the fuel, coupled with low flame speeds due to locally lean mixtures surrounding the kernel. In SGSC engines using outwardly opening piezo-electric injectors, ignition and early flame growth are strongly influenced by the spray's characteristic recirculation vortex. For both injection systems, the spray and the intake/compression-generated flow field influence each other. Factors underlying the benefits of multi-pulse injection are identified. Finally, some unresolved questions include (1) the extent to which piezo-SGSC misfires are caused by failure to form a flame kernel rather than by flame-kernel extinction (as in multi-hole SGSC engines); (2) the relative contributions of partially premixed flame propagation and mixing-controlled combustion under the exceptionally late-injection conditions that permit SGSC operation on E85-like fuels with very low NOx and soot emissions; and (3) the effects of flow-field variability on later combustion, where fuel-air-residual mixing within the piston bowl becomes important.

  16. Avenues for Scientist Involvement in Earth and Space Science Education and Public Outreach (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peticolas, L. M.; Gross, N. A.; Hsu, B. C.; Shipp, S. S.; Buxner, S.; Schwerin, T. G.; Smith, D.; Meinke, B. K.

    2013-12-01

    NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Science Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) Forums are charged with engaging, extending, supporting, and coordinating the community of E/PO professionals and scientists involved in Earth and space science education activities. This work is undertaken to maximize the effectiveness and efficiency of the overall national NASA science education and outreach effort made up of individual efforts run by these education professionals. This includes facilitating scientist engagement in education and outreach. A number of resources and opportunities for involvement are available for scientists involved in - or interested in being involved in - education or outreach. The Forums provide opportunities for earth and space scientists to stay informed, communicate, collaborate, leverage existing programs and partnerships, and become more skilled education practitioners. Interested scientists can receive newsletters, participate in monthly calls, interact through an online community workspace, and attend E/PO strategic meetings. The Forums also provide professional development opportunities on a myriad of topics, from common pre-conceptions in science, to program evaluation, to delivering effective workshops. Thematic approaches, such as Earth Science Week (http://www.earthsciweek.org), and the Year of the Solar System (http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/yss) are coordinated by the Forums; through these efforts resources are presented topically, in a manner that can be easily ported into diverse learning environments. Information about the needs of audiences with which scientists interact - higher education, K-12 education, informal education, and public - are provided by SMD's Audience-Based Working Groups. Their findings and recommendations are made available to inform the activities and products of E/PO providers so they are able to better serve these audiences. Also available is a 'one-stop shop' of SMD E/PO products and resources that can be

  17. Remote sensing from the desktop up, a students's personal stairway to space (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, W.

    2013-12-01

    Doing science with real-time quantitative experiments is becoming more and more affordable and accessible. Because lab equipment is more affordable and accessible, many universities are using lab class models wherein students conduct their experiments in informal settings such as the dorm, outside, or other places throughout the campus. Students are doing real-time measurements homework outside of class. By liberating experiments from facilities, the hope is to give students more experimental science opportunities. The challenge is support. In lab settings, instructors and peers can help students if they have trouble with the steps of assembling their experimental set-up, configuring the data acquisition software, conducting the real-time measurement and doing the analysis. Students working on their own in a dorm do not benefit from this support. Furthermore, when students are given the open ended experimental task of designing their own measurement system, they may need more guidance. In this poster presentation, I will articulate a triangle model to support students through the task of finding the necessary resources to design and build a mission to space. In the triangle model, students have access to base layer concept and skill resources to help them build their experiment. They then have access to middle layer mini-experiments to help them configure and test their experimental set-up. Finally, they have a motivating real-time experiment. As an example of this type of resource used in practice, I will have a balloon science remote sensing project as a stand-in for a balloon mission to 100,000 feet. I will use an Arduino based DAQ system and XBee modules for wireless data transmission to a LabVIEW front-panel. I will attach the DAQ to a tethered balloon to conduct a real-time microclimate experiment in the Moscone Center. Expanded microclimate studies can be the capstone project or can be a stepping-stone to space wherein students prepare a sensor package for a

  18. Invited review: gravitational biology of the neuromotor systems: a perspective to the next era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgerton, V. R.; Roy, R. R.

    2000-01-01

    Earth's gravity has had a significant impact on the designs of the neuromotor systems that have evolved. Early indications are that gravity also plays a key role in the ontogenesis of some of these design features. The purpose of the present review is not to assess and interpret a body of knowledge in the usual sense of a review but to look ahead, given some of the general concepts that have evolved and observations made to date, which can guide our future approach to gravitational biology. We are now approaching an era in gravitational biology during which well-controlled experiments can be conducted for sustained periods in a microgravity environment. Thus it is now possible to study in greater detail the role of gravity in phylogenesis and ontogenesis. Experiments can range from those conducted on the simplest levels of organization of the components that comprise the neuromotor system to those conducted on the whole organism. Generally, the impact of Earth's gravitational environment on living systems becomes more complex as the level of integration of the biological phenomenon of interest increases. Studies of the effects of gravitational vectors on neuromotor systems have and should continue to provide unique insight into these mechanisms that control and maintain neural control systems designed to function in Earth's gravitational environment. A number of examples are given of how a gravitational biology perspective can lead to a clearer understanding of neuromotor disorders. Furthermore, the technologies developed for spaceflight studies have contributed and should continue to contribute to studies of motor dysfunctions, such as spinal cord injury and stroke. Disorders associated with energy support and delivery systems and how these functions are altered by sedentary life styles at 1 G and by space travel in a microgravity environment are also discussed.

  19. Future superconductivity applications in space - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishen, Kumar; Ignatiev, Alex

    High temperature superconductor (HISC) materials and devices can provide immediate applications for many space missions. The in-space thermal environment provides an opportunity to develop, test, and apply this technology to enhance performance and reliability for many applications of crucial importance to NASA. Specifically, the technology development areas include: (1) high current power transmission, (2) microwave components, devices, and antennas, (3) microwave, optical, and infrared sensors, (4) signal processors, (5) submillimeter wave components and systems, (6) ultra stable space clocks, (7) electromagnetic launch systems, and (8) accelerometers and position sensors for flight operations. HTSC is expected to impact NASA's Lunar Bases, Mars exploration, Mission to Earth, and Planetary exploration programs providing enabling and cost-effect technology. A review of the space applications of the HTSC technology is presented. Problem areas in technology development needing special attention are identified.

  20. Enzyme-triggered nanomedicine: Drug release strategies in cancer therapy (Invited Review)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Thomas Lars; Thompson, David H.; Kaasgaard, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    -based strategies are particularly interesting as they require no prior knowledge of the tumour localization. The basis of this review is an evaluation of the current status of drug delivery strategies focused on triggered drug release by disease-associated enzymes. We limit ourselves to reviewing the liposome...

  1. Nonequilibrium Processes in the Solar Corona, Transition Region, Flares, and Solar Wind (Invited Review)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dudík, Jaroslav; Dzifčáková, Elena; Meyer-Vernet, N.; Del Zanna, G.; Young, P. R.; Giunta, A.; Sylwester, B.; Sylwester, J.; Oka, M.; Mason, H. E.; Vocks, C.; Matteini, L.; Krucker, S.; Williams, D.R.; Mackovjak, Š.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 292, č. 8 (2017), 100/1-100/72 ISSN 0038-0938 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-16447S Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : energetic particles * electrons * flares Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 2.682, year: 2016

  2. Invited review: Genetics and claw health: Opportunities to enhance claw health by genetic selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routine recording of claw health status at claw trimming of dairy cattle have been established in several countries, providing valuable data for genetic evaluation. In this review, issues related to genetic evaluation of claw health are examined, data sources, trait definitions and data validation p...

  3. Tracking the New Technology. A Summary of the Second Invitational Postsecondary Educational Review Panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, C. H.

    The second educational technology review panel addressed problems with forecasting the trends and impact of newer telecomunications technologies in both home and institution of higher education settings, and the role of several grant programs in educational technology. Paul Mertins provided an update on a National Center for Education Statistics…

  4. Raman Spectroscopy and Ab-Initio Model Calculations on Ionic Liquids:Invited Review

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Rolf W.

    2007-01-01

    A review of the recent developments in the study and understanding of room temperature ionic liquids are given. An intimate picture of how and why these liquids are not crystals at ambient conditions is attempted, based on evidence from crystallographical results combined with vibrational spectroscopy and ab-initio molecular orbital calculations. A discussion is given, based mainly on some recent FT-Raman spectroscopic results on the model ionic liquid system of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium ([...

  5. Daylighting, Space, and Architecture: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Hafiz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Daylighting dynamism and constant change can characterize buildings and spaces with a living quality that cannot be achieved with any other design element. However, daylighting can create unwanted lighting conditions in the visual field causing discomfort and glare. This may affect the performance of building occupants such as workers or students. Consequently, designing for daylighting needs a good understanding of daylighting. Designers can rely on information from simulation software to re-imagine the space, especially to examine possible unexpected visual discomfort conditions.This paper aims to represent different visual comfort evaluation methods that can help decision-makers make better informed decisions. Different definitions and structures associated with daylight and glare are examined. It also presents a review of the literature of previous research conducted on daylighting, visual comfort analysis and glare studies.

  6. Fourier fringe analysis and its application to metrology of extreme physical phenomena: a review [Invited].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Mitsuo

    2013-01-01

    The paper reviews a technique for fringe analysis referred to as Fourier fringe analysis (FFA) or the Fourier transform method, with a particular focus on its application to metrology of extreme physical phenomena. Examples include the measurement of extremely small magnetic fields with subfluxon sensitivity by electron wave interferometry, subnanometer wavefront evaluation of projection optics for extreme UV lithography, the detection of sub-Ångstrom distortion of a crystal lattice, and the measurement of ultrashort optical pulses in the femotsecond to attosecond range, which show how the advantages of FFA are exploited in these cutting edge applications.

  7. Invited review liquid crystal models of biological materials and silk spinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Alejandro D; Herrera-Valencia, Edtson E

    2012-06-01

    A review of thermodynamic, materials science, and rheological liquid crystal models is presented and applied to a wide range of biological liquid crystals, including helicoidal plywoods, biopolymer solutions, and in vivo liquid crystals. The distinguishing characteristics of liquid crystals (self-assembly, packing, defects, functionalities, processability) are discussed in relation to biological materials and the strong correspondence between different synthetic and biological materials is established. Biological polymer processing based on liquid crystalline precursors includes viscoelastic flow to form and shape fibers. Viscoelastic models for nematic and chiral nematics are reviewed and discussed in terms of key parameters that facilitate understanding and quantitative information from optical textures and rheometers. It is shown that viscoelastic modeling the silk spinning process using liquid crystal theories sheds light on textural transitions in the duct of spiders and silk worms as well as on tactoidal drops and interfacial structures. The range and consistency of the predictions demonstrates that the use of mesoscopic liquid crystal models is another tool to develop the science and biomimetic applications of mesogenic biological soft matter. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Invited review: Whey proteins as antioxidants and promoters of cellular antioxidant pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrochano, Alberto R; Buckin, Vitaly; Kelly, Phil M; Giblin, Linda

    2018-03-28

    Oxidative stress contributes to cell injury and aggravates several chronic diseases. Dietary antioxidants help the body to fight against free radicals and, therefore, avoid or reduce oxidative stress. Recently, proteins from milk whey liquid have been described as antioxidants. This review summarizes the evidence that whey products exhibit radical scavenging activity and reducing power. It examines the processing and treatment attempts to increase the antioxidant bioactivity and identifies 1 enzyme, subtilisin, which consistently produces the most potent whey fractions. The review compares whey from different milk sources and puts whey proteins in the context of other known food antioxidants. However, for efficacy, the antioxidant activity of whey proteins must not only survive processing, but also upper gut transit and arrival in the bloodstream, if whey products are to promote antioxidant levels in target organs. Studies reveal that direct cell exposure to whey samples increases intracellular antioxidants such as glutathione. However, the physiological relevance of these in vitro assays is questionable, and evidence is conflicting from dietary intervention trials, with both rats and humans, that whey products can boost cellular antioxidant biomarkers. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Animal board invited review: Dairy cow lameness expenditures, losses and total cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolecheck, K; Bewley, J

    2018-03-20

    Lameness is one of the most costly dairy cow diseases, yet adoption of lameness prevention strategies remains low. Low lameness prevention adoption might be attributable to a lack of understanding regarding total lameness costs. In this review, we evaluated the contribution of different expenditures and losses to total lameness costs. Evaluated expenditures included labor for treatment, therapeutic supplies, lameness detection and lameness control and prevention. Evaluated losses included non-saleable milk, reduced milk production, reduced reproductive performance, increased animal death, increased animal culling, disease interrelationships, lameness recurrence and reduced animal welfare. The previous literature on total lameness cost estimates was also summarized. The reviewed studies indicated that previous estimates of total lameness costs are variable and inconsistent in the expenditures and losses they include. Many of the identified expenditure and loss categories require further research to accurately include in total lameness cost estimates. Future research should focus on identifying costs associated with specific lameness conditions, differing lameness severity levels, and differing stages of lactation at onset of lameness to provide better total lameness cost estimates that can be useful for decision making at both the herd and individual cow level.

  10. A review of algal research in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederwieser, Tobias; Kociolek, Patrick; Klaus, David

    2018-05-01

    With the continued expansion of human presence into space, typical mission durations will routinely exceed six months and extend to distances beyond the Moon. As such, sending periodic resupply vehicles, as currently provided to the International Space Station, will likely no longer be feasible. Instead, self-sustaining life support systems that recycle human waste products will become increasingly necessary, especially for planetary bases. The idea of bioregenerative life support systems using algal photobioreactors has been discussed since the beginning of the space age. In order to evaluate how such a system could be implemented, a variety of space flight studies aimed at characterizing the potential for using algae in air revitalization, water recycling, food production, and radiation shielding applications have been conducted over the years. Also, given the recent, growing interest in algal research for regenerative fuel production, food supplements, and cosmetics, many algal strains are already well documented from related terrestrial experiments. This paper reviews past algal experiments flown in space from 1960 until today. Experimental methods and results from 51 investigations utilizing either green algae (Chlorophyta), cyanobacteria (Cyanophyta), or Euglenophyta are analyzed and categorized by a variety of parameters, including size, species and duration. The collected data are summarized in a matrix that allows easy comparison between the experiments and provides important information for future life support system requirement definition and design. Similarities between experiment results are emphasized. Common problems and shortcomings are summarized and analyzed in terms of potential solutions. Finally, key research gaps, which must be closed before developing a functional life support system, are identified.

  11. Invited review: Animal-based indicators for on-farm welfare assessment for dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battini, M; Vieira, A; Barbieri, S; Ajuda, I; Stilwell, G; Mattiello, S

    2014-11-01

    This paper reviews animal-based welfare indicators to develop a valid, reliable, and feasible on-farm welfare assessment protocol for dairy goats. The indicators were considered in the light of the 4 accepted principles (good feeding, good housing, good health, appropriate behavior) subdivided into 12 criteria developed by the European Welfare Quality program. We will only examine the practical indicators to be used on-farm, excluding those requiring the use of specific instruments or laboratory analysis and those that are recorded at the slaughterhouse. Body condition score, hair coat condition, and queuing at the feed barrier or at the drinker seem the most promising indicators for the assessment of the "good feeding" principle. As to "good housing," some indicators were considered promising for assessing "comfort around resting" (e.g., resting in contact with a wall) or "thermal comfort" (e.g., panting score for the detection of heat stress and shivering score for the detection of cold stress). Several indicators related to "good health," such as lameness, claw overgrowth, presence of external abscesses, and hair coat condition, were identified. As to the "appropriate behavior" principle, different criteria have been identified: agonistic behavior is largely used as the "expression of social behavior" criterion, but it is often not feasible for on-farm assessment. Latency to first contact and the avoidance distance test can be used as criteria for assessing the quality of the human-animal relationship. Qualitative behavior assessment seems to be a promising indicator for addressing the "positive emotional state" criterion. Promising indicators were identified for most of the considered criteria; however, no valid indicator has been identified for "expression of other behaviors." Interobserver reliability has rarely been assessed and warrants further attention; in contrast, short-term intraobserver reliability is frequently assessed and some studies consider mid

  12. Invited review: effect of udder health management practices on herd somatic cell count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, S; Fréchette, A; Barkema, H W; Mussell, A; Scholl, D T

    2011-02-01

    A systematic review of the scientific literature on relationships between management practices used on dairy farms and herd somatic cell count (SCC) was undertaken to distinguish those management practices that have been consistently shown to be associated with herd SCC from those lacking evidence of association. Relevant literature was identified using a combination of database searches (PubMed, Medline, CAB, Agricola, and Web of Science) and iterative screening of references. To be included in the review, a manuscript had to be published after 1979 in French, English, or Dutch; study design had to be other than case report or case series; herds studied had to be composed of ≥ 40 milking cows producing on average ≥ 7,000kg of milk in 305 d; interventions studied had to be management practices applied at the herd level and used as udder health control strategies; and SCC had to be measured using electronic cell counting methods. The 36 manuscripts selected were mainly observational cross-sectional studies; 8 manuscripts dealt exclusively with automatic milking systems and 4 with management of calves and heifers and its effect on SCC in early lactation heifers. Most practices having consistent associations with SCC were related to milking procedures: wearing gloves during milking, using automatic take-offs, using postmilking teat dipping, milking problem cows last, yearly inspection of the milking system, and use of a technique to keep cows standing following milking; all were consistently associated with lower herd SCC. Other practices associated with lower SCC were the use of a freestall system, sand bedding, cleaning the calving pen after each calving, surveillance of dry-cow udders for mastitis, use of blanket dry-cow therapy, parenteral selenium supplementation, udder hair management, and frequent use of the California Mastitis Test. Regarding SCC of heifers, most of the consistent associations reported were related to interventions made during the

  13. Invited review current progress and limitations of spider silk for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widhe, Mona; Johansson, Jan; Hedhammar, My; Rising, Anna

    2012-06-01

    Spider silk is a fascinating material combining remarkable mechanical properties with low density and biodegradability. Because of these properties and historical descriptions of medical applications, spider silk has been proposed to be the ideal biomaterial. However, overcoming the obstacles to produce spider silk in sufficient quantities and in a manner that meets regulatory demands has proven to be a difficult task. Also, there are relatively few studies of spider silk in biomedical applications available, and the methods and materials used vary a lot. Herein we summarize cell culture- and in vivo implantation studies of natural and synthetic spider silk, and also review the current status and future challenges in the quest for a large scale production of spider silk for medical applications. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Solar flares: invited review at the Royal Astronomical Society's meeting at Armagh, April 5, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, K.J.H.

    1991-04-01

    A solar flare may be defined to be the sudden release of stored magnetic energy in an active region and all the associated radiation, particle, mass-motion, wave and shock-wave phenomena directly resulting from it or triggered by it. In the last few years, solar flares have taken on an extra significance in respect of the fact that outbursts on cool dwarf stars seem to have the same characteristics and are widely assumed to be the same type of phenomenon. The physical mechanism that leads to solar flares, most likely the reconnection of magnetic fields, may well be the one that operates in stellar flares also. In this review, I shall deal with the chief observational facts about flares and associated phenomena, then deal with both interpretations and magnetic field reconnection theories. (Author)

  15. Invited review: Carryover effects of early lactation feeding on total lactation performance in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Carina; Spörndly, R; Bertilsson, J

    2016-01-01

    In comparison with the intensive research on the direct effects of energy supply on dairy cow lactation performance, little attention has been paid to the effect of early lactation feeding on subsequent production. The present paper reviews 9 studies carried out with the aim of quantifying...... the immediate and subsequent responses in milk production and body weight to early lactation feeding. Most results showed that a more generous feeding in early lactation caused a positive carryover effect on subsequent production, whereas an inadequate level of feed in early lactation has been shown to reduce...... to be determined by several factors including duration of the treatment and post-treatment feeding level. The most important factor though appears to be the magnitude of over- or underfeeding (i.e., a strong relationship between the treatment period feeding level and the subsequent response in production)....

  16. Invited Review Terahertz Transmission, Scattering, Reflection, and Absorption—the Interaction of THz Radiation with Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, R. A.

    2017-07-01

    Terahertz radiation has been proposed as a useful tool in the study of soils and related materials from such diverse perspectives as detection of non-metallic landmines to improving soil fertility by agricultural charcoals produced by pyrolysis of organic material. The main barrier to such applications is that soils are rather opaque at terahertz frequencies. In this article, the main findings to date on the interaction of terahertz radiation with soils are reviewed, organized around the four phenomena of terahertz: transmission, scattering, reflection, and absorption. Terahertz transmission through soils is generally low and decreases with frequency. Terahertz scattering is evident in many THz-soil interactions, as the wavelength of the radiation is of the order of the particle size. Terahertz reflection is important to communications as these develop from the GHz into the THz band. Terahertz absorption on diluted soil samples has been demonstrated to be effective in identifying soil constituents, such as aromatic compounds, and soil contaminants, such as pesticides.

  17. Review of highly charged heavy ion production with electron cyclotron resonance ion source (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, T.

    2014-01-01

    The electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) plays an important role in the advancement of heavy ion accelerators and other ion beam applications worldwide, thanks to its remarkable ability to produce a great variety of intense highly charged heavy ion beams. Great efforts over the past decade have led to significant ECRIS performance improvements in both the beam intensity and quality. A number of high-performance ECRISs have been built and are in daily operation or are under construction to meet the continuously increasing demand. In addition, comprehension of the detailed and complex physical processes in high-charge-state ECR plasmas has been enhanced experimentally and theoretically. This review covers and discusses the key components, leading-edge developments, and enhanced ECRIS performance in the production of highly charged heavy ion beams

  18. Invited review: Experimental design, data reporting, and sharing in support of animal systems modeling research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, J P; Hanigan, M D; White, R R

    2016-12-01

    The National Animal Nutrition Program "National Research Support Project 9" supports efforts in livestock nutrition, including the National Research Council's committees on the nutrient requirements of animals. Our objective was to review the status of experimentation and data reporting in animal nutrition literature and to provide suggestions for the advancement of animal nutrition research and the ongoing improvement of field-applied nutrient requirement models. Improved data reporting consistency and completeness represent a substantial opportunity to improve nutrition-related mathematical models. We reviewed a body of nutrition research; recorded common phrases used to describe diets, animals, housing, and environmental conditions; and proposed equivalent numerical data that could be reported. With the increasing availability of online supplementary material sections in journals, we developed a comprehensive checklist of data that should be included in publications. To continue to improve our research effectiveness, studies utilizing multiple research methodologies to address complex systems and measure multiple variables will be necessary. From the current body of animal nutrition literature, we identified a series of opportunities to integrate research focuses (nutrition, reproduction and genetics) to advance the development of nutrient requirement models. From our survey of current experimentation and data reporting in animal nutrition, we identified 4 key opportunities to advance animal nutrition knowledge: (1) coordinated experiments should be designed to employ multiple research methodologies; (2) systems-oriented research approaches should be encouraged and supported; (3) publication guidelines should be updated to encourage and support sharing of more complete data sets; and (4) new experiments should be more rapidly integrated into our knowledge bases, research programs and practical applications. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association

  19. Animal Board Invited Review: Comparing conventional and organic livestock production systems on different aspects of sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wagenberg, C P A; de Haas, Y; Hogeveen, H; van Krimpen, M M; Meuwissen, M P M; van Middelaar, C E; Rodenburg, T B

    2017-10-01

    To sustainably contribute to food security of a growing and richer world population, livestock production systems are challenged to increase production levels while reducing environmental impact, being economically viable, and socially responsible. Knowledge about the sustainability performance of current livestock production systems may help to formulate strategies for future systems. Our study provides a systematic overview of differences between conventional and organic livestock production systems on a broad range of sustainability aspects and animal species available in peer-reviewed literature. Systems were compared on economy, productivity, environmental impact, animal welfare and public health. The review was limited to dairy cattle, beef cattle, pigs, broilers and laying hens, and to Europe, North America and New Zealand. Results per indicators are presented as in the articles without performing additional calculations. Out of 4171 initial search hits, 179 articles were analysed. Studies varied widely in indicators, research design, sample size and location and context. Quite some studies used small samples. No study analysed all aspects of sustainability simultaneously. Conventional systems had lower labour requirements per unit product, lower income risk per animal, higher production per animal per time unit, higher reproduction numbers, lower feed conversion ratio, lower land use, generally lower acidification and eutrophication potential per unit product, equal or better udder health for cows and equal or lower microbiological contamination. Organic systems had higher income per animal or full time employee, lower impact on biodiversity, lower eutrophication and acidification potential per unit land, equal or lower likelihood of antibiotic resistance in bacteria and higher beneficial fatty acid levels in cow milk. For most sustainability aspects, sometimes conventional and sometimes organic systems performed better, except for productivity, which was

  20. Historical Review of Uncommanded Lateral-Directional Motions At Transonic Conditions (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Joseph R.; Hall, Robert M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a survey of past experiences with uncommanded lateral-directional motions at transonic speeds during specific military aircraft programs. The effort was undertaken to provide qualitative and quantitative information on past airplane programs that might be of use to the participants in the joint NASA/Navy/Air Force Abrupt Wing Stall (AWS) Program. The AWS Program was initiated because of the experiences of the F/A-18E/F development program, during which unexpected, severe wing-drop motions were encountered by preproduction aircraft at transonic conditions. These motions were judged to be significantly degrading to the primary mission requirements of the aircraft. Although the problem was subsequently solved for the production version of the F/A-l8E/F, a high-level review panel emphasized the poor understanding of such phenomena and issued a strong recommendation to: Initiate a national research effort to thoroughly and systematically study the wing drop phenomena. A comprehensive, cooperative NASA/Navy/Air Force AWS Program was designed to respond to provide the required technology requirements. As part of the AWS Program, a work element was directed at a historical review of wing-drop experiences in past aircraft development programs at high subsonic and transonic speeds. In particular, information was requested regarding: specific aircraft configurations that exhibited uncommanded motions and the nature of the motions; geometric characteristics of the air- planes; flight conditions involved in occurrences; relevant data, including wind-tunnel, computational, and flight sources; figures of merit used for analyses; and approaches used to alleviate the problem. An attempt was also made to summarize some of the more important lessons learned from past experiences, and to recommend specific research efforts. In addition to providing technical information to assist the AWS research objectives, the study produced fundamental information

  1. Quantum space-time: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namsrai, K.

    1988-01-01

    The review presents systematically the results of studies which develop an idea of quantum properties of space-time in the microworld or near exotic objects (black holes, magnetic monopoles and others). On the basis of this idea motion equations of nonrelativistic and relativistic particles are studied. It is shown that introducing concept of quantum space-time at small distances (or near superdense matter) leads to an additional force giving rise to appearance of spiral-like behaviour of a particle along its classical trajectory. Given method is generalized to nonrelativistic quantum mechanics and to motion of a particle in gravitational force. In the latter case, there appears to be an antigravitational effect in the motion of a particle leading to different value of free-fall time (at least for gravitational force of exotic objects) for particles with different masses. Gravitational consequences of quantum space-time and tensor structures of physical quantities are investigated in detail. From experimental data on testing relativity and anisotropy of inertia estimation L ≤ 10 -22 cm on the value of the fundamental length is obtained. (author)

  2. Invited review the coiled coil silk of bees, ants, and hornets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Tara D; Weisman, Sarah; Walker, Andrew A; Mudie, Stephen T

    2012-06-01

    In this article, we review current knowledge about the silk produced by the larvae of bees, ants, and hornets [Apoidea and Vespoidea: Hymenoptera]. Different species use the silk either alone or in composites for a variety of purposes including mechanical reinforcement, thermal regulation, or humidification. The characteristic molecular structure of this silk is α-helical proteins assembled into tetrameric coiled coils. Gene sequences from seven species are available, and each species possesses a copy of each of four related silk genes that encode proteins predicted to form coiled coils. The proteins are ordered at multiple length scales within the labial gland of the final larval instar before spinning. The insects control the morphology of the silk during spinning to produce either fibers or sheets. The silk proteins are small and non repetitive and have been produced artificially at high levels by fermentation in E. coli. The artificial silk proteins can be fabricated into materials with structural and mechanical properties similar to those of native silks. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Invited review article: IceCube: an instrument for neutrino astronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halzen, Francis; Klein, Spencer R

    2010-08-01

    Neutrino astronomy beyond the Sun was first imagined in the late 1950s; by the 1970s, it was realized that kilometer-scale neutrino detectors were required. The first such instrument, IceCube, is near completion and taking data. The IceCube project transforms 1 km(3) of deep and ultratransparent Antarctic ice into a particle detector. A total of 5160 optical sensors is embedded into a gigaton of Antarctic ice to detect the Cherenkov light emitted by secondary particles produced when neutrinos interact with nuclei in the ice. Each optical sensor is a complete data acquisition system including a phototube, digitization electronics, control and trigger systems, and light-emitting diodes for calibration. The light patterns reveal the type (flavor) of neutrino interaction and the energy and direction of the neutrino, making neutrino astronomy possible. The scientific missions of IceCube include such varied tasks as the search for sources of cosmic rays, the observation of galactic supernova explosions, the search for dark matter, and the study of the neutrinos themselves. These reach energies well beyond those produced with accelerator beams. The outline of this review is as follows: neutrino astronomy and kilometer-scale detectors, high-energy neutrino telescopes: methodologies of neutrino detection, IceCube hardware, high-energy neutrino telescopes: beyond astronomy, and future projects.

  4. ADVANCES WITH NEONATAL AERODIGESTIVE SCIENCE IN THE PURSUIT OF SAFE SWALLOWING IN INFANTS: INVITED REVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadcherla, Sudarshan R.

    2017-01-01

    Feeding, swallowing and airway protection are three distinct entities. Feeding involves a process of sequential, neurosensory and neuromotor interactions of reflexes and behaviors facilitating ingestion. Swallowing involves anterograde bolus movement during oral-, pharyngeal- and esophageal phases of peristalsis into stomach. During these events, coordination with airway protection is vital for homeostasis in clearing any material away from airway vicinity. Neurological-airway-digestive inter-relationships are critical to the continuum of successful feeding patterns during infancy, either in health or disease. Neonatal feeding difficulties encompass a heterogeneous group of neurological, pulmonary and aerodigestive disorders that present with multiple signs posing as clinical conundrums. Significant research breakthroughs permitted understanding of vagal neural pathways and functional aerodigestive connectivity involved in regulating swallowing and aerodigestive functions either directly or indirectly by influencing the supra-nuclear regulatory centers and peripheral effector organs. These neurosensory and neuromotor pathways are influenced by pathologies during perinatal events, prematurity, inflammatory states and coexisting medical and surgical conditions. Approaches to clarify pathophysiologic mapping of aerodigestive interactions, as well as translating these discoveries into the development of personalized and simplified feeding strategies to advance child health are discussed in this review article. PMID:28044203

  5. INVITED REVIEW: Inhibitors of myostatin as methods of enhancing muscle growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, P R; Lee, K

    2016-08-01

    With the increasing demand for affordable, high-quality meat, livestock and poultry producers must continually find ways to maximize muscle growth in their animals without compromising palatability of the meat products. Muscle mass relies on myoblast proliferation during prenatal or prehatch stages and fiber hypertrophy through protein synthesis and nuclei donation by satellite cells after birth or hatch. Therefore, understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms of myogenesis and muscle development is of great interest. Myostatin is a well-known negative regulator of muscle growth and development that inhibits proliferation and differentiation in myogenic cells as well as protein synthesis in existing muscle fibers. In this review, various inhibitors of myostatin activity or signaling are examined that may be used in animal agriculture for enhancing muscle growth. Myostatin inhibitors are relevant as potential therapies for muscle-wasting diseases and muscle weakness in humans and animals. Currently, there are no commercial myostatin inhibitors for agriculture or biomedical purposes because the safest and most effective option has yet to be identified. Further investigation of myostatin inhibitors and administration strategies may revolutionize animal production and the medical field.

  6. INVITED REVIEW--IMAGE REGISTRATION IN VETERINARY RADIATION ONCOLOGY: INDICATIONS, IMPLICATIONS, AND FUTURE ADVANCES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yang; Lawrence, Jessica; Cheng, Kun; Montgomery, Dean; Forrest, Lisa; Mclaren, Duncan B; McLaughlin, Stephen; Argyle, David J; Nailon, William H

    2016-01-01

    The field of veterinary radiation therapy (RT) has gained substantial momentum in recent decades with significant advances in conformal treatment planning, image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT), and intensity-modulated (IMRT) techniques. At the root of these advancements lie improvements in tumor imaging, image alignment (registration), target volume delineation, and identification of critical structures. Image registration has been widely used to combine information from multimodality images such as computerized tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography (PET) to improve the accuracy of radiation delivery and reliably identify tumor-bearing areas. Many different techniques have been applied in image registration. This review provides an overview of medical image registration in RT and its applications in veterinary oncology. A summary of the most commonly used approaches in human and veterinary medicine is presented along with their current use in IGRT and adaptive radiation therapy (ART). It is important to realize that registration does not guarantee that target volumes, such as the gross tumor volume (GTV), are correctly identified on the image being registered, as limitations unique to registration algorithms exist. Research involving novel registration frameworks for automatic segmentation of tumor volumes is ongoing and comparative oncology programs offer a unique opportunity to test the efficacy of proposed algorithms. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  7. Invited Review Article: Measurement uncertainty of linear phase-stepping algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hack, Erwin [EMPA, Laboratory Electronics/Metrology/Reliability, Ueberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Burke, Jan [Australian Centre for Precision Optics, CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation) Materials Science and Engineering, P.O. Box 218, Lindfield, NSW 2070 (Australia)

    2011-06-15

    Phase retrieval techniques are widely used in optics, imaging and electronics. Originating in signal theory, they were introduced to interferometry around 1970. Over the years, many robust phase-stepping techniques have been developed that minimize specific experimental influence quantities such as phase step errors or higher harmonic components of the signal. However, optimizing a technique for a specific influence quantity can compromise its performance with regard to others. We present a consistent quantitative analysis of phase measurement uncertainty for the generalized linear phase stepping algorithm with nominally equal phase stepping angles thereby reviewing and generalizing several results that have been reported in literature. All influence quantities are treated on equal footing, and correlations between them are described in a consistent way. For the special case of classical N-bucket algorithms, we present analytical formulae that describe the combined variance as a function of the phase angle values. For the general Arctan algorithms, we derive expressions for the measurement uncertainty averaged over the full 2{pi}-range of phase angles. We also give an upper bound for the measurement uncertainty which can be expressed as being proportional to an algorithm specific factor. Tabular compilations help the reader to quickly assess the uncertainties that are involved with his or her technique.

  8. Invited review: study design considerations for clinical research in veterinary radiology and radiation oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrivani, Peter V; Erb, Hollis N

    2013-01-01

    High quality clinical research is essential for advancing knowledge in the areas of veterinary radiology and radiation oncology. Types of clinical research studies may include experimental studies, method-comparison studies, and patient-based studies. Experimental studies explore issues relative to pathophysiology, patient safety, and treatment efficacy. Method-comparison studies evaluate agreement between techniques or between observers. Patient-based studies investigate naturally acquired disease and focus on questions asked in clinical practice that relate to individuals or populations (e.g., risk, accuracy, or prognosis). Careful preplanning and study design are essential in order to achieve valid results. A key point to planning studies is ensuring that the design is tailored to the study objectives. Good design includes a comprehensive literature review, asking suitable questions, selecting the proper sample population, collecting the appropriate data, performing the correct statistical analyses, and drawing conclusions supported by the available evidence. Most study designs are classified by whether they are experimental or observational, longitudinal or cross-sectional, and prospective or retrospective. Additional features (e.g., controlled, randomized, or blinded) may be described that address bias. Two related challenging aspects of study design are defining an important research question and selecting an appropriate sample population. The sample population should represent the target population as much as possible. Furthermore, when comparing groups, it is important that the groups are as alike to each other as possible except for the variables of interest. Medical images are well suited for clinical research because imaging signs are categorical or numerical variables that might be predictors or outcomes of diseases or treatments. © 2013 Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound.

  9. Invited review: A position on the Global Livestock Environmental Assessment Model (GLEAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, M J; Vellinga, T; Opio, C; Falcucci, A; Tempio, G; Henderson, B; Makkar, H; Mottet, A; Robinson, T; Steinfeld, H; Gerber, P J

    2018-02-01

    The livestock sector is one of the fastest growing subsectors of the agricultural economy and, while it makes a major contribution to global food supply and economic development, it also consumes significant amounts of natural resources and alters the environment. In order to improve our understanding of the global environmental impact of livestock supply chains, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations has developed the Global Livestock Environmental Assessment Model (GLEAM). The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of GLEAM. Specifically, it explains the model architecture, methods and functionality, that is the types of analysis that the model can perform. The model focuses primarily on the quantification of greenhouse gases emissions arising from the production of the 11 main livestock commodities. The model inputs and outputs are managed and produced as raster data sets, with spatial resolution of 0.05 decimal degrees. The Global Livestock Environmental Assessment Model v1.0 consists of five distinct modules: (a) the Herd Module; (b) the Manure Module; (c) the Feed Module; (d) the System Module; (e) the Allocation Module. In terms of the modelling approach, GLEAM has several advantages. For example spatial information on livestock distributions and crops yields enables rations to be derived that reflect the local availability of feed resources in developing countries. The Global Livestock Environmental Assessment Model also contains a herd model that enables livestock statistics to be disaggregated and variation in livestock performance and management to be captured. Priorities for future development of GLEAM include: improving data quality and the methods used to perform emissions calculations; extending the scope of the model to include selected additional environmental impacts and to enable predictive modelling; and improving the utility of GLEAM output.

  10. Board-invited review: Using behavior to predict and identify ill health in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weary, D M; Huzzey, J M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2009-02-01

    We review recent research in one of the oldest and most important applications of ethology: evaluating animal health. Traditionally, such evaluations have been based on subjective assessments of debilitative signs; animals are judged ill when they appear depressed or off feed. Such assessments are prone to error but can be dramatically improved with training using well-defined clinical criteria. The availability of new technology to automatically record behaviors allows for increased use of objective measures; automated measures of feeding behavior and intake are increasingly available in commercial agriculture, and recent work has shown these to be valuable indicators of illness. Research has also identified behaviors indicative of risk of disease or injury. For example, the time spent standing on wet, concrete surfaces can be used to predict susceptibility to hoof injuries in dairy cattle, and time spent nuzzling the udder of the sow can predict the risk of crushing in piglets. One conceptual advance has been to view decreased exploration, feeding, social, sexual, and other behaviors as a coordinated response that helps afflicted individuals recover from illness. We argue that the sickness behaviors most likely to decline are those that provide longer-term fitness benefits (such as play), as animals divert resources to those functions of critical short-term value such as maintaining body temperature. We urge future research assessing the strength of motivation to express sickness behaviors, allowing for quantitative estimates of how sick an animal feels. Finally, we call for new theoretical and empirical work on behaviors that may act to signal health status, including behaviors that have evolved as honest (i.e., reliable) signals of condition for offspring-parent, inter- and intra-sexual, and predator-prey communication.

  11. Invited review: heat stress effects during late gestation on dry cows and their calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, S; Dahl, G E

    2013-07-01

    In dairy cattle, late gestation is a critical period for fetal growth and physiological transition into the next lactation. Environmental factors, such as temperature and light, exert dramatic effects on the production, health, and well-being of animals during this period and after parturition. The aim of this review was to introduce effects of heat stress during late gestation on dairy cattle, and discuss the biological mechanisms that underlie the observed production and health responses in the dam and her fetus. Relative to cooled cows, cows that are heat stressed during late gestation have impaired mammary growth before parturition and decreased milk production in the subsequent lactation. In response to higher milk yield, cows cooled prepartum undergo a series of homeorhetic adaptations in early lactation to meet higher demand for milk synthesis compared with heat-stressed cows, but no direct effect of environmental heat stress on metabolism exists during the dry period. Prepartum cooling improves immune status of transition cows and evidence suggests that altered prolactin signaling in immune cells mediates the effects of heat stress on immune function. Late-gestation heat stress compromises placental development, which results in fetal hypoxia, malnutrition, and eventually fetal growth retardation. Maternal heat stress may also have carryover effects on the postnatal growth of offspring, but direct evidence is still lacking. Emerging evidence suggests that offspring from prepartum heat-stressed cows have compromised passive immunity and impaired cell-mediated immune function compared with those from cooled cows. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Board-invited review: Rumen microbiology: leading the way in microbial ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, D O; Nagaraja, T G; Wright, A D G; Callaway, T R

    2013-01-01

    Robert Hungate, considered the father of rumen microbiology, was the first to initiate a systematic exploration of the microbial ecosystem of the rumen, but he was not alone. The techniques he developed to isolate and identify cellulose-digesting bacteria from the rumen have had a major impact not only in delineating the complex ecosystem of the rumen but also in clinical microbiology and in the exploration of a number of other anaerobic ecosystems, including the human hindgut. Rumen microbiology has pioneered our understanding of much of microbial ecology and has broadened our knowledge of ecology in general, as well as improved the ability to feed ruminants more efficiently. The discovery of anaerobic fungi as a component of the ruminal flora disproved the central dogma in microbiology that all fungi are aerobic organisms. Further novel interactions between bacterial species such as nutrient cross feeding and interspecies H2 transfer were first described in ruminal microorganisms. The complexity and diversity present in the rumen make it an ideal testing ground for microbial theories (e.g., the effects of nutrient limitation and excess) and techniques (such as 16S rRNA), which have rewarded the investigators that have used this easily accessed ecosystem to understand larger truths. Our understanding of characteristics of the ruminal microbial population has opened new avenues of microbial ecology, such as the existence of hyperammonia-producing bacteria and how they can be used to improve N efficiency in ruminants. In this review, we examine some of the contributions to science that were first made in the rumen, which have not been recognized in a broader sense.

  13. Invited review: Enteric methane in dairy cattle production: quantifying the opportunities and impact of reducing emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, J R; Laur, G L; Vadas, P A; Weiss, W P; Tricarico, J M

    2014-01-01

    Many opportunities exist to reduce enteric methane (CH4) and other greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per unit of product from ruminant livestock. Research over the past century in genetics, animal health, microbiology, nutrition, and physiology has led to improvements in dairy production where intensively managed farms have GHG emissions as low as 1 kg of CO2 equivalents (CO2e)/kg of energy-corrected milk (ECM), compared with >7 kg of CO2 e/kg of ECM in extensive systems. The objectives of this review are to evaluate options that have been demonstrated to mitigate enteric CH4 emissions per unit of ECM (CH4/ECM) from dairy cattle on a quantitative basis and in a sustained manner and to integrate approaches in genetics, feeding and nutrition, physiology, and health to emphasize why herd productivity, not individual animal productivity, is important to environmental sustainability. A nutrition model based on carbohydrate digestion was used to evaluate the effect of feeding and nutrition strategies on CH4/ECM, and a meta-analysis was conducted to quantify the effects of lipid supplementation on CH4/ECM. A second model combining herd structure dynamics and production level was used to estimate the effect of genetic and management strategies that increase milk yield and reduce culling on CH4/ECM. Some of these approaches discussed require further research, but many could be implemented now. Past efforts in CH4 mitigation have largely focused on identifying and evaluating CH4 mitigation approaches based on nutrition, feeding, and modifications of rumen function. Nutrition and feeding approaches may be able to reduce CH4/ECM by 2.5 to 15%, whereas rumen modifiers have had very little success in terms of sustained CH4 reductions without compromising milk production. More significant reductions of 15 to 30% CH4/ECM can be achieved by combinations of genetic and management approaches, including improvements in heat abatement, disease and fertility management, performance

  14. Invited review: Current production trends, farm structures, and economics of the dairy sheep and goat sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulina, G; Milán, M J; Lavín, M P; Theodoridis, A; Morin, E; Capote, J; Thomas, D L; Francesconi, A H D; Caja, G

    2018-05-30

    Dairy small ruminants account for approximately 21% of all sheep and goats in the world, produce around 3.5% of the world's milk, and are mainly located in subtropical-temperate areas of Asia, Europe, and Africa. Dairy sheep are concentrated around the Mediterranean and Black Sea regions, where their dairy products are typical ingredients of the human diet. Dairy goats are concentrated in low-income, food-deficit countries of the Indian subcontinent, where their products are a key food source, but are also present in high-income, technologically developed countries. This review evaluates the status of the dairy sheep and goat sectors in the world, with special focus on the commercially and technically developed industries in France, Greece, Italy, and Spain (FGIS). Dairy small ruminants account for a minor part of the total agricultural output in France, Italy, and Spain (0.9 to 1.8%) and a larger part in Greece (8.8%). In FGIS, the dairy sheep industry is based on local breeds and crossbreeds raised under semi-intensive and intensive systems and is concentrated in a few regions in these countries. Average flock size varies from small to medium (140 to 333 ewes/farm), and milk yield from low to medium (85 to 216 L/ewe), showing substantial room for improvement. Most sheep milk is sold to industries and processed into traditional cheese types, many of which are Protected Denomination of Origin (PDO) cheeses for gourmet and export markets (e.g., Pecorino, Manchego, and Roquefort). By comparing break-even milk price among FGIS countries, we observed the following: (1) most Greek and French dairy sheep farms were unprofitable, with the exception of the intensive Chios farms of Greece; (2) milk price was aligned with cost of production in Italy; and (3) profitable farms coexisted with unprofitable farms in Spain. In FGIS, dairy goat production is based on local breeds raised under more extensive systems than sheep. Compared with sheep, average dairy goat herds are

  15. Animal board invited review: genetic possibilities to reduce enteric methane emissions from ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, N K; Oddy, V H; Basarab, J; Cammack, K; Hayes, B; Hegarty, R S; Lassen, J; McEwan, J C; Miller, S; Pinares-Patiño, C S; de Haas, Y

    2015-09-01

    Measuring and mitigating methane (CH4) emissions from livestock is of increasing importance for the environment and for policy making. Potentially, the most sustainable way of reducing enteric CH4 emission from ruminants is through the estimation of genomic breeding values to facilitate genetic selection. There is potential for adopting genetic selection and in the future genomic selection, for reduced CH4 emissions from ruminants. From this review it has been observed that both CH4 emissions and production (g/day) are a heritable and repeatable trait. CH4 emissions are strongly related to feed intake both in the short term (minutes to several hours) and over the medium term (days). When measured over the medium term, CH4 yield (MY, g CH4/kg dry matter intake) is a heritable and repeatable trait albeit with less genetic variation than for CH4 emissions. CH4 emissions of individual animals are moderately repeatable across diets, and across feeding levels, when measured in respiration chambers. Repeatability is lower when short term measurements are used, possibly due to variation in time and amount of feed ingested prior to the measurement. However, while repeated measurements add value; it is preferable the measures be separated by at least 3 to 14 days. This temporal separation of measurements needs to be investigated further. Given the above issue can be resolved, short term (over minutes to hours) measurements of CH4 emissions show promise, especially on systems where animals are fed ad libitum and frequency of meals is high. However, we believe that for short-term measurements to be useful for genetic evaluation, a number (between 3 and 20) of measurements will be required over an extended period of time (weeks to months). There are opportunities for using short-term measurements in standardised feeding situations such as breath 'sniffers' attached to milking parlours or total mixed ration feeding bins, to measure CH4. Genomic selection has the potential to

  16. Invited review: Breeding and ethical perspectives on genetically modified and genome edited cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, S; Jonas, E; Rydhmer, L; Röcklinsberg, H

    2018-01-01

    The hot topic of genetic modification and genome editing is sometimes presented as a rapid solution to various problems in the field of animal breeding and genetics. These technologies hold potential for future use in agriculture but we need to be aware of difficulties in large-scale application and integration in breeding schemes. In this review, we discuss applications of both classical genetic modifications (GM) using vectors and genome editing in dairy cattle breeding. We use an interdisciplinary approach considering both ethical and animal breeding perspectives. Decisions on how to make use of these techniques need to be made based not only on what is possible, but on what is reasonable to do. Principles of animal integrity, naturalness, risk perception, and animal welfare issues are examples of ethically relevant factors to consider. These factors also influence public perception and decisions about regulations by authorities. We need to acknowledge that we lack complete understanding of the genetic background of complex traits. It may be difficult, therefore, to predict the full effect of certain modifications in large-scale breeding programs. We present 2 potential applications: genome editing to dispense with dehorning, and insertion of human genes in bovine genomes to improve udder health as an example of classical GM. Both of these cases could be seen as beneficial for animal welfare but they differ in other aspects. In the former case, a genetic variant already present within the species is introduced, whereas in the latter case, transgenic animals are generated-this difference may influence how society regards the applications. We underline that the use of GM, as well as genome editing, of farm animals such as cattle is not independent of the context, and should be considered as part of an entire process, including, for example, the assisted reproduction technology that needs to be used. We propose that breeding organizations and breeding companies

  17. Solving kinetic equations with adaptive mesh in phase space for rarefied gas dynamics and plasma physics (Invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolobov, Vladimir; Arslanbekov, Robert; Frolova, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The paper describes an Adaptive Mesh in Phase Space (AMPS) technique for solving kinetic equations with deterministic mesh-based methods. The AMPS technique allows automatic generation of adaptive Cartesian mesh in both physical and velocity spaces using a Tree-of-Trees data structure. We illustrate advantages of AMPS for simulations of rarefied gas dynamics and electron kinetics on low temperature plasmas. In particular, we consider formation of the velocity distribution functions in hypersonic flows, particle kinetics near oscillating boundaries, and electron kinetics in a radio-frequency sheath. AMPS provide substantial savings in computational cost and increased efficiency of the mesh-based kinetic solvers

  18. Solving kinetic equations with adaptive mesh in phase space for rarefied gas dynamics and plasma physics (Invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolobov, Vladimir [CFD Research Corporation, Huntsville, AL 35805, USA and The University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Arslanbekov, Robert [CFD Research Corporation, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Frolova, Anna [Computing Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 119333 (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-09

    The paper describes an Adaptive Mesh in Phase Space (AMPS) technique for solving kinetic equations with deterministic mesh-based methods. The AMPS technique allows automatic generation of adaptive Cartesian mesh in both physical and velocity spaces using a Tree-of-Trees data structure. We illustrate advantages of AMPS for simulations of rarefied gas dynamics and electron kinetics on low temperature plasmas. In particular, we consider formation of the velocity distribution functions in hypersonic flows, particle kinetics near oscillating boundaries, and electron kinetics in a radio-frequency sheath. AMPS provide substantial savings in computational cost and increased efficiency of the mesh-based kinetic solvers.

  19. 2015 Space Radiation Standing Review Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The 2015 Space Radiation Standing Review Panel (from here on referred to as the SRP) met for a site visit in Houston, TX on December 8 - 9, 2015. The SRP met with representatives from the Space Radiation Element and members of the Human Research Program (HRP) to review the updated research plan for the Risk of Radiation Carcinogenesis Cancer Risk. The SRP also reviewed the newly revised Evidence Reports for the Risk of Acute Radiation Syndromes Due to Solar Particle Events (SPEs) (Acute Risk), the Risk of Acute (In-flight) and Late Central Nervous System Effects from Radiation Exposure (CNS Risk), and the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease and Other Degenerative Tissue Effects from Radiation (Degen Risk), as well as a status update on these Risks. The SRP would like to commend Dr. Simonsen, Dr. Huff, Dr. Nelson, and Dr. Patel for their detailed presentations. The Space Radiation Element did a great job presenting a very large volume of material. The SRP considers it to be a strong program that is well-organized, well-coordinated and generates valuable data. The SRP commended the tissue sharing protocols, working groups, systems biology analysis, and standardization of models. In several of the discussed areas the SRP suggested improvements of the research plans in the future. These include the following: It is important that the team has expanded efforts examining immunology and inflammation as important components of the space radiation biological response. This is an overarching and important focus that is likely to apply to all aspects of the program including acute, CVD, CNS, cancer and others. Given that the area of immunology/inflammation is highly complex (and especially so as it relates to radiation), it warrants the expansion of investigators expertise in immunology and inflammation to work with the individual research projects and also the NASA Specialized Center of Research (NSCORs). Historical data on radiation injury to be entered into the Watson

  20. REVIEW A SPACE FOR GRACE: TOWARDS AN AESTHETICS OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    REVIEW. A SPACE FOR. GRACE: TOWARDS. AN AESTHETICS OF. PREACHING ... Cilliers' views of space and time are clearly post-Einstein and post-. Hawking. .... in the step-by-step, week-in-week-out process of sermon preparation. The.

  1. Invited review: A systematic review and qualitative analysis of treatments other than conventional antimicrobials for clinical mastitis in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francoz, D; Wellemans, V; Dupré, J P; Roy, J P; Labelle, F; Lacasse, P; Dufour, S

    2017-10-01

    Clinical mastitis is an important disease in dairies. Its treatment is mainly based on the use of antimicrobial drugs. Numerous non-antimicrobial drugs and treatment strategies have already been reported for clinical mastitis treatment, but data on their efficacy have never been collated in a systematic way. The objective of this systematic review was to identify treatments other than conventional antimicrobials for the treatment of clinical mastitis in lactating dairy cows. A systematic review was performed with studies written in English or French selected from CAB Abstracts, PubMed, and Web of Science from January 1970 to June 2014. Controlled clinical trials, observational studies, and experimental challenges were retained. Lactating dairy cows with clinical mastitis were the participant of interest. All treatments other than conventional antimicrobials for clinical mastitis during lactation were retained. Only studies comparing the treatment under investigation to a negative or positive control, or both, were included. Outcomes evaluated were clinical and bacteriological cure rates and milk production. Selection of the study, data extraction, and assessment of risk of bias was performed by 3 reviewers. Assessment of risk of bias was evaluated using the Cochrane Collaboration tool for systematic review of interventions. A total of 2,451 manuscripts were first identified and 39 manuscripts corresponding to 41 studies were included. Among these, 22 were clinical trials, 18 were experimental studies, and 1 was an observational study. The treatments evaluated were conventional anti-inflammatory drugs (n = 14), oxytocin with or without frequent milk out (n = 5), biologics (n = 9), homeopathy (n = 5), botanicals (n = 4), probiotics (n = 2), and other alternative products (n = 2). All trials had at least one unclear or high risk of bias. Most trials (n = 13) did not observe significant differences in clinical or bacteriological cure rates in comparison with negative

  2. The Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO): Four Years Operating on the International Space Station (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, C. O.; Nahorniak, J.; Tufillaro, N.; Kappus, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO) is the first spaceborne imaging spectrometer designed to sample the coastal ocean. HICO images selected coastal regions at 92 m spatial resolution with full spectral coverage (88 channels covering 400 to 900 nm) and a high signal-to-noise ratio to resolve the complexity of the coastal ocean. Under sponsorship of the Office of Naval Research, HICO was built by the Naval Research Laboratory, which continues to operate the sensor. HICO has been operating on the International Space Station since October 2009 and has collected over 8000 scenes for more than 50 users. As Project Scientist I have been the link to the international ocean optics community primarily through our OSU HICO website (http://hico.oregonstate.edu). HICO operations are now under NASA support and HICO data is now also be available through the NASA Ocean Color Website (http://oceancolor.gsfc.nasa.gov ). Here we give a brief overview of HICO data and operations and discuss the unique challenges and opportunities that come from operating on the International Space Station.

  3. Book Review: Physics of the Space Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Gordon D.

    1998-01-01

    Space physics, narrowly defined as the study of Earth's plasma environment, has had an identity crisis throughout its relatively brief existence as a discipline. - The limited and often serendipitous nature of the data requires the research style of an astrophysicist. However, the in situ observations and instrumentation that are central to the field are quite different from the remote observations and instrumentation of astronomy. Compared to neutral gases, the wealth of additional phenomena and the complexity associated with magnetized plasmas and their interaction leaves little in common with the atmospheric scientist. Although the phenomena studied in space physics are ultimately important to astrophysics, the intimate measurements of plasma properties provide a greater commonality with the plasma physicist. Space physics has experienced something of a renaissance in the past few years. The interdisciplinary umbrella "Solar-Terrestrial Physics" or "Sun-Earth Connection" has stimulated an increasing interaction of space physicists, solar physicists and atmospheric scientists. Spectacular images of the Sun from Yohkoh and SOHO and solar-activity-related damage to communications satellites have increased the public's awareness of and interest in "space weather". The dangers of energetic particles and currents in space to technological systems and to future space exploration have elevated space physics observations from interesting scientific measurements that can be included on a space probe to critically important measurements that must be made.

  4. Evolution of space drones for planetary exploration: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanalian, M.; Rice, D.; Abdelkefi, A.

    2018-02-01

    In the past decade, there has been a tendency to design and fabricate drones which can perform planetary exploration. Generally, there are various ways to study space objects, such as the application of telescopes and satellites, launching robots and rovers, and sending astronauts to the targeted solar bodies. However, due to the advantages of drones compared to other approaches in planetary exploration, ample research has been carried out by different space agencies in the world, including NASA to apply drones in other solar bodies. In this review paper, several studies which have been performed on space drones for planetary exploration are consolidated and discussed. Design and fabrication challenges of space drones, existing methods for their flight tests, different methods for deployment and planet entry, and various navigation and control approaches are reviewed and discussed elaborately. Limitations of applying space drones, proposed solutions for future space drones, and recommendations are also presented and discussed.

  5. RoMPS concept review automatic control of space robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The Robot operated Material Processing in Space (RoMPS) experiment is being performed to explore the marriage of two emerging space commercialization technologies: materials processing in microgravity and robotics. This concept review presents engineering drawings and limited technical descriptions of the RoMPS programs' electrical and software systems.

  6. Radiobiological experiments in space: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horneck, G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper deals mainly with results from space experiments on the biological effects of cosmic ray high charge, high energy (HZE) particles and on their potential interactions with the microgravity environment. So far, mainly with resting systems, such as viruses, bacterial spores, plant seeds or shrimp cysts, as well as in a few embryonic systems, methods have been applied to trace injuries to the passage of a single HZE particle of comic radiation Most effects point to damage to the genetic material such as mutations, tumour induction, chromosomal aberrations, cell inactivation, or development anomalies. Using higher organisms, including mammals, a few attempts have been made to identify tissue damage along the passage of single HZE particles, such as microscopically visible injury in brain or eyes, or the light flash sensation. The latter, correlated with orbital parameters, showed highest frequency during the passage of the South Atlantic Anomaly. To study potential interactions of ionizing radiation with microgravity, either additional irradiation was applied, pre-, in-, or post-flight, or a 1 g reference centrifuge was utilized in combination with methods of particle effect correlation. Especially in embryonic systems, synergistic interactions were observed in producing mutations or anomalies with high frequency. It is assumed that, among other mechanisms, microgravity might interfere with the function of DNA repair systems. On the basis of the results obtained on the biological effectiveness of radiation in space and in view of upcoming space activities with an increasing number of manned missions, perspectives are given for future experimental approaches in space radiation biology. (author)

  7. Space shuttle SRM field joint: Review paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mohammad Gharouni

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to Challenger space shuttle accident in 1986, significant research has been done concerning structural behavior of field joints in solid rocket boosters (SRB. The structural deformations between the clevis inner leg and the tang (male-to-female parts of joint, the sealing of the O-ring to prevent the hot gas in joints, has been neglected causing the failure of the vehicle. Redesigning the field joint in SRB engine by accurate analysis of dynamic and thermal loads and by design of insulator and good O-ring, the leakiness of combustion hot gases was eliminated. Some parts of field joint such as capture feature (CF and its third O-ring, J-leg insulator and shim were added to redesigned field joint. Also, some adjustments in sealing system and pins were done to promote the efficiency of the field joint. Due to different experimental analysis on assembled field joints with default imperfections, redesigned joints operated well. These redesigned field joints are commonly used in aerospace and mechanical structures. This paper investigates the original and the redesigned field joints with additional explanations of different parts of the redesigned joints.

  8. Dynamics of Gestalt psychology (invited review of Perceptual Dynamics: Theoretical foundations and philosophical implications of Gestalt psychology by F. Sundqvist)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helm, P.A. van der

    2006-01-01

    In Perceptual Dynamics, Sundqvist argues that the early 20th-century Gestaltist ideas gain fresh relevance by recent developments in cognitive science, particularly by approaches that start from either dynamic systems theory or connectionism. In this review, it is argued that Sundqvist's book is a

  9. Invited review: Microbial evolution in raw-milk, long-ripened cheeses produced using undefined natural whey starters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, Monica; Bottari, Benedetta; Lazzi, Camilla; Neviani, Erasmo; Mucchetti, Germano

    2014-02-01

    The robustness of the starter culture during cheese fermentation is enhanced by the presence of a rich consortium of microbes. Natural starters are consortia of microbes undoubtedly richer than selected starters. Among natural starters, natural whey starters (NWS) are the most common cultures currently used to produce different varieties of cheeses. Undefined NWS are typically used for Italian cooked, long-ripened, extra-hard, raw milk cheeses, such as Parmigiano Reggiano and Grana Padano. Together with raw milk microbiota, NWS are responsible for most cheese characteristics. The microbial ecology of these 2 cheese varieties is based on a complex interaction among starter lactic acid bacteria (SLAB) and nonstarter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB), which are characterized by their different abilities to grow in a changing substrate. This review aims to summarize the latest findings on Parmigiano Reggiano and Grana Padano to better understand the dynamics of SLAB, which mainly arise from NWS, and NSLAB, which mainly arise from raw milk, and their possible role in determining the characteristics of these cheeses. The review is presented in 4 main sections. The first summarizes the main microbiological and chemical properties of the ripened cheese as determined by cheese-making process variables, as these variables may affect microbial growth. The second describes the microbiota of raw milk as affected by specific milk treatments, from milking to the filling of the cheese milk vat. The third describes the microbiota of NWS, and the fourth reviews the knowledge available on microbial dynamics from curd to ripened cheese. As the dynamics and functionality of complex undefined NWS is one of the most important areas of focus in current food microbiology research, this review may serve as a good starting point for implementing future studies on microbial diversity and functionality of undefined cheese starter cultures. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association

  10. Appreciation of the 2015 JGR Space Physics Peer Reviewers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liemohn, Michael W.; Balikhin, Michael; Kepko, Larry; Rodger, Alan; Wang, Yuming

    2016-01-01

    The Editors of the Journal of Geophysical Research Space Physics are deeply indebted to the many people among the research community that serve this journal through peer review. The journal could not exist without the time and effort invested by the community through this voluntary activity, providing expert evaluations and thoughtful assessments of the work of others. In 2015, the journal had 1506 scientists contribute to the process with at least one peer review, for a total of 3575 reviews completed, including additional reviews of resubmitted manuscripts. There were 277 reviewers that contributed four or more reports in 2015. The average number of reviews per referee in 2015 was, therefore, 2.4. Note that the total number of manuscript final decisions (i.e., accept or reject) for Journal of Geophysical Research (JGR) Space Physics was 1147 in 2015. Of this, 774 were accepted and 373 were declined, for an acceptance rate of 67% last year. If the 1334 "revision" decisions are included in the tally, then the total number of decisions made in 2015 was 2481. Working out the arithmetic, it means that on average, a manuscript gets about 1.2 revision decisions before a final accept-or-reject decision. This explains the 3.1 average number of reviews per manuscript throughout each paper's lifetime in the submission-revision editorial process. We are pleased and happy that the research community is willing and able to devote their resources toward this service endeavor. We appreciate each and every one of you that helped maintain the high quality of papers in JGR Space Physics last year. We look forward to another excellent year working with all of you through the year ahead.

  11. A Review of Tribomaterial Technology for Space Nuclear Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Malcolm K.

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has recently proposed a nuclear closed-cycle electric power conversion system for generation of 100-kW of electrical power for space exploration missions. A critical issue is the tribological performance of sliding components within the power conversion unit that will be exposed to neutron radiation. This paper presents a review of the main considerations that have been made in the selection of solid lubricants for similar applications in the past as well as a recommendations for continuing development of the technology.

  12. Review of Nuclear Physics Experiments for Space Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, John W.; Miller, Jack; Adamczyk, Anne M.; Heilbronn, Lawrence H.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Blattnig, Steve R.; Norman, Ryan B.; Guetersloh, Stephen B.; Zeitlin, Cary J.

    2011-01-01

    Human space flight requires protecting astronauts from the harmful effects of space radiation. The availability of measured nuclear cross section data needed for these studies is reviewed in the present paper. The energy range of interest for radiation protection is approximately 100 MeV/n to 10 GeV/n. The majority of data are for projectile fragmentation partial and total cross sections, including both charge changing and isotopic cross sections. The cross section data are organized into categories which include charge changing, elemental, isotopic for total, single and double differential with respect to momentum, energy and angle. Gaps in the data relevant to space radiation protection are discussed and recommendations for future experiments are made.

  13. Invited review: Practical feeding management recommendations to mitigate the risk of subacute ruminal acidosis in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humer, E; Petri, R M; Aschenbach, J R; Bradford, B J; Penner, G B; Tafaj, M; Südekum, K-H; Zebeli, Q

    2018-02-01

    Rumen health is of vital importance in ensuring healthy and efficient dairy cattle production. Current feeding programs for cattle recommend concentrate-rich diets to meet the high nutritional needs of cows during lactation and enhance cost-efficiency. These diets, however, can impair rumen health. The term "subacute ruminal acidosis" (SARA) is often used as a synonym for poor rumen health. In this review, we first describe the physiological demands of cattle for dietary physically effective fiber. We also provide background information on the importance of enhancing salivary secretions and short-chain fatty acid absorption across the stratified squamous epithelium of the rumen; thus, preventing the disruption of the ruminal acid-base balance, a process that paves the way for acidification of the rumen. On-farm evaluation of dietary fiber adequacy is challenging for both nutritionists and veterinarians; therefore, this review provides practical recommendations on how to evaluate the physical effectiveness of the diet based on differences in particle size distribution, fiber content, and the type of concentrate fed, both when the latter is part of total mixed ration and when it is supplemented in partial mixed rations. Besides considering the absolute amount of physically effective fiber and starch types in the diet, we highlight the role of several feeding management factors that affect rumen health and should be considered to control and mitigate SARA. Most importantly, transitional feeding to ensure gradual adaptation of the ruminal epithelium and microbiota; monitoring and careful management of particle size distribution; controlling feed sorting, meal size, and meal frequency; and paying special attention to primiparous cows are some of the feeding management tools that can help in sustaining rumen health in high-producing dairy herds. Supplementation of feed additives including yeast products, phytogenic compounds, and buffers may help attenuate SARA

  14. Invited review: Resource inputs and land, water and carbon footprints from the production of edible protein of animal origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Flachowsky

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review is to analyze crucial factors in the output from the production of proteins in food of animal origin, such as milk, meat and eggs. We then consider inputs such as land, water, fuel, minerals and feed, as well as characterize emissions. Finally, we estimate footprints for land (land footprint, LF, water (water footprint, WF and greenhouse gas emissions (i.e., carbon footprint, CF during the production process. The wide range of different land and water inputs per unit feed between various studies largely influences the results. Further influencing factors are species and categories of animals that produce edible protein, their yields and the feeding of animals. Coproducts with no or low humanly edible fractions and grassland as feed contribute to a lower need for arable land and lower LF, WF and CF. The most efficient land use or the lowest LF per kilogram of edible protein was estimated for higher milk and egg yields; the highest LF values were calculated for beef, followed by pork. The lowest WF and CF were calculated for edible protein of chicken meat and eggs. Edible protein from ruminants is mostly characterized by a higher CF because of the high greenhouse gas potential of methane produced in the rumen. A key prerequisite for further progress in this field is the harmonization of data collection and calculation methods. Alternatives to partial or complete replacement of protein of terrestrial animals, such as marine animals, insects, cell cultures, single-cell proteins or simulated animal products from plants, as well as changing eating patterns and reducing food losses are mentioned as further potential ways for more efficient feed production. For all those dealing with plant or animal breeding and cultivation and all those who are working along the whole food production chain, it is a major challenge to enhance the production of more food for more people with, at the same time, less, limited resources and

  15. Invited review: effect, persistence, and virulence of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species associated with ruminant udder health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderhaeghen, W; Piepers, S; Leroy, F; Van Coillie, E; Haesebrouck, F; De Vliegher, S

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this review is to assess the effect of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) species on udder health and milk yield in ruminants, and to evaluate the capacity of CNS to cause persistent intramammary infections (IMI). Furthermore, the literature on factors suspected of playing a role in the pathogenicity of IMI-associated CNS, such as biofilm formation and the presence of various putative virulence genes, is discussed. The focus is on the 5 CNS species that have been most frequently identified as causing bovine IMI using reliable molecular identification methods (Staphylococcus chromogenes, Staphylococcus simulans, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Staphylococcus xylosus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis). Although the effect on somatic cell count and milk production is accepted to be generally limited or nonexistent for CNS as a group, indications are that the typical effects differ between CNS species and perhaps even strains. It has also become clear that many CNS species can cause persistent IMI, contrary to what has long been believed. However, this trait appears to be quite complicated, being partly strain dependent and partly dependent on the host's immunity. Consistent definitions of persistence and more uniform methods for testing this phenomenon will benefit future research. The factors explaining the anticipated differences in pathogenic behavior appear to be more difficult to evaluate. Biofilm formation and the presence of various staphylococcal virulence factors do not seem to (directly) influence the effect of CNS on IMI but the available information is indirect or insufficient to draw consistent conclusions. Future studies on the effect, persistence, and virulence of the different CNS species associated with IMI would benefit from using larger and perhaps even shared strain collections and from adjusting study designs to a common framework, as the large variation currently existing therein is a major problem. Also within-species variation should

  16. Invited review: Pre- and postnatal adipose tissue development in farm animals: from stem cells to adipocyte physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louveau, I; Perruchot, M-H; Bonnet, M; Gondret, F

    2016-11-01

    Both white and brown adipose tissues are recognized to be differently involved in energy metabolism and are also able to secrete a variety of factors called adipokines that are involved in a wide range of physiological and metabolic functions. Brown adipose tissue is predominant around birth, except in pigs. Irrespective of species, white adipose tissue has a large capacity to expand postnatally and is able to adapt to a variety of factors. The aim of this review is to update the cellular and molecular mechanisms associated with pre- and postnatal adipose tissue development with a special focus on pigs and ruminants. In contrast to other tissues, the embryonic origin of adipose cells remains the subject of debate. Adipose cells arise from the recruitment of specific multipotent stem cells/progenitors named adipose tissue-derived stromal cells. Recent studies have highlighted the existence of a variety of those cells being able to differentiate into white, brown or brown-like/beige adipocytes. After commitment to the adipocyte lineage, progenitors undergo large changes in the expression of many genes involved in cell cycle arrest, lipid accumulation and secretory functions. Early nutrition can affect these processes during fetal and perinatal periods and can also influence or pre-determinate later growth of adipose tissue. How these changes may be related to adipose tissue functional maturity around birth and can influence newborn survival is discussed. Altogether, a better knowledge of fetal and postnatal adipose tissue development is important for various aspects of animal production, including neonatal survival, postnatal growth efficiency and health.

  17. A REVIEW ON TEXTILES IN SPACE PROTECTION EQUIPMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUNTER EROGLU Nilsen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Astronauts need the lander for decelerate and bridle the speed when they land on the space surface slowly. This lander could be controlled velocity magnitude in any direction or orientation and provide protection. The landers consist of airbags and parachutes. The airbag is a type of vehicle safety device, have a soft cushioning and is an occupant restraint system. The parachute provides to slow the motion of an object through an atmosphere by the hauling. Space protection equipments must have some properties because of astronaut’s entry, descend and landing in safely. Textiles in airbags provide these properties especially which are light weight, low gas permeability, high strength, low cost, low temperature flexibility and low coefficient of friction. For textiles in parachutes must have properties such as smooth, porosity, air permeability, high strength, cost-effective, stability light weight and good in drag and lift. Airbags and parachutes in space protection equipment’s are improved in systems provide easy stability. Recently, inflatable technologies for space protection equipments plays a fundamental role in building re-entry capsule. It can be performed a variety of pre-flight analyses to ensure the success of the tests of protection systems from day to day. In this review, space protection systems, their textile materials and properties, their advantages and disadvantages are presented.

  18. Invited review: Determinants of farmers' adoption of management-based strategies for infectious disease prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Caroline; Jansen, Jolanda; Roche, Steven; Kelton, David F; Adams, Cindy L; Orsel, Karin; Erskine, Ron J; Benedictus, Geart; Lam, Theo J G M; Barkema, Herman W

    2017-05-01

    The prevention and control of endemic pathogens within and between farms often depends on the adoption of best management practices. However, farmers regularly do not adopt recommended measures or do not enroll in voluntary disease control programs. This indicates that a more comprehensive understanding of the influences and extension tools that affect farmers' management decisions is necessary. Based on a review of relevant published literature, we developed recommendations to support policy-makers, industry representatives, researchers, veterinarians, and other stakeholders when motivating farmers to adopt best management practices, and to facilitate the development and implementation of voluntary prevention and control programs for livestock diseases. Farmers will make management decisions based on their unique circumstances, agricultural contexts, beliefs, and goals. Providing them with rational but universal arguments might not always be sufficient to motivate on-farm change. Implementation of recommended management practices is more likely if farmers acknowledge the existence of a problem and their responsibility to take action. The perceived feasibility and effectiveness of the recommended management strategy and sufficient technical knowledge further increase the likelihood of adequate adoption. Farmers will also weigh the expected advantages of a proposed change against the expected disadvantages, and these considerations often include internal drivers such as pride or the desire to conform with perceived standards. Extension tools and farmers' social referents (e.g., veterinarians, peers) not only provide technical information but also influence these standards. Whereas mass media have the potential to deliver information to a broad audience, more personal approaches such as participatory group learning or individual communication with farm advisors can enable the tailoring of recommendations to farmers' situations. Approaches that appeal to farmers

  19. Invited review: Current representation and future trends of predicting amino acid utilization in the lactating dairy cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriola Apelo, S I; Knapp, J R; Hanigan, M D

    2014-07-01

    In current dairy production systems, an average of 25% of dietary N is captured in milk, with the remainder being excreted in urine and feces. About 60% of total N losses occur postabsorption. Splanchnic tissues extract a fixed proportion of total inflow of each essential AA (EAA). Those EAA removed by splanchnic tissues and not incorporated into protein are subjected to catabolism, with the resulting N converted to urea. Splanchnic affinity varies among individual EAA, from several fold lower than mammary glands' affinity for the branched-chain AA to similar or higher affinity for Phe, Met, His, and Arg. On average, 85% of absorbed EAA appear in peripheral circulation, indicating that first-pass removal is not the main source of loss. Essential AA in excess of the needs of the mammary glands return to general circulation. High splanchnic blood flow dictates that a large proportion of EAA that return to general circulation flow through splanchnic tissues. In association with this constant recycling, EAA are removed and catabolized by splanchnic tissues. This results in splanchnic catabolism equaling or surpassing the use of many EAA for milk protein synthesis. Recent studies have demonstrated that EAA, energy substrates, and hormones activate signaling pathways that in turn regulate local blood flow, tissue extraction of EAA, and rates of milk protein synthesis. These recent findings would allow manipulation of dairy diets to maximize mammary uptake of EAA and reduce catabolism by splanchnic tissues. Dairy cattle nutrient requirement systems consider EAA requirements in aggregate as metabolizable protein (MP) and assume a fixed efficiency of MP use for milk protein. Lysine and Met sufficiency is only considered after MP requirements have been met. By doing so, requirement systems limit the scope of diet manipulation to achieve improved gross N efficiency. Therefore, this review focuses on understanding the dynamics of EAA metabolism in mammary and splanchnic

  20. Report of the Space Shuttle Management Independent Review Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-02-01

    At the request of the NASA Administrator a team was formed to review the Space Shuttle Program and propose a new management system that could significantly reduce operating costs. Composed of a group of people with broad and extensive experience in spaceflight and related areas, the team received briefings from the NASA organizations and most of the supporting contractors involved in the Shuttle Program. In addition, a number of chief executives from the supporting contractors provided advice and suggestions. The team found that the present management system has functioned reasonably well despite its diffuse structure. The team also determined that the shuttle has become a mature and reliable system, and--in terms of a manned rocket-propelled space launch system--is about as safe as today's technology will provide. In addition, NASA has reduced shuttle operating costs by about 25 percent over the past 3 years. The program, however, remains in a quasi-development mode and yearly costs remain higher than required. Given the current NASA-contractor structure and incentives, it is difficult to establish cost reduction as a primary goal and implement changes to achieve efficiencies. As a result, the team sought to create a management structure and associated environment that enables and motivates the Program to further reduce operational costs. Accordingly, the review team concluded that the NASA Space Shuttle Program should (1) establish a clear set of program goals, placing a greater emphasis on cost-efficient operations and user-friendly payload integration; (2) redefine the management structure, separating development and operations and disengaging NASA from the daily operation of the space shuttle; and (3) provide the necessary environment and conditions within the program to pursue these goals.

  1. Human Research Program Space Radiation Standing Review Panel (SRP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woloschak, Gayle; Steinberg-Wright, S.; Coleman, Norman; Grdina, David; Hill, Colin; Iliakis, George; Metting, Noelle; Meyers, Christina

    2010-01-01

    The Space Radiation Standing Review Panel (SRP) met at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) on December 9-11, 2009 to discuss the areas of current and future research targeted by the Space Radiation Program Element (SRPE) of the Human Research Program (HRP). Using evidence-based knowledge as a background for identified risks to astronaut health and performance, NASA had identified gaps in knowledge to address those risks. Ongoing and proposed tasks were presented to address the gaps. The charge to the Space Radiation SRP was to review the gaps, evaluate whether the tasks addressed these gaps and to make recommendations to NASA s HRP Science Management Office regarding the SRP's review. The SRP was requested to evaluate the practicality of the proposed efforts in light of the demands placed on the HRP. Several presentations were made to the SRP during the site visit and the SRP spent sufficient time to address the SRP charge. The SRP made a final debriefing to the HRP Program Scientist, Dr. John B. Charles, on December 11, 2009. The SRP noted that current SRPE strategy is properly science-based and views this as the best assurance of the likelihood that answers to the questions posed as gaps in knowledge can be found, that the uncertainty in risk estimates can be reduced, and that a solid, cost-effective approach to risk reduction solutions is being developed. The current approach of the SRPE, based on the use of carefully focused research solicitations, requiring thorough peer-review and approaches demonstrated to be on the path to answering the NASA strategic questions, addressed to a broad extramural community of qualified scientists, optimally positioned to take advantage of serendipitous discoveries and to leverage scientific advances made elsewhere, is sound and appropriate. The SRP viewed with concern statements by HRP implying that the only science legitimately deserving support should be "applied" or, in some instances that the very term "research" might be

  2. Invited Review Article: Tip modification methods for tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) and colloidal probe technique: A 10 year update (2006-2016) review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, C. C.; Zhang, D.; Gan, Y.

    2017-03-01

    Engineering atomic force microscopy tips for reliable tip enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) and colloidal probe technique are becoming routine practices in many labs. In this 10 year update review, various new tip modification methods developed over the past decade are briefly reviewed to help researchers select the appropriate method. The perspective is put in a large context to discuss the opportunities and challenges in this area, including novel combinations of seemingly different methods, potential applications of some methods which were not originally intended for TERS tip fabrication, and the problems of high cost and poor reproducibility of tip fabrication.

  3. Biological and Physical Space Research Laboratory 2002 Science Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curreri, P. A. (Editor); Robinson, M. B. (Editor); Murphy, K. L. (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    With the International Space Station Program approaching core complete, our NASA Headquarters sponsor, the new Code U Enterprise, Biological and Physical Research, is shifting its research emphasis from purely fundamental microgravity and biological sciences to strategic research aimed at enabling human missions beyond Earth orbit. Although we anticipate supporting microgravity research on the ISS for some time to come, our laboratory has been vigorously engaged in developing these new strategic research areas.This Technical Memorandum documents the internal science research at our laboratory as presented in a review to Dr. Ann Whitaker, MSFC Science Director, in July 2002. These presentations have been revised and updated as appropriate for this report. It provides a snapshot of the internal science capability of our laboratory as an aid to other NASA organizations and the external scientific community.

  4. Q-space analysis of scattering by particles: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorensen, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    This review describes and demonstrates the Q-space analysis of light scattering by particles. This analysis involves plotting the scattered intensity versus the scattering wave vector q=(4π/λ)sin(θ/2) on a double log plot. The analysis uncovers power law descriptions of the scattering with length scale dependent crossovers between the power laws. It also systematically describes the magnitude of the scattering and the interference ripple structure that often underlies the power laws. It applies to scattering from dielectric spheres of arbitrary size and refractive index (Mie scattering), fractal aggregates and irregularly shaped particles such as dusts. The benefits of Q-space analysis are that it provides a simple and comprehensive description of scattering in terms of power laws with quantifiable exponents; it can be used to differentiate scattering by particles of different shapes, and it yields a physical understanding of scattering based on diffraction. -- Highlights: ► Angular scattering functions for spheres show power laws versus the wave vector q. ► The power laws uncover patterns involving length scales and functionalities. ► Similar power laws appear in scattering from aggregates and irregular particles. ► Power laws provide a comprehensive and quantitative description of scattering

  5. Review on two-phase flow instabilities in narrow spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadrist, L.

    2007-01-01

    Instabilities in two-phase flow have been studied since the 1950s. These phenomena may appear in power generation and heat transfer systems where two-phase flow is involved. Because of thermal management in small size systems, micro-fluidics plays an important role. Typical processes must be considered when the channel hydraulic diameter becomes very small. In this paper, a brief review of two-phase flow instabilities encountered in channels having hydraulic diameters greater than 10 mm are presented. The main instability types are discussed according to the existing experimental results and models. The second part of the paper examines two-phase flow instabilities in narrow spaces. Pool and flow boiling cases are considered. Experiments as well as theoretical models existing in the literature are examined. It was found that several experimental works evidenced these instabilities meanwhile only limited theoretical developments exist in the literature. In the last part of the paper an interpretation of the two-phase flow instabilities linked to narrow spaces are presented. This approach is based on characteristic time scales of the two-phase flow and bubble growth in the capillaries

  6. 2015 Space Human Factors Engineering Standing Review Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The 2015 Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE) Standing Review Panel (from here on referred to as the SRP) met for a site visit in Houston, TX on December 2 - 3, 2015. The SRP reviewed the updated research plans for the Risk of Inadequate Design of Human and Automation/Robotic Integration (HARI Risk), the Risk of Inadequate Human-Computer Interaction (HCI Risk), and the Risk of Inadequate Mission, Process and Task Design (MPTask Risk). The SRP also received a status update on the Risk of Incompatible Vehicle/Habitat Design (Hab Risk) and the Risk of Performance Errors Due to Training Deficiencies (Train Risk). The SRP is pleased with the progress and responsiveness of the SHFE team. The presentations were much improved this year. The SRP is also pleased with the human-centered design approach. Below are some of the more extensive comments from the SRP. We have also made comments in each section concerning gaps/tasks in each. The comments below reflect more significant changes that impact more than just one particular section.

  7. NASA space station automation: AI-based technology review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firschein, O.; Georgeff, M. P.; Park, W.; Neumann, P.; Kautz, W. H.; Levitt, K. N.; Rom, R. J.; Poggio, A. A.

    1985-01-01

    Research and Development projects in automation for the Space Station are discussed. Artificial Intelligence (AI) based automation technologies are planned to enhance crew safety through reduced need for EVA, increase crew productivity through the reduction of routine operations, increase space station autonomy, and augment space station capability through the use of teleoperation and robotics. AI technology will also be developed for the servicing of satellites at the Space Station, system monitoring and diagnosis, space manufacturing, and the assembly of large space structures.

  8. 14 CFR 11.75 - Does FAA invite public comment on petitions for rulemaking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Does FAA invite public comment on petitions... Rulemaking and for Exemption § 11.75 Does FAA invite public comment on petitions for rulemaking? Generally, FAA does not invite public comment on petitions for rulemaking. ...

  9. Definition of technology development missions for early space stations. Large space structures, phase 2, midterm review

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The large space structures technology development missions to be performed on an early manned space station was studied and defined and the resources needed and the design implications to an early space station to carry out these large space structures technology development missions were determined. Emphasis is being placed on more detail in mission designs and space station resource requirements.

  10. Animal Board Invited Review: Sheep birth distribution in past herds: a review for prehistoric Europe (6th to 3rd millennia BC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasse, M; Tresset, A; Bălăşescu, A; Blaise, E; Tornero, C; Gandois, H; Fiorillo, D; Nyerges, É Á; Frémondeau, D; Banffy, E; Ivanova, M

    2017-12-01

    In temperate latitudes sheep have a seasonal reproductive behaviour, which imposes strong constraints on husbandry in terms of work organization and availability of animal products. During the last 50 years, researchers have focused on understanding the mechanisms driving small ruminants' reproduction cycles and finding ways to control them. This characteristic is inherited from their wild ancestor. However, the history of its evolution over the 10 millennia that separates present day European sheep from their Near Eastern ancestors' remains to be written. This perspective echoes archaeologists' current attempts at reconstructing ancient pastoral societies' socio-economical organization. Information related to birth seasonality may be retrieved directly from archaeological sheep teeth. The methodology consists of reconstructing the seasonal cycle record in sheep molars, through sequential analysis of the stable oxygen isotope composition (δ 18O) of enamel. Because the timing of tooth development is fixed within a species, inter-individual variability in this parameter reflects birth seasonality. A review of the data obtained from 10 European archaeological sites dated from the 6th to the 3rd millennia BC is provided. The results demonstrate a restricted breeding season for sheep: births occurred over a period of 3 to 4 months, from late winter to early summer at latitudes 43°N to 48°N, while a later onset was observed at a higher latitude (59°N). All conclusions concurred with currently held expectations based on present day sheep physiology, which, aside from the historical significance, contributes to the reinforcing of the methodological basis of the approach. Further study in this area will permit regional variability attributable to technical choices, within global schemes, to be fully reported.

  11. An Integrative Approach to Improving an Introductory Weather & Climate Course and Developing an Allied NASA Earth & Space Science Certificate Program for Pre-service Secondary Teachers (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, C. A.; Martin-Hansen, L.; Diem, J.; Elliott, W.

    2009-12-01

    An Atlanta-based partnership made up of leaders in science, education, and Georgia’s state-wide STEM Education Initiative are creating an enduring legacy of climate science education for pre-service and in-service teachers in Georgia as well as for underrepresented high school students who participate in an "Early College" program with Georgia State University (GSU). The core elements of our NASA-funded program are to infuse NASA global climate change resources and best pedagogical practice into a popular 4-credit lecture/lab course called “Introduction to Weather & Climate” (GEOG 1112) at GSU, and to establish a sustainable academic program for pre-service teachers in the College of Education called the NASA Earth & Space Science (ESS) Teacher Certificate. The NASA ESS Certificate will require candidates to accomplish the following as part of (or in addition to) standard degree and licensure requirements: 1. successfully complete a graduate section of “Introduction to Weather and Climate” (GEOG 7112), which requires lesson planning related to course content and engagement with GSU's new CO2 monitoring station whose research-quality data will provide unique hands-on opportunities for Metro Atlanta students and teachers; 2) complete an additional advanced course in climate change (GEOG 6784) plus elective hours in physical science disciplines (e.g. astronomy and physics); 3) serve as a lab teaching assistant for GEOG 1112 and a coach for a cadre of Carver Early College students who are taking the course; 4) make at least one of two teaching practica at a Georgia-based NASA Explorer School; and 5) participate or co-present in a week-long, residential, field-based, Summer Institute in Earth & Space Science intended to increase the interest, knowledge, and ability of in-service secondary science educators to fulfill climate-related standards in Earth Science and Earth Systems Science. We will evaluate, document, and disseminate (to the University System of

  12. On the gauge orbit space stratification: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudolph, G.; Schmidt, M.; Volobuev, I.P.

    2002-01-01

    First, we review the basic mathematical structures and results concerning the gauge orbit space stratification. This includes general properties of the gauge group action, fibre bundle structures induced by this action, basic properties of the stratification and the natural Riemannian structures of the strata. In the second part, we study the stratification for theories with gauge group SU(n) in spacetime dimension 4. We develop a general method for determining the orbit types and their partial ordering, based on the 1-1 correspondence between orbit types and holonomy-induced Howe subbundles of the underlying principal SU(n)-bundle. We show that the orbit types are classified by certain cohomology elements of spacetime satisfying two relations and that the partial ordering is characterized by a system of algebraic equations. Moreover, operations for generating direct successors and direct predecessors are formulated, which allow one to construct the set of orbit types, starting from the principal type. Finally, we discuss an application to nodal configurations in Yang-Mills-Chern-Simons theory. (author)

  13. Actions Needed to Ensure Scientific and Technical Information is Adequately Reviewed at Goddard Space Flight Center, Johnson Space Center, Langley Research Center, and Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This audit was initiated in response to a hotline complaint regarding the review, approval, and release of scientific and technical information (STI) at Johnson Space Center. The complainant alleged that Johnson personnel conducting export control reviews of STI were not fully qualified to conduct those reviews and that the reviews often did not occur until after the STI had been publicly released. NASA guidance requires that STI, defined as the results of basic and applied scientific, technical, and related engineering research and development, undergo certain reviews prior to being released outside of NASA or to audiences that include foreign nationals. The process includes technical, national security, export control, copyright, and trade secret (e.g., proprietary data) reviews. The review process was designed to preclude the inappropriate dissemination of sensitive information while ensuring that NASA complies with a requirement of the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 (the Space Act)1 to provide for the widest practicable and appropriate dissemination of information resulting from NASA research activities. We focused our audit on evaluating the STI review process: specifically, determining whether the roles and responsibilities for the review, approval, and release of STI were adequately defined and documented in NASA and Center-level guidance and whether that guidance was effectively implemented at Goddard Space Flight Center, Johnson Space Center, Langley Research Center, and Marshall Space Flight Center. Johnson was included in the review because it was the source of the initial complaint, and Goddard, Langley, and Marshall were included because those Centers consistently produce significant amounts of STI.

  14. An Invitation to Mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Schleicher, Dierk

    2011-01-01

    This "Invitation to Mathematics" consists of 14 contributions, many from the world's leading mathematicians, which introduce the readers to exciting aspects of current mathematical research. The contributions are as varied as the personalities of active mathematicians, but together they show mathematics as a rich and lively field of research. The contributions are written for interested students at the age of transition between high school and university who know high school mathematics and perhaps competition mathematics and who want to find out what current research mathematics is

  15. Reviews in Modern Astronomy: Vol. 15: JENAM 2001: Astronomy with Large Telescopes from Ground and Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schielicke, Reinhard E.

    2002-11-01

    This 15th volume in the annual series on recent developments and scientific progress in astronomy and astrophysics contains fourteen invited reviews presented during the Joint European and National Astronomical Meeting JENAM 2001, held in Munich, Germany. Readers also learn about the lecture on macro- and microscopic views of nearby galaxies given by Keiichi Kodaira, Japan, who was awarded the Karl Schwarzschild medal 2001. Further contributions on the topic provide the latest results on the search for extra-solar planets, formation of stars and galaxies, physics of active galactic nuclei, as well as new telescopes and sensor technologies for various wavelengths.

  16. Green Space, Violence, and Crime: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogar, Sandra; Beyer, Kirsten M

    2016-04-01

    To determine the state of evidence on relationships among urban green space, violence, and crime in the United States. Major bibliographic databases were searched for studies meeting inclusion criteria. Additional studies were culled from study references and authors' personal collections. Comparison among studies was limited by variations in study design and measurement and results were mixed. However, more evidence supports the positive impact of green space on violence and crime, indicating great potential for green space to shape health-promoting environments. Numerous factors influence the relationships among green space, crime, and violence. Additional research and standardization among research studies are needed to better understand these relationships. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Exploring the Functioning of Decision Space: A Review of the Available Health Systems Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamlyn Eslie Roman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background The concept of decision space holds appeal as an approach to disaggregating the elements that may influence decision-making in decentralized systems. This narrative review aims to explore the functioning of decision space and the factors that influence decision space. Methods A narrative review of the literature was conducted with searches of online databases and academic journals including PubMed Central, Emerald, Wiley, Science Direct, JSTOR, and Sage. The articles were included in the review based on the criteria that they provided insight into the functioning of decision space either through the explicit application of or reference to decision space, or implicitly through discussion of decision-making related to organizational capacity or accountability mechanisms. Results The articles included in the review encompass literature related to decentralisation, management and decision space. The majority of the studies utilise qualitative methodologies to assess accountability mechanisms, organisational capacities such as finance, human resources and management, and the extent of decision space. Of the 138 articles retrieved, 76 articles were included in the final review. Conclusion The literature supports Bossert’s conceptualization of decision space as being related to organizational capacities and accountability mechanisms. These functions influence the decision space available within decentralized systems. The exact relationship between decision space and financial and human resource capacities needs to be explored in greater detail to determine the potential influence on system functioning.

  18. Review of the Space Mapping Approach to Engineering Optimization and Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakr, M. H.; Bandler, J. W.; Madsen, Kaj

    2000-01-01

    We review the Space Mapping (SM) concept and its applications in engineering optimization and modeling. The aim of SM is to avoid computationally expensive calculations encountered in simulating an engineering system. The existence of less accurate but fast physically-based models is exploited. S......-based Modeling (SMM). These include Space Derivative Mapping (SDM), Generalized Space Mapping (GSM) and Space Mapping-based Neuromodeling (SMN). Finally, we address open points for research and future development....

  19. By invitation only

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2011-01-01

    The Hôtel Métropole in Brussels is a legendary conference venue that will ring a bell to all physicists. 100 years after the first meeting of the Conseil de Physique Solvay, a representative group of the world’s most eminent physicists met again in October this year in the Excelsior Room to discuss “The Theory of the Quantum World”. Three members of CERN's Theory Group were invited to participate. Gian Giudice, one of them, shares with us his thoughts and impressions about this exclusive conference.   Attendees at the 25th Solvay Conference on Physics, Brussels. Photo provided by "International Solvay Institutes". “In the tradition of the Solvay Conferences, this is a discussion-oriented meeting with few talks by rapporteurs.” Thus reads the Introduction to the Scientific Programme of the Solvay Conference on Physics. In the Conference programme, the rapporteurs speak for only 30 minutes,...

  20. Quantum stochastic calculus in Fock space: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents a survey of the recently developed theory of quantum stochastic calculus in Boson Fock space, together with its applications. The work focuses on a non-commutative generalization of the classical Ito stochastic calculus of Brownian motion, which exploits to the full the Wiener-Segal duality transformation identifying the L 2 space of Wiener measure with a Boson Fock space. This Fock space emerges as the natural home of not only Brownian motion but also classical Poisson processes, and even of Fermionic processes of the type developed by Barnett et al. The principle physical application of the theory to the construction and characterization of unitary dilations of quantum dynamical semigroups is also described

  1. Eastern Sources of Invitational Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryback, David

    1993-01-01

    Presents historical perspective suggesting that invitational theory shares many beliefs with ancient Eastern philosophies. Submits that teachers and other educators who embrace the invitational perspective may benefit from an understanding of Eastern principles. Briefly describes Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, Zen Buddhism, and their relevance to…

  2. China-Venezuela Space Cooperation Benefits and Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mariano Imbert

    2016-01-01

    For the last 10 years,the Venezuelan aerospace industry has been constantly growing,and it is to be expected to continue in the same way in the future.China and its space industry,as the main partner for most of the ongoing Venezuelan space projects from their beginning,has been an important player in their development and may continue acting as one of the most important partners not only for the Venezuelan aerospace industry but also for other Latin-American countries' aerospace industries.ABAE (Bolivarian Agency for Space Activities) together with the related Chinese aerospace companies,with the guidance and help of CGWIC,has been constantly improving its cooperation methods,regarding technical work flows as well as management activities,especially for the latest's space projects under development,namely the CIDE (Venezuelan Design,Assembly,Integration and Testing Center) and VRSS-2 (Venezuelan Remote Sensing Satellite-2) programs.Provided that there is a deeper and stronger cooperation in the future,partnership and friendship of the different scientists,experts and leaders from the space sectors of both countries,will be improved and strengthened for the development of both nations social welfare.

  3. Newspaper Review Show in the Broadcast Media Space in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Nyarko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ghana’s public sphere has witnessed a growing media presence which has enhanced the relay of information to the citizenry. By this, society is given a full spectrum of alternatives to access media. Amid this atmosphere is a platform labeled the “Newspaper Review Show” which appears to have generated some sort of contention since its inception among newspaper publishers on one hand and broadcast stations on the other. Using an exploratory qualitative approach, this study has shown that review of newspaper content is pervasive in the landscape and the selective style of review of major agenda has affected readership, revenue of newspaper outlets, and reading culture, among others. However, the article also contended that falling readership is attributed to some factors other than only review of newspaper content.

  4. INVITATION FROM THE UBS

    CERN Multimedia

    UBS SA

    2000-01-01

    Via its Web pages (http://www.ubs.com), the UBS offers you direct access to all its telebanking services, namely:information relating to accounts and custody accounts (balances, debits and credits);stock market information and placing of orders;domestic and foreign payment transactions.These supplementary and inexpensive banking services mean that you no longer have to go to the bank to obtain the information you require and are not therefore limited by bank opening times.The UBS will be holding two sessions on the CERN site to present this modern product on:25.4.2000 (in French),26.4.2000 (in English).The agenda will be as follows:12.00 to 12.40 p.m.Presentation of the product;12.40 to 13.10 p.m.Question-and-answer session;13.10 to 14.00 p.m.Buffet and discussions.To enable us to meet your requirements and to expedite matters, we invite you to register for one of these sessions by sending an e-mail or letter to:pierre.guyenon@ubs.com before 7.4.2000 indicating:your surname and first name, the account number(...

  5. Learning Spaces in Academic Libraries--A Review of the Evolving Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Arlee; Welch, Bernadette; Reynolds, Sue

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the professional discourse regarding the evolution of information and learning spaces in academic libraries, particularly in the first decade of the twenty-first century. It investigates the evolution of academic libraries and the development of learning spaces focusing on the use of the terms which have evolved…

  6. Review of the Space Debris Protection Application on ``TIANGONG-1''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Li, Ming; Han, Zengyao

    Meteoroid and orbital debris (M/OD) is the key factor related to the astronaut safety. The long-term manned spacelab generally adopts protection measures to reduce its hypervelocity impact (HVI) risk. This paper presents the engineering application on“Tiangong-1”,the first long-term spacelab in orbit for China.The application includes the M/OD shielding, active avoidance and mitigation. Firstly, the shielding concepts on“Tiangong-1”manned module and radiator are summarized. Two typical Whipple shields respectively with the 70mm and 50mm standoff are separately utilized for the front cone and cylinder pressurized walls. The ballistic limit Equations (BLE) of these two shieldings are achieved through the HVI tests and numerical simulation. The shields provide the resistance capability of space debris particle.Meanwhile, the M/OD risk is assessed by utilizing the MODAOST to predict the probability of penetration (PP) and probability of critical failure (PCF). The assessment shows that the shielding design meets the safety requirement with the PP of 2.09X10 (-3) and the critical cracking PCF of 3.35X10 (-4) . The radiator,the large-scaled component of manned Spacelab, adopts the Ω-shaped tube to improve the HVI resistance capability with the cost of less mass. Secondly, the orbit transfer strategy is designed not only to meet the requirement of the orbit phase of “Shenzhou” spacecraft but also actively avoid the rendezvous with the cataloged debris in orbit. This strategy is validated through the rendezvous and docking missions of “Shenzhou-8” and “Tiangong-1”,“Shenzhou-9”,“Shenzhou-10”. Thirdly, the mitigation and deactivation concepts are introduced by means of reentry simulation of “Tiangong-1” to protect the space environment and reduce the ground casualty. The space debris protection techniques applied on “Tiangong-1” have been broken through with the successful mission of “Tiangong-1”, and these applied techniques provide

  7. An Invitation to Behavior Analysts: Review of in Search of Memory: The Emergence of A New Science of Mind by Eric R. Kandel

    OpenAIRE

    Mechner, Francis

    2008-01-01

    This fascinating autobiography and multifaceted case history in neuroscience research is accessible to laymen and potentially instructive to working scientists. Kandel takes the reader through his thought processes as he describes experiments that led to some of the past decades' major neuroscience discoveries (some highlights of which are summarized in the review's Appendix), and eventually to his Nobel Prize. The review analyzes some of the terminological and conceptual issues that have oft...

  8. Urban green spaces and cancer: a protocol for a scoping review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejeune, Mathilde; Gaudel, Marion; Pommier, Jeanine; Faure, Emmanuelle; Heritage, Zoé; Rican, Stéphane; Simos, Jean; Cantoreggi, Nicola Luca; Roué Le Gall, Anne; Cambon, Linda; Regnaux, Jean-Philippe

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Green space in the built environment is an important topic on the health agenda today. Studies have shown that access to green spaces is associated with better mental and physical health, yet green spaces can also be detrimental to health if they are not managed appropriately. Despite the increasing interest in urban green spaces, little research has so far been conducted into the links between green spaces and cancer. Objective The purpose of this scoping review is therefore to map the literature available on the types of relationship between urban green spaces and cancer. Method and analysis We followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocols 2015 guideline to report the protocol. To conduct this scoping review, we will use a structured search strategy based on controlled vocabulary and relevant key terms related to green space, urban space and cancer. We will search MEDLINE (PubMed), GreenFILE (EBSCOhost), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (EBSCOhost) and ScienceDirect as electronic database as well as hand-search publications for grey literature. This review will therefore provide evidence on this current topic, one which could have practical implications for policy-makers involved in choices which are more conducive to healthy living. Ethics and dissemination No primary data will be collected since all data that will be presented in this review are based on published articles and publicly available documents, and therefore ethics committee approval is not a requirement. The findings of this review will be presented at workshops and conferences, and will be submitted for publication in a peer-reviewed journal. PMID:29453298

  9. Urban green spaces and cancer: a protocol for a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcherie, Marion; Lejeune, Mathilde; Gaudel, Marion; Pommier, Jeanine; Faure, Emmanuelle; Heritage, Zoé; Rican, Stéphane; Simos, Jean; Cantoreggi, Nicola Luca; Roué Le Gall, Anne; Cambon, Linda; Regnaux, Jean-Philippe

    2018-02-16

    Green space in the built environment is an important topic on the health agenda today. Studies have shown that access to green spaces is associated with better mental and physical health, yet green spaces can also be detrimental to health if they are not managed appropriately. Despite the increasing interest in urban green spaces, little research has so far been conducted into the links between green spaces and cancer. The purpose of this scoping review is therefore to map the literature available on the types of relationship between urban green spaces and cancer. We followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocols 2015 guideline to report the protocol. To conduct this scoping review, we will use a structured search strategy based on controlled vocabulary and relevant key terms related to green space, urban space and cancer. We will search MEDLINE (PubMed), GreenFILE (EBSCOhost), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (EBSCOhost) and ScienceDirect as electronic database as well as hand-search publications for grey literature. This review will therefore provide evidence on this current topic, one which could have practical implications for policy-makers involved in choices which are more conducive to healthy living. No primary data will be collected since all data that will be presented in this review are based on published articles and publicly available documents, and therefore ethics committee approval is not a requirement. The findings of this review will be presented at workshops and conferences, and will be submitted for publication in a peer-reviewed journal. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Exploring the Functioning of Decision Space: A Review of the Available Health Systems Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Tamlyn Eslie; Cleary, Susan; McIntyre, Diane

    2017-02-27

    The concept of decision space holds appeal as an approach to disaggregating the elements that may influence decision-making in decentralized systems. This narrative review aims to explore the functioning of decision space and the factors that influence decision space. A narrative review of the literature was conducted with searches of online databases and academic journals including PubMed Central, Emerald, Wiley, Science Direct, JSTOR, and Sage. The articles were included in the review based on the criteria that they provided insight into the functioning of decision space either through the explicit application of or reference to decision space, or implicitly through discussion of decision-making related to organizational capacity or accountability mechanisms. The articles included in the review encompass literature related to decentralisation, management and decision space. The majority of the studies utilise qualitative methodologies to assess accountability mechanisms, organisational capacities such as finance, human resources and management, and the extent of decision space. Of the 138 articles retrieved, 76 articles were included in the final review. The literature supports Bossert's conceptualization of decision space as being related to organizational capacities and accountability mechanisms. These functions influence the decision space available within decentralized systems. The exact relationship between decision space and financial and human resource capacities needs to be explored in greater detail to determine the potential influence on system functioning. © 2017 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  11. Review Space Weather and Solar Wind Studies with OWFA

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we review the results of interplanetary scintillation (IPS) observations made with the legacy .... complex flow of solar wind at different time and spa- ..... in a step of ∼20 .... observing program with the legacy system of the ORT.

  12. Reviewing Organizational Communication Concepts with the Movie "Office Space"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunz, Ulla

    2006-01-01

    Undergraduate students often memorize a keyword or definition for an exam without a deeper understanding or the ability to apply the meaning of the concept. While using examples during a lecture may help, the combination of movies and verbal review has been shown to be a valuable instructional tool, increasing recall (Elischberger & Roebers, 2001)…

  13. L'invisible invité

    OpenAIRE

    Frémy, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Tiré du site Internet de Onestar Press: ""They’re a kind of cabin or hut, very basic and awkwardly assembled, wedged into the space of the balcony between the guardrail and the wall of the building.The vertical sides are made of plywood, canvas or tarp, and are topped by a vegetal roofing that is more or less dry, more or less green, threaded with palm wattle. These huts are opaque and seem to communicate with apartments…" Excerpt from L’Invisible invité by Anne Frémy, english by Bruce Bender...

  14. Curricular Space Allocated for Dance Content in Physical Education Teacher Education Programs: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquis, Jenée Marie; Metzler, Mike

    2017-01-01

    This literature review examines curricular space allocated to activity based/movement content courses in Physical Education Teacher Education (PETE) pre-service programs, specifically focusing on how dance content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge are addressed within those programs. This review includes original empirical research…

  15. Review and comparison of recent methods in space geodesy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varga, M.

    1983-01-01

    The study of geodynamic processes requires the application of new space-born geodesic measuring methods. A terrestrial reference system (TRS) is required for describing geodynamic processes. For this purpose satisfactory knowledge of polar motions, Earth rotation and tidal forces determined by laser, global positioning system (GPS) and VLBI measurements are needed. In addition, gravity and magnetic field of the Earth have to be known, modelled by using satellite to satellite traching (SST), altimetry, gradiometry and magnetometry results. Motions of the Earth-Moon system, as well as the relation between the terrestrial reference system and the inertial system can be determined by means of VLBI measurements. (author)

  16. A review of European applications of artificial intelligence to space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Mark (Editor); Stewart, Helen (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    The purpose is to describe the applications of Artificial Intelligence (AI) to the European Space program that are being developed or have been developed. The results of a study sponsored by the Artificial Intelligence Research and Development program of NASA's Office of Advanced Concepts and Technology (OACT) are described. The report is divided into two sections. The first consists of site reports, which are descriptions of the AI applications seen at each place visited. The second section consists of two summaries which synthesize the information in the site reports by organizing this information in two different ways. The first organizes the material in terms of the type of application, e.g., data analysis, planning and scheduling, and procedure management. The second organizes the material in terms of the component technologies of Artificial Intelligence which the applications used, e.g., knowledge based systems, model based reasoning, procedural reasoning, etc.

  17. Bid invitations for nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zijl, N.A. van.

    1975-01-01

    Types of bid invitations, basic requirements on bid invitation documents, basic content of a turnkey bid invitation (bid invitation letter, instructions to the bidders, terms and conditions of the draft contract, technical specifications, site data and information), nuclear fuel procurement, differences turnkey - non-turnkey, legal, commerical, and technical matters concerning the contract document. (HP) [de

  18. Outdoor blue spaces, human health and well-being: A systematic review of quantitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascon, Mireia; Zijlema, Wilma; Vert, Cristina; White, Mathew P; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2017-11-01

    A growing number of quantitative studies have investigated the potential benefits of outdoor blue spaces (lakes, rivers, sea, etc) and human health, but there is not yet a systematic review synthesizing this evidence. To systematically review the current quantitative evidence on human health and well-being benefits of outdoor blue spaces. Following PRISMA guidelines for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analysis, observational and experimental quantitative studies focusing on both residential and non-residential outdoor blue space exposure were searched using specific keywords. In total 35 studies were included in the current systematic review, most of them being classified as of "good quality" (N=22). The balance of evidence suggested a positive association between greater exposure to outdoor blue spaces and both benefits to mental health and well-being (N=12 studies) and levels of physical activity (N=13 studies). The evidence of an association between outdoor blue space exposure and general health (N=6 studies), obesity (N=8 studies) and cardiovascular (N=4 studies) and related outcomes was less consistent. Although encouraging, there remains relatively few studies and a large degree of heterogeneity in terms of study design, exposure metrics and outcome measures, making synthesis difficult. Further research is needed using longitudinal research and natural experiments, preferably across a broader range of countries, to better understand the causal associations between blue spaces, health and wellbeing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Hypnosis and Modern Frontal-Lobe Concepts – A Sketch for a Review and an Invitation to One Particularly Promising Field

    OpenAIRE

    Muzur, Amir

    2006-01-01

    The present paper intends to briefly review the most important concepts of the modern neuropsychology of the frontal lobes, and to relate these findings to the phenomenology usually encountered in hypnosis research and practice. The frontal lobes have been studied very intensively during the last several years and some of the results, including the syndromes described in frontal-lobe lesions and psychiatric patients, demonstrate striking similarity with hypnotic phenomena. Based o...

  20. 14 CFR 11.85 - Does FAA invite public comment on petitions for exemption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Does FAA invite public comment on petitions... Rulemaking and for Exemption § 11.85 Does FAA invite public comment on petitions for exemption? Yes, FAA... the reasons for requesting it; and (e) A request for comments to assist FAA in evaluating the petition. ...

  1. Hypnosis and modern frontal-lobe concepts--a sketch for a review and an invitation to one particularly promising field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzur, Amir

    2006-03-01

    The present paper intends to briefly review the most important concepts of the modern neuropsychology of the frontal lobes, and to relate these findings to the phenomenology usually encountered in hypnosis research and practice. The frontal lobes have been studied very intensively during the last several years and some of the results, including the syndromes described in frontal-lobe lesions and psychiatric patients, demonstrate striking similarity with hypnotic phenomena. Based on these similarities, an alternative neuropsychophysiological definition of hypnosis/suggestion is proposed, viewing hypnosis/suggestion as the process of external manipulation with frontal-lobe functions with consequent effects upon the entire brain potential of the subject.

  2. Review on the solar spectral variability in the EUV for space weather purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lilensten

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The solar XUV-EUV flux is the main energy source in the terrestrial diurnal thermosphere: it produces ionization, dissociation, excitation and heating. Accurate knowledge of this flux is of prime importance for space weather. We first list the space weather applications that require nowcasting and forecasting of the solar XUV-EUV flux. We then review present models and discuss how they account for the variability of the solar spectrum. We show why the measurement of the full spectrum is difficult, and why it is illusory to retrieve it from its atmospheric effects. We then address the problem of determining a set of observations that are adapted for space weather purposes, in the frame of ionospheric studies. Finally, we review the existing and future space experiments that are devoted to the observation of the solar XUV-EUV spectrum.

  3. The Strategic Combination of Open-Access Peer-Review, Mainstream Media and Social Media to Improve Public Climate Literacy (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, J.; Nuccitelli, D. A.; Jacobs, P.

    2013-12-01

    The Skeptical Science website began in 2007, with the goal of refuting climate misinformation with peer-reviewed science. It achieved this by embracing a diversity of message formats and delivery methods. Myth rebuttals are available at beginner, intermediate and advanced levels, spanning from long, technical treatments to tweetable one-liners. Content has been translated into 20 different languages and made available via the web, an iPhone app and books while adopted by third parties in textbooks, university and MOOC curricula, books, Senate testimonies and TV documentaries. While social media has been a fruitful medium, we experimented with a new model in 2013, employing the strategic combination of open-access peer-review, mainstream media outreach and social media marketing. This strategy was adopted with the release of a paper quantifying the level of scientific consensus in published climate papers, resulting in broad mainstream media attention as well as acknowledgement from key public figures such as Al Gore, the UK Minister for Energy Edward Davey and President Obama. Our approach was informed by psychological research into both the importance of scientific consensus and how to reduce the influence of misconceptions. While multiple methods of delivery are important, equally important is the construction of the messages themselves. I will examine the science of crafting compelling messages and how combination with diverse message delivery can lead to impactful outcomes.

  4. Plant mineral nutrition, gas exchange and photosynthesis in space: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, S. A.; Coelho, L. H.; Zabrodina, M.; Brinckmann, E.; Kittang, A.-I.

    2013-02-01

    Successful growth and development of higher plants in space rely on adequate availability and uptake of water and nutrients, and efficient energy distribution through photosynthesis and gas exchange. In the present review, literature has been reviewed to assemble the relevant knowledge within space plant research for future planetary missions. Focus has been on fractional gravity, space radiation, magnetic fields and ultimately a combined effect of these factors on gas exchange, photosynthesis and transport of water and solutes. Reduced gravity prevents buoyancy driven thermal convection in the physical environment around the plant and alters transport and exchange of gases and liquids between the plant and its surroundings. In space experiments, indications of root zone hypoxia have frequently been reported, but studies on the influences of the space environment on plant nutrition and water transport are limited or inconclusive. Some studies indicate that uptake of potassium is elevated when plants are grown under microgravity conditions. Based on the current knowledge, gas exchange, metabolism and photosynthesis seem to work properly in space when plants are provided with a well stirred atmosphere and grown at moderate light levels. Effects of space radiation on plant metabolism, however, have not been studied so far in orbit. Ground experiments indicated that shielding from the Earth's magnetic field alters plant gas exchange and metabolism, though more studies are required to understand the effects of magnetic fields on plant growth. It has been shown that plants can grow and reproduce in the space environment and adapt to space conditions. However, the influences of the space environment may result in a long term effect over multiple generations or have an impact on the plants' role as food and part of a regenerative life support system. Suggestions for future plant biology research in space are discussed.

  5. Invitation to ergodic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Silva, C E

    2007-01-01

    This book is an introduction to basic concepts in ergodic theory such as recurrence, ergodicity, the ergodic theorem, mixing, and weak mixing. It does not assume knowledge of measure theory; all the results needed from measure theory are presented from scratch. In particular, the book includes a detailed construction of the Lebesgue measure on the real line and an introduction to measure spaces up to the Carathéodory extension theorem. It also develops the Lebesgue theory of integration, including the dominated convergence theorem and an introduction to the Lebesgue L^pspaces. Several examples of a dynamical system are developed in detail to illustrate various dynamical concepts. These include in particular the baker's transformation, irrational rotations, the dyadic odometer, the Hajian-Kakutani transformation, the Gauss transformation, and the Chacón transformation. There is a detailed discussion of cutting and stacking transformations in ergodic theory. The book includes several exercises and some open q...

  6. Integrative Review of the Intersection of Green Space and Neighborhood Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancus, Gibran C; Campbell, Jacquelyn

    2018-03-01

    To systematically analyze evidence about the impact of green space on the perception and actual safety of residents of urban neighborhoods. Systematic review of green space and violence based on Broome review criteria. One landmark study prompted the initial hand search and identification of search terms. Twenty-three quantitative, five qualitative, and two mixed-methods studies were found in the urban planning, public health, medical, and psychological literature that met the following criteria: analyzed green space and violence as factors in the perception of safety as an outcome measure, including action taken by being outside for recreation, exercise, or self-report in the survey. Findings were inconsistent regarding the direct relationship between perception of safety and green space when using recreation and exercise as a proxy for perception of safety. Findings regarding perception of safety in surveys were limited but indicated a positive correlation with green space. There is sufficient evidence to conclude that the perception of safety is supported by quality, accessibility, and aesthetic dimensions of neighborhood green space, and the perception of safety is often unrelated to actual crime rates. The science for understanding mechanisms between green space and violence as part of environmental health has been insufficiently developed and requires further study. Environmental health, including green space, is central to health promotion, and understanding is key to preventing the epidemic of violence. This article provides a summary of research related to green space, violence in communities, perception of safety, and violent crime in those communities. It identifies gaps in our knowledge where future research is needed. Nurses have the opportunity to lead the development, implementation, and evaluation of evidence-based interventions and policies addressing the inequality of quality and quantity of green space in the built and natural environment and

  7. Invited review: Recommendations for reporting intervention studies on reproductive performance in dairy cattle: Improving design, analysis, and interpretation of research on reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lean, Ian J; Lucy, Matthew C; McNamara, John P; Bradford, Barry J; Block, Elliot; Thomson, Jennifer M; Morton, John M; Celi, Pietro; Rabiee, Ahmad R; Santos, José E P; Thatcher, William W; LeBlanc, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Abundant evidence from the medical, veterinary, and animal science literature demonstrates that there is substantial room for improvement of the clarity, completeness, and accuracy of reporting of intervention studies. More rigorous reporting guidelines are needed to improve the quality of data available for use in comparisons of outcomes (or meta-analyses) of multiple studies. Because of the diversity of factors that affect reproduction and the complexity of interactions between these, a systematic approach is required to design, conduct, and analyze basic and applied studies of dairy cattle reproduction. Greater consistency, clarity, completeness, and correctness of design and reporting will improve the value of each report and allow for greater depth of evaluation in meta-analyses. Each of these benefits will improve understanding and application of current knowledge and better identify questions that require additional modeling or primary research. The proposed guidelines and checklist will aid in the design, conduct, analysis, and reporting of intervention studies. We propose an adaptation of the REFLECT (Reporting Guidelines for Randomized Controlled Trials for Livestock and Food Safety) statement to provide guidelines and a checklist specific to reporting intervention studies in dairy cattle reproduction. Furthermore, we provide recommendations that will assist investigators to produce studies with greater internal and external validity that can more often be included in systematic reviews and global meta-analyses. Such studies will also assist the development of models to describe the physiology of reproduction. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Linking Climate Change Science and Adaptation Policy at the Community Scale through Anticipatory Governance: A Review of Concepts with Application to Arizona Communities (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, D. D.; Quay, R.; Ferguson, D. B.; Buizer, J. L.; Guido, Z.; Chhetri, N.

    2013-12-01

    enhancing the salience and legitimacy of the information to the current stage of each unique public adaptation policy process. Recently, a coalition of researches from the Decision Center for a Desert City (DCDC) at Arizona State University and the Climate Assessment for the Southwest (CLIMAS) at University of Arizona has been engaging with local governments in Arizona to explore in more detail what stages of climate adaptation they are in and what climate adaptation information and services are needed. In this paper, we review the use of anticipatory governance for addressing uncertainty and present results of our study of Arizona communities. The conclusions and discussion focus on how science institutions can engage with local governments to enhance the effectiveness of integrating scientific knowledge, even with associated uncertainties, into ongoing public climate adaptation processes.

  9. Review of Issues Associated with Safe Operation and Management of the Space Shuttle Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Paul M.; Blomberg, Richard D.; Gleghorn, George J.; Krone, Norris J.; Voltz, Richard A.; Dunn, Robert F.; Donlan, Charles J.; Kauderer, Bernard M.; Brill, Yvonne C.; Englar, Kenneth G.; hide

    1996-01-01

    At the request of the President of the United States through the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP), the NASA Administrator tasked the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel with the responsibility to identify and review issues associated with the safe operation and management of the Space Shuttle program arising from ongoing efforts to improve and streamline operations. These efforts include the consolidation of operations under a single Space Flight Operations Contract (SFOC), downsizing the Space Shuttle workforce and reducing costs of operations and management. The Panel formed five teams to address the potentially significant safety impacts of the seven specific topic areas listed in the study Terms of Reference. These areas were (in the order in which they are presented in this report): Maintenance of independent safety oversight; implementation plan for the transition of Shuttle program management to the Lead Center; communications among NASA Centers and Headquarters; transition plan for downsizing to anticipated workforce levels; implementation of a phased transition to a prime contractor for operations; Shuttle flight rate for Space Station assembly; and planned safety and performance upgrades for Space Station assembly. The study teams collected information through briefings, interviews, telephone conversations and from reviewing applicable documentation. These inputs were distilled by each team into observations and recommendations which were then reviewed by the entire Panel.

  10. Anaesthesia in austere environments: literature review and considerations for future space exploration missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komorowski, Matthieu; Fleming, Sarah; Mawkin, Mala; Hinkelbein, Jochen

    2018-01-01

    Future space exploration missions will take humans far beyond low Earth orbit and require complete crew autonomy. The ability to provide anaesthesia will be important given the expected risk of severe medical events requiring surgery. Knowledge and experience of such procedures during space missions is currently extremely limited. Austere and isolated environments (such as polar bases or submarines) have been used extensively as test beds for spaceflight to probe hazards, train crews, develop clinical protocols and countermeasures for prospective space missions. We have conducted a literature review on anaesthesia in austere environments relevant to distant space missions. In each setting, we assessed how the problems related to the provision of anaesthesia (e.g., medical kit and skills) are dealt with or prepared for. We analysed how these factors could be applied to the unique environment of a space exploration mission. The delivery of anaesthesia will be complicated by many factors including space-induced physiological changes and limitations in skills and equipment. The basic principles of a safe anaesthesia in an austere environment (appropriate training, presence of minimal safety and monitoring equipment, etc.) can be extended to the context of a space exploration mission. Skills redundancy is an important safety factor, and basic competency in anaesthesia should be part of the skillset of several crewmembers. The literature suggests that safe and effective anaesthesia could be achieved by a physician during future space exploration missions. In a life-or-limb situation, non-physicians may be able to conduct anaesthetic procedures, including simplified general anaesthesia.

  11. Learning in Earth and Space Science: A Review of Conceptual Change Instructional Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Reece; Tomas, Louisa; Lewthwaite, Brian

    2016-01-01

    In response to calls for research into effective instruction in the Earth and space sciences, and to identify directions for future research, this systematic review of the literature explores research into instructional approaches designed to facilitate conceptual change. In total, 52 studies were identified and analyzed. Analysis focused on the…

  12. Review of the different methods to derive average spacing from resolved resonance parameters sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fort, E.; Derrien, H.; Lafond, D.

    1979-12-01

    The average spacing of resonances is an important parameter for statistical model calculations, especially concerning non fissile nuclei. The different methods to derive this average value from resonance parameters sets have been reviewed and analyzed in order to tentatively detect their respective weaknesses and propose recommendations. Possible improvements are suggested

  13. Avoiding Surgical Skill Decay : A Systematic Review on the Spacing of Training Sessions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cecilio-Fernandes, Dario; Cnossen, Fokie; Jaarsma, Debbie A D C; Tio, René A

    OBJECTIVE: Spreading training sessions over time instead of training in just 1 session leads to an improvement of long-term retention for factual knowledge. However, it is not clear whether this would also apply to surgical skills. Thus, we performed a systematic review to find out whether spacing

  14. Engineering a new class of thermal spray nano-based microstructures from agglomerated nanostructured particles, suspensions and solutions: an invited review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauchais, P; Montavon, G; Lima, R S; Marple, B R

    2011-01-01

    diagnostic tools and strategies, and experimental advances that have enabled the development of a wide range of coating structures exhibiting in numerous cases unique properties. Several examples are detailed. In this paper the following aspects are presented successively (i) the two spray techniques used for manufacturing such coatings: thermal plasma and HVOF, (ii) sensors developed for in-flight diagnostics of micrometre-sized particles and the interaction of a liquid and hot gas flow, (iii) three spray processes: conventional spraying using micrometre-sized agglomerates of nanometre-sized particles, suspension spraying and solution spraying and (iv) the emerging issues resulting from the specific structures of these materials, particularly the characterization of these coatings and (v) the potential industrial applications. Further advances require the scientific and industrial communities to undertake new research and development activities to address, understand and control the complex mechanisms occurring, in particular, thermal flow-liquid drops or stream interactions when considering suspension and liquid precursor thermal spray techniques. Work is still needed to develop new measurement devices to diagnose in-flight droplets or particles below 2 μm average diameter and to validate that the assumptions made for liquid-hot gas interactions. Efforts are also required to further develop some of the characterization protocols suitable to address the specificities of such nanostructured coatings, as some existing 'conventional' protocols usually implemented on thermal spray coatings are not suitable anymore, in particular to address the void network architectures from which numerous coatings properties are derived. (topical review)

  15. Making Riverscapes Real (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, A.; Carbonneau, P.; Fonstad, M. A.; Walther, S. C.

    2009-12-01

    comparable to physical habitat data. Given that funding will not be available in most rivers to map organism distributions across all scales and locations, modeling of organism distributions over space and time will have to be an integral part of making riverscapes “real.” A second challenge is that existing quantitative and qualitative models do not capture or explain the multiple scales of spatial variability shown by continuous, high resolution maps of riverscapes. Riverscapes thus challenge our existing understanding of how rivers structure themselves and will force development of new paradigms. Absent these new paradigms, riverscape maps provide an information overload that scientists and managers have trouble conceptualizing and using. This paper presents examples of riverscape mapping from around the world, demonstrates ways in which the maps can be used, and discusses the fundamental ways in which multiscalar, basin-extent riverscapes challenge our present understanding of river structure and function.

  16. Science under Siege (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagosian, R. B.; Wheeler, K. R.

    2013-12-01

    Our planet has changed significantly over the past few decades - physically, chemically, and biologically. The political landscape has also transformed - almost as dramatically - over this same time period. Although recently, it seems that legislative action has slowed to a geological pace. Recent tragedies stemming from natural disasters (tsunamis, oil spills, hurricanes, tornadoes, etc.) have raised the public's awareness of their tenuous relationship with nature. However, the political debate over climate change has raised questions about the integrity of the scientific endeavor and lowered the public's perception of research and trust in scientists. This politicization of science is particularly unfortunate at a time when science is needed to address the threats from rising seas, acidified waters, and intensified storms. The scientific process relies on critical analysis from colleagues, which ensures that theories are well founded, research can be replicated, and the entire process is overseen by scientific peers. It is much easier to disprove something than to definitively prove just about anything. Unfortunately, this truth has been exploited for political purposes. Policy decisions need to be informed by science and not the reverse. However, increasingly when science does not support a policy maker's agenda, they tend to impugn the scientist, the funding agency or even the peer-review system. This is new and hostile territory for science, and we must find a way to rise above the political fray. To do so, we need to improve how and when we communicate information to the public, to whom policy makers are accountable. We need to find new, clearer, and better methods to convey uncertainty and risk in terms meaningful to the public and policy makers. And finally, we need to defend the academic peer review process, which is the gold standard and envy of the world. During these times of fiscal constraints, the scientific community needs to explore new models for

  17. Do tilt-in-space wheelchairs increase occupational engagement: a critical literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrand, Jenny; Bannigan, Katrina

    2016-01-01

    A wheelchair can enhance the quality of life of an individual with limited mobility, poor trunk control and stability, by enabling activity and participation and so occupational engagement. High specification wheelchairs which can tilt-in-space enable the position of users to be altered to suit activity and context. Despite tilt-in-space wheelchairs being expensive little is known about their therapeutic value. A critical literature review of the evidence was undertaken to evaluate whether the use of tilt-in-space increases occupational engagement. A wide ranging search strategy identified 170 articles which were screened using inclusion criteria. The eligible literature (n = 6) was analysed thematically using open coding. The majority of the participants used tilt-in-space but the data was too heterogeneous to combine. Measures of occupational engagement were not used so the therapeutic value could not be assessed. There is a lack of high quality evidence about the therapeutic benefits of tilt-in-space wheelchairs. Given the expense associated with providing these wheelchairs, and the increase in their provision, research is needed to justify provision of high specification wheelchairs to meet the occupational needs of users within the limited resources of health and social care. Implications for Rehabilitation Tilt-in-space wheelchairs. Wheelchairs are an important and essential assistive device for promoting independence and function. Suggests there are benefits for tilt-in-space wheelchairs. Identifies the need for additional large scale research.

  18. Invitational Education: Theory, Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haigh, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Invitational Theory argues that learning is enhanced when learners are positively encouraged or "invited" into the educational experience. Arising from perceptual and self-concept theory, Invitational Pedagogy is constructed on four principles: respect for people, trust, optimism and intentionality, and upon five pillars: people, places, policies,…

  19. Avoiding Surgical Skill Decay: A Systematic Review on the Spacing of Training Sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecilio-Fernandes, Dario; Cnossen, Fokie; Jaarsma, Debbie A D C; Tio, René A

    Spreading training sessions over time instead of training in just 1 session leads to an improvement of long-term retention for factual knowledge. However, it is not clear whether this would also apply to surgical skills. Thus, we performed a systematic review to find out whether spacing training sessions would also improve long-term retention of surgical skills. We searched the Medline, PsycINFO, Embase, Eric, and Web of Science online databases. We only included articles that were randomized trials with a sample of medical trainees acquiring surgical motor skills in which the spacing effect was reported. The quality and bias of the articles were assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration's risk of bias assessment tool. With respect to the spacing effect, 1955 articles were retrieved. After removing duplicates and articles that did not meet the inclusion criteria, 11 articles remained. The overall quality of the experiments was "moderate." Trainees in the spaced condition scored higher in a retention test than students in the massed condition. Our systematic review showed evidence that spacing training sessions improves long-term surgical skills retention when compared to massed practice. However, the optimal gap between the re-study sessions is unclear. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Ultra-low-volume space sprays in mosquito control: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonds, J A S

    2012-06-01

    The availability of tools to control mosquito (Diptera:Culicidae) vectors that transmit disease is often limited by a variety of economic, environmental and social issues. In emergency conditions (epidemics, hurricanes, floods etc.), the application of pesticides as space sprays (either by ground or air) is the common method of choice in order to rapidly limit adult local mosquito production in the affected area. Space spray application now employs ultra-low-volume technology for the control of adult mosquitoes. However, the use of space sprays often raises social and environmental concerns by the general public that is served. This review will define and illustrate modern ultra-low-volume technology for the purpose of application as a space spray, as well as describing the engineering controls that have been developed to minimize the environmental impact. The primary social concern is validity and efficacy of application. To address this point, the review will attempt to synthesize the global literature to address the effectiveness of space sprays to significantly impact mosquito vectors in relation to human disease. © 2012 The Author. Medical and Veterinary Entomology © 2012 The Royal Entomological Society.

  1. Invited review: sex ratio and rheumatic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockshin, M D

    2001-11-01

    Human illnesses affect men and women differently. In some cases (diseases of sex organs, diseases resulting from X or Y chromosome mutations), reasons for sex discrepancy are obvious, but in other cases no reason is apparent. Explanations for sex discrepancy of illness occur at different biological levels: molecular (e.g., imprinting, X-inactivation), cellular (sex-specific receptor activity), organ (endocrine influences), whole organism (size, age), and environmental-behavioral, including intrauterine influences. Autoimmunity represents a prototypical class of illness that has high female-to-male (F/M) ratios. Although the F/M ratios in autoimmune diseases are usually attributed to the influence of estrogenic hormones, evidence demonstrates that the attributed ratios are imprecise and that definitions and classifications of autoimmune diseases vary, rendering at least part of the counting imprecise. In addition, many studies on sex discrepancy of human disease fail to distinguish between disease incidence and disease severity. In April 2001, the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences published Exploring the Biological Contributions to Human Health: Does Sex Matter? (Wizemann T and Pardue M-L, editors). This minireview summarizes the section of that report that concerns autoimmune and infectious disease. Some thyroid, rheumatic, and hepatic autoimmune diseases have high F/M ratios, whereas others have low. Those that have high ratios occur primarily in young adulthood. Gonadal hormones, if they play a role, likely do so through a threshold or permissive mechanism. Examples of sex differences that could be caused by environmental exposure, X inactivation, imprinting, X or Y chromosome genetic modulators, and intrauterine influences are presented as alternate, theoretical, and largely unexplored explanations for sex differences of incidence. The epidemiology of autoimmune diseases (young, female) suggests that an explanation for sex discrepancy of these illnesses lies in differential exposure, vulnerable periods, or thresholds. Biologists have an opportunity to inform medical scientists about sex differences that explain different attack rates in specific diseases, and physicians offer biologists experiments of nature to test theories of sex.

  2. 2013 Estorm - Invited Paper - Cathode Materials Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, Claus [ORNL; Mohanty, Debasish [ORNL; Li, Jianlin [ORNL; Wood III, David L [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The electrochemical potential of cathode materials defines the positive side of the terminal voltage of a battery. Traditionally, cathode materials are the energy-limiting or voltage-limiting electrode. One of the first electrochemical batteries, the voltaic pile invented by Alessandro Volta in 1800 (Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. 90, 403 431) had a copper-zinc galvanic element with a terminal voltage of 0.76 V. Since then, the research community has increased capacity and voltage for primary (nonrechargeable) batteries and round-trip efficiency for secondary (rechargeable) batteries. Successful secondary batteries have been the lead acid with a lead oxide cathode and a terminal voltage of 2.1 V and later the NiCd with a nickel(III) oxide hydroxide cathode and a 1.2 V terminal voltage. The relatively low voltage of those aqueous systems and the low round-trip efficiency due to activation energies in the conversion reactions limited their use. In 1976, Wittingham (J. Electrochem. Soc., 123, 315) and Besenhard (J Power Sources 1(3), 267) finally enabled highly reversible redox reactions by intercalation of lithium ions instead of by chemical conversion. In 1980, Goodenough and Mizushima (Mater. Res. Bull. 15, 783 789) demonstrated a high-energy and high-power LiCoO2 cathode, allowing for an increase of terminal voltage far beyond 3 V. Over the past four decades, the international research community has further developed cathode materials of many varieties. Current state-of-the-art cathodes demonstrate voltages beyond any known electrolyte stability window, bringing electrolyte research once again to the forefront of battery research.

  3. Pseudotumors of the shoulder invited review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Suzanne E. [Department of Radiology, Royal Melbourne Hospital and University of Melbourne, Grattan Street, Parkville 3050, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Department of Diagnostic, Pediatric, and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital of Bern, Inselspital, Freiburg Str. 10, 3005 Bern (Switzerland)], E-mail: andersonsembach@yahoo.com.au; Johnston, James O. [Department of Radiology, Bone Section, University of California, San Francisco (United States); Tumour Oncology, Orthopedic Surgery, Kaiser Health, Bay Area, San Francisco (United States); Steinbach, Lynne S. [Department of Radiology, Bone Section, University of California, San Francisco (United States)

    2008-10-15

    This paper discusses the main types of MRI pseudotumors in and around the shoulder region. Some unusual types of pseudotumor will also be mentioned. Suggestions on how to improve awareness and diagnosis are also given.

  4. A review and assessment of crack case problems in pressurized systems on the space shuttle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patin, R.M.; Forman, R.G.; Horiuchi, G.K.

    1993-01-01

    The principal effort for fracture control during development of the Space Shuttle was concentrated on primary structure, pressure vessels, and the main engines. The real occurrence of crack problems leading to safety-of-flight reviews, however, have been primarily affiliated with pressurized subsystems in the vehicle. The cracking of components in pressurized subsystems has occurred mostly from lack of weld penetration, porosity, and joint design oversight where mode 2 loading accelerated the crack initiation process. This paper provides a synopsis of several crack cases that have occurred, and points out the importance of applying a comprehensive fracture control plan to pressurized systems in space programs

  5. 77 FR 59925 - Public Buildings Service; Submission for OMB Review; Application/Permit for Use of Space in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... Buildings Service; Submission for OMB Review; Application/ Permit for Use of Space in Public Buildings and... regarding GSA Form 3453, Application/Permit for Use of Space in Public Buildings and Grounds. A notice was... Information Collection 3090- 0044, GSA Form 3453, Application/Permit for Use of Space in Public Buildings and...

  6. SRTC criticality safety technical review: Nuclear criticality safety evaluation 94-02, uranium solidification facility pencil tank module spacing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathbun, R.

    1994-01-01

    Review of NMP-NCS-94-0087, ''Nuclear Criticality Safety Evaluation 94-02: Uranium Solidification Facility Pencil Tank Module Spacing (U), April 18, 1994,'' was requested of the SRTC Applied Physics Group. The NCSE is a criticality assessment to show that the USF process module spacing, as given in Non-Conformance Report SHM-0045, remains safe for operation. The NCSE under review concludes that the module spacing as given in Non-Conformance Report SHM-0045 remains in a critically safe configuration for all normal and single credible abnormal conditions. After a thorough review of the NCSE, this reviewer agrees with that conclusion

  7. Space, the final frontier: A critical review of recent experiments performed in microgravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbrink, Joshua P; Kiss, John Z

    2016-02-01

    Space biology provides an opportunity to study plant physiology and development in a unique microgravity environment. Recent space studies with plants have provided interesting insights into plant biology, including discovering that plants can grow seed-to-seed in microgravity, as well as identifying novel responses to light. However, spaceflight experiments are not without their challenges, including limited space, limited access, and stressors such as lack of convection and cosmic radiation. Therefore, it is important to design experiments in a way to maximize the scientific return from research conducted on orbiting platforms such as the International Space Station. Here, we provide a critical review of recent spaceflight experiments and suggest ways in which future experiments can be designed to improve the value and applicability of the results generated. These potential improvements include: utilizing in-flight controls to delineate microgravity versus other spaceflight effects, increasing scientific return via next-generation sequencing technologies, and utilizing multiple genotypes to ensure results are not unique to one genetic background. Space experiments have given us new insights into plant biology. However, to move forward, special care should be given to maximize science return in understanding both microgravity itself as well as the combinatorial effects of living in space. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  8. SSTAC/ARTS review of the draft Integrated Technology Plan (ITP). Volume 3: Space power and thermal management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    Viewgraphs of briefings from the SSTAC/ARTS review of the draft integrated technology plan on thermal power and thermal management are presented. Topics covered include: space energy conversion research and technology; space photovoltaic energy conversion; chemical energy conversion and storage; thermal energy conversion; power management; thermal management; space nuclear power; high capacity power; surface power and thermal management; space platforms power and thermal management; and project SELENE

  9. Does Access to Green Space Impact the Mental Well-being of Children: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Rachel

    An increasing body of research is showing associations between green space and overall health. Children are spending more time indoors while pediatric mental and behavioral health problems are increasing. A systematic review of the literature was done to examine the association between access to green space and the mental well-being of children. Articles were limited to English language, ages 0-18 years, and publish date 2012-2017. The search yielded 341 articles in Ovid, 81 in Pub Med and 123 in Scopus. Articles that were not original research and that were not a pediatric population were excluded. Twelve articles fit the selection criteria. Twelve articles relating to green space and the mental well-being of children were reviewed. Three articles outside the date criteria were included as they are cited often in the literature as important early research on this topic. Access to green space was associated with improved mental well-being, overall health and cognitive development of children. It promotes attention restoration, memory, competence, supportive social groups, self-discipline, moderates stress, improves behaviors and symptoms of ADHD and was even associated with higher standardized test scores. Scientific evidence demonstrating the mental health benefits of access to nature for children can guide policy and urban planning, while nursing interventions and initiatives can enhance health by promoting outdoor play, educating patients and families, advocating for recess times and green environments at school as well as healing gardens in hospital settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Factors influencing efficiency of sliding mechanics to close extraction space: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, M; Kula, K

    2008-05-01

    To review recent literature to determine strength of clinical evidence concerning the influence of various factors on the efficiency (rate of tooth movement) of closing extraction spaces using sliding mechanics. A comprehensive systematic review on prospective clinical trials. An electronic search (1966-2006) of several databases limiting the searches to English and using several keywords was performed. Also a hand search of five key journals specifically searching for prospective clinical trials relevant to orthodontic space closure using sliding mechanics was completed. Outcome Measure - Rate of tooth movement. Ten prospective clinical trials comparing rates of closure under different variables and focusing only on sliding mechanics were selected for review. Of these ten trials on rate of closure, two compared arch wire variables, seven compared material variables used to apply force, and one examined bracket variables. Other articles which were not prospective clinical trials on sliding mechanics, but containing relevant information were examined and included as background information. CONCLUSION - The results of clinical research support laboratory results that nickel-titanium coil springs produce a more consistent force and a faster rate of closure when compared with active ligatures as a method of force delivery to close extraction space along a continuous arch wire; however, elastomeric chain produces similar rates of closure when compared with nickel-titanium springs. Clinical and laboratory research suggest little advantage of 200 g nickel-titanium springs over 150 g springs. More clinical research is needed in this area.

  11. Review of NASA approach to space radiation risk assessments for Mars exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A

    2015-02-01

    Long duration space missions present unique radiation protection challenges due to the complexity of the space radiation environment, which includes high charge and energy particles and other highly ionizing radiation such as neutrons. Based on a recommendation by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, a 3% lifetime risk of exposure-induced death for cancer has been used as a basis for risk limitation by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for low-Earth orbit missions. NASA has developed a risk-based approach to radiation exposure limits that accounts for individual factors (age, gender, and smoking history) and assesses the uncertainties in risk estimates. New radiation quality factors with associated probability distribution functions to represent the quality factor's uncertainty have been developed based on track structure models and recent radiobiology data for high charge and energy particles. The current radiation dose limits are reviewed for spaceflight and the various qualitative and quantitative uncertainties that impact the risk of exposure-induced death estimates using the NASA Space Cancer Risk (NSCR) model. NSCR estimates of the number of "safe days" in deep space to be within exposure limits and risk estimates for a Mars exploration mission are described.

  12. Autofluorescence from the outer retina and subretinal space: hypothesis and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaide, Richard

    2008-01-01

    To review the pathophysiologic principles underlying increased autofluorescence from the outer retina and subretinal space using selected diseases as examples. The ocular imaging information and histopathologic features, when known, were integrated for diseases causing increased autofluorescence from the outer retina and subretinal space. Inferences were taken from this information and used to create a classification scheme. These diseases are principally those that cause separation of the outer retina from the retinal pigment epithelium, thereby preventing proper phagocytosis of photoreceptor outer segments. The separation can arise from increased exudation into the subretinal space or inadequate removal of fluid from the subretinal space. Lack of normal outer segment processing initially leads to increased accumulation of outer segments on the outer retina and subretinal space. Over time, this material is visible as an increasingly thick coating on the outer retina, is yellow, and is autofluorescent. Over time, atrophy develops with thinning of the deposited material and decreasing autofluorescence. The accumulated material is ultimately capable of inducing damage to the retinal pigment epithelium. Diseases causing accumulation of the material include central serous chorioretinopathy, vitelliform macular dystrophy, acute exudative polymorphous vitelliform maculopathy, choroidal tumors, and vitreomacular traction syndrome. The physical separation of the retinal outer segments from the retinal pigment epithelium hinders proper phagocytosis of the outer segments. Accumulation of the shed but not phagocytized outer segments plays a role in disease manifestations for a number of macular diseases.

  13. Conduct and results of the Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel's evaluation of the Ulysses space mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sholtis, J.A. Jr.; Gray, L.B.; Huff, D.A.; Klug, N.P.; Winchester, R.O.

    1991-01-01

    The recent 6 October 1990 launch and deployment of the nuclear-powered Ulysses spacecraft from the Space Shuttle Discovery culminated an extensive safety review and evaluation effort by the Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel (INSRP). After more than a year of detailed independent review, study, and analysis, the INSRP prepared a Safety Evaluation Report (SER) on the Ulysses mission, in accordance with Presidential Directive-National Security Council memorandum 25. The SER, which included a review of the Ulysses Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) and an independent characterization of the mission risks, was used by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in its decision to request launch approval as well as by the Executive Office of the President in arriving at a launch decision based on risk-benefit considerations. This paper provides an overview of the Ulysses mission and the conduct as well as the results of the INSRP evaluation. While the mission risk determined by the INSRP in the SER was higher than that characterized by the Ulysses project in the FSAR, both reports indicated that the radiological risks were relatively small. In the final analysis, the SER proved to be supportive of a positive launch decision. The INSRP evaluation process has demonstrated its effectiveness numerous times since the 1960s. In every case, it has provided the essential ingredients and perspective to permit an informed launch decision at the highest level of our Government

  14. Inviting In the Private Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-10-01

    private sector . After all, corruption does not just involve government. Business people and lawyers and citizens pay the bribes, even as they condemn bribery. They should be invited to become part of the solution. But how? The first point to note is that business people and citizens know where corruption exists and how corrupt systems work. Citizens understand how bribery shapes the services they receive or don’t receive. Accountants know the illicit games played with audits and taxes. Lawyers understand corrupt legal practices. Business people know all about corrupt

  15. Approaches to Outdoor Thermal Comfort Thresholds through Public Space Design: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Santos Nouri

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on the Köppen Geiger (KG classification system, this review article examines existing studies and projects that have endeavoured to address local outdoor thermal comfort thresholds through Public Space Design (PSD. The review is divided into two sequential stages, whereby (1 overall existing approaches to pedestrian thermal comfort thresholds are reviewed within both quantitative and qualitative spectrums; and (2 the different techniques and measures are reviewed and framed into four Measure Review Frameworks (MRFs, in which each type of PSD measure is presented alongside its respective local scale urban specificities/conditions and their resulting thermal attenuation outcomes. The result of this review article is the assessment of how current practices of PSD within three specific subcategories of the KG ‘Temperate’ group have addressed microclimatic aggravations such as elevated urban temperatures and Urban Heat Island (UHI effects. Based upon a bottom-up approach, the interdisciplinary practice of PSD is hence approached as a means to address existing and future thermal risk factors within the urban public realm in an era of potential climate change.

  16. A review of the habitability aspects of prior space flights from the flight crew perspective with an orientation toward designing Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stramler, J. H.

    1990-01-01

    Habitability is a very important issue in long-duration spaceflight. With this concern, a review of much of the existing U.S. Skylab, Spacelab, and some Soviet literature on habitability aspects of long-duratioin space flight was completed for the Astronaut Space Station Support Office. The data were organized to follow as closely as possible the SSF distributed systems, such as Life Support, Data Management, etc. A new definition of habitability is proposed.

  17. Invited Article: First Flight in Space of a Wide-field-of-view Soft X-Ray Imager Using Lobster-Eye Optics: Instrument Description and Initial Flight Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Michael; Porter, F. Scott; Sibeck, David G.; Carter, Jenny A.; Chiao, Meng P.; Chomay, Dennis J.; Cravens, Thomas E.; Galeazzi, Massiniliano; Keller, John; Koutroumpa, Dimitra

    2015-01-01

    We describe the development, launch into space, and initial results from a prototype wide eld-of-view (FOV) soft X-ray imager that employs Lobster-eye optics and targets heliophysics, planetary, and astrophysics science. The Sheath Transport Observer for the Redistribution of Mass (STORM) is the rst instrument using this type of optics launched into space and provides proof-of-concept for future ight instruments capable of imaging structures such as the terrestrial cusp, the entire dayside magnetosheath from outside the magnetosphere, comets, the moon, and the solar wind interaction with planetary bodies like Venus and Mars.

  18. Invited Article: First flight in space of a wide-field-of-view soft x-ray imager using lobster-eye optics: Instrument description and initial flight results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Michael R; Porter, F Scott; Sibeck, David G; Carter, Jenny A; Chiao, Meng P; Chornay, Dennis J; Cravens, Thomas E; Galeazzi, Massimiliano; Keller, John W; Koutroumpa, Dimitra; Kujawski, Joseph; Kuntz, Kip; Read, Andy M; Robertson, Ina P; Sembay, Steve; Snowden, Steven L; Thomas, Nicholas; Uprety, Youaraj; Walsh, Brian M

    2015-07-01

    We describe the development, launch into space, and initial results from a prototype wide field-of-view soft X-ray imager that employs lobster-eye optics and targets heliophysics, planetary, and astrophysics science. The sheath transport observer for the redistribution of mass is the first instrument using this type of optics launched into space and provides proof-of-concept for future flight instruments capable of imaging structures such as the terrestrial cusp, the entire dayside magnetosheath from outside the magnetosphere, comets, the Moon, and the solar wind interaction with planetary bodies like Venus and Mars [Kuntz et al., Astrophys. J. (in press)].

  19. Towards human exploration of space: The THESEUS review series on nutrition and metabolism research priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergouignan, Audrey; Stein, T Peter; Habold, Caroline; Coxam, Veronique; O' Gorman, Donal; Blanc, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition has multiple roles during space flight from providing sufficient nutrients to meet the metabolic needs of the body and to maintain good health, to the beneficial psychosocial aspects related to the meals. Nutrition is central to the functioning of the body; poor nutrition compromises all the physiological systems. Nutrition is therefore likely to have a key role in counteracting the negative effects of space flight (e.g., radiation, immune deficits, oxidative stress, and bone and muscle loss). As missions increase in duration, any dietary/nutritional deficiencies will become progressively more detrimental. Moreover, it has been recognized that the human diet contains, in addition to essential macronutrients, a complex array of naturally occurring bioactive micronutrients that may confer significant long-term health benefits. It is therefore critical that astronauts be adequately nourished during missions. Problems of nutritional origin are often treatable by simply providing the appropriate nutrients and adequate recommendations. This review highlights six key issues that have been identified as space research priorities in nutrition field: in-flight energy balance; altered feeding behavior; development of metabolic stress; micronutrient deficiency; alteration of gut microflora; and altered fluid and electrolytes balance. For each of these topics, relevance for space exploration, knowledge gaps and proposed investigations are described. Finally, the nutritional questions related to bioastronautics research are very relevant to multiple ground-based-related health issues. The potential spin-offs are both interesting scientifically and potentially of great clinical importance.

  20. Book review: Stella Souvatzi and Athena Hadji (eds. Space and Time in Mediterranean Prehistory (Routledge Studies in Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Sraka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The collection of papers Space and Time in Medi- terranean Prehistory is an outcome of the collabo- ration between Stella Souvatzi, who regularly writes on spatiality within social archaeological themes such as households, as in her recent book A Social Archaeology of Households in Neolithic Greece, and Athena Hadji, whose Berkeley PhD thesis was entitled on The Construction of Time in Aegean Archaeology. The editors invited researchers from a predominantly interpretative (post-processual ar- chaeological tradition who deal with Mediterranean prehistory and included a few selected revised contributions to the similarly named session at the 16th Annual Meeting of the European Association of Archaeologists in the Hague. The collection of papers contains 15 chapters by archaeologists, anthropologists and an architect.

  1. An invitation to critical mathematics education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsmose, Ole

    An Invitation to Critical Mathematics Education deals with a range of crucial topics. Among these are students’ foreground, landscapes of investigation, and mathematics in action. The book is intended for a broad audience: educators, students, teachers, policy makers, anybody interested...... in the further development of mathematics education. The book discusses concerns and preoccupation. This way it provides an invitation into critical mathematics education....

  2. Towards human exploration of space: The THESEUS review series on immunology research priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frippiat, Jean-Pol; Crucian, Brian E; de Quervain, Dominique J-F; Grimm, Daniela; Montano, Nicola; Praun, Siegfried; Roozendaal, Benno; Schelling, Gustav; Thiel, Manfred; Ullrich, Oliver; Choukèr, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Dysregulation of the immune system occurs during spaceflight and may represent a crew health risk during exploration missions because astronauts are challenged by many stressors. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the biology of immune modulation under spaceflight conditions in order to be able to maintain immune homeostasis under such challenges. In the framework of the THESEUS project whose aim was to develop an integrated life sciences research roadmap regarding human space exploration, experts working in the field of space immunology, and related disciplines, established a questionnaire sent to scientists around the world. From the review of collected answers, they deduced a list of key issues and provided several recommendations such as a maximal exploitation of currently available resources on Earth and in space, and to increase increments duration for some ISS crew members to 12 months or longer. These recommendations should contribute to improve our knowledge about spaceflight effects on the immune system and the development of countermeasures that, beyond astronauts, could have a societal impact.

  3. A Year of Progress: NASA's Space Launch System Approaches Critical Design Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askins, Bruce; Robinson, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) made significant progress on the manufacturing floor and on the test stand in 2014 and positioned itself for a successful Critical Design Review in mid-2015. SLS, the world's only exploration-class heavy lift rocket, has the capability to dramatically increase the mass and volume of human and robotic exploration. Additionally, it will decrease overall mission risk, increase safety, and simplify ground and mission operations - all significant considerations for crewed missions and unique high-value national payloads. Development now is focused on configuration with 70 metric tons (t) of payload to low Earth orbit (LEO), more than double the payload of the retired Space Shuttle program or current operational vehicles. This "Block 1" design will launch NASA's Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) on an uncrewed flight beyond the Moon and back and the first crewed flight around the Moon. The current design has a direct evolutionary path to a vehicle with a 130t lift capability that offers even more flexibility to reduce planetary trip times, simplify payload design cycles, and provide new capabilities such as planetary sample returns. Every major element of SLS has successfully completed its Critical Design Review and now has hardware in production or testing. In fact, the SLS MPCV-to-Stage-Adapter (MSA) flew successfully on the Exploration Flight Test (EFT) 1 launch of a Delta IV and Orion spacecraft in December 2014. The SLS Program is currently working toward vehicle Critical Design Review in mid-2015. This paper will discuss these and other technical and programmatic successes and challenges over the past year and provide a preview of work ahead before the first flight of this new capability.

  4. Interventions to reduce sexual prejudice: a study-space analysis and meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoş, Sebastian E; Berger, Israel; Hegarty, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Sexual prejudice is an important threat to the physical and mental well-being of lesbians, gay men, and bisexual people. Therefore, we reviewed the effectiveness of interventions designed to reduce such prejudice. A study-space analysis was performed on published and unpublished papers from all over the world to identify well-studied and underexplored issues. Most studies were conducted with North American undergraduates and were educational in nature. Dissertations were often innovative and well designed but were rarely published. We then performed meta-analyses on sets of comparable studies. Education, contact with gay people, and combining contact with education had a medium-size effect on several measures of sexual prejudice. The manipulation of social norms was effective in reducing antigay behavior. Other promising interventions, such as the use of entertainment media to promote tolerance, need further investigation. More research is also needed on populations other than American students, particularly groups who may have higher levels of sexual prejudice.

  5. MAXILLARY INCISORS CHANGES DURING SPACE CLOSURE WITH CONVENTIONAL AND SKELETAL ANCHORAGE METHODS: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasas Shri Nalaka JAYARATNE

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The objective of this systematic review was to compare the antero-posterior, vertical and angular changes of maxillary incisors with conventional anchorage control techniques and mini-implant based space closure methods. Materials and Methods: The electronic databases Pubmed, Scopus, ISI Web of knowledge, Cochrane Library and Open Grey were searched for potentially eligible studies using a set of predetermined keywords. Full texts meeting the inclusion criteria as well as their references were manually searched. The primary outcome data (linear, angular, and vertical maxillary incisor changes and secondary outcome data (overbite changes, soft tissue changes, biomechanical factors, root resorption and treatment duration were extracted from the selected articles and entered into spreadsheets based on the type of anchorage used. The methodological quality of each study was assessed. Results: Six studies met the inclusion criteria. The amount of incisor retraction was greater with buccally placed mini-implants than conventional anchorage techniques. The incisor retraction with indirect anchorage from palatal mini-implants was less when compared with buccally placed mini-implants. Incisor intrusion occurred with buccal mini-implants, whereas extrusion was seen with conventional anchorage. Limited data on the biomechanical variables or adverse effects such as root resorption were reported in these studies. Conclusion: More RCT’s that take in to account relevant biomechanical variables and employ three-dimensional quantification of tooth movements are required to provide information on incisor changes during space closure.

  6. Maxillary incisors changes during space closure with conventional and skeletal anchorage methods: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaratne, Yasas Shri Nalaka; Uribe, Flavio; Janakiraman, Nandakumar

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to compare the antero-posterior, vertical and angular changes of maxillary incisors with conventional anchorage control techniques and mini-implant based space closure methods. The electronic databases Pubmed, Scopus, ISI Web of knowledge, Cochrane Library and Open Grey were searched for potentially eligible studies using a set of predetermined keywords. Full texts meeting the inclusion criteria as well as their references were manually searched. The primary outcome data (linear, angular, and vertical maxillary incisor changes) and secondary outcome data (overbite changes, soft tissue changes, biomechanical factors, root resorption and treatment duration) were extracted from the selected articles and entered into spreadsheets based on the type of anchorage used. The methodological quality of each study was assessed. Six studies met the inclusion criteria. The amount of incisor retraction was greater with buccally placed mini-implants than conventional anchorage techniques. The incisor retraction with indirect anchorage from palatal mini-implants was less when compared with buccally placed mini-implants. Incisor intrusion occurred with buccal mini-implants, whereas extrusion was seen with conventional anchorage. Limited data on the biomechanical variables or adverse effects such as root resorption were reported in these studies. More RCT's that take in to account relevant biomechanical variables and employ three-dimensional quantification of tooth movements are required to provide information on incisor changes during space closure.

  7. Extended phase-space methods for enhanced sampling in molecular simulations: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi eFujisaki

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Molecular Dynamics simulations are a powerful approach to study biomolecular conformational changes or protein-ligand, protein-protein and protein-DNA/RNA interactions. Straightforward applications however are often hampered by incomplete sampling, since in a typical simulated trajectory the system will spend most of its time trapped by high energy barriers in restricted regions of the configuration space. Over the years, several techniques have been designed to overcome this problem and enhance space sampling. Here, we review a class of methods that rely on the idea of extending the set of dynamical variables of the system by adding extra ones associated to functions describing the process under study. In particular, we illustrate the Temperature Accelerated Molecular Dynamics (TAMD, Logarithmic Mean Force Dynamics (LogMFD, andMultiscale Enhanced Sampling (MSES algorithms. We also discuss combinations with techniques for searching reaction paths. We show the advantages presented by this approach and how it allows to quickly sample important regions of the free energy landscape via automatic exploration.

  8. Eliciting Information on Sensitive Matters Without Inviting ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Eliciting Information on Sensitive Matters. Without Inviting Respondents' ... methods based on Randomized Response tech- niques. ... while collecting data on some sensitive issues are well ..... Suppose there is an association of professionals.

  9. Informal urban green space: A trilingual systematic review of its role for biodiversity and trends in the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Rupprecht, Christoph D. D.; Byrne, Jason A.; Garden, Jenni G.; Hero, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    Urban greenspaces harbor considerable biodiversity. Such areas include spontaneously vegetated spaces such as such as brownfields, street or railway verges and vacant lots. While these spaces may contribute to urban conservation, their informal and liminal nature poses a challenge for reviewing what we know about their value for biodiversity. The relevant literature lacks a common terminology. This paper applied a formal definition and typology of informal urban greenspace (IGS) to identify a...

  10. Structural Analysis Peer Review for the Static Display of the Orbiter Atlantis at the Kennedy Space Center Visitors Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minute, Stephen A.

    2013-01-01

    Mr. Christopher Miller with the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) NASA Safety & Mission Assurance (S&MA) office requested the NASA Engineering and Safety Center's (NESC) technical support on March 15, 2012, to review and make recommendations on the structural analysis being performed for the Orbiter Atlantis static display at the KSC Visitor Center. The principal focus of the assessment was to review the engineering firm's structural analysis for lifting and aligning the orbiter and its static display configuration

  11. 11 CFR 100.137 - Invitations, food, and beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Invitations, food, and beverages. 100.137...) Exceptions to Expenditures § 100.137 Invitations, food, and beverages. The cost of invitations, food, and... invitations, food and beverages provided by the individual on behalf of the candidate does not exceed $1,000...

  12. 11 CFR 100.77 - Invitations, food, and beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Invitations, food, and beverages. 100.77...) Exceptions to Contributions § 100.77 Invitations, food, and beverages. The cost of invitations, food and... invitations, food and beverages provided by the individual on behalf of the candidate does not exceed $1,000...

  13. An Analysis and Review of Measures and Relationships in Space Transportation Affordability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Edgar; McCleskey, Carey

    2014-01-01

    The affordability of transportation to or from space is of continued interest across numerous and diverse stakeholders in our aerospace industry. Such an important metric as affordability deserves a clear understanding among stakeholders about what is meant by affordability, costs, and related terms, as otherwise it's difficult to see where specific improvements are needed or where to target specific investments. As captured in the famous words of Lewis Carroll, "If you don't know where you are going, any road will get you there". As important as understanding a metric may be, with terms such as costs, prices, specific costs, average costs, marginal costs, etc., it is equally important to understand the relationship among these measures. In turn, these measures intermingle with caveats and factors that introduce more measures in need of a common understanding among stakeholders. These factors include flight rates, capability, and payload. This paper seeks to review the costs of space transportation systems and the relationships among the many factors involved in costs from the points of view of diverse decision makers. A decision maker may have an interest in acquiring a single launch considering the best price (along with other factors in their business case), or an interest in many launches over time. Alternately, a decision maker may have a specific interest in developing a space transportation system that will offer certain prices, or flight rate capability, or both, at a certain up-front cost. The question arises for the later, to reuse or to expend? As it is necessary in thinking about the future to clearly understand the past and the present, this paper will present data and graphics to assist stakeholders in visualizing trends and the current state of affairs in the launch industry. At all times, raw data will be referenced (or made available separately) alongside detailed explanations about the data, so as to avoid the confusion or misleading conclusions

  14. Effects of Spaced Retrieval Training on Semantic Memory in Alzheimer's Disease: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oren, Shiri; Willerton, Charlene; Small, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This article reports on a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of spaced retrieval training (SRT) on semantic memory in people with Alzheimer's disease (AD) or related disorder. Method: An initial systematic database search identified 454 potential studies. After screening and de-duplication, 35 studies that used SRT…

  15. Critical Review of the U.S. Marine Corps' Space Cadre Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Deist, David W

    2007-01-01

    The National Space Human Capital Resource Strategy of February 2004 required the services to develop and manage a service unique cadre of space professionals to support their unique mission requirements...

  16. NASA space station automation: AI-based technology review. Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firschein, O.; Georgeff, M. P.; Park, W.; Cheeseman, P. C.; Goldberg, J.; Neumann, P.; Kautz, W. H.; Levitt, K. N.; Rom, R. J.; Poggio, A. A.

    1985-01-01

    Research and Development projects in automation technology for the Space Station are described. Artificial Intelligence (AI) based technologies are planned to enhance crew safety through reduced need for EVA, increase crew productivity through the reduction of routine operations, increase space station autonomy, and augment space station capability through the use of teleoperation and robotics.

  17. The impact of interventions to promote physical activity in urban green space: a systematic review and recommendations for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Ruth F; Christian, Hayley; Veitch, Jenny; Astell-Burt, Thomas; Hipp, J Aaron; Schipperijn, Jasper

    2015-01-01

    Evidence is mounting on the association between the built environment and physical activity (PA) with a call for intervention research. A broader approach which recognizes the role of supportive environments that can make healthy choices easier is required. A systematic review was undertaken to assess the effectiveness of interventions to encourage PA in urban green space. Five databases were searched independently by two reviewers using search terms relating to 'physical activity', 'urban green space' and 'intervention' in July 2014. Eligibility criteria included: (i) intervention to encourage PA in urban green space which involved either a physical change to the urban green space or a PA intervention to promote use of urban green space or a combination of both; and (ii) primary outcome of PA. Of the 2405 studies identified, 12 were included. There was some evidence (4/9 studies showed positive effect) to support built environment only interventions for encouraging use and increasing PA in urban green space. There was more promising evidence (3/3 studies showed positive effect) to support PAprograms or PA programs combined with a physical change to the built environment, for increasing urban green space use and PA of users. Recommendations for future research include the need for longer term follow-up post-intervention, adequate control groups, sufficiently powered studies, and consideration of the social environment, which was identified as a significantly under-utilized resource in this area. Interventions that involve the use of PA programs combined with a physical change to the built environment are likely to have a positive effect on PA. Robust evaluations of such interventions are urgently required. The findings provide a platform to inform the design, implementation and evaluation of future urban green space and PAintervention research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Human Research Program Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE) Standing Review Panel (SRP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichansky, Anna; Badler, Norman; Butler, Keith; Cummings, Mary; DeLucia, Patricia; Endsley, Mica; Scholtz, Jean

    2009-01-01

    The Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE) Standing Review Panel (SRP) evaluated 22 gaps and 39 tasks in the three risk areas assigned to the SHFE Project. The area where tasks were best designed to close the gaps and the fewest gaps were left out was the Risk of Reduced Safety and Efficiency dire to Inadequate Design of Vehicle, Environment, Tools or Equipment. The areas where there were more issues with gaps and tasks, including poor or inadequate fit of tasks to gaps and missing gaps, were Risk of Errors due to Poor Task Design and Risk of Error due to Inadequate Information. One risk, the Risk of Errors due to Inappropriate Levels of Trust in Automation, should be added. If astronauts trust automation too much in areas where it should not be trusted, but rather tempered with human judgment and decision making, they will incur errors. Conversely, if they do not trust automation when it should be trusted, as in cases where it can sense aspects of the environment such as radiation levels or distances in space, they will also incur errors. This will be a larger risk when astronauts are less able to rely on human mission control experts and are out of touch, far away, and on their own. The SRP also identified 11 new gaps and five new tasks. Although the SRP had an extremely large quantity of reading material prior to and during the meeting, we still did not feel we had an overview of the activities and tasks the astronauts would be performing in exploration missions. Without a detailed task analysis and taxonomy of activities the humans would be engaged in, we felt it was impossible to know whether the gaps and tasks were really sufficient to insure human safety, performance, and comfort in the exploration missions. The SRP had difficulty evaluating many of the gaps and tasks that were not as quantitative as those related to concrete physical danger such as excessive noise and vibration. Often the research tasks for cognitive risks that accompany poor task or

  19. Human–environment interactions in urban green spaces — A systematic review of contemporary issues and prospects for future research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabisch, Nadja; Qureshi, Salman; Haase, Dagmar

    2015-01-01

    Scientific papers on landscape planning underline the importance of maintaining and developing green spaces because of their multiple environmental and social benefits for city residents. However, a general understanding of contemporary human–environment interaction issues in urban green space is still incomplete and lacks orientation for urban planners. This review examines 219 publications to (1) provide an overview of the current state of research on the relationship between humans and urban green space, (2) group the different research approaches by identifying the main research areas, methods, and target groups, and (3) highlight important future prospects in urban green space research. - Highlights: • Reviewed literature on urban green pins down a dearth of comparative studies. • Case studies in Africa and Russia are marginalized – the Europe and US dominate. • Questionnaires are used as major tool followed by GIS and quantitative approaches. • Developing countries should contribute in building an urban green space agenda. • Interdisciplinary, adaptable and pluralistic approaches can satiate a knowledge gap

  20. Human–environment interactions in urban green spaces — A systematic review of contemporary issues and prospects for future research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabisch, Nadja, E-mail: nadja.kabisch@geo.hu-berlin.de [Institute of Geography, Humboldt-University Berlin, Unter den Linden 6, 10099 Berlin (Germany); Department of Urban and Environmental Sociology, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Qureshi, Salman [Institute of Geography, Humboldt-University Berlin, Unter den Linden 6, 10099 Berlin (Germany); School of Architecture, Birmingham Institute of Art and Design, Birmingham City University, The Parkside Building, 5 Cardigan Street, Birmingham B4 7BD (United Kingdom); Haase, Dagmar [Institute of Geography, Humboldt-University Berlin, Unter den Linden 6, 10099 Berlin (Germany); Department of Computational Landscape Ecology, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2015-01-15

    Scientific papers on landscape planning underline the importance of maintaining and developing green spaces because of their multiple environmental and social benefits for city residents. However, a general understanding of contemporary human–environment interaction issues in urban green space is still incomplete and lacks orientation for urban planners. This review examines 219 publications to (1) provide an overview of the current state of research on the relationship between humans and urban green space, (2) group the different research approaches by identifying the main research areas, methods, and target groups, and (3) highlight important future prospects in urban green space research. - Highlights: • Reviewed literature on urban green pins down a dearth of comparative studies. • Case studies in Africa and Russia are marginalized – the Europe and US dominate. • Questionnaires are used as major tool followed by GIS and quantitative approaches. • Developing countries should contribute in building an urban green space agenda. • Interdisciplinary, adaptable and pluralistic approaches can satiate a knowledge gap.

  1. Evolution of International Space Station Program Safety Review Processes and Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratterman, Christian D.; Green, Collin; Guibert, Matt R.; McCracken, Kristle I.; Sang, Anthony C.; Sharpe, Matthew D.; Tollinger, Irene V.

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station Program at NASA is constantly seeking to improve the processes and systems that support safe space operations. To that end, the ISS Program decided to upgrade their Safety and Hazard data systems with 3 goals: make safety and hazard data more accessible; better support the interconnection of different types of safety data; and increase the efficiency (and compliance) of safety-related processes. These goals are accomplished by moving data into a web-based structured data system that includes strong process support and supports integration with other information systems. Along with the data systems, ISS is evolving its submission requirements and safety process requirements to support the improved model. In contrast to existing operations (where paper processes and electronic file repositories are used for safety data management) the web-based solution provides the program with dramatically faster access to records, the ability to search for and reference specific data within records, reduced workload for hazard updates and approval, and process support including digital signatures and controlled record workflow. In addition, integration with other key data systems provides assistance with assessments of flight readiness, more efficient review and approval of operational controls and better tracking of international safety certifications. This approach will also provide new opportunities to streamline the sharing of data with ISS international partners while maintaining compliance with applicable laws and respecting restrictions on proprietary data. One goal of this paper is to outline the approach taken by the ISS Progrm to determine requirements for the new system and to devise a practical and efficient implementation strategy. From conception through implementation, ISS and NASA partners utilized a user-centered software development approach focused on user research and iterative design methods. The user-centered approach used on

  2. COUNTER-INTERVENTION, INVITATION, BOTH, OR NEITHER ?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eliasn

    2 See Testimony by David H. Shinn, Somalia: U.S. Govrenemnt Policy and Challenges, ... a state of relative peace—one that can be best described as cold peace. ... denied sending its troops to Somalia until it formally declared war on 24 ...... Lebanese government, the invitation of the USSR by the dubious government of.

  3. The Final Count Down: A Review of Three Decades of Flight Controller Training Methods for Space Shuttle Mission Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittermore, Gary; Bertels, Christie

    2011-01-01

    Operations of human spaceflight systems is extremely complex; therefore, the training and certification of operations personnel is a critical piece of ensuring mission success. Mission Control Center (MCC-H), at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, manages mission operations for the Space Shuttle Program, including the training and certification of the astronauts and flight control teams. An overview of a flight control team s makeup and responsibilities during a flight, and details on how those teams are trained and certified, reveals that while the training methodology for developing flight controllers has evolved significantly over the last thirty years the core goals and competencies have remained the same. In addition, the facilities and tools used in the control center have evolved. Changes in methodology and tools have been driven by many factors, including lessons learned, technology, shuttle accidents, shifts in risk posture, and generational differences. Flight controllers share their experiences in training and operating the space shuttle. The primary training method throughout the program has been mission simulations of the orbit, ascent, and entry phases, to truly train like you fly. A review of lessons learned from flight controller training suggests how they could be applied to future human spaceflight endeavors, including missions to the moon or to Mars. The lessons learned from operating the space shuttle for over thirty years will help the space industry build the next human transport space vehicle.

  4. Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Reviews a software planetarium package called "Sky Travel." Includes two audiovisuals: "Conquest of Space" and "Windows on Science: Earth Science"; and four books: "Small Energy Sources: Choices that Work,""Stonehenge Complete,""Uneasy Careers and Intimate Lives: Women in Science…

  5. Invitations received from potential predatory publishers and fraudulent conferences: a 12-month early-career researcher experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, Eric; Tardif, Pier-Alexandre; Moore, Lynne; Le Sage, Natalie; Cameron, Peter A

    2018-02-01

    This study aims to describe all unsolicited electronic invitations received from potential predatory publishers or fraudulent conferences over a 12-month period following the first publication as a corresponding author of a junior academician. Unsolicited invitations received at an institutional email address and perceived to be sent by predatory publishers or fraudulent conferences were collected. A total of 502 invitations were included of which 177 (35.3%) had subject matter relevant to the recipient's research interests and previous work. Two hundred and thirty-seven were invitations to publish a manuscript. Few disclosed the publication fees (32, 13.5%) but they frequently reported accepting all types of manuscripts (167, 70.5%) or emphasised on a deadline to submit (165, 69.6%). Invitations came from 39 publishers (range 1 to 87 invitations per publisher). Two hundred and ten invitations from a potential fraudulent conference were received. These meetings were held in Europe (97, 46.2%), North America (65, 31.0%), Asia (20.4%) or other continents (5, 2.4%) and came from 18 meeting organisation groups (range 1 to 137 invitations per organisation). Becoming an editorial board member (30), the editor-in-chief (1), a guest editor for journal special issue (6) and write a book chapter (11) were some of the roles offered in the other invitations included while no invitation to review a manuscript was received. Young researchers are commonly exposed to predatory publishers and fraudulent conferences following a single publication as a corresponding author. Academic institutions worldwide need to educate and inform young researchers of this emerging problem. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Recruiting physicians without inviting trouble.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, L J

    1989-05-01

    Many hospitals use physician recruitment strategies--generally assistance or employment strategies--to ensure medical staff loyalty. Although these strategies appeal to both hospitals and physicians, they are becoming increasingly problematic. Over the past three years, the government has issued pronouncements that question their legality. Thus any hospital considering physician recruitment strategies would be wise to evaluate them in light of various legal issues. such as reimbursement, nonprofit taxation, corporate practice of medicine, and certificate-of-need statutes. The consequences of failing to consider these issues can be ominous. The penalties for violating the proscribed remuneration provision of the Medicare act can include a fine, imprisonment, suspension from the Medicare and Medicaid programs, or loss of license. Payment issues can result in reduced reimbursement levels. Nonprofit taxation issues can trigger the loss of tax exemption. As a result of the corporate practice of medicine, a physician recruitment strategy may not be reimbursable by third-party payers or may even constitute the unauthorized practice of medicine. Finally, in some states, physician recruitment may trigger certificate-of-need review.

  7. Book Review: Commemoration as Conflict: Space, Memory and Identity in Peace Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McQuaid, Sara Dybris

    2016-01-01

    Book rewiew: Commemoration as Conflict: Space, Memory and Identity in Peace Processes / Sara McDowell and Maire Braniff Palgrave Macmillan, 2014, 224pp., ISBN 978-0-230-27375-7......Book rewiew: Commemoration as Conflict: Space, Memory and Identity in Peace Processes / Sara McDowell and Maire Braniff Palgrave Macmillan, 2014, 224pp., ISBN 978-0-230-27375-7...

  8. Towards human exploration of space: The THESEUS review series on immunology research priorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jean-Pol, Frippiat; Crucian, Brian E; de Quervain, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    to maintain immune homeostasis under such challenges. In the framework of the THESEUS project whose aim was to develop an integrated life sciences research roadmap regarding human space exploration, experts working in the field of space immunology, and related disciplines, established a questionnaire sent...

  9. Space space space

    CERN Document Server

    Trembach, Vera

    2014-01-01

    Space is an introduction to the mysteries of the Universe. Included are Task Cards for independent learning, Journal Word Cards for creative writing, and Hands-On Activities for reinforcing skills in Math and Language Arts. Space is a perfect introduction to further research of the Solar System.

  10. Transversal changes, space closure, and efficiency of conventional and self-ligating appliances : A quantitative systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xianrui; Xue, Chaoran; He, Yiruo; Zhao, Mengyuan; Luo, Mengqi; Wang, Peiqi; Bai, Ding

    2018-01-01

    Self-ligating brackets (SLBs) were compared to conventional brackets (CBs) regarding their effectiveness on transversal changes and space closure, as well as the efficiency of alignment and treatment time. All previously published randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) dealing with SLBs and CBs were searched via electronic databases, e.g., MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure. In addition, relevant journals were searched manually. Data extraction was performed independently by two reviewers and assessment of the risk of bias was executed using Cochrane Collaboration's tool. Discrepancies were resolved by discussion with a third reviewer. Meta-analyses were conducted using Review Manager (version 5.3). A total of 976 patients in 17 RCTs were included in the study, of which 11 could be produced quantitatively and 2 showed a low risk of bias. Meta-analyses were found to favor CB for mandibular intercanine width expansion, while passive SLBs were more effective in posterior expansion. Moreover, CBs had an apparent advantage during short treatment periods. However, SLBs and CBs did not differ in closing spaces. Based on current clinical evidence obtained from RCTs, SLBs do not show clinical superiority compared to CBs in expanding transversal dimensions, space closure, or orthodontic efficiency. Further high-level studies involving randomized, controlled, clinical trials are warranted to confirm these results.

  11. Challenge, Confrontation, and Exhortation as Intentional Invitations by Professional Helpers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, John J.

    1996-01-01

    Examines intentional invitations that challenge, confront, exhort, and persuade people to change their behaviors. Assumes that the sender controls the "intention" and that the receiver determines the degree of "inviting." Suggests that elements of the invitational model serve as a framework to create acceptable inducements in…

  12. Towards human exploration of space: the THESEUS review series on neurophysiology research priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Olivier; Clément, Gilles; Fortrat, Jacques-Olivier; Pavy-LeTraon, Anne; Thonnard, Jean-Louis; Blanc, Stéphane; Wuyts, Floris L; Paloski, William H

    2016-01-01

    The THESEUS project (Towards Human Exploration of Space: a European Strategy), initiated within the seventh Framework Programme by the European Commission, aimed at providing a cross-cutting, life-science-based roadmap for Europe's strategy towards human exploration of long space missions, and its relevance to applications on Earth. This topic was investigated by experts in the field, in the framework of the THESEUS project whose aim was to develop an integrated life sciences research roadmap regarding human space exploration. In particular, decades of research have shown that altered gravity impairs neurological responses at large, such as perception, sleep, motor control, and cognitive factors. International experts established a list of key issues that should be addressed in that context and provided several recommendations such as a maximal exploitation of currently available resources on Earth and in space.

  13. A review on channel models in free space optical communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbarasi, K.; Hemanth, C.; Sangeetha, R. G.

    2017-12-01

    Free Space Optical communication (FSO) is a wireless communication technology which uses light to transmit the data in free space. FSO has advantages like unlicensed spectrum and higher bandwidth. In this paper FSO system merits and demerits, challenges in FSO, and various channel models are discussed. To mitigate the turbulence in FSO the mitigation techniques like relaying, diversity schemes and adopting different modulation techniques used in different channels are discussed and its performance comparison is given.

  14. Criteria for Public Open Space Enhancement to Achieve Social Interaction: a Review Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salih, S. A.; Ismail, S.

    2017-12-01

    A This paper presents a various literatures, studies, transcripts and papers aiming to provide an overview of some theories and existing research on the significance of natural environments and green open spaces to achieve social interaction and outdoor recreation. The main objective of the paper is to identify the factors that affecting social interaction in green open spaces, through proving that an appropriate open spaces is important to enhance social interaction and community. This study employs (qualitative) summarizing content analysis method which mainly focused on collect and summarizing of documentation such as transcripts, articles, papers, and books from more than 25 source, regarding the importance of public open spaces for the community. The summarizing content analysis of this paper is the fundament for a qualitative oriented procedure of text interpretation used to analyse the information gathered. Results of this study confirms that sound social interaction need an appropriate physical space including criteria of: design, activities, access and linkage, administration and maintenance, place attachment and users’ characteristics, also previous studies in this area have a health perspective with measures of physical activity of open spaces in general.

  15. Berger Peter L., Invitation à la sociologie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Marquis

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available L’invitation à la sociologie de Peter Berger est la réédition d’un ouvrage initiale­ment paru en 1963. Né en 1929, P. Berger est un des grands noms de la sociologie amé­ricaine actuelle, notamment connu chez nous pour un ouvrage coécrit avec Th. Luck­­mann et paru trois ans après la première édition de Invitation à la sociologie : The Social Construction of Reality, qui constitue une étape importante dans l’approche dite du constructivisme social en réactivant la tradition phénoménologique en...

  16. SPRITE: the Spitzer proposal review website

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Megan K.; Storrie-Lombardi, Lisa J.; Silbermann, Nancy A.; Rebull, Luisa M.

    2008-07-01

    The Spitzer Science Center (SSC), located on the campus of the California Institute of Technology, supports the science operations of NASA's infrared Spitzer Space Telescope. The SSC issues an annual Call for Proposals inviting investigators worldwide to submit Spitzer Space Telescope proposals. The Spitzer Proposal Review Website (SPRITE) is a MySQL/PHP web database application designed to support the SSC proposal review process. Review panel members use the software to view, grade, and write comments about the proposals, and SSC support team members monitor the grading and ranking process and ultimately generate a ranked list of all the proposals. The software is also used to generate, edit, and email award letters to the proposers. This work was performed at the California Institute of Technology under contract to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  17. Invited presentations. College on soil physics 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriels, D.M.; Ghirardi, G.; Nielsen, D.R.; Pla Sentis, I.; Skidmore, E.L.

    2004-01-01

    The present book is a partial compilation of contributions from selected former participants of the College on Soil Physics invited to make presentations related to their achievements as a result of attending the College. It also serves as a testimony of the existing links between soil physicists throughout the world strengthened by the support and programs of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics originally envisioned by Abdus Salam to foster the growth of advanced studies and physics research in developing countries

  18. Invited presentations. College on soil physics 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabriels, D M [Univ. Ghent (Belgium); Ghirardi, G [Univ. Trieste (Italy); Nielsen, D R [Univ. California (United States); Pla Sentis, I [Univ. Lleida (Spain); Skidmore, E L [Kansas State Univ. (United States)

    2004-05-15

    The present book is a partial compilation of contributions from selected former participants of the College on Soil Physics invited to make presentations related to their achievements as a result of attending the College. It also serves as a testimony of the existing links between soil physicists throughout the world strengthened by the support and programs of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics originally envisioned by Abdus Salam to foster the growth of advanced studies and physics research in developing countries.

  19. Particle Swarm Optimization for Single Objective Continuous Space Problems: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonyadi, Mohammad Reza; Michalewicz, Zbigniew

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews recent studies on the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm. The review has been focused on high impact recent articles that have analyzed and/or modified PSO algorithms. This paper also presents some potential areas for future study.

  20. Urban green spaces' effectiveness as a psychological buffer for the negative health impact of noise pollution: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhambov, Angel Mario; Dimitrova, Donka Dimitrova

    2014-01-01

    Noise pollution is one of the four major pollutions in the world. Little evidence exists about the actual preventive benefits of psychological noise attenuation by urban green spaces, especially from the perspective of environmental medicine and, to the best of our knowledge, there is not a systematic analysis on this topic. The aim of this review was to systematically evaluate whether there is conclusive scientific evidence for the effectiveness of urban green spaces as a psychological buffer for the negative impact of noise pollution on human health and to promote an evidence-based approach toward this still growing environmental hazard. MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched for experimental and epidemiological studies published before June 04, 2013 in English and Spanish. Data was independently extracted in two step process by the authors. Due to the heterogeneity of the included studies qualitative assessment was performed. We found moderate evidence that the presence of vegetation can generally reduce the negative perception of noise (supported with an electroencephalogram test in one of the experimental studies; consistent with the data from two epidemiological studies; one experiment found no effect and one was inconclusive about the positive effect). This review fills a gap in the literature and could help researchers further clarify the proper implementation of urban green spaces as a psychological buffer in areas with population exposed to chronic noise pollution.

  1. Space as a Tool for Astrobiology: Review and Recommendations for Experimentations in Earth Orbit and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottin, Hervé; Kotler, Julia Michelle; Billi, Daniela; Cockell, Charles; Demets, René; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Elsaesser, Andreas; d'Hendecourt, Louis; van Loon, Jack J. W. A.; Martins, Zita; Onofri, Silvano; Quinn, Richard C.; Rabbow, Elke; Rettberg, Petra; Ricco, Antonio J.; Slenzka, Klaus; de la Torre, Rosa; de Vera, Jean-Pierre; Westall, Frances; Carrasco, Nathalie; Fresneau, Aurélien; Kawaguchi, Yuko; Kebukawa, Yoko; Nguyen, Dara; Poch, Olivier; Saiagh, Kafila; Stalport, Fabien; Yamagishi, Akihiko; Yano, Hajime; Klamm, Benjamin A.

    2017-07-01

    The space environment is regularly used for experiments addressing astrobiology research goals. The specific conditions prevailing in Earth orbit and beyond, notably the radiative environment (photons and energetic particles) and the possibility to conduct long-duration measurements, have been the main motivations for developing experimental concepts to expose chemical or biological samples to outer space, or to use the reentry of a spacecraft on Earth to simulate the fall of a meteorite. This paper represents an overview of past and current research in astrobiology conducted in Earth orbit and beyond, with a special focus on ESA missions such as Biopan, STONE (on Russian FOTON capsules) and EXPOSE facilities (outside the International Space Station). The future of exposure platforms is discussed, notably how they can be improved for better science return, and how to incorporate the use of small satellites such as those built in cubesat format.

  2. Space-Derived Transparency: Players, Policies, Implications, and Synergies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kinnan, C

    2001-01-01

    .... Democratization and globalization, the proliferation of information technologies, the availability of commercial space high-resolution imagery, and the growing influence of NGOs invite this question: What is (space-derived...

  3. Space Radiation Risk Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Project A: Integration and Review: A review of current knowledge from space radiation physics was accepted for publication in Reviews of Modern Physics (Durante and...

  4. Rethinking Educational Spaces: A Review of Literature on Urban Youth and Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Terry T.; Carpenter, B. Stephen, II

    2014-01-01

    This paper serves as an exploration into the landscape of social media use in educational research as it relates to urban youth in the United States. Initially, a social and learning context is provided that situates the implications social media may have for urban youth within formal and informal educational spaces. The paper offers a discussion…

  5. RoMPS concept review automatic control of space robot, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbs, M. E.

    1991-01-01

    Topics related to robot operated materials processing in space (RoMPS) are presented in view graph form and include: (1) system concept; (2) Hitchhiker Interface Requirements; (3) robot axis control concepts; (4) Autonomous Experiment Management System; (5) Zymate Robot Controller; (6) Southwest SC-4 Computer; (7) oven control housekeeping data; and (8) power distribution.

  6. Public open space characteristics influencing adolescents' use and physical activity: A systematic literature review of qualitative and quantitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hecke, Linde; Ghekiere, Ariane; Veitch, Jenny; Van Dyck, Delfien; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; Clarys, Peter; Deforche, Benedicte

    2018-04-06

    The objective of this systematic review was to provide insight into the specific characteristics of public open spaces (POS) associated with adolescents' POS visitation and physical activity (PA). Qualitative research suggests many characteristics to be associated with POS visitation and PA. Quantitative evidence confirmed a positive association between presence of trails, playgrounds and specific types of sports fields (e.g. basketball) with POS visitation and PA, whereas safety and aesthetics seemed subordinate. Suggestions for future research, as well as some methodological recommendations are provided. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. "First Convention of Lunar Explorers" - Invitation to the media

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-03-01

    The first LUNEX Convention will bring together lunar explorers from all backgrounds, including professionals, amateur space enthusiasts and interested visitors from the public. During the Convention numerous oral presentations will prompt detailed discussions on all aspects of future lunar exploration: the Moon as a geology laboratory or an astronomical platform; the knowledge of lunar geography needed to land and move on the surface; the implications of finding water-ice on the Moon and whether this might be detected by forthcoming missions; the architecture of lunar habitats; what would be needed in the future for the Moon to support life; cultural and social aspects; and the scientific motivation for returning to the Moon. The Convention will also be the main public event in 2001 at which SMART-1 is presented. SMART-1, due to be launched in 2002 will test solar electric propulsion and other innovative approaches for future deep space probes. It is the first European satellite to be sent towards the Moon. Visitors to the Palais de la Découverte will be able to view a model of SMART-1. On 9 March, at 09:00, the media is invited to hear about the LUNEX objectives and activities and to learn about the European Space Agency’s SMART-1 mission within the broader context of ESA’s Planetary Exploration Programme. Background information on LUNEX The Lunar Explorers Society (LUNEX) is an international organization created by 200 founder members in July 2000. LUNEX was founded at the end of the 4th Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon (ICEUM4), organised by ESA and the International Lunar Exploration Working Group (ILEWG). Its aim is to promote the exploration of the Moon for the benefit of humanity, bridging the gap between space agencies and the general public to promote planetary exploration and space. The Lunar Explorers Society invites all interested individuals to become members. Background information on SMART-1 SMART-1 is the first of ESA

  8. Review of hardware cost estimation methods, models and tools applied to early phases of space mission planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivailo, O.; Sippel, M.; Şekercioğlu, Y. A.

    2012-08-01

    The primary purpose of this paper is to review currently existing cost estimation methods, models, tools and resources applicable to the space sector. While key space sector methods are outlined, a specific focus is placed on hardware cost estimation on a system level, particularly for early mission phases during which specifications and requirements are not yet crystallised, and information is limited. For the space industry, cost engineering within the systems engineering framework is an integral discipline. The cost of any space program now constitutes a stringent design criterion, which must be considered and carefully controlled during the entire program life cycle. A first step to any program budget is a representative cost estimate which usually hinges on a particular estimation approach, or methodology. Therefore appropriate selection of specific cost models, methods and tools is paramount, a difficult task given the highly variable nature, scope as well as scientific and technical requirements applicable to each program. Numerous methods, models and tools exist. However new ways are needed to address very early, pre-Phase 0 cost estimation during the initial program research and establishment phase when system specifications are limited, but the available research budget needs to be established and defined. Due to their specificity, for vehicles such as reusable launchers with a manned capability, a lack of historical data implies that using either the classic heuristic approach such as parametric cost estimation based on underlying CERs, or the analogy approach, is therefore, by definition, limited. This review identifies prominent cost estimation models applied to the space sector, and their underlying cost driving parameters and factors. Strengths, weaknesses, and suitability to specific mission types and classes are also highlighted. Current approaches which strategically amalgamate various cost estimation strategies both for formulation and validation

  9. Considering Sound in Planning and Designing Public Spaces : A Review of Theory and Applications and a Proposed Framework for Integrating Research and Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bild, E.; Coler, M.; Pfeffer, K.; Bertolini, L.

    2016-01-01

    We critically review the literature on the relationship between users of public spaces and their auditory environments, and how this knowledge is integrated in the planning, design, and management of public spaces as well as in technologies for acoustic and spatial data collection, analysis, and

  10. Food in the City: Review of Psychological Impact of Growing Food in Urban Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surabhika Maheshwari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The activity of growing food is an integral part of human civilization and survival. The present paper attempts at exploring the psychological impact of growing edible greens in the context of urban environment. The review focuses on the impact of growing food, with primary focus on psychological impact and mental health. The findings indicate an encouraging trend in urban farming, though research activity and academic interest in the area of psychological impact of growing food seems limited. Additionally, the review throws light on the sparse research in developing countries on the said topic.

  11. Creating social spaces to tackle AIDS-related stigma: reviewing the role of church groups in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, C; Skovdal, M; Gibbs, A

    2011-08-01

    An expanding body of literature explores the role of African church groups in facilitating or hindering the support of people living with AIDS and challenging or contributing to HIV/AIDS-related stigma. Treating church groups as social spaces in which HIV/AIDS-related stigma may potentially be challenged, we systematically review this literature, identifying five themes that highlight the complex and contradictory role of the church as a potential agent of health-enhancing social change. In many ways the church perpetuates HIV/AIDS-related stigma through (i) moralistic attitudes and (ii) its reinforcement of conservative gender ideologies. However some churches have managed move towards action that makes a more positive contribution to HIV/AIDS management through (iii) promoting various forms of social control for HIV prevention, (iv) contributing to the care and support of the AIDS-affected and (v) providing social spaces for challenging stigmatising ideas and practices. We conclude that church groups, including church leadership, can play a key role in facilitating or hindering the creation of supportive social spaces to challenge stigma. Much work remains to be done in developing deeper understandings of the multi-layered factors that enable some churches, but not others, to respond effectively to HIV/AIDS.

  12. Prosthetic replacement vs space closure for maxillary lateral incisor agenesis: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Giordani Santos; de Almeida, Natália Valli; Pereira, Daniele Masterson Tavares; Mattos, Cláudia Trindade; Mucha, José Nelson

    2016-08-01

    Defining the best treatment for maxillary lateral incisor agenesis is a challenge. Our aim in this study was to determine, with the evidence available in the literature, the best treatment for maxillary lateral incisor agenesis in the permanent dentition, evaluating the esthetic, occlusal (functional), and periodontal results between prosthetic replacement and orthodontic space closure. Electronic databases (CENTRAL, PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and LILACS) were searched in September 2014 and updated in January 2015, with no restriction on language or initial date. A manual search of the reference lists of the potential studies was performed. Risk of bias was assessed by the Newcastle Ottawa Scale. The search identified 2174 articles, of which 1196 were excluded because they were duplicates. Titles and abstracts of 978 articles were accessed, and 957 were excluded. In total, 21 articles were read in full, and 9 case-control studies were included after applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data were extracted from the articles selected, and a table was compiled for comparison and analysis of the results. There were no randomization and blinding, and the risk of bias evaluation found gaps in compatibility and outcome domains in almost all selected studies. Tooth-supported dental prostheses of maxillary lateral incisor agenesis had worse scores in the periodontal indexes than did orthodontic space closure. Space closure is evaluated better esthetically than prosthetic replacements, and the presence or absence of a Class I relationship of the canines showed no relationship with occlusal function or with signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Towards human exploration of space: the THESEUS review series on muscle and bone research priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Thomas; Van Loon, Jack J W A; Bloomfield, Susan; Vico, Laurence; Chopard, Angele; Rittweger, Joern; Kyparos, Antonios; Blottner, Dieter; Vuori, Ilkka; Gerzer, Rupert; Cavanagh, Peter R

    2017-01-01

    Without effective countermeasures, the musculoskeletal system is altered by the microgravity environment of long-duration spaceflight, resulting in atrophy of bone and muscle tissue, as well as in deficits in the function of cartilage, tendons, and vertebral disks. While inflight countermeasures implemented on the International Space Station have evidenced reduction of bone and muscle loss on low-Earth orbit missions of several months in length, important knowledge gaps must be addressed in order to develop effective strategies for managing human musculoskeletal health on exploration class missions well beyond Earth orbit. Analog environments, such as bed rest and/or isolation environments, may be employed in conjunction with large sample sizes to understand sex differences in countermeasure effectiveness, as well as interaction of exercise with pharmacologic, nutritional, immune system, sleep and psychological countermeasures. Studies of musculoskeletal biomechanics, involving both human subject and computer simulation studies, are essential to developing strategies to avoid bone fractures or other injuries to connective tissue during exercise and extravehicular activities. Animal models may be employed to understand effects of the space environment that cannot be modeled using human analog studies. These include studies of radiation effects on bone and muscle, unraveling the effects of genetics on bone and muscle loss, and characterizing the process of fracture healing in the mechanically unloaded and immuno-compromised spaceflight environment. In addition to setting the stage for evidence-based management of musculoskeletal health in long-duration space missions, the body of knowledge acquired in the process of addressing this array of scientific problems will lend insight into the understanding of terrestrial health conditions such as age-related osteoporosis and sarcopenia.

  14. Student Theological Research as an Invitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Badke

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Seminary students, despite having graduated from bachelors programs, struggle to make sense of the goals, processes, skills, and resources of research as graduate students. Beyond brief introductions to research, a scattered number of seminaries have developed either a separate theological information literacy course or have taken a through-the-curriculum approach to enhancing the information abilities of students. The former, however, separates information literacy from the curriculum, while the latter is difficult to implement and maintain. Living in a world of information glut, seminary professors are finding that traditional information dissemination models of education are becoming less viable. What is more, such models tend to teach students about a discipline rather than inviting them into it. These problems present a unique opportunity to place the teaching of information literacy at the foundation of theological education. With such an approach, students may be invited into the disciplines of their professors and enabled to practice these disciplines, thus becoming equipped to turn knowledge into praxis.

  15. Nursing home facilities in Malaysia (premise, shared facilities & individual accommodation: Space requirement): A literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Nik Muhammad Faris Bin Nik; Hasbollah, Hasif Rafidee bin; Ibrahim, Mohd Asrul Hery Bin; Marican, Nor Dalila bin; Halim, Muhd Hafzal bin Abdul; Rashid, Ahmad Faezi Bin Ab.; Yasin, Nurul Hafizah Binti Mohd

    2017-10-01

    The numbers of elderly in Malaysia are increased every year. The request towards elderly care services necessitated by the Nursing Home are in demand. However, Nursing Home in Malaysia is lack of standard of facilities in order to cater the care services for the elderly. This paper intends review the minimum standard facilities for the Nursing Homes in globally. The paper also offered insights in developing standard Nursing Home facilities in Malaysia.

  16. A review of depolarization modeling for earth-space radio paths at frequencies above 10 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostian, C. W.; Stutzman, W. L.; Gaines, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    A review is presented of models for the depolarization, caused by scattering from raindrops and ice crystals, that limits the performance of dual-polarized satellite communication systems at frequencies above 10 GHz. The physical mechanisms of depolarization as well as theoretical formulations and empirical data are examined. Three theoretical models, the transmission, attenuation-derived, and scaling models, are described and their relative merits are considered.

  17. Behavioral Issues Associated With Long Duration Space Expeditions: Review and Analysis of Astronaut Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struster, Jack

    2010-01-01

    Personal journals maintained by NASA astronauts during six-month expeditions onboard the International Space Station were analyzed to obtain information concerning a wide range of behavioral and human factors issues. Astronauts wrote most about their work, followed by outside communications (with mission control, family, and friends), adjustment to the conditions, interactions with crew mates, recreation/leisure, equipment (installation, maintenance), events (launches, docking, hurricanes, etc.), organization/management, sleep, and food. The study found evidence of a decline in morale during the third quarters of the missions and identified key factors that contribute to sustained adjustment and optimal performance during long-duration space expeditions. Astronauts reported that they benefited personally from writing in their journals because it helped maintain perspective on their work and relations with others. Responses to questions asked before, during, and after the expeditions show that living and working onboard the ISS is not as difficult as the astronauts anticipate before starting their six-month tours of duty. Recommendations include application of study results and continuation of the experiment to obtain additional data as crew size increases and operations evolve.

  18. Review of biomass fired space heating/domestic hot water boilers' application, operation and design parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Monitoring exercises have been carried out for ETSU, by a number of contractors, on a number of wood fired heating schemes; feasibility studies on proposed schemes have also been carried out. Monitoring reports and feasibility studies have been reviewed to try and establish the suitability and economic viability of the various types of plant used (or proposed) and their application. Of the sixteen schemes reviewed just over 30% showed a reasonable return on the incremental capital cost of plant compared to gas oil fired plant. These schemes had one or more of the following attributes: - Low wood fuel cost -Long operating hours -Relatively low incremental capital cost of wood plant over gas oil plant. Small systems with low operating hours (e.g. short weekday occupancy premises, like schools) and relatively high incremental operating and maintenance costs and capital costs exhibited no advantage over equivalent fossil fuel fired plant. The unit fuel cost advantage to wood, in these cases, was insufficient to outweigh the increased O and M and capital costs, because of the comparatively low annual fuel consumption. Most of the plants reviewed had low thermal efficiencies due to the simplicity of the fuel to air control systems and the wide range of heating demand over which they had to operate. The former can be increased by improved combustion control systems and the latter by correct sizing of boilers and/or the installation of hybrid systems. (Author)

  19. Nuclear space power safety and facility guidelines study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehlman, W.F.

    1995-01-01

    This report addresses safety guidelines for space nuclear reactor power missions and was prepared by The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) under a Department of Energy grant, DE-FG01-94NE32180 dated 27 September 1994. This grant was based on a proposal submitted by the JHU/APL in response to an open-quotes Invitation for Proposals Designed to Support Federal Agencies and Commercial Interests in Meeting Special Power and Propulsion Needs for Future Space Missionsclose quotes. The United States has not launched a nuclear reactor since SNAP 10A in April 1965 although many Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) have been launched. An RTG powered system is planned for launch as part of the Cassini mission to Saturn in 1997. Recently the Ballistic Missile Defense Office (BMDO) sponsored the Nuclear Electric Propulsion Space Test Program (NEPSTP) which was to demonstrate and evaluate the Russian-built TOPAZ II nuclear reactor as a power source in space. As of late 1993 the flight portion of this program was canceled but work to investigate the attributes of the reactor were continued but at a reduced level. While the future of space nuclear power systems is uncertain there are potential space missions which would require space nuclear power systems. The differences between space nuclear power systems and RTG devices are sufficient that safety and facility requirements warrant a review in the context of the unique features of a space nuclear reactor power system

  20. CFRP mirror technology for cryogenic space interferometry: review and progress to date

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Martyn L.; Walker, David; Naylor, David A.; Veenendaal, Ian T.; Gom, Brad G.

    2016-07-01

    The FP7 project, FISICA (Far Infrared Space Interferometer Critical Assessment), called for the investigation into the suitability of Carbon fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) for a 2m primary mirror. In this paper, we focus on the major challenge for application, the development of a mirror design that would maintain its form at cryogenic temperatures. In order to limit self-emission the primary is to be cooled to 4K whilst not exceeding a form error of 275nm PV. We then describe the development of an FEA model that utilizes test data obtained from a cryogenic test undertaken at the University of Lethbridge on CFRP samples. To conclude, suggestions are made in order to advance this technology to be suitable for such an application in order to exploit the low density and superior specific properties of polymeric composites.

  1. Book review: Mapping gendered routes and spaces in the early modern world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varanka, Dalia E.

    2016-01-01

    This book encapsulates and extends many seminal ideas presented at the eighth “Attending to Early Modern Women” conference held at the University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee in June 2012. Merry Wiesner-Hanks has done a masterful job editing these papers within a central theme of the interaction of spatial domains with gender-based phenomena. The fifteen chapters of this book are organized into four sections: “Framework,” discussing theoretical concepts; “Embodied Environments,” focusing on physicality; “Communities and Networks” of social patterns; and “Exchanges” across geographic space. Together, a global society shaped by gender and sexuality and intersected by race and class emerges.

  2. A Review of Tribological Coatings for Control Drive Mechanisms in Space Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CJ Larkin; JD Edington; BJ Close

    2006-01-01

    Tribological coatings must provide lubrication for moving components of the control drive mechanism for a space reactor and prevent seizing due to friction or diffusion welding to provide highly reliable and precise control of reflector position over the mission lifetime. Several coatings were evaluated based on tribological performance at elevated temperatures and in ultrahigh vacuum environments. Candidates with proven performance in the anticipated environment are limited primarily to disulfide materials. Irradiation data for these coatings is nonexistent. Compatibility issues between coating materials and structural components may require the use of barrier layers between the solid lubricant and structural components to prevent deleterious interactions. It would be advisable to consider possible lubricant interactions prior to down-selection of structural materials. A battery of tests was proposed to provide the necessary data for eventual solid lubricant/coating selection

  3. Indoor air quality of everyday use spaces dedicated to specific purposes-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marć, Mariusz; Śmiełowska, Monika; Namieśnik, Jacek; Zabiegała, Bożena

    2018-01-01

    According to literature data, some of the main factors which significantly affect the quality of the indoor environment in residential households or apartments are human activities such as cooking, smoking, cleaning, and indoor exercising. The paper presents a literature overview related to air quality in everyday use spaces dedicated to specific purposes which are integral parts of residential buildings, such as kitchens, basements, and individual garages. Some aspects of air quality in large-scale car parks, as a specific type of indoor environment, are also discussed. All those areas are characterized by relatively short time use. On the other hand, high and very high concentration levels of xenobiotics can be observed, resulting in higher exposure risk. The main compounds or group of chemical compounds are presented and discussed. The main factors influencing the type and amount of chemical pollutants present in the air of such areas are indicated.

  4. Plateau's problem an invitation to varifold geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Frederick J Almgren, Jr

    2001-01-01

    There have been many wonderful developments in the theory of minimal surfaces and geometric measure theory in the past 25 to 30 years. Many of the researchers who have produced these excellent results were inspired by this little book--or by Fred Almgren himself. The book is indeed a delightful invitation to the world of variational geometry. A central topic is Plateau's Problem, which is concerned with surfaces that model the behavior of soap films. When trying to resolve the problem, however, one soon finds that smooth surfaces are insufficient: Varifolds are needed. With varifolds, one can obtain geometrically meaningful solutions without having to know in advance all their possible singularities. This new tool makes possible much exciting new analysis and many new results. Plateau's problem and varifolds live in the world of geometric measure theory, where differential geometry and measure theory combine to solve problems which have variational aspects. The author's hope in writing this book was to encour...

  5. INVITATION to CERN pensioners and personnel

    CERN Multimedia

    DG Unit

    2009-01-01

    The Swiss Foundation for Research into Ageing, AETAS, will be holding its research award ceremony at CERN on Wednesday 10 June 2009. You are cordially invited to attend the ceremony and, in particular, a lecture given by Professor Osman RATIB Professor of Medicine, Head of the Department of Medical Imaging and Medical Informatics and Head of the Division of Nuclear Medicine at the University Hospital of Geneva "Progress in medical imaging" WEDNESDAY 10 JUNE 2009 AT 5:00 P.M. CERN MAIN AUDITORIUM (Bldg.500) The lecture will be followed by a discussion moderated by Professor Jean-Pierre Michel, President of the AETAS Foundation. Refreshments will be offered by the Foundation

  6. INVITATION to CERN pensioners and personnel

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

    The Swiss Foundation for Research into Ageing, AETAS, will be holding its research award ceremony at CERN on Wednesday 10 June 2009. You are cordially invited to attend the ceremony and, in particular, a lecture given by Professor Osman RATIB Professor of Medicine, Head of the Department of Medical Imaging and Medical Informatics and Head of the Division of Nuclear Medicine at the University Hospital of Geneva "Progress in medical imaging" WEDNESDAY 10 JUNE 2009 AT 5.00 P.M. CERN MAIN AUDITORIUM, (Bldg.500) The lecture will be followed by a discussion moderated by Professor Jean-Pierre Michel, President of the AETAS Foundation. Drinks will be offered by the Foundation

  7. DC Langmuir Probe for Measurement of Space Plasma: A Brief Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichiro Oyama

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we discuss the in situ measurement of the electron temperature in the ionosphere/plasmasphere by means of DC Langmuir probes. Major instruments which have been reported are a conventional DC Langmuir probe, whose probe voltage is swept; a pulsed probe, which uses pulsed bias voltage; a rectification probe, which uses sinusoidal signal; and a resonance cone probe, which uses radio wave propagation. The content reviews past observations made with the instruments above. We also discuss technical factors that should be taken into account for reliable measurement, such as problems related to the contamination of electrodes and the satellite surface. Finally, we discuss research topics to be studied in the near future.

  8. Eating in the City: A Review of the Literature on Food Insecurity and Indigenous People Living in Urban Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Skinner

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous people often occupy different overlapping or co-existing food environments that include market-based foods, land and water based foods, and combinations of the two. Studying these food environments is complicated by the cultural and geographic diversity of Indigenous people and the effects of colonialism, land dispossession, relocation and forced settlement on static reserves, and increasing migration to urban areas. We conducted a scoping study of food insecurity and Indigenous peoples living in urban spaces in Canada, the United States, and Australia. The 16 studies reviewed showed that food insecurity among urban Indigenous populations is an issue in all three nations. Findings highlight both the variety of experiences of urban Indigenous peoples within and across the three nations, and the commonalities of these experiences.

  9. Space Technology Mission Directorate Game Changing Development Program FY2015 Annual Program Review: Advanced Manufacturing Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, John; Fikes, John

    2015-01-01

    The Advance Manufacturing Technology (AMT) Project supports multiple activities within the Administration's National Manufacturing Initiative. A key component of the Initiative is the Advanced Manufacturing National Program Office (AMNPO), which includes participation from all federal agencies involved in U.S. manufacturing. In support of the AMNPO the AMT Project supports building and Growing the National Network for Manufacturing Innovation through a public-private partnership designed to help the industrial community accelerate manufacturing innovation. Integration with other projects/programs and partnerships: STMD (Space Technology Mission Directorate), HEOMD, other Centers; Industry, Academia; OGA's (e.g., DOD, DOE, DOC, USDA, NASA, NSF); Office of Science and Technology Policy, NIST Advanced Manufacturing Program Office; Generate insight within NASA and cross-agency for technology development priorities and investments. Technology Infusion Plan: PC; Potential customer infusion (TDM, HEOMD, SMD, OGA, Industry); Leverage; Collaborate with other Agencies, Industry and Academia; NASA roadmap. Initiatives include: Advanced Near Net Shape Technology Integrally Stiffened Cylinder Process Development (launch vehicles, sounding rockets); Materials Genome; Low Cost Upper Stage-Class Propulsion; Additive Construction with Mobile Emplacement (ACME); National Center for Advanced Manufacturing.

  10. BOOK REVIEW: Introduction to Plasma Physics: With Space and Laboratory Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, P. K.

    2005-07-01

    A new textbook on plasma physics must be very welcome, as this will encourage the teaching of courses on the subject. This book is written by two experts in their fields, and is aimed at advanced undergraduate and postgraduate courses. There are of course many other plasma physics textbooks available. The niche which this particular book fills is really defined by its subtitle: that is, `with space and laboratory applications'. This differs from most other books which tend to emphasise either space or fusion applications (but not both) or to concentrate only on general theory. Essentially, the emphasis here is on fundamental plasma physics theory, but applications are given from time to time. For example, after developing Alfvén wave theory, observations of Alfvén waves in the solar wind and in the Jovian magnetosphere are presented; whilst ion acoustic cylcotron waves are illustrated by data from a laboratory Q machine. It is fair to say that examples from space seem to predominate. Nevertheless, the approach of including a broad range of applications is very good from an educational point of view, and this should help to train a generation of students with a grasp of fundamental plasma physics who can work in a variety of research fields. The subject coverage of the book is fairly conventional and there are no great surprises. It begins, inevitably, with a discussion of plasma parameters (Debye length etc) and of single particle motions. Both kinetic theory and magnetohydrodynamics are introduced. Waves are quite extensively discussed in several chapters, including both cold and hot plasmas, magnetised and unmagnetised. Nonlinear effects—a large subject!—are briefly discussed. A final chapter deals with collisions in fully ionised plasmas. The choice of contents of a textbook is always something of a matter of personal choice. It is easy to complain about what has been left out, and everyone has their own favourite topics. With that caveat, I would question

  11. Data collection and preparation of authoritative reviews on space food and nutrition research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The collection and classification of information for a manually operated information retrieval system on the subject of space food and nutrition research are described. The system as it currently exists is designed for retrieval of documents, either in hard copy or on microfiche, from the technical files of the MSC Food and Nutrition Section by accession number, author, and/or subject. The system could readily be extended to include retrieval by affiliation, report and contract number, and sponsoring agency should the need arise. It can also be easily converted to computerized retrieval. At present the information retrieval system contains nearly 3000 documents which consist of technical papers, contractors' reports, and reprints obtained from the food and nutrition files at MSC, Technical Library, the library at the Texas Medical Center in Houston, the BMI Technical Libraries, Dr. E. B. Truitt at MBI, and the OSU Medical Libraries. Additional work was done to compile 18 selected bibliographies on subjects of immediate interest on the MSC Food and Nutrition Section.

  12. Understanding Outdoor Gyms in Public Open Spaces: A Systematic Review and Integrative Synthesis of Qualitative and Quantitative Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Janet Lok Chun; Lo, Temmy Lee Ting; Ho, Rainbow Tin Hung

    2018-03-25

    (1) Background: An outdoor gym (OG) is environmental infrastructure built in a public open space to promote structured physical activity. The provision of OGs is increasingly seen as an important strategy to realize public health agendas promoting habitual physical activity. A systematic review was conducted to synthesize characteristics of OG and OG users' experiences and perceptions in different cultural contexts; (2) Methods: Online searches of multidisciplinary databases were conducted in health, sport and recreation, and urban planning disciplines. Characteristics of OGs were synthesized by integrating evidence from quantitative, qualitative, and mix-methods studies. The experiences and perceptions of OG users from both qualitative data and survey responses were synthesized through framework analysis; (3) Results: Nine studies met the inclusion criteria (three quantitative studies, four mixed-methods studies, and two pure qualitative studies). None were excluded on the basis of quality. OGs mainly serve adult and older adult population groups. Their size, design, and instructional support vary across studies. The inclusion of functional types of equipment did not have a unified standard. Regarding experiences and perceptions of OGs, five major themes emerged: "health", "social connectedness", "affordable", "support", and "design and promotion"; (4) Conclusions: The OG characteristics synthesis guides the direction in further studies regarding exploration of design parameters. The qualitative and quantitative synthesis revealed that health was a central theme of users' experiences. OGs are also spaces where community-dwellers can find social connectedness while participating in structured physical activity at no cost. Findings from this review create knowledge support for OG as environmental infrastructure for further research and facilitate the understanding of users' experiences and perceptions of OGs in different cultural contexts.

  13. Understanding Outdoor Gyms in Public Open Spaces: A Systematic Review and Integrative Synthesis of Qualitative and Quantitative Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Janet Lok Chun; Lo, Temmy Lee Ting

    2018-01-01

    (1) Background: An outdoor gym (OG) is environmental infrastructure built in a public open space to promote structured physical activity. The provision of OGs is increasingly seen as an important strategy to realize public health agendas promoting habitual physical activity. A systematic review was conducted to synthesize characteristics of OG and OG users’ experiences and perceptions in different cultural contexts; (2) Methods: Online searches of multidisciplinary databases were conducted in health, sport and recreation, and urban planning disciplines. Characteristics of OGs were synthesized by integrating evidence from quantitative, qualitative, and mix-methods studies. The experiences and perceptions of OG users from both qualitative data and survey responses were synthesized through framework analysis; (3) Results: Nine studies met the inclusion criteria (three quantitative studies, four mixed-methods studies, and two pure qualitative studies). None were excluded on the basis of quality. OGs mainly serve adult and older adult population groups. Their size, design, and instructional support vary across studies. The inclusion of functional types of equipment did not have a unified standard. Regarding experiences and perceptions of OGs, five major themes emerged: “health”, “social connectedness”, “affordable”, “support”, and “design and promotion”; (4) Conclusions: The OG characteristics synthesis guides the direction in further studies regarding exploration of design parameters. The qualitative and quantitative synthesis revealed that health was a central theme of users’ experiences. OGs are also spaces where community-dwellers can find social connectedness while participating in structured physical activity at no cost. Findings from this review create knowledge support for OG as environmental infrastructure for further research and facilitate the understanding of users’ experiences and perceptions of OGs in different cultural contexts

  14. BOARD-invited review : Quantifying water use in ruminant production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legesse, G.; Ominski, K. H.; Beauchemin, K. A.; Pfister, S.; Martel, M.; McGeough, E. J.; Hoekstra, A. Y.; Kroebel, R.; Cordeiro, M. R.C.; McAllister, T. A.

    2017-01-01

    The depletion of water resources, in terms of both quantity and quality, has become a major concern both locally and globally. Ruminants, in particular, are under increased public scrutiny due to their relatively high water use per unit of meat or milk produced. Estimating the water footprint of

  15. Invited review: Sensors to support health management on dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, C.J.; Velthuis, A.G.J.; Steeneveld, W.; Hogeveen, H.

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1980s, efforts have been made to develop sensors that measure a parameter from an individual cow. The development started with individual cow recognition and was followed by sensors that measure the electrical conductivity of milk and pedometers that measure activity. The aim of this

  16. Microwave interferometric radiometry in remote sensing: An invited historical review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin-Neira, M.; LeVine, D. M.; Kerr, Y.

    2014-01-01

    The launch of the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission on 2 November 2009 marked a milestone in remote sensing for it was the first time a radiometer capable of acquiring wide field of view images at every single snapshot, a unique feature of the synthetic aperture technique, made...

  17. Invited review: mesenchymal progenitor cells in intramuscular connective tissue development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Z G; Zhang, L P; Fu, X; Yang, Q Y; Zhu, M J; Dodson, M V; Du, M

    2016-01-01

    The abundance and cross-linking of intramuscular connective tissue contributes to the background toughness of meat, and is thus undesirable. Connective tissue is mainly synthesized by intramuscular fibroblasts. Myocytes, adipocytes and fibroblasts are derived from a common pool of progenitor cells during the early embryonic development. It appears that multipotent mesenchymal stem cells first diverge into either myogenic or non-myogenic lineages; non-myogenic mesenchymal progenitors then develop into the stromal-vascular fraction of skeletal muscle wherein adipocytes, fibroblasts and derived mesenchymal progenitors reside. Because non-myogenic mesenchymal progenitors mainly undergo adipogenic or fibrogenic differentiation during muscle development, strengthening progenitor proliferation enhances the potential for both intramuscular adipogenesis and fibrogenesis, leading to the elevation of both marbling and connective tissue content in the resulting meat product. Furthermore, given the bipotent developmental potential of progenitor cells, enhancing their conversion to adipogenesis reduces fibrogenesis, which likely results in the overall improvement of marbling (more intramuscular adipocytes) and tenderness (less connective tissue) of meat. Fibrogenesis is mainly regulated by the transforming growth factor (TGF) β signaling pathway and its regulatory cascade. In addition, extracellular matrix, a part of the intramuscular connective tissue, provides a niche environment for regulating myogenic differentiation of satellite cells and muscle growth. Despite rapid progress, many questions remain in the role of extracellular matrix on muscle development, and factors determining the early differentiation of myogenic, adipogenic and fibrogenic cells, which warrant further studies.

  18. Invited review: Essential oils as modifiers of rumen microbial fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calsamiglia, S; Busquet, M; Cardozo, P W; Castillejos, L; Ferret, A

    2007-06-01

    Microorganisms in the rumen degrade nutrients to produce volatile fatty acids and synthesize microbial protein as an energy and protein supply for the ruminant, respectively. However, this fermentation process has energy (losses of methane) and protein (losses of ammonia N) inefficiencies that may limit production performance and contribute to the release of pollutants to the environment. Antibiotic ionophores have been very successful in reducing these energy and protein losses in the rumen, but the use of antibiotics in animal feeds is facing reduced social acceptance, and their use has been banned in the European Union since January 2006. For this reason, scientists have become interested in evaluating other alternatives to control specific microbial populations to modulate rumen fermentation. Essential oils can interact with microbial cell membranes and inhibit the growth of some gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. As a result of such inhibition, the addition of some plant extracts to the rumen results in an inhibition of deamination and methanogenesis, resulting in lower ammonia N, methane, and acetate, and in higher propionate and butyrate concentrations. Results have indicated that garlic oil, cinnamaldehyde (the main active component of cinnamon oil), eugenol (the main active component of the clove bud), capsaicin (the active component of hot peppers), and anise oil, among others, may increase propionate production, reduce acetate or methane production, and modify proteolysis, peptidolysis, or deamination in the rumen. However, the effects of some of these essential oils are pH and diet dependent, and their use may be beneficial only under specific conditions and production systems. For example, capsaicin appears to have small effects in high-forage diets, whereas the changes observed in high-concentrate diets (increases in dry matter intake and total VFA, and reduction in the acetateto-propionate ratio and ammonia N concentration) may be beneficial. Because plant extracts may act at different levels in the carbohydrate and protein degradation pathways, their careful selection and combination may provide a useful tool to manipulate rumen microbial fermentation effectively. However, additional research is required to establish the optimal dose in vivo in units of the active component, to consider the potential adaptation of microbial populations to their activities, to examine the presence of residues in the products (milk or meat), and to demonstrate improvements in animal performance.

  19. Invited review: gender issues related to spaceflight: a NASA perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harm, D. L.; Jennings, R. T.; Meck, J. V.; Powell, M. R.; Putcha, L.; Sams, C. P.; Schneider, S. M.; Shackelford, L. C.; Smith, S. M.; Whitson, P. A.

    2001-01-01

    This minireview provides an overview of known and potential gender differences in physiological responses to spaceflight. The paper covers cardiovascular and exercise physiology, barophysiology and decompression sickness, renal stone risk, immunology, neurovestibular and sensorimotor function, nutrition, pharmacotherapeutics, and reproduction. Potential health and functional impacts associated with the various physiological changes during spaceflight are discussed, and areas needing additional research are highlighted. Historically, studies of physiological responses to microgravity have not been aimed at examining gender-specific differences in the astronaut population. Insufficient data exist in most of the discipline areas at this time to draw valid conclusions about gender-specific differences in astronauts, in part due to the small ratio of women to men. The only astronaut health issue for which a large enough data set exists to allow valid conclusions to be drawn about gender differences is orthostatic intolerance following shuttle missions, in which women have a significantly higher incidence of presyncope during stand tests than do men. The most common observation across disciplines is that individual differences in physiological responses within genders are usually as large as, or larger than, differences between genders. Individual characteristics usually outweigh gender differences per se.

  20. Invited review: decoding the microRNA response to hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pocock, Roger

    2011-01-01

    responses. The ability to sense and respond to hypoxia is of fundamental importance to aerobic organisms and dysregulated oxygen homeostasis is a hallmark in the pathophysiology of cancer, neurological dysfunction, myocardial infarction, and lung disease. miRNAs are ideal mediators of hypoxic stress...

  1. Invited review: A commentary on predictive cheese yield formulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmons, D B; Modler, H W

    2010-12-01

    Predictive cheese yield formulas have evolved from one based only on casein and fat in 1895. Refinements have included moisture and salt in cheese and whey solids as separate factors, paracasein instead of casein, and exclusion of whey solids from moisture associated with cheese protein. The General, Barbano, and Van Slyke formulas were tested critically using yield and composition of milk, whey, and cheese from 22 vats of Cheddar cheese. The General formula is based on the sum of cheese components: fat, protein, moisture, salt, whey solids free of fat and protein, as well as milk salts associated with paracasein. The testing yielded unexpected revelations. It was startling that the sum of components in cheese was SofC) in cheese. The apparent low estimation of SofC led to the idea of adjusting upwards, for each vat, the 5 measured components in the formula by the observed SofC, as a fraction. The mean of the adjusted predicted yields as percentages of actual yields was 99.99%. The adjusted forms of the General, Barbano, and Van Slyke formulas gave predicted yields equal to the actual yields. It was apparent that unadjusted yield formulas did not accurately predict yield; however, unadjusted PY%AY can be useful as a control tool for analyses of cheese and milk. It was unexpected that total milk protein in the adjusted General formula gave the same predicted yields as casein and paracasein, indicating that casein or paracasein may not always be necessary for successful yield prediction. The use of constants for recovery of fat and protein in the adjusted General formula gave adjusted predicted yields equal to actual yields, indicating that analyses of cheese for protein and fat may not always be necessary for yield prediction. Composition of cheese was estimated using a predictive formula; actual yield was needed for estimation of composition. Adjusted formulas are recommended for estimating target yields and cheese yield efficiency. Constants for solute exclusion, protein-associated milk salts, and whey solids could be used and reduced the complexity of the General formula. Normalization of fat recovery increased variability of predicted yields. Copyright © 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Young Women's Experiences of Resisting Invitations to Use Illicit Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehn, Corinne V.; O'Neill, Linda K.

    2011-01-01

    Ten young women were interviewed regarding their experiences of resisting invitations to use illicit drugs. Hermeneutic phenomenology was used to gather and analyze information. One key theme was the motivations that inspired women to refuse drug offers. Young women resisted drug invitations because of their desires to be authentic, protect their…

  3.   Personal invitations for population-based breast cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saalasti-Koskinen, Ulla; Mäkelä, Marjukka; Saarenmaa, Irma

    2010-01-01

    participation free of charge and the benefits of detecting breast cancer early. Harm associated with screening was seldom mentioned; no unit mentioned the possibility of false-negative results or overtreatment. CONCLUSION: The screening units provided very variable information, which often was biased toward......RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Women who are invited for breast cancer screening should get enough information about the benefits and harms of screening to make an informed decision on participation. Personal invitations are an important source of information, because all invited women receive them....... The objective of this study was to evaluate the information breast cancer screening units send to women invited for screening in Finland. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A questionnaire was sent to all breast cancer screening units in Finland in 2005 and 2008, and the information (eg, invitations, results letters...

  4. Between-group behaviour in health care: gaps, edges, boundaries, disconnections, weak ties, spaces and holes. A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braithwaite Jeffrey

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gaps are typically regarded as a problem to be solved. People are stimulated to close or plug them. Researchers are moved to fill deficits in the literature in order to realise a more complete knowledge base, health authorities want to bridge policy-practice disconnections, managers to secure resources to remedy shortfalls between poor and idealised care, and clinicians to provide services to patients across the divides of organisational silos. Despite practical and policy work in many health systems to bridge gaps, it is valuable to study research examining them for the insights provided. Structural holes, spaces between social clusters and weak or absent ties represent fissures in networks, located in less densely populated parts of otherwise closely connected social structures. Such gaps are useful as they illustrate how communication potentially breaks down or interactivity fails. This paper discusses empirical and theoretical work on this phenomenon with the aim of analysing a specific exemplar, the structures of silos within health care organisations. Methods The research literature on social spaces, holes, gaps, boundaries and edges was searched systematically, and separated into health [n = 13] and non-health [n = 55] samples. The health literature was reviewed and synthesised in order to understand the circumstances between stakeholders and stakeholder groups that both provide threats to networked interactions and opportunities to strengthen the fabric of organisational and institutional inter-relationships. Results The research examples illuminate various network structure characteristics and group interactions. They explicate a range of opportunities for improved social and professional relations that understanding structural holes, social spaces and absent ties affords. A principal finding is that these kinds of gaps illustrate the conditions under which connections are strained or have been severed, where the

  5. The Kaleidoscope of Culture: expanding the museum experience and the museum narrative by inviting visitors into the curatorial process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Jensen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Traditional art museum exhibitions are planned according to art-historical elements. At Trapholt – a museum of modern Danish art, design and applied art in Denmark, we are interested in exploring what happens when ordinary visitors are invited to curate personal exhibitions in the museum space. This paper analyses the project The Kaleidoscope of Culture, where people with no art historical background were invited to curate exhibitions based on the Trapholt collection of art and their own cultural backgrounds and experiences. The main argument is that, by allowing these personal voices in the museum space, new museum narratives are established. But to make the museum a truly transformative space the art- historical knowledge and methods must also be activate.

  6. Space Station - Opportunity for international cooperation and utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, K. S.

    1984-01-01

    In connection with his announcement regarding the development of a permanently manned Space Station, President Reagan invited the United States' friends and allies to join in the Space Station program. The President's invitation was preceded by more than two years of interaction between NASA and some of its potential partners in Space Station planning activities. Attention is given to international participation in Space Station planning, international cooperation on the Space Station, the guidelines for international cooperation, and the key challenges. Questions regarding quid pro quos are considered along with aspects of technology transfer, commercial use, problems of management, and the next steps concerning the Space Station program.

  7. Creating intentionally inviting schools through professional development: an appreciative inquiry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Steyn

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The professional development (PD of teachers plays an important role in schools; it is indispensable for continuous school development. When schools are exposed to new approaches to learning and teaching, teachers are granted the opportunities to change their thinking and behaviour. In 2009, two South African schools with specific inviting characteristics were nominated for the inviting school award given by the International Alliance for Invitational Education (IAIE. However, the inviting characteristics of these schools were not explicitly intentional according to the IE philosophy, therefore they had to follow a professional development programme aimed at raising teachers’ awareness of invitational education (IE. Workshops were held to equip staff members with IE knowledge and skills, and to increase their understanding of their current practices with a view of making them more intentionally inviting. The study focused on the following two questions: What are the positive experiences of teaching staff concerning the current approach to teaching and learning in schools?; and What strategies may be introduced to assist teachers and their schools in becoming intentionally inviting? These two questions are based on appreciative inquiry (AI and IE. A qualitative research design was most appropriate for the purpose of this study. An analysis of the data revealed two categories (the discovery phase: discovering the best of what exists in the school and the dreaming phase: creating a new future on which AI is based.

  8. A review of planetary and space science projects presented at iCubeSat, the Interplanetary CubeSat Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michael

    2015-04-01

    iCubeSat, the Interplanetary CubeSat Workshop, is an annual technical workshop for researchers working on an exciting new standardised platform and opportunity for planetary and space scientists. The first workshop was held in 2012 at MIT, 2013 at Cornell, 2014 at Caltech with the 2015 workshop scheduled to take place on the 26-27th May 2015 at Imperial College London. Mission concepts and flight projects presented since 2012 have included orbiters and landers targeting asteroids, the moon, Mars, Venus, Saturn and their satellites to perform science traditionally reserved for flagship missions at a fraction of their cost. Some of the first missions proposed are currently being readied for flight in Europe, taking advantage of multiple ride share launch opportunities and technology providers. A review of these and other interplanetary CubeSat projects will be presented, covering details of their science objectives, instrument capabilities, technology, team composition, budget, funding sources, and the other programattic elements required to implement this potentially revolutionary new class of mission.

  9. Beyond the Child-Langmuir law: A review of recent results on multidimensional space-charge-limited flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luginsland, J.W.; Lau, Y.Y.; Umstattd, R.J.; Watrous, J.J.

    2002-01-01

    Space-charge-limited (SCL) flows in diodes have been an area of active research since the pioneering work of Child and Langmuir in the early part of the last century. Indeed, the scaling of current density with the voltage to the 3/2's power is one of the best-known limits in the fields of non-neutral plasma physics, accelerator physics, sheath physics, vacuum electronics, and high power microwaves. In the past five years, there has been renewed interest in the physics and characteristics of SCL emission in physically realizable configurations. This research has focused on characterizing the current and current density enhancement possible from two- and three-dimensional geometries, such as field-emitting arrays. In 1996, computational efforts led to the development of a scaling law that described the increased current drawn due to two-dimensional effects. Recently, this scaling has been analytically derived from first principles. In parallel efforts, computational work has characterized the edge enhancement of the current density, leading to a better understanding of the physics of explosive emission cathodes. In this paper, the analytic and computational extensions to the one-dimensional Child-Langmuir law will be reviewed, the accuracy of SCL emission algorithms will be assessed, and the experimental implications of multidimensional SCL flows will be discussed

  10. Combining the Observations from Different GNSS (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dach, R.; Lutz, S.; Schaer, S.; Bock, H.; Jäggi, A.; Meindl, M.; Ostini, L.; Thaller, D.; Steinbach, A.; Beutler, G.; Steigenberger, P.

    2009-12-01

    For a very long time GPS has clearly dominated the use of GNSS measurements for scientific purposes. This picture is changing: we are moving from a GPS-only to a multi-GNSS world. This is, e.g., reflected by changing the meaning of the abbreviation IGS in March 2005 from International GPS to GNSS Service. The current situation can be described as follows: GPS has the leading role in the GNSS because it has provided a very stable satellite constellation over many years. Some of the currently active GPS satellites are nearly 15 years old. These old satellites are expected to be decommissioned within the next years. On the other hand, due to the increasing number of active GLONASS satellites and the improved density of multi-GNSS tracking stations in the IGS network, the quality of the GLONASS orbits has drastically improved during the last years. The European Galileo system is under development: currently two test satellites (GIOVE-A and GIOVE-B) are in orbit. The IOV (in-orbit-validation phase) will start soon. Also the first test satellites for the Chinese Compass system are in space. For the maximum benefit the observations of these GNSS will be processed in a combined multi-GNSS analysis in future. CODE (Center for Orbit Determination in Europe) is a joint venture between the Astronomical Institute of the University Bern (AIUB, Bern, Switzerland), the Federal Office of Topography (swisstopo, Wabern, Switzerland), the Federal Agency for Cartography and Geodesy (BKG, Frankfurt am Main, Germany), and the Institut für Astronomische und Physikalische Geodäsie of the Technische Universität München (IAPG/TUM, Munich, Germany). It acts as one of the global analysis centers of the IGS and has started in May 2003 with a rigorous combined processing of GPS and GLONASS measurements for the final, rapid, and even ultra-rapid product lines. All contributions from CODE to the IGS are in fact multi-GNSS products -- the only exception is the satellite and receiver clock

  11. A review of ground-based heavy-ion radiobiology relevant to space radiation risk assessment: Part II. Cardiovascular and immunological effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blakely, Eleanor A.; Chang, Polly Y.

    2007-02-26

    The future of manned space flight depends on an analysis of the numerous potential risks of travel into deep space. Currently no radiation dose limits have been established for these exploratory missions. To set these standards more information is needed about potential acute and late effects on human physiology from appropriate radiation exposure scenarios, including pertinent radiation types and dose rates. Cancer risks have long been considered the most serious late effect from chronic daily relatively low-dose exposures to the complex space radiation environment. However, other late effects from space radiation exposure scenarios are under study in ground-based accelerator facilities and have revealed some unique particle radiation effects not observed with conventional radiations. A comprehensive review of pertinent literature that considers tissue effects of radiation leading to functional detriments in specific organ systems has recently been published (NCRP National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, Information Needed to Make Radiation Protection Recommendations for Space Missions Beyond Low-Earth Orbit, Report 153, Bethesda, MD, 2006). This paper highlights the review of two non-cancer concerns from this report: cardiovascular and immunological effects.

  12. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Launch Complex 39 (LC-39) Gaseous Hydrogen (GH2) Vent Arm Behavior Prediction Model Review Technical Assessment Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Timmy R.; Beech, Geoffrey; Johnston, Ian

    2009-01-01

    The NESC Assessment Team reviewed a computer simulation of the LC-39 External Tank (ET) GH2 Vent Umbilical system developed by United Space Alliance (USA) for the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) and designated KSC Analytical Tool ID 451 (KSC AT-451). The team verified that the vent arm kinematics were correctly modeled, but noted that there were relevant system sensitivities. Also, the structural stiffness used in the math model varied somewhat from the analytic calculations. Results of the NESC assessment were communicated to the model developers.

  13. Space, Art and Transcendence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Pinilla Burgos

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the light of Heidegger’s analysis of space and art, and its link with a milestone for modern sculpture such as Eduardo Chillida, space is presented, together with time, as a fundamental element of art and especially of sculpture and architecture. Space is not a homogeneous neutral background, but an original phenomenon that compromises from the beginning the creation and the peculiar kind of transcendence to which every work of art invites us. Every work submerges us on one side in a feverish, sensitive and bodily immanence, in the mystery of the sensitive (aesthetic that we are, but aswell it takes us beyond or nearer than the conventional meanings and relations and our situation. From here, we will consider whether and how we can put the aesthetic experience of space in relation to the transcendence of which religion commonly speaks, illuminated in turn from the study of the sacred of Mircea Eliade.

  14. Digital advertising around paid spaces, e-advertising industry’s revenue engine : A review and research agenda

    OpenAIRE

    Aslam, Bilal; Karjaluoto, Heikki

    2017-01-01

    We develop and describe a framework for research in a particular segment of digital advertising. Internet Advertising Paid Slots and Spaces (IAPS) is a neologism and work almost like a stock exchange for buying and selling advertising in various formats on designated spaces around web and make a significant contribution to Internet advertising revenues. These paid spaces were found to encompass diverse areas of Internet advertising that include search engine marketing, social media advertisin...

  15. Relative Over Population and the “New Social Question”: an Invitation to Marxian Categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ednéia Alves de Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the mystified concept that poverty has acquired in the current stage of capitalist accumulation. It relates the growth of overpopulation to a critical perspective in which the conflict between labor and capital is an essential condition for the emergence and permanence of this overpopulation. It looks at the relationship of the general law of capitalist accumulation and at transformations in the order of capital, and then at the naturalized approach that the social question has acquired in this context, inviting a review of Marxian categories.

  16. Mathematical Model of (R,Q Inventory Policy under Limited Storage Space for Continuous and Periodic Review Policies with Backlog and Lost Sales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanokwan Singha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper involves developing new mathematical expressions to find reorder point and order quantity for inventory management policies that explicitly consider storage space capacity. Both continuous and periodic reviews, as well as backlogged and lost demand during stockout, are considered. With storage space capacity, when on-hand inventory exceeds the capacity, the over-ordering cost of storage at an external warehouse is charged on a per-unit-period basis. The objective is to minimize the total cost, consisting of ordering, shortage, holding, and over-ordering costs. Demand and lead time are stochastic and discrete in nature. Demand during varying lead time is modeled using an empirical distribution so that the findings are not subject to assumptions of demand and lead time probability distributions. Due to the complexity of the developed mathematical expressions, the problems are solved using an iterative method. The method is tested with problem instances that use real data from industry. Optimal solutions of the problem instance are determined by performing exhaustive search. The proposed method can effectively find optimal solutions for continuous review policies and near optimal solutions for periodic review policies. Fundamental insights about the inventory policies are reported from a comparison between continuous review and periodic review solutions, as well as a comparison between backlog and lost sales cases.

  17. Responsive, Flexible and Scalable Broader Impacts (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decharon, A.; Companion, C.; Steinman, M.

    2010-12-01

    In many educator professional development workshops, scientists present content in a slideshow-type format and field questions afterwards. Drawbacks of this approach include: inability to begin the lecture with content that is responsive to audience needs; lack of flexible access to specific material within the linear presentation; and “Q&A” sessions are not easily scalable to broader audiences. Often this type of traditional interaction provides little direct benefit to the scientists. The Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence - Ocean Systems (COSEE-OS) applies the technique of concept mapping with demonstrated effectiveness in helping scientists and educators “get on the same page” (deCharon et al., 2009). A key aspect is scientist professional development geared towards improving face-to-face and online communication with non-scientists. COSEE-OS promotes scientist-educator collaboration, tests the application of scientist-educator maps in new contexts through webinars, and is piloting the expansion of maps as long-lived resources for the broader community. Collaboration - COSEE-OS has developed and tested a workshop model bringing scientists and educators together in a peer-oriented process, often clarifying common misconceptions. Scientist-educator teams develop online concept maps that are hyperlinked to “assets” (i.e., images, videos, news) and are responsive to the needs of non-scientist audiences. In workshop evaluations, 91% of educators said that the process of concept mapping helped them think through science topics and 89% said that concept mapping helped build a bridge of communication with scientists (n=53). Application - After developing a concept map, with COSEE-OS staff assistance, scientists are invited to give webinar presentations that include live “Q&A” sessions. The webinars extend the reach of scientist-created concept maps to new contexts, both geographically and topically (e.g., oil spill), with a relatively small

  18. A review of the findings of the plasma diagnostic package and associated laboratory experiments: Implications of large body/plasma interactions for future space technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Gerald B.; Lonngren, Karl E.

    1986-01-01

    The discoveries and experiments of the Plasma Diagnostic Package (PDP) on the OSS 1 and Spacelab 2 missions are reviewed, these results are compared with those of other space and laboratory experiments, and the implications for the understanding of large body interactions in a low Earth orbit (LEO) plasma environment are discussed. First a brief review of the PDP investigation, its instrumentation and experiments is presented. Next a summary of PDP results along with a comparison of those results with similar space or laboratory experiments is given. Last of all the implications of these results in terms of understanding fundamental physical processes that take place with large bodies in LEO is discussed and experiments to deal with these vital questions are suggested.

  19. WHO's International EMF Project (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repacholi, M.H.

    1999-01-01

    The International Electromagnetic Fields (EMF) Project assesses health and environmental effects of exposure to static and time varying electric and magnetic fields in the frequency range 0-300 GHz. The Project facilitates a coordinated international response to the concerns about possible health effects of exposure to EMF, assesses the scientific literature, identifies gaps in knowledge needing further research to improve health risk assessments and encourages focused research to fill gaps in knowledge. When the results of this research are published, they will be incorporated into WHO's Environmental Health Criteria monographs where formal health risk assessments are made on exposure to EMF. These monographs provide a database that facilitates the development of internationally acceptable standards for EMF exposure. This paper reviews the International EMF Project activities related to WHO's EMF research requirements and focuses on specific questions raised during the scientific reviews that need to be considered in future epidemiological studies. (author)

  20. Invitation and Evaluation of Bids for Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This publication emphasizes the integrity and interdependence of various activities related to the bid invitation, technical and economic evaluation and contracting, it updates information included in the existing IAEA documents in order to better reflect the developments in the nuclear and energy industry, compiles a more compact and user friendly guidebook integrating the existing IAEA documents on the subject. It provides the necessary information to organize, guide and realize the activities related to the invitation, the technical and economic evaluation of bids, and contracting as an integrated process. Furthermore, this publication indicates how and to what degree the activities preceding the preparation of the bid invitation specification, the evaluation of bids and contracting could influence the process.

  1. Invitation to View Method with Advantages and Disadvantages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selçuk BUYRUKOĞLU

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Taxpayers and tax administrators sometimes may experience tax dispute. These disputes may arise from the taxpayers as well as from the tax administrators. In resolving tax disputes, tax administrators and tax payers are the first, usually administratively, solution. Because while the tax revenues of the state are possible entered into the state treasury, the taxpayers will benefit from the advantages of administrative solutions. The state and taxpayer herein will be the winner. Invitation to view is one of the administrative remedies for tax disputes. With this practice taxpayers who have caused tax evasion penalty are invited by tax administrators to make a declaration on the condition that the tax examination of the tax disputes is not started and the dispatch process has not been done to the discretion comission. In this study, advantages and disadvantages will be addressed after the definition, legal support, purpose, scope and mechanism of Invitation to view.

  2. Expert Water Quality Panel Review of Responses to the NASA Request for Information for the International Space Station On-Board Environmental Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Julianna L.; Mudgett, Paul D.; Packham, Nigel J.; Schultz, John R.; Straub, John E., II

    2005-01-01

    On August 9, 2003, NASA, with the cooperative support of the Vehicle Office of the International Space Station Program, the Advanced Human Support Technology Program, and the Johnson Space Center Habitability and Environmental Factors Office released a Request for Information, or RFI, to identify next-generation environmental monitoring systems that have demonstrated ability or the potential to meet defined requirements for monitoring air and water quality onboard the International Space Station. This report summarizes the review and analysis of the proposed solutions submitted to meet the water quality monitoring requirements. Proposals were to improve upon the functionality of the existing Space Station Total Organic Carbon Analyzer (TOCA) and monitor additional contaminants in water samples. The TOCA is responsible for in-flight measurement of total organic carbon, total inorganic carbon, total carbon, pH, and conductivity in the Space Station potable water supplies. The current TOCA requires hazardous reagents to accomplish the carbon analyses. NASA is using the request for information process to investigate new technologies that may improve upon existing capabilities, as well as reduce or eliminate the need for hazardous reagents. Ideally, a replacement for the TOCA would be deployed in conjunction with the delivery of the Node 3 water recovery system currently scheduled for November 2007.

  3. Receptivity to sexual invitations from strangers of the opposite gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Gert Martin; Hogh-Olesen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the primary conclusion from Clark and Hatfield's often cited field experiment ``Consent to Sex with a Stranger'' that men agree to sexual invitations from moderately attractive strangers of the opposite gender more readily than women do. In addition, this study investigated...... whether rates of consent are influenced by a subject's age, relationship status, rating of confederate attractiveness, and type of sexual invitation. A number of moderately attractive confederates of the opposite gender individually approached 173 men and 216 women. After a standard introduction...

  4. Review of the Joint Capability Integration and Development System (JCIDS) and the National Security Space Acquisition Process (NSSAP)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gamache, Joyce A

    2006-01-01

    ...) and the National Security Space Acquisition Process (NSSAP) through a qualitative case study. The author identifies ways to improve this interaction by answering investigative questions and providing recommendations to be tested in future research.

  5. Resonant and nonresonant magnetic scattering (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McWhan, D.B.; Hastings, J.B.; Kao, C.; Siddons, D.P.

    1992-01-01

    The tunability and the polarization of synchrotron radiation open up new possibilities for the study of magnetism. Studies on magnetic materials performed at the National Synchrotron Light Source are reviewed, and they fall into four areas: structure, evolution of magnetic order, separation of L and S, and resonance effects. In the vicinity of atomic absorption edges, the Faraday effect, magnetic circular dichroism, and resonant magnetic scattering are all related resonance effects which measure the spin-polarized density of states. The production and analysis of polarized beams are discussed in the context of the study of magnetism with synchrotron radiation

  6. Protection Given by Sunscreens (invited paper)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, A.R.; Walker, S.L

    2000-07-01

    Sunscreens are effective at preventing sunburn (erythema) as indicated by their sun protection factor (SPF). Increasingly, sunscreens are expected to prevent skin cancer. Limited animal and human data support this expectation but an understanding of the relationship between SPF and the degree of protection from skin cancer is lacking. One approach to this problem is to determine the protection factors against acute UVR effects in humans that are thought to play a role in skin cancer such as DNA photodamage and immunosuppression. This review summarises the current status in these areas. (author)

  7. Protection Given by Sunscreens (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, A.R.; Walker, S.L.

    2000-01-01

    Sunscreens are effective at preventing sunburn (erythema) as indicated by their sun protection factor (SPF). Increasingly, sunscreens are expected to prevent skin cancer. Limited animal and human data support this expectation but an understanding of the relationship between SPF and the degree of protection from skin cancer is lacking. One approach to this problem is to determine the protection factors against acute UVR effects in humans that are thought to play a role in skin cancer such as DNA photodamage and immunosuppression. This review summarises the current status in these areas. (author)

  8. New developments in photoconductive detectors (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, S.

    1997-01-01

    Nearly ideal for detecting ionizing radiation, wide band-gap semiconductors present a possibility of having outstanding radiation hardness, fast charge collection, and low leakage current that will allow them to be used in high radiation, high temperature, and chemically aggressive environments. Over the past few years, the improvements in the electrical quality of wide band-gap semiconductors have progressed enormously. One particular wide band-gap semiconductor, diamond, has properties that may be ideal for radiation detection. Since the discovery of low pressure and low temperature deposition of diamond, the possibility of large area diamond films has become a reality. Over the past few years, great progress has been made in advancing the electrical quality of chemical-vapor-deposited (CVD) diamond. Presently, unprecedented diamond wafer size of 7 in. diam is possible. Due to both the present electrical quality and the available size, the utilization of diamond in radiation detection applications is not just a dream but a reality. The progression of CVD diamond close-quote s electrical properties in the last few years will be presented along with what is currently possible. Applications of CVD diamond for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) diagnostics will be reviewed. In addition, a brief review concerning other possible wide band-gap semiconductors for ICF diagnostics will be presented. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  9. Infrasound Studies at the USArray (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot-Hedlin, C. D.

    2013-12-01

    Many surface and atmospheric sources, both natural and anthropogenic, have generated infrasound signals that have been recorded on USArray transportable array (TA) seismometers at ranges up to thousands of kilometers. Such sources, including surface explosions, large bolides, mining events, and a space shuttle, have contributed to an understanding of infrasound propagation. We show examples of several atmospheric sources recorded at the TA. We first used USArray data to investigate infrasound signals from the space shuttle 'Atlantis'. Inclement weather in Florida forced the shuttle to land at Edwards Air Force Base in southern California on June 22, 2007, passing near three infrasound stations and several hundred seismic stations in northern Mexico, southern California, and Nevada. The high signal-to-noise ratio, broad receiver coverage, and Atlantis' positional information allowed us to test infrasound propagation modeling capabilities through the atmosphere to hundreds of kilometers range from the shuttle's path. Shadow zones and arrival times were predicted by tracing rays launched at right angles to the conical shock front surrounding the shuttle through a standard climatological model as well as a global ground to space model. Both models predict alternating regions of high and low ensonification to the NW, in line with observations. However, infrasound energy was detected tens of kilometers beyond the predicted zones of ensonification, possibly due to uncertainties in stratospheric wind speeds. The models also predict increasing waveform complexity with increasing distance, in line with observations. Several hundreds of broadband seismic stations in the U.S. Pacific Northwest recorded acoustic to seismic coupled signals from a large meteor that entered the atmosphere above northeastern Oregon on 19 February 2008. The travel times of the first arriving energy are consistent with a terminal explosion source model, suggesting that the large size of the explosion

  10. Multi-layer planting as a strategy of greening the transitional space in high-rise buildings: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prihatmanti, Rani; Taib, Nooriati

    2018-03-01

    The issues regarding the rapid development in the urban have resulted in the increasing number of infrastructure built, including the high-rise buildings to accommodate the urban dwellers. Lack of greeneries due to the land limitation in the urban area has increased the surface radiation as well as the air temperature that leads to the Urban Heat Island (UHI) phenomena. Where urban land is limited, growing plants vertically could be a solution. Plants, which are widely known as one of the sustainability elements in the built environment could be integrated in building as a part of urban faming by growing edible plant species. This is also to address the food security issue in the urban as well as high-density cities. Since space is limited, the function of transitional space could be optimized for the green space. This paper explores the strategy of greening transitional space in the high-rise setting. To give a maximum impact in a limited space, multi-layer planting concept could be introduced. This concept is believed that multiple layers of plants could modify the microclimate, as well as the radiation to the building, compare to single layer plant. In addition to that, the method selected also determines the efficacy of the vertical greeneries. However, there are many other limitations related to the multi-layer planting method if installed in a transitional space that needs to be further studied. Despite its limitations, the application of vertical greeneries with multi-layer planting concept could be a promising solution for greening the limited space as well as improving the thermal comfort in the high-rise building.

  11. Book reviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Rosendal

    2009-01-01

    The review consists of two sections: In the first, community education is understood as an invitation to develop transversal, transdisciplinary research on a European level and dealing with adult education in order to improve a social Europe. In the second, the European question is understood...... as a social question. An interesting trend seems to be that neo-liberalism 'demands' reframing the social. Udgivelsesdato: March 2009...

  12. Invited commentary: Physical activity, mortality, and genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankinen, Tuomo; Bouchard, Claude

    2007-08-01

    The importance of regular physical activity to human health has been recognized for a long time, and a physically active lifestyle is now defined as a major component of public health policies. The independent contribution of regular physical activity to lower morbidity and mortality rates is generally accepted, and the biologic mechanisms mediating these health effects are actively investigated. A few years ago, data from the Finnish Twin Registry suggested that genetic selection may account for some of the physical-activity-related benefits on mortality rates. However, results from the Swedish Twin Registry study reported by Carlsson et al. in the current issue of the Journal (Am J Epidemiol 2007;166:255-259) do not support the genetic selection hypothesis. In this commentary, the authors review the nature of the associations among physical activity level, fitness, and longevity, with special reference to the role of human genetic variation, and discuss potential reasons for different outcomes of these large twin studies.

  13. Development of gyrotrons for plasma diagnostics (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woskoboinikow, P.

    1986-01-01

    Recent advances in high-frequency (>100 GHz) gyrotron technology are reviewed and application to millimeter/submillimeter wave plasma diagnostics is discussed. Gyrotrons have useful capabilities of high-power (>1 kW), long pulse/cw operation, narrow linewidth (<100 kHz), and good spatial mode quality with efficient (--90%) mode converters. These capabilities could be used to significantly improve collective Thomson scattering diagnostics for the study of instabilities, plasma waves, turbulence, and thermal ion fluctuations. Imaging applications with many detector arrays of plasma density, field direction, and microinstabilities may be possible with gyrotons. In a high-field compact ignition tokamak experiment a possible millimeter wave diagnostics window could be exploited by a gyrotron to measure a number of parameters, including alpha particle density and velocity distribution

  14. Magnetocaloric refrigeration near room temperature (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueck, E.; Tegus, O.; Thanh, D.T.C.; Buschow, K.H.J.

    2007-01-01

    Modern society relies on readily available refrigeration. The ideal cooling machine would be a compact, solid state, silent and energy-efficient heat pump that does not require maintenance. Magnetic refrigeration has three prominent advantages compared to compressor-based refrigeration. First, there are no harmful gases involved, second it may be built more compact as the working material is a solid and third magnetic refrigerators generate much less noise. Recently, a new class of magnetic refrigerant materials for room-temperature applications was discovered. These new materials have important advantages over existing magnetic coolants: They exhibit a large magnetocaloric effect (MCE) in conjunction with a magnetic phase transition of first order. This MCE is, larger than that of Gd metal, which is used in the demonstration refrigerators built to explore the potential of this evolving technology. In the present review, we compare the different materials considering both scientific aspects and industrial applicability

  15. Scientific Publishing and the Data Deluge (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, B.

    2010-12-01

    The ability to collect and analyze huge data sets is changing and revolutionizing many aspects of science, including scientific publishing. Policies and practices with respect to data management and archiving have been evolving at journals, but many outstanding problems and challenges have emerged and some are growing. Journals have an evolving mission including a traditional role in advancing science and an increasingly important role of accrediting peer-reviewed research used in public policy and the legal and regulatory systems. Publishing is increasingly responsible for assuring the reliability and transparency of data for both uses, and policies have been evolving to meet these goals. Most journals now include data supplements and have strengthened sharing and archiving requirements. For example, Science now requires all references to be available (published) at publication, and to the extent possible, supporting data to be archived in online supplements. Many problems remain and are growing: Journals cannot handle some of the large data sets routinely being produced now, and must rely on public databases. Of these, too many do not have reliable funding, and others (e.g., personal or institutional WWW sites) are not reliably curated. Much usable data is being discarded. Journals are in the role of monitoring and in too many cases enforcing deposition and sharing of data. Presentation and visualization of data requires new tools that are challenging to standardize and maintain, and to represent within traditional formats still used by most users. Much data is being archived in a minimally usable form (PDF) without common metadata. A growing burden is being placed on reviewers and editors as papers are longer and more complex, and many journals are seeing large growths in submissions. In some disciplines, huge private data sets, third-party data, or privacy issues are increasingly important, and scientists and journals may be unaware of use restrictions. It is

  16. A Survey of Phenomena in Ionized Gases. Invited Papers. A Collection of Invited Papers Presented at the Eighth International Conference on Phenomena in Ionized Gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1968-01-01

    Invited review papers from the Proceedings of the Eighth Conference on Phenomena in Ionized Gases, which was organized by the Technische Hochschule Wien and the Österreichische Studiengesellschaft für Atomenergie, and held in Vienna, 27 August - 2 September 1967. The IAEA and the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics supported the organizers. Contents: Introductory papers (3 papers); Collision processes (4 papers); Waves and beams in plasmas (6 papers); Surface phenomena (3 papers); Lasers (3 papers); Low pressure discharges (1 paper); Selected topics in plasma physics (2 papers); High pressure discharges (3 papers); Probe techniques and theory (4 papers); Basic data and fundamental plasma processes (4 papers); Summary (1 paper). Each paper is in its original language (20 English, 3 French, 9 Russian and 2 German) and is preceded by an abstract in English, with a second one in the original language if this is not English. (author)

  17. A Life in Science - Book release programme invite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MY OF. CE EDUCA. ВРЕМЕ. STION AND. SCIENCE. OF SCIEN. CES. RESEARC,. AN INSTIT она не. A LIFE IN SCIENCE. Penguin Books India. Indian Academy of Sciences and. Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Bhopal cordially invite you for the release of book. A LIFE IN SCIENCE by C.N.R. Rao.

  18. Textbook Images: How Do They Invite Students into Physics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bungum, Berit

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a study of images in Norwegian physics textbooks for upper secondary school, and how they invite students into physics by means of visual communication. The concept of "framing" is used to investigate how the perspective in the image provides a sense of participation. It is found that older textbooks, where objects…

  19. The Intimate Correlation of Invitational Education and Effective Classroom Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riner, Phillip S.

    2003-01-01

    Critics of Invitational Education and other self-concept approaches to learning have long argued that there is a lack of empirical data to support the claims that approaches to student instruction based on self-concept theory are central to effective learning. Ellis (2001) examines a number of these analyses where self-concept, self-esteem, and…

  20. Inviting Dialogue: An Alternative to Teaching in the Dark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Patricia Shelley

    1998-01-01

    Uses illustrations from a graduate seminar in the teaching of writing, a high school classroom, and a seventh-grade classroom to show the value of teacher-student dialog over teacher monologue, and to show teacher responses that resist the impulse to launch into the teacher's monologue, and instead invite dialog and turn the work of meaning-making…

  1. Adhering to the assumptions of invitational education: a case study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African schools are constantly faced with evolving needs and challenges characterised by change. As in other countries, schools in South Africa encounter pressure to 'produce more for less' and at the same time to achiev e c ertain goals and standards. Transforming schools into inviting institutions requires a ...

  2. Invitation Refusals in Cameroon French and Hexagonal French

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farenkia, Bernard Mulo

    2015-01-01

    Descriptions of regional pragmatic variation in French are lacking to date the focus has been on a limited range of speech acts, including apologies, requests, compliments and responses to compliments. The present paper, a systematic analysis of invitation refusals across regional varieties of French, is designed to add to the research on…

  3. Fewer invited talks by women in evolutionary biology symposia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroeder, J.; Dugdale, H.L.; Radersma, R.; Hinsch, M.; Buehler, D.M.; Saul, J.; Porter, L.; Liker, A.; De Cauwer, I.; Johnson, P. J.; Santure, A. W.; Griffin, A. S.; Bolund, E.; Ross, L.; Webb, T. J.; Feulner, P. G. D.; Winney, I.; Szulkin, M.; Komdeur, J.; Versteegh, M. A.; Hemelrijk, C. K.; Svensson, E. I.; Edwards, H.; Karlsson, M.; West, S. A.; Barrett, E. L. B.; Richardson, D. S.; van den Brink, V.; Wimpenny, J. H.; Ellwood, S. A.; Rees, M.; Matson, K.D.; Charmantier, A.; dos Remedios, N.; Schneider, N. A.; Teplitsky, C.; Laurance, W. F.; Butlin, R. K.; Horrocks, Nicholas

    Lower visibility of female scientists, compared to male scientists, is a potential reason for the under-representation of women among senior academic ranks. Visibility in the scientific community stems partly from presenting research as an invited speaker at organized meetings. We analysed the sex

  4. The Nature of Natural Hazards Communication (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontar, Y. Y.

    2013-12-01

    Some of the many issues of interest to natural hazards professionals include the analysis of proactive approaches to the governance of risk from natural hazards and approaches to broaden the scope of public policies related to the management of risks from natural hazards, as well as including emergency and environmental management, community development and spatial planning related to natural hazards. During the talk we will present results of scientific review, analysis and synthesis, which emphasize same new trends in communication of the natural hazards theories and practices within an up-to-the-minute context of new environmental and climate change issues, new technologies, and a new focus on resiliency. The presentation is divided into five sections that focus on natural hazards communication in terms of education, risk management, public discourse, engaging the public, theoretical perspectives, and new media. It includes results of case studies and best practices. It delves into natural hazards communication theories, including diffusion, argumentation, and constructivism, to name a few. The presentation will provide information about: (1) A manual of natural hazards communication for scientists, policymakers, and media; (2) An up-to-the-minute context of environmental hazards, new technologies & political landscape; (3) A work by natural hazards scientists for geoscientists working with social scientists and communication principles; (4) A work underpinned by key natural hazards communication theories and interspersed with pragmatic solutions; (5) A work that crosses traditional natural hazards boundaries: international, interdisciplinary, theoretical/applied. We will further explore how spatial planning can contribute to risk governance by influencing the occupation of natural hazard-prone areas, and review the central role of emergency management in risk policy. The goal of this presentation is to contribute to the augmentation of the conceptual framework

  5. Space Pharmacology

    CERN Document Server

    Wotring, Virginia E

    2012-01-01

    Space Pharmacology” is a review of the current knowledge regarding the use of pharmaceuticals during spaceflights. It is a comprehensive review of the literature, addressing each area of pharmacokinetics and each major physiological system in turn. Every section begins with a topic overview, and is followed by a discussion of published data from spaceflight, and from ground experiments meant to model the spaceflight situation. Includes a discussion looking forward to the new medical challenges we are likely to face on longer duration exploration missions. This book is a snapshot of our current knowledge that also highlights areas of unknown.

  6. The Science of Middle Nature (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pataki, D. E.; Pincetl, S.; Hinners, S.

    2013-12-01

    In the field of biogeochemistry, urbanization is often considered as an 'alteration' or 'disturbance' to the earth's surface and its natural processes. This view is an outcome of the view of nature inherent in earth system science and ecology, in which nature is defined as separate from humans and society. However, other disciplines are based in alternative views of nature in which humans are more integral components of the landscape. Urban planning, landscape architecture, agriculture, and horticulture, for example, more fully integrate the role of landscape design and management in the functioning of human-dominated ecosystems. We suggest that the field of urban biogeochemistry has been somewhat limited by the predominant, disturbance-based view of the role of nature in cities, and that more deeply evaluating and broadening the concept of nature inherent in studies of urban processes can enhance our understanding of the role of urbanization in the earth system. A particularly useful concept is the 'middle nature' proposed by Cosgrove (1993), which serves a purpose of 'actively transforming nature into culture.' It is this view of urban landscapes as middle nature, or transformation of urban space into human-dominated nature with a purpose, that is lacking from the current scientific discourse about the role of biogeochemistry in urban ecosystem services. A scientific evaluation of middle nature implies studying the performance of urban designs to meet intended cultural and environmental goals, including beauty, social equity, governance, and social capital as well as environmental quality. We describe our work in evaluating the transformed urban landscapes of Los Angeles and Salt Lake City from multiple perspectives that focus on urban livability, equity, and beauty as well as the physical impacts of plants and soils on the environment. The outcomes of this process do not necessary meet the traditional demands of biophysical ecology such as utilizing native

  7. NEON Citizen Science: Planning and Prototyping (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gram, W.

    2010-12-01

    . Phenology was chosen as the focus of this citizen science campaign because it is a visible and comprehensible way of demonstrating the effects of climate change. In addition, plants are readily accessible in nearly every neighborhood and park, and wild areas across the continent, so people can make observations whether they live near an inner city park or in the rural countryside. Recently, NEON built 3 web tools that enable users to visualize PBB data. The tools include a mapping function that displays selected PBB distributional data on a map, an animated map that shows “green up” through time and space, and a graphing tool that compares number of species flowering or leafing out with day length. This prototyping will help NEON better understand how to engage citizen science participants in “doing science” beyond data collection.

  8. To other worlds via the laboratory (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, R. D.

    2009-12-01

    Planetary science is fun, largely by virtue of the wide range of disciplines and techniques it embraces. Progress relies not only on spacecraft observation and models, but also on laboratory work to provide reference data with which to interpret observations and to provide quantitative constraints on model parameters. An important distinction should be drawn between two classes of investigation. The most familiar, pursued by those who make laboratory studies the focus of their careers, is the construction of well-controlled experiments, typically to determine the functional dependence of some desired physical property upon one or two controlled parameters such as temperature, pressure or concentration. Another class of experiment is more exploratory - to 'see what happens'. This exercise often reveals that models may be based on entirely false assumptions. In some cases laboratory results also have value as persuasive tools in providing graphic support for unfamiliar properties or processes - the iconic image of 'flaming ice' makes the exotic notion of methane clathrate immediately accessible. This talk will review the role of laboratory work in planetary science and especially the outer solar system. A few of the author's personal forays into laboratory measurements will be discussed in the talk; These include the physical properties of dessicated icy loess in the US Army Permafrost tunnel in Alaska (as a Mars analog), the use of a domestic microwave oven to measure radar absorptivity (in particular of ammonia-rich water ice) and the generation of waves - and ice - on the surface of a liquid by wind with fluid and air parameters appropriate to Mars and Titan rather than Earth using the MARSWIT wind tunnel at NASA Ames.

  9. Energy Infrastructure and Extreme Events (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakimoto, R. M.

    2013-12-01

    The country's energy infrastructure is sensitive to the environment, especially extreme events. Increasing global temperatures, intense storms, and space weather have the potential to disrupt energy production and transport. It can also provide new opportunities as illustrated by the opening of the Northwest Passage. The following provides an overview of some of the high impacts of major geophysical events on energy production and transport. Future predictions of hurricanes suggest that we can expect fewer storms but they will be associated with stronger winds and more precipitation. The winds and storm surge accompanying hurricane landfall along the Gulf States has had a major impact on the coastal energy infrastructure and the oil/natural gas platforms. The impact of these surges will increase with predicted sea level rise. Hurricane Katrina caused damage to crude oil pipelines and refineries that reduced oil production by 19% for the year. The disruption that can occur is not necessarily linked with the maximum winds of the tropical storm as recently shown by Hurricane Sandy which was classified as a ';post-tropical cyclone' during landfall. Another intense circulation, the tornado, can also cause power outages and network breaks from high winds that can topple power poles or damage power lines from fallen trees. Fortunately, the Moore tornado, rated EF5, did not have a major impact on the oil and gas infrastructure in Oklahoma. The impact of earthquakes and tsunamis on energy was illustrated in Japan in 2011 with the shutdown of the Fukushima Daiichi plant. Other studies have suggested that there are areas in the United States where the energy services are highly vulnerable to major earthquakes that would disrupt electrical and gas networks for extended periods of time. Seismic upgrades to the energy infrastructure would help mitigate the impact. In 1859, a coronal mass ejection triggered a geomagnetic storm that disrupted communication wires around the world

  10. Benchmarking observational uncertainties for hydrology (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, H. K.; Krueger, T.; Freer, J. E.; Westerberg, I.

    2013-12-01

    There is a pressing need for authoritative and concise information on the expected error distributions and magnitudes in hydrological data, to understand its information content. Many studies have discussed how to incorporate uncertainty information into model calibration and implementation, and shown how model results can be biased if uncertainty is not appropriately characterised. However, it is not always possible (for example due to financial or time constraints) to make detailed studies of uncertainty for every research study. Instead, we propose that the hydrological community could benefit greatly from sharing information on likely uncertainty characteristics and the main factors that control the resulting magnitude. In this presentation, we review the current knowledge of uncertainty for a number of key hydrological variables: rainfall, flow and water quality (suspended solids, nitrogen, phosphorus). We collated information on the specifics of the data measurement (data type, temporal and spatial resolution), error characteristics measured (e.g. standard error, confidence bounds) and error magnitude. Our results were primarily split by data type. Rainfall uncertainty was controlled most strongly by spatial scale, flow uncertainty was controlled by flow state (low, high) and gauging method. Water quality presented a more complex picture with many component errors. For all variables, it was easy to find examples where relative error magnitude exceeded 40%. We discuss some of the recent developments in hydrology which increase the need for guidance on typical error magnitudes, in particular when doing comparative/regionalisation and multi-objective analysis. Increased sharing of data, comparisons between multiple catchments, and storage in national/international databases can mean that data-users are far removed from data collection, but require good uncertainty information to reduce bias in comparisons or catchment regionalisation studies. Recently it has

  11. Space Focus Lead Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeves, Geoffrey D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-10

    The Space Focus team is tasked with the definition of the Space Focused Science Topics, and with the review and ranking of the CSES proposals received in all the program areas. This is achieved by dedicated meetings or a series of informal discussions and/or e-mail reviews.

  12. Report of Apollo 204 Review Board to the Administrator, National Aeronautics and Space Administration . Appendix F ; Schedule of Physical Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    1967-01-01

    Immediately following the Apollo 204 accident of January 27, 1961. all associated equipment and material were impounded. Release of this equipment and material for normal use was under the close control of the Apollo 204 Review Board. Apollo Review Board Administrative Procedure No. 11, February 11, 1961, established the Apollo 204 Review Board Material Release Record (MRR). This MRR was the official form used to release material from full impoundment and was valid only after being approved by the Board and signed by a Member. The form was used as the authority to place any impounded item into one of the three Categories defined in Administrative Procedure No. 11. This appendix contains all of the authorized MRR's. Each item submitted on an MRR was given a control number; a description, including the part number and serial number; the relevance and location to the accident; any constraints before release; and the control category. The categories placed on the equipment were as follows: Category A - Items which may have a significant influence or bearing on the results or findings of the Apollo 204 Review Board; Category B - All material other than Category A which is considered relevant to the Apollo 204 Review Board investigation; Category C - Material released from Board jurisdiction. Several classes of equipment were released by special Board action prior to the establishment of the MRR system. The operating procedure for release of these classes is Enclosure F-l to this appendix.

  13. Effectiveness of nickel-titanium springs vs elastomeric chains in orthodontic space closure: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, H; Rizk, M Z; Wafaie, K; Almuzian, M

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the effectiveness of nickel titanium closing springs (NiTi-CS) and elastomeric power chains (EPC) in orthodontic space closure and to assess the adverse periodontal effects, cost efficiency and patient-centred outcomes between both of these methods. An electronic search of online databases (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, LILACS and Web of Science), reference lists and grey literature as well as hand search were conducted without language restriction up to November/2017. Two authors blindly and in duplicate were involved in study selection, quality assessment and the extraction of data. Only randomized clinical trials (RCTs) were included. The quality of the studies was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration's risk of bias tool. 95% confidence intervals and mean difference for continuous data were calculated. A meta-analysis that generated a random-effect model for the comparable outcomes was conducted, and heterogeneity was measured using I 2 statistic. Of 187 records, 4 RCTs met the criteria and were included in the quantitative synthesis featuring 290 test quadrants. Faster space closure with NiTi-CS was observed with a mean difference of (0.20 mm/month, 95% CI: 0.12 to 0.28). Loss of anchorage appears to be similar within both groups when synthesized qualitatively. With exception to anchorage loss, secondary outcomes could not be investigated in the included trials. There is a moderate quality of evidence suggesting a faster orthodontic space closure with the NiTi-CS when compared to EPC. A comparable amount of anchorage loss was observed regardless of the utilized method of space closure. Further high-quality RCTs with parallel-groups, reporting on the adverse effects and patient-centred values, are recommended. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Moisture in Crawl Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton TenWolde; Samuel V. Glass

    2013-01-01

    Crawl space foundations can be designed and built to avoid moisture problems. In this article we provide a brief overview of crawl spaces with emphasis on the physics of moisture. We review trends that have been observed in the research literature and summarize cur-rent recommendations for moisture control in crawl spaces.

  15. 48 CFR 52.232-31 - Invitation To Propose Financing Terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Financing Terms. 52.232-31 Section 52.232-31 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Clauses 52.232-31 Invitation To Propose Financing Terms. As prescribed in 32.205(b) and 32.206, insert the following provision: Invitation To Propose Financing Terms (OCT 1995) (a) The offeror is invited to propose...

  16. Space as an inspiring context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancu, Cristina

    2017-04-01

    Using space as context to inspire science education tapps into the excitement of generations of discovering the unknown resulting in unprecedented public participation. Educators are finding exciting and age appropiate materials for their class that explore science, technology, engineering and mathematics. Possible misconceptions are highlighted so that teachers may plan lessons to facilitate correct conceptual understanding. With a range of hands-on learning experiences, Web materials and online ,opportunities for students, educators are invited to take a closer look to actual science missions. This session leverages resources, materials and expertise to address a wide range of traditional and nontraditional audiences while providing consistent messages and information on various space agencies programs.

  17. Creating Life in an Urban Space

    OpenAIRE

    Fredrickson, Kirsten I.

    1999-01-01

    Creating Life in an Urban Space Kirsten Fredrickson Abstract Towns contain spaces defined by human interaction with their surroundings. In any town, certain places seem inviting while others seem cold and unfriendly. This is the result of subtle design decisions that directly effect the character of a place. This investigation focuses on the interaction of architecture in our daily lives and how it affects us in ways that we often overlook. The life of a town is in its rela...

  18. Doctoral Supervision in Virtual Spaces: A Review of Research of Web-Based Tools to Develop Collaborative Supervision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maor, Dorit; Ensor, Jason D.; Fraser, Barry J.

    2016-01-01

    Supervision of doctoral students needs to be improved to increase completion rates, reduce attrition rates (estimated to be at 25% or more) and improve quality of research. The current literature review aimed to explore the contribution that technology can make to higher degree research supervision. The articles selected included empirical studies…

  19. Enabling narrative pedagogy: inviting, waiting, and letting be.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ironside, Pamela M

    2014-01-01

    This article describes how teachers enable Narrative Pedagogy in their courses by explicating the Concernful Practice Inviting: Waiting and Letting Be. Narrative Pedagogy, a research-based, phenomenological approach to teaching and learning, extends conventional pedagogies and offers nursing faculty an alternative way of transforming their schools and courses. Using hermeneutic phenomenology, interview data collected over a 10-year period were analyzed by coding practical examples of teachers' efforts to enact Narrative Pedagogy. When Narrative Pedagogy is enacted, teachers and students focus on thinking and learning together about nursing phenomena and seek new understandings about how they may provide care in the myriad situations they encounter. Although the Concernful Practices co-occur, explicating inviting experiences can assist new teachers, and those seeking to extend their pedagogical literacy, by providing new understandings of how Narrative Pedagogy can be enacted.

  20. Independent Review of U.S. and Russian Probabilistic Risk Assessments for the International Space Station Mini Research Module #2 Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squire, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    The Mini-Research Module-2 (MRM-2), a Russian module on the International Space Station, does not meet its requirements for micrometeoroid and orbital debris probability of no penetration (PNP). To document this condition, the primary Russian Federal Space Agency ISS contractor, S.P. Korolev Rocket and Space Corporation-Energia (RSC-E), submitted an ISS non-compliance report (NCR) which was presented at the 5R Stage Operations Readiness Review (SORR) in October 2009. In the NCR, RSC-E argued for waiving the PNP requirement based on several factors, one of which was the risk of catastrophic failure was acceptably low at 1 in 11,100. However, NASA independently performed an assessment of the catastrophic risk resulting in a value of 1 in 1380 and believed that the risk at that level was unacceptable. The NASA Engineering and Safety Center was requested to evaluate the two competing catastrophic risk values and determine which was more accurate. This document contains the outcome of the assessment.

  1. Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-11-01

    CD-ROM REVIEW (551) Essential Physics BOOK REVIEWS (551) Collins Advanced Science: Physics, 2nd edition Quarks, Leptons and the Big Bang, 2nd edition Do Brilliantly: A2 Physics IGCSE Physics Geophysics in the UK Synoptic Skills in Advanced Physics Flash! The hunt for the biggest explosions in the universe Materials Maths for Advanced Physics

  2. Making every gram count - Big measurements from tiny platforms (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, C. S.; Neilsen, T. L.; Stromberg, E. M.

    2013-12-01

    Launch of Nanosatellites Educational Launch of Nano-satellites (ELaNa), the Air Force Space Environmental NanoSat Experiment (SENSE), and the ESA QB50 programs have spurred the development of very proficient miniature space sensors and technologies that enable technology demonstration, space and earth science research, and operational CubeSat based missions. In this paper we will review many of the small, low cost sensor and instrumentation technologies that have been developed to date as part of the CubeSat movement and examine how these new CubeSat based technologies are helping us do more with less.

  3. Systematic reviews in pain research: methodology refined

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McQuay, H. J; Kalso, Eija; Moore, R. Andrew

    2008-01-01

    "Presents invited papers from the 6th IASP Research Symposium, Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses in Pain, held in Spain in September 2006, organized by the International Collaboration on Evidence...

  4. A Conceptual Space Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Jørgen Fischer

    1999-01-01

    Conceptual spaces have been proposed as topological or geometric means for establishing conceptual structures and models. This paper, after briey reviewing conceptual spaces, focusses on the relationship between conceptual spaces and logical concept languages with operations for combining concepts...... to form concepts. Speci cally is introduced an algebraic concept logic, for which conceptual spaces are installed as semantic domain as replacement for, or enrichment of, the traditional....

  5. The Austrian Space Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pseiner, K.; Balogh, W.

    2002-01-01

    After several years of preparation and discussion among the involved players, the Austrian Space Plan was approved for implementation in November 2001. Based on careful benchmarking and analysis of the capabilities of the Austrian space sector it aims to create excellent conditions for the sector's further development. The new space strategy embraces Austria's participation in the mandatory and optional programmes of the European Space Agency and establishes a National Space Programme supported by separate funding opportunities. A set of clearly-defined indicators ensures that the progress in implementing the Space Plan can be objectively judged through independent, annual reviews. The National Space Programme promotes international cooperation in space research and space activities with the aim to strengthen the role of space science and to better prepare Austrian space industry for the commercial space market. In the framework of the Space Plan the Austrian Space Agency has been tasked with integrating the industry's growing involvement in aeronautics activities to better utilize synergies with the space sector. This paper reviews the various steps leading to the approval of the new space strategy and discusses the hurdles mastered in this process. It reports on the Space Plan's first results, specifically taking into account projects involving international cooperation. For the first the Austria aerospace-sector can rely on an integrated strategy for aeronautics- and space activities which is firmly rooted in the efforts to enhance the country's R&D activities. It may also act as a useful example for other small space- using countries planning to enhance their involvement in space activities.

  6. Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Provides a review of both the Apple and IBM versions of ENZPACK, a software package which is designed to assist in the teaching of enzyme kinetics in courses where this topic is treated in some depth. (TW)

  7. Review

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-03-29

    Mar 29, 2012 ... The present review documents an overview of speciation mediated through behavioural ...... The Drosophila model (New York: Oxford University Press) .... second part of his big species book written from 1856–1858. (New ...

  8. Review of the High Performance Antiproton Trap (HiPAT) Experiment at the Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, J. B.; Sims, Herb; Martin, James; Chakrabarti, Suman; Lewis, Raymond; Fant, Wallace

    2003-01-01

    The significant energy density of matter-antimatter annihilation is attractive to the designers of future space propulsion systems, with the potential to offer a highly compact source of power. Many propulsion concepts exist that could take advantage of matter-antimatter reactions, and current antiproton production rates are sufficient to support basic proof-of-principle evaluation of technology associated with antimatter- derived propulsion. One enabling technology for such experiments is portable storage of low energy antiprotons, allowing antiprotons to be trapped, stored, and transported for use at an experimental facility. To address this need, the Marshall Space Flight Center's Propulsion Research Center is developing a storage system referred to as the High Performance Antiproton Trap (HiPAT) with a design goal of containing 10(exp 12) particles for up to 18 days. The HiPAT makes use of an electromagnetic system (Penning- Malmberg design) consisting of a 4 Telsa superconductor, high voltage electrode structure, radio frequency (RF) network, and ultra high vacuum system. To evaluate the system normal matter sources (both electron guns and ion sources) are used to generate charged particles. The electron beams ionize gas within the trapping region producing ions in situ, whereas the ion sources produce the particles external to the trapping region and required dynamic capture. A wide range of experiments has been performed examining factors such as ion storage lifetimes, effect of RF energy on storage lifetime, and ability to routinely perform dynamic ion capture. Current efforts have been focused on improving the FW rotating wall system to permit longer storage times and non-destructive diagnostics of stored ions. Typical particle detection is performed by extracting trapped ions from HiPAT and destructively colliding them with a micro-channel plate detector (providing number and energy information). This improved RF system has been used to detect various

  9. Shrinking social space in the doctor-modern patient relationship: a review of forces for, and implications of, homologisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buetow, Stephen; Jutel, Annemarie; Hoare, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Forces for modernisation appear to have led to role convergence and reduced social distances between doctors and modern patients. This review aims to document and understand this process in theory and practice, and to consider the implications for modern patients in particular but also non-modern patients and doctors. Narrative review of published and grey literature identified from sources including electronic databases, the Internet and reference lists of retrieved works. Forces for role convergence between doctors and modern patients include consumerism and increased patient literacy; socio-technological changes; values convergence; increased licence for doctors to use their emotions in patient care; and structural changes in the social organisation of health care. As a result, modern patients appear to have gained more in health care than they have lost and more than have the non-modern (or less modern) patients. Doctors have lost authority and autonomy in patient care. The net impulse toward role convergence is, on balance, a positive development. The differential uptake of modernisation by patients has increased health inequalities between modern and non-modern patients. The need of doctors to accommodate these changes has contributed to a form of reprofessonalisation. A key challenge is to make available the benefits of modernisation, for example through patient education, to as many patients as possible while minimising the risk of harm. It is important therefore to elucidate and be responsive to patient preferences for modernisation, for example by enlisting the support of the modern patients in overcoming barriers to the modernisation of non-modern patients. There is also a need to support doctors as they redefine their own professional role identity.

  10. Space Physiology and Operational Space Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuring, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this slide presentation are to teach a level of familiarity with: the effects of short and long duration space flight on the human body, the major medical concerns regarding future long duration missions, the environmental issues that have potential medical impact on the crew, the role and capabilities of the Space Medicine Flight Surgeon and the environmental impacts experienced by the Apollo crews. The main physiological effects of space flight on the human body reviewed in this presentation are: space motion sickness (SMS), neurovestibular, cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, immune/hematopoietic system and behavioral/psycho-social. Some countermeasures are discussed to these effects.

  11. Invitation strategies and coverage in the population-based cancer screening programmes in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Diama B; Anttila, Ahti; Ponti, Antonio; Senore, Carlo; Sankaranaryanan, Rengaswamy; Ronco, Guglielmo; Segnan, Nereo; Tomatis, Mariano; Žakelj, Maja P; Elfström, Klara M; Lönnberg, Stefan; Dillner, Joakim; Basu, Partha

    2018-03-21

    The aim of this study was to describe the compliance of the population-based cancer screening programmes in the European Union Member States to the invitation strategies enumerated in the European Guidelines and the impact of such strategies on the invitational coverage. Experts in screening programme monitoring from the respective countries provided data. Coverage by invitation was calculated as the proportion of individuals in the target age range receiving a screening invitation over the total number of annualized eligible population. The invitation strategies of 30 breasts, 25 cervical and 27 colorectal national or regional population-based screening programmes are described. Individual mail invitations are sent by 28 breasts, 20 cervical and 25 colorectal screening programmes. Faecal occult blood test kits are sent by post in 17 of the colorectal cancer screening programmes. The majority of programmes claimed to have a population registry, although some use health insurance data as the database for sending invitations. At least 95% invitation coverage was reached by 16 breast, six cervical and five colorectal screening programmes. Majority of the programmes comply with the invitation strategies enumerated in the European guidelines, although there is still scope for improvements. Coverage by invitation is below the desirable level in many population-based cancer screening programmes in European Union.

  12. Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Den Hazel, H B; Kielland-Brandt, Morten; Winther, Jakob R.

    1996-01-01

    The yeast vacuole, which is equivalent to the lysosome of higher eukaryotes, is one of the best characterized degradative organelles. This review describes the biosynthesis and function of yeast vacuolar proteases. Most of these enzymes are delivered to the vacuole via the early compartments...

  13. Reviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adema, Frits

    1995-01-01

    This is the second volume of a revision of Tabernaemontana (Apocynaceae). The volume covers the New World species (44) and the genus Stemmadenia (10 species). This part of the revision of Tabernaemontana comes up to the high standards set in the first volume [see the review by Leenhouts, Blumea 38

  14. REVIEW

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-03-01

    Mar 1, 2012 ... narrowing the gap between recommended treatment protocols in ... for pregnant women is complicated by the need to take into account the health and safety of both the ... meta-analysis as at July 2011 (which reviews the APR and other ... 0.82 - 3.18) and relative risk of birth defects in EFV-containing ART.

  15. Review

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Review. J. Astrophys. Astr., Vol. 36, No. 4, December 2015, pp. 623–634 ..... 4000 K ≤ T ≤ 10000 K. The processes (1b) are characterized in this paper via ..... Mihajlov, A. A., Sreckovic, V. A., Ignjatovic, L. M., Klyucharev, A. N. 2012, J. Cluster.

  16. Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalkman, C.; Adema, F.

    1998-01-01

    This book intends (according to the preface) to afford at once a review, a general outline of what has been accomplished, and a set of signposts for the future. It attempts to do so in three sections on Origin and Diversification of Primitive Land Plants (4 papers), Origin and Diversification of

  17. Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, de W.J.J.O.

    1994-01-01

    This review marks the appearance of Volume II, after the publication of Volume I, Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms, in 1990; several more volumes are expected in the future before completion of the Vascular plants as a whole. The present volume contains 73 families out of some 250-500 families which

  18. PERMEATION OF POLYELECTROLYTES AND OTHER SOLUTES INTO THE PORE SPACES OF WATER-SWOLLEN CELLULOSE: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Wu

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The rate and extent of transport of macromolecules and other solutes into cellulosic materials and fibers have important applications in such fields as papermaking, textiles, medicine, and chromatography. This review considers how diffusion and flow affect permeation into wood, paper, and other lignocellulosic materials. Because pore sizes within such materials can range from nanometers to millimeters, a broad perspective will be used, also considering some publications related to other porous materials. Factors that limit the rate or extent of polymer or other solute transport into pores can involve thermodynamics (affecting the driving motivation for permeation, kinetics (if there is insufficient time for the system to come to equilibrium, and physical barriers. Molecular flow is also affected by the attributes of the solute, such as molecular mass and charge, as well as those of the substrate, such as the pore size, interconnectedness, restricted areas, and surface characteristics. Published articles have helped to clarify which of these factors may have a controlling influence on molecular transport in different situations.

  19. Masticator space masses and pseudomasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connor, S.E.J.; Davitt, S.M.

    2004-01-01

    We review the anatomy of the masticator space and the localization of masticator space lesions on cross-sectional imaging. The magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography appearances of inflammatory, neoplastic, developmental and vascular masticator space lesions are discussed and illustrated. Benign processes and normal variations, which mimic masticator space pathology, are also considered

  20. Onomastic Space, or What, How and Why We Name [Review of: Shmeleva, T. V. (2013. Onomastics. A Handbook. Slavyansk-na-Kubani: KubGU Press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V. Dushechkina

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Giving a high appraisal to the handbook by T. V. Shmeleva, the reviewer considers it a fullfledged monograph covering almost all the branches of onomastics including those which have not attracted much attention from scholars until recently. The book is based upon rich linguistic, cultural and historical materials which help the author explain the regularities of the emergence of proper names. T. V. Shmeleva provides a deep analysis of the three elements of the Russian anthroponymic formula: given name, patronymic and family name. The chapter devoted to zoonyms shows, in an accessible and convincing form, the origin of animal names, the ways of their formation including morphemic techniques, transposition, and substantivation of adjectives, etc. The reviewer points to the accuracy of the research of different types of proper names (hydronyms, chrononyms, oronyms and the innovative character of the last part of the book which focuses on the onomastic space of a modern city (notably, on urbanonyms, with this branch of onomastics having undergone important transfomations in recent years. The author’s sincere interest in proper names encourages readers to do deeper research of the issues of onomastics.

  1. Exercising citizenship: invited and negotiated spaces in grievance redressal systems in Hubli-Dharwad

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Teeffelen, J.; Baud, I.

    2011-01-01

    Different groups of citizens exercise their citizenship through various channels in Indian cities to realize their social rights. In classic urban management systems dominated by government, citizens’ rights are allocated by governments. New forms of network governance see governments as enabling

  2. A micro-scale plasma spectrometer for space and plasma edge applications (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scime, E. E., E-mail: escime@wvu.edu; Keesee, A. M.; Elliott, D. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506-6315 (United States); Dugas, M.; Ellison, S.; Tersteeg, J.; Wagner, G. [Advanced Research Corporation, White Bear Lake, Minnesota 55110 (United States); Barrie, A.; Rager, A. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    A plasma spectrometer design based on advances in lithography and microchip stacking technologies is described. A series of curved plate energy analyzers, with an integrated collimator, is etched into a silicon wafer. Tests of spectrometer elements, the energy analyzer and collimator, were performed with a 5 keV electron beam. The measured collimator transmission and energy selectivity were in good agreement with design targets. A single wafer element could be used as a plasma processing or fusion first wall diagnostic.

  3. Invited spaces and informal practices in participatory community forest management in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nandigama, S.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter shows how the formal participation of men and women in a community-based forest management project shapes and is shaped by informal practices. The gender analysis is based on an ethnographic case study of a village in Andhra Pradesh, India. It aims to contribute to a better

  4. Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Barker

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available There were two copy-editing blunders in Clive Betts's review, in ALT-J 5 (3, of Shirley Fletcher's Designing Competence-Based Training, one in paragraph 2 line 1, the other in paragraph 3 line 8. The errors (the result of the Editor, Gabriel Jacobs, trying to perform a final proof of the journal at lightning speed in order to meet the printing deadline, and not of any mistake on the part of either Philip Barker or the University of Wales Press hardly affected meaning, but the fact that they appeared in a review of a book on competence makes the embarrassment all the more telling. The Editor apologizes, and thanks eagle-eyed readers. He has decided to read the book in the hope that such errors will not recur.

  5. Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilma D'Ambrosio

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the wake of the great interest raised by Maurizio Gabrieli’s review of the book Musical Networks. Parallel Distributed Perception and Performance (various authors; edited by Niall Griffith and Peter M. Todd, MA: MIT Press, Cambridge, 1999 which appeared in our last issue of Analitica, the present review section no longer follows the format used up to now but offers a survey of texts dedicated to the relationship between music analysis and technology. This decision was also made as a result of the request for more information on the subject by many of our readers. In coming issues we plan to extend this bibliography and comment on at least some of the most interesting texts published in recent years, among which we would immediately like to draw attention to the important work by Baroni, Dalmonte and Jacoboni published in 1999 (Le regole della musica. Indagine sui meccanismi della comunicazione, Torino, I Manuali EDT/SIdM, 1999.

  6. Dialogue, a critical space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Pura Moreno Moreno

    2016-05-01

    The dialectic method explores two approaches enriched thanks to  otherness, to what the other person says. The dialogue, without apparent end, represents a way of invitation to understanding where the movement of ideas along the time favors the appropriate open space to generate a  theory that relativizes the polyphonic speeches.The critique always arises  from a question in the search of the objective thing, and therefore besides being based on solid arguments, must be dialectic. Any trial, in this  framework of doubt, it is susceptible to conflicting interpretations; therefore the formulation of a question demanding -thesis - waiting for a reply -  antithesis - is an appropriate procedure able to test any kind of truth.

  7. Space and Earth Science Data Compression Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilton, James C. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The workshop explored opportunities for data compression to enhance the collection and analysis of space and Earth science data. The focus was on scientists' data requirements, as well as constraints imposed by the data collection, transmission, distribution, and archival systems. The workshop consisted of several invited papers; two described information systems for space and Earth science data, four depicted analysis scenarios for extracting information of scientific interest from data collected by Earth orbiting and deep space platforms, and a final one was a general tutorial on image data compression.

  8. Invited article: Electric solar wind sail: toward test missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janhunen, P; Toivanen, P K; Polkko, J; Merikallio, S; Salminen, P; Haeggström, E; Seppänen, H; Kurppa, R; Ukkonen, J; Kiprich, S; Thornell, G; Kratz, H; Richter, L; Krömer, O; Rosta, R; Noorma, M; Envall, J; Lätt, S; Mengali, G; Quarta, A A; Koivisto, H; Tarvainen, O; Kalvas, T; Kauppinen, J; Nuottajärvi, A; Obraztsov, A

    2010-11-01

    The electric solar wind sail (E-sail) is a space propulsion concept that uses the natural solar wind dynamic pressure for producing spacecraft thrust. In its baseline form, the E-sail consists of a number of long, thin, conducting, and centrifugally stretched tethers, which are kept in a high positive potential by an onboard electron gun. The concept gains its efficiency from the fact that the effective sail area, i.e., the potential structure of the tethers, can be millions of times larger than the physical area of the thin tethers wires, which offsets the fact that the dynamic pressure of the solar wind is very weak. Indeed, according to the most recent published estimates, an E-sail of 1 N thrust and 100 kg mass could be built in the rather near future, providing a revolutionary level of propulsive performance (specific acceleration) for travel in the solar system. Here we give a review of the ongoing technical development work of the E-sail, covering tether construction, overall mechanical design alternatives, guidance and navigation strategies, and dynamical and orbital simulations.

  9. [INVITED] Tilted fiber grating mechanical and biochemical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tuan; Liu, Fu; Guan, Bai-Ou; Albert, Jacques

    2016-04-01

    The tilted fiber Bragg grating (TFBG) is a new kind of fiber-optic sensor that possesses all the advantages of well-established Bragg grating technology in addition to being able to excite cladding modes resonantly. This device opens up a multitude of opportunities for single-point sensing in hard-to-reach spaces with very controllable cross-sensitivities, absolute and relative measurements of various parameters, and an extreme sensitivity to materials external to the fiber without requiring the fiber to be etched or tapered. Over the past five years, our research group has been developing multimodal fiber-optic sensors based on TFBG in various shapes and forms, always keeping the device itself simple to fabricate and compatible with low-cost manufacturing. This paper presents a brief review of the principle, fabrication, characterization, and implementation of TFBGs, followed by our progress in TFBG sensors for mechanical and biochemical applications, including one-dimensional TFBG vibroscopes, accelerometers and micro-displacement sensors; two-dimensional TFBG vector vibroscopes and vector rotation sensors; reflective TFBG refractometers with in-fiber and fiber-to-fiber configurations; polarimetric and plasmonic TFBG biochemical sensors for in-situ detection of cell, protein and glucose.

  10. Supersymmetry in singular spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, Eric

    2002-01-01

    We discuss supersymmetry in spaces with a boundary, i.e. singular spaces. In particular, we discuss the situation in ten and five dimensions. In both these cases we review the construction of supersymmetric domain wall actions situated at the boundary. These domain walls act as sources inducing a

  11. Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    WE RECOMMEND Mini Hotplate A constant temperature source is a very useful thing to have Mondo Magnets Book full of magnetism experiments, both classic and new The Physics of Star Trek A book that is not just for fans of the TV series The Trouble with Physics This book explains how string theory has sidetracked physicists Tubular Spring Balance Cheap alternative to the classic newton meter is a winner From Atoms to Patterns The book of the exhibition shows physics' role in fashion Water Heater Heater and calorimeter unit is simple and effective WORTH A LOOK Building Materials Sample Pack A good idea that is not well delivered Double-glazing Kit Another cheap and straightforward idea from SEP Cosmological Enigmas This book gives a personal edge to deep-space physics HANDLE WITH CARE Spring Balance Classically designed newton meter is poorly produced WEB WATCH Gary Williams searches for physics at its most extreme

  12. Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    WE RECOMMEND Geyser Tube A simple plastic tube makes a great difference to an old trick Field Trip to the Moon This DVD postulates what the next Moon mission will be like Plutonium: A History of the World's Most Dangerous Element A fascinating account of the people and the science behind atomic bombs Solar Energy Modules A series of units ideal for use with 7-14-year-olds Photocopiable Practical Science New teaching resource is clear, straightforward and flexible Joseph Rotblat: Visionary for Peace Biography that is thorough, well-told and worth the telling WORTH A LOOK Applied Biophysics: A Molecular Approach for Physical Scientists This book explains why physics is essential to biology William's Words in Science Classroom dictionary of scientific terms can be hit and miss HANDLE WITH CARE Zero Time Space This story of quantum mechanics loses its thread in translation WEB WATCH A whizz around the pole-related science tools that are available

  13. City project and public space

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The book aims at nurturing theoretic reflection on the city and the territory and working out and applying methods and techniques for improving our physical and social landscapes. The main issue is developed around the projectual dimension, with the objective of visualising both the city and the territory from a particular viewpoint, which singles out the territorial dimension as the city’s space of communication and negotiation. Issues that characterise the dynamics of city development will be faced, such as the new, fresh relations between urban societies and physical space, the right to the city, urban equity, the project for the physical city as a means to reveal civitas, signs of new social cohesiveness, the sense of contemporary public space and the sustainability of urban development. Authors have been invited to explore topics that feature a pluralism of disciplinary contributions studying formal and informal practices on the project for the city and seeking conceptual and operative categories capab...

  14. Brain regions involved in subprocesses of small-space episodic object-location memory: a systematic review of lesion and functional neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Kathrin; Eschen, Anne

    2017-04-01

    Object-location memory (OLM) enables us to keep track of the locations of objects in our environment. The neurocognitive model of OLM (Postma, A., Kessels, R. P. C., & Van Asselen, M. (2004). The neuropsychology of object-location memory. In G. L. Allen (Ed.), Human spatial memory: Remembering where (pp. 143-160). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, Postma, A., Kessels, R. P. C., & Van Asselen, M. (2008). How the brain remembers and forgets where things are: The neurocognition of object-location memory. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 32, 1339-1345. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2008.05.001 ) proposes that distinct brain regions are specialised for different subprocesses of OLM (object processing, location processing, and object-location binding; categorical and coordinate OLM; egocentric and allocentric OLM). It was based mainly on findings from lesion studies. However, recent episodic memory studies point to a contribution of additional or different brain regions to object and location processing within episodic OLM. To evaluate and update the neurocognitive model of OLM, we therefore conducted a systematic literature search for lesion as well as functional neuroimaging studies contrasting small-space episodic OLM with object memory or location memory. We identified 10 relevant lesion studies and 8 relevant functional neuroimaging studies. We could confirm some of the proposals of the neurocognitive model of OLM, but also differing hypotheses from episodic memory research, about which brain regions are involved in the different subprocesses of small-space episodic OLM. In addition, we were able to identify new brain regions as well as important research gaps.

  15. Do Space Requirement Applicable in Private Preschools?

    OpenAIRE

    Salleh Naziah Muhamad; Agus Salim Nuzaihan Aras; Kamaruzzaman Syahrul Nizam; Mahyuddin Norhayati

    2016-01-01

    Working or studying in a comfortable environment enhances not only well-being, but also satisfaction and therefore increase the productivity and learning. The numbers of private preschool in Malaysia boost every year. Frequently they operate in premises that have been fully refurbished. This has invited the questions on the building capability and space condition to provide a good environment to the children during the learning activities. Most of the building was refurbished to enhance it ap...

  16. Do invitations for cervical screening provide sufficient information to enable informed choice?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolthoff, Sie Karen; Hestbech, Mie Sara; Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl

    2016-01-01

    or unmentioned. The same applied to other important harms, such as false-positive results and the psychological consequences from an abnormal test result. The majority of invitations took a paternalistic approach. While only two invitations (17%) included a pre-assigned appointment date, eight (70...

  17. 48 CFR 14.203-2 - Dissemination of information concerning invitations for bids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 14.203-2 Dissemination of information concerning invitations for bids. Procedures concerning display... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dissemination of information concerning invitations for bids. 14.203-2 Section 14.203-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System...

  18. 76 FR 53693 - Notice of Invitation To Participate; Coal Exploration License Application COC-74911, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-29

    ...] Notice of Invitation To Participate; Coal Exploration License Application COC-74911, Colorado AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the Mineral Leasing Act of 1920... America in lands located in Delta County, Colorado. DATES: This notice of invitation was published in the...

  19. Invitations and excuses that are not invitations and excuses: Gossip in Luke 14:18–20

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest van Eck

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In modern Western culture, gossip is seen as a malicious activity that should be avoided. In ancient oral-cultures, gossip as a cultural form did not have this negative connotation. Gossip was a necessary social game that enabled the flow of information. This information was used in the gossip network of communities to clarify, maintain and enforce group values, facilitate group formation and boundary maintenance and assess the morality of individuals. Gossip was a natural and spontaneous recurring form of social organisation. This understanding of gossip is used to interpret the two invitations and three excuses in the parable of the Feast (Lk 14:16a–23. The conclusion reached is that gossip, when understood as a social game, can be a useful tool to curb anachronistic and ethnocentristic readings of texts produced by cultures different from that of modern interpreters analysing these texts.

  20. 75 FR 20582 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ... Information Management Services, Office of Management, publishes that notice containing proposed information.... SUMMARY: The Acting Director, Information Collection Clearance Division, Regulatory Information Management Services, Office of Management invites comments on the submission for OMB review as required by the...

  1. 75 FR 33798 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... Management, publishes that notice containing proposed information collection requests prior to submission of.... SUMMARY: The Director, Information Collection Clearance Division, Regulatory Information Management Services, Office of Management invites comments on the submission for OMB review as required by the...

  2. 75 FR 13734 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-23

    ... Information Management Services, Office of Management, publishes that notice containing proposed information.... SUMMARY: The Acting Director, Information Collection Clearance Division, Regulatory Information Management Services, Office of Management invites comments on the submission for OMB review as required by the...

  3. 75 FR 13105 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ..., Regulatory Information Management Services, Office of Management, publishes that notice containing proposed.... SUMMARY: The Acting Director, Information Collection Clearance Division, Regulatory Information Management Services, Office of Management invites comments on the submission for OMB review as required by the...

  4. 75 FR 29325 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-25

    ..., Regulatory Information Management Services, Office of Management, publishes that notice containing proposed.... SUMMARY: The Acting Director, Information Collection Clearance Division, Regulatory Information Management Services, Office of Management invites comments on the submission for OMB review as required by the...

  5. 75 FR 16762 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... Management, publishes that notice containing proposed information collection requests prior to submission of.... SUMMARY: The Director, Information Collection Clearance Division, Regulatory Information Management Services, Office of Management invites comments on the submission for OMB review as required by the...

  6. 75 FR 13733 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-23

    ... Information Management Services, Office of Management, publishes that notice containing proposed information.... SUMMARY: The Acting Director, Information Collection Clearance Division, Regulatory Information Management Services, Office of Management invites comments on the submission for OMB review as required by the...

  7. 75 FR 22122 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ... Information Management Services, Office of Management, publishes that notice containing proposed information.... SUMMARY: The Acting Director, Information Collection Clearance Division, Regulatory Information Management Services, Office of Management invites comments on the submission for OMB review as required by the...

  8. 75 FR 24670 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... Information Management Services, Office of Management, publishes that notice containing proposed information.... SUMMARY: The Acting Director, Information Collection Clearance Division, Regulatory Information Management Services, Office of Management invites comments on the submission for OMB review as required by the...

  9. 75 FR 12219 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    ... Information Management Services, Office of Management, publishes that notice containing proposed information.... SUMMARY: The Acting Director, Information Collection Clearance Division, Regulatory Information Management Services, Office of Management invites comments on the submission for OMB review as required by the...

  10. 75 FR 28244 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-20

    ... Information Management Services, Office of Management, publishes that notice containing proposed information.... SUMMARY: The Acting Director, Information Collection Clearance Division, Regulatory Information Management Services, Office of Management invites comments on the submission for OMB review as required by the...

  11. Biorthogonal moment expansions in coupled-cluster theory: Review of key concepts and merging the renormalized and active-space coupled-cluster methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Jun; Piecuch, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The key ideas behind biorthogonal moment expansions in coupled-cluster theory are discussed. Methods that enable merging active-space and renormalized coupled-cluster approaches are proposed and tested. Abstract: After reviewing recent progress in the area of the development of coupled-cluster (CC) methods for quasi-degenerate electronic states that are characterized by stronger non-dynamical correlation effects, including new generations of single- and multi-reference approaches that can handle bond breaking and excited states dominated by many-electron transitions, and after discussing the key elements of the left-eigenstate completely renormalized (CR) CC and equation-of-motion (EOM) CC methods, and the underlying biorthogonal method of moments of CC (MMCC) equations [P. Piecuch, M. Włoch, J. Chem. Phys. 123 (2005) 224105; P. Piecuch, M. Włoch, J.R. Gour, A. Kinal, Chem. Phys. Lett. 418 (2006) 467; M. Włoch, M.D. Lodriguito, P. Piecuch, J.R. Gour, Mol. Phys. 104 (2006) 2149], it is argued that it is beneficial to merge the CR-CC/EOMCC and active-space CC/EOMCC [P. Piecuch, Mol. Phys. 108 (2010) 2987, and references therein] theories into a single formalism. In order to accomplish this goal, the biorthogonal MMCC theory, which provides compact many-body expansions for the differences between the full configuration interaction and CC or, in the case of excited states, EOMCC energies, obtained using conventional truncation schemes in the cluster operator T and excitation operator R μ , is generalized, so that one can correct the CC/EOMCC energies obtained with arbitrary truncations in T and R μ for the selected many-electron correlation effects of interest. The resulting moment expansions, defining the new, Flexible MMCC (Flex-MMCC) formalism, and the ensuing CC(P; Q) hierarchy, proposed in the present work, enable one to correct energies obtained in the active-space CC and EOMCC calculations, in which one selects higher many

  12. Biorthogonal moment expansions in coupled-cluster theory: Review of key concepts and merging the renormalized and active-space coupled-cluster methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jun; Piecuch, Piotr

    2012-06-01

    After reviewing recent progress in the area of the development of coupled-cluster (CC) methods for quasi-degenerate electronic states that are characterized by stronger non-dynamical correlation effects, including new generations of single- and multi-reference approaches that can handle bond breaking and excited states dominated by many-electron transitions, and after discussing the key elements of the left-eigenstate completely renormalized (CR) CC and equation-of-motion (EOM) CC methods, and the underlying biorthogonal method of moments of CC (MMCC) equations [P. Piecuch, M. Włoch, J. Chem. Phys. 123 (2005) 224105; P. Piecuch, M. Włoch, J.R. Gour, A. Kinal, Chem. Phys. Lett. 418 (2006) 467; M. Włoch, M.D. Lodriguito, P. Piecuch, J.R. Gour, Mol. Phys. 104 (2006) 2149], it is argued that it is beneficial to merge the CR-CC/EOMCC and active-space CC/EOMCC [P. Piecuch, Mol. Phys. 108 (2010) 2987, and references therein] theories into a single formalism. In order to accomplish this goal, the biorthogonal MMCC theory, which provides compact many-body expansions for the differences between the full configuration interaction and CC or, in the case of excited states, EOMCC energies, obtained using conventional truncation schemes in the cluster operator T and excitation operator Rμ, is generalized, so that one can correct the CC/EOMCC energies obtained with arbitrary truncations in T and Rμ for the selected many-electron correlation effects of interest. The resulting moment expansions, defining the new, Flexible MMCC (Flex-MMCC) formalism, and the ensuing CC(P; Q) hierarchy, proposed in the present work, enable one to correct energies obtained in the active-space CC and EOMCC calculations, in which one selects higher many-body components of T and Rμ via active orbitals and which recover much of the relevant non-dynamical and some dynamical electron correlation effects in applications involving potential energy surfaces (PESs) along bond breaking coordinates, for the

  13. Gymnastics in Phase Space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, Alexander Wu; /SLAC

    2012-03-01

    As accelerator technology advances, the requirements on accelerator beam quality become increasingly demanding. Facing these new demands, the topic of phase space gymnastics is becoming a new focus of accelerator physics R&D. In a phase space gymnastics, the beam's phase space distribution is manipulated and precision tailored to meet the required beam qualities. On the other hand, all realization of such gymnastics will have to obey accelerator physics principles as well as technological limitations. Recent examples of phase space gymnastics include Emittance exchanges, Phase space exchanges, Emittance partitioning, Seeded FELs and Microbunched beams. The emittance related topics of this list are reviewed in this report. The accelerator physics basis, the optics design principles that provide these phase space manipulations, and the possible applications of these gymnastics, are discussed. This fascinating new field promises to be a powerful tool of the future.

  14. Arctic and Antarctic Sea Ice Changes and Impacts (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, S. V.

    2013-12-01

    The extent of springtime Arctic perennial sea ice, important to preconditioning summer melt and to polar sunrise photochemistry, continues its precipitous reduction in the last decade marked by a record low in 2012, as the Bromine, Ozone, and Mercury Experiment (BROMEX) was conducted around Barrow, Alaska, to investigate impacts of sea ice reduction on photochemical processes, transport, and distribution in the polar environment. In spring 2013, there was further loss of perennial sea ice, as it was not observed in the ocean region adjacent to the Alaskan north coast, where there was a stretch of perennial sea ice in 2012 in the Beaufort Sea and Chukchi Sea. In contrast to the rapid and extensive loss of sea ice in the Arctic, Antarctic sea ice has a trend of a slight increase in the past three decades. Given the significant variability in time and in space together with uncertainties in satellite observations, the increasing trend of Antarctic sea ice may arguably be considered as having a low confidence level; however, there was no overall reduction of Antarctic sea ice extent anywhere close to the decreasing rate of Arctic sea ice. There exist publications presenting various factors driving changes in Arctic and Antarctic sea ice. After a short review of these published factors, new observations and atmospheric, oceanic, hydrological, and geological mechanisms contributed to different behaviors of sea ice changes in the Arctic and Antarctic are presented. The contribution from of hydrologic factors may provide a linkage to and enhance thermal impacts from lower latitudes. While geological factors may affect the sensitivity of sea ice response to climate change, these factors can serve as the long-term memory in the system that should be exploited to improve future projections or predictions of sea ice changes. Furthermore, similarities and differences in chemical impacts of Arctic and Antarctic sea ice changes are discussed. Understanding sea ice changes and

  15. Inviting parents to take part in paediatric palliative care research: A mixed-methods examination of selection bias

    OpenAIRE

    Crocker, Joanna C; Beecham, Emma; Kelly, Paula; Dinsdale, Andrew P; Hemsley, June; Jones, Louise; Bluebond-Langner, Myra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recruitment to paediatric palliative care research is challenging, with high rates of non-invitation of eligible families by clinicians. The impact on sample characteristics is unknown. Aim: To investigate, using mixed methods, non-invitation of eligible families and ensuing selection bias in an interview study about parents? experiences of advance care planning (ACP). Design: We examined differences between eligible families invited and not invited to participate by clinicians us...

  16. Review of central power magnetohydrodynamics at the University of Tennessee Space Institute and its relation to the world effort in MHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dicks, J.B.

    1975-01-01

    The first generation of electrical plants powered by MHD generators performs at 50 to 55 percent thermal efficiencies, while later versions of these plants perform at efficiencies up to 75 percent. There are three types of MHD energy conversion: (1) the open-cycle system utilizes the fossil fuel as its heat source, the resulting combustion gas being the working fluid; (2) the closed-cycle generator usually refers to the closed-cycle plasma generator which requires an external heating source to heat a noble gas as the working fluid; and (3) there is the liquid-metal generator which is also closed-cycle, but utilizes a two-phase mixture. The open-cycle system is the most promising, the most advanced, and is emphasized in this paper; the Univ. of Tennessee Space Institute has focused its attention on directly coal-fired MHD generators and has succeeded in demonstrating successful operation. A review of MHD research in the USSR indicates that all three types of generators are being tested, but emphasis is also placed there on the open-cycle system. Its most important facility is the U-25 at the Institute of High Temperatures; this generator was expected to be delivering 20 MW by the end of 1975. The cost savings to the U. S. through the development of MHD power generation is discussed. It is concluded that from its development, the sulfur dioxide pollution in high-sulfur coals is reduced by 120 times, nitrogen oxides by many times, particulate matter by 10 times and finally, thermal pollution is reduced by more than 50 percent even without the use of cooling towers. The cost of this development is placed at $410 million in 10 years

  17. Blue Marble Space Institute essay contest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, JoAnna

    2014-04-01

    The Blue Marble Space Institute of Science, based in Seattle, Wash., is inviting college students to participate in its essay contest. Essays need to address the question, "In the next 100 years, how can human civilization prepare for the long-term changes to the Earth system that will occur over the coming millennium?" According to the institute, the purpose of the contest is "to stimulate creative thinking relating to space exploration and global issues by exploring how changes in the Earth system will affect humanity's future."

  18. Modular Power Standard for Space Explorations Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Gardner, Brent G.

    2016-01-01

    Future human space exploration will most likely be composed of assemblies of multiple modular spacecraft elements with interconnected electrical power systems. An electrical system composed of a standardized set modular building blocks provides significant development, integration, and operational cost advantages. The modular approach can also provide the flexibility to configure power systems to meet the mission needs. A primary goal of the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Modular Power System (AMPS) project is to establish a Modular Power Standard that is needed to realize these benefits. This paper is intended to give the space exploration community a "first look" at the evolving Modular Power Standard and invite their comments and technical contributions.

  19. Considering the unthinkable—A review and discussion of current international law and suggestions regarding how we deal with a catastrophic incident in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beamer-Downie, Darcy

    2013-12-01

    It is now clear that private enterprise and not nationally funded space agencies will be the driving force behind development of space for the "benefit" of private enterprise and the general public. It is also not unreasonable to say that in the next 20-30 years we will see the public accessing space via sub-orbital flights, orbital excursions, orbiting hotels and possibly even hotels located on a celestial body. The existing principles regarding the rescue and return of "astronauts" was never fit for purpose and is certainly not appropriate for this new era of private space activity. Activities in space are dangerous and the travelling public is generally risk adverse. So how do we balance the obvious risks associated with space travel, against the societal desire to seek adventures in space and with the prevailing risk adverse culture? It is now time to seriously consider the development of international safety standards for space vehicles and habitations in order to ensure that rescue and return from a space excursion is a reality for passengers and crew. If we fail to do so then the scenario set out below may become a tragic reality. Catastrophic ScenarioConsider a scenario in which a space hotel loses a significant amount of its in-orbit life support capability. Rescue is underway but it will take time. The Captain realises that there is not enough oxygen on board for all to survive until rescue. What if anything can be done?

  20. Embodied mind knowledge in leadership practice: creating space in patterned thoughts and behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karssiens, Astra Elise Amaranta; van der Linden, Claartje; Wilderom, Celeste P.M.; Furtmueller-Ettinger, Elfriede

    2013-01-01

    This article invites leaders and managers who are successful in their work, but feel unfulfilled and stressed, to create space in their fixed patterns of thinking and acting. Creating such space generates the possibility of experiencing meaningfulness and satisfaction at work and producing

  1. Impact of second reminder invitation on uptake of screening and cancer detection in BreastCheck.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fleming, P

    2012-01-01

    This research aims to quantify the impact of reminder invitations on uptake and cancer detection in Ireland. Examination of BreastCheck\\'s clinical database (2000-2010) to determine number of women screened following first invitation and after reminder; comparison by age group and screening phase with outcomes of recall rate, cancer detection and true positive rates. Of 819,182 first invitations sent 448,974 (54.8%) women attended. 245,157 (66.2%) women attended after reminder invitations, increasing uptake by 29.9% to 694,131 (84.7%) and cancers detected by 1,550 (35%). Women awaiting a reminder were less likely recalled for assessment 9,555 (3.9%) than respondents to first invitation 2,887 (4.04%) (p=0.004). Younger, mainly initial women were more likely recalled for assessment after first invitation. There was no difference between cohorts for cancer detection rate or true positive rate. Reminders increased uptake, supporting international evidence. For programme efficiency attendance at first invitation is optimal. For maximum programme effectiveness attendance must be encouraged with reminders.

  2. An Advanced Private Social Activity Invitation Framework with Friendship Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weitian Tong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the popularity of social networks and human-carried/human-affiliated devices with sensing abilities, like smartphones and smart wearable devices, a novel application was necessitated recently to organize group activities by learning historical data gathered from smart devices and choosing invitees carefully based on their personal interests. We proposed a private and efficient social activity invitation framework. Our main contributions are (1 defining a novel friendship to reduce the communication/update cost within the social network and enhance the privacy guarantee at the same time; (2 designing a strong privacy-preserving algorithm for graph publication, which addresses an open concern proposed recently; (3 presenting an efficient invitee-selection algorithm, which outperforms the existing ones. Our simulation results show that the proposed framework has good performance. In our framework, the server is assumed to be untrustworthy but can nonetheless help users organize group activities intelligently and efficiently. Moreover, the new definition of the friendship allows the social network to be described by a directed graph. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first work to publish a directed graph in a differentially private manner with an untrustworthy server.

  3. CERN is celebrating its anniversary - invite your neighbours!

    CERN Document Server

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2014-01-01

    On 24 and 25 May 2014, CERN will be organising a weekend of discovery to celebrate its 60th anniversary with its (our) neighbours. Come and help us to welcome them as a volunteer!   CERN is celebrating 60 years since its establishment - 60 years during which the region and the Laboratory have developed strong links. To celebrate this collaboration, two days of visits and activities for everyone living in the region are being organised. Underground visits to the CMS detector in Cessy, the LHCb detector in Ferney-Voltaire and the LHC machine in Échenevex will be held throughout the weekend. Some 6,000 visitors are expected to make the most of one of the last chances to visit the underground installations before the LHC is restarted next year. These visits are open only to people aged 12 years and over and are by reservation only. Members of the public are also invited to take part in fun activities at the site of the CMS experiment in Cessy. The programme includes demonstrations an...

  4. Invitational Rhetoric and the Case for Service Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina L. Hicks-Goldston

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This research argues for repositioning Service Learning as a necessary part of public education, with the transformative goal of empowered communities operating in a social-collaborative framework from communities dependent on overburdened state and local government programs and services. Such repositioning depends on recognition of Service Learning as a means of providing that preparation. To “mainstream” Service Learning, this research proposes two initiatives: (a Foster the idea of the Service Learning experience as citizenship/community building by associating the experience with embedded cultural values and (b apply Invitational Rhetoric in persuading students and parents to view Service Learning as something other than imposed servitude or social consciousness for a grade. Service Learning has proven to be successful in changing students’ attitudes about their place in society. If Service Learning were a part of the common educational core, the potential for repositioning its value to citizenry would be highly expanded. Because many communities lack access to education and training for the citizenry, Service Learning could supply that link to empowerment.

  5. Review of Never Alone [game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Review of Never Alone (Kisima Ingitchuna, an atmospheric platformer and puzzle game (built on the Unity engine released in late 2014 by Upper One Games and education company E-Line Media. It invites one or two players to explore a central story from the Iñupiat, Native Alaskans, with the rewards of additional storytelling by elders and community members.

  6. Neighborhood spaces

    OpenAIRE

    D. C. Kent; Won Keun Min

    2002-01-01

    Neighborhood spaces, pretopological spaces, and closure spaces are topological space generalizations which can be characterized by means of their associated interior (or closure) operators. The category NBD of neighborhood spaces and continuous maps contains PRTOP as a bicoreflective subcategory and CLS as a bireflective subcategory, whereas TOP is bireflectively embedded in PRTOP and bicoreflectively embedded in CLS. Initial and final structures are described in these categories, and it is s...

  7. Imaging of the perivertebral space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Megan K; Shah, Lubdha M

    2015-01-01

    The perivertebral space extends from the skull base to the mediastinum and is delineated by the deep layer of the deep cervical fascia. The different tissue types, including muscles, bones, nerves, and vascular structures, give rise to the various disorders that can be seen in this space. This article defines the anatomy of the perivertebral space, guides lesion localization, discusses different disease processes arising within this space, and reviews the best imaging approaches. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Software Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Donna; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Reviewed are seven software packages for Apple and IBM computers. Included are: "Toxicology"; "Science Corner: Space Probe"; "Alcohol and Pregnancy"; "Science Tool Kit Plus"; Computer Investigations: Plant Growth"; "Climatrolls"; and "Animal Watch: Whales." (CW)

  9. Sacred Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelstein, Pamela

    2018-01-01

    A space can be sacred, providing those who inhabit a particular space with sense of transcendence-being connected to something greater than oneself. The sacredness may be inherent in the space, as for a religious institution or a serene place outdoors. Alternatively, a space may be made sacred by the people within it and events that occur there. As medical providers, we have the opportunity to create sacred space in our examination rooms and with our patient interactions. This sacred space can be healing to our patients and can bring us providers opportunities for increased connection, joy, and gratitude in our daily work.

  10. Sobolev spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, Robert A

    2003-01-01

    Sobolev Spaces presents an introduction to the theory of Sobolev Spaces and other related spaces of function, also to the imbedding characteristics of these spaces. This theory is widely used in pure and Applied Mathematics and in the Physical Sciences.This second edition of Adam''s ''classic'' reference text contains many additions and much modernizing and refining of material. The basic premise of the book remains unchanged: Sobolev Spaces is intended to provide a solid foundation in these spaces for graduate students and researchers alike.* Self-contained and accessible for readers in other disciplines.* Written at elementary level making it accessible to graduate students.

  11. Review Essay: Zur Relevanz des ethnografischen Blicks bei der sozial- und kulturwissenschaftlichen Erforschung von Orten und Räumen [Researching Place and Space in the Social Sciences and Cultural Studies: The Relevance of the Ethnographic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Siebeck

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Given the so-called "spatial turn" in the social sciences and cultural studies, social geographers have rightfully been cautioning against positivist notions of space and place: We cannot simply deduce the social from spatial reality—on the contrary, this reality is in every respect itself socially constituted and mediated. In her highly recommended study on the esthetical and socio-political reshaping of Alexanderplatz in Berlin after 1990, Gisa WESZKALNYS has shown how a radical constructivist concept of place and space can be transformed into practical research. This review essay argues that an ethnographic research perspective is of particular relevance both epistemologically as well as methodologically if the aim is to reconstruct places and spaces beyond their perceived "actuality" in terms of a fundamentally contingent social and essentially political practice. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1103203

  12. Disaster Risk Reduction through Innovative Uses of Crowd Sourcing (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, J.; Greene, M.

    2010-12-01

    Crowd sourcing can be described as a method of distributed problem-solving. It takes advantage of the power of the crowd, which can in some cases be a community of experts and in other cases the collective insight of a broader range of contributors with varying degrees of domain knowledge. The term crowd sourcing was first used by Jeff Howe in a June 2006 Wired magazine article “The Rise of Crowdsourcing,” and is a combination of the terms “crowd” and “outsourcing.” Some commonly known examples of crowd sourcing, in its broadest sense, include Wikepedia, distributed participatory design projects, and consumer websites such as Yelp and Angie’s List. The popularity and success of early large-scale crowd sourcing activities is made possible through leveraging Web 2.0 technologies that allow for mass participation from distributed individuals. The Earthquake Engineering Research Institute (EERI) in Oakland, California recently participated in two crowd sourcing projects. One was initiated and coordinated by EERI, while in the second case EERI was invited to contribute once the crowd sourcing activity was underway. In both projects there was: 1) the determination of a problem or set of tasks that could benefit immediately from the engagement of an informed volunteer group of professionals; 2) a segmenting of the problem into discrete pieces that could be completed in a short period of time (from ten minutes to four hours); 3) a call to action, where an interested community was made aware of the project; and 4) the collection, aggregation, vetting and ultimately distribution of the results in a relatively short period of time. The first EERI crowd sourcing example was the use of practicing engineers and engineering students in California to help estimate the number of pre-1980 concrete buildings in the high seismic risk counties in the state. This building type is known to perform poorly in earthquakes, and state officials were interested in understanding

  13. Invite your representative to work. Change the world. Here's how.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montell, Denise J

    2018-02-15

    Today's political climate can seem hostile to science. Alternative facts, climate change denial, and relabeling of actual news as fake news are discouraging phenomena for sure. But these trends make it more important than ever to engage our politicians. Take heart! There is something you can do. You can show your representatives firsthand the amazing things you do, evidence of the economic engine that your activities generate, and the real people behind the discoveries. I did, and it was fun. We invited our congressman to the University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB), and he accepted! For 2 hours, we explained and demonstrated efforts to cure blindness using stem cells, the medical implications of the discovery that cells can recover from the brink of death, a mosquito lab striving to eliminate insect-borne disease, and an Alzheimer's disease laboratory. Salud Carbajal peered through a microscope and met real scientists. Before his visit, he did not know what a postdoctoral fellow was, much less what stem cells look like. When he left he knew our names, how much money we bring into his district, and how important National Institutes of Health funding and international mobility are to our enterprise. Although I live in the United States, this approach should also apply to other democratic countries. If each of us converts one representative into a science champion, we can change the world. © 2018 Montell. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  14. Double layers in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlqvist, P.

    1982-07-01

    For more than a decade it has been realised that electrostatic double layers are likely to occur in space. We briefly discuss the theoretical background of such double layers. Most of the paper is devoted to an account of the observational evidence for double layers in the ionosphere and magnetosphere of the Earth. Several different experiments are reviewed including rocket and satellite measurements and ground based observations. It is concluded that the observational evidence for double layers in space is very strong. The experimental results indicate that double layers with widely different properties may exist in space. (Author)

  15. Space plasma simulation chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Scientific results of experiments and tests of instruments performed with the Space Plasma Simulation Chamber and its facility are reviewed in the following six categories. 1. Tests of instruments on board rockets, satellites and balloons. 2. Plasma wave experiments. 3. Measurements of plasma particles. 4. Optical measurements. 5. Plasma production. 6. Space plasms simulations. This facility has been managed under Laboratory Space Plasma Comittee since 1969 and used by scientists in cooperative programs with universities and institutes all over country. A list of publications is attached. (author)

  16. Double layers in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlqvist, P.

    1982-01-01

    For more than a decade it has been realised that electrostatic double layers are likely to occur in space. The author briefly discusses the theoretical background of such double layers. Most of the paper is devoted to an account of the observational evidence for double layers in the ionosphere and magnetosphere of the Earth. Several different experiments are reviewed including rocket and satellite measurements and ground based observations. It is concluded that the observational evidence for double layers in space is very strong. The experimental results indicate that double layers with widely different properties may exist in space. (Auth.)

  17. 77 FR 58213 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel ISLAND WATERS; Invitation for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration [Docket No. MARAD 2012 0095] Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel ISLAND WATERS; Invitation for Public Comments AGENCY... ISLAND WATERS is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Charter to individuals in coastal waters...

  18. 78 FR 8698 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel COOL BEANS; Invitation for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration [Docket No. MARAD-2013 0005] Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel COOL BEANS; Invitation for Public Comments AGENCY... BEANS is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: Sightseeing and sunset cruises. Geographic Region: Florida...

  19. Fast reactor safety and related physics. Volume I. Invited papers; panels; summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for each of the twenty invited papers included. The papers covered sessions on licensing aspects of safety design bases, safety of demonstration plants, safety aspects of large commercial fast breeders, and safety test facilities.

  20. 77 FR 31432 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel PASSION; Invitation for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration [Docket No. MARAD 2012 0062] Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel PASSION; Invitation for Public Comments AGENCY... PASSION is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Bareboat chartering, sailing classes.'' Geographic Region...

  1. 76 FR 79764 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel DREAM CATCHER; Invitation for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration [Docket No. MARAD-2011-0156] Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel DREAM CATCHER; Invitation for Public Comments AGENCY... DREAM CATCHER is: INTENDED COMMERCIAL USE OF VESSEL: ``Passenger charter.'' GEOGRAPHIC REGION: ``Georgia...

  2. Department of Energy's regional solar updates 1979. Volume two. Invited papers and appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    Twenty-six invited papers for the regional meetings at Dearborn, Michigan; Orlando, Florida; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; and Los Angeles, California are included. Separate abstracts were prepared for each paper. (MHR)

  3. Blood donor show behaviour after an invitation to donate : The influence of collection site factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merz, E.-M.; Zijlstra, B.J.H.; de Kort, W.L.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives Show behaviour after invitation to donate varies considerably across donors. More insight into this variation is important for blood banks in achieving stable stocks. This study examined individual factors determining intended show behaviour. Most importantly, however, this

  4. 78 FR 19066 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel MI CASA; Invitation for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration [Docket No. MARAD-2013 0035] Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel MI CASA; Invitation for Public Comments AGENCY... CASA is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: Passenger charters. Geographic Region: Massachusetts, New...

  5. 78 FR 39061 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel MISTRESS MALLIKA; Invitation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration [Docket No. MARAD-2013 0076] Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel MISTRESS MALLIKA; Invitation for Public Comments AGENCY... MISTRESS MALLIKA is: Intended Commercial Use Of Vessel: ``Pleasure Charters''. Geographic Region: Rhode...

  6. Blood donor show behavior after an invitation to donate: The influence of collection site factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merz, E.M.; Zijlstra, Bonne; De Kort, Wim L.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives Show behaviour after invitation to donate varies considerably across donors. More insight into this variation is important for blood banks in achieving stable stocks. This study examined individual factors determining intended show behaviour. Most importantly, however, this

  7. 77 FR 35743 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel SECOND CHANCE; Invitation for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration [Docket No. MARAD 2012 0067] Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel SECOND CHANCE; Invitation for Public Comments AGENCY... SECOND CHANCE is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Small group charters.'' Geographic Region...

  8. 77 FR 20100 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel NORDIC STAR; Invitation for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration [Docket No. MARAD-2012 0039] Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel NORDIC STAR; Invitation for Public Comments AGENCY... NORDIC STAR is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Sailing excursions and extended charters...

  9. 76 FR 75948 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel CHRYSALIS; Invitation for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration [Docket No. MARAD-2011 0149] Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel CHRYSALIS; Invitation for Public Comments AGENCY... CHRYSALIS is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Weekly charter vessel.'' Geographic Region: ``Florida...

  10. Invited and contributed papers presented at the 22. EPS conference on controlled fusion and plasma physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    In this report one invited and fifteen contributed papers by researchers of the `Centre de Recherche en Physique des Plasmas`, Lausanne, to the 22. EPS Conference on Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics are assembled. figs., tabs., refs.

  11. 78 FR 77200 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel AFFAIR; Invitation for Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration [Docket No. MARAD-2013-0151] Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel AFFAIR; Invitation for Public Comments AGENCY: Maritime... AFFAIR is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Charter Fishing (sport) & sightseeing tours.'' Geographic...

  12. 76 FR 70216 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws; Vessel REEL ATTITUDE; Invitation for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration [Docket No. MARAD-2011 0146] Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws; Vessel REEL ATTITUDE; Invitation for Public Comments AGENCY... ATTITUDE is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Fishing Charter passenger less than 6.'' Geographic...

  13. Our Future in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impey, Chris David

    2017-06-01

    The Space Age is half a century old. Its early successes were driven by a fierce superpower rivalry between the Soviet Union and the United States, which tended to obscure the fact that exploration and risk-taking is built into human DNA. Decades after we last set foot on the Moon, and years after the Space Shuttle was retired, the space activity is finally leaving the doldrums. A vibrant private sector led by SpaceX, Blue Origins, and Virgin Galactic plans to launch supplies cheaply into Earth orbit and give anyone the chance of a sub-orbital joy ride. New materials are being developed that could lead to space elevators and transform the economics of space travel. Fighting gravity will always be difficult but engineers are rethinking rockets and developing new propulsion technologies. Permanent bases on the Moon and Mars are now within reach, and a new Space Race is brewing, with China ascendant. Medical advances might even allow us to reach for the stars. The talk will review the history and landmarks of the international space program, give a snapshot of the current dynamic situation, and plot the trajectory of the future of space travel. The time has come to envision our future off-Earth.

  14. NASA Space Life Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Judith

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the requirements that NASA has for the medical service of a crew returning to earth after long duration space flight. The scenarios predicate a water landing. Two scenarios are reviewed that outline the ship-board medical operations team and the ship board science reseach team. A schedule for the each crew upon landing is posited for each of scenarios. The requirement for a heliport on board the ship is reviewed and is on the requirement for a helicopter to return the Astronauts to the Baseline Data Collection Facility (BDCF). The ideal is to integrate the medical and science requirements, to minimize the risks and Inconveniences to the returning astronauts. The medical support that is required for all astronauts returning from long duration space flight (30 days or more) is reviewed. The personnel required to support the team is outlined. The recommendations for medical operations and science research for crew support are stated.

  15. Invitation to Speak at a Conference: The Tempting Technique Adopted by Predatory Conferences' Organizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, Amin

    2018-03-08

    In recent years, predatory journals, conferences, and publishers have turned to an inevitable threat in scientific publishing. Researchers, regardless of their disciplines, should be aware of these predators and have to be able to recognize them. The main aim of the present paper is to raise awareness about the growing menace of fake invitations to speak at a scientific conference organized by predatory organizers and publishers. Some subtle signs to identify the fake invitations from the authentic ones have been introduced and discussed.

  16. Ultrasound in Space Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulchavsky, Scott A.; Sargsyan, A.E.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of ultrasound as a diagnostic tool in microgravity environments. The goals of research in ultrasound usage in space environments are: (1) Determine accuracy of ultrasound in novel clinical conditions. (2) Determine optimal training methodologies, (3) Determine microgravity associated changes and (4) Develop intuitive ultrasound catalog to enhance autonomous medical care. Also uses of Ultrasound technology in terrestrial applications are reviewed.

  17. A Mechanically Proved and an Incremental Development of the Session Initiation Protocol INVITE Transaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajaa Filali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP is an application layer signaling protocol used to create, manage, and terminate sessions in an IP based network. SIP is considered as a transactional protocol. There are two main SIP transactions, the INVITE transaction and the non-INVITE transaction. The SIP INVITE transaction specification is described in an informal way in Request for Comments (RFC 3261 and modified in RFC 6026. In this paper we focus on the INVITE transaction of SIP, over reliable and unreliable transport mediums, which is used to initiate a session. In order to ensure the correctness of SIP, the INVITE transaction is modeled and verified using event-B method and its Rodin platform. The Event-B refinement concept allows an incremental development by defining the studied system at different levels of abstraction, and Rodin discharges almost all proof obligations at each level. This interaction between modeling and proving reduces the complexity and helps in assuring that the INVITE transaction SIP specification is correct, unambiguous, and easy to understand.

  18. Invitation Choice Structure Has No Impact on Attendance in a Female Business Training Program in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwan, Faizan; Makana, Grace; McKenzie, David; Paruzzolo, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Business training programs are a common form of support to small businesses, but organizations providing this training often struggle to get business owners to attend. We evaluate the role of invitation choice structure in determining agreement to participate and actual attendance. A field experiment randomly assigned female small business owners in Kenya (N = 1172) to one of three invitation types: a standard opt-in invitation; an active choice invitation where business owners had to explicitly say yes or no to the invitation; and an enhanced active choice invitation which highlighted the costs of saying no. We find no statistically significant effect of these alternative choice structures on willingness to participate in training, attending at least one day, and completing the course. The 95 percent confidence interval for the active treatment effect on attendance is [−1.9%, +9.5%], while for the enhanced active choice treatment it is [−4.1%, +7.7%]. The effect sizes consistent with our data are smaller than impacts measured in health and retirement savings studies in the United States. We examine several potential explanations for the lack of effect in a developing country setting. We find evidence consistent with two potential reasons being limited decision-making power amongst some women, and lower levels of cognition making the enhanced active choice wording less effective. PMID:25299647

  19. Invitation choice structure has no impact on attendance in a female business training program in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwan, Faizan; Makana, Grace; McKenzie, David; Paruzzolo, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Business training programs are a common form of support to small businesses, but organizations providing this training often struggle to get business owners to attend. We evaluate the role of invitation choice structure in determining agreement to participate and actual attendance. A field experiment randomly assigned female small business owners in Kenya (N = 1172) to one of three invitation types: a standard opt-in invitation; an active choice invitation where business owners had to explicitly say yes or no to the invitation; and an enhanced active choice invitation which highlighted the costs of saying no. We find no statistically significant effect of these alternative choice structures on willingness to participate in training, attending at least one day, and completing the course. The 95 percent confidence interval for the active treatment effect on attendance is [-1.9%, +9.5%], while for the enhanced active choice treatment it is [-4.1%, +7.7%]. The effect sizes consistent with our data are smaller than impacts measured in health and retirement savings studies in the United States. We examine several potential explanations for the lack of effect in a developing country setting. We find evidence consistent with two potential reasons being limited decision-making power amongst some women, and lower levels of cognition making the enhanced active choice wording less effective.

  20. EDITORIAL: Invited papers from ISAMMA 2010 (Sendai, Japan, 12-16 July 2010) Invited papers from ISAMMA 2010 (Sendai, Japan, 12-16 July 2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, M.; Saito, H.

    2011-02-01

    overseas. The programme involved 4 plenary talks, 37 invited talks, 85 contributed talks and 352 posters. All submitted papers were reviewed in order to meet the standards of Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics and Journal of Physics: Conference Series. We are grateful to all participants for their valuable contributions and active discussions. We gratefully acknowledge the financial support of 17 Japanese companies and 7 Japanese foundations. Invited papers from ISAMMA 2010 Contents Current status and recent topics of rare-earth permanent magnets S Sugimoto Alloying effect on the magnetic properties of RFeB-type bulk magnets H W Chang, C C Hsieh, J Y Gan, Y T Cheng, M F Shih and W C Chang Coercivity distributions in Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets produced by the grain boundary diffusion process H Nakamura, K Hirota, T Ohashi and T Minowa Recent progress in high Bs Fe-based nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloys M Ohta and Y Yoshizawa Electric-field effects on magnetic anisotropy in Pd/Fe/Pd(0 0 1) surface Shinya Haraguchi, Masahito Tsujikawa, Junpei Gotou and Tatsuki Oda Gate modulation of spin precession in a semiconductor channel Hyun Cheol Koo, Jae Hyun Kwon, Jonghwa Eom, Joonyeon Chang, Suk Hee Han and Mark Johnson Ferromagnetic resonance of epitaxial Fe nanodots grown on MgO measured using coplanar waveguides M Mizuguchi and K Takanashi Switching phase diagrams of current-induced magnetization switching in asymmetric MgO-based magnetic tunnel junctions Seung-Young Park, Jae-Ho Han, Se-Chung Oh, Jang-Eun Lee, Kyung-Tae Nam, Hyun-Woo Lee, Younghun Jo and Kyung-Jin Lee Temperature dependence of spin-dependent transport properties of Co2MnSi-based current-perpendicular-to-plane magnetoresistive devices Y Sakuraba, K Izumi, S Bosu, K Saito and K Takanashi Adsorbate-induced spin-polarization enhancement of Fe3O4(0 0 1) A Pratt, M Kurahashi, X Sun and Y Yamauchi Antiferromagnetic coupling between spinel ferrite and α-Fe layers in Fe3-δO4/MgO/Fe(0 0 1) epitaxial films Hideto

  1. NASA Self-Assessment of Space Radiation Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2010-01-01

    Space exploration involves unavoidable exposures to high-energy galactic cosmic rays whose penetration power and associated secondary radiation makes radiation shielding ineffective and cost prohibitive. NASA recognizing the possible health dangers from cosmic rays notified the U.S. Congress as early as 1959 of the need for a dedicated heavy ion accelerator to study the largely unknown biological effects of galactic cosmic rays on astronauts. Information and scientific tools to study radiation health effects expanded over the new decades as NASA exploration programs to the moon and preparations for Mars exploration were carried out. In the 1970 s through the early 1990 s a more than 3-fold increase over earlier estimates of fatal cancer risks from gamma-rays, and new knowledge of the biological dangers of high LET radiation were obtained. Other research has increased concern for degenerative risks to the central nervous system and other tissues at lower doses compared to earlier estimates. In 1996 a review by the National Academy of Sciences Space Science Board re-iterated the need for a dedicated ground-based accelerator facility capable of providing up to 2000 research hours per year to reduce uncertainties in risks projections and develop effective mitigation measures. In 1998 NASA appropriated funds for construction of a dedicated research facility and the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) opened for research in October of 2003. This year marks the 8th year of NSRL research were about 1000 research hours per year have been utilized. In anticipation of the approaching ten year milestone, funded investigators and selected others are invited to participate in a critical self-assessment of NSRL research progress towards NASA s goals in space radiation research. A Blue and Red Team Assessment format has been integrated into meeting posters and special plenary sessions to allow for a critical debate on the progress of the research and major gaps areas. Blue

  2. Design spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    Digital technologies and media are becoming increasingly embodied and entangled in the spaces and places at work and at home. However, our material environment is more than a geometric abstractions of space: it contains familiar places, social arenas for human action. For designers, the integration...... of digital technology with space poses new challenges that call for new approaches. Creative alternatives to traditional systems methodologies are called for when designers use digital media to create new possibilities for action in space. Design Spaces explores how design and media art can provide creative...... alternatives for integrating digital technology with space. Connecting practical design work with conceptual development and theorizing, art with technology, and usesr-centered methods with social sciences, Design Spaces provides a useful research paradigm for designing ubiquitous computing. This book...

  3. Particulate Matter Concentration Levels in South Central Richmond, California (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, B.; Byias, C.; Cuff, K. E.; Diaz, J.; Love, K.; Marks-Block, T.; McLane, F.; Mollique, Z.; Montes, E.; Ross, R.; Washington, B.

    2009-12-01

    South Central Richmond, California is the home of one of the nation’s most innovative green workforce training centers, Richmond BUILD - Green Jobs Training facility. A near constant stream of young people engaged in training activities, instructors, invited guests, and journalists of various ages can be seen moving in and out of the facility nearly every day of the week throughout a given year. Additionally, the comings and goings of young children and adults associated with a mid-sized elementary school just north of the facility contributes to the general area’s substantial human traffic. Unfortunately, however, a major highway, Interstate 580, a major thoroughfare, 23rd Street and a railway line operated by Burlington Northern Santa Fe, Union Pacific, and the Richmond Pacific Railroad frame the triangular area within which these two sites are situated. In addition, a major petrochemical complex and several shipping facilities are located less than three kilometers away north and west of this area. As part of a general assessment of air quality in this heavily human traveled area, we conducted a study of particulate matter (PM) concentrations over a five-month period beginning in August of 2009. Measurements were made at a variety of locations, and results were used to map the spatial distribution of PM of various sizes. Regions of high concentration levels were identified, and these particular areas then were monitored over time. Preliminary results of our study indicate that regions with high concentrations are consistent across the range of particle sizes measured, which suggests a common source for PM found in the study area. As these regions are located close to a major thoroughfare and railway line, we believe that diesel-burning vehicles are major contributors to the PM levels found in the study area. Time series results suggest a fairly strong correlation between higher than average PM concentrations and abnormally high wind gusts. On days when wind

  4. Designing New Learning Spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    We are moving towards new learning spaces merging the digital and the physical world. Real world objects get augmented by information streams and real world activities are measured with sensor technology to be reviewed afterwards or in real time. A variety of links is currently created to link

  5. Space Commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    A robust and competitive commercial space sector is vital to continued progress in space. The United States is committed to encouraging and facilitating the growth of a U.S. commercial space sector that supports U.S. needs, is globally competitive, and advances U.S. leadership in the generation of new markets and innovation-driven entrepreneurship. Energize competitive domestic industries to participate in global markets and advance the development of: satellite manufacturing; satellite-based services; space launch; terrestrial applications; and increased entrepreneurship. Purchase and use commercial space capabilities and services to the maximum practical extent Actively explore the use of inventive, nontraditional arrangements for acquiring commercial space goods and services to meet United States Government requirements, including measures such as public-private partnerships, . Refrain from conducting United States Government space activities that preclude, discourage, or compete with U.S. commercial space activities. Pursue potential opportunities for transferring routine, operational space functions to the commercial space sector where beneficial and cost-effective.

  6. Cognitive Neuroscience in Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel G. De la Torre

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Humans are the most adaptable species on this planet, able to live in vastly different environments on Earth. Space represents the ultimate frontier and a true challenge to human adaptive capabilities. As a group, astronauts and cosmonauts are selected for their ability to work in the highly perilous environment of space, giving their best. Terrestrial research has shown that human cognitive and perceptual motor performances deteriorate under stress. We would expect to observe these effects in space, which currently represents an exceptionally stressful environment for humans. Understanding the neurocognitive and neuropsychological parameters influencing space flight is of high relevance to neuroscientists, as well as psychologists. Many of the environmental characteristics specific to space missions, some of which are also present in space flight simulations, may affect neurocognitive performance. Previous work in space has shown that various psychomotor functions degrade during space flight, including central postural functions, the speed and accuracy of aimed movements, internal timekeeping, attentional processes, sensing of limb position and the central management of concurrent tasks. Other factors that might affect neurocognitive performance in space are illness, injury, toxic exposure, decompression accidents, medication side effects and excessive exposure to radiation. Different tools have been developed to assess and counteract these deficits and problems, including computerized tests and physical exercise devices. It is yet unknown how the brain will adapt to long-term space travel to the asteroids, Mars and beyond. This work represents a comprehensive review of the current knowledge and future challenges of cognitive neuroscience in space from simulations and analog missions to low Earth orbit and beyond.

  7. Making Space for Water: A review of SUstainable Drainage systems (SUDs) in a rural/urban area of Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Paul; Tellier, Sebastien; Wilkinson, Mark

    2010-05-01

    Expansion of the city of Newcastle included a new development of over 3000 houses and an associated commercial area on agricultural land. The development firmly signed up to the notion that the new estate should adhere to full SUDs design and implementation. In essence there should be no loss of floodplain capacity, the total runoff from the new housing should not increase flood risk downstream and benefits to ecology, recreation and amenity should be fully maximised. Credit must be given to Newcastle City Council, the Environment Agency, the local water company and the developers themselves as a full set of large scale SUDs now exist and they are clearly an asset to the city. However, such a large scale landscape engineering endeavour has not been without direct and indirect problems. This paper reviews some of the experiences, problems and lessons learnt from SUDs implementation, the function of SUDs during flood events and the perception of SUDs by the public. During the life of the project several older estates close to the new development suffered from two major flood events; including foul water inundation, the drowning out of sewer overflows and intense flash flooding. These floods at first gave rise to the public perception that the new development had caused the flooding. During a research project entitled 'making space for water', the instrumentation of the river in the area and the SUDs took place. The hydrological data this produced has given rise to a mixture of positive and negative aspects of SUDs implementation. The cause of one flood was due to the drowning out of key sewer overflows by locally generated by urban flood flow arising from an upstream estate. The second flood was caused by a 48 hour storm event giving rise to high runoff from the rural area again drowning out key sewer overflows. The SUDs were found to perform well during storm events and do not increase runoff from the new estates. The main fundamental complaint is that despite such

  8. Benefits of maxillectomy with internal dissection of the masticator space by transmandibular approach in the surgical management of malignant tumours of the upper gingiva and hard palate: a clinical review of 10 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanamoto, S; Yamada, S; Takahashi, H; Naruse, T; Shigeta, T; Minamikawa, T; Shibuya, Y; Komori, T; Umeda, M

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to review patients with tumours extending to the posterior portion of the upper gingiva and hard palate, and to evaluate the postoperative outcomes. Ten consecutive patients with tumours in the upper gingiva and hard palate, who underwent maxillectomy with internal dissection of the masticator space by the transmandibular approach, were reviewed retrospectively. Among the 10 patients, the pathological diagnosis was squamous cell carcinoma in seven, adenoid cystic carcinoma in one, malignant melanoma in one, and osteosarcoma in one. Loco-regional control was achieved in eight of nine patients (88.9%). Three patients had residual moderate trismus. Cosmetic issues were not noted in any patient. En bloc resection of the maxilla with the internal portion of the masticator space and neck through the parapharyngeal space by the transmandibular approach is a useful and satisfactory technique for the excision of a tumour with involvement of the posterior portion of the upper gingiva and hard palate. Copyright © 2014 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Nuclear Energy in Space Exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaborg, Glenn T.

    1968-01-01

    Nuclear space programs under development by the Atomic Energy Commission are reviewed including the Rover Program, systems for nuclear rocket propulsion and, the SNAP Program, systems for generating electric power in space. The letters S-N-A-P stands for Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power. Some of the projected uses of nuclear systems in space are briefly discussed including lunar orbit, lunar transportation from lunar orbit to lunar surface and base stations; planetary exploration, and longer space missions. The limitations of other sources of energy such as solar, fuel cells, and electric batteries are discussed. The excitement and visionary possibilities of the Age of Space are discussed.

  10. Visualizing spikes in source-space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beniczky, Sándor; Duez, Lene; Scherg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Reviewing magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings is time-consuming: signals from the 306 MEG-sensors are typically reviewed divided into six arrays of 51 sensors each, thus browsing each recording six times in order to evaluate all signals. A novel method of reconstructing the MEG...... signals in source-space was developed using a source-montage of 29 brain-regions and two spatial components to remove magnetocardiographic (MKG) artefacts. Our objective was to evaluate the accuracy of reviewing MEG in source-space. METHODS: In 60 consecutive patients with epilepsy, we prospectively...... evaluated the accuracy of reviewing the MEG signals in source-space as compared to the classical method of reviewing them in sensor-space. RESULTS: All 46 spike-clusters identified in sensor-space were also identified in source-space. Two additional spike-clusters were identified in source-space. As 29...

  11. Proceedings of the symposium on nuclear physics: Invited talks Vol. 36A (1993)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrabarty, D.R.; Mohanty, A.K.

    1994-01-01

    The annual Department of Atomic Energy(DAE) Symposium on Nuclear Physics for 1993 was held this year at the Calicut University, Kerala, during December 27 to 30, 1993. The present proceedings, Vol. 36A, contains the invited talks. The topics of the talks included (i) the current measurements on prefission neutron, charged particles and high energy gamma rays emphasising on the breakup of this delay into the formation delay while leading to fusion, the transient delay and the saddle to scission delay, (ii) channel dependence of the strongly damped (light) heavy ion reactions, (iii) nuclear structure at high spin, one on the medium mass nuclei is mainly concentrating on the experiments done at the Pelletron facility, Bombay which brought out the interesting features of the interplay between the single particle and collective degrees of freedom dominant in this mass region and the other on the superdeformation and identical bands discussed under the relativistic mean field theory, (iv) interesting review of the physics with radioactive ion beams, (v) the current status and future plans with the post accelerated beams from accelerators, (vi) the relativistic heavy ion experiments with particular emphasis on the search for QGP, (vii) on neutrino-nucleus interactions mainly dealing with the low and medium energy reactions, (viii) the quark structure of the nucleon discussing muon-proton and muon-deuteron deep inelastic scattering experiments conducted by European Muon Collaboration (EMC), Spin Muon Collaboration (SMC) and New Muon Collaboration (NMC), and (ix) some interesting experimental data on electron transfer in ion-atom collisions through radiative and non-radiative processes. Talks relevant to INIS are indexed separately. (M.K.V.)

  12. Product Lifecycle Management and Sustainable Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Pamela W.; Dumbacher, Daniel L.; Grieves, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of product lifecycle management (PLM) in the general aerospace industry, its use and development at NASA and at Marshall Space Flight Center, and how the use of PLM can lead to sustainable space exploration.

  13. Space Flight Resource Management for ISS Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Larry; Slack, Kelley; O'Keefe, William; Huning, Therese; Sipes, Walter; Holland, Albert

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the International Space Station (ISS) Operations space flight resource management, which was adapted to the ISS from the shuttle processes. It covers crew training and behavior elements.

  14. Learning Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Falmagne, Jean-Claude

    2011-01-01

    Learning spaces offer a rigorous mathematical foundation for practical systems of educational technology. Learning spaces generalize partially ordered sets and are special cases of knowledge spaces. The various structures are investigated from the standpoints of combinatorial properties and stochastic processes. Leaning spaces have become the essential structures to be used in assessing students' competence of various topics. A practical example is offered by ALEKS, a Web-based, artificially intelligent assessment and learning system in mathematics and other scholarly fields. At the heart of A

  15. Animal Board Invited Review: Comparing conventional and organic livestock production systems on different aspects of sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenberg, van C.P.A.; Haas, de Y.; Hogeveen, H.; Krimpen, van M.M.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Middelaar, van C.E.; Rodenburg, T.B.

    2017-01-01

    To sustainably contribute to food security of a growing and richer world population, livestock production systems are challenged to increase production levels while reducing environmental impact, being economically viable, and socially responsible. Knowledge about the sustainability performance

  16. Applied mechanics and mechatronics special topic volume with invited peer reviewed papers only

    CERN Document Server

    Trebuňa, František

    2014-01-01

    The issue ""Applied Mechanics and Mechatronics"" contains results of research from researchers and designers from several prominent universities and research institutes of Central Europe.The publication is divided into three following chapters: Modeling and Simulation of Mechanic and Mechatronic SystemsAnalysis and Design of Mechanic and Mechatronic SystemsExperimental methods in Mechanics and Mechatronics. The submitted publication provides insight on modern approaches and methods in designing, modeling and experimental analyzing of mechanic and mechatronics systems.

  17. Invited review: The preterm pig as a model in pediatric gastroenterology

    Science.gov (United States)

    At birth, the newborn mammal undergoes a transition from a sterile uterine environment with a constant nutrient supply, to a microbe-rich environment with intermittent oral intake of complex milk nutrients via the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). These functional challenges partly explain the relativel...

  18. Review on heavy ion radiotherapy facilities and related ion sources (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitagawa, A.; Fujita, T.; Muramatsu, M.; Biri, S.; Drentje, A. G.

    2010-01-01

    Heavy ion radiotherapy awakens worldwide interest recently. The clinical results obtained by the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences in Japan have clearly demonstrated the advantages of carbon ion radiotherapy. Presently, there are four facilities for heavy ion radiotherapy in operation, and several new facilities are under construction or being planned. The most common requests for ion sources are a long lifetime and good stability and reproducibility. Sufficient intensity has been achieved by electron cyclotron resonance ion sources at the present facilities.

  19. Invited review: Sustainable forage and grain crop production for the US dairy industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, N P; Russelle, M P; Powell, J M; Sniffen, C J; Smith, S I; Tricarico, J M; Grant, R J

    2017-12-01

    A resilient US dairy industry will be underpinned by forage and crop production systems that are economically, environmentally, and socially sustainable. Land use for production of perennial and annual forages and grains for dairy cattle must evolve in response to multiple food security and environmental sustainability issues. These include increasing global populations; higher incomes and demand for dairy and other animal products; climate change with associated temperature and moisture changes; necessary reductions in carbon and water footprints; maintenance of soil quality and soil nutrient concerns; and competition for land. Likewise, maintaining producer profitability and utilizing practices accepted by consumers and society generally must also be considered. Predicted changes in climate and water availability will likely challenge current feed and dairy production systems and their national spatial distribution, particularly the western migration of dairy production in the late 20th century. To maintain and stabilize profitability while reducing carbon footprint, particularly reductions in methane emission and enhancements in soil carbon sequestration, dairy production will need to capitalize on genetic and management innovations that enhance forage and grain production and nutritive value. Improved regional and on-farm integration of feed production and manure utilization is needed to reduce environmental nitrogen and phosphorus losses and mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Resilient and flexible feed production strategies are needed to address each of these challenges and opportunities to ensure profitable feeding of dairy cattle and a sustainable dairy industry. The Authors. Published by the Federation of Animal Science Societies and Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the American Dairy Science Association®. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

  20. Invited Review: Challenges of Residential and Community Care--"The Times They Are a-Changin"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper seeks to examine a number of issues which relate to the provision of appropriate and high-quality residential and community care for people with an intellectual disability. A number of key themes emerging from this Special Issue of the "Journal of Intellectual Disability Research" are identified and explored: (1) normalisation; (2)…

  1. Invited review: Caseins and the casein micelle: their biological functions, structures, and behavior in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, C; Carver, J A; Ecroyd, H; Thorn, D C

    2013-10-01

    A typical casein micelle contains thousands of casein molecules, most of which form thermodynamically stable complexes with nanoclusters of amorphous calcium phosphate. Like many other unfolded proteins, caseins have an actual or potential tendency to assemble into toxic amyloid fibrils, particularly at the high concentrations found in milk. Fibrils do not form in milk because an alternative aggregation pathway is followed that results in formation of the casein micelle. As a result of forming micelles, nutritious milk can be secreted and stored without causing either pathological calcification or amyloidosis of the mother's mammary tissue. The ability to sequester nanoclusters of amorphous calcium phosphate in a stable complex is not unique to caseins. It has been demonstrated using a number of noncasein secreted phosphoproteins and may be of general physiological importance in preventing calcification of other biofluids and soft tissues. Thus, competent noncasein phosphoproteins have similar patterns of phosphorylation and the same type of flexible, unfolded conformation as caseins. The ability to suppress amyloid fibril formation by forming an alternative amorphous aggregate is also not unique to caseins and underlies the action of molecular chaperones such as the small heat-shock proteins. The open structure of the protein matrix of casein micelles is fragile and easily perturbed by changes in its environment. Perturbations can cause the polypeptide chains to segregate into regions of greater and lesser density. As a result, the reliable determination of the native structure of casein micelles continues to be extremely challenging. The biological functions of caseins, such as their chaperone activity, are determined by their composition and flexible conformation and by how the casein polypeptide chains interact with each other. These same properties determine how caseins behave in the manufacture of many dairy products and how they can be used as functional ingredients in other foods. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Board-invited review: Rumen microbiology: Leading the way in microbial ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Hungate, considered the father of rumen microbiology, was the first to initiate a systematic exploration of the microbial ecosystem of the rumen, but he was not alone. The techniques he developed to isolate and identify cellulose-digesting bacteria from the rumen have had a major impact not ...

  3. Invited review: Improving neonatal survival in small ruminants: science into practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, C M; Conington, J; Corbiere, F; Holmøy, I H; Muri, K; Nowak, R; Rooke, J; Vipond, J; Gautier, J-M

    2016-03-01

    Neonatal mortality in small ruminant livestock has remained stubbornly unchanging over the past 40 years, and represents a significant loss of farm income, contributes to wastage and affects animal welfare. Scientific knowledge about the biology of neonatal adaptation after birth has been accumulating but does not appear to have had an impact in improving survival. In this paper, we ask what might be the reasons for the lack of impact of the scientific studies of lamb and kid mortality, and suggest strategies to move forward. Biologically, it is clear that achieving a good intake of colostrum, as soon as possible after birth, is crucial for neonatal survival. This provides fuel for thermoregulation, passive immunological protection and is involved in the development of attachment between the ewe and lamb. The behaviour of the lamb in finding the udder and sucking rapidly after birth is a key component in ensuring sufficient colostrum is ingested. In experimental studies, the main risk factors for lamb mortality are low birthweight, particularly owing to poor maternal nutrition during gestation, birth difficulty, litter size and genetics, which can all be partly attributed to their effect on the speed with which the lamb reaches the udder and sucks. Similarly, on commercial farms, low birthweight and issues with sucking were identified as important contributors to mortality. In epidemiological studies, management factors such as providing assistance with difficult births, were found to be more important than risk factors associated with housing. Social science studies suggest that farmers generally have a positive attitude to improving neonatal mortality but may differ in beliefs about how this can be achieved, with some farmers believing they had no control over early lamb mortality. Facilitative approaches, where farmers and advisors work together to develop neonatal survival strategies, have been shown to be effective in achieving management goals, such as optimising ewe nutrition, that lead to reductions in lamb mortality. We conclude that scientific research is providing useful information on the biology underpinning neonatal survival, such as optimal birthweights, lamb vigour and understanding the importance of sufficient colostrum intake, but the transfer of that knowledge would benefit from an improved understanding of the psychology of management change on farm. Developing tailored solutions, on the basis of adequate farm records, that make use of the now substantial body of scientific literature on neonatal mortality will help to achieve lower neonatal mortality.

  4. Invited review: Changes in the dairy industry affecting dairy cattle health and welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkema, H W; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Kastelic, J P; Lam, T J G M; Luby, C; Roy, J-P; LeBlanc, S J; Keefe, G P; Kelton, D F

    2015-11-01

    The dairy industry in the developed world has undergone profound changes over recent decades. In this paper, we present an overview of some of the most important recent changes in the dairy industry that affect health and welfare of dairy cows, as well as the science associated with these changes. Additionally, knowledge gaps are identified where research is needed to guide the dairy industry through changes that are occurring now or that we expect will occur in the future. The number of farms has decreased considerably, whereas herd size has increased. As a result, an increasing number of dairy farms depend on hired (nonfamily) labor. Regular professional communication and establishment of farm-specific protocols are essential to minimize human errors and ensure consistency of practices. Average milk production per cow has increased, partly because of improvements in nutrition and management but also because of genetic selection for milk production. Adoption of new technologies (e.g., automated calf feeders, cow activity monitors, and automated milking systems) is accelerating. However, utilization of the data and action lists that these systems generate for health and welfare of livestock is still largely unrealized, and more training of dairy farmers, their employees, and their advisors is necessary. Concurrently, to remain competitive and to preserve their social license to operate, farmers are increasingly required to adopt increased standards for food safety and biosecurity, become less reliant on the use of antimicrobials and hormones, and provide assurances regarding animal welfare. Partly because of increasing herd size but also in response to animal welfare regulations in some countries, the proportion of dairy herds housed in tiestalls has decreased considerably. Although in some countries access to pasture is regulated, in countries that traditionally practiced seasonal grazing, fewer farmers let their dairy cows graze in the summer. The proportion of organic dairy farms has increased globally and, given the pressure to decrease the use of antimicrobials and hormones, conventional farms may be able to learn from well-managed organic farms. The possibilities of using milk for disease diagnostics and monitoring are considerable, and dairy herd improvement associations will continue to expand the number of tests offered to diagnose diseases and pregnancy. Genetic and genomic selection for increased resistance to disease offers substantial potential but requires collection of additional phenotypic data. There is every expectation that changes in the dairy industry will be further accentuated and additional novel technologies and different management practices will be adopted in the future. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Invited review: Role of bacterial endotoxins in the etiopathogenesis of periparturient diseases of transition dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckel, Emily F; Ametaj, Burim N

    2016-08-01

    The dairy industry continues to suffer severe economic losses due to the increased disease incidence cows experience during the transition period. It has long been the classical view that the major contributing factor to the development of these periparturient diseases is the considerable increase in nutritional demands for milk production. This classical view, however, fails to account for the substantial correlation between both metabolic and infectious diseases and the detrimental effects that can occur with the provision of high-energy diets to support these nutritional demands. Currently, increasing evidence implicates bacterial endotoxins in the etiopathology of most periparturient diseases. Bacterial endotoxins are components of the outer cell wall of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria that are highly immunostimulatory and can trigger proinflammatory immune responses. The ability of endotoxins to translocate from the mucosal tissues, including the gastrointestinal tract, mammary gland, and uterus, into the systemic circulation has been observed. Once they have entered the circulation, endotoxins potentially contribute to disease either directly, through eliciting an inflammatory response, or indirectly through other factors such as the overreaction of the natural protective mechanisms of the host. Although the evidence implicating a role of endotoxins in the pathogenesis of transition diseases continues to grow, our current knowledge of the host response to mucosal endotoxin exposure and pathogenic mechanisms remain largely unknown. Developing our understanding of the connection between endotoxemia and dairy cattle disease holds significant potential for the future development of preventative measures that could benefit the productivity of the dairy industry as well as animal welfare. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Invited Review Article: Methods for imaging weak-phase objects in electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaeser, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    Contrast has traditionally been produced in electron-microscopy of weak phase objects by simply defocusing the objective lens. There now is renewed interest, however, in using devices that apply a uniform quarter-wave phase shift to the scattered electrons relative to the unscattered beam, or that generate in-focus image contrast in some other way. Renewed activity in making an electron-optical equivalent of the familiar “phase-contrast” light microscope is based in part on the improved possibilities that are now available for device microfabrication. There is also a better understanding that it is important to take full advantage of contrast that can be had at low spatial frequency when imaging large, macromolecular objects. In addition, a number of conceptually new phase-plate designs have been proposed, thus increasing the number of options that are available for development. The advantages, disadvantages, and current status of each of these options is now compared and contrasted. Experimental results that are, indeed, superior to what can be accomplished with defocus-based phase contrast have been obtained recently with two different designs of phase-contrast aperture. Nevertheless, extensive work also has shown that fabrication of such devices is inconsistent, and that their working lifetime is short. The main limitation, in fact, appears to be electrostatic charging of any device that is placed into the electron diffraction pattern. The challenge in fabricating phase plates that are practical to use for routine work in electron microscopy thus may be more in the area of materials science than in the area of electron optics

  7. Recent advances in management of alkaptonuria (invited review; best practice article).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganath, Lakshminarayan R; Jarvis, Jonathan C; Gallagher, James A

    2013-05-01

    Alkaptonuria (AKU) is an autosomal recessive condition arising as a result of a genetic deficiency of the enzyme homogentisate 1,2 dioxygenase and characterised by accumulation of homogentisic acid (HGA). Oxidative conversion of HGA leads to production of a melanin-like polymer in a process termed ochronosis. The binding of ochronotic pigment to the connective tissues of the body leads to multisystem disorder dominated by premature severe spondylo-arthropathy. Other systemic features include stones (renal, prostatic, salivary, gall bladder), renal damage/failure, osteopenia/fractures, ruptures of tendons/muscle/ligaments, respiratory compromise, hearing loss and aortic valve disease. Detection of these features requires systematic investigation. Treatment in AKU patients is palliative and unsatisfactory. Ascorbic acid, low protein diet and physiotherapy have been tried but do not alter the underlying metabolic defect. Regular surveillance to detect and treat complications early is important. Palliative pain management is a crucial issue in AKU. Timely spinal surgery and arthroplasty are the major treatment approaches at present. A potential disease modifying drug, nitisinone, inhibits 4-hydroxy-phenyl-pyruvate-dioxygenase and decreases formation of HGA and could prevent or slow the progression of disease in AKU. If nitisinone therapy is able to complement the biochemical 'cure' with improved outcomes, it will completely alter the way we approach the management of this disease. Greater efforts to improve recognition and registration of the disease will be worthwhile. Improved laboratory diagnostics to monitor the tyrosine metabolic pathway that includes plasma metabolites including tyrosine to monitor efficacy, toxicity and safety postnitisinone will also be required.

  8. A review of ion sources for medical accelerators (invited)a)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, M.; Kitagawa, A.

    2012-02-01

    There are two major medical applications of ion accelerators. One is a production of short-lived isotopes for radionuclide imaging with positron emission tomography and single photon emission computer tomography. Generally, a combination of a source for negative ions (usually H- and/or D-) and a cyclotron is used; this system is well established and distributed over the world. Other important medical application is charged-particle radiotherapy, where the accelerated ion beam itself is being used for patient treatment. Two distinctly different methods are being applied: either with protons or with heavy-ions (mostly carbon ions). Proton radiotherapy for deep-seated tumors has become widespread since the 1990s. The energy and intensity are typically over 200 MeV and several 1010 pps, respectively. Cyclotrons as well as synchrotrons are utilized. The ion source for the cyclotron is generally similar to the type for production of radioisotopes. For a synchrotron, one applies a positive ion source in combination with an injector linac. Carbon ion radiotherapy awakens a worldwide interest. About 6000 cancer patients have already been treated with carbon beams from the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences in Japan. These clinical results have clearly verified the advantages of carbon ions. Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center and Gunma University Heavy Ion Medical Center have been successfully launched. Several new facilities are under commissioning or construction. The beam energy is adjusted to the depth of tumors. It is usually between 140 and 430 MeV/u. Although the beam intensity depends on the irradiation method, it is typically several 108 or 109 pps. Synchrotrons are only utilized for carbon ion radiotherapy. An ECR ion source supplies multi-charged carbon ions for this requirement. Some other medical applications with ion beams attract developer's interests. For example, the several types of accelerators are under development for the boron neutron capture therapy. This treatment is conventionally demonstrated by a nuclear reactor, but it is strongly expected to replace the reactor by the accelerator. We report status of ion source for medical application and such scope for further developments.

  9. Invited review: Genetic considerations for various pasture-based dairy systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, S P; Mullen, K A E

    2014-10-01

    Pasture-based dairy systems use grazing to supply significant percentages of the dry matter intake of cows and heifers. Such systems vary from those for which pasture is used only as a supplemental feed for cows primarily fed a total mixed ration to those for which pasture is the primary source of dry matter for the herd. Cows that are optimal in a pasture system share many general characteristics with cows that are appropriate for a nonpasture system, including feed efficiency, maintenance of body condition, reproductive fitness, udder health, longevity, and the ability to adapt to various management systems. However, in such divergent feeding systems, the relative importance of various traits can differ. In pasture systems where cow nutrient demand intentionally coincides with seasonal forage availability, the focus of selection has emphasized fertility and other fitness traits, as well as yields of milk or milk components. Breeds or strains with higher yields of protein and fat typically have advantages in grazing systems that supply milk to solids-based or cheese markets. Holstein cows with high percentages of North American ancestry can work well in grazing systems that include supplemental concentrates or partial mixed rations, particularly if calving intervals are less restrictive. Crossbred cows can be selected for use in specific grazing systems as well as for specific milk markets, with the added advantage of heterosis. Breeds and crosses with high fertility are important for seasonal breeding and calving. The ability of cattle to both milk and maintain sufficient body condition for reproduction is important for any dairy production system but is critical in a seasonal system. Dairy farms that depend on pasture for most of dry matter for cows typically have lower production per cow than nongrazing dairies but have the potential to be economically competitive because of lower operating and overhead costs. Although the principles of selection are similar across a variety of pasture-based and nonpasture systems, we document from studies and observations covered herein that optimal breeds, breed strains, and selection strategies can differ based on varying management constraints and objectives. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Invited review article: high-speed flexure-guided nanopositioning: mechanical design and control issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Y K; Moheimani, S O R; Kenton, B J; Leang, K K

    2012-12-01

    Recent interest in high-speed scanning probe microscopy for high-throughput applications including video-rate atomic force microscopy and probe-based nanofabrication has sparked attention on the development of high-bandwidth flexure-guided nanopositioning systems (nanopositioners). Such nanopositioners are designed to move samples with sub-nanometer resolution with positioning bandwidth in the kilohertz range. State-of-the-art designs incorporate uniquely designed flexure mechanisms driven by compact and stiff piezoelectric actuators. This paper surveys key advances in mechanical design and control of dynamic effects and nonlinearities, in the context of high-speed nanopositioning. Future challenges and research topics are also discussed.

  11. Invited Review Article: Measurements of the Newtonian constant of gravitation, G.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothleitner, C; Schlamminger, S

    2017-11-01

    By many accounts, the Newtonian constant of gravitation G is the fundamental constant that is most difficult to measure accurately. Over the past three decades, more than a dozen precision measurements of this constant have been performed. However, the scatter of the data points is much larger than the uncertainties assigned to each individual measurement, yielding a Birge ratio of about five. Today, G is known with a relative standard uncertainty of 4.7 × 10 -5 , which is several orders of magnitudes greater than the relative uncertainties of other fundamental constants. In this article, various methods to measure G are discussed. A large array of different instruments ranging from the simple torsion balance to the sophisticated atom interferometer can be used to determine G. Some instruments, such as the torsion balance can be used in several different ways. In this article, the advantages and disadvantages of different instruments as well as different methods are discussed. A narrative arc from the historical beginnings of the different methods to their modern implementation is given. Finally, the article ends with a brief overview of the current state of the art and an outlook.

  12. Recent advances in renewable energy research special topic volume with invited peer reviewed papers only

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Ahmed, Amir; Afzaal, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    The renewable energy sector has been the focus of worldwide effort to find sustainable and environmental friendly technologies for continuously increasing energy demands at low costs. Contributors of this book have extensive experience at various facets of renewable energy including materials chemistry, polymer physics, device fabrication, and nanotechnology. The book has fourteen high quality articles covering general aspects of renewable energy, regional policies, thin film solar cells, solar thermal, hydrogen production, energy conversion and storage. This book is a result of collaborations

  13. Invited review: Learning from the future-A vision for dairy farms and cows in 2067.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, J H; Cushman, R A; Dechow, C D; Dobson, H; Humblot, P; Hutjens, M F; Jones, G A; Ruegg, P S; Sheldon, I M; Stevenson, J S

    2018-05-01

    The world's population will reach 10.4 billion in 2067, with 81% residing in Africa or Asia. Arable land available for food production will decrease to 0.15 ha per person. Temperature will increase in tropical and temperate zones, especially in the Northern Hemisphere, and this will push growing seasons and dairy farming away from arid areas and into more northern latitudes. Dairy consumption will increase because it provides essential nutrients more efficiently than many other agricultural systems. Dairy farming will become modernized in developing countries and milk production per cow will increase, doubling in countries with advanced dairying systems. Profitability of dairy farms will be the key to their sustainability. Genetic improvements will include emphasis on the coding genome and associated noncoding epigenome of cattle, and on microbiomes of dairy cattle and farmsteads. Farm sizes will increase and there will be greater lateral integration of housing and management of dairy cattle of different ages and production stages. Integrated sensors, robotics, and automation will replace much of the manual labor on farms. Managing the epigenome and microbiome will become part of routine herd management. Innovations in dairy facilities will improve the health of cows and permit expression of natural behaviors. Herds will be viewed as superorganisms, and studies of herds as observational units will lead to improvements in productivity, health, and well-being of dairy cattle, and improve the agroecology and sustainability of dairy farms. Dairy farmers in 2067 will meet the world's needs for essential nutrients by adopting technologies and practices that provide improved cow health and longevity, profitable dairy farms, and sustainable agriculture. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Invited review: Use of butyrate to promote gastrointestinal tract development in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górka, P; Kowalski, Z M; Zabielski, R; Guilloteau, P

    2018-03-07

    Promotion of microbial butyrate production in the reticulorumen is a widely used method for enhancing forestomach development in calves. Additional acceleration of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development, both the forestomach and lower parts of the GIT (e.g., abomasum, intestine, and also pancreas), can be obtained by dietary butyrate supplementation. For this purpose, different sources (e.g., butyrate salts or butyrins), forms (e.g., protected or unprotected), methods (e.g., in liquid feed or solid feed), and periods (e.g., before or after weaning) of butyrate administration can be used. The aim of this paper was to summarize the knowledge in the field of butyrate supplementation in feeds for newborn calves in practical situations, and to suggest directions of future studies. It has been repeatedly shown that supplementation of unprotected salts of butyrate (primarily sodium salt) in milk replacer (MR) stimulates the rumen, small intestine, and pancreas development in calves, with a supplementation level equating to 0.3% of dry matter being sufficient to exert the desired effect on both GIT development and growth performance. On the other hand, the effect of unprotected butyrins and protected forms of butyrate supplementation in MR has not been extensively investigated, and few studies have documented the effect of butyrate addition into whole milk (WM), with those available focusing mainly on the growth performance of animals. Protected butyrate supplementation at a low level (0.3% of protected product in DM) in solid feed was shown to have a potential to enhance GIT development and performance of calves fed MR during the preweaning period. Justification of this form of butyrate supplementation in solid feed when calves are fed WM or after weaning needs to be documented. After weaning, inclusion of unprotected butyrate salts in solid feed was shown to increase solid feed intake, but the effect on GIT development and function has not been determined in detail, and optimal levels of supplementation are also difficult to recommend based on available reports. Future studies should focus on comparing different sources (e.g., salts vs. esters), forms (e.g., protected vs. unprotected), and doses of supplemental butyrate in liquid feeds and solid feeds and their effect not only on the development of rumen, abomasum, and small intestine but also the omasum and large intestine. Furthermore, the most effective source, form, and dose of supplemental butyrate in solid feed depending on the liquid feed program (e.g., MR or WM), stage of rearing (e.g., pre- or postweaning), and solid composition (e.g., lack or presence of forage in the diet) need to be determined. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Invited review: climate change impacts in polar regions: lessons from Antarctic moss bank archives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royles, Jessica; Griffiths, Howard

    2015-03-01

    Mosses are the dominant plants in polar and boreal regions, areas which are experiencing rapid impacts of regional warming. Long-term monitoring programmes provide some records of the rate of recent climate change, but moss peat banks contain an unrivalled temporal record of past climate change on terrestrial plant Antarctic systems. We summarise the current understanding of climatic proxies and determinants of moss growth for contrasting continental and maritime Antarctic regions, as informed by 13C and 18O signals in organic material. Rates of moss accumulation are more than three times higher in the maritime Antarctic than continental Antarctica with growing season length being a critical determinant of growth rate, and high carbon isotope discrimination values reflecting optimal hydration conditions. Correlation plots of 13C and 18O values show that species (Chorisodontium aciphyllum / Polytrichum strictum) and growth form (hummock / bank) are the major determinants of measured isotope ratios. The interplay between moss growth form, photosynthetic physiology, water status and isotope composition are compared with developments of secondary proxies, such as chlorophyll fluorescence. These approaches provide a framework to consider the potential impact of climate change on terrestrial Antarctic habitats as well as having implications for future studies of temperate, boreal and Arctic peatlands. There are many urgent ecological and environmental problems in the Arctic related to mosses in a changing climate, but the geographical ranges of species and life-forms are difficult to track individually. Our goal was to translate what we have learned from the more simple systems in Antarctica, for application to Arctic habitats. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Invited review : Changes in the dairy industry affecting dairy cattle health and welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barkema, H W; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Kastelic, J P; Lam, T J G M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/14686820X; Luby, C; Roy, J-P; LeBlanc, S J; Keefe, G P; Kelton, D F

    2015-01-01

    The dairy industry in the developed world has undergone profound changes over recent decades. In this paper, we present an overview of some of the most important recent changes in the dairy industry that affect health and welfare of dairy cows, as well as the science associated with these changes.

  17. Animal board invited review: advances in proteomics for animal and food sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, A M; Bassols, A; Bendixen, E; Bhide, M; Ceciliani, F; Cristobal, S; Eckersall, P D; Hollung, K; Lisacek, F; Mazzucchelli, G; McLaughlin, M; Miller, I; Nally, J E; Plowman, J; Renaut, J; Rodrigues, P; Roncada, P; Staric, J; Turk, R

    2015-01-01

    Animal production and health (APH) is an important sector in the world economy, representing a large proportion of the budget of all member states in the European Union and in other continents. APH is a highly competitive sector with a strong emphasis on innovation and, albeit with country to country variations, on scientific research. Proteomics (the study of all proteins present in a given tissue or fluid - i.e. the proteome) has an enormous potential when applied to APH. Nevertheless, for a variety of reasons and in contrast to disciplines such as plant sciences or human biomedicine, such potential is only now being tapped. To counter such limited usage, 6 years ago we created a consortium dedicated to the applications of Proteomics to APH, specifically in the form of a Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) Action, termed FA1002--Proteomics in Farm Animals: www.cost-faproteomics.org. In 4 years, the consortium quickly enlarged to a total of 31 countries in Europe, as well as Israel, Argentina, Australia and New Zealand. This article has a triple purpose. First, we aim to provide clear examples on the applications and benefits of the use of proteomics in all aspects related to APH. Second, we provide insights and possibilities on the new trends and objectives for APH proteomics applications and technologies for the years to come. Finally, we provide an overview and balance of the major activities and accomplishments of the COST Action on Farm Animal Proteomics. These include activities such as the organization of seminars, workshops and major scientific conferences, organization of summer schools, financing Short-Term Scientific Missions (STSMs) and the generation of scientific literature. Overall, the Action has attained all of the proposed objectives and has made considerable difference by putting proteomics on the global map for animal and veterinary researchers in general and by contributing significantly to reduce the East-West and North-South gaps existing in the European farm animal research. Future activities of significance in the field of scientific research, involving members of the action, as well as others, will likely be established in the future.

  18. Invited review: Learning from the future--A vision for dairy farms and cows in 2067

    Science.gov (United States)

    The world’s population will reach 10.4 billion in 2067 with 81% residing in Africa or Asia. Arable land available for food production will decrease to 0.15 ha per person. Temperature will increase in tropical and temperate zones, especially in the Northern Hemisphere, and this will push growing seas...

  19. Invited review: The impact of automatic milking systems on dairy cow management, behavior, health, and welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, J A; Siegford, J M

    2012-05-01

    Over the last 100 yr, the dairy industry has incorporated technology to maximize yield and profit. Pressure to maximize efficiency and lower inputs has resulted in novel approaches to managing and milking dairy herds, including implementation of automatic milking systems (AMS) to reduce labor associated with milking. Although AMS have been used for almost 20 yr in Europe, they have only recently become more popular in North America. Automatic milking systems have the potential to increase milk production by up to 12%, decrease labor by as much as 18%, and simultaneously improve dairy cow welfare by allowing cows to choose when to be milked. However, producers using AMS may not fully realize these anticipated benefits for a variety of reasons. For example, producers may not see a reduction in labor because some cows do not milk voluntarily or because they have not fully or efficiently incorporated the AMS into their management routines. Following the introduction of AMS on the market in the 1990s, research has been conducted examining AMS systems versus conventional parlors focusing primarily on cow health, milk yield, and milk quality, as well as on some of the economic and social factors related to AMS adoption. Additionally, because AMS rely on cows milking themselves voluntarily, research has also been conducted on the behavior of cows in AMS facilities, with particular attention paid to cow traffic around AMS, cow use of AMS, and cows' motivation to enter the milking stall. However, the sometimes contradictory findings resulting from different studies on the same aspect of AMS suggest that differences in management and farm-level variables may be more important to AMS efficiency and milk production than features of the milking system itself. Furthermore, some of the recommendations that have been made regarding AMS facility design and management should be scientifically tested to demonstrate their validity, as not all may work as intended. As updated AMS designs, such as the automatic rotary milking parlor, continue to be introduced to the dairy industry, research must continue to be conducted on AMS to understand the causes and consequences of differences between milking systems as well as the impacts of the different facilities and management systems that surround them on dairy cow behavior, health, and welfare. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Proceedings, U. S. Department of Agriculture interagency gypsy moth research review 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt W. Gottschalk; Mark J. Twery; Shirley I. Smith; [Editors

    1991-01-01

    Eight invited papers and 68 abstracts of volunteer presentations on gypsy moth biology, ecology, impacts, and management presented at the U. S. Department of Agriculture Interagency Gypsy Moth Research Review.

  1. Space Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horneck, Gerda; Klaus, David M.; Mancinelli, Rocco L.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: The responses of microorganisms (viruses, bacterial cells, bacterial and fungal spores, and lichens) to selected factors of space (microgravity, galactic cosmic radiation, solar UV radiation, and space vacuum) were determined in space and laboratory simulation experiments. In general, microorganisms tend to thrive in the space flight environment in terms of enhanced growth parameters and a demonstrated ability to proliferate in the presence of normally inhibitory levels of antibiotics. The mechanisms responsible for the observed biological responses, however, are not yet fully understood. A hypothesized interaction of microgravity with radiation-induced DNA repair processes was experimentally refuted. The survival of microorganisms in outer space was investigated to tackle questions on the upper boundary of the biosphere and on the likelihood of interplanetary transport of microorganisms. It was found that extraterrestrial solar UV radiation was the most deleterious factor of space. Among all organisms tested, only lichens (Rhizocarpon geographicum and Xanthoria elegans) maintained full viability after 2 weeks in outer space, whereas all other test systems were inactivated by orders of magnitude. Using optical filters and spores of Bacillus subtilis as a biological UV dosimeter, it was found that the current ozone layer reduces the biological effectiveness of solar UV by 3 orders of magnitude. If shielded against solar UV, spores of B. subtilis were capable of surviving in space for up to 6 years, especially if embedded in clay or meteorite powder (artificial meteorites). The data support the likelihood of interplanetary transfer of microorganisms within meteorites, the so-called lithopanspermia hypothesis. PMID:20197502

  2. Space psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parin, V. V.; Gorbov, F. D.; Kosmolinskiy, F. P.

    1974-01-01

    Psychological selection of astronauts considers mental responses and adaptation to the following space flight stress factors: (1) confinement in a small space; (2) changes in three dimensional orientation; (3) effects of altered gravity and weightlessness; (4) decrease in afferent nerve pulses; (5) a sensation of novelty and danger; and (6) a sense of separation from earth.

  3. Borel Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Berberian, S K

    2002-01-01

    A detailed exposition of G.W. Mackey's theory of Borel spaces (standard, substandard, analytic), based on results in Chapter 9 of Bourbaki's General Topology. Appended are five informal lectures on the subject (given at the CIMPA/ICPAM Summer School, Nice, 1986), sketching the connection between Borel spaces and representations of operator algebras.

  4. Oblique electron cyclotron emission for electron distribution studies (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preische, S.; Efthimion, P.C.; Kaye, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    Electron cyclotron emission (ECE) at an oblique angle to the magnetic field provides a means of probing the electron distribution function both in energy and physical space through changes in and constraints on the relativistic electron cyclotron resonance condition. Diagnostics based on this Doppler shifted resonance are able to study a variety of electron distributions through changes in the location of the resonance in physical or energy space accomplished by changes in the viewing angle and frequency, and the magnetic field. For the case of observation across a changing magnetic field, such as across the tokamak midplane, the constraint on the resonance condition for real solutions to the dispersion relation can constrain the physical location of optically thin emission. A new Oblique ECE diagnostic was installed and operated on the PBX-M tokamak for the study of energetic electrons during lower hybrid current drive. It has a view 33 degree with respect to perpendicular in the tokamak midplane, receives second harmonic X-mode emission, and is constrained to receive single pass emission by SiC viewing dumps on the tokamak walls. Spatial localization of optically thin emission from superthermal electrons (50 endash 100 keV) was obtained by observation of emission upshifted from a thermal cyclotron harmonic. The localized measurements of the electron energy distribution and the superthermal density profile made by this diagnostic demonstrate its potential to study the spatial transport of energetic electrons on fast magnetohydrodynamic time scales or anomalous diffusion time scales. Oblique ECE can also be used to study electron distributions that may have a slight deviation from a Maxwellian by localizing the emission in energy space. (Abstract Truncated)

  5. Space engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Harold L.

    1991-01-01

    Human productivity was studied for extravehicular tasks performed in microgravity, particularly including in-space assembly of truss structures and other large objects. Human factors research probed the anthropometric constraints imposed on microgravity task performance and the associated workstation design requirements. Anthropometric experiments included reach envelope tests conducted using the 3-D Acoustic Positioning System (3DAPS), which permitted measuring the range of reach possible for persons using foot restraints in neutral buoyancy, both with and without space suits. Much neutral buoyancy research was conducted using the support of water to simulate the weightlessness environment of space. It became clear over time that the anticipated EVA requirement associated with the Space Station and with in-space construction of interplanetary probes would heavily burden astronauts, and remotely operated robots (teleoperators) were increasingly considered to absorb the workload. Experience in human EVA productivity led naturally to teleoperation research into the remote performance of tasks through human controlled robots.

  6. Enhanced invitation methods to increase uptake of NHS health checks: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Forster, Alice S; Burgess, Caroline; McDermott, Lisa; Wright, Alison J; Dodhia, Hiten; Conner, Mark; Miller, Jane; Rudisill, Caroline; Cornelius, Victoria; Gulliford, Martin C

    2014-01-01

    Background NHS Health Checks is a new program for primary prevention of heart disease, stroke, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and vascular dementia in adults aged 40 to 74 years in England. Individuals without existing cardiovascular disease or diabetes are invited for a Health Check every 5 years. Uptake among those invited is lower than anticipated. Method The project is a three-arm randomized controlled trial to test the hypothesis that enhanced invitation methods, using the Question-Be...

  7. Tools You Can Use! E/PO Resources for Scientists and Faculty to Use and Contribute To: EarthSpace and the NASA SMD Scientist Speaker’s Bureau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxner, Sanlyn; Shupla, C.; CoBabe-Ammann, E.; Dalton, H.; Shipp, S.

    2013-10-01

    The Planetary Science Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) Forum has helped to create two tools that are designed to help scientists and higher-education science faculty make stronger connections with their audiences: EarthSpace, an education clearinghouse for the undergraduate classroom; and NASA SMD Scientist Speaker’s Bureau, an online portal to help bring science - and scientists - to the public. Are you looking for Earth and space science higher education resources and materials? Come explore EarthSpace, a searchable database of undergraduate classroom materials for faculty teaching Earth and space sciences at both the introductory and upper division levels! In addition to classroom materials, EarthSpace provides news and information about educational research, best practices, and funding opportunities. All materials submitted to EarthSpace are peer reviewed, ensuring that the quality of the EarthSpace materials is high and also providing important feedback to authors. Your submission is a reviewed publication! Learn more, search for resources, join the listserv, sign up to review materials, and submit your own at http://www.lpi.usra.edu/earthspace. Join the new NASA SMD Scientist Speaker’s Bureau, an online portal to connect scientists interested in getting involved in E/PO projects (e.g., giving public talks, classroom visits, and virtual connections) with audiences! The Scientist Speaker’s Bureau helps educators and institutions connect with NASA scientists who are interested in giving presentations, based upon the topic, logistics, and audience. The information input into the database will be used to help match scientists (you!) with the requests being placed by educators. All Earth and space scientists funded by NASA - and/or engaged in active research using NASA’s science - are invited to become part of the Scientist Speaker’s Bureau. Submit your information into the short form at http://www.lpi.usra.edu/education/speaker.

  8. Space shuttle crew training at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Paola Catapano

    From 13 to 16 October, the crew of NASA Space Shuttle mission STS-134 came to CERN for a special physics training programme. Invited here by Samuel Ting, they will deliver the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) detector to the International Space Station (ISS).   The STS134 crew in the Lodge at the Aiguille du Midi wearing CERN fleeces. From left to right: Captain Mark Kelly, US Navy; Pilot Gregory Johnson, USAF ret.; Mission Specialist Andrew Feustel; Mission Specialist Mike Fincke, USAF, Mission Specialist Gregory Chamitoff and Mission Specialist Roberto Vittori, ESA and Italian Air Force. Headed by Commander Mark Kelly, a US Navy captain, the crew included pilot Gregory Johnson, a US Air Force (USAF) colonel, and mission specialists Mike Fincke (also a USAF Colonel), Andrew Feustel, and Gregory Chamitoff of NASA, as well as Colonel Roberto Vittori of the European Space Agency (ESA). Two flight directors, Gary Horlache and Derek Hassmann of NASA, and the engineer responsible for the Ext...

  9. ERC sources for the production of highly charged ions (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyneis, C.M.; Antaya, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS) using rf between 5 and 16 GHz have been developed into stable, reliable sources of highly charged ions produced from a wide range of elements. These devices are currently used as ion sources for cyclotrons, synchrotrons, and heavy-ion linacs for nuclear and relativistic heavy-ion physics. They also serve the atomic physics community as a source of low energy multiply charged ions. In order to improve their performance both with respect to maximum charge state and beam intensity, ECRIS builders are now designing and constructing sources which will operate at frequencies up to 30 GHz. In this article we review the present status of operating ECRIS, review recent experimental measurements on plasma parameters, and look at the technology and potential of sources operating at frequencies up to 30 GHz

  10. Models of Learning Space: Integrating Research on Space, Place and Learning in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, R. A.; Goodyear, P.

    2016-01-01

    Learning space research is a relatively new field of study that seeks to inform the design, evaluation and management of learning spaces. This paper reviews a dispersed and fragmented literature relevant to understanding connections between university learning spaces and student learning activities. From this review, the paper distils a number of…

  11. Preventive home visits to older home-dwelling people in Denmark: are invitational procedures of importance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekmann, A; Vass, M; Avlund, K

    2010-01-01

    Since 1998 all municipalities in Denmark have been required by law to offer two annual preventive home visits to all home-dwelling citizens aged 75 or over. The influence of invitational procedures on acceptance rates has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to describe and investigate...... whether different invitational procedures were associated with first preventive home visit acceptance rates. The study was based on secondary analyses of data from the Danish Intervention Study on Preventive Home Visits. Data were collected from 1998 to 2002. Of the 4060 participants in the main study......, 3245 reported receiving an offer for an identifiable preventive home visit, of whom 2399 (73.9%) provided complete data for the main analyses in the present study. Invitational procedures were categorised as: (1) a letter with a proposed date and time for the visit, (2) a visitor telephone call, and (3...

  12. Space polypropulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellett, B. J.; Griffin, D. K.; Bingham, R.; Campbell, R. N.; Forbes, A.; Michaelis, M. M.

    2008-05-01

    Hybrid space propulsion has been a feature of most space missions. Only the very early rocket propulsion experiments like the V2, employed a single form of propulsion. By the late fifties multi-staging was routine and the Space Shuttle employs three different kinds of fuel and rocket engines. During the development of chemical rockets, other forms of propulsion were being slowly tested, both theoretically and, relatively slowly, in practice. Rail and gas guns, ion engines, "slingshot" gravity assist, nuclear and solar power, tethers, solar sails have all seen some real applications. Yet the earliest type of non-chemical space propulsion to be thought of has never been attempted in space: laser and photon propulsion. The ideas of Eugen Saenger, Georgii Marx, Arthur Kantrowitz, Leik Myrabo, Claude Phipps and Robert Forward remain Earth-bound. In this paper we summarize the various forms of nonchemical propulsion and their results. We point out that missions beyond Saturn would benefit from a change of attitude to laser-propulsion as well as consideration of hybrid "polypropulsion" - which is to say using all the rocket "tools" available rather than possibly not the most appropriate. We conclude with three practical examples, two for the next decades and one for the next century; disposal of nuclear waste in space; a grand tour of the Jovian and Saturnian moons - with Huygens or Lunoxod type, landers; and eventually mankind's greatest space dream: robotic exploration of neighbouring planetary systems.

  13. Preventive home visits to older home-dwelling people in Denmark: are invitational procedures of importance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekmann, A; Vass, M; Avlund, K

    2010-11-01

    Since 1998 all municipalities in Denmark have been required by law to offer two annual preventive home visits to all home-dwelling citizens aged 75 or over. The influence of invitational procedures on acceptance rates has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to describe and investigate whether different invitational procedures were associated with first preventive home visit acceptance rates. The study was based on secondary analyses of data from the Danish Intervention Study on Preventive Home Visits. Data were collected from 1998 to 2002. Of the 4060 participants in the main study, 3245 reported receiving an offer for an identifiable preventive home visit, of whom 2399 (73.9%) provided complete data for the main analyses in the present study. Invitational procedures were categorised as: (1) a letter with a proposed date and time for the visit, (2) a visitor telephone call, and (3) a letter with encouragement to phone the visitor for appointment (letter without a proposed date). Covariates included sex, age, experience with preventive interventions, functional ability, self rated health, social relations and psychosocial characteristics. Statistical analyses included chi-square tests, and bi- and multivariable logistic regression analyses. Different invitational procedures were associated with first preventive home visit acceptance rates. Significantly more men (75.1%) than women (62.8%) declined the first preventive home visit regardless of the invitational procedure. Compared to 'letter with a proposed date', men had an odds ratio of 1.78 (95% CI: 1.16-2.74) for declining visits when 'telephone call' was used and an odds ratio 2.81 (95% CI: 1.79-4.40) when 'letter without a proposed date' was used as the invitational procedure. In women the odds ratios were 1.23 (95% CI: 0.91-1.68) and 1.87 (95% CI: 1.37-2.55), respectively. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Why Not Space Tethers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Noble H.

    2007-01-01

    The Tethered Satellite System Space Shuttle missions, TSS-1 in 1993 and TSS-1R in 1996, were the height of space tether technology development. Since NASA's investment of some $200M and two Shuttle missions in those two pioneering missions, there have been several smaller tether flight experiments, but interest in this promising technology has waned within NASA as well as the DOD agencies. This is curious in view of the unique capabilities of space tether systems and the fact that they have been flight validated and shown to perform as, or better than, expected in earth orbit. While it is true that the TSS-1, TSS-1R and SEDS-2 missions experienced technical difficulties, the causes of these early developmental problems are now known to be design or materials flaws that are (1) unrelated to the basic viability of space tether technology, and (2) they are readily corrected. The purpose of this paper is to review the dynamic and electrodynamic fundamentals of space tethers and the unique capabilities they afford (that are enabling to certain types of space missions); to elucidate the nature, cause, and solution of the early developmental problems; and to provide an update on progress made in development of the technology. Finally, it is shown that (1) all problems experienced during early development of the technology now have solutions; and (2) the technology has been matured by advances made in strength and robustness of tether materials, high voltage engineering in the space environment, tether health and status monitoring, and the elimination of the broken tether hazard. In view of this, it is inexplicable why this flight-validated technology has not been utilized in the past decade, considering the powerful and unique capabilities that space tethers can afford that are, not only required to carryout, otherwise, unobtainable missions, but can also greatly reduce the cost of certain on-going space operations.

  15. Trends in space activities in 2014: The significance of the space activities of governments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paikowsky, Deganit; Baram, Gil; Ben-Israel, Isaac

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses the principal events of 2014 in the field of space activities, and extrapolates from them the primary trends that can be identified in governmental space activities. In 2014, global space activities centered on two vectors. The first was geopolitical, and the second relates to the matrix between increasing commercial space activities and traditional governmental space activities. In light of these two vectors, the article outlines and analyzes trends of space exploration, human spaceflights, industry and technology, cooperation versus self-reliance, and space security and sustainability. It also reviews the space activities of the leading space-faring nations.

  16. Knowledge spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Doignon, Jean-Paul

    1999-01-01

    Knowledge spaces offer a rigorous mathematical foundation for various practical systems of knowledge assessment. An example is offered by the ALEKS system (Assessment and LEarning in Knowledge Spaces), a software for the assessment of mathematical knowledge. From a mathematical standpoint, knowledge spaces generalize partially ordered sets. They are investigated both from a combinatorial and a stochastic viewpoint. The results are applied to real and simulated data. The book gives a systematic presentation of research and extends the results to new situations. It is of interest to mathematically oriented readers in education, computer science and combinatorics at research and graduate levels. The text contains numerous examples and exercises and an extensive bibliography.

  17. Space Bugz!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birke, Alexander; Schoenau-Fog, Henrik; Reng, Lars

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents Space Bugz! - a novel crowd game for large venues or cinemas that utilises the audience's smartphones as controllers for the game. This paper explains what crowd gaming is and describes how the approach used in Space Bugz! enables more advanced gameplay concepts and individual...... player control than current technologies allow. The gameplay of Space Bugz! is then explained along with the technical architecture of the game. After this, the iterative design process used to create the game is described together with future perspectives. The article concludes with links to a video...

  18. A review of vertical coupling in the Atmosphere-Ionosphere system: Effects of waves, sudden stratospheric warmings, space weather, and of solar activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yigit, E.; Koucká Knížová, Petra; Georgieva, K.; Ward, W.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 141, April (2016), s. 1-12 ISSN 1364-6826 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-24688S; GA MŠk(CZ) LG13042 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : atmosphere–ionosphere * vertical coupling * gravity waves * tides * space weather * solar activity Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.326, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364682616300426

  19. Mammalian development in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronca, April E.

    2003-01-01

    Life on Earth, and thus the reproductive and ontogenetic processes of all extant species and their ancestors, evolved under the constant influence of the Earth's l g gravitational field. These considerations raise important questions about the ability of mammals to reproduce and develop in space. In this chapter, I review the current state of our knowledge of spaceflight effects on developing mammals. Recent studies are revealing the first insights into how the space environment affects critical phases of mammalian reproduction and development, viz., those events surrounding fertilization, embryogenesis, pregnancy, birth, postnatal maturation and parental care. This review emphasizes fetal and early postnatal life, the developmental epochs for which the greatest amounts of mammalian spaceflight data have been amassed. The maternal-offspring system, the coordinated aggregate of mother and young comprising mammalian development, is of primary importance during these early, formative developmental phases. The existing research supports the view that biologically meaningful interactions between mothers and offspring are changed in the weightlessness of space. These changes may, in turn, cloud interpretations of spaceflight effects on developing offspring. Whereas studies of mid-pregnant rats in space have been extraordinarily successful, studies of young rat litters launched at 9 days of postnatal age or earlier, have been encumbered with problems related to the design of in-flight caging and compromised maternal-offspring interactions. Possibilities for mammalian birth in space, an event that has not yet transpired, are considered. In the aggregate, the results indicate a strong need for new studies of mammalian reproduction and development in space. Habitat development and systematic ground-based testing are important prerequisites to future research with young postnatal rodents in space. Together, the findings support the view that the environment within which young

  20. Invited series of talks and lectures at Yale University (USA) on Rolf Nordahl's research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordahl, Rolf

    2010-01-01

    in several topics. The lectures will address his innovative experiments on using methods from Film and Filmsound to inform research in Computer Games and Virtual Reality applications with real-life examples from the Natural Interactive Walking (NIW) project - a EU-funded project headed at Aalborg University......Rolf Nordahl , Medialogy in Copenhagen, will be giving an invited series of lectures at Yale University, Connecticut, USA in the last week of March, 2010. Rolf has been invited to give talks to Professors, research fellows, Ph.D.'s and graduate students of Yale University (USA), on his research...

  1. Invitation to Speak at a Conference: The Tempting Technique Adopted by Predatory Conferences’ Organizers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asadi, Amin

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, predatory journals, conferences, and publishers have turned to an inevitable threat in scientific publishing. Researchers, regardless of their disciplines, should be aware of these predators and have to be able to recognize them. The main aim of the present paper is to raise awar...... awareness about the growing menace of fake invitations to speak at a scientific conference organized by predatory organizers and publishers. Some subtle signs to identify the fake invitations from the authentic ones have been introduced and discussed....

  2. Sheath structure in negative ion sources for fusion (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAdams, R.; King, D. B.; Surrey, E.; Holmes, A. J. T.

    2012-01-01

    In fusion negative ion sources, the negative ions are formed on the caesiated plasma grid predominantly by hydrogen atoms from the plasma. The space charge of the negative ions leaving the wall is not fully compensated by incoming positive ions and at high enough emission a virtual cathode is formed. This virtual cathode limits the flux of negative ions transported across the sheath to the plasma. A 1D collisionless model of the sheath is presented taking into account the virtual cathode. The model will be applied to examples of the ion source operation. Extension of the model to the bulk plasma shows good agreement with experimental data. A possible role for fast ions is discussed.

  3. Orthogonal trapping and sensing with long working distance optics [invited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Palima, Darwin; Tauro, Sandeep

    2010-01-01

    We are developing a next generation BioPhotonics Workstation to be applied in research on regulated microbial cell growth including their underlying physiological mechanisms, in vivo characterization of cell constituents and manufacturing of nanostructures and meta-materials. The workstation......Photonics Workstation that allows the user to directly control and simultaneously measure a portfolio of important chemical and biological processes. We arc currently able to generate up to 100 powerful optical traps using well-separated objectives, which eliminates the need for high numerical aperture oil or water...... immersion objectives required in conventional optical tweezers. This generates a large field of view and leaves vital space for integrating other enabling tools for probing the trapped particles, such as linear and nonlinear microscopy or micro-spectroscopy. Together with chcmists at another Danish...

  4. Water Management Strategies against Water Shortage in the Alps (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, C.

    2009-12-01

    In the European Alps water has been perceived as ubiquitous and not the subject of management. Climate change and anthropogenic pressures have changed demand and supply relations rapidly and over the last 10 years, water problems have increasingly become apparent over temporal and spatial hotspots. Stakeholders in the Alpine Space have been confronted with water management problems in agriculture, tourism and hydropower to such an extent that they approached scientists to create solution strategies based on adaptation and mitigation. In this context, Alp-Water-Scarce, a European project on Water Management Strategies against Water Scarcity in the Alps was funded by the Alpine Space programme as part of the "European Territorial Cooperation" scheme. It has 17 project partners from Austria Switzerland, France, Italy and Slovenia from local governments, provinces, federal institutes and offices, universities, regional agencies, alpine societies, geological surveys, and chambers of agriculture and forestry. The Lead Partner is the Mountain Institute in Savoy, Rhone-Alpes, France. The main challenges of this project are to create local Early Warning Systems against Water Scarcity in the Alps. This system is based on strengthening existing long-term monitoring and modeling and creating new measuring networks in those countries where they do not yet exist. It is anchored strongly and actively within a Stakeholder Interaction Forum linked across comparative and contrasting regions across the Alps. The Early Warning System is based on the linkage and improvement of field monitoring and assemblage of qualitative and quantitative data derived both from natural water reservoirs as well as from anthropogenic water use in 28 selected pilot regions selected in France, Italy, Austria, Slovenia and Switzerland. The objectives are to improve water management at the short term (annual scale) and long term (using future scenarios) based on modelling and application of climate change

  5. PREFACE: International Symposium on Physical Sciences in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Andreas; Egry, Ivan

    2011-12-01

    ISPS is the major international scientific forum for researchers in physics utilizing the space environment, in particular microgravity. It is intended to inspire and encourage cross-cutting discussions between different scientific communities working in the same environment. Contributions discussing results of experiments carried out on drop towers, parabolic aircraft flights, sounding rockets, unmanned recoverable capsules and, last but not least, the International Space Station ISS, are the backbone of this conference series, complemented by preparatory ground-based work, both experimentally and theoretically. The first International Symposium on Physical Sciences in Space (ISPS) sponsored by the International Microgravity Strategic Planning Group (IMSPG) took place in 2000 in Sorrento, Italy. IMSPG seeks to coordinate the planning of space for research in physical sciences by space agencies worldwide. AEB (Brazil), ASI (Italy), CNES (France), CSA (Canada), DLR (Germany), ESA (Europe), JAXA (Japan), NASA (USA), NSAU (Ukraine) and RSA (Russia) are members, and CNSA (China) and ISRO (India) are also invited to join IMSPG meetings. ISPS-4 was the fourth symposium in that series, following ISPS-2 organized by CSA in 2004 in Toronto, Canada, and ISPS-3 organized in 2007 by JAXA in Nara, Japan. ISPS-4 was jointly organized by ESA and DLR on behalf of the IMSPG and was held in Bonn from 11-15 July 2011. 230 participants from 17 different countries attended ISPS-4. Recent microgravity experiments were presented, analysed, and set in context to results from Earth bound experiments in 16 plenary and 68 topical talks. Lively discussions continued during two dedicated poster sessions and at the exhibition booths of space industry and research centers with new flight hardware on display. The oral presentations at ISPS4 were selected exclusively on the basis of scientific merit, as evidenced through the submitted abstracts. The selection was performed by the International

  6. Space Weather- Physics and Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Bothmer, Volker

    2007-01-01

    This book is a state-of-the-art review on the physics of space weather and on space weather impacts on human technology, including manned spaceflight. With contributions from a team of international experts, this comprehensive work covers all aspects of space weather physical processes, and all known aspects of space hazards from humans, both in space and on Earth. Space Weather - Physics and Effects provides the first comprehensive, scientific background of space storms caused by the sun and its impact on geospace focuses on weather issues that have become vital for the development of nationwide technological infrastructures explains magnetic storms on Earth, including the effects of EUV radiation on the atmosphere is an invaluable aid in establishing real-time weather forecasts details the threat that solar effects might have on modern telecommunication systems, including national power grid systems, aircraft and manned spaceflight.

  7. IVth Azores International Advanced School in Space Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Nuno; Monteiro, Mário

    2018-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of the IVth Azores International Advanced School in Space Sciences entitled "Asteroseismology and Exoplanets: Listening to the Stars and Searching for New Worlds". The school addressed the topics at the forefront of scientific research being conducted in the fields of asteroseismology and exoplanetary science, two fields of modern astrophysics that share many synergies and resources. These proceedings comprise the contributions from 18 invited lecturers, including both monographic presentations and a number of hands-on tutorials.

  8. A low-temperature research facility for space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is proposing to NASA a new initiative to construct a Low Temperature Research Facility for use in space. The facility is described, together with some details of timing and support. An advisory group has been formed which seeks to advise JPL and NASA of the capabilities required in this facility and to invite investigators to propose experiments which require the combination of low temperature and reduced gravity to be successful. (orig.)

  9. Monographs in Aerospace History Series No. 11. Together in Orbit: The Origins of International Participation in the Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logsdon, John M.

    1998-01-01

    This essay is a history and analysis of the steps leading to the origins of the space station partnership between the United States and its closest allies. It traces the process that led to the decision to invite other countries to participate in the project and their reasons for accepting that invitation. Not covered in this account are the difficult negotiations during the 1984-1988 period that led first to an initial set of agreements that allowed the prospective partners to work together during the early stages of the space station program and then to the final set of agreements creating the original space station partnership. Also, the 1993 invitation to the Russian Federation to join the original partners is not discussed, nor are the subsequent negotiations to revise the 1988 agreements.

  10. Space dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corno, S.E.

    1995-01-01

    Analytical methods for Space Dynamics of fission reactors, are presented. It is shown how a few sample problems in space dynamics can be solved, within the one and two group diffusion model, by purely analytical tools, essentially based on Laplace transform and complex Green function techniques. A quite suggestive generalization of this approach, applicable to the fluid core reactors, whose fuel is undergoing a violent mixing, is reported and briefly discussed. (author)

  11. Creative Building Design for Innovative Earth Science Teaching and Outreach (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, M. A.

    2009-12-01

    Earth Science departments can blend the physical “bricks and mortar” facility with programs and educational displays to create a facility that is a permanent outreach tool and a welcoming home for teaching and research. The new Frederick Albert Sutton building at the University of Utah is one of the first LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) certified Earth Science buildings in the country. Throughout the structure, creative architectural designs are combined with sustainability, artful geologic displays, and community partnerships. Distinctive features of the building include: 1) Unique, inviting geologic designs such as cross bedding pattern in the concrete foundation; “a river runs through it” (a pebble tile “stream” inside the entrance); “confluence” lobby with spectacular Eocene Green River fossil fish and plant walls; polished rock slabs; and many natural stone elements. All displays are also designed as teaching tools. 2) Student-generated, energy efficient, sustainable projects such as: solar tube lights, xeriscape & rock monoliths, rainwater collection, roof garden, pervious cement, and energy monitoring. 3) Reinforced concrete foundation for vibration-free analytical measurements, and exposed lab ceilings for duct work and infrastructure adaptability. The spectacular displays for this special project were made possible by new partnerships within the community. Companies participated with generous, in-kind donations (e.g., services, stone flooring and slabs, and landscape rocks). They received recognition in the building and in literature acknowledging donors. A beautiful built environment creates space that students, faculty, and staff are proud of. People feel good about coming to work, and they are happy about their surroundings. This makes a strong recruiting tool, with more productive and satisfied employees. Buildings with architectural interest and displays can showcase geology as art and science, while highlighting

  12. Building Community Consensus for Earth Science Literacy Using an Online Workshop (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysession, M. E.; Tuddenham, P.; Taber, J.; Ladue, N.

    2009-12-01

    The Earth Science Literacy Principles, published in the spring of 2009, represented a community consensus about what all Americans should understand about Earth sciences. Central to its creation was a 2-week online workshop that involved participation by 350 Earth scientists and educators. The online workshop, hosted by The College of Exploration, was an excellent medium for incorporating the ideas and concerns of 350 people in near-real time. NSF tasked the Earth Science Literacy Initiative (ESLI) (www.earthscienceliteracy.org) with constructing a set of “Big Ideas” and “Supporting Concepts” that distilled the essential understandings of the GEO-EAR division of NSF. Because of the wide diversity of sub-fields involved (ranging from paleobiology to tectonics), finding a mechanism for incorporating many different views while retaining an organized structure was a challenge. The online workshop turned out to be ideal for this task. Though the 2-week asynchronous workshop was designed to replicate a 2-day in-person workshop, at the drawn-out pace of one hour of requested participation per day, in reality it was much more productive. Many aspects of an in-person workshop were replicated in the the online space. Plenary talks were presented in the main conference room via videos recorded just before or during the 2-week period. The workshop was structured with 150 invited participants and 200 observers. The participants had access to all of the rooms while the observers could see all rooms but could only chat in their own area, the Observation Café. Each breakout room had a moderator who attempted to guide discussion, including suggesting off-topic conversations be moved to the Earth Café. An organizing committee of about a dozen people teleconferenced daily, determining the goals or tasks for the participants for that day. This allowed for a high level of flexibility, with the workshop structure flowing in response to the results up to that point. The first

  13. There's Enough Space for Everyone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Daniel M.

    2010-01-01

    Only a few fortunate people have the opportunity to go into space and experience the wonders of our universe first-hand. But thanks to social media and virtual worlds, many unique opportunities exist for us to learn, explore and experience what s out there from wherever we are. NASA and Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) are making this even easier to do. From blogs to Twitter messages, from Facebook pages to Flickr Photo sites, NASA is leveraging social media to share never-before-seen footage and inside information on spaceflight, scientific discoveries and other space activities. Over the last year, Marshall has reached more than half-a-million viewers through its high-profile, real-time blogs. Through its Watching a Launch blog, visitors were invited to take the "virtual" rides of their lives as they received a first-hand account of seeing a powerful shuttle launch - up close and personal. Through the Shuttle Ferry Flight blog, they got to experience the Shuttle Atlantis journey home to Kennedy Space Center as it rode "piggyback" on a modified Boeing 747 airplane. This year, Marshall s Flickr photo galleries have been visited over 700,000 times, Ares rocket videos have been viewed on iTunes, YouTube, TeacherTube and NASA Web sites more than 1.2 million times, and Marshall s Facebook Page has over 2,800 "friends" who regularly follow NASA. Social media tools have been a powerful way to reach and inspire the public, but NASA has also used these tools effectively to promote education and outreach. From events such as the Great Moonbuggy Race to the Student Launch Initiative, Marshall has used social networks to interest, excite and engage students. This presentation shares some of NASA s experiences on what has worked . . . and what hasn't . . . and seeks to spread the message that through social media "there's enough space for everyone."

  14. Observing System Simulations for ASCENDS: Synthesizing Science Measurement Requirements (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawa, S. R.; Baker, D. F.; Schuh, A. E.; Crowell, S.; Rayner, P. J.; Hammerling, D.; Michalak, A. M.; Wang, J. S.; Eluszkiewicz, J.; Ott, L.; Zaccheo, T.; Abshire, J. B.; Browell, E. V.; Moore, B.; Crisp, D.

    2013-12-01

    The measurement of atmospheric CO2 from space using active (lidar) sensing techniques has several potentially significant advantages in comparison to current and planned passive CO2 instruments. Application of this new technology aims to advance CO2 measurement capability and carbon cycle science into the next decade. The NASA Active Sensing of Carbon Emissions, Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission has been recommended by the US National Academy of Sciences Decadal Survey for the next generation of space-based CO2 observing systems. ASCENDS is currently planned for launch in 2022. Several possible lidar instrument approaches have been demonstrated in airborne campaigns and the results indicate that such sensors are quite feasible. Studies are now underway to evaluate performance requirements for space mission implementation. Satellite CO2 observations must be highly precise and unbiased in order to accurately infer global carbon source/sink fluxes. Measurement demands are likely to further increase in the wake of GOSAT, OCO-2, and enhanced ground-based in situ and remote sensing CO2 data. The objective of our work is to quantitatively and consistently evaluate the measurement capabilities and requirements for ASCENDS in the context of advancing our knowledge of carbon flux distributions and their dependence on underlying physical processes. Considerations include requirements for precision, relative accuracy, spatial/temporal coverage and resolution, vertical information content, interferences, and possibly the tradeoffs among these parameters, while at the same time framing a mission that can be implemented within a constrained budget. Here, we attempt to synthesize the results of observing system simulation studies, commissioned by the ASCENDS Science Requirements Definition Team, into a coherent set of mission performance guidelines. A variety of forward and inverse model frameworks are employed to reduce the potential dependence of the results on model

  15. Fast Emission Estimates in China Constrained by Satellite Observations (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijling, B.; van der A, R.

    2013-12-01

    Emission inventories of air pollutants are crucial information for policy makers and form important input data for air quality models. Unfortunately, bottom-up emission inventories, compiled from large quantities of statistical data, are easily outdated for an emerging economy such as China, where rapid economic growth changes emissions accordingly. Alternatively, top-down emission estimates from satellite observations of air constituents have important advantages of being spatial consistent, having high temporal resolution, and enabling emission updates shortly after the satellite data become available. Constraining emissions from concentration measurements is, however, computationally challenging. Within the GlobEmission project of the European Space Agency (ESA) a new algorithm has been developed, specifically designed for fast daily emission estimates of short-lived atmospheric species on a mesoscopic scale (0.25 × 0.25 degree) from satellite observations of column concentrations. The algorithm needs only one forward model run from a chemical transport model to calculate the sensitivity of concentration to emission, using trajectory analysis to account for transport away from the source. By using a Kalman filter in the inverse step, optimal use of the a priori knowledge and the newly observed data is made. We apply the algorithm for NOx emission estimates in East China, using the CHIMERE model together with tropospheric NO2 column retrievals of the OMI and GOME-2 satellite instruments. The observations are used to construct a monthly emission time series, which reveal important emission trends such as the emission reduction measures during the Beijing Olympic Games, and the impact and recovery from the global economic crisis. The algorithm is also able to detect emerging sources (e.g. new power plants) and improve emission information for areas where proxy data are not or badly known (e.g. shipping emissions). The new emission estimates result in a better

  16. Challenges of model transferability to data-scarce regions (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaniego, L. E.

    2013-12-01

    Developing the ability to globally predict the movement of water on the land surface at spatial scales from 1 to 5 km constitute one of grand challenges in land surface modelling. Copying with this grand challenge implies that land surface models (LSM) should be able to make reliable predictions across locations and/or scales other than those used for parameter estimation. In addition to that, data scarcity and quality impose further difficulties in attaining reliable predictions of water and energy fluxes at the scales of interest. Current computational limitations impose also seriously limitations to exhaustively investigate the parameter space of LSM over large domains (e.g. greater than half a million square kilometers). Addressing these challenges require holistic approaches that integrate the best techniques available for parameter estimation, field measurements and remotely sensed data at their native resolutions. An attempt to systematically address these issues is the multiscale parameterisation technique (MPR) that links high resolution land surface characteristics with effective model parameters. This technique requires a number of pedo-transfer functions and a much fewer global parameters (i.e. coefficients) to be inferred by calibration in gauged basins. The key advantage of this technique is the quasi-scale independence of the global parameters which enables to estimate global parameters at coarser spatial resolutions and then to transfer them to (ungauged) areas and scales of interest. In this study we show the ability of this technique to reproduce the observed water fluxes and states over a wide range of climate and land surface conditions ranging from humid to semiarid and from sparse to dense forested regions. Results of transferability of global model parameters in space (from humid to semi-arid basins) and across scales (from coarser to finer) clearly indicate the robustness of this technique. Simulations with coarse data sets (e.g. EOBS

  17. Accelerated testing of space mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, S. Frank; Heshmat, Hooshang

    1995-01-01

    This report contains a review of various existing life prediction techniques used for a wide range of space mechanisms. Life prediction techniques utilized in other non-space fields such as turbine engine design are also reviewed for applicability to many space mechanism issues. The development of new concepts on how various tribological processes are involved in the life of the complex mechanisms used for space applications are examined. A 'roadmap' for the complete implementation of a tribological prediction approach for complex mechanical systems including standard procedures for test planning, analytical models for life prediction and experimental verification of the life prediction and accelerated testing techniques are discussed. A plan is presented to demonstrate a method for predicting the life and/or performance of a selected space mechanism mechanical component.

  18. 2013 Space Radiation Standing Review Panel Status Review for: The Risk of Acute and Late Central Nervous System Effects from Radiation Exposure, The Risk of Acute Radiation Syndromes Due to Solar Particle Events (SPEs), The Risk Of Degenerative Tissue Or Other Health Effects From Radiation Exposure, and The Risk of Radiation Carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The Space Radiation Standing Review Panel (from here on referred to as the SRP) was impressed with the strong research program presented by the scientists and staff associated with NASA's Space Radiation Program Element and National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI). The presentations given on-site and the reports of ongoing research that were provided in advance indicated the potential Risk of Acute and Late Central Nervous System Effects from Radiation Exposure (CNS) and were extensively discussed by the SRP. This new data leads the SRP to recommend that a higher priority should be placed on research designed to identify and understand these risks at the mechanistic level. To support this effort the SRP feels that a shift of emphasis from Acute Radiation Syndromes (ARS) and carcinogenesis to CNS-related endpoints is justified at this point. However, these research efforts need to focus on mechanisms, should follow pace with advances in the field of CNS in general and should consider the specific comments and suggestions made by the SRP as outlined below. The SRP further recommends that the Space Radiation Program Element continue with its efforts to fill the vacant positions (Element Scientist, CNS Risk Discipline Lead) as soon as possible. The SRP also strongly recommends that NASA should continue the NASA Space Radiation Summer School. In addition to these broad recommendations, there are specific comments/recommendations noted for each risk, described in detail below.

  19. Food packages for Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fohey, M. F.; Sauer, R. L.; Westover, J. B.; Rockafeller, E. F.

    1978-01-01

    The paper reviews food packaging techniques used in space flight missions and describes the system developed for the Space Shuttle. Attention is directed to bite-size food cubes used in Gemini, Gemini rehydratable food packages, Apollo spoon-bowl rehydratable packages, thermostabilized flex pouch for Apollo, tear-top commercial food cans used in Skylab, polyethylene beverage containers, Skylab rehydratable food package, Space Shuttle food package configuration, duck-bill septum rehydration device, and a drinking/dispensing nozzle for Space Shuttle liquids. Constraints and testing of packaging is considered, a comparison of food package materials is presented, and typical Shuttle foods and beverages are listed.

  20. Stokes-vector and Mueller-matrix polarimetry [Invited].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzam, R M A

    2016-07-01

    This paper reviews the current status of instruments for measuring the full 4×1 Stokes vector S, which describes the state of polarization (SOP) of totally or partially polarized light, and the 4×4 Mueller matrix M, which determines how the SOP is transformed as light interacts with a material sample or an optical element or system. The principle of operation of each instrument is briefly explained by using the Stokes-Mueller calculus. The development of fast, automated, imaging, and spectroscopic instruments over the last 50 years has greatly expanded the range of applications of optical polarimetry and ellipsometry in almost every branch of science and technology. Current challenges and future directions of this important branch of optics are also discussed.