WorldWideScience

Sample records for space interactive tobacco

  1. Tobacco

    ... Second-hand smoke is the smoke that fills restaurants, offices or other enclosed spaces when people burn ... as smuggling, illicit manufacturing and counterfeiting. The tobacco industry and others often argue that high tobacco product ...

  2. Measuring interactivity on tobacco control websites.

    Freeman, Becky; Chapman, Simon

    2012-08-01

    With the increased reach of Web 2.0, Internet users expect webpages to be interactive. No studies have been conducted to assess whether tobacco control-relevant sites have implemented these features. The authors conducted an analysis of an international sample of tobacco control-relevant websites to determine their level of interactivity. The sample included 68 unique websites selected from Google searches in 5 countries, on each country's Google site, using the term smoking. The 68 sites were analyzed for 10 categories of interactive tools. The most common type of interactive content found on 46 (68%) of sites was for multimedia featuring content that was not primarily text based, such as photo galleries, videos, or podcasts. Only 11 (16%) websites-outside of media sites-allowed people to interact and engage with the site owners and other users by allowing posting comments on content and/or hosting forums/discussions. Linkages to social networking sites were low: 17 pages (25%) linked to Twitter, 15 (22%) to Facebook, and 11 (16%) to YouTube. Interactivity and connectedness to online social media appears to still be in its infancy among tobacco control-relevant sites.

  3. Space for Interaction

    Jørgensen, Mariane Ellen; Folmer, Mette Blicher; Mullins, Michael

    SPACE FOR INTERACTION QUALIFYING GROUP TREATMENT FOR PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC PAIN THROUGH OPTIMIZATION(?) OF SPACE. A RANDOMIZED PILOT STUDY. In a Ph-D. Mariane Ellen Jørgensen / Nurse + psykoterapist / maej@rn.dk / Pain Center / Aalborg University Hospital / Denmark / Mette Blicher Folmer / Archit...

  4. Virtual Interactive Space (VIS)

    Brooks, Anthony Lewis

    2015-01-01

    This paper shares code that enables the making of a Virtual Interactive Space (VIS) where the skin of the invisible active sensor area is dynamically responsive to the velocity of a limb e.g. hand. Used in proprioception training of movement the patch is at the core of the author’s Reafferentation...

  5. Mixed Interaction Spaces

    Lykke-Olesen, Andreas; Eriksson, E.; Hansen, T.R.

    In this paper, we describe a new interaction technique for mobile devices named Mixed Interaction Space that uses the camera of the mobile device to track the position, size and rotation of a fixed-point. In this demonstration we will present a system that uses a hand-drawn circle, colored object...... or a person’s face as a fixed-point to determine the location of the device. We use these features as a 4 dimensional input vector to a set of different applications....

  6. Interaction Design for Public Spaces

    Kortbek, Karen Johanne

    2008-01-01

    In this abstract I describe the doctorial research project "Interaction Design for Public Spaces". The objective of the project is to explore and design interaction contexts in culture related public spaces such as museums, experience centres and festivals. As a perspective on this domain, I...... will focus on the usage of the body as an interaction device. Furthermore, the project will involve a dramaturgic take on communication and design of interactive systems in the pursuit of new ways to stage the interactive contexts. The outcome of the project will be guidelines and conceptual frameworks which...... will help interaction designers when designing for bodily movement, and communicating and staging interactive content in public spaces....

  7. Interacting Conceptual Spaces

    Bolt, Josef; Coecke, Bob; Genovese, Fabrizio; Lewis, Martha; Marsden, Daniel; Piedeleu, Robin

    2016-01-01

    We propose applying the categorical compositional scheme of [6] to conceptual space models of cognition. In order to do this we introduce the category of convex relations as a new setting for categorical compositional semantics, emphasizing the convex structure important to conceptual space applications. We show how conceptual spaces for composite types such as adjectives and verbs can be constructed. We illustrate this new model on detailed examples.

  8. Interactions among tobacco sieve element occlusion (SEO) proteins.

    Jekat, Stephan B; Ernst, Antonia M; Zielonka, Sascia; Noll, Gundula A; Prüfer, Dirk

    2012-12-01

    Angiosperms transport their photoassimilates through sieve tubes, which comprise longitudinally-connected sieve elements. In dicots and also some monocots, the sieve elements contain parietal structural proteins known as phloem proteins or P-proteins. Following injury, P proteins disperse and accumulate as viscous plugs at the sieve plates to prevent the loss of valuable transport sugars. Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) P-proteins are multimeric complexes comprising subunits encoded by members of the SEO (sieve element occlusion) gene family. The existence of multiple subunits suggests that P-protein assembly involves interactions between SEO proteins, but this process is largely uncharacterized and it is unclear whether the different subunits perform unique roles or are redundant. We therefore extended our analysis of the tobacco P-proteins NtSEO1 and NtSEO2 to investigate potential interactions between them, and found that both proteins can form homomeric and heteromeric complexes in planta.

  9. Characterizing Social Interaction in Tobacco-Oriented Social Networks: An Empirical Analysis.

    Liang, Yunji; Zheng, Xiaolong; Zeng, Daniel Dajun; Zhou, Xingshe; Leischow, Scott James; Chung, Wingyan

    2015-06-19

    Social media is becoming a new battlefield for tobacco "wars". Evaluating the current situation is very crucial for the advocacy of tobacco control in the age of social media. To reveal the impact of tobacco-related user-generated content, this paper characterizes user interaction and social influence utilizing social network analysis and information theoretic approaches. Our empirical studies demonstrate that the exploding pro-tobacco content has long-lasting effects with more active users and broader influence, and reveal the shortage of social media resources in global tobacco control. It is found that the user interaction in the pro-tobacco group is more active, and user-generated content for tobacco promotion is more successful in obtaining user attention. Furthermore, we construct three tobacco-related social networks and investigate the topological patterns of these tobacco-related social networks. We find that the size of the pro-tobacco network overwhelms the others, which suggests a huge number of users are exposed to the pro-tobacco content. These results indicate that the gap between tobacco promotion and tobacco control is widening and tobacco control may be losing ground to tobacco promotion in social media.

  10. Interaction of E. coli DNA with tobacco mesophyll protoplasts

    Heyn, R.F.

    1975-01-01

    This chapter is part of a dissertation dealing with the interaction of DNA with protoplasts. Having established the length of time during which tobacco mesophyll protoplasts do not synthesize DNA following their isolation, it is important to know the extent of DNA uptake just before the onset of DNA synthesis (and possible integration) and to find optimal conditions for this uptake. Therefore, the association of E. coli DNA with tobacco protoplasts was studied. Care should be taken with the interpretation of ''uptake'' results: adsorption phenomena play a very important role and may do so at the plasmalemma of naked protoplasts. To solve the problems involved, the use of radiation-damaged DNA was attempted. With E. coli DNA possessing a large number of thymine containing pyrimidine dimers, the loss of dimers from DNA recovered from treated protoplasts was tested in order to obtain an indication of ''real'' uptake. The results are reported

  11. Characterizing Social Interaction in Tobacco-Oriented Social Networks: An Empirical Analysis

    Liang, Yunji; Zheng, Xiaolong; Zeng, Daniel Dajun; Zhou, Xingshe; Leischow, Scott James; Chung, Wingyan

    2015-01-01

    Social media is becoming a new battlefield for tobacco ?wars?. Evaluating the current situation is very crucial for the advocacy of tobacco control in the age of social media. To reveal the impact of tobacco-related user-generated content, this paper characterizes user interaction and social influence utilizing social network analysis and information theoretic approaches. Our empirical studies demonstrate that the exploding pro-tobacco content has long-lasting effects with more active users a...

  12. Tobacco

    ... 1 in 3 countries, representing 39% of the world's population, monitors tobacco use by repeating nationally representative youth ... 1.4 billion people, or 20% of the world's population, are protected by comprehensive national smoke-free laws. ...

  13. Ethical and legal analyses of policy prohibiting tobacco smoking in enclosed public spaces.

    Oriola, Taiwo A

    2009-01-01

    A spate of legislations prohibiting cigarette smoking in enclosed public spaces, mainly on grounds of public health protection, recently swept across cities around the world. This is in tandem with a raft of increasingly restrictive national laws that emerged on the back of the ratification of the WHO Framework for Tobacco Control by more than one 168 countries in 2005. The central debate on the increasingly restrictive tobacco laws revolves on the extent to which public health interests justification should ground political intervention in a private right as basic as tobacco smoking, which interestingly is often lumped in the food and beverage category. The pertinent legal and ethical questions therefore are the following: Is or should there be a general unrestricted right to tobacco smoking? If there were such a right, should public health or ethical considerations trump private right to smoke in enclosed public spaces? And if public health interests were so paramount, should they go farther and ground tobacco smoking proscription in all private and public spheres? Using ethical principles and rights-based arguments, the paper critically examines the legal and ethical ramifications of public health justification for tobacco smoking proscription in enclosed public spaces.

  14. Cell cycle-dependent O-GlcNAc modification of tobacco histones and their interaction with the tobacco lectin.

    Delporte, Annelies; De Zaeytijd, Jeroen; De Storme, Nico; Azmi, Abdelkrim; Geelen, Danny; Smagghe, Guy; Guisez, Yves; Van Damme, Els J M

    2014-10-01

    The Nicotiana tabacum agglutinin or Nictaba is a nucleocytoplasmic lectin that is expressed in tobacco after the plants have been exposed to jasmonate treatment or insect herbivory. Nictaba specifically recognizes GlcNAc residues. Recently, it was shown that Nictaba is interacting in vitro with the core histone proteins from calf thymus. Assuming that plant histones - similar to their animal counterparts - undergo O-GlcNAcylation, this interaction presumably occurs through binding of the lectin to the O-GlcNAc modification present on the histones. Hereupon, the question was raised whether this modification also occurs in plants and if it is cell cycle dependent. To this end, histones were purified from tobacco BY-2 suspension cells and the presence of O-GlcNAc modifications was checked. Concomitantly, O-GlcNAcylation of histone proteins was studied. Our data show that similar to animal histones plant histones are modified by O-GlcNAc in a cell cycle-dependent fashion. In addition, the interaction between Nictaba and tobacco histones was confirmed using lectin chromatography and far Western blot analysis. Collectively these findings suggest that Nictaba can act as a modulator of gene transcription through its interaction with core histones. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Spaces of interaction, places for experience

    Benyon, David

    2014-01-01

    Spaces of Interaction, Places for Experience is a book about Human-Computer Interaction (HCI), interaction design (ID) and user experience (UX) in the age of ubiquitous computing. The book explores interaction and experience through the different spaces that contribute to interaction until it arrives at an understanding of the rich and complex places for experience that will be the focus of the next period for interaction design. The book begins by looking at the multilayered nature of interaction and UX-not just with new technologies, but with technologies that are embedded in the world. Peop

  16. Activity-Based Collaboration for Interactive Spaces

    Bardram, Jakob Eyvind; Esbensen, Morten; Tabard, Aurélien

    2017-01-01

    , folder, documents, etc., users are able to interact with ‘activities’ which encapsulate files and other low-level resources. In ABC an ‘activity’ can be shared between collaborating users and can be accessed on different devices. As such, ABC is a framework that suits the requirements of designing...... interactive spaces. This chapter provides an overview of ABC with a special focus on its support for collaboration (‘Activity Sharing’) and multiple devices (‘Activity Roaming’). These ABC concepts are illustrated as implemented in two different interactive spaces technologies; ReticularSpaces [1] and the e......LabBench [2, 3]. The chapter discusses the benefits of activity-based collaboration support for these interactive spaces, while also discussing limitations and challenges to be addressed in further research....

  17. Blended Interaction Spaces for Collaborative Design

    Dalsgaard, Peter; Halskov, Kim; Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted

    During the past five years, we have explored the use, potentials and challenges of Blended Interaction spaces. In addition, we have a long background in developing and exploring methods for collaborative design. In this workshop paper, we give an overview of our work and present our visions...... and ongoing research in developing Blended Interaction spaces for collaborative design. We then identify key themes and challenges pertinent for the workshop....

  18. A Pilot Study for Linking Adolescent Patients to an Interactive Tobacco Prevention Program

    Karen S. Calabro

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Context: The American Academy of Pediatrics and professional guidelines recommend intervening with adolescents about avoiding tobacco use in the health-care setting. Barriers in the clinical setting limit consistent provision of this critical service. Objectives: This pilot study compared 2 approaches for referring adolescents to an evidence-based tobacco prevention and cessation program in the outpatient setting. Secondary aims assessed tobacco use, knowledge, and program evaluation. Design, Setting, and Participants: The study setting was a medical and dental clinic. Participants aged 13 to 18 received tobacco advice and instructions to work through “A Smoking Prevention Interactive Experience.” The program addresses health concerns of adolescents about tobacco use and is founded on behavioral change theories. The link to access it is featured on the website of the National Cancer Institute’s Research-Tested Interventions. Participants (N = 197 were randomized to 1 of 2 approaches (ie, a program link via e-mail or referral by a printed card. Results: The program was accessed by 57% (112 of 197 of participants. Both referral approaches were equally effective. Non-Hispanics were twice as likely to access the program as Hispanics (adjusted odds ratio = 2.1, 95% confidence interval = 1.2-3.8, P < .05. Over 95% of participants identified themselves as nonusers of tobacco and evaluated the program as beneficial in increasing knowledge and motivation to remain tobacco-free. Conclusion: Linking adolescent patients to an evidence-based tobacco prevention/cessation program at a community health clinic was highly promising and feasible. We present conclusions for future research.

  19. 41 CFR 102-74.75 - May Federal agencies sell tobacco products in vending machines in Government-owned and leased space?

    2010-07-01

    ... sell tobacco products in vending machines in Government-owned and leased space? 102-74.75 Section 102... Services § 102-74.75 May Federal agencies sell tobacco products in vending machines in Government-owned and leased space? No. Section 636 of Public Law 104-52 prohibits the sale of tobacco products in vending...

  20. Governing 'Spaces of Interaction' for Sustainable Fisheries

    Bush, S.R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces the concept of 'spaces of interaction' to determine how existing market-based governance tools improve participation and deliberation between actors along fish value chains. Exploring these linkages through the sociology of environmental flows and interactive governance theory

  1. Detection of Social Interaction in Smart Spaces.

    Cook, Diane J; Crandall, Aaron; Singla, Geetika; Thomas, Brian

    2010-02-01

    The pervasive sensing technologies found in smart environments offer unprecedented opportunities for monitoring and assisting the individuals who live and work in these spaces. An aspect of daily life that is important for one's emotional and physical health is social interaction. In this paper we investigate the use of smart environment technologies to detect and analyze interactions in smart spaces. We introduce techniques for collect and analyzing sensor information in smart environments to help in interpreting resident behavior patterns and determining when multiple residents are interacting. The effectiveness of our techniques is evaluated using two physical smart environment testbeds.

  2. Interaction of the Tobacco mosaic virus movement protein with microtubules during the cell cycle in tobacco BY-2 cells.

    Boutant, Emmanuel; Fitterer, Chantal; Ritzenthaler, Christophe; Heinlein, Manfred

    2009-10-01

    Cell-to-cell movement of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) involves the interaction of virus-encoded 30-kDa movement protein (MP) with microtubules. In cells behind the infection front that accumulate high levels of MP, this activity is reflected by the formation of stabilized MP/microtubule complexes. The ability of MP to bind along and stabilize microtubules is conserved upon expression in mammalian cells. In mammalian cells, the protein also leads to inhibition of mitosis and cell division through a microtubule-independent process correlated with the loss of centrosomal gamma-tubulin and of centrosomal microtubule-nucleation activity. Since MP has the capacity to interact with plant factors involved in microtubule nucleation and dynamics, we used inducible expression in BY-2 cells to test whether MP expression inhibits mitosis and cell division also in plants. We demonstrate that MP:GFP associates with all plant microtubule arrays and, unlike in mammalian cells, does not interfere with mitosis. Thus, MP function and the interaction of MP with factors of the cytoskeleton do not entail an inhibition of mitosis in plants. We also report that the protein targets primary plasmodesmata in BY-2 cells immediately upon or during cytokinesis and that the accumulation of MP in plasmodesmata occurs in the presence of inhibitors of the cytoskeleton and the secretory pathway.

  3. Electron beam interaction with space plasmas.

    Krafft, C.; Bolokitin, A. S.

    1999-12-01

    Active space experiments involving the controlled injection of electron beams and the formation of artificially generated currents can provide in many cases a calibration of natural phenomena connected with the dynamic interaction of charged particles with fields. They have a long history beginning from the launches of small rockets with electron guns in order to map magnetic fields lines in the Earth's magnetosphere or to excite artificial auroras. Moreover, natural beams of charged particles exist in many space and astrophysical plasmas and were identified in situ by several satellites; a few examples are beams connected with solar bursts, planetary foreshocks or suprathermal fluxes traveling in planetary magnetospheres. Many experimental and theoretical works have been performed in order to interpret or plan space experiments involving beam injection as well as to understand the physics of wave-particle interaction, as wave radiation, beam dynamics and background plasma modification.

  4. Thermal Interaction of Closely Spaced Persons

    Brohus, Henrik; Nielsen, Peter V.; Tøgersen, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents results from a pilot study on the thermal interaction of closely spaced persons in a large enclosure. The surface temperature at different densities of persons is evaluated using a high resolution thermo vision camera in a controlled thermal environment. The corresponding ther...... thermal sensation is evaluated using questionnaires for the various densities. The results indicate that it may be acceptable to consider persons standalone, in a thermal sense, disregarding thermal interaction at usual densities in the design of large enclosures.......This paper presents results from a pilot study on the thermal interaction of closely spaced persons in a large enclosure. The surface temperature at different densities of persons is evaluated using a high resolution thermo vision camera in a controlled thermal environment. The corresponding...

  5. A video of Mixed Interaction Space video

    Lykke, Olesen, Andreas; Hansen, Thomas Riisgaard; Eriksson, Eva

    Mixed Interaction Space is a new concept that uses the mobile phone to interact with either applications on the phone or in the environment by tracking the position and rotation with the camera in 4 dimmension. Most mobile devices today has a camera onboard. In the project about Mixed Interaction...... Spaces we use image processing algorithms to track the movement of the mobile phone according to a fixed point and use this information as input to different applications. We are able to track the movement of the device in 3D plus the rotation of the device and uses these information as a kind of four...... dimensional input device. As a fixed point we use a circle in the first version of Mixis. By tracking the circle we have developed a number of applications that uses this technique as input. Above is three examples....

  6. Electron beam interaction with space plasmas

    Krafft, C.; Volokitin, A.S.

    1999-01-01

    Active space experiments involving the controlled injection of electron beams and the formation of artificially generated currents can provide in many cases a calibration of natural phenomena connected with the dynamic interaction of charged particles with fields. They have a long history beginning from the launches of small rockets with electron guns in order to map magnetic fields lines in the Earth's magnetosphere or to excite artificial auroras. Moreover, natural beams of charged particles exist in many space and astrophysical plasmas and were identified in situ by several satellites; a few examples are beams connected with solar bursts, planetary foreshocks or suprathermal fluxes traveling in planetary magnetospheres. Many experimental and theoretical works have been performed in order to interpret or plan space experiments involving beam injection as well as to understand the physics of wave-particle interaction, as wave radiation, beam dynamics and background plasma modification. Recently, theoretical studies of the nonlinear evolution of a thin monoenergetic electron beam injected in a magnetized plasma and interacting with a whistler wave packet have led to new results. The influence of an effective dissipation process connected with whistler wave field leakage out of the beam volume to infinity (that is, effective radiation outside the beam) on the nonlinear evolution of beam electrons distribution in phase space has been studied under conditions relevant to active space experiments and related laboratory modelling. The beam-waves system's evolution reveals the formation of stable nonlinear structures continuously decelerated due to the effective friction imposed by the strongly dissipated waves. The nonlinear interaction between the electron bunches and the wave packet are discussed in terms of dynamic energy exchange, particle trapping, slowing down of the beam, wave dissipation and quasi-linear diffusion. (author)

  7. Adult onset asthma and interaction between genes and active tobacco smoking: The GABRIEL consortium.

    J M Vonk

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies have identified novel genetic associations for asthma, but without taking into account the role of active tobacco smoking. This study aimed to identify novel genes that interact with ever active tobacco smoking in adult onset asthma.We performed a genome-wide interaction analysis in six studies participating in the GABRIEL consortium following two meta-analyses approaches based on 1 the overall interaction effect and 2 the genetic effect in subjects with and without smoking exposure. We performed a discovery meta-analysis including 4,057 subjects of European descent and replicated our findings in an independent cohort (LifeLines Cohort Study, including 12,475 subjects.First approach: 50 SNPs were selected based on an overall interaction effect at p<10-4. The most pronounced interaction effect was observed for rs9969775 on chromosome 9 (discovery meta-analysis: ORint = 0.50, p = 7.63*10-5, replication: ORint = 0.65, p = 0.02. Second approach: 35 SNPs were selected based on the overall genetic effect in exposed subjects (p <10-4. The most pronounced genetic effect was observed for rs5011804 on chromosome 12 (discovery meta-analysis ORint = 1.50, p = 1.21*10-4; replication: ORint = 1.40, p = 0.03.Using two genome-wide interaction approaches, we identified novel polymorphisms in non-annotated intergenic regions on chromosomes 9 and 12, that showed suggestive evidence for interaction with active tobacco smoking in the onset of adult asthma.

  8. Movement-based Interaction in Camera Spaces

    Eriksson, Eva; Riisgaard Hansen, Thomas; Lykke-Olesen, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present three concepts that address movement-based interaction using camera tracking. Based on our work with several movement-based projects we present four selected applications, and use these applications to leverage our discussion, and to describe our three main concepts space......, relations, and feedback. We see these as central for describing and analysing movement-based systems using camera tracking and we show how these three concepts can be used to analyse other camera tracking applications....

  9. Contamination Effects Due to Space Environmental Interactions

    Chen, Philip T.; Paquin, Krista C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Molecular and particulate contaminants are commonly generated from the orbital spacecraft operations that are under the influence of the space environment. Once generated, these contaminants may attach to the surfaces of the spacecraft or may remain in the vicinity of the spacecraft. In the event these contaminants come to rest on the surfaces of the spacecraft or situated in the line-of-sight of the observation path, they will create various degrees of contamination effect which may cause undesirable effects for normal spacecraft operations, There will be circumstances in which the spacecraft may be subjected to special space environment due to operational conditions. Interactions between contaminants and special space environment may alter or greatly increase the contamination effect due to the synergistic effect. This paper will address the various types of contamination generation on orbit, the general effects of the contamination on spacecraft systems, and the typical impacts on the spacecraft operations due to the contamination effect. In addition, this paper will explain the contamination effect induced by the space environment and will discuss the intensified contamination effect resulting from the synergistic effect with the special space environment.

  10. Audiovisual Interactions in Front and Rear Space

    Christopher Montagne

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The human visual and auditory systems do not encode an entirely overlapped space when static head and body position are maintained. While visual capture of sound source location in the frontal field is known to be immediate and direct, visual influence in the rear auditory space behind the subject remains under-studied. In this study we investigated the influence of presenting frontal LED flashes on the perceived location of a phantom sound source generated using time-delay-based stereophony. Our results show that frontal visual stimuli affected auditory localization in two different ways – (1 auditory responses were laterally shifted (left or right toward the location of the light stimulus and (2 auditory responses were more often in the frontal field. The observed visual effects do not adhere to the spatial rule of multisensory interaction with regard to the physical proximity of cues. Instead, the influence of visual cues interacted closely with front–back confusions in auditory localization. In particular, visually induced shift along the left–right direction occurred most often when an auditory stimulus was localized in the same (frontal field as the light stimulus, even when the actual sound sources were presented from behind a subject. Increasing stimulus duration (from 15-ms to 50-ms significantly mitigated the rates of front–back confusion and the associated effects of visual stimuli. These findings suggest that concurrent visual stimulation elicits a strong frontal bias in auditory localization and confirm that temporal integration plays an important role in decreasing front–back errors under conditions requiring multisensory spatial processing.

  11. Bacillus subtilis affects miRNAs and flavanoids production in Agrobacterium-Tobacco interaction.

    Nazari, Fahimeh; Safaie, Naser; Soltani, Bahram Mohammad; Shams-Bakhsh, Masoud; Sharifi, Mohsen

    2017-09-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a very destructive plant pathogen. Selection of effective biological agents against this pathogen depends on more insight into molecular plant defence responses during the biocontrol agent-pathogen interaction. Auxin as a phytohormone is a key contributor in pathogenesis and plant defence and accumulation of auxin transport carriers are accompanied by increasing in flavonoid and miRNAs concentrations during plant interactions with bacteria. The aim of this research was molecular analysis of Bacillus subtilis (ATCC21332) biocontrol effect against A. tumefaciens (IBRC-M10701) pathogen interacting with Nicotiana tabacum plants. Tobacco plants were either treated with both or one of the challenging bacteria and the expression of miRNAs inside the plants were analysed through qRT-PCR. The results indicated that the bacterial treatments affect expression level of nta-miRNAs. In tobacco plants treated only with A. tumefaciens the expression of nta-miR393 was more than that was recorded for nta-miR167 (3.8 folds, P subtilis (2.1 folds, P subtilis alone, was similar to the amount recorded for the plants challenged with the both bacteria. This study suggests a relationship between the upregulation of nta-miR167, nta-miR393 and accumulation of flavanoid compounds. Overall, the expression of these miRNAs as well as flavonoid derivatives has the potential of being used as biomarkers for the interaction of B. subtilis and A. tumefaciens model system in N. tabacum. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Mathematical description and prognosis of Synergistic interaction of radon and tobacco smoking

    Kim, J. K.; Belkina, S. A.; Petin, V. G.

    2007-01-01

    : Radon and its short-lived decay products are considered as the important sources of public exposure to natural radioactivity. The synergistic interaction between tobacco smoking and radon is known to be an actual problem. This study has provided a mathematical description and prognosis of the carcinogenic effects after combined action of radon with smoking. Materials and Methods: A simple mathematical model was adjusted for the optimization and prognosis of the synergistic interaction of radon with smoking. The model postulates that the occurrence of synergism is to be expected as a result of additional carcinogenic damage arising from the interaction of sub lesions induced by the two agents under consideration. Results: The predictions of the model were verified by comparison with experimental data published by other researchers. The model appears to be appropriate and the predictions valid. Conclusion: The suggested mathematical model predicts the greatest level of synergistic effect and condition under which this level is reached. The synergistic effect appeared to decline with any deviation from the optimal value of the ratio of carcinogenic effective damages produced by each agent alone

  13. Designing Interaction Spaces for Rich Internet Applications with UML

    Dolog, Peter; Stage, Jan

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method for designing rich internet applications. The design process uses results from an object-oriented analysis and employs interaction spaces as the basic abstraction mechanism. State diagrams are employed as refinements of interaction spaces and task models...

  14. Human capabilities in space. [man machine interaction

    Nicogossian, A. E.

    1984-01-01

    Man's ability to live and perform useful work in space was demonstrated throughout the history of manned space flight. Current planning envisions a multi-functional space station. Man's unique abilities to respond to the unforeseen and to operate at a level of complexity exceeding any reasonable amount of previous planning distinguish him from present day machines. His limitations, however, include his inherent inability to survive without protection, his limited strength, and his propensity to make mistakes when performing repetitive and monotonous tasks. By contrast, an automated system does routine and delicate tasks, exerts force smoothly and precisely, stores, and recalls large amounts of data, and performs deductive reasoning while maintaining a relative insensitivity to the environment. The establishment of a permanent presence of man in space demands that man and machines be appropriately combined in spaceborne systems. To achieve this optimal combination, research is needed in such diverse fields as artificial intelligence, robotics, behavioral psychology, economics, and human factors engineering.

  15. Genetic Factors Interact With Tobacco Smoke to Modify Risk for Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Humans and Mice

    Yadav, Pankaj; Ellinghaus, David; Rémy, Gaëlle

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: The role of tobacco smoke in the etiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is unclear. We investigated interactions between genes and smoking (gene-smoking interactions) that affect risk for Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) in a case-only study of patients...... chamber, or ambient air (controls). Intestines were collected and analyzed histologically and by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: We identified 64 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for which the association between the SNP and IBD were modified by smoking behavior (meta...... to smoke. CONCLUSIONS: In an analysis of 55 Immunochip-wide datasets, we identified 64 SNPs whose association with risk for IBD is modified by tobacco smoking. Gene-smoking interactions were confirmed in mice with disruption of Il10 and Nod2-variants of these genes have been associated with risk for IBD...

  16. Towards Ways to Promote Interaction in Digital Learning Spaces

    Olsson , Hanna ,

    2012-01-01

    Part 7: Doctoral Student Papers; International audience; Social learning is dependent on social interactions. I am exploring ways to promote interaction in Digital Learning Spaces. As theoretical framework I use the types of interaction between learner, instructor and content. That learners feel isolated and lonely in DLSs is a problem which comes at high cost for social learning. My aim is to promote social interaction by offering the edentity: a system for making participants visible to eac...

  17. Interactive Space(s) -- the CTSG: bridging the real and virtual

    Eliëns, A.P.W.; Mao, W.; Vermeersch, L

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, ideas will be presented how to realize games or playful activities in interactive space(s), having a real (spatial) component as well as a representation in virtual 2D or 3D space, by means of web pages and/or online games. Apart from general design criteria, the paper discusses a

  18. Evolution in space and time of two interacting intensities

    Wilhelmsson, H.

    1977-01-01

    The basic nonlinear coupled equations describing the interaction between two intensities (or two populations) are discussed. Analytic solutions are deduced for the evolution in space and time of initially given perturbations of the equilibrium intensities. (Auth.)

  19. Interactions for winding strings in Misner space

    Hikida, Y.

    2006-06-01

    We compute correlation functions of closed strings in Misner space, a big crunch big bang universe. We develop a general method for correlators with twist fields, which are relevant for the investigation on the condensation of winding tachyon. We propose to compute the correlation functions by performing an analytic continuation of the results in C/Z N Euclidean orbifold. In particular, we obtain a finite result for a general four point function of twist fields, which might be important for the interpretation as the quartic term of the tachyon potential. Three point functions are read off through the factorization, which are consistent with the known results. (Orig.)

  20. Interactivity, from art to surgery to space!

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    Currently the way we interact with computers can be done much more naturally with touchless technologies powered by new hardware and computer vision. A good example is the Microsoft Kinect, that changed not only the way we can play games at our homes but also how we can experiment a work of art. I am presenting some of these technologies and what they can be used for, in the hope that there might be use cases at CERN that could use these solutions.

  1. Playful Interactions Stimulating Physical Activity in Public Spaces

    Sturm, Janienke; Bekker, Tilde; Vanden Abeele, Vero

    In this position paper we describe our vision on designing playful interactions to persuade people to be physically active in public spaces. Social embeddedness and playful interaction are the core elements of this vision. We illustrate how our design vision is incorporated into innovative concepts...... to motivate each other to be physically active by creating challenges for each other. Designing playful solutions for public spaces asks for low-threshold solutions that support easy stepping in and stepping out solutions....

  2. Coulomb plus strong interaction bound states - momentum space numerical solutions

    Heddle, D.P.; Tabakin, F.

    1985-01-01

    The levels and widths of hadronic atoms are calculated in momentum space using an inverse algorithm for the eigenvalue problem. The Coulomb singularity is handled by the Lande substraction method. Relativistic, nonlocal, complex hadron-nucleus interactions are incorporated as well as vacuum polarization and finite size effects. Coordinate space wavefunctions are obtained by employing a Fourier Bessel transformation. (orig.)

  3. Stochastic Coulomb interactions in space charge limited electron emission

    Nijkerk, M.D.; Kruit, P.

    2004-01-01

    A Monte Carlo simulation tool, which was used to evaluate the influence of discrete space charge effects on self-consistent calculations of cathode-ray tube optics, was discussed. It was found that interactions in the space charge cloud affect the electron trajectories such that the velocity

  4. 3-dimensional interactive space (3DIS)

    Veitch, S.; Veitch, J.; West, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the 3DIS security system which uses standard CCTV cameras to create 3-Dimensional detection zones around valuable assets within protected areas. An intrusion into a zone changes light values and triggers an alarm that is annunciated, while images from multiple cameras are recorded. 3DIS lowers nuisance alarm rates and provides superior automated surveillance capability. Performance is improved over 2-D systems because activity around, above or below the zone does to cause an alarm. Invisible 3-D zones protect assets as small as a pin or as large as a 747 jetliner. Detection zones are created by excising subspaces from the overlapping fields of view of two or more video cameras. Hundred of zones may co-exist, operating simultaneously. Intrusion into any 3-D zone will cause a coincidental change in light values, triggering an alarm specific to that space

  5. Biotic Interaction in Space and Time

    Schmidt, Andreas Kelager

    Myrmica host ants by using chemical and acoustic mimicry to coerce the ant workers to feed and nurture the caterpillar preferentially over their own brood. Maculinea alcon is thus an extreme dietary specialist as absence of just one of the hosts precludes presence of the butterfly and as a result...... further enhance the risk of extinction. Maculinea alcon is selected as an umbrella for conservation and numerous aspects of its biology has been studied extensively. This thesis explores the spatio-temporal impact of the tight biotic dependence in this tritrophic interaction system and integrates...... in host ant use as expected, and is an example of a genetic barrier operating on a temporal scale rather than spatial. In chapter II, we developed habitat suitability models for M. alcon and G. pneumonanthe potentially useful in locating undocumented populations and for improving management of them...

  6. Combinatorial description of space and strong interactions

    Zenczykowski, P.

    1988-01-01

    A reinterpretation is given of a successful phenomenological approach to hadron self-energy effects known as the unitarized quark model. General arguments are given that the proper description of strong interactions may require abandoning the assignment of a primary role to continuous concepts such as position and momentum in favor of discrete ones such as spin or W-spin. The reinterpretation exploits an analogy between the W-spin diagrams occurring in the calculations of hadronic loop effects and the spin network idea of Penrose. A connection between the S-matrix approach to hadron masses and the purely algebraic approach characteristic of the quark model is indicated. Several hadron mass relations generated by a resulting SU(6)/sub w/-group-theoretic expression are presented and discussed. Results of an attempt to generalize the scheme to the description of hadron vertices are reported

  7. Space radiation interaction mechanisms in materials

    Wilson, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    Models of charged-particle impact under conditions typical of the space environment are reported, with a focus on impact excitation and nuclear reactions, especially for heavy ions. Impact excitation is studied by using a global model for electronic excitation based on formal relations through the classical dielectric function to derive an approximation related to the local plasma (electron density distribution) within the atoms and molecules and corrections to the model resulting from the nonfluid nature of this plasma are discussed. Nuclear reactions are studied by reducing quantum-mechanical treatment of this general N-body problem to an equivalent two-body problem that is solvable, and by comparing the results with experimental data. The equations for heavy-charged-particle transport are derived and solution techniques demonstrated. Finally, these methods of analysis are applied to study the change in the electrical properties of a GaAs semiconductor for photovoltaic applications. Proton damage to GaAs crystals is found to arise from stable replacement defects and to be nonannealable, in contrast to electron-induced damage. 17 references

  8. Communal space design as student interaction in polnep campus

    Hasriyanti, N.; Zulestari, A.; Judhi, J.; Ikayanti, P.

    2018-03-01

    Communal space is a means to do for social interaction, from private to the public. The purpose of this study was conducted to explore the phenomenon of communal space setting of Pontianak State Polytechnic students from 8 departments of study both indoor and outdoor spaces. The research method used is a rationalistic study. The planned activities to be undertaken include the determination of communal places (indoor and outdoor), sample determination, data collection with surveys and interviews, presenting data and analysis and drawing conclusions as a basis for designing communal space for Polnep students. The research were analyzed of building and space character, analysis of space organization and circulation, space requirement analysis, material and color analysis, site analysis, and analysis of inner space elements and outer space elements. From the results of this study, it can be concluded that Polnep campus environment requires the addition of public space for students in conducting formal activities outside lectures. Some activity which to do some student such as activity to waiting lecturer, do some coursework, discussion, relaxation, extracurricular activities, and other informal activities still require adequate space infrastructure and are equipped with street furnitures such as garden lights, benches, outer space markers and shade vegetation.

  9. The added value of accounting for activity space when examining the association between tobacco retailer availability and smoking among young adults.

    Shareck, Martine; Kestens, Yan; Vallée, Julie; Datta, Geetanjali; Frohlich, Katherine L

    2016-07-01

    Despite a declining prevalence in many countries, smoking rates remain consistently high among young adults. Targeting contextual influences on smoking, such as the availability of tobacco retailers, is one promising avenue of intervention. Most studies have focused on residential or school neighbourhoods, without accounting for other settings where individuals spend time, that is, their activity space. We investigated the association between tobacco retailer availability in the residential neighbourhood and in the activity space, and smoking status. Cross-sectional baseline data from 1994 young adults (aged 18-25) participating in the Interdisciplinary Study of Inequalities in Smoking (Montreal, Canada, 2011-2012) were analysed. Residential and activity locations served to derive two measures of tobacco retailer availability: counts within 500 m buffers and proximity to the nearest retailer. Prevalence ratios for the association between each tobacco retailer measure and smoking status were estimated using log-binomial regression. Participants encountering high numbers of tobacco retailers in their residential neighbourhood, and both medium and high retailer counts in their activity space, were more likely to smoke compared to those exposed to fewer retailers. While residential proximity was not associated with smoking, we found 36% and 42% higher smoking prevalence among participants conducting activities within medium and high proximity to tobacco retailers compared to those conducting activities further from such outlets. This study adds to the sparse literature on contextual correlates of smoking among young adults, and illustrates the added value of considering individuals' activity space in contextual studies of smoking. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  10. Stochastic Coulomb interactions in space charge limited electron emission

    Nijkerk, M.D.; Kruit, P.

    2004-01-01

    Emission models that form the basis of self-consistent field computations make use of the approximation that emitted electrons form a smooth space charge jelly. In reality, electrons are discrete particles that are subject to statistical Coulomb interactions. A Monte Carlo simulation tool is used to evaluate the influence of discrete space charge effects on self-consistent calculations of cathode-ray tube optics. We find that interactions in the space charge cloud affect the electron trajectories such that the velocity distribution is Maxwellian, regardless of the current density. Interactions near the emitter effectively conserve the Maxwellian distribution. The surprising result is that the width of the distribution of transversal velocities does not change. The distribution of longitudinal velocities does broaden, as expected from existing theories

  11. Fictional space in participatory design of engaging interactive environments

    Dindler, Christian

    2010-01-01

    practices of visitors and museum knowledge. The second and larger part of the contribution addresses the issue of shaping design inquiries. This part is summarized through the overarching notion of fictional space denoting a perspective on the creation of a design space where established norms...... spaces for museums and science centres. The dissertation is composed of seven research papers framed by a general overview that summarises the arguments made in the papers and outlines related work and research method. The contribution reflects a dual yet intertwined concern for understanding engagement...... in exhibition spaces and shaping design inquiries around the notion of engaging interactive environments. The first part of the contribution relates to conceptualising aspects of engagement in relation to interactive environments. The perspective of participatory engagement is presented as an overarching...

  12. INSPIRE - Premission. [Interactive NASA Space Physics Ionosphere Radio Experiment

    Taylor, William W. L.; Mideke, Michael; Pine, William E.; Ericson, James D.

    1992-01-01

    The Interactive NASA Space Physics Ionosphere Radio Experiment (INSPIRE) designed to assist in a Space Experiments with Particle Accelerators (SEPAC) project is discussed. INSPIRE is aimed at recording data from a large number of receivers on the ground to determine the exact propagation paths and absorption of radio waves at frequencies between 50 Hz and 7 kHz. It is indicated how to participate in the experiment that will involve high school classes, colleges, and amateur radio operators.

  13. Primary spaces of social interaction and insecurity in Matamoros, Tamaulipas

    Mario Alberto Jurado Montelongo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the importance of gathering places in strengthening the primary social groups of individuals over the age of 15 years within six families in Matamoros, Tamaulipas. The relationship between primary social groups and spaces of social interaction is contextualized in an environment of insecurity fostered by the existence and violence of criminal groups who have managed to involve themselves in a range of significant activities in the city. Together with structural factors, insecurity has helped lead to a reconfiguration of gathering places between young people and adults; private and semi-public spaces predominate, while the intensive use of certain public spaces in the city has diminished.

  14. Phase space analysis of some interacting Chaplygin gas models

    Khurshudyan, M. [Academy of Sciences of Armenia, Institute for Physical Research, Ashtarak (Armenia); Tomsk State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics, Laboratory for Theoretical Cosmology, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Tomsk State Pedagogical University, Department of Theoretical Physics, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Myrzakulov, R. [Eurasian National University, Eurasian International Center for Theoretical Physics, Astana (Kazakhstan)

    2017-02-15

    In this paper we discuss a phase space analysis of various interacting Chaplygin gas models in general relativity. Linear and nonlinear sign changeable interactions are considered. For each case appropriate late time attractors of field equations are found. The Chaplygin gas is one of the dark fluids actively considered in modern cosmology due to the fact that it is a joint model of dark energy and dark matter. (orig.)

  15. Tobacco Products

    ... Exposure is High in Multiunit Housing Smokeless Products Electronic Cigarettes Youth Tobacco Prevention Tobacco Products Tobacco Ingredient ... Tweet Share Compartir Find Fact Sheets on Products (Cigars, Bidis and Betel Quid with Tobacco (Gutka) and ...

  16. TaCIPK29, a CBL-interacting protein kinase gene from wheat, confers salt stress tolerance in transgenic tobacco.

    Xiaomin Deng

    Full Text Available Calcineurin B-like protein-interacting protein kinases (CIPKs have been found to be responsive to abiotic stress. However, their precise functions and the related molecular mechanisms in abiotic stress tolerance are not completely understood, especially in wheat. In the present study, TaCIPK29 was identified as a new member of CIPK gene family in wheat. TaCIPK29 transcript increased after NaCl, cold, methyl viologen (MV, abscisic acid (ABA and ethylene treatments. Over-expression of TaCIPK29 in tobacco resulted in increased salt tolerance, which was demonstrated by higher germination rates, longer root lengths and better growth status of transgenic tobacco plants compared to controls when both were treated with salt stress. Physiological measurements indicated that transgenic tobacco seedlings retained high K(+/Na(+ ratios and Ca(2+ content by up-regulating some transporter genes expression and also possessed lower H2O2 levels and reduced membrane injury by increasing the expression and activities of catalase (CAT and peroxidase (POD under salt stress. Moreover, transgenic lines conferred tolerance to oxidative stress by increasing the activity and expression of CAT. Finally, TaCIPK29 was located throughout cells and it preferentially interacted with TaCBL2, TaCBL3, NtCBL2, NtCBL3 and NtCAT1. Taken together, our results showed that TaCIPK29 functions as a positive factor under salt stress and is involved in regulating cations and reactive oxygen species (ROS homeostasis.

  17. Visualizing the quantum interaction picture in phase space

    Mehmani, Bahar; Aiello, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    We present a graphical example of the interaction picture-time evolution. Our aim is to help students understand in a didactic manner the simplicity that this picture provides. Visualizing the interaction picture unveils its advantages, which are hidden behind the involved mathematics. Specifically, we show that the time evolution of a driven harmonic oscillator in the interaction picture corresponds to a local transformation of a phase space-reference frame into the one that is co-rotating with the Wigner function. (paper)

  18. Movement-based interaction in camera spaces: a conceptual framework

    Eriksson, Eva; Hansen, Thomas Riisgaard; Lykke-Olesen, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present three concepts that address movement-based interaction using camera tracking. Based on our work with several movementbased projects we present four selected applications, and use these applications to leverage our discussion, and to describe our three main concepts space,...

  19. Emotional and Psychosocial Factors Associated With Drunkenness and the Use of Tobacco and Cannabis in Adolescence: Independent or Interactive Effects?

    García-Moya, Irene; Ortiz Barón, María José; Moreno, Carmen

    2017-07-03

    Although previous research has examined emotional and psychosocial factors associated with substance use, there is a paucity of studies examining both at the same time, and insufficient attention has been paid to how these factors may interact. The aim of this study was to simultaneously examine the contributions from emotional (emotional control and depression) and psychosocial (peers' conventional behavior, peers' substance use and parent-child relationships) factors to drunkenness and the use of tobacco and cannabis in adolescence. Sample consisted of 1,752 adolescents aged 15 to 16 years who had participated in the 2014 edition of the WHO Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey in Spain. Data were collected by means of anonymous online questionnaires, and hierarchical multiple regression models (with sex and age as controls and including interactions among the examined predictors) were used for statistical analysis. Emotional and psychosocial factors showed significant interactive effects on substance use. Emotional control, which tended to buffer the effects of potential risk factors, and peers' substance use were consistent predictors of substance use. In contrast, the role of other factors depended on the substance under study, with depression and peers' conventional behavior being part of interactive terms for tobacco use and cannabis use only, and the quality of parent-child relationships being absent from the final model on cannabis use. Conclusions/Importance: Exploring interactions and potential substance-specific effects is fundamental to reach a better understanding of how emotional and psychosocial factors work in concert relative to substance use in adolescence.

  20. Absence of multiplicative interactions between occupational lung carcinogens and tobacco smoking: a systematic review involving asbestos, crystalline silica and diesel engine exhaust emissions

    Mohamad El Zoghbi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco smoking is the main cause of lung cancer, but it is not the sole causal factor. Significant proportions of workers are smokers and exposed to occupational lung carcinogens. This study aims to systematically review the statistical interaction between occupational lung carcinogens and tobacco smoking, in particular asbestos, crystalline silica and diesel engine exhaust emissions. Methods Articles were identified using Scopus, PubMed, and Web of Science, and were limited to those published in English or French, without limitation of time. The reference list of selected studies was reviewed to identify other relevant papers. One reviewer selected the articles based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Two reviewers checked the eligibility of articles to be included in the systematic review. Data were extracted by one reviewer and revised by two other reviewers. Cohorts and case–control studies were analyzed separately. The risk of bias was evaluated for each study based on the outcome. The results of the interaction between the tobacco smoking and each carcinogen was evaluated and reported separately. Results Fifteen original studies were included for asbestos-smoking interaction, seven for silica-smoking interaction and two for diesel-smoking interaction. The results suggested the absence of multiplicative interaction between the three occupational lung carcinogens and smoking. There is no enough evidence from the literature to conclude for the additive interaction. We believe there is a limited risk of publication bias as several studies reporting negative results were published. Conclusion There are no multiplicative interactions between tobacco smoking and occupational lung carcinogens, in particular asbestos, crystalline silica and diesel engine exhaust emissions. Even though, specific programs should be developed and promoted to reduce concomitantly the exposure to occupational lung carcinogens and tobacco

  1. Late time solution for interacting scalar in accelerating spaces

    Prokopec, Tomislav, E-mail: t.prokopec@uu.nl [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Spinoza Institute and EMME$\\Phi$, Utrecht University, Postbus 80.195, Utrecht, 3508 TD The Netherlands (Netherlands)

    2015-11-01

    We consider stochastic inflation in an interacting scalar field in spatially homogeneous accelerating space-times with a constant principal slow roll parameter ε. We show that, if the scalar potential is scale invariant (which is the case when scalar contains quartic self-interaction and couples non-minimally to gravity), the late-time solution on accelerating FLRW spaces can be described by a probability distribution function (PDF) ρ which is a function of φ/H only, where φ=φ( x-vector ) is the scalar field and H=H(t) denotes the Hubble parameter. We give explicit late-time solutions for ρarrow ρ{sub ∞}(φ/H), and thereby find the order ε corrections to the Starobinsky-Yokoyama result. This PDF can then be used to calculate e.g. various n-point functions of the (self-interacting) scalar field, which are valid at late times in arbitrary accelerating space-times with ε= constant.

  2. Crew roles and interactions in scientific space exploration

    Love, Stanley G.; Bleacher, Jacob E.

    2013-10-01

    Future piloted space exploration missions will focus more on science than engineering, a change which will challenge existing concepts for flight crew tasking and demand that participants with contrasting skills, values, and backgrounds learn to cooperate as equals. In terrestrial space flight analogs such as Desert Research And Technology Studies, engineers, pilots, and scientists can practice working together, taking advantage of the full breadth of all team members' training to produce harmonious, effective missions that maximize the time and attention the crew can devote to science. This paper presents, in a format usable as a reference by participants in the field, a successfully tested crew interaction model for such missions. The model builds upon the basic framework of a scientific field expedition by adding proven concepts from aviation and human space flight, including expeditionary behavior and cockpit resource management, cooperative crew tasking and adaptive leadership and followership, formal techniques for radio communication, and increased attention to operational considerations. The crews of future space flight analogs can use this model to demonstrate effective techniques, learn from each other, develop positive working relationships, and make their expeditions more successful, even if they have limited time to train together beforehand. This model can also inform the preparation and execution of actual future space flights.

  3. Hyperon interaction in free space and nuclear matter

    Dhar, Madhumita; Lenske, Horst [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Justus- Liebig-University Giessen (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Baryon-baryon interactions within the SU(3)-octet are investigated in free space and nuclear matter.A meson exchange model based on SU(3) symmetry is used for determining the interaction. The Bethe-Salpeter equations are solved in a 3-D reduction scheme. In-medium effect has been incorporated by including a two particle Pauli projector operator in the scattering equation. The coupling of the various channels of total strangeness S and conserved total charge is studied in detail. Special attention is paid to the physical thresholds. The density dependence of interaction is clearly seen in the variation of the in-medium low-energy parameters. The approach is compared to descriptions derived from chiral-EFT and other meson-exchange models e.g. the Nijmegen and the Juelich model.

  4. Hyperon interaction in free space and nuclear matter

    Dhar, Madhumita [Justus-Liebig University Giessen (Germany); Lenske, Horst [Justus-Liebig University Giessen (Germany); GSI, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    A new approach to the SU(3) flavour symmetric meson-exchange model is introduced to describe free space baryon-baryon interaction. The Bethe-Salpeter equations are solved in a 3-D reduction scheme. The coupling of the various channels of total strangeness S and conserved total charge Q is studied in detail. Special attention is paid to the physical thresholds. The derived vacuum interaction has then been used to derive nuclear medium effect by employing the Pauli projector operator in 3-D reduced Bethe-Salpeter equation. The in-medium properties of the interaction are clearly seen in the variation of the in-medium low-energy parameters as a function of density.

  5. Interactive Design and Visualization of Branched Covering Spaces.

    Roy, Lawrence; Kumar, Prashant; Golbabaei, Sanaz; Zhang, Yue; Zhang, Eugene

    2018-01-01

    Branched covering spaces are a mathematical concept which originates from complex analysis and topology and has applications in tensor field topology and geometry remeshing. Given a manifold surface and an -way rotational symmetry field, a branched covering space is a manifold surface that has an -to-1 map to the original surface except at the ramification points, which correspond to the singularities in the rotational symmetry field. Understanding the notion and mathematical properties of branched covering spaces is important to researchers in tensor field visualization and geometry processing, and their application areas. In this paper, we provide a framework to interactively design and visualize the branched covering space (BCS) of an input mesh surface and a rotational symmetry field defined on it. In our framework, the user can visualize not only the BCSs but also their construction process. In addition, our system allows the user to design the geometric realization of the BCS using mesh deformation techniques as well as connecting tubes. This enables the user to verify important facts about BCSs such as that they are manifold surfaces around singularities, as well as the Riemann-Hurwitz formula which relates the Euler characteristic of the BCS to that of the original mesh. Our system is evaluated by student researchers in scientific visualization and geometry processing as well as faculty members in mathematics at our university who teach topology. We include their evaluations and feedback in the paper.

  6. Tobacco Transcription Factor NtWRKY12 Interacts With TGA2.2 in vitro and in vivo

    Marcel evan Verk

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The promoter of the salicylic acid-inducible PR-1a gene of Nicotiana tabacum contains binding sites for transcription factor NtWRKY12 (WK-box at position -564 and TGA factors (as-1-like element at position -592. Transactivation experiments in Arabidopsis protoplasts derived from wild type, npr1-1, tga256 and tga2356 mutant plants revealed that NtWRKY12 alone was able to induce a PR-1a::β-glucuronidase (GUS reporter gene to high levels, independent of co-expressed tobacco NtNPR1, TGA2.1, TGA2.2 or endogenous Arabidopsis NPR1, TGA2/3/5/6. By in vitro pull-down assays with GST and Strep fusion proteins and by Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer assays with protein-CFP and protein-YFP fusions in transfected protoplasts, it was shown that NtWRKY12 and TGA2.2 could interact in vitro and in vivo. Interaction of NtWRKY12 with TGA1a or TGA2.1 was not detectable by these techniques. A possible mechanism for the role of NtWRKY12 and TGA2.2 in PR-1a gene expression is discussed.

  7. A multidirectional non-cell autonomous control and a genetic interaction restricting tobacco etch virus susceptibility in Arabidopsis.

    Suresh Gopalan

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Viruses constitute a major class of pathogens that infect a variety of hosts. Understanding the intricacies of signaling during host-virus interactions should aid in designing disease prevention strategies and in understanding mechanistic aspects of host and pathogen signaling machinery.An Arabidopsis mutant, B149, impaired in susceptibility to Tobacco etch virus (TEV, a positive strand RNA virus of picoRNA family, was identified using a high-throughput genetic screen and a counterselection scheme. The defects include initiation of infection foci, rate of cell-to-cell movement and long distance movement.The defect in infectivity is conferred by a recessive locus. Molecular genetic analysis and complementation analysis with three alleles of a previously published mutant lsp1 (loss of susceptibility to potyviruses indicate a genetic interaction conferring haploinsufficiency between the B149 locus and certain alleles of lsp1 resulting in impaired host susceptibility. The pattern of restriction of TEV foci on leaves at or near the boundaries of certain cell types and leaf boundaries suggest dysregulation of a multidirectional non-cell autonomous regulatory mechanism. Understanding the nature of this multidirectional signal and the molecular genetic mechanism conferring it should potentially reveal a novel arsenal in the cellular machinery.

  8. Wave-particle Interactions in Space and Laboratory Plasmas

    An, Xin

    This dissertation presents a study of wave-particle interactions in space and in the laboratory. To be concrete, the excitation of whistler-mode chorus waves in space and in the laboratory is studied in the first part. The relaxation of whistler anisotropy instability relevant to whistler-mode chorus waves in space is examined. Using a linear growth rate analysis and kinetic particle-in-cell simulations, the electron distributions are demonstrated to be well-constrained by the whistler anisotropy instability to a marginal-stability state, consistent with measurements by Van Allen Probes. The electron parallel beta beta ∥e separates the excited whistler waves into two groups: (i) quasi-parallel whistler waves for beta∥e > 0.02 and (ii) oblique whistler waves close to the resonance cone for beta∥e cell simulations. Motivated by the puzzles of chorus waves in space and by their recognized importance, the excitation of whistler-mode chorus waves is studied in the Large Plasma Device by the injection of a helical electron beam into a cold plasma. Incoherent broadband whistler waves similar to magnetospheric hiss are observed in the laboratory plasma. Their mode structures are identified by the phase-correlation technique. It is demonstrated that the waves are excited through a combination of Landau resonance, cyclotron resonance and anomalous cyclotron resonance. To account for the finite size effect of the electron beam, linear unstable eigenmodes of whistler waves are calculated by matching the eigenmode solution at the boundary. It is shown that the perpendicular wave number inside the beam is quantized due to the constraint imposed by the boundary condition. Darwin particle-in-cell simulations are carried out to study the simultaneous excitation of Langmuir and whistler waves in a beam-plasma system. The electron beam is first slowed down and relaxed by the rapidly growing Langmuir wave parallel to the background magnetic field. The tail of the core electrons

  9. Interactive Building Design Space Exploration Using Regionalized Sensitivity Analysis

    Østergård, Torben; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Maagaard, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    simulation inputs are most important and which have negligible influence on the model output. Popular sensitivity methods include the Morris method, variance-based methods (e.g. Sobol’s), and regression methods (e.g. SRC). However, all these methods only address one output at a time, which makes it difficult...... in combination with the interactive parallel coordinate plot (PCP). The latter is an effective tool to explore stochastic simulations and to find high-performing building designs. The proposed methods help decision makers to focus their attention to the most important design parameters when exploring......Monte Carlo simulations combined with regionalized sensitivity analysis provide the means to explore a vast, multivariate design space in building design. Typically, sensitivity analysis shows how the variability of model output relates to the uncertainties in models inputs. This reveals which...

  10. Rationalizing the chemical space of protein-protein interaction inhibitors.

    Sperandio, Olivier; Reynès, Christelle H; Camproux, Anne-Claude; Villoutreix, Bruno O

    2010-03-01

    Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) are one of the next major classes of therapeutic targets, although they are too intricate to tackle with standard approaches. This is due, in part, to the inadequacy of today's chemical libraries. However, the emergence of a growing number of experimentally validated inhibitors of PPIs (i-PPIs) allows drug designers to use chemoinformatics and machine learning technologies to unravel the nature of the chemical space covered by the reported compounds. Key characteristics of i-PPIs can then be revealed and highlight the importance of specific shapes and/or aromatic bonds, enabling the design of i-PPI-enriched focused libraries and, therefore, of cost-effective screening strategies. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Particle-two particle interaction in configuration space

    Kuzmichev, V.E.

    1982-07-01

    The problem if three indentical particles with zero-range two-particle interaction is considered. An explicit expression for the effective potential between one particle and the remaining two-particle system is obtained in the coordinate representation. It is shown that for arbitrary energies, at small and, for zero energy, at large distances rho between the one particle and centre of mass of the other two particles the diagonal matrix element of the effective potential is attractive and proportional to 1/rho 2 . This property of the effective potenial explains both the Thomas singularity and the Efimov effect. In the case of zero total energy of the system the general form of the solution of the three-particle integral equation is found in configuration space. (orig.)

  12. Interactive visualization of Earth and Space Science computations

    Hibbard, William L.; Paul, Brian E.; Santek, David A.; Dyer, Charles R.; Battaiola, Andre L.; Voidrot-Martinez, Marie-Francoise

    1994-01-01

    Computers have become essential tools for scientists simulating and observing nature. Simulations are formulated as mathematical models but are implemented as computer algorithms to simulate complex events. Observations are also analyzed and understood in terms of mathematical models, but the number of these observations usually dictates that we automate analyses with computer algorithms. In spite of their essential role, computers are also barriers to scientific understanding. Unlike hand calculations, automated computations are invisible and, because of the enormous numbers of individual operations in automated computations, the relation between an algorithm's input and output is often not intuitive. This problem is illustrated by the behavior of meteorologists responsible for forecasting weather. Even in this age of computers, many meteorologists manually plot weather observations on maps, then draw isolines of temperature, pressure, and other fields by hand (special pads of maps are printed for just this purpose). Similarly, radiologists use computers to collect medical data but are notoriously reluctant to apply image-processing algorithms to that data. To these scientists with life-and-death responsibilities, computer algorithms are black boxes that increase rather than reduce risk. The barrier between scientists and their computations can be bridged by techniques that make the internal workings of algorithms visible and that allow scientists to experiment with their computations. Here we describe two interactive systems developed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison Space Science and Engineering Center (SSEC) that provide these capabilities to Earth and space scientists.

  13. Singosaren As Interactive Space In Kotagede Tourism Destination

    Panjaitan Irwin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of the area for tourism purposes should have good sensitivity related to the product to consumption aspects, where the interaction between the local community is seen as the supply (insider produce the products, which can then be consumed by the visitor as demand (outsider. Such sensitivity can be seen in the space between the private realm and the public sphere called the interface space. Development of the area for tourism, will enhance the touristsaccessibility in exploring its uniqueness as a tourist attraction. Accessible tourist attractions can improve the degree of permeability, which can also affect the degree of privacy of local communities. Singosaren as an area that will be designed as part of the united Kotagede tourist destinations, Yogyakarta, should consider the influence of tourism activities on a daily basis of the community. Permeability study in the area with mapping method, is expected to connect local potency to the circulation pattern in the interface, by finding the street corridor that needs to be anticipated, to maintain the sustainability of tourism activities in Singosaren area.

  14. Crew Roles and Interactions in Scientific Space Exploration

    Love, Stanley G.; Bleacher, Jacob E.

    2013-01-01

    Future piloted space exploration missions will focus more on science than engineering, a change which will challenge existing concepts for flight crew tasking and demand that participants with contrasting skills, values, and backgrounds learn to cooperate as equals. In terrestrial space flight analogs such as Desert Research And Technology Studies, engineers, pilots, and scientists can practice working together, taking advantage of the full breadth of all team members training to produce harmonious, effective missions that maximize the time and attention the crew can devote to science. This paper presents, in a format usable as a reference by participants in the field, a successfully tested crew interaction model for such missions. The model builds upon the basic framework of a scientific field expedition by adding proven concepts from aviation and human spaceflight, including expeditionary behavior and cockpit resource management, cooperative crew tasking and adaptive leadership and followership, formal techniques for radio communication, and increased attention to operational considerations. The crews of future spaceflight analogs can use this model to demonstrate effective techniques, learn from each other, develop positive working relationships, and make their expeditions more successful, even if they have limited time to train together beforehand. This model can also inform the preparation and execution of actual future spaceflights.

  15. Effective realistic interactions for low momentum Hilbert spaces

    Weber, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Realistic nucleon-nucleon potentials are an essential ingredient of modern microscopic many-body calculations. These potentials can be represented in two different ways: operator representation or matrix element representation. In operator representation the potential is represented by a set of quantum mechanical operators while in matrix element representation it is defined by the matrix elements in a given basis. Many modern potentials are constructed directly in matrix element representation. While the matrix element representation can be calculated from the operator representation, the determination of the operator representation from the matrix elements is more difficult. Some methods to solve the nuclear many-body problem, such as Fermionic Molecular Dynamics (FMD) or the Green's Function Monte Carlo (GFMC) method, however require explicitly the operator representation of the potential, as they do not work in a fixed many-body basis. It is therefore desirable to derive an operator representation also for the interactions given by matrix elements. In this work a method is presented which allows the derivation of an approximate operator representation starting from the momentum space partial wave matrix elements of the interaction. For that purpose an ansatz for the operator representation is chosen. The parameters in the ansatz are determined by a fit to the partial wave matrix elements. Since a perfect reproduction of the matrix elements in general cannot be achieved with a finite number of operators and the quality of the results depends on the choice of the ansatz, the obtained operator representation is tested in nuclear many-body calculations and the results are compared with those from the initial interaction matrix elements. For the calculation of the nucleon-nucleon scattering phase shifts and the deuteron properties a computer code written within this work is used. For larger nuclei the No Core Shell Model (NCSM) and FMD are applied. The described

  16. Assessing the Impact of an Interactive Mobile Game on Tobacco-Related Attitudes and Beliefs: The Truth Campaign's "Flavor Monsters".

    Rath, Jessica M; Williams, Valerie; Rubenstein, Rebecca; Smith, Lexi; Vallone, Donna

    2015-12-01

    Given that over 97 percent of American teens play videogames, it is not surprising that many "games for health" target youth. Although tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States, few digital games focus on preventing this behavior. The aims of this study were twofold: (1) to determine if youth will play a game with tobacco-related information and themes and (2) to explain the relationship between the truth(®) (Legacy, Washington, DC) campaign's "Flavor Monsters" gameplay and shifts in game-related tobacco knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs. First, two versions of the game, with different amounts of tobacco-related content, were developed to examine the influence of tobacco-related content on player engagement, length of play, awareness of the truth brand, and receptivity to the game. No statistically significant differences were found for engagement (P=0.81), length of play (P=0.10), or awareness of the truth brand (P=0.67). Using an online survey through a preexisting online panel of 13-24 year olds, a longitudinal (n=693) design was used whereby exposure to messages varied naturally over time. Because of the large number of anti-tobacco industry attitude questions, we created an Anti-Tobacco Industry (ATI) Index based on the results of a factor analysis. Although gameplay was not a predictor of lower levels of intention to smoke, level mastered was a significant positive predictor of ATI Index attitudes score at 3 months, controlling for baseline ATI Index score, age, gender, and ever cigarette use (P=0.002). Longitudinal findings indicate a cumulative and enduring effect, suggesting that anti-tobacco content can be successfully integrated within a mobile game to help increase anti-tobacco attitudes.

  17. Approaching tobacco dependence in youngsters: impact of an interactive smoking cessation program in a population of Romanian adolescents

    Valentina Esanu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The main objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of an interactive smoking cessation program when first implemented in a naïve population of Romanian adolescents. The secondary objective was to assess youngsters’ attitudes and beliefs towards tobacco dependence, their compliance to smoking cessation interventions and success rate of a standard smoking cessation pilot program.Materials and methods: A total of 231 subjects 14-19 years old participated in the Adolescent Smoking Cessation (ASC pilot program in Romania in 2005. Subjects were evaluated based on the ASC questionnaire, a validated set of questions about smoking and cessation profile, whether current smoker or not. Smoking status was validated by carbon monoxide determination in exhaled air. Participants were delivered 6 interactive ASC sessions about smoking hazards and methods to quit smoking. A final evaluation was done to assess overall program’s impact and to reward quitters and reducers by prizes.Results: Study population was made of 52.4% every day smokers, 10.4% at least once/week but not every day smokers, 6% less than once/week smokers, 23.4% never smokers and 7.8% ex-smokers. Cessation rate was 12.3% in every day smokers and 16.6 % in at least once a week but not every day smokers. Also, 4.1% every day smokers and 30 % at least once/week not every day smokers reduced number of cigarettes smoked/day. The program registered a high attendance rate/sessions as 85.2 % of subjects were present in all sessions. Also, significant changes occurred in participant’s beliefs about smoking and cessation.Conclusions: Pilot ASC was an efficient program with 12.3% of daily smokers to quit smoking and its positive impact on personal smoking and cessation beliefs in 90 % of participants. J Clin Exp Invest 2010; 1(3: 150-155

  18. Tobacco point-of-purchase promotion: examining tobacco industry documents.

    Lavack, Anne M; Toth, Graham

    2006-10-01

    In the face of increasing media restrictions around the world, point-of-purchase promotion (also called point-of-sale merchandising, and frequently abbreviated as POP or POS) is now one of the most important tools that tobacco companies have for promoting tobacco products. Using tobacco industry documents, this paper demonstrates that tobacco companies have used point-of-purchase promotion in response to real or anticipated advertising restrictions. Their goal was to secure dominance in the retail setting, and this was achieved through well-trained sales representatives who offered contracts for promotional incentive programmes to retailers, which included the use of point-of-sale displays and merchandising fixtures. Audit programmes played an important role in ensuring contract enforcement and compliance with a variety of tobacco company incentive programmes. Tobacco companies celebrated their merchandising successes, in recognition of the stiff competition that existed among tobacco companies for valuable retail display space.

  19. Tobacco Addiction

    ... and lighters—anything that you connect with your smoking habit. Get rid of all old chewing tobacco containers ... nicotine addiction and more to do with the habit of smoking or using chewing tobacco. Some people gain weight ...

  20. Interaction of cadmium and zinc in biological samples of smokers and chewing tobacco female mouth cancer patients

    Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Wadhwa, Sham Kumar; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Kazi, Naveed; Kandhro, Ghulam Abbas; Baig, Jamil Ahmed; Shah, Abdul Qadir; Kolachi, Nida Fatima; Arain, Muhammad Balal

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies suggest that zinc (Zn) deficiency and high accumulation of cadmium (Cd) may be associated with increased risk of cancer. The incidence of mouth cancer has increased among females, who possess habits of chewing tobacco with gradients (areca nut and betel quid) and smoking tobacco in Pakistan. In present study, we measured the concentration of Cd and Zn in 96 mouth cancer patients (MCPs) and 110 female controls/referents (67 smoker and chewing tobacco), while 43 have none of smoking and chewing tobacco habits, belongs to different cities of Pakistan. Both controls and patients have same age group (ranged 35-65 years), socio-economic status, localities and dietary habits. The Zn and Cd were determined by flame/graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer, prior to microwave assisted acid digestion method. The Cd/Zn ratio in both biological samples was also calculated. The results of this study showed that the mean value of Zn was lower, while the mean concentration of Cd was higher in the blood and scalp hair samples of MCPs as compared to control subjects (p < 0.001). The controls chewing and smoking tobacco have high level of Cd in both biological samples as compared to those have not smoking or chewing tobacco (p < 0.012). The Cd/Zn ratio was higher in MCPs than control subjects. This study is compelling evidence in support of positive associations between cadmium, cigarette smoking, deficiency of Zn and cancer risk.

  1. Interaction of cadmium and zinc in biological samples of smokers and chewing tobacco female mouth cancer patients

    Kazi, Tasneem Gul, E-mail: tgkazi@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Wadhwa, Sham Kumar, E-mail: wadhwashamkumar@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Afridi, Hassan Imran, E-mail: hassanimranafridi@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Kazi, Naveed, E-mail: tgkazi@yahoo.com [Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Kandhro, Ghulam Abbas [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Baig, Jamil Ahmed, E-mail: jab_mughal@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Shah, Abdul Qadir, E-mail: aqshah07@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Kolachi, Nida Fatima [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Arain, Muhammad Balal, E-mail: bilal_ku2004@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics and Basic Sciences, NED University of Engineering and Technology, Karachi 75270 (Pakistan)

    2010-04-15

    Epidemiologic studies suggest that zinc (Zn) deficiency and high accumulation of cadmium (Cd) may be associated with increased risk of cancer. The incidence of mouth cancer has increased among females, who possess habits of chewing tobacco with gradients (areca nut and betel quid) and smoking tobacco in Pakistan. In present study, we measured the concentration of Cd and Zn in 96 mouth cancer patients (MCPs) and 110 female controls/referents (67 smoker and chewing tobacco), while 43 have none of smoking and chewing tobacco habits, belongs to different cities of Pakistan. Both controls and patients have same age group (ranged 35-65 years), socio-economic status, localities and dietary habits. The Zn and Cd were determined by flame/graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer, prior to microwave assisted acid digestion method. The Cd/Zn ratio in both biological samples was also calculated. The results of this study showed that the mean value of Zn was lower, while the mean concentration of Cd was higher in the blood and scalp hair samples of MCPs as compared to control subjects (p < 0.001). The controls chewing and smoking tobacco have high level of Cd in both biological samples as compared to those have not smoking or chewing tobacco (p < 0.012). The Cd/Zn ratio was higher in MCPs than control subjects. This study is compelling evidence in support of positive associations between cadmium, cigarette smoking, deficiency of Zn and cancer risk.

  2. A CBL-Interacting Protein Kinase TaCIPK2 Confers Drought Tolerance in Transgenic Tobacco Plants through Regulating the Stomatal Movement.

    Wang, Yan; Sun, Tao; Li, Tingting; Wang, Meng; Yang, Guangxiao; He, Guangyuan

    2016-01-01

    In plants, the CBL-CIPK signaling pathways play key roles in the response to abiotic stresses. However, functional studies of CIPKs in the important staple crop wheat are very rare. In this study, we identified a CIPK gene from wheat, designated TaCIPK2. Expression analysis results showed that TaCIPK2 could be up-regulated in wheat leaves by polyethylene glycol, abscisic acid and H2O2 treatments. Subcellular localization analyses revealed that TaCIPK2 was present in whole wheat epidermal cells. A yeast two-hybrid assay indicated that TaCIPK2 interacted with TaCBL1, 2, 3 and 4 in vitro. Transgenic tobacco plants over-expressing TaCIPK2 exhibited increased drought tolerance, indicated by a larger proportion of green cotyledons and higher survival rates under the osmotic and drought stress conditions compared with control plants. Additionally, physiological index analyses revealed that the transgenic tobacco plants had lower water loss rates and ion leakage, accumulated less malondialdehyde and H2O2, and had higher catalase and superoxide dismutase activities than the control plants. The transgenic plants also exhibited faster stomatal closure following exposure to osmotic stress conditions. The seed germination rates and stomatal aperture of TaCIPK2-overexpressing tobacco plants decreased after exogenous abscisic acid treatment was applied, implying that the transgenic tobacco plants were more sensitive to exogenous abscisic acid than the control plants. Our results indicate that TaCIPK2 plays a positive regulatory role in drought stress responses in transgenic tobacco plants.

  3. Does maternal environmental tobacco smoke interact with social-demographics and environmental factors on congenital heart defects?

    Liu, Xiaoqing; Nie, Zhiqiang; Chen, Jimei; Guo, Xiaoling; Ou, Yanqiu; Chen, Guanchun; Mai, Jinzhuang; Gong, Wei; Wu, Yong; Gao, Xiangmin; Qu, Yanji; Bell, Erin M; Lin, Shao; Zhuang, Jian

    2018-03-01

    Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are a major cause of death in infancy and childhood. Major risk factors for most CHDs, particularly those resulting from the combination of environmental exposures with social determinants and behaviors, are still unknown. This study evaluated the main effect of maternal environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), and its interaction with social-demographics and environmental factors on CHDs in China. A population-based, matched case-control study of 9452 live-born infants and stillborn fetuses was conducted using the Guangdong Registry of Congenital Heart Disease data (2004-2014). The CHDs were evaluated by obstetrician, pediatrician, or cardiologist, and confirmed by cardia tomography/catheterization. Controls were randomly chosen from singleton newborns without any malformation, born in the same hospital as the cases and 1:1 matched by infant sex, time of conception, and parental residence (same city and town to ensure sufficient geographical distribution for analyses). Face-to-face interviews were conducted to collect information on demographics, behavior patterns, maternal disease/medication, and environmental exposures. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of ETS exposure on CHDs while controlling for all risk factors. Interactive effects were evaluated using a multivariate delta method for maternal demographics, behavior, and environmental exposures on the ETS-CHD relationship. Mothers exposed to ETS during the first trimester of pregnancy were more likely to have infants with CHD than mothers who did not (aOR = 1.44, 95% CI 1.25-1.66). We also observed a significant dose-response relationship when mothers were exposed to ETS and an increasing number of risk factors and CHDs. There were greater than additive interactions for maternal ETS and migrant status, low household income and paternal alcohol consumption on CHDs. Maternal low education also modified the ETS

  4. The Dress Room: responsive spaces and embodied interaction

    Vallgårda, Anna

    2014-01-01

    What does it entail to be embraced by a space that responds to your actions? What kind of relations can we create between the active body and the active space? What qualities does the responsivity have for creating certain experiences of a space? Through the Dress Room, I begin to explore...... help create a sense of intimacy as well as motivate our motions within the space....

  5. ISS And Space Environment Interactions Without Operating Plasma Contactor

    Carruth, M. R., Jr.; Ferguson, Dale; Suggs,Rob; McCollum, Matt

    2001-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) will be the largest, highest power spacecraft placed in orbit. Because of this the design of the electrical power system diverged markedly from previous systems. The solar arrays will operate at 160 V and the power distribution voltage will be 120 V. The structure is grounded to the negative side of the solar arrays so under the right circumstances it is possible to drive the ISS potential very negative. A plasma contactor has been added to the ISS to provide control of the ISS structure potential relative to the ambient plasma. The ISS requirement is that the ISS structure not be greater than 40 V positive or negative of local plasma. What are the ramifications of operating large structures with such high voltage power systems? The application of a plasma contactor on ISS controls the potential between the structure and the local plasma, preventing degrading effects. It is conceivable that there can be situations where the plasma contactor might be non-functional. This might be due to lack of power, the need to turn it off during some of the build-up sequences, the loss of functionality for both plasma contactors before a replacement can be installed, similar circumstances. A study was undertaken to understand how important it is to have the contactor functioning and how long it might be off before unacceptable degradation to ISS could occur. The details of interaction effects on spacecraft have not been addressed until driven by design. This was true for ISS. If the structure is allowed to float highly negative impinging ions can sputter exposed conductors which can degrade the primary surface and also generate contamination due to the sputtered material. Arcing has been known to occur on solar arrays that float negative of the ambient plasma. This can also generate electromagnetic interference and voltage transients. Much of the ISS structure and pressure module surfaces exposed to space is anodized aluminum. The anodization

  6. Thioredoxin (Trxo1) interacts with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and its overexpression affects the growth of tobacco cell culture.

    Calderón, Aingeru; Ortiz-Espín, Ana; Iglesias-Fernández, Raquel; Carbonero, Pilar; Pallardó, Federico Vicente; Sevilla, Francisca; Jiménez, Ana

    2017-04-01

    Thioredoxins (Trxs), key components of cellular redox regulation, act by controlling the redox status of many target proteins, and have been shown to play an essential role in cell survival and growth. The presence of a Trx system in the nucleus has received little attention in plants, and the nuclear targets of plant Trxs have not been conclusively identified. Thus, very little is known about the function of Trxs in this cellular compartment. Previously, we studied the intracellular localization of PsTrxo1 and confirmed its presence in mitochondria and, interestingly, in the nucleus under standard growth conditions. In investigating the nuclear function of PsTrxo1 we identified proliferating cellular nuclear antigen (PCNA) as a PsTrxo1 target by means of affinity chromatography techniques using purified nuclei from pea leaves. Such protein-protein interaction was corroborated by dot-blot and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assays, which showed that both proteins interact in the nucleus. Moreover, PsTrxo1 showed disulfide reductase activity on previously oxidized recombinant PCNA protein. In parallel, we studied the effects of PsTrxo1 overexpression on Tobacco Bright Yellow-2 (TBY-2) cell cultures. Microscopy and flow-cytometry analysis showed that PsTrxo1 overexpression increases the rate of cell proliferation in the transformed lines, with a higher percentage of the S phase of the cell cycle at the beginning of the cell culture (days 1 and 3) and at the G2/M phase after longer times of culture (day 9), coinciding with an upregulation of PCNA protein. Furthermore, in PsTrxo1 overexpressed cells there is a decrease in the total cellular glutathione content but maintained nuclear GSH accumulation, especially at the end of the culture, which is accompanied by a higher mitotic index, unlike non-overexpressing cells. These results suggest that Trxo1 is involved in the cell cycle progression of TBY-2 cultures, possibly through its link with cellular PCNA

  7. Human interactions during Shuttle/Mir space missions

    Kanas, N.; Salnitskiy, V.; Grund, E. M.; Weiss, D. S.; Gushin, V.; Kozerenko, O.; Sled, A.; Marmar, C. R.

    2001-01-01

    To improve the interpersonal climate of crewmembers involved with long-duration space missions, it is important to understand the factors affecting their interactions with each other and with members of mission control. This paper will present findings from a recently completed NASA-funded study during the Shuttle/Mir program which evaluated in-group/out-group displacement of negative emotions; changes in tension, cohesion, and leader support over time; and cultural differences. In-flight data were collected from 5 astronauts, 8 cosmonauts, and 42 American and 16 Russian mission control personnel who signed informed consent. Subjects completed a weekly questionnaire that assessed their mood and perception of their work group's interpersonal climate using questions from well-known, standardized measures (Profile of Mood States, Group and Work Environment Scales) and a critical incident log. There was strong evidence for the displacement of tension and dysphoric emotions from crewmembers to mission control personnel and from mission control personnel to management. There was a perceived decrease in commander support during the 2nd half of the missions, and for American crewmembers a novelty effect was found on several subscales during the first few months on-orbit. There were a number of differences between American and Russian responses which suggested that the former were less happy with their interpersonal environment than the latter. Mission control personnel reported more tension and dysphoria than crewmembers, although both groups scored better than other work groups on Earth. Nearly all reported critical incidents came from ground subjects, with Americans and Russians showing important differences in response frequencies.

  8. Verbal-spatial and visuospatial coding of power-space interactions.

    Dai, Qiang; Zhu, Lei

    2018-05-10

    A power-space interaction, which denotes the phenomenon that people responded faster to powerful words when they are placed higher in a visual field and faster to powerless words when they are placed lower in a visual field, has been repeatedly found. The dominant explanation of this power-space interaction is that it results from a tight correspondence between the representation of power and visual space (i.e., a visuospatial coding account). In the present study, we demonstrated that the interaction between power and space could be also based on a verbal-spatial coding in absence of any vertical spatial information. Additionally, the verbal-spatial coding was dominant in driving the power-space interaction when verbal space was contrasted with the visual space. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Interactions between lipids and proteins are critical for organization of plasma membrane-ordered domains in tobacco BY-2 cells.

    Grosjean, Kevin; Der, Christophe; Robert, Franck; Thomas, Dominique; Mongrand, Sébastien; Simon-Plas, Françoise; Gerbeau-Pissot, Patricia

    2018-06-27

    The laterally heterogeneous plant plasma membrane (PM) is organized into finely controlled specialized areas that include membrane-ordered domains. Recently, the spatial distribution of such domains within the PM has been identified as playing a key role in cell responses to environmental challenges. To examine membrane order at a local level, BY-2 tobacco suspension cell PMs were labelled with an environment-sensitive probe (di-4-ANEPPDHQ). Four experimental models were compared to identify mechanisms and cell components involved in short-term (1 h) maintenance of the ordered domain organization in steady-state cell PMs: modulation of the cytoskeleton or the cell wall integrity of tobacco BY-2 cells; and formation of giant vesicles using either a lipid mixture of tobacco BY-2 cell PMs or the original lipid and protein combinations of the tobacco BY-2 cell PM. Whilst inhibiting phosphorylation or disrupting either the cytoskeleton or the cell wall had no observable effects, we found that lipids and proteins significantly modified both the abundance and spatial distribution of ordered domains. This indicates the involvement of intrinsic membrane components in the local physical state of the plant PM. Our findings support a major role for the 'lipid raft' model, defined as the sterol-dependent ordered assemblies of specific lipids and proteins in plant PM organization.

  10. Investigating Near Space Interaction Regions: Developing a Remote Observatory

    Gallant, M.; Mierkiewicz, E. J.; Oliversen, R. J.; Jaehnig, K.; Percival, J.; Harlander, J.; Englert, C. R.; Kallio, R.; Roesler, F. L.; Nossal, S. M.; Gardner, D.; Rosborough, S.

    2016-12-01

    The Investigating Near Space Interaction Regions (INSpIRe) effort will (1) establish an adaptable research station capable of contributing to terrestrial and planetary aeronomy; (2) integrate two state-of-the-art second generation Fabry-Perot (FP) and Spatial Heteorodyne Spectrometers (SHS) into a remotely operable configuration; (3) deploy this instrumentation to a clear-air site, establishing a stable, well-calibrated observatory; (4) embark on a series of observations designed to contribute to three major areas of geocoronal research: geocoronal physics, structure/coupling, and variability. This poster describes the development of the INSpIRe remote observatory. Based at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University (ERAU), initiative INSpIRe provides a platform to encourage the next generation of researchers to apply knowledge gained in the classroom to real-world science and engineering. Students at ERAU contribute to the INSpIRe effort's hardware and software needs. Mechanical/optical systems are in design to bring light to any of four instruments. Control software is in development to allow remote users to control everything from dome and optical system operations to calibration and data collection. In April 2016, we also installed and tested our first science instrument in the INSpIRe trailer, the Redline DASH Demonstration Instrument (REDDI). REDDI uses Doppler Asymmetric Spatial Heterodyne (DASH) spectroscopy, and its deployment as part of INSpIRe is a collaborative research effort between the Naval Research Lab, St Cloud State University, and ERAU. Similar to a stepped Michelson device, REDDI measures oxygen (630.0 nm) winds from the thermosphere. REDDI is currently mounted in a temporary location under INSpIRe's main siderostat until its entrance optical system can be modified. First light tests produced good signal-to-noise fringes in ten minute integrations, indicating that we will soon be able to measure thermospheric winds from our Daytona Beach testing site

  11. Everyday spaces of inter-ethnic interaction: the meaning of urban public spaces in the Netherlands

    Peters, K.B.M.; Haan, de H.J.

    2011-01-01

    Ethnic diversity is manifest in public spaces by the presence of people originating from all over the world. It is also manifest in typical ethnic spaces that are predominantly used by specific ethnic groups. This article focuses on how people from various ethnic backgrounds use urban public spaces

  12. Interaction Challenges in Human-Robot Space Exploration

    Fong, Terrence; Nourbakhsh, Illah

    2005-01-01

    In January 2004, NASA established a new, long-term exploration program to fulfill the President's Vision for U.S. Space Exploration. The primary goal of this program is to establish a sustained human presence in space, beginning with robotic missions to the Moon in 2008, followed by extended human expeditions to the Moon as early as 2015. In addition, the program places significant emphasis on the development of joint human-robot systems. A key difference from previous exploration efforts is that future space exploration activities must be sustainable over the long-term. Experience with the space station has shown that cost pressures will keep astronaut teams small. Consequently, care must be taken to extend the effectiveness of these astronauts well beyond their individual human capacity. Thus, in order to reduce human workload, costs, and fatigue-driven error and risk, intelligent robots will have to be an integral part of mission design.

  13. Youth and Tobacco Use

    ... past 30 days. † Any tobacco product includes cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco (including chewing tobacco, snuff, dip, snus, and dissolvable tobacco), tobacco pipes, bidis, hookah, and electronic cigarettes. § Where percentages are missing, sample sizes were ...

  14. Pilot Study of Person Robot Interaction in a Public Transit Space

    Svenstrup, Mikael; Bak, Thomas; Maler, Ouri

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a study of the effect of a human interactive robot placed in an urban transit space. The underlying hypothesis is that it is possible to create interesting new living spaces and induce value in terms of experiences, information or economics, by putting socially interactive...... showed harder than expected to start interaction with commuters due to their determination and speed towards their goal. Further it was demonstrated that it was possible to track and follow people, who were not beforehand informed about the experiment. The evaluation indicated that the distance...... to initiate interaction was shorter than would be expected for normal human to human interaction....

  15. Hands in space: gesture interaction with augmented-reality interfaces.

    Billinghurst, Mark; Piumsomboon, Tham; Huidong Bai

    2014-01-01

    Researchers at the Human Interface Technology Laboratory New Zealand (HIT Lab NZ) are investigating free-hand gestures for natural interaction with augmented-reality interfaces. They've applied the results to systems for desktop computers and mobile devices.

  16. Scalar-graviton interaction in the noncommutative space

    Brandt, F. T.; Elias-Filho, M. R.

    2006-01-01

    We obtain the leading order interaction between the graviton and the neutral scalar boson in the context of noncommutative field theory. Our approach makes use of the Ward identity associated with the invariance under a subgroup of symplectic diffeomorphisms

  17. Reclaiming public space: designing for public interaction with private devices

    Eriksson, Eva; Hansen, Thomas Riisgaard; Lykke-Olesen, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    . In this paper we explore the implications of interacting in public space and how technology can be rethought to not only act as personal devices, but be the tool to reclaim the right and possibility to interact in public spaces. We introduce information exchange, social support and regulation as three central......Public spaces are changing from being ungoverned places for interaction to be more formalized, controlled, less interactive, and designed places aimed at fulfilling a purpose. Simultaneously, new personal mobile technology aims at providing private individual spaces in the public domain...... aspects for reclaiming public space. The PhotoSwapper application is presented as an example of a system designed to integrate pervasive technology in a public setting. The system is strongly inspired by the activities at a traditional market place. Based on the design of the application we discuss four...

  18. Interactive human behavior analysis in open or public spaces

    Hung, H.; Odobez, J.-M.; Gavrila, D.; Keyson, D.V.; Maher, M.L.; Streitz, N.; Cheok, A.; Augusto, J.C.; Wichert, R.; Englebienne, G.; Aghajan, H.; Kröse, B.J.A.

    2011-01-01

    In the past years, efforts in surveillance and open space analysis have focused on traditional computer vision problems like scene modeling or object detection and tracking. Research on human behavior recognition have tended to work on predefined simple activities such as running, jumping or left

  19. Aggressive interactions and intermale spacing in choruses of the ...

    Intermale spacing was examined in caged Afrixalus delicatuschoruses. Males maintained an individual distance using an advertisement call, an encounter call and physical combat (or the threat of combat). An increase from low to intermediate chorus size (2-4 males) led to a decrease in nearest calling neighbour distances ...

  20. Mapping epistasis and environment × QTX interaction based on four -omics genotypes for the detected QTX loci controlling complex traits in tobacco

    Liyuan Zhou

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Using newly developed methods and software, association mapping was conducted for chromium content and total sugar in tobacco leaf, based on four -omics datasets. Our objective was to collect data on genotype and phenotype for 60 leaf samples at four developmental stages, from three plant architectural positions and for three cultivars that were grown in two locations. Association mapping was conducted to detect genetic variants at quantitative trait SNP (QTS loci, quantitative trait transcript (QTT differences, quantitative trait protein (QTP variability, and quantitative trait metabolite (QTM changes, which can be summarized as QTX locus variation. The total heritabilities of the four -omics loci for both traits tested were 23.60% for epistasis and 15.26% for treatment interaction. Epistasis and environment × treatment interaction had important impacts on complex traits at all -omics levels. For decreasing chromium content and increasing total sugar in tobacco leaf, six methylated loci can be directly used for marker-assisted selection, and expression of ten QTTs, seven QTPs and six QTMs can be modified by selection or cultivation.

  1. Inadequate recording of alcohol-drinking, tobacco-smoking and discharge diagnosis in medical in-patients: failure to recognize risks including drug interactions.

    Bairstow, B M; Burke, V; Beilin, L J; Deutscher, C

    1993-11-01

    The records of 62 men and 43 women, 14-88 years old, admitted to general medical wards in a public teaching hospital during 1991 were examined for discharge medications and for the recording of alcohol-drinking, tobacco-smoking and discharge diagnosis. Drinking and smoking status was unrecorded in 22.9% and 21.9% of patients respectively. Twenty-four patients had 31 potential drug interactions which were related to the number of drugs prescribed and to drinking alcohol; 10.5% of the patients had interactions involving alcohol and 2.9% tobacco. Six patients received relatively or absolutely contraindicated drugs, including one asthmatic given two beta-blockers. The drugs prescribed indicated that some patients had conditions such as gastro-oesophageal disorders, diabetes and obstructive airways disease which had not been recorded. Inadequate recording of diagnoses, alcohol and smoking status creates risks to patients and may cause opportunities for preventive care to be missed. This study provides the basis for the development of undergraduate and postgraduate education programmes to address these issues and so decrease risks to patients which arise from inadequate recording practices. Incomplete diagnoses also adversely affect hospital funding where this depends on case-mix diagnostic groups. Quality assurance programmes and other strategies are being implemented to improve medical recording and prescribing habits.

  2. Interactive Planning for Capability Driven Air & Space Operations

    2008-04-30

    Time, Routledge and Kegan , London, UK, 1980. [5] A. Bochman, Concerted instant–interval temporal semantics I: Temporal ontologies, Notre Dame Journal...then return true else deleteStatement (X, rj , Y ) end if end for return false Figure 8 shows the search space for instance in Table 2. The green ...nodes are those for which the set of relations cor- responding to the path from the root form a consistent set. A path from root to a green leaf node

  3. Human interactions in space: ISS vs. Shuttle/Mir

    Kanas, N. A.; Salnitskiy, V. P.; Ritsher, J. B.; Gushin, V. I.; Weiss, D. S.; Saylor, S. A.; Kozerenko, O. P.; Marmar, C. R.

    2006-07-01

    This paper compares findings from two NASA-funded studies of international long-duration missions to the Mir space station (Shuttle/Mir) and to the International Space Station (ISS). American and Russian crewmembers and mission control personnel participated. Issues examined included changes in mood and group social climate over time, displacement of group tension to outside monitoring personnel, cultural differences, and leadership roles. Findings were based on the completion of a weekly questionnaire that included items from the Profile of Mood States, the Group Environment Scale, and the Work Environment Scale. An examination of issues investigated in both studies revealed much similarity in findings. There was little support for the presence of changes in levels of mood and group climate over time, and no evidence for a "3rd quarter phenomenon". Both studies also provided evidence for the displacement of negative emotions to outside personnel in both crewmembers and mission control personnel. There were similar patterns of differences between Americans and Russians and between crewmembers and mission control personnel. Finally, in both studies, the support role of the leader was related to group cohesion among crewmembers, and both the task and support roles of the leader were related to cohesion among mission control personnel. Thus, in these four areas, the ISS study substantially replicated the findings from the earlier Shuttle/Mir study, suggesting that common psychosocial issues affect people engaged in on-orbit space missions.

  4. Wanding Through Space: Interactive Calibration for Electric Muscle Stimulation

    Pohl, Henning; Hornbæk, Kasper; Knibbe, Jarrod

    2018-01-01

    Electric Muscle Stimulation (EMS) has emerged as an interaction paradigm for HCI. It has been used to confer object affordance, provide walking directions, and assist with sketching. However, the electrical signals used for EMS are multi-dimensional and require expert calibration before use...

  5. Presenting using Two-Handed Interaction in Open Space

    Vlaming, Luc; Smit, Jasper; Isenberg, Tobias

    2008-01-01

    Based on recent demonstrations of low-cost, infrared-based point tracking, we explore two-handed, surface-less interaction for presentation. On both hands, thumb and index finger are equipped with retro-reflective markers which are tracked by a Wiimote. We contribute a robust finger pairing and

  6. Carbohydrates stimulate ethylene production in tobacco leaf discs : I. Interaction with auxin and the relation to auxin metabolism.

    Meir, S; Philosoph-Hadas, S; Epstein, E; Aharoni, N

    1985-05-01

    Various naturally occurring carbohydrates, applied at a concentration range of 1 to 100 mm, stimulated ethylene production for several days in indoleacetic acid (IAA)-treated or untreated tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv ;Xanthi') leaf discs. The lag period for this sugar-stimulated ethylene production was 8 to 12 hours after excision in the untreated leaf discs, but less than 2 hours in the IAA-treated ones. Among the tested carbohydrates, 12 were found to increase synergistically ethylene production, with d-galactose, sucrose, and lactose being the most active; mannitol and l-glucose had no effect. The extent and duration of the increased ethylene production was dependent upon the type of sugar applied, the tissue's age, and the existence of both exogenous IAA and sugar in the medium. Sucrose appeared to elicit a continuous IAA effect for 48 hours, as expressed by increased ethylene production, even when IAA was removed from the medium after a 4-hour pulse. Sucrose stimulated both the uptake and decarboxylation of [1-(14)C]IAA, as well as the hydrolysis of the esteric and amide IAA conjugates formed in the tissue after application of free IAA. This gradual hydrolysis was accompanied by a further accumulation of a third IAA metabolite. Moreover, synthetic indole-3-acetyl-l-alanine increased ethylene production mainly with sucrose, and this effect was accompanied by its increased decarboxylation and turnover pattern suggesting that release of free IAA was involved. An esteric IAA conjugate, tentatively identified by GC retention time was found to be the major component (84%) of the naturally occurring IAA conjugates in tobacco leaves. Accordingly the sucrose-stimulated ethylene production in tobacco leaves can be ascribed mainly to the sucrose-stimulated hydrolysis of the esteric IAA conjugate.

  7. Effects of Birth Order and Spacing on Mother-Infant Interactions.

    Lewis, Michael; Kreitzberg, Valerie S.

    1979-01-01

    Examines early differences in mother-infant interaction as a function of infant birth order and birth spacing. Mother and infant behaviors were observed and recorded in the home for a two-hour period. (SS)

  8. TCP-Call Admission Control Interaction in Multiplatform Space Architectures

    Georgios Theodoridis

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of efficient call admission control (CAC algorithms is useful to prevent congestion and guarantee target quality of service (QoS. When TCP protocol is adopted, some inefficiencies can arise due to the peculiar evolution of the congestion window. The development of cross-layer techniques can greatly help to improve efficiency and flexibility for wireless networks. In this frame, the present paper addresses the introduction of TCP feedback into the CAC procedures in different nonterrestrial wireless architectures. CAC performance improvement is shown for different space-based architectures, including both satellites and high altitude platform (HAP systems.

  9. TCP-Call Admission Control Interaction in Multiplatform Space Architectures

    Roseti Cesare

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of efficient call admission control (CAC algorithms is useful to prevent congestion and guarantee target quality of service (QoS. When TCP protocol is adopted, some inefficiencies can arise due to the peculiar evolution of the congestion window. The development of cross-layer techniques can greatly help to improve efficiency and flexibility for wireless networks. In this frame, the present paper addresses the introduction of TCP feedback into the CAC procedures in different nonterrestrial wireless architectures. CAC performance improvement is shown for different space-based architectures, including both satellites and high altitude platform (HAP systems.

  10. Quantum Deformations of Space-Time Symmetries and Interactions

    Lukierski, Jerzy; Stichel, Peter C.

    1996-01-01

    We discuss quantum deformations of Lie algebra as described by the noncoassociative modification of its coalgebra structure. We consider for simplicity the quantum $D=1$ Galilei algebra with four generators: energy $H$, boost $B$, momentum $P$ and central generator $M$ (mass generator). We describe the nonprimitive coproducts for $H$ and $B$ and show that their noncocommutative and noncoassociative structure is determined by the two-body interaction terms. Further we consider the case of phys...

  11. DEEP SPACE: High Resolution VR Platform for Multi-user Interactive Narratives

    Kuka, Daniela; Elias, Oliver; Martins, Ronald; Lindinger, Christopher; Pramböck, Andreas; Jalsovec, Andreas; Maresch, Pascal; Hörtner, Horst; Brandl, Peter

    DEEP SPACE is a large-scale platform for interactive, stereoscopic and high resolution content. The spatial and the system design of DEEP SPACE are facing constraints of CAVETM-like systems in respect to multi-user interactive storytelling. To be used as research platform and as public exhibition space for many people, DEEP SPACE is capable to process interactive, stereoscopic applications on two projection walls with a size of 16 by 9 meters and a resolution of four times 1080p (4K) each. The processed applications are ranging from Virtual Reality (VR)-environments to 3D-movies to computationally intensive 2D-productions. In this paper, we are describing DEEP SPACE as an experimental VR platform for multi-user interactive storytelling. We are focusing on the system design relevant for the platform, including the integration of the Apple iPod Touch technology as VR control, and a special case study that is demonstrating the research efforts in the field of multi-user interactive storytelling. The described case study, entitled "Papyrate's Island", provides a prototypical scenario of how physical drawings may impact on digital narratives. In this special case, DEEP SPACE helps us to explore the hypothesis that drawing, a primordial human creative skill, gives us access to entirely new creative possibilities in the domain of interactive storytelling.

  12. Coupled radiative gasdynamic interaction and non-equilibrium dissociation for large-scale returned space vehicles

    Surzhikov, S.

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: It has been shown that different coupled vibrational dissociation models, being applied for solving coupled radiative gasdynamic problems for large size space vehicles, exert noticeable effect on radiative heating of its surface at orbital entry on high altitudes (h ⩾ 70 km). This influence decreases with decreasing the space vehicles sizes. Figure shows translational (solid lines) and vibrational (dashed lines) temperatures in shock layer with (circle markers) and without (triangles markers) radiative-gasdynamic interaction for one trajectory point of entering space vehicle. Highlights: ► Nonequilibrium dissociation processes exert effect on radiation heating of space vehicles (SV). ► The radiation gas dynamic interaction enhances this influence. ► This influence increases with increasing the SV sizes. - Abstract: Radiative aerothermodynamics of large-scale space vehicles is considered for Earth orbital entry at zero angle of attack. Brief description of used radiative gasdynamic model of physically and chemically nonequilibrium, viscous, heat conductive and radiative gas of complex chemical composition is presented. Radiation gasdynamic (RadGD) interaction in high temperature shock layer is studied by means of numerical experiment. It is shown that radiation–gasdynamic coupling for orbital space vehicles of large size is important for high altitude part of entering trajectory. It is demonstrated that the use of different models of coupled vibrational dissociation (CVD) in conditions of RadGD interaction gives rise temperature variation in shock layer and, as a result, leads to significant variation of radiative heating of space vehicle.

  13. Interactive computer graphics and its role in control system design of large space structures

    Reddy, A. S. S. R.

    1985-01-01

    This paper attempts to show the relevance of interactive computer graphics in the design of control systems to maintain attitude and shape of large space structures to accomplish the required mission objectives. The typical phases of control system design, starting from the physical model such as modeling the dynamics, modal analysis, and control system design methodology are reviewed and the need of the interactive computer graphics is demonstrated. Typical constituent parts of large space structures such as free-free beams and free-free plates are used to demonstrate the complexity of the control system design and the effectiveness of the interactive computer graphics.

  14. INSPIRE: Interactive NASA Space Physics Ionosphere Radio Experiment

    Franzen, K. A.; Garcia, L. N.; Webb, P. A.; Green, J. L.

    2007-12-01

    The INSPIRE Project is a non-profit scientific and educational corporation whose objective is to bring the excitement of observing very low frequency (VLF) natural radio waves to high school students. Underlying this objective is the conviction that science and technology are the underpinnings of our modern society, and that only with an understanding of these disciplines can people make correct decisions in their lives. Since 1989, the INSPIRE Project has provided specially designed radio receiver kits to over 2,500 students and other groups to make observations of signals in the VLF frequency range. These kits provide an innovative and unique opportunity for students to actively gather data that can be used in a basic research project. Natural VLF emissions that can be studied with the INSPIRE receiver kits include sferics, tweeks, whistlers, and chorus, which originate from phenomena such as lightning. These emissions can either come from the local atmospheric environment within a few tens of kilometers of the receiver or from outer space thousands of kilometers from the Earth. VLF emissions are at such low frequencies that they can be received, amplified and turned into sound that we can hear, with each emission producing in a distinctive sound. In 2006 INSPIRE was re-branded and its mission has expanded to developing new partnerships with multiple science projects. Links to magnetospheric physics, astronomy, and meteorology are being identified. This presentation will introduce the INSPIRE project, display the INSPIRE receiver kits, show examples of the types of VLF emissions that can be collected and provide information on scholarship programs being offered.

  15. THE HISTORY OF SCIENCE IN THE INTERACTIVE SPACE OF CBME

    D.F.B Ovigli

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Considering that since the 1980’s it has a paradigm change, strengtheningthe perception of Science as a human construction and not as "natural truth", newapproaches of teaching emphasizes the importance of the History of Science inthe educational process, also recommended by the Brazilian PCNs. In thiscontext, it is presented the conclusion of the elaboration and evaluation of anillustrated historical panel that is in permanent exposition in the Interactive Spaceof Biotechnology of the CBME. It presents 25 pictures, inserted in a timeline thatselects important events related to cell biology, microbiology and immunology. Thetimeline is initiated in century XVI, with the microbial theory of the illnesses;spontaneous generation and the experiments of Needham and Spallanzani alsoare commented, as well as the production of the first vaccine. Koch, in centuryXIX, is remembered with its postulates and the discovery of some illnessescausative agents. Brazilians’ researchers - Adolfo Lutz, Oswaldo Cruz, Vital Braziland Carlos Chagas – and institutes are presented too. The panel revealed itself asan important source of information, awakening the interest of the visitors for thesubject. The idea was based on presenting Science as a human knowledgeadventure, emphasizing the scientific process in the construction of theknowledge, based on procedures, needs and different interests and values.

  16. Facebook and MySpace: complement or substitute for face-to-face interaction?

    Kujath, Carlyne L

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have claimed that social-networking sites are used as a substitute for face-to-face interaction, resulting in deteriorating relationship quality and decreased intimacy among its users. The present study hypothesized that this type of communication is not a substitute for face-to-face interaction; rather, that it is an extension of communication with face-to-face partners. A survey was administered to examine the use of Facebook and MySpace in this regard among 183 college students. The study confirmed that Facebook and MySpace do act as an extension of face-to-face interaction, but that some users do tend to rely on Facebook and MySpace for interpersonal communication more than face-to-face interaction.

  17. You(th) & Tobacco

    ... Exposure is High in Multiunit Housing Smokeless Products Electronic Cigarettes Youth Tobacco Prevention Tobacco Products Tobacco Ingredient ... Performance Don’t get trapped. Nicotine in cigarettes, cigars, and spit tobacco is addictive. Nicotine narrows your ...

  18. Criteria for Public Open Space Enhancement to Achieve Social Interaction: a Review Paper

    Salih, S. A.; Ismail, S.

    2017-12-01

    A This paper presents a various literatures, studies, transcripts and papers aiming to provide an overview of some theories and existing research on the significance of natural environments and green open spaces to achieve social interaction and outdoor recreation. The main objective of the paper is to identify the factors that affecting social interaction in green open spaces, through proving that an appropriate open spaces is important to enhance social interaction and community. This study employs (qualitative) summarizing content analysis method which mainly focused on collect and summarizing of documentation such as transcripts, articles, papers, and books from more than 25 source, regarding the importance of public open spaces for the community. The summarizing content analysis of this paper is the fundament for a qualitative oriented procedure of text interpretation used to analyse the information gathered. Results of this study confirms that sound social interaction need an appropriate physical space including criteria of: design, activities, access and linkage, administration and maintenance, place attachment and users’ characteristics, also previous studies in this area have a health perspective with measures of physical activity of open spaces in general.

  19. TOBACCO CONTROL

    Tobacco is farmed in more than 125 countries and the problems associated with this ... Canada's International Development Research Centre (IDRC) is one of the world's leading institutions in the generation and application of new ... assumptions about the relative safety ... In Kenya, researchers at Maseno University work.

  20. DataSpaces: An Interaction and Coordination Framework for Coupled Simulation Workflows

    Docan, Ciprian; Klasky, Scott A.; Parashar, Manish

    2010-01-01

    Emerging high-performance distributed computing environments are enabling new end-to-end formulations in science and engineering that involve multiple interacting processes and data-intensive application workflows. For example, current fusion simulation efforts are exploring coupled models and codes that simultaneously simulate separate application processes, such as the core and the edge turbulence, and run on different high performance computing resources. These components need to interact, at runtime, with each other and with services for data monitoring, data analysis and visualization, and data archiving. As a result, they require efficient support for dynamic and flexible couplings and interactions, which remains a challenge. This paper presents Data-Spaces, a flexible interaction and coordination substrate that addresses this challenge. DataSpaces essentially implements a semantically specialized virtual shared space abstraction that can be associatively accessed by all components and services in the application workflow. It enables live data to be extracted from running simulation components, indexes this data online, and then allows it to be monitored, queried and accessed by other components and services via the space using semantically meaningful operators. The underlying data transport is asynchronous, low-overhead and largely memory-to-memory. The design, implementation, and experimental evaluation of DataSpaces using a coupled fusion simulation workflow is presented.

  1. Solar array experiments on the SPHINX satellite. [Space Plasma High voltage INteraction eXperiment satellite

    Stevens, N. J.

    1974-01-01

    The Space Plasma, High Voltage Interaction Experiment (SPHINX) is the name given to an auxiliary payload satellite scheduled to be launched in January 1974. The principal experiments carried on this satellite are specifically designed to obtain the engineering data on the interaction of high voltage systems with the space plasma. The classes of experiments are solar array segments, insulators, insulators with pin holes and conductors. The satellite is also carrying experiments to obtain flight data on three new solar array configurations: the edge illuminated-multijunction cells, the teflon encased cells, and the violet cells.

  2. The short range effective interaction and the spectra of calcium isotopes in (f-p) space

    Qing-ying, Z.; Shen-wu, L.; Jian-xin, W.

    1986-01-01

    In this work, the authors use a new type of extremely short range interaction, the double delta interaction (DDI) to calculate the low-lying spectra of calcium isotopes /sup 41/Ca through /sup 48/Ca. The configuration space (f-p) includes configurations ( f/sub 7/2//sup n/ ) and ( f/sub 7/2//sup n-1/2p/sub 3/2/). The calculated energies are compared with experimental data for 75 levels. For comparison, they also use usual modified surface delta interaction (MSDI) to calculate the same spectra aforementioned. It is clear that the results calculated with DDI are better than with MSDI. Therefore, in the short-range effective interaction the addition of body delta force to the modified surface delta force may improve the agreement with experiment. The authors believe that the conclusion will not be changed if one enlarges the shell model space

  3. Secondhand Tobacco Smoke (Environmental Tobacco Smoke)

    Learn about secondhand tobacco smoke, which can raise your risk of lung cancer. Secondhand tobacco smoke is the combination of the smoke given off by a burning tobacco product and the smoke exhaled by a smoker. Also called environmental tobacco smoke, involuntary smoke, and passive smoke.

  4. The DKP oscillator with a linear interaction in the cosmic string space-time

    Hosseinpour, Mansoureh; Hassanabadi, Hassan [Shahrood University of Technology, Faculty of Physics, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Andrade, Fabiano M. [Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, Departamento de Matematica e Estatistica, Ponta Grossa, Parana (Brazil)

    2018-02-15

    We study the relativistic quantum dynamics of a DKP oscillator field subject to a linear interaction in cosmic string space-time in order to better understand the effects of gravitational fields produced by topological defects on the scalar field. We obtain the solution of DKP oscillator in the cosmic string background. Also, we solve it with an ansatz in the presence of a linear interaction. We obtain the wave functions and the energy levels of the relativistic field in that background. (orig.)

  5. Parental and Infant Gender Factors in Parent–Infant Interaction: State-Space Dynamic Analysis

    M. Angeles Cerezo; Purificación Sierra-García; Gemma Pons-Salvador; Rosa M. Trenado

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the influence of parental gender on their interaction with their infants, considering, as well, the role of the infant’s gender. The State Space Grid (SSG) method, a graphical tool based on the non-linear dynamic system (NDS) approach was used to analyze the interaction, in Free-Play setting, of 52 infants, aged 6 to 10 months, divided into two groups: half of the infants interacted with their fathers and half with their mothers. There were 50% boys in each gro...

  6. Creating Spaces for Children's Agency: "I Wonder…" Formulations in Teacher-Child Interactions

    Houen, Sandy; Danby, Susan; Farrell, Ann; Thorpe, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Affording children's agency is an important pedagogical underpinning of a high-quality early childhood program. Yet little is known about how teachers' interactions create spaces for children's agency. From the perspectives of ethnomethodology and conversation analysis, this paper investigates how teachers and children navigate agency through…

  7. Numerical Calculation of the Phase Space Density for the Strong-Strong Beam-Beam Interaction

    Sobol, A.; Ellison, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    We developed a parallel code to calculate the evolution of the 4D phase space density of two colliding beams, which are coupled via the collective strong-strong beam-beam interaction, in the absence of diffusion and damping, using the Perron-Frobenius (PF) operator technique

  8. Proxemics models for human-aware navigation in robotics: Grounding interaction and personal space models in experimental data from psychology

    Barnaud , Marie-Lou; Morgado , Nicolas; Palluel-Germain , Richard; Diard , Julien; Spalanzani , Anne

    2014-01-01

    International audience; In order to navigate in a social environment, a robot must be aware of social spaces, which include proximity and interaction-based constraints. Previous models of interaction and personal spaces have been inspired by studies in social psychology but not systematically grounded and validated with respect to experimental data. We propose to implement personal and interaction space models in order to replicate a classical psychology experiment. Our robotic simulations ca...

  9. Development of Methodologies, Metrics, and Tools for Investigating Human-Robot Interaction in Space Robotics

    Ezer, Neta; Zumbado, Jennifer Rochlis; Sandor, Aniko; Boyer, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Human-robot systems are expected to have a central role in future space exploration missions that extend beyond low-earth orbit [1]. As part of a directed research project funded by NASA s Human Research Program (HRP), researchers at the Johnson Space Center have started to use a variety of techniques, including literature reviews, case studies, knowledge capture, field studies, and experiments to understand critical human-robot interaction (HRI) variables for current and future systems. Activities accomplished to date include observations of the International Space Station s Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator (SPDM), Robonaut, and Space Exploration Vehicle (SEV), as well as interviews with robotics trainers, robot operators, and developers of gesture interfaces. A survey of methods and metrics used in HRI was completed to identify those most applicable to space robotics. These methods and metrics included techniques and tools associated with task performance, the quantification of human-robot interactions and communication, usability, human workload, and situation awareness. The need for more research in areas such as natural interfaces, compensations for loss of signal and poor video quality, psycho-physiological feedback, and common HRI testbeds were identified. The initial findings from these activities and planned future research are discussed. Human-robot systems are expected to have a central role in future space exploration missions that extend beyond low-earth orbit [1]. As part of a directed research project funded by NASA s Human Research Program (HRP), researchers at the Johnson Space Center have started to use a variety of techniques, including literature reviews, case studies, knowledge capture, field studies, and experiments to understand critical human-robot interaction (HRI) variables for current and future systems. Activities accomplished to date include observations of the International Space Station s Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator

  10. TRENDS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS IN THE GLOBAL INTERACTIVE SPACE

    N. Kochkina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article identifies trends in the development of marketing communications in the global interactive space by analyzing the factors of their functioning and researching motivation of viral audience. It is revealed the prevalence of interactive technologies in today's information space and the growth dynamics of interactive advertising market. It is proved that favorable conditions for marketing communications' functioning forms the basis for the development of viral advertising as an effective communication tool for untraditional impact on potential customers. The popularity of social networks as a major source of viral messages is determined. The motivation of YouTube audience, which provides a resonant video viewing and retransmission, is investigated. Gender and age differences that stipulate communication affect on consumers are identified. Cyclic social consciousness is observed that demands further research of viral audience, including constructing scenarios of viral behavior.

  11. [Lessons learned from tobacco control in Spain].

    Fernández, Esteve; Villalbí, Joan R; Córdoba, Rodrigo

    2006-01-01

    The growing involvement in Spain by civil society in the demand for tobacco control policies has been notable. The basis for the creation of the National Committee for Tobacco Prevention was established in 2004. At the end of that year, an intensive intervention was aimed at specifying, in law, the regulatory actions in the National Plan for Tobacco Prevention. This would facilitate a qualitative leap, taking advantage of the legal transposition of the European directive on advertising. With broad political consensus, the Law 28/2005 was established regarding sanitary measures for tobacco and the regulation of the sale, supply and consumption of tobacco products. The objective stated in this law is to prevent the initiation of tobacco consumption, especially among youth, guarantee the right of non-smokers to breathe air free from tobacco smoke and make quitting this habit easier for people who wish to do so. The main issues included are the prohibition of tobacco advertising and the limitation of tobacco consumption in common work areas and enclosed public spaces. The new law has replaced the previous rules in Spain, which were some of the most permissive in the European Union in terms of tobacco sales, advertising limitations and restrictions on smoking locations. It is clear that there is still much to be done. At this time, more social support needs to be generated in favor of the new regulations, and an important effort needs to be made to educate the public.

  12. Association with humans and seasonality interact to reverse predictions for animal space use.

    Laver, Peter N; Alexander, Kathleen A

    2018-01-01

    Variation in animal space use reflects fitness trade-offs associated with ecological constraints. Associated theories such as the metabolic theory of ecology and the resource dispersion hypothesis generate predictions about what drives variation in animal space use. But, metabolic theory is usually tested in macro-ecological studies and is seldom invoked explicitly in within-species studies. Full evaluation of the resource dispersion hypothesis requires testing in more species. Neither have been evaluated in the context of anthropogenic landscape change. In this study, we used data for banded mongooses ( Mungos mungo ) in northeastern Botswana, along a gradient of association with humans, to test for effects of space use drivers predicted by these theories. We used Bayesian parameter estimation and inference from linear models to test for seasonal differences in space use metrics and to model seasonal effects of space use drivers. Results suggest that space use is strongly associated with variation in the level of overlap that mongoose groups have with humans. Seasonality influences this association, reversing seasonal space use predictions historically-accepted by ecologists. We found support for predictions of the metabolic theory when moderated by seasonality, by association with humans and by their interaction. Space use of mongooses living in association with humans was more concentrated in the dry season than the wet season, when historically-accepted ecological theory predicted more dispersed space use. Resource richness factors such as building density were associated with space use only during the dry season. We found negligible support for predictions of the resource dispersion hypothesis in general or for metabolic theory where seasonality and association with humans were not included. For mongooses living in association with humans, space use was not associated with patch dispersion or group size over both seasons. In our study, living in association

  13. Youth access to tobacco.

    Rigotti, N A

    1999-01-01

    To start smoking, young people need a supply of tobacco products. Reducing youth access to tobacco is a new approach to preventing tobacco use that has been a focus of federal, state, and local tobacco control efforts over the past decade. All 50 states ban tobacco sales to minors, but compliance is poor because laws are not enforced. Consequently, young people have little trouble obtaining tobacco products. Commercial sources of tobacco (stores and vending machines) are important for underage smokers, who often purchase their own cigarettes. Underage youths also obtain tobacco from noncommercial sources such as friends, relatives, older adolescents, and adults. Educating retailers about tobacco sales laws has not produced long-term improvement in their compliance. Active enforcement of tobacco sales laws changes retailer behavior, but whether this reduces young people's access to tobacco or their tobacco use is not clear. The effectiveness of new local, state, and federal actions that aim to reduce youth access to tobacco remains to be determined. Can enforcing tobacco sales laws reduce young people's access to tobacco? If so, will this prevent or delay the onset of their tobacco use? How will youths' sources of tobacco change as commercial sources are restricted? What are the social (noncommercial) sources of tobacco for minors and how can youths' access to tobacco from these sources be reduced? What is the impact of the new federal policies aimed at reducing youth access to tobacco? Do new state and local laws that ban youth possession or use of tobacco have a net positive or negative impact on youth attitudes, access to tobacco, or tobacco use? What is the relative effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of efforts to reduce the supply of tobacco compared to those that aim to reduce demand for tobacco? Will either work alone or are both necessary to achieve reductions in youth smoking?

  14. AlphaSpace: Fragment-Centric Topographical Mapping To Target Protein–Protein Interaction Interfaces

    2016-01-01

    Inhibition of protein–protein interactions (PPIs) is emerging as a promising therapeutic strategy despite the difficulty in targeting such interfaces with drug-like small molecules. PPIs generally feature large and flat binding surfaces as compared to typical drug targets. These features pose a challenge for structural characterization of the surface using geometry-based pocket-detection methods. An attractive mapping strategy—that builds on the principles of fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD)—is to detect the fragment-centric modularity at the protein surface and then characterize the large PPI interface as a set of localized, fragment-targetable interaction regions. Here, we introduce AlphaSpace, a computational analysis tool designed for fragment-centric topographical mapping (FCTM) of PPI interfaces. Our approach uses the alpha sphere construct, a geometric feature of a protein’s Voronoi diagram, to map out concave interaction space at the protein surface. We introduce two new features—alpha-atom and alpha-space—and the concept of the alpha-atom/alpha-space pair to rank pockets for fragment-targetability and to facilitate the evaluation of pocket/fragment complementarity. The resulting high-resolution interfacial map of targetable pocket space can be used to guide the rational design and optimization of small molecule or biomimetic PPI inhibitors. PMID:26225450

  15. Tobacco-Related Mortality

    ... Exposure is High in Multiunit Housing Smokeless Products Electronic Cigarettes Youth Tobacco Prevention Tobacco Products Tobacco Ingredient ... 2004 [accessed 2015 Aug 17]. National Cancer Institute. Cigars: Health Effects and Trends [ PDF –2.93 MB] . ...

  16. Risks of tobacco

    Secondhand smoke - risks; Cigarette smoking - risks; Smoking and smokeless tobacco - risks; Nicotine - risks ... tobacco that are known to cause cancer. HEALTH RISKS OF SMOKING OR USING SMOKELESS TOBACCO Knowing the ...

  17. Chloroplast Redox Status Modulates Genome-Wide Plant Responses during the Non-host Interaction of Tobacco with the Hemibiotrophic Bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria

    Juan J. Pierella Karlusich

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Non-host resistance is the most ample and durable form of plant resistance against pathogen infection. It includes induction of defense-associated genes, massive metabolic reprogramming, and in many instances, a form of localized cell death (LCD at the site of infection, purportedly designed to limit the spread of biotrophic and hemibiotrophic microorganisms. Reactive oxygen species (ROS have been proposed to act as signals for LCD orchestration. They are produced in various cellular compartments including chloroplasts, mitochondria and apoplast. We have previously reported that down-regulation of ROS build-up in chloroplasts by expression of a plastid-targeted flavodoxin (Fld suppressed LCD in tobacco leaves inoculated with the non-host bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv, while other defensive responses were unaffected, suggesting that chloroplast ROS and/or redox status play a major role in the progress of LCD. To better understand these effects, we compare here the transcriptomic alterations caused by Xcv inoculation on leaves of Fld-expressing tobacco plants and their wild-type siblings. About 29% of leaf-expressed genes were affected by Xcv and/or Fld. Surprisingly, 5.8% of them (1,111 genes were regulated by Fld in the absence of infection, presumably representing pathways responsive to chloroplast ROS production and/or redox status during normal growth conditions. While the majority (∼75% of pathogen-responsive genes were not affected by Fld, many Xcv responses were exacerbated, attenuated, or regulated in opposite direction by expression of this protein. Particularly interesting was a group of 384 genes displaying Xcv responses that were already triggered by Fld in the absence of infection, suggesting that the transgenic plants had a larger and more diversified suite of constitutive defenses against the attacking microorganism compared to the wild type. Fld modulated many genes involved in pathogenesis, signal

  18. The design and testing of interactive hospital spaces to meet the needs of waiting children.

    Biddiss, Elaine; McPherson, Amy; Shea, Geoffrey; McKeever, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    To design an innovative interactive media display in a pediatric hospital clinic waiting space that addresses the growing demand for accessible, contact-surface-free options for play. In healthcare settings, waiting can be anxiety provoking for children and their accompanying family members. Opportunities for positive distraction have been shown to reduce waiting anxiety, leading to positive health outcomes. An interactive media display, ScreenPlay, was created and evaluated using a participatory design approach and a combination of techniques including quality function deployment and mixed data elicitation methods (questionnaires, focus groups, and observations). The user and organizational design requirements were established and used to review contemporary strategies for positive distraction in healthcare waiting spaces and to conceptualize and test ScreenPlay. Ten staff members, 11 children/youths, and 6 parents participated in the design and evaluation of ScreenPlay. ScreenPlay provided a positive, engaging experience without the use of contact surfaces through which infections can be spread. It was accessible to children, youth, and adults of all motor abilities. All participants strongly agreed that the interactive media display would improve the healthcare waiting experience. ScreenPlay is an interactive display that is the result of a successful model for the design of healthcare waiting spaces that is collaborative, interdisciplinary, and responsive to the needs of its community. Design process, healing environments, hospital, interdisciplinary, pediatric.

  19. Body Space in Social Interactions: A Comparison of Reaching and Comfort Distance in Immersive Virtual Reality

    Iachini, Tina; Coello, Yann; Frassinetti, Francesca; Ruggiero, Gennaro

    2014-01-01

    Background Do peripersonal space for acting on objects and interpersonal space for interacting with con-specifics share common mechanisms and reflect the social valence of stimuli? To answer this question, we investigated whether these spaces refer to a similar or different physical distance. Methodology Participants provided reachability-distance (for potential action) and comfort-distance (for social processing) judgments towards human and non-human virtual stimuli while standing still (passive) or walking toward stimuli (active). Principal Findings Comfort-distance was larger than other conditions when participants were passive, but reachability and comfort distances were similar when participants were active. Both spaces were modulated by the social valence of stimuli (reduction with virtual females vs males, expansion with cylinder vs robot) and the gender of participants. Conclusions These findings reveal that peripersonal reaching and interpersonal comfort spaces share a common motor nature and are sensitive, at different degrees, to social modulation. Therefore, social processing seems embodied and grounded in the body acting in space. PMID:25405344

  20. Non-Abelian monopole in the parameter space of point-like interactions

    Ohya, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    We study non-Abelian geometric phase in N=2 supersymmetric quantum mechanics for a free particle on a circle with two point-like interactions at antipodal points. We show that non-Abelian Berry’s connection is that of SU(2) magnetic monopole discovered by Moody, Shapere and Wilczek in the context of adiabatic decoupling limit of diatomic molecule. - Highlights: • Supersymmetric quantum mechanics is an ideal playground for studying geometric phase. • We determine the parameter space of supersymmetric point-like interactions. • Berry’s connection is given by a Wu–Yang-like magnetic monopole in SU(2) Yang–Mills

  1. Use of swivel desks and aisle space to promote interaction in mid-sized college classrooms.

    Robert G. Henshaw

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional designs for most mid-sized college classrooms discourage 1 face-to-face interaction among students, 2 instructor movement in the classroom, and 3 efficient transitions between different kinds of learning activities. An experimental classroom piloted during Spring Semester 2011 at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill uses clusters of stationary desks that swivel 360-degrees and aisle space to address these challenges. The findings from a study involving ten courses taught in the room suggest that there is a need for designs that not only promote quality interactions but also facilitate movement between small group work, class discussion, and lecture.

  2. Peer-to-Peer Human-Robot Interaction for Space Exploration

    Fong, Terrence; Nourbakhsh, Illah

    2004-01-01

    NASA has embarked on a long-term program to develop human-robot systems for sustained, affordable space exploration. To support this mission, we are working to improve human-robot interaction and performance on planetary surfaces. Rather than building robots that function as glorified tools, our focus is to enable humans and robots to work as partners and peers. In this paper. we describe our approach, which includes contextual dialogue, cognitive modeling, and metrics-based field testing.

  3. Longitudinal phase space manipulation of an ultrashort electron beam via THz IFEL interaction

    Moody, J. T.; Li, R. K.; Musumeci, P.; Scoby, C. M.; To, H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, Los Angeles California, 90095 (United States)

    2012-12-21

    A scheme where a laser locked THz source is used to manipulate the longitudinal phase space of an ultrashort electron beam using an IFEL interaction is investigated. The efficiency of THz source based on the pulse front tilt optical rectification scheme is increased by cryogenic cooling to achieve sufficient THz power for compression and synchronization. Start-to-end simulations describing the evolution of the beam from the cathode to the compression point after the undulator are presented.

  4. Longitudinal phase space manipulation of an ultrashort electron beam via THz IFEL interaction

    Moody, J. T.; Li, R. K.; Musumeci, P.; Scoby, C. M.; To, H.

    2012-01-01

    A scheme where a laser locked THz source is used to manipulate the longitudinal phase space of an ultrashort electron beam using an IFEL interaction is investigated. The efficiency of THz source based on the pulse front tilt optical rectification scheme is increased by cryogenic cooling to achieve sufficient THz power for compression and synchronization. Start-to-end simulations describing the evolution of the beam from the cathode to the compression point after the undulator are presented.

  5. The multidimensional behavioural hypervolumes of two interacting species predict their space use and survival.

    Lichtenstein, James L L; Wright, Colin M; McEwen, Brendan; Pinter-Wollman, Noa; Pruitt, Jonathan N

    2017-10-01

    Individual animals differ consistently in their behaviour, thus impacting a wide variety of ecological outcomes. Recent advances in animal personality research have established the ecological importance of the multidimensional behavioural volume occupied by individuals and by multispecies communities. Here, we examine the degree to which the multidimensional behavioural volume of a group predicts the outcome of both intra- and interspecific interactions. In particular, we test the hypothesis that a population of conspecifics will experience low intraspecific competition when the population occupies a large volume in behavioural space. We further hypothesize that populations of interacting species will exhibit greater interspecific competition when one or both species occupy large volumes in behavioural space. We evaluate these hypotheses by studying groups of katydids ( Scudderia nymphs) and froghoppers ( Philaenus spumarius ), which compete for food and space on their shared host plant, Solidago canadensis . We found that individuals in single-species groups of katydids positioned themselves closer to one another, suggesting reduced competition, when groups occupied a large behavioural volume. When both species were placed together, we found that the survival of froghoppers was greatest when both froghoppers and katydids occupied a small volume in behavioural space, particularly at high froghopper densities. These results suggest that groups that occupy large behavioural volumes can have low intraspecific competition but high interspecific competition. Thus, behavioural hypervolumes appear to have ecological consequences at both the level of the population and the community and may help to predict the intensity of competition both within and across species.

  6. dSPACE based adaptive neuro-fuzzy controller of grid interactive inverter

    Altin, Necmi; Sefa, İbrahim

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We propose a dSPACE based neuro-fuzzy controlled grid interactive inverter. ► The membership functions and rule base of fuzzy logic controller by using ANFIS. ► A LCL output filter is designed. ► A high performance controller is designed. - Abstract: In this study, design, simulation and implementation of a dSPACE based grid interactive voltage source inverter are proposed. This inverter has adaptive neuro-fuzzy controller and capable of importing electrical energy, generated from renewable energy sources such as the wind, the solar and the fuel cells to the grid. A line frequency transformer and a LCL filter are used at the output of the grid interactive inverter which is designed as current controlled to decrease the susceptibility to phase errors. Membership functions and rule base of the fuzzy logic controller, which control the inverter output current, are determined by using artificial neural networks. Both simulation and experimental results show that, the grid interactive inverter operates synchronously with the grid. The inverter output current which is imported to the grid is in sinusoidal waveform and the harmonic level of it meets the international standards (4.3 < 5.0%). In addition, simulation and experimental results of the neuro-fuzzy and the PI controlled inverter are given together and compared in detail. Simulation and experimental results show that the proposed inverter has faster response to the reference variations and lower steady state error than PI controller.

  7. Space-time foam effects on particle interactions and the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin cutoff

    Ellis, John; Mavromatos, N. E.; Nanopoulos, D. V.

    2001-01-01

    Modeling space-time foam using a noncritical Liouville-string model for the quantum fluctuations of D-branes with recoil, we discuss the issues of momentum and energy conservation in particle propagation and interactions. We argue that momentum should be conserved exactly during propagation and on the average during interactions, but that energy is conserved only on the average during propagation and is in general not conserved during particle interactions, because of changes in the background metric. We discuss the possible modification of the GZK cutoff on high-energy cosmic rays, in the light of this energy non-conservation as well as the possible modification of the usual relativistic momentum-energy relation

  8. Constraints on interacting dark energy models from Planck 2015 and redshift-space distortion data

    Costa, André A.; Abdalla, E. [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, C.P. 66318, 05315-970, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Xu, Xiao-Dong [Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, Cape Town (South Africa); Wang, Bin, E-mail: alencar@if.usp.br, E-mail: xiaodong.xu@uct.ac.za, E-mail: wang_b@sjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: eabdalla@usp.br [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200240 Shanghai (China)

    2017-01-01

    We investigate phenomenological interactions between dark matter and dark energy and constrain these models by employing the most recent cosmological data including the cosmic microwave background radiation anisotropies from Planck 2015, Type Ia supernovae, baryon acoustic oscillations, the Hubble constant and redshift-space distortions. We find that the interaction in the dark sector parameterized as an energy transfer from dark matter to dark energy is strongly suppressed by the whole updated cosmological data. On the other hand, an interaction between dark sectors with the energy flow from dark energy to dark matter is proved in better agreement with the available cosmological observations. This coupling between dark sectors is needed to alleviate the coincidence problem.

  9. Hyperon interaction in free space and nuclear matter within a SU(3) based meson exchange model

    Dhar, Madhumita

    2016-06-15

    To establish the connection between free space and in-medium hyperon-nucleon interactions is the central issue of this thesis. The guiding principle is flavor SU(3) symmetry which is exploited at various levels. In first step hyperon-nucleon and hyperon- hyperon interaction boson exchange potential in free space are introduced. A new parameter set applicable for the complete baryon octet has been derived leading to an updated one-boson- exchange model, utilizing SU(3) flavor symmetry, optimizing the number of free parameters involved, and revising the set of mesons included. The scalar, pseudoscalar, and vector SU(3) meson octets are taken into account. T-matrices are calculated by solving numerically coupled linear systems of Lippmann-Schwinger equations obtained from a 3-D reduced Bethe-Salpeter equation. Coupling constants were determined by χ{sup 2} fits to the world set of scattering data. A good description of the few available data is achieved within the imposed SU(3) constraints. Having at hand a consistently derived vacuum interaction we extend the approach next to investigations of the in-medium properties of hyperon interaction, avoiding any further adjustments. Medium effect in infinite nuclear matter are treated microscopically by recalculating T-matrices by an medium-modified system of Lippmann-Schwinger equations. A particular important role is played by the Pauli projector accounting for the exclusion principle. The presence of a background medium induces a weakening of the vacuum interaction amplitudes. Especially coupled channel mixing is found to be affected sensitively by medium. Investigation on scattering lengths and effective range parameters are revealing the density dependence of the interaction on a quantitative level.

  10. Heliosheath Space Environment Interactions with Icy Bodies in the Outermost Solar System

    Cooper, John F.; Hill, Matthew E.; Richardson, John D.; Sturner, Steven J.

    2006-01-01

    The Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft are exploring the space environment of the outermost solar system at the same time that earth-based astronomy continues to discover new icy bodies, one larger than Pluto, in the transitional region outward from the Classical Kuiper Belt to the Inner Oort Cloud. Some of the Scattered Disk Objects in this region periodically pass through the heliosheath, entered by Voyager 1 in Dec. 2004 and later expected to be reached by Voyager 2, and out even beyond the heliopause into the Very Local Interstellar Medium. The less energetic heliosheath ions, important for implantation and sputtering processes, are abundant near and beyond the termination shock inner boundary, but the source region of the more penetrating anomalous cosmic ray component has not yet been found. Advantageous for modeling of icy body interactions, the measured heliosheath flux spectra are relatively more stable within this new regime of isotropic compressional magnetic turbulence than in the upstream heliospheric environment. The deepest interactions and resultant radiation-induced chemistry arise from the inwardly diffusing component of the galactic cosmic ray ions with significant intensity modulation also arising in the heliosheath beyond Voyager 1. Surface gardening by high-velocity impacts of smaller bodies (e.g., fragments of previous KBO collisions) and dust is a further space weathering process setting the time scales for long term exposure of different regolith layers to the ion irradiation. Sputtering and ionization of impact ejecta grains may provide a substantial feedback of pickup ions for multiple cycles of heliosheath acceleration and icy body interaction. Thus the space weathering interactions are potentially of interest not only for effects on sensible surface composition of the icy bodies but also for evolution of the heliosheath plasma energetic ion, and neutral emission environment.

  11. Personal space regulation in childhood autism: Effects of social interaction and person's perspective.

    Candini, Michela; Giuberti, Virginia; Manattini, Alessandra; Grittani, Serenella; di Pellegrino, Giuseppe; Frassinetti, Francesca

    2017-01-01

    Studies in children with Typical Development (TD) and with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) revealed that autism affects the personal space regulation, influencing both its size (permeability) and its changes depending on social interaction (flexibility). Here, we investigate how the nature of social interaction (Cooperative vs. Uncooperative) and the person perspective influence permeability and flexibility of interpersonal distance. Moreover, we tested whether the deficit observed in ASD children, reflects the social impairment (SI) in daily interactions. The stop-distance paradigm was used to measure the preferred distance between the participant and an unfamiliar adult (first-person perspective, Experiment 1), and between two other people (third-person perspective, Experiment 2). Interpersonal distance was measured before and after the interaction with a confederate. The Wing Subgroups Questionnaire was used to evaluate SI in everyday activities, and each ASD participant was accordingly assigned either to the lower (children with low social impairment [low-SI ASD]), or to the higher SI group (children with high social impairment [high-SI ASD]). We observed larger interpersonal distance (permeability) in both ASD groups compared to TD children. Moreover, depending on the nature of social interaction, a modulation of interpersonal distance (flexibility) was observed in TD children, both from the first- and third-person perspective. Similar findings were found in low-SI but not in high-SI ASD children, in Experiment 1. Conversely, in Experiment 2, no change was observed in both ASD groups. These findings reveal that SI severity and a person's perspective may account for the deficit observed in autism when flexibility, but not permeability, of personal space is considered. Autism Res 2017, 10: 144-154. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Three-dimensional theory for interaction between atomic ensembles and free-space light

    Duan, L.-M.; Cirac, J.I.; Zoller, P.

    2002-01-01

    Atomic ensembles have shown to be a promising candidate for implementations of quantum information processing by many recently discovered schemes. All these schemes are based on the interaction between optical beams and atomic ensembles. For description of these interactions, one assumed either a cavity-QED model or a one-dimensional light propagation model, which is still inadequate for a full prediction and understanding of most of the current experimental efforts that are actually taken in the three-dimensional free space. Here, we propose a perturbative theory to describe the three-dimensional effects in interaction between atomic ensembles and free-space light with a level configuration important for several applications. The calculations reveal some significant effects that were not known before from the other approaches, such as the inherent mode-mismatching noise and the optimal mode-matching conditions. The three-dimensional theory confirms the collective enhancement of the signal-to-noise ratio which is believed to be one of the main advantages of the ensemble-based quantum information processing schemes, however, it also shows that this enhancement needs to be understood in a more subtle way with an appropriate mode-matching method

  13. Lesson Plan Prototype for International Space Station's Interactive Video Education Events

    Zigon, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    The outreach and education components of the International Space Station Program are creating a number of materials, programs, and activities that educate and inform various groups as to the implementation and purposes of the International Space Station. One of the strategies for disseminating this information to K-12 students involves an electronic class room using state of the art video conferencing technology. K-12 classrooms are able to visit the JSC, via an electronic field trip. Students interact with outreach personnel as they are taken on a tour of ISS mockups. Currently these events can be generally characterized as: Being limited to a one shot events, providing only one opportunity for students to view the ISS mockups; Using a "one to many" mode of communications; Using a transmissive, lecture based method of presenting information; Having student interactions limited to Q&A during the live event; Making limited use of media; and Lacking any formal, performance based, demonstration of learning on the part of students. My project involved developing interactive lessons for K-12 students (specifically 7th grade) that will reflect a 2nd generation design for electronic field trips. The goal of this design will be to create electronic field trips that will: Conform to national education standards; More fully utilize existing information resources; Integrate media into field trip presentations; Make support media accessible to both presenters and students; Challenge students to actively participate in field trip related activities; and Provide students with opportunities to demonstrate learning

  14. Gardening for Therapeutic People-Plant Interactions during Long-Duration Space Missions

    Odeh Raymond

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Plants provide people with vital resources necessary to sustain life. Nutrition, vitamins, calories, oxygen, fuel, and medicinal phytochemicals are just a few of the life-supporting plant products, but does our relationship with plants transcend these physical and biochemical products? This review synthesizes some of the extant literature on people-plant interactions, and relates key findings relevant to space exploration and the psychosocial and neurocognitive benefits of plants and nature in daily life. Here, a case is made in support of utilizing plant-mediated therapeutic benefits to mitigate potential psychosocial and neurocognitive decrements associated with long-duration space missions, especially for missions that seek to explore increasingly distant places where ground-based support is limited.

  15. Reinventing the Arcade: Computer Game Mediated Play Spaces for Physical Interaction

    A. M. Connor

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper suggests that recent developments in video game technology have occurred in parallel to play being moved from public into private spaces, which has had impact on the way people interact with games. The paper also argues and that there is potentially value in the creation of public play spaces to create opportunities to utilise both technology and body for the benefit of community culture and experiences through gaming. Co-located social gaming coupled with tangible interfaces offer alternative possibilities for the local video game scene. This paper includes a descriptive account of Rabble Room Arcade, an experimental social event combining custom-built tangible interface devices and multiplayer video games. The event was designed around games that promoted a return to simplicity through the use of unique tangible controllers to allow casual gamers to connect to the game and to each other, whilst also transforming the event into a spectacle.

  16. Creating the Public Connection: Interactive Experiences with Real-Time Earth and Space Science Data

    Reiff, Patricia H.; Ledley, Tamara S.; Sumners, Carolyn; Wyatt, Ryan

    1995-01-01

    The Houston Museum of Natural Sciences is less than two miles from Rice University, a major hub on the Internet. This project links these two institutions so that NASA real-time data and imagery can flow via Rice to the Museum where it reaches the public in the form of planetarium programs, computer based interactive kiosks, and space and Earth science problem solving simulation. Through this program at least 200,000 visitors annually (including every 4th and 7th grader in the Houston Independent School District) will have direct exposure to the Earth and space research being conducted by NASA and available over the Internet. Each information conduit established between Rice University and the Houston Museum of Natural Science will become a model for public information dissemination that can be replicated nationally in museums, planetariums, Challenger Centers, and schools.

  17. Vacuum polarization and topological self-interaction of a charge in multiconic space

    Gal'tsov, D.V.; Grats, Y.V.; Lavrent'ev, A.B.

    1995-01-01

    The behavior of classical and quantized massless scalar fields in n-dimensional multiconic space-time is considered. An expression for the Euclidean Green's function is obtained using the methods of perturbation theory. It is shown that a nontrivial topology of the space distorts the electrostatic field of a pointlike charge; as a result, the self-energy of the particle assumes a nonzero value, and a force of topological self-interaction arises. Similarly, a change in the spectrum of vacuum fluctuations of a quantized scalar field leads to nonzero vacuum expectation values left-angle φ 2 right-angle vac and left-angle T μv right-angle va and gives rise to vacuum attraction between parallel cosmic strings. 28 refs

  18. The use of an equivalent homogeneous half-space in soil-structure interaction analysis

    Holzloehner, U.

    1979-01-01

    In analyses of seismic soil-structure interaction, the soil often is assumed as an elastic body. The solution procedure is lengthy if the heterogeneity of the soil is considered strictly. If the soil is taken as a homogeneous elastic half-space, existing solutions can be used. There are solutions for some simple layered systems, too. However, it is often not easy to correlate the variation of the soil properties with depth as found by measurements to those of ideal systems. The purpose of the paper is to show how to make use of the existing solutions. (orig.)

  19. The Space Station Photovoltaic Panels Plasma Interaction Test Program: Test plan and results

    Nahra, Henry K.; Felder, Marian C.; Sater, Bernard L.; Staskus, John V.

    1989-01-01

    The Plasma Interaction Test performed on two space station solar array panels is addressed. This includes a discussion of the test requirements, test plan, experimental set-up, and test results. It was found that parasitic current collection was insignificant (0.3 percent of the solar array delivered power). The measured arcing threshold ranged from -210 to -457 V with respect to the plasma potential. Furthermore, the dynamic response of the panels showed the panel time constant to range between 1 and 5 microsec, and the panel capacitance to be between .01 and .02 microF.

  20. The Space Station photovoltaic panels plasma interaction test program - Test plan and results

    Nahra, Henry K.; Felder, Marian C.; Sater, Bernard L.; Staskus, John V.

    1990-01-01

    The plasma Interaction Test performed on two space station solar array panels is addressed. This includes a discussion of the test requirements, test plan, experimental set-up, and test results. It was found that parasitic current collection was insignificant (0.3 percent of the solar array delivered power). The measured arcing threshold ranged from -210 to -457 V with respect to the plasma potential. Furthermore, the dynamic response of the panels showed the panel time constant to range between 1 and 5 microsec, and the panel capacitance to be between .01 and .02 microF.

  1. Massive bosons interacting with gravity: No standard solutions in Robertson-Walker space-time

    Zecca, A.

    2009-01-01

    The problem of the interaction of boson and gravitational field is formulated in the Robertson-Walker space-time. It consist the simultaneous solution of the boson and of the Einstein field equation whose source is the energy momentum tensor of the boson field. By direct verification it is shown that the problem does not admit solutions in the class of massive standard solutions, previously determined, of the boson field equation. Also there cannot be solutions, in case of massive interacting boson, that are superpositions of standard solutions. The case of massless boson field is left open. The result is essentially due to the very special form of the Einstein tensor in Robertson-Walker metric.

  2. Space-Time Characterization of Laser Plasma Interactions in the Warm Dense Matter Regime

    Cao, L F; Uschmann, I; Forster, E; Zamponi, F; Kampfer, T; Fuhrmann, A; Holl, A; Redmer, R; Toleikis, S; Tschentsher, T; Glenzer, S H

    2008-04-30

    Laser plasma interaction experiments have been performed using a fs Titanium Sapphire laser. Plasmas have been generated from planar PMMA targets using single laser pulses with 3.3 mJ pulse energy, 50 fs pulse duration at 800 nm wavelength. The electron density distributions of the plasmas in different delay times have been characterized by means of Nomarski Interferometry. Experimental data were compared with hydrodynamic simulation. First results to characterize the plasma density and temperature as a function of space and time are obtained. This work aims to generate plasmas in the warm dense matter (WDM) regime at near solid-density in an ultra-fast laser target interaction process. Plasmas under these conditions can serve as targets to develop x-ray Thomson scattering as a plasma diagnostic tool, e.g., using the VUV free-electron laser (FLASH) at DESY Hamburg.

  3. Discourse-voice regulatory strategies in the psychotherapeutic interaction: a state-space dynamics analysis.

    Tomicic, Alemka; Martínez, Claudio; Pérez, J Carola; Hollenstein, Tom; Angulo, Salvador; Gerstmann, Adam; Barroux, Isabelle; Krause, Mariane

    2015-01-01

    This study seeks to provide evidence of the dynamics associated with the configurations of discourse-voice regulatory strategies in patient-therapist interactions in relevant episodes within psychotherapeutic sessions. Its central assumption is that discourses manifest themselves differently in terms of their prosodic characteristics according to their regulatory functions in a system of interactions. The association between discourse and vocal quality in patients and therapists was analyzed in a sample of 153 relevant episodes taken from 164 sessions of five psychotherapies using the state space grid (SSG) method, a graphical tool based on the dynamic systems theory (DST). The results showed eight recurrent and stable discourse-voice regulatory strategies of the patients and three of the therapists. Also, four specific groups of these discourse-voice strategies were identified. The latter were interpreted as regulatory configurations, that is to say, as emergent self-organized groups of discourse-voice regulatory strategies constituting specific interactional systems. Both regulatory strategies and their configurations differed between two types of relevant episodes: Change Episodes and Rupture Episodes. As a whole, these results support the assumption that speaking and listening, as dimensions of the interaction that takes place during therapeutic conversation, occur at different levels. The study not only shows that these dimensions are dependent on each other, but also that they function as a complex and dynamic whole in therapeutic dialog, generating relational offers which allow the patient and the therapist to regulate each other and shape the psychotherapeutic process that characterizes each type of relevant episode.

  4. Smokeless Tobacco - An Overview

    Klus H

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Smoking, especially cigarette smoking, is the most common form of tobacco consumption world-wide. It is generally accepted that smoking carries health risks for smokers. The combustion and pyrolysis products of tobacco generated during smoking are considered to be responsible for the harmful effects. Smokeless tobacco, another wide-spread form of tobacco use, is not subjected to burning and produces no combustion or pyrolysis products. Therefore, there is an increasingly intense debate about the potential role of smokeless tobacco in reducing the harm of tobacco use.

  5. Mobile Mixed-Reality Interfaces That Enhance Human–Robot Interaction in Shared Spaces

    Jared A. Frank

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Although user interfaces with gesture-based input and augmented graphics have promoted intuitive human–robot interactions (HRI, they are often implemented in remote applications on research-grade platforms requiring significant training and limiting operator mobility. This paper proposes a mobile mixed-reality interface approach to enhance HRI in shared spaces. As a user points a mobile device at the robot’s workspace, a mixed-reality environment is rendered providing a common frame of reference for the user and robot to effectively communicate spatial information for performing object manipulation tasks, improving the user’s situational awareness while interacting with augmented graphics to intuitively command the robot. An evaluation with participants is conducted to examine task performance and user experience associated with the proposed interface strategy in comparison to conventional approaches that utilize egocentric or exocentric views from cameras mounted on the robot or in the environment, respectively. Results indicate that, despite the suitability of the conventional approaches in remote applications, the proposed interface approach provides comparable task performance and user experiences in shared spaces without the need to install operator stations or vision systems on or around the robot. Moreover, the proposed interface approach provides users the flexibility to direct robots from their own visual perspective (at the expense of some physical workload and leverages the sensing capabilities of the tablet to expand the robot’s perceptual range.

  6. Developing an Adaptive Robotic Assistant for Close-Proximity Human-Robot Interaction in Space Environments

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As mankind continues making strides in space exploration and associated technologies, the frequency, duration, and complexity of human space exploration missions...

  7. Secondary Neutron Production from Space Radiation Interactions: Advances in Model and Experimental Data Base Development

    Heilbronn, Lawrence H.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Braley, G. Scott; Iwata, Yoshiyuki; Iwase, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Takashi; Ronningen, Reginald M.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2003-01-01

    For humans engaged in long-duration missions in deep space or near-Earth orbit, the risk from exposure to galactic and solar cosmic rays is an important factor in the design of spacecraft, spacesuits, and planetary bases. As cosmic rays are transported through shielding materials and human tissue components, a secondary radiation field is produced. Neutrons are an important component of that secondary field, especially in thickly-shielded environments. Calculations predict that 50% of the dose-equivalent in a lunar or Martian base comes from neutrons, and a recent workshop held at the Johnson Space Center concluded that as much as 30% of the dose in the International Space Station may come from secondary neutrons. Accelerator facilities provide a means for measuring the effectiveness of various materials in their ability to limit neutron production, using beams and energies that are present in cosmic radiation. The nearly limitless range of beams, energies, and target materials that are present in space, however, means that accelerator-based experiments will not provide a complete database of cross sections and thick-target yields that are necessary to plan and design long-duration missions. As such, accurate nuclear models of neutron production are needed, as well as data sets that can be used to compare with, and verify, the predictions from such models. Improvements in a model of secondary neutron production from heavy-ion interactions are presented here, along with the results from recent accelerator-based measurements of neutron-production cross sections. An analytical knockout-ablation model capable of predicting neutron production from high-energy hadron-hadron interactions (both nucleon-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions) has been previously developed. In the knockout stage, the collision between two nuclei result in the emission of one or more nucleons from the projectile and/or target. The resulting projectile and target remnants, referred to as

  8. Monitoring tobacco brand websites to understand marketing strategies aimed at tobacco product users and potential users.

    Escobedo, Patricia; Cruz, Tess Boley; Tsai, Kai-Ya; Allem, Jon-Patrick; Soto, Daniel W; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G; Pattarroyo, Monica; Unger, Jennifer B

    2017-09-11

    Limited information exists about strategies and methods used on brand marketing websites to transmit pro-tobacco messages to tobacco users and potential users. This study compared age verification methods, themes, interactive activities and links to social media across tobacco brand websites. This study examined 12 tobacco brand websites representing four tobacco product categories: cigarettes, cigar/cigarillos, smokeless tobacco, and e-cigarettes. Website content was analyzed by tobacco product category and data from all website visits (n = 699) were analyzed. Adult smokers (n=32) coded websites during a one-year period, indicating whether or not they observed any of 53 marketing themes, seven interactive activities, or five external links to social media sites. Most (58%) websites required online registration before entering, however e-cigarette websites used click-through age verification. Compared to cigarette sites, cigar/cigarillo sites were more likely to feature themes related to "party" lifestyle, and e-cigarette websites were much more likely to feature themes related to harm reduction. Cigarette sites featured greater levels of interactive content compared to other tobacco products. Compared to cigarette sites, cigar/cigarillo sites were more likely to feature activities related to events and music. Compared to cigarette sites, both cigar and e-cigarette sites were more likely to direct visitors to external social media sites. Marketing methods and strategies normalize tobacco use by providing website visitors with positive themes combined with interactive content, and is an area of future research. Moreover, all tobacco products under federal regulatory authority should be required to use more stringent age verification gates. Findings indicate the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) should require brand websites of all tobacco products under its regulatory authority use more stringent age verification gates by requiring all visitors be at least 18 years

  9. Interaction of Space Suits with Windblown Soil: Preliminary Mars Wind Tunnel Results

    Marshall, J.; Bratton, C.; Kosmo, J.; Trevino, R.

    1999-09-01

    Experiments in the Mars Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center show that under Mars conditions, spacesuit materials are highly susceptible to dust contamination when exposed to windblown soil. This effect was suspected from knowledge of the interaction of electrostatically adhesive dust with solid surfaces in general. However, it is important to evaluate the respective roles of materials, meteorological and radiation effects, and the character of the soil. The tunnel permits evaluation of dust contamination and sand abrasion of space suits by simulating both pressure and wind conditions on Mars. The long-term function of space suits on Mars will be primarily threatened by dust contamination. Lunar EVA activities caused heavy contamination of space suits, but the problem was never seriously manifest because of the brief utilization of the suits, and the suits were never reused. Electrostatically adhering dust grains have various detrimental effects: (1) penetration and subsequent wear of suit fabrics, (2) viewing obscuration through visors and scratching/pitting of visor surfaces, (3) penetration, wear, and subsequent seizing-up of mechanical suit joints, (4) changes in albedo and therefore of radiation properties of external heat-exchanger systems, (5) changes in electrical conductivity of suit surfaces which may affect tribocharging of suits and create spurious discharge effects detrimental to suit electronics/radio systems. Additional information is contained in the original.

  10. Toward a community ecology of landscapes: predicting multiple predator-prey interactions across geographic space.

    Schmitz, Oswald J; Miller, Jennifer R B; Trainor, Anne M; Abrahms, Briana

    2017-09-01

    Community ecology was traditionally an integrative science devoted to studying interactions between species and their abiotic environments in order to predict species' geographic distributions and abundances. Yet for philosophical and methodological reasons, it has become divided into two enterprises: one devoted to local experimentation on species interactions to predict community dynamics; the other devoted to statistical analyses of abiotic and biotic information to describe geographic distribution. Our goal here is to instigate thinking about ways to reconnect the two enterprises and thereby return to a tradition to do integrative science. We focus specifically on the community ecology of predators and prey, which is ripe for integration. This is because there is active, simultaneous interest in experimentally resolving the nature and strength of predator-prey interactions as well as explaining patterns across landscapes and seascapes. We begin by describing a conceptual theory rooted in classical analyses of non-spatial food web modules used to predict species interactions. We show how such modules can be extended to consideration of spatial context using the concept of habitat domain. Habitat domain describes the spatial extent of habitat space that predators and prey use while foraging, which differs from home range, the spatial extent used by an animal to meet all of its daily needs. This conceptual theory can be used to predict how different spatial relations of predators and prey could lead to different emergent multiple predator-prey interactions such as whether predator consumptive or non-consumptive effects should dominate, and whether intraguild predation, predator interference or predator complementarity are expected. We then review the literature on studies of large predator-prey interactions that make conclusions about the nature of multiple predator-prey interactions. This analysis reveals that while many studies provide sufficient information

  11. DEEBAR - A BASIC interactive computer programme for estimating mean resonance spacings

    Booth, M.; Pope, A.L.; Smith, R.W.; Story, J.S.

    1988-02-01

    DEEBAR is a BASIC interactive programme, which uses the theories of Dyson and of Dyson and Mehta, to compute estimates of the mean resonance spacings and associated uncertainty statistics from an input file of neutron resonance energies. In applying these theories the broad scale energy dependence of D-bar, as predicted by the ordinary theory of level densities, is taken into account. The mean spacing D-bar ± δD-bar, referred to zero energy of the incident neutrons, is computed from the energies of the first k resonances, for k = 2,3...K in turn and as if no resonances are missing. The user is asked to survey this set of D-bar and δD-bar values and to form a judgement - up to what value of k is the set of resonances complete and what value, in consequence, does the user adopt as the preferred value of D-bar? When the preferred values for k and D-bar have been input, the programme calculates revised values for the level density parameters, consistent with this value for D-bar and with other input information. Two short tables are printed, illustrating the energy variation and spin dependence of D-bar. Dyson's formula based on his Coulomb gas analogy is used for estimating the most likely energies of the topmost bound levels. Finally the quasi-crystalline character of a single level series is exploited by means of a table in which the resonance energies are set alongside an energy ladder whose rungs are regularly spaced with spacing D-bar(E); this comparative table expedites the search for gaps where resonances may have been missed experimentally. Used in conjunction with the program LJPROB, which calculates neutron strengths and compares them against the expected Porter Thomas distribution, estimates of the statistical parameters for use in the unresolved resonance region may be derived. (author)

  12. Interacting noise sources shape patterns of arm movement variability in three-dimensional space.

    Apker, Gregory A; Darling, Timothy K; Buneo, Christopher A

    2010-11-01

    Reaching movements are subject to noise in both the planning and execution phases of movement production. The interaction of these noise sources during natural movements is not well understood, despite its importance for understanding movement variability in neurologically intact and impaired individuals. Here we examined the interaction of planning and execution related noise during the production of unconstrained reaching movements. Subjects performed sequences of two movements to targets arranged in three vertical planes separated in depth. The starting position for each sequence was also varied in depth with the target plane; thus required movement sequences were largely contained within the vertical plane of the targets. Each final target in a sequence was approached from two different directions, and these movements were made with or without visual feedback of the moving hand. These combined aspects of the design allowed us to probe the interaction of execution and planning related noise with respect to reach endpoint variability. In agreement with previous studies, we found that reach endpoint distributions were highly anisotropic. The principal axes of movement variability were largely aligned with the depth axis, i.e., the axis along which visual planning related noise would be expected to dominate, and were not generally well aligned with the direction of the movement vector. Our results suggest that visual planning-related noise plays a dominant role in determining anisotropic patterns of endpoint variability in three-dimensional space, with execution noise adding to this variability in a movement direction-dependent manner.

  13. Analysis of High-order Social Interaction of Female Mice on the International Space Station

    Lowe, M.; Solomides, P.; Moyer, E. L.; Talyansky, Y.; Choi, S.; Gong, C.; Cadena, S.; Stodieck, L.; Globus, R. K.; Ronca, A. E.

    2017-01-01

    Social interactions are adaptive responses to environmental pressures that have evolved to facilitate the success of individual animals and their progeny. Quantifying social behavior in social animals is therefore one method of evaluating an animal's health, wellbeing and their adjustment to changes in their environment. The interaction between environment and animal can influence numerous other physiological and psychological responses that may enhance, deter or shift an animals social paradigm. For this study, we utilized flight video from the Rodent Research Hardware and Operations Validation mission (Rodent Research-1; RR1) on the International Space Station (ISS). Female mice spent 37 days in microgravity on the ISS and video was captured during the final 33 days. In a previous analysis of individual behavior, we also reported an observed spontaneous ambulatory behavior which we termed circling or 'race tracking,' and we anecdotally observed an increase in group organization around this behavior. In this analysis we further examined this behavior, and other social interactions, to determine if (1) animals joining in on this behavior were induced by other cohort members already participating in this circling behavior, (2) rates of joining varied by number already participating.

  14. Interaction between Space and Effectiveness in Multisensory Integration: Behavioral and Perceptual Measures

    Aaron R Nidiffer

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has described several core principles of multisensory integration. These include the spatial principle, which relates the integrative product to the physical location of the stimuli and the principle of inverse effectiveness, in which minimally effective stimuli elicit the greatest multisensory gains when combined. In the vast majority of prior studies, these principles have been studied in isolation, with little attention to their interrelationships and possible interactions. Recent neurophysiological studies in our laboratory have begun to examine these interactions within individual neurons in animal models, work that we extend here into the realm of human performance and perception. To test this, we conducted a psychophysical experiment in which 51 participants were tasked with judging the location of a target stimulus. Target stimuli were visual flashes and auditory noise bursts presented either alone or in combination at four locations and at two intensities. Multisensory combinations were always spatially coincident. A significant effect was found for response times and a marginal effect was found for accuracy, such that the degree of multisensory gain changed as a function of the interaction between space and effectiveness. These results provide further evidence for a strong interrelationship between the multisensory principles in dictating human performance.

  15. Smokeless Tobacco: Health Effects

    ... t start. If you do use them, quit. Addiction to Smokeless Tobacco Smokeless tobacco contains nicotine, which ... Smoking and Health E-mail: tobaccoinfo@cdc.gov Phone: 1-800-CDC-INFO Media Inquiries: Contact CDC’s ...

  16. Allegheny County Tobacco Vendors

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The tobacco vendor information provides the location of all tobacco vendors in Allegheny County in 2015. Data was compiled from administrative records managed by...

  17. Smokeless Tobacco and Cancer

    ... in smokeless tobacco include polonium–210 (a radioactive element found in tobacco fertilizer) and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons ( ... study of the 40 most widely used popular brands of moist snuff showed that the amount of ...

  18. Using full configuration interaction quantum Monte Carlo in a seniority zero space to investigate the correlation energy equivalence of pair coupled cluster doubles and doubly occupied configuration interaction

    Shepherd, James J.; Henderson, Thomas M.; Scuseria, Gustavo E.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few years, pair coupled cluster doubles (pCCD) has shown promise for the description of strong correlation. This promise is related to its apparent ability to match results from doubly occupied configuration interaction (DOCI), even though the latter method has exponential computational cost. Here, by modifying the full configuration interaction quantum Monte Carlo algorithm to sample only the seniority zero sector of Hilbert space, we show that the DOCI and pCCD energies are in agreement for a variety of 2D Hubbard models, including for systems well out of reach for conventional configuration interaction algorithms. Our calculations are aided by the sign problem being much reduced in the seniority zero space compared with the full space. We present evidence for this and then discuss the sign problem in terms of the wave function of the system which appears to have a simplified sign structure.

  19. Establishing a Distance Learning Plan for International Space Station (ISS) Interactive Video Education Events (IVEE)

    Wallington, Clint

    1999-01-01

    Educational outreach is an integral part of the International Space Station (ISS) mandate. In a few scant years, the International Space Station has already established a tradition of successful, general outreach activities. However, as the number of outreach events increased and began to reach school classrooms, those events came under greater scrutiny by the education community. Some of the ISS electronic field trips, while informative and helpful, did not meet the generally accepted criteria for education events, especially within the context of the classroom. To make classroom outreach events more acceptable to educators, the ISS outreach program must differentiate between communication events (meant to disseminate information to the general public) and education events (designed to facilitate student learning). In contrast to communication events, education events: are directed toward a relatively homogeneous audience who are gathered together for the purpose of learning, have specific performance objectives which the students are expected to master, include a method of assessing student performance, and include a series of structured activities that will help the students to master the desired skill(s). The core of the ISS education events is an interactive videoconference between students and ISS representatives. This interactive videoconference is to be preceded by and followed by classroom activities which help the students aftain the specified learning objectives. Using the interactive videoconference as the centerpiece of the education event lends a special excitement and allows students to ask questions about what they are learning and about the International Space Station and NASA. Whenever possible, the ISS outreach education events should be congruent with national guidelines for student achievement. ISS outreach staff should recognize that there are a number of different groups that will review the events, and that each group has different criteria

  20. Tobacco and Pregnancy

    This paper will review the epidemiology of the impact of cigarette smoking and other forms of tobacco exposure on human development. Sources of exposure described include cigarettes and other forms of smoked tobacco, secondhand (environmental) tobacco smoke, several forms of smok...

  1. Discourse-Voice Regulatory Strategies in the Psychotherapeutic Interaction: A State-Space Dynamics Analysis

    Alemka eTomicic

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to provide evidence of the dynamics associated with the configurations of discourse-voice regulatory strategies in patient-therapist interactions in relevant episodes within psychotherapeutic sessions. Its central assumption is that discourses manifest themselves differently in terms of their prosodic characteristics according to their regulatory functions in a system of interactions. The association between discourse and vocal quality in patients and therapists was analyzed in a sample of 153 relevant episodes taken from 164 sessions of five psychotherapies using the State Space Grid (SSG method, a graphical tool based on the Dynamic Systems Theory (DST. The results showed eight recurrent and stable discourse-voice regulatory strategies of the patients and three of the therapists. Also, four specific groups of these discourse-voice strategies were identified. The latter were interpreted as regulatory configurations, that is to say, as emergent self-organized groups of discourse-voice regulatory strategies constituting specific interactional systems. Both regulatory strategies and their configurations differed between two types of relevant episodes: Change Episodes and Rupture Episodes. As a whole, these results support the assumption that speaking and listening, as dimensions of the interaction that takes place during therapeutic conversation, occur at different levels. The study not only shows that these dimensions are dependent on each other, but also that they function as a complex and dynamic whole in therapeutic dialogue, generating relational offers which allow the patient and the therapist to regulate each other and shape the psychotherapeutic process that characterizes each type of relevant episode.

  2. Peripersonal Space: An Index of Multisensory Body–Environment Interactions in Real, Virtual, and Mixed Realities

    Andrea Serino

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Human–environment interactions normally occur in the physical milieu and thus by medium of the body and within the space immediately adjacent to and surrounding the body, the peripersonal space (PPS. However, human interactions increasingly occur with or within virtual environments, and hence novel approaches and metrics must be developed to index human–environment interactions in virtual reality (VR. Here, we present a multisensory task that measures the spatial extent of human PPS in real, virtual, and augmented realities. We validated it in a mixed reality (MR ecosystem in which real environment and virtual objects are blended together in order to administer and control visual, auditory, and tactile stimuli in ecologically valid conditions. Within this mixed-reality environment, participants are asked to respond as fast as possible to tactile stimuli on their body, while task-irrelevant visual or audiovisual stimuli approach their body. Results demonstrate that, in analogy with observations derived from monkey electrophysiology and in real environmental surroundings, tactile detection is enhanced when visual or auditory stimuli are close to the body, and not when far from it. We then calculate the location where this multisensory facilitation occurs as a proxy of the boundary of PPS. We observe that mapping of PPS via audiovisual, as opposed to visual alone, looming stimuli results in sigmoidal fits—allowing for the bifurcation between near and far space—with greater goodness of fit. In sum, our approach is able to capture the boundaries of PPS on a spatial continuum, at the individual-subject level, and within a fully controlled and previously laboratory-validated setup, while maintaining the richness and ecological validity of real-life events. The task can therefore be applied to study the properties of PPS in humans and to index the features governing human–environment interactions in virtual or MR. We propose PPS as an

  3. North Carolina Tobacco Farmers' Changing Perceptions of Tobacco Control and Tobacco Manufacturers

    Crankshaw, Erik C.; Beach, Robert H.; Austin, W. David; Altman, David G.; Jones, Alison Snow

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To examine tobacco farmers' attitudes toward tobacco control, public health, and tobacco manufacturers in order to determine the extent to which rapidly changing economic conditions have influenced North Carolina tobacco farmer attitudes in ways that may provide tobacco control advocates with new opportunities to promote tobacco control…

  4. Exploring Interaction Space as Abstraction Mechanism for Task-Based User Interface Design

    Nielsen, C. M.; Overgaard, M.; Pedersen, M. B.

    2007-01-01

    Designing a user interface is often a complex undertaking. Model-based user interface design is an approach where models and mappings between them form the basis for creating and specifying the design of a user interface. Such models usually include descriptions of the tasks of the prospective user......, but there is considerable variation in the other models that are employed. This paper explores the extent to which the notion of interaction space is useful as an abstraction mechanism to reduce the complexity of creating and specifying a user interface design. We present how we designed a specific user interface through...... mechanism that can help user interface designers exploit object-oriented analysis results and reduce the complexity of designing a user interface....

  5. Conservation of connectivity of model-space effective interactions under a class of similarity transformation

    Duan Changkui; Gong Yungui; Dong Huining; Reid, Michael F.

    2004-01-01

    Effective interaction operators usually act on a restricted model space and give the same energies (for Hamiltonian) and matrix elements (for transition operators, etc.) as those of the original operators between the corresponding true eigenstates. Various types of effective operators are possible. Those well defined effective operators have been shown to be related to each other by similarity transformation. Some of the effective operators have been shown to have connected-diagram expansions. It is shown in this paper that under a class of very general similarity transformations, the connectivity is conserved. The similarity transformation between Hermitian and non-Hermitian Rayleigh-Schroedinger perturbative effective operators is one of such transformations and hence the connectivity can be deducted from each other

  6. Conservation of connectivity of model-space effective interactions under a class of similarity transformation.

    Duan, Chang-Kui; Gong, Yungui; Dong, Hui-Ning; Reid, Michael F

    2004-09-15

    Effective interaction operators usually act on a restricted model space and give the same energies (for Hamiltonian) and matrix elements (for transition operators, etc.) as those of the original operators between the corresponding true eigenstates. Various types of effective operators are possible. Those well defined effective operators have been shown to be related to each other by similarity transformation. Some of the effective operators have been shown to have connected-diagram expansions. It is shown in this paper that under a class of very general similarity transformations, the connectivity is conserved. The similarity transformation between Hermitian and non-Hermitian Rayleigh-Schrodinger perturbative effective operators is one of such transformations and hence the connectivity can be deducted from each other.

  7. Crew/Automation Interaction in Space Transportation Systems: Lessons Learned from the Glass Cockpit

    Rudisill, Marianne

    2000-01-01

    The progressive integration of automation technologies in commercial transport aircraft flight decks - the 'glass cockpit' - has had a major, and generally positive, impact on flight crew operations. Flight deck automation has provided significant benefits, such as economic efficiency, increased precision and safety, and enhanced functionality within the crew interface. These enhancements, however, may have been accrued at a price, such as complexity added to crew/automation interaction that has been implicated in a number of aircraft incidents and accidents. This report briefly describes 'glass cockpit' evolution. Some relevant aircraft accidents and incidents are described, followed by a more detailed description of human/automation issues and problems (e.g., crew error, monitoring, modes, command authority, crew coordination, workload, and training). This paper concludes with example principles and guidelines for considering 'glass cockpit' human/automation integration within space transportation systems.

  8. Parental and Infant Gender Factors in Parent-Infant Interaction: State-Space Dynamic Analysis.

    Cerezo, M Angeles; Sierra-García, Purificación; Pons-Salvador, Gemma; Trenado, Rosa M

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the influence of parental gender on their interaction with their infants, considering, as well, the role of the infant's gender. The State Space Grid (SSG) method, a graphical tool based on the non-linear dynamic system (NDS) approach was used to analyze the interaction, in Free-Play setting, of 52 infants, aged 6 to 10 months, divided into two groups: half of the infants interacted with their fathers and half with their mothers. There were 50% boys in each group. MANOVA results showed no differential parenting of boys and girls. Additionally, mothers and fathers showed no differences in the Diversity of behavioral dyadic states nor in Predictability. However, differences associated with parent's gender were found in that the paternal dyads were more "active" than the maternal dyads: they were faster in the rates per second of behavioral events and transitions or change of state. In contrast, maternal dyads were more repetitive because, once they visited a certain dyadic state, they tend to be involved in more events. Results showed a significant discriminant function on the parental groups, fathers and mothers. Specifically, the content analyses carried out for the three NDS variables, that previously showed differences between groups, showed particular dyadic behavioral states associated with the rate of Transitions and the Events per Visit ratio. Thus, the transitions involving 'in-out' of 'Child Social Approach neutral - Sensitive Approach neutral' state and the repetitions of events in the dyadic state 'Child Play-Sensitive Approach neutral' distinguished fathers from mothers. The classification of dyads (with fathers and mothers) based on this discriminant function identified 73.10% (19/26) of the father-infant dyads and 88.5% (23/26) of the mother-infant dyads. The study of father-infant interaction using the SSG approach offers interesting possibilities because it characterizes and quantifies the actual moment-to-moment flow

  9. Parental and Infant Gender Factors in Parent–Infant Interaction: State-Space Dynamic Analysis

    M. Angeles Cerezo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the influence of parental gender on their interaction with their infants, considering, as well, the role of the infant’s gender. The State Space Grid (SSG method, a graphical tool based on the non-linear dynamic system (NDS approach was used to analyze the interaction, in Free-Play setting, of 52 infants, aged 6 to 10 months, divided into two groups: half of the infants interacted with their fathers and half with their mothers. There were 50% boys in each group. MANOVA results showed no differential parenting of boys and girls. Additionally, mothers and fathers showed no differences in the Diversity of behavioral dyadic states nor in Predictability. However, differences associated with parent’s gender were found in that the paternal dyads were more “active” than the maternal dyads: they were faster in the rates per second of behavioral events and transitions or change of state. In contrast, maternal dyads were more repetitive because, once they visited a certain dyadic state, they tend to be involved in more events. Results showed a significant discriminant function on the parental groups, fathers and mothers. Specifically, the content analyses carried out for the three NDS variables, that previously showed differences between groups, showed particular dyadic behavioral states associated with the rate of Transitions and the Events per Visit ratio. Thus, the transitions involving ‘in–out’ of ‘Child Social Approach neutral – Sensitive Approach neutral’ state and the repetitions of events in the dyadic state ‘Child Play-Sensitive Approach neutral’ distinguished fathers from mothers. The classification of dyads (with fathers and mothers based on this discriminant function identified 73.10% (19/26 of the father–infant dyads and 88.5% (23/26 of the mother–infant dyads. The study of father-infant interaction using the SSG approach offers interesting possibilities because it characterizes and

  10. Dirac Hamiltonian and Reissner-Nordström metric: Coulomb interaction in curved space-time

    Noble, J. H.; Jentschura, U. D.

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the spin-1 /2 relativistic quantum dynamics in the curved space-time generated by a central massive charged object (black hole). This necessitates a study of the coupling of a Dirac particle to the Reissner-Nordström space-time geometry and the simultaneous covariant coupling to the central electrostatic field. The relativistic Dirac Hamiltonian for the Reissner-Nordström geometry is derived. A Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation reveals the presence of gravitational and electrogravitational spin-orbit coupling terms which generalize the Fokker precession terms found for the Dirac-Schwarzschild Hamiltonian, and other electrogravitational correction terms to the potential proportional to αnG , where α is the fine-structure constant and G is the gravitational coupling constant. The particle-antiparticle symmetry found for the Dirac-Schwarzschild geometry (and for other geometries which do not include electromagnetic interactions) is shown to be explicitly broken due to the electrostatic coupling. The resulting spectrum of radially symmetric, electrostatically bound systems (with gravitational corrections) is evaluated for example cases.

  11. Kameleon Live: An Interactive Cloud Based Analysis and Visualization Platform for Space Weather Researchers

    Pembroke, A. D.; Colbert, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) provides hosting for many of the simulations used by the space weather community of scientists, educators, and forecasters. CCMC users may submit model runs through the Runs on Request system, which produces static visualizations of model output in the browser, while further analysis may be performed off-line via Kameleon, CCMC's cross-language access and interpolation library. Off-line analysis may be suitable for power-users, but storage and coding requirements present a barrier to entry for non-experts. Moreover, a lack of a consistent framework for analysis hinders reproducibility of scientific findings. To that end, we have developed Kameleon Live, a cloud based interactive analysis and visualization platform. Kameleon Live allows users to create scientific studies built around selected runs from the Runs on Request database, perform analysis on those runs, collaborate with other users, and disseminate their findings among the space weather community. In addition to showcasing these novel collaborative analysis features, we invite feedback from CCMC users as we seek to advance and improve on the new platform.

  12. Pluto's interaction with its space environment: Solar wind, energetic particles, and dust.

    Bagenal, F; Horányi, M; McComas, D J; McNutt, R L; Elliott, H A; Hill, M E; Brown, L E; Delamere, P A; Kollmann, P; Krimigis, S M; Kusterer, M; Lisse, C M; Mitchell, D G; Piquette, M; Poppe, A R; Strobel, D F; Szalay, J R; Valek, P; Vandegriff, J; Weidner, S; Zirnstein, E J; Stern, S A; Ennico, K; Olkin, C B; Weaver, H A; Young, L A

    2016-03-18

    The New Horizons spacecraft carried three instruments that measured the space environment near Pluto as it flew by on 14 July 2015. The Solar Wind Around Pluto (SWAP) instrument revealed an interaction region confined sunward of Pluto to within about 6 Pluto radii. The region's surprisingly small size is consistent with a reduced atmospheric escape rate, as well as a particularly high solar wind flux. Observations from the Pluto Energetic Particle Spectrometer Science Investigation (PEPSSI) instrument suggest that ions are accelerated and/or deflected around Pluto. In the wake of the interaction region, PEPSSI observed suprathermal particle fluxes equal to about 1/10 of the flux in the interplanetary medium and increasing with distance downstream. The Venetia Burney Student Dust Counter, which measures grains with radii larger than 1.4 micrometers, detected one candidate impact in ±5 days around New Horizons' closest approach, indicating an upper limit of <4.6 kilometers(-3) for the dust density in the Pluto system. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  13. The contour deformation method in momentum space and effective interactions for weakly bound nuclei

    Hagen, Gaute

    2005-01-01

    the study of loosely bound and unbound nuclei along the drip lines. The main ingredient in the Gamow Shell Model is the construction of a complete set of many-body Slater determinants built up from a single-particle Berggren basis. It has been shown in this work that a viable starting point in Gamow Shell Model studies is to obtain a single-particle basis by the Contour Deformation Method in momentum space. The results displayed in Paper 2 indicate rapid convergence for many-body resonances using a single-particle basis in momentum space. The challenge for present and future Gamow Shell Model calculations is how to deal with the extreme growth of the number of Slater determinants in the many-body expansion basis. This topic was the main issue of the second part of the thesis. The basic idea was to modify standard effective interaction theory and many-body perturbation theory, so that that their range of applicability encompass the complex interactions and matrices which follow from the generalization of the standard Shell Model to the complex energy plane. Further, the extreme dimension of the Shell Model Hamiltonian matrix requires development of large-scale matrix diagonalization routines which can handle both real and complex matrices. In this thesis it was shown how the Lanczos iteration method may be generalized to complex energy matrices. It was further shown, that by choosing a reasonable initial Lanczos vector for the Oth order multi-particle resonance; the multi- particle resonance may be unambiguously picked out from the set of states obtained from diagonalization at each iteration, by identifying the state which has the largest overlap with the Oth order Lanczos vector. Another important result was the generalization of the Lee-Suzuki similarity transformation to include complex interactions. The emphasis was on the derivation of effective interactions for loosely bound or unbound nuclei which have a strong coupling with the continuum. We demonstrated by a

  14. Effects of environmental tobacco smoke on nasal responses to live attenuated influenza virus

    Background: Published and preliminary data in our laboratory suggest that airborne pollutants including tobacco smoke increase susceptibility of respiratory epithelium to infection with influenza A. However, no studies have specifically looked at the interaction between tobacco s...

  15. Studies and Application of the Platform for Synergies among Tobacco Enterprises in Tobacco Leaf Threshing and Redrying

    Xu, Xiao-Shuang; Wang, Hong-Lv

    2018-03-01

    Departing from the formulas of cigarette products, synergized business framework is established on the basis of cross-enterprise synergies for tobacco leaf threshing and redrying through the introduction of batch management, remote quality data sharing and consistent processes, among others. Functions of the business framework are achieved and a platform for synergies is erected by applying IOT, cross-enterprise system integration and big data processing technologies, resulting in a new pattern for intensive interaction and synergies between China Tobacco Zhejiang (CTZ) and tobacco redrying plants for more delicate management of the redrying process, more interactive information flows and more stable tobacco strip quality.

  16. GhZFP1, a novel CCCH-type zinc finger protein from cotton, enhances salt stress tolerance and fungal disease resistance in transgenic tobacco by interacting with GZIRD21A and GZIPR5.

    Guo, Ying-Hui; Yu, Yue-Ping; Wang, Dong; Wu, Chang-Ai; Yang, Guo-Dong; Huang, Jin-Guang; Zheng, Cheng-Chao

    2009-01-01

    * Zinc finger proteins are a superfamily involved in many aspects of plant growth and development. However, CCCH-type zinc finger proteins involved in plant stress tolerance are poorly understood. * A cDNA clone designated Gossypium hirsutum zinc finger protein 1 (GhZFP1), which encodes a novel CCCH-type zinc finger protein, was isolated from a salt-induced cotton (G. hirsutum) cDNA library using differential hybridization screening and further studied in transgenic tobacco Nicotiana tabacum cv. NC89. Using yeast two-hybrid screening (Y2H), proteins GZIRD21A (GhZFP1 interacting and responsive to dehydration protein 21A) and GZIPR5 (GhZFP1 interacting and pathogenesis-related protein 5), which interacted with GhZFP1, were isolated. * GhZFP1 contains two typical zinc finger motifs (Cx8Cx5Cx3H and Cx5Cx4Cx3H), a putative nuclear export sequence (NES) and a potential nuclear localization signal (NLS). Transient expression analysis using a GhZFP1::GFP fusion gene in onion epidermal cells indicated a nuclear localization for GhZFP1. RNA blot analysis showed that the GhZFP1 transcript was induced by salt (NaCl), drought and salicylic acid (SA). The regions in GhZFP1 that interact with GZIRD21A and GZIPR5 were identified using truncation mutations. * Overexpression of GhZFP1 in transgenic tobacco enhanced tolerance to salt stress and resistance to Rhizoctonia solani. Therefore, it appears that GhZFP1 might be involved as an important regulator in plant responses to abiotic and biotic stresses.

  17. Multinational Tobacco Companies and Tobacco Consumption (China)

    Until recently, the Chinese tobacco industry has been run as a state-owned monopoly. It is reported ... New funding opportunity for gender equality and climate change ... IDRC invests in research and knowledge to empower women in India.

  18. Number-space interactions in the human parietal cortex: Enlightening the SNARC effect with functional near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Cutini, Simone; Scarpa, Fabio; Scatturin, Pietro; Dell'Acqua, Roberto; Zorzi, Marco

    2014-02-01

    Interactions between numbers and space have become a major issue in cognitive neuroscience, because they suggest that numerical representations might be deeply rooted in cortical networks that also subserve spatial cognition. The spatial-numerical association of response codes (SNARC) is the most robust and widely replicated demonstration of the link between numbers and space: in magnitude comparison or parity judgments, participants' reaction times to small numbers are faster with left than right effectors, whereas the converse is found for large numbers. However, despite the massive body of research on number-space interactions, the nature of the SNARC effect remains controversial and no study to date has identified its hemodynamic correlates. Using functional near-infrared spectroscopy, we found a hemodynamic signature of the SNARC effect in the bilateral intraparietal sulcus, a core region for numerical magnitude representation, and left angular gyrus (ANG), a region implicated in verbal number processing. Activation of intraparietal sulcus was also modulated by numerical distance. Our findings point to number semantics as cognitive locus of number-space interactions, thereby revealing the intrinsic spatial nature of numerical magnitude representation. Moreover, the involvement of left ANG is consistent with the mediating role of verbal/cultural factors in shaping interactions between numbers and space.

  19. Accelerator-Based Studies of Heavy Ion Interactions Relevant to Space Biomedicine

    Miller, J.; Heilbronn, L.; Zeitlin, C.

    1999-01-01

    Evaluation of the effects of space radiation on the crews of long duration space missions must take into account the interactions of high energy atomic nuclei in spacecraft and planetary habitat shielding and in the bodies of the astronauts. These heavy ions (i.e. heavier than hydrogen), while relatively small in number compared to the total galactic cosmic ray (GCR) charged particle flux, can produce disproportionately large effects by virtue of their high local energy deposition: a single traversal by a heavy charged particle can kill or, what may be worse, severely damage a cell. Research into the pertinent physics and biology of heavy ion interactions has consequently been assigned a high priority in a recent report by a task group of the National Research Council. Fragmentation of the incident heavy ions in shielding or in the human body will modify an initially well known radiation field and thereby complicate both spacecraft shielding design and the evaluation of potential radiation hazards. Since it is impractical to empirically test the radiation transport properties of each possible shielding material and configuration, a great deal of effort is going into the development of models of charged particle fragmentation and transport. Accurate nuclear fragmentation cross sections (probabilities), either in the form of measurements with thin targets or theoretical calculations, are needed for input to the transport models, and fluence measurements (numbers of fragments produced by interactions in thick targets) are needed both to validate the models and to test specific shielding materials and designs. Fluence data are also needed to characterize the incident radiation field in accelerator radiobiology experiments. For a number of years, nuclear fragmentation measurements at GCR-like energies have been carried out at heavy ion accelerators including the LBL Bevalac, Saturne (France), the Synchrophasotron and Nuklotron (Dubna, Russia), SIS-18 (GSI, Germany), the

  20. Significance of structure–soil–structure interaction for closely spaced structures

    Roy, Christine; Bolourchi, Said; Eggers, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear facilities typically consist of many closely spaced structures with different sizes and depths of embedment. Seismic response of each structure could be influenced by dynamic structure–soil–structure interaction (SSSI) behavior of adjacent closely spaced structures. This paper examines the impact of SSSI on the in-structure response spectra (ISRS) and peak accelerations of a light structure adjacent to a heavy structure and of a heavy structure adjacent to a similar heavy structure for several soil cases, foundation embedment depths, and separation distances. The impacts of a heavy surface or embedded structure on adjacent ground motions were studied. The analyses demonstrated the adjacent ground motions are sensitive to foundation embedment, soil profile, response frequency, and distance from the structure. Seismic responses of a light structure located near a heavy structure are calculated either by modeling both structures subjected to free field motions, or performing a cascade analysis by considering the light structure model subjected to modified ground motions due to the heavy structure. Cascade SSSI analyses are shown to adequately account for the effect of the heavy structure on the light structure without explicitly modeling both structures together in a single analysis. To further study the influence of SSSI behavior, this paper examines dynamic response of two adjacent heavy structures and compares this response to response of a single heavy structure neglecting adjacent structures. The SSSI responses of the two heavy structures are evaluated for varying soil conditions and structure separation distances using three-dimensional linear SSI analyses and considering anti-symmetry boundary conditions. The analyses demonstrate that the SSSI response of a light or a heavy structure can be influenced by the presence of a nearby heavy structure. Although this study considers linear analysis methodology, the conclusion of SSSI influences on dynamic

  1. Tobacco-control policies in tobacco-growing states: where tobacco was king.

    Fallin, Amanda; Glantz, Stanton A

    2015-06-01

    POLICY POINTS: The tobacco companies prioritized blocking tobacco-control policies in tobacco-growing states and partnered with tobacco farmers to oppose tobacco-control policies. The 1998 Master Settlement Agreement, which settled state litigation against the cigarette companies, the 2004 tobacco-quota buyout, and the companies' increasing use of foreign tobacco led to a rift between the companies and tobacco farmers. In 2003, the first comprehensive smoke-free local law was passed in a major tobacco-growing state, and there has been steady progress in the region since then. Health advocates should educate the public and policymakers on the changing reality in tobacco-growing states, notably the major reduction in the volume of tobacco produced. The 5 major tobacco-growing states (Kentucky, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia) are disproportionately affected by the tobacco epidemic, with higher rates of smoking and smoking-induced disease. These states also have fewer smoke-free laws and lower tobacco taxes, 2 evidence-based policies that reduce tobacco use. Historically, the tobacco farmers and hospitality associations allied with the tobacco companies to oppose these policies. This research is based on 5 detailed case studies of these states, which included key informant interviews, previously secret tobacco industry documents (available at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu), and media articles. This was supplemented with additional tobacco document and media searches specifically for this article. The tobacco companies were particularly concerned about blocking tobacco-control policies in the tobacco-growing states by promoting a pro-tobacco culture, beginning in the late 1960s. Nevertheless, since 2003, there has been rapid progress in the tobacco-growing states' passage of smoke-free laws. This progress came after the alliance between the tobacco companies and the tobacco farmers fractured and hospitality organizations stopped opposing smoke

  2. Radioactivity of tobacco

    Nashawati, A.; Al-Dalal, Z.; Al-Akel, B.; Al-Masri, M. S.

    2002-04-01

    This report shows the results of studies related to radioactivity in tobacco and its pathways to human being. Tobacco contains high concentrations of natural radioactive materials especially polonium 210 and lead 210, which may reach a value of 27 mBq/g. The amount of polonium 210 in tobacco is related to the concentration of radon (the main source of polonium 210 in the agricultural areas) in addition to the over use of phosphate fertilizers for tobacco plantation. Radioactive materials present in tobacco enter the human body through smoking where 210 Po concentrates in the Alveolar lung; this may cause health risks including lung cancer. In addition, radiation doses due to smoking have been reported and some results of the studies carried out for radioactivity in tobacco at the Syrian Atomic Energy Commission. (author)

  3. Dynamics of tactical behaviour in association football when manipulating players' space of interaction.

    Angel Ric

    Full Text Available The analysis of positional data in association football allows the spatial distribution of players during matches to be described in order to improve the understanding of tactical-related constraints on the behavioural dynamics of players. The aim of this study was to identify how players' spatial restrictions affected the exploratory tactical behaviour and constrained the perceptual-motor workspace of players in possession of the ball, as well as inter-player passing interactions. Nineteen professional outfield male players were divided into two teams of 10 and 9 players, respectively. The game was played under three spatial constraints: a players were not allowed to move out of their allocated zones, except for the player in possession of the ball; b players were allowed to move to an adjacent zone, and; c non-specific spatial constraints. Positional data was captured using a 5 Hz interpolated GPS tracking system and used to define the configuration states of players for each second in time. The configuration state comprised 37 categories derived from tactical actions, distance from the nearest opponent, distance from the target and movement speed. Notational analysis of players in possession of the ball allowed the mean time of ball possession and the probabilities of passing the ball between players to be calculated. The results revealed that the players' long-term exploratory behaviour decreased and their short-term exploration increased when restricting their space of interaction. Relaxing players' positional constraints seemed to increase the speed of ball flow dynamics. Allowing players to move to an adjacent sub-area increased the probabilities of interaction with the full-back during play build-up. The instability of the coordinative state defined by being free from opponents when players had the ball possession was an invariant feature under all three task constraints. By allowing players to move to adjacent sub-areas, the

  4. Current Situations and Countermeasures of Organic Tobacco Development

    2011-01-01

    Current situations of organic tobacco development at both home and abroad,indicating that organic tobacco is one of the innovation directions for sustainable,healthy,environmental protection and low carbon development of modern tobacco industry.On the basis of foreign cultivation technical system for organic agriculture,the cultivation technical system for organic tobacco is summed up as follows:first,keep the diversity and continuity of space and time;second,ensure closeness of nutrient cycle;third,improve self-regulatory system and protection ability of crops.Then,the development trend of organic tobacco is analyzed and corresponding measures are put forward:establish production base and assessment system for organic tobacco;establish technical system for production of organic tobacco;establish and perfect evaluation system for management,production and supervision of organic tobacco;strengthen popularization of production and concept of organic tobacco;improve management of organic tobacco purchase,industry commerce handover,and redrying.

  5. Online Tobacco Marketing and Subsequent Tobacco Use.

    Soneji, Samir; Yang, JaeWon; Knutzen, Kristin E; Moran, Meghan Bridgid; Tan, Andy S L; Sargent, James; Choi, Kelvin

    2018-02-01

    Nearly 2.9 million US adolescents engaged with online tobacco marketing in 2013 to 2014. We assess whether engagement is a risk factor for tobacco use initiation, increased frequency of use, progression to poly-product use, and cessation. We analyzed data from 11 996 adolescents sampled in the nationally representative, longitudinal Population Assessment for Tobacco and Health study. At baseline (2013-2014), we ascertained respondents' engagement with online tobacco marketing. At follow-up (2014-2015), we determined if respondents had initiated tobacco use, increased frequency of use, progressed to poly-product use, or quit. Accounting for known risk factors, we fit a multivariable logistic regression model among never-users who engaged at baseline to predict initiation at follow-up. We fit similar models to predict increased frequency of use, progression to poly-product use, and cessation. Compared with adolescents who did not engage, those who engaged reported higher incidences of initiation (19.5% vs 11.9%), increased frequency of use (10.3% vs 4.4%), and progression to poly-product use (5.8% vs 2.4%), and lower incidence of cessation at follow-up (16.1% vs 21.5%). Accounting for other risk factors, engagement was positively associated with initiation (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.26; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01-1.57), increased frequency of use (aOR = 1.58; 95% CI: 1.24-2.00), progression to poly-product use (aOR = 1.70; 95% CI: 1.20-2.43), and negatively associated with cessation (aOR = 0.71; 95% CI: 0.50-1.00). Engagement with online tobacco marketing represents a risk factor for adolescent tobacco use. FDA marketing regulation and cooperation of social-networking sites could limit engagement. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  6. My Space- a collaboration between Arts & Science to create a suite of informal interactive public engagement initiatives.

    Shaw, Niamh, , Dr.; McSweeney, Clair; Smith, Niall, , Dr.; O'Neill, Stephanie; Foley, Cathy; Crawley, Joanna; Phelan, Ronan; Colley, Dan; Henderson, Clare; Conroy, Lorraine

    2015-04-01

    A suite of informal interactive public engagement initiatives, entitled 'MySpace' was created, to promote the importance of Earth science and Space exploration, to ignite curiosity and discover new and engaging platforms for science in the Arts & in STEM Education, and to increase awareness of careers in Ireland's Space and Earth Science industries. Site visits to research centres in Ireland & abroad, interviews with scientists, engineers, and former astronauts were conducted over a 6 month period. A suite of performance pieces emerged from this development phase, based on Dr. Shaw's personal documented journey and the dissemination of her research. These included: 1. 'To Space'- A live multimedia theatre performance aimed at the general public & young adult. Initially presented as a 'Work In Progress' event at The Festival of Curiosity, the full theatre show 'To Space' premiered at Science Gallery, Dublin as part of Tiger Dublin Fringe Arts Festival. Response to the piece was very strong, indicated by audience response, box office sales and theatre reviews in national press and online. A national and international tour is in place for 2015. To Space was performed a total of 10 times and was seen by 680 audiences. 2. An adapted piece for 13-17 year old students -'ToSpace for Secondary Schools'- to increase awareness of Ireland's involvement in Space Exploration & to encourage school leavers to dream big. This show toured nationally as part of World Space week and Science week events in conjunction with ESERO Ireland, CIT Blackrock Castle Observatory, Cork, Armagh Planetarium & Dunsink Observatory. It was performed 12 times and was seen by 570 students. 3. 'My Place in Space', created for families from the very old (60 +) to the very young (3yrs +), this highly interactive workshop highlighted the appeal of science through the wonders of our planet and its place in Space. Presented at Festival of Curiosity, the Mallow Science Fair and at Science week 2014, this

  7. Professional Training of Future Teachers in Foreign Countries in Terms of Intercultural Interaction of Educational Space Objects

    Desyatov, Tymofiy

    2015-01-01

    The problem of professional training of teachers in foreign countries in terms of intercultural interaction of educational space objects has been studied in the paper. It has been stated that the current stage of human civilization development which is defined as the transition to a knowledge society, is characterized by qualitatively new…

  8. Large-scale parallel configuration interaction. I. Nonrelativisticand scalar-relativistic general active space implementationwith application to (Rb-Ba)+

    Knecht, Stefan; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aagaard; Fleig, Timo

    2008-01-01

    We present a parallel implementation of a string-driven general active space configuration interaction program for nonrelativistic and scalar-relativistic electronic-structure calculations. The code has been modularly incorporated in the DIRAC quantum chemistry program package. The implementation...

  9. National Adult Tobacco Survey (NATS)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2013-2014. The National Adult Tobacco Survey (NATS) was created to assess the prevalence of tobacco use, as well as the factors promoting and impeding tobacco use...

  10. Café as third place and the creation of a unique space of interaction in UI Campus

    Nurliani Lukito, Yulia; Puspita Xenia, Anneli

    2017-12-01

    The emergence of modern cafés is an interesting phenomenon in the city and it is related to globalization and the creation of urban public space. This paper explores the idea of café as third place and social interaction occurs in the café with Starbucks café as the focus of discussion. We argue that modern café like Starbucks offers a comforting and neutral ground for social interaction but some other characteristic of social interaction come up as the result of modern technology. Oldenburg distinguishes third places as public places on neutral ground where people can gather and interact (Oldenburg, 1991). In contrast to first places (home) and second places (work), third places serve as places for creative and social interaction and often considered anchors of community life. The characteristic of cafés as third space relates to the social interaction occurs at the neighborhood that in terms may enhances quality of life and provide social bounding. With the development of information technology, some characteristics of third places are changed although third places still become an important medium for social interaction as well as in increasing the ability of the city to be more adaptable to changes. Conversation is still the main activity at third place but many people use their electronic devices alongside face-to-face conversations. As a method, this study uses direct observations and qualitative analyses of UI Starbucks in as case studies.

  11. Interaction between Proppant Packing, Reservoir Depletion, and Fluid Flow in Pore Space

    Fan, M.; McClure, J. E.; Han, Y.; Chen, C.

    2016-12-01

    In the oil and gas industry, the performance of proppant pack in hydraulically created fractures has a significant influence on fracture conductivity. A better understanding of proppant transport and deposition pattern in a hydraulic fracture is vital for effective and economical production within oil and gas reservoirs. In this research, a numerical modeling approach, combining Particle Flow Code (PFC) and GPU-enhanced lattice Boltzmann simulator (GELBS), is adopted to advance the understanding of the interaction between proppant particle packing, depletion of reservoir formation, and transport of reservoir flow through the pore space. In this numerical work flow, PFC is used to simulate effective stress increase and proppant particle movement and rearrangement under increasing mechanical loading. The pore structure of the proppant pack evolves subsequently and the geometrical data are output for lattice Boltzmann (LB) simulation of proppant pack permeability. Three different proppant packs with fixed particle concentration and 12/18, 16/30, and 20/40 mesh sizes are generated. These proppant packs are compressed with specified loading stress and their subsequent geometries are used for fluid flow simulations. The simulation results are in good agreement with experimental observations, e.g., the conductivity of proppant packs decreases with increasing effective stress. Three proppant packs with the same average diameter were generated using different coefficients of variation (COVs) for the proppant diameter (namely cov5%, cov20%, and cov30%). By using the coupled PFC-LBM work flow, the proppant pack permeability as functions of effective stress and porosity is investigated. The results show that the proppant pack with a higher proppant diameter COV has lower permeability and porosity under the same effective stress, because smaller particles fill in the pore space between bigger particles. The relationship between porosity and permeability is also consistent with

  12. Super-resolution imaging and tracking of protein-protein interactions in sub-diffraction cellular space

    Liu, Zhen; Xing, Dong; Su, Qian Peter; Zhu, Yun; Zhang, Jiamei; Kong, Xinyu; Xue, Boxin; Wang, Sheng; Sun, Hao; Tao, Yile; Sun, Yujie

    2014-07-01

    Imaging the location and dynamics of individual interacting protein pairs is essential but often difficult because of the fluorescent background from other paired and non-paired molecules, particularly in the sub-diffraction cellular space. Here we develop a new method combining bimolecular fluorescence complementation and photoactivated localization microscopy for super-resolution imaging and single-molecule tracking of specific protein-protein interactions. The method is used to study the interaction of two abundant proteins, MreB and EF-Tu, in Escherichia coli cells. The super-resolution imaging shows interesting distribution and domain sizes of interacting MreB-EF-Tu pairs as a subpopulation of total EF-Tu. The single-molecule tracking of MreB, EF-Tu and MreB-EF-Tu pairs reveals intriguing localization-dependent heterogonous dynamics and provides valuable insights to understanding the roles of MreB-EF-Tu interactions.

  13. Super-resolution imaging and tracking of protein–protein interactions in sub-diffraction cellular space

    Liu, Zhen; Xing, Dong; Su, Qian Peter; Zhu, Yun; Zhang, Jiamei; Kong, Xinyu; Xue, Boxin; Wang, Sheng; Sun, Hao; Tao, Yile; Sun, Yujie

    2014-01-01

    Imaging the location and dynamics of individual interacting protein pairs is essential but often difficult because of the fluorescent background from other paired and non-paired molecules, particularly in the sub-diffraction cellular space. Here we develop a new method combining bimolecular fluorescence complementation and photoactivated localization microscopy for super-resolution imaging and single-molecule tracking of specific protein–protein interactions. The method is used to study the interaction of two abundant proteins, MreB and EF-Tu, in Escherichia coli cells. The super-resolution imaging shows interesting distribution and domain sizes of interacting MreB–EF-Tu pairs as a subpopulation of total EF-Tu. The single-molecule tracking of MreB, EF-Tu and MreB–EF-Tu pairs reveals intriguing localization-dependent heterogonous dynamics and provides valuable insights to understanding the roles of MreB–EF-Tu interactions. PMID:25030837

  14. 27 CFR 6.35 - Renting display space.

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Renting display space. 6.35 Section 6.35 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Renting display space. The renting of display space by an industry member at a retail establishment...

  15. 27 CFR 6.56 - Renting display space.

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Renting display space. 6.56 Section 6.56 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Distribution Service § 6.56 Renting display space. A promotion whereby an industry member rents display space...

  16. Menthol's potential effects on nicotine dependence: a tobacco industry perspective.

    Yerger, Valerie B

    2011-05-01

    To examine what the tobacco industry knows about the potential effects menthol may have on nicotine dependence. A snowball strategy was used to systematically search the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/) between 22 February and 29 April, 2010. Of the approximately 11 million documents available in the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library, the iterative searches returned tens of thousands of results. We qualitatively analysed a final collection of 309 documents relevant the effects of menthol on nicotine dependence. The tobacco industry knows that menthol overrides the harsh taste of tobacco and alleviates nicotine's irritating effects, synergistically interacts with nicotine, stimulates the trigeminal nerve to elicit a 'liking' response for a tobacco product, and makes low tar, low nicotine tobacco products more acceptable to smokers than non-mentholated low delivery products. Menthol is not only used in cigarettes as a flavour additive; tobacco companies know that menthol also has sensory effects and interacts with nicotine to produce tobacco products that are easier to smoke, thereby making it easier to expose smokers, especially those who are new and uninitiated, to the addictive power of nicotine.

  17. Identifying health disparities across the tobacco continuum.

    Fagan, Pebbles; Moolchan, Eric T; Lawrence, Deirdre; Fernander, Anita; Ponder, Paris K

    2007-10-01

    Few frameworks have addressed work-force diversity, inequities and inequalities as part of a comprehensive approach to eliminating tobacco-related health disparities. This paper summarizes the literature and describes the known disparities that exist along the tobacco disease continuum for minority racial and ethnic groups, those living in poverty, those with low education and blue-collar and service workers. The paper also discusses how work-force diversity, inequities in research practice and knowledge allocation and inequalities in access to and quality of health care are fundamental to addressing disparities in health. We examined the available scientific literature and existing public health reports to identify disparities across the tobacco disease continuum by minority racial/ethnic group, poverty status, education level and occupation. Results indicate that differences in risk indicators along the tobacco disease continuum do not explain fully tobacco-related cancer consequences among some minority racial/ethnic groups, particularly among the aggregate groups, blacks/African Americans and American Indians/Alaska Natives. The lack of within-race/ethnic group data and its interactions with socio-economic factors across the life-span contribute to the inconsistency we observe in the disease causal paradigm. More comprehensive models are needed to understand the relationships among disparities, social context, diversity, inequalities and inequities. A systematic approach will also help researchers, practitioners, advocates and policy makers determine critical points for interventions, the types of studies and programs needed and integrative approaches needed to eliminate tobacco-related disparities.

  18. Reading culture from tobacco advertisements in Indonesia.

    Nichter, Mimi; Padmawati, S; Danardono, M; Ng, N; Prabandari, Y; Nichter, Mark

    2009-04-01

    ground" to reduce consumption and social acceptability. To do this, we need to take back social spaces that the tobacco industry has laid claim to through advertising. Active monitoring and surveillance of tobacco advertising strategies is necessary and legislation and enforcement to curb the industry should be put in place.

  19. Ionizing radiation from tobacco

    Westin, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    Accidents at nuclear power facilities seem inevitably to bring in their wake a great deal of concern on the part of both the lay and medical communities. Relatively little attention, however, is given to what may be the largest single worldwide source of effectively carcinogenic ionizing radiation: tobacco. The risk of cancer deaths from the Chernobyl disaster are tobacco smoke is discussed

  20. Anxiety and Tobacco

    Cristina Mae Wood

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco use is the first preventable cause of death. This is associated not only with physical illness and a shorter life expectancy, but also with different mental disorders such as anxiety disorders. Given the low risk perception of use, this paper reports a systematic review of the scientific literature on the relationship between anxiety and tobacco from an emotional perspective, including data on smoking prevalence, factors associated with the onset and maintenance of tobacco use, as well as those factors that hamper smoking cessation and increase relapse rates. The high rates of comorbidity between tobacco use and anxiety disorders make necessary the development of new and better tobacco cessation treatments, especially designed for those smokers with high state anxiety or anxiety sensitivity, with the aim of maximizing the efficacy.

  1. Tobacco packaging design for reducing tobacco use.

    McNeill, Ann; Gravely, Shannon; Hitchman, Sara C; Bauld, Linda; Hammond, David; Hartmann-Boyce, Jamie

    2017-04-27

    Tobacco use is the largest single preventable cause of death and disease worldwide. Standardised tobacco packaging is an intervention intended to reduce the promotional appeal of packs and can be defined as packaging with a uniform colour (and in some cases shape and size) with no logos or branding, apart from health warnings and other government-mandated information, and the brand name in a prescribed uniform font, colour and size. Australia was the first country to implement standardised tobacco packaging between October and December 2012, France implemented standardised tobacco packaging on 1 January 2017 and several other countries are implementing, or intending to implement, standardised tobacco packaging. To assess the effect of standardised tobacco packaging on tobacco use uptake, cessation and reduction. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO and six other databases from 1980 to January 2016. We checked bibliographies and contacted study authors to identify additional peer-reviewed studies. Primary outcomes included changes in tobacco use prevalence incorporating tobacco use uptake, cessation, consumption and relapse prevention. Secondary outcomes covered intermediate outcomes that can be measured and are relevant to tobacco use uptake, cessation or reduction. We considered multiple study designs: randomised controlled trials, quasi-experimental and experimental studies, observational cross-sectional and cohort studies. The review focused on all populations and people of any age; to be included, studies had to be published in peer-reviewed journals. We examined studies that assessed the impact of changes in tobacco packaging such as colour, design, size and type of health warnings on the packs in relation to branded packaging. In experiments, the control condition was branded tobacco packaging but could include variations of standardised packaging. Screening and data extraction followed standard Cochrane methods. We used different 'Risk of bias' domains for

  2. Using novel descriptor accounting for ligand-receptor interactions to define and visually explore biologically relevant chemical space.

    Rabal, Obdulia; Oyarzabal, Julen

    2012-05-25

    The definition and pragmatic implementation of biologically relevant chemical space is critical in addressing navigation strategies in the overlapping regions where chemistry and therapeutically relevant targets reside and, therefore, also key to performing an efficient drug discovery project. Here, we describe the development and implementation of a simple and robust method for representing biologically relevant chemical space as a general reference according to current knowledge, independently of any reference space, and analyzing chemical structures accordingly. Underlying our method is the generation of a novel descriptor (LiRIf) that converts structural information into a one-dimensional string accounting for the plausible ligand-receptor interactions as well as for topological information. Capitalizing on ligand-receptor interactions as a descriptor enables the clustering, profiling, and comparison of libraries of compounds from a chemical biology and medicinal chemistry perspective. In addition, as a case study, R-groups analysis is performed to identify the most populated ligand-receptor interactions according to different target families (GPCR, kinases, etc.), as well as to evaluate the coverage of biologically relevant chemical space by structures annotated in different databases (ChEMBL, Glida, etc.).

  3. Understanding tobacco control policy at the national level: bridging the gap between public policy and tobacco control advocacy

    Marc C. Willemsen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background While some countries have advanced tobacco control policies, other countries struggle to adopt and implement FCTC's measures. This presentation uncovers the main factors that explain such variations, taking insights from public policy and political science as a starting point for a case study. Methods A case study of tobacco control policy making in the Netherlands, covering the period from the 1960s until the present. The study consisted of a systematic search and analysis of documents and proceedings of parliamentary debates on tobacco policy, supplemented with 22 interviews with key informants from the government, health organisations, politicians, and the tobacco industry. In addition, documents from the Truth Tobacco Industry Documents database, pertaining to the influence of the tobacco industry on Dutch policy making, were analysed. Results The Dutch government started relatively late to regulate tobacco. The choices in tobacco control policy making at the national level and the tempo in which they are made are explained by the interaction of the five main elements of the tobacco control policy making process: Relatively stable context factors (constitutional structures, 'rules of the policy making game', national cultural values Relatively dynamic context factors (regime changes, EU regulation and FCTC guidelines, changing social norms, public support Transfer of ideas (availability and interpretation of scientific evidence Pro and anti-tobacco control networks and coalitions (their organisational and lobby strength Agenda-setting (changes in problem definition, issue framing, media advocacy Conclusions Despite worldwide convergence of tobacco control policies, accelerated by the ratification of the FCTC treaty by most nations, governments develop approaches to tobacco control in line with cultural values, ideological preferences and specific national institutional arrangements. There is no one-size-fits-all approach. The

  4. Entering the Interaction Age: Implementing a Future Vision for Campus Learning Spaces...Today

    Milne, Andrew J.

    2007-01-01

    Learning space design for higher education has become a popular topic of discussion as institutions attempt to chart a course for the future of their campuses. Several authors in EDUCAUSE publications have forecast the future for such spaces, a future infused with new and sometimes exotic-sounding technologies. Indeed, some discussions in the…

  5. Enhancing the Awareness of the Interaction of the Space Weather and Public: Some Case Studies in Turkey

    Tulunay, Y.; Tulunay, E.; Kocabas, Z.; Altuntas, E.; Yapici, T.; Senalp, E. T.; Hippler, R.

    2009-04-01

    Space Weather has important effects on many systems and peripherals that human interacts with. However, most of the people are not aware of those interactions. During the FP6 SWEETS, COST 724 and the ‘I love my Sun' activities it was aimed to create basis to bring together academicians from universities, experts from industry, scientific institutes, and the public, especially the school children of age 7-11, in order to enhance the awareness of space weather effects and to discuss appropriate countermeasures by different education and promotion methods including non-technical ones. This work mentions the activities performed in Turkey within the framework. Since 1990, a small group at METU has been developing data driven models in order to forecast some critical system parameters related with the near-Earth space processes. With the background on the subject the group feels responsible to organise activities in Turkey to inform public on enhancing the awareness of space weather effects. In order to inform and educate public on their interaction with the Space Weather, distinct social activities which take quick and strong attention were organised. Those include art shows and workshops, quizes, movies and entertainments, special programs for school children of age 7-11 under the ‘I love my Sun' activities, press releases, audio-visual media including webpages [Tulunay, 2007]. The impact of the activities can be evaluated considering the before and after activity record materials of the participants. For instance, under the ‘I love my Sun' activities, the school children drew pictures related with Sun before and after the informative programs. The performance of reaching the school children on the subject is very promising. Sub-activities conducted under the action are: 1. Space Weather Dance Show "Sonnensturm" 2. Web Quiz all over Europe: In Türkiye 3. Space Weather / Sun / Heliospheric Public Science Festivals in 27 Countries: In Türkiye 4. Space Weather on

  6. Manipulation and Investigation of Uniformly-Spaced Nanowire Array on a Substrate via Dielectrophoresis and Electrostatic Interaction

    U Hyeok Choi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Directed-assembly of nanowires on the dielectrics-covered parallel electrode structure is capable of producing uniformly-spaced nanowire array at the electrode gap due to dielectrophoretic nanowire attraction and electrostatic nanowire repulsion. Beyond uniformly-spaced nanowire array formation, the control of spacing in the array is beneficial in that it should be the experimental basis of the precise positioning of functional nanowires on a circuit. Here, we investigate the material parameters and bias conditions to modulate the nanowire spacing in the ordered array, where the nanowire array formation is readily attained due to the electrostatic nanowire interaction. A theoretical model for the force calculation and the simulation of the induced charge in the assembled nanowire verifies that the longer nanowires on thicker dielectric layer tend to be assembled with a larger pitch due to the stronger nanowire-nanowire electrostatic repulsion, which is consistent with the experimental results. It was claimed that the stronger dielectrophoretic force is likely to attract more nanowires that are suspended in solution at the electrode gap, causing them to be less-spaced. Thus, we propose a generic mechanism, competition of dielectrophoretic and electrostatic force, to determine the nanowire pitch in an ordered array. Furthermore, this spacing-controlled nanowire array offers a way to fabricate the high-density nanodevice array without nanowire registration.

  7. Science for Tobacco Control Policies

    Constantine Vardavas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The recent adoption of the Tobacco Products Directive is a unique opportunity to enhance the regulation of tobacco products in the European Union. In this presentation a brief overview of the development of an EU common reporting format for submission of data on ingredients contained in tobacco and related products will be presented, as an example of European tobacco regulatory science.

  8. Simulation of oscillatory processes in a beam-plasma system with a virtual cathode in gas-filled interaction space

    Filatov, R. A.; Hramov, A. E.

    2011-01-01

    Physical processes occurring in an intense electron beam with a virtual cathode in an interaction space filled with neutral gas are studied in a two-dimensional model. A mathematical model is proposed for investigating complicated self-consistent processes of neutral gas ionization by the beam electrons and the dynamics of an electron beam and heavy positive ions in the common space charge field with allowance for the two-dimensional motion of charged particles. Three characteristic dynamic regimes of the system are revealed: complete suppression of oscillations of the virtual cathode as a result of neutralizing its space charge by positive ions; the pulsed generation regime, in which the ions dynamics repeatedly suppresses and restores the virtual cathode oscillations; and the continuous generation regime with an anomalously high level of noisy oscillations.

  9. Parallel Finite Element Particle-In-Cell Code for Simulations of Space-charge Dominated Beam-Cavity Interactions

    Candel, A.; Kabel, A.; Ko, K.; Lee, L.; Li, Z.; Limborg, C.; Ng, C.; Prudencio, E.; Schussman, G.; Uplenchwar, R.

    2007-01-01

    Over the past years, SLAC's Advanced Computations Department (ACD) has developed the parallel finite element (FE) particle-in-cell code Pic3P (Pic2P) for simulations of beam-cavity interactions dominated by space-charge effects. As opposed to standard space-charge dominated beam transport codes, which are based on the electrostatic approximation, Pic3P (Pic2P) includes space-charge, retardation and boundary effects as it self-consistently solves the complete set of Maxwell-Lorentz equations using higher-order FE methods on conformal meshes. Use of efficient, large-scale parallel processing allows for the modeling of photoinjectors with unprecedented accuracy, aiding the design and operation of the next-generation of accelerator facilities. Applications to the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) RF gun are presented

  10. Cysteine proteinases regulate chloroplast protein content and composition in tobacco leaves: a model for dynamic interactions with ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) vesicular bodies.

    Prins, Anneke; van Heerden, Philippus D R; Olmos, Enrique; Kunert, Karl J; Foyer, Christine H

    2008-01-01

    The roles of cysteine proteinases (CP) in leaf protein accumulation and composition were investigated in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) plants expressing the rice cystatin, OC-1. The OC-1 protein was present in the cytosol, chloroplasts, and vacuole of the leaves of OC-1 expressing (OCE) plants. Changes in leaf protein composition and turnover caused by OC-1-dependent inhibition of CP activity were assessed in 8-week-old plants using proteomic analysis. Seven hundred and sixty-five soluble proteins were detected in the controls compared to 860 proteins in the OCE leaves. A cyclophilin, a histone, a peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase, and two ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) activase isoforms were markedly altered in abundance in the OCE leaves. The senescence-related decline in photosynthesis and Rubisco activity was delayed in the OCE leaves. Similarly, OCE leaves maintained higher leaf Rubisco activities and protein than controls following dark chilling. Immunogold labelling studies with specific antibodies showed that Rubisco was present in Rubisco vesicular bodies (RVB) as well as in the chloroplasts of leaves from 8-week-old control and OCE plants. Western blot analysis of plants at 14 weeks after both genotypes had flowered revealed large increases in the amount of Rubisco protein in the OCE leaves compared to controls. These results demonstrate that CPs are involved in Rubisco turnover in leaves under optimal and stress conditions and that extra-plastidic RVB bodies are present even in young source leaves. Furthermore, these data form the basis for a new model of Rubisco protein turnover involving CPs and RVBs.

  11. Interactive Spaces: Towards Collaborative structuring and Ubiquitous Presentation in Domestic Environment

    Petersen, Marianne Graves; Grønbæk, Kaj

    2004-01-01

    collaborative structuring and ubiquitous presentation of materials in private homes. With DoHM we propose establishing new relationship between digital and physical hyperspaces, folding hyperspaces into the physical space of the household. Thus we strive to combine the qualities of physical domestic materials...... and spaces with the flexibility and dynamics of digital hyperspaces. We propose a variety of new ubiquitous home appliances called MediaWall, MediaTable, MediaTray and MediaPort, which address these issues....

  12. Interactive Spaces: Towards Collaborative Structuring and Ubiquitous Presentation in Domestic Environments

    Petersen, Marianne Graves; Grønbæk, Kaj

    2004-01-01

    collaborative structuring and ubiquitous presentation of materials in private homes. With DoHM we propose establishing new relationship between digital and physical hyperspaces, folding hyperspaces into the physical space of the household. Thus we strive to combine the qualities of physical domestic materials...... and spaces with the flexibility and dynamics of digital hyperspaces. We propose a variety of new ubiquitous home appliances called MediaWall, MediaTable, MediaTray and MediaPort, which address these issues....

  13. INTERACTION BETWEEN HUMAN BEING AND URBAN CULTURE SPACE: ONE OF THE MOTIVATIONS FOR HIGHER EDUCATION INTERNATIONALISATION

    Hu Liang Cai

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the objective of this paper is to deeply and clearly explain the internationalisation of higher education from the aspect of the integration of human being with urban cultural space. Materials and Methods: the methods used in the research are mainly analytical and descriptive ones enabling to show how the integration of human being and urban cultural space promote and influence the internationalisation of higher education. Results: the motivation for the internationalisation of higher education is closely interrelated with that of urbanisation. Besides the economic and political incentives, modern urban culture, caused by globalisation, also plays a very important role in encouraging higher education internationalisation. Discussion and Conclusions: the appearance of higher education internationalisation is mediated by the alteration of the existing environment of urban culture space against the background of city internationalisation. Human beings’ need for self-assurance in urban culture space helps to stimulate the internationalisation of higher education, and human beings promote the development of modern culture space and their separation in urban culture space accelerates the development of higher education. From the perspective of higher education internationalisation, to sort out the cultural motivation for higher education and find its suitable form for the city’s internationalisation is crucial for adjusting the orientation and guaranteeing the efficacy of higher education internationalisation. From the aspect of human beings’ development, the separation between urban space and human beings caused by the city’s ongoing internationalisation is a pressing problem to be solved. From the aspect of the construction of urban culture space, as an important means of retaining human beings’ equilibrium, urban culture promotes the internationalisation of higher education.

  14. Combating Tobacco Use in the United States Army

    2010-04-01

    videogame , tobacco use, military. 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE... videogame is theory-guided and uses animations, videos and interactive activities to provide facts about smoking and tobacco use, as well as provides...prevention and cessation interactive multimedia tool ( videogame ) among active Army personnel stationed at Fort Hood, Texas. Body Throughout the

  15. NAAG Tobacco Settlement Payments

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2016. National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG). Policy—Tobacco Settlement Payments. The National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG) provides...

  16. NAAG Tobacco Settlement Payments

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2017. National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG). Policy—Tobacco Settlement Payments. The National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG) provides...

  17. Tobacco and chemicals (image)

    Some of the chemicals associated with tobacco smoke include ammonia, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, propane, methane, acetone, hydrogen cyanide and various carcinogens. Other chemicals that are associated with chewing ...

  18. Youth and Tobacco

    ... cigar use have generally declined, sharp increases in e-cigarette and hookah tobacco use among teens in previous ... dangers of using electronic nicotine delivery systems, like e-cigarettes. Many e-cigarettes contain nicotine, the same highly ...

  19. Tobacco Control in Africa

    Manufactured tobacco production in Cameroon (tons) ... Africa has a responsibility to resist the carrot of industrial temptation. ...... parliamentary systems, unitary versus federal designs and the relative development and influence of the judicial ...

  20. Women and Tobacco Use

    ... smokers appear less attractive and prematurely old. 5 Women have been extensively targeted by tobacco marketing. These ads are dominated by themes associating cigarettes with social desirability, independence, weight control and having fun. Like most other ...

  1. Optimum Design of Braced Steel Space Frames including Soil-Structure Interaction via Teaching-Learning-Based Optimization and Harmony Search Algorithms

    Ayse T. Daloglu; Musa Artar; Korhan Ozgan; Ali İ. Karakas

    2018-01-01

    Optimum design of braced steel space frames including soil-structure interaction is studied by using harmony search (HS) and teaching-learning-based optimization (TLBO) algorithms. A three-parameter elastic foundation model is used to incorporate the soil-structure interaction effect. A 10-storey braced steel space frame example taken from literature is investigated according to four different bracing types for the cases with/without soil-structure interaction. X, V, Z, and eccentric V-shaped...

  2. PDB-Explorer: a web-based interactive map of the protein data bank in shape space.

    Jin, Xian; Awale, Mahendra; Zasso, Michaël; Kostro, Daniel; Patiny, Luc; Reymond, Jean-Louis

    2015-10-23

    The RCSB Protein Data Bank (PDB) provides public access to experimentally determined 3D-structures of biological macromolecules (proteins, peptides and nucleic acids). While various tools are available to explore the PDB, options to access the global structural diversity of the entire PDB and to perceive relationships between PDB structures remain very limited. A 136-dimensional atom pair 3D-fingerprint for proteins (3DP) counting categorized atom pairs at increasing through-space distances was designed to represent the molecular shape of PDB-entries. Nearest neighbor searches examples were reported exemplifying the ability of 3DP-similarity to identify closely related biomolecules from small peptides to enzyme and large multiprotein complexes such as virus particles. The principle component analysis was used to obtain the visualization of PDB in 3DP-space. The 3DP property space groups proteins and protein assemblies according to their 3D-shape similarity, yet shows exquisite ability to distinguish between closely related structures. An interactive website called PDB-Explorer is presented featuring a color-coded interactive map of PDB in 3DP-space. Each pixel of the map contains one or more PDB-entries which are directly visualized as ribbon diagrams when the pixel is selected. The PDB-Explorer website allows performing 3DP-nearest neighbor searches of any PDB-entry or of any structure uploaded as protein-type PDB file. All functionalities on the website are implemented in JavaScript in a platform-independent manner and draw data from a server that is updated daily with the latest PDB additions, ensuring complete and up-to-date coverage. The essentially instantaneous 3DP-similarity search with the PDB-Explorer provides results comparable to those of much slower 3D-alignment algorithms, and automatically clusters proteins from the same superfamilies in tight groups. A chemical space classification of PDB based on molecular shape was obtained using a new atom-pair 3

  3. Human–environment interactions in urban green spaces — A systematic review of contemporary issues and prospects for future research

    Kabisch, Nadja; Qureshi, Salman; Haase, Dagmar

    2015-01-01

    Scientific papers on landscape planning underline the importance of maintaining and developing green spaces because of their multiple environmental and social benefits for city residents. However, a general understanding of contemporary human–environment interaction issues in urban green space is still incomplete and lacks orientation for urban planners. This review examines 219 publications to (1) provide an overview of the current state of research on the relationship between humans and urban green space, (2) group the different research approaches by identifying the main research areas, methods, and target groups, and (3) highlight important future prospects in urban green space research. - Highlights: • Reviewed literature on urban green pins down a dearth of comparative studies. • Case studies in Africa and Russia are marginalized – the Europe and US dominate. • Questionnaires are used as major tool followed by GIS and quantitative approaches. • Developing countries should contribute in building an urban green space agenda. • Interdisciplinary, adaptable and pluralistic approaches can satiate a knowledge gap

  4. Human–environment interactions in urban green spaces — A systematic review of contemporary issues and prospects for future research

    Kabisch, Nadja, E-mail: nadja.kabisch@geo.hu-berlin.de [Institute of Geography, Humboldt-University Berlin, Unter den Linden 6, 10099 Berlin (Germany); Department of Urban and Environmental Sociology, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Qureshi, Salman [Institute of Geography, Humboldt-University Berlin, Unter den Linden 6, 10099 Berlin (Germany); School of Architecture, Birmingham Institute of Art and Design, Birmingham City University, The Parkside Building, 5 Cardigan Street, Birmingham B4 7BD (United Kingdom); Haase, Dagmar [Institute of Geography, Humboldt-University Berlin, Unter den Linden 6, 10099 Berlin (Germany); Department of Computational Landscape Ecology, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2015-01-15

    Scientific papers on landscape planning underline the importance of maintaining and developing green spaces because of their multiple environmental and social benefits for city residents. However, a general understanding of contemporary human–environment interaction issues in urban green space is still incomplete and lacks orientation for urban planners. This review examines 219 publications to (1) provide an overview of the current state of research on the relationship between humans and urban green space, (2) group the different research approaches by identifying the main research areas, methods, and target groups, and (3) highlight important future prospects in urban green space research. - Highlights: • Reviewed literature on urban green pins down a dearth of comparative studies. • Case studies in Africa and Russia are marginalized – the Europe and US dominate. • Questionnaires are used as major tool followed by GIS and quantitative approaches. • Developing countries should contribute in building an urban green space agenda. • Interdisciplinary, adaptable and pluralistic approaches can satiate a knowledge gap.

  5. Whither tobacco product regulation?

    McNeill, Ann; Hammond, David; Gartner, Coral

    2012-03-01

    Despite decades of industry innovation and regulatory efforts, the harmfulness of conventional cigarettes has not changed. There are several pitfalls in this area, including the long time lag before health impacts of product regulatory changes become apparent, the danger of consumers deriving false reassurance of lesser harm in the interim period, the lack of relevant expertise and the lack of an internationally agreed and evidence-based strategic approach. Articles 9 and 10 of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control provide the potential for such a global strategy, and knowledge and research has increased significantly over recent years. However, there are huge opportunity costs in implementing product disclosure and regulatory strategies: most national regulators have very limited human and financial resources, which should be focused on other evidence-based tobacco control interventions. We believe therefore that it is now time to abandon the notion of safe or safer cigarettes while moving consumers towards cleaner nicotine products as soon as possible. In parallel to this, we recommend a number of other strategies be implemented including: reducing the appeal of all tobacco products, forbidding new tobacco products or brand variants being marketed without evidence of reduced harm, appeal or addictiveness, and developing a tobacco industry resourced, but industry independent, Framework Convention on Tobacco Control global repository to assist national regulators in understanding and regulating the products on their markets.

  6. Simulation of Martian surface-atmosphere interaction in a space-simulator: Technical considerations and feasibility

    Moehlmann, D.; Kochan, H.

    1992-01-01

    The Space Simulator of the German Aerospace Research Establishment at Cologne, formerly used for testing satellites, is now, since 1987, the central unit within the research sub-program 'Comet-Simulation' (KOSI). The KOSI team has investigated physical processes relevant to comets and their surfaces. As a byproduct we gained experience in sample-handling under simulated space conditions. In broadening the scope of the research activities of the DLR Institute of Space Simulation an extension to 'Laboratory-Planetology' is planned. Following the KOSI-experiments a Mars Surface-Simulation with realistic minerals and surface soil in a suited environment (temperature, pressure, and CO2-atmosphere) is foreseen as the next step. Here, our main interest is centered on thermophysical properties of the Martian surface and energy transport (and related gas transport) through the surface. These laboratory simulation activities can be related to space missions as typical pre-mission and during-the-mission support of the experiments design and operations (simulation in parallel). Post mission experiments for confirmation and interpretation of results are of great value. The physical dimensions of the Space Simulator (cylinder of about 2.5 m diameter and 5 m length) allows for testing and qualification of experimental hardware under realistic Martian conditions.

  7. The Renaissance Concept of Space: Notes on the Interaction between Arts and Sciences in History

    Rein Undusk

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available “Renaissance concept of space” harbors surely some definite bonuses for anybody embarking on a study of the inventive role that philosophy has had, in its happiest moments of life, for human cognition. First, the new suppositions related to physical space emerge in the Renaissance as derivative from the theological-philosophical assumptions of the era: what Renaissance space is can be enunciated quite convincingly on the basis of the intellectual collisions that the era was allotted to deal with. Thus, as a re-generator of classical culture, the Renaissance had to a degree dug up the finite substructure of ancient thinking; however, as an inheritor of the Middle Ages, it had been requested to square finitism with transcendency. Second, much of what we can today fit under Renaissance space is in fact delivered to us in the artistic form of painting, which means that, in addition to the challenge set by philosophy to the spatial knowledge of the era, there was postulated as well a mediatory agency of art in the realization and conveyance of this new knowledge. Thus we can suppose that the solution offered by Renaissance art to the problem of space on its fictional plane comprised the germ of some modern knowledge about space in reality.

  8. Semi-supervised drug-protein interaction prediction from heterogeneous biological spaces.

    Xia, Zheng; Wu, Ling-Yun; Zhou, Xiaobo; Wong, Stephen T C

    2010-09-13

    Predicting drug-protein interactions from heterogeneous biological data sources is a key step for in silico drug discovery. The difficulty of this prediction task lies in the rarity of known drug-protein interactions and myriad unknown interactions to be predicted. To meet this challenge, a manifold regularization semi-supervised learning method is presented to tackle this issue by using labeled and unlabeled information which often generates better results than using the labeled data alone. Furthermore, our semi-supervised learning method integrates known drug-protein interaction network information as well as chemical structure and genomic sequence data. Using the proposed method, we predicted certain drug-protein interactions on the enzyme, ion channel, GPCRs, and nuclear receptor data sets. Some of them are confirmed by the latest publicly available drug targets databases such as KEGG. We report encouraging results of using our method for drug-protein interaction network reconstruction which may shed light on the molecular interaction inference and new uses of marketed drugs.

  9. Alteration of Lunar Rock Surfaces through Interaction with the Space Environment

    Frushour, A. M.; Noble, S. K; Christoffersen, R.; Keller, L P.

    2014-01-01

    Space weathering occurs on all ex-posed surfaces of lunar rocks, as well as on the surfaces of smaller grains in the lunar regolith. Space weather-ing alters these exposed surfaces primarily through the action of solar wind ions and micrometeorite impact processes. On lunar rocks specifically, the alteration products produced by space weathering form surface coatings known as patina. Patinas can have spectral reflectance properties different than the underlying rock. An understanding of patina composition and thickness is therefore important for interpreting re-motely sensed data from airless solar system bodies. The purpose of this study is to try to understand the physical and chemical properties of patina by expanding the number of patinas known and characterized in the lunar rock sample collection.

  10. Interaction Design Beyond the Product : Creating Technology-Enhanced Activity Spaces

    Kaptelinin, Victor; Bannon, Liam J.

    2012-01-01

    The field of interaction design to date has been predominantly concerned with designing products, that is, devices, systems, and more recently services. A growing body of theoretical and empirical analyses suggests that the scope of interaction design needs to be expanded: An explicit concern...... of the field should include not only helping designers create better products but also helping people themselves create better environments for their work, learning, and leisure activities. In this article we argue that expanding the scope of interaction design beyond products requires a revision of some...... of the most central concepts in interaction design, including the notion of “the object of design” and our understanding of the impact of technologies on human practices. The aim of the article is to explore some of these conceptual challenges and discuss possible ways of dealing with them. We differentiate...

  11. Laboratory plasma interactions experiments: Results and implications to future space systems

    Leung, Philip

    1986-01-01

    The experimental results discussed show the significance of the effects caused by spacecraft plasma interactions, in particular the generation of Electromagnetic Interference. As the experimental results show, the magnitude of the adverse effects induced by Plasma Interactions (PI) will be more significant for spacecraft of the next century. Therefore, research is needed to control possible adverse effects. Several techniques to control the selected PI effects are discussed. Tests, in the form of flight experiments, are needed to validate these proposed ideas.

  12. The interaction of glutathione S-transferase M1-null variants with tobacco smoke exposure and the development of childhood asthma

    Rogers, A J; Brasch-Andersen, C; Ionita-Laza, I

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1)-null variant is a common copy number variant associated with adverse pulmonary outcomes, including asthma and airflow obstruction, with evidence of important gene-by-environment interactions with exposures to oxidative stress. OBJECTIVE: To exp...

  13. The Atmosphere-Space Interactions Monitor (ASIM) Payload Facility on the ISS

    Reibaldi, Giuseppe; Nasca, Rosario; Neubert, Torsten

    ASIM is a payload facility to be mounted on a Columbus external platform on the International Space Station (ISS). ASIM will study the coupling of thunderstorm processes to the upper atmosphere, ionosphere and radiation belts. ASIM is the most complex Earth Observation payload facility planned fo...

  14. Real-space, mean-field algorithm to numerically calculate long-range interactions

    Cadilhe, A.; Costa, B. V.

    2016-02-01

    Long-range interactions are known to be of difficult treatment in statistical mechanics models. There are some approaches that introduce a cutoff in the interactions or make use of reaction field approaches. However, those treatments suffer the illness of being of limited use, in particular close to phase transitions. The use of open boundary conditions allows the sum of the long-range interactions over the entire system to be done, however, this approach demands a sum over all degrees of freedom in the system, which makes a numerical treatment prohibitive. Techniques like the Ewald summation or fast multipole expansion account for the exact interactions but are still limited to a few thousands of particles. In this paper we introduce a novel mean-field approach to treat long-range interactions. The method is based in the division of the system in cells. In the inner cell, that contains the particle in sight, the 'local' interactions are computed exactly, the 'far' contributions are then computed as the average over the particles inside a given cell with the particle in sight for each of the remaining cells. Using this approach, the large and small cells limits are exact. At a fixed cell size, the method also becomes exact in the limit of large lattices. We have applied the procedure to the two-dimensional anisotropic dipolar Heisenberg model. A detailed comparison between our method, the exact calculation and the cutoff radius approximation were done. Our results show that the cutoff-cell approach outperforms any cutoff radius approach as it maintains the long-range memory present in these interactions, contrary to the cutoff radius approximation. Besides that, we calculated the critical temperature and the critical behavior of the specific heat of the anisotropic Heisenberg model using our method. The results are in excellent agreement with extensive Monte Carlo simulations using Ewald summation.

  15. Paenibacillus lentimorbus Inoculation Enhances Tobacco Growth and Extenuates the Virulence of Cucumber mosaic virus.

    Susheel Kumar

    Full Text Available Previous studies with Paenibacillus lentimorbus B-30488" (hereafter referred as B-30488, a plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR isolated from cow's milk, revealed its capabilities to improve plant quality under normal and stress conditions. Present study investigates its potential as a biocontrol agent against an economically important virus, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, in Nicotiana tabacum cv. White Burley plants and delineates the physical, biophysical, biochemical and molecular perturbations due to the trilateral interactions of PGPR-host-CMV. Soil inoculation of B-30488 enhanced the plant vigor while significantly decreased the virulence and virus RNA accumulation by ~12 fold (91% in systemic leaves of CMV infected tobacco plants as compared to the control ones. Histology of these leaves revealed the improved tissue's health and least aging signs in B-30488 inoculated tobacco plants, with or without CMV infection, and showed lesser intercellular spaces between collenchyma cells, reduced amount of xyloglucans and pectins in connecting primary cells, and higher polyphenol accumulation in hypodermis layer extending to collenchyma cells. B-30488 inoculation has favorably maneuvered the essential biophysical (ion leakage and photosynthetic efficiency and biochemical (sugar, proline, chlorophyll, malondialdehyde, acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase attributes of tobacco plants to positively regulate and release the virus stress. Moreover, activities of defense related enzymes (ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase induced due to CMV-infection were ameliorated with inoculation of B-30488, suggesting systemic induced resistance mediated protection against CMV in tobacco. The quantitative RT-PCR analyses of the genes related to normal plant development, stress and pathogenesis also corroborate well with the biochemical data and revealed the regulation (either up or down of these genes in favor of

  16. Tobacco industry misappropriation of American Indian culture and traditional tobacco.

    D'Silva, Joanne; O'Gara, Erin; Villaluz, Nicole T

    2018-02-19

    Describe the extent to which tobacco industry marketing tactics incorporated American Indian culture and traditional tobacco. A keyword search of industry documents was conducted using document archives from the Truth Tobacco Documents Library. Tobacco industry documents (n=76) were analysed for themes. Tobacco industry marketing tactics have incorporated American Indian culture and traditional tobacco since at least the 1930s, with these tactics prominently highlighted during the 1990s with Natural American Spirit cigarettes. Documents revealed the use of American Indian imagery such as traditional headdresses and other cultural symbols in product branding and the portrayal of harmful stereotypes of Native people in advertising. The historical and cultural significance of traditional tobacco was used to validate commercially available tobacco. The tobacco industry has misappropriated culture and traditional tobacco by misrepresenting American Indian traditions, values and beliefs to market and sell their products for profit. Findings underscore the need for ongoing monitoring of tobacco industry marketing tactics directed at exploiting Native culture and counter-marketing tactics that raise awareness about the distinction between commercial and traditional tobacco use. Such efforts should be embedded within a culturally sensitive framework to reduce the burden of commercial tobacco use. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Enabling Symmetric Collaboration in Public Spaces through 3D Mobile Interaction

    Mayra Donaji Barrera Machuca

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Collaboration has been common in workplaces in various engineering settings and in our daily activities. However, how to effectively engage collaborators with collaborative tasks has long been an issue due to various situational and technical constraints. The research in this paper addresses the issue in a specific scenario, which is how to enable users to interact with public information from their own perspective. We describe a 3D mobile interaction technique that allows users to collaborate with other people by creating a symmetric and collaborative ambience. This in turn can increase their engagement with public displays. In order to better understand the benefits and limitations of this technique, we conducted a usability study with a total of 40 participants. The results indicate that the 3D mobile interaction technique promotes collaboration between users and also improves their engagement with the public displays.

  18. Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS) - Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2008-2012. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Office on Smoking and Health (OSH) – Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS) - Global Adult Tobacco...

  19. What externally presented information do VRUs require when interacting with fully Automated Road Transport Systems in shared space?

    Merat, Natasha; Louw, Tyron; Madigan, Ruth; Wilbrink, Marc; Schieben, Anna

    2018-03-31

    As the desire for deploying automated ("driverless") vehicles increases, there is a need to understand how they might communicate with other road users in a mixed traffic, urban, setting. In the absence of an active and responsible human controller in the driving seat, who might currently communicate with other road users in uncertain/conflicting situations, in the future, understanding a driverless car's behaviour and intentions will need to be relayed via easily comprehensible, intuitive and universally intelligible means, perhaps presented externally via new vehicle interfaces. This paper reports on the results of a questionnaire-based study, delivered to 664 participants, recruited during live demonstrations of an Automated Road Transport Systems (ARTS; SAE Level 4), in three European cities. The questionnaire sought the views of pedestrians and cyclists, focussing on whether respondents felt safe interacting with ARTS in shared space, and also what externally presented travel behaviour information from the ARTS was important to them. Results showed that most pedestrians felt safer when the ARTS were travelling in designated lanes, rather than in shared space, and the majority believed they had priority over the ARTS, in the absence of such infrastructure. Regardless of lane demarcations, all respondents highlighted the importance of receiving some communication information about the behaviour of the ARTS, with acknowledgement of their detection by the vehicle being the most important message. There were no clear patterns across the respondents, regarding preference of modality for these external messages, with cultural and infrastructural differences thought to govern responses. Generally, however, conventional signals (lights and beeps) were preferred to text-based messages and spoken words. The results suggest that until these driverless vehicles are able to provide universally comprehensible externally presented information or messages during interaction

  20. KLIFS : a knowledge-based structural database to navigate kinase-ligand interaction space

    van Linden, O.P.J.; Kooistra, A.J.; Leurs, R.; de Esch, I.J.P.; de Graaf, C.

    2013-01-01

    Protein kinases regulate the majority of signal transduction pathways in cells and have become important targets for the development of designer drugs. We present a systematic analysis of kinase-ligand interactions in all regions of the catalytic cleft of all 1252 human kinase-ligand cocrystal

  1. InterCUBE: a study into merging action and interaction spaces

    Salem, B.I.; Peeters, H.; Baranauskas, C.; Palanque, P.

    2007-01-01

    We describe the development of a novel tangible interface we call the InterCUBE, a cube-shaped device with no external buttons or widgets. We study the implications of such a shape in terms of interactions, notably the degrees of freedom available and the manipulations possible. We also explain and

  2. Restructuring High School Math Learning Spaces with Interactive Technology and Transformative Pedagogy

    Lucas, Roland

    2013-01-01

    There are three hypotheses for this research: 1. High school mathematics students in urban public schools, who are provided interactive technology resources during normal course work, will experience a multiplier effect of enhanced learning in mathematics. They will have an increase in positive dispositions indicative of their identity development…

  3. LumaFluid: a responsive environment to stimulate social interaction in public spaces

    Monaci, G.; Gritti, T.; Van Beers, M.; Vermeulen, A.J.W.A.; Nab, B.; Thomassen, I.; Heijboer, M.; Suijkerbuijk, S.; Walmink, W.; Hendriks, M.

    2012-01-01

    LumaFluid is an interactive environment that explores new ways to stimulate emotional and social engagement through immersive light effects. A computer vision system detects and tracks persons present inthe LumaFluid square. Using this location information, colored spotlights highlight each person

  4. Pre-launch simulation experiment of microwave-ionosphere nonlinear interaction rocket experiment in the space plasma chamber

    Kaya, N. (Kobe University, Kobe, Japan); Tsutsui, M. (Kyoto University, Uji, Japan); Matsumoto, H. (Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan)

    1980-09-01

    A pre-flight test experiment of a microwave-ionosphere nonlinear interaction rocket experiment (MINIX) has been carried out in a space plasma simulation chamber. Though the first rocket experiment ended up in failure because of a high voltage trouble, interesting results are observed in the pre-flight experiment. A significant microwave heating of plasma up to 300% temperature increase is observed. Strong excitations of plasma waves by the transmitted microwaves in the VLF and HF range are observed as well. These microwave effects may have to be taken into account in solar power satellite projects in the future.

  5. Interaction between a punch and an arbitrary crack or inclusion in a transversely isotropic half-space

    Fabrikant, I.; Karapetian, E.; Kalinin, S. V.

    2018-02-01

    We consider the problem of an arbitrary shaped rigid punch pressed against the boundary of a transversely isotropic half-space and interacting with an arbitrary flat crack or inclusion, located in the plane parallel to the boundary. The set of governing integral equations is derived for the most general conditions, namely the presence of both normal and tangential stresses under the punch, as well as general loading of the crack faces. In order to verify correctness of the derivations, two different methods were used to obtain governing integral equations: generalized method of images and utilization of the reciprocal theorem. Both methods gave the same results. Axisymmetric coaxial case of interaction between a rigid inclusion and a flat circular punch both centered along the z-axis is considered as an illustrative example. Most of the final results are presented in terms of elementary functions.

  6. GENOTOXICITY OF TOBACCO SMOKE AND TOBACCO SMOKE CONDENSATE: A REVIEW

    Genotoxicity of Tobacco Smoke and Tobacco Smoke Condensate: A ReviewAbstractThis report reviews the literature on the genotoxicity of main-stream tobacco smoke and cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) published since 1985. CSC is genotoxic in nearly all systems in which it h...

  7. Tobacco Control and Tobacco Farming: Separating Myth from Reality

    2014-09-10

    Sep 10, 2014 ... The bulk of the world's tobacco is produced in low- and middle-income countries. In order to dissuade these countries from implementing policies aimed at curbing tobacco consumption (such as increased taxes, health warnings, advertising bans, and smoke-free environments), the tobacco industry claims ...

  8. Tobacco Control and Tobacco Farming: Separating Myth from Reality

    10 sept. 2014 ... The bulk of the world's tobacco is produced in low- and middle-income countries. In order to dissuade these countries from implementing policies aimed at curbing tobacco consumption (such as increased taxes, health warnings, advertising bans, and smoke-free environments), the tobacco industry claims ...

  9. The environmental Impacts of tobaccos

    Shah, J.; Sohail, N.

    2006-01-01

    Tobacco is an important cash crop in Pakistan. It is a sensitive plant, prone to bacterial, fungal and viral diseases. Therefore, high levels of pesticides are used to grow tobacco. Many of these pesticides are highly toxic and have profound impacts not only on the smokers but also on the lives of tobacco farmers, their families and the environment. The environmental impacts of tobacco crop start right from its seedlings stage till throwing away of cigarette filters. These impacts are divided into three stages: (a) Environmental impacts at the tobacco growing stage, (b) Environmental impacts at tobacco manufacturing/processing stage, and (c) Environmental impacts of the tobacco use. This paper provides information of environmental impacts of tobacco crop at all the above-mentioned three stages and recommends measures for mitigation. (author)

  10. A Large-Scale Study of Surrogate Physicality and Gesturing on Human–Surrogate Interactions in a Public Space

    Kangsoo Kim

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Technological human surrogates, including robotic and virtual humans, have been popularly used in various scenarios, including training, education, and entertainment. Prior research has investigated the effects of the surrogate’s physicality and gesturing in human perceptions and social influence of the surrogate. However, those studies have been carried out in research laboratories, where the participants were aware that it was an experiment, and the participant demographics are typically relatively narrow—e.g., college students. In this paper, we describe and share results from a large-scale exploratory user study involving 7,685 people in a public space, where they were unaware of the experimental nature of the setting, to investigate the effects of surrogate physicality and gesturing on their behavior during human–surrogate interactions. We evaluate human behaviors using several variables, such as proactivity and reactivity, and proximity. We have identified several interesting phenomena that could lead to hypotheses developed as part of future hypothesis-based studies. Based on the measurements of the variables, we believe people are more likely to be engaged in a human–surrogate interaction when the surrogate is physically present, but movements and gesturing with its body parts have not shown the expected benefits for the interaction engagement. Regarding the demographics of the people in the study, we found higher overall engagement for females than males, and higher reactivity for younger than older people. We discuss implications for practitioners aiming to design a technological surrogate that will directly interact with real humans.

  11. Quantum-induced interactions in the moduli space of degenerate BPS domain walls

    Alonso-Izquierdo, A.; Guilarte, J. Mateos

    2014-01-01

    In this paper quantum effects are investigated in a very special two-scalar field model having a moduli space of BPS topological defects. In a (1+1)-dimensional space-time the defects are classically degenerate in mass kinks, but in (3+1) dimensions the kinks become BPS domain walls, all of them sharing the same surface tension at the classical level. The heat kernel/zeta function regularization method will be used to control the divergences induced by the quantum kink and domain wall fluctuations. A generalization of the Gilkey-DeWitt-Avramidi heat kernel expansion will be developed in order to accommodate the infrared divergences due to zero modes in the spectra of the second-order kink and domain wall fluctuation operators, which are respectively N=2×N=2 matrix ordinary or partial differential operators. Use of these tools in the spectral zeta function associated with the Hessian operators paves the way to obtain general formulas for the one-loop kink mass and domain wall tension shifts in any (1+1)- or (3+1)-dimensional N-component scalar field theory model. Application of these formulae to the BPS kinks or domain walls of the N=2 model mentioned above reveals the breaking of the classical mass or surface tension degeneracy at the quantum level. Because the main parameter distinguishing each member in the BPS kink or domain wall moduli space is essentially the distance between the centers of two basic kinks or walls, the breaking of the degeneracy amounts to the surge in quantum-induced forces between the two constituent topological defects. The differences in surface tension induced by one-loop fluctuations of BPS walls give rise mainly to attractive forces between the constituent walls except if the two basic walls are very far apart. Repulsive forces between two close walls only arise if the coupling approaches the critical value from below

  12. 27 CFR 40.257 - Processed tobacco.

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Processed tobacco. 40.257 Section 40.257 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND...

  13. Creating and Exploring Huge Parameter Spaces: Interactive Evolution as a Tool for Sound Generation

    Dahlstedt, Palle

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, a program is presented that applies interactive evolution to sound generation, i.e., preferred individuals are repeatedly selected from a population of genetically bred sound objects, created with various synthesis and pattern generation algorithms. This simplifies aural exploration...... applications. It is also shown how this technique can be used to simplify sound design in standard hardware synthesizers, a task normally avoided by most musicians, due to the required amount of technical understanding....

  14. Detecting Genetic Interactions for Quantitative Traits Using m-Spacing Entropy Measure

    Jaeyong Yee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of statistical methods for detecting gene-gene interactions have been developed in genetic association studies with binary traits. However, many phenotype measures are intrinsically quantitative and categorizing continuous traits may not always be straightforward and meaningful. Association of gene-gene interactions with an observed distribution of such phenotypes needs to be investigated directly without categorization. Information gain based on entropy measure has previously been successful in identifying genetic associations with binary traits. We extend the usefulness of this information gain by proposing a nonparametric evaluation method of conditional entropy of a quantitative phenotype associated with a given genotype. Hence, the information gain can be obtained for any phenotype distribution. Because any functional form, such as Gaussian, is not assumed for the entire distribution of a trait or a given genotype, this method is expected to be robust enough to be applied to any phenotypic association data. Here, we show its use to successfully identify the main effect, as well as the genetic interactions, associated with a quantitative trait.

  15. Linked-cluster formulation of electron-hole interaction kernel in real-space representation without using unoccupied states.

    Bayne, Michael G; Scher, Jeremy A; Ellis, Benjamin H; Chakraborty, Arindam

    2018-05-21

    Electron-hole or quasiparticle representation plays a central role in describing electronic excitations in many-electron systems. For charge-neutral excitation, the electron-hole interaction kernel is the quantity of interest for calculating important excitation properties such as optical gap, optical spectra, electron-hole recombination and electron-hole binding energies. The electron-hole interaction kernel can be formally derived from the density-density correlation function using both Green's function and TDDFT formalism. The accurate determination of the electron-hole interaction kernel remains a significant challenge for precise calculations of optical properties in the GW+BSE formalism. From the TDDFT perspective, the electron-hole interaction kernel has been viewed as a path to systematic development of frequency-dependent exchange-correlation functionals. Traditional approaches, such as MBPT formalism, use unoccupied states (which are defined with respect to Fermi vacuum) to construct the electron-hole interaction kernel. However, the inclusion of unoccupied states has long been recognized as the leading computational bottleneck that limits the application of this approach for larger finite systems. In this work, an alternative derivation that avoids using unoccupied states to construct the electron-hole interaction kernel is presented. The central idea of this approach is to use explicitly correlated geminal functions for treating electron-electron correlation for both ground and excited state wave functions. Using this ansatz, it is derived using both diagrammatic and algebraic techniques that the electron-hole interaction kernel can be expressed only in terms of linked closed-loop diagrams. It is proved that the cancellation of unlinked diagrams is a consequence of linked-cluster theorem in real-space representation. The electron-hole interaction kernel derived in this work was used to calculate excitation energies in many-electron systems and results

  16. Polonium-210 in tobacco

    Harley, N.H.; Cohen, B.S.; Tso, T.C.

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to present the measurements that have been made on tobacco and tobacco products and to indicate the studies that show the amount of 210 Po transferred to mainstream smoke and inhaled. The amounts reported to be in the lung are summarized. The authors have shown what average values might be expected in the lung due to normal deposition and clearance of the smoke aerosol and to compare these values with the measurements. The average dose to cells in the bronchial epithelium was estimated for the activities reported to be on the bronchial surface, and a comparison of this dose with a known tumorigenic alpha dose was made

  17. CRITIC2: A program for real-space analysis of quantum chemical interactions in solids

    Otero-de-la-Roza, A.; Johnson, Erin R.; Luaña, Víctor

    2014-03-01

    We present CRITIC2, a program for the analysis of quantum-mechanical atomic and molecular interactions in periodic solids. This code, a greatly improved version of the previous CRITIC program (Otero-de-la Roza et al., 2009), can: (i) find critical points of the electron density and related scalar fields such as the electron localization function (ELF), Laplacian, … (ii) integrate atomic properties in the framework of Bader’s Atoms-in-Molecules theory (QTAIM), (iii) visualize non-covalent interactions in crystals using the non-covalent interactions (NCI) index, (iv) generate relevant graphical representations including lines, planes, gradient paths, contour plots, atomic basins, … and (v) perform transformations between file formats describing scalar fields and crystal structures. CRITIC2 can interface with the output produced by a variety of electronic structure programs including WIEN2k, elk, PI, abinit, Quantum ESPRESSO, VASP, Gaussian, and, in general, any other code capable of writing the scalar field under study to a three-dimensional grid. CRITIC2 is parallelized, completely documented (including illustrative test cases) and publicly available under the GNU General Public License. Catalogue identifier: AECB_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AECB_v2_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: yes No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 11686949 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 337020731 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 77 and 90. Computer: Workstations. Operating system: Unix, GNU/Linux. Has the code been vectorized or parallelized?: Shared-memory parallelization can be used for most tasks. Classification: 7.3. Catalogue identifier of previous version: AECB_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 180 (2009) 157 Nature of problem: Analysis of quantum

  18. Quantum mechanical systems interacting with different polarizations of gravitational waves in noncommutative phase space

    Saha, Anirban; Gangopadhyay, Sunandan; Saha, Swarup

    2018-02-01

    Owing to the extreme smallness of any noncommutative scale that may exist in nature, both in the spatial and momentum sector of the quantum phase space, a credible possibility of their detection lies in the gravitational wave (GW) detection scenario, where one effectively probes the relative length-scale variations ˜O [10-20-10-23] . With this motivation, we have theoretically constructed how a free particle and a harmonic oscillator will respond to linearly and circularly polarized gravitational waves if their quantum mechanical phase space has a noncommutative structure. We critically analyze the formal solutions which show resonance behavior in the responses of both free particle and HO systems to GW with both kind of polarizations. We discuss the possible implications of these solutions in detecting noncommutativity in a GW detection experiment. We use the currently available upper-bound estimates on various noncommutative parameters to anticipate the relative importance of various terms in the solutions. We also argue how the quantum harmonic oscillator system we considered here can be very relevant in the context of the resonant bar detectors of GW which are already operational.

  19. Systems Analysis of Interaction between Russia and the European Union in the Post-Soviet Space

    Dmitry Vasfilov

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes post-Soviet relations between Russia and the European Union using the theoretical framework of neoclassical realism. It finds that the post-Soviet level of competition between Russia and the EU is higher than required by the international system. The reason is rooted in the influence of a number of internal factors (or intervening variables. Consequently, elites in both Russia and the EU are not able to adequately understand the signals sent by the international system. There is a wide variety of intervening variables; for example, there are factors caused by the political elites’ perceptions of each other’s intentions and of the international situation, factors related to inadequate information, factors related to the complex institutional structure of the EU and factors related to domestic political issues. In addition, the current international environment, characterized by a high degree of uncertainty, increases the effects of these intervening variables. These effects result in inaccurate and incorrect processing of the signals of the international system by Russian and European elites. As a result, a subsystem of international relations has arisen in the post-Soviet space, featuring a highly competitive environment. However, there are only two major actors in the region: Russia and the EU. Small countries are too weak, so must choose to align themselves with either Russia or the Euone or the other. This causes a rivalry between Russia and the EU for influence on small and medium-sized countries in the post-Soviet space.

  20. Impact evaluation of green-grey infrastructure interaction on built-space integrity: an emerging perspective to urban ecosystem service.

    Tiwary, Abhishek; Kumar, Prashant

    2014-07-15

    This paper evaluates the role of urban green infrastructure (GI) in maintaining integrity of built-space. The latter is considered as a lateral ecosystem function, worth including in future assessments of integrated ecosystem services. The basic tenet is that integrated green-grey infrastructures (GGIs) would have three influences on built-spaces: (i) reduced wind withering from flow deviation; (ii) reduced material corrosion/degeneration from pollution removal; and (iii) act as a biophysical buffer in altering the micro-climate. A case study is presented, combining the features of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in micro-environmental modelling with the emerging science on interactions of GGIs. The coupled seasonal dynamics of the above three effects are assessed for two building materials (limestone and steel) using the following three scenarios: (i) business as usual (BAU), (ii) summer (REGEN-S), and (iii) winter (REGEN-W). Apparently, integrated ecosystem service from green-grey interaction, as scoped in this paper, has strong seasonal dependence. Compared to BAU our results suggest that REGEN-S leads to slight increment in limestone recession (<10%), mainly from exacerbation in ozone damage, while large reduction in steel recession (up to 37%) is observed. The selection of vegetation species, especially their bVOC emission potential and seasonal foliage profile, appears to play a vital role in determining the impact GI has on the integrity of the neighbouring built-up environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Tobacco Use among Sexual Minorities

    Bryant, Lawrence O.; Bowman, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    This chapter addresses tobacco use among sexual minorities. It examines research on the prevalence of tobacco use in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community and discusses why tobacco use within this group continues to significantly exceed that of the general population.

  2. 27 CFR 41.30 - Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates.

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates. 41.30 Section 41.30 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS...

  3. How Deep Is Your SNARC? Interactions Between Numerical Magnitude, Response Hands, and Reachability in Peripersonal Space

    Johannes Lohmann

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Spatial, physical, and semantic magnitude dimensions can influence action decisions in human cognitive processing and interact with each other. For example, in the spatial-numerical associations of response code (SNARC effect, semantic numerical magnitude facilitates left-hand or right-hand responding dependent on the small or large magnitude of number symbols. SNARC-like interactions of numerical magnitudes with the radial spatial dimension (depth were postulated from early on. Usually, the SNARC effect in any direction is investigated using fronto-parallel computer monitors for presentation of stimuli. In such 2D setups, however, the metaphorical and literal interpretation of the radial depth axis with seemingly close/far stimuli or responses are not distinct. Hence, it is difficult to draw clear conclusions with respect to the contribution of different spatial mappings to the SNARC effect. In order to disentangle the different mappings in a natural way, we studied parametrical interactions between semantic numerical magnitude, horizontal directional responses, and perceptual distance by means of stereoscopic depth in an immersive virtual reality (VR. Two VR experiments show horizontal SNARC effects across all spatial displacements in traditional latency measures and kinematic response parameters. No indications of a SNARC effect along the depth axis, as it would be predicted by a direct mapping account, were observed, but the results show a non-linear relationship between horizontal SNARC slopes and physical distance. Steepest SNARC slopes were observed for digits presented close to the hands. We conclude that spatial-numerical processing is susceptible to effector-based processes but relatively resilient to task-irrelevant variations of radial-spatial magnitudes.

  4. How Deep Is Your SNARC? Interactions Between Numerical Magnitude, Response Hands, and Reachability in Peripersonal Space.

    Lohmann, Johannes; Schroeder, Philipp A; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph; Plewnia, Christian; Butz, Martin V

    2018-01-01

    Spatial, physical, and semantic magnitude dimensions can influence action decisions in human cognitive processing and interact with each other. For example, in the spatial-numerical associations of response code (SNARC) effect, semantic numerical magnitude facilitates left-hand or right-hand responding dependent on the small or large magnitude of number symbols. SNARC-like interactions of numerical magnitudes with the radial spatial dimension (depth) were postulated from early on. Usually, the SNARC effect in any direction is investigated using fronto-parallel computer monitors for presentation of stimuli. In such 2D setups, however, the metaphorical and literal interpretation of the radial depth axis with seemingly close/far stimuli or responses are not distinct. Hence, it is difficult to draw clear conclusions with respect to the contribution of different spatial mappings to the SNARC effect. In order to disentangle the different mappings in a natural way, we studied parametrical interactions between semantic numerical magnitude, horizontal directional responses, and perceptual distance by means of stereoscopic depth in an immersive virtual reality (VR). Two VR experiments show horizontal SNARC effects across all spatial displacements in traditional latency measures and kinematic response parameters. No indications of a SNARC effect along the depth axis, as it would be predicted by a direct mapping account, were observed, but the results show a non-linear relationship between horizontal SNARC slopes and physical distance. Steepest SNARC slopes were observed for digits presented close to the hands. We conclude that spatial-numerical processing is susceptible to effector-based processes but relatively resilient to task-irrelevant variations of radial-spatial magnitudes.

  5. Harmonic Interaction Analysis in Grid-connected Converter using Harmonic State Space (HSS) Modeling

    Kwon, Jun Bum; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    research about the harmonic interaction. However, it is found that the Linear Time Invariant (LTI) based model analysis makes it difficult to analyze these phenomena because of the time-varying properties of the power electronic based systems. This paper investigates grid-connected converter by using......An increasing number of power electronic based Distributed Generation (DG) systems and loads generate not only characteristic harmonics but also unexpected harmonics. Several methods like impedance based analysis, which are derived from the conventional average model, are introduced to perform...

  6. On the non-local obstruction to interacting higher spins in flat space

    Taronna, Massimo [Physique Théorique et Mathématique,Université Libre de Bruxelles and International Solvay Institutes,ULB-Campus Plaine CP231, 1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2017-05-04

    Owing to a renewed interest in flat space higher spin gauge theories, in this note we provide further details and clarifications on the results presented in arXiv:1107.5843 and arXiv: 1209.5755, which investigated their locality properties. Focusing, for simplicity, on quartic couplings with one of the external legs having non-zero integer spin (which can be considered as a prototype for Weinberg-type arguments), we review the appearance of 1/◻ non-localities. In particular, we emphasise that it appears to be not possible to eliminate all of the aforementioned non-localities in the general quartic Noether procedure solution with a judicious choice of coupling constants and spectrum. We also discuss the light-cone gauge fixing in d=4, and argue that the non-local obstruction discussed in the covariant language cannot be avoided using light-cone gauge formalism.

  7. Harmonic Interaction Analysis in Grid Connected Converter using Harmonic State Space (HSS) Modeling

    Kwon, Jun Bum; Wang, Xiongfei; Bak, Claus Leth

    2015-01-01

    -model, are introduced to analyze these problems. However, it is found that Linear Time Invariant (LTI) base model analysis makes it difficult to analyze these phenomenon because of time varying system operation trajectories, varying output impedance seen by grid connected systems and neglected switching component......An increasing number of power electronics based Distributed Generation (DG) systems and loads generate coupled harmonic as well as non-characteristic harmonic with each other. Several methods like impedance based analysis, which is derived from conventional small signal- and average...... during the modeling process. This paper investigates grid connected converter by means of Harmonic State Space (HSS) small signal model, which is modeled from Linear Time varying Periodically (LTP) system. Further, a grid connected converter harmonic matrix is investigated to analyze the harmonic...

  8. Tobacco and Marijuana Initiation Among African American and White Young Adults.

    Kennedy, Sara M; Patel, Roshni P; Cheh, Paul; Hsia, Jason; Rolle, Italia V

    2016-04-01

    African American youth use marijuana at similar rates and tobacco at lower rates compared with white youth; however, in adulthood, tobacco use is similar. Tobacco and marijuana use are closely associated; differing initiation patterns may contribute to observed racial differences in tobacco prevalence by age. Therefore, it is important to assess tobacco and marijuana initiation patterns by race. Data were obtained from 56,555 adults aged 18-25 who completed the 2005-2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. The analysis was restricted to those who reported ever use of marijuana and combustible tobacco (cigarettes and/or cigars). Three mutually exclusive categories of initiation patterns were evaluated: use of marijuana before tobacco; marijuana and tobacco at the same age; and tobacco before marijuana. Multivariable regression models were used to assess changes over time and compare these outcomes by race while controlling for sociodemographics, risk perceptions, and current substance use. In 2005, 26.6% of African American and 14.3% of white young adults used marijuana before tobacco, compared with 41.5% of African American and 24.0% of white young adults in 2012 (P young adults had greater odds of using marijuana before tobacco (AOR = 1.79; 95% CI: 1.67, 1.91) compared with whites. African American young adults were more likely than whites to use marijuana before tobacco and both groups were increasingly likely to use marijuana before tobacco over time. A greater understanding of how marijuana initiation interacts with tobacco initiation could inform more effective tobacco and marijuana use prevention efforts. Among ever users of combustible tobacco and marijuana, greater proportions of African American young adults used marijuana before tobacco or at the same age than their white counterparts. Moreover, both African Americans and whites were more likely to use marijuana before tobacco in 2012 compared with 2005. Tobacco control policy may benefit from a

  9. Remote operations and interactions for systems of arbitrary-dimensional Hilbert space: State-operator approach

    Reznik, Benni; Groisman, Berry; Aharonov, Yakir

    2002-01-01

    We present a systematic simple method for constructing deterministic remote operations on single and multiple systems of arbitrary discrete dimensionality. These operations include remote rotations, remote interactions, and measurements. The resources needed for an operation on a two-level system are one ebit and a bidirectional communication of two cbits, and for an n-level system, a pair of entangled n-level particles and two classical 'nits'. In the latter case, there are n-1 possible distinct operations per n-level entangled pair. Similar results apply for generating interaction between a pair of remote systems, while for remote measurements only one-directional classical communication is needed. We further consider remote operations on N spatially distributed systems, and show that the number of possible distinct operations increases here exponentially, with the available number of entangled pairs that are initially distributed between the systems. Our results follow from the properties of a hybrid state-operator object (stator), which describes quantum correlations between states and operations

  10. Price and consumption of tobacco

    Virendra Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is thought that price increase in tobacco products leads to reduced consumption. Though many studies have substantiated this concept, it has not been well studied in India. Recently, price of tobacco products was increased due to ban on plastic sachets of chewing tobacco and increased tax in Rajasthan. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of price rise on overall consumption of tobacco in Jaipur city, Rajasthan. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in Jaipur city. Two-staged stratified sampling was used. In the first phase of study, cost and consumption of various tobacco products in the months of February and April were enquired from 25 retail tobacco shops. In the second phase, tobacco consumption was enquired from 20 consecutive consumers purchasing any tobacco product from all the above retail tobacco shops. The data were statistically analyzed using descriptive statistics and paired "t" test. Results: The comparison of prices of tobacco products between February and April revealed that the price of cigarette, bidi, and chewing tobacco has increased by 19%, 21%, and 68%, respectively. Average decrease in sales of cigarettes, bidi, and chewing tobacco at shops included in the study were 14%, 23%, and 38%, respectively. The consumers purchasing tobacco also reported decreased consumption. Chewing tobacco showed the maximum reduction (21%. Consumption of cigarette and bidi has also reduced by 15% and 13%, respectively. Conclusion: It may be concluded that reduction in consumption is associated with increased price of tobacco products. Reduced consumption is comparative to the magnitude of price increase.

  11. Tobacco ringspot virus

    Tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV), and its vector, the dagger nematodes (Xiphinema americanum and related species) are widely distributed throughout the world. Cucumber, melon, and watermelon are particularly affected by TRSV. Symptoms can vary with plant age, the strain of the virus, and environment...

  12. NO TOBACCO DAY

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    The CERN Medical Service is joining in with the world no tobacco day, which takes place on 31 May 2002. We encourage you to take this opportunity to stop smoking for good. Nurses and Doctors will be present on that day to give out information on methods to stop smoking and to assist you in your efforts.

  13. NEONATAL TOBACCO SYNDROME

    R.A.Kireev

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research is to study neonatal adaptation in new-born children from the tobacco abused mothers. A comparative analysis of clinical and neuroendochnal status and lipid metabolism in new-born children from smoking and non-smoking mothers was carried out Neonatal adaptation disorders were revealed in new-born children from the smoking mothers.

  14. FUELS IN TOBACCO PRODUCTION

    M. Čavlek

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Energy production from biomass can reduce „greenhouse effect” and contribute to solving energy security especially in the agricultural households which rely on energy from fossil fuels. In Croatia fuel-cured tobacco is produced on about 5000 ha. Gross income for the whole production is about 180 000 000 kn/year. Flue-cured tobacco is a high energy consuming crop. There are two parts of energy consumption, for mechanization used for the field production (11% and, energy for bulk-curing (89%. In each case, presently used fuels of fossil origin need to be substituted by an alternative energy source of organic origin. Hereafter attention is paid to finding a more economic and ecologically acceptable fuel for curing tobacco. Curing flue-cured tobacco is done by heated air in curing burns. Various sources of heat have been used; wood, coal, oil and gas. In each case different burning facilities of different efficiency have been used. This has had an impact on curing costs and ecology. Recently, mostly used fuel has been natural gas. However, gas is getting expensive. Consequently, an alternative fuel for curing tobacco is sought for. According to literature, agricultural crops suitable for the latter purpose could be wheat, barley, maize, sorghum, sugar beet and some other annual and perennial plant species. Wooden pellets (by-products are suitable for combustion too. Ligno-cellulose fuels have been used for heating since long time. However, not sufficient research has been done from an applied point of view (Venturi and Venturi, 2003. Fuel combustion is getting more efficient with developing technological innovations. The curing barn manufacturers are offering technology for combusting wooden pellets (by-products for curing tobacco. The pellets are available on domestic market. The same technology can be used for combustion of maize grain. Within “Hrvatski duhani” research on suitability of using wooden pellets and maize grain and whole

  15. Factors Associated with Tobacco Use in Students Attending Local Government Schools in Mumbai, India

    Chatterjee, Nilesh; Todankar, Priyamvada; Mandal, Gauri; Gupte, Himanshu; Thawal, Vaibhav; Bhutia, Tshering; Choudhuri, Leni

    2016-12-01

    Purpose: Factors associated with ever-use and differences between ever-users and non-users of tobacco among adolescent school students from low income families in Mumbai were assessed. Materials and Methods: A self-administered questionnaire, completed by 1918 students from grades 7, 8 and 9 in 12 schools managed by the city municipal corporation in July 2015, gathered data on socio-demographic characteristics, tobacco use and tobacco-related knowledge, attitudes and beliefs. Results: Although only 1% of respondents thought tobacco was cool, nearly 35% were unaware of associations between tobacco use and health problems. Male students were almost twice as likely (OR=2.5, P <= 0.05) to have ever used tobacco compared to females and Supari (areca nut) users were eight times more likely (OR=8.99, P < 0.001) than Supari non -users. Tobacco-users were more likely to agree with statements: ‘People who use tobacco have more friends’ (OR=2.8, P = 0.004), ‘Smoking relieves stress’ (OR=5.6, P = 0.002) and ‘It is possible to purchase any tobacco product within 100 yards of school’ (OR=10.8, P < 0.001). Conclusion: This study highlights the gains made by tobacco prevention campaigns in that almost all students did not consider tobacco as cool or a stress reliever. However, they still need education about health consequences of tobacco-use. In addition, Supari use has to be addressed in school-based tobacco prevention and cessation initiatives. Furthermore, programs must also address perceptions and norms related to peers and tobacco use and ensure active implementation of existing laws. Such integrated measures will help ensure tobacco-free spaces around schools. Creative Commons Attribution License

  16. Environmental health organisations against tobacco.

    Mulcahy, Maurice

    2009-04-01

    Implementing the World Health Organisation (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) relies heavily on enforcement. Little is known of the way different enforcement agencies operate, prioritise or network. A questionnaire was sent to representatives of the International Federation of Environmental Health (IFEH) in 36 countries. Tobacco control was given low priority. Almost two thirds did not have any tobacco control policy. A third reported their organisation had worked with other agencies on tobacco control. Obstacles to addressing tobacco control included a lack of resources (61%) and absence of a coherent strategy (39%).

  17. The empirical form of the effective nucleon-nucleon interaction in a model space with correlated J = O pairs

    Akkermans, J.N.L.; Allaart, K.

    1982-01-01

    Like in earlier work by Schiffer et al. the effective interaction is derived from experimental two-body multiplets. However, now the assumption is that a multiplet state is formed by two unpaired fermions relative to a core of correlated J = 0 pairs. Then the need for two ranges, as proposed Schiffer, disappears for the force between identical nucleons in a model space which is large enough to include pairing correlations. A form with a single attractive medium range is preferred for the identical nucleon interaction in order to reproduce collective 2 + states in even-even nuclei. In contrast, the proton-neutron force requires a very short range or two ranges to reproduce the empirical values of multipole coefficients, observed in odd-odd nuclei. Therefore we discuss the fact that the effective interaction is not always isospin invariant. As a typical case broken-pair calculations in the N = 50 region are considered. But the conclusions drawn, will also apply to other regions of the periodic table. (orig.)

  18. Projected interaction picture of field operators and memory superoperators. A master equation for the single-particle Green's function in a Liouville space

    Grinberg, H.

    1983-11-01

    The projection operator method of Zwanzig and Feshbach is used to construct the time-dependent field operators in the interaction picture. The formula developed to describe the time dependence involves time-ordered cosine and sine projected evolution (memory) superoperators, from which a master equation for the interaction-picture single-particle Green's function in a Liouville space is derived. (author)

  19. Where Are the Academic Jobs? Interactive Exploration of Job Advertisements in Geospatial and Topical Space

    Zoss, Angela M.; Conover, Michael; Börner, Katy

    This paper details a methodology for capturing, analyzing, and communicating one specific type of real time data: advertisements of currently available academic jobs. The work was inspired by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) [2] that provides approximately 100 billion for education, creating a historic opportunity to create and save hundreds of thousands of jobs. Here, we discuss methodological challenges and practical problems when developing interactive visual interfaces to real time data streams such as job advertisements. Related work is discussed, preliminary solutions are presented, and future work is outlined. The presented approach should be valuable to deal with the enormous volume and complexity of social and behavioral data that evolve continuously in real time, and analyses of them need to be communicated to a broad audience of researchers, practitioners, clients, educators, and interested policymakers, as originally suggested by Hemmings and Wilkinson [1].

  20. Evaluation of possible interaction among drugs contemplated for use during manned space flights

    1973-01-01

    Possible interactions among drugs contemplated for use during manned spaceflights have been studied in several animal species. The following seven drugs were investigated: nitrofurantoin, chloral hydrate, hexobarbital, phenobarbital, flurazepam, diphenoxylate, and phenazopyridine. Particular combinations included: chloral hydrate, hexabarbital or flurazepam with nitrofurantoin; phenobarbital or flurazepam with phenazopyridine; and diphenoxylate with two does formulations of nitrofurantoin. Studies were carried out in several species to determine whether induction of liver microsomal enzymes would increase the tendency of phenazopyridine to produce methemoglobin in vivo. Animals were premedicated with phenobarbital, a known inducer of azoreductase, and in a separate experiment with flurazepam, before administration of phenazopyridine. Methemoglobin production was determined in each animal after receiving phenazopyridine. No evidence was found for increased production of methemoglobin in the rat, dog, or rabbit that could be attributed to increased amounts of microsomal enzymes.

  1. Finite element formulation for fluid-structure interaction in three-dimensional space

    Kulak, R.F.

    1979-01-01

    A development is presented for a three-dimension hexahedral hydrodynamic finite-element. Using trilinear shape functions and assuming a constant pressure field in each element, simple relations were obtained for internal nodal forces. Because the formulation was based upon a rate approach it was applicable to problems involving large displacements. This element was incorporated into an existing plate-shell finite element code. Diagonal mass matrices were used and the resulting discrete equations of motion were solved using explicit temporal integrator. Results for several problems were presented which compare numerical predictions to closed form analytical solutions. In addition, the fluid-structure interaction problem of a fluid-filled, cylindrical vessel containing internal cylinders was studied. The internal cylinders were cantilever supported from the top cover of the vessel and were periodically located circumferentially at a fixed radius. A pressurized cylindrical cavity located at the bottom of the vessel at its centerline provided the loading

  2. Interactive spatial multimedia for communication of art in the physical museum space

    Kortbek, Karen Johanne; Grønbæk, Kaj

    2008-01-01

    of the artworks we apply three spatial multimedia techniques where the only interaction device needed is the human body. The three techniques are: 1) spatially bounded audio; 2) floor-based multimedia; 3) multimedia interior. The paper describes the application of these techniques for communication of information...... without disturbing the art works. This has usually been limited to individual audio guides. In our case we strive to achieve holistic and social experiences with seamless transitions between art experience and communication related to the artworks. To reach a holistic experience with minimal disturbance...... in a Mariko Mori exhibition. The multimedia installations and their implementation are described. It is argued that the utilization of the spatial multimedia techniques support holistic and social art experience. The multimedia installations were in function for a three and a half month exhibition period...

  3. Teleducation : Linking Continents Across Time and Space Through Live, Real-Time Interactive Classes

    Macko, S. A.; Szuba, T.; Swap, R.; Annegarn, H.; Marjanovic, B.; Vieira, F.; Brito, R.

    2005-12-01

    International education is a natural extension of global economies, global environmental concerns, and global science. While faculty and student exchanges between geographic areas permit for educational experiences and cultural exchanges for the privileged few, distance learning offers opportunities for educational exchanges under any circumstance where time, expense, or location otherwise inhibit offering or taking a particular course of study. However, there are severe pedagogical limitations to traditional Web-based courses that suffer from a lack of personalized, spontaneous exchange between instructor and student. The technology to establish a real time, interactive teleducation program exists, but to our knowledge is relatively untested in a science classroom situation, especially internationally over great distances. In a project to evaluate this type of linkage, we offered a real-time, interactive class at three separate universities, which communicated instantaneously across an ocean at a distance of greater than 8,000 miles and seven time zones. The course, 'Seminar on the Ecology of African Savannas', consisted of a series of 11 lectures originating in either Mozambique (University of Eduardo Mondlane), South Africa (University of the Witwatersrand) or the United States (University of Virginia). We combined ISDN, internet and satellite linkages to facilitate the lectures and real time discussions between instructors and approximately 200 university students in the three countries. Although numerous technical, logistical, and pedagogical issues - both expected and unexpected - arose throughout the pilot year, the project can be viewed as overwhelmingly successful and certainly serves as proof-of-concept for future initiatives, both internationally and locally. This review of our experience will help to prepare other students, faculty, and institutions interested in establishing or developing international education initiatives

  4. ISS and Space Environment Interactions in Event of Plasma Contactor Failure

    Carruth, M. R., Jr.; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS), illustrated in Figure 1, will be the largest, highest power spacecraft placed in orbit. Because of this the design of the electrical power system diverged markedly from previous systems. The solar arrays will operate at 160 V and the power distribution voltage will be 120 V. The structure is grounded to the negative side of the solar arrays so under the right circumstances it is possible to drive the ISS potential very negative. A plasma contactor has been added to the ISS to provide control of the ISS structure potential relative to the ambient plasma. The ISS requirement is that the ISS structure not be greater than 40 V positive or negative of local plasma. What are the ramifications of operating large structures with such high voltage power systems? The application of a plasma contactor on ISS controls the potential between the structure and the local plasma, preventing degrading effects. It is conceivable that there can be situations where the plasma contactor might be non-functional. This might be due to lack of power, the need to turn it off during some of the build-up sequences, the loss of functionality for both plasma contactors before a replacement can be installed, and similar circumstances. A study was undertaken to understand how important it is to have the contactor functioning and how long it might be off before unacceptable degradation to ISS could occur.

  5. Gender differences in tobacco use.

    Grunberg, N E; Winders, S E; Wewers, M E

    1991-01-01

    Gender differences in overall tobacco use clearly exist. In general, men are more likely to use tobacco products than are women. However, this simple generalization, ignoring type of tobacco products, time, and culture, masks many more interesting gender differences in tobacco use. There are pronounced gender differences in tobacco use of specific tobacco products within some cultures but not others. Yet these differences have changed across time, including narrowing and widening of this gender gap, depending on culture and tobacco product. This article addresses these issues and presents possible psychosocial, biological, and psychobiological explanations for these phenomena. In addition, the implications of these differences and ways to learn more about these important differences are discussed.

  6. Tobacco advertising in retail stores.

    Cummings, K M; Sciandra, R; Lawrence, J

    1991-01-01

    Recent studies have described tobacco advertising in the print media, on billboards, and through sponsorship of cultural and sporting events. However, little attention has been given to another common and unavoidable source of tobacco advertising, that which is encountered in retail stores. In July 1987, we conducted a survey of 61 packaged goods retail stores in Buffalo, NY, to assess the prevalence and type of point-of-sale tobacco advertising. In addition, store owners or managers were surveyed to determine their store's policy regarding tobacco advertising, receipt of monetary incentives from distributors for displaying tobacco ads, and willingness to display antitobacco ads. Six types of stores were involved in the study: 10 supermarkets, 10 privately owned grocery stores, 9 chain convenience food stores that do not sell gasoline, 11 chain convenience food stores that sell gasoline, 11 chain pharmacies, and 10 private pharmacies. Two-thirds of the stores displayed tobacco posters, and 87 percent had promotional items advertising tobacco products, primarily cigarettes. Larger stores, and those that were privately owned, tended to display more posters and promotional items. Eighty percent of tobacco product displays were for cigarettes, 16 percent for smokeless tobacco products, and 4 percent for cigars and pipe tobacco. Convenience stores selling gasoline had the most separate tobacco product displays. Of tobacco product displays, 24 percent were located adjacent to candy and snack displays. Twenty-nine of the 61 store owners or managers indicated that their store had a policy regulating the display of tobacco ads and tobacco product displays.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1910192

  7. Seeing from Space: What Icebergs Can Tell Us About Ice-ocean Interactions

    Scheick, J.; Enderlin, E. M.; Hamilton, G. S.

    2017-12-01

    Icebergs are an important component of the ice-ocean system, yet until recently they have remained the focus of relatively few studies. Icebergs are an important distributed freshwater and nutrient source and can pose significant hazards for navigation and infrastructure, warranting further study. Importantly, icebergs are also easily observable en masse using satellite imagery and other remote sensing platforms, allowing for the collection of large datasets from already existing archives. Here we present some of the many ways that remotely sensed icebergs can be used to inform our understanding of ice-ocean interactions, as well as some of the limitations of these methods and what information is still needed. We will explore the size and spatial distribution of icebergs through time and what that can tell us about the calving behavior of the parent glacier and/or ocean-driven melting below the waterline. We will also explore the use of icebergs as depth finders and drifters to infer bathymetry and components of fjord circulation, respectively.

  8. Tensor representation techniques for full configuration interaction: A Fock space approach using the canonical product format.

    Böhm, Karl-Heinz; Auer, Alexander A; Espig, Mike

    2016-06-28

    In this proof-of-principle study, we apply tensor decomposition techniques to the Full Configuration Interaction (FCI) wavefunction in order to approximate the wavefunction parameters efficiently and to reduce the overall computational effort. For this purpose, the wavefunction ansatz is formulated in an occupation number vector representation that ensures antisymmetry. If the canonical product format tensor decomposition is then applied, the Hamiltonian and the wavefunction can be cast into a multilinear product form. As a consequence, the number of wavefunction parameters does not scale to the power of the number of particles (or orbitals) but depends on the rank of the approximation and linearly on the number of particles. The degree of approximation can be controlled by a single threshold for the rank reduction procedure required in the algorithm. We demonstrate that using this approximation, the FCI Hamiltonian matrix can be stored with N(5) scaling. The error of the approximation that is introduced is below Millihartree for a threshold of ϵ = 10(-4) and no convergence problems are observed solving the FCI equations iteratively in the new format. While promising conceptually, all effort of the algorithm is shifted to the required rank reduction procedure after the contraction of the Hamiltonian with the coefficient tensor. At the current state, this crucial step is the bottleneck of our approach and even for an optimistic estimate, the algorithm scales beyond N(10) and future work has to be directed towards reduction-free algorithms.

  9. Tobacco industry strategies for influencing European Community tobacco advertising legislation.

    Neuman, Mark; Bitton, Asaf; Glantz, Stanton

    2002-04-13

    Restrictions on tobacco company advertising and sponsorship are effective parts of tobacco control programmes worldwide. Through Council Directive 98/43/EC, the European Community (EC) sought to end all tobacco advertising and sponsorship in EC member states by 2006. Initially proposed in 1989, the directive was adopted in 1998, and was annulled by the European Court of Justice in 2000 following a protracted lobbying campaign against the directive by a number of interested organisations including European tobacco companies. A new advertising directive was proposed in May, 2001. We reviewed online collections of tobacco industry documents from US tobacco companies made public under the US Master Settlement Agreement of 1998. Documents reviewed dated from 1978 to 1994 and came from Philip Morris, R J Reynolds, and Brown and Williamson (British American Tobacco) collections. We also obtained approximately 15,000 pages of paper records related to British American Tobacco from its documents' depository in Guildford, UK. This information was supplemented with information in the published literature and consultations with European tobacco control experts. The tobacco industry lobbied against Directive 98/43/EC at the level of EC member state governments as well as on a pan-European level. The industry sought to prevent passage of the directive within the EC legislature, to substitute industry-authored proposals in place of the original directive, and if necessary to use litigation to prevent implementation of the directive after its passage. The tobacco industry sought to delay, and eventually defeat, the EC directive on tobacco advertising and sponsorship by seeking to enlist the aid of figures at the highest levels of European politics while at times attempting to conceal the industry's role. An understanding of these proposed strategies can help European health advocates to pass and implement effective future tobacco control legislation.

  10. Family physicians and youth tobacco-free education: outcomes of the Colorado Tar Wars program.

    Cain, Jeffrey J; Dickinson, W Perry; Fernald, Douglas; Bublitz, Caroline; Dickinson, L Miriam; West, David

    2006-01-01

    Tar Wars is a national school-based tobacco-free education program operated by the American Academy of Family Physicians. The Tar Wars lesson uses an interactive 45-min session taught by volunteer family physicians in 4th- and 5th-grade classrooms and focuses on the short-term image-based consequences of tobacco use. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of the Tar Wars program in Colorado with both quantitative and qualitative measures. Students participating in the quantitative evaluation were tested before and after a Tar Wars teaching session using a 14-question test covering the short-term and image-based consequences of tobacco use, cost of smoking, tobacco advertising, and social norms of tobacco use. Qualitative evaluation of the program included guided telephone interviews and focus groups with participating students, teachers, and presenters. Quantitative evaluation showed statistically significant improvement in correct responses for the 14 questions measured with an average increase in correct responses from 8.95 to 10.23. Three areas recommended by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) for youth tobacco prevention showed greater change in correct responses, including cost of smoking, truth of tobacco advertising, and peer norms of tobacco use. Qualitative evaluation found that the overall message of the session was well received, that previously known tobacco information was reinforced by its presentation in a novel format, and that new information learned included cost of smoking, truth of tobacco advertising, and peer norms of tobacco use. The Tar Wars lesson plan is effective in increasing students' understanding about the short-term consequences of tobacco use, cost of tobacco use, truth of tobacco advertising, and peer norms. Tar Wars meets the CDC guidelines as one component of effective comprehensive youth tobacco prevention.

  11. The Interaction of Production and Consumption in the News Media Social Space

    Graham, Gary; Kerrigan, Finola; Mehmood, Rashid; Rahman, Mustafizur

    Newspapers are operating in increasingly competitive and fragmented markets for audiences and advertising revenues, government media policy and changing audience requirements for news and the ways in which it is presented and delivered. A growing army of bloggers and amateur citizen journalists now delivers - but rarely edits - content for all media platforms, while new media technologies, combined with the changing structure of global news industries, are radically changing the ways in which newspapers and media business functions and struggles for profitability. Our research sought to answer the question of how the internet is impacting on producer/consumer value activities in the news media supply chain. To answer this question initial descriptive statistical analysis was performed on 51 newspapers. This was followed by a focus group undertaken with London-based news media organizations and bloggers. The findings showed that in spite of initial fear and rejection, the internet is now firmly embedded in news media supply chain operations. Firms are now using the internet as an operant resource and working proactively with consumers to develop various forms of relationship value. We highlight the role of consumers in the creation of news (editorial) content and consumer-driven moves toward a merged media platform of distribution (including television, online, mobile and printed forms). Regional news media organizations will probably continue to survive if they are able to supply a highly specialized and 'hyper local' community service. This will be in the form of 'hybrid' content: analysis, interpretation and investigative reporting in a print product that appears less than daily combined with constant updating and reader interaction on the web.

  12. The Real Time Interactive Display Environment (RTIDE), a display building tool developed by Space Shuttle flight controllers

    Kalvelage, Thomas A.

    1989-01-01

    NASA's Mission Control Center, located at Johnson Space Center, is incrementally moving from a centralized architecture to a distributed architecture. Starting with STS-29, some host-driven console screens will be replaced with graphics terminals driven by workstations. These workstations will be supplied realtime data first by the Real Time Data System (RTDS), a system developed inhouse, and then months later (in parallel with RTDS) by interim and subsequently operational versions of the Mission Control Center Upgrade (MCCU) software package. The Real Time Interactive Display Environment (RTIDE) was built by Space Shuttle flight controllers to support the rapid development of multiple new displays to support Shuttle flights. RTIDE is a display building tool that allows non-programmers to define object-oriented, event-driven, mouseable displays. Particular emphasis was placed on upward compatibility between RTIDE versions, ability to acquire data from different data sources, realtime performance, ability to modularly upgrade RTIDE, machine portability, and a clean, powerful user interface. The operational and organizational factors that drove RTIDE to its present form, the actual design itself, simulation and flight performance, and lessons learned in the process are discussed.

  13. Tobacco and Nicotine Product Testing

    Biener, Lois; Leischow, Scott J.; Zeller, Mitch R.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Tobacco product testing is a critical component of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (FSPTCA), which grants the Food and Drug Administration the authority to regulate tobacco products. The availability of methods and measures that can provide accurate data on the relative health risks across types of tobacco products, brands, and subbrands of tobacco products on the validity of any health claims associated with a product, and on how consumers perceive information on products toxicity or risks is crucial for making decisions on the product's potential impact on public health. These tools are also necessary for making assessments of the impact of new indications for medicinal products (other than cessation) but more importantly of tobacco products that may in the future be marketed as cessation tools. Objective: To identify research opportunities to develop empirically based and comprehensive methods and measures for testing tobacco and other nicotine-containing products so that the best science is available when decisions are made about products or policies. Methods: Literature was reviewed to address sections of the FSPTCA relevant to tobacco product evaluation; research questions were generated and then reviewed by a committee of research experts. Results: A research agenda was developed for tobacco product evaluation in the general areas of toxicity and health risks, abuse liability, consumer perception, and population effects. Conclusion: A cohesive, systematic, and comprehensive assessment of tobacco products is important and will require building consensus and addressing some crucial research questions. PMID:21460383

  14. New media and tobacco control.

    Freeman, Becky

    2012-03-01

    This paper reviews how the tobacco industry is promoting its products online and examines possible regulation models to limit exposure to this form of marketing. Opportunities to use new media to advance tobacco control are also discussed and future research possibilities are proposed. Published articles and grey literature reports were identified through searches of the electronic databases, PUBMED and Google Scholar using a combination of the following search terms: tobacco or smoking and new media, online media, social media, internet media, Web 2.0, Facebook, YouTube and Twitter. A possible obstacle to fully realising the benefits of regulating tobacco marketing activities and effectively communicating tobacco control messages is the rapid evolution of the media landscape. New media also offer the tobacco industry a powerful and efficient channel for rapidly countering the denormalising strategies and policies of tobacco control. Evidence of tobacco promotion through online media is emerging, with YouTube being the most researched social media site in the tobacco control field. The explosive rise in Internet use and the shift to these new media being driven by consumer generated content through social platforms may mean that fresh approaches to regulating tobacco industry marketing are needed.

  15. Tobacco industry efforts to erode tobacco advertising controls in Hungary.

    Szilágyi, T; Chapman, S

    2004-12-01

    To review strategies of transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) at creating a favourable advertising environment for their products in Hungary, with special regard to efforts resulting in the liberalisation of tobacco advertising in 1997. Analysis of internal tobacco industry documents relevant to Hungary available on the World Wide Web. Transcripts of speeches of members of the Parliament during the debate of the 1997 advertising act were also reviewed. The tobacco companies not only entered the Hungarian market by early participation in the privatisation of the former state tobacco monopoly, but also imported theirsophisticated marketing experiences. Evasion and violation of rules in force, creation of new partnerships, establishment and use of front groups, finding effective ways for influencing decision makers were all parts of a well orchestrated industry effort to avoid a strict marketing regulation for tobacco products.

  16. Tobacco and the Movies

    Glantz, Stanton

    2005-01-01

    America's leading health organizations agree. Smoking on screen is the No.1 recruiter of new adolescent smokers in the United States - 390,000 kids a year, of whom 120,000 will die from tobacco-caused diseases. That's more Americans than die from drunk driving, criminal violence, illicit drugs, and HIV/AIDS combined. Why does Hollywood still promote smoking? Is it corrupt? Or stupid?

  17. Psychopathology and tobacco demand.

    Farris, Samantha G; Aston, Elizabeth R; Zvolensky, Michael J; Abrantes, Ana M; Metrik, Jane

    2017-08-01

    Behavioral economic measurement of the relative value of tobacco (Cigarette Purchase Task; CPT) is used to examine individual differences in motivation for tobacco under certain contexts. Smokers with psychopathology, relative to those without, may demonstrate stronger demand for tobacco following a period of smoking deprivation, which could account for disparate rates of smoking and cessation among this subgroup. Participants (n=111) were community-recruited adult daily smokers who completed the CPT after a deprivation period of approximately 60min. Presence of psychopathology was assessed via clinical interview; 40.5% (n=45) of the sample met criteria for past-year psychological diagnosis. Specifically, 31.5% (n=35) had an emotional disorder (anxiety/depressive disorder), 17.1% (n=19) had a substance use disorder, and 19.1% of the sample had more than one disorder. Smokers with any psychopathology showed significantly higher intensity (demand at unrestricted cost; $0) and O max (peak expenditure for a drug) relative to smokers with no psychopathology. Intensity was significantly higher among smokers with an emotional disorder compared to those without. Smokers with a substance use disorder showed significantly higher intensity and O max , and lower elasticity, reflecting greater insensitivity to price increases. Having≥2 disorders was associated with higher intensity relative to having 1 or no disorders. Findings suggest that presence of psychopathology may be associated with greater and more persistent motivation to smoke. Future work is needed to explore the mechanism linking psychopathology to tobacco demand. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Tobacco and the Movies

    Glantz, Stanton

    2005-09-19

    America's leading health organizations agree. Smoking on screen is the No.1 recruiter of new adolescent smokers in the United States - 390,000 kids a year, of whom 120,000 will die from tobacco-caused diseases. That's more Americans than die from drunk driving, criminal violence, illicit drugs, and HIV/AIDS combined. Why does Hollywood still promote smoking? Is it corrupt? Or stupid?

  19. Exposure to tobacco marketing and support for tobacco control policies.

    Hammond, David; Costello, Mary-Jean; Fong, Geoffrey T; Topham, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    To examine the salience of tobacco marketing on postsecondary campuses and student support for tobacco control policies. Face-to-face surveys were conducted with 1690 students at 3 universities in southwestern Ontario. Virtually all (97%) students reported noticing tobacco marketing in the past year, and 35% reported noticing marketing on campus. There was strong support for smoke-free restrictions on campus, including restaurants and bars (82%), and for prohibitions on campus marketing. The presence of campus policies was associated with reduced exposure to marketing and increased policy support. There is strong support among students to remove tobacco marketing from campus and to introduce comprehensive smoke-free restrictions.

  20. 7 CFR 29.2560 - Tobacco.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.2560 Section 29.2560 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2560 Tobacco. Tobacco as it appears between...

  1. Smoke-Free Worksites and Public Spaces in Cameroon | IDRC ...

    Smoke-Free Worksites and Public Spaces in Cameroon. Existing data indicate a tobacco epidemic of the first order in Africa, but the rapid increase in tobacco consumption continues. This situation justifies the current project by Research for International Tobacco Control (RITC), an initiative of IDRC and the Bill and Melinda ...

  2. 27 CFR 41.1 - Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 41.1 Section 41.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO...

  3. 27 CFR 40.1 - Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manufacture of tobacco... MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Scope of Regulations § 40.1 Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. This part contains...

  4. Tobacco advertising in retail stores.

    Cummings, K M; Sciandra, R; Lawrence, J

    1991-01-01

    Recent studies have described tobacco advertising in the print media, on billboards, and through sponsorship of cultural and sporting events. However, little attention has been given to another common and unavoidable source of tobacco advertising, that which is encountered in retail stores. In July 1987, we conducted a survey of 61 packaged goods retail stores in Buffalo, NY, to assess the prevalence and type of point-of-sale tobacco advertising. In addition, store owners or managers were sur...

  5. Tobacco Industry Manipulation of Tobacco Excise and Tobacco Advertising Policies in the Czech Republic: An Analysis of Tobacco Industry Documents

    Shirane, Risako; Smith, Katherine; Ross, Hana; Silver, Karin E.; Williams, Simon; Gilmore, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Background The Czech Republic has one of the poorest tobacco control records in Europe. This paper examines transnational tobacco companies' (TTCs') efforts to influence policy there, paying particular attention to excise policies, as high taxes are one of the most effective means of reducing tobacco consumption, and tax structures are an important aspect of TTC competitiveness. Methods and Findings TTC documents dating from 1989 to 2004/5 were retrieved from the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library website, analysed using a socio-historical approach, and triangulated with key informant interviews and secondary data. The documents demonstrate significant industry influence over tobacco control policy. Philip Morris (PM) ignored, overturned, and weakened various attempts to restrict tobacco advertising, promoting voluntary approaches as an alternative to binding legislation. PM and British American Tobacco (BAT) lobbied separately on tobacco tax structures, each seeking to implement the structure that benefitted its own brand portfolio over that of its competitors, and enjoying success in turn. On excise levels, the different companies took a far more collaborative approach, seeking to keep tobacco taxes low and specifically to prevent any large tax increases. Collective lobbying, using a variety of arguments, was successful in delaying the tax increases required via European Union accession. Contrary to industry arguments, data show that cigarettes became more affordable post-accession and that TTCs have taken advantage of low excise duties by raising prices. Interview data suggest that TTCs enjoy high-level political support and continue to actively attempt to influence policy. Conclusion There is clear evidence of past and ongoing TTC influence over tobacco advertising and excise policy. We conclude that this helps explain the country's weak tobacco control record. The findings suggest there is significant scope for tobacco tax increases in the Czech Republic and

  6. Alcohol-flavoured tobacco products.

    Jackler, Robert K; VanWinkle, Callie K; Bumanlag, Isabela M; Ramamurthi, Divya

    2018-05-01

    In 2009, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) banned characterising flavours in cigarettes (except for menthol) due to their appeal to teen starter smokers. In August 2016, the agency deemed all tobacco products to be under its authority and a more comprehensive flavour ban is under consideration. To determine the scope and scale of alcohol-flavoured tobacco products among cigars & cigarillos, hookahs and electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). Alcohol-flavoured tobacco products were identified by online search of tobacco purveyors' product lines and via Google search cross-referencing the various tobacco product types versus a list of alcoholic beverage flavours (eg, wine, beer, appletini, margarita). 48 types of alcohol-flavoured tobacco products marketed by 409 tobacco brands were identified. Alcohol flavours included mixed drinks (n=25), spirits (11), liqueurs (7) and wine/beer (5). Sweet and fruity tropical mixed drink flavours were marketed by the most brands: piña colada (96), mojito (66) and margarita (50). Wine flavours were common with 104 brands. Among the tobacco product categories, brands offering alcohol-flavoured e-cigarettes (280) were most numerous, but alcohol-flavoured products were also marketed by cigars & cigarillos (88) and hookah brands (41). Brands by major tobacco companies (eg, Philip Morris, Imperial Tobacco) were well represented among alcohol-flavoured cigars & cigarillos with five companies offering a total of 17 brands. The widespread availability of alcohol-flavoured tobacco products illustrates the need to regulate characterising flavours on all tobacco products. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Tobacco industry manipulation of tobacco excise and tobacco advertising policies in the Czech Republic: an analysis of tobacco industry documents.

    Risako Shirane

    Full Text Available The Czech Republic has one of the poorest tobacco control records in Europe. This paper examines transnational tobacco companies' (TTCs' efforts to influence policy there, paying particular attention to excise policies, as high taxes are one of the most effective means of reducing tobacco consumption, and tax structures are an important aspect of TTC competitiveness.TTC documents dating from 1989 to 2004/5 were retrieved from the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library website, analysed using a socio-historical approach, and triangulated with key informant interviews and secondary data. The documents demonstrate significant industry influence over tobacco control policy. Philip Morris (PM ignored, overturned, and weakened various attempts to restrict tobacco advertising, promoting voluntary approaches as an alternative to binding legislation. PM and British American Tobacco (BAT lobbied separately on tobacco tax structures, each seeking to implement the structure that benefitted its own brand portfolio over that of its competitors, and enjoying success in turn. On excise levels, the different companies took a far more collaborative approach, seeking to keep tobacco taxes low and specifically to prevent any large tax increases. Collective lobbying, using a variety of arguments, was successful in delaying the tax increases required via European Union accession. Contrary to industry arguments, data show that cigarettes became more affordable post-accession and that TTCs have taken advantage of low excise duties by raising prices. Interview data suggest that TTCs enjoy high-level political support and continue to actively attempt to influence policy.There is clear evidence of past and ongoing TTC influence over tobacco advertising and excise policy. We conclude that this helps explain the country's weak tobacco control record. The findings suggest there is significant scope for tobacco tax increases in the Czech Republic and that large (rather than small

  8. Tobacco industry manipulation of tobacco excise and tobacco advertising policies in the Czech Republic: an analysis of tobacco industry documents.

    Shirane, Risako; Smith, Katherine; Ross, Hana; Silver, Karin E; Williams, Simon; Gilmore, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The Czech Republic has one of the poorest tobacco control records in Europe. This paper examines transnational tobacco companies' (TTCs') efforts to influence policy there, paying particular attention to excise policies, as high taxes are one of the most effective means of reducing tobacco consumption, and tax structures are an important aspect of TTC competitiveness. TTC documents dating from 1989 to 2004/5 were retrieved from the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library website, analysed using a socio-historical approach, and triangulated with key informant interviews and secondary data. The documents demonstrate significant industry influence over tobacco control policy. Philip Morris (PM) ignored, overturned, and weakened various attempts to restrict tobacco advertising, promoting voluntary approaches as an alternative to binding legislation. PM and British American Tobacco (BAT) lobbied separately on tobacco tax structures, each seeking to implement the structure that benefitted its own brand portfolio over that of its competitors, and enjoying success in turn. On excise levels, the different companies took a far more collaborative approach, seeking to keep tobacco taxes low and specifically to prevent any large tax increases. Collective lobbying, using a variety of arguments, was successful in delaying the tax increases required via European Union accession. Contrary to industry arguments, data show that cigarettes became more affordable post-accession and that TTCs have taken advantage of low excise duties by raising prices. Interview data suggest that TTCs enjoy high-level political support and continue to actively attempt to influence policy. There is clear evidence of past and ongoing TTC influence over tobacco advertising and excise policy. We conclude that this helps explain the country's weak tobacco control record. The findings suggest there is significant scope for tobacco tax increases in the Czech Republic and that large (rather than small, incremental

  9. Permissiveness toward tobacco sponsorship undermines tobacco control support in Africa.

    Ayo-Yusuf, Olalekan A; Olutola, Bukola G; Agaku, Israel T

    2016-06-01

    School personnel, who are respected members of the community, may exert significant influence on policy adoption. This study assessed the impact of school personnel's permissiveness toward tobacco industry sponsorship activities on their support for complete bans on tobacco advertisements, comprehensive smoke-free laws and increased tobacco prices. Representative data were obtained from the Global School Personnel Survey for 29 African countries (n = 17 929). Adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) were calculated using multi-variable Poisson regression models to assess the impact of permissiveness toward tobacco sponsorship activities on support for tobacco control policies (p industry should be allowed to sponsor school events were significantly less likely to support complete bans on tobacco advertisements [aPR = 0.89; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.84-0.95] and comprehensive smoke-free laws (aPR = 0.95; 95% CI 0.92-0.98). In contrast, support for complete tobacco advertisement bans was more likely among those who believed that the tobacco industry encourages youths to smoke (aPR = 1.27; 95% CI 1.17-1.37), and among those who taught about health sometimes (aPR = 1.06; 95% CI 1.01-1.11) or a lot (aPR = 1.05; 95% CI 1.01-1.10) compared with those who did not teach about health at all. These findings underscore the need to educate school personnel on tobacco industry's strategies to undermine tobacco control policies. This may help to build school personnel support for laws intended to reduce youth susceptibility, experimentation and established use of tobacco products. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Receptivity to Tobacco Advertising and Susceptibility to Tobacco Products.

    Pierce, John P; Sargent, James D; White, Martha M; Borek, Nicolette; Portnoy, David B; Green, Victoria R; Kaufman, Annette R; Stanton, Cassandra A; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Strong, David R; Pearson, Jennifer L; Coleman, Blair N; Leas, Eric; Noble, Madison L; Trinidad, Dennis R; Moran, Meghan B; Carusi, Charles; Hyland, Andrew; Messer, Karen

    2017-06-01

    Non-cigarette tobacco marketing is less regulated and may promote cigarette smoking among adolescents. We quantified receptivity to advertising for multiple tobacco products and hypothesized associations with susceptibility to cigarette smoking. Wave 1 of the nationally representative PATH (Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health) study interviewed 10 751 adolescents who had never used tobacco. A stratified random selection of 5 advertisements for each of cigarettes, e-cigarettes, smokeless products, and cigars were shown from 959 recent tobacco advertisements. Aided recall was classified as low receptivity, and image-liking or favorite ad as higher receptivity. The main dependent variable was susceptibility to cigarette smoking. Among US youth, 41% of 12 to 13 year olds and half of older adolescents were receptive to at least 1 tobacco advertisement. Across each age group, receptivity to advertising was highest for e-cigarettes (28%-33%) followed by cigarettes (22%-25%), smokeless tobacco (15%-21%), and cigars (8%-13%). E-cigarette ads shown on television had the highest recall. Among cigarette-susceptible adolescents, receptivity to e-cigarette advertising (39.7%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 37.9%-41.6%) was higher than for cigarette advertising (31.7%; 95% CI: 29.9%-33.6%). Receptivity to advertising for each tobacco product was associated with increased susceptibility to cigarette smoking, with no significant difference across products (similar odds for both cigarette and e-cigarette advertising; adjusted odds ratio = 1.22; 95% CI: 1.09-1.37). A large proportion of US adolescent never tobacco users are receptive to tobacco advertising, with television advertising for e-cigarettes having the highest recall. Receptivity to advertising for each non-cigarette tobacco product was associated with susceptibility to smoke cigarettes. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  11. Tobacco smoking and aortic aneurysm

    Sode, Birgitte F; Nordestgaard, Børge; Grønbæk, Morten

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We determined the predictive power of tobacco smoking on aortic aneurysm as opposed to other risk factors in the general population. METHODS: We recorded tobacco smoking and other risk factors at baseline, and assessed hospitalization and death from aortic aneurysm in 15,072 individuals...... aneurysm in males and females consuming above 20g tobacco daily was 3.5% and 1.3%, among those >60years with plasma cholesterol >5mmol/L and a systolic blood pressure >140mmHg. CONCLUSIONS: Tobacco smoking is the most important predictor of future aortic aneurysm outcomes in the general population...

  12. Space space space

    Trembach, Vera

    2014-01-01

    Space is an introduction to the mysteries of the Universe. Included are Task Cards for independent learning, Journal Word Cards for creative writing, and Hands-On Activities for reinforcing skills in Math and Language Arts. Space is a perfect introduction to further research of the Solar System.

  13. Smoking and Tobacco Use: How to Quit

    ... for State Tobacco Control Programs Basic Information Health Effects Cancer Heart Disease and Stroke Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Smoking During Pregnancy Secondhand Smoke Smokeless Products Electronic Cigarettes Youth Tobacco Prevention Tobacco ...

  14. Hollywood on tobacco: how the entertainment industry understands tobacco portrayal

    Shields, D.; Carol, J.; Balbach, E.; McGee, S.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To determine how people in the California-based entertainment industry think about the portrayal of tobacco use in movies and on television. Specifically, to explore who decides when to include tobacco in a project; how that decision is made; what issues are considered; what messages are intended; whether and how the issue of secondhand smoke is considered; and what advocacy methods might be useful in influencing future decisions about tobacco portrayal.
DESIGN—Qualitative in-depth interviews of entertainment industry personnel,with a semi-structured interview protocol to guide the interview.
SUBJECTS—54 subjects drawn from a convenience sample of writers, actors, directors, producers, studio executives, and others involved in the film industry.
RESULTS—Hollywood is heterogeneous with varying perspectives on rates of tobacco use portrayal; intentionality of the decision to use and the necessity to portray tobacco use; and its degree of acceptance of responsibility for influencing societal smoking. Tobacco depiction may originate with the writer, actor, or director and is included most frequently to elucidate character or portray reality. On-camera smoking is influenced by actors' off-camera tobacco use.
CONCLUSIONS—The research presented can help advocates better understand the norms and values of those working within the entertainment industry and thereby assist them in creating more effective change strategies.


Keywords: films; movies; television; tobacco use PMID:10629243

  15. How to stop tobacco use? Tobacco user′s perspective

    Siddharth Sarkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To explore the tobacco-dependent subject′s perspectives of what measures are likely to work for tobacco cessation. Materials and Methods: Nicotine-dependent male subjects attending a tertiary level de-addiction center in North India were recruited. Demographic and clinical data was recorded. Open-ended questions were asked to know user′s perspective about the measures by which tobacco use can be effectively stopped in the country. The subjects were allowed as many responses as they desired. Results: A total of 46 subjects were recruited. The median age of the sample was 35 years, with median duration of tobacco use being 12 years. All subjects were males, and most were married, employed, and had urban residence. Supply reducing measures were the most commonly reported to stop tobacco (67.4% of subjects followed by people quitting tobacco use by themselves (19.6% and raising awareness through media (13.1%. Conclusion: This pilot study reflects the perspectives of tobacco users for the measures likely to be effective in tobacco cessation. Evaluating the effect of implementation of individual policies may help focusing towards measures that yield greatest benefits.

  16. Determination of Heavy Metal Ions in Tobacco and Tobacco Additives

    NJD

    This paper describes a new method for the simultaneous determination of heavy metal ions in tobacco and tobacco additives by ... The HPLC system consisted of a Waters 2690 Alliance separation ..... 1 Z.H. Shi and C.G. Fu, Talanta, 1997, 44, 593. ... 5 Q.F. Hu, G.Y. Yang, J.Y. Yin and Y. Yao, Talanta, 2002, 57, 751.

  17. Tobacco industry responsibility for butts: a Model Tobacco Waste Act.

    Curtis, Clifton; Novotny, Thomas E; Lee, Kelley; Freiberg, Mike; McLaughlin, Ian

    2017-01-01

    Cigarette butts and other postconsumer products from tobacco use are the most common waste elements picked up worldwide each year during environmental cleanups. Under the environmental principle of Extended Producer Responsibility, tobacco product manufacturers may be held responsible for collection, transport, processing and safe disposal of tobacco product waste (TPW). Legislation has been applied to other toxic and hazardous postconsumer waste products such as paints, pesticide containers and unused pharmaceuticals, to reduce, prevent and mitigate their environmental impacts. Additional product stewardship (PS) requirements may be necessary for other stakeholders and beneficiaries of tobacco product sales and use, especially suppliers, retailers and consumers, in order to ensure effective TPW reduction. This report describes how a Model Tobacco Waste Act may be adopted by national and subnational jurisdictions to address the environmental impacts of TPW. Such a law will also reduce tobacco use and its health consequences by raising attention to the environmental hazards of TPW, increasing the price of tobacco products, and reducing the number of tobacco product retailers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. What makes an ad a cigarette ad? Commercial tobacco imagery in the lesbian, gay, and bisexual press

    Smith, E.; Offen, N.; Malone, R.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the extent of commercial tobacco imagery in the lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) press. Methods: Content analysis of all advertising containing tobacco related text or imagery in 20 LGB community periodicals, published between January 1990 and December 2000. Results: 3428 ads were found: 689 tobacco product ads, 1607 ads for cessation products or services, 99 ads with a political message about tobacco, and 1033 non-tobacco ads that showed tobacco (NAST). Although cessation ads were numerically dominant, tobacco product ads and NAST occupied more space and were more likely to use images. NAST almost never had an anti-tobacco message. Formal sponsorship between tobacco and other companies was very rare. Lesbian periodicals had proportionally more NAST and fewer cessation ads. Conclusions: Cigarette ads were outnumbered by NAST. Although these ads do not usually show brands, and are unlikely to be the result of formal sponsorship agreements, they may be "selling" smoking. Tobacco control advocates should persuade editors to refuse tobacco product ads and those with gratuitous tobacco imagery. PMID:16286500

  19. INTERACT

    Jochum, Elizabeth; Borggreen, Gunhild; Murphey, TD

    This paper considers the impact of visual art and performance on robotics and human-computer interaction and outlines a research project that combines puppetry and live performance with robotics. Kinesics—communication through movement—is the foundation of many theatre and performance traditions ...

  20. Disparities in exposure to tobacco smoke pollution at Romanian worksites

    Dorota Kaleta

    2015-12-01

    In spite of the increasing presence of smoking bans in public and workplaces, enforcement still seems to be unsuccessful in the occupational space in Romania. In order to reduce SHS exposure in workplaces, strengthening support for tobacco control policies is essential.

  1. Gender, women, and the tobacco epidemic

    Samet, Jonathan M; Yoon, Soon-Young

    2010-01-01

    .... The publication also addresses national economic policy with regard to tobacco control, international treaties, and strategies for tobacco-free mobilization at the regional and international levels...

  2. Tobacco Products Production and Operations Reports

    Department of the Treasury — Monthly statistical reports on tobacco products production and operations. Data for Tobacco Statistical Release is derived directly from the Report – Manufacturer of...

  3. SEATCA Tobacco Industry Interference Index: a tool for measuring implementation of WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control Article 5.3

    Assunta, Mary; Dorotheo, E Ulysses

    2016-01-01

    Objective To measure the implementation of WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) Article 5.3 at country level using a new Tobacco Industry Interference Index and to report initial results using this index in seven Southeast Asian countries. Methods Score sheet based on WHO FCTC Article 5.3 Guidelines sent to correspondents in seven Southeast Asian countries, using a scoring system designed with the help of tobacco control experts and validated through focused group discussions. Results The seven countries ranked from the lowest level of interference to the highest are Brunei, Thailand, Lao PDR, Cambodia, Philippines, Malaysia and Indonesia. Countries that face high levels of unnecessary interaction with the tobacco industry also face high levels of tobacco industry influence in policy development. Most governments do not allow any tobacco industry representatives on their delegation to sessions of the Conference of the Parties or its subsidiary bodies nor accept their sponsorship for delegates, but most governments still accept or endorse offers of assistance from the tobacco industry in implementing tobacco control policies. Most governments also receive tobacco industry contributions (monetary or in kind) or endorse industry corporate social responsibility activities. Governments do not have a procedure for disclosing interactions with the tobacco industry, but Lao PDR, Philippines and Thailand have instituted measures to prevent or reduce industry interference. Conclusions This Tobacco Industry Interference Index, based on the WHO FCTC Article 5.3 Guidelines, is a useful advocacy tool for identifying both progress and gaps in national efforts at implementing WHO FCTC Article 5.3. PMID:25908597

  4. SEATCA Tobacco Industry Interference Index: a tool for measuring implementation of WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control Article 5.3.

    Assunta, Mary; Dorotheo, E Ulysses

    2016-05-01

    To measure the implementation of WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) Article 5.3 at country level using a new Tobacco Industry Interference Index and to report initial results using this index in seven Southeast Asian countries. Score sheet based on WHO FCTC Article 5.3 Guidelines sent to correspondents in seven Southeast Asian countries, using a scoring system designed with the help of tobacco control experts and validated through focused group discussions. The seven countries ranked from the lowest level of interference to the highest are Brunei, Thailand, Lao PDR, Cambodia, Philippines, Malaysia and Indonesia. Countries that face high levels of unnecessary interaction with the tobacco industry also face high levels of tobacco industry influence in policy development. Most governments do not allow any tobacco industry representatives on their delegation to sessions of the Conference of the Parties or its subsidiary bodies nor accept their sponsorship for delegates, but most governments still accept or endorse offers of assistance from the tobacco industry in implementing tobacco control policies. Most governments also receive tobacco industry contributions (monetary or in kind) or endorse industry corporate social responsibility activities. Governments do not have a procedure for disclosing interactions with the tobacco industry, but Lao PDR, Philippines and Thailand have instituted measures to prevent or reduce industry interference. This Tobacco Industry Interference Index, based on the WHO FCTC Article 5.3 Guidelines, is a useful advocacy tool for identifying both progress and gaps in national efforts at implementing WHO FCTC Article 5.3. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  5. Pulling self-interacting linear polymers on a family of fractal lattices embedded in three-dimensional space

    Elezović-Hadžić, S; Živić, I

    2013-01-01

    We have studied the problem of force pulling self-interacting linear polymers situated in fractal containers that belong to the Sierpinski gasket (SG) family of fractals embedded in three-dimensional (3D) space. Each member of this family is labeled with an integer b (2 ≤ b ≤ ∞). The polymer chain is modeled by a self-avoiding walk (SAW) with one end anchored to one of the four boundary walls of the lattice, while the other (floating in the bulk of the fractal) is the position at which the force is acting. By applying an exact renormalization group (RG) method we have established the phase diagrams, including the critical force–temperature dependence, for fractals with b = 2,3 and 4. Also, for the same fractals, in all polymer phases, we examined the generating function G 1 for the numbers of all possible SAWs with one end anchored to the boundary wall. We found that besides the usual power-law singularity of G 1 , governed by the critical exponent γ 1 , whose specific values are worked out for all cases studied, in some regimes the function G 1 displays an essential singularity in its behavior. (paper)

  6. Quantum information aspects on bulk and nano interacting Fermi system: A spin-space density matrix approach

    Afzali, R., E-mail: afzali@kntu.ac.ir [Department of Physics, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran, 15418 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ebrahimian, N., E-mail: n.ebrahimian@shahed.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Faculty of Basic Sciences, Shahed University, Tehran, 18155-159 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Eghbalifar, B., E-mail: b.eghbali2011@yahoo.com [Department of Agricultural Management, Marvdasht Branch, Azad University, Marvdasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-10-07

    Highlights: • In contrast to a s-wave superconductor, the quantum correlation of the d-wave superconductor is sensitive to the change of the gap magnitude. • Quantum discord of the d-wave superconductor oscillates. • Quantum discord becomes zero at a characteristic length of the d-wave superconductor. • Quantum correlation strongly depends on the length of grain. Length of the superconductor lower, the quantum correlation length higher. • Quantum tripartite entanglement for a nano-scale d-wave superconductor is better than for a bulk d-wave superconductor. - Abstract: By approximating the energy gap, entering nano-size effect via gap fluctuation and calculating the Green's functions and the space-spin density matrix, the dependence of quantum correlation (entanglement, discord and tripartite entanglement) on the relative distance of two electron spins forming Cooper pairs, the energy gap and the length of bulk and nano interacting Fermi system (a nodal d-wave superconductor) is determined. In contrast to a s-wave superconductor, quantum correlation of the system is sensitive to the change of the gap magnitude and strongly depends on the length of the grain. Also, quantum discord oscillates. Furthermore, the entanglement length and the correlation length are investigated. Discord becomes zero at a characteristic length of the d-wave superconductor.

  7. Unitary Dynamics of Strongly Interacting Bose Gases with the Time-Dependent Variational Monte Carlo Method in Continuous Space

    Carleo, Giuseppe; Cevolani, Lorenzo; Sanchez-Palencia, Laurent; Holzmann, Markus

    2017-07-01

    We introduce the time-dependent variational Monte Carlo method for continuous-space Bose gases. Our approach is based on the systematic expansion of the many-body wave function in terms of multibody correlations and is essentially exact up to adaptive truncation. The method is benchmarked by comparison to an exact Bethe ansatz or existing numerical results for the integrable Lieb-Liniger model. We first show that the many-body wave function achieves high precision for ground-state properties, including energy and first-order as well as second-order correlation functions. Then, we study the out-of-equilibrium, unitary dynamics induced by a quantum quench in the interaction strength. Our time-dependent variational Monte Carlo results are benchmarked by comparison to exact Bethe ansatz results available for a small number of particles, and are also compared to quench action results available for noninteracting initial states. Moreover, our approach allows us to study large particle numbers and general quench protocols, previously inaccessible beyond the mean-field level. Our results suggest that it is possible to find correlated initial states for which the long-term dynamics of local density fluctuations is close to the predictions of a simple Boltzmann ensemble.

  8. Tobacco companies' use of retailer incentives after a ban on point-of-sale tobacco displays in Scotland.

    Stead, Martine; Eadie, Douglas; Purves, Richard I; Moodie, Crawford; Haw, Sally

    2017-07-31

    Incentives have been used by tobacco companies for many years to encourage retailers to sell and promote their products. However, few studies have examined the use of retailer incentives in countries with a ban on the open display of tobacco products in stores. As part of the DISPLAY(Determining the Impact of Smoking Point of Sale Legislation Among Youth) study, annual qualitative interviews were conducted with 24 small retailers in four Scottish communities. This article focuses on data collected in June to July 2015 and June to July 2016 after a ban on the open display of tobacco was fully implemented in Scotland. Retailers described being offered and benefiting from a range of financial and other incentives, typically offered via tobacco company representatives ('reps'). Most of the retailers received tobacco manufacturer support for converting their storage unit to be compliant with the new regulations, and several participated in manufacturer 'loyalty' or 'reward' schemes. Incentives were additionally offered for maintaining stock levels and availability, positioning brands in specified spaces in the public-facing storage units (even though products were covered up), increasing sales, trialling new products and participating in specific promotions, such as verbally recommending specific brands to customers. Even in a market where the open display of tobacco is prohibited, tobacco companies continue to incentivise retailers to sell and promote their brands and have developed new promotional strategies. For countries that have implemented tobacco display bans, or are considering doing so, one option to combat these practices would be to ban promotional communications between manufacturers and retailers. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Reactions of tobacco genotypes with different antioxidant capacities to powdery mildew and Tobacco mosaic virus infections.

    Gullner, Gábor; Juhász, Csilla; Németh, Adél; Barna, Balázs

    2017-10-01

    The interactions of powdery mildew (Golovinomyces orontii) and Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) with tobacco lines having down or upregulated antioxidants were investigated. Xanthi-nc, its salicylic acid-deficient NahG mutant, a paraquat-sensitive Samsun (PS) and its paraquat tolerant (PT) mutant were used. Cell membrane damage caused by H 2 O 2 was significantly higher in NahG than Xanthi, whereas it was lower in PT than in PS. Leakage of ions from PT was reduced by the powdery mildew infection. On the other hand TMV inoculation led to a 6-fold and 2-fold elevation of ion leakage from hypersensitive resistant NahG and Xanthi leaves, respectively, whereas ion leakage increased slightly from susceptible PS leaves. G. orontii infection induced ribonuclease (RNase) enzyme activity in extracts from Xanthi and NahG (about 200-250% increase) and weakly (about 20-30% increase) from PS and PT lines. Pre-treatment with protein kinase inhibitor staurosporine or protein phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid very strongly inhibited mildew development on tobacco lines. Our experiments suggest that protein kinases inhibited by staurosporine seem to be important factors, while protein phosphatases inhibited by okadaic acid play less significant role in TMV-induced lesion development. Both powdery mildew and TMV infections up-regulated the expression of PR-1b, PR-1c and WRKY12 genes in all tobacco lines to various extents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Behavioral economic insights into physician tobacco treatment decision-making.

    Leone, Frank T; Evers-Casey, Sarah; Graden, Sarah; Schnoll, Robert

    2015-03-01

    Physicians self-report high adherence rates for Ask and Advise behaviors of tobacco dependence treatment but are much less likely to engage in "next steps" consistent with sophisticated management of chronic illness. A variety of potential explanations have been offered, yet each lacks face validity in light of experience with other challenging medical conditions. Conduct a preliminary exploration of the behavioral economics of tobacco treatment decision-making in the face of uncertain outcomes, seeking evidence that behaviors may be explained within the framework of Prospect Theory. Four physician cohorts were polled regarding their impressions of the utility of tobacco use treatment and their estimations of "success" probabilities. Contingent valuation was estimated by asking respondents to make monetary tradeoffs relative to three common chronic conditions. Responses from all four cohorts showed a similar pattern of high utility of tobacco use treatment but low success probability when compared with the other chronic medical conditions. Following instructional methods aimed at controverting cognitive biases related to tobacco, this pattern was reversed, with success probabilities attaining higher valuation than for diabetes. Important presuppositions regarding the potential "success" of tobacco-related patient interactions are likely limiting physician engagement by favoring the most secure visit outcome despite the limited potential for health gains. Under these conditions, low engagement rates would be consistent with Prospect Theory predictions. Interventions aimed at counteracting the cognitive biases limiting estimations of success probabilities seem to effectively reverse this pattern and provide clues to improving the adoption of target clinical behaviors.

  11. Job strain and tobacco smoking

    Heikkilä, Katriina; Nyberg, Solja T; Fransson, Eleonor I

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is a major contributor to the public health burden and healthcare costs worldwide, but the determinants of smoking behaviours are poorly understood. We conducted a large individual-participant meta-analysis to examine the extent to which work-related stress, operationalised as job...... strain, is associated with tobacco smoking in working adults....

  12. Using the FLUKA Monte Carlo Code to Simulate the Interactions of Ionizing Radiation with Matter to Assist and Aid Our Understanding of Ground Based Accelerator Testing, Space Hardware Design, and Secondary Space Radiation Environments

    Reddell, Brandon

    2015-01-01

    Designing hardware to operate in the space radiation environment is a very difficult and costly activity. Ground based particle accelerators can be used to test for exposure to the radiation environment, one species at a time, however, the actual space environment cannot be duplicated because of the range of energies and isotropic nature of space radiation. The FLUKA Monte Carlo code is an integrated physics package based at CERN that has been under development for the last 40+ years and includes the most up-to-date fundamental physics theory and particle physics data. This work presents an overview of FLUKA and how it has been used in conjunction with ground based radiation testing for NASA and improve our understanding of secondary particle environments resulting from the interaction of space radiation with matter.

  13. Computational Models Used to Assess US Tobacco Control Policies.

    Feirman, Shari P; Glasser, Allison M; Rose, Shyanika; Niaura, Ray; Abrams, David B; Teplitskaya, Lyubov; Villanti, Andrea C

    2017-11-01

    Simulation models can be used to evaluate existing and potential tobacco control interventions, including policies. The purpose of this systematic review was to synthesize evidence from computational models used to project population-level effects of tobacco control interventions. We provide recommendations to strengthen simulation models that evaluate tobacco control interventions. Studies were eligible for review if they employed a computational model to predict the expected effects of a non-clinical US-based tobacco control intervention. We searched five electronic databases on July 1, 2013 with no date restrictions and synthesized studies qualitatively. Six primary non-clinical intervention types were examined across the 40 studies: taxation, youth prevention, smoke-free policies, mass media campaigns, marketing/advertising restrictions, and product regulation. Simulation models demonstrated the independent and combined effects of these interventions on decreasing projected future smoking prevalence. Taxation effects were the most robust, as studies examining other interventions exhibited substantial heterogeneity with regard to the outcomes and specific policies examined across models. Models should project the impact of interventions on overall tobacco use, including nicotine delivery product use, to estimate preventable health and cost-saving outcomes. Model validation, transparency, more sophisticated models, and modeling policy interactions are also needed to inform policymakers to make decisions that will minimize harm and maximize health. In this systematic review, evidence from multiple studies demonstrated the independent effect of taxation on decreasing future smoking prevalence, and models for other tobacco control interventions showed that these strategies are expected to decrease smoking, benefit population health, and are reasonable to implement from a cost perspective. Our recommendations aim to help policymakers and researchers minimize harm and

  14. The Philippine tobacco industry: "the strongest tobacco lobby in Asia".

    Alechnowicz, K; Chapman, S

    2004-12-01

    To highlight revelations from internal tobacco industry documents about the conduct of the industry in the Philippines since the 1960s. Areas explored include political corruption, health, employment of consultants, resisting pack labelling, and marketing and advertising. Systematic keyword Minnesota depository website searches of tobacco industry internal documents made available through the Master Settlement Agreement. The Philippines has long suffered a reputation for political corruption where collusion between state and business was based on the exchange of political donations for favourable economic policies. The tobacco industry was able to limit the effectiveness of proposed anti-tobacco legislation. A prominent scientist publicly repudiated links between active and passive smoking and disease. The placement of health warning labels was negotiated to benefit the industry, and the commercial environment allowed it to capitalise on their marketing freedoms to the fullest potential. Women, children, youth, and the poor have been targeted. The politically laissez faire Philippines presented tobacco companies with an environment ripe for exploitation. The Philippines has seen some of the world's most extreme and controversial forms of tobacco promotion flourish. Against international standards of progress, the Philippines is among the world's slowest nations to take tobacco control seriously.

  15. Tobacco industry use of flavourings to promote smokeless tobacco products.

    Kostygina, Ganna; Ling, Pamela M

    2016-11-01

    While fruit, candy and alcohol characterising flavours are not allowed in cigarettes in the USA, other flavoured tobacco products such as smokeless tobacco (ST) continue to be sold. We investigated tobacco manufacturers' use of flavoured additives in ST products, the target audience(s) for flavoured products, and marketing strategies promoting products by emphasising their flavour. Qualitative analysis of internal tobacco industry documents triangulated with data from national newspaper articles, trade press and internet. Internally, flavoured products have been consistently associated with young and inexperienced tobacco users. Internal studies confirmed that candy-like sweeter milder flavours (eg, mint, fruit) could increase appeal to starters by evoking a perception of mildness, blinding the strong tobacco taste and unpleasant mouth feel; or by modifying nicotine delivery by affecting product pH. Similar to cigarettes, flavoured ST is likely to encourage novices to start using tobacco, and regulations limiting or eliminating flavours in cigarettes should be extended to include flavoured ST products. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. Roadmap to a tobacco epidemic: transnational tobacco companies invade Indonesia.

    Hurt, Richard D; Ebbert, Jon O; Achadi, Anhari; Croghan, Ivana T

    2012-05-01

    Indonesia is the world's fifth largest cigarette market in the world but for decades, transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) have had limited success infiltrating this market, due to their inability to compete in the kretek market. Kreteks are clove/tobacco cigarettes that most Indonesians smoke. To determine how Phillip Morris International (PMI) and British American Tobacco (BAT) have now successfully achieved a substantial market presence in Indonesia. We analyzed previously secret, tobacco industry documents, corporate reports on Indonesia operations, the Tobacco Trade press, Indonesia media, and "The Roadmap". Internal, corporate documents from BAT and PMI demonstrate that they had known for decades that kreteks are highly carcinogenic. Despite that knowledge, BAT and PMI now own and heavily market these products, as well as new more westernised versions of kreteks. BAT and PMI used their successful basic strategy of keeping cigarettes affordable by maintaining the social responsibility of smoking and opposing smoke-free workplace laws but in the 21st century, they added the acquisition of and westernisation of domestic kretek manufacturers as an additional strategy. These acquisitions allowed them to assert influences on health policy in Indonesia and to grow their business under current government policy embodied in the 2007-2020 Roadmap of Tobacco Products Industry and Excise Policy which calls for increased cigarette production by 12% over the next 15 years. PMI and Bat have successfully entered and are expanding their share in the Indonesia cigarette market. Despite the obvious and pervasive influence of the tobacco industry on policy decisions, the Indonesian government should ratify the FCTC and implement effective legislation to reduce tobacco consumption and exposure to tobacco smoke and revise the Roadmap to protect future generations of Indonesians.

  17. Optimum Design of Braced Steel Space Frames including Soil-Structure Interaction via Teaching-Learning-Based Optimization and Harmony Search Algorithms

    Ayse T. Daloglu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimum design of braced steel space frames including soil-structure interaction is studied by using harmony search (HS and teaching-learning-based optimization (TLBO algorithms. A three-parameter elastic foundation model is used to incorporate the soil-structure interaction effect. A 10-storey braced steel space frame example taken from literature is investigated according to four different bracing types for the cases with/without soil-structure interaction. X, V, Z, and eccentric V-shaped bracing types are considered in the study. Optimum solutions of examples are carried out by a computer program coded in MATLAB interacting with SAP2000-OAPI for two-way data exchange. The stress constraints according to AISC-ASD (American Institute of Steel Construction-Allowable Stress Design, maximum lateral displacement constraints, interstorey drift constraints, and beam-to-column connection constraints are taken into consideration in the optimum design process. The parameters of the foundation model are calculated depending on soil surface displacements by using an iterative approach. The results obtained in the study show that bracing types and soil-structure interaction play very important roles in the optimum design of steel space frames. Finally, the techniques used in the optimum design seem to be quite suitable for practical applications.

  18. Pastern recognition of clusters formed in 4.1(4.5)A GeV/c 22Ne(28Si) interaction with emulsion using Lobachevsky velocity space

    EI-Naghy, A.; AbdeI-Aziz, S.S.; Salah, M.M.

    2000-01-01

    The experimental data of 4.1(4.5)A GeV/c 22 Ne( 28 Si) emulsion interactions, which has been measured in the laboratory of high energy physics ( LHEP ) at Cairo University , has been utilized in this analysis. In the present paper we propose the use of Bubelev's graphical method to visualize the candidates of cluster formation in nucleus - nucleus interactions. This method is based on the Chernikov geometry formulation of relativistic kinematics in patterns in the Lobachevsky velocity space in which the motion of particles are equivalent to the Lorentz group. The analysis has shown that events which are identified as formation of clusters in 22 Ne( 28 Si) emulsion interactions are well illustrated in the Lobachevsky velocity space using the principle of likeness (closeness). The study will be extended to include other reactions and other types of particles

  19. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE PIXEL ANALYSIS OF THE INTERACTING FACE-ON SPIRAL GALAXY NGC 5194 (M51A)

    Lee, Joon Hyeop; Kim, Sang Chul; Park, Hong Soo; Ree, Chang Hee; Kyeong, Jaemann; Chung, Jiwon

    2011-01-01

    A pixel analysis is carried out on the interacting face-on spiral galaxy NGC 5194 (M51A), using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) images in the F435W, F555W, and F814W (BVI) bands. After 4 x 4 binning of the HST/ACS images to secure a sufficient signal-to-noise ratio for each pixel, we derive several quantities describing the pixel color-magnitude diagram (pCMD) of NGC 5194: blue/red color cut, red pixel sequence parameters, blue pixel sequence parameters, and blue-to-red pixel ratio. The red sequence pixels are mostly older than 1 Gyr, while the blue sequence pixels are mostly younger than 1 Gyr, in their luminosity-weighted mean stellar ages. The color variation in the red pixel sequence from V = 20 mag arcsec -2 to V = 17 mag arcsec -2 corresponds to a metallicity variation of Δ[Fe/H] ∼2 or an optical depth variation of Δτ V ∼ 4 by dust, but the actual sequence is thought to originate from the combination of those two effects. At V -2 , the color variation in the blue pixel sequence corresponds to an age variation from 5 Myr to 300 Myr under the assumption of solar metallicity and τ V = 1. To investigate the spatial distributions of stellar populations, we divide pixel stellar populations using the pixel color-color diagram and population synthesis models. As a result, we find that the pixel population distributions across the spiral arms agree with a compressing process by spiral density waves: dense dust → newly formed stars. The tidal interaction between NGC 5194 and NGC 5195 appears to enhance the star formation at the tidal bridge connecting the two galaxies. We find that the pixels corresponding to the central active galactic nucleus (AGN) area of NGC 5194 show a tight sequence at the bright-end of the pCMD, which are in the region of R ∼ 100 pc and may be a photometric indicator of AGN properties.

  20. Sacred Space.

    Adelstein, Pamela

    2018-01-01

    A space can be sacred, providing those who inhabit a particular space with sense of transcendence-being connected to something greater than oneself. The sacredness may be inherent in the space, as for a religious institution or a serene place outdoors. Alternatively, a space may be made sacred by the people within it and events that occur there. As medical providers, we have the opportunity to create sacred space in our examination rooms and with our patient interactions. This sacred space can be healing to our patients and can bring us providers opportunities for increased connection, joy, and gratitude in our daily work.

  1. The ASLOTS concept: An interactive, adaptive decision support concept for Final Approach Spacing of Aircraft (FASA). FAA-NASA Joint University Program

    Simpson, Robert W.

    1993-01-01

    This presentation outlines a concept for an adaptive, interactive decision support system to assist controllers at a busy airport in achieving efficient use of multiple runways. The concept is being implemented as a computer code called FASA (Final Approach Spacing for Aircraft), and will be tested and demonstrated in ATCSIM, a high fidelity simulation of terminal area airspace and airport surface operations. Objectives are: (1) to provide automated cues to assist controllers in the sequencing and spacing of landing and takeoff aircraft; (2) to provide the controller with a limited ability to modify the sequence and spacings between aircraft, and to insert takeoffs and missed approach aircraft in the landing flows; (3) to increase spacing accuracy using more complex and precise separation criteria while reducing controller workload; and (4) achieve higher operational takeoff and landing rates on multiple runways in poor visibility.

  2. Tobacco and health in India.

    Rao, V; Chaturvedi, P

    2010-07-01

    Tobacco is a well-acknowledged social and health evil. The history of tobacco use traces back to the dawn of human civilization and has been deeply entrenched into the human society since time immemorial. The social, economic, and health impact of tobacco has been a subject of intense debate over the recent decades. For India, this problem has been a unique one, with the consumption patterns either largely influenced by the socioeconomic backgrounds or dictated by the cultural diversity. With more than 200 million tobacco consumers in the country at present, it becomes imperative to address this health hazard and stir up strong measures toward damage control. This article addresses the tobacco problem, its evolution, and the factors that have affected the growth of Indian tobacco industry. It also highlights the current legislative measures against tobacco, fiscal gains to the government, and the serious health and economic impact to the consumer, compounded by the increasing cost of private health care in the present era of consumerism.

  3. 7 CFR 29.6043 - Tobacco.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.6043 Section 29.6043 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6043 Tobacco. Tobacco in its unmanufactured forms as it appears between...

  4. 7 CFR 29.23 - Tobacco.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.23 Section 29.23 Agriculture Regulations... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Definitions § 29.23 Tobacco. Tobacco in its unmanufactured forms as it appears between...

  5. 7 CFR 29.9207 - Nonquota tobacco.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nonquota tobacco. 29.9207 Section 29.9207 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO... Tobacco Produced and Marketed in a Quota Area Definitions § 29.9207 Nonquota tobacco. Any kind or type of...

  6. Trafficking in tobacco farm culture: Tobacco companies use of video imagery to undermine health policy

    Otañez, Martin G; Glantz, Stanton A

    2009-01-01

    The cigarette companies and their lobbying organization used tobacco industry-produced films and videos about tobacco farming to support their political, public relations, and public policy goals. Critical discourse analysis shows how tobacco companies utilized film and video imagery and narratives of tobacco farmers and tobacco economies for lobbying politicians and influencing consumers, industry-allied groups, and retail shop owners to oppose tobacco control measures and counter publicity on the health hazards, social problems, and environmental effects of tobacco growing. Imagery and narratives of tobacco farmers, tobacco barns, and agricultural landscapes in industry videos constituted a tobacco industry strategy to construct a corporate vision of tobacco farm culture that privileges the economic benefits of tobacco. The positive discursive representations of tobacco farming ignored actual behavior of tobacco companies to promote relationships of dependency and subordination for tobacco farmers and to contribute to tobacco-related poverty, child labor, and deforestation in tobacco growing countries. While showing tobacco farming as a family and a national tradition and a source of jobs, tobacco companies portrayed tobacco as a tradition to be protected instead of an industry to be regulated and denormalized. PMID:20160936

  7. 75 FR 33814 - Tobacco Product Constituents Subcommittee of the Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee...

    2010-06-15

    ...] Tobacco Product Constituents Subcommittee of the Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee; Notice of... to the public. Name of Committee: Tobacco Product Constituents Subcommittee of the Tobacco Products...-8900. Contact Person: Karen Templeton-Somers, Office of Science, Center for Tobacco Products, Food and...

  8. Trafficking in tobacco farm culture: Tobacco companies use of video imagery to undermine health policy.

    Otañez, Martin G; Glantz, Stanton A

    2009-05-01

    The cigarette companies and their lobbying organization used tobacco industry-produced films and videos about tobacco farming to support their political, public relations, and public policy goals. Critical discourse analysis shows how tobacco companies utilized film and video imagery and narratives of tobacco farmers and tobacco economies for lobbying politicians and influencing consumers, industry-allied groups, and retail shop owners to oppose tobacco control measures and counter publicity on the health hazards, social problems, and environmental effects of tobacco growing. Imagery and narratives of tobacco farmers, tobacco barns, and agricultural landscapes in industry videos constituted a tobacco industry strategy to construct a corporate vision of tobacco farm culture that privileges the economic benefits of tobacco. The positive discursive representations of tobacco farming ignored actual behavior of tobacco companies to promote relationships of dependency and subordination for tobacco farmers and to contribute to tobacco-related poverty, child labor, and deforestation in tobacco growing countries. While showing tobacco farming as a family and a national tradition and a source of jobs, tobacco companies portrayed tobacco as a tradition to be protected instead of an industry to be regulated and denormalized.

  9. Dynamics of atoms in strong laser fields I: A quasi analytical model in momentum space based on a Sturmian expansion of the interacting nonlocal Coulomb potential

    Ongonwou, F.; Tetchou Nganso, H. M.; Ekogo, T. B.; Kwato Njock, M. G.

    2016-12-01

    In this study we present a model that we have formulated in the momentum space to describe atoms interacting with intense laser fields. As a further step, it follows our recent theoretical approach in which the kernel of the reciprocal-space time-dependent Schrödinger equation (TDSE) is replaced by a finite sum of separable potentials, each of them supporting one bound state of atomic hydrogen (Tetchou Nganso et al. 2013). The key point of the model is that the nonlocal interacting Coulomb potential is expanded in a Coulomb Sturmian basis set derived itself from a Sturmian representation of Bessel functions of the first kind in the position space. As a result, this decomposition allows a simple spectral treatment of the TDSE in the momentum space. In order to illustrate the credibility of the model, we have considered the test case of atomic hydrogen driven by a linearly polarized laser pulse, and have evaluated analytically matrix elements of the atomic Hamiltonian and dipole coupling interaction. For various regimes of the laser parameters used in computations our results are in very good agreement with data obtained from other time-dependent calculations.

  10. Dynamics of atoms in strong laser fields I: A quasi analytical model in momentum space based on a Sturmian expansion of the interacting nonlocal Coulomb potential

    Ongonwou, F., E-mail: fred.ongonwou@gmail.com [Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences, Université des Sciences et Techniques de Masuku, B.P. 943 Franceville (Gabon); Tetchou Nganso, H.M., E-mail: htetchou@yahoo.com [Atoms and Molecules Laboratory, Centre for Atomic Molecular Physics and Quantum Optics (CEPAMOQ), Faculty of Science, University of Douala, P.O. Box 8580, Douala (Cameroon); Ekogo, T.B., E-mail: tekogo@yahoo.fr [Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences, Université des Sciences et Techniques de Masuku, B.P. 943 Franceville (Gabon); Kwato Njock, M.G., E-mail: mkwato@yahoo.com [Atoms and Molecules Laboratory, Centre for Atomic Molecular Physics and Quantum Optics (CEPAMOQ), Faculty of Science, University of Douala, P.O. Box 8580, Douala (Cameroon)

    2016-12-15

    In this study we present a model that we have formulated in the momentum space to describe atoms interacting with intense laser fields. As a further step, it follows our recent theoretical approach in which the kernel of the reciprocal-space time-dependent Schrödinger equation (TDSE) is replaced by a finite sum of separable potentials, each of them supporting one bound state of atomic hydrogen (Tetchou Nganso et al. 2013). The key point of the model is that the nonlocal interacting Coulomb potential is expanded in a Coulomb Sturmian basis set derived itself from a Sturmian representation of Bessel functions of the first kind in the position space. As a result, this decomposition allows a simple spectral treatment of the TDSE in the momentum space. In order to illustrate the credibility of the model, we have considered the test case of atomic hydrogen driven by a linearly polarized laser pulse, and have evaluated analytically matrix elements of the atomic Hamiltonian and dipole coupling interaction. For various regimes of the laser parameters used in computations our results are in very good agreement with data obtained from other time-dependent calculations.

  11. Strategies for an effective tobacco harm reduction policy in Indonesia

    Fariz Nurwidya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco consumption is a major causative agent for various deadly diseases such as coronary artery disease and cancer. It is the largest avoidable health risk in the world, causing more problems than alcohol, drug use, high blood pressure, excess body weight or high cholesterol. As countries like Indonesia prepare to develop national policy guidelines for tobacco harm reduction, the scientific community can help by providing continuous ideas and a forum for sharing and distributing information, drafting guidelines, reviewing best practices, raising funds, and establishing partnerships. We propose several strategies for reducing tobacco consumption, including advertisement interference, cigarette pricing policy, adolescent smoking prevention policy, support for smoking cessation therapy, special informed consent for smokers, smoking prohibition in public spaces, career incentives, economic incentives, and advertisement incentives. We hope that these strategies would assist people to avoid starting smoking or in smoking cessation.

  12. Impact interaction of shells and structural elements of spacecrafts with the particles of space debris and micrometeoroids

    Gerasimov, A. V.; Pashkov, S. V.; Khristenko, Yu. F.

    2017-10-01

    Space debris formed during the launch and operation of spacecrafts in the circumterrestrial space, and the flows of micrometeoroids from the depths of space pose a real threat to manned and automatic vehicles. Providing the fracture resistance of aluminum, glass and ceramic spacecraft elements is an important practical task. These materials are widely used in spacecraft elements such as bodies, tanks, windows, glass in optical devices, heat shields, etc.

  13. Effective medium super-cell approximation for interacting disordered systems: an alternative real-space derivation of generalized dynamical cluster approximation

    Moradian, Rostam

    2006-01-01

    We develop a generalized real-space effective medium super-cell approximation (EMSCA) method to treat the electronic states of interacting disordered systems. This method is general and allows randomness both in the on-site energies and in the hopping integrals. For a non-interacting disordered system, in the special case of randomness in the on-site energies, this method is equivalent to the non-local coherent potential approximation (NLCPA) derived previously. Also, for an interacting system the EMSCA method leads to the real-space derivation of the generalized dynamical cluster approximation (DCA) for a general lattice structure. We found that the original DCA and the NLCPA are two simple cases of this technique, so the EMSCA is equivalent to the generalized DCA where there is included interaction and randomness in the on-site energies and in the hopping integrals. All of the equations of this formalism are derived by using the effective medium theory in real space

  14. Preparedness of frontline health workers for tobacco cessation: An exploratory study from two states of India

    Rajmohan Panda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The 5As approach is a clinic-based approach and has been developed for primary health care providers who are uniquely positioned to interact with tobacco users. The 5As stands for: Ask about tobacco use at every visit, advise tobacco users to quit, assess readiness to quit, assist quit attempts through counseling and pharmacotherapy and arrange follow-up to prevent relapse. The present study explores whether auxiliary nurse midwives (ANMs adhere to the 3As from the recommended 5As model for tobacco cessation. Materials and Methods: The study was a cross-sectional study conducted among 501 ANMs in the state of Gujarat and Andhra Pradesh. Descriptive analysis and chi-square test were employed to test the differences in knowledge levels and practices of ANMs. Bivariate logistic regression was used to examine the association between each predictor variable separately and the outcome variables after adjusting for age and location. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 17 software. Results: Majority of ANMs reported that they were aware of respiratory illnesses, tuberculosis, lung and oral cancer as conditions caused due to tobacco consumption. Awareness of adverse reproductive and child health effects associated with tobacco use was very low. Only about one third of respondents informed all patients about harmful effects. Only 16% of ANMs reported having ever received any on-job training related to tobacco control. ANMs who reported receiving training in tobacco control were about two times more likely to provide information on health effects of tobacco as compared to those who reported not being trained in tobacco control in the state of Gujarat. Conclusions: A majority of ANMs ask patients about tobacco use but provide advice only to patients suffering from specific diseases. A context-specific capacity building package needs to be designed to equip ANMs in recommended 5As approach in tobacco cessation.

  15. The Role of Parieto-Occipital Junction in the Interaction between Dorsal and Ventral Streams in Disparity-Defined Near and Far Space Processing.

    Aijun Wang

    Full Text Available Neuropsychological and functional MRI data suggest that two functionally and anatomically dissociable streams of visual processing exist: a ventral perception-related stream and a dorsal action-related stream. However, relatively little is known about how the two streams interact in the intact brain during the production of adaptive behavior. Using functional MRI and a virtual three-dimensional paradigm, we aimed at examining whether the parieto-occipital junction (POJ acts as an interface for the integration and processing of information between the dorsal and ventral streams in the near and far space processing. Virtual reality three-dimensional near and far space was defined by manipulating binocular disparity, with -68.76 arcmin crossed disparity for near space and +68.76 arcmin uncrossed disparity for near space. Our results showed that the POJ and bilateral superior occipital gyrus (SOG showed relative increased activity when responded to targets presented in the near space than in the far space, which was independent of the retinotopic and perceived sizes of target. Furthermore, the POJ showed the enhanced functional connectivity with both the dorsal and ventral streams during the far space processing irrespective of target sizes, supporting that the POJ acts as an interface between the dorsal and ventral streams in disparity-defined near and far space processing. In contrast, the bilateral SOG showed the enhanced functional connectivity only with the ventral stream if retinotopic sizes of targets in the near and far spaces were matched, which suggested there was a functional dissociation between the POJ and bilateral SOG.

  16. Tobacco tax and the illicit trade in tobacco products in New Zealand.

    Ajmal, Ali; U, Veng Ian

    2015-04-01

    To estimate the size of illegal tobacco trade and consumption and assess the impact of tobacco tax on the illicit tobacco market in New Zealand (NZ). Data on the import and seizure of legal and illegal tobacco in NZ was obtained from NZ Customs. Previous literature was used to calculate interception rates of illegal tobacco being smuggled and grown in NZ. Annual tobacco returns figures, obtained via the NZ Ministry of Health, were analysed to assess the market dynamics of legal tobacco products. This study found that illicit tobacco constituted 1.8-3.9% of total national tobacco consumption in NZ in 2013. This represents a minor increase compared to previous estimates from 2007-09, suggesting that tax increases enacted by the NZ Government since 2010 have had a minimal impact on encouraging the use and procurement of illicit tobacco. The results highlight a slight rise in small-scale tobacco smuggling through ports and mail centres. However, tobacco returns figures show that current tobacco tax policy has forced manufacturers to focus on the production of cheap legal tobacco products, directly competing with and undercutting the demand for illicit tobacco products. At the same time, locally grown illicit tobacco continues to remain a small, isolated problem and, with recent cuts in duty free tobacco allowance, it is expected that overall illicit tobacco will remain a very small proportion of total tobacco consumption in NZ. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  17. A bibliometric analysis on tobacco regulation investigators.

    Li, Dingcheng; Okamoto, Janet; Liu, Hongfang; Leischow, Scott

    2015-01-01

    To facilitate the implementation of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act of 2009, the Federal Drug Agency (FDA) Center for Tobacco Products (CTP) has identified research priorities under the umbrella of tobacco regulatory science (TRS). As a newly integrated field, the current boundaries and landscape of TRS research are in need of definition. In this work, we conducted a bibliometric study of TRS research by applying author topic modeling (ATM) on MEDLINE citations published by currently-funded TRS principle investigators (PIs). We compared topics generated with ATM on dataset collected with TRS PIs and topics generated with ATM on dataset collected with a TRS keyword list. It is found that all those topics show a good alignment with FDA's funding protocols. More interestingly, we can see clear interactive relationships among PIs and between PIs and topics. Based on those interactions, we can discover how diverse each PI is, how productive they are, which topics are more popular and what main components each topic involves. Temporal trend analysis of key words shows the significant evaluation in four prime TRS areas. The results show that ATM can efficiently group articles into discriminative categories without any supervision. This indicates that we may incorporate ATM into author identification systems to infer the identity of an author of articles using topics generated by the model. It can also be useful to grantees and funding administrators in suggesting potential collaborators or identifying those that share common research interests for data harmonization or other purposes. The incorporation of temporal analysis can be employed to assess the change over time in TRS as new projects are funded and the extent to which new research reflects the funding priorities of the FDA.

  18. Campaign for Tobacco Free Kids

    ... Pakistan Philippines Thailand Turkey Vietnam Europe/Eurasia Poland Russian Federation Ukraine Latin America Brazil Mexico WHAT WE ... KIDS. SAVING LIVES. BECAUSE TOBACCO HAS KILLED ENOUGH learn more sign up donate sign up donate IN ...

  19. Youth Tobacco Survey (YTS) Data

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. YTS Data. The YTS was developed to...

  20. Question Inventory on Tobacco (QIT)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1965, 1966, 1970, 1974-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Office on Smoking and Health (OSH). Tobacco-Related Survey Questions. The QIT is a...

  1. Youth Tobacco Survey (YTS) Data

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2015. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. YTS Data. The YTS was developed to...

  2. Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  3. Sport Sponsorship and Tobacco: Implications and Impact of Federal Trade Commission v. Pinkerton Tobacco Company.

    Stotlar, David

    1992-01-01

    The union of sports and tobacco represents a multimillion dollar enterprise. Recent litigation, the Federal Trade Commission v. Pinkerton Tobacco Company, jeopardizes sport sponsorship agreements. Tobacco advertising may no longer be displayed anywhere during televised sporting events. (SM)

  4. Alpha radioactivity in tobacco leaves: Effect of fertilizers

    Nain, Mahabir [Department of Physics, Government College Karnal, Haryana 132001 (India)], E-mail: mnain@rediffmail.com; Chauhan, R.P. [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Kurukshetra 136119 (India); Chakarvarti, S.K. [Department of Applied Physics, NIT, Kurukshetra 136119 (India)

    2008-08-15

    The link between cigarette smoke and cancer has long been established. Smokers are 10 times at a greater risk of developing lung cancer than that of non-smokers. The toxicity in tobacco is considered mainly due to the presence of chemi-toxins like nicotine, tar, aromatic hydrocarbons, sterols and many other materials leading to mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. There are many reports on the presence of naturally occurring radionuclides viz., {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb in tobacco. Investigations on alpha-emitting radionuclides, especially on {sup 210}Po have gained significant importance as alpha interactions with chromosomes of cells may contribute to early arteriosclerosis developments in tobacco smokers. Due to relatively high activity concentration of {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb that are found in tobacco and its product cigarette can increase the internal intake of both the radionuclides and their concentrations in lung tissues. This causes an increase in the internal radiation dose which enhances the instances of lung cancer. Many workers have tried to explain the role of {sup 210}Po in tobacco in the epidemiological investigation of cancer and tumour formation. In the present work, the estimation of alpha radioactivity in tobacco leaves taken from tobacco plants grown using different types of chemical fertilizers like diammonium phosphate (DAP), zinc sulphate, potash, super phosphate, urea etc. in varying amounts before the plantation of the seedlings has been made. For these measurements we used {alpha}-sensitive LR-115 type II plastic track detectors. The results indicate an increase in alpha radioactivity with the use of some fertilizers.

  5. Intra-EVA Space-to-Ground Interactions when Conducting Scientific Fieldwork Under Simulated Mars Mission Constraints

    Beaton, Kara H.; Chappell, Steven P.; Abercromby, Andrew F. J.; Lim, Darlene S. S.

    2018-01-01

    with the MSC via voice and text messaging. They also provided scientific instrument data, still imagery, video streams from chest-mounted cameras, GPS location tracking information. The MSC monitored and reviewed incoming data from the field across delay and provided recommendations for pre-sampling and sampling tasks based on their collective expertise. The scientists used dynamic priority ranking lists, referred to as dynamic leaderboards, to track and rank candidate samples relative to one another and against the science objectives for the current EVA and the overall mission. Updates to the dynamic leaderboards throughout the EVA were relayed regularly to the IV crewmembers. The use of these leaderboards enabled the crew to track the dynamic nature of the MSC recommendations and helped minimize crew idle time (defined as time spent waiting for input from Earth during which no other productive tasks are being performed). EVA timelines were strategically designed to enable continuous (delayed) feedback from an Earth-based Science Team while simultaneously minimizing crew idle time. Such timelines are operationally advantageous, reducing transport costs by eliminating the need for crews to return to the same locations on multiple EVAs while still providing opportunities for recommendations from science experts on Earth, and scientifically advantageous by minimizing the potential for cross-contamination across sites. This paper will highlight the space-to-ground interaction results from the three BASALT field deployments, including planned versus actual EVA timeline data, ground assimilation times (defined as the amount of time available to the MSC to provide input to the crew), and idle time. Furthermore, we describe how these results vary under the different communication latency and bandwidth conditions. Together, these data will provide a basis for guiding and prioritizing capability development for future human exploration missions.

  6. FCTC guidelines on tobacco industry foreign investment would strengthen controls on tobacco supply and close loopholes in the tobacco treaty.

    Lo, Chang-fa

    2010-08-01

    The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) contains no provisions covering tobacco industry investments. This creates the potential for tobacco companies to benefit from investment liberalisation by using foreign investments to avoid tobacco tariffs, increase tobacco consumption and otherwise impair the implementation of FCTC-style measures. Reducing and ultimately eliminating foreign investment activities by tobacco companies can be justified on health grounds, even though it runs counter to current investment liberalisation trends. Through the FCTC process, non-binding guidelines can be elaborated to assist parties in recognising and responding to foreign investment strategies of tobacco companies, to support efforts to exclude the tobacco sector from investment liberalisation and otherwise would improve all countries' awareness of the threat from foreign investment strategies of tobacco companies and provide them with approaches to handle the problems.

  7. Current challenges in tobacco control.

    Slama, K

    2004-10-01

    Tobacco is the world's biggest preventable killer, but the circumstances of its history, the power and influence of its commerce and the nature of addiction make it a very difficult public health issue. Determinants of smoking are both individual and environmental. Genetics and environment influence to varying degrees all of the steps in a smoker's career. Persistence of use, degree of addiction to nicotine and difficulty in stopping are influenced by inherited traits and nicotine susceptibility, whereas the social environment and the individual's cognitions are the key factors in starting smoking and successfully stopping smoking. The tools available to tobacco control include influencing the social and cultural norms concerning tobacco; legislative and regulatory measures to protect the population and to limit tobacco industry marketing tactics, now encapsulated in the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control; and programmes to enhance the chance of not starting and successfully stopping. Strategies for tobacco control must work at both societal and individual levels, and directions are being taken that include genetic, pharmacological, behavioural, socio-cultural and international approaches.

  8. Social responsibility in tobacco production? Tobacco companies' use of green supply chains to obscure the real costs of tobacco farming.

    Otañez, Marty; Glantz, Stanton A

    2011-11-01

    Tobacco companies have come under increased criticism because of environmental and labour practices related to growing tobacco in developing countries. Analysis of tobacco industry documents, industry websites and interviews with tobacco farmers in Tanzania and tobacco farm workers, farm authorities, trade unionists, government officials and corporate executives from global tobacco leaf companies in Malawi. British American Tobacco and Philip Morris created supply chains in the 1990 s to improve production efficiency, control, access to markets and profits. In the 2000s, the companies used their supply chains in an attempt to legitimise their portrayals of tobacco farming as socially and environmentally friendly, rather than take meaningful steps to eliminate child labour and reduce deforestation in developing countries. The tobacco companies used nominal self-evaluation (not truly independent evaluators) and public relations to create the impression of social responsibility. The companies benefit from $1.2 billion in unpaid labour costs because of child labour and more than $64 million annually in costs that would have been made to avoid tobacco-related deforestation in the top 12 tobacco growing developing countries, far exceeding the money they spend nominally working to change these practices. The tobacco industry uses green supply chains to make tobacco farming in developing countries appear sustainable while continuing to purchase leaf produced with child labour and high rates of deforestation. Strategies to counter green supply chain schemes include securing implementing protocols for the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control to regulate the companies' practices at the farm level.

  9. Between autonomy and interaction

    Verwohlt, Betina

    In 2007, a smoking law was implemented in Denmark, banning indoor tobacco smoke in public places such as pubs, restaurants, workplaces, public offices, hospitals and shopping malls. The law marks a paradigm shift in Danish tobacco policy manifesting a stronger structural focus than has been the c...... attitudes towards structural initiatives before and after the implementation and discusses what causes changes in the population’s attitudes and whether the attitudes are best described as autonomous or as interactive with societal changes....

  10. Assessing consumer responses to potential reduced-exposure tobacco products: a review of tobacco industry and independent research methods.

    Rees, Vaughan W; Kreslake, Jennifer M; Cummings, K Michael; O'Connor, Richard J; Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Parascandola, Mark; Shields, Peter G; Connolly, Gregory N

    2009-12-01

    Internal tobacco industry documents and the mainstream literature are reviewed to identify methods and measures for evaluating tobacco consumer response. The review aims to outline areas in which established methods exist, identify gaps in current methods for assessing consumer response, and consider how these methods might be applied to evaluate potentially reduced exposure tobacco products and new products. Internal industry research reviewed included published articles, manuscript drafts, presentations, protocols, and instruments relating to consumer response measures were identified and analyzed. Peer-reviewed research was identified using PubMed and Scopus. Industry research on consumer response focuses on product development and marketing. To develop and refine new products, the tobacco industry has developed notable strategies for assessing consumers' sensory and subjective responses to product design characteristics. Independent research is often conducted to gauge the likelihood of future product adoption by measuring consumers' risk perceptions, responses to product, and product acceptability. A model that conceptualizes consumer response as comprising the separate, but interacting, domains of product perceptions and response to product is outlined. Industry and independent research supports the dual domain model and provides a wide range of methods for assessment of the construct components of consumer response. Further research is needed to validate consumer response constructs, determine the relationship between consumer response and tobacco user behavior, and improve reliability of consumer response measures. Scientifically rigorous consumer response assessment methods will provide a needed empirical basis for future regulation of potentially reduced-exposure tobacco products and new products, to counteract tobacco industry influence on consumers, and enhance the public health.

  11. Induction and comparison of craving for tobacco, marijuana and crack

    Renata Brasil Araujo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The literature findings report that use of multiple substances can produce adverse clinical and behavioral effects, which may affect craving and the results of drug treatment. Also, the understanding of craving construct and its interaction in the use of smoked substances is underexplored. Objectives To induce and compare craving for tobacco, marijuana and crack-cocaine on hospitalized dependents whose drug of choice is crack-cocaine. Methods Quasi-experimental study with a convenience sample consisting of 210 males divided into 3 equal groups (Group-1: craving induced by crack; Group-2: craving induced by tobacco; and Group-3: craving induced by marijuana. All participants met ICD-10 dependence criteria for cocaine/crack, marijuana and tobacco, were aged between 18 and 65 and had used these substances for at least one year. Photos were used to induce craving and self-report instruments to evaluate possible alterations. Results This study showed that craving for tobacco was more intense than for marijuana and crack, when the groups were compared by VAS. Using specific scales, both craving for tobacco and craving for marijuana were more intense than craving for crack. Discussion These results would imply interventions at the initial stages of abstinence with cognitive-behavioural techniques and pharmacotherapy in order to reduce craving.

  12. Smoked marijuana effects on tobacco cigarette smoking behavior.

    Kelly, T H; Foltin, R W; Rose, A J; Fischman, M W; Brady, J V

    1990-03-01

    The effects of marijuana smoke exposure on several measures of tobacco cigarette smoking behavior were examined. Eight healthy adult male volunteers, who smoked both tobacco and marijuana cigarettes, participated in residential studies, lasting 10 to 15 days, designed to measure the effects of marijuana smoke exposure on a range of behavioral variables. Tobacco cigarettes were available throughout the day (9:00 A.M. until midnight). Each day was divided into a private period (9:00 A.M. to 5:00 P.M.), during which subjects were socially isolated, and a social period (5:00 P.M. to midnight), during which subjects could interact. Under blind conditions, subjects smoked placebo and active marijuana cigarettes (0%, 1.3%, 2.3%, or 2.7% delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol) four times daily (9:45 A.M., 1:30 P.M., 5:00 P.M. and 8:30 P.M.). Each subject was exposed to both placebo and one active dose over 2- to 5-consecutive-day intervals, and dose conditions (i.e., placebo or active) alternated throughout the study. Active marijuana smoking significantly decreased the number of daily tobacco smoking bouts, increased inter-bout intervals and decreased inter-puff intervals. Marijuana decreased the number of tobacco smoking bouts by delaying the initiation of tobacco cigarette smoking immediately after marijuana smoking, whereas decreases in inter-puff intervals were unrelated to the time of marijuana smoking. No consistent interactions between marijuana effects and social or private periods (i.e., time of day) were observed.

  13. China: the tipping point in tobacco control.

    Mackay, Judith

    2016-12-01

    Tobacco control in China, the world's largest producer and consumer of tobacco, began in the 1980s with the first national prevalence survey and a conference on tobacco held in Tianjin. Since then, there have been dozens of research papers, partial restrictions on smoking and tobacco advertising, public education campaigns, and the ratification of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, but progress has been slow. The state-owned tobacco industry remains a major obstacle to tobacco control. In the last few years, tobacco control efforts have accelerated beyond expectations. The triggering event was the publication on tobacco by the Chinese Central Party School, the ideological think tank of the Communist Party, followed by a spate of activity: directives to government officials; regulations issued by the Ministry of Education, the People's Liberation Army and the Healthy City Standards; tobacco clauses in national advertising and philanthropy laws; the creation of a Smoke-free Beijing; an increase in tobacco taxation; and a national smoke-free law currently in draft. There is a crucial need for China to build upon these recent developments, in accepting the economic research evidence of the debit of tobacco to the economy; in implementing robust, comprehensive legislation; in increasing cigarette price through taxation and, most challenging of all, to tackle the power and influence of the state tobacco monopoly over tobacco control. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Young adults' interpretations of tobacco brands: implications for tobacco control.

    Gendall, Philip; Hoek, Janet; Thomson, George; Edwards, Richard; Pene, Gina; Gifford, Heather; Pirikahu, Gill; McCool, Judith

    2011-10-01

    Marketers have long recognized the power and importance of branding, which creates aspirational attributes that increase products' attractiveness. Although brand imagery has traditionally been communicated via mass media, packaging's importance in promoting desirable brand-attribute associations has increased. Knowledge of how groups prone to smoking experimentation interpret tobacco branding would inform the debate over plain packaging currently occurring in many countries. We conducted 12 group discussions and four in-depth interviews with 66 young adult smokers and nonsmokers of varying ethnicities from two larger New Zealand cities and one provincial city. Participants evaluated 10 familiar and unfamiliar tobacco brands using brand personality attributes and discussed the associations they had made. Participants ascribed very different images to different brands when exposed to the packaging alone, regardless of whether they had seen or heard of the brands before. Perceptual mapping of brands and image attributes highlighted how brand positions varied from older, more traditional, and male oriented to younger, feminine, and "cool." Our findings emphasize the continuing importance of tobacco branding as a promotion tool, even when communicated only by packaging. The ease with which packaging alone enabled young people to identify brand attributes and the desirable associations these connoted illustrate how tobacco packaging functions as advertising. The results support measures such as plain packaging of tobacco products to reduce exposure to these overt behavioral cues.

  15. Understanding community norms surrounding tobacco sales.

    Patricia A McDaniel

    Full Text Available In the US, denormalizing tobacco use is key to tobacco control; less attention has been paid to denormalizing tobacco sales. However, some localities have placed limits on the number and type of retailers who may sell tobacco, and some retailers have abandoned tobacco sales voluntarily. Understanding community norms surrounding tobacco sales may help accelerate tobacco denormalization.We conducted 15 focus groups with customers of California, New York, and Ohio retailers who had voluntarily discontinued tobacco sales to examine normative assumptions about where cigarettes should or should not be sold, voluntary decisions to discontinue tobacco sales, and government limits on such sales.Groups in all three states generally agreed that grocery stores that sold healthy products should not sell tobacco; California groups saw pharmacies similarly, while this was a minority opinion in the other two states. Convenience stores were regarded as a natural place to sell tobacco. In each state, it was regarded as normal and commendable for some stores to want to stop selling tobacco, although few participants could imagine convenience stores doing so. Views on government's role in setting limits on tobacco sales varied, with California and New York participants generally expressing support for restrictions, and Ohio participants expressing opposition. However, even those who expressed opposition did not approve of tobacco sales in all possible venues. Banning tobacco sales entirely was not yet normative.Limiting the ubiquitous availability of tobacco sales is key to ending the tobacco epidemic. Some limits on tobacco sales appear to be normative from the perspective of community members; it may be possible to shift norms further by problematizing the ubiquitous presence of cigarettes and drawing connections to other products already subject to restrictions.

  16. Understanding community norms surrounding tobacco sales.

    McDaniel, Patricia A; Malone, Ruth E

    2014-01-01

    In the US, denormalizing tobacco use is key to tobacco control; less attention has been paid to denormalizing tobacco sales. However, some localities have placed limits on the number and type of retailers who may sell tobacco, and some retailers have abandoned tobacco sales voluntarily. Understanding community norms surrounding tobacco sales may help accelerate tobacco denormalization. We conducted 15 focus groups with customers of California, New York, and Ohio retailers who had voluntarily discontinued tobacco sales to examine normative assumptions about where cigarettes should or should not be sold, voluntary decisions to discontinue tobacco sales, and government limits on such sales. Groups in all three states generally agreed that grocery stores that sold healthy products should not sell tobacco; California groups saw pharmacies similarly, while this was a minority opinion in the other two states. Convenience stores were regarded as a natural place to sell tobacco. In each state, it was regarded as normal and commendable for some stores to want to stop selling tobacco, although few participants could imagine convenience stores doing so. Views on government's role in setting limits on tobacco sales varied, with California and New York participants generally expressing support for restrictions, and Ohio participants expressing opposition. However, even those who expressed opposition did not approve of tobacco sales in all possible venues. Banning tobacco sales entirely was not yet normative. Limiting the ubiquitous availability of tobacco sales is key to ending the tobacco epidemic. Some limits on tobacco sales appear to be normative from the perspective of community members; it may be possible to shift norms further by problematizing the ubiquitous presence of cigarettes and drawing connections to other products already subject to restrictions.

  17. Using State Space Grids to analyze the dynamics of teacher-student interactions in foreign language classrooms

    Smit, Nienke; de Bot, Cornelis; van de Grift, Wim

    2016-01-01

    Many scholars have stressed the importance of the role of interaction in the language learning process (Kramsch, 1986; Van Lier, 1996; Ellis, 2000; Walsh, 2011). However, studies on classroom interaction between foreign language (FL) teachers and a group of FL learners are rare, because they are

  18. Tobacco use in Bollywood movies, tobacco promotional activities and their association with tobacco use among Indian adolescents

    Mathur, Neha; Gupta, Vinay K; Nazar, Gaurang P; Reddy, K Srinath; Sargent, James D

    2011-01-01

    Background Smoking in Hollywood movies is a known risk factor for teen smoking in the USA and Europe, but little is known about the association between exposure to tobacco use in Bollywood movies and teen tobacco use in India. Methods A cross-sectional sample of 3956 adolescents (eighth and ninth grades, ages 12–16 years) from 12 randomly selected New Delhi schools was surveyed in 2009, assessing tobacco use status, receptivity to tobacco promotions (based on owning or being willing to wear tobacco-branded merchandise) and exposure to tobacco use in movies. Quartiles of exposure to tobacco use in popular Bollywood movies released from 2006 to 2008 (n=59) were determined by content coding them for tobacco use and querying the adolescents whether they had seen each one. Logistic regression was used to control for covariates including age, gender, parent education, school performance, sensation-seeking propensity, family and peer tobacco use, and authoritative parenting. Results Altogether, the 59 movies contained 412 tobacco use occurrences. The prevalence of ever tobacco use among adolescents was 5.3%. Compared with low-exposure adolescents (quartile 1), the adjusted odds of ever tobacco use among high-exposure adolescents (quartile 4) was 2.3 (95% CI 1.3 to 3.9). Being receptive to tobacco promotions was also associated with higher adjusted odds of ever tobacco use, 2.0 (95% CI 1.4 to 3.0). Conclusion Watching tobacco use in Bollywood movies and receptivity to tobacco promotional activities were both independently associated with ever tobacco use among adolescents in India, with ORs being similar to the studies of adolescents elsewhere. PMID:21730099

  19. Expression of a defence-related intercellular barley peroxidase in transgenic tobacco

    Kristensen, B.K.; Brandt, J.; Bojsen, K.

    1997-01-01

    genetically, phenotypically and biochemically. The T-DNA was steadily inherited through three generations. The barley peroxidase is expressed and sorted to the intercellular space in the transgenic tobacco plants. The peroxidase can be extracted from the intercellular space in two molecular forms from both...... barley and transgenic tobacco. The tobacco expressed forms are indistinguishable from the barley expressed forms as determined by analytical isoelectric focusing (pI 8.5) and Western-blotting. Staining for N-glycosylation showed that one form only was glycosylated. The N-terminus of purified Prx8 from...... transgenic tobacco was blocked by pyroglutamate, after the removal of which, N-terminal sequencing verified the transit signal-peptide cleavage site deduced from the cDNA sequence. Phenotype comparisons show that the constitutive expression of Prx8 lead to growth retardation. However, an infection assay...

  20. Chewing Tobacco: Not a Safe Alternative to Cigarettes

    Healthy Lifestyle Quit smoking Get the facts about chewing tobacco and other forms of smokeless tobacco. They' ... than you might think. By Mayo Clinic Staff Chewing tobacco and other smokeless tobacco products may be ...

  1. Public attitudes towards smoking and tobacco control policy in Russia.

    Danishevski, K; Gilmore, A; McKee, M

    2008-08-01

    Since the political transition in 1991, Russia has been targeted intensively by the transnational tobacco industry. Already high smoking rates among men have increased further; traditionally low rates among women have more than doubled. The tobacco companies have so far faced little opposition as they shape the discourse on smoking in Russia. This paper asks what ordinary Russians really think about possible actions to reduce smoking. A representative sample of the Russian population (1600 respondents) was interviewed face to face in November 2007. Only 14% of respondents considered tobacco control in Russia adequate, while 37% thought that nothing was being done at all. There was support for prices keeping pace with or even exceeding inflation. Over 70% of all respondents favoured a ban on sales from street kiosks, while 56% believed that existing health warnings (currently 4% of front and back of packs) were inadequate. The current policy of designating a few tables in bars and restaurants as non-smoking was supported by less than 10% of respondents, while almost a third supported a total ban, with 44% supporting provision of equal space for smokers and non-smokers. Older age, non-smoking status and living in a smaller town all emerged as significantly associated with the propensity to support antismoking measures. The tobacco companies were generally viewed as behaving like most other companies in Russia, with three-quarters of respondents believing that these companies definitely or maybe bribe politicians. Knowledge of impact of smoking on health was limited with significant underestimation of dangers and addictive qualities of tobacco. A third believed that light cigarettes are safer than normal cigarettes. The majority of the Russian population would support considerable strengthening of tobacco control policies but there is also a need for effective public education campaigns.

  2. Public attitudes towards smoking and tobacco control policy in Russia

    Danishevski, Kirill; Gilmore, Anna; McKee, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Background Since the political transition in 1991, Russia has been targeted intensively by the transnational tobacco industry. Already high smoking rates among men have increased further; traditionally low rates among women have more than doubled. The tobacco companies have so far faced little opposition as they shape the discourse on smoking in Russia. This paper asks what ordinary Russians really think about possible actions to reduce smoking. Methods A representative sample of the Russian population (1600 respondents) was interviewed face-to-face in November 2007. Results Only 14% of respondents considered tobacco control in Russia adequate, while 37% felt that nothing was being done at all. There was support for prices keeping pace with or even exceeding inflation. Over 70% of all respondents favoured a ban on sales from street kiosks, while 56% believed that existing health warnings (currently 4% of front and back of packs) were inadequate. The current policy of designating a few tables in bars and restaurants as non-smoking was supported by less than 10% of respondents, while almost a third supported a total ban, with 44% supporting provision of equal space for smokers and non-smokers. Older age, non-smoking status and living a smaller town all emerged as significantly associated with the propensity to support of antismoking measures. The tobacco companies were generally viewed as behaving like most other companies in Russia, with three-quarters believing that they definitely or maybe bribe politicians. Knowledge of impact of smoking on health was limited with significant underestimation of dangers and addictive qualities of tobacco. A third believed that light cigarettes are safer than normal. Conclusion The majority of the Russian population would support considerable strengthening of tobacco control policies but there is also a need for effective public education campaigns. PMID:18653793

  3. The Impact of Space Flight on Survival and Interaction of Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 with Basalt, a Volcanic Moon Analog Rock

    Natalie Leys

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Microbe-mineral interactions have become of interest for space exploration as microorganisms could be used to biomine from extra-terrestrial material and extract elements useful as micronutrients in life support systems. This research aimed to identify the impact of space flight on the long-term survival of Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 in mineral water and the interaction with basalt, a lunar-type rock in preparation for the ESA spaceflight experiment, BIOROCK. Therefore, C. metallidurans CH34 cells were suspended in mineral water supplemented with or without crushed basalt and send for 3 months on board the Russian FOTON-M4 capsule. Long-term storage had a significant impact on cell physiology and energy status (by flow cytometry analysis, plate count and intracellular ATP measurements as 60% of cells stored on ground lost their cell membrane potential, only 17% were still active, average ATP levels per cell were significantly lower and cultivability dropped to 1%. The cells stored in the presence of basalt and exposed to space flight conditions during storage however showed less dramatic changes in physiology, with only 16% of the cells lost their cell membrane potential and 24% were still active, leading to a higher cultivability (50% and indicating a general positive effect of basalt and space flight on survival. Microbe-mineral interactions and biofilm formation was altered by spaceflight as less biofilm was formed on the basalt during flight conditions. Leaching from basalt also changed (measured with ICP-OES, showing that cells release more copper from basalt and the presence of cells also impacted iron and magnesium concentration irrespective of the presence of basalt. The flight conditions thus could counteract some of the detrimental effects observed after the 3 month storage conditions.

  4. Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) view it differently than non-LGBT: Exposure to tobacco-related couponing, e-cigarette advertisements, and anti-tobacco messages on social and traditional media.

    Emory, Kristen; Buchting, Francisco O; Trinidad, Dennis R; Vera, Lisa; Emery, Sherry L

    2018-03-12

    LGBT populations use tobacco at disparately higher rates nationwide, compared to national averages. The tobacco industry has a history targeting LGBT with marketing efforts, likely contributing to this disparity. This study explores whether exposure to tobacco content on traditional and social media is associated with tobacco use among LGBT and non-LGBT. This study reports results from LGBT (N=1,092) and non-LGBT (N=16,430) respondents to a 2013 nationally representative cross-sectional online survey of US adults (N=17,522). Frequency and weighted prevalence were estimated and adjusted logistic regression analyses were conducted. LGBT reported significantly higher rates of past 30-day tobacco media exposure compared to non-LGBT, this effect was strongest among LGBT who were smokers (pe-cigarettes, and anti-tobacco on new or social media (e.g. Twitter, Facebook, etc.) than did non-LGBT (pe-cigarettes, and cigars compared to non-LGBT, adjusting for past 30-day media exposure and covariates (p≤0.0001). LGBT (particularly LGBT smokers) are more likely to be exposed to and interact with tobacco-related messages on new and social media than their non-LGBT counterparts. Higher levels of tobacco-media exposure were significantly associated with higher likelihood of tobacco use. This suggests tobacco control must work toward reaching LGBT across a variety of media platforms, particularly new and social media outlets.

  5. Tobacco imagery on prime time UK television.

    Lyons, Ailsa; McNeill, Ann; Britton, John

    2014-05-01

    Smoking in films is a common and well documented cause of youth smoking experimentation and uptake and hence a significant health hazard. The extent of exposure of young people to tobacco imagery in television programming has to date been far less investigated. We have therefore measured the extent to which tobacco content occurs in prime time UK television, and estimated exposure of UK youth. The occurrence of tobacco, categorised as actual tobacco use, implied tobacco use, tobacco paraphernalia, other reference to tobacco, tobacco brand appearances or any of these, occurring in all prime time broadcasting on the five most popularly viewed UK television stations during 3 separate weeks in 2010 were measured by 1-minute interval coding. Youth exposure to tobacco content in the UK was estimated using media viewing figures. Actual tobacco use, predominantly cigarette smoking, occurred in 73 of 613 (12%) programmes, particularly in feature films and reality TV. Brand appearances were rare, occurring in only 18 programmes, of which 12 were news or other factual genres, and 6 were episodes of the same British soap opera. Tobacco occurred with similar frequency before as after 21:00, the UK watershed for programmes suitable for youth. The estimated number of incidences of exposure of the audience aged less than 18 years for any tobacco, actual tobacco use and tobacco branding were 59 million, 16 million and 3 million, respectively on average per week. Television programming is a source of significant exposure of youth to tobacco imagery, before and after the watershed. Tobacco branding is particularly common in Coronation Street, a soap opera popular among youth audiences. More stringent controls on tobacco in prime time television therefore have the potential to reduce the uptake of youth smoking in the UK.

  6. The landscape of tobacco control in Africa

    Mark Paracandola

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Tobacco use prevalence in Africa is projected to rise over the next 15 years without stronger tobacco control measures. However, little research details the scope of tobacco control research being conducted in Africa. A systematic literature review was conducted to better understand the landscape of tobacco control efforts in Africa. Methods A literature search of tobacco research conducted in all African countries from 1996 to 2016 was performed in PubMed, Embase, and African Index Medicus. Published abstracts meeting the inclusion criteria of focusing on nicotine or tobacco product(s and having been conducted in one or more African countries were selected for full coding and analysis. The authors coded on study characteristics such as type of research, tobacco product, and country. Three coders double-coded 5% of the articles reviewed to ensure agreement. Results This review found 645 relevant articles, in French and English, representing 52 African countries. South Africa was the focus of the greatest proportion of these published tobacco control research articles (23%, followed by Nigeria (17%, Egypt (13%, and Tunisia (12%. Reporting the prevalence of tobacco use was the focus of 51% of these articles. Other areas of research included the potential determinants of tobacco use (28%; knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about tobacco products or policies (26%; and biological consequences of tobacco use (25%. Most studies (63% discussed cigarettes, and 15% studied smokeless tobacco. Youth-targeted studies comprised 25% of all research in Africa. Publications per year increased between 1996 and 2015, quadrupling in number by 2015. Conclusions A comprehensive review of the literature provides a baseline understanding of the tobacco control landscape and the increased attention countries are showing to tobacco and tobacco control. This research may inform opportunities for further research and for strengthening networks and thereby the

  7. Tobacco imagery on prime time UK television

    Lyons, Ailsa; McNeill, Ann; Britton, John

    2014-01-01

    Background Smoking in films is a common and well documented cause of youth smoking experimentation and uptake and hence a significant health hazard. The extent of exposure of young people to tobacco imagery in television programming has to date been far less investigated. We have therefore measured the extent to which tobacco content occurs in prime time UK television, and estimated exposure of UK youth. Methods The occurrence of tobacco, categorised as actual tobacco use, implied tobacco use, tobacco paraphernalia, other reference to tobacco, tobacco brand appearances or any of these, occurring in all prime time broadcasting on the five most popularly viewed UK television stations during 3 separate weeks in 2010 were measured by 1-minute interval coding. Youth exposure to tobacco content in the UK was estimated using media viewing figures. Findings Actual tobacco use, predominantly cigarette smoking, occurred in 73 of 613 (12%) programmes, particularly in feature films and reality TV. Brand appearances were rare, occurring in only 18 programmes, of which 12 were news or other factual genres, and 6 were episodes of the same British soap opera. Tobacco occurred with similar frequency before as after 21:00, the UK watershed for programmes suitable for youth. The estimated number of incidences of exposure of the audience aged less than 18 years for any tobacco, actual tobacco use and tobacco branding were 59 million, 16 million and 3 million, respectively on average per week. Conclusions Television programming is a source of significant exposure of youth to tobacco imagery, before and after the watershed. Tobacco branding is particularly common in Coronation Street, a soap opera popular among youth audiences. More stringent controls on tobacco in prime time television therefore have the potential to reduce the uptake of youth smoking in the UK. PMID:23479113

  8. Chlorine and bromine contents in tobacco and tobacco smoke

    Haesaenen, E.; Manninen, P.K.G.; Himberg, K.; Vaeaetaeinen, V.

    1990-01-01

    The chlorine and bromine contents in tobacco and tobacco smoke in both the particulate and gaseous phases were studied by neutron activation analysis. Eleven popular brands of western filter cigarettes were tested. Methyl chloride and methyl bromide concentrations were measured in the gaseous phase in two leading brands in Finland. The results suggest that the mainstream smoke from one cigarette conveys into the lungs about 150 μg chlorine and about 5 μg bromine. Probably most of the chlorine and bromine is in the form of organic compounds and the main components are methyl chloride and methyl bromide. (author) 14 refs.; 1 tab

  9. Interactive genetic algorithm for user-centered design of distributed conservation practices in a watershed: An examination of user preferences in objective space and user behavior

    Piemonti, Adriana Debora; Babbar-Sebens, Meghna; Mukhopadhyay, Snehasis; Kleinberg, Austin

    2017-05-01

    Interactive Genetic Algorithms (IGA) are advanced human-in-the-loop optimization methods that enable humans to give feedback, based on their subjective and unquantified preferences and knowledge, during the algorithm's search process. While these methods are gaining popularity in multiple fields, there is a critical lack of data and analyses on (a) the nature of interactions of different humans with interfaces of decision support systems (DSS) that employ IGA in water resources planning problems and on (b) the effect of human feedback on the algorithm's ability to search for design alternatives desirable to end-users. In this paper, we present results and analyses of observational experiments in which different human participants (surrogates and stakeholders) interacted with an IGA-based, watershed DSS called WRESTORE to identify plans of conservation practices in a watershed. The main goal of this paper is to evaluate how the IGA adapts its search process in the objective space to a user's feedback, and identify whether any similarities exist in the objective space of plans found by different participants. Some participants focused on the entire watershed, while others focused only on specific local subbasins. Additionally, two different hydrology models were used to identify any potential differences in interactive search outcomes that could arise from differences in the numerical values of benefits displayed to participants. Results indicate that stakeholders, in comparison to their surrogates, were more likely to use multiple features of the DSS interface to collect information before giving feedback, and dissimilarities existed among participants in the objective space of design alternatives.

  10. Salivary cotinine levels as a biomarker for green tobacco sickness in dry tobacco production among Thai traditional tobacco farmers.

    Saleeon, Thanusin; Siriwong, Wattasit; Maldonado-Pérez, Héctor Luis; Robson, Mark Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Dry Thai traditional tobacco (Nicotiana Tabacum L.) production involves a unique process: (a) picking tobacco leaves, (b) curing tobacco leaves, (c) removing stems of tobacco leaves, cutting leaves and putting on a bamboo rack, (d) drying in the sun, reversing a rack, spraying a tobacco extract to adjust the tobacco's color, storing dried tobacco and packaging. These processes may lead to adverse health effects caused by dermal absorption of nicotine such as Green Tobacco Sickness (GTS). The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between GTS resulting from dry Thai traditional tobacco production and salivary cotinine levels among Thai traditional tobacco farmers in Nan Province, Thailand. A prospective cohort study was conducted with 20 tobacco farmers and 20 non-tobacco farmers in Praputtabath Sub-District and Phatow Sub-District. The participants were randomly selected and interviewed using in person questionnaires with bi-weekly follow-up for 14 weeks. During each contact, the cotinine concentration was measured by NicAlert(TM) Saliva strip tests (NCTS). Descriptive statistics and Spearman's correlation (Spearman's rho) was used to examine the relationship between the variables at both 0.01 and 0.05 significant probability levels. This study indicated that GTS from dry tobacco production has the potential to be considered a common occupational disease. This study demonstrated the usefulness of salivary cotinine level measurements by NCTS. The levels were well correlated with farmers who were employed in the dry Thai tobacco production industry. Salivary cotinine levels were also significantly correlated with the prevalence of GTS in the group of tobacco farmers at any given time within a crop season. However, the production process of dry Thai traditional tobacco is different from that evaluated in our previous studies where GTS and salivary cotinine level were correlated in workers working in humid conditions. The long-term effects of such exposure

  11. Sympton development, X-body formation and 126-kDa-protein in plants infected with tobacco mosaic virus

    Wijdeveld, M.M.G.

    1990-01-01

    Upon infection with tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) sensitive tobacco varieties develop systemic mosaic symptoms in the developing leaves. These symptoms are the visible result of the interaction of the virus with its host and the nature and the severity of the symptoms are determined

  12. Sensory analysis of characterizing flavors in tobacco products using a trained expert panel

    Erna Krüsemann

    2018-03-01

    Using a trained expert panel is a successful example of assessing characterizing flavors in tobacco products. Regulatory decisions should be made on significance level and products representing the reference space, as these directly influence strictness of the method and thus the number of products that imparts a characterizing flavor compared to the reference space.

  13. The algebra of space-time as basis of a quantum field theory of all fermions and interactions

    Wolf, A.K.

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis a construction of a grand unified theory on the base of algebras of vector fields on a Riemannian space-time is described. Hereby from the vector and covector fields a Clifford-geometrical algebra is generated. (HSI)

  14. Boundary Interaction: Towards Developing a Mobile Technology-Enabled Science Curriculum to Integrate Learning in the Informal Spaces

    Sun, Daner; Looi, Chee-Kit

    2018-01-01

    This paper explores the crossover between formal learning and learning in informal spaces supported by mobile technology, and proposes design principles for educators to carry out a science curriculum, namely Boundary Activity-based Science Curriculum (BAbSC). The conceptualization of the boundary object, and the principles of boundary activity as…

  15. "We", "They" and the Spaces In-Between: Hybridity in Intercultural Interactions between Portuguese and Chinese Residents in Macau

    Amaro, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    This study seeks to explore the hybrid cultural and linguistic spaces that Portuguese immigrants create in Macau in the process of engaging in intercultural communication with the Chinese local community. I use critical discourse analysis to examine data collected through in-depth interviews and observations in order to arrive at an understanding…

  16. SAMHSA Synar Reports: Youth Tobacco Sales

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1997-2014. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). Synar Reports: Youth Tobacco Sales. Policy – Youth Tobacco Sales. SAMHSA’s Synar...

  17. Tobacco Control Research, Dissemination and Networking in ...

    Tobacco Control Research, Dissemination and Networking in Lebanon. The Tobacco ... IDRC “unpacks women's empowerment” at McGill University Conference ... New funding opportunity for gender equality and climate change. IDRC is ...

  18. Public Health and Increased Tobacco Regulation

    NCI’s Dr. Robert Croyle discusses the Food and Drug Administration’s release of a rule that extends its regulatory authority over tobacco products to include cigars, e-cigarettes, hookah tobacco, and others.

  19. Cutting down tobacco | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    ... ill health and birth defects from handling agricultural chemicals and tobacco leaf. ... The World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control ... being pulled from school to work, women going sleepless to run curing kilns, ...

  20. Teens and tobacco: a dramatization: final report

    1997-01-01

    This project was developed as an educational tool to increase awareness of tobacco related issues such as lifestyle choices, health risks, advertising, saying no, cessation, second hand smoke and smokeless tobacco...

  1. Do Tobacco Bans Harm the Advertising Industry?

    Tom Coupe; Olena Gnezdilova

    2008-01-01

    We use panel data on advertising expenditures to check the influence of tobacco advertising bans on the advertising industry. We find no clear evidence of a negative effect of tobacco bans on total per capita advertising expenditures.

  2. Estimation of radioactivity in tobacco

    Nain, Mahabir; Gupta, Monika; Chauhan, R.P.; Chakarvarti, S.K.; Kant, K.; Sonkawade, R.G.

    2010-01-01

    The link between cigarette smoke and cancer has long been established. Smokers are ten times at greater risk of developing lung cancer than that of non-smokers. Tobacco fields and plants also have higher concentration of uranium and consequently large contents of 210 Po and 210 Pb belonging to uranium and radium decay series. These radio-nuclides have long association with tobacco plants. 210 Pb and 210 Po, decay products of the uranium series get dissolved in water and are first transported into plants and subsequently to the human being. Also, the uptake of radionuclides into roots from the soils and phosphate fertilizers along with direct deposition of 210 Pb by rainfall represents the principal mechanism of incorporation of 210 Pb and 210 Po into the tobacco plants. Uranium present in soil enters the plants through roots and gets distributed in various parts of the tobacco plants. This phenomenon may cause high intake of uranium and its radioactive decay products leading to harmful effects in human being. In the present work, Gamma spectrometry (HPGe detector of high-resolution gamma spectrometry system) has been used at Inter University Accelerator Center (IUAC), New Delhi, for the measurement of activity concentrations of 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K in some tobacco samples. The alpha radioactivity of the leaves of the tobacco plants was measured using plastic track detectors LR-115 Type-Il manufactured by Kodak. Measurement of track densities (track cm -2 day -1 ) shows variation on the upper face and the bottom face of the leaves for the plants. The track density due to alpha particles is higher at bottom face as compared to top face of the leaves. (author)

  3. 27 CFR 41.72 - Notice for smokeless tobacco.

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for smokeless tobacco. 41.72 Section 41.72 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS...

  4. 27 CFR 45.45a - Notice for pipe tobacco.

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for pipe tobacco. 45.45a Section 45.45a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES...

  5. 27 CFR 40.182 - Record of processed tobacco.

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Record of processed tobacco. 40.182 Section 40.182 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS...

  6. 27 CFR 41.72a - Notice for pipe tobacco.

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for pipe tobacco. 41.72a Section 41.72a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES...

  7. 27 CFR 40.527 - Authorization to package processed tobacco.

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Authorization to package processed tobacco. 40.527 Section 40.527 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  8. 27 CFR 45.43 - Notice for smokeless tobacco.

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for smokeless tobacco. 45.43 Section 45.43 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS...

  9. 27 CFR 40.216a - Notice for pipe tobacco.

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for pipe tobacco. 40.216a Section 40.216a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS...

  10. 27 CFR 40.521 - Record of processed tobacco.

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Record of processed tobacco. 40.521 Section 40.521 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS...

  11. 27 CFR 40.216 - Notice for smokeless tobacco.

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for smokeless tobacco. 40.216 Section 40.216 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS...

  12. Management of broomrape (Orobanche cernua) in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum)

    Dhanapal, G.N.

    1996-01-01


    Tobacco is an important commercial crop in India. India is the third largest tobacco producing country in the world. Tobacco is cultivated in an area of 0.428 million ha. Non- Virginia tobaccos such as bidi tobacco constitute about 65% of the total tobacco area in the

  13. Modeling residential exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke

    Klepeis, Neil E.; Nazaroff, William W.

    We apply a simulation model to explore the effect of a house's multicompartment character on a nonsmoker's inhalation exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS). The model tracks the minute-by-minute movement of people and pollutants among multiple zones of a residence and generates SHS pollutant profiles for each room in response to room-specific smoking patterns. In applying the model, we consider SHS emissions of airborne particles, nicotine, and carbon monoxide in two hypothetical houses, one with a typical four-room layout and one dominated by a single large space. We use scripted patterns of room-to-room occupant movement and a cohort of 5000 activity patterns sampled from a US nationwide survey. The results for scripted and cohort simulation trials indicate that the multicompartment nature of homes, manifested as inter-room differences in pollutant levels and the movement of people among zones, can cause substantial variation in nonsmoker SHS exposure.

  14. Considering space weather forces interaction on human health: the equilibrium paradigm in clinical cosmobiology - is it equal?

    Stoupel, Eliyahu

    2015-03-01

    We are constantly affected by changes in space weather. The principal "players" are solar activity (SA), geomagnetic activity (GMA) and antagonistic to them, cosmic ray activity (CRA) and high energy proton flux. CRA is measured by neutron activity on the earth's surface in imp/min. SA and GMA are linked and serve as a shield for the earth from CRA. For a long time SA and GMA were the main areas of studies. The aim of this study was to compare some effects of the mentioned forces and discuss the temporal distribution of both groups of space weather, in relation to their effects on humans. The time distribution of GMA storms (daily) was compared with quiet (low) GMA, with higher CRA (neutron activity). Space weather data were obtained from the USA, Russia and Finland. A total of 4383 days were analyzed in the years 2000-2012. A total of 71 days (1.62%) of geomagnetic storms (GS) and 2753 days (63.8%) of quiet (I0) GMA were registered. A second study was provided including the years 1983-2007 (9131 days); here 3800 days (41.62%) were quiet GMA days and 400 storm days (4.38%). According to publications in the medical literature, many phenomena are connected with the extremes of space weather. Despite a great number of publications and the significant role of GS, it is a relatively rare event and most medical emergencies and deaths occur on days of low GMA, accompanied by higher CRA (neutron activity). High neutron activity deserves more attention when analyzing space effects on human health and their mechanism of action.

  15. Behavioral Economic Insights into Physician Tobacco Treatment Decision-Making

    Evers-Casey, Sarah; Graden, Sarah; Schnoll, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Physicians self-report high adherence rates for Ask and Advise behaviors of tobacco dependence treatment but are much less likely to engage in “next steps” consistent with sophisticated management of chronic illness. A variety of potential explanations have been offered, yet each lacks face validity in light of experience with other challenging medical conditions. Objective: Conduct a preliminary exploration of the behavioral economics of tobacco treatment decision-making in the face of uncertain outcomes, seeking evidence that behaviors may be explained within the framework of Prospect Theory. Methods: Four physician cohorts were polled regarding their impressions of the utility of tobacco use treatment and their estimations of “success” probabilities. Contingent valuation was estimated by asking respondents to make monetary tradeoffs relative to three common chronic conditions. Measurements and Main Results: Responses from all four cohorts showed a similar pattern of high utility of tobacco use treatment but low success probability when compared with the other chronic medical conditions. Following instructional methods aimed at controverting cognitive biases related to tobacco, this pattern was reversed, with success probabilities attaining higher valuation than for diabetes. Conclusions: Important presuppositions regarding the potential “success” of tobacco-related patient interactions are likely limiting physician engagement by favoring the most secure visit outcome despite the limited potential for health gains. Under these conditions, low engagement rates would be consistent with Prospect Theory predictions. Interventions aimed at counteracting the cognitive biases limiting estimations of success probabilities seem to effectively reverse this pattern and provide clues to improving the adoption of target clinical behaviors. PMID:25664676

  16. Map Learning with a 3D Printed Interactive Small-Scale Model: Improvement of Space and Text Memorization in Visually Impaired Students

    Stéphanie Giraud

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Special education teachers for visually impaired students rely on tools such as raised-line maps (RLMs to teach spatial knowledge. These tools do not fully and adequately meet the needs of the teachers because they are long to produce, expensive, and not versatile enough to provide rapid updating of the content. For instance, the same RLM can barely be used during different lessons. In addition, those maps do not provide any interactivity, which reduces students’ autonomy. With the emergence of 3D printing and low-cost microcontrollers, it is now easy to design affordable interactive small-scale models (SSMs which are adapted to the needs of special education teachers. However, no study has previously been conducted to evaluate non-visual learning using interactive SSMs. In collaboration with a specialized teacher, we designed a SSM and a RLM representing the evolution of the geography and history of a fictitious kingdom. The two conditions were compared in a study with 24 visually impaired students regarding the memorization of the spatial layout and historical contents. The study showed that the interactive SSM improved both space and text memorization as compared to the RLM with braille legend. In conclusion, we argue that affordable home-made interactive small scale models can improve learning for visually impaired students. Interestingly, they are adaptable to any teaching situation including students with specific needs.

  17. Map Learning with a 3D Printed Interactive Small-Scale Model: Improvement of Space and Text Memorization in Visually Impaired Students.

    Giraud, Stéphanie; Brock, Anke M; Macé, Marc J-M; Jouffrais, Christophe

    2017-01-01

    Special education teachers for visually impaired students rely on tools such as raised-line maps (RLMs) to teach spatial knowledge. These tools do not fully and adequately meet the needs of the teachers because they are long to produce, expensive, and not versatile enough to provide rapid updating of the content. For instance, the same RLM can barely be used during different lessons. In addition, those maps do not provide any interactivity, which reduces students' autonomy. With the emergence of 3D printing and low-cost microcontrollers, it is now easy to design affordable interactive small-scale models (SSMs) which are adapted to the needs of special education teachers. However, no study has previously been conducted to evaluate non-visual learning using interactive SSMs. In collaboration with a specialized teacher, we designed a SSM and a RLM representing the evolution of the geography and history of a fictitious kingdom. The two conditions were compared in a study with 24 visually impaired students regarding the memorization of the spatial layout and historical contents. The study showed that the interactive SSM improved both space and text memorization as compared to the RLM with braille legend. In conclusion, we argue that affordable home-made interactive small scale models can improve learning for visually impaired students. Interestingly, they are adaptable to any teaching situation including students with specific needs.

  18. The Tobacco Industry and Children's Rights.

    van der Eijk, Yvette; Bialous, Stella A; Glantz, Stanton

    2018-05-01

    The manufacture, use, and marketing of tobacco present a serious threat to children's right to health. This makes the Convention on the Rights of the Child a potentially powerful tobacco-control tool and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), which oversees the convention's implementation, a potential leader in tobacco control. UNICEF actively supported tobacco control initiatives in the late 1990s, but since the early 2000s UNICEF's role in tobacco control has been minimal. Using the Truth Tobacco Industry Documents library, an online collection of previously secret tobacco industry documents, we sought to uncover information on the tobacco industry's ties with UNICEF. We found that from 1997 to 2000, when UNICEF was actively promoting tobacco control to support children's rights, the tobacco industry saw children's rights and UNICEF as potentially powerful threats to business that needed to be closely monitored and neutralized. The industry then positioned itself as a partner with UNICEF on youth smoking prevention initiatives as a way to avoid meaningful tobacco control measures that could save children's lives. After UNICEF's corporate engagement guidelines were loosened in 2003, tobacco companies successfully engaged with UNICEF directly and via front groups, including the Eliminating Child Labour in Tobacco Growing Foundation. This was part of an overall tobacco industry strategy to improve its corporate image, infiltrate the United Nations, and weaken global tobacco-control efforts. As part of its mission to protect children's rights, UNICEF should end all partnerships with the tobacco industry and its front groups. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  19. Model-based testing for space-time interaction using point processes: An application to psychiatric hospital admissions in an urban area.

    Meyer, Sebastian; Warnke, Ingeborg; Rössler, Wulf; Held, Leonhard

    2016-05-01

    Spatio-temporal interaction is inherent to cases of infectious diseases and occurrences of earthquakes, whereas the spread of other events, such as cancer or crime, is less evident. Statistical significance tests of space-time clustering usually assess the correlation between the spatial and temporal (transformed) distances of the events. Although appealing through simplicity, these classical tests do not adjust for the underlying population nor can they account for a distance decay of interaction. We propose to use the framework of an endemic-epidemic point process model to jointly estimate a background event rate explained by seasonal and areal characteristics, as well as a superposed epidemic component representing the hypothesis of interest. We illustrate this new model-based test for space-time interaction by analysing psychiatric inpatient admissions in Zurich, Switzerland (2007-2012). Several socio-economic factors were found to be associated with the admission rate, but there was no evidence of general clustering of the cases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Tobacco advertisement exposure and tobacco consumption among youths in South America].

    Plamondon, Geneviève; Guindon, G Emmanuel; Paraje, Guillermo

    2017-01-01

    To assesses the statistical association between exposure to tobacco marketing and tobacco consumption among adolescents in South America, by using data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey. Using data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS), the exposure to tobacco marketing at the school level was studied from advertising in TV, radio, massive public events and street advertisement. Tobacco behaviour was considered. The total pooled sample used was 134 073 youths from Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Peru, Brazil, Uruguay, Suriname, Colombia, Guyana, Ecuador, Paraguay and Venezuela. The exposure to tobacco marketing is positively and significantly associated to the probability of youths experimenting with tobacco (at least once in their lifetime). For regular smokers, exposure to tobacco marketing is positively and significantly associated to smoking intensity. These results call for the implementation of strong restrictions on tobacco advertisement of various types in South American countries.

  1. Tobacco advertisement exposure and tobacco consumption among youths in South America

    Geneviéve Plamondon

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assesses the statistical association between exposure to tobacco marketing and tobacco consumption among adolescents in South America, by using data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey. Materials and methods. Using data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS, the exposure to tobacco marketing at the school level was studied from advertising in TV, radio, massive public events and street advertisement. Tobacco behaviour was considered. The total pooled sample used was 134 073 youths from Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Peru, Brazil, Uruguay, Suriname, Colombia, Guyana, Ecuador, Paraguay and Venezuela. Results. The exposure to tobacco marketing is positively and significantly associated to the probability of youths experimenting with tobacco (at least once in their lifetime. For regular smokers, exposure to tobacco marketing is positively and significantly associated to smoking intensity. Conclusions. These results call for the implementation of strong restrictions on tobacco advertisement of various types in South American countries.

  2. Tobacco Taxes and Tobacco Control Policies in Brazil, Mexico, and ...

    However, research has yet to explore differences in cigarette smoking rates ... Meanwhile, existing studies on the impact of tobacco taxes are based on ... Associação de Controle do Tabagismo, Promoção da Saúde e dos Direitos Humanos.

  3. Defining process design space for a hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) purification step: application of quality by design (QbD) principles.

    Jiang, Canping; Flansburg, Lisa; Ghose, Sanchayita; Jorjorian, Paul; Shukla, Abhinav A

    2010-12-15

    The concept of design space has been taking root under the quality by design paradigm as a foundation of in-process control strategies for biopharmaceutical manufacturing processes. This paper outlines the development of a design space for a hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) process step. The design space included the impact of raw material lot-to-lot variability and variations in the feed stream from cell culture. A failure modes and effects analysis was employed as the basis for the process characterization exercise. During mapping of the process design space, the multi-dimensional combination of operational variables were studied to quantify the impact on process performance in terms of yield and product quality. Variability in resin hydrophobicity was found to have a significant influence on step yield and high-molecular weight aggregate clearance through the HIC step. A robust operating window was identified for this process step that enabled a higher step yield while ensuring acceptable product quality. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. 7 CFR 29.1067 - Tobacco.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.1067 Section 29.1067 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Flue-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 11, 12, 13, 14 and Foreign...

  5. 7 CFR 29.3069 - Tobacco.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.3069 Section 29.3069 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Burley Tobacco (u.s. Type 31 and Foreign Type 93) § 29.3069...

  6. 7 CFR 30.2 - Leaf tobacco.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf tobacco. 30.2 Section 30.2 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO STOCKS AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.2 Leaf...

  7. 7 CFR 29.3555 - Tobacco.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.3555 Section 29.3555 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and Foreign...

  8. 7 CFR 29.2308 - Tobacco.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.2308 Section 29.2308 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2308...

  9. 19 CFR 11.2 - Manufactured tobacco.

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manufactured tobacco. 11.2 Section 11.2 Customs... PACKING AND STAMPING; MARKING Packing and Stamping § 11.2 Manufactured tobacco. (a) If the invoice and entry presented for manufactured tobacco specify all the information necessary for prompt determination...

  10. Public health aspects of tobacco control revisited

    Gallagher, Jennifer E.; Alajbeg, Ivan; Buechler, Silvia; Carrassi, Antonio; Hovius, Marjolijn; Jacobs, Annelies; Jenner, Maryan; Kinnunen, Taru; Ulbricht, Sabina; Zoitopoulos, Liana

    The tobacco epidemic presents a major public health challenge, globally, and within Europe. The aim of the Public Health Work Stream at the 2nd European Workshop on Tobacco Use Prevention and Cessation for Oral Health Professionals was to review the public health aspects of tobacco control and make

  11. Zambia Tobacco Control Campaign | IDRC - International ...

    The looming tobacco epidemic and its potential for thwarting development has prompted most governments in sub-Saharan Africa to ratify the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO-FCTC). Ratifying countries must design and implement a national tobacco control action plan and ...

  12. A review of the findings of the plasma diagnostic package and associated laboratory experiments: Implications of large body/plasma interactions for future space technology

    Murphy, Gerald B.; Lonngren, Karl E.

    1986-01-01

    The discoveries and experiments of the Plasma Diagnostic Package (PDP) on the OSS 1 and Spacelab 2 missions are reviewed, these results are compared with those of other space and laboratory experiments, and the implications for the understanding of large body interactions in a low Earth orbit (LEO) plasma environment are discussed. First a brief review of the PDP investigation, its instrumentation and experiments is presented. Next a summary of PDP results along with a comparison of those results with similar space or laboratory experiments is given. Last of all the implications of these results in terms of understanding fundamental physical processes that take place with large bodies in LEO is discussed and experiments to deal with these vital questions are suggested.

  13. Effective interactions

    Elliott, J.P.

    1981-01-01

    This chapter attempts to describe and compare some of the more important nucleon-nucleon interactions that have been used in nuclear structure calculations, and to relate them where possible to the real nucleon-nucleon interaction. Explains that different interactions have been used depending on whether one is fitting to total binding energies and densities with a Hartree Fock (HF) calculation or fitting to spectra and spectroscopic data in a shell model calculation. Examines both types of calculation after two preliminary sections concerned with notation and with the philosophy underlying the use of model spaces and effective interactions. Discusses Skyrme interactions, finite range interactions, small model space, large model space, and the Sussex potential matrix elements. Focuses on the more empirical approaches in which a simple form is chosen for the effective interaction in a given model space and the parameters are deduced from fitting many-body data

  14. Restricted active space spin-flip configuration interaction: theory and examples for multiple spin flips with odd numbers of electrons.

    Zimmerman, Paul M; Bell, Franziska; Goldey, Matthew; Bell, Alexis T; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2012-10-28

    The restricted active space spin flip (RAS-SF) method is extended to allow ground and excited states of molecular radicals to be described at low cost (for small numbers of spin flips). RAS-SF allows for any number of spin flips and a flexible active space while maintaining pure spin eigenfunctions for all states by maintaining a spin complete set of determinants and using spin-restricted orbitals. The implementation supports both even and odd numbers of electrons, while use of resolution of the identity integrals and a shared memory parallel implementation allow for fast computation. Examples of multiple-bond dissociation, excited states in triradicals, spin conversions in organic multi-radicals, and mixed-valence metal coordination complexes demonstrate the broad usefulness of RAS-SF.

  15. Tobacco Industry Political Activity and Tobacco Control Policy Making in Washington: 1996-2000

    Nixon, Meredith L. BA; Glantz, Stanton A. Ph.D.

    2001-01-01

    • After making substantial progress on tobacco control in the mid-1990s, the tobacco industry has stifled tobacco control activities in Washington through a mixture of campaign contributions and legal challenges. • Political campaign contributions have remained steadily high throughout the 1990s. Philip Morris, RJ Reynolds, the Tobacco Institute, Lorillard, Brown & Williamson, and the Smokeless Tobacco Council contributed $362,298 to campaigns in 1996 through 2000 election cycles: $1...

  16. Tobacco Industry Dominating National Tobacco Policy Making in Argentina, 1966-2005

    Sebrie, Ernesto M.; Barnoya, Joaquin; Perez-Stable, Eliseo; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2005-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Argentina accounts for 15% of total tobacco consumption in Latin America and has made the epidemiological transition to an advanced stage in the tobacco epidemic. The Southern Cone region of the Americas leads the hemisphere in tobacco attributable mortality. Argentina is a developing country with economic interests in tobacco growing and rapidly increasing tobacco use in urban areas. In 2000, smoking prevalence was 40.4% among adults- 46.8% of men and 34% of wom...

  17. A SPH Method-based Numerical Simulation of the Space Debris Fragments Interaction with Spacecraft Structure Components

    V. V. Zelentsov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Significant amount of space debris available in the near-Earth space is a reason to protect space vehicles from the fragments of space debris. Existing empirical calculation methods do not allow us to estimate quality of developed protection. Experimental verification of protection requires complex and expensive installations that do not allow having a desirable impact velocity. The article proposes to use the ANSYS AUTODYN software environment – a software complex of the nonlinear dynamic analysis to evaluate quality of developed protection. The ANSYS AUTODYN environment is based on the integration methods of a system of equations of continuum mechanics. The SPH (smoothed particle method method is used as a solver. The SPH method is based on the area of sampling by a finite set of the Lagrangian particles that can be represented as the elementary volumes of the medium. In modeling the targets were under attack of 2 and 3 mm spheres and cylinders with 2 mm in bottom diameter and with generator of 2 and 3 mm. The apheres and cylinders are solid and hollow, with a wall thickness of 0.5 mm. The impact velocity of the particles with a target was assumed to be 7.5 km / s. The number of integration cycles in all cases of calculation was assumed to be 1000. The rate of flying debris fragments of the target material as a function of the h / d ratio (h - the thickness of the target, / d - the diameter of a sphere or a cylinder end is obtained. In simulation the sample picture obtained coincides both with results of experimental study carried out at the Tomsk State Technical University and  with results described in the literature.

  18. Opportunities for Utilizing the International Space Station for Studies of F2- Region Plasma Science and High Voltage Solar Array Interactions with the Plasma Environment

    Minow, Joseph I.; Coffey, Victoria; Wright, Kenneth; Craven, Paul; Koontz, Steven

    2010-01-01

    The near circular, 51.6deg inclination orbit of the International Space Station (ISS) is maintained within an altitude range of approximately 300 km to 400 km providing an ideal platform for conducting in-situ studies of space weather effects on the mid and low-latitude F-2 region ionosphere. The Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU) is a suite of instruments installed on the ISS in August 2006 which includes a Floating Potential Probe (FPP), a Plasma Impedance Probe (PIP), a Wide-sweep Langmuir Probe (WLP), and a Narrow-sweep Langmuir Probe (NLP). The primary purpose for deploying the FPMU is to characterize ambient plasma temperatures and densities in which the ISS operates and to obtain measurements of the ISS potential relative to the space plasma environment for use in characterizing and mitigating spacecraft charging hazards to the vehicle and crew. In addition to the engineering goals, data from the FPMU instrument package is available for collaborative multi-satellite and ground based instrument studies of the F-region ionosphere during both quiet and disturbed periods. Finally, the FPMU measurements supported by ISS engineering telemetry data provides a unique opportunity to investigate interactions of the ISS high voltage (160 volt) solar array system with the plasma environment. This presentation will provide examples of FPMU measurements along the ISS orbit including night-time equatorial plasma density depletions sampled near the peak electron density in the F2-region ionosphere, charging phenomenon due to interaction of the ISS solar arrays with the plasma environment, and modification of ISS charging due to visiting vehicles demonstrating the capabilities of the FPMU probes for monitoring mid and low latitude plasma processes as well as vehicle interactions with the plasma environment.

  19. Cryogenic explosion environment modeling and testing of space shuttle and light-weight radioisotope heater unit interactions

    Johnson, E.W.

    1985-10-01

    In order to assess the risk to the world's populace in the event of a Space Shuttle accident when radioisotope-containing heat sources are on board, testing of that system must be performed to determine release point, environments required, and the size distribution of the released fuel. To evaluate the performance of the Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit (LWRHU) (101 of these 1-W items are placed on the Galileo spacecraft which will be launched from the Space Shuttle), some high-velocity impact and flyer plate testing was carried out. The results showed that a bare urania-fueled LWRHU clad (approximately 1-mm thick platinum-30 wt % rhodium alloy) will withstand 1100 m/s flyer plate (3.5-mm thick aluminum) impacts and 330 m/s impacts upon the Space Shuttle floor (approximately 12-mm thick aluminum) without rupture or fuel release. Velocities in the order of 600 m/s on a steel surface will cause clad failure with fuel release. The fuel breakup patterns were characterized as to quantity in a specific size range. These data were employed in the formal Safety Analysis Report for the LWRHU to support the planned 1986 Galileo launch. 19 figs

  20. Invading Public Spaces: Exploring the Effects of Media Type and Social Prompts on Learning Outcomes in an Interactive Environment

    Downs, Edward; Erickson, Sarah; Borrett, Jacqueline

    2017-01-01

    A 2 × 2, fully-crossed, quasi-experimental design was employed to determine if type of media (rich media vs. lean media) and social prompting (presence of prompts vs. absence of prompts) would differentially impact learning outcomes for patrons interacting with an aquatic invasive species exhibit. Results indicated that the lean-media condition…

  1. The role of tobacco advertising and promotion: themes employed in litigation by tobacco industry witnesses.

    Goldberg, Marvin E; Davis, Ronald M; O'Keefe, Anne Marie

    2006-12-01

    To identify key themes related to tobacco advertising and promotion in testimony provided by tobacco industry-affiliated witnesses in tobacco litigation, and to present countervailing evidence and arguments. Themes in industry testimony were identified by review of transcripts of testimony in the Tobacco Deposition and Trial Testimony Archive (http://tobaccodocuments.org/datta) from a sample of defence witnesses, including three academic expert witnesses, six senior executives of tobacco companies, and one industry advertising consultant. Counterarguments to the themes embodied in defence testimony were based on information from peer-reviewed literature, advertising trade publications, government reports, tobacco industry documents, and testimony provided by expert witnesses testifying for plaintiffs. Five major themes employed by defence witnesses were identified: (1) tobacco advertising has a relatively weak "share of voice" in the marketing environment and is a weak force in affecting smoking behaviour; (2) tobacco advertising and promotion do not create new smokers, expand markets, or increase total tobacco consumption; (3) the tobacco industry does not target, study, or track youth smoking; (4) tobacco advertising and promotion do not cause smoking initiation by youth; and (5) tobacco companies and the industry adhere closely to relevant laws, regulations, and industry voluntary codes. Substantial evidence exists in rebuttal to these arguments. Tobacco industry-affiliated witnesses have marshalled many arguments to deny the adverse effects of tobacco marketing activities and to portray tobacco companies as responsible corporate citizens. Effective rebuttals to these arguments exist, and plaintiffs' attorneys have, with varying degrees of success, presented them to judges and juries.

  2. Using structural knowledge in the protein data bank to inform the search for potential host-microbe protein interactions in sequence space: application to Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Mahajan, Gaurang; Mande, Shekhar C

    2017-04-04

    A comprehensive map of the human-M. tuberculosis (MTB) protein interactome would help fill the gaps in our understanding of the disease, and computational prediction can aid and complement experimental studies towards this end. Several sequence-based in silico approaches tap the existing data on experimentally validated protein-protein interactions (PPIs); these PPIs serve as templates from which novel interactions between pathogen and host are inferred. Such comparative approaches typically make use of local sequence alignment, which, in the absence of structural details about the interfaces mediating the template interactions, could lead to incorrect inferences, particularly when multi-domain proteins are involved. We propose leveraging the domain-domain interaction (DDI) information in PDB complexes to score and prioritize candidate PPIs between host and pathogen proteomes based on targeted sequence-level comparisons. Our method picks out a small set of human-MTB protein pairs as candidates for physical interactions, and the use of functional meta-data suggests that some of them could contribute to the in vivo molecular cross-talk between pathogen and host that regulates the course of the infection. Further, we present numerical data for Pfam domain families that highlights interaction specificity on the domain level. Not every instance of a pair of domains, for which interaction evidence has been found in a few instances (i.e. structures), is likely to functionally interact. Our sorting approach scores candidates according to how "distant" they are in sequence space from known examples of DDIs (templates). Thus, it provides a natural way to deal with the heterogeneity in domain-level interactions. Our method represents a more informed application of local alignment to the sequence-based search for potential human-microbial interactions that uses available PPI data as a prior. Our approach is somewhat limited in its sensitivity by the restricted size and

  3. What we fund Tobacco control

    NCDP

    Appraisal of the perceived economic value of the tobacco industry to ... Mechanisms for prioritising health in trade negotiations and other ... Population health and poverty ... Research projects that address multiple NCD risk factors .... In general, the process for soliciting, reviewing and awarding grants follows this timeline.

  4. Social Responsibility in Tobacco Production? Tobacco Companies Use of Green Supply Chains to Obscure the Real Costs of Tobacco Farming

    Otañez, Marty

    2011-01-01

    Background Tobacco companies have come under increased criticism because of environmental and labor practices related to growing tobacco in developing countries. Methods Analysis of tobacco industry documents, industry web sites and interviews with tobacco farmers in Tanzania and tobacco farm workers, farm authorities, trade unionists, government officials and corporate executives from global tobacco leaf companies in Malawi. Results British American Tobacco and Philip Morris created supply chains in the 1990s to improve production efficiency, control, access to markets, and profits. In the 2000s, the companies used their supply chains in an attempt to legitimize their portrayals of tobacco farming as socially and environmentally friendly, rather than take meaningful steps to eliminate child labor and reduce deforestation in developing countries. The tobacco companies used nominal self-evaluation (not truly independent evaluators) and public relations to create the impression of social responsibility. The companies benefit from $1.2 billion in unpaid labor costs due to child labor and more than $64 million annually in costs that would have been made to avoid tobacco related deforestation in the top twelve tobacco growing developing countries, far exceeding the money they spend nominally working to change these practices. Conclusions The tobacco industry uses green supply chains to make tobacco farming in developing countries appear sustainable while continuing to purchase leaf produced with child labor and high rates of deforestation. Strategies to counter green supply chain schemes include securing implementing protocols for the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control to regulate the companies’ practices at the farm level. PMID:21504915

  5. Are Retail Outlets Complying with National Legislation to Protect Children from Exposure to Tobacco Displays at Point of Sale? Results from the First Compliance Study in the UK.

    Douglas Eadie

    Full Text Available From April 6th 2015, all small shops in the UK were required to cover up tobacco products at point of sale (POS to protect children from exposure. As part of a larger 5-year study to measure the impact of the legislation in Scotland, an audit was conducted to assess level and nature of compliance with the ban immediately following its introduction.A discreet observational audit was conducted 7-14 days post implementation which took measures of physical changes made to cover products, server/assistant practices, tobacco signage and advertising, and communication of price information. The audit was conducted in all small retail outlets (n = 83 selling tobacco in four communities in Scotland selected to represent different levels of urbanisation and social deprivation. Data were analysed descriptively.Compliance with the legislation was high, with 98% of shops removing tobacco from permanent display and non-compliance was restricted almost entirely to minor contraventions. The refurbishment of shops with new or adapted tobacco storage units resulted in the removal of nearly all commercial brand messages and images from POS, dropping from 51% to 4%. The majority of shops stored their tobacco in public-facing storage units (81%. Most shops also displayed at least one generic tobacco message (88%.Compliance with Scottish prohibitions on display of tobacco products in small retail outlets was high immediately after the legislation implementation date. However, although tobacco branding is no longer visible in retail outlets, tobacco storage units with generic tobacco messages are still prominent. This points towards a need to monitor how the space vacated by tobacco products is utilised and to better understand how the continuing presence of tobacco storage units influences people's awareness and understanding of tobacco and smoking. Countries with existing POS bans and who are considering such bans should pay particular attention to regulations

  6. Are Retail Outlets Complying with National Legislation to Protect Children from Exposure to Tobacco Displays at Point of Sale? Results from the First Compliance Study in the UK.

    Eadie, Douglas; Stead, Martine; MacKintosh, Anne Marie; Murray, Susan; Best, Catherine; Pearce, Jamie; Tisch, Catherine; van der Sluijs, Winfried; Amos, Amanda; MacGregor, Andy; Haw, Sally

    2016-01-01

    From April 6th 2015, all small shops in the UK were required to cover up tobacco products at point of sale (POS) to protect children from exposure. As part of a larger 5-year study to measure the impact of the legislation in Scotland, an audit was conducted to assess level and nature of compliance with the ban immediately following its introduction. A discreet observational audit was conducted 7-14 days post implementation which took measures of physical changes made to cover products, server/assistant practices, tobacco signage and advertising, and communication of price information. The audit was conducted in all small retail outlets (n = 83) selling tobacco in four communities in Scotland selected to represent different levels of urbanisation and social deprivation. Data were analysed descriptively. Compliance with the legislation was high, with 98% of shops removing tobacco from permanent display and non-compliance was restricted almost entirely to minor contraventions. The refurbishment of shops with new or adapted tobacco storage units resulted in the removal of nearly all commercial brand messages and images from POS, dropping from 51% to 4%. The majority of shops stored their tobacco in public-facing storage units (81%). Most shops also displayed at least one generic tobacco message (88%). Compliance with Scottish prohibitions on display of tobacco products in small retail outlets was high immediately after the legislation implementation date. However, although tobacco branding is no longer visible in retail outlets, tobacco storage units with generic tobacco messages are still prominent. This points towards a need to monitor how the space vacated by tobacco products is utilised and to better understand how the continuing presence of tobacco storage units influences people's awareness and understanding of tobacco and smoking. Countries with existing POS bans and who are considering such bans should pay particular attention to regulations regarding the use

  7. Complexities at the intersection of tobacco control and trade liberalisation: evidence from Southeast Asia.

    Drope, Jeffrey; Chavez, Jenina Joy

    2015-06-01

    For more than two decades, public health scholars and proponents have demonstrated concern about the negative effects of trade liberalisation on tobacco control policies. However, there is little theoretically-guided, empirical research across time and space that evaluates this relationship. Accordingly, we use one major region that has experienced rapid and significant recent liberalisation, Southeast Asia, and examine key tobacco control-relevant outcomes between 1999 and 2012. While we find a modest increase in regional trade in tobacco products in some countries, the effects on tobacco affordability and consumption are very mixed with no clear link to liberalisation. We argue that widespread penetration of the region by transnational tobacco firms is likely mitigating the effects of trade liberalisation. Notably, tobacco control policies have also generally improved across the region, part of which is likely the result of successful regional and global efforts by civil society, governments and intergovernmental organisations. The results suggest that scholars and public health proponents should move the focus away from narrow economic aspects of liberalisation toward specific issues that are more likely to affect tobacco control, such as intellectual property rights protections and investor-state dispute settlement. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. Engagement With Online Tobacco Marketing and Associations With Tobacco Product Use Among U.S. Youth.

    Soneji, Samir; Pierce, John P; Choi, Kelvin; Portnoy, David B; Margolis, Katherine A; Stanton, Cassandra A; Moore, Rhonda J; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Carusi, Charles; Hyland, Andrew; Sargent, James

    2017-07-01

    Youth who engage with online tobacco marketing may be more susceptible to tobacco use than unengaged youth. This study examines online engagement with tobacco marketing and its association with tobacco use patterns. Cross-sectional analysis of youths aged 12-17 years who participated in wave 1 of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study (N = 13,651). Engagement with tobacco marketing was based on 10 survey items including signing up for email alerts about tobacco products in the past 6 months. Logistic regression was used to examine the association of online engagement with tobacco marketing and susceptibility to use any tobacco product among never-tobacco users, ever having tried tobacco, and past 30-day tobacco use. An estimated 2.94 million U.S. youth (12%) engaged with ≥ one forms of online tobacco marketing. Compared with no engagement, the odds of susceptibility to the use of any tobacco product among never-tobacco users was independently associated with the level of online engagement: adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.48 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24-1.76) for one form of engagement and AOR = 2.37 (95% CI, 1.53-3.68) for ≥ two forms of engagement. The odds of ever having tried tobacco were also independently associated with the level of online engagement: AOR = 1.33 (95% CI: 1.11-1.60) for one form of engagement and AOR = 1.54 (95% CI, 1.16-2.03) for ≥ two forms of engagement. The level of online engagement was not independently associated with past 30-day tobacco use. Online engagement with tobacco marketing may represent an important risk factor for the onset of tobacco use in youth. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. How effective has tobacco tax increase been in the Gambia? A case study of tobacco control

    Nargis, Nigar; Manneh, Yahya; Krubally, Bakary; Jobe, Baboucarr; Ouma, Ahmed E Ogwell; Tcha-Kondor, Noureiny; Blecher, Evan H

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The objective of the present study was to evaluate how effective tobacco tax increase has been in increasing price of tobacco products and reducing tobacco consumption in the Gambia. In addition, it tests the hypothesis that tobacco tax revenue grows while tobacco consumption decreases as a result of tax and price increase. Setting The study is designed at the macroeconomic level to examine the import of tobacco products and revenue collected from tobacco taxation in a low-income setting. Participants The participants of this study are the government officials employed in the Ministry of Finance and Economic Affairs (MoFEA), the Gambia and the Gambia Revenue Authority, who are in charge of planning and implementing the tobacco tax policy in the Gambia. Interventions The study includes 2 consecutive interventions in tobacco tax policy in the Gambia. The first intervention was moving the tax base for the uniform specific excise tax on cigarettes from weight to pack of cigarettes in 2013. The second intervention involved increasing the excise and the environmental tax on tobacco products in 2014. Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary outcome measures were the cost, insurance and freight value and the price of tobacco products. The secondary outcome measures included the import of tobacco products and tobacco tax revenue. Results In 2013–2014, the Gambia MoFEA raised the specific excise rate, which increased price, reduced consumption and generated significantly more government revenue from tobacco products. This is a clear evidence of the win-win outcome of raising tobacco tax. In addition, the Gambia has set the example of harmonising tax rates between tobacco products that reduces the substitution between tobacco products. Conclusions The Gambia presents the best practice in tobacco taxation. There is need for documenting more country-specific evidence on the win-win outcome of raising tobacco tax. PMID:27566626

  10. Why Have Tobacco Control Policies Stalled? Using Genetic Moderation to Examine Policy Impacts

    Fletcher, Jason M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Research has shown that tobacco control policies have helped produce the dramatic decline in use over the decades following the 1964 surgeon general’s report. However, prevalence rates have stagnated during the past two decades in the US, even with large tobacco taxes and expansions of clean air laws. The observed differences in tobacco control policy effectiveness and why policies do not help all smokers are largely unexplained. Objective The aim of this study was to determine the importance of genetics in explaining response to tobacco taxation policy by testing the potential of gene-policy interaction in determining adult tobacco use. Methods A moderated regression analysis framework was used to test interactive effects between genotype and tobacco policy in predicting tobacco use. Cross sectional data of US adults from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) linked with genotype and geocodes were used to identify tobacco use phenotypes, state-level taxation rates, and variation in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (CHRNA6) genotype. Tobacco use phenotypes included current use, number of cigarettes smoked per day, and blood serum cotinine measurements. Results Variation in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor was found to moderate the influence of tobacco taxation on multiple measures of tobacco use. Individuals with the protective G/G polymorphism (51% of the sample) responded to taxation while others had no response. The estimated differences in response by genotype were C/C genotype: b = −0.016 se  = 0.018; G/C genotype: b = 0.014 se  = 0.017; G/G genotype: b = −0.071 se 0.029. Conclusions This study provides novel evidence of “gene-policy” interaction and suggests a genetic mechanism for the large differences in response to tobacco policies. The inability for these policies to reduce use for individuals with specific genotypes suggests alternative methods may be needed to further reduce use

  11. Free energy of RNA-counterion interactions in a tight-binding model computed by a discrete space mapping

    Henke, Paul S.; Mak, Chi H.

    2014-01-01

    The thermodynamic stability of a folded RNA is intricately tied to the counterions and the free energy of this interaction must be accounted for in any realistic RNA simulations. Extending a tight-binding model published previously, in this paper we investigate the fundamental structure of charges arising from the interaction between small functional RNA molecules and divalent ions such as Mg 2+ that are especially conducive to stabilizing folded conformations. The characteristic nature of these charges is utilized to construct a discretely connected energy landscape that is then traversed via a novel application of a deterministic graph search technique. This search method can be incorporated into larger simulations of small RNA molecules and provides a fast and accurate way to calculate the free energy arising from the interactions between an RNA and divalent counterions. The utility of this algorithm is demonstrated within a fully atomistic Monte Carlo simulation of the P4-P6 domain of the Tetrahymena group I intron, in which it is shown that the counterion-mediated free energy conclusively directs folding into a compact structure

  12. Free energy of RNA-counterion interactions in a tight-binding model computed by a discrete space mapping

    Henke, Paul S. [Department of Chemistry, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States); Mak, Chi H., E-mail: cmak@usc.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States); Center of Applied Mathematical Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States)

    2014-08-14

    The thermodynamic stability of a folded RNA is intricately tied to the counterions and the free energy of this interaction must be accounted for in any realistic RNA simulations. Extending a tight-binding model published previously, in this paper we investigate the fundamental structure of charges arising from the interaction between small functional RNA molecules and divalent ions such as Mg{sup 2+} that are especially conducive to stabilizing folded conformations. The characteristic nature of these charges is utilized to construct a discretely connected energy landscape that is then traversed via a novel application of a deterministic graph search technique. This search method can be incorporated into larger simulations of small RNA molecules and provides a fast and accurate way to calculate the free energy arising from the interactions between an RNA and divalent counterions. The utility of this algorithm is demonstrated within a fully atomistic Monte Carlo simulation of the P4-P6 domain of the Tetrahymena group I intron, in which it is shown that the counterion-mediated free energy conclusively directs folding into a compact structure.

  13. Point of sale tobacco advertisements in India.

    Chaudhry, S; Chaudhry, S; Chaudhry, K

    2007-01-01

    The effect of any legislation depends on its implementation. Limited studies indicate that tobacco companies may tend to use such provision for surrogate advertising. The point of sale advertisement provision has been placed in the Indian Tobacco Control legislation. The study was undertaken to assess the Indian scenario in this regard. To assess if there are any violations related to provision of point of tobacco sale advertisements under India's comprehensive tobacco Control legislation in different parts of India. Boards over various shops showing advertisements of tobacco products were observed in the cities of Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Trivandrum and Jaipur, between September 2005 and March 2006. The point of sale advertisements mushroomed after the implementation of 2004 tobacco control legislation. Tobacco advertisement boards fully satisfying the point of sale provision were practically non-existent. The most common violation of point of sale advertisements was the larger size of the board but with tobacco advertisement equal to the size indicated in the legislation and remaining area often showing a picture. Invariably two boards were placed together to provide the impression of a large single repetitive advertisement. More than two boards was not common. Tobacco advertisement boards were also observed on closed shops/ warehouses, shops not selling tobacco products and on several adjacent shops. The purpose of the point of sale advertisements seems to be surrogate advertisement of tobacco products, mainly cigarettes.

  14. Meanings & motives. Experts debating tobacco addiction.

    Mars, Sarah G; Ling, Pamela M

    2008-10-01

    Over the last 50 years, tobacco has been excluded from and then included in the category of addictive substances. We investigated influences on these opposing definitions and their application in expert witness testimony in litigation in the 1990s and 2000s. A scientist with ties to the tobacco industry influenced the selection of a definition of addiction that led to the classification of tobacco as a "habituation" in the 1964 Surgeon General's Advisory Committee report. Tobacco was later defined as addictive in the 1988 surgeon general's report. Expert witnesses for tobacco companies used the 1964 report's definition until Philip Morris Tobacco Company publicly changed its position in 1997 to agree that nicotine was addictive. Expert witnesses for plaintiffs suing the tobacco industry used the 1988 report's definition, arguing that new definitions were superior because of scientific advance. Both sides viewed addiction as an objective entity that could be defined more or less accurately.

  15. Abscisic acid-cytokinin antagonism modulates resistance against pseudomonas syringae in Tobacco

    Grosskinsky, Dominik Kilian; van der Graaff, Eric; Roitsch, Thomas Georg

    2014-01-01

    Phytohormones are known as essential regulators of plant defenses, with ethylene, jasmonic acid, and salicylic acid as the central immunity backbone, while other phytohormones have been demonstrated to interact with this. Only recently, a function of the classic phytohormone cytokinin in plant...... immunity has been described in Arabidopsis, rice, and tobacco. Although interactions of cytokinins with salicylic acid and auxin have been indicated, the complete network of cytokinin interactions with other immunity-relevant phytohormones is not yet understood. Therefore, we studied the interaction...... of kinetin and abscisic acid as a negative regulator of plant immunity to modulate resistance in tobacco against Pseudomonas syringae. By analyzing infection symptoms, pathogen proliferation, and accumulation of the phytoalexin scopoletin as a key mediator of kinetin-induced resistance in tobacco...

  16. Combustible Tobacco and Smokeless Tobacco Use Among Working Adults-United States, 2012 to 2014.

    Syamlal, Girija; Jamal, Ahmed; Mazurek, Jacek M

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine tobacco use among working adults at least 18 years of age. The 2012 to 2014 National Health Interview Survey (n = 105,779) was used to estimate prevalences for cigarette smoking, other combustible tobacco use, and smokeless tobacco use and prevalence odds ratios (PORs) for any tobacco product use among working adults at least 18 years of age, by industry and occupation. Of the estimated 144 million currently employed adults, 17% were cigarette smokers, 7.0% other noncigarette combustible tobacco users, and 3.4% smokeless tobacco users. Odds of using tobacco varied by sociodemographic characteristics and by industry and occupations. Disparities in tobacco use exist among working adults. Continued implementation of proven interventions to prevent and reduce all forms of tobacco use among U.S. workers is warranted, particularly among those workers with a higher burden of use.

  17. Tobacco Product Waste: An Environmental Approach to Reduce Tobacco Consumption.

    Novotny, Thomas E; Slaughter, Elli

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette butts and other tobacco product wastes (TPW) are the most common items picked up in urban and beach cleanups worldwide. TPW contains all the toxins, nicotine, and carcinogens found in tobacco products, along with the plastic nonbiodegradable filter attached to almost all cigarettes sold in the United States and in most countries worldwide. Toxicity studies suggest that compounds leached from cigarette butts in salt and fresh water are toxic to aquatic micro-organisms and test fish. Toxic chemicals have also been identified in roadside TPW. With as much as two-thirds of all smoked cigarettes (numbering in the trillions globally) being discarded into the environment each year, it is critical to consider the potential toxicity and remediation of these waste products. This article reviews reports on the toxicity of TPW and recommends several policy approaches to mitigation of this ubiquitous environmental blight.

  18. Patterns of youth tobacco and polytobacco usage: The shift to alternative tobacco products.

    Harrell, Paul T; Naqvi, Syeda Mahrukh H; Plunk, Andrew D; Ji, Ming; Martins, Silvia S

    2017-11-01

    Despite significant declines in youth cigarette smoking, overall tobacco usage remains over 20% as non-cigarette tobacco product usage is increasingly common and polytobacco use (using 1+ tobacco product) remains steady. The present study was designed to identify patterns of youth tobacco use and examine associations with sociodemographic characteristics and tobacco dependence. The current analysis uses Latent Class Analysis (LCA) to examine the 6,958 tobacco users (n = 2,738 female) in the National Youth Tobacco Survey (2012 and 2013). We used as indicators past month use of tobacco products (cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco, e-cigarettes, hookah, snus, pipes, bidis, and kreteks) and regressed resulting classes on sociodemographic characteristics and tobacco dependence. Nine classes emerged: cigarette smokers (33.4% of sample, also included small probabilities for use of cigars and e-cigarettes), cigar smokers (16.8%, nearly exclusive), smokeless tobacco users (12.3%, also included small probabilities for cigarettes, cigars, snus), hookah smokers (11.8%), tobacco smokers/chewers (10.7%, variety of primarily traditional tobacco products), tobacco/hookah smokers (7.2%), tobacco/snus/e-cig users (3.3%), e-cigarette users (2.9%,), and polytobacco users (1.7%, high probabilities for all products). Compared to cigarette smokers, tobacco/hookah smokers and hookah smokers were more likely to report Hispanic ethnicity. Polytobacco users were more likely to report dependence (AOR:2.77, 95% CI:[1.49-5.18]), whereas e-cigarette users were less likely (AOR:0.49, 95% CI:[0.24-0.97]). Findings are consistent with other research demonstrating shifts in adolescent tobacco product usage towards non-cigarette tobacco products. Continuous monitoring of these patterns is needed to help predict if this shift will ultimately result in improved public health.

  19. Highly correlated calculations using optimized virtual orbital space with controlled accuracy. Application to counterpoise corrected interaction energy calculations

    Kraus, M.; Pitoňák, Michal; Hobza, Pavel; Urban, M.; Neogrady, P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. 4 (2012), s. 948-959 ISSN 0020-7608 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC512 Grant - others:Slovak Research and Development Agency(SK) APVV-20-018405; Slovak Grant Agency VEGA(SK) 1/0428/09; Slovak Grant Agency VEGA(SK) 1/0520/10 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : OVOS * FNO * nocovalent interactions * hydrogen bonding * ctacking Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.306, year: 2012

  20. Interactions of the space debris environment with mega constellations-Using the example of the OneWeb constellation

    Radtke, Jonas; Kebschull, Christopher; Stoll, Enrico

    2017-02-01

    Recently, several announcements have been published to deploy satellite constellations into Low Earth Orbit (LEO) containing several hundred to thousands of rather small sized objects. The purpose of these constellations is to provide a worldwide internet coverage, even to the remotest areas. Examples of these mega-constellations are one from SpaceX, which is announced to comprise of about 4000 satellites, the Norwegian STEAM network, which is told to contain 4257 satellites, and the OneWeb constellation, which forms one of the smaller constellations with 720 satellites. As example constellation, OneWeb has been chosen. From all announced constellation, OneWeb by far delivered most information, both in regards to constellation design and their plans to encounter space debris issues, which is the reason why it has been chosen for these analyses. In this paper, at first an overview of the planned OneWeb constellation setup is given. From this description, a mission life-cycle is deduced, splitting the complete orbital lifetime of the satellites into four phases. Following, using ESA-MASTER, for each of the mission phases the flux on both single constellations satellites and the complete constellation are performed and the collision probabilities are derived. The focus in this analysis is set on catastrophic collisions. This analysis is then varied parametrically for different operational altitudes of the constellation as well as different lifetimes with different assumptions for the success of post mission disposal (PMD). Following the to-be-expected mean number of collision avoidance manoeuvres during all active mission phases is performed using ARES from ESA's DRAMA tool suite. The same variations as during the flux analysis are considered. Lastly the characteristics of hypothetical OneWeb satellite fragmentation clouds, calculated using the NASA Breakup model, are described and the impact of collision clouds from OneWeb satellites on the constellation itself is

  1. Explicit and implicit effects of anti-marijuana and anti-tobacco TV advertisements.

    Czyzewska, Maria; Ginsburg, Harvey J

    2007-01-01

    Effects of anti-tobacco and anti-marijuana TV advertisements on explicit (i.e., semantic differential ratings) and implicit (i.e. Implicit Association Test, IAT) attitudes toward tobacco and marijuana were compared. Two hundred twenty nine, 18- to 19-year-old U.S. college students were randomly assigned to anti-tobacco or anti-marijuana PSA viewing conditions. Participants completed a short survey on attitudes to tobacco and marijuana. Afterwards they watched 15 PSAs embedded in a 15-min science program. At the end, all participants completed IAT for marijuana, IAT for tobacco and the assessment of explicit attitudes. Results of ANCOVA revealed a significant interaction between type of TV PSAs watched and implicit attitudes, F(1,223)=7.12, padvertisements watched (i.e., anti-tobacco or anti-marijuana). However, analogical analysis on explicit measures showed that attitudes to marijuana became less negative among students that watched anti-marijuana ads than the group with anti-tobacco ads, F(1,222)=5.79, p<0.02. The discussion focused on the practical and theoretical implications of the observed dissociation between implicit and explicit attitudes to marijuana after the exposure to anti-marijuana PSAs.

  2. Associations between tobacco and nicotine product use and depressive symptoms among college students in Texas.

    Bandiera, Frank C; Loukas, Alexandra; Wilkinson, Anna V; Perry, Cheryl L

    2016-12-01

    There is a well-established link between cigarette smoking and depression; less is known about the potential association between alternative tobacco products, such as hookah, cigars, smokeless tobacco, and electronic cigarette (e-cigarette use) with depression. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is now regulating tobacco products and is interested in tobacco product use among those with mental health problems and other special populations such as college students. Cross-sectional statewide convenience sample study of 5438 college students in 24 colleges and universities in Texas. Past 30-day use of hookah, cigar, smokeless tobacco, cigarette, and e-cigarette use were measured by self-report. Depressive symptoms were measured by the 10-item short form of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies scale. Only e-cigarette use was positively associated with depressive symptoms, even after accounting for all other tobacco products and socio-demographics. There were no significant interactions between race/ethnicity or gender with each of the tobacco products on depressive symptoms. E-cigarette use was positively associated with depressive symptoms among college students in Texas. Further research is needed to determine causality, which may inform FDA regulatory planning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Transient effects in beam-plasma interactions in a space simulation chamber stimulated by a fast pulse electron gun

    Raitt, W. J.; Banks, P. M.; Denig, W. F.; Anderson, H. R.

    1982-01-01

    Interest in the interaction of electron beams with plasma generated by ionization caused by the primary electron beam was stimulated by the need to develop special vacuum tubes to operate in the kMHz frequency region. The experiments of Getty and Smullin (1963) indicated that the interaction of an energetic electron beam with its self-produced plasma resulted in the emission of wave energy over a wide range of frequencies associated with cyclotron and longitudinal plasma instabilities. This enhanced the thermal plasma density in the vicinity of the beam, and the term Beam-Plasma Discharge (BPD) was employed to described this phenomenon. The present investigation is concerned with some of the transient phenomena associated with wave emission during the beam switch-on and switch-off periods. Results are presented on the changes in electron energy spectra on a time scale of tens of milliseconds following beam switch-on. The results are discussed in terms of the beam plasma discharge phenomenon.

  4. Transient effects in beam-plasma interactions in a space simulation chamber stimulated by a fast pulse electron gun

    Raitt, W.J.; Banks, P.M.

    1982-01-01

    Interest in the interaction of electron beams with plasma generated by ionization caused by the primary electron beam was stimulated by the need to develop special vacuum tubes to operate in the kMHz frequency region. The experiments of Getty and Smullin (1963) indicated that the interaction of an energetic electron beam with its self-produced plasma resulted in the emission of wave energy over a wide range of frequencies associated with cyclotron and longitudinal plasma instabilities. This enhanced the thermal plasma density in the vicinity of the beam, and the term Beam-Plasma Discharge (BPD) was employed to described this phenomenon. The present investigation is concerned with some of the transient phenomena associated with wave emission during the beam switch-on and switch-off periods. Results are presented on the changes in electron energy spectra on a time scale of tens of milliseconds following beam switch-on. The results are discussed in terms of the beam plasma discharge phenomenon. 5 references

  5. Earned print media in advancing tobacco control in Himachal Pradesh, India: a descriptive study.

    Sharma, Renu; Shewade, Hemant Deepak; Gopalan, Balasubramaniam; Badrel, Ramesh Kumar; Rana, Jugdeep Singh

    2017-01-01

    The Union-Bloomberg Initiative tobacco control projects were implemented in Himachal Pradesh (a hilly state in North India) from 2007 to 2014. The project focused on the establishment of an administrative framework; increasing the capacity of stakeholders; enforcement of legislation; coalition and networking with multiple stakeholders; awareness generation with focus on earned media and monitoring and evaluation with policy-focussed research. This study aimed to systematically analyse all earned print news items related to the projects. In this cross-sectional descriptive study, quantitative content analysis of earned print news items was carried out using predetermined codes related to areas of tobacco control policies. We also carried out a cost description of the hypothetical value of this earned media. The area of the news item in cm 2 was multiplied by the average rate of space for the paid news item in that particular newspaper. There were 6348 news items: the numbers steadily increased with time. Focus on Monitoring tobacco use, Protecting people from tobacco smoke, Offering help to quit, Warning about dangers of tobacco, Enforcing a ban on tobacco advertising and promotion, Raising tax on tobacco products was seen in 24, 17, 9, 23, 22 and 3% of news items, respectively. Press releases were highest at 44% and report by correspondents at 24%. Further, 55, 23 and 21% news items focused on smoking, smokeless and both forms of tobacco use, respectively. Sixty-six per cent and 34% news items, respectively, were focused on youth and women. The news items had a hypothetical value of US$1503 628.3, which was three times more than the funds spent on all project activities. In the absence of funding for paid media, the project strategically used earned media to promote tobacco control policies in the state.

  6. The effect of taxation on tobacco consumption and public revenues in Lebanon.

    Salti, Nisreen; Chaaban, Jad; Nakkash, Rima; Alaouie, Hala

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco consumption rates in Lebanon are among the highest worldwide. The country ratified the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in 2005. A law was passed in 2011 which regulates smoking in closed public spaces, bans advertising, and stipulates larger warnings. Despite international evidence confirming that increasing taxation on tobacco products lowers tobacco consumption, no such policy has yet been adopted: a cigarette pack costs on average US$1.50. To date no studies in Lebanon have addressed the welfare and public finance effects of increasing taxes on tobacco products. Using the 2005 national survey of household living conditions, we estimate an almost ideal demand system to generate price elasticities of demand for tobacco. Using estimated elasticities and a conservative scenario for expected smuggling, we simulate the consumption and tax revenue effects of a change in the price of tobacco under various tax schemes. Increasing taxes on all tobacco products so as to double the price of imported cigarettes would lower their consumption by 7% and consumption of domestically produced cigarettes by over 90%. Young adults (ages 15-30) are more sensitive: consumption would drop by 9% for imported cigarettes and by 100% for domestic cigarettes. Government revenues would increase by approximately 52%. The estimated elasticities indicate that an increase in taxes on all tobacco products would lead to a reduction in consumption and an increase in government revenue. Evidence from Lebanon on the effectiveness of increased taxation may help initiate national debate on the need to raise taxes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Effects of a 17q21 chromosome gene variant, tobacco smoke and furred pets on infant wheeze

    Bräuner, E V; Loft, S; Raaschou-Nielsen, O

    2012-01-01

    investigated associations between the rs7216389 polymorphism in the 17q21 locus affecting ORMDL3 expression and the risk for recurrent wheeze and interactions with exposure to tobacco smoke and furred pets during pregnancy and infancy using a birth cohort of 101¿042 infants. Rs7216389 was significantly...... association between pets and wheeze among homozygous wild-type carriers and a negative association among homozygous variant allele carriers. There was no interaction between rs7216389 and tobacco smoke exposure....

  8. Hadron jets in deep inelastic ν-bar N interactions and universality of the jet properties in relative four-velocity space

    Baldin, A.M.; Didenko, L.A.; Grishin, V.G.; Kuznetsov, A.A.; Maneva, G.M.; Temnikov, P.P.

    1987-01-01

    A new definition of the jets as clusters in the four-velocity space has been used to make an invariant analysis of the jet production processes in ν-barN collisions for the three energy intervals of the hadron system: W=3.5; 4.9; 8.0 GeV. The obtained results are compared with the characteristics of the four-dimensional jets in various types of interactions: pp, p-barp, π - p, π - C, pC and pTa at energies from 6 to 205 GeV. The characteristics of the four-dimensional jets in soft and hard interactions are shown to be universal, i.e., independent of neither the type of the fragmenting system (p, p-bar, π - , C, q), nor the collision energy for P lab ≥ 22 GeV/c (√S=W > 6 GeV). The obtained result means that the hadronization of the colour charges is determined by the dynamics of their interaction with vacuum

  9. Primary reaction control system/remote manipulator system interaction with loaded arm. Space shuttle engineering and operations support

    Taylor, E. C.; Davis, J. D.

    1978-01-01

    A study of the interaction between the orbiter primary reaction control system (PRCS) and the remote manipulator system (RMS) with a loaded arm is documented. This analysis was performed with the Payload Deployment and Retrieval Systems Simulation (PDRSS) program with the passive arm bending option. The passive-arm model simulates the arm as massless elastic links with locked joints. The study was divided into two parts. The first part was the evaluation of the response of the arm to step inputs (i.e. constant jet torques) about each of the orbiter body axes. The second part of the study was the evaluation of the response of the arm to minimum impulse primary RCS jet firings with both single pulse and pulse train inputs.

  10. Crossing Phenomena in Overhead Line Equipment (OHLE) Structure in 3D Space Considering Soil-Structure Interaction

    Ngamkhanong, Chayut; Kaewunruen, Sakdirat; Baniotopoulos, Charalampos; Papaelias, Mayorkinos

    2017-10-01

    Nowadays, the electric train becomes one of the efficient railway systems that are lighter, cleaner, quieter, cheaper and faster than a conventional train. Overhead line equipment (OHLE), which supplies electric power to the trains, is designed on the principle of overhead wires placed over the railway track. The OHLE is supported by mast structure which located at the lineside along the track. Normally, mast structure is a steel column or truss structure which supports the overhead wire carrying the power. Due to the running train and severe periodic force, such as an earthquake, in surrounding area may cause damage to the OHLE structure especially mast structure which leads to the failure of the electrical system. The mast structure needs to be discussed in order to resist the random forces. Due to the vibration effect, the natural frequencies of the structure are necessary. This is because when the external applied force occurs within a range of frequency of the structure, resonance effect can be expected which lead to the large oscillations and deflections. The natural frequency of a system is dependent only on the stiffness of the structure and the mass which participates with the structure, including self-weight. The modal analysis is used in order to calculate the mode shapes and natural frequencies of the mast structure during free vibration. A mast structure with varying rotational soil stiffness is used to observe the influence of soil-structure action. It is common to use finite element analysis to perform a modal analysis. This paper presents the fundamental mode shapes, natural frequencies and crossing phenomena of three-dimensional mast structure considering soil-structure interaction. The sensitivity of mode shapes to the variation of soil-structure interaction is discussed. The outcome of this study will improve the understanding of the fundamental dynamic behaviour of the mast structure which supports the OHLE. Moreover, this study will be a

  11. Inhibition of herpes simplex virus replication by tobacco extracts.

    Hirsch, J M; Svennerholm, B; Vahlne, A

    1984-05-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) has been associated with the genesis of leukoplakias, epithelial atypia, and oral cancer. Tobacco habits, such as snuff dipping, are also definitely correlated with this type of lesion. The normal cytolytic HSV-1 infection can, after in vitro inactivation, transform cells. Extracts of snuff were prepared and assayed for their ability to inhibit HSV-1 replication. Plaque formation assays of HSV-1 in the presence of snuff extract showed that a reduced number of plaques was formed. Different batches of one brand of snuff were tested for inhibition of herpes simplex virus (HSV) production. More than 99% inhibition of 24-hr HSV production was obtained with undiluted batches. The 1:5 dilutions of snuff had an inhibitory effect of 85% and 1:25 dilutions, 39%. In agreement, the attachment of the virus to the host cell and penetration of the virus to the cell nuclei were found to be inhibited as was the synthesis of viral DNA. Nicotine had an inhibitory effect, while aromatic additions to snuff were found to have no major inhibitory effect on HSV replication. Snuff extracts were prepared from different brands of snuff reported to contain high and low quantities of tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines. Brands with reported high levels of tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines had significantly greater ability to inhibit HSV replication. In conclusion, this study has shown that extracts of snuff have inhibitory effects on the production of cytolytic HSV-1 infections. A chronic snuff dipper keeps tobacco in the mouth for the major part of the day. Thus, virus shed in the oral cavity in connection with a reactivated latent HSV-1 infection has great possibilities of being affected by snuff or derivatives of snuff. It is suggested that an interaction between tobacco products and HSV-1 might be involved in the development of dysplastic lesions in the oral cavity.

  12. [Effects of tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping on tobacco yield and rhizosphere soil phosphorus fractions].

    Tang, Biao; Zhang, Xi-zhou; Yang, Xian-bin

    2015-07-01

    A field plot experiment was conducted to investigate the tobacco yield and different forms of soil phosphorus under tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping patterns. The results showed that compared with tobacco monoculture, the tobacco yield and proportion of middle/high class of tobacco leaves to total leaves were significantly increased in tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping, and the rhizosphere soil available phosphorus contents were 1.3 and 1.7 times as high as that of tobacco monoculture at mature stage of lower leaf. For the inorganic phosphorus in rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil in different treatments, the contents of O-P and Fe-P were the highest, followed by Ca2-P and Al-P, and Ca8-P and Ca10-P were the lowest. Compared with tobacco monoculture and tobacco garlic crop intercropping, the Ca2-P concentration in rhizosphere soil under tobacco garlic crop rotation at mature stage of upper leaf, the Ca8-P concentration at mature stage of lower leaf, and the Ca10-P concentration at mature stage of middle leaf were lowest. The Al-P concentrations under tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping were 1.6 and 1.9 times, and 1.2 and 1.9 times as much as that under tobacco monoculture in rhizosphere soil at mature stages of lower leaf and middle leaf, respectively. The O-P concentrations in rhizosphere soil under tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping were significantly lower than that under tobacco monoculture. Compared with tobacco garlic crop intercropping, the tobacco garlic crop rotation could better improve tobacco yield and the proportion of high and middle class leaf by activating O-P, Ca10-P and resistant organic phosphorus in soil.

  13. Compliance with point-of-sale tobacco control policies and student tobacco use in Mumbai, India.

    Mistry, Ritesh; Pednekar, Mangesh S; McCarthy, William J; Resnicow, Ken; Pimple, Sharmila A; Hsieh, Hsing-Fang; Mishra, Gauravi A; Gupta, Prakash C

    2018-05-09

    We measured how student tobacco use and psychological risk factors (intention to use and perceived ease of access to tobacco products) were associated with tobacco vendor compliance with India's Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products Act provisions regulating the point-of-sale (POS) environment. We conducted a population-based cross-sectional survey of high school students (n=1373) and tobacco vendors (n=436) in school-adjacent communities (n=26) in Mumbai, India. We used in-class self-administered questionnaires of high school students, face-to-face interviews with tobacco vendors and compliance checks of tobacco POS environments. Logistic regression models with adjustments for clustering were used to measure associations between student tobacco use, psychological risk factors and tobacco POS compliance. Compliance with POS laws was low overall and was associated with lower risk of student current tobacco use (OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.91) and current smokeless tobacco use (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.77), when controlling for student-level and community-level tobacco use risk factors. Compliance was not associated with student intention to use tobacco (OR 0.50; 95% CI 0.21 to 1.18) and perceived ease of access to tobacco (OR 0.73; 95% CI 0.53 to 1.00). Improving vendor compliance with tobacco POS laws may reduce student tobacco use. Future studies should test strategies to improve compliance with tobacco POS laws, particularly in low-income and middle-income country settings like urban India. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Nuclear analysis of Jordanian tobacco

    Al-Saleh, K. A.; Saleh, N. S.

    The concentration of trace and minor elements in six different Jordanian and two foreign brands of cigarette tobacco and wrapping paper were determined using combined X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and Rutherford backscatteing (RBS) analysis techniques. The cigarette filter and the ash were also analyzed to determine the trapped elements on the filter and their transference with smoke. The toxic effects of some elements have been briefly discussed.

  15. Defining Tobacco Regulatory Science Competencies.

    Wipfli, Heather L; Berman, Micah; Hanson, Kacey; Kelder, Steven; Solis, Amy; Villanti, Andrea C; Ribeiro, Carla M P; Meissner, Helen I; Anderson, Roger

    2017-02-01

    In 2013, the National Institutes of Health and the Food and Drug Administration funded a network of 14 Tobacco Centers of Regulatory Science (TCORS) with a mission that included research and training. A cross-TCORS Panel was established to define tobacco regulatory science (TRS) competencies to help harmonize and guide their emerging educational programs. The purpose of this paper is to describe the Panel's work to develop core TRS domains and competencies. The Panel developed the list of domains and competencies using a semistructured Delphi method divided into four phases occurring between November 2013 and August 2015. The final proposed list included a total of 51 competencies across six core domains and 28 competencies across five specialized domains. There is a need for continued discussion to establish the utility of the proposed set of competencies for emerging TRS curricula and to identify the best strategies for incorporating these competencies into TRS training programs. Given the field's broad multidisciplinary nature, further experience is needed to refine the core domains that should be covered in TRS training programs versus knowledge obtained in more specialized programs. Regulatory science to inform the regulation of tobacco products is an emerging field. The paper provides an initial list of core and specialized domains and competencies to be used in developing curricula for new and emerging training programs aimed at preparing a new cohort of scientists to conduct critical TRS research. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Introduction to tobacco control supplement

    Chen, Ii-Lun; Husten, Corinne G

    2014-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have recently gained significant attention in the marketplace and in the media. However, limited information is available about the worldwide impact of e-cigarettes; most public health officials are calling for more data so they can more fully understand the potential risks and benefits of e-cigarettes in order to inform regulatory action. In the USA, e-cigarettes that are marketed as tobacco products are not currently regulated by the Food and Drug Admini...

  17. Tobacco use patterns in traditional and shared parenting families: a gender perspective

    Greaves Lorraine

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although researchers have focused on women's smoking during pregnancy and the postpartum period and the influence of household interactions on their tobacco reduction efforts, little attention has been given to parents' efforts to regulate smoking during the child-rearing years. The objective of this study was to examine how parenting young children and gender relations reflected in couple dynamics influence household tobacco use patterns and, specifically, women's tobacco reduction efforts. Methods As part of a longitudinal, grounded-theory study with 28 couples to examine the place of tobacco in the lives of new parents, each parent participated in one or two individual, semi-structured interviews during the first three years postpartum. Grounded theory methods and a gender relations framework were used to analyze transcribed data. Results Two different parenting styles that couples adhered to were identified. These parenting styles reflected performances of femininities and masculinities, and were associated with particular smoking patterns. Traditional parenting reinforced by women's alignment with emphasized femininities and men's alignment with hegemonic masculinities placed women with smoking partners at risk for relapse. Women's actions to be supportive partners facilitated couples' continued smoking. In shared parenting dyads, egalitarian practices tended to support successful transitions to smoke-free homes. Women's ability to exert more influence around family decision making, and the acceptance of new masculine identities associated with fatherhood were influential. In non-smoking dyads where the mother, father, or both reduced or stopped smoking, we observed a subtext of potential conflict in the event either the mother or father relapsed. Conclusions Decisions about tobacco use are made within relationships and social contexts that vary based on each individual's relationship to tobacco, divisions of domestic

  18. Tobacco use patterns in traditional and shared parenting families: a gender perspective.

    Bottorff, Joan L; Kelly, Mary T; Oliffe, John L; Johnson, Joy L; Greaves, Lorraine; Chan, Anna

    2010-05-10

    Although researchers have focused on women's smoking during pregnancy and the postpartum period and the influence of household interactions on their tobacco reduction efforts, little attention has been given to parents' efforts to regulate smoking during the child-rearing years. The objective of this study was to examine how parenting young children and gender relations reflected in couple dynamics influence household tobacco use patterns and, specifically, women's tobacco reduction efforts. As part of a longitudinal, grounded-theory study with 28 couples to examine the place of tobacco in the lives of new parents, each parent participated in one or two individual, semi-structured interviews during the first three years postpartum. Grounded theory methods and a gender relations framework were used to analyze transcribed data. Two different parenting styles that couples adhered to were identified. These parenting styles reflected performances of femininities and masculinities, and were associated with particular smoking patterns. Traditional parenting reinforced by women's alignment with emphasized femininities and men's alignment with hegemonic masculinities placed women with smoking partners at risk for relapse. Women's actions to be supportive partners facilitated couples' continued smoking. In shared parenting dyads, egalitarian practices tended to support successful transitions to smoke-free homes. Women's ability to exert more influence around family decision making, and the acceptance of new masculine identities associated with fatherhood were influential. In non-smoking dyads where the mother, father, or both reduced or stopped smoking, we observed a subtext of potential conflict in the event either the mother or father relapsed. Decisions about tobacco use are made within relationships and social contexts that vary based on each individual's relationship to tobacco, divisions of domestic labour and childcare, and other activities that impact tobacco use

  19. 7 CFR 29.65 - Accessibility of tobacco.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accessibility of tobacco. 29.65 Section 29.65... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Permissive Inspection § 29.65 Accessibility of tobacco. All tobacco... characteristics or for drawing of samples. In the case of tobacco in packages, the coverings shall be removed by...

  20. 7 CFR 30.31 - Classification of leaf tobacco.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification of leaf tobacco. 30.31 Section 30.31... REGULATIONS TOBACCO STOCKS AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.31 Classification of leaf tobacco. For the purpose of this classification leaf tobacco shall...