WorldWideScience

Sample records for space infrared cooled

  1. Infrared photometry of cool white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickramasinghe, D.T.; Allen, D.A.; Bessell, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    The results are presented of a search for the effects of pressure induced H 2 dipole opacity on the infrared JHK magnitudes of cool white dwarfs. LHS 1126 is found to be a very cool (Tsub(e) approximately 4250 K) DC white dwarf with a H rich atmospheric composition dominated by H 2 dipole opacity in the infrared. JHK photometry also favours a H rich atmospheric composition for the DK white dwarfs LP 658-2 and W 489. The surprisingly high proportion of hydrogen rich white dwarfs in the sample appears to suggest that the mechanism which inhibits the accretion of hydrogen in the hotter helium stars becomes less effective at low (Tsub(e) approximately 3 + ion in cool hydrogen rich white dwarf atmospheres is pointed out and it is suggested that the opacity due to this ion may be responsible for the blanketing observed in the U and B magnitudes of some cool white dwarfs. (author)

  2. Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) science instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, R.; Hing, S.M.; Leidich, C.A.; Fazio, G.; Houck, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    Concepts of scientific instruments designed to perform infrared astronomical tasks such as imaging, photometry, and spectroscopy are discussed as part of the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) project under definition study at NASA/Ames Research Center. The instruments are: the multiband imaging photometer, the infrared array camera, and the infrared spectograph. SIRTF, a cryogenically cooled infrared telescope in the 1-meter range and wavelengths as short as 2.5 microns carrying multiple instruments with high sensitivity and low background performance, provides the capability to carry out basic astronomical investigations such as deep search for very distant protogalaxies, quasi-stellar objects, and missing mass; infrared emission from galaxies; star formation and the interstellar medium; and the composition and structure of the atmospheres of the outer planets in the solar sytem. 8 refs

  3. Spitzer mid-infrared spectra of cool-core galaxy clusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Messières, G.E.; O'Connell, R.W.; McNamara, B.R.; Donahue, M.; Nulsen, P.E.J.; Voit, G.M.; Wise, M.W.; Smith, B.; Higdon, J.; Higdon, S.; Bastian, N.

    2010-01-01

    We have obtained mid-infrared spectra of nine cool-core galaxy clusters with the Infrared Spectrograph aboard the Spitzer Space Telescope. X-ray, ultraviolet and optical observations have demonstrated that each of these clusters hosts a cooling flow which seems to be fueling vigorous star formation

  4. Small high cooling power space cooler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, T. V.; Raab, J.; Durand, D.; Tward, E. [Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems Redondo Beach, Ca, 90278 (United States)

    2014-01-29

    The small High Efficiency pulse tube Cooler (HEC) cooler, that has been produced and flown on a number of space infrared instruments, was originally designed to provide cooling of 10 W @ 95 K. It achieved its goal with >50% margin when limited by the 180 W output ac power of its flight electronics. It has also been produced in 2 stage configurations, typically for simultaneously cooling of focal planes to temperatures as low as 35 K and optics at higher temperatures. The need for even higher cooling power in such a low mass cryocooler is motivated by the advent of large focal plane arrays. With the current availability at NGAS of much larger power cryocooler flight electronics, reliable long term operation in space with much larger cooling powers is now possible with the flight proven 4 kg HEC mechanical cooler. Even though the single stage cooler design can be re-qualified for those larger input powers without design change, we redesigned both the linear and coaxial version passive pulse tube cold heads to re-optimize them for high power cooling at temperatures above 130 K while rejecting heat to 300 K. Small changes to the regenerator packing, the re-optimization of the tuned inertance and no change to the compressor resulted in the increased performance at 150 K. The cooler operating at 290 W input power achieves 35 W@ 150 K corresponding to a specific cooling power at 150 K of 8.25 W/W and a very high specific power of 72.5 W/Kg. At these powers the cooler still maintains large stroke, thermal and current margins. In this paper we will present the measured data and the changes to this flight proven cooler that were made to achieve this increased performance.

  5. The "Very Cool" James Webb Space Telescope!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teague, Peter J. B.

    2018-01-01

    For over twenty years, scientists, engineers, technicians, and other personnel have been working on the next generation space telescope. As a partnership between NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration), CSA (Canadian Space Agency), and ESA (European Space Angency), the James Webb Space Telescope will complement the previous research performed by the Hubble by utilizing a larger primary mirror, which will also be optimized for infrared wavelengths. This combination will allow JWST to collect data and take images of light having traveled over 13.7 billion light years. This presentation will focus on the mission, as well as the contamination control challenges during the integration and testing in the NASA Goddard Spacecraft Systems Development and Integration Facility (SSDIF), one of the largest cleanrooms in the world. Additional information will be presented regarding space simulation testing down to a cool 20 degrees Kelvin [-424 degrees Fahrenheit] that will occur at Johnson Space Center in Houston, TX, and more testing and integration to happen at Northrop Grumman Corp., in Redondo Beach, CA. Launch of the JWST is currently scheduled for the spring of 2019 at Ariane Spaceport in French Guiana, South America.

  6. Infrared photometry and polarimetry of cool stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khozov, G V; Khudyakova, T N; Larionov, V M; Larionova, L V

    1978-01-01

    The results of infrared observations made in 1975 are given. Brightness and polarization variations of stars in R,I,H,K bands during 1969-1975 are presented in tables. The dependence of the degree of polarization on I-K is obtained. The dependence is an evidence of the existence of a universal mechanism responsible for the polarization variations of late-type stars. 2 figures, 13 tables.

  7. The space infrared telescope for cosmology and astrophysics : SPICA A joint mission between JAXA and ESA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinyard, Bruce; Nakagawa, Takao; Wild, Wolfgang

    The Space Infrared telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) is planned to be the next space astronomy mission observing in the infrared. The mission is planned to be launched in 2017 and will feature a 3.5 m telescope cooled to <5 K through the use of mechanical coolers. These coolers will

  8. Heat pump system with selective space cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendergrass, J.C.

    1997-05-13

    A reversible heat pump provides multiple heating and cooling modes and includes a compressor, an evaporator and heat exchanger all interconnected and charged with refrigerant fluid. The heat exchanger includes tanks connected in series to the water supply and a condenser feed line with heat transfer sections connected in counterflow relationship. The heat pump has an accumulator and suction line for the refrigerant fluid upstream of the compressor. Sub-cool transfer tubes associated with the accumulator/suction line reclaim a portion of the heat from the heat exchanger. A reversing valve switches between heating/cooling modes. A first bypass is operative to direct the refrigerant fluid around the sub-cool transfer tubes in the space cooling only mode and during which an expansion valve is utilized upstream of the evaporator/indoor coil. A second bypass is provided around the expansion valve. A programmable microprocessor activates the first bypass in the cooling only mode and deactivates the second bypass, and vice-versa in the multiple heating modes for said heat exchanger. In the heating modes, the evaporator may include an auxiliary outdoor coil for direct supplemental heat dissipation into ambient air. In the multiple heating modes, the condensed refrigerant fluid is regulated by a flow control valve. 4 figs.

  9. Thermal Design of a Protomodel Space Infrared Cryogenic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Suk Yang

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A Protomodel Space Infrared Cryogenic System (PSICS cooled by a stirling cryocooler has been designed. The PSICS has an IR sensor inside the cold box which is cooled by a stirling cryocooler with refrigeration capacity of 500mW at 80K in a vacuum vessel. It is important to minimize the heat load so that the background thermal noise can be reduced. In order to design the cryogenic system with low heat load and to reduce the remained heat load, we have performed numerical analyses. In this paper, we present the design factors and the results obtained by the thermal analysis of the PSICS.

  10. Liouville's theorem and phase-space cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, R.L.; Sessler, A.M.

    1993-01-01

    A discussion is presented of Liouville's theorem and its consequences for conservative dynamical systems. A formal proof of Liouville's theorem is given. The Boltzmann equation is derived, and the collisionless Boltzmann equation is shown to be rigorously true for a continuous medium. The Fokker-Planck equation is derived. Discussion is given as to when the various equations are applicable and, in particular, under what circumstances phase space cooling may occur

  11. Cooling atomic ions with visible and infra-red light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenfelser, F.; Marinelli, M.; Negnevitsky, V.; Ragg, S.; Home, J. P.

    2017-06-01

    We demonstrate the ability to load, cool and detect singly charged calcium ions in a surface electrode trap using only visible and infrared lasers for the trapped-ion control. As opposed to the standard methods of cooling using dipole-allowed transitions, we combine power broadening of a quadrupole transition at 729 nm with quenching of the upper level using a dipole allowed transition at 854 nm. By observing the resulting 393 nm fluorescence we are able to perform background-free detection of the ion. We show that this system can be used to smoothly transition between the Doppler cooling and sideband cooling regimes, and verify theoretical predictions throughout this range. We achieve scattering rates which reliably allow recooling after collision events and allow ions to be loaded from a thermal atomic beam. This work is compatible with recent advances in optical waveguides, and thus opens a path in current technologies for large-scale quantum information processing. In situations where dielectric materials are placed close to trapped ions, it carries the additional advantage of using wavelengths which do not lead to significant charging, which should facilitate high rate optical interfaces between remotely held ions.

  12. THE INFRARED TELESCOPE FACILITY (IRTF) SPECTRAL LIBRARY: COOL STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rayner, John T.; Cushing, Michael C.; Vacca, William D.

    2009-01-01

    We present a 0.8-5 μm spectral library of 210 cool stars observed at a resolving power of R ≡ λ/Δλ ∼ 2000 with the medium-resolution infrared spectrograph, SpeX, at the 3.0 m NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. The stars have well-established MK spectral classifications and are mostly restricted to near-solar metallicities. The sample not only contains the F, G, K, and M spectral types with luminosity classes between I and V, but also includes some AGB, carbon, and S stars. In contrast to some other spectral libraries, the continuum shape of the spectra is measured and preserved in the data reduction process. The spectra are absolutely flux calibrated using the Two Micron All Sky Survey photometry. Potential uses of the library include studying the physics of cool stars, classifying and studying embedded young clusters and optically obscured regions of the Galaxy, evolutionary population synthesis to study unresolved stellar populations in optically obscured regions of galaxies and synthetic photometry. The library is available in digital form from the IRTF Web site.

  13. The Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) Spectral Library: Cool Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, John T.; Cushing, Michael C.; Vacca, William D.

    2009-12-01

    We present a 0.8-5 μm spectral library of 210 cool stars observed at a resolving power of R ≡ λ/Δλ ~ 2000 with the medium-resolution infrared spectrograph, SpeX, at the 3.0 m NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. The stars have well-established MK spectral classifications and are mostly restricted to near-solar metallicities. The sample not only contains the F, G, K, and M spectral types with luminosity classes between I and V, but also includes some AGB, carbon, and S stars. In contrast to some other spectral libraries, the continuum shape of the spectra is measured and preserved in the data reduction process. The spectra are absolutely flux calibrated using the Two Micron All Sky Survey photometry. Potential uses of the library include studying the physics of cool stars, classifying and studying embedded young clusters and optically obscured regions of the Galaxy, evolutionary population synthesis to study unresolved stellar populations in optically obscured regions of galaxies and synthetic photometry. The library is available in digital form from the IRTF Web site.

  14. Cryogenic implications of orbit selection of the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.H.; Brooke, W.F.; Maa, S.

    1986-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) which completed the first all sky survey in the infrared demonstrated the tremendous advantage of space-based infrared astronomy. The ability to cool the telescope optics and focal plane to liquid helium temperatures and the absence of atmospheric disturbances which cause ''seeing'' effects resulted in the discovery of 250,000 IR sources and many interesting phenomena including dust clouds around Vega and the infrared ''cirrus'' at 100 μm. To realize the true benefit of space infrared astronomy, NASA is now studying the Space Infrared Telescope Facility, a long-life space-based observatory, to follow up on the survey results of IRAS. The choice of orbits is a critical program decision. The objective of this paper is to compare the performance of an all superfluid helium SIRTF system in the two possible orbit inclinations, polar orbit (99 0 ) and the low inclination orbit (28.5 0 )

  15. Infrared spectrum of an extremely cool white-dwarf star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgkin; Oppenheimer; Hambly; Jameson; Smartt; Steele

    2000-01-06

    White dwarfs are the remnant cores of stars that initially had masses of less than 8 solar masses. They cool gradually over billions of years, and have been suggested to make up much of the 'dark matter' in the halo of the Milky Way. But extremely cool white dwarfs have proved difficult to detect, owing to both their faintness and their anticipated similarity in colour to other classes of dwarf stars. Recent improved models indicate that white dwarfs are much more blue than previously supposed, suggesting that the earlier searches may have been looking for the wrong kinds of objects. Here we report an infrared spectrum of an extremely cool white dwarf that is consistent with the new models. We determine the star's temperature to be 3,500 +/- 200 K, making it the coolest known white dwarf. The kinematics of this star indicate that it is in the halo of the Milky Way, and the density of such objects implied by the serendipitous discovery of this star is consistent with white dwarfs dominating the dark matter in the halo.

  16. Misting-cooling systems for microclimatic control in public space

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes, Joao; Zoilo, Inaki; Jacinto, Nuno; Nunes, Ana; Torres-Campos, Tiago; Pacheco, Manuel; Fonseca, David

    2011-01-01

    Misting-cooling systems have been used in outdoor spaces mainly for aesthetic purposes, and punctual cooling achievement. However, they can be highly effective in outdoor spaces’ bioclimatic comfort, in terms of microclimatic control, as an evaporative cooling system. Recent concerns in increasing bioclimatic standards in public outdoor spaces, along with more sustainable practices, gave origin to reasoning where plastic principles are combined with the study of cooling efficacy, in order to ...

  17. The Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisawitz, David T.

    2014-01-01

    The far-infrared astrophysics community is eager to follow up Spitzer and Herschel observations with sensitive, high-resolution imaging and spectroscopy, for such measurements are needed to understand merger-driven star formation and chemical enrichment in galaxies, star and planetary system formation, and the development and prevalence of water-bearing planets. The Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT) is a wide field-of-view space-based spatio-spectral interferometer designed to operate in the 25 to 400 micron wavelength range. This talk will summarize the SPIRIT mission concept, with a focus on the science that motivates it and the technology that enables it. Without mentioning SPIRIT by name, the astrophysics community through the NASA Astrophysics Roadmap Committee recently recommended this mission as the first in a series of space-based interferometers. Data from a laboratory testbed interferometer will be used to illustrate how the spatio-spectral interferometry technique works.

  18. NIRAC: Near Infrared Airglow Camera for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelinas, L. J.; Rudy, R. J.; Hecht, J. H.

    2017-12-01

    NIRAC is a space based infrared airglow imager that will be deployed to the International Space Station in late 2018, under the auspices of the Space Test Program. NIRAC will survey OH airglow emissions in the 1.6 micron wavelength regime, exploring the spatial and temporal variability of emission intensities at latitudes from 51° south to 51° north. Atmospheric perturbations in the 80-100 km altitude range, including those produced by atmospheric gravity waves (AGWs), are observable in the OH airglow. The objective of the NIRAC experiment is to make near global measurement of the OH airglow and airglow perturbations. These emissions also provide a bright source of illumination at night, allowing for nighttime detection of clouds and surface characteristics. The instrument, developed by the Aerospace Space Science Applications Laboratory, employs a space-compatible FPGA for camera control and data collection and a novel, custom optical system to eliminate image smear due to orbital motion. NIRAC utilizes a high-performance, large format infrared focal plane array, transitioning technology used in the existing Aerospace Corporation ground-based airglow imager to a space based platform. The high-sensitivity, four megapixel imager has a native spatial resolution of 100 meters at ISS altitudes. The 23° x 23° FOV sweeps out a 150 km swath of the OH airglow layer as viewed from the ISS, and is sensitive to OH intensity perturbations down to 0.1%. The detector has a 1.7 micron cutoff that precludes the need for cold optics and reduces cooling requirements (to 180 K). Detector cooling is provided by a compact, lightweight cryocooler capable of reaching 120K, providing a great deal of margin.

  19. Estimation of European Union residential sector space cooling potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakubcionis, Mindaugas; Carlsson, Johan

    2017-01-01

    Data on European residential space cooling demands are scarce and often of poor quality. This can be concluded from a review of the Comprehensive Assessments on the energy efficiency potential in the heating and cooling sector performed by European Union Member States under Art. 14 of the Energy Efficiency Directive. This article estimates the potential space cooling demands in the residential sector of the EU and the resulting impact on electricity generation and supply systems using the United States as a proxy. A georeferenced approach was used to establish the potential residential space cooling demand in NUTS-3 regions of EU. The total potential space cooling demand of the EU was estimated to be 292 TW h for the residential sector in an average year. The additional electrical capacity needed was estimated to 79 GW. With proper energy system development strategies, e.g. matching capacity of solar PV with cooling demand, or introduction of district cooling, the stresses on electricity system from increasing cooling demand can be mitigated. The estimated potential of space cooling demand, identified in this paper for all EU Members States, could be used while preparing the next iteration of EU MS Comprehensive Assessments or other energy related studies. - Highlights: • An estimation of EU space cooling demand potential in residential sector is presented. • An estimate of space cooling demand potential is based on using USA data as a proxy. • Significant cooling demand increase can be expected. • Cooling demand increase would lead to increased stress in energy supply systems. • Proper policies and strategies might measurably decrease the impact on energy systems.

  20. Space Based Infrared System High (SBIRS High)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    elements (five SMGTs) for the S2E2 Mobile Ground System. ​ SBIRS Block Buy (GEO 5-6) The GEO 5-6 Tech Refresh (TR) Engineering Change Proposal was...Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-210 Space Based Infrared System High ( SBIRS High) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense...Acquisition Management Information Retrieval (DAMIR) March 23, 2016 11:24:26 UNCLASSIFIED SBIRS High December 2015 SAR March 23, 2016 11:24:26

  1. COOL WHITE DWARFS IDENTIFIED IN THE SECOND DATA RELEASE OF THE UKIRT INFRARED DEEP SKY SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lodieu, N.; Leggett, S. K.; Nitta, A.; Bergeron, P.

    2009-01-01

    We have paired the second data release of the Large Area Survey of the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey with the fifth data release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to identify 10 cool white dwarf candidates, from their photometry and astrometry. Of these 10, one was previously known to be a very cool white dwarf. We have obtained optical spectroscopy for seven of the candidates using the GMOS-N spectrograph on Gemini North, and have confirmed all seven as white dwarfs. Our photometry and astrometry indicate that the remaining two objects are also white dwarfs. The model analysis of the photometry and available spectroscopy shows that the seven confirmed new white dwarfs, and the two new likely white dwarfs, have effective temperatures in the range of T eff = 5400-6600 K. Our analysis of the previously known white dwarf confirms that it is cool, with T eff = 3800 K. The cooling age for this dwarf is 8.7 Gyr, while that for the nine ∼ 6000 K white dwarfs is 1.8-3.6 Gyr. We are unable to determine the masses of the white dwarfs from the existing data, and therefore we cannot constrain the total ages of the white dwarfs. The large cooling age for the coolest white dwarf in the sample, combined with its low estimated tangential velocity, suggests that it is an old member of the thin disk, or a member of the thick disk of the Galaxy, with an age of 10-11 Gyr. The warmer white dwarfs appear to have velocities typical of the thick disk or even halo; these may be very old remnants of low-mass stars, or they may be relatively young thin-disk objects with unusually high space motion.

  2. Nighttime Infrared radiative cooling and opacity inferred by REMS Ground Temperature Sensor Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Torres, Javier; Paz Zorzano, María; Pla-García, Jorge; Rafkin, Scot; Lepinette, Alain; Sebastián, Eduardo; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; REMS Team

    2013-04-01

    Due to the low density of the Martian atmosphere, the temperature of the surface is controlled primarily by solar heating, and infrared cooling to the atmosphere and space, rather than heat exchange with the atmosphere. In the absence of solar radiation the infrared (IR) cooling, and then the nighttime surface temperatures, are directly controlled by soil termal inertia and atmospheric optical thickness (τ) at infrared wavelengths. Under non-wind conditions, and assuming no processes involving latent heat changes in the surface, for a particular site where the rover stands the main parameter controlling the IR cooling will be τ. The minimal ground temperature values at a fixed position may thus be used to detect local variations in the total dust/aerosols/cloud tickness. The Ground Temperature Sensor (GTS) and Air Temperature Sensor (ATS) in the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) on board the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover provides hourly ground and air temperature measurements respectively. During the first 100 sols of operation of the rover, within the area of low thermal inertia, the minimal nightime ground temperatures reached values between 180 K and 190 K. For this season the expected frost point temperature is 200 K. Variations of up to 10 K have been observed associated with dust loading at Gale at the onset of the dust season. We will use these measurements together with line-by-line radiative transfer simulations using the Full Transfer By Optimized LINe-by-line (FUTBOLIN) code [Martín-Torres and Mlynczak, 2005] to estimate the IR atmospheric opacity and then dust/cloud coverage over the rover during the course of the MSL mission. Monitoring the dust loading and IR nightime cooling evolution during the dust season will allow for a better understanding of the influence of the atmosphere on the ground temperature and provide ground truth to models and orbiter measurements. References Martín-Torres, F. J. and M. G. Mlynczak

  3. Thermal Analysis of MIRIS Space Observation Camera for Verification of Passive Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duk-Hang Lee

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We conducted thermal analyses and cooling tests of the space observation camera (SOC of the multi-purpose infrared imaging system (MIRIS to verify passive cooling. The thermal analyses were conducted with NX 7.0 TMG for two cases of attitude of the MIRIS: for the worst hot case and normal case. Through the thermal analyses of the flight model, it was found that even in the worst case the telescope could be cooled to less than 206°K. This is similar to the results of the passive cooling test (~200.2°K. For the normal attitude case of the analysis, on the other hand, the SOC telescope was cooled to about 160°K in 10 days. Based on the results of these analyses and the test, it was determined that the telescope of the MIRIS SOC could be successfully cooled to below 200°K with passive cooling. The SOC is, therefore, expected to have optimal performance under cooled conditions in orbit.

  4. Electrical energy needs for space cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, C. U.; Nipkow, J.; Steinemann, U.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses measures that are to be taken to reduce increasing energy consumption resulting from global warming. A figure is quoted for the energy requirements for the ventilation and cooling of commercial, industrial and domestic buildings in Switzerland. A clear trend to higher technology densities and the associated demands for ventilation and air-conditioning are noted. The modeling of specific energy requirements for these services is discussed and the large economic gains and the refurbishment possibilities available are discussed. Possibilities for increasing the efficiency of such systems are discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of centralized and decentralized systems are examined and their effect on the electricity supply system are briefly noted.

  5. Advances in SELEX ES infrared detectors for space and astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, P.; Hipwood, L.; Baker, I.; Weller, H.

    2017-11-01

    Selex ES produces a wide range of infrared detectors from mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) and triglycine sulfate (TGS), and has supplied both materials into space programmes spanning a period of over 40 years. Current development activities that underpin potential future space missions include large format arrays for near- and short-wave infrared (NIR and SWIR) incorporating radiation-hard designs and suppression of glow. Improved heterostructures are aimed at the reduction of dark currents and avalanche photodiodes (APDs), and parallel studies have been undertaken for low-stress MCT array mounts. Much of this development work has been supported by ESA, UK Space, and ESO, and some has been performed in collaboration with the UK Astronomy Technology Centre and E2V. This paper focuses on MCT heterostructure developments and novel design elements in silicon read-out chips (ROICs). The 2048 x 2048 element, 17um pitch ROIC for ESA's SWIR array development forms the basis for the largest cooled infrared detector manufactured in Europe. Selex ES MCT is grown by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE), currently on 75mm diameter GaAs substrates. The MCT die size of the SWIR array is 35mm square and only a single array can be printed on the 75mm diameter wafer, utilising only 28% of the wafer area. The situation for 100mm substrates is little better, allowing only 2 arrays and 31% utilisation. However, low cost GaAs substrates are readily available in 150mm diameter and the MCT growth is scalable to this size, offering the real possibility of 6 arrays per wafer with 42% utilisation. A similar 2k x 2k ROIC is the goal of ESA's NIR programme, which is currently in phase 2 with a 1k x 1k demonstrator, and a smaller 320 x 256 ROIC (SAPHIRA) has been designed for ESO for the adaptive optics application in the VLT Gravity instrument. All 3 chips have low noise source-follower architecture and are enabled for MCT APD arrays, which have been demonstrated by ESO to be capable of

  6. Evaluation of fiber reinforced polymers using active infrared thermography system with thermoelectric cooling modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chady, Tomasz; Gorący, Krzysztof

    2018-04-01

    Active infrared thermography is increasingly used for nondestructive testing of various materials. Properties of this method are creating a unique possibility to utilize it for inspection of composites. In the case of active thermography, an external energy source is usually used to induce a thermal contrast inside tested objects. The conventional heating methods (like halogen lamps or flash lamps) are utilized for this purpose. In this study, we propose to use a cooling unit. The proposed system consists of a thermal imaging infrared camera, which is used to observe the surface of the inspected specimen and a specially designed cooling unit with thermoelectric modules (the Peltier modules).

  7. Optical/Infrared Signatures for Space-Based Remote Sensing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Picard, R. H; Dewan, E. M; Winick, J. R; O'Neil, R. R

    2007-01-01

    This report describes work carried out under the Air Force Research Laboratory's basic research task in optical remote-sensing signatures, entitled Optical / Infrared Signatures for Space-Based Remote Sensing...

  8. Long Hole Film Cooling Dataset for CFD Development . Part 1; Infrared Thermography and Thermocouple Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyam, Vikram; Thurman, Douglas; Poinsatte, Phillip; Ameri, Ali; Eichele, Peter; Knight, James

    2013-01-01

    An experiment investigating flow and heat transfer of long (length to diameter ratio of 18) cylindrical film cooling holes has been completed. In this paper, the thermal field in the flow and on the surface of the film cooled flat plate is presented for nominal freestream turbulence intensities of 1.5 and 8 percent. The holes are inclined at 30deg above the downstream direction, injecting chilled air of density ratio 1.0 onto the surface of a flat plate. The diameter of the hole is 0.75 in. (0.01905 m) with center to center spacing (pitch) of 3 hole diameters. Coolant was injected into the mainstream flow at nominal blowing ratios of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0. The Reynolds number of the freestream was approximately 11,000 based on hole diameter. Thermocouple surveys were used to characterize the thermal field. Infrared thermography was used to determine the adiabatic film effectiveness on the plate. Hotwire anemometry was used to provide flowfield physics and turbulence measurements. The results are compared to existing data in the literature. The aim of this work is to produce a benchmark dataset for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) development to eliminate the effects of hole length to diameter ratio and to improve resolution in the near-hole region. In this report, a Time-Filtered Navier Stokes (TFNS), also known as Partially Resolved Navier Stokes (PRNS), method that was implemented in the Glenn-HT code is used to model coolant-mainstream interaction. This method is a high fidelity unsteady method that aims to represent large scale flow features and mixing more accurately.

  9. Development of transition edge superconducting bolometers for the SAFARI Far-Infrared spectrometer on the SPICA space-borne telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mauskopf, P.; Morozov, D.; Glowacka, D.; Goldie, D.; Withington, S.; Bruijn, M.; De Korte, P.; Hoevers, H.; Ridder, M.; Van der Kuur, J.; Gao, J.R.

    2008-01-01

    We describe the optimization of transition edge superconducting (TES) detectors for use in a far-infrared (FIR) Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) mounted on a cryogenically cooled space-borne telescope (e.g. SPICA). The required noise equivalent power (NEP) of the detectors is approximately 10?19

  10. THE FIRST ULTRA-COOL BROWN DWARF DISCOVERED BY THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainzer, A.; Cushing, Michael C.; Eisenhardt, P.; Skrutskie, M.; Beaton, R.; Gelino, C. R.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Jarrett, T.; Masci, F.; Marsh, K.; Padgett, D.; Marley, Mark S.; Saumon, D.; Wright, E.; McLean, I.; Dietrich, M.; Garnavich, P.; Rueff, K.; Kuhn, O.; Leisawitz, D.

    2011-01-01

    We report the discovery of the first new ultra-cool brown dwarf (BDs) found with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). The object's preliminary designation is WISEPC J045853.90+643451.9. Follow-up spectroscopy with the LUCIFER instrument on the Large Binocular Telescope indicates that it is a very late-type T dwarf with a spectral type approximately equal to T9. Fits to an IRTF/SpeX 0.8-2.5 μm spectrum to the model atmospheres of Marley and Saumon indicate an effective temperature of approximately 600 K as well as the presence of vertical mixing in its atmosphere. The new BD is easily detected by WISE, with a signal-to-noise ratio of ∼36 at 4.6 μm. Current estimates place it at a distance of 6-10 pc. This object represents the first in what will likely be hundreds of nearby BDs found by WISE that will be suitable for follow-up observations, including those with the James Webb Space Telescope. One of the two primary scientific goals of the WISE mission is to find the coolest, closest stars to our Sun; the discovery of this new BD proves that WISE is capable of fulfilling this objective.

  11. Solar cycle variability of nonmigrating tides in the infrared cooling of the thermosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nischal, N.; Oberheide, J.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Marsh, D. R.

    2017-12-01

    Nitric Oxide (NO) at 5.3 μm and Carbon dioxide (CO2) at 15 μm are the major infrared emissions responsible for the radiative cooling of the thermosphere. We study the impact of two important diurnal nonmigrating tides, the DE2 and DE3, on NO and CO2 infrared emissions over a complete solar cycle (2002-2013) by (i) analyzing NO and CO2 cooling rate data from SABER and (ii) photochemical modeling using dynamical tides from a thermospheric empirical tidal model, CTMT. Both observed and modeled results show that the NO cooling rate amplitudes for DE2 and DE3 exhibit strong solar cycle dependence. NO 5.3 μm cooling rate tides are relatively unimportant for the infrared energy budget during solar minimum but important during solar maximum. On the other hand DE2 and DE3 in CO2 show comparatively small variability over a solar cycle. CO2 15 μm cooling rate tides remain, to a large extent, constant between solar minimum and maximum. This different responses by NO and CO2 emissions to the DE2 and DE3 during a solar cycle comes form the fact that the collisional reaction rate for NO is highly sensitive to the temperature comparative to that for CO2. Moreover, the solar cycle variability of these nonmigrating tides in thermospheric infrared emissions shows a clear QBO signals substantiating the impact of tropospheric weather system on the energy budget of the thermosphere. The relative contribution from the individual tidal drivers; temperature, density and advection to the observed DE2 and DE3 tides does not vary much over the course of the solar cycle, and this is true for both NO and CO2 emissions.

  12. Space imaging infrared optical guidance for autonomous ground vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Akira; Kobayashi, Nobuaki; Mutoh, Eiichiro; Kumagai, Hideo; Yamada, Hirofumi; Ishii, Hiromitsu

    2008-08-01

    We have developed the Space Imaging Infrared Optical Guidance for Autonomous Ground Vehicle based on the uncooled infrared camera and focusing technique to detect the objects to be evaded and to set the drive path. For this purpose we made servomotor drive system to control the focus function of the infrared camera lens. To determine the best focus position we use the auto focus image processing of Daubechies wavelet transform technique with 4 terms. From the determined best focus position we transformed it to the distance of the object. We made the aluminum frame ground vehicle to mount the auto focus infrared unit. Its size is 900mm long and 800mm wide. This vehicle mounted Ackerman front steering system and the rear motor drive system. To confirm the guidance ability of the Space Imaging Infrared Optical Guidance for Autonomous Ground Vehicle we had the experiments for the detection ability of the infrared auto focus unit to the actual car on the road and the roadside wall. As a result the auto focus image processing based on the Daubechies wavelet transform technique detects the best focus image clearly and give the depth of the object from the infrared camera unit.

  13. Technique for measuring cooling patterns in ion source grids by infrared scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grisham, L.R.; Eubank, H.P.; Kugel, H.W.

    1980-02-01

    Many plasma sources designed for neutral beam injection heating of plasmas now employ copper beam acceleration grids which are water-cooled by small capillary tubes fed from one or more headers. To prevent thermally-induced warpage of these grids it is essential that one be able to detect inhomogeneities in the cooling. Due to the very strong thermal coupling between adjacent cooling lines and the concomitant rapid equilibration times, it is not practical to make such measurements in a direct manner with a contact thermometer. We have developed a technique whereby we send a burst of hot water through an initially cool grid, followed by a burst of cool water, and record the transient thermal behavior usng an infrared television camera. This technique, which would be useful for any system with cooling paths that are strongly coupled thermally, has been applied to a number of sources built for the PLT and PDX tokamaks, and has proven highly effective in locating cooling deficiencies and blocked capillary tubes

  14. Evidence for Solar Cycle Influence on the Infrared Energy Budget and Radiative Cooling of the Thermosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlynczak, Martin G.; Martin-Torres, F. Javier; Marshall, B. Thomas; Thompson, R. Earl; Williams, Joshua; Turpin, TImothy; Kratz, D. P.; Russell, James M.; Woods, Tom; Gordley, Larry L.

    2007-01-01

    We present direct observational evidence for solar cycle influence on the infrared energy budget and radiative cooling of the thermosphere. By analyzing nearly five years of data from the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument, we show that the annual mean infrared power radiated by the nitric oxide (NO) molecule at 5.3 m has decreased by a factor of 2.9. This decrease is correlated (r = 0.96) with the decrease in the annual mean F10.7 solar index. Despite the sharp decrease in radiated power (which is equivalent to a decrease in the vertical integrated radiative cooling rate), the variability of the power as given in the standard deviation of the annual means remains approximately constant. A simple relationship is shown to exist between the infrared power radiated by NO and the F10.7 index, thus providing a fundamental relationship between solar activity and the thermospheric cooling rate for use in thermospheric models. The change in NO radiated power is also consistent with changes in absorbed ultraviolet radiation over the same time period.

  15. Experimental study on the Stirling refrigerator for cooling of infrared detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, S. J.; Hong, Y. J.; Kim, H. B.; Koh, D. Y. [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J. H.; Yu, B. K. [Wooyoung, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    A Stirling cryocooler is relatively compact, reliable, commercially available, and uses helium as a working fluid. The FPFD Stirling cryocooler consists of two compressor pistons driven by linear motors which makes pressure waves and a pneumatically driven displacer piston with regenerator. A Free Piston and Free Displacer (FPFD) Stirling cryocooler for cooling infrared and cryo-sensors is currently under development at KIMM(Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials). In order to evaluate the feasibility of using a linear motor driving cryocooler, prototype Stirling cryocooler with a nominal cooling capacity of 0.5W at 80K was designed, fabricated and tested. The prototype has achieved no load temperature of 51K and cooling power of 0.33W.

  16. Experimental study on the Stirling refrigerator for cooling of infrared detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S. J.; Hong, Y. J.; Kim, H. B.; Koh, D. Y.; Kim, J. H.; Yu, B. K.

    2001-01-01

    A Stirling cryocooler is relatively compact, reliable, commercially available, and uses helium as a working fluid. The FPFD Stirling cryocooler consists of two compressor pistons driven by linear motors which makes pressure waves and a pneumatically driven displacer piston with regenerator. A Free Piston and Free Displacer (FPFD) Stirling cryocooler for cooling infrared and cryo-sensors is currently under development at KIMM(Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials). In order to evaluate the feasibility of using a linear motor driving cryocooler, prototype Stirling cryocooler with a nominal cooling capacity of 0.5W at 80K was designed, fabricated and tested. The prototype has achieved no load temperature of 51K and cooling power of 0.33W

  17. A NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY OF COOL WHITE DWARFS IN THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilic, Mukremin; Kowalski, Piotr M.; Von Hippel, Ted

    2009-01-01

    We present near-infrared photometric observations of 15 and spectroscopic observations of 38 cool white dwarfs (WDs). This is the largest near-infrared spectroscopic survey of cool WDs to date. Combining the Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometry and our near-infrared data, we perform a detailed model atmosphere analysis. The spectral energy distributions of our objects are explained fairly well by model atmospheres with temperatures ranging from 6300 K down to 4200 K. Two WDs show significant absorption in the infrared, and are best explained with mixed H/He atmosphere models. Based on the up-to-date model atmosphere calculations by Kowalski and Saumon, we find that the majority of the stars in our sample have hydrogen-rich atmospheres. We do not find any pure helium atmosphere WDs below 5000 K, and we find a trend of increasing hydrogen to helium ratio with decreasing temperature. These findings present an important challenge to understanding the spectral evolution of WDs.

  18. Optical/Infrared Signatures for Space-Based Remote Sensing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Picard, R. H; Dewan, E. M; Winick, J. R; O'Neil, R. R

    2007-01-01

    ... (mesosphere and thermosphere) in terms of the structure of the underlying medium. Advances in non-LTE radiative transfer and atmospheric waves and localized excitations are detailed, as well as analysis and modeling of the databases resulting from two groundbreaking space infrared experiments, DoD MSX/SPIRIT III and NASA TIMED/SABER.

  19. Space-based infrared sensors of space target imaging effect analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Huayu; Zhang, Yasheng; Zhou, Haijun; Zhao, Shuang

    2018-02-01

    Target identification problem is one of the core problem of ballistic missile defense system, infrared imaging simulation is an important means of target detection and recognition. This paper first established the space-based infrared sensors ballistic target imaging model of point source on the planet's atmosphere; then from two aspects of space-based sensors camera parameters and target characteristics simulated atmosphere ballistic target of infrared imaging effect, analyzed the camera line of sight jitter, camera system noise and different imaging effects of wave on the target.

  20. Cryogenic and thermal design for the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. H.; Brooks, W. F.

    1984-01-01

    The 1-meter class cryogenically cooled Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) planned by NASA, is scheduled for a 1992 launch. SIRTF would be deployed from the Shuttle, and placed into a sun synchronous polar orbit of 700 km. The facility has been defined for a mission with a minimum initial lifetime of one year in orbit with mission extension that could be made possible through in-orbit servicing of the superfluid helium cryogenic system, and use of a thermal control system. The superfluid dewar would use an orbital disconnect system for the tank supports, and vapor cooling of the barrel baffle. The transient analysis of the design shows that the superfluid helium tank with no active feedback comes within temperature requirements for the nominal orbital aperture heat load, quiescent instrument, and chopper conditions.

  1. Gas-cooled reactor for space power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, C.E.; Pearson, J.S.

    1987-05-01

    Reactor characteristics based on extensive development work on the 500-MWt reactor for the Pluto nuclear ramjet are described for space power systems useful in the range of 2 to 20 MWe for operating times of 1 y. The modest pressure drop through the prismatic ceramic core is supported at the outlet end by a ceramic dome which also serves as a neutron reflector. Three core materials are considered which are useful at temperatures up to about 2000 K. Most of the calculations are based on a beryllium oxide with uranium dioxide core. Reactor control is accomplished by use of a burnable poison, a variable-leakage reflector, and internal control rods. Reactivity swings of 20% are obtained with a dozen internal boron-10 rods for the size cores studied. Criticality calculations were performed using the ALICE Monte Carlo code. The inherent high-temperature capability of the reactor design removes the reactor as a limiting condition on system performance. The low fuel inventories required, particularly for beryllium oxide reactors, make space power systems based on gas-cooled near-thermal reactors a lesser safeguard risk than those based on fast reactors

  2. An intelligent approach for cooling radiator fault diagnosis based on infrared thermal image processing technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taheri-Garavand, Amin; Ahmadi, Hojjat; Omid, Mahmoud; Mohtasebi, Seyed Saeid; Mollazade, Kaveh; Russell Smith, Alan John; Carlomagno, Giovanni Maria

    2015-01-01

    This research presents a new intelligent fault diagnosis and condition monitoring system for classification of different conditions of cooling radiator using infrared thermal images. The system was adopted to classify six types of cooling radiator faults; radiator tubes blockage, radiator fins blockage, loose connection between fins and tubes, radiator door failure, coolant leakage, and normal conditions. The proposed system consists of several distinct procedures including thermal image acquisition, image pre-processing, image processing, two-dimensional discrete wavelet transform (2D-DWT), feature extraction, feature selection using a genetic algorithm (GA), and finally classification by artificial neural networks (ANNs). The 2D-DWT is implemented to decompose the thermal images. Subsequently, statistical texture features are extracted from the original images and are decomposed into thermal images. The significant selected features are used to enhance the performance of the designed ANN classifier for the 6 types of cooling radiator conditions (output layer) in the next stage. For the tested system, the input layer consisted of 16 neurons based on the feature selection operation. The best performance of ANN was obtained with a 16-6-6 topology. The classification results demonstrated that this system can be employed satisfactorily as an intelligent condition monitoring and fault diagnosis for a class of cooling radiator. - Highlights: • Intelligent fault diagnosis of cooling radiator using thermal image processing. • Thermal image processing in a multiscale representation structure by 2D-DWT. • Selection features based on a hybrid system that uses both GA and ANN. • Application of ANN as classifier. • Classification accuracy of fault detection up to 93.83%

  3. A new generation of small pixel pitch/SWaP cooled infrared detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espuno, L.; Pacaud, O.; Reibel, Y.; Rubaldo, L.; Kerlain, A.; Péré-Laperne, N.; Dariel, A.; Roumegoux, J.; Brunner, A.; Kessler, A.; Gravrand, O.; Castelein, P.

    2015-10-01

    Following clear technological trends, the cooled IR detectors market is now in demand for smaller, more efficient and higher performance products. This demand pushes products developments towards constant innovations on detectors, read-out circuits, proximity electronics boards, and coolers. Sofradir was first to show a 10μm focal plane array (FPA) at DSS 2012, and announced the DAPHNIS 10μm product line back in 2014. This pixel pitch is a key enabler for infrared detectors with increased resolution. Sofradir recently achieved outstanding products demonstrations at this pixel pitch, which clearly demonstrate the benefits of adopting 10μm pixel pitch focal plane array-based detectors. Both HD and XGA Daphnis 10μm products also benefit from a global video datapath efficiency improvement by transitioning to digital video interfaces. Moreover, innovative smart pixels functionalities drastically increase product versatility. In addition to this strong push towards a higher pixels density, Sofradir acknowledges the need for smaller and lower power cooled infrared detector. Together with straightforward system interfaces and better overall performances, latest technological advances on SWAP-C (Size, Weight, Power and Cost) Sofradir products enable the advent of a new generation of high performance portable and agile systems (handheld thermal imagers, unmanned aerial vehicles, light gimbals etc...). This paper focuses on those features and performances that can make an actual difference in the field.

  4. Thermal Energy for Space Cooling--Federal Technology Alert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Daryl R.

    2000-12-31

    Cool storage technology can be used to significantly reduce energy costs by allowing energy-intensive, electrically driven cooling equipment to be predominantly operated during off peak hours when electricity rates are lower. This Federal Technology Alert, which is sponsored by DOE's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), describes the basic types of cool storage technologies and cooling system integration options. In addition, it defines the savings potential in the federal sector, presents application advice, and describes the performance experience of specific federal users. The results of a case study of a GSA building using cool storage technology are also provided.

  5. Infrared Free Space Communication - The Autonomous Testing of Free Space Infrared Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldman, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Fiber optics has been a winning player in the game of high-speed communication and data transfer in cable connections. Yet, in free space RF has been the repeated choice of communication medium of the space industry. Investigating the benefits of free space optical communication over radio frequency is worthwhile. An increase in science data rate return capabilities could occur if optical communication is implemented. Optical communication systems also provide efficiencies in power, mass, and volume over RF systems1. Optical communication systems have been demonstrated from a satellite in orbit with the moon to earth, and resulted in the highest data rates ever seen through space (622Mbps)2. Because of these benefits, optical communication is far superior to RF. The HiDRA (High Data Rate Architecture) project is researching Passive Misalignment Mitigation of Dynamic Free Apace Optical Communication Links. The goal of this effort is to enable gigabit per second transmission of data in short range dynamic links (less than 100 meters). In practice this would enhance data rates between sites on the International Space Station with minimal size, weight, and power requirements. This paper will focus on an autonomous code and a hardware setup that will be used to fulfill the next step in the research being conducted. The free space optical communications pointing downfalls will be investigated. This was achieved by creating 5 python programs and a top-level code to automate this test.

  6. Origins Space Telescope: 3D infrared surveys of star formation and black hole growth in galaxies over cosmic time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Alexandra; Armus, Lee; bradford, charles; Origins Space Telescope STDT

    2018-01-01

    In the coming decade, new telescope facilities and surveys aim to provide a 3D map of the unobscured Universe over cosmic time. However, much of galaxy formation and evolution occurs behind dust, and is only observable through infrared observations. Previous extragalactic infrared surveys were fundamentally limited to a 2D mapping of the most extreme populations of galaxies due to spatial resolution and sensitivity. The Origins Space Telescope (OST) is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, one of the four science and technology definition studies sponsored by NASA to provide input to the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal survey. OST is planned to be a large aperture, actively-cooled telescope covering a wide span of the mid- to far-infrared spectrum, which will achieve spectral line sensitivities up to 1000 times deeper than previous infrared facilities. With powerful instruments such as the Medium Resolution Survey Spectrometer (MRSS), capable of simultaneous imaging and spectroscopy, the extragalactic infrared sky can finally be surveyed in 3D. In addition to spectroscopic redshifts, the rich suite of lines in the infrared provides unique diagnostics of the ongoing star formation (both obscured and unobscured) and the central supermassive black hole growth. In this poster, we present a simulated extragalactic survey with OST/MRSS which will detect millions of galaxies down to well below the knee of the infrared luminosity function. We demonstrate how this survey can map the coeval star formation and black hole growth in galaxies over cosmic time.

  7. Fast infrared array spectrometer with a thermoelectrically cooled 160-element PbSe detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Jun; Gore, Jay P.; Sivathanu, Yudaya R.; Lim, Jongmook

    2004-01-01

    A fast infrared array spectrometer (FIAS) with a thermoelectrically cooled 160-element PbSe detector was demonstrated using measurements of instantaneous infrared radiation intensities simultaneously over the 1.8-4.9 μm wavelength range at a sampling rate of 390 Hz. A three-point second-degree Lagrange interpolation polynomial was constructed to calibrate the FIAS because of the nonlinear response of the infrared array detector to the incident radiation beam. This calibration method gave excellent measurements of blackbody radiation spectra except for a narrow band at wavelength of 4.3 μm due to absorption by room carbon dioxide, which is one of the two major gas radiation peaks (2.7 and 4.3 μm) from the lean premixed hydrocarbon/air combustion products in the midinfrared spectrum. Therefore, the absorption coefficient of room carbon dioxide was conveniently measured on site with the blackbody reference source, and was used in the calibration of the FIAS and also in the calculations of the radiation spectra. Blackbody tests showed that this procedure was effective in correcting for the room carbon dioxide absorption in the radiation spectra measured by the FIAS. For an example of its application, the calibrated FIAS was used to measure spectral radiation intensities from three lean premixed laminar flames and a premixed turbulent jet flame for which reference data with a grating spectrometer were available for comparison. The agreement between the FIAS measurements and the reference data was excellent

  8. CIRiS: Compact Infrared Radiometer in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterman, D. P.; Collins, S.; Ferguson, J.; Good, W.; Kampe, T.; Rohrschneider, R.; Warden, R.

    2016-09-01

    The Compact Infrared Radiometer in Space (CIRiS) is a thermal infrared radiometric imaging instrument under development by Ball Aerospace for a Low Earth Orbit mission on a CubeSat spacecraft. Funded by the NASA Earth Science Technology Office's In-Space Validation of Earth Science Technology (InVEST) program, the mission objective is technology demonstration for improved on-orbit radiometric calibration. The CIRiS calibration approach uses a scene select mirror to direct three calibration views to the focal plane array and to transfer the resulting calibrated response to earth images. The views to deep space and two blackbody sources, including one at a selectable temperature, provide multiple options for calibration optimization. Two new technologies, carbon nanotube blackbody sources and microbolometer focal plane arrays with reduced pixel sizes, enable improved radiometric performance within the constrained 6U CubeSat volume. The CIRiS instrument's modular design facilitates subsystem modifications as required by future mission requirements. CubeSat constellations of CIRiS and derivative instruments offer an affordable approach to achieving revisit times as short as one day for diverse applications including water resource and drought management, cloud, aerosol, and dust studies, and land use and vegetation monitoring. Launch is planned for 2018.

  9. Infrared Fibers for Use in Space-Based Smart Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Dennis S.; Nettles, Alan T.; Brantley, Lott W. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Infrared optical fibers are finding a number of applications including laser surgery, remote sensing, and nuclear radiation resistant links. Utilizing these fibers in space-based structures is another application, which can be exploited. Acoustic and thermal sensing are two areas in which these fibers could be utilized. In particular, fibers could be embedded in IM7/8552 toughened epoxy and incorporated into space structures both external and internal. ZBLAN optical fibers are a candidate, which have been studied extensively over the past 20 years for terrestrial applications. For the past seven years the effects of gravity on the crystallization behavior of ZBLAN optical fiber has been studied. It has been found that ZBLAN crystallization is suppressed in microgravity. This lack of crystallization leads to a fiber with better transmission characteristics than its terrestrial counterpart.

  10. A Novel Approach of Sensitive Infrared Signal Detection for Space Applications

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop an innovative frequency up-conversion device that will efficiently convert the infrared signals into visible/near-infrared signals to enable detection of...

  11. A Method of Sky Ripple Residual Nonuniformity Reduction for a Cooled Infrared Imager and Hardware Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiyang; Jin, Weiqi; Li, Shuo; Zhang, Xu; Zhu, Jin

    2017-05-08

    Cooled infrared detector arrays always suffer from undesired ripple residual nonuniformity (RNU) in sky scene observations. The ripple residual nonuniformity seriously affects the imaging quality, especially for small target detection. It is difficult to eliminate it using the calibration-based techniques and the current scene-based nonuniformity algorithms. In this paper, we present a modified temporal high-pass nonuniformity correction algorithm using fuzzy scene classification. The fuzzy scene classification is designed to control the correction threshold so that the algorithm can remove ripple RNU without degrading the scene details. We test the algorithm on a real infrared sequence by comparing it to several well-established methods. The result shows that the algorithm has obvious advantages compared with the tested methods in terms of detail conservation and convergence speed for ripple RNU correction. Furthermore, we display our architecture with a prototype built on a Xilinx Virtex-5 XC5VLX50T field-programmable gate array (FPGA), which has two advantages: (1) low resources consumption; and (2) small hardware delay (less than 10 image rows). It has been successfully applied in an actual system.

  12. Observations of Infrared Radiative Cooling in the Thermosphere on Daily to Multiyear Timescales from the TIMED/SABER Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlynczak, Martin G.; Hunt, Linda A.; Marshall, B. Thomas; Martin-Torres, F. Javier; Mertens, Christopher J.; Russell, James M., III; Remsberg, Ellis E.; Lopez-Puertas, Manuel; Picard, Richard; Winick, Jeremy; hide

    2009-01-01

    We present observations of the infrared radiative cooling by carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitric oxide (NO) in Earth s thermosphere. These data have been taken over a period of 7 years by the SABER instrument on the NASA TIMED satellite and are the dominant radiative cooling mechanisms for the thermosphere. From the SABER observations we derive vertical profiles of radiative cooling rates (W/cu m), radiative fluxes (W/sq m), and radiated power (W). In the period from January 2002 through January 2009 we observe a large decrease in the cooling rates, fluxes, and power consistent with the declining phase of solar cycle. The power radiated by NO during 2008 when the Sun exhibited few sunspots was nearly one order of magnitude smaller than the peak power observed shortly after the mission began. Substantial short-term variability in the infrared emissions is also observed throughout the entire mission duration. Radiative cooling rates and radiative fluxes from NO exhibit fundamentally different latitude dependence than do those from CO2, with the NO fluxes and cooling rates being largest at high latitudes and polar regions. The cooling rates are shown to be derived relatively independent of the collisional and radiative processes that drive the departure from local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) in the CO2 15 m and the NO 5.3 m vibration-rotation bands. The observed NO and CO2 cooling rates have been compiled into a separate dataset and represent a climate data record that is available for use in assessments of radiative cooling in upper atmosphere general circulation models.

  13. Utes for space heating and cooling in North Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordell, B.; Grein, M. a.

    2006-01-01

    The North Africa climate is dry and warm with annual mean temperature from 15 degree centigrade to 25 degree centigrade, with a temperature difference of 20 degree centigrade between the coldest and warmest month. Heating is needed during the short winter and there is a large cooling demand during the long summer. Since the undisturbed ground temperature is equal to the annual mean air temperature, the ground is warmer than the air during the winter and colder than air during summer. This is what is required for the direct use of the ground for heating and cooling. In such systems, ground coupled heating and cooling systems, and also in storage systems, Underground Thermal Energy Storage (UTES), some kind of underground duct (PIPE) system is used to inject or extract heat from the ground. Thermal energy is then stored and recovered by heating and cooling of the ground, while the ducts are the heat exchangers with the system. The duct system could be placed horizontally or vertically (e.g. in boreholes) in the ground. In many cases heat pumps or cooling machines are included in the systems but in favourable cases, such as in the North African climate, the ground can be used directly for heating and cooling. then, only a circulation pump is used to pump water through the underground duct system with high efficiencies. Such systems can also be used for thermal energy storage, during shorter periods (diurnal) or even between the seasons. In September 2005 Sebha University and Luleu University of Technology started a Libyan Swedish collaboration to develop and implement these systems for the North African climate. Sweden has considerable experience in ground coupled systems, theoretically and practically, and there are presently more than 300.000 systems in operation in Sweden, mainly for heating. Most of these are small-scale heating systems for singe-family houses but during the last decade several hundred large-scale systems have been built for heating and cooling of

  14. Origins Space Telescope: The Far Infrared Imager and Polarimeter FIP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staguhn, Johannes G.; Chuss, David; Howard, Joseph; Meixner, Margaret; Vieira, Joaquin; Amatucci, Edward; Bradley, Damon; Carter, Ruth; Cooray, Asantha; Flores, Anel; Leisawitz, David; Moseley, Samuel Harvey; Wollack, Edward; Origins Space Telescope Study Team

    2018-01-01

    The Origins Space Telescope (OST)* is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, one of the four science and technology definition studies of NASA Headquarters for the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal survey. The current "concept 1", which envisions a cold (4K) 9m space telescope, includes 5 instruments, providing a wavelength coverage ranging from 6um and 667um. The achievable sensitivity of the observatory will provide three to four orders of magnitude of improvement in sensitivity over current observational capabilities, allowing to address a wide range of new and so far inaccessible scientific questions, ranging from bio-signatures on exo-planets to mapping primordial H_2 from the "dark ages" before the universe went through the phase of re-ionization.Here we present the Far Infrared Imager and Polarimeter (FIP) for OST. The cameral will cover four bands, 40um, 80um, 120um, and 240um. It will allow for differential polarimetry in those bands with the ability to observe two colors in polarimtery mode simultaneously, while all four bands can be observed simultaneously in total power mode. While the confusion limit will be reached in only 32ms at 240um, at 40um the source density on the sky is so low, that at the angular resolution of 1" of OST at this wavelength there will be no source confusion, even for the longest integration times. Science topics that can be addressed by FIP include but are not limited to galactic and extragalactic magnetic field studies, Deep Galaxy Surveys, and Outer Solar System objects..*Origins will enable flagship-quality general observing programs led by the astronomical community in the 2030s. We welcome you to contact the Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) with your science needs and ideas by emailing us at ost_info@lists.ipac.caltech.edu

  15. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy of the Cool Brown Dwarf, SDSS 1624+00

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Tadashi; Tsuji, Takashi; Maihara, Toshinori; Iwamuro, Fumihide; Motohara, Ken-taro; Taguchi, Tomoyuki; Hata, Ryuji; Tamura, Motohide; Yamashita, Takuya

    2000-02-01

    Using the Subaru Telescope, we have obtained multiple near-infrared spectra of the cool brown dwarf, SDSS 1624+00 (J162414.37+002915.8), in search of spectral variability in an 80 minute time span. We have found the suspected variability of water vapor absorption throughout the observations, which requires a confirmation with a longer time baseline. After coadding the spectra, we have obtained a high-quality spectrum covering from 1.05 to 1.8 mu m. There are three kinds of spectral indicators, the water vapor bands, methane band and K I lines at 1.243 and 1.252 mu m, which can be used to study the temperature and the presence of dust. We compare the spectra of SDSS 1624+00 and Gliese 229B, while paying special attention to these indicators. The shallower water vapor absorption of SDSS 1624+00 indicates that it is warmer and/or dustier. The shallower methane absorption suggests that SDSS 1624+00 is warmer. We interpret the deeper K I lines in SDSS 1624+00 as being the result of its higher temperature. With the help of model spectra, we conclude that SDSS 1624+00 is warmer and dustier than Gliese 229B. For the first time in a cool brown dwarf, a finite flux is seen at the bottom of the water vapor band between 1.34 and 1.42 mu m, which means that the 1.4 mu m band of water can be completely observed from the ground.

  16. Mathematical Model for Direct Evaporative Space Cooling Systems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper deals with the development of a simple mathematical model for experimental validation of the performance of a small evaporative cooling system in a tropical climate. It also presents the coefficient of convective heat transfer of wide range of temperatures based on existing model. Extensive experiments have ...

  17. mathematical model for direct evaporative space cooling systems

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    of the sensible heat of the air is transferred to the water and becomes latent heat by evaporating some of the water. The latent heat follows the water vapour and diffuses into the air. In a DEC (direct evaporative cooling), the heat and mass transferred between air and water decreases the air dry bulb temperature (DBT) and ...

  18. Direct conversion of infrared radiant energy for space power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finke, R. C.

    1982-01-01

    A proposed technology to convert the earth radiant energy (infrared albedo) for spacecraft power is presented. The resultant system would eliminate energy storage requirements and simplify the spacecraft design. The design and performance of a infrared rectenna is discussed.

  19. Modelling infrared temperature measurements: implications for laser irradiation and cryogen cooling studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, B.; Pearce, J.A.; Welch, A.J.

    2000-01-01

    The use of thermographic techniques has increased as infrared detector technology has evolved and improved. For laser-tissue interactions, thermal cameras have been used to monitor the thermal response of tissue to pulsed and continuous wave irradiation. It is important to note that the temperature indicated by the thermal camera may not be equal to the actual surface temperature. It is crucial to understand the limitations of using thermal cameras to measure temperature during laser irradiation of tissue. The goal of this study was to demonstrate the potential difference between measured and actual surface temperatures in a quantitative fashion using a 1D finite difference model. Three ablation models and one cryogen spray cooling simulation were adapted from the literature, and predictions of radiometric temperature measurements were calculated. In general, (a) steep superficial temperature gradients, with a surface peak, resulted in an underestimation of the actual surface temperature, (b) steep superficial temperature gradients, with a subsurface peak, resulted in an overestimation, and (c) small gradients led to a relatively accurate temperature estimate. (author)

  20. Stability of the spectral responsivity of cryogenically cooled InSb infrared detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theocharous, Evangelos

    2005-01-01

    The spectral responsivity of two cryogenically cooled InSb detectors was observed to drift slowly with time. The origin of these drifts was investigated and was shown to occur due to a water-ice thin film that was deposited onto the active areas of the cold detectors. The presence of the ice film (which is itself a dielectric film) modifies the transmission characteristics of the antireflection coatings deposited on the active areas of the detectors, thus giving rise to the observed drifts. The magnitude of the drifts was drastically reduced by evacuating the detector dewars while baking them at 50 deg. C for approximately 48 h. All InSb detectors have antireflection coatings to reduce the Fresnel reflections and therefore enhance their spectral responsivity. This work demonstrates that InSb infrared detectors should be evacuated and baked at least annually and in some cases (depending on the quality of the dewar and the measurement uncertainty required) more frequently. These observations are particularly relevant to InSb detectors mounted in dewars that use rubber O rings since the ingress of moisture was found to be particularly serious in this type of dewar

  1. Design of a space-based infrared imaging interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Michael; Hope, Douglas; Romeo, Robert

    2017-07-01

    Present space-based optical imaging sensors are expensive. Launch costs are dictated by weight and size, and system design must take into account the low fault tolerance of a system that cannot be readily accessed once deployed. We describe the design and first prototype of the space-based infrared imaging interferometer (SIRII) that aims to mitigate several aspects of the cost challenge. SIRII is a six-element Fizeau interferometer intended to operate in the short-wave and midwave IR spectral regions over a 6×6 mrad field of view. The volume is smaller by a factor of three than a filled-aperture telescope with equivalent resolving power. The structure and primary optics are fabricated from light-weight space-qualified carbon fiber reinforced polymer; they are easy to replicate and inexpensive. The design is intended to permit one-time alignment during assembly, with no need for further adjustment once on orbit. A three-element prototype of the SIRII imager has been constructed with a unit telescope primary mirror diameter of 165 mm and edge-to-edge baseline of 540 mm. The optics, structure, and interferometric signal processing principles draw on experience developed in ground-based astronomical applications designed to yield the highest sensitivity and resolution with cost-effective optical solutions. The initial motivation for the development of SIRII was the long-term collection of technical intelligence from geosynchronous orbit, but the scalable nature of the design will likely make it suitable for a range of IR imaging scenarios.

  2. Gas-cooled reactor power systems for space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, C.E.

    1987-01-01

    Efficiency and mass characteristics for four gas-cooled reactor power system configurations in the 2- to 20-MWe power range are modeled. The configurations use direct and indirect Brayton cycles with and without regeneration in the power conversion loop. The prismatic ceramic core of the reactor consists of several thousand pencil-shaped tubes made from a homogeneous mixture of moderator and fuel. The heat rejection system is found to be the major contributor to system mass, particularly at high power levels. A direct, regenerated Brayton cycle with helium working fluid permits high efficiency and low specific mass for a 10-MWe system

  3. Thermally optimum spacing of vertical, natural convection cooled, parallel plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, A.; Rohsenow, W. M.

    Vertical two-dimensional channels formed by parallel plates or fins are a frequently encountered configuration in natural convection cooling in air of electronic equipment. In connection with the complexity of heat dissipation in vertical parallel plate arrays, little theoretical effort is devoted to thermal optimization of the relevant packaging configurations. The present investigation is concerned with the establishment of an analytical structure for analyses of such arrays, giving attention to useful relations for heat distribution patterns. The limiting relations for fully-developed laminar flow, in a symmetric isothermal or isoflux channel as well as in a channel with an insulated wall, are derived by use of a straightforward integral formulation.

  4. Technology development for laser-cooled clocks on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klipstein, W. M.

    2003-01-01

    The PARCS experiment will use a laser-cooled cesium atomic clock operating in the microgravity environment aboard the International Space Station to provide both advanced tests of gravitational theory to demonstrate a new cold-atom clock technology for space.

  5. Making Space Cool - Successful Outreach at Yuri's Night Stuttgart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Christine; Bretschneider, Jens; Nathanson, Emil; Grossmann, Agnes

    Yuri’s Night - also known as the “World Space Party” - is the annual celebration commemorating Gagarin’s historic flight on April 12, 1961, and the maiden voyage of the American space shuttle on April 12, 1981. It was created by young space enthusiasts in 2000 at the annual Space Generation Congress and was first celebrated in 2001, registering more than 60 events around the world from the start. Since then the interest in celebrating human spaceflight grew constantly to over 350 events across all seven continents in 2013. The honoring of Yuri Gagarin’s first spaceflight in Stuttgart started in 2007 and resulted in one of the largest events outside the US, with five parties following in 2008, 2009, 2010, 2012 and 2013. The Stuttgart event was originally organized as space party for an audience at the age of 20 and beyond including informative aspects at the afternoon and a following party far into the night. Since 2010 the focus of the Yuri’s Night Stuttgart is to bring awareness of space exploration to people of all ages, including particularly many participatory hands-on space activities for kids and families that attract hundreds of visitors every year. As much as Yuri’s Night is a worldwide party, the events in Stuttgart successfully concentrate on educational aspects that help to inspire new generations of space enthusiasts who will ultimately shape the future of space exploration. It is therefore not only a look back to one of the greatest achievements of the 20th Century, but it is also a look into the future: from multinational cooperation on the International Space Station to benefit of space flight to the introduction of the next generation of space technology. This paper will introduce the celebrations of Yuri’s Night in Stuttgart of the past four years and compare them to the early events. It provides a summary of the development of the Yuri’s Night including educational aspects, public relations and media attraction and gives

  6. Experimental study of performance of a dry cooling and dedicated ventilation (DCDV) system under different space cooling load conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Jie; Lee, W.L.; Chen, Hua

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • This is an experimental study of the use of DCDV system for achieving the decoupling and energy saving objectives. • The study focuses on side-by-side comparison of the DCDV and conventional systems. • DCDV system can better achieve the desired space air conditions and is more energy efficient. • A prediction model has been developed to relate the possible condensation period with different operating parameters. • The results are useful for wider application of DCDV system. - Abstract: The use of DCDV system for decoupling dehumidification from cooling to achieve energy saving objective for air-conditioning of office environments in Hong Kong was confirmed effective based on simulation studies by the authors. However, given that simulation typically assumes a perfect control and feedback system, whether or not the benefits of DCDV system can be realized in practice, in particular under various space part load ratio (PLR) and sensible heat ratio (SHR) conditions, is subject to experimental verifications. In this study, a prototype which could be switched between the proposed DCDV system mode and the conventional system mode was constructed in a test facility for laboratory experiments. Through two sets of identical experiments under various space cooling load conditions, it was found that if compared to the conventional system, DCDV system could perform slightly better in achieving the desired indoor condition and in reducing the moisture-related air quality problems, but would result in 1–3% higher in cooling output. As for the overall coefficient of performance (COP o ), the DCDV system was found performed better by 5.6–7.2%. Additional experimental analysis was conducted for the development of a prediction model to relate the possible condensation period (ψ) on the DC coil with different operating parameters

  7. Infrared surface temperature measurements for long pulse operation, and real time feedback control in Tore-Supra, an actively cooled Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilhem, D.; Adjeroud, B.; Balorin, C.; Buravand, Y.; Bertrand, B.; Bondil, J.L.; Desgranges, C.; Gauthier, E.; Lipa, M.; Messina, P.; Missirlian, M.; Mitteau, R.; Moulin, D.; Pocheau, C.; Portafaix, C.; Reichle, R.; Roche, H.; Saille, A.; Vallet, S

    2004-07-01

    Tore-Supra has a steady-state magnetic field using super-conducting magnets and water-cooled plasma facing components for high performances long pulse plasma discharges. When not actively cooled, plasma-facing components can only accumulate a limited amount of energy since the temperature increase continuously (T proportional to {radical}(t)) during the discharge until radiation cooling is equal to the incoming heat flux (T > 1800 K). Such an environment is found in most today Tokamaks. In the present paper we report the recent results of Tore-Supra, especially the design of the new generation of infrared endoscopes to measure the surface temperature of the plasma facing components. The Tore-Supra infrared thermography system is composed of 7 infrared endoscopes, this system is described in details in the paper, the new JET infrared thermography system is presented and some insights of the ITER set of visible/infrared endoscope is given. (authors)

  8. Infrared surface temperature measurements for long pulse operation, and real time feedback control in Tore-Supra, an actively cooled Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilhem, D.; Adjeroud, B.; Balorin, C.; Buravand, Y.; Bertrand, B.; Bondil, J.L.; Desgranges, C.; Gauthier, E.; Lipa, M.; Messina, P.; Missirlian, M.; Mitteau, R.; Moulin, D.; Pocheau, C.; Portafaix, C.; Reichle, R.; Roche, H.; Saille, A.; Vallet, S.

    2004-01-01

    Tore-Supra has a steady-state magnetic field using super-conducting magnets and water-cooled plasma facing components for high performances long pulse plasma discharges. When not actively cooled, plasma-facing components can only accumulate a limited amount of energy since the temperature increase continuously (T proportional to √(t)) during the discharge until radiation cooling is equal to the incoming heat flux (T > 1800 K). Such an environment is found in most today Tokamaks. In the present paper we report the recent results of Tore-Supra, especially the design of the new generation of infrared endoscopes to measure the surface temperature of the plasma facing components. The Tore-Supra infrared thermography system is composed of 7 infrared endoscopes, this system is described in details in the paper, the new JET infrared thermography system is presented and some insights of the ITER set of visible/infrared endoscope is given. (authors)

  9. Ion accumulation and space charge neutralization in intensive electron beams for ion sources and electron cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirkov, G.D.

    1996-01-01

    The Electron Beam Ion Sources (EBIS), Electron Beam Ion Traps (EBIT) and electron beams for electron cooling application have the beam parameters in the same ranges of magnitudes. EBIS and EBIT produce and accumulate ions in the beam due to electron impact ionization. The cooling electron beam accumulates positive ions from the residual gas in the accelerator chamber during the cooling cycle. The space charge neutralization of cooling beam is also used to reduce the electron energy spread and enhance the cooling ability. The advanced results of experimental investigations and theoretical models of the EBIS electron beams are applied to analyze the problem of beam neutralization in the electron cooling techniques. The report presents the analysis of the most important processes connected with ion production, accumulation and losses in the intensive electron beams of ion sources and electron cooling systems for proton and ion colliders. The inelastic and elastic collision processes of charged particles in the electron beams are considered. The inelastic processes such as ionization, charge exchange and recombination change the charge states of ions and neutral atoms in the beam. The elastic Coulomb collisions change the energy of particles and cause the energy redistribution among components in the electron-ion beams. The characteristic times and specific features of ionization, beam neutralization, ion heating and loss in the ion sources and electron cooling beams are determined. The dependence of negative potential in the beam cross section on neutralization factor is studied. 17 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  10. Science is Cool with NASA's "Space School Musical"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asplund, S.

    2011-12-01

    To help young learners understand basic solar system science concepts and retain what they learn, NASA's Discovery Program collaborated with KidTribe to create "Space School Musical," an innovative approach to teaching about the solar system that combines science content with music, fun lyrics, and choreography. It's an educational "hip-hopera" that moves and grooves its way into the minds and memories of students and educators alike. Kids can watch the videos, learn the songs, do the cross-curricular activities, and perform the show themselves. "Space School Musical" captures students attention as it brings the solar system to life, introducing the planets, moons, asteroids and more. The musical uses many different learning styles, helping to assure retention. Offering students an engaging, creative, and interdisciplinary learning opportunity helps them remember the content and may lead them to wonder about the universe around them and even inspire children to want to learn more, to dare to consider they can be the scientists, technologists, engineers or mathematicians of tomorrow. The unique Activity Guide created that accompanies "Space School Musical" includes 36 academic, fitness, art, and life skills lessons, all based on the content in the songs. The activities are designed to be highly engaging while helping students interact with the information. Whether students absorb information best with their eyes, ears, or body, each lesson allows for their learning preferences and encourages them to interact with both the content and each other. A guide on How to Perform the Play helps instructors lead students in performing their own version of the musical. The guide has suggestions to help with casting, auditions, rehearsing, creating the set and costumes, and performing. The musical is totally flexible - the entire play can be performed or just a few selected numbers; students can sing to the karaoke versions or lip-sync to the original cast. After learning about

  11. Development of a prototype thermoelectric space cooling system using phase change material to improve the performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dongliang

    The thermoelectric cooling system has advantages over conventional vapor compression cooling devices, including compact in size, light in weight, high reliability, no mechanical moving parts, no refrigerant, being powered by direct current, and easily switching between cooling and heating modes. However, it has been long suffering from its relatively high cost and low energy efficiency, which has restricted its usage to niche applications, such as space missions, portable cooling devices, scientific and medical equipment, where coefficient of performance (COP) is not as important as reliability, energy availability, and quiet operation environment. Enhancement of thermoelectric cooling system performance generally relies on two methods: improving thermoelectric material efficiency and through thermoelectric cooling system thermal design. This research has been focused on the latter one. A prototype thermoelectric cooling system integrated with phase change material (PCM) thermal energy storage unit for space cooling has been developed. The PCM thermal storage unit used for cold storage at night, functions as the thermoelectric cooling system's heat sink during daytime's cooling period and provides relatively lower hot side temperature for the thermoelectric cooling system. The experimental test of the prototype system in a reduced-scale chamber has realized an average cooling COP of 0.87, with the maximum value of 1.22. Another comparison test for efficacy of PCM thermal storage unit shows that 35.3% electrical energy has been saved from using PCM for the thermoelectric cooling system. In general, PCM faces difficulty of poor thermal conductivity at both solid and liquid phases. This system implemented a finned inner tube to increase heat transfer during PCM charging (melting) process that directly impacts thermoelectric system's performance. A simulation tool for the entire system has been developed including mathematical models for a single thermoelectric module

  12. Space distribution and physical properties of cool dwarf stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staller, R.F.A.

    1979-01-01

    A new study of the space density of red dwarfs based on a sample of red dwarfs in a field of 238 square degrees towards the South Galactic Pole is presented. A blink survey using red and blue copies of Mount Palomar Sky Survey plates of a six square degrees field centered on the South Galactic Pole was performed and the results (approximately 2500 red objects) and the discussion of these results are presented. The time that elapsed before a black dwarf becomes invisible is estimated and is suggested that low-velocity red dwarfs could be explained by contracting black dwarfs. Based on theoretical considerations it can be shown that the existence of a large number of low-velocity stars is in serious conflict with criteria for the stability of the galactic disk. It is shown that if one also takes into account all generations of black dwarfs that are already invisible and therfore old, the mean velocity of all black dwarfs is much higher so that there is no conflict with theory. Luminosity functions of red and black dwarfs in several photometric passbands are calculated. (Auth.)

  13. Accident analysis of heat pipe cooled and AMTEC conversion space reactor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Yuan; Shan, Jianqiang; Zhang, Bin; Gou, Junli; Bo, Zhang; Lu, Tianyu; Ge, Li; Yang, Zijiang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A transient analysis code TAPIRS for HPS has been developed. • Three typical accidents are analyzed using TAPIRS. • The reactor system has the self-stabilization ability under accident conditions. - Abstract: A space power with high power density, light weight, low cost and high reliability is of crucial importance to future exploration of deep space. Space reactor is an excellent candidate because of its unique characteristics of high specific power, low cost, strong environment adaptability and so on. Among all types of space reactors, heat pipe cooled space reactor, which adopts the passive heat pipe (HP) as core cooling component, is considered as one of the most promising choices and is widely studied all over the world. This paper develops a transient analysis code (TAPIRS) for heat pipe cooled space reactor power system (HPS) based on point reactor kinetics model, lumped parameter core heat transfer model, combined HP model (self-diffusion model, flat-front startup model and network model), energy conversion model of Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Conversion units (AMTEC), and HP radiator model. Three typical accidents, i.e., control drum failure, AMTEC failure and partial loss of the heat transfer area of radiator are then analyzed using TAPIRS. By comparing the simulation results of the models and steady state with those in the references, the rationality of the models and the solution method is validated. The results show the following. (1) After the failure of one set of control drums, the reactor power finally reaches a stable value after two local peaks under the temperature feedback. The fuel temperature rises rapidly, however it is still under safe limit. (2) The fuel temperature is below a safe limit under the AMTEC failure and partial loss of the heat transfer area of radiator. This demonstrates the rationality of the system design and the potential applicability of the TAPIRS code for the future engineering application of

  14. Thermal performance of a radiatively cooled system for quantum optomechanical experiments in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilan Zanoni, André; Burkhardt, Johannes; Johann, Ulrich; Aspelmeyer, Markus; Kaltenbaek, Rainer; Hechenblaikner, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We improved performance and design aspects of a radiatively cooled instrument. • A heat-flow analysis showed near optimal performance of the shield design. • A simple modification to imaging optics allowed further improvements. • We studied the thermal behavior for different orbital cases. • A transfer-function analysis showed strong attenuation of thermal variations. - Abstract: Passive cooling of scientific instruments via thermal radiation to deep space offers many advantages over active cooling in terms of mission cost, lifetime and the achievable quality of vacuum and microgravity. Motivated by the mission proposal MAQRO to test the foundations of quantum physics harnessing a deep-space environment, we investigate the performance of a radiatively cooled instrument, where the environment of a test particle in a quantum superposition has to be cooled to less than 20 K. We perform a heat-transfer analysis between the instrument components and a transfer-function analysis on thermal oscillations induced by the spacecraft interior and dissipative sources. The thermal behavior of the instrument is discussed for an orbit around a Lagrangian point and for a highly elliptical Earth orbit. Finally, we investigate possible design improvements. These include a mirror-based design of the imaging system on the optical bench (OB) and an extension of the heat shields.

  15. Estimating end-use emissions factors for policy analysis: the case of space cooling and heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Grant D

    2014-06-17

    This paper provides the first estimates of end-use specific emissions factors, which are estimates of the amount of a pollutant that is emitted when a unit of electricity is generated to meet demand from a specific end-use. In particular, this paper provides estimates of emissions factors for space cooling and heating, which are two of the most significant end-uses. The analysis is based on a novel two-stage regression framework that estimates emissions factors that are specific to cooling or heating by exploiting variation in cooling and heating demand induced by weather variation. Heating is associated with similar or greater CO2 emissions factor than cooling in all regions. The difference is greatest in the Midwest and Northeast, where the estimated CO2 emissions factor for heating is more than 20% larger than the emissions factor for cooling. The minor differences in emissions factors in other regions, combined with the substantial difference in the demand pattern for cooling and heating, suggests that the use of overall regional emissions factors is reasonable for policy evaluations in certain locations. Accurately quantifying the emissions factors associated with different end-uses across regions will aid in designing improved energy and environmental policies.

  16. Ground experimental investigations into an ejected spray cooling system for space closed-loop application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Hongsheng

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Spray cooling has proved its superior heat transfer performance in removing high heat flux for ground applications. However, the dissipation of vapor–liquid mixture from the heat surface and the closed-loop circulation of the coolant are two challenges in reduced or zero gravity space environments. In this paper, an ejected spray cooling system for space closed-loop application was proposed and the negative pressure in the ejected condenser chamber was applied to sucking the two-phase mixture from the spray chamber. Its ground experimental setup was built and experimental investigations on the smooth circle heat surface with a diameter of 5 mm were conducted with distilled water as the coolant spraying from a nozzle of 0.51 mm orifice diameter at the inlet temperatures of 69.2 °C and 78.2 °C under the conditions of heat flux ranging from 69.76 W/cm2 to 311.45 W/cm2, volume flow through the spray nozzle varying from 11.22 L/h to 15.76 L/h. Work performance of the spray nozzle and heat transfer performance of the spray cooling system were analyzed; results show that this ejected spray cooling system has a good heat transfer performance and provides valid foundation for space closed-loop application in the near future.

  17. A Technology Demonstration Experiment for Laser Cooled Atomic Clocks in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klipstein, W. M.; Kohel, J.; Seidel, D. J.; Thompson, R. J.; Maleki, L.; Gibble, K.

    2000-01-01

    We have been developing a laser-cooling apparatus for flight on the International Space Station (ISS), with the intention of demonstrating linewidths on the cesium clock transition narrower than can be realized on the ground. GLACE (the Glovebox Laser- cooled Atomic Clock Experiment) is scheduled for launch on Utilization Flight 3 (UF3) in 2002, and will be mounted in one of the ISS Glovebox platforms for an anticipated 2-3 week run. Separate flight definition projects funded at NIST and Yale by the Micro- gravity Research Division of NASA as a part of its Laser Cooling and Atomic Physics (LCAP) program will follow GLACE. Core technologies for these and other LCAP missions are being developed at JPL, with the current emphasis on developing components such as the laser and optics subsystem, and non-magnetic vacuum-compatible mechanical shutters. Significant technical challenges in developing a space qualifiable laser cooling apparatus include reducing the volume, mass, and power requirements, while increasing the ruggedness and reliability in order to both withstand typical launch conditions and achieve several months of unattended operation. This work was performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  18. Performance analysis on utilization of sky radiation cooling energy for space cooling. Part 2; Hosha reikyaku riyo reibo system ni kansuru kenkyu. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marushima, S; Saito, T [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    Studies have been made about a heat accumulation tank type cooling system making use of radiation cooling that is a kind of natural energy. The daily operating cycle of the cooling system is described below. A heat pump air conditioner performs cooling during the daytime and the exhaust heat is stored in a latent heat accumulation tank; the heat is then used for the bath and tapwater in the evening; at night radiation cooling is utilized to remove the heat remnant in the tank for the solidification of the phase change material (PCM); the solidified PCM serves as the cold heat source for the heat pump air conditioner to perform cooling. The new system decelerates urban area warming because it emits the cooler-generated waste heat not into the atmosphere but into space taking advantage of radiation cooling. Again, the cooler-generated waste heat may be utilized for energy saving and power levelling. For the examination of nighttime radiation cooling characteristics, CaCl2-5H2O and Na2HPO4-12H2O were tested as the PCM. Water was used as the heating medium. In the case of a PCM high in latent heat capacity, some work has to be done for insuring sufficient heat exchange for it by, for instance, rendering the flow rate low. The coefficient of performance of the system discussed here is three times higher than that of the air-cooled type heat pump system. 8 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Improvement of non destructive infrared test bed SATIR for examination of actively cooled tungsten armour Plasma Facing Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vignal, N., E-mail: nicolas.vignal@cea.fr; Desgranges, C.; Cantone, V.; Richou, M.; Courtois, X.; Missirlian, M.; Magaud, Ph.

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Non destructive infrared techniques for control ITER like PFCs. • Reflective surface such as W induce a measurement temperature error. • Numerical data processing by evaluation of the local emissivity. • SATIR test bed can control metallic surface with low and variable emissivity. -- Abstract: For steady state (magnetic) thermonuclear fusion devices which need large power exhaust capability and have to withstand heat fluxes in the range 10–20 MW m{sup −2}, advanced Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) have been developed. The importance of PFCs for operating tokamaks requests to verify their manufacturing quality before mounting. SATIR is an IR test bed validated and recognized as a reliable and suitable tool to detect cooling defaults on PFCs with CFC armour material. Current tokamak developments implement metallic armour materials for first wall and divertor; their low emissivity causes several difficulties for infrared thermography control. We present SATIR infrared thermography test bed improvements for W monoblocks components without defect and with calibrated defects. These results are compared to ultrasonic inspection. This study demonstrates that SATIR method is fully usable for PFCs with low emissivity armour material.

  20. Improvement of non destructive infrared test bed SATIR for examination of actively cooled tungsten armour Plasma Facing Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vignal, N.; Desgranges, C.; Cantone, V.; Richou, M.; Courtois, X.; Missirlian, M.; Magaud, Ph.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Non destructive infrared techniques for control ITER like PFCs. • Reflective surface such as W induce a measurement temperature error. • Numerical data processing by evaluation of the local emissivity. • SATIR test bed can control metallic surface with low and variable emissivity. -- Abstract: For steady state (magnetic) thermonuclear fusion devices which need large power exhaust capability and have to withstand heat fluxes in the range 10–20 MW m −2 , advanced Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) have been developed. The importance of PFCs for operating tokamaks requests to verify their manufacturing quality before mounting. SATIR is an IR test bed validated and recognized as a reliable and suitable tool to detect cooling defaults on PFCs with CFC armour material. Current tokamak developments implement metallic armour materials for first wall and divertor; their low emissivity causes several difficulties for infrared thermography control. We present SATIR infrared thermography test bed improvements for W monoblocks components without defect and with calibrated defects. These results are compared to ultrasonic inspection. This study demonstrates that SATIR method is fully usable for PFCs with low emissivity armour material

  1. Infrared-faint radio sources remain undetected at far-infrared wavelengths. Deep photometric observations using the Herschel Space Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, A.; Norris, R. P.; Middelberg, E.; Spitler, L. R.; Leipski, C.; Parker, Q. A.

    2015-08-01

    Context. Showing 1.4 GHz flux densities in the range of a few to a few tens of mJy, infrared-faint radio sources (IFRS) are a type of galaxy characterised by faint or absent near-infrared counterparts and consequently extreme radio-to-infrared flux density ratios up to several thousand. Recent studies showed that IFRS are radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at redshifts ≳2, potentially linked to high-redshift radio galaxies (HzRGs). Aims: This work explores the far-infrared emission of IFRS, providing crucial information on the star forming and AGN activity of IFRS. Furthermore, the data enable examining the putative relationship between IFRS and HzRGs and testing whether IFRS are more distant or fainter siblings of these massive galaxies. Methods: A sample of six IFRS was observed with the Herschel Space Observatory between 100 μm and 500 μm. Using these results, we constrained the nature of IFRS by modelling their broad-band spectral energy distribution (SED). Furthermore, we set an upper limit on their infrared SED and decomposed their emission into contributions from an AGN and from star forming activity. Results: All six observed IFRS were undetected in all five Herschel far-infrared channels (stacking limits: σ = 0.74 mJy at 100 μm, σ = 3.45 mJy at 500 μm). Based on our SED modelling, we ruled out the following objects to explain the photometric characteristics of IFRS: (a) known radio-loud quasars and compact steep-spectrum sources at any redshift; (b) starburst galaxies with and without an AGN and Seyfert galaxies at any redshift, even if the templates were modified; and (c) known HzRGs at z ≲ 10.5. We find that the IFRS analysed in this work can only be explained by objects that fulfil the selection criteria of HzRGs. More precisely, IFRS could be (a) known HzRGs at very high redshifts (z ≳ 10.5); (b) low-luminosity siblings of HzRGs with additional dust obscuration at lower redshifts; (c) scaled or unscaled versions of Cygnus A at any

  2. GISMO, an ELT in space: a giant (30-m) far-infrared and submillimeter space observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawarden, Timothy G.; Johnstone, Callum; Johnstone, Graeme

    2004-07-01

    We describe GISMO, a concept for a 30-m class achromatic diffractive Fesnel space telescope operating in the far-IR and submillimeter from ~20 μm to ~700 μm. The concept is based on the precepts of Hyde (1999). It involves two units, the Lens and Instrument spacecraft, 3 km apart in a halo orbit around the Earth-Sun L2 point. The primary lens, L1, is a 30.1-m, 32-zone f/100 Fresnel lens, fabricated from ultra-high molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE). It is 1.0 to 3.4 mm thick (the features are 2.4 mm high for a "design wavelength" of 1.2 mm) and made in 5 strips linked by fabric hinges. It is stowed for launch by folding and rolling. It is deployed warm, unrolled by pneumatic or mechanical means, unfolded by carbon-fiber struts with Shape Memory Alloy hinges and stiffened until cold by a peripheral inflatable ring. Re-oriented edgeways-on to the Sun behind a 5-layer sunshade, L1 will then cool by radiation to space, approaching ~10K after 200 - 300 days. The low equilibrium temperature occurs because the lens is very thin and has a huge view factor to space but a small one to the sunshade. The Instrument spacecraft resembles a smaller, colder (~4K) version of the James Webb Space Telescope and shares features of a concept for the SAFIR mission. A near-field Ritchey-Chretien telescope with a 3-segment off-axis 6m x 3m primary acts as field lens, re-imaging L1 on a 30-cm f/1 Fresnel Corrector lens of equal and opposite dispersion, producing an achromatic beam which is directed to a focal plane equipped with imaging and spectroscopic instruments. The "design wavelength" of the telescope is 1.2 mm and it is employed at its second and higher harmonics. The shortest wavelength, ~20μm, is set by the transmission properties of the lens material (illustrated here) and determines the design tolerances of the optical system. The overall mass is estimated at ~5 tonnes and the stowed length around 14 m. Technical challenges and areas of uncertainty for the design concept

  3. Infrared astronomy seeing the heat : from William Herschel to the Herschel space observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Clements, David L

    2014-01-01

    Uncover the Secrets of the Universe Hidden at Wavelengths beyond Our Optical GazeWilliam Herschel's discovery of infrared light in 1800 led to the development of astronomy at wavelengths other than the optical. Infrared Astronomy - Seeing the Heat: from William Herschel to the Herschel Space Observatory explores the work in astronomy that relies on observations in the infrared. Author David L. Clements, a distinguished academic and science fiction writer, delves into how the universe works, from the planets in our own Solar System to the universe as a whole. The book first presents the major t

  4. Astronomie spatiale infrarouge, aujourd’hui et demain = Infrared space astronomy, today and tomorrow

    CERN Document Server

    Lequeux, J; David, F

    2000-01-01

    This book brings together the lectures given at the Les Houches summer school "Infrared space astronomy, today and tomorrow". It gives a wide overview of infrared astronomy, a wavelength domain crucial for studies of the solar system, stars at the beginning and end of their lives, interstellar matter and galaxies at all distances. Recent developments in observational techniques have been tremendous. The first contributions give an introduction to the basic physical processes and methods of detection and data processing. They are followed by a series of lectures dealing with the wide variety of astronomical objects that can be seen in the infrared.

  5. A solar infrared photometer for space flight application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostiuk, Theodor; Deming, Drake

    1991-01-01

    A photometer concept which is capable of nearly simultaneous measurements of solar radiation from 1.6 to 200 microns in seven wavelength bands is described. This range of wavelengths can probe the solar photosphere from below the level of unit optical depth in the visible to the temperature minimum, about 500 km above it. An instrument package including a 20-cm Gregorian telescope and a filter wheel photometer utilizing noncryogenic pyroelectric infrared detectors is described. Approaches to the rejection of the visible solar spectrum in the instrument, the availability of optical and mechanical components, and the expected instrumental sensitivity are discussed. For wavelengths below 35 microns, the projected instrumental sensitivity is found to be adequate to detect the intensity signature of solar p-mode oscillations during 5 min of integration. For longer wavelengths, clear detection is expected through Fourier analysis of modest data sets.

  6. Research on capability of detecting ballistic missile by near space infrared system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Li; Sheng, Wen; Jiang, Wei; Jiang, Feng

    2018-01-01

    The infrared detection technology of ballistic missile based on near space platform can effectively make up the shortcomings of high-cost of traditional early warning satellites and the limited earth curvature of ground-based early warning radar. In terms of target detection capability, aiming at the problem that the formula of the action distance based on contrast performance ignores the background emissivity in the calculation process and the formula is only valid for the monochromatic light, an improved formula of the detecting range based on contrast performance is proposed. The near space infrared imaging system parameters are introduced, the expression of the contrastive action distance formula based on the target detection of the near space platform is deduced. The detection range of the near space infrared system for the booster stage ballistic missile skin, the tail nozzle and the tail flame is calculated. The simulation results show that the near-space infrared system has the best effect on the detection of tail-flame radiation.

  7. Site-specific investigations of aquifer thermal energy storage for space and process cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) that has completed three preliminary site-specific feasibility studies that investigated aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) for reducing space and process cooling costs. Chilled water stored in an ATES system could be used to meet all or part of the process and/or space cooling loads at the three facilities investigated. Seasonal or diurnal chill ATES systems could be significantly less expensive than a conventional electrically-driven, load-following chiller system at one of the three sites, depending on the cooling water loop return temperature and presumed future electricity escalation rate. For the other two sites investigated, a chill ATES system would be economically competitive with conventional chillers if onsite aquifer characteristics were improved. Well flow rates at one of the sites were adequate, but the expected thermal recovery efficiency was too low. The reverse of this situation was found at the other site, where the thermal recovery efficiency was expected to be adequate, but well flow rates were too low

  8. Infrared Resummation for Biased Tracers in Redshift Space arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanov, Mikhail M.

    We incorporate the effects of redshift space distortions and non-linear bias in time-sliced perturbation theory (TSPT). This is done via a new method that allows to map cosmological correlation functions from real to redshift space. This mapping preserves a transparent infrared (IR) structure of the theory and provides us with an efficient tool to study non-linear infrared effects altering the pattern of baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) in redshift space. We give an accurate description of the BAO by means of a systematic resummation of Feynman diagrams guided by well-defined power counting rules. This establishes IR resummation within TSPT as a robust and complete procedure and provides a consistent theoretical model for the BAO feature in the statistics of biased tracers in redshift space.

  9. Developing Wide-Field Spatio-Spectral Interferometry for Far-Infrared Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisawitz, David; Bolcar, Matthew R.; Lyon, Richard G.; Maher, Stephen F.; Memarsadeghi, Nargess; Rinehart, Stephen A.; Sinukoff, Evan J.

    2012-01-01

    Interferometry is an affordable way to bring the benefits of high resolution to space far-IR astrophysics. We summarize an ongoing effort to develop and learn the practical limitations of an interferometric technique that will enable the acquisition of high-resolution far-IR integral field spectroscopic data with a single instrument in a future space-based interferometer. This technique was central to the Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT) and Submillimeter Probe of the Evolution of Cosmic Structure (SPECS) space mission design concepts, and it will first be used on the Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII). Our experimental approach combines data from a laboratory optical interferometer (the Wide-field Imaging Interferometry Testbed, WIIT), computational optical system modeling, and spatio-spectral synthesis algorithm development. We summarize recent experimental results and future plans.

  10. Low-Cost Manufacturing Technique for Advanced Regenerative Cooling for In-Space Cryogenic Engines, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of the proposed effort is to use selective laser melting (SLM, an additive manufacturing technique) to manufacture a hot fire-capable, water-cooled spool...

  11. Observations of the Hubble Deep Field with the Infrared Space Observatory .2. Source detection and photometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldschmidt, P.; Oliver, S.J.; Serjeant, S.B.G.

    1997-01-01

    We present positions and fluxes of point sources found in the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) images of the Hubble Deep Field (HDF) at 6.7 and 15 mu m. We have constructed algorithmically selected 'complete' flux-limited samples of 19 sources in the 15-mu m image, and seven sources in the 6.7-mu m...

  12. CIMEX: a prototype Instrument to observe from space the amazon forest In the near and shortwave infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, François; Dantes, Didier; Savaria, Eric; Selingardi, Mario Luis; Montes, Amauri Silva

    2018-04-01

    This paper, "CIMEX: a prototype Instrument to observe from space the amazon forest In the near and shortwave infrared," was presented as part of International Conference on Space Optics—ICSO 1997, held in Toulouse, France.

  13. Infrared properties of Mira-type variables and other cool stars as determined from JHKL photometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feast, M W; Robertson, B S.C.; Catchpole, R M; Evans, T L; Glass, I S; Carter, B S [South African Astronomical Observatory, Cape

    1982-11-01

    Extensive infrared photometry of Me(Mira) variables and of C, S, SC and related stars is used to establish two-colour diagrams and period-colour relations. The characteristic areas in these plots occupied by the different classes of objects are delineated. The main aim is to provide a norm with which other stars (e.g. red variables in the Galactic Center and in the Magellanic Clouds and peculiar stars) can be compared. The (J-H) versus period relation offers a method for determining the interstellar reddenings of Me variables. The strong concentration to the longer periods of Miras which are OH masers is probably due primarily to the fact that in the sample surveyed, these stars also have the brightest apparent bolometric magnitudes. Period-amplitude plots are shown for Me variables. The Mira components in symbiotic stars are found to have exceptionally large amplitudes.

  14. Experimental study of air-cooled water condensation in slightly inclined circular tube using infrared temperature measurement technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyungdae [Nuclear Engineering Department, Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Tae-Soon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daedeok-daero 989-111, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Eok, E-mail: dekim@knu.ac.kr [Department of Precision Mechanical Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Sangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Air-cooled condensation experiments in an inclined Pyrex glass tube were performed. • High-resolution wall temperature data and flow regime formations could be obtained. • The local heat flux was strongly dependent on the air-side heat transfer. • A CFD analysis was conducted for calculating the local heat flux distribution. - Abstract: This study presents the results of an investigation of the air-cooled water condensation heat transfer characteristics inside a slightly inclined circular tube made of transparent Pyrex glass. The high-resolution wall temperature data and stratified film formations could be obtained with the assistance of an infrared (IR) thermometry technique and side-view visualization using a CCD camera. In all experimental cases, the condensation flow patterns were in the fully-stratified flow region. In addition, the experimentally measured void fraction corresponded well with the logarithmic mean void fraction model. The local temperature differences in the cooling air flow across the condenser tube and high-resolution temperature profiles on the tube’s outer wall were obtained in the experimental measurements. Under the experimental conditions of this study, the local heat flux distributions in the longitudinal direction of the test tube were strongly dependent on the cooling air velocity. And, with the help of IR thermometry, the tube outer wall temperature data at 45 local points could be measured. From the data, the asymmetry distribution of the local wall temperatures and the accurate location of the transition from two-phase mixture to single phase liquid inside the tube could be obtained. Also, the analysis of the thermal resistances by condensation, wall conduction and air convection showed that the air convective heat transfer behavior can play a dominant role to the local heat transfer characteristics. Finally, in order to obtain the local heat flux distribution along the tube’s outer wall, a two

  15. A Thermal-Electrically Cooled Quantum-Dot Middle-Wave Infrared Photodetector with High Quantum Efficiency and Photodetectivity, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Middle-wave infrared (LWIR, 3.2-3.6 m) photodetectors with a high specific photodetectivity (D*) are of great importance in NASA's lidar and remote sensing...

  16. Infrared behaviour of massless QED in space-time dimensions 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, Indrajit; Ratabole, Raghunath; Sharatchandra, H.S.

    2005-01-01

    We show that the logarithmic infrared divergences in electron self-energy and vertex function of massless QED in 2+1 dimensions can be removed at all orders of 1/N by an appropriate choice of a non-local gauge. Thus the infrared behaviour given by the leading order in 1/N is not modified by higher order corrections. Our analysis gives a computational scheme for the Amati-Testa model, resulting in a non-trivial conformal invariant field theory for all space-time dimensions 2< d<4

  17. Infrared behaviour of massless QED in space-time dimensions 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitra, Indrajit [The Institute of Mathematical Sciences, C.I.T. Campus, Taramani P.O., Chennai 600113 (India) and Theory Group, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhan-Nagar, Kolkata 700064 (India)]. E-mail: indra@theory.saha.ernet.in; Ratabole, Raghunath [The Institute of Mathematical Sciences, C.I.T. Campus, Taramani P.O., Chennai 600113 (India)]. E-mail: raghu@imsc.res.in; Sharatchandra, H.S. [The Institute of Mathematical Sciences, C.I.T. Campus, Taramani P.O., Chennai 600113 (India)]. E-mail: sharat@imsc.res.in

    2005-04-07

    We show that the logarithmic infrared divergences in electron self-energy and vertex function of massless QED in 2+1 dimensions can be removed at all orders of 1/N by an appropriate choice of a non-local gauge. Thus the infrared behaviour given by the leading order in 1/N is not modified by higher order corrections. Our analysis gives a computational scheme for the Amati-Testa model, resulting in a non-trivial conformal invariant field theory for all space-time dimensions 2

  18. Getting small: new 10μm pixel pitch cooled infrared products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reibel, Y.; Pere-Laperne, N.; Augey, T.; Rubaldo, L.; Decaens, G.; Bourqui, M.-L.; Manissadjian, A.; Billon-Lanfrey, D.; Bisotto, S.; Gravrand, O.; Destefanis, G.; Druart, G.; Guerineau, N.

    2014-06-01

    Recent advances in miniaturization of IR imaging technology have led to a burgeoning market for mini thermalimaging sensors. Seen in this context our development on smaller pixel pitch has opened the door to very compact products. When this competitive advantage is mixed with smaller coolers, thanks to HOT technology, we achieve valuable reductions in size, weight and power of the overall package. In the same time, we are moving towards a global offer based on digital interfaces that provides our customers lower power consumption and simplification on the IR system design process while freeing up more space. Additionally, we are also investigating new wafer level camera solution taking advantage of the progress in micro-optics. This paper discusses recent developments on hot and small pixel pitch technologies as well as efforts made on compact packaging solution developed by SOFRADIR in collaboration with CEA-LETI and ONERA.

  19. Infrared and submillimeter space missions in the coming decade programmes, programmatics, and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Sauvage, Marc; Gallais, Pascal; Vigroux, Laurent

    1996-01-01

    A revolution similar to that brought by CCDs to visible astronomy is still ahead in IR and submillimeter astronomy. There is certainly no wavelength range which has, over the past several years, seen such impressive advances in technology: large-scale detector arrays, new designs for cooling in space, lightweight mirror technologies. Scientific cases for observing the cold universe are outstanding. Observations in the FIR/Submm range will provide answers to such fundamental questions as: What is the spectrum of the primordial fluctuations? How do primeval galaxies look? What are the first stages of star formation? Most of the international space missions that have been triggered by these questions are presented in detail here. Technological issues raised by these missions are reviewed, as are the most recent achievements in cooling and detector technologies.

  20. REGIONAL VARIATIONS IN THE DENSE GAS HEATING AND COOLING IN M51 FROM HERSCHEL FAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkin, T. J.; Wilson, C. D.; Schirm, M. R. P.; Foyle, K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4M1 (Canada); Baes, M.; De Looze, I. [Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281 S9, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Boquien, M.; Boselli, A. [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille-LAM, Université d' Aix-Marseille and CNRS, UMR7326, 38 rue F. Joliot-Curie, F-13388 Marseille Cedex 13 (France); Cooray, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Cormier, D. [Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Albert-Ueberle Str. 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Karczewski, O. Ł. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Lebouteiller, V.; Madden, S. C.; Sauvage, M. [CEA, Laboratoire AIM, Irfu/SAp, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Roussel, H. [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, UMR7095 CNRS, Université Pierre and Marie Curie, 98 bis Boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Spinoglio, L., E-mail: parkintj@mcmaster.ca [Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, INAF-IAPS, Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy)

    2013-10-20

    We present Herschel PACS and SPIRE spectroscopy of the most important far-infrared cooling lines in M51, [C II](158 μm), [N II](122 and 205 μm), [O I](63 and 145 μm), and [O III](88 μm). We compare the observed flux of these lines with the predicted flux from a photon-dominated region model to determine characteristics of the cold gas such as density, temperature, and the far-ultraviolet (FUV) radiation field, G{sub 0}, resolving details on physical scales of roughly 600 pc. We find an average [C II]/F{sub TIR} of 4 × 10{sup –3}, in agreement with previous studies of other galaxies. A pixel-by-pixel analysis of four distinct regions of M51 shows a radially decreasing trend in both the FUV radiation field, G{sub 0}, and the hydrogen density, n, peaking in the nucleus of the galaxy, and then falling off out to the arm and interarm regions. We see for the first time that the FUV flux and gas density are similar in the differing environments of the arm and interarm regions, suggesting that the inherent physical properties of the molecular clouds in both regions are essentially the same.

  1. Exploratory model analysis of the Space Based Infrared System (SBIRS) Low Global Scheduler problem

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, Brian L.

    1999-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Proliferation of theater ballistic missile technologies to potential U.S. adversaries necessitates that the U.S. employ a defensive system to counter this threat. The system that is being developed is called the Space-Based Infrared System (SBIRS) "System of Systems". The SBIRS Low component of the SBIRS "System of Systems" will track strategic and theater ballistic missiles from launch to reentry and relay necessary cueing data to mis...

  2. The Mid-Infrared Instrument for the James Webb Space Telescope, I: Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rieke, G. H.; Wright, G. S.; Böker, T.

    2015-01-01

    MIRI (the Mid-Infrared Instrument for the James Webb Space Telescope [JWST]) operates from 5 to 28: 5 μm and combines over this range: (1) unprecedented sensitivity levels; (2) subarcsecond angular resolution; (3) freedom from atmospheric interference; (4) the inherent stability of observing...... in space; and (5) a suite of versatile capabilities including imaging, low- and medium-resolution spectroscopy (with an integral field unit), and coronagraphy. We illustrate the potential uses of this unique combination of capabilities with various science examples: (1) imaging exoplanets; (2) transit...

  3. Infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, M.

    2013-11-01

    'Infrared' is a very wide field in physics and the natural sciences which has evolved enormously in recent decades. It all started in 1800 with Friedrich Wilhelm Herschel's discovery of infrared (IR) radiation within the spectrum of the Sun. Thereafter a few important milestones towards widespread use of IR were the quantitative description of the laws of blackbody radiation by Max Planck in 1900; the application of quantum mechanics to understand the rotational-vibrational spectra of molecules starting in the first half of the 20th century; and the revolution in source and detector technologies due to micro-technological breakthroughs towards the end of the 20th century. This has led to much high-quality and sophisticated equipment in terms of detectors, sources and instruments in the IR spectral range, with a multitude of different applications in science and technology. This special issue tries to focus on a few aspects of the astonishing variety of different disciplines, techniques and applications concerning the general topic of infrared radiation. Part of the content is based upon an interdisciplinary international conference on the topic held in 2012 in Bad Honnef, Germany. It is hoped that the information provided here may be useful for teaching the general topic of electromagnetic radiation in the IR spectral range in advanced university courses for postgraduate students. In the most general terms, the infrared spectral range is defined to extend from wavelengths of 780 nm (upper range of the VIS spectral range) up to wavelengths of 1 mm (lower end of the microwave range). Various definitions of near, middle and far infrared or thermal infrared, and lately terahertz frequencies, are used, which all fall in this range. These special definitions often depend on the scientific field of research. Unfortunately, many of these fields seem to have developed independently from neighbouring disciplines, although they deal with very similar topics in respect of the

  4. Capillary-Driven Heat Transfer Experiment: Keeping It Cool in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekan, Jack F.; Allen, Jeffrey S.

    1998-01-01

    Capillary-pumped loops (CPL's) are devices that are used to transport heat from one location to another--specifically to transfer heat away from something. In low-gravity applications, such as satellites (and possibly the International Space Station), CPL's are used to transfer heat from electrical devices to space radiators. This is accomplished by evaporating one liquid surface on the hot side of the CPL and condensing the vapor produced onto another liquid surface on the cold side. Capillary action, the phenomenon that causes paper towels to absorb spilled liquids, is used to "pump" the liquid back to the evaporating liquid surface (hot side) to complete the "loop." CPL's require no power to operate and can transfer heat over distances as large as 30 ft or more. Their reliance upon evaporation and condensation to transfer heat makes them much more economical in terms of weight than conventional heat transfer systems. Unfortunately, they have proven to be unreliable in space operations, and the explanation for this unreliability has been elusive. The Capillary-Driven Heat Transfer (CHT) experiment is investigating the fundamental fluid physics phenomena thought to be responsible for the failure of CPL's in low-gravity operations. If the failure mechanism can be identified, then appropriate design modifications can be developed to make capillary phase-change heat-transport devices a more viable option in space applications. CHT was conducted onboard the Space Shuttle Columbia during the first Microgravity Science Laboratory (MSL-1) mission, STS-94, which flew from July 1 to 17, 1997. The CHT glovebox investigation, which was conceived by Dr. Kevin Hallinan and Jeffrey Allen of the University of Dayton, focused on studying the dynamics associated with the heating and cooling at the evaporating meniscus within a capillary phase-change device in a low-gravity environment. The CHT experimental hardware was designed by a small team of engineers from Aerospace Design

  5. ESPRIT: a study concept for a far-infrared interferometer in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, W.; de Graauw, Th.; Helmich, F.; Baryshev, A.; Cernicharo, J.; Gao, J. R.; Gunst, A.; Bos, A.; den Herder, J.-W.; Jackson, B.; Koshelets, V.; Langevelde, H.-J.; Maat, P.; Martin-Pintado, J.; Noordam, J.; Roelfsema, P.; Venema, L.; Wesselius, P.; Yagoubov, P.

    2008-07-01

    In the far-infrared (FIR) / THz regime the angular (and often spectral) resolution of observing facilities is still very restricted despite the fact that this frequency range has become of prime importance for modern astrophysics. ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter Array) with its superb sensitivity and angular resolution will only cover frequencies up to about 1 THz, while the HIFI instrument for ESA'a Herschel Space Observatory will provide limited angular resolution (10 to 30 arcsec) up to 2 THz. Observations of regions with star and planet formation require extremely high angular resolution as well as frequency resolution in the full THz regime. In order to open these regions for high-resolution astrophysics we present a study concept for a heterodyne space interferometer, ESPRIT (Exploratory Submm Space Radio-Interferometric Telescope). This mission will cover the Terahertz regime inaccessible from the ground and outside the operating range of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST).

  6. Hubble Space Telescope observations of cool white dwarf stars: Detection of new species of heavy elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipman, Harry; Barnhill, Maurice; Provencal, Judi; Roby, Scott; Bues, Irmela; Cordova, France; Hammond, Gordon; Hintzen, Paul; Koester, Detlev; Liebert, James

    1995-01-01

    Observations of cool white dwarf stars with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has uncovered a number of spectral features from previouslly unobserved species. In this paper we present the data on four cool white dwarfs. We present identifications, equivalent width measurements, and brief summaries of the significance of our findings. The four stars observed are GD 40 (DBZ3, G 74-7 (DAZ), L 745-46A (DZ), and LDS 749B (DBA). Many additional species of heavey elements were detected in GD 40 and G 74-7. In L 745-46A, while the detections are limited to Fe 1, Fe II, and Mg II, the quality of the Mg II h and K line profiles should permit a test of the line broadening theories, which are so crucial to abundance determinations. The clear detection of Mg II h and k in LDS 749 B should, once an abundance determination is made, provide a clear test of the hypothesis that the DBA stars are the result of accretion from the interstellar medium. This star contains no other clear features other than a tantalizing hint of C II 1335 with a P Cygni profile, and some expected He 1 lines.

  7. Parametric study of sodium aerosols in the cover-gas space of sodium-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheth, A.

    1975-03-01

    A mathematical model has been developed to describe the behavior of sodium aerosols in the cover-gas space of a sodium-cooled reactor. A review of the literature was first made to examine methods of aerosol generation, mathematical expressions representing aerosol behavior, and pertinent experimental investigations of sodium aerosols. In the development of the model, some terms were derived from basic principles and other terms were estimated from available correlations. The model was simulated on a computer, and important parameters were studied to determine their effects on the overall behavior of sodium aerosols. The parameters studied were sodium pool temperature, source and initial size of particles, film thickness at the sodium pool/cover gas interface, wall plating parameters, cover-gas flow rate, and type of cover gas (argon and helium). The model satisfactorily describes the behavior of sodium aerosol in argon, but not in helium. Possible reasons are given for the failure of the model with helium, and further experimental work is recommended. The mathematical model, with appropriate modifications to describe the behavior of sodium aerosols in helium, would be very useful in designing traps to remove aerosols from the cover gas of sodium-cooled reactors. (U.S.)

  8. Loss of coolant accident mitigation for liquid metal cooled space reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgevich, Vladimir; Best, Frederick; Erdman, Carl

    1989-01-01

    A loss of coolant accident (LOCA) in a liquid metal-cooled space reactor system has been considered as a possible accident scenario. Development of new concepts that will prevent core damage by LOCA caused elevated temperatures is the primary motivation of this work. Decay heat generated by the fission products in the reactor core following shutdown is sufficiently high to melt the fuel unless energy can be removed from the pins at a sufficiently rapid rate. There are two major reasons that prevent utilization of traditional emergency cooling methods. One is the absence of gravity and the other is the vacuum condition outside the reactor vessel. A concept that overcomes both problems is the Saturated Wick Evaporation Method (SWEM). This method involves placing wicking structures at specific locations in the core to act as energy sinks. One of its properties is the isothermal behaviour of the liquid in the wick. The absorption of energy by the surface at the isothermal temperature will direct the energy into an evaporation process and not in sensible heat addition. The use of this concept enables establishment of isothermal positions within the core. A computer code that evaluates the temperature distribution of the core has been developed and the results show that this design will prevent fuel meltdown. (author)

  9. Electromagnetic modelling of a space-borne far-infrared interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohoe, Anthony; O'Sullivan, Créidhe; Murphy, J. Anthony; Bracken, Colm; Savini, Giorgio; Pascale, Enzo; Ade, Peter; Sudiwala, Rashmi; Hornsby, Amber

    2016-02-01

    In this paper I will describe work done as part of an EU-funded project `Far-infrared space interferometer critical assessment' (FISICA). The aim of the project is to investigate science objectives and technology development required for the next generation THz space interferometer. The THz/FIR is precisely the spectral region where most of the energy from stars, exo-planetary systems and galaxy clusters deep in space is emitted. The atmosphere is almost completely opaque in the wave-band of interest so any observation that requires high quality data must be performed with a space-born instrument. A space-borne far infrared interferometer will be able to answer a variety of crucial astrophysical questions such as how do planets and stars form, what is the energy engine of most galaxies and how common are the molecule building blocks of life. The FISICA team have proposed a novel instrument based on a double Fourier interferometer that is designed to resolve the light from an extended scene, spectrally and spatially. A laboratory prototype spectral-spatial interferometer has been constructed to demonstrate the feasibility of the double-Fourier technique at far infrared wavelengths (0.15 - 1 THz). This demonstrator is being used to investigate and validate important design features and data-processing methods for future instruments. Using electromagnetic modelling techniques several issues related to its operation at long baselines and wavelengths, such as diffraction, have been investigated. These are critical to the design of the concept instrument and the laboratory testbed.

  10. Solid-Core, Gas-Cooled Reactor for Space and Surface Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Jeffrey C.; El-Genk, Mohamed S.

    2006-01-01

    The solid-core, gas-cooled, Submersion-Subcritical Safe Space (S and 4) reactor is developed for future space power applications and avoidance of single point failures. The Mo-14%Re reactor core is loaded with uranium nitride fuel in enclosed cavities, cooled by He-30%Xe, and sized to provide 550 kWth for seven years of equivalent full power operation. The beryllium oxide reflector disassembles upon impact on water or soil. In addition to decreasing the reactor and shadow shield mass, Spectral Shift Absorber (SSA) materials added to the reactor core ensure that it remains subcritical in the worst-case submersion accident. With a 0.1 mm thick boron carbide coating on the outside surface of the core block and 0.25 mm thick iridium sleeves around the fuel stacks, the reflector outer diameter is 43.5 cm and the combined reactor and shadow shield mass is 935.1 kg. With 12.5 atom% gadolinium-155 added to the fuel, 2.0 mm diameter gadolinium-155 sesquioxide intersititial pins, and a 0.1 mm thick gadolinium-155 sesquioxide coating, the S and 4 reactor has a slightly smaller reflector outer diameter of 43.0 cm, and a total reactor and shield mass of 901.7 kg. With 8.0 atom% europium-151 added to the fuel, 2.0 mm diameter europium-151 sesquioxide interstitial pins, and a 0.1 mm thick europium-151 sesquioxide coating, the reflector's outer diameter and the total reactor and shield mass are further reduced to 41.5 cm and 869.2 kg, respectively

  11. Exposure to space radiation of high-performance infrared multilayer filters and materials technology experiment (A0056)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Gary J.; Seeley, John S.; Hunneman, Roger

    1992-01-01

    Infrared optical multilayer filters and materials were exposed to the space environment of low Earth orbit on LDEF. The effects are summarized of that environment on the physical and optical properties of the filters and materials flown.

  12. Renewable Heating And Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renewable heating and cooling is a set of alternative resources and technologies that can be used in place of conventional heating and cooling technologies for common applications such as water heating, space heating, space cooling and process heat.

  13. Periodic Spacing of Protocluster Clumps in a Filamentary Infrared Dark Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, James M.; Finn, S.; Rathborne, J. M.; Simon, R.

    2010-05-01

    The ''Nessie'' nebula is an extremely filamentary infrared dark cloud, with an aspect ratio of over 300:1. HNC 1-0 observations with the Australia Telescope National Facility's Mopra Telescope demonstrate that Nessie is a single, coherent cloud with high densities (n > 105 cm-3). The filamentary cloud contains a number of protocluster clumps with a nearly regular, periodic spacing of 5 pc. Such clumps naturally arise from the ''varicose'' fluid instability of a self-gravitating fluid cylinder. Because of the ubiquitous association between massive clusters and filamentary molecular clouds (e.g., Orion, NGC 6334, etc.), we speculate that clusters naturally arise from filamentary infrared dark clouds via fluid instabilities.

  14. The Hubble Space Telescope: UV, Visible, and Near-Infrared Pursuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope continues to push the limits on world-class astrophysics. Cameras including the Advanced Camera for Surveys and the new panchromatic Wide Field Camera 3 which was installed nu last year's successful servicing mission S2N4,o{fer imaging from near-infrared through ultraviolet wavelengths. Spectroscopic studies of sources from black holes to exoplanet atmospheres are making great advances through the versatile use of STIS, the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph. The new Cosmic Origins Spectrograph, also installed last year, is the most sensitive UV spectrograph to fly io space and is uniquely suited to address particular scientific questions on galaxy halos, the intergalactic medium, and the cosmic web. With these outstanding capabilities on HST come complex needs for laboratory astrophysics support including atomic and line identification data. I will provide an overview of Hubble's current capabilities and the scientific programs and goals that particularly benefit from the studies of laboratory astrophysics.

  15. CFD-simulation of radiator for air cooling of microprocessors in a limitided space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trofimov V. E.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the final stages of microprocessors development is heat test. This procedure is performed on a special stand, the main element of which is the switching PCB with one or more mounted microprocessor sockets, chipsets, interfaces, jumpers and other components which provide various modes of microprocessor operation. The temperature of microprocessor housing is typically changed using thermoelectric module. The cold surface of the module with controlled temperature is in direct thermal contact with the microprocessor housing designed for cooler installation. On the hot surface of the module a radiator is mounted. The radiator dissipates the cumulative heat flow from both the microprocessor and the module. High density PCB layout, the requirement of free access to the jumpers and interfaces, and the presence of numerous sensors limit the space for radiator mounting and require the use of an extremely compact radiator, especially in air cooling conditions. One of the possible solutions for this problem may reduce the area of the radiator heat-transfer surfaces due to a sharp growth of the heat transfer coefficient without increasing the air flow rate. To ensure a sharp growth of heat transfer coefficient on the heat-transfer surface one should make in the surface one or more dead-end cavities into which the impact air jets would flow. CFD simulation of this type of radiator has been conducted. The heat-aerodynamic characteristics and design recommendations for removing heat from microprocessors in a limited space have been determined.

  16. TALC, a new deployable concept for a 20 m far-infrared space telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, Gilles; Sauvage, Marc; Rodriguez, Louis; Ronayette, Samuel; Reveret, Vincent; Aussel, Herve; Pantin, Eric; Berthe, Michel; Martignac, Jerome; Motte, Frederique; Talvard, Michel; Minier, Vincent; Scola, Loris; Carty, Michael

    2014-01-01

    TALC, Thin Aperture Light Collector is a 20 m space observatory project exploring some unconventional optical solutions (between the single dish and the interferometer) allowing the resolving power of a classical 27 m telescope. With TALC, the principle is to remove the central part of the prime mirror dish, cut the remaining ring into 24 sectors and store them on top of one-another. The aim of this far infrared telescope is to explore the 600 μm to 100 μm region. With this approach we have shown that we can store a ring-telescope of outer diameter 20 m and ring thickness of 3 m inside the fairing of Ariane 5 or Ariane 6. The general structure is the one of a bicycle wheel, whereas the inner sides of the segments are in compression to each other and play the rule of a rim. The segments are linked to each other using a pantograph scissor system that let the segments extend from a pile of dishes to a parabolic ring keeping high stiffness at all time during the deployment. The inner corners of the segments are linked to a central axis using spokes as in a bicycle wheel. The secondary mirror and the instrument box are built as a solid unit fixed at the extremity of the main axis. The tensegrity analysis of this structure shows a very high stiffness to mass ratio, resulting into 3 Hz Eigen frequency. The segments will consist of two composite skins and honeycomb CFRP structure build by replica process. Solid segments will be compared to deformable segments using the controlled shear of the rear surface. The adjustment of the length of the spikes and the relative position of the side of neighbor segments let control the phasing of the entire primary mirror. The telescope is cooled by natural radiation. It is protected from sun radiation by a large inflatable solar screen, loosely linked to the telescope. The orientation is performed by inertia-wheels. This telescope carries a wide field bolometer camera using cryo-cooler at 0.3 K as one of the main instruments. This

  17. TALC: a new deployable concept for a 20m far-infrared space telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Gilles; Sauvage, Marc; Bonnet, Aymeric; Rodriguez, Louis; Ronayette, Samuel; Chanial, Pierre; Scola, Loris; Révéret, Vincent; Aussel, Hervé; Carty, Michael; Durand, Matthis; Durand, Lancelot; Tremblin, Pascal; Pantin, Eric; Berthe, Michel; Martignac, Jérôme; Motte, Frédérique; Talvard, Michel; Minier, Vincent; Bultel, Pascal

    2014-08-01

    TALC, Thin Aperture Light Collector is a 20 m space observatory project exploring some unconventional optical solutions (between the single dish and the interferometer) allowing the resolving power of a classical 27 m telescope. With TALC, the principle is to remove the central part of the prime mirror dish, cut the remaining ring into 24 sectors and store them on top of one-another. The aim of this far infrared telescope is to explore the 600 μm to 100 μm region. With this approach we have shown that we can store a ring-telescope of outer diameter 20m and ring thickness of 3m inside the fairing of Ariane 5 or Ariane 6. The general structure is the one of a bicycle wheel, whereas the inner sides of the segments are in compression to each other and play the rule of a rim. The segments are linked to each other using a pantograph scissor system that let the segments extend from a pile of dishes to a parabolic ring keeping high stiffness at all time during the deployment. The inner corners of the segments are linked to a central axis using spokes as in a bicycle wheel. The secondary mirror and the instrument box are built as a solid unit fixed at the extremity of the main axis. The tensegrity analysis of this structure shows a very high stiffness to mass ratio, resulting into 3 Hz Eigen frequency. The segments will consist of two composite skins and honeycomb CFRP structure build by replica process. Solid segments will be compared to deformable segments using the controlled shear of the rear surface. The adjustment of the length of the spikes and the relative position of the side of neighbor segments let control the phasing of the entire primary mirror. The telescope is cooled by natural radiation. It is protected from sun radiation by a large inflatable solar screen, loosely linked to the telescope. The orientation is performed by inertia-wheels. This telescope carries a wide field bolometer camera using cryocooler at 0.3K as one of the main instruments. This

  18. Forecasting Cool Season Daily Peak Winds at Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Joe, III; Short, David; Roeder, William

    2008-01-01

    The expected peak wind speed for the day is an important element in the daily 24-Hour and Weekly Planning Forecasts issued by the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) for planning operations at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS). The morning outlook for peak speeds also begins the warning decision process for gusts ^ 35 kt, ^ 50 kt, and ^ 60 kt from the surface to 300 ft. The 45 WS forecasters have indicated that peak wind speeds are a challenging parameter to forecast during the cool season (October-April). The 45 WS requested that the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) develop a tool to help them forecast the speed and timing of the daily peak and average wind, from the surface to 300 ft on KSC/CCAFS during the cool season. The tool must only use data available by 1200 UTC to support the issue time of the Planning Forecasts. Based on observations from the KSC/CCAFS wind tower network, surface observations from the Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF), and CCAFS upper-air soundings from the cool season months of October 2002 to February 2007, the AMU created multiple linear regression equations to predict the timing and speed of the daily peak wind speed, as well as the background average wind speed. Several possible predictors were evaluated, including persistence, the temperature inversion depth, strength, and wind speed at the top of the inversion, wind gust factor (ratio of peak wind speed to average wind speed), synoptic weather pattern, occurrence of precipitation at the SLF, and strongest wind in the lowest 3000 ft, 4000 ft, or 5000 ft. Six synoptic patterns were identified: 1) surface high near or over FL, 2) surface high north or east of FL, 3) surface high south or west of FL, 4) surface front approaching FL, 5) surface front across central FL, and 6) surface front across south FL. The following six predictors were selected: 1) inversion depth, 2) inversion strength, 3) wind gust factor, 4) synoptic weather pattern, 5) occurrence of

  19. Decoupling dehumidification and cooling for energy saving and desirable space air conditions in hot and humid Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.L.; Chen Hua; Leung, Y.C.; Zhang, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The combined use of dedicated ventilation and dry cooling (DCDV) system was investigated. ► Investigations were based actual equipment performance data and realistic building and system characteristics. ► DCDV system could save 54% of the annual energy use for air-conditioning. ► DCDV system could better achieve the desired space air conditions. ► DCDV system could decouple dehumidification and cooling. - Abstract: The combined use of dedicated outdoor air ventilation (DV) and dry cooling (DC) air-conditioning system to decouple sensible and latent cooling for desirable space air conditions, better indoor air quality, and energy efficiency is proposed for hot and humid climates like Hong Kong. In this study, the performance and energy saving potential of DCDV system in comparison to conventional systems (constant air volume (CAV) system with and without reheat) for air conditioning of a typical office building in Hong Kong are evaluated. Through hour-by-hour simulations, using actual equipment performance data and realistic building and system characteristics, the cooling load profile, resultant indoor air conditions, condensation at the DC coil, and energy consumptions are calculated and analyzed. The results indicate that with the use of DCDV system, the desirable indoor conditions could be achieved and the annual energy use could be reduced by 54% over CAV system with reheat. The condensate-free characteristic at the DC coil to reduce risk of catching disease could also be realized.

  20. Exposure to space radiation of high-performance infrared multilayer filters and materials technology experiments (A0056)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, J. S.; Hunneman, R.; Whatley, A.; Lipscombe, D. R.

    1984-01-01

    Infrared multilayer interface filter which were used in satellite radiometers were examined. The ability of the filters to withstand the space environment in these applications is critical. An experiment on the LDEF subjects the filters to authoritative spectral measurements following space exposure to ascertain their suitability for spacecraft use and to permit an understanding of degradation mechanisms. The understanding of the effects of prolonged space exposure on spacecraft materials, surface finishes, and adhesive systems is important to the spacecraft designer. Materials technology experiments and experiment on infrared multilayer filters are discussed.

  1. On the Optimum Dispersion of a Storage Ring for Electron Cooling with High Space Charge

    CERN Document Server

    Bosser, Jacques; Chanel, M; Marié, L; Möhl, D; Tranquille, G

    2000-01-01

    With the intense electron beams used for cooling, matching of the ion and electron velocity over the largest possible fraction of the beam profile becomes important. In this situation, a finite dispersion from the ring in the cooling section can lead to an appreciable gain in the transverse cooling speed. Based on a simple model of the cooling force, an expression for the "optimum" dispersion as a function of the electron beam intensity, the momentum spread and other properties of the ion beam will be derived. This simple theory will be compared to measurements made on the Low Energy Ion Ring (LEIR) at CERN during 1997.

  2. Spitzer SAGE-Spec: Near infrared spectroscopy, dust shells, and cool envelopes in extreme Large Magellanic Cloud asymptotic giant branch stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, R. D. [NOAO, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Srinivasan, S.; Kemper, F.; Ling, B. [Academia Sinica, Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 11F of Astronomy-Mathematics Building, NTU/AS, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Volk, K. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    K-band spectra are presented for a sample of 39 Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) SAGE-Spec sources in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The spectra exhibit characteristics in very good agreement with their positions in the near-infrared—Spitzer color-magnitude diagrams and their properties as deduced from the Spitzer IRS spectra. Specifically, the near-infrared spectra show strong atomic and molecular features representative of oxygen-rich and carbon-rich asymptotic giant branch stars, respectively. A small subset of stars was chosen from the luminous and red extreme ''tip'' of the color-magnitude diagram. These objects have properties consistent with dusty envelopes but also cool, carbon-rich ''stellar'' cores. Modest amounts of dust mass loss combine with the stellar spectral energy distribution to make these objects appear extreme in their near-infrared and mid-infrared colors. One object in our sample, HV 915, a known post-asymptotic giant branch star of the RV Tau type, exhibits CO 2.3 μm band head emission consistent with previous work that demonstrates that the object has a circumstellar disk.

  3. Spitzer SAGE-Spec: Near infrared spectroscopy, dust shells, and cool envelopes in extreme Large Magellanic Cloud asymptotic giant branch stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, R. D.; Srinivasan, S.; Kemper, F.; Ling, B.; Volk, K.

    2014-01-01

    K-band spectra are presented for a sample of 39 Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) SAGE-Spec sources in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The spectra exhibit characteristics in very good agreement with their positions in the near-infrared—Spitzer color-magnitude diagrams and their properties as deduced from the Spitzer IRS spectra. Specifically, the near-infrared spectra show strong atomic and molecular features representative of oxygen-rich and carbon-rich asymptotic giant branch stars, respectively. A small subset of stars was chosen from the luminous and red extreme ''tip'' of the color-magnitude diagram. These objects have properties consistent with dusty envelopes but also cool, carbon-rich ''stellar'' cores. Modest amounts of dust mass loss combine with the stellar spectral energy distribution to make these objects appear extreme in their near-infrared and mid-infrared colors. One object in our sample, HV 915, a known post-asymptotic giant branch star of the RV Tau type, exhibits CO 2.3 μm band head emission consistent with previous work that demonstrates that the object has a circumstellar disk.

  4. Space cooling by geocooling. Basic principles for a dimensioning handbook; Rafraichissement par geocooling - Bases pour un manuel de dimensionnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollmuller, P.; Lachal, B. [Universite de Geneve, Centre Universitaire d' Etude des Problemes de l' Energie (CUEPE), Geneve (Switzerland); Pahud, D. [Scuola Universitaria Professionale della Svizzera Italiana (SUPSI), Laboratorio Energia Ecologia ed Economia (LEEE), Trevano-Canobbio (Switzerland)

    2005-07-01

    The study performed by two Swiss universities considers two types of passive systems for space cooling: geocooling using vertical underground borehole heat exchangers and geocooling by means of horizontal underground heat exchangers placed at low depth ('canadian wells'). The goal of the study was to summarize the experience gained from ten existing Swiss geocooling installations in order to establish a basis for a dimensioning manual for future projects. For both types of geothermal probes, rules of the thumb were derived. Methods for dimensioning the heat exchangers based on computer simulation of various complexity are also presented. Presently, the least known factor is the coupling of the building to the cooling source. Therefore, future geocooling systems should be considered as an integral part of a building and not just as an additional cooling system.

  5. Modeling of Rocket Fuel Heating and Cooling Processes in the Interior Receptacle Space of Ground-Based Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. I. Denisova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The propellant to fill the fuel tanks of the spacecraft, upper stages, and space rockets on technical and ground-based launch sites before fueling should be prepared to ensure many of its parameters, including temperature, in appropriate condition. Preparation of fuel temperature is arranged through heating and cooling the rocket propellants (RP in the tanks of fueling equipment. Processes of RP temperature preparation are the most energy-intensive and timeconsuming ones, which require that a choice of sustainable technologies and modes of cooling (heating RP provided by the ground-based equipment has been made through modeling of the RP [1] temperature preparation processes at the stage of design and operation of the groundbased fueling equipment.The RP temperature preparation in the tanks of the ground-based systems can be provided through the heat-exchangers built-in the internal space and being external with respect to the tank in which antifreeze, air or liquid nitrogen may be used as the heat transfer media. The papers [1-12], which note a promising use of the liquid nitrogen to cool PR, present schematic diagrams and modeling systems for the RP temperature preparation in the fueling equipment of the ground-based systems.We consider the RP temperature preparation using heat exchangers to be placed directly in RP tanks. Feeding the liquid nitrogen into heat exchanger with the antifreeze provides the cooling mode of PR while a heated air fed there does that of heating. The paper gives the systems of equations and results of modeling the processes of RP temperature preparation, and its estimated efficiency.The systems of equations of cooling and heating RP are derived on the assumption that the heat exchange between the fuel and the antifreeze, as well as between the storage tank and the environment is quasi-stationary.The paper presents calculation results of the fuel temperature in the tank, and coolant temperature in the heat exchanger, as

  6. A techno-economic comparison of ground-coupled and air-coupled heat pump system for space cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esen, Hikmet; Esen, Mehmet [Department of Mechanical Education, Faculty of Technical Education, University of Firat, 23119 Elazig (Turkey); Inalli, Mustafa [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Firat, 23119 Elazig (Turkey)

    2007-05-15

    This paper reports a techno-economic comparison between a ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) system and an air-coupled heat pump (ACHP) system. The systems connected to a test room in Firat University, Elazig (38.41{sup o}N, 39.14{sup o}E), Turkey, were designed and constructed for space cooling. The performances of the GCHP and the ACHP system were experimentally determined. The experimental results were obtained from June to September in cooling season of 2004. The average cooling performance coefficients (COP{sub sys}) of the GCHP system for horizontal ground heat exchanger (HGHE) in the different trenches, at 1 and 2m depths, were obtained to be 3.85 and 4.26, respectively and the COP{sub sys} of the ACHP system was determined to be 3.17. The test results indicate that system parameters can have an important effect on performance, and that GCHP systems are economically preferable to ACHP systems for the purpose of space cooling. (author)

  7. Open Spaces and Urban Ecosystem Services. Cooling Effect towards Urban Planning in South American Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Inostroza

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Open space (OS is a key element in the provision of ecosystem services (ES in urban environments. Under a land cover-land use perspective, cities are incorporating into the expansion process to different types of surfaces: sealed, paved surfaces and OS. The first corresponds to a land cover change while the second, which includes bare soil, grass, forest or any other type of non-sealed surface, corresponds to a land use change, without physical transformations. As a land use change OS is able to keep fundamental pre-existing ecological properties. However, besides specific ecological characteristics, the overall capacity to provide ES depends also on the size, number and spatial distribution of OSs within the urban fabric. Those aspects which can determine the very ecological performance of urban ecosystem services (UES are not yet included in the current urban planning in Latin America. OS is still understood mainly as green infrastructure and related mostly with aesthetic and cultural benefits. On the contrary, under an ecological point of view, OS is capable to provide fundamental UES, which can be spatially assessed and analyzed. In this paper the provision of cooling services (CS is assessed in 2 South American cities: Lima and Santiago de Chile. The provision of CS is measured by means of a Remote Sensing-GIS-based method. Two aspects of CS are explored: (1 the current amount of existing OS; and (2 the trend of increasing/reducing CS within the urban tissue, in a dynamic assessment of spatial distribution and rates of OS incorporation to the continuous urban tissue. The aim is to analyze the CS generated by OS in those two cities. The analysis discusses the role of OS in the provision of CS, considering the current urban development trends and planning practice in these specific Latin American cities, highlighting the need to keep unsealed surfaces and increase in trees coverage, to retain the CS provision in certain levels.

  8. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE SPECTROSCOPY OF BROWN DWARFS DISCOVERED WITH THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Adam C.; Cushing, Michael C.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Gelino, Christopher R.; Mace, Gregory N.; Wright, Edward L.; Eisenhardt, Peter R.; Skrutskie, M. F.; Griffith, Roger L.; Marsh, Kenneth A.

    2015-01-01

    We present a sample of brown dwarfs identified with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) for which we have obtained Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) near-infrared grism spectroscopy. The sample (22 in total) was observed with the G141 grism covering 1.10–1.70 μm, while 15 were also observed with the G102 grism, which covers 0.90–1.10 μm. The additional wavelength coverage provided by the G102 grism allows us to (1) search for spectroscopic features predicted to emerge at low effective temperatures (e.g.,ammonia bands) and (2) construct a smooth spectral sequence across the T/Y boundary. We find no evidence of absorption due to ammonia in the G102 spectra. Six of these brown dwarfs are new discoveries, three of which are found to have spectral types of T8 or T9. The remaining three, WISE J082507.35+280548.5 (Y0.5), WISE J120604.38+840110.6 (Y0), and WISE J235402.77+024015.0 (Y1), are the 19th, 20th, and 21st spectroscopically confirmed Y dwarfs to date. We also present HST grism spectroscopy and reevaluate the spectral types of five brown dwarfs for which spectral types have been determined previously using other instruments

  9. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE SPECTROSCOPY OF BROWN DWARFS DISCOVERED WITH THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Adam C.; Cushing, Michael C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, 2801 W. Bancroft St., Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Gelino, Christopher R. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Mace, Gregory N.; Wright, Edward L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, 430 Portola Plaza, Box 951547, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Eisenhardt, Peter R. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Skrutskie, M. F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, 530 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Griffith, Roger L. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Marsh, Kenneth A., E-mail: Adam.Schneider@Utoledo.edu [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-10

    We present a sample of brown dwarfs identified with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) for which we have obtained Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) near-infrared grism spectroscopy. The sample (22 in total) was observed with the G141 grism covering 1.10–1.70 μm, while 15 were also observed with the G102 grism, which covers 0.90–1.10 μm. The additional wavelength coverage provided by the G102 grism allows us to (1) search for spectroscopic features predicted to emerge at low effective temperatures (e.g.,ammonia bands) and (2) construct a smooth spectral sequence across the T/Y boundary. We find no evidence of absorption due to ammonia in the G102 spectra. Six of these brown dwarfs are new discoveries, three of which are found to have spectral types of T8 or T9. The remaining three, WISE J082507.35+280548.5 (Y0.5), WISE J120604.38+840110.6 (Y0), and WISE J235402.77+024015.0 (Y1), are the 19th, 20th, and 21st spectroscopically confirmed Y dwarfs to date. We also present HST grism spectroscopy and reevaluate the spectral types of five brown dwarfs for which spectral types have been determined previously using other instruments.

  10. Quasi-optical analysis of a far-infrared spatio-spectral space interferometer concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, C.; O'Sullivan, C.; Murphy, J. A.; Donohoe, A.; Savini, G.; Lightfoot, J.; Juanola-Parramon, R.; Fisica Consortium

    2016-07-01

    FISICA (Far-Infrared Space Interferometer Critical Assessment) was a three year study of a far-infrared spatio-spectral double-Fourier interferometer concept. One of the aims of the FISICA study was to set-out a baseline optical design for such a system, and to use a model of the system to simulate realistic telescope beams for use with an end-to-end instrument simulator. This paper describes a two-telescope (and hub) baseline optical design that fulfils the requirements of the FISICA science case, while minimising the optical mass of the system. A number of different modelling techniques were required for the analysis: fast approximate simulation tools such as ray tracing and Gaussian beam methods were employed for initial analysis, with GRASP physical optics used for higher accuracy in the final analysis. Results are shown for the predicted far-field patterns of the telescope primary mirrors under illumination by smooth walled rectangular feed horns. Far-field patterns for both on-axis and off-axis detectors are presented and discussed.

  11. Dust Temperatures in the Infrared Space Observatory Atlas of Bright Spiral Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Bendo, G J; Wells, M; Gallais, P; Haas, M; Heras, A M; Klaas, U; Laureijs, R J; Leech, K; Lemke, D; Metcalfe, L; Rowan-Robinson, M; Schulz, B; Telesco, C M; Bendo, George J.; Joseph, Robert D.; Wells, Martyn; Gallais, Pascal; Haas, Martin; Heras, Ana M.; Klaas, Ulrich; Laureijs, Rene J.; Leech, Kieron; Lemke, Dietrich; Metcalfe, Leo; Rowan-Robinson, Michael; Schulz, Bernhard; Telesco, Charles

    2003-01-01

    We examine far-infrared and submillimeter spectral energy distributions for galaxies in the Infrared Space Observatory Atlas of Bright Spiral Galaxies. For the 71 galaxies where we had complete 60-180 micron data, we fit blackbodies with lambda^-1 emissivities and average temperatures of 31 K or lambda^-2 emissivities and average temperatures of 22 K. Except for high temperatures determined in some early-type galaxies, the temperatures show no dependence on any galaxy characteristic. For the 60-850 micron range in eight galaxies, we fit blackbodies with lambda^-1, lambda-2, and lambda^-beta (with beta variable) emissivities to the data. The best results were with the lambda^-beta emissivities, where the temperatures were ~30 K and the emissivity coefficient beta ranged from 0.9 to 1.9. These results produced gas to dust ratios that ranged from 150 to 580, which were consistent with the ratio for the Milky Way and which exhibited relatively little dispersion compared to fits with fixed emissivities.

  12. The James Webb Space Telescope's Near-Infrared Camera (NIRCam): Making Models, Building Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, D. W., Jr.; Lebofsky, L. A.; Higgins, M. L.; Lebofsky, N. R.

    2011-09-01

    Since 2003, the Near Infrared Camear (NIRCam) science team for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) has conducted "Train the Trainer" workshops for adult leaders of the Girl Scout of the USA (GSUSA), engaging them in the process of scientific inquiry and equipping them to host astronomy-related activities at the troop level. Training includes topics in basic astronomy (night sky, phases of the Moon, the scale of the Solar System and beyond, stars, galaxies, telescopes, etc.) as well as JWST-specific research areas in extra-solar planetary systems and cosmology, to pave the way for girls and women to understand the first images from JWST. Participants become part of our world-wide network of 160 trainers teaching young women essential STEM-related concepts using astronomy, the night sky environment, applied math, engineering, and critical thinking.

  13. Infrared Sensor System for Mobile-Robot Positioning in Intelligent Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Pallarés Puerto

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to position a Mobile Robot in an Intelligent Space, and this paper presents a sensorial system for measuring differential phase-shifts in a sinusoidally modulated infrared signal transmitted from the robot. Differential distances were obtained from these phase-shifts, and the position of the robot was estimated by hyperbolic trilateration. Due to the extremely severe trade-off between SNR, angle (coverage and real-time response, a very accurate design and device selection was required to achieve good precision with wide coverage and acceptable robot speed. An I/Q demodulator was used to measure phases with one-stage synchronous demodulation to DC. A complete set of results from real measurements, both for distance and position estimations, is provided to demonstrate the validity of the system proposed, comparing it with other similar indoor positioning systems.

  14. Infrared spectroscopic analysis of the effects of simulated space radiation on a polyimide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferl, J. E.; Long, E. R., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Infrared spectroscopic techniques have been used to study the effects of electron radiation on the polyimide PMDA-p,p-prime- ODA. The radiation exposures were made at various dose rates, for a total dose approximately equal to that for 30 years of exposure to electron radiation in geosynchronous earth orbit. At high dose rates the major effect was probably the formation of a polyisoimide or a charged quaternary amine, and at the low dose rates the effect was a reduction in the amount or aromatic ether linkage. In addition, the effects of dose rate for a small total dose were studied. Elevated temperatures occurred at high dose rates and were, in part, probably the cause of the radiation product. The data suggest that dose rates for accelerated simulations of the space environment should not exceed 100,000 rads/sec.

  15. Advanced fire observation by the Intelligent Infrared Sensor prototype FOCUS on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oertel, D.; Haschberger, P.; Tank, V.; Lanzl, F.; Zhukov, B.; Jahn, H.; Briess, K.; Lorenz, E.; Roeser, H.-P.; Ginati, A.; Tobehn, C.; Schulte in den Bäumen, J.; Christmann, U.

    1999-01-01

    Current and planned operational space-borne Earth observation systems provide spatially, radiometrically or temporally crude data for the detection and monitoring of high temperature phenomena on the surface of our planet. High Temperature Events (HTE) very often cause environmental disasters. Such HTE are forest and savannah fires, fires of open coal mines, volcanic activities and others (e.g. fires of oil wells, pipelines etc.). A simultaneous co-registration of a combination of infrared (IR) and visible (VIS) channels is the key for a reliable autonomous on-board detection of High Temperature Events (HTE) on Earth surface, such as vegetation fires and volcano eruptions. This is the main feature of the FOCUS experiment. Furthermore there are ecology-oriented objectives of the FOCUS experiment mainly related to spectrometric/imaging remote inspection and parameter extraction of selected HTEs, and to the assessment of some ecological consequences of HTEs, such as aerosol and gas emission. Based on own experimental work and supported by Co-Investigators from Italy, Greece, France, Spain, Russia and Germany, DLR proposed in 1997 to use the International Space Station (ISS) in its early utilization phase as a platform and test-bed for an Intelligent Infrared Sensor prototype FOCUS of a future Environmental Disaster Recognition Satellite System. FOCUS is considered by ESA as an important mission combining a number of proven technologies and observation techniques to provide the scientific and operational user community with key data for the classification and monitoring of forest fires. FOCUS was selected as one of five European ``Groupings'' to be flown as an externally mounted payload during the early utilisation phase of the ISS. The FOCUS Phase A Study will be performed by OHB-System, DLR and Zeiss from September 1998 until May 1999.

  16. Space-borne observation of mesospheric bore by Visible and near Infrared Spectral Imager onboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hozumi, Y.; Saito, A.; Sakanoi, T.; Yamazaki, A.; Hosokawa, K.

    2017-12-01

    Mesospheric bores were observed by Visible and near Infrared Spectral Imager (VISI) of the ISS-IMAP mission (Ionosphere, Mesosphere, upper Atmosphere and Plasmasphere mapping mission from the International Space Station) in O2 airglow at 762 nm wavelength. The mesospheric bore is moving front of sharp jump followed by undulations or turbulence in the mesopause region. Since previous studies of mesospheric bore were mainly based on ground-based airglow imaging that is limited in field-of-view and observing site, little is known about its horizontal extent and global behavior. Space-borne imaging by ISS-IMAP/VISI provides an opportunity to study the mesospheric bore with a wide field-of-view and global coverage. A mesospheric bore was captured by VISI in two consecutive paths on 9 July 2015 over the south of African continent (48ºS - 54ºS and 15ºE). The wave front aligned with south-north direction and propagated to west. The phase velocity and wave length of the following undulation were estimated to 100 m/s and 30 km, respectively. Those parameters are similar to those reported by previous studies. 30º anti-clockwise rotation of the wave front was recognized in 100 min. Another mesospheric bore was captured on 9 May 2013 over the south Atlantic ocean (35ºS - 43ºS and 24ºW - 1ºE) with more than 2,200 km horizontal extent of wave front. The wave front aligned with southeast-northwest direction. Because the following undulation is recognized in the southwest side of the wave front, it is estimated to propagate to northeast direction. The wave front was modulated with 1,000 km wave length. This modulation implies inhomogeneity of the phase velocity.

  17. Multipurpose Cooling Garment for Improved Space Suit Environmental Control, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future manned space exploration missions will require space suits with capabilities beyond the current state of the art. Portable Life Support Systems for these...

  18. Cooling design and evaluation for photovoltaic cells within constrained space in a CPV/CSP hybrid solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Sheng; Shi, Junxiang; Chen, Hsiu-Hung; Schafer, Steven R.; Munir, Moiz; Stecker, Greg; Pan, Wei; Lee, Jong-Jan; Chen, Chung-Lung

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A practical cooling solution is proposed for a novel CPV/CSP hybrid solar system. • Both passive and active cooling techniques were systematically investigated. • Comprehensive experimental and numerical studies were conducted for optimal design. • Active cooling is in great need for a high waste heat flux of 21.8 W/cm 2 . • Passive cooling becomes attractive for a waste heat flux less than 13.0 W/cm 2 . - Abstract: A hybrid solar energy system has been designed by combining the advantages of concentrated solar power (CSP) technology and high performance concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) cells which outperforms either single technology. Thermal management is crucial to CPV cells in this hybrid solar system, as concentrated solar radiation onto the PV cells leads to higher heat flux. If the heat is not dissipated effectively, it can cause obvious temperature rise and efficiency reduction in the cell. In addition, the constrained space available for PV cell cooling in such hybrid solar systems presents more challenges. In this study both passive cooling and active cooling techniques were systematically investigated in both numerical and experimental ways. For the passive cooling method, two different designs from off-the-shelf heat pipes with radial fins or annular fins were proposed and studied under various heat rejection requirements. Results shows that heat pipes with radial fins exhibited narrow capability of dumping the heat, while heat pipes with annular fins presented better performances under the same conditions. Numerical optimal designs of annular fin numbers and fin gaps were then carried out and experimentally validated, indicating a capability of dumping moderate waste heat (∼45 W). For active cooling technique, a comprehensive study of designing plate fin heatsinks were conducted corresponding to high Ingress Protection (IP) rated off-the-shelf fans. Results show that with a less than 2 W fan power consumption, this active

  19. Infrared Astronomy Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrera, G. A.

    1981-09-01

    In 1982, the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) will be launched into a 900-km sun-synchronous (twilight) orbit to perform an unbiased, all-sky survey of the far-infrared spectrum from 8 to 120 microns. Observations telemetered to ground stations will be compiled into an IR astronomy catalog. Attention is given the cryogenically cooled, 60-cm Ritchey-Chretien telescope carried by the satellite, whose primary and secondary mirrors are fabricated from beryllium by means of 'Cryo-Null Figuring'. This technique anticipates the mirror distortions that will result from cryogenic cooling of the telescope and introduces dimensional compensations for them during machining and polishing. Consideration is also given to the interferometric characterization of telescope performance and Cryo/Thermal/Vacuum simulated space environment testing.

  20. European agreement on James Webb Space Telescope's Mid-Infrared Instrument (MIRI) signed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    Artist's impression of the JWST hi-res Size hi-res: 1601 kb Credits: ESA Artist's impression of the JWST An artist's impression of the selected design for the JWST spacecraft. Northrop Grumman and Ball Aerospace are the prime contractors for JWST. Artist's impression of the JWST Credits: ESA Artist's impression of the JWST An artist's impression of the selected design for the JWST spacecraft. Northrop Grumman and Ball Aerospace are the prime contractors for JWST. Observing the first light, the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will help to solve outstanding questions about our place in the evolving Universe. MIRI, the Mid-Infrared Instrument, is one of the four instruments on board the JWST, the mission scheduled to follow on the heritage of Hubble in 2011. MIRI will be built in cooperation between Europe and the United States (NASA), both equally contributing to its funding. MIRI’s optics, core of the instrument, will be provided by a consortium of European institutes. According to this formal agreement, ESA will manage and co-ordinate the whole development of the European part of MIRI and act as the sole interface with NASA, which is leading the JWST project. This marks a difference with respect to the previous ESA scientific missions. In the past the funding and the development of the scientific instruments was agreed by the participating ESA Member States on the basis of purely informal arrangements with ESA. In this case, the Member States involved in MIRI have agreed on formally guaranteeing the required level of funding on the basis of a multi-lateral international agreement, which still keeps scientists in key roles. Over the past years, missions have become more complex and demanding, and more costly within an ever tighter budget. They also require a more and more specific expertise which is spread throughout the vast European scientific community. As a result, a new management procedure for co-ordination of payload development has become a necessity to

  1. The infrared camera prototype characterization for the JEM-EUSO space mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales de los Ríos, J.A.; Joven, E.; Peral, L. del; Reyes, M.; Licandro, J.; Rodríguez Frías, M.D.

    2014-01-01

    JEM-EUSO (Extreme Universe Space Observatory on Japanese Experiment Module) is an advanced observatory that will be on-board the International Space Station (ISS) and use the Earth's atmosphere as a huge calorimeter detector. However, the atmospheric clouds introduce uncertainties in the signals measured by JEM-EUSO. Therefore, it is extremely important to know the atmospheric conditions and properties of the clouds in the Field of View (FoV) of the telescope. The Atmospheric Monitoring System (AMS) of JEM-EUSO includes a lidar and an infrared imaging system, IR-Camera, aimed to detect the presence of clouds and to obtain the cloud coverage and cloud top altitude during the observations of the JEM-EUSO main telescope. To define the road-map for the design of the electronics, the detector has been tested extensively with a first prototype. The actual design of the IR-Camera, the test of the prototype, and the outcome of this characterization are presented in this paper

  2. The infrared camera prototype characterization for the JEM-EUSO space mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales de los Ríos, J.A., E-mail: josealberto.morales@uah.es [SPace and AStroparticle (SPAS) Group, UAH, Madrid (Spain); Ebisuzaki Computational Astrophysics Laboratory, RIKEN (Japan); Joven, E. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), Tenerife (Spain); Peral, L. del [SPace and AStroparticle (SPAS) Group, UAH, Madrid (Spain); Leonard E. Parker Center for Gravitation, Cosmology and Astrophysics, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee (United States); Reyes, M. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), Tenerife (Spain); Licandro, J. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), Tenerife (Spain); Departamento de Astrofísica, Universidad de La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Rodríguez Frías, M.D. [SPace and AStroparticle (SPAS) Group, UAH, Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), Tenerife (Spain)

    2014-06-01

    JEM-EUSO (Extreme Universe Space Observatory on Japanese Experiment Module) is an advanced observatory that will be on-board the International Space Station (ISS) and use the Earth's atmosphere as a huge calorimeter detector. However, the atmospheric clouds introduce uncertainties in the signals measured by JEM-EUSO. Therefore, it is extremely important to know the atmospheric conditions and properties of the clouds in the Field of View (FoV) of the telescope. The Atmospheric Monitoring System (AMS) of JEM-EUSO includes a lidar and an infrared imaging system, IR-Camera, aimed to detect the presence of clouds and to obtain the cloud coverage and cloud top altitude during the observations of the JEM-EUSO main telescope. To define the road-map for the design of the electronics, the detector has been tested extensively with a first prototype. The actual design of the IR-Camera, the test of the prototype, and the outcome of this characterization are presented in this paper.

  3. A kilo-pixel imaging system for future space based far-infrared observatories using microwave kinetic inductance detectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baselmans, J.J.A.; Bueno, J.; Yates, Stephen J.C.; Yurduseven, O.; Llombart Juan, N.; Karatsu, K.; Baryshev, A. M.; Ferrarini, L; Endo, A.; Thoen, D.J.; de Visser, P.J.; Janssen, R.M.J.; Murugesan, V.; Driessen, E.F.C.; Coiffard, G.; Martin-Pintado, J.; Hargrave, P.; Griffin, M.

    2017-01-01

    Aims. Future astrophysics and cosmic microwave background space missions operating in the far-infrared to millimetre part of the spectrum will require very large arrays of ultra-sensitive detectors in combination with high multiplexing factors and efficient low-noise and low-power readout systems.

  4. A kilo-pixel imaging system for future space based far-infrared observatories using microwave kinetic inductance detectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baselmans, J. J. A.; Bueno, J.; Yates, S. J. C.; Yurduseven, O.; Llombart, N.; Karatsu, K.; Baryshev, A. M.; Ferrari, L.; Endo, A.; Thoen, D. J.; de Visser, P. J.; Janssen, R. M. J.; Murugesan, V.; Driessen, E. F. C.; Coiffard, G.; Martin-Pintado, J.; Hargrave, P.; Griffin, M.

    Aims: Future astrophysics and cosmic microwave background space missions operating in the far-infrared to millimetre part of the spectrum will require very large arrays of ultra-sensitive detectors in combination with high multiplexing factors and efficient low-noise and low-power readout systems.

  5. Infrared thermography based diagnosis of inter-turn fault and cooling system failure in three phase induction motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurmeet; Naikan, V. N. A.

    2017-12-01

    Thermography has been widely used as a technique for anomaly detection in induction motors. International Electrical Testing Association (NETA) proposed guidelines for thermographic inspection of electrical systems and rotating equipment. These guidelines help in anomaly detection and estimating its severity. However, it focus only on location of hotspot rather than diagnosing the fault. This paper addresses two such faults i.e. inter-turn fault and failure of cooling system, where both results in increase of stator temperature. Present paper proposes two thermal profile indicators using thermal analysis of IRT images. These indicators are in compliance with NETA standard. These indicators help in correctly diagnosing inter-turn fault and failure of cooling system. The work has been experimentally validated for healthy and with seeded faults scenarios of induction motors.

  6. Sun as an inexhaustible source of energy. Applications for space heating - cooling and air conditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zink, H [Solarheiztechnik G.m.b.H. und Co. K.G., Unterensingen (Germany, F.R.)

    1977-09-01

    Possible focal points for the utilization of solar energy in the field of domestic buildings and in the communal sector with hot water preparation for sport centres, swimming baths, hospitals, industry, and service are discussed. A diagram of a hot water preparation plant with solar collectors and stores is included, and preconditions for cooling with solar energy are discussed.

  7. Development and computational simulation of thermoelectric electromagnetic pumps for controlling the fluid flow in liquid metal cooled space nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, E.M.

    1991-01-01

    Thermoelectric Electromagnetic (TEEM) Pumps can be used for controlling the fluid flow in the primary and secondary circuits of liquid metal cooled space nuclear reactor. In order to simulate and to evaluate the pumps performance, in steady-state, the computer program BEMTE has been developed to study the main operational parameters and to determine the system actuation point, for a given reactor operating power. The results for each stage of the program were satisfactory, compared to experimental data. The program shows to be adequate for the design and simulating of direct current electromagnetic pumps. (author)

  8. Photometric redshifts for weak lensing tomography from space: the role of optical and near infrared photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, F. B.; Amara, A.; Capak, P.; Cypriano, E. S.; Lahav, O.; Rhodes, J.

    2008-07-01

    We study in detail the photometric redshift requirements needed for tomographic weak gravitational lensing in order to measure accurately the dark energy equation of state. In particular, we examine how ground-based photometry (u, g, r, i, z, y) can be complemented by space-based near-infrared (near-IR) photometry (J, H), e.g. onboard the planned DUNE satellite. Using realistic photometric redshift simulations and an artificial neural network photo-z method we evaluate the figure of merit for the dark energy parameters (w0, wa). We consider a DUNE-like broad optical filter supplemented with ground-based multiband optical data from surveys like the Dark Energy Survey, Pan-STARRS and LSST. We show that the dark energy figure of merit would be improved by a factor of 1.3-1.7 if IR filters are added onboard DUNE. Furthermore we show that with IR data catastrophic photo-z outliers can be removed effectively. There is an interplay between the choice of filters, the magnitude limits and the removal of outliers. We draw attention to the dependence of the results on the galaxy formation scenarios encoded into the mock galaxies, e.g. the galaxy reddening. For example, very deep u-band data could be as effective as the IR. We also find that about 105-106 spectroscopic redshifts are needed for calibration of the full survey.

  9. $O(N)$ model in Euclidean de Sitter space: beyond the leading infrared approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Nacir, Diana López; Trombetta, Leonardo G

    2016-01-01

    We consider an $O(N)$ scalar field model with quartic interaction in $d$-dimensional Euclidean de Sitter space. In order to avoid the problems of the standard perturbative calculations for light and massless fields, we generalize to the $O(N)$ theory a systematic method introduced previously for a single field, which treats the zero modes exactly and the nonzero modes perturbatively. We compute the two-point functions taking into account not only the leading infrared contribution, coming from the self-interaction of the zero modes, but also corrections due to the interaction of the ultraviolet modes. For the model defined in the corresponding Lorentzian de Sitter spacetime, we obtain the two-point functions by analytical continuation. We point out that a partial resummation of the leading secular terms (which necessarily involves nonzero modes) is required to obtain a decay at large distances for massless fields. We implement this resummation along with a systematic double expansion in an effective coupling c...

  10. Variations in land surface temperature and cooling efficiency of green space in rapid urbanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Zhaowu; Guo, Xieying; Zeng, Yuxi

    2018-01-01

    understood. Additionally, a strategy to optimize the most significant decreased land cover type in order to maximize the cooling effect is still lacking. Therefore, in this study, we selected the rapidly urbanizing and ‘hottest’ city in China, Fuzhou, as a case study. Two algorithms were selected to compare....... This study extends the current understanding of LCC dynamics and LST variation. The concepts of the CE and TVoE are meaningful for landscape planning practice and can be used in other cases....... and obtain reliable LST data. A land use transfer matrix was used to detect critical contributions leading to the LST variations. The concept of cooling efficiency (CE) and the threshold value of efficiency (TVoE) are also proposed, defined, and calculated. The results show that LST values increased...

  11. Structural and Visible-Near Infrared Optical Properties of Cr-Doped TiO2 for Colored Cool Pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Le; Weng, Xiaolong; Zhou, Ming; Zhang, Qingyong; Deng, Longjiang

    2017-11-01

    Chromium-doped TiO2 pigments were synthesized via a solid-state reaction method and studied with X-ray diffraction, SEM, XPS, and UV-VIS-NIR reflectance spectroscopy. The incorporation of Cr3+ accelerates the transition from the anatase phase to the rutile phase and compresses the crystal lattice. Moreover, the particle morphology, energy gap, and reflectance spectrum of Cr-doped TiO2 pigments is affected by the crystal structure and doping concentration. For the rutile samples, some of the Cr3+ ions are oxidized to Cr4+ after sintering at a high temperature, which leads to a strong near-infrared absorption band due to the 3A2 → 3 T1 electric dipole-allowed transitions of Cr4+. And the decrease of the band gap causes an obvious redshift of the optical absorption edges as the doping concentration increases. Thus, the VIS and near-infrared average reflectance of the rutile Ti1 - x Cr x O2 sample decrease by 60.2 and 58%, respectively, when the Cr content increases to x = 0.0375. Meanwhile, the color changes to black brown. However, for the anatase Ti1 - x Cr x O2 pigments, only the VIS reflection spectrum is inhibited by forming some characteristic visible light absorption peaks of Cr3+. The morphology, band gap, and NIR reflectance are not significantly affected. Finally, a Cr-doped anatase TiO2 pigment with a brownish-yellow color and 90% near-infrared reflectance can be obtained.

  12. Heat transfer on HLM cooled wire-spaced fuel pin bundle simulator in the NACIE-UP facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Piazza, Ivan, E-mail: ivan.dipiazza@enea.it [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development, C.R. ENEA Brasimone, Camugnano (Italy); Angelucci, Morena; Marinari, Ranieri [University of Pisa, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile e Industriale, Pisa (Italy); Tarantino, Mariano [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development, C.R. ENEA Brasimone, Camugnano (Italy); Forgione, Nicola [University of Pisa, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile e Industriale, Pisa (Italy)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Experiments with a wire-wrapped 19-pin fuel bundle cooled by LBE. • Wall and bulk temperature measurements at three axial positions. • Heat transfer and error analysis in the range of low mass flow rates and Péclet number. • Comparison of local and section-averaged Nusselt number with correlations. - Abstract: The NACIE-UP experimental facility at the ENEA Brasimone Research Centre (Italy) allowed to evaluate the heat transfer coefficient of a wire-spaced fuel bundle cooled by lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE). Lead or lead-bismuth eutectic are very attractive as coolants for the GEN-IV fast reactors due to the good thermo-physical properties and the capability to fulfil the GEN-IV goals. Nevertheless, few experimental data on heat transfer with heavy liquid metals (HLM) are available in literature. Furthermore, just a few data can be identified on the specific topic of wire-spaced fuel bundle cooled by HLM. Additional analysis on thermo-fluid dynamic behaviour of the HLM inside the subchannels of a rod bundle is necessary to support the design and safety assessment of GEN. IV/ADS reactors. In this context, a wire-spaced 19-pin fuel bundle was installed inside the NACIE-UP facility. The pin bundle is equipped with 67 thermocouples to monitor temperatures and analyse the heat transfer behaviour in different sub-channels and axial positions. The experimental campaign was part of the SEARCH FP7 EU project to support the development of the MYRRHA irradiation facility (SCK-CEN). Natural and mixed circulation flow regimes were investigated, with subchannel Reynolds number in the range Re = 1000–10,000 and heat flux in the range q″ = 50–500 kW/m{sup 2}. Local Nusselt numbers were calculated for five sub-channels in different ranks at three axial positions. Section-averaged Nusselt number was also defined and calculated. Local Nusselt data showed good consistency with some of the correlation existing in literature for heat transfer in liquid metals

  13. Heat transfer on HLM cooled wire-spaced fuel pin bundle simulator in the NACIE-UP facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Piazza, Ivan; Angelucci, Morena; Marinari, Ranieri; Tarantino, Mariano; Forgione, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Experiments with a wire-wrapped 19-pin fuel bundle cooled by LBE. • Wall and bulk temperature measurements at three axial positions. • Heat transfer and error analysis in the range of low mass flow rates and Péclet number. • Comparison of local and section-averaged Nusselt number with correlations. - Abstract: The NACIE-UP experimental facility at the ENEA Brasimone Research Centre (Italy) allowed to evaluate the heat transfer coefficient of a wire-spaced fuel bundle cooled by lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE). Lead or lead-bismuth eutectic are very attractive as coolants for the GEN-IV fast reactors due to the good thermo-physical properties and the capability to fulfil the GEN-IV goals. Nevertheless, few experimental data on heat transfer with heavy liquid metals (HLM) are available in literature. Furthermore, just a few data can be identified on the specific topic of wire-spaced fuel bundle cooled by HLM. Additional analysis on thermo-fluid dynamic behaviour of the HLM inside the subchannels of a rod bundle is necessary to support the design and safety assessment of GEN. IV/ADS reactors. In this context, a wire-spaced 19-pin fuel bundle was installed inside the NACIE-UP facility. The pin bundle is equipped with 67 thermocouples to monitor temperatures and analyse the heat transfer behaviour in different sub-channels and axial positions. The experimental campaign was part of the SEARCH FP7 EU project to support the development of the MYRRHA irradiation facility (SCK-CEN). Natural and mixed circulation flow regimes were investigated, with subchannel Reynolds number in the range Re = 1000–10,000 and heat flux in the range q″ = 50–500 kW/m"2. Local Nusselt numbers were calculated for five sub-channels in different ranks at three axial positions. Section-averaged Nusselt number was also defined and calculated. Local Nusselt data showed good consistency with some of the correlation existing in literature for heat transfer in liquid metals for

  14. Liquid metal versus gas cooled reactor concepts for a turbo electric powered space vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carre, F.; Proust, E.; Schwartz, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    Recent CNES/CEA prospective studies of an orbit transfer vehicule to be launched by ARIANE V, emphasize the advantage of the Brayton cycle over the thermionics and thermoelectricity, in minimizing the total mass of 100 to 300 kWsub(e) power systems under the constraint specific to ARIANE of a radiator area limited to 95 m 2 . The review of candidate reactor concepts for this application, finally recommends both liquid metal and gas cooled reactors, for their satisfactory adaptation to a reference Brayton cycle and for the available experience from the terrestrial operation of comparable systems

  15. Self-driven cooling loop for a large superconducting magnet in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mord, A. J.; Snyder, H. A.

    1992-01-01

    Pressurized cooling loops in which superfluid helium circulation is driven by the heat being removed have been previously demonstrated in laboratory tests. A simpler and lighter version which eliminates a heat exchanger by mixing the returning fluid directly with the superfluid helium bath was analyzed. A carefully designed flow restriction must be used to prevent boiling in this low-pressure system. A candidate design for Astromag is shown that can keep the magnet below 2.0 K during magnet charging. This gives a greater margin against accidental quench than approaches that allow the coolant to warm above the lambda point. A detailed analysis of one candidate design is presented.

  16. Application of a Near Infrared Imaging System for Thermographic Imaging of the Space Shuttle during Hypersonic Re-Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalameda, Joseph N.; Tietjen, Alan B.; Horvath, Thomas J.; Tomek, Deborah M.; Gibson, David M.; Taylor, Jeff C.; Tack, Steve; Bush, Brett C.; Mercer, C. David; Shea, Edward J.

    2010-01-01

    High resolution calibrated near infrared (NIR) imagery was obtained of the Space Shuttle s reentry during STS-119, STS-125, and STS-128 missions. The infrared imagery was collected using a US Navy NP-3D Orion aircraft using a long-range infrared optical package referred to as Cast Glance. The slant ranges between the Space Shuttle and Cast Glance were approximately 26-41 nautical miles at point of closest approach. The Hypersonic Thermodynamic Infrared Measurements (HYTHIRM) project was a NASA Langley led endeavor sponsored by the NASA Engineering Safety Center, the Space Shuttle Program Office and the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate to demonstrate a quantitative thermal imaging capability. HYTHIRM required several mission tools to acquire the imagery. These tools include pre-mission acquisition simulations of the Shuttle trajectory in relationship to the Cast Glance aircraft flight path, radiance modeling to predict the infrared response of the Shuttle, and post mission analysis tools to process the infrared imagery to quantitative temperature maps. The spatially resolved global thermal measurements made during the Shuttle s hypersonic reentry provides valuable flight data for reducing the uncertainty associated with present day ground-to-flight extrapolation techniques and current state-of-the-art empirical boundary-layer transition or turbulent heating prediction methods. Laminar and turbulent flight data is considered critical for the development of turbulence models supporting NASA s next-generation spacecraft. This paper will provide the motivation and details behind the use of an upgraded NIR imaging system used onboard a Navy Cast Glance aircraft and describe the characterizations and procedures performed to obtain quantitative temperature maps. A brief description and assessment will be provided of the previously used analog NIR camera along with image examples from Shuttle missions STS-121, STS-115, and solar tower test. These thermal

  17. Meeting the Cool Neighbors. XII. An Optically Anchored Analysis of the Near-infrared Spectra of L Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Kelle L.; Núñez, Alejandro; Burgasser, Adam J.; Abrahams, Ellianna; Rice, Emily L.; Reid, I. Neill; Looper, Dagny

    2018-01-01

    Discrepancies between competing optical and near-infrared (NIR) spectral typing systems for L dwarfs have motivated us to search for a classification scheme that ties the optical and NIR schemes together, and addresses complexities in the spectral morphology. We use new and extant optical and NIR spectra to compile a sample of 171 L dwarfs, including 27 low-gravity β and γ objects, with spectral coverage from 0.6–2.4 μm. We present 155 new low-resolution NIR spectra and 19 new optical spectra. We utilize a method for analyzing NIR spectra that partially removes the broad-band spectral slope and reveals similarities in the absorption features between objects of the same optical spectral type. Using the optical spectra as an anchor, we generate near-infrared spectral average templates for L0–L8, L0–L4γ, and L0–L1β type dwarfs. These templates reveal that NIR spectral morphologies are correlated with the optical types. They also show the range of spectral morphologies spanned by each spectral type. We compare low-gravity and field-gravity templates to provide recommendations on the minimum required observations for credibly classifying low-gravity spectra using low-resolution NIR data. We use the templates to evaluate the existing NIR spectral standards and propose new ones where appropriate. Finally, we build on the work of Kirkpatrick et al. to provide a spectral typing method that is tied to the optical and can be used when only H or K band data are available. The methods we present here provide resolutions to several long-standing issues with classifying L dwarf spectra and could also be the foundation for a spectral classification scheme for cloudy exoplanets.

  18. A scientific program for infrared, submillimeter and radio astronomy from space: A report by the Management Operations Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Important and fundamental scientific progress can be attained through space observations in the wavelengths longward of 1 micron. The formation of galaxies, stars, and planets, the origin of quasars and the nature of active galactic nuclei, the large scale structure of the Universe, and the problem of the missing mass, are among the major scientific issues that can be addressed by these observations. Significant advances in many areas of astrophysics can be made over the next 20 years by implementing the outlined program. This program combines large observatories with smaller projects to create an overall scheme that emphasized complementarity and synergy, advanced technology, community support and development, and the training of the next generation of scientists. Key aspects of the program include: the Space Infrared Telescope Facility; the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy; a robust program of small missions; and the creation of the technology base for future major observatories.

  19. Divertor cooling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Tadakazu; Hayashi, Katsumi; Handa, Hiroyuki

    1993-01-01

    Cooling water for a divertor cooling system cools the divertor, thereafter, passes through pipelines connecting the exit pipelines of the divertor cooling system and the inlet pipelines of a blanket cooling system and is introduced to the blanket cooling system in a vacuum vessel. It undergoes emission of neutrons, and cooling water in the divertor cooling system containing a great amount of N-16 which is generated by radioactivation of O-16 is introduced to the blanket cooling system in the vacuum vessel by way of pipelines, and after cooling, passes through exit pipelines of the blanket cooling system and is introduced to the outside of the vacuum vessel. Radiation of N-16 in the cooling water is decayed sufficiently with passage of time during cooling of the blanket, thereby enabling to decrease the amount of shielding materials such as facilities and pipelines, and ensure spaces. (N.H.)

  20. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE WFC3 EARLY RELEASE SCIENCE: EMISSION-LINE GALAXIES FROM INFRARED GRISM OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straughn, Amber N.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Kuntschner, Harald; Kuemmel, Martin; Walsh, Jeremy R.; Cohen, Seth H.; Windhorst, Rogier A.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James; O'Connell, Robert W.; Pirzkal, Norbert; Bond, Howard E.; Meurer, Gerhardt; McCarthy, Patrick J.; Hathi, Nimish P.; Balick, Bruce; Calzetti, Daniela; Disney, Michael J.; Dopita, Michael A.; Frogel, Jay A.

    2011-01-01

    We present grism spectra of emission-line galaxies (ELGs) from 0.6 to 1.6 μm from the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope. These new infrared grism data augment previous optical Advanced Camera for Surveys G800L 0.6-0.95 μm grism data in GOODS-South from the PEARS program, extending the wavelength coverage well past the G800L red cutoff. The Early Release Science (ERS) grism field was observed at a depth of two orbits per grism, yielding spectra of hundreds of faint objects, a subset of which is presented here. ELGs are studied via the Hα, [O III], and [O II] emission lines detected in the redshift ranges 0.2 ∼ B(F098M) ≅ 25 mag. Seventeen GOODS-South galaxies that previously only had photometric redshifts now have new grism-spectroscopic redshifts, in some cases with large corrections to the photometric redshifts (Δz ≅ 0.3-0.5). Additionally, one galaxy had no previously measured redshift but now has a secure grism-spectroscopic redshift, for a total of 18 new GOODS-South spectroscopic redshifts. The faintest source in our sample has a magnitude m AB(F098M) = 26.9 mag. The ERS grism data also reflect the expected trend of lower specific star formation rates for the highest mass galaxies in the sample as a function of redshift, consistent with downsizing and discovered previously from large surveys. These results demonstrate the remarkable efficiency and capability of the WFC3 NIR grisms for measuring galaxy properties to faint magnitudes and redshifts to z ∼> 2.

  1. Effects of socioeconomic factors on household appliance, lighting, and space cooling electricity consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aydinalp, M. [Itron Inc., Boston, MA (United States); Ismet Ugursal, V.; Fung, A.S. [Dalhousie University, Halifax (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2003-07-01

    Two methods are currently used to model residential energy consumption at the national or regional level: the engineering method and the conditional demand analysis (CDA) method. One of the major difficulties associated with the use of engineering models is the inclusion of consumer behaviour and socioeconomic factors that have significant effects on the residential energy consumption. The CDA method can handle socioeconomic factors if they are included in the model formulation. However, the multicollinearity problem and the need for a very large amount of data make the use of CDA models very difficult. It is shown in this paper that the neural network (NN) method can be used to model the residential energy consumption with the inclusion of socioeconomic factors. The appliances, lighting, and cooling component of the NN based energy consumption model developed for the Canadian residential sector is presented here and the effects of some socioeconomic factors on the residential energy consumption are examined using the model. (author)

  2. Computer simulations of electromagnetic cool ion beam instabilities. [in near earth space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary, S. P.; Madland, C. D.; Schriver, D.; Winske, D.

    1986-01-01

    Electromagnetic ion beam instabilities driven by cool ion beams at propagation parallel or antiparallel to a uniform magnetic field are studied using computer simulations. The elements of linear theory applicable to electromagnetic ion beam instabilities and the simulations derived from a one-dimensional hybrid computer code are described. The quasi-linear regime of the right-hand resonant ion beam instability, and the gyrophase bunching of the nonlinear regime of the right-hand resonant and nonresonant instabilities are examined. It is detected that in the quasi-linear regime the instability saturation is due to a reduction in the beam core relative drift speed and an increase in the perpendicular-to-parallel beam temperature; in the nonlinear regime the instabilities saturate when half the initial beam drift kinetic energy density is converted to fluctuating magnetic field energy density.

  3. Infrared Space Observatory Observations of Far-Infrared Rotational Emission Lines of Water Vapor toward the Supergiant Star VY Canis Majoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, David A.; Feuchtgruber, Helmut; Harwit, Martin; Melnick, Gary J.

    1999-06-01

    We report the detection of numerous far-infrared emission lines of water vapor toward the supergiant star VY Canis Majoris. A 29.5-45 μm grating scan of VY CMa, obtained using the Short-Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS) of the Infrared Space Observatory at a spectral resolving power λ/Δλ of ~2000, reveals at least 41 spectral features due to water vapor that together radiate a total luminosity of ~25 Lsolar. In addition to pure rotational transitions within the ground vibrational state, these features include rotational transitions within the (010) excited vibrational state. The spectrum also shows the 2Π1/2(J=5/2)VY CMa were carried out in the instrument's Fabry-Perot mode for three water transitions: the 725-616 line at 29.8367 μm, the 441-312 line at 31.7721 μm, and the 432-303 line at 40.6909 μm. The higher spectral resolving power λ/Δλ of approximately 30,000 thereby obtained permits the line profiles to be resolved spectrally for the first time and reveals the ``P Cygni'' profiles that are characteristic of emission from an outflowing envelope. Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project with instruments funded by ESA Member States (especially the PI countries: France, Germany, the Netherlands, and the UK) with the participation of ISAS and NASA.

  4. The next-generation infrared astronomy mission SPICA under the new framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nakagawa, Takao; Shibai, Hiroshi; Onaka, Takashi; Matsuhara, Hideo; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Kawakatsu, Yasuhiro; Roelfsema, Peter

    We present the current status of SPICA (Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics), which is a mission optimized for mid- and far-infrared astronomy with a cryogenically cooled 3.2 m telescope. SPICA is expected to achieve high spatial resolution and unprecedented sensitivity in the

  5. Opposed piston linear compressor driven two-stage Stirling Cryocooler for cooling of IR sensors in space application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhojwani, Virendra; Inamdar, Asif; Lele, Mandar; Tendolkar, Mandar; Atrey, Milind; Bapat, Shridhar; Narayankhedkar, Kisan

    2017-04-01

    A two-stage Stirling Cryocooler has been developed and tested for cooling IR sensors in space application. The concept uses an opposed piston linear compressor to drive the two-stage Stirling expander. The configuration used a moving coil linear motor for the compressor as well as for the expander unit. Electrical phase difference of 80 degrees was maintained between the voltage waveforms supplied to the compressor motor and expander motor. The piston and displacer surface were coated with Rulon an anti-friction material to ensure oil less operation of the unit. The present article discusses analysis results, features of the cryocooler and experimental tests conducted on the developed unit. The two-stages of Cryo-cylinder and the expander units were manufactured from a single piece to ensure precise alignment between the two-stages. Flexure bearings were used to suspend the piston and displacer about its mean position. The objective of the work was to develop a two-stage Stirling cryocooler with 2 W at 120 K and 0.5 W at 60 K cooling capacity for the two-stages and input power of less than 120 W. The Cryocooler achieved a minimum temperature of 40.7 K at stage 2.

  6. Perturbative formulation of pure space-like axial gauge QED with infrared divergences regularized by residual gauge fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakawaki, Yuji; McCartor, Gary

    2006-01-01

    We construct a new perturbative formulation of pure space-like axial gauge QED in which the inherent infrared divergences are regularized by residual gauge fields. For this purpose, we carry out our calculations in the coordinates x μ =(x + , x - , x 1 , x 2 ), where x + =x 0 sinθ + x 3 cosθ and x - = x 0 cosθ - x 3 sinθ. Here, A=A 0 cosθ + A 3 sinθ = n·A=0 is taken as the gauge fixing condition. We show in detail that, in perturbation theory, infrared divergences resulting from the residual gauge fields cancel infrared divergences resulting from the physical parts of the gauge field. As a result, we obtain the gauge field propagator proposed by Mandelstam and Leibbrandt. By taking the limit θ→π/4, we are able to construct a light-cone formulation that is free from infrared divergences. With that analysis complete, we next calculate the one-loop electron self-energy, something not previously done in the light-cone quantization and light-cone gauge. (author)

  7. Thermal energy storage with geothermal triplet for space heating and cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloemendal, Martin; Hartog, Niels

    2017-04-01

    Many governmental organizations and private companies have set high targets in avoiding CO2 emissions and reducing energy (Kamp, 2015; Ministry-of-Economic-affairs, 2016). ATES systems use groundwater wells to overcome the discrepancy in time between the availability of heat (during summer) and the demand for heat (during winter). Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage is an increasingly popular technique; currently over 2000 ATES systems are operational in the Netherlands (Graaf et al., 2016). High temperature ATES may help to improve performance of these conventional ATES systems. ATES systems use heat pumps to get the stored heat to the required temperature for heating of around 40-50°C and to produce the cold water for cooling in summer. These heat pumps need quite a lot of power to run; on average an ATES system produces 3-4 times less CO2 emission compared to conventional. Over 60% of those emission are accounted for by the heat pump (Dekker, 2016). This heat pump power consumption can be reduced by utilizing other sources of sustainable heat and cooling capacity for storage in the subsurface. At such operating temperatures the required storage temperatures do no longer match the return temperatures in the building systems. Therefore additional components and an additional well are required to increase the groundwater temperature in summer (e.g. solar collectors) and decrease it in winter (e.g. dry coolers). To prevent "pollution" of the warm and cold well return water from the building can be stored in a third well until weather conditions are suitable for producing the required storage temperature. Simulations and an economical evaluation show great potential for this type of aquifer thermal energy storage; economic performance is better than normal ATES while the emissions are reduce by a factor ten. At larger temperature differences, also the volume of groundwater required to pump around is much less, which causes an additional energy saving. Research now

  8. Application of PCM energy storage in combination with night ventilation for space cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barzin, Reza; Chen, John J.J.; Young, Brent R.; Farid, Mohammed M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Night ventilation were tested in combination with PCM-impregnated gypsum boards. • The Price-based method were experimentally used to perform peak load shifting. • Importance of the application of a smart control were experimentally investigated. • A cost and energy saving up to 93% and 92% per day respectively were achieved. - Abstract: In recent years, as a result of the continuous increase in energy demand, the use of energy storage has become increasingly important. To address this problem, the application of phase change materials (PCM) in buildings has received attention because of their high energy storage density and their ease of incorporation in building envelopes. Despite large experimental works conducted on the application phase change materials in buildings, there is very little work done on this application in combination with night ventilation. In this study, the application of night ventilation in combination with PCM-impregnated gypsum boards for cooling purposes was experimentally investigated. Two identical test huts equipped with “smart” control systems were used for testing the concept. One hut was constructed using impregnated gypsum boards, while the other hut was finished with ordinary gypsum board. Initially an air conditioning (AC) unit, without night ventilation, was used in both huts to charge the PCM during low peak period, showing very little savings in electricity. However, when night ventilation was used to charge the PCM instead, a weekly electricity saving of 73% was achieved.

  9. Heat and mass transfer across gas-filled enclosed spaces between a hot liquid surface and a cooled roof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ralph, J C; Bennett, A W [Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)

    1977-01-01

    A detailed knowledge is required of the amounts of sodium vapour which may be transported from the hot surface of a fast reactor coolant pool through the cover gas to cooler regions of the structure. Evaporation from the unbounded liquid surfaces of lakes and seas has been studied extensively but the heat and mass transfer mechanisms in gas-vapour mixtures which occur in enclosed spaces have received less attention. Recent work at Harwell has provided a theoretical model from which the heat and mass transfer in idealised plane cavities can be calculated. An experimental study is reported in this paper which seeks to verify the theoretical prediction. Heat and mass transfer measurements have been made on a system in which a heated water pool transfers heat and mass across a gas-filled space to a cooled horizontal cover plate. Several cover gases were used in the experiments and the results show that, provided the partial density of the vapour is low compared with that of the gas, the heat transfer mechanism is that of combined convection and radiation. The enhancement in heat transfer due to the presence of the vapour is broadly consistent with assumption of a direct analogy between heat and mass transfer neglecting condensation in the interspace. The mass transfer measurements, in which water condensing on the cooled roof was measured directly, showed for low roof temperatures an imbalance between the mass and heat transfer. This observation is consistent with the theoretical predictions that heat transfer in the convecting system should be independent of the amount of condensation and 'rain-back' within the cavity. The results of tests with helium showed that convection was entirely suppressed by the presence of the water vapour. This confirms the behaviour predicted for gas-vapour mixtures in which the vapour density is of the same order as the gas density. (author)

  10. Quantitative in situ monitoring of an elevated temperature reaction using a water-cooled mid-infrared fiber-optic probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclaurin, P; Crabb, N C; Wells, I; Worsfold, P J; Coombs, D

    1996-04-01

    A novel water-cooled mid-infrared fiber-optic probe is described which is heatable to 230 °C. The probe has chalcogenide fibers and a ZnSe internal reflection element and is compact and fully flexible, allowing access to a wide range of standard laboratory reaction vessels and fume cupboard arrangements. Performance is demonstrated via the in situ analysis of an acid-catalyzed esterification reaction in toluene at 110 °C, and the results are compared with those from a conventional extractive sampling loop flow cell arrangement. Particular emphasis is given to the quantitative interpretation of the spectroscopic data, using gas chromatographic reference data. Calibration data are presented for univariate and partial least squares models, with an emphasis on procedures for improving the quality of interpreparation calibration and prediction through the use of focused reference analysis regimes. Subset univariate procedures are presented that yield relative errors of spectroscopy combined with bias correction partial least squares procedures for the efficient in situ quantitative analysis of laboratory scale reactions.

  11. Observations of the Hubble Deep Field with the Infrared Space Observatory .4. Association of sources with Hubble Deep Field galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, R.G.; Oliver, S.J.; Serjeant, S.B.G.

    1997-01-01

    We discuss the identification of sources detected by the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) at 6.7 and 15 mu m in the Hubble Deep Field (HDF) region. We conservatively associate ISO sources with objects in existing optical and near-infrared HDF catalogues using the likelihood ratio method, confirming...... these results (and, in one case, clarifying them) with independent visual searches, We find 15 ISO sources to be reliably associated with bright [I-814(AB) HDF, and one with an I-814(AB)=19.9 star, while a further 11 are associated with objects in the Hubble Flanking Fields (10 galaxies...... and one star), Amongst optically bright HDF galaxies, ISO tends to detect luminous, star-forming galaxies at fairly high redshift and with disturbed morphologies, in preference to nearby ellipticals....

  12. Infrared astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setti, G.; Fazio, G.

    1978-01-01

    This volume contains lectures describing the important achievements in infrared astronomy. The topics included are galactic infrared sources and their role in star formation, the nature of the interstellar medium and galactic structure, the interpretation of infrared, optical and radio observations of extra-galactic sources and their role in the origin and structure of the universe, instrumental techniques and a review of future space observations. (C.F.)

  13. Advancing toward far-infrared interferometry in space through coordinated international efforts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leisawitz, D.; Baryshev, A.; Griffin, M. J.; Helmich, F. P.; Ivison, R. J.; Rinehart, S. A.; Savini, G.; Shibai, H.

    2013-01-01

    The international far-infrared astrophysics community is eager to follow up Spitzer and Herschel observations with sensitive, high-resolution imaging and spectroscopy, for such measurements are needed to understand merger-driven star formation, Active Galactic Nuclei, chemical enrichment in

  14. Space imaging of a 300 years old cooling magma chamber: Timanfaya volcano (Lanzarote, Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, P. J.; Tiampo, K. F.

    2010-12-01

    Multitemporal space radar interferometry analysis between 1992 and 2000 revealed significantly deforming areas with a magnitude of 4-6 mm/yr of lengthening in the radar line of sight at Timanfaya volcano (Lanzarote, Canary Island). Timanfaya volcano erupted almost 300 years ago (1730-1736), along a 15 km-long fissure-feeding magmatic system, resulting in the longest and largest historical eruption of the Canarian archipelago to date, with >1 km3 of erupted basaltic lavas covering 200 km2. High surficial temperature (600 degrees-C at 13 m) and high heat flux measurements (150 mW/m2) suggest that the remnants of the magmatic chamber that fed the 1730-1736 are still partly molten. Here, we present preliminary models of the subsidence taking into account all available data, including geophysical data (heat flux, seismic, magnetotelluric and gravity), the geochemistry of freshly erupted lavas, upper mantle and crustal xenoliths, and structural geology.

  15. Observations of the Hubble Deep Field with the Infrared Space Observatory .1. Data reduction, maps and sky coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serjeant, S.B.G.; Eaton, N.; Oliver, S.J.

    1997-01-01

    We present deep imaging at 6.7 and 15 mu m from the CAM instrument on the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), centred on the Hubble Deep Field (HDF). These are the deepest integrations published to date at these wavelengths in any region of sky. We discuss the observational strategy and the data...... reduction. The observed source density appears to approach the CAM confusion limit at 15 mu m, and fluctuations in the 6.7-mu m sky background may be identifiable with similar spatial fluctuations in the HDF galaxy counts. ISO appears to be detecting comparable field galaxy populations to the HDF, and our...

  16. Restaurant food cooling practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Laura Green; Ripley, Danny; Blade, Henry; Reimann, Dave; Everstine, Karen; Nicholas, Dave; Egan, Jessica; Koktavy, Nicole; Quilliam, Daniela N

    2012-12-01

    Improper food cooling practices are a significant cause of foodborne illness, yet little is known about restaurant food cooling practices. This study was conducted to examine food cooling practices in restaurants. Specifically, the study assesses the frequency with which restaurants meet U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommendations aimed at reducing pathogen proliferation during food cooling. Members of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Environmental Health Specialists Network collected data on food cooling practices in 420 restaurants. The data collected indicate that many restaurants are not meeting FDA recommendations concerning cooling. Although most restaurant kitchen managers report that they have formal cooling processes (86%) and provide training to food workers on proper cooling (91%), many managers said that they do not have tested and verified cooling processes (39%), do not monitor time or temperature during cooling processes (41%), or do not calibrate thermometers used for monitoring temperatures (15%). Indeed, 86% of managers reported cooling processes that did not incorporate all FDA-recommended components. Additionally, restaurants do not always follow recommendations concerning specific cooling methods, such as refrigerating cooling food at shallow depths, ventilating cooling food, providing open-air space around the tops and sides of cooling food containers, and refraining from stacking cooling food containers on top of each other. Data from this study could be used by food safety programs and the restaurant industry to target training and intervention efforts concerning cooling practices. These efforts should focus on the most frequent poor cooling practices, as identified by this study.

  17. Space-compatible strain gauges as an integration aid for the James Webb Space Telescope Mid-Infrared Instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samara-Ratna, Piyal; Sykes, Jon; Bicknell, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Space instruments are designed to be highly optimised, mass efficient hardware required to operate in extreme environments. Building and testing is extremely costly, and damage that appears to have no impact on performance at normal ambient conditions can have disastrous implications when...... to protect the structure from damage. Compatible with space flight requirements, the gauges have been used in both ambient and cryogenic environments and were successfully used to support various tasks including integration to the spacecraft. The article also discusses limitations to using the strain gauge...

  18. Number-space interactions in the human parietal cortex: Enlightening the SNARC effect with functional near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutini, Simone; Scarpa, Fabio; Scatturin, Pietro; Dell'Acqua, Roberto; Zorzi, Marco

    2014-02-01

    Interactions between numbers and space have become a major issue in cognitive neuroscience, because they suggest that numerical representations might be deeply rooted in cortical networks that also subserve spatial cognition. The spatial-numerical association of response codes (SNARC) is the most robust and widely replicated demonstration of the link between numbers and space: in magnitude comparison or parity judgments, participants' reaction times to small numbers are faster with left than right effectors, whereas the converse is found for large numbers. However, despite the massive body of research on number-space interactions, the nature of the SNARC effect remains controversial and no study to date has identified its hemodynamic correlates. Using functional near-infrared spectroscopy, we found a hemodynamic signature of the SNARC effect in the bilateral intraparietal sulcus, a core region for numerical magnitude representation, and left angular gyrus (ANG), a region implicated in verbal number processing. Activation of intraparietal sulcus was also modulated by numerical distance. Our findings point to number semantics as cognitive locus of number-space interactions, thereby revealing the intrinsic spatial nature of numerical magnitude representation. Moreover, the involvement of left ANG is consistent with the mediating role of verbal/cultural factors in shaping interactions between numbers and space.

  19. SEARCHING FOR COOL DUST IN THE MID-TO-FAR INFRARED: THE MASS-LOSS HISTORIES OF THE HYPERGIANTS μ Cep, VY CMa, IRC+10420, AND ρ Cas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shenoy, Dinesh; Humphreys, Roberta M.; Jones, Terry J.; Gehrz, Robert D. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street, SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Marengo, Massimo [Department of Physics, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Helton, L. Andrew [USRA-SOFIA Science Center, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Hoffmann, William F.; Skemer, Andrew J.; Hinz, Philip M., E-mail: shenoy@astro.umn.edu [Department of Astronomy/Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    We present mid- and far-IR imaging of four famous hypergiant stars: the red supergiants μ Cep and VY CMa, and the warm hypergiants IRC +10420 and ρ Cas. Our 11–37 μm SOFIA/FORCAST imaging probes cool dust not detected in visual and near-IR imaging studies. Adaptive optics 8–12 μm imaging of μ Cep and IRC +10420 with MMT/MIRAC reveals extended envelopes that are the likely sources of these stars’ strong silicate emission features. We find μ Cep’s mass-loss rate to have declined by about a factor of five over a 13,000 year history, ranging from 5 × 10{sup −6} down to ∼1× 10{sup −6} M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}. The morphology of VY CMa indicates a cooler dust component coincident with the highly asymmetric reflection nebulae seen in the visual and near-IR. The lack of cold dust at greater distances around VY CMa indicates that its mass-loss history is limited to the last ∼1200 years, with an average rate of 6 × 10{sup −4} M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}. We find two distinct periods in the mass-loss history of IRC +10420 with a high rate of 2 × 10{sup −3} M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} until approximately 2000 years ago, followed by an order of magnitude decrease in the recent past. We interpret this change as evidence of its evolution beyond the RSG stage. Our new infrared photometry of ρ Cas is consistent with emission from the expanding dust shell ejected in its 1946 eruption, with no evidence of newer dust formation from its more recent events.

  20. A study on ultra-precision machining technique for Al6061-T6 to fabricate space infrared optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Geun-man; Lee, Gil-jae; Hyun, Sang-won; Sung, Ha-yeong; Chung, Euisik; Kim, Geon-hee

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, analysis of variance on designed experiments with full factorial design was applied to determine the optimized machining parameters for ultra-precision fabrication of the secondary aspheric mirror, which is one of the key elements of the space cryogenic infrared optics. A single point diamond turning machine (SPDTM, Nanotech 4μpL Moore) was adopted to fabricate the material, AL6061-T6, and the three machining parameters of cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut were selected. With several randomly assigned experimental conditions, surface roughness of each condition was measured by a non-contact optical profiler (NT2000; Vecco). As a result of analysis using Minitab, the optimum cutting condition was determined as following; cutting speed: 122 m/min, feed rate: 3 mm/min and depth of cut: 1 μm. Finally, a 120 mm diameter aspheric secondary mirror was attached to a particularly designed jig by using mixture of paraffin and wax and successfully fabricated under the optimum machining parameters. The profile of machined surface was measured by a high-accuracy 3-D profilometer(UA3P; Panasonic) and we obtained the geometrical errors of 30.6 nm(RMS) and 262.4 nm(PV), which satisfy the requirements of the space cryogenic infrared optics.

  1. Comparison of neutron diffusion theory codes in two and three space dimensions using a sodium cooled fast reactor benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butland, A.T.D.; Putney, J.; Sweet, D.W.

    1980-04-01

    This report describes work performed to compare two UK neutron diffusion theory codes, TIGAR and SNAP, with published results for eight other codes available abroad. Both mesh edge and mesh centred finite difference diffusion theory codes as well as one axial synthesis code are included in the comparison and a range of iteration procedures are used by them. Comparison is made of calculations for a model of the sodium cooled fast reactor SNR-300 in both triangular and rectangular geometry and for a range of spatial meshes, enabling extrapolations to infinite mesh to be made. Calculated values of the effective multiplication constant, keff, for all the codes, agree very well when extrapolated to infinite mesh, indicating that no significant errors arising from the finite difference approximation but independent of mesh spacing are present in the calculations. The variation of keff with mesh area is found to be linear for the small meshes considered here, with the gradients for the mesh centred and mesh edged codes being of opposite sign. The results obtained using the mesh centred codes TIGAR, SNAP and CITATION agree closely with one another for all the meshes considered; the mesh edge codes agree less closely. (author)

  2. Optimization of operating parameters of ground source heat pump system for space heating and cooling by Taguchi method and utility concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivasakthivel, T.; Murugesan, K.; Thomas, H.R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) technology is suitable for both heating and cooling. • Important parameters that affect the GSHP performance has been listed. • Parameters of GSHP system has been optimized for heating and cooling mode. • Taguchi technique and utility concept are developed for GSHP optimization. - Abstract: Use of ground source energy for space heating applications through Ground Source Heat pump (GSHP) has been established as an efficient thermodynamic process. The electricity input to the GSHP can be reduced by increasing the COP of the system. However, the COP of a GSHP system will be different for heating and cooling mode operations. Hence in order to reduce the electricity input to the GSHP, an optimum value of COP has to be determined when GSHP is operated in both heating and cooling modes. In the present research, a methodology is proposed to optimize the operating parameters of a GSHP system which will operate on both heating and cooling modes. Condenser inlet temperature, condenser outlet temperature, dryness fraction at evaporator inlet and evaporator outlet temperature are considered as the influencing parameters of the heat pump. Optimization of these parameters for only heating or only cooling mode operation is achieved by employing Taguchi method for three level variations of the above parameters using an L 9 (3 4 ) orthogonal array. Higher the better concept has been used to get a higher COP. A computer program in FORTAN has been developed to carry out the computations and the results have been analyzed for the optimum conditions using Signal-to-Noise (SN) ratio and Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA) method. Based on this analysis, the maximum COP for only heating and only cooling operation are obtained as 4.25 and 3.32 respectively. By making use of the utility concept both the higher values of COP obtained for heating and cooling modes are optimized to get a single optimum COP for heating and cooling modes. A single

  3. Feasibility of infrared Earth tracking for deep-space optical communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yijiang; Hemmati, Hamid; Ortiz, Gerry G

    2012-01-01

    Infrared (IR) Earth thermal tracking is a viable option for optical communications to distant planet and outer-planetary missions. However, blurring due to finite receiver aperture size distorts IR Earth images in the presence of Earth's nonuniform thermal emission and limits its applicability. We demonstrate a deconvolution algorithm that can overcome this limitation and reduce the error from blurring to a negligible level. The algorithm is applied successfully to Earth thermal images taken by the Mars Odyssey spacecraft. With the solution to this critical issue, IR Earth tracking is established as a viable means for distant planet and outer-planetary optical communications. © 2012 Optical Society of America

  4. How to find and type red/brown dwarf stars in near-infrared imaging space observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemn Holwerda, Benne; Ryan, Russell; Bridge, Joanna; Pirzkal, Nor; Kenworthy, Matthew; Andersen, Morten; Wilkins, Stephen; Trenti, Michele; Meshkat, Tiffany; Bernard, Stephanie; Smit, Renske

    2018-01-01

    Here we evaluate the near-infrared colors of brown dwarfs as observed with four major infrared imaging space observatories: the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), the EUCLID mission, and the WFIRST telescope. We use the splat ISPEX spectroscopic library to map out the colors of the M, L, and T-type brown dwarfs. We identify which color-color combination is optimal for identifying broad type and which single color is optimal to then identify the subtype (e.g., T0-9). We evaluate each observatory separately as well as the the narrow-field (HST and JWST) and wide-field (EULID and WFIRST) combinations.HST filters used thus far for high-redshift searches (e.g. CANDELS and BoRG) are close to optimal within the available filter combinations. A clear improvement over HST is one of two broad/medium filter combinations on JWST: pairing F140M with either F150W or F162M discriminates well between brown dwarf subtypes. The improvement of JWST the filter set over the HST one is so marked that any combination of HST and JWST filters does not improve the classification.The EUCLID filter set alone performs poorly in terms of typing brown dwarfs and WFIRST performs only marginally better, despite a wider selection of filters. A combined EUCLID and WFIRST observation, using WFIRST's W146 and F062 and EUCLID's Y-band, allows for a much better discrimination between broad brown dwarf categories. In this respect, WFIRST acts as a targeted follow-up observatory for the all-sky EUCLID survey. However, subsequent subtyping with the combination of EUCLID and WFIRST observations remains uncertain due to the lack of medium or narrow-band filters in this wavelength range. We argue that a medium band added to the WFIRST filter selection would greatly improve its ability to preselect against brown dwarfs in high-latitude surveys.

  5. The JPSS CrIS Instrument and the Evolution of Space-Based Infrared Sounders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glumb, Ronald; Suwinski, Lawrence; Wells, Steven; Glumb, Anna; Malloy, Rebecca; Colton, Marie

    2018-01-01

    This paper will summarize the development of infrared sounders since the 1970s, describe the technological hurdles that were overcome to provide ever-increasing performance capabilities, and highlight the radiometric performance of the CrIS instrument on JPSS-1 (CrIS-JPSS1). This includes details of the CrIS-JPSS1 measured noise-equivalent spectral radiance (NEdN) performance, radiometric uncertainty performance utilizing a new and improved internal calibration target, short-term and long-term repeatability, spectral uncertainty, and spectral stability. In addition, the full-resolution operating modes for CrIS-JPSS1 will be reviewed, including a discussion of how these modes will be used during on-orbit characterization tests. We will provide a brief update of CrIS-SNPP on-obit performance and the production status of the CrIS instruments for JPSS-2 through JPSS-4. Current technological challenges will also be reviewed, including how ongoing research and development is enabling improvements to future sounders. The expanding usage of infrared sounding data will also be discussed, including demonstration of value via data assimilation, the roles of the public/private sector in communicating the importance of sounding data for long-term observations, and the long road to success from research to operational data products.

  6. Bright infrared quantum-dot light-emitting diodes through inter-dot spacing control

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Liangfeng; Choi, Joshua J.; Stachnik, David; Bartnik, Adam C.; Hyun, Byung-Ryool; Malliaras, George G.; Hanrath, Tobias; Wise, Frank W.

    2012-01-01

    Infrared light-emitting diodes are currently fabricated from direct-gap semiconductors using epitaxy, which makes them expensive and difficult to integrate with other materials. Light-emitting diodes based on colloidal semiconductor quantum dots, on the other hand, can be solution-processed at low cost, and can be directly integrated with silicon. However, so far, exciton dissociation and recombination have not been well controlled in these devices, and this has limited their performance. Here, by tuning the distance between adjacent PbS quantum dots, we fabricate thin-film quantum-dot light-emitting diodes that operate at infrared wavelengths with radiances (6.4 W sr '1 m '2) eight times higher and external quantum efficiencies (2.0%) two times higher than the highest values previously reported. The distance between adjacent dots is tuned over a range of 1.3 nm by varying the lengths of the linker molecules from three to eight CH 2 groups, which allows us to achieve the optimum balance between charge injection and radiative exciton recombination. The electroluminescent powers of the best devices are comparable to those produced by commercial InGaAsP light-emitting diodes. By varying the size of the quantum dots, we can tune the emission wavelengths between 800 and 1,850 nm.© 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

  7. Bright infrared quantum-dot light-emitting diodes through inter-dot spacing control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liangfeng; Choi, Joshua J; Stachnik, David; Bartnik, Adam C; Hyun, Byung-Ryool; Malliaras, George G; Hanrath, Tobias; Wise, Frank W

    2012-05-06

    Infrared light-emitting diodes are currently fabricated from direct-gap semiconductors using epitaxy, which makes them expensive and difficult to integrate with other materials. Light-emitting diodes based on colloidal semiconductor quantum dots, on the other hand, can be solution-processed at low cost, and can be directly integrated with silicon. However, so far, exciton dissociation and recombination have not been well controlled in these devices, and this has limited their performance. Here, by tuning the distance between adjacent PbS quantum dots, we fabricate thin-film quantum-dot light-emitting diodes that operate at infrared wavelengths with radiances (6.4 W sr(-1) m(-2)) eight times higher and external quantum efficiencies (2.0%) two times higher than the highest values previously reported. The distance between adjacent dots is tuned over a range of 1.3 nm by varying the lengths of the linker molecules from three to eight CH(2) groups, which allows us to achieve the optimum balance between charge injection and radiative exciton recombination. The electroluminescent powers of the best devices are comparable to those produced by commercial InGaAsP light-emitting diodes. By varying the size of the quantum dots, we can tune the emission wavelengths between 800 and 1,850 nm.

  8. Bright infrared quantum-dot light-emitting diodes through inter-dot spacing control

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Liangfeng

    2012-05-06

    Infrared light-emitting diodes are currently fabricated from direct-gap semiconductors using epitaxy, which makes them expensive and difficult to integrate with other materials. Light-emitting diodes based on colloidal semiconductor quantum dots, on the other hand, can be solution-processed at low cost, and can be directly integrated with silicon. However, so far, exciton dissociation and recombination have not been well controlled in these devices, and this has limited their performance. Here, by tuning the distance between adjacent PbS quantum dots, we fabricate thin-film quantum-dot light-emitting diodes that operate at infrared wavelengths with radiances (6.4 W sr \\'1 m \\'2) eight times higher and external quantum efficiencies (2.0%) two times higher than the highest values previously reported. The distance between adjacent dots is tuned over a range of 1.3 nm by varying the lengths of the linker molecules from three to eight CH 2 groups, which allows us to achieve the optimum balance between charge injection and radiative exciton recombination. The electroluminescent powers of the best devices are comparable to those produced by commercial InGaAsP light-emitting diodes. By varying the size of the quantum dots, we can tune the emission wavelengths between 800 and 1,850 nm.© 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

  9. Toward Cooling Uniformity: Investigation of Spiral, Sweeping Holes, and Unconventional Cooling Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyam, Vikram; Thurman, Douglas R.; Poinsatte, Philip E.; Ameri, Ali A.; Culley, Dennis E.

    2018-01-01

    Surface infrared thermography, hotwire anemometry, and thermocouple surveys were performed on two new film cooling hole geometries: spiral/rifled holes and fluidic sweeping holes. Ways to quantify the efficacy of novel cooling holes that are asymmetric, not uniformly spaced or that show variation from hole to hole are presented. The spiral holes attempt to induce large-scale vorticity to the film cooling jet as it exits the hole to prevent the formation of the kidney shaped vortices commonly associated with film cooling jets. The fluidic sweeping hole uses a passive in-hole geometry to induce jet sweeping at frequencies that scale with blowing ratios. The spiral hole performance is compared to that of round holes with and without compound angles. The fluidic hole is of the diffusion class of holes and is therefore compared to a 777 hole and square holes. A patent-pending spiral hole design showed the highest potential of the nondiffusion type hole configurations. Velocity contours and flow temperature were acquired at discreet cross-sections of the downstream flow field. The passive fluidic sweeping hole shows the most uniform cooling distribution but suffers from low span-averaged effectiveness levels due to enhanced mixing. The data was taken at a Reynolds number of 11,000 based on hole diameter and freestream velocity. Infrared thermography was taken for blowing ratios of 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 at a density ratio of 1.05. The flow inside the fluidic sweeping hole was studied using 3D unsteady RANS. A section on ideas for future work is included that addresses issues of quantifying cooling uniformity and provides some ideas for changing the way we think about cooling such as changing the direction of cooling or coupling acoustic devices to cooling holes to regulate frequency.

  10. Quantitative Analysis of the Principal-Agent Problem in Commercial Buildings in the U.S.: Focus on Central Space Heating and Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, Helcio; Sathaye, Jayant

    2010-05-14

    We investigate the existence of the principal-agent (PA) problem in non-government, non-mall commercial buildings in the U.S. in 2003. The analysis concentrates on space heating and cooling energy consumed by centrally installed equipment in order to verify whether a market failure caused by the PA problem might have prevented the installation of energy-efficient devices in non-owner-occupied buildings (efficiency problem) and/or the efficient operation of space-conditioning equipment in these buildings (usage problem). Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) 2003 data for single-owner, single-tenant and multi-tenant occupied buildings were used for conducting this evaluation. These are the building subsets with the appropriate conditions for assessing both the efficiency and the usage problems. Together, these three building types represent 51.9percent of the total floor space of all buildings with space heating and 59.4percent of the total end-use energy consumption of such buildings; similarly, for space cooling, they represent 52.7percent of floor space and 51.6percent of energy consumption. Our statistical analysis shows that there is a usage PA problem. In space heating it applies only to buildings with a small floor area (<_50,000 sq. ft.). We estimate that in 2003 it accounts for additional site energy consumption of 12.3 (+ 10.5 ) TBtu (primary energy consumption of 14.6 [+- 12.4] TBtu), corresponding to 24.0percent (+- 20.5percent) of space heating and 10.2percent (+- 8.7percent) of total site energy consumed in those buildings. In space cooling, however, the analysis shows that the PA market failure affects the complete set of studied buildings. We estimate that it accounts for a higher site energy consumption of 8.3 (+-4.0) TBtu (primary energy consumption of 25.5 [+- 12.2]TBtu), which corresponds to 26.5percent (+- 12.7percent) of space cooling and 2.7percent (+- 1.3percent) of total site energy consumed in those buildings.

  11. A TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA AT REDSHIFT 1.55 IN HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE INFRARED OBSERVATIONS FROM CANDELS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodney, Steven A.; Riess, Adam G.; Jones, David O.; Dahlen, Tomas; Ferguson, Henry C.; Casertano, Stefano; Grogin, Norman A.; Strolger, Louis-Gregory; Hjorth, Jens; Frederiksen, Teddy F.; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Mobasher, Bahram; Challis, Peter; Kirshner, Robert P.; Faber, S. M.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Garnavich, Peter; Hayden, Brian; Graur, Or; Jha, Saurabh W.

    2012-01-01

    We report the discovery of a Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) at redshift z = 1.55 with the infrared detector of the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3-IR) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). This object was discovered in CANDELS imaging data of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field and followed as part of the CANDELS+CLASH Supernova project, comprising the SN search components from those two HST multi-cycle treasury programs. This is the highest redshift SN Ia with direct spectroscopic evidence for classification. It is also the first SN Ia at z > 1 found and followed in the infrared, providing a full light curve in rest-frame optical bands. The classification and redshift are securely defined from a combination of multi-band and multi-epoch photometry of the SN, ground-based spectroscopy of the host galaxy, and WFC3-IR grism spectroscopy of both the SN and host. This object is the first of a projected sample at z > 1.5 that will be discovered by the CANDELS and CLASH programs. The full CANDELS+CLASH SN Ia sample will enable unique tests for evolutionary effects that could arise due to differences in SN Ia progenitor systems as a function of redshift. This high-z sample will also allow measurement of the SN Ia rate out to z ≈ 2, providing a complementary constraint on SN Ia progenitor models.

  12. Regulating the infrared by mode matching: a massless scalar in expanding spaces with constant deceleration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, T.M.; Prokopec, T.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we consider a massless scalar field, with a possible coupling ξ to the Ricci scalar in a D dimensional Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker space-time with a constant deceleration parameter q=ϵ-1, ϵ=-H˙/H2. Correlation functions for the Bunch-Davies vacuum of such a theory have long

  13. Photon-Counting Kinetic Inductance Detectors (KID) for Far/Mid-Infrared Space Spectroscopy with the Origins Space Telescope (OST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noroozian, Omid; Barrentine, Emily M.; Stevenson, Thomas R.; Brown, Ari D.; Moseley, Samuel Harvey; Wollack, Edward; Pontoppidan, Klaus Martin; U-Yen, Konpop; Mikula, Vilem

    2018-01-01

    Photon-counting detectors are highly desirable for reaching the ~ 10-20 W/√Hz power sensitivity permitted by the Origins Space Telescope (OST). We are developing unique Kinetic Inductance Detectors (KIDs) with photon counting capability in the far/mid-IR. Combined with an on-chip far-IR spectrometer onboard OST these detectors will enable a new data set for exploring galaxy evolution and the growth of structure in the Universe. Mid-IR spectroscopic surveys using these detectors will enable mapping the composition of key volatiles in planet-forming material around protoplanetary disks and their evolution into solar systems. While these OST science objectives represent a well-organized community agreement they are impossible to reach without a significant leap forward in detector technology, and the OST is likely not to be recommended if a path to suitable detectors does not exist.To reach the required sensitivity we are experimenting with superconducting resonators made from thin aluminum films on single-crystal silicon substrates. Under the right conditions, small-volume inductors made from these films can become ultra-sensitive to single photons >90 GHz. Understanding the physics of these superconductor-dielectric systems is critical to performance. We achieved a very high quality factor of 0.5 x 106 for a 10-nm Al resonator at n ~ 1 microwave photon drive power, by far the highest value for such thin films in the literature. We measured a residual electron density of detector when illuminated with randomly arriving photon events. Our results show that photon counting with >95% efficiency at 0.5 - 1.0 THz is achievable.We report on these developments and discuss plans to test in our facility through funding from our recently awarded ROSES-APRA grant and Roman Technology Fellowship award.

  14. Design of a nano-satellite demonstrator of an infrared imaging space interferometer: the HyperCube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohlen, Kjetil; Vives, Sébastien; Rakotonimbahy, Eddy; Sarkar, Tanmoy; Tasnim Ava, Tanzila; Baccichet, Nicola; Savini, Giorgio; Swinyard, Bruce

    2014-07-01

    The construction of a kilometer-baseline far infrared imaging interferometer is one of the big instrumental challenges for astronomical instrumentation in the coming decades. Recent proposals such as FIRI, SPIRIT, and PFI illustrate both science cases, from exo-planetary science to study of interstellar media and cosmology, and ideas for construction of such instruments, both in space and on the ground. An interesting option for an imaging multi-aperture interferometer with km baseline is the space-based hyper telescope (HT) where a giant, sparsely populated primary mirror is constituted of several free-flying satellites each carrying a mirror segment. All the segments point the same object and direct their part of the pupil towards a common focus where another satellite, containing recombiner optics and a detector unit, is located. In Labeyrie's [1] original HT concept, perfect phasing of all the segments was assumed, allowing snap-shot imaging within a reduced field of view and coronagraphic extinction of the star. However, for a general purpose observatory, image reconstruction using closure phase a posteriori image reconstruction is possible as long as the pupil is fully non-redundant. Such reconstruction allows for much reduced alignment tolerances, since optical path length control is only required to within several tens of wavelengths, rather than within a fraction of a wavelength. In this paper we present preliminary studies for such an instrument and plans for building a miniature version to be flown on a nano satellite. A design for recombiner optics is proposed, including a scheme for exit pupil re-organization, is proposed, indicating the focal plane satellite in the case of a km-baseline interferometer could be contained within a 1m3 unit. Different options for realization of a miniature version are presented, including instruments for solar observations in the visible and the thermal infrared and giant planet observations in the visible, and an

  15. Stochastic cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisognano, J.; Leemann, C.

    1982-03-01

    Stochastic cooling is the damping of betatron oscillations and momentum spread of a particle beam by a feedback system. In its simplest form, a pickup electrode detects the transverse positions or momenta of particles in a storage ring, and the signal produced is amplified and applied downstream to a kicker. The time delay of the cable and electronics is designed to match the transit time of particles along the arc of the storage ring between the pickup and kicker so that an individual particle receives the amplified version of the signal it produced at the pick-up. If there were only a single particle in the ring, it is obvious that betatron oscillations and momentum offset could be damped. However, in addition to its own signal, a particle receives signals from other beam particles. In the limit of an infinite number of particles, no damping could be achieved; we have Liouville's theorem with constant density of the phase space fluid. For a finite, albeit large number of particles, there remains a residue of the single particle damping which is of practical use in accumulating low phase space density beams of particles such as antiprotons. It was the realization of this fact that led to the invention of stochastic cooling by S. van der Meer in 1968. Since its conception, stochastic cooling has been the subject of much theoretical and experimental work. The earliest experiments were performed at the ISR in 1974, with the subsequent ICE studies firmly establishing the stochastic cooling technique. This work directly led to the design and construction of the Antiproton Accumulator at CERN and the beginnings of p anti p colliding beam physics at the SPS. Experiments in stochastic cooling have been performed at Fermilab in collaboration with LBL, and a design is currently under development for a anti p accumulator for the Tevatron

  16. The construction and space qualification of the control electronics for the tracker detector cooling system of the AMS-02 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menichelli, M.; Accardo, L.; Alberti, G.; Bardet, M.; Battiston, R.; Blasko, S.; He, Z.; Koutsenko, V.; Lebedev, A.; Ni, J.; Papi, A.; Pauw, A.; Van Ess, J.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, D.; Zwartbol, T.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the control electronics for the silicon tracker cooling system in the AMS-02 apparatus. It also contains a brief description of the cooling system itself necessary for the description of the electronics. The tracker cooling system includes a set of various sensors and actuators which are necessary for bringing the tracker detector to a uniform temperature at which it can operate correctly. In order to test the system performing the various qualification activities we have built also an Electronic Ground support equipment (EGSE). The EGSE should simulate the behaviour of all sensors and actuators previously mentioned.

  17. ZOCO VI - a computer code to calculate the time- and space-dependent pressure distribution in full pressure containments of water-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansfeld, G.

    1974-12-01

    ZOCO VI is a computer code to investigate the time and space dependent pressure distribution in full pressure containment of water cooled nuclear power reactors following a loss-of-coolant accident, which is caused by the rupture of a main coolant or steam line. ZOCO VI is an improved version of the computer code ZOCO V with enlarged description of condensing events. (orig.) [de

  18. Mobile viewer system for virtual 3D space using infrared LED point markers and camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Kunio; Taneji, Shoto

    2006-09-01

    The authors have developed a 3D workspace system using collaborative imaging devices. A stereoscopic display enables this system to project 3D information. In this paper, we describe the position detecting system for a see-through 3D viewer. A 3D display system is useful technology for virtual reality, mixed reality and augmented reality. We have researched spatial imaging and interaction system. We have ever proposed 3D displays using the slit as a parallax barrier, the lenticular screen and the holographic optical elements(HOEs) for displaying active image 1)2)3)4). The purpose of this paper is to propose the interactive system using these 3D imaging technologies. The observer can view virtual images in the real world when the user watches the screen of a see-through 3D viewer. The goal of our research is to build the display system as follows; when users see the real world through the mobile viewer, the display system gives users virtual 3D images, which is floating in the air, and the observers can touch these floating images and interact them such that kids can make play clay. The key technologies of this system are the position recognition system and the spatial imaging display. The 3D images are presented by the improved parallax barrier 3D display. Here the authors discuss the measuring method of the mobile viewer using infrared LED point markers and a camera in the 3D workspace (augmented reality world). The authors show the geometric analysis of the proposed measuring method, which is the simplest method using a single camera not the stereo camera, and the results of our viewer system.

  19. The Mid-Infrared Instrument for the James Webb Space Telescope, II: Design and Build

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wright, G. S.; Wright, David; Goodson, G. B.

    2015-01-01

    The Mid-InfraRed Instrument (MIRI) on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) provides measurements over the wavelength range 5 to 28: 5 µm. MIRI has, within a single "package," four key scientific functions: photometric imaging, coronagraphy, single-source low-spectral resolving power (R similar...... in terms of the "as-built" instrument. It also describes the test program that led to delivery of the tested and calibrated Flight Model to NASA in 2012, and the confirmation after delivery of the key interface requirements....

  20. A study on the use of phase change materials (PCMs) in combination with a natural cold source for space cooling in telecommunications base stations (TBSs) in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Quan; Medina, Mario A.; Liu, Yingjun; Liao, Shuguang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A technology that combines phase change materials and cold outdoor air is proposed. • The technology is for space cooling of telecommunications base stations. • A prototype unit was built and then tested in an enthalpy difference laboratory. • An experimentally-validated model was used to simulate the unit’s performance. • The simulated average annual adjusted energy efficiency ratio of the unit was 14 W/W. - Abstract: A technology that combines phase change materials (PCMs) with a natural cold source is proposed to reduce the space cooling energy of telecommunications base stations (TBSs). First, a mathematical model was developed to assess this technology. Then, a full-scale prototype, named latent heat storage unit (LHSU), was designed, built, and tested in an enthalpy difference laboratory. The energy efficiency ratio (EER) and the adjusted energy efficiency ratio (AEER) were used as the criteria to evaluate the performance of this unit and to compare it with conventional air conditioners. LHSU performance simulations were carried out based on the unit’s operation in TBSs located in five Chinese cities with different climates. The simulated average annual AEER was 14.04 W/W, which is considerably higher than the limiting value of 3.2 W/W for air conditioners with a cooling capacity of less than 4500 W. The estimated average energy savings potential of the LHSU was 50%. Based on these results, it was concluded that LHSUs could be used in TBSs to reduce a significant amount of their energy consumed in space cooling

  1. CANDELS : THE COSMIC ASSEMBLY NEAR-INFRARED DEEP EXTRAGALACTIC LEGACY SURVEY-THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS, IMAGING DATA PRODUCTS, AND MOSAICS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koekemoer, Anton M.; Faber, S. M.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Grogin, Norman A.; Kocevski, Dale D.; Koo, David C.; Lai, Kamson; Lotz, Jennifer M.; Lucas, Ray A.; McGrath, Elizabeth J.; Ogaz, Sara; Rajan, Abhijith; Riess, Adam G.; Rodney, Steve A.; Strolger, Louis; Casertano, Stefano; Castellano, Marco; Dahlen, Tomas; Dickinson, Mark; Dolch, Timothy; Fontana, Adriano; Giavalisco, Mauro; Grazian, Andrea; Guo, Yicheng; Hathi, Nimish P.; Huang, Kuang-Han; van der Wel, Arjen; Yan, Hao-Jing; Acquaviva, Viviana; Alexander, David M.; Almaini, Omar; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Barden, Marco; Bell, Eric F.; Bournaud, Frederic; Brown, Thomas M.; Caputi, Karina I.; Cassata, Paolo; Challis, Peter J.; Chary, Ranga-Ram; Cheung, Edmond; Cirasuolo, Michele; Conselice, Christopher J.; Cooray, Asantha Roshan; Croton, Darren J.; Daddi, Emanuele; Dave, Romeel; de Mello, Duilia F.; de Ravel, Loic; Dekel, Avishai; Donley, Jennifer L.; Dunlop, James S.; Dutton, Aaron A.; Elbaz, David; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Frazer, Chris; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Garnavich, Peter M.; Gawiser, Eric; Gruetzbauch, Ruth; Hartley, Will G.; Haeussler, Boris; Herrington, Jessica; Hopkins, Philip F.; Huang, Jia-Sheng; Jha, Saurabh W.; Johnson, Andrew; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; Khostovan, Ali A.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Lani, Caterina; Lee, Kyoung-Soo; Li, Weidong; Madau, Piero; McCarthy, Patrick J.; McIntosh, Daniel H.; McLure, Ross J.; McPartland, Conor; Mobasher, Bahram; Moreira, Heidi; Mortlock, Alice; Moustakas, Leonidas A.; Mozena, Mark; Nandra, Kirpal; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Nielsen, Jennifer L.; Niemi, Sami; Noeske, Kai G.; Papovich, Casey J.; Pentericci, Laura; Pope, Alexandra; Primack, Joel R.; Ravindranath, Swara; Reddy, Naveen A.; Renzini, Alvio; Rix, Hans-Walter; Robaina, Aday R.; Rosario, David J.; Rosati, Piero; Salimbeni, Sara; Scarlata, Claudia; Siana, Brian; Simard, Luc; Smidt, Joseph; Snyder, Diana; Somerville, Rachel S.; Spinrad, Hyron; Straughn, Amber N.; Telford, Olivia; Teplitz, Harry I.; Trump, Jonathan R.; Vargas, Carlos; Villforth, Carolin; Wagner, Cory R.; Wandro, Pat; Wechsler, Risa H.; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Wiklind, Tommy; Wild, Vivienne; Wilson, Grant; Wuyts, Stijn; Yun, Min S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the Hubble Space Telescope imaging data products and data reduction procedures for the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS). This survey is designed to document the evolution of galaxies and black holes at z approximate to 1.5-8, and to study

  2. 9969 Braille: Deep Space 1 infrared spectroscopy, geometric albedo, and classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buratti, B.J.; Britt, D.T.; Soderblom, L.A.; Hicks, M.D.; Boice, D.C.; Brown, R.H.; Meier, R.; Nelson, R.M.; Oberst, J.; Owen, T.C.; Rivkin, A.S.; Sandel, B.R.; Stern, S.A.; Thomas, N.; Yelle, R.V.

    2004-01-01

    Spectra of Asteroid 9969 Braille in the 1.25-2.6 ??m region returned by the Deep Space 1 (DS1) Mission show a ???10% absorption band centered at 2 ??m, and a reflectance peak at 1.6 ??m. Analysis of these features suggest that the composition of Braille is roughly equal parts pyroxene and olivine. Its spectrum between 0.4 and 2.5 ??m suggests that it is most closely related to the Q taxonomic type of asteroid. The spectrum also closely matches that of the ordinary chondrites, the most common type of terrestrial meteorite. The geometric albedo of Braille is unusually high (pv = 0.34), which is also consistent with its placement within the rarer classes of stony asteroids, and which suggests it has a relatively fresh, unweathered surface, perhaps due to a recent collision. ?? 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) - Operations concept. [decreasing development and operations cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Richard B.

    1992-01-01

    The development and operations costs of the Space IR Telescope Facility (SIRTF) are discussed in the light of minimizing total outlays and optimizing efficiency. The development phase cannot extend into the post-launch segment which is planned to only support system verification and calibration followed by operations with a 70-percent efficiency goal. The importance of reducing the ground-support staff is demonstrated, and the value of the highly sensitive observations to the general astronomical community is described. The Failure Protection Algorithm for the SIRTF is designed for the 5-yr lifetime and the continuous venting of cryogen, and a science driven ground/operations system is described. Attention is given to balancing cost and performance, prototyping during the development phase, incremental development, the utilization of standards, and the integration of ground system/operations with flight system integration and test.

  4. Restaurant Food Cooling Practices†

    Science.gov (United States)

    BROWN, LAURA GREEN; RIPLEY, DANNY; BLADE, HENRY; REIMANN, DAVE; EVERSTINE, KAREN; NICHOLAS, DAVE; EGAN, JESSICA; KOKTAVY, NICOLE; QUILLIAM, DANIELA N.

    2017-01-01

    Improper food cooling practices are a significant cause of foodborne illness, yet little is known about restaurant food cooling practices. This study was conducted to examine food cooling practices in restaurants. Specifically, the study assesses the frequency with which restaurants meet U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommendations aimed at reducing pathogen proliferation during food cooling. Members of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Environmental Health Specialists Network collected data on food cooling practices in 420 restaurants. The data collected indicate that many restaurants are not meeting FDA recommendations concerning cooling. Although most restaurant kitchen managers report that they have formal cooling processes (86%) and provide training to food workers on proper cooling (91%), many managers said that they do not have tested and verified cooling processes (39%), do not monitor time or temperature during cooling processes (41%), or do not calibrate thermometers used for monitoring temperatures (15%). Indeed, 86% of managers reported cooling processes that did not incorporate all FDA-recommended components. Additionally, restaurants do not always follow recommendations concerning specific cooling methods, such as refrigerating cooling food at shallow depths, ventilating cooling food, providing open-air space around the tops and sides of cooling food containers, and refraining from stacking cooling food containers on top of each other. Data from this study could be used by food safety programs and the restaurant industry to target training and intervention efforts concerning cooling practices. These efforts should focus on the most frequent poor cooling practices, as identified by this study. PMID:23212014

  5. Solar Flare Five-Day Predictions from Quantum Detectors of Dynamical Space Fractal Flow Turbulence: Gravitational Wave Diminution and Earth Climate Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahill R. T.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Space speed fluctuations, which have a 1 / f spectrum, are shown to be the cause of solar flares. The direction and magnitude of the space flow has been detected from numer- ous different experimental techniques, and is close to the normal to the plane of the ecliptic. Zener diode data shows that the fluctuations in the space speed closely match the Sun Solar Cycle 23 flare count, and reveal that major solar flares follow major space speed fluctuations by some 6 days. This implies that a warning period of some 5 days in predicting major solar flares is possible using such detectors. This has significant conse- quences in being able to protect various spacecraft and Earth located electrical systems from the subsequent arrival of ejected plasma from a solar flare. These space speed fluctuations are the actual gravitational waves, and have a significant magnitude. This discovery is a significant application of the dynamical space phenomenon and theory. We also show that space flow turbulence impacts on the Earth’s climate, as such tur- bulence can input energy into systems, which is the basis of the Zener Diode Quantum Detector. Large scale space fluctuations impact on both the sun and the Earth, and as well explain temperature correlations with solar activity, but that the Earth temperatures are not caused by such solar activity. This implies that the Earth climate debate has been missing a key physical process. Observed diminishing gravitational waves imply a cooling epoch for the Earth for the next 30 years.

  6. Cool Sportswear

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    New athletic wear design based on the circulating liquid cooling system used in the astronaut's space suits, allows athletes to perform more strenuous activity without becoming overheated. Techni-Clothes gear incorporates packets containing a heat-absorbing gel that slips into an insulated pocket of the athletic garment and is positioned near parts of the body where heat transfer is most efficient. A gel packet is good for about one hour. Easily replaced from a supply of spares in an insulated container worn on the belt. The products, targeted primarily for runners and joggers and any other athlete whose performance may be affected by hot weather, include cooling headbands, wrist bands and running shorts with gel-pack pockets.

  7. Cooling techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, S.P.

    1994-01-01

    After an introduction to the general concepts of cooling of charged particle beams, some specific cooling methods are discussed, namely stochastic, electron and laser cooling. The treatment concentrates on the physical ideas of the cooling methods and only very crude derivations of cooling times are given. At the end three other proposed cooling schemes are briefly discussed. (orig.)

  8. Far-infrared photometry of OJ 287 with the Herschel Space Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidger, Mark; Zola, Staszek; Valtonen, Mauri; Lähteenmäki, Anne; Järvelä, Emilia; Tornikoski, Merja; Tammi, Joni; Liakos, Alexis; Poyner, Gary

    2018-03-01

    Context. The blazar OJ 287 has shown a ≈12 year quasi-periodicity over more than a century, in addition to the common properties of violent variability in all frequency ranges. It is the strongest known candidate to have a binary singularity in its central engine. Aim. We aim to better understand the different emission components by searching for correlated variability in the flux over four decades of frequency measurements. Methods: We combined data at frequencies from the millimetric to the visible to characterise the multifrequency light curve in April and May 2010. This includes the only photometric observations of OJ 287 made with the Herschel Space Observatory: five epochs of data obtained over 33 days at 250, 350, and 500 μm with Herschel-SPIRE. Results: Although we find that the variability at 37 GHz on timescales of a few weeks correlates with the visible to near-IR spectral energy distribution, there is a small degree of reddening in the continuum at lower flux levels that is revealed by the decreasing rate of decline in the light curve at lower frequencies. However, we see no clear evidence that a rapid flare detected in the light curve during our monitoring in the visible to near-IR light curve is seen either in the Herschel data or at 37 GHz, suggesting a low-frequency cut-off in the spectrum of such flares. Conclusions.We see only marginal evidence of variability in the observations with Herschel over a month, although this may be principally due to the poor sampling. The spectral energy distribution between 37 GHz and the visible can be characterised by two components of approximately constant spectral index: a visible to far-IR component of spectral index α = -0.95, and a far-IR to millimetric spectral index of α = -0.43. There is no evidence of an excess of emission that would be consistent with the 60 μmdust bump found in many active galactic nuclei. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European

  9. Harnessing solar pressure to slew and point large infrared space telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errico, Simona; Angel, Roger P.; Calvert, Paul D.; Woof, Neville

    2003-03-01

    Large astronomical Gossamer telescopes in space will need to employ large solar shields to safeguard the optics from solar radiation. These types of telescopes demand accurate controls to maintain telescope pointing over long integration periods. We propose an active solar shield system that harnesses radiation pressure to accurately slew and acquire new targets without the need for reaction wheels or thrusters. To provide the required torques, the solar shield is configured as an inverted, 4-sided pyramidal roof. The sloped roof interior surfaces are covered with hinged “tiles” made from piezoelectric film bimorphs with specular metallized surfaces. Nominally, the tiles lie flat against the roof and the sunlight is reflected outward equally from all sloped surfaces. However, when the tiles on one roof pitch are raised, the pressure balance is upset and the sunshade is pushed to one side. By judicious selection of the tiles and control of their lift angle, the solar pressure can be harvested to stabilize the spacecraft orientation or to change its angular momentum. A first order conceptual design performance analysis and the results from the experimental design, fabrication and testing of piezoelectric bimorph hinge elements will be presented. Next phase challenges in engineering design, materials technology, and systems testing will be discussed.

  10. Magnetocaloric Effect and Thermoelectric Cooling - A Synergistic Cooling Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-16

    Thermoelectric Cooling - A Synergistic Cooling Technology Sb. GRANT NUMBER N00173-14-1-G016 Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 82-2020-17 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...Magnetocaloric Effect and Thermoelectric Cooling - A Synergistic Cooling Technology NRL Grant N00173-14-l-G016 CODE 8200: Spacecraft Engineering Department...82-11-0 1: Space and Space Systems Technology General Engineering & Research, L.L.C. Technical & Administrative point of contact: Dr. Robin

  11. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE/NEAR-INFRARED CAMERA AND MULTI-OBJECT SPECTROMETER OBSERVATIONS OF THE GLIMPSE9 STELLAR CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messineo, Maria; Figer, Donald F.; Davies, Ben; Trombley, Christine; Kudritzki, R. P.; Rich, R. Michael; MacKenty, John

    2010-01-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope/Near-Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer photometry, and low-resolution K-band spectra of the GLIMPSE9 stellar cluster. The newly obtained color-magnitude diagram shows a cluster sequence with H - K S = ∼1 mag, indicating an interstellar extinction A K s = 1.6 ± 0.2 mag. The spectra of the three brightest stars show deep CO band heads, which indicate red supergiants with spectral type M1-M2. Two 09-B2 supergiants are also identified, which yield a spectrophotometric distance of 4.2 ± 0.4 kpc. Presuming that the population is coeval, we derive an age between 15 and 27 Myr, and a total cluster mass of 1600 ± 400 M sun , integrated down to 1 M sun . In the vicinity of GLIMPSE9 are several H II regions and supernova remnants, all of which (including GLIMPSE9) are probably associated with a giant molecular cloud (GMC) in the inner galaxy. GLIMPSE9 probably represents one episode of massive star formation in this GMC. We have identified several other candidate stellar clusters of the same complex.

  12. Radiative sky cooling: fundamental physics, materials, structures, and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xingshu; Sun, Yubo; Zhou, Zhiguang; Alam, Muhammad Ashraful; Bermel, Peter

    2017-07-01

    Radiative sky cooling reduces the temperature of a system by promoting heat exchange with the sky; its key advantage is that no input energy is required. We will review the origins of radiative sky cooling from ancient times to the modern day, and illustrate how the fundamental physics of radiative cooling calls for a combination of properties that may not occur in bulk materials. A detailed comparison with recent modeling and experiments on nanophotonic structures will then illustrate the advantages of this recently emerging approach. Potential applications of these radiative cooling materials to a variety of temperature-sensitive optoelectronic devices, such as photovoltaics, thermophotovoltaics, rectennas, and infrared detectors, will then be discussed. This review will conclude by forecasting the prospects for the field as a whole in both terrestrial and space-based systems.

  13. Radiative sky cooling: fundamental physics, materials, structures, and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Xingshu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Radiative sky cooling reduces the temperature of a system by promoting heat exchange with the sky; its key advantage is that no input energy is required. We will review the origins of radiative sky cooling from ancient times to the modern day, and illustrate how the fundamental physics of radiative cooling calls for a combination of properties that may not occur in bulk materials. A detailed comparison with recent modeling and experiments on nanophotonic structures will then illustrate the advantages of this recently emerging approach. Potential applications of these radiative cooling materials to a variety of temperature-sensitive optoelectronic devices, such as photovoltaics, thermophotovoltaics, rectennas, and infrared detectors, will then be discussed. This review will conclude by forecasting the prospects for the field as a whole in both terrestrial and space-based systems.

  14. Scalable-manufactured randomized glass-polymer hybrid metamaterial for daytime radiative cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yao; Ma, Yaoguang; David, Sabrina N.; Zhao, Dongliang; Lou, Runnan; Tan, Gang; Yang, Ronggui; Yin, Xiaobo

    2017-03-01

    Passive radiative cooling draws heat from surfaces and radiates it into space as infrared radiation to which the atmosphere is transparent. However, the energy density mismatch between solar irradiance and the low infrared radiation flux from a near-ambient-temperature surface requires materials that strongly emit thermal energy and barely absorb sunlight. We embedded resonant polar dielectric microspheres randomly in a polymeric matrix, resulting in a metamaterial that is fully transparent to the solar spectrum while having an infrared emissivity greater than 0.93 across the atmospheric window. When backed with a silver coating, the metamaterial shows a noontime radiative cooling power of 93 watts per square meter under direct sunshine. More critically, we demonstrated high-throughput, economical roll-to-roll manufacturing of the metamaterial, which is vital for promoting radiative cooling as a viable energy technology.

  15. Mid-Infrared Lasers

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Mid infrared solid state lasers for Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) systems required for understanding atmospheric chemistry are not available. This program...

  16. Tool for Forecasting Cool-Season Peak Winds Across Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Joe H., III; Roeder, William P.

    2010-01-01

    The expected peak wind speed for the day is an important element in the daily morning forecast for ground and space launch operations at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS). The 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) must issue forecast advisories for KSC/CCAFS when they expect peak gusts for >= 25, >= 35, and >= 50 kt thresholds at any level from the surface to 300 ft. In Phase I of this task, the 45 WS tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) to develop a cool-season (October - April) tool to help forecast the non-convective peak wind from the surface to 300 ft at KSC/CCAFS. During the warm season, these wind speeds are rarely exceeded except during convective winds or under the influence of tropical cyclones, for which other techniques are already in use. The tool used single and multiple linear regression equations to predict the peak wind from the morning sounding. The forecaster manually entered several observed sounding parameters into a Microsoft Excel graphical user interface (GUI), and then the tool displayed the forecast peak wind speed, average wind speed at the time of the peak wind, the timing of the peak wind and the probability the peak wind will meet or exceed 35, 50 and 60 kt. The 45 WS customers later dropped the requirement for >= 60 kt wind warnings. During Phase II of this task, the AMU expanded the period of record (POR) by six years to increase the number of observations used to create the forecast equations. A large number of possible predictors were evaluated from archived soundings, including inversion depth and strength, low-level wind shear, mixing height, temperature lapse rate and winds from the surface to 3000 ft. Each day in the POR was stratified in a number of ways, such as by low-level wind direction, synoptic weather pattern, precipitation and Bulk Richardson number. The most accurate Phase II equations were then selected for an independent verification. The Phase I and II forecast methods were

  17. Space shuttle/food system. Volume 2, Appendix C: Food cooling techniques analysis. Appendix D: Package and stowage: Alternate concepts analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    The relative penalties associated with various techniques for providing an onboard cold environment for storage of perishable food items, and for the development of packaging and vehicle stowage parameters were investigated in terms of the overall food system design analysis of space shuttle. The degrees of capability for maintaining both a 40 F to 45 F refrigerated temperature and a 0 F and 20 F frozen environment were assessed for the following cooling techniques: (1) phase change (heat sink) concept; (2) thermoelectric concept; (3) vapor cycle concept; and (4) expendable ammonia concept. The parameters considered in the analysis were weight, volume, and spacecraft power restrictions. Data were also produced for packaging and vehicle stowage parameters which are compatible with vehicle weight and volume specifications. Certain assumptions were made for food packaging sizes based on previously generated space shuttle menus. The results of the study are shown, along with the range of meal choices considered.

  18. Brown dwarf photospheres are patchy: A Hubble space telescope near-infrared spectroscopic survey finds frequent low-level variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buenzli, Esther; Apai, Dániel; Radigan, Jacqueline; Reid, I. Neill; Flateau, Davin

    2014-01-01

    Condensate clouds strongly impact the spectra of brown dwarfs and exoplanets. Recent discoveries of variable L/T transition dwarfs argued for patchy clouds in at least some ultracool atmospheres. This study aims to measure the frequency and level of spectral variability in brown dwarfs and to search for correlations with spectral type. We used Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 to obtain spectroscopic time series for 22 brown dwarfs of spectral types ranging from L5 to T6 at 1.1-1.7 μm for ≈40 minutes per object. Using Bayesian analysis, we find six brown dwarfs with confident (p > 95%) variability in the relative flux in at least one wavelength region at sub-percent precision, and five brown dwarfs with tentative (p > 68%) variability. We derive a minimum variability fraction f min =27 −7 +11 % over all covered spectral types. The fraction of variables is equal within errors for mid-L, late-L, and mid-T spectral types; for early-T dwarfs we do not find any confident variable but the sample is too small to derive meaningful limits. For some objects, the variability occurs primarily in the flux peak in the J or H band, others are variable throughout the spectrum or only in specific absorption regions. Four sources may have broadband peak-to-peak amplitudes exceeding 1%. Our measurements are not sensitive to very long periods, inclinations near pole-on and rotationally symmetric heterogeneity. The detection statistics are consistent with most brown dwarf photospheres being patchy. While multiple-percent near-infrared variability may be rare and confined to the L/T transition, low-level heterogeneities are a frequent characteristic of brown dwarf atmospheres.

  19. Optimal Performance Monitoring of Hybrid Mid-Infrared Wavelength MIMO Free Space Optical and RF Wireless Networks in Fading Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Barnet Michael

    An optimal performance monitoring metric for a hybrid free space optical and radio-frequency (RF) wireless network, the Outage Capacity Objective Function, is analytically developed and studied. Current and traditional methods of performance monitoring of both optical and RF wireless networks are centered on measurement of physical layer parameters, the most common being signal-to-noise ratio, error rate, Q factor, and eye diagrams, occasionally combined with link-layer measurements such as data throughput, retransmission rate, and/or lost packet rate. Network management systems frequently attempt to predict or forestall network failures by observing degradations of these parameters and to attempt mitigation (such as offloading traffic, increasing transmitter power, reducing the data rate, or combinations thereof) prior to the failure. These methods are limited by the frequent low sensitivity of the physical layer parameters to the atmospheric optical conditions (measured by optical signal-to-noise ratio) and the radio frequency fading channel conditions (measured by signal-to-interference ratio). As a result of low sensitivity, measurements of this type frequently are unable to predict impending failures sufficiently in advance for the network management system to take corrective action prior to the failure. We derive and apply an optimal measure of hybrid network performance based on the outage capacity of the hybrid optical and RF channel, the outage capacity objective function. The objective function provides high sensitivity and reliable failure prediction, and considers both the effects of atmospheric optical impairments on the performance of the free space optical segment as well as the effect of RF channel impairments on the radio frequency segment. The radio frequency segment analysis considers the three most common RF channel fading statistics: Rayleigh, Ricean, and Nakagami-m. The novel application of information theory to the underlying physics of the

  20. Selective covers for natural cooling devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addeo, A.; Monza, E.; Peraldo, M.; Bartoli, B.; Coluzzi, B.; Silvestrini, V.; Troise, G.

    1978-01-01

    Extra-atmospheric space is practically a pure sink of radiation, and can be used as a nonconventional energy source. In previous papers it has been shown that surfaces with an emissivity matched with the atmospheric (8/13)μm ''transparency window'' (natural emitters) interact with cold space when exposed to clear sky at night, and undergo a sizable cooling effect. In this paper, starting from experimental results concerning the diurnal performances of natural emitters, the problem of their interaction with solar radiation is discussed, and the use is proposed of selective covers which shade the emitter from solar radiation, without preventing the interaction with cold space via emission of infra-red radiation. (author)

  1. Low-Cost Manufacturing Technique for Advanced Regenerative Cooling for In-Space Cryogenic Engines, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of the proposed effort is to demonstrate feasibility of using selective laser melting (SLM, an emerging manufacturing technique) to manufacture a subscale...

  2. Cooling of molecular ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, A.; Krohn, S.; Kreckel, H.; Lammich, L.; Lange, M.; Strasser, D.; Grieser, M.; Schwalm, D.; Zajfman, D.

    2004-01-01

    An overview of the use of stored ion beams and phase space cooling (electron cooling) is given for the field of molecular physics. Emphasis is given to interactions between molecular ions and electrons studied in the electron cooler: dissociative recombination and, for internally excited molecular ions, electron-induced ro-vibrational cooling. Diagnostic methods for the transverse ion beam properties and for the internal excitation of the molecular ions are discussed, and results for phase space cooling and internal (vibrational) cooling are presented for hydrogen molecular ions

  3. Investigation of Tropospheric Pollutants and Stratospheric Ozone Using Infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometers from the Ground, Space and Balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Debora

    This thesis focusses on transport and composition of boreal fire plumes, evolution of trace gases in the Arctic, multi-year comparisons of ground-based and satellite-borne instruments, and depletion of Arctic ozone. Two similar Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) instruments were utilized: (1) the ground-based and balloon-borne Portable Atmospheric Research Interferometric Spectrometer for the InfraRed (PARIS-IR) and (2) the space-borne Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) FTS. Additional datasets, from other satellite and ground-based instruments, as well as Chemical Transport Models (CTMs) complemented the analysis. Transport and composition of boreal fire plumes were analysed with PARIS-IR measurements taken in Halifax, Nova Scotia. This study analysed the retrievals of different FTSs and investigated transport and composition of a smoke plume utilizing various models. The CO retrievals of three different FTSs (PARIS-IR, DA8, and IASI) were consistent and detected a smoke plume between 19 and 21 July 2011. These measurements were similar to the concentrations computed by GEOS-Chem ( 3% for CO and 8% for C2H6). Multi-year comparisons (2006-2013) of ground-based and satellite-borne FTSs near Eureka, Nunavut were carried out utilizing measurements from PARIS-IR, the Bruker 125HR and ACEFTS. The mean and interannual differences between the datasets were investigated for eight species (ozone, HCl, HNO3, HF, CH4, N2O, CO, and C2H6) and good agreement between these instruments was found. Furthermore, the evolution of the eight gases was investigated and increasing ozone, HCl, HF, CH4 and C2H6 were found. Springtime Arctic ozone depletion was studied, where six different methods to estimate ozone depletion were evaluated using the ACE-FTS dataset. It was shown that CH4, N2O, HF, and CCl2F2 are suitable tracers to estimate the ozone loss. The loss estimates (mixing ratio and partial column) are consistent for all six methods. Finally, PARIS-IR was prepared for a

  4. Near infrared focal plane for the ISOCAM camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, G.; Stefanovitch, D.; Tiphene, D.; Carpentier, Y.; Lorans, D.

    1988-01-01

    ISOCAM is one of the science instruments in the Infrared Space Observatory. It is a 2-channel IR Astronomical Imager intended to observe at very low flux levels, thanks to the use of a liquid helium cooled telescope. This paper describes the Focal Plane Assembly design of the short wavelength channel. The operation of a 32 x 32 InSb CID-SAT array detector has been demonstrated. The problems encountered in the design of the cooled electronics and the component selection process are discussed in the light of specific ISO constraints, such as thermal control and radiation shielding. 6 references

  5. Observations of the Hubble Deep Field with the Infrared Space Observatory .5. Spectral energy distributions, starburst models and star formation history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rowan Robinson, M.; Mann, R.G.; Oliver, S.J.

    1997-01-01

    We have modelled the spectral energy distributions of the 13 Hubble Deep Field (HDF) galaxies reliably detected by the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). For two galaxies the emission detected by ISO is consistent with being starlight or the infrared 'cirrus' in the galaxies. For the remaining II...... galaxies there is a clear midinfrared excess, which we interpret as emission from dust associated with a strong starburst. 10 of these galaxies are spirals or interacting pairs, while the remaining one is an elliptical with a prominent nucleus and broad emission lines. We give a new discussion of how...... compared with nearby normal galaxies, We discuss the implications of our detections for the history of star and heavy element formation in the Universe, Although uncertainties in the calibration, reliability of source detection, associations and starburst models remain, it is clear that dust plays...

  6. Tool for Forecasting Cool-Season Peak Winds Across Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Joe H., III; Roeder, William P.

    2010-01-01

    Peak wind speed is important element in 24-Hour and Weekly Planning Forecasts issued by 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS). Forecasts issued for planning operations at KSC/CCAFS. 45 WS wind advisories issued for wind gusts greater than or equal to 25 kt. 35 kt and 50 kt from surface to 300 ft. AMU developed cool-season (Oct - Apr) tool to help 45 WS forecast: daily peak wind speed, 5-minute average speed at time of peak wind, and probability peak speed greater than or equal to 25 kt, 35 kt, 50 kt. AMU tool also forecasts daily average wind speed from 30 ft to 60 ft. Phase I and II tools delivered as a Microsoft Excel graphical user interface (GUI). Phase II tool also delivered as Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS) GUI. Phase I and II forecast methods were compared to climatology, 45 WS wind advisories and North American Mesoscale model (MesoNAM) forecasts in a verification data set.

  7. Reduction of PWR containment pressure after hypothetical accidents by water-cooling of the outer containment surface - annular space spray system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cremer, J.; Dietrich, D.P.; Roedder, P.

    1980-12-01

    The consequences of a core melt-out accident in the vicinity of a nuclear power station are determined by the integrity of the safety containment. This can be adversely affected by different events during the course of the core melt-out accident. The most important phenomenon is the contact between the melt and sump water. Due to the evaporation of the sump water, there is a continuous rise in pressure of the safety containment, which finally leads to failure due to excess pressure. In order to reduce the fission product release due to the resulting leakage, one must try to reduce the pressure as quickly as possible. As heat cannot be removed from the steel containment to the environment because of the thick concrete containment, it is best to bypass the insulating effect of the concrete by cooling the steel containment from outside. The aim of this investigation is therefore to work out a technically relatively simple system, which offers the possibility of backfitting, setting to work and repair. Such a system is an annular space spray system, by which the annular space between the concrete and steel containment has water pumped to the level of the dome and evenly sprayed over the top hemisphere. Mobile pumps on fire engines belonging to the fire brigade are sufficient to supply the cooling water and these will be available some hours after the accident occurs. The used spray water without any radioactive components is collected outside the reactor building and/or drained off. (orig./GL) [de

  8. Efficacy of perfusion cooling of the epidural space and cerebrospinal fluid drainage during repair of extent I and II thoracoabdominal aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabayashi, K; Motoyoshi, N; Saiki, Y; Kokubo, H; Takahashi, G; Masuda, S; Shibuya, T; Akasaka, J; Oda, K; Kamata, M; Iguti, A

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate spinal cord injury and mortality resulting from repair of extent I and II thoracoabdominal aneurysm. The authors compared patients operated under mild hypothermia with or without epidural perfusion cooling (EPC) and cerebrospinal fluid drainage (CSFD). From 1988 to 2007, 116 patients underwent replacement of the thoracoabdominal aorta; the procedure was performed in 38 patients with the aid of mild hypothermia alone (group A), and in 78 patients with the aid of EPC, mild hypothermia and CSFD (group B). Two catheters for epidural perfusion cooling were inserted in group B, in which one catheter was inserted into the epidural space to infuse chilled saline, and the other was inserted into the subdural space to drain the cerebrospinal fluid and to measure temperature and pressure. There were no significant differences in mean age, etiology of aortic disease, and aneurysm extent between the two groups. There were no significant differences in cardiopulmonary bypass time, the lowest nasopharyngeal temperature and operation time between the two study groups. The incidence of spinal cord injury in group A (16.2%) was significantly higher than in group B (3.8%, P=0.03). Hospital mortality in groups A and B was 10.5% and 2.6%, respectively (P=0.08). There was no significant difference in postoperative complications between the two study groups. The combination of EPC and CSFD was effective in lowering the incidence of postoperative spinal cord injury in the repair of extent I and II thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm.

  9. Passive low energy cooling of buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Givoni, Baruch

    1994-01-01

    A practical sourcebook for building designers, providing comprehensive discussion of the impact of basic architectural choices on cooling efficiency, including the layout and orientation of the structure, window size and shading, exterior color, and even the use of plantings around the site. All major varieties of passive cooling systems are presented, with extensive analysis of performance in different types of buildings and in different climates: ventilation; radiant cooling; evaporative cooling; soil cooling; and cooling of outdoor spaces.

  10. The SAFARI imaging spectrometer for the SPICA space observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelfsema, Pieter; Giard, Martin; Najarro, Francisco; Wafelbakker, Kees; Jellema, Willem; Jackson, Brian; Swinyard, Bruce; Audard, Marc; Doi, Yasuo; Griffin, Matt; Helmich, Frank; Kerschbaum, Franz; Meyer, Michael; Naylor, David; Nielsen, Hans; Olofsson, Göran; Poglitsch, Albrecht; Spinoglio, Luigi; Vandenbussche, Bart; Isaak, Kate; Goicoechea, Javier R.

    The Japanese SPace Infrared telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics, SPICA, will provide astronomers with a long awaited new window on the universe. Having a large cold telescope cooled to only 6K above absolute zero, SPICA will provide a unique environment where instruments are limited only by the

  11. Stochastic cooling at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marriner, J.

    1986-08-01

    The topics discussed are the stochastic cooling systems in use at Fermilab and some of the techniques that have been employed to meet the particular requirements of the anti-proton source. Stochastic cooling at Fermilab became of paramount importance about 5 years ago when the anti-proton source group at Fermilab abandoned the electron cooling ring in favor of a high flux anti-proton source which relied solely on stochastic cooling to achieve the phase space densities necessary for colliding proton and anti-proton beams. The Fermilab systems have constituted a substantial advance in the techniques of cooling including: large pickup arrays operating at microwave frequencies, extensive use of cryogenic techniques to reduce thermal noise, super-conducting notch filters, and the development of tools for controlling and for accurately phasing the system

  12. Hybrid Cooling Loop Technology for Robust High Heat Flux Cooling, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc. (ACT) proposes to develop a hybrid cooling loop and cold plate technology for space systems thermal management. The proposed...

  13. The Mechanical Design of a Kinematic Mount for the Mid Infrared Instrument Focal Plane Module on the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelen, Michael P.; Moore, Donald M.

    2009-01-01

    The detector assembly for the Mid Infrared Instrument (MIRI) of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is mechanically supported in the Focal Plane Module (FPM) Assembly with an efficient hexapod design. The kinematic mount design allows for precision adjustment of the detector boresight to assembly alignment fiducials and maintains optical alignment requirements during flight conditions of launch and cryogenic operations below 7 Kelvin. This kinematic mounting technique is able to be implemented in a variety of optical-mechanical designs and is capable of micron level adjustment control and stability over wide dynamic and temperature ranges.

  14. Cooling towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boernke, F.

    1975-01-01

    The need for the use of cooling systems in power plant engineering is dealt with from the point of view of a non-polluting form of energy production. The various cooling system concepts up to the modern natural-draught cooling towers are illustrated by examples. (TK/AK) [de

  15. Infrared ship signature analysis and optimisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neele, F.P.

    2005-01-01

    The last decade has seen an increase in the awareness of the infrared signature of naval ships. New ship designs show that infrared signature reduction measures are being incorporated, such as exhaust gas cooling systems, relocation of the exhausts and surface cooling systems. Hull and

  16. Measuring the Evolution of Stellar Populations And Gas Metallicity in Galaxies with Far-Infrared Space Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Gordon

    We propose a study of the evolution of stellar populations and gas metallicities in about 80 nearby star forming galaxies based on mining the NASA data archives for observations of the [NIII] 57 µm, [OIII] 52 µm and/or 88 µm, [NII] 122 and [CII] 158 µm far-infrared (FIR) fine- structure lines and other archives for thermal radio continuum. These lines are powerful probes of both stellar populations and gas properties and our primary science derives from these tracers. For sources that show both signs of active galactic nuclei (AGN) and star formation, we will take advantage of the readily available NASA Spitzer IRS data base that includes mid-IR [NeII] 12.8 µm, [NeIII] 15.6 µm and [NeV] 14.3 µm, [OIV] 25.9 µm and PAH observations. These complementary data reveal the relative fractions of the FIR line emission that might arise from star formation and the narrow line regions (NLR) associated with an AGN, thereby providing a robust set of observations to compare with star formation models. Subsets of the FIR lines have been detected from hundreds of nearby galaxies. From both theoretical studies and the results of these pioneering observations we know that these lines can be powerful probes of stellar populations and star formation in galaxies. Here we plan to use various combinations of the lines to constrain (1) the age of the stellar populations (through lines that trace the hardness of the stellar radiation fields, hence stellar spectral type), (2) the degree of processing of the interstellar medium (through lines that trace growth of secondary to primary element abundances for example, the N/O ratio), (3) the efficiency of star formation (through growth in absolute abundances of N and O, the N/H and O/H ratios), and (4) the current day mass function of upper main sequence stars. Surprisingly, there has been no systematic study of the large sample of these line detections made with PACS on Herschel in order to truly assess and calibrate their diagnostic

  17. 14 CFR 29.908 - Cooling fans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooling fans. 29.908 Section 29.908... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant General § 29.908 Cooling fans. For cooling fans that are a part of a powerplant installation the following apply: (a) Category A. For cooling fans installed...

  18. Residential and commercial space heating and cooling with possible greenhouse operation; Baca Grande development, San Luis Valley, Colorado. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goering, S.W.; Garing, K.L.; Coury, G.E.; Fritzler, E.A.

    1980-05-01

    A feasibility study was performed to evaluate the potential of multipurpose applications of moderate-temperature geothermal waters in the vicinity of the Baca Grande community development in the San Luis Valley, Colorado. The project resource assessment, based on a thorough review of existing data, indicates that a substantial resource likely exists in the Baca Grande region capable of supporting residential and light industrial activity. Engineering designs were developed for geothermal district heating systems for space heating and domestic hot water heating for residences, including a mobile home park, an existing motel, a greenhouse complex, and other small commercial uses such as aquaculture. In addition, a thorough institutional analysis of the study area was performed to highlight factors which might pose barriers to the ultimate commercial development of the resource. Finally, an environmental evaluation of the possible impacts of the proposed action was also performed. The feasibility evaluation indicates the economics of the residential areas are dependent on the continued rate of housing construction. If essentially complete development could occur over a 30-year period, the economics are favorable as compared to existing alternatives. For the commercial area, the economics are good as compared to existing conventional energy sources. This is especially true as related to proposed greenhouse operations. The institutional and environmental analyses indicates that no significant barriers to development are apparent.

  19. A Computational Fluid Dynamic and Heat Transfer Model for Gaseous Core and Gas Cooled Space Power and Propulsion Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghaie, S.; Chen, G.

    1996-01-01

    A computational model based on the axisymmetric, thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations is developed to predict the convective, radiation and conductive heat transfer in high temperature space nuclear reactors. An implicit-explicit, finite volume, MacCormack method in conjunction with the Gauss-Seidel line iteration procedure is utilized to solve the thermal and fluid governing equations. Simulation of coolant and propellant flows in these reactors involves the subsonic and supersonic flows of hydrogen, helium and uranium tetrafluoride under variable boundary conditions. An enthalpy-rebalancing scheme is developed and implemented to enhance and accelerate the rate of convergence when a wall heat flux boundary condition is used. The model also incorporated the Baldwin and Lomax two-layer algebraic turbulence scheme for the calculation of the turbulent kinetic energy and eddy diffusivity of energy. The Rosseland diffusion approximation is used to simulate the radiative energy transfer in the optically thick environment of gas core reactors. The computational model is benchmarked with experimental data on flow separation angle and drag force acting on a suspended sphere in a cylindrical tube. The heat transfer is validated by comparing the computed results with the standard heat transfer correlations predictions. The model is used to simulate flow and heat transfer under a variety of design conditions. The effect of internal heat generation on the heat transfer in the gas core reactors is examined for a variety of power densities, 100 W/cc, 500 W/cc and 1000 W/cc. The maximum temperature, corresponding with the heat generation rates, are 2150 K, 2750 K and 3550 K, respectively. This analysis shows that the maximum temperature is strongly dependent on the value of heat generation rate. It also indicates that a heat generation rate higher than 1000 W/cc is necessary to maintain the gas temperature at about 3500 K, which is typical design temperature required to achieve high

  20. Spray cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rollin, Philippe.

    1975-01-01

    Spray cooling - using water spraying in air - is surveyed as a possible system for make-up (peak clipping in open circuit) or major cooling (in closed circuit) of the cooling water of the condensers in thermal power plants. Indications are given on the experiments made in France and the systems recently developed in USA, questions relating to performance, cost and environmental effects of spray devices are then dealt with [fr

  1. Barrier Infrared Detector (BIRD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A recent breakthrough in MWIR detector design, has resulted in a high operating temperature (HOT) barrier infrared detector (BIRD) that is capable of spectral...

  2. Parallel LC circuit model for multi-band absorption and preliminary design of radiative cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Rui; Qiu, Jun; Liu, Linhua; Ding, Weiqiang; Chen, Lixue

    2014-12-15

    We perform a comprehensive analysis of multi-band absorption by exciting magnetic polaritons in the infrared region. According to the independent properties of the magnetic polaritons, we propose a parallel inductance and capacitance(PLC) circuit model to explain and predict the multi-band resonant absorption peaks, which is fully validated by using the multi-sized structure with identical dielectric spacing layer and the multilayer structure with the same strip width. More importantly, we present the application of the PLC circuit model to preliminarily design a radiative cooling structure realized by merging several close peaks together. This omnidirectional and polarization insensitive structure is a good candidate for radiative cooling application.

  3. Model calculations of the space and time distribution of cooling tower clouds on the basis of aerological data delivered by the German Weather Service (Deutscher Wetterdienst)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudolf, B.

    1983-01-01

    Based on a large amount of aerological data, the simulation model for cooling tower cloud propagation Smoka has been used to allow for a statistical evaluation of the influence of cooling towers. In addition to local differences, the annual and daily variations in the formation of clouds can be obtained together with the dependence on the cloud coverage conditions and the cooling tower characteristics. With these model calculations of the cooling tower clouds, the respective decrease in sunshine duration can be evaluated. (orig.) [de

  4. Infrared Astrophysics in the SOFIA Era - An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorke, Harold W.

    2018-06-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) provides the international astronomical community access to a broad range of instrumentation that covers wavelengths spanning the near to far infrared. The high spectral resolution of many of these instruments in several wavelength bands is unmatched by any existing or near future planned facility. The far infrared polarization capabilities of one of its instruments, HAWC+, is also unique. Moreover, SOFIA allows for additional instrument augmentations, as new state-of-the-art photometric, spectrometric, and polarimetric capabilities have been added and are being further improved. The fact that SOFIA provides ample mass, power, computing capabilities as well as 4K cooling eases the constraints on future instrument design, technical readiness, and the instrument build to an extent not possible for space-borne missions. We will review SOFIA's current and future planned capabilities and highlight specific science areas for which the stratospheric observatory will be able to significantly advance Origins science topics.

  5. New isostatic mounting concept for a space born Three Mirror Anastigmat (TMA) on the Meteosat Third Generation Infrared Sounder Instrument (MTG-IRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudling, Maximilian; Klammer, Jesko; Lousberg, Gregory; Schumacher, Jean-Marc; Körner, Christian

    2016-07-01

    A novel isostatic mounting concept for a space born TMA of the Meteosat Third Generation Infrared Sounder is presented. The telescope is based on a light-weight all-aluminium design. The mounting concept accommodates the telescope onto a Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced Polymer (CRFP) structure. This design copes with the high CTE mismatch without introducing high stresses into the telescope structure. Furthermore a Line of Sight stability of a few microrads under geostationary orbit conditions is provided. The design operates with full performance at a temperature 20K below the temperature of the CFRP structure and 20K below the integration temperature. The mounting will sustain launch loads of 47g. This paper will provide the design of the Back Telescope Assembly (BTA) isostatic mounting and will summarise the consolidated technical baseline reached following a successful Preliminary Design Review (PDR).

  6. Demonstration of an efficient cooling approach for SBIRS-Low

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieczkoski, S. J.; Myers, E. A.

    2002-05-01

    The Space Based Infrared System-Low (SBIRS-Low) segment is a near-term Air Force program for developing and deploying a constellation of low-earth orbiting observation satellites with gimbaled optics cooled to cryogenic temperatures. The optical system design and requirements present unique challenges that make conventional cooling approaches both complicated and risky. The Cryocooler Interface System (CIS) provides a remote, efficient, and interference-free means of cooling the SBIRS-Low optics. Technology Applications Inc. (TAI), through a two-phase Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) program with Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), has taken the CIS from initial concept feasibility through the design, build, and test of a prototype system. This paper presents the development and demonstration testing of the prototype CIS. Prototype system testing has demonstrated the high efficiency of this cooling approach, making it an attractive option for SBIRS-Low and other sensitive optical and detector systems that require low-impact cryogenic cooling.

  7. Development of a space-flight ADR providing continuous cooling at 50 mK with heat rejection at 10 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, James; Canavan, Edgar; DeLee, Hudson; DiPirro, Michael; Jahromi, Amir; James, Bryan; Kimball, Mark; Shirron, Peter; Sullivan, Dan; Switzer, Eric

    2017-12-01

    Future astronomical instruments will require sub-Kelvin detector temperatures to obtain high sensitivity. In many cases large arrays of detectors will be used, and the associated cooling systems will need performance surpassing the limits of present technologies. NASA is developing a compact cooling system that will lift heat continuously at temperatures below 50 mK and reject it at over 10 K. Based on adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators (ADRs), it will have high thermodynamic efficiency and vibration-free operation with no moving parts. It will provide more than 10 times the current flight ADR cooling power at 50 mK and will also continuously cool a 4 K stage for instruments and optics. In addition, it will include an advanced magnetic shield resulting in external field variations below 5 μT. We describe the cooling system here and report on the progress in its development.

  8. A high-resolution atlas of the infrared spectrum of the Sun and the Earth atmosphere from space. Volume 3: Key to identification of solar features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Murray

    1992-01-01

    During the period April 29 through May 2, 1985, the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment was operated as part of the Spacelab-3 (SL-3) payload on the shuttle Challenger. The instrument, a Fourier transform spectrometer, recorded over 2000 infrared solar spectra from an altitude of 360 km. Although the majority of the spectra were taken through the limb of the Earth's atmosphere in order to better understand its composition, several hundred of the 'high-sun' spectra were completely free from telluric absorption. These high-sun spectra recorded from space are, at the present time, the only high-resolution infrared spectra ever taken of the Sun free from absorptions due to constituents in the Earth's atmosphere. Volumes 1 and 2 of this series provide a compilation of these spectra arranged in a format suitable for quick-look reference purposes and are the first record of the continuous high-resolution infrared spectrum of the Sun and the Earth's atmosphere from space. In the Table of Identifications, which constitutes the main body of this volume, each block of eight wavenumbers is given a separate heading and corresponds to a page of two panels in Volume 1 of this series. In addition, three separate blocks of data available from ATMOS from 622-630 cm(exp -1), 630-638 cm(exp -1) and 638-646 cm(exp -1), excluded from Volume 1 because of the low signal-to-noise ratio, have been included due to the certain identification of several OH and NH transitions. In the first column of the table, the corrected frequency is given. The second column identifies the molecular species. The third and fourth columns represent the assigned transition. The fifth column gives the depth of the molecular line in millimeters. Also included in this column is a notation to indicate whether the line is a blend or lies on the shoulder(s) of another line(s). The final column repeats a question mark if the line is unidentified.

  9. Time and space-resolved energy flux measurements in the divertor of the ASDEX tokamak by computerized infrared thermography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, E.R.; Steinmetz, K.; Bein, B.K.

    1984-06-01

    A new, fully computerized and automatic thermographic system has been developed. Its two central components are an AGA THV 780 infrared camera and a PDP-11/34 computer. A combined analytical-numerical method of solving the 1-dimensional heat diffusion equation for a solid of finite thickness bounded by two parallel planes was developed. In high-density (anti nsub(e) = 8 x 10 13 cm -3 ) neutral-beam-heated (L-mode) divertor discharges in ASDEX, the power deposition on the neutralizer plates is reduced to about 10-15% of the total heating power, owing to the inelastic scattering of the divertor plasma from a neutral gas target. Between 30% and 40% of the power is missing in the global balance. The power flow inside the divertor chambers is restricted to an approximately 1-cm-thick plasma scrape-off layer. This width depends only weakly on the density and heating power. During H-phases free of Edge Localized Mode (ELM) activity the energy flow into the divertor is blocked. During H-phases with ELM activity the energy is expelled into the divertor in very short intense pulses (several MW for about one hundred μs). Sawtooth events are able to transport significant amounts of energy from the plasma core to the peripheral zones and the scrape-off layer, and they are frequently correlated with transitions from the L to the H mode. (orig./AH)

  10. Early results from the Infrared Astronomical Satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neugebauer, G.; Beichman, C.A.; Soifer, B.T.

    1984-01-01

    For 10 months the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) provided astronomers with what might be termed their first view of the infrared sky on a clear, dark night. Without IRAS, atmospheric absorption and the thermal emission from both the atmosphere and Earthbound telescopes make the task of the infrared astronomer comparable to what an optical astronomer would face if required to work only on cloudy afternoons. IRAS observations are serving astronomers in the same manner as the photographic plates of the Palomar Observatory Sky Survey; just as the optical survey has been used by all astronomers for over three decades, as a source of quantitative information about the sky and as a roadmap for future observations, the results of IRAS will be studied for years to come. IRAS has demonstrated the power of infrared astronomy from space. Already, from a brief look at a miniscule fraction of the data available, we have learned much about the solar system, about nearby stars, about the Galaxy as a whole and about distant extragalactic systems. Comets are much dustier than previously thought. Solid particles, presumably the remnants of the star-formation process, orbit around Vega and other stars and may provide the raw material for planetary systems. Emission from cool interstellar material has been traced throughout the Galaxy all the way to the galactic poles. Both the clumpiness and breadth of the distribution of this material were previously unsuspected. The far-infrared sky away from the galactic plane has been found to be dominate by spiral galaxies, some of which emit more than 50% and as much as 98% of their energy in the infrared - an exciting and surprising revelation. The IRAS mission is clearly the pathfinder for future mission that, to a large extent, will be devoted to the discoveries revealed by IRAS. 8 figures

  11. 46 CFR 72.20-50 - Heating and cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Heating and cooling. 72.20-50 Section 72.20-50 Shipping... Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 72.20-50 Heating and cooling. (a) All manned spaces must be adequately heated and cooled in a manner suitable to the purpose of the space. (b) The heating and cooling system...

  12. Neuronal Mechanisms and Bloodflow Control of Infrared Reception in Snakes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goris, Richard

    2004-01-01

    The infrared pit organs of pit vipers and pythons were studied with emphasis on bloodflow in the capillary bed and its possible role as a cooling mechanism for the pit receptors stimulated by infrared (= heat...

  13. Ventilative Cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Kolokotroni, Maria

    This report, by venticool, summarises the outcome of the work of the initial working phase of IEA ECB Annex 62 Ventilative Cooling and is based on the findings in the participating countries. It presents a summary of the first official Annex 62 report that describes the state-of-the-art of ventil......This report, by venticool, summarises the outcome of the work of the initial working phase of IEA ECB Annex 62 Ventilative Cooling and is based on the findings in the participating countries. It presents a summary of the first official Annex 62 report that describes the state......-of-the-art of ventilative cooling potentials and limitations, its consideration in current energy performance regulations, available building components and control strategies and analysis methods and tools. In addition, the report provides twenty six examples of operational buildings using ventilative cooling ranging from...

  14. Theoretical analysis of the performance of different cooling strategies with the concept of cool exergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Shukuya, Masanori; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2016-01-01

    The whole chains of exergy flows for different cooling systems were compared. The effects of cooling demand (internal vs. external solar shading), space cooling method (floor cooling vs. air cooling with ventilation system), and the availability of a nearby natural heat sink (intake air for the v......The whole chains of exergy flows for different cooling systems were compared. The effects of cooling demand (internal vs. external solar shading), space cooling method (floor cooling vs. air cooling with ventilation system), and the availability of a nearby natural heat sink (intake air...... for the ventilation system being outdoor air vs. air from the crawl-space, and air-to-water heat pump vs. ground heat exchanger as cooling source) on system exergy performance were investigated. It is crucial to minimize the cooling demand because it is possible to use a wide range of heat sinks (ground, lake, sea......-water, etc.) and indoor terminal units, only with a minimized demand. The water-based floor cooling system performed better than the air-based cooling system; when an air-to-water heat pump was used as the cooling source, the required exergy input was 28% smaller for the floor cooling system. The auxiliary...

  15. Daytime space cooling with phase change material ceiling panels discharged using rooftop photovoltaic/thermal panels and night-time ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourdakis, Eleftherios; Pean, Thibault Quentin; Gennari, Luca

    2016-01-01

    The possibility of using photovoltaic/thermal panels for producing cold water through the process of night-time radiative cooling was experimentally examined. The cold water was used to discharge phase change material in ceiling panels in a climatic chamber. Both night-time radiative cooling...... the photovoltaic/thermal varied from 56% to 122%. The phase change material ceiling panels were thus, capable of providing an acceptable thermal environment and the photovoltaic/thermal panels were able to provide most of the required electricity and cold water needed for cooling....

  16. Stacking with stochastic cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caspers, Fritz E-mail: Fritz.Caspers@cern.ch; Moehl, Dieter

    2004-10-11

    Accumulation of large stacks of antiprotons or ions with the aid of stochastic cooling is more delicate than cooling a constant intensity beam. Basically the difficulty stems from the fact that the optimized gain and the cooling rate are inversely proportional to the number of particles 'seen' by the cooling system. Therefore, to maintain fast stacking, the newly injected batch has to be strongly 'protected' from the Schottky noise of the stack. Vice versa the stack has to be efficiently 'shielded' against the high gain cooling system for the injected beam. In the antiproton accumulators with stacking ratios up to 10{sup 5} the problem is solved by radial separation of the injection and the stack orbits in a region of large dispersion. An array of several tapered cooling systems with a matched gain profile provides a continuous particle flux towards the high-density stack core. Shielding of the different systems from each other is obtained both through the spatial separation and via the revolution frequencies (filters). In the 'old AA', where the antiproton collection and stacking was done in one single ring, the injected beam was further shielded during cooling by means of a movable shutter. The complexity of these systems is very high. For more modest stacking ratios, one might use azimuthal rather than radial separation of stack and injected beam. Schematically half of the circumference would be used to accept and cool new beam and the remainder to house the stack. Fast gating is then required between the high gain cooling of the injected beam and the low gain stack cooling. RF-gymnastics are used to merge the pre-cooled batch with the stack, to re-create free space for the next injection, and to capture the new batch. This scheme is less demanding for the storage ring lattice, but at the expense of some reduction in stacking rate. The talk reviews the 'radial' separation schemes and also gives some

  17. CANDELS: THE COSMIC ASSEMBLY NEAR-INFRARED DEEP EXTRAGALACTIC LEGACY SURVEY—THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS, IMAGING DATA PRODUCTS, AND MOSAICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koekemoer, Anton M.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Grogin, Norman A.; Lotz, Jennifer M.; Lucas, Ray A.; Ogaz, Sara; Rajan, Abhijith; Casertano, Stefano; Dahlen, Tomas; Faber, S. M.; Kocevski, Dale D.; Koo, David C.; Lai, Kamson; McGrath, Elizabeth J.; Riess, Adam G.; Rodney, Steve A.; Dolch, Timothy; Strolger, Louis; Castellano, Marco; Dickinson, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the Hubble Space Telescope imaging data products and data reduction procedures for the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS). This survey is designed to document the evolution of galaxies and black holes at z ≈ 1.5-8, and to study Type Ia supernovae at z > 1.5. Five premier multi-wavelength sky regions are selected, each with extensive multi-wavelength observations. The primary CANDELS data consist of imaging obtained in the Wide Field Camera 3 infrared channel (WFC3/IR) and the WFC3 ultraviolet/optical channel, along with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS). The CANDELS/Deep survey covers ∼125 arcmin 2 within GOODS-N and GOODS-S, while the remainder consists of the CANDELS/Wide survey, achieving a total of ∼800 arcmin 2 across GOODS and three additional fields (Extended Groth Strip, COSMOS, and Ultra-Deep Survey). We summarize the observational aspects of the survey as motivated by the scientific goals and present a detailed description of the data reduction procedures and products from the survey. Our data reduction methods utilize the most up-to-date calibration files and image combination procedures. We have paid special attention to correcting a range of instrumental effects, including charge transfer efficiency degradation for ACS, removal of electronic bias-striping present in ACS data after Servicing Mission 4, and persistence effects and other artifacts in WFC3/IR. For each field, we release mosaics for individual epochs and eventual mosaics containing data from all epochs combined, to facilitate photometric variability studies and the deepest possible photometry. A more detailed overview of the science goals and observational design of the survey are presented in a companion paper.

  18. Cooling nuclear reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, W.H.L.

    1975-01-01

    Reference is made to water or water/steam cooled reactors of the fuel cluster type. In such reactors it is usual to mount the clusters in parallel spaced relationship so that coolant can pass freely between them, the coolant being passed axially from one end of the cluster in an upward direction through the cluster and being effective for cooling under normal circumstances. It has been suggested, however, that in addition to the main coolant flow an auxiliary coolant flow be provided so as to pass laterally into the cluster or be sprayed over the top of the cluster. This auxiliary supply may be continuously in use, or may be held in reserve for use in emergencies. Arrangements for providing this auxiliary cooling are described in detail. (U.K.)

  19. Early developments in solar cooling equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    A brief description of a development program to design, fabricate and field test a series of solar operated or driven cooling devices, undertaken by the Marshall Space Flight Center in the context of the Solar Heating and Cooling Demonstration Act of 1974, is presented. Attention is given to two basic design concepts: the Rankine cycle principle and the use of a dessicant for cooling.

  20. Cooling towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korik, L.; Burger, R.

    1992-01-01

    What is the effect of 0.6C (1F) temperature rise across turbines, compressors, or evaporators? Enthalpy charts indicate for every 0.6C (1F) hotter water off the cooling tower will require an additional 2 1/2% more energy cost. Therefore, running 2.2C (4F) warmer due to substandard cooling towers could result in a 10% penalty for overcoming high heads and temperatures. If it costs $1,250,000.00 a year to operate the system, $125,000.00 is the energy penalty for hotter water. This paper investigates extra fuel costs involved in maintaining design electric production with cooling water 0.6C (1F) to 3C (5.5F) hotter than design. If design KWH cannot be maintained, paper will calculate dollar loss of saleable electricity. The presentation will conclude with examining the main causes of deficient cold water production. State-of-the-art upgrading and methodology available to retrofit existing cooling towers to optimize lower cooling water temperatures will be discussed

  1. Cooling tower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norbaeck, P; Heneby, H

    1976-01-22

    Cooling towers to be transported on road vehicles as a unit are not allowed to exceed certain dimensions. In order to improve the efficiency of such a cooling tower (of cross-flow design and box-type body) with given dimensions, it is proposed to arrange at least one of the scrubbing bodies displaceable within a module or box. Then it can be moved out of the casing into working position, thereby increasing the front surface available for the inlet of air (and with it the efficiency) by nearly a factor of two.

  2. Passive cooling containment study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, J.J.; Iotti, R.C.; Wright, R.F.

    1993-01-01

    Pressure and temperature transients of nuclear reactor containment following postulated loss of coolant accident with a coincident station blackout due to total loss of all alternating current power are studied analytically and experimentally for the full scale NPR (New Production Reactor). All the reactor and containment cooling under this condition would rely on the passive cooling system which removes reactor decay heat and provides emergency core and containment cooling. Containment passive cooling for this study takes place in the annulus between containment steel shell and concrete shield building by natural convection air flow and thermal radiation. Various heat transfer coefficients inside annular air space were investigated by running the modified CONTEMPT code CONTEMPT-NPR. In order to verify proper heat transfer coefficient, temperature, heat flux, and velocity profiles were measured inside annular air space of the test facility which is a 24 foot (7.3m) high, steam heated inner cylinder of three foot (.91m) diameter and five and half foot (1.7m) diameter outer cylinder. Comparison of CONTEMPT-NPR and WGOTHIC was done for reduced scale NPR

  3. Germanium blocked impurity band far infrared detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossington, C.S.

    1988-04-01

    The infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum has been of interest to scientist since the eighteenth century when Sir William Herschel discovered the infrared as he measured temperatures in the sun's spectrum and found that there was energy beyond the red. In the late nineteenth century, Thomas Edison established himself as the first infrared astronomer to look beyond the solar system when he observed the star Arcturus in the infrared. Significant advances in infrared technology and physics, long since Edison's time, have resulted in many scientific developments, such as the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) which was launched in 1983, semiconductor infrared detectors for materials characterization, military equipment such as night-vision goggles and infrared surveillance equipment. It is now planned that cooled semiconductor infrared detectors will play a major role in the ''Star Wars'' nuclear defense scheme proposed by the Reagan administration

  4. Technology development for the Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) as a candidate large UV-Optical-Infrared (LUVOIR) surveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolcar, Matthew R.; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Clampin, Mark; Crooke, Julie; Feinberg, Lee; Postman, Marc; Quijada, Manuel; Rauscher, Bernard; Redding, David; Rioux, Norman; Shaklan, Stuart; Stahl, H. Philip; Stahle, Carl; Thronson, Harley

    2015-09-01

    The Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) team has identified five key technologies to enable candidate architectures for the future large-aperture ultraviolet/optical/infrared (LUVOIR) space observatory envisioned by the NASA Astrophysics 30-year roadmap, Enduring Quests, Daring Visions. The science goals of ATLAST address a broad range of astrophysical questions from early galaxy and star formation to the processes that contributed to the formation of life on Earth, combining general astrophysics with direct-imaging and spectroscopy of habitable exoplanets. The key technologies are: internal coronagraphs, starshades (or external occulters), ultra-stable large-aperture telescopes, detectors, and mirror coatings. Selected technology performance goals include: 1x10-10 raw contrast at an inner working angle of 35 milli-arcseconds, wavefront error stability on the order of 10 pm RMS per wavefront control step, autonomous on-board sensing and control, and zero-read-noise single-photon detectors spanning the exoplanet science bandpass between 400 nm and 1.8 μm. Development of these technologies will provide significant advances over current and planned observatories in terms of sensitivity, angular resolution, stability, and high-contrast imaging. The science goals of ATLAST are presented and flowed down to top-level telescope and instrument performance requirements in the context of a reference architecture: a 10-meter-class, segmented aperture telescope operating at room temperature (~290 K) at the sun-Earth Lagrange-2 point. For each technology area, we define best estimates of required capabilities, current state-of-the-art performance, and current Technology Readiness Level (TRL) - thus identifying the current technology gap. We report on current, planned, or recommended efforts to develop each technology to TRL 5.

  5. Discovery of a z = 7.452 High Equivalent Width Lyα Emitter from the Hubble Space Telescope  Faint Infrared Grism Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Rebecca L.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Pirzkal, Norbert; Ryan, Russell; Tilvi, Vithal; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James; Finkelstein, Keely; Jung, Intae; Christensen, Lise; Cimatti, Andrea; Ferreras, Ignacio; Grogin, Norman; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Hathi, Nimish; O’Connell, Robert; Östlin, Göran; Pasquali, Anna; Pharo, John; Rothberg, Barry; Windhorst, Rogier A.; The FIGS Team

    2018-05-01

    We present the results of an unbiased search for Lyα emission from continuum-selected 5.6 data set consists of 160 orbits of G102 slitless grism spectroscopy obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope(HST)/WFC3 as part of the Faint Infrared Grism Survey (FIGS; PI: Malhotra), which obtains deep slitless spectra of all sources in four fields, and was designed to minimize contamination in observations of previously identified high-redshift galaxy candidates. The FIGS data can potentially spectroscopically confirm the redshifts of galaxies, and as Lyα emission is resonantly scattered by neutral gas, FIGS can also constrain the ionization state of the intergalactic medium during the epoch of reionization. These data have sufficient depth to detect Lyα emission in this epoch, as Tilvi et al. have published the FIGS detection of previously known Lyα emission at z = 7.51. The FIGS data use five separate roll angles of HST to mitigate the contamination by nearby galaxies. We created a method that accounts for and removes the contamination from surrounding galaxies and also removes any dispersed continuum light from each individual spectrum. We searched for significant (>4σ) emission lines using two different automated detection methods, free of any visual inspection biases. Applying these methods on photometrically selected high-redshift candidates between 5.6 7 (140.3 ± 19.0 Å).

  6. Superconducting magnet cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Arend, Peter C.; Fowler, William B.

    1977-01-01

    A device is provided for cooling a conductor to the superconducting state. The conductor is positioned within an inner conduit through which is flowing a supercooled liquid coolant in physical contact with the conductor. The inner conduit is positioned within an outer conduit so that an annular open space is formed therebetween. Through the annular space is flowing coolant in the boiling liquid state. Heat generated by the conductor is transferred by convection within the supercooled liquid coolant to the inner wall of the inner conduit and then is removed by the boiling liquid coolant, making the heat removal from the conductor relatively independent of conductor length.

  7. 14 CFR 33.21 - Engine cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine cooling. 33.21 Section 33.21 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; General § 33.21 Engine cooling. Engine design and...

  8. A very cool cooling system

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    The NA62 Gigatracker is a jewel of technology: its sensor, which delivers the time of the crossing particles with a precision of less than 200 picoseconds (better than similar LHC detectors), has a cooling system that might become the precursor to a completely new detector technique.   The 115 metre long vacuum tank of the NA62 experiment. The NA62 Gigatracker (GTK) is composed of a set of three innovative silicon pixel detectors, whose job is to measure the arrival time and the position of the incoming beam particles. Installed in the heart of the NA62 detector, the silicon sensors are cooled down (to about -20 degrees Celsius) by a microfluidic silicon device. “The cooling system is needed to remove the heat produced by the readout chips the silicon sensor is bonded to,” explains Alessandro Mapelli, microsystems engineer working in the Physics department. “For the NA62 Gigatracker we have designed a cooling plate on top of which both the silicon sensor and the...

  9. Cooling pancakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, J.R.; Wilson, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    In theories of galaxy formation with a damping cut-off in the density fluctuation spectrum, the first non-linear structures to form are Zeldovich pancakes in which dissipation separates gas from any collisionless dark matter then present. One-dimensional numerical simulations of the collapse, shock heating, and subsequent thermal evolution of pancakes are described. Neutrinos (or any other cool collisionless particles) are followed by direct N-body methods and the gas by Eulerian hydrodynamics with conduction as well as cooling included. It is found that the pressure is relatively uniform within the shocked region and approximately equals the instantaneous ram pressure acting at the shock front. An analytic theory based upon this result accurately describes the numerical calculations. (author)

  10. Cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutant, C.C.

    1978-01-01

    Progress on the thermal effects project is reported with regard to physiology and distribution of Corbicula; power plant effects studies on burrowing mayfly populations; comparative thermal responses of largemouth bass from northern and southern populations; temperature selection by striped bass in Cherokee Reservoir; fish population studies; and predictive thermoregulation by fishes. Progress is also reported on the following; cause and ecological ramifications of threadfin shad impingement; entrainment project; aquaculture project; pathogenic amoeba project; and cooling tower drift project

  11. 蓄冰柜在密闭空间中的降温除湿性能分析%Cooling and dehumidification performance ofthe storage freezer in the emergency confined space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘立瑶; 茅靳丰; 侯普民; 陈飞

    2017-01-01

    To ensure the confined space within the environment of temperature and humidity in the acceptable range, according to the mine chamber cooling and dehumidification technology, a new type of storage freezer cooling and dehumidification device was developed based on numerical simulation of fluent and theoretical calculation.The device adopts the modular design, and the number of ice storage module can be adjusted according to the change of the load, and removed for cooling dehumidification of the natural convection when power is interruption.Melted water can also be used for drinking.Through experiments, cooling and dehumidification performance and insulation properties of the storage freezer in a forced convection conditions were obtained.The results show that under the same ambient conditions of temperature and humidity, the larger the inlet airflow, the larger the total cooling and dehumidification amount, but with the air temperature increase, relative humidity reduces, and cooling and dehumidification effect of the unit mass air decreases.Under the same air flow rate, the higher the ambient temperature and humidity, the more obvious the unit mass air cooling and dehumidification effect.The total heat transfered is approximately in direct proportion to the air flow rate, and the higher the ambient temperature and humidity, the greater the proportion coefficient.Under the condition that the air flow rate is more than 420 m3/h, the storage freezer cooling and dehumidification capacity can meet the cooling load of 15 people in the emergency confined space.%为保证密闭空间内环境的温湿度在人员可接受的范围内,参照矿用救生舱降温除湿技术,基于fluent数值模拟与理论计算,研制了一种新型蓄冰柜降温除湿装置.该装置采用模块化设计,可以根据负荷的变化调整蓄冰模块的数量,电力中断情况下可取出蓄冰模块进行自然对流降温除湿,融化后的水可以供人员饮用.通过实验,得

  12. The infrared astronomical mission AKARI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murakami, Hiroshi; Baba, Hajime; Barthel, Peter; Clements, David L.; Cohen, Martin; Doi, Yasuo; Enya, Keigo; Figueredo, Elysandra; Fujishiro, Naofumi; Fujiwara, Hideaki; Fujiwara, Mikio; Garcia-Lario, Pedro; Goto, Tomotsugu; Hasegawa, Sunao; Hibi, Yasunori; Hirao, Takanori; Hiromoto, Norihisa; Hong, Seung Soo; Imai, Koji; Ishigaki, Miho; Ishiguro, Masateru; Ishihara, Daisuke; Ita, Yoshifusa; Jeong, Woong-Seob; Jeong, Kyung Sook; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Kataza, Hirokazu; Kawada, Mitsunobu; Kawai, Toshihide; Kawamura, Akiko; Kessler, Martin F.; Kester, Do; Kii, Tsuneo; Kim, Dong Chan; Kim, Wjung; Kobayashi, Hisato; Koo, Bon Chul; Kwon, Suk Minn; Lee, Hyung Mok; Lorente, Rosario; Makiuti, Sin'itirou; Matsuhara, Hideo; Matsumoto, Toshio; Matsuo, Hiroshi; Matsuura, Shuji; Mueller, Thomas G.; Murakami, Noriko; Nagata, Hirohisa; Nakagawa, Takao; Naoi, Takahiro; Narita, Masanao; Noda, Manabu; Oh, Sang Hoon; Ohnishi, Akira; Ohyama, Youichi; Okada, Yoko; Okuda, Haruyuki; Oliver, Sebastian; Onaka, Takashi; Ootsubo, Takafumi; Oyabu, Shinki; Pak, Sojong; Park, Yong-Sun; Pearson, Chris P.; Rowan-Robinson, Michael; Saito, Toshinobu; Sakon, Itsuki; Salama, Alberto; Sato, Shinji; Savage, Richard S.; Serjeant, Stephen; Shibai, Hiroshi; Shirahata, Mai; Sohn, Jungjoo; Suzuki, Toyoaki; Takagi, Toshinobu; Takahashi, Hidenori; Tanabe, Toshihiko; Takeuchi, Tsutomu T.; Takita, Satoshi; Thomson, Matthew; Uemizu, Kazunori; Ueno, Munetaka; Usui, Fumihiko; Verdugo, Eva; Wada, Takehiko; Wang, Lingyu; Watabe, Toyoki; Watarai, Hidenori; White, Glenn J.; Yamamura, Issei; Yamauchi, Chisato; Yasuda, Akiko

    2007-01-01

    AKARI, the first Japanese satellite dedicated to infrared astronomy, was launched on 2006 February 21, and started observations in May of the same year. AKARI has a 68.5 cm cooled telescope, together with two focal-plane instruments, which survey the sky in six wavelength bands from mid- to

  13. Active space cooling with night-coldness - development of a decentralized ventilation system with latent heat storage; Aktive Raumkuehlung mit Nachkaelte - Entwicklung eines dezentralen Lueftungsgeraetes mit Latentwaermespeicher. Imtech-Haus, Hamburg Referenzanlage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luedemann, B.; Detzer, R. [Imtech Deutschland, Hamburg (Germany)

    2007-04-15

    Imtech Germany a decentralized ventilation system with a latent heat-storage unit made of Phase Change Material. The equipment was used successfully in a first reference asset in the Imtech house in Hamburg. During the day active space cooling is realized by storage of night-cold. In combination with a night ventilation the attached areas could be held continuous within the comfort range under 26 C under normal summer conditions. The decentralized ventilation system including control is developed to series production readiness and will be introduced now on the market. (orig.)

  14. Infrared detectors and test technology of cryogenic camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaole; Liu, Xingxin; Xing, Mailing; Ling, Long

    2016-10-01

    Cryogenic camera which is widely used in deep space detection cools down optical system and support structure by cryogenic refrigeration technology, thereby improving the sensitivity. Discussing the characteristics and design points of infrared detector combined with camera's characteristics. At the same time, cryogenic background test systems of chip and detector assembly are established. Chip test system is based on variable cryogenic and multilayer Dewar, and assembly test system is based on target and background simulator in the thermal vacuum environment. The core of test is to establish cryogenic background. Non-uniformity, ratio of dead pixels and noise of test result are given finally. The establishment of test system supports for the design and calculation of infrared systems.

  15. INFRARED TRANSMISSION SPECTROSCOPY OF THE EXOPLANETS HD 209458b AND XO-1b USING THE WIDE FIELD CAMERA-3 ON THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deming, Drake; Wilkins, Ashlee [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); McCullough, Peter; Crouzet, Nicolas [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Burrows, Adam [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544-1001 (United States); Fortney, Jonathan J. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Agol, Eric; Dobbs-Dixon, Ian [NASA Astrobiology Institute' s Virtual Planetary Laboratory (United States); Madhusudhan, Nikku [Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Desert, Jean-Michel; Knutson, Heather A.; Line, Michael [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Gilliland, Ronald L. [Center for Exoplanets and Habitable Worlds, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Haynes, Korey [Department of Physics and Astronomy, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Magic, Zazralt [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, D-85741 Garching (Germany); Mandell, Avi M.; Clampin, Mark [NASA' s Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Ranjan, Sukrit; Charbonneau, David [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Seager, Sara, E-mail: ddeming@astro.umd.edu [Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); and others

    2013-09-10

    Exoplanetary transmission spectroscopy in the near-infrared using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) NICMOS is currently ambiguous because different observational groups claim different results from the same data, depending on their analysis methodologies. Spatial scanning with HST/WFC3 provides an opportunity to resolve this ambiguity. We here report WFC3 spectroscopy of the giant planets HD 209458b and XO-1b in transit, using spatial scanning mode for maximum photon-collecting efficiency. We introduce an analysis technique that derives the exoplanetary transmission spectrum without the necessity of explicitly decorrelating instrumental effects, and achieves nearly photon-limited precision even at the high flux levels collected in spatial scan mode. Our errors are within 6% (XO-1) and 26% (HD 209458b) of the photon-limit at a resolving power of {lambda}/{delta}{lambda} {approx} 70, and are better than 0.01% per spectral channel. Both planets exhibit water absorption of approximately 200 ppm at the water peak near 1.38 {mu}m. Our result for XO-1b contradicts the much larger absorption derived from NICMOS spectroscopy. The weak water absorption we measure for HD 209458b is reminiscent of the weakness of sodium absorption in the first transmission spectroscopy of an exoplanet atmosphere by Charbonneau et al. Model atmospheres having uniformly distributed extra opacity of 0.012 cm{sup 2} g{sup -1} account approximately for both our water measurement and the sodium absorption. Our results for HD 209458b support the picture advocated by Pont et al. in which weak molecular absorptions are superposed on a transmission spectrum that is dominated by continuous opacity due to haze and/or dust. However, the extra opacity needed for HD 209458b is grayer than for HD 189733b, with a weaker Rayleigh component.

  16. Infrared Sky Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Stephan D.

    2009-02-01

    A retrospective is given on infrared sky surveys from Thomas Edison’s proposal in the late 1870s to IRAS, the first sensitive mid- to far-infrared all-sky survey, and the mid-1990s experiments that filled in the IRAS deficiencies. The emerging technology for space-based surveys is highlighted, as is the prominent role the US Defense Department, particularly the Air Force, played in developing and applying detector and cryogenic sensor advances to early mid-infrared probe-rocket and satellite-based surveys. This technology was transitioned to the infrared astronomical community in relatively short order and was essential to the success of IRAS, COBE and ISO. Mention is made of several of the little known early observational programs that were superseded by more successful efforts.

  17. Solar thermal heating and cooling. A bibliography with abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenson, M.

    1979-01-01

    This bibliographic series cites and abstracts the literature and technical papers on the heating and cooling of buildings with solar thermal energy. Over 650 citations are arranged in the following categories: space heating and cooling systems; space heating and cooling models; building energy conservation; architectural considerations, thermal load computations; thermal load measurements, domestic hot water, solar and atmospheric radiation, swimming pools; and economics.

  18. INFRARED GLOBAL GEOSTATIONARY COMPOSITE V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The National Center for Environmental Prediction/Aviation Weather Center Infrared Global Geostationary Composite data set contains global composite images from the...

  19. Cool WISPs for stellar cooling excesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannotti, Maurizio [Physical Sciences, Barry University, 11300 NE 2nd Avenue, Miami Shores, FL 33161 (United States); Irastorza, Igor; Redondo, Javier [Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad de Zaragoza, Pedro Cerbuna 12, E-50009, Zaragoza, España (Spain); Ringwald, Andreas, E-mail: mgiannotti@barry.edu, E-mail: igor.irastorza@cern.ch, E-mail: jredondo@unizar.es, E-mail: andreas.ringwald@desy.de [Theory group, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestraße 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-05-01

    Several stellar systems (white dwarfs, red giants, horizontal branch stars and possibly the neutron star in the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A) show a mild preference for a non-standard cooling mechanism when compared with theoretical models. This exotic cooling could be provided by Weakly Interacting Slim Particles (WISPs), produced in the hot cores and abandoning the star unimpeded, contributing directly to the energy loss. Taken individually, these excesses do not show a strong statistical weight. However, if one mechanism could consistently explain several of them, the hint could be significant. We analyze the hints in terms of neutrino anomalous magnetic moments, minicharged particles, hidden photons and axion-like particles (ALPs). Among them, the ALP or a massless HP represent the best solution. Interestingly, the hinted ALP parameter space is accessible to the next generation proposed ALP searches, such as ALPS II and IAXO and the massless HP requires a multi TeV energy scale of new physics that might be accessible at the LHC.

  20. Cool WISPs for stellar cooling excesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannotti, Maurizio; Irastorza, Igor; Redondo, Javier; Ringwald, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Several stellar systems (white dwarfs, red giants, horizontal branch stars and possibly the neutron star in the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A) show a mild preference for a non-standard cooling mechanism when compared with theoretical models. This exotic cooling could be provided by Weakly Interacting Slim Particles (WISPs), produced in the hot cores and abandoning the star unimpeded, contributing directly to the energy loss. Taken individually, these excesses do not show a strong statistical weight. However, if one mechanism could consistently explain several of them, the hint could be significant. We analyze the hints in terms of neutrino anomalous magnetic moments, minicharged particles, hidden photons and axion-like particles (ALPs). Among them, the ALP or a massless HP represent the best solution. Interestingly, the hinted ALP parameter space is accessible to the next generation proposed ALP searches, such as ALPS II and IAXO and the massless HP requires a multi TeV energy scale of new physics that might be accessible at the LHC.

  1. Spectrally-Tunable Infrared Camera Based on Highly-Sensitive Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a SPECTRALLY-TUNABLE INFRARED CAMERA based on quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) focal plane array (FPA) technology. This will build on...

  2. Handheld Longwave Infrared Camera Based on Highly-Sensitive Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a compact handheld longwave infrared camera based on quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) focal plane array (FPA) technology. Based on...

  3. Cool snacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Brock, Steen; Brunsø, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Young people snack and their snacking habits are not always healthy. We address the questions whether it is possible to develop a new snack product that adolescents will find attractive, even though it is based on ingredients as healthy as fruits and vegetables, and we argue that developing...... such a product requires an interdisciplinary effort where researchers with backgrounds in psychology, anthropology, media science, philosophy, sensory science and food science join forces. We present the COOL SNACKS project, where such a blend of competences was used first to obtain thorough insight into young...... people's snacking behaviour and then to develop and test new, healthier snacking solutions. These new snacking solutions were tested and found to be favourably accepted by young people. The paper therefore provides a proof of principle that the development of snacks that are both healthy and attractive...

  4. Cool visitors

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Pictured, from left to right: Tim Izo (saxophone, flute, guitar), Bobby Grant (tour manager), George Pajon (guitar). What do the LHC and a world-famous hip-hop group have in common? They are cool! On Saturday, 1st July, before their appearance at the Montreux Jazz Festival, three members of the 'Black Eyed Peas' came on a surprise visit to CERN, inspired by Dan Brown's Angels and Demons. At short notice, Connie Potter (Head of the ATLAS secretariat) organized a guided tour of ATLAS and the AD 'antimatter factory'. Still curious, lead vocalist Will.I.Am met CERN physicist Rolf Landua after the concert to ask many more questions on particles, CERN, and the origin of the Universe.

  5. Infrared emission from supernova condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwek, E.; Werner, M.W.

    1981-01-01

    We examine the possibility of detecting grains formed in supernovae by observations of their emission in the infrared. The basic processes determining the temperature and infrared radiation of grains in supernovae environments are analyzed, and the results are used to estimate the infrared emission from the highly metal enriched ''fast moving knots'' in Cas A. The predicted fluxes lie within the reach of current ground-based facilities at 10 μm, and their emission should be detectable throughout the infrared band with cryogenic space telescopes

  6. Stochastic cooling in muon colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barletta, W.A.; Sessler, A.M.

    1993-09-01

    Analysis of muon production techniques for high energy colliders indicates the need for rapid and effective beam cooling in order that one achieve luminosities > 10 30 cm -2 s -1 as required for high energy physics experiments. This paper considers stochastic cooling to increase the phase space density of the muons in the collider. Even at muon energies greater than 100 GeV, the number of muons per bunch must be limited to ∼10 3 for the cooling rate to be less than the muon lifetime. With such a small number of muons per bunch, the final beam emittance implied by the luminosity requirement is well below the thermodynamic limit for beam electronics at practical temperatures. Rapid bunch stacking after the cooling process can raise the number of muons per bunch to a level consistent with both the luminosity goals and with practical temperatures for the stochastic cooling electronics. A major advantage of our stochastic cooling/stacking scheme over scenarios that employ only ionization cooling is that the power on the production target can be reduced below 1 MW

  7. Gas cooled HTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweiger, F.

    1985-01-01

    In the He-cooled, graphite-moderated HTR with spherical fuel elements, the steam generator is fixed outside the pressure vessel. The heat exchangers are above the reactor level. The hot gases stream from the reactor bottom over the heat exchanger, through an annular space around the heat exchanger and through feed lines in the side reflector of the reactor back to its top part. This way, in case of shutdown there is a supplementary natural draught that helps the inner natural circulation (chimney draught effect). (orig./PW)

  8. Infrared thermography

    CERN Document Server

    Meola, Carosena

    2012-01-01

    This e-book conveys information about basic IRT theory, infrared detectors, signal digitalization and applications of infrared thermography in many fields such as medicine, foodstuff conservation, fluid-dynamics, architecture, anthropology, condition monitoring, non destructive testing and evaluation of materials and structures.

  9. A Climatology of Tropospheric CO over the Central and Southeastern United States and the Southwestern Pacific Ocean Derived from Space, Air, and Ground-based Infrared Interferometer Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillian, W. Wallace; Strow, L. Larrabee; Revercomb, H.; Knuteson, R.; Thompson, A.

    2003-01-01

    This final report summarizes all research activities and publications undertaken as part of NASA Atmospheric Chemistry and Modeling Analysis Program (ACMAP) Grant NAG-1-2022, 'A Climatology of Tropospheric CO over the Central and Southeastern United States and the Southwestern Pacific Ocean Derived from Space, Air, and Ground-based Infrared Interferometer Spectra'. Major project accomplishments include: (1) analysis of more than 300,000 AERI spectra from the ARM SGP site yielding a 5-year (1998-2002) timeseries of CO retrievals from the Lamont, OK AERI; (2) development of a prototype CO profile retrieval algorithm for AERI spectra; (3) validation and publication of the first CO retrievals from the Scanning High-resolution Interferometer Sounder (SHIS); and (4) development of a prototype AERI tropospheric O3 retrieval algorithm. Compilation and publication of the 5-year Lamont, OK timeseries is underway including a new collaboration with scientists at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Public access to this data will be provided upon article submission. A comprehensive CO analysis of the archive of HIS spectra of remains as the only originally proposed activity with little progress. The greatest challenge faced in this project was motivating the University of Wisconsin Co-Investigators to deliver their archived HIS and AERIOO data along with the requisite temperature and water vapor profiles in a timely manner. Part of the supplied HIS dataset from ASHOE may be analyzed as part of a Master s Thesis under a separate project. Our success with the SAFARI 2000 SHIS CO analysis demonstrates the utility of such aircraft remote sensing data given the proper support from the instrument investigators. In addition to the PI and Co-I s, personnel involved in this CO climatology project include one Post Doctoral Fellow, one Research Scientist, two graduate students, and two undergraduate students. A total of fifteen presentations regarding research related to this

  10. Active and passive cooling methods for dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oropeza-Perez, Ivan; Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2018-01-01

    In this document a review of three active as well as ten passive cooling methods suitable for residential buildings is carried out. The review firstly addresses how the various technologies cool the space according to the terms of the building heat balance, under what technical conditions...... ventilation, controlled ventilation, roof coating and eco-evaporative cooling are the most suitable passive methods for an extensive use in this country....

  11. nBn Infrared Detector Containing Graded Absorption Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunapala, Sarath D.; Ting, David Z.; Hill, Cory J.; Bandara, Sumith V.

    2009-01-01

    It has been proposed to modify the basic structure of an nBn infrared photodetector so that a plain electron-donor- type (n-type) semiconductor contact layer would be replaced by a graded n-type III V alloy semiconductor layer (i.e., ternary or quarternary) with appropriate doping gradient. The abbreviation nBn refers to one aspect of the unmodified basic device structure: There is an electron-barrier ("B" ) layer between two n-type ("n" ) layers, as shown in the upper part of the figure. One of the n-type layers is the aforementioned photon-absorption layer; the other n-type layer, denoted the contact layer, collects the photocurrent. The basic unmodified device structure utilizes minority-charge-carrier conduction, such that, for reasons too complex to explain within the space available for this article, the dark current at a given temperature can be orders of magnitude lower (and, consequently, signal-to-noise ratios can be greater) than in infrared detectors of other types. Thus, to obtain a given level of performance, less cooling (and, consequently, less cooling equipment and less cooling power) is needed. [In principle, one could obtain the same advantages by means of a structure that would be called pBp because it would include a barrier layer between two electron-acceptor- type (p-type) layers.] The proposed modifications could make it practical to utilize nBn photodetectors in conjunction with readily available, compact thermoelectric coolers in diverse infrared- imaging applications that could include planetary exploration, industrial quality control, monitoring pollution, firefighting, law enforcement, and medical diagnosis.

  12. Radiant cooling of an enclosure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chebihi, Abdeslam; Byun, Ki-Hong; Wen Jin; Smith, Theodore F.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the potential for radiant cooling using the atmospheric sky window and to evaluate the desired characteristics of a radiant cooling material (RCM) applied to the ceiling window of a three-dimensional enclosure. The thermal characteristics of the system are governed by the geometry, ambient temperature, sky radiative temperature, amount of solar energy and its direction, heat transfer modes, wall radiative properties, and radiative properties of the RCMs. A semi-gray band analysis is utilized for the solar and infrared bands. The radiosity/irradiation method is used in each band to evaluate the radiant exchanges in the enclosure. The radiative properties for the RCM are varied in a parametric study to identify the desired properties of RCMs. For performance simulation of real RCMs, the radiative properties are calculated from spectral data. The desired solar property is a high reflectance for both opaque and semi-transparent RCMs. For a semi-transparent RCM, a low value of the solar transmittance is preferred. The desired infrared property is a high emittance for an opaque RCM. For a semi-transparent RCM, a high infrared transmittance is desired, and the emittance should be greater than zero

  13. WORKSHOP: Beam cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Cooling - the control of unruly particles to provide well-behaved beams - has become a major new tool in accelerator physics. The main approaches of electron cooling pioneered by Gersh Budker at Novosibirsk and stochastic cooling by Simon van der Meer at CERN, are now complemented by additional ideas, such as laser cooling of ions and ionization cooling of muons

  14. Cavity sideband cooling of trapped molecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kowalewski, Markus; Morigi, Giovanna; Pinkse, Pepijn Willemszoon Harry; de Vivie-Riedle, Regina

    2011-01-01

    The efficiency of cavity sideband cooling of trapped molecules is theoretically investigated for the case in which the infrared transition between two rovibrational states is used as a cycling transition. The molecules are assumed to be trapped either by a radiofrequency or optical trapping

  15. Huge opportunity for solar cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    which use different components or the same components in an alternate configuration. A number of variants are technically proven and available for commercial and industrial installations. Each variant uses standard 'off the shelf' FIVAC industry components which are available in both Australia and overseas. A typical solar cooling system is also able to supply broader energy needs of a building including space heating and hot water.

  16. Dynamics of RF captured cooled proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kells, W.; Mills, F.

    1983-01-01

    In the course of electron cooling experiments at the Electron Cooling Ring (ECR) at Fermilab, several peculiar features of the longitudinal phase space of cold protons (200 MeV) captured in RF buckets were observed. Here we present the experimental facts, present a simple theory, and summarize computer simulation results which support the theory and facts

  17. Energy resource alternatives competition. Progress report for the period February 1, 1975--December 31, 1975. [Space heating and cooling, hot water, and electricity for homes, farms, and light industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matzke, D.J.; Osowski, D.M.; Radtke, M.L.

    1976-01-01

    This progress report describes the objectives and results of the intercollegiate Energy Resource Alternatives competition. The one-year program concluded in August 1975, with a final testing program of forty student-built alternative energy projects at the Sandia Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The goal of the competition was to design and build prototype hardware which could provide space heating and cooling, hot water, and electricity at a level appropriate to the needs of homes, farms, and light industry. The hardware projects were powered by such nonconventional energy sources as solar energy, wind, biologically produced gas, coal, and ocean waves. The competition rules emphasized design innovation, economic feasibility, practicality, and marketability. (auth)

  18. Auxiliary cooling device for power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanoi, Kozo.

    1996-01-01

    An auxiliary cooling sea water pipeline for pumping up cooling sea water, an auxiliary cooling sea water pipeline and a primary side of an auxiliary cooling heat exchanger are connected between a sea water taking vessel and a sea water discharge pit. An auxiliary cooling water pump is connected to an auxiliary water cooling pipeline on the second side of the auxiliary cooling heat exchanger. The auxiliary cooling water pipeline is connected with each of auxiliary equipments of a reactor system and each of auxiliary equipments of the turbine system connected to a turbine auxiliary cooling water pipeline in parallel. During ordinary operation of the reactor, heat exchange for each of the auxiliary equipments of the reactor and heat exchange for each of the equipments of the turbine system are conducted simultaneously. Since most portions of the cooling devices of each of the auxiliary equipments of the reactor system and each of the auxiliary equipments of the turbine system can be used in common, the operation efficiency of the cooling device is improved. In addition, the space for the pipelines and the cost for the equipments can be reduced. (I.N.)

  19. Assessment of tissue oxygen saturation during a vascular occlusion test using near-infrared spectroscopy: the role of probe spacing and measurement site studied in healthy volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer, R.; Lima, A.; Myers, D.; Klijn, E.; Heger, M.; Goedhart, P.T.; Bakker, J.; Ince, C.

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: To assess potential metabolic and microcirculatory alterations in critically ill patients, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been used, in combination with a vascular occlusion test (VOT), for the non-invasive measurement of tissue oxygen saturation (StO2), oxygen consumption, and

  20. Stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) integrated with earth to air heat exchanger (EAHE) for space heating/cooling of adobe house in New Delhi (India)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chel, Arvind; Tiwari, G.N.

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with an experimental outdoor annual performance evaluation of 2.32 kW P photovoltaic (PV) power system located at solar energy park in New Delhi composite climatic conditions. This PV system operates the daily electrical load nearly 10 kW h/day which comprises of various applications such as electric air blower of an earth to air heat exchanger (EAHE) used for heating/cooling of adobe house, ceiling fan, fluorescent tube-light, computer, submersible water pump, etc. The outdoor efficiencies, power generated and lost in PV system components were determined using hourly experimental measured data for 1 year on typical clear day in each month. These realistic data are useful for design engineers for outdoor assessment of PV system components. The energy conservation, mitigation of CO 2 emission and carbon credit potential of the existing PV integrated EAHE system is presented in this paper. Also, the energy payback time (EPBT) and unit cost of electricity were determined for both stand-alone PV (SAPV) and building roof integrated PV (BIPV) systems.

  1. Radiative Cooling: Principles, Progress, and Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md. Muntasir

    2016-01-01

    The recent progress on radiative cooling reveals its potential for applications in highly efficient passive cooling. This approach utilizes the maximized emission of infrared thermal radiation through the atmospheric window for releasing heat and minimized absorption of incoming atmospheric radiation. These simultaneous processes can lead to a device temperature substantially below the ambient temperature. Although the application of radiative cooling for nighttime cooling was demonstrated a few decades ago, significant cooling under direct sunlight has been achieved only recently, indicating its potential as a practical passive cooler during the day. In this article, the basic principles of radiative cooling and its performance characteristics for nonradiative contributions, solar radiation, and atmospheric conditions are discussed. The recent advancements over the traditional approaches and their material and structural characteristics are outlined. The key characteristics of the thermal radiators and solar reflectors of the current state‐of‐the‐art radiative coolers are evaluated and their benchmarks are remarked for the peak cooling ability. The scopes for further improvements on radiative cooling efficiency for optimized device characteristics are also theoretically estimated. PMID:27812478

  2. Radio-contaminant behaviour in the cover-gas space and the containment building of a sodium-cooled fast reactor in accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathe, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    In the context of the Generation IV initiative, the consequences of a severe-accident (SA) in a sodium-cooled fast reactor must be studied. A SFR (Sodium cooled Fast Reactor) severe accident involves the disruption of the core by super-criticality involving the destruction of a certain number of fuel assemblies. Subsequently the interaction between hot fuel and liquid sodium can lead to a vapor explosion which could create a breach in the primary system. Some contaminated liquid sodium would thus be ejected into the containment building. In this situation, the evaluation of potential releases to the environment (the source term) must forecast the quantity and the chemical speciation of the radio-contaminants likely to be released from the containment building. One critical risk of a SA is the production of contaminated aerosols in the containment building by spray ejection of primary-system sodium. Being pyrophoric, the sodium droplets react with oxygen first oxidizing then burning, with significant heat of combustion. As well as evaluating the consequences of a pressure rise inside the containment, the evolution of the sodium must be assessed since not only is it activated and contaminated but, in oxide form, very toxic. Ultimately, the aerosols are the main radiological risk acting as the vector for radionuclide transport to the environment in the event of a problem with the confinement. These aerosols could evolve and interact with the FP (Fissile Products) and these interactions could modify the physical and chemical nature of the PF. We model a large part of the events that occur during a SA inside a SFR from the sodium spray fire to the reaction between sodium aerosols and PF (iodine). At first, we develop a numerical model (NATRAC) that simulates the sodium spray fire, calculates the temperature and the pressure inside the containment as well as the mass of aerosols produced during this kind of fire. The simulation has been validated with different

  3. Cooled Ceramic Matrix Composite Propulsion Structures Demonstrated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaskowiak, Martha H.; Dickens, Kevin W.

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Next Generation Launch Technology (NGLT) Program has successfully demonstrated cooled ceramic matrix composite (CMC) technology in a scramjet engine test. This demonstration represented the world s largest cooled nonmetallic matrix composite panel fabricated for a scramjet engine and the first cooled nonmetallic composite to be tested in a scramjet facility. Lightweight, high-temperature, actively cooled structures have been identified as a key technology for enabling reliable and low-cost space access. Tradeoff studies have shown this to be the case for a variety of launch platforms, including rockets and hypersonic cruise vehicles. Actively cooled carbon and CMC structures may meet high-performance goals at significantly lower weight, while improving safety by operating with a higher margin between the design temperature and material upper-use temperature. Studies have shown that using actively cooled CMCs can reduce the weight of the cooled flow-path component from 4.5 to 1.6 lb/sq ft and the weight of the propulsion system s cooled surface area by more than 50 percent. This weight savings enables advanced concepts, increased payload, and increased range. The ability of the cooled CMC flow-path components to operate over 1000 F hotter than the state-of-the-art metallic concept adds system design flexibility to space-access vehicle concepts. Other potential system-level benefits include smaller fuel pumps, lower part count, lower cost, and increased operating margin.

  4. Cooled Water Production System,

    Science.gov (United States)

    The invention refers to the field of air conditioning and regards an apparatus for obtaining cooled water . The purpose of the invention is to develop...such a system for obtaining cooled water which would permit the maximum use of the cooling effect of the water -cooling tower.

  5. Process fluid cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farquhar, N.G.; Schwab, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    A system of heat exchangers is disclosed for cooling process fluids. The system is particularly applicable to cooling steam generator blowdown fluid in a nuclear plant prior to chemical purification of the fluid in which it minimizes the potential of boiling of the plant cooling water which cools the blowdown fluid

  6. Origins Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooray, Asantha; Origins Space Telescope Study Team

    2018-01-01

    The Origins Space Telescope (OST) is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, a study in development by NASA in preparation for the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey. Origins is planned to be a large aperture, actively-cooled telescope covering a wide span of the mid- to far-infrared spectrum. Its spectrographs will enable 3D surveys of the sky that will discover and characterize the most distant galaxies, Milky-Way, exoplanets, and the outer reaches of our Solar system. Origins will enable flagship-quality general observing programs led by the astronomical community in the 2030s. The Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) would like to hear your science needs and ideas for this mission. The team can be contacted at firsurveyor_info@lists.ipac.caltech.edu. This presentation will provide a summary of the OST STDT, our completed first mission concept and an introduction to the second concept that will be studied at the study center in 2018. This presentation will also summarize key science drivers and the key study milestones between 2018 and 2020.

  7. Hygrothermal conditions in cold, north facing attic spaces under the eaves with vapour-open roofing underlay in a cool, temperate climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarløv, Søren Peter; Johnston, C.J.; Hansen, M.H.

    2016-01-01

    compliance with the current Danish Building Regulations (BR10) for airtightness (moisture levels in attics with vapour-open roofing underlays. North facing cold attic spaces under the eaves constitute a worst case scenario. Following best...... to allow an influx of 3.3 l/s of conditioned indoor air 20 °C and 60% RH at a pressure difference of 50 Pa) and ventilation (singled-sided, passive ventilation) contained more moisture and had significantly higher levels of mould growth than the non-ventilated attics. Under the same physical conditions...... the ‘pressure equalized’ attic rooms were found to have moisture levels in between those observed in the ventilated and non-ventilated attic rooms. Likewise, the observed levels of mould growth were in between those observed in the cases of the ventilated and non-ventilated attic rooms. Attics with reduced...

  8. A space simulation test chamber development for the investigation of radiometric properties of materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enlow, D. L.

    1972-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and preliminary utilization of a thermal vacuum space simulation facility are discussed. The facility was required to perform studies on the thermal radiation properties of materials. A test chamber was designed to provide high pumping speed, low pressure, a low photon level radiation background (via high emissivity, coated, finned cryopanels), internal heat sources for rapid warmup, and rotary and linear motion of the irradiated materials specimen. The radiation detection system consists of two wideband infrared photoconductive detectors, their cryogenic coolers, a cryogenic-cooled blackbody source, and a cryogenic-cooled optical radiation modulator.

  9. Cooled spool piston compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Brian G. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A hydraulically powered gas compressor receives low pressure gas and outputs a high pressure gas. The housing of the compressor defines a cylinder with a center chamber having a cross-sectional area less than the cross-sectional area of a left end chamber and a right end chamber, and a spool-type piston assembly is movable within the cylinder and includes a left end closure, a right end closure, and a center body that are in sealing engagement with the respective cylinder walls as the piston reciprocates. First and second annual compression chambers are provided between the piston enclosures and center housing portion of the compressor, thereby minimizing the spacing between the core gas and a cooled surface of the compressor. Restricted flow passageways are provided in the piston closure members and a path is provided in the central body of the piston assembly, such that hydraulic fluid flows through the piston assembly to cool the piston assembly during its operation. The compressor of the present invention may be easily adapted for a particular application, and is capable of generating high gas pressures while maintaining both the compressed gas and the compressor components within acceptable temperature limits.

  10. Hybrid radiator cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, David M.; Smith, David S.; Yu, Wenhua; Routbort, Jules L.

    2016-03-15

    A method and hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus for implementing enhanced radiator-cooling are provided. The hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus includes an air-side finned surface for air cooling; an elongated vertically extending surface extending outwardly from the air-side finned surface on a downstream air-side of the hybrid radiator; and a water supply for selectively providing evaporative cooling with water flow by gravity on the elongated vertically extending surface.

  11. Analysis of loss-of-coolant accident for a fast-spectrum lithium-cooled nuclear reactor for space-power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, G. E.; Petrik, E. J.; Kieffer, A. W.

    1972-01-01

    A two-dimensional, transient, heat-transfer analysis was made to determine the temperature response in the core of a conceptual space-power nuclear reactor following a total loss of reactor coolant. With loss of coolant from the reactor, the controlling mode of heat transfer is thermal radiation. In one of the schemes considered for removing decay heat from the core, it was assumed that the 4 pi shield which surrounds the core acts as a constant-temperature sink (temperature, 700 K) for absorption of thermal radiation from the core. Results based on this scheme of heat removal show that melting of fuel in the core is possible only when the emissivity of the heat-radiating surfaces in the core is less than about 0.40. In another scheme for removing the afterheat, the core centerline fuel pin was replaced by a redundant, constant temperature, coolant channel. Based on an emissivity of 0.20 for all material surfaces in the core, the calculated maximum fuel temperature for this scheme of heat removal was 2840 K, or about 90 K less than the melting temperature of the UN fuel.

  12. Flexible Transpiration Cooled Thermal Protection System for Inflatable Atmospheric Capture and Entry Systems, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Andrews Space, Inc. proposes an innovative transpiration cooled aerobrake TPS design that is thermally protective, structurally flexible, and lightweight. This...

  13. Flexible Transpiration Cooled Thermal Protection System for Inflatable Atmospheric Capture and Entry Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Andrews Space, Inc. proposes an innovative transpiration cooled aerobrake TPS design that is thermally protective, structurally flexible, and lightweight. This...

  14. Emergency Cooling of Nuclear Power Plant Reactors With Heat Removal By a Forced-Draft Cooling Tower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murav’ev, V. P., E-mail: murval1@mail.ru

    2016-07-15

    The feasibility of heat removal during emergency cooling of a reactor by a forced-draft cooling tower with accumulation of the peak heat release in a volume of precooled water is evaluated. The advantages of a cooling tower over a spray cooling pond are demonstrated: it requires less space, consumes less material, employs shorter lines in the heat removal system, and provides considerably better protection of the environment from wetting by entrained moisture.

  15. The science case and data processing strategy for the Thinned Aperture Light Collector (TALC): a project for a 20 m far-infrared space telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauvage, Marc; Durand, Gilles A.; Rodriguez, Louis R.; Starck, Jean-Luc; Ronayette, Samuel; Aussel, Herve; Minier, Vincent; Motte, Frederique; Pantin, Eric J.; Sureau, Florent

    2014-01-01

    The future of far-infrared observations rests on our capacity to reach sub-arc-second angular resolution around 100 μm, in order to achieve a significant advance with respect to our current capabilities. Furthermore, by reaching this angular resolution we can bridge the gap between capacities offered by the JWST in the near infrared and those allowed by ALMA in the submillimeter, and thus benefit from similar resolving capacities over the whole wavelength range where interstellar dust radiates and where key atomic and molecular transitions are found. In an accompanying paper, we present a concept of a deployable annular telescope, named TALC for Thinned Aperture Light Collector, reaching 20 m in diameter. Being annular, this telescope features a main beam width equivalent to that of a 27 m telescope, i.e. an angular resolution of 0.92'' at 100 μm. In this paper we focus on the science case of such a telescope as well on the aspects of unconventional data processing that come with this unconventional optical configuration. The principal science cases of TALC revolve around its imaging capacities, that allow resolving the Kuiper belt in extra-solar planetary systems, or the filamentary scale in star forming clouds all the way to the Galactic Center, or the Narrow Line Region in Active Galactic Nuclei of the Local Group, or breaking the confusion limit to resolve the Cosmic Infrared Background. Equipping this telescope with detectors capable of imaging polarimetry offers as well the extremely interesting perspective to study the influence of the magnetic field in structuring the interstellar medium. We will then present simulations of the optical performance of such a telescope. The main feature of an annular telescope is the small amount of energy contained in the main beam, around 30% for the studied configuration, and the presence of bright diffraction rings. Using simulated point spread functions for realistic broad-band filters, we study the observing

  16. Observation of galactic far-infrared ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maihara, Toshinori; Oda, Naoki; Okuda, Haruyuki; Sugiyama, Takuya; Sakai, Kiyomi.

    1978-01-01

    Galactic far-infrared was observed to study the spatial distribution of interstellar dust. Far-infrared is emitted by interstellar dust distributing throughout the galactic plane. The observation of far-infrared is very important to study the overall structure of the galaxy, that is the structure of the galactic arm and gas distribution. The balloon experiment was conducted on May 25, 1978. The detector was a germanium bolometer cooled by liquid helium. The size of the detector is 1.6 mm in diameter. The geometrical factor was 4 x 10 3 cm 2 sr. The result showed that the longitude distribution of far-infrared at 150 μm correlated with H 166 α recombination line. This indicates that the observed far-infrared is emitted by interstellar dust heated by photons of Lyman continuum. (Yoshimori, M.)

  17. Origins Space Telescope: Study Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayyeri, Hooshang; Cooray, Asantha; Origins Space Telescope Study Team

    2018-01-01

    The Origins Space Telescope (OST) is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, a study in development by NASA in preparation for the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey. Origins is planned to be a large aperture, actively-cooled telescope covering a wide span of the mid- to far-infrared spectrum. Its spectrographs will enable 3D surveys of the sky that will discover and characterize the most distant galaxies, Milky-Way, exoplanets, and the outer reaches of our Solar system. Origins will enable flagship-quality general observing programs led by the astronomical community in the 2030s. The Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) would like to hear your science needs and ideas for this mission. The team can be contacted at firsurveyor_info@lists.ipac.caltech.edu. This presentation will provide a summary of the OST STDT, the OST Study Team based at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, study partners, and the advisory panel to the study. This presentation will also summarize recent activities, including the process used to reach a decision on the mission architecture, the identification of key science drivers, and the key study milestones between 2017 and 2020.

  18. Mid Infrared Instrument cooler subsystem test facility overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, B.; Zan, J.; Hannah, B.; Chui, T.; Penanen, K.; Weilert, M.

    2017-12-01

    The Cryocooler for the Mid Infrared Instrument (MIRI) on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) provides cooling at 6.2K on the instrument interface. The cooler system design has been incrementally documented in previous publications [1][2][3][4][5]. It has components that traverse three primary thermal regions on JWST: Region 1, approximated by 40K; Region 2, approximated by 100K; and Region 3, which is at the allowable flight temperatures for the spacecraft bus. However, there are several sub-regions that exist in the transition between primary regions and at the heat reject interfaces of the Cooler Compressor Assembly (CCA) and Cooler Control Electronics Assembly (CCEA). The design and performance of the test facility to provide a flight representative thermal environment for acceptance testing and characterization of the complete MIRI cooler subsystem are presented.

  19. Mapping the infrared background radiation from the Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, D.; Fazio, G. G.; Traub, W. A.; Urban, E. W.; Katz, L.; Rieke, G. H.; Gautier, T. N.; Hoffmann, W. F.; Low, F. J.; Poteet, W.

    1981-01-01

    The Spacelab-2 Small Helium-Cooled Infrared Telescope will be used to map extended astronomical sources of low surface brightness emission, to measure the Shuttle induced environment and to develop techniques for managing large volumes of superfluid helium in space. The instrument is an f/4 15.2-cm Herschelian telescope with ten photoconductor detectors in the focal plane. This paper describes the hardware and software aspects of the instrument with emphasis on mission operations. In particular, a description is given of the observing plan formulated to meet the scientific and engineering objectives, the scan drive system, the precautions in design and operation necessary to prevent the sun, moon, and earth from adversely affecting the observations, the implications of thruster firings, and the on-board experiment computer application software to control the scanning of the telescope and support on-board displays.

  20. Bolometers for far-infrared and submillimetre astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    Important scientific goals of far-infrared and submillimetre astronomy include measurements of anisotropies in the cosmic background radiation, deep imaging surveys for detection of high-red-shift galaxies, and imaging and spectroscopy of star formation regions and the interstellar medium in the milky way and nearby galaxies. Use of sensitive bolometer arrays leads to very large improvements in observing speed. Recent progress in the development of bolometric detector systems for ground-based and space-borne far-infrared and submillimetre astronomical observations is reviewed, including spider-web NTD bolometers, transition-edge superconducting sensors, and micromachined planar arrays of ion-implanted silicon bolometers. Future arrays may be based on planar absorbers without feedhorns, which offer potential advantages including more efficient use of space in the focal plane and improved instantaneous sampling of the telescope point spread function, but present challenges in suppression of stray light and RF interference. FIRST and Planck Surveyor are planned satellite missions involving passively cooled (∼70 K) telescopes, and bolometer array developments for these missions are described

  1. Simulated Measurements of Cooling in Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohayai, Tanaz [IIT, Chicago; Rogers, Chris [Rutherford; Snopok, Pavel [Fermilab

    2016-06-01

    Cooled muon beams set the basis for the exploration of physics of flavour at a Neutrino Factory and for multi-TeV collisions at a Muon Collider. The international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) measures beam emittance before and after an ionization cooling cell and aims to demonstrate emittance reduction in muon beams. In the current MICE Step IV configuration, the MICE muon beam passes through low-Z absorber material for reducing its transverse emittance through ionization energy loss. Two scintillating fiber tracking detectors, housed in spectrometer solenoid modules upstream and downstream of the absorber are used for reconstructing position and momentum of individual muons for calculating transverse emittance reduction. However, due to existence of non-linear effects in beam optics, transverse emittance growth can be observed. Therefore, it is crucial to develop algorithms that are insensitive to this apparent emittance growth. We describe a different figure of merit for measuring muon cooling which is the direct measurement of the phase space density.

  2. Water cooling coil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, S; Ito, Y; Kazawa, Y

    1975-02-05

    Object: To provide a water cooling coil in a toroidal nuclear fusion device, in which coil is formed into a small-size in section so as not to increase dimensions, weight or the like of machineries including the coil. Structure: A conductor arranged as an outermost layer of a multiple-wind water cooling coil comprises a hollow conductor, which is directly cooled by fluid, and as a consequence, a solid conductor disposed interiorly thereof is cooled indirectly.

  3. The Cool Colors Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger, second from left, a sample from the Cool Colors Project, a roof product ) (Jeff Chiu - AP) more Cool Colors make the front page of The Sacramento Bee (3rd highest circulation newspaper in California) on 14 August 2006! Read the article online or as a PDF. The Cool Colors Project

  4. Cooling Scenario for the HESR Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockhorst, H.; Prasuhn, D.; Maier, R.; Lorentz, B.

    2006-01-01

    The High-Energy Storage Ring (HESR) of the future International Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at GSI in Darmstadt is planned as an anti-proton cooler ring in the momentum range from 1.5 to 15 GeV/c. An important and challenging feature of the new facility is the combination of phase space cooled beams with internal targets. The required beam parameters and intensities are prepared in two operation modes: the high luminosity mode with beam intensities up to 1011 anti-protons, and the high resolution mode with 1010 anti-protons cooled down to a relative momentum spread of only a few 10-5. Consequently, powerful phase space cooling is needed, taking advantage of high-energy electron cooling and high-bandwidth stochastic cooling. Both cooling techniques are envisaged here theoretically, including the effect of beam-target interaction and intra-beam scattering to find especially for stochastic cooling the best system parameters

  5. Cooling water distribution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Richard

    1994-01-01

    A passive containment cooling system for a nuclear reactor containment vessel. Disclosed is a cooling water distribution system for introducing cooling water by gravity uniformly over the outer surface of a steel containment vessel using an interconnected series of radial guide elements, a plurality of circumferential collector elements and collector boxes to collect and feed the cooling water into distribution channels extending along the curved surface of the steel containment vessel. The cooling water is uniformly distributed over the curved surface by a plurality of weirs in the distribution channels.

  6. Cooling tower calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonkova, J.

    1988-01-01

    The problems are summed up of the dynamic calculation of cooling towers with forced and natural air draft. The quantities and relations are given characterizing the simultaneous exchange of momentum, heat and mass in evaporative water cooling by atmospheric air in the packings of cooling towers. The method of solution is clarified in the calculation of evaporation criteria and thermal characteristics of countercurrent and cross current cooling systems. The procedure is demonstrated of the calculation of cooling towers, and correction curves and the effect assessed of the operating mode at constant air number or constant outlet air volume flow on their course in ventilator cooling towers. In cooling towers with the natural air draft the flow unevenness is assessed of water and air relative to its effect on the resulting cooling efficiency of the towers. The calculation is demonstrated of thermal and resistance response curves and cooling curves of hydraulically unevenly loaded towers owing to the water flow rate parameter graded radially by 20% along the cross-section of the packing. Flow rate unevenness of air due to wind impact on the outlet air flow from the tower significantly affects the temperatures of cooled water in natural air draft cooling towers of a design with lower demands on aerodynamics, as early as at wind velocity of 2 m.s -1 as was demonstrated on a concrete example. (author). 11 figs., 10 refs

  7. Global Cooling: Policies to Cool the World and Offset Global Warming from CO2 Using Reflective Roofs and Pavements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen; Rosenfeld, Arthur; Elliot, Matthew

    2009-08-28

    Increasing the solar reflectance of the urban surface reduce its solar heat gain, lowers its temperatures, and decreases its outflow of thermal infrared radiation into the atmosphere. This process of 'negative radiative forcing' can help counter the effects of global warming. In addition, cool roofs reduce cooling-energy use in air conditioned buildings and increase comfort in unconditioned buildings; and cool roofs and cool pavements mitigate summer urban heat islands, improving outdoor air quality and comfort. Installing cool roofs and cool pavements in cities worldwide is a compelling win-win-win activity that can be undertaken immediately, outside of international negotiations to cap CO{sub 2} emissions. We propose an international campaign to use solar reflective materials when roofs and pavements are built or resurfaced in temperate and tropical regions.

  8. Space space space

    CERN Document Server

    Trembach, Vera

    2014-01-01

    Space is an introduction to the mysteries of the Universe. Included are Task Cards for independent learning, Journal Word Cards for creative writing, and Hands-On Activities for reinforcing skills in Math and Language Arts. Space is a perfect introduction to further research of the Solar System.

  9. Infrared Heaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The heating units shown in the accompanying photos are Panelbloc infrared heaters, energy savers which burn little fuel in relation to their effective heat output. Produced by Bettcher Manufacturing Corporation, Cleveland, Ohio, Panelblocs are applicable to industrial or other facilities which have ceilings more than 12 feet high, such as those pictured: at left the Bare Hills Tennis Club, Baltimore, Maryland and at right, CVA Lincoln- Mercury, Gaithersburg, Maryland. The heaters are mounted high above the floor and they radiate infrared energy downward. Panelblocs do not waste energy by warming the surrounding air. Instead, they beam invisible heat rays directly to objects which absorb the radiation- people, floors, machinery and other plant equipment. All these objects in turn re-radiate the energy to the air. A key element in the Panelbloc design is a coating applied to the aluminized steel outer surface of the heater. This coating must be corrosion resistant at high temperatures and it must have high "emissivity"-the ability of a surface to emit radiant energy. The Bettcher company formerly used a porcelain coating, but it caused a production problem. Bettcher did not have the capability to apply the material in its own plant, so the heaters had to be shipped out of state for porcelainizing, which entailed extra cost. Bettcher sought a coating which could meet the specifications yet be applied in its own facilities. The company asked The Knowledge Availability Systems Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, a NASA Industrial Applications Center (IAC), for a search of NASA's files

  10. Low intensity natural gas infrared in sports centres; L'infrarouge a basse intensite au gaz naturel dans les centres sportifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lajoie, S. [Gaz Metropolitain, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2002-09-30

    Infrared devices are being employed more and more for heating buildings. They were traditionally used to heat large spaces higher than 3 metres, such as aviation hangars and industrial buildings. Natural gas infrared devices have found other applications, namely in sports centres, due in large part to the energy efficiency and the resulting comfort. There are three types of infrared devices: low intensity or low intensity tubes, high intensity, and catalytic infrared. Each type of device possesses specific characteristics and applications. For example, infrared tubes are used to uniformly heat a specific area. High intensity devices possess a more intense heat and concentrated in a confined space. Catalytic devices do not have flames, and they can be used in industrial drying processes and thermoforming. In the case of skating rinks, the use of low intensity natural gas infrared tubes is ideal. They reduce the crossed effects of ice cooling load and the spectators need for heat. This is due to infrared acting more on mass (spectators and bleachers) than ambient air. The author described the situation at the Val d'Or arena, Quebec where an energy saving project was initiated two years ago, involving the installation for one of the ice surfaces, of movement sensors to turn off infrared tubes when the rink is unoccupied. The payback period for such equipment is short. The case of the Soccerplex at Lachine, part of the larger City of Montreal, was also discussed. This sports centre comprises indoor soccer fields with 30 foot-high ceilings and large area covering 66,000 square feet (3 soccer fields). Once again, low intensity natural gas infrared tubes were installed and have proved successful.

  11. NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — IRSA is chartered to curate the calibrated science products from NASAs infrared and sub-millimeter missions, including five major large-area/all-sky surveys. IRSA...

  12. TIROA/NOAA (Television and Infrared Observation Satellite/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) satellites space environment monitor archive tape documentation: 1988 update. Technical memo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, V.J.; Evans, D.S.; Sauer, H.H.

    1988-05-01

    TIROS/NOAA satellite archive tapes containing data obtained with the Medium-Energy Proton and Electron Detector (MEPED), High-Energy Proton and Alpha-Particle Detector (HEPAD), and Total-Energy Detector (TED) are described. Descriptions of the data include orbital and housekeeping details and the information needed to decode and understand the data. Specifications of the data channels are supplied, with the timing information needed to convert the data to usable information. Description of the archive tape format gives the information needed to read the tape and unpack the data. Appendices supply the retrieval routines used by the Space Environment Services Center in Boulder

  13. Laser cooling of solids

    CERN Document Server

    Petrushkin, S V

    2009-01-01

    Laser cooling is an important emerging technology in such areas as the cooling of semiconductors. The book examines and suggests solutions for a range of problems in the development of miniature solid-state laser refrigerators, self-cooling solid-state lasers and optical echo-processors. It begins by looking at the basic theory of laser cooling before considering such topics as self-cooling of active elements of solid-state lasers, laser cooling of solid-state information media of optical echo-processors, and problems of cooling solid-state quantum processors. Laser Cooling of Solids is an important contribution to the development of compact laser-powered cryogenic refrigerators, both for the academic community and those in the microelectronics and other industries. Provides a timely review of this promising field of research and discusses the fundamentals and theory of laser cooling Particular attention is given to the physics of cooling processes and the mathematical description of these processes Reviews p...

  14. Emergency reactor cooling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arakawa, Ken.

    1993-01-01

    An emergency nuclear reactor cooling device comprises a water reservoir, emergency core cooling water pipelines having one end connected to a water feeding sparger, fire extinguishing facility pipelines, cooling water pressurizing pumps, a diesel driving machine for driving the pumps and a battery. In a water reservoir, cooling water is stored by an amount required for cooling the reactor upon emergency and for fire extinguishing, and fire extinguishing facility pipelines connecting the water reservoir and the fire extinguishing facility are in communication with the emergency core cooling water pipelines connected to the water feeding sparger by system connection pipelines. Pumps are operated by a diesel power generator to introduce cooling water from the reservoir to the emergency core cooling water pipelines. Then, even in a case where AC electric power source is entirely lost and the emergency core cooling system can not be used, the diesel driving machine is operated using an exclusive battery, thereby enabling to inject cooling water from the water reservoir to a reactor pressure vessel and a reactor container by the diesel drive pump. (N.H.)

  15. Radiant Floor Cooling Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2008-01-01

    In many countries, hydronic radiant floor systems are widely used for heating all types of buildings such as residential, churches, gymnasiums, hospitals, hangars, storage buildings, industrial buildings, and smaller offices. However, few systems are used for cooling.This article describes a floor...... cooling system that includes such considerations as thermal comfort of the occupants, which design parameters will influence the cooling capacity and how the system should be controlled. Examples of applications are presented....

  16. The cooling of particle beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sessler, A.M.

    1994-10-01

    A review is given of the various methods which can be employed for cooling particle beams. These methods include radiation damping, stimulated radiation damping, ionization cooling, stochastic cooling, electron cooling, laser cooling, and laser cooling with beam coupling. Laser Cooling has provided beams of the lowest temperatures, namely 1 mK, but only for ions and only for the longitudinal temperature. Recent theoretical work has suggested how laser cooling, with the coupling of beam motion, can be used to reduce the ion beam temperature in all three directions. The majority of this paper is devoted to describing laser cooling and laser cooling with beam coupling

  17. Sodium-cooled nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammers, H.W.

    1982-01-01

    The invention concerns a sodium-cooled nuclear reactor, whose reactor tank contains the primary circuit, shielding surrounding the reactor core and a primary/secondary heat exchanger, particularly a fast breeder reactor on the module principle. In order to achieve this module principle it is proposed to have electromagnetic circulating pumps outside the reactor tank, where the heat exchanger is accomodated in an annular case above the pumps. This case has several openings at the top end to the space above the reactor core, some smaller openings in the middle to the same space and is connected at the bottom to an annular space between the tank wall and the reactor core. As a favoured variant, it is proposed that the annular electromagnetic pumps should be arranged concentrically to the reactor tank, where there is an annual duct on the inside of the reactor tank. In this way the sodium-cooled nuclear reactor is made suitable as a module with a large number of such elements. (orig.) [de

  18. Turbine airfoil cooling system with cooling systems using high and low pressure cooling fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Jan H.; Messmann, Stephen John; Scribner, Carmen Andrew

    2017-10-25

    A turbine airfoil cooling system including a low pressure cooling system and a high pressure cooling system for a turbine airfoil of a gas turbine engine is disclosed. In at least one embodiment, the low pressure cooling system may be an ambient air cooling system, and the high pressure cooling system may be a compressor bleed air cooling system. In at least one embodiment, the compressor bleed air cooling system in communication with a high pressure subsystem that may be a snubber cooling system positioned within a snubber. A delivery system including a movable air supply tube may be used to separate the low and high pressure cooling subsystems. The delivery system may enable high pressure cooling air to be passed to the snubber cooling system separate from low pressure cooling fluid supplied by the low pressure cooling system to other portions of the turbine airfoil cooling system.

  19. Power electronics cooling apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanger, Philip Albert; Lindberg, Frank A.; Garcen, Walter

    2000-01-01

    A semiconductor cooling arrangement wherein a semiconductor is affixed to a thermally and electrically conducting carrier such as by brazing. The coefficient of thermal expansion of the semiconductor and carrier are closely matched to one another so that during operation they will not be overstressed mechanically due to thermal cycling. Electrical connection is made to the semiconductor and carrier, and a porous metal heat exchanger is thermally connected to the carrier. The heat exchanger is positioned within an electrically insulating cooling assembly having cooling oil flowing therethrough. The arrangement is particularly well adapted for the cooling of high power switching elements in a power bridge.

  20. Semioptimal practicable algorithmic cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elias, Yuval; Mor, Tal; Weinstein, Yossi

    2011-01-01

    Algorithmic cooling (AC) of spins applies entropy manipulation algorithms in open spin systems in order to cool spins far beyond Shannon's entropy bound. Algorithmic cooling of nuclear spins was demonstrated experimentally and may contribute to nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Several cooling algorithms were suggested in recent years, including practicable algorithmic cooling (PAC) and exhaustive AC. Practicable algorithms have simple implementations, yet their level of cooling is far from optimal; exhaustive algorithms, on the other hand, cool much better, and some even reach (asymptotically) an optimal level of cooling, but they are not practicable. We introduce here semioptimal practicable AC (SOPAC), wherein a few cycles (typically two to six) are performed at each recursive level. Two classes of SOPAC algorithms are proposed and analyzed. Both attain cooling levels significantly better than PAC and are much more efficient than the exhaustive algorithms. These algorithms are shown to bridge the gap between PAC and exhaustive AC. In addition, we calculated the number of spins required by SOPAC in order to purify qubits for quantum computation. As few as 12 and 7 spins are required (in an ideal scenario) to yield a mildly pure spin (60% polarized) from initial polarizations of 1% and 10%, respectively. In the latter case, about five more spins are sufficient to produce a highly pure spin (99.99% polarized), which could be relevant for fault-tolerant quantum computing.

  1. Solar panel thermal cycling testing by solar simulation and infrared radiation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuss, H. E.

    1980-01-01

    For the solar panels of the European Space Agency (ESA) satellites OTS/MAROTS and ECS/MARECS the thermal cycling tests were performed by using solar simulation methods. The performance data of two different solar simulators used and the thermal test results are described. The solar simulation thermal cycling tests for the ECS/MARECS solar panels were carried out with the aid of a rotatable multipanel test rig by which simultaneous testing of three solar panels was possible. As an alternative thermal test method, the capability of an infrared radiation method was studied and infrared simulation tests for the ultralight panel and the INTELSAT 5 solar panels were performed. The setup and the characteristics of the infrared radiation unit using a quartz lamp array of approx. 15 sq and LN2-cooled shutter and the thermal test results are presented. The irradiation uniformity, the solar panel temperature distribution, temperature changing rates for both test methods are compared. Results indicate the infrared simulation is an effective solar panel thermal testing method.

  2. Droplet bubbling evaporatively cools a blowfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Guilherme; Köberle, Roland; Von Zuben, Claudio J; Andrade, Denis V

    2018-04-19

    Terrestrial animals often use evaporative cooling to lower body temperature. Evaporation can occur from humid body surfaces or from fluids interfaced to the environment through a number of different mechanisms, such as sweating or panting. In Diptera, some flies move tidally a droplet of fluid out and then back in the buccopharyngeal cavity for a repeated number of cycles before eventually ingesting it. This is referred to as the bubbling behaviour. The droplet fluid consists of a mix of liquids from the ingested food, enzymes from the salivary glands, and antimicrobials, associated to the crop organ system, with evidence pointing to a role in liquid meal dehydration. Herein, we demonstrate that the bubbling behaviour also serves as an effective thermoregulatory mechanism to lower body temperature by means of evaporative cooling. In the blowfly, Chrysomya megacephala, infrared imaging revealed that as the droplet is extruded, evaporation lowers the fluid´s temperature, which, upon its re-ingestion, lowers the blowfly's body temperature. This effect is most prominent at the cephalic region, less in the thorax, and then in the abdomen. Bubbling frequency increases with ambient temperature, while its cooling efficiency decreases at high air humidities. Heat transfer calculations show that droplet cooling depends on a special heat-exchange dynamic, which result in the exponential activation of the cooling effect.

  3. Cooling rates and intensity limitations for laser-cooled ions at relativistic energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidam, Lewin; Boine-Frankenheim, Oliver; Winters, Danyal

    2018-04-01

    The ability of laser cooling for relativistic ion beams is investigated. For this purpose, the excitation of relativistic ions with a continuous wave and a pulsed laser is analyzed, utilizing the optical Bloch equations. The laser cooling force is derived in detail and its scaling with the relativistic factor γ is discussed. The cooling processes with a continuous wave and a pulsed laser system are investigated. Optimized cooling scenarios and times are obtained in order to determine the required properties of the laser and the ion beam for the planed experiments. The impact of beam intensity effects, like intrabeam scattering and space charge are analyzed. Predictions from simplified models are compared to particle-in-cell simulations and are found to be in good agreement. Finally two realistic example cases of Carbon ions in the ESR and relativistic Titanium ions in SIS100 are compared in order to discuss prospects for future laser cooling experiments.

  4. Dustproof cooling of the electrical box

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemec Patrik

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In present are electrical boxes cooled by air through the intake hole on the bottom electrical box to the box space with electrotechnical elements and exhaust through the hole at the top to the surrounding by natural convection. This cooling method is effective but operate with the risk of contamination electrotechnical elements by dust sucking from surrounding air. The goal of this work is solution of the dustproof cooling of the electrical box by natural convection. The work deal with design of the device with the heat transfer by the phase change of the working fluid and experimental measuring its thermal performance at the cooling electrotechnical elements loaded by heat 1 200 W in the dustproof electrical box.

  5. The ATLAS IBL CO2 Cooling System

    CERN Document Server

    Verlaat, Bartholomeus; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Atlas Pixel detector has been equipped with an extra B-layer in the space obtained by a reduced beam pipe. This new pixel detector called the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer (IBL) is installed in 2014 and is operational in the current ATLAS data taking. The IBL detector is cooled with evaporative CO2 and is the first of its kind in ATLAS. The ATLAS IBL CO2 cooling system is designed for lower temperature operation (<-35⁰C) than the previous developed CO2 cooling systems in High Energy Physics experiments. The cold temperatures are required to protect the pixel sensors for the high expected radiation dose up to 550 fb^-1 integrated luminosity. This paper describes the design, development, construction and commissioning of the IBL CO2 cooling system. It describes the challenges overcome and the important lessons learned for the development of future systems which are now under design for the Phase-II upgrade detectors.

  6. Hot moons and cool stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heller René

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The exquisite photometric precision of the Kepler space telescope now puts the detection of extrasolar moons at the horizon. Here, we firstly review observational and analytical techniques that have recently been proposed to find exomoons. Secondly, we discuss the prospects of characterizing potentially habitable extrasolar satellites. With moons being much more numerous than planets in the solar system and with most exoplanets found in the stellar habitable zone being gas giants, habitable moons could be as abundant as habitable planets. However, satellites orbiting planets in the habitable zones of cool stars will encounter strong tidal heating and likely appear as hot moons.

  7. The Application of Principal Component Analysis Using Fixed Eigenvectors to the Infrared Thermographic Inspection of the Space Shuttle Thermal Protection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, K. Elliott; Winfree, William P.

    2006-01-01

    The Nondestructive Evaluation Sciences Branch at NASA s Langley Research Center has been actively involved in the development of thermographic inspection techniques for more than 15 years. Since the Space Shuttle Columbia accident, NASA has focused on the improvement of advanced NDE techniques for the Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) panels that comprise the orbiter s wing leading edge. Various nondestructive inspection techniques have been used in the examination of the RCC, but thermography has emerged as an effective inspection alternative to more traditional methods. Thermography is a non-contact inspection method as compared to ultrasonic techniques which typically require the use of a coupling medium between the transducer and material. Like radiographic techniques, thermography can be used to inspect large areas, but has the advantage of minimal safety concerns and the ability for single-sided measurements. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) has been shown effective for reducing thermographic NDE data. A typical implementation of PCA is when the eigenvectors are generated from the data set being analyzed. Although it is a powerful tool for enhancing the visibility of defects in thermal data, PCA can be computationally intense and time consuming when applied to the large data sets typical in thermography. Additionally, PCA can experience problems when very large defects are present (defects that dominate the field-of-view), since the calculation of the eigenvectors is now governed by the presence of the defect, not the good material. To increase the processing speed and to minimize the negative effects of large defects, an alternative method of PCA is being pursued when a fixed set of eigenvectors is used to process the thermal data from the RCC materials. These eigen vectors can be generated either from an analytic model of the thermal response of the material under examination, or from a large cross section of experimental data. This paper will provide the

  8. Filling-in of Near-infrared Solar Lines by Terrestrial Fluorescence and Other Geophysical Effects: Simulations and Space-based Observations from SCIAMACHY and GOSAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, Joanna (Editor); Yoshida, Yasuko; Vasilkov, A. P.; Middleton, E. M. (Editor); Campbell, P. K. E.; Yoshida, Y.; Huze, A.; Corp, L. A.

    2012-01-01

    Global mapping of terrestrial vegetation fluorescence from space has recently been accomplished with high spectral resolution (nu/nu greater than 35 000) measurements from the Japanese Greenhouse gases Observing SAellite (GOSAT). These data are of interest because they can potentially provide global information on the functional status of vegetation including light-use efficiency and global primary productivity that can be used for global carbon cycle modeling. Quantifying the impact of fluorescence on the O2-A band is important as this band is used for photon pathlength characterization in cloud- and aerosol-contaminated pixels for trace-gas retrievals including CO2. Here, we examine whether fluorescence information can be derived from space using potentially lower-cost hyperspectral instrumentation, i.e., more than an order of magnitude less spectral resolution (nu/nu approximately 1600) than GOSAT, with a relatively simple algorithm. We discuss laboratory measurements of fluorescence near one of the few wide and deep solar Fraunhofer lines in the long-wave tail of the fluorescence emission region, the calcium (Ca) II line at 866 nm that is observable with a spectral resolution of approximately 0.5 nm. The filling-in of the Ca II line due to additive signals from various atmospheric and terrestrial effects, including fluorescence, is simulated. We then examine filling-in of this line using the SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY) satellite instrument. In order to interpret the satellite measurements, we developed a general approach to correct for various instrumental artifacts that produce false filling-in of solar lines in satellite measurements. The approach is applied to SCIAMACHY at the 866 nm Ca II line and to GOSAT at 758 and 770 nm on the shoulders of the O2-A feature where there are several strong solar Fraunhofer lines that are filled in primarily by vegetation fluorescence. Finally, we compare temporal and

  9. Liquid helium-cooled MOSFET preamplifier for use with astronomical bolometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, J. H.

    1977-01-01

    A liquid helium-cooled p-channel enhancement mode MOSFET, the 3N167, is found to have sufficiently low noise for use as a preamplifier with helium-cooled bolometers that are used in infrared astronomy. Its characteristics at 300, 77, and 4.2 K are presented. It is also shown to have useful application with certain photoconductive and photovoltaic infrared detectors.

  10. Laser cooling of atoms and ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morigi, G.

    1999-02-01

    introduction, which puts it into the context of the past and present scientific debate, and then the work itself which, in the cases where it has already appeared in a scientific journal, is presented in the form of the publication. More in detail, the introductory chapter deals first briefly with laser cooling of free atoms and then more comprehensively with laser cooling of trapped atoms, giving particular attention to the basic concepts and mechanisms which are recurrent throughout the rest of the thesis. At the end of the first chapter I give a discussion on the laser cooling of many atoms and ions, summarizing the state of the art and the applications currently under discussion, such as degenerate atomic gases and implementations of quantum information processing. The second and third chapters discuss schemes of laser cooling of single trapped atoms or ions to the motional ground state of a trap. These schemes are designed to be efficient in the regime where the amplitude of the particle's motion is comparable with the laser wavelength. In particular the scheme described in chapter II is a modification of sideband cooling and it considerably extends the efficiency of this technique to a wider range of trapping conditions. In chapter III a dark state cooling mechanism is presented, where the dark state is obtained in real space. Both schemes are demonstrated to be effective methods for preparing atoms in the ground state of a trapping potential. Chapter IV and chapter V focus on the problem of cooling more than one trapped ion, taking into account their Coulomb interaction, for trapping conditions which are typical for quantum information experiments. Chapter IV concentrates more on laser cooling to the ground state by means of sideband cooling, whereas in chapter V the theoretical problem of Doppler cooling of interacting trapped ions is discussed. (author)

  11. Performance Analysis of XCPC Powered Solar Cooling Demonstration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widyolar, Bennett K.

    A solar thermal cooling system using novel non-tracking External Compound Parabolic Concentrators (XCPC) has been built at the University of California, Merced and operated for two cooling seasons. Its performance in providing power for space cooling has been analyzed. This solar cooling system is comprised of 53.3 m2 of XCPC trough collectors which are used to power a 23 kW double effect (LiBr) absorption chiller. This is the first system that combines both XCPC and absorption chilling technologies. Performance of the system was measured in both sunny and cloudy conditions, with both clean and dirty collectors. It was found that these collectors are well suited at providing thermal power to drive absorption cooling systems and that both the coinciding of available thermal power with cooling demand and the simplicity of the XCPC collectors compared to other solar thermal collectors makes them a highly attractive candidate for cooling projects.

  12. Laser-Cooled Ions and Atoms in a Storage Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinert, J.; Hannemann, S.; Eike, B.; Eisenbarth, U.; Grieser, M.; Grimm, R.; Gwinner, G.; Karpuk, S.; Saathoff, G.; Schramm, U.; Schwalm, D.; Weidemueller, M.

    2003-01-01

    We review recent experiments at the Heidelberg Test Storage Ring which apply advanced laser cooling techniques to stored ion beams. Very high phase-space densities are achieved by three-dimensional laser cooling of a coasting 9 Be + beam at 7.3 MeV. Laser-cooled, trapped Cs atoms are used as an ultracold precision target for the study of ion-atom interactions with a 74 MeV beam of 12 C 6+ ions.

  13. Immersion Cooling of Electronics in DoD Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    2012). Bitcoin Mining Electronics Cooling Development In January 2013, inventor/consultant Mark Miyoshi began development of a two-phase cooling...system using Novec 649 to be used for cooling bitcoin mining hardware. After a short trial period, hardware power supply and logic-board failures...are reports of bitcoin mining companies vertically stacking two-phase immersion baths to improve the floor space density, but this approach is likely

  14. Cooling of electronic equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A. Kristensen, Anders Schmidt

    2003-01-01

    Cooling of electronic equipment is studied. The design size of electronic equipment decrease causing the thermal density to increase. This affect the cooling which can cause for example failures of critical components due to overheating or thermal induced stresses. Initially a pin fin heat sink...

  15. Solar absorption cooling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, D.S.

    2007-01-01

    As the world concerns more and more on global climate changes and depleting energy resources, solar cooling technology receives increasing interests from the public as an environment-friendly and sustainable alternative. However, making a competitive solar cooling machine for the market still

  16. Gas-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vakilian, M.

    1977-05-01

    The present study is the second part of a general survey of Gas Cooled Reactors (GCRs). In this part, the course of development, overall performance and present development status of High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (HTCRs) and advances of HTGR systems are reviewed. (author)

  17. Coherent electron cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvinenko,V.

    2009-05-04

    Cooling intense high-energy hadron beams remains a major challenge in modern accelerator physics. Synchrotron radiation is still too feeble, while the efficiency of two other cooling methods, stochastic and electron, falls rapidly either at high bunch intensities (i.e. stochastic of protons) or at high energies (e-cooling). In this talk a specific scheme of a unique cooling technique, Coherent Electron Cooling, will be discussed. The idea of coherent electron cooling using electron beam instabilities was suggested by Derbenev in the early 1980s, but the scheme presented in this talk, with cooling times under an hour for 7 TeV protons in the LHC, would be possible only with present-day accelerator technology. This talk will discuss the principles and the main limitations of the Coherent Electron Cooling process. The talk will describe the main system components, based on a high-gain free electron laser driven by an energy recovery linac, and will present some numerical examples for ions and protons in RHIC and the LHC and for electron-hadron options for these colliders. BNL plans a demonstration of the idea in the near future.

  18. The final cool down

    CERN Multimedia

    Thursday 29th May, the cool-down of the final sector (sector 4-5) of LHC has begun, one week after the start of the cool-down of sector 1-2. It will take five weeks for the sectors to be cooled from room temperature to 5 K and a further two weeks to complete the cool down to 1.9 K and the commissioning of cryogenic instrumentation, as well as to fine tune the cryogenic plants and the cooling loops of cryostats.Nearly a year and half has passed since sector 7-8 was cooled for the first time in January 2007. For Laurent Tavian, AT/CRG Group Leader, reaching the final phase of the cool down is an important milestone, confirming the basic design of the cryogenic system and the ability to operate complete sectors. “All the sectors have to operate at the same time otherwise we cannot inject the beam into the machine. The stability and reliability of the cryogenic system and its utilities are now very important. That will be the new challenge for the coming months,” he explains. The status of the cool down of ...

  19. Emergency cooling method and system for gas-cooled nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumpf, H.

    1982-01-01

    For emergency cooling of gas-cooled fast breeder reactors (GSB), which have a core consisting of a fission zone and a breeding zone, water is sprayed out of nozzles on to the core from above in the case of an incident. The water which is not treated with boron is taken out of a reservoir in the form of a storage tank in such a maximum quantity that the cooling water gathering in the space below the core rises at most up to the lower edge of the fission zone. (orig./GL) [de

  20. Reactor core cooling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Masahiro.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To safely and effectively cool down the reactor core after it has been shut down but is still hot due to after-heat. Constitution: Since the coolant extraction nozzle is situated at a location higher than the coolant injection nozzle, the coolant sprayed from the nozzle, is free from sucking immediately from the extraction nozzle and is therefore used effectively to cool the reactor core. As all the portions from the top to the bottom of the reactor are cooled simultaneously, the efficiency of the reactor cooling process is increased. Since the coolant extraction nozzle can be installed at a point considerably higher than the coolant injection nozzle, the distance from the coolant surface to the point of the coolant extraction nozzle can be made large, preventing cavitation near the coolant extraction nozzle. Therefore, without increasing the capacity of the heat exchanger, the reactor can be cooled down after a shutdown safely and efficiently. (Kawakami, Y.)

  1. Mid-infrared Semiconductor Optoelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Krier, Anthony

    2006-01-01

    The practical realisation of optoelectronic devices operating in the 2–10 µm (mid-infrared) wavelength range offers potential applications in a variety of areas from environmental gas monitoring around oil rigs and landfill sites to the detection of pharmaceuticals, particularly narcotics. In addition, an atmospheric transmission window exists between 3 µm and 5 µm that enables free-space optical communications, thermal imaging applications and the development of infrared measures for "homeland security". Consequently, the mid-infrared is very attractive for the development of sensitive optical sensor instrumentation. Unfortunately, the nature of the likely applications dictates stringent requirements in terms of laser operation, miniaturisation and cost that are difficult to meet. Many of the necessary improvements are linked to a better ability to fabricate and to understand the optoelectronic properties of suitable high-quality epitaxial materials and device structures. Substantial progress in these m...

  2. STAR FORMATION EFFICIENCY IN THE COOL CORES OF GALAXY CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, Michael; Veilleux, Sylvain; Mushotzky, Richard; Reynolds, Christopher; Rupke, David S. N.

    2011-01-01

    We have assembled a sample of high spatial resolution far-UV (Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys/Solar Blind Channel) and Hα (Maryland-Magellan Tunable Filter) imaging for 15 cool core galaxy clusters. These data provide a detailed view of the thin, extended filaments in the cores of these clusters. Based on the ratio of the far-UV to Hα luminosity, the UV spectral energy distribution, and the far-UV and Hα morphology, we conclude that the warm, ionized gas in the cluster cores is photoionized by massive, young stars in all but a few (A1991, A2052, A2580) systems. We show that the extended filaments, when considered separately, appear to be star forming in the majority of cases, while the nuclei tend to have slightly lower far-UV luminosity for a given Hα luminosity, suggesting a harder ionization source or higher extinction. We observe a slight offset in the UV/Hα ratio from the expected value for continuous star formation which can be modeled by assuming intrinsic extinction by modest amounts of dust (E(B - V) ∼ 0.2) or a top-heavy initial mass function in the extended filaments. The measured star formation rates vary from ∼0.05 M sun yr -1 in the nuclei of non-cooling systems, consistent with passive, red ellipticals, to ∼5 M sun yr -1 in systems with complex, extended, optical filaments. Comparing the estimates of the star formation rate based on UV, Hα, and infrared luminosities to the spectroscopically determined X-ray cooling rate suggests a star formation efficiency of 14 +18 -8 %. This value represents the time-averaged fraction, by mass, of gas cooling out of the intracluster medium, which turns into stars and agrees well with the global fraction of baryons in stars required by simulations to reproduce the stellar mass function for galaxies. This result provides a new constraint on the efficiency of star formation in accreting systems.

  3. Cooled-Spool Piston Compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Brian G.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed cooled-spool piston compressor driven by hydraulic power and features internal cooling of piston by flowing hydraulic fluid to limit temperature of compressed gas. Provides sufficient cooling for higher compression ratios or reactive gases. Unlike conventional piston compressors, all parts of compressed gas lie at all times within relatively short distance of cooled surface so that gas cooled more effectively.

  4. Hyperspectral Longwave Infrared Focal Plane Array and Camera Based on Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a hyperspectral focal plane array and camera imaging in a large number of sharp hyperspectral bands in the thermal infrared. The camera is...

  5. Progress towards vertical transport study of proton-irradiated InAs/GaSb type-II strained-layer superlattice materials for space-based infrared detectors using magnetoresistance measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Mitchell C.; Morath, Christian P.; Fahey, Stephen; Klein, Brianna; Cowan, Vincent M.; Krishna, Sanjay

    2015-09-01

    InAs/GaSb type-II strained-layer superlattice (T2SLS) materials are being considered for space-based infrared detector applications. However, an inadequate understanding of the role of carrier transport, specifically the vertical mobility, in the radiation tolerance of T2SLS detectors remains. Here, progress towards a vertical transport study of proton-irradiated, p-type InAs/GaSb T2SLS materials using magnetoresistance measurements is reported. Measurements in the growth direction of square mesas formed from InAs/GaSb superlattice material were performed using two distinct contact geometries in a Kelvin mode setup at variable magnetic fields, ranging from -9 T to 9 T, and temperatures, ranging from 5 K and 300 K. The results here suggested multi-carrier conduction and a field-dependent series resistance from the contact layer were present. The implications of these results and the plans for future magnetoresistance measurements on proton-irradiated T2SLS materials are discussed.

  6. Low Temperature Heating and High Temperature Cooling in Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazanci, Ongun Berk

    A heating and cooling system could be divided into three parts: terminal units (emission system), distribution system, and heating and cooling plant (generation system). The choice of terminal unit directly affects the energy performance, and the indoor environment in that space. Therefore, a hol...

  7. Solar-Heated and Cooled Office Building--Columbus, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Final report documents solar-energy system installed in office building to provide space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water. Collectors mounted on roof track Sun and concentrate rays on fluid-circulating tubes. Collected energy is distributed to hot-water-fired absorption chiller and space-heating and domestic-hot-water preheating systems.

  8. Second sector cool down

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    At the beginning of July, cool-down is starting in the second LHC sector, sector 4-5. The cool down of sector 4-5 may occasionally generate mist at Point 4, like that produced last January (photo) during the cool-down of sector 7-8.Things are getting colder in the LHC. Sector 7-8 has been kept at 1.9 K for three weeks with excellent stability (see Bulletin No. 16-17 of 16 April 2007). The electrical tests in this sector have got opt to a successful start. At the beginning of July the cryogenic teams started to cool a second sector, sector 4-5. At Point 4 in Echenevex, where one of the LHC’s cryogenic plants is located, preparations for the first phase of the cool-down are underway. During this phase, the sector will first be cooled to 80 K (-193°C), the temperature of liquid nitrogen. As for the first sector, 1200 tonnes of liquid nitrogen will be used for the cool-down. In fact, the nitrogen circulates only at the surface in the ...

  9. Dry well cooling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Hiroyuki.

    1997-01-01

    A plurality of blowing ports with introduction units are disposed to a plurality of ducts in a dry well, and a cooling unit comprising a cooler, a blower and an isolating valve is disposed outside of the dry well. Cooling air and the atmosphere in the dry well are mixed to form a cooling gas and blown into the dry well to control the temperature. Since the cooling unit is disposed outside of the dry well, the maintenance of the cooling unit can be performed even during the plant operation. In addition, since dampers opened/closed depending on the temperature of the atmosphere are disposed to the introduction units for controlling the temperature of the cooling gas, the temperature of the atmosphere in the dry well can be set to a predetermined level rapidly. Since an axial flow blower is used as the blower of the cooling unit, it can be contained in a ventilation cylinder. Then, the atmosphere in the dry well flowing in the ventilation cylinder can be prevented from leaking to the outside. (N.H.)

  10. Infrared studies of symbiotic stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, D.A.

    1982-01-01

    Infrared photometry and spectroscopy of symbiotic stars is reviewed. It is shown that at wavelengths beyond 1 μm these systems are generally dominated by the cool star's photosphere and, indeed, are indistinguishable from ordinary late-type giants. About 25% of symbiotic stars exhibit additional emission due to circumstellar dust. Most of the dusty systems probably involve Mira variables, the dust forming in the atmospheres of the Miras. In a few cases the dust is much cooler and the cool component hotter; the dust must then form in distant gas shielded from the hot component, perhaps by an accretion disk. Spectroscopy at 2 μm can be used to spectral type the cool components, even in the presence of some dust emission. Distances may thereby be estimated, though with some uncertainty. Spectroscopy at longer wavelengths reveals information about the dust itself. In most cases this dust appears to include silicate grains, which form in the oxygen-rich envelope of an M star. In the case of HD 33036, however, different emission features are found which suggest a carbon-rich environment. (Auth.)

  11. Cooling towers: a bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitson, M.O.

    1981-02-01

    This bibliography cites 300 selected references containing information on various aspects of large cooling tower technology, including design, construction, operation, performance, economics, and environmental effects. The towers considered include natural-draft and mechanical-draft types employing wet, dry, or combination wet-dry cooling. A few references deal with alternative cooling methods, principally ponds or spray canals. The citations were compiled for the DOE Energy Information Data Base (EDB) covering the period January to December 1980. The references are to reports from the Department of Energy and its contractors, reports from other government or private organizations, and journal articles, books, conference papers, and monographs from US originators

  12. History of nuclear cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuerti, M.

    1998-01-01

    The historical development of producing extreme low temperatures by magnetic techniques is overviewed. With electron spin methods, temperatures down to 1 mK can be achieved. With nuclear spins theoretically 10 -9 K can be produced. The idea of cooling with nuclear demagnetization is not new, it is a logical extension of the concept of electron cooling. Using nuclear demagnetization experiment with 3 T water cooled solenoids 3 mK could be produced. The cold record is held by Olli Lounasmaa in Helsinki with temperatures below 10 -9 K. (R.P.)

  13. Overview of Resources for Geothermal Absorption Cooling for Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaobing [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gluesenkamp, Kyle R [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mehdizadeh Momen, Ayyoub [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-06-01

    This report summarizes the results of a literature review in three areas: available low-temperature/coproduced geothermal resources in the United States, energy use for space conditioning in commercial buildings, and state of the art of geothermal absorption cooling.

  14. LOX/Methane Regeneratively-Cooled Rocket Engine Development

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this project is to advance the technologies required to build a subcritical regeneratively cooled liquid oxygen/methane rocket combustion chamber for...

  15. The Fourier-Kelvin Stellar Interferometer (FKSI): Infrared Detection and Characterization of Exozodiacal Dust to Super-Earths, A Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danchi, W.

    2010-01-01

    The Fourier-Kelvin Stellar Interferometer (FKSI) is a structurally connected infrared space interferometer with 0.5 m diameter telescopes on a 12.5 m baseline, and is passively cooled to approx.60K. The FKSI operates in the thermal infrared from 3-8 microns in a nulling (or starlight suppressing) mode for the detection and characterization of exoplanets, debris disks, extrasolar zodiacal dust levels. The FKSI will have the highest angular resolution of any infrared space instrument ever made with its nominal resolution of 40 mas at a 5 micron center wavelength. This resolution exceeds that of Spitzer by a factor of 38 and JWST by a factor of 5. The FKSI mission is conceived as a "probe class" or "mid-sized" strategic mission that utilizes technology advances from flagship projects like JWST, SIM, Spitzer, and the technology programs of TPF-I/Darwin. During the past year we began investigating an enhanced version of FKSI with 1-2 m diameter telescopes, passively cooled to 40K, on a 20-m baseline, with a sunshade giving a +/- 45 degree Field-of-Regard. This enhanced design is capable of detecting and characterizing the atmospheres of many 2 Earth-radius super-Earths and a few Earth-twins. We will report progress on the design of the enhanced mission concept and current status of the technologies needed for this mission.

  16. SPIRITS: SPitzer InfraRed Intensive Transients Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasliwal, Mansi; Jencson, Jacob; Lau, Ryan; Masci, Frank; Helou, George; Williams, Robert; Bally, John; Bond, Howard; Whitelock, Patricia; Cody, Ann Marie; Gehrz, Robert; Tinyanont, Samaporn; Smith, Nathan; Surace, Jason; Armus, Lee; Cantiello, Matteo; Langer, Norbert; Levesque, Emily; Mohamed, Shazrene; Ofek, Eran; Parthasarathy, Mudumba; van Dyk, Schuyler; Boyer, Martha; Phillips, Mark; Hsiao, Eric; Morrell, Nidia; Perley, Dan; Gonzalez, Consuelo; Contreras, Carlos; Jones, Olivia; Ressler, Michael; Adams, Scott; Moore, Anna; Cook, David; Fox, Ori; Johansson, Joel; Khan, Rubab; Monson, Andrew; Hankins, Matthew; Goldman, Steven; Jacob, Jencson

    2018-05-01

    Spitzer is pioneering a systematic exploration of the dynamic infrared sky. Our SPitzer InfraRed Intensive Transients Survey (SPIRITS) has already discovered 78 explosive transients and 2457 eruptive variables. Of these 78 infrared transients, 60 are so red that they are devoid of optical counterparts and we call them SPRITEs (eSPecially Red Intermediate-luminosity Transient Events). The nature of SPRITEs is unknown and progress on deciphering the explosion physics depends on mid-IR spectroscopy. Multiple physical origins have been proposed including stellar merger, birth of a massive binary, electron capture supernova and stellar black hole formation. Hence, we propose a modest continuation of SPIRITS, focusing on discovering and monitoring SPRITEs, in preparation for follow-up with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). As the SPRITEs evolve and cool, the bulk of the emission shifts to longer wavelengths. MIRI aboard JWST will be the only available platform in the near future capable of characterizing SPRITEs out to 28 um. Specifically, the low resolution spectrometer would determine dust mass, grain chemistry, ice abundance and energetics to disentangle the proposed origins. The re-focused SPIRITS program consists of continued Spitzer monitoring of those 106 luminous galaxies that are known SPRITE hosts or are most likely to host new SPRITEs. Scaling from the SPIRITS discovery rate, we estimate finding 10 new SPRITEs and 2-3 new supernovae in Cycle 14. The SPIRITS team remains committed to extensive ground-based follow-up. The Spitzer observations proposed here are essential for determining the final fates of active SPRITEs as well as bridging the time lag between the current SPIRITS survey and JWST launch.

  17. Microbial analysis of meatballs cooled with vacuum and conventional cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Hande Mutlu; Ozturk, Harun Kemal; Koçar, Gunnur

    2017-08-01

    Vacuum cooling is a rapid evaporative cooling technique and can be used for pre-cooling of leafy vegetables, mushroom, bakery, fishery, sauces, cooked food, meat and particulate foods. The aim of this study was to apply the vacuum cooling and the conventional cooling techniques for the cooling of the meatball and to show the vacuum pressure effect on the cooling time, the temperature decrease and microbial growth rate. The results of the vacuum cooling and the conventional cooling (cooling in the refrigerator) were compared with each other for different temperatures. The study shows that the conventional cooling was much slower than the vacuum cooling. Moreover, the microbial growth rate of the vacuum cooling was extremely low compared with the conventional cooling. Thus, the lowest microbial growth occurred at 0.7 kPa and the highest microbial growth was observed at 1.5 kPa for the vacuum cooling. The mass loss ratio for the conventional cooling and vacuum cooling was about 5 and 9% respectively.

  18. A Very Cool Pair of Brown Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    will look like CFBDSIR 1458+10B." Unravelling the secrets of this unique object involved exploiting the power of three different telescopes. CFBDSIR 1458+10 was first found to be a binary using the Laser Guide Star (LGS) Adaptive Optics system on the Keck II Telescope in Hawaii [3]. Liu and his colleagues then employed the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, also in Hawaii, to determine the distance to the brown dwarf duo using an infrared camera [4]. Finally the ESO VLT was used to study the object's infrared spectrum and measure its temperature. The hunt for cool objects is a very active astronomical hot topic. The Spitzer Space Telescope has recently identified two other very faint objects as other possible contenders for the coolest known brown dwarfs, although their temperatures have not been measured so precisely. Future observations will better determine how these objects compare to CFBDSIR 1458+10B. Liu and his colleagues are planning to observe CFBDSIR 1458+10B again to better determine its properties and to begin mapping the binary's orbit, which, after about a decade of monitoring, should allow astronomers to determine the binary's mass. Notes [1] CFBDSIR 1458+10 is the name of the binary system. The two components are known as CFBDSIR 1458+10A and CFBDSIR 1458+10B, with the latter the fainter and cooler of the two. They seem to be orbiting each other at a separation of about three times the distance between the Earth and the Sun in a period of about thirty years. [2] By comparison the temperature of the surface of the Sun is about 5500 degrees Celsius. [3] Adaptive optics cancels out much of Earth's atmospheric interference, improving the image sharpness by a factor of ten and enabling the very small separation binary to be resolved. [4] The astronomers measured the apparent motion of the brown dwarfs against the background of more distant stars caused by Earth's changing position in its orbit around the Sun. The effect, known as parallax, allowed them to

  19. Processes influencing cooling of reactor effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magoulas, V.E.; Murphy, C.E. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Discharge of heated reactor cooling water from SRP reactors to the Savannah River is through sections of stream channels into the Savannah River Swamp and from the swamp into the river. Significant cooling of the reactor effluents takes place in both the streams and swamp. The majority of the cooling is through processes taking place at the surface of the water. The major means of heat dissipation are convective transfer of heat to the air, latent heat transfer through evaporation and radiative transfer of infrared radiation. A model was developed which incorporates the effects of these processes on stream and swamp cooling of reactor effluents. The model was used to simulate the effect of modifications in the stream environment on the temperature of water flowing into the river. Environmental effects simulated were the effect of changing radiant heat load, the effect of changes in tree canopy density in the swamp, the effect of total removal of trees from the swamp, and the effect of diverting the heated water from L reactor from Steel Creek to Pen Branch. 6 references, 7 figures

  20. Gas cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Masayuki.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To enable direct cooling of reactor cores thereby improving the cooling efficiency upon accidents. Constitution: A plurality sets of heat exchange pipe groups are disposed around the reactor core, which are connected by way of communication pipes with a feedwater recycling device comprising gas/liquid separation device, recycling pump, feedwater pump and emergency water tank. Upon occurrence of loss of primary coolants accidents, the heat exchange pipe groups directly absorb the heat from the reactor core through radiation and convection. Although the water in the heat exchange pipe groups are boiled to evaporate if the forcive circulation is interrupted by the loss of electric power source, water in the emergency tank is supplied due to the head to the heat exchange pipe groups to continue the cooling. Furthermore, since the heat exchange pipe groups surround the entire circumference of the reactor core, cooling is carried out uniformly without resulting deformation or stresses due to the thermal imbalance. (Sekiya, K.)

  1. Warm and Cool Dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannlein, Sally

    2001-01-01

    Presents an art activity in which first grade students draw dinosaurs in order to learn about the concept of warm and cool colors. Explains how the activity also helped the students learn about the concept of distance when drawing. (CMK)

  2. Cooling of wood briquettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adžić Miroljub M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the experimental research of surface temperature of wood briquettes during cooling phase along the cooling line. The cooling phase is an important part of the briquette production technology. It should be performed with care, otherwise the quality of briquettes could deteriorate and possible changes of combustion characteristics of briquettes could happen. The briquette surface temperature was measured with an IR camera and a surface temperature probe at 42 sections. It was found that the temperature of briquette surface dropped from 68 to 34°C after 7 minutes spent at the cooling line. The temperature at the center of briquette, during the 6 hour storage, decreased to 38°C.

  3. Comparison of different cooling regimes within a shortened liquid cooling/warming garment on physiological and psychological comfort during exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Gloria R.; Koscheyev, Victor S.; Coca, Aitor; List, Nathan

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of different cooling regime intensities to maintain physiological and subjective comfort during physical exertion levels comparable to that engaged in during extravehicular activities (EVA) in space. We studied eight subjects (six males, two females) donned in our newly developed physiologically based shortened liquid cooling/warming garment (SLCWG). Rigorous (condition 1) and mild (condition 2) water temperature cooling regimes were compared at physical exertion levels comparable to that performed during EVA to ascertain the effectiveness of a lesser intensity of cooling in maintaining thermal comfort, thus reducing energy consumption in the portable life support system. Exercise intensity was varied across stages of the session. Finger temperature, rectal temperature, and subjective perception of overall body and hand comfort were assessed. Finger temperature was significantly higher in the rigorous cooling condition and showed a consistent increase across exercise stages, likely due to the restriction of heat extraction because of the intensive cold. In the mild cooling condition, finger temperature exhibited an overall decline with cooling, indicating greater heat extraction from the body. Rectal temperature was not significantly different between conditions, and showed a steady increase over exercise stages in both rigorous and mild cooling conditions. Ratings of overall comfort were 30% higher (more positive) and more stable in mild cooling (p<0.001). The mild cooling regime was more effective than rigorous cooling in allowing the process of heat exchange to occur, thus maintaining thermal homeostasis and subjective comfort during physical exertion.

  4. Laser cooling of solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epstein, Richard I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sheik-bahae, Mansoor [UNM

    2008-01-01

    We present an overview of solid-state optical refrigeration also known as laser cooling in solids by fluorescence upconversion. The idea of cooling a solid-state optical material by simply shining a laser beam onto it may sound counter intuitive but is rapidly becoming a promising technology for future cryocooler. We chart the evolution of this science in rare-earth doped solids and semiconductors.

  5. Cooling with Superfluid Helium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebrun, P; Tavian, L [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2014-07-01

    The technical properties of helium II (‘superfluid’ helium) are presented in view of its applications to the cooling of superconducting devices, particularly in particle accelerators. Cooling schemes are discussed in terms of heat transfer performance and limitations. Large-capacity refrigeration techniques below 2 K are reviewed, with regard to thermodynamic cycles as well as process machinery. Examples drawn from existing or planned projects illustrate the presentation. Keywords: superfluid helium, cryogenics.

  6. Instrument for the detection of meteors in the infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svedhem, H.; Koschny, D.; Ter Haar, J.

    2014-07-01

    The flux of interplanetary particles in the size range 2 mm to 20 m is poorly constrained due to insufficient data --- the larger bodies may be observed remotely by ground-based or space-based telescopes and the smaller particles are measured by in-situ impact detectors in space or by meteor cameras from ground. An infrared video rate imager in Earth orbit would enable a systematic characterization for an extended period, day and night, of the flux in this range by monitoring the bright meteor/fireball generated during atmospheric entry. Due to the low flux of meteoroids in this range a very large detector is required. With this method a large portion of the Earth atmosphere is in fact used as a huge detector. Such an instrument has never flown in Earth orbit. The only sensors of a similar kind fly on US defense satellites for monitoring launches of ballistic missiles. The data from these sensors, however, is largely inaccessible to scientists. The knowledge on emission of light by meteors/bolides at infrared wavelengths is very limited while it can be suspected that the continuum emission from meteors/bolides have stronger emission at infrared wavelengths than in the visible due to the likely low temperatures of these events. At the same time line emission is dominating over the continuum in the visible so it is not clear how this will compare with the continuum in the infrared. We have developed a bread-board version of an IR video rate camera, the SPOSH-IR. The instrument is based on an earlier technology development, SPOSH --- Smart Panoramic Optical Sensor Head, for operation in the visible range, but with the sensor replaced by a cooled IR detector and new infrared optics. The earlier work has proven the concept of the instrument and of automatic detection of meteors/bolides in the visible wavelength range. The new hardware has been built by Jena-Optronik, Jena, Germany and has been tested during several meteor showers in the Netherlands and at ESA's OGS

  7. Conceptual thermal design and analysis of a far-infrared/mid-infrared remote sensing instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roettker, William A.

    1992-07-01

    This paper presents the conceptual thermal design and analysis results for the Spectroscopy of the Atmosphere using Far-Infrared Emission (SAFIRE) instrument. SAFIRE has been proposed for Mission to Planet Earth to study ozone chemistry in the middle atmosphere using remote sensing of the atmosphere in the far-infrared (21-87 microns) and mid-infrared (9-16 microns) spectra. SAFIRE requires that far-IR detectors be cooled to 3-4 K and mid-IR detectors to 80 K for the expected mission lifetime of five years. A superfluid helium dewar and Stirling-cycle cryocoolers provide the cryogenic temperatures required by the infrared detectors. The proposed instrument thermal design uses passive thermal control techniques to reject 465 watts of waste heat from the instrument.

  8. Solar heating and cooling of buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, R. D.; Davis, E. S.

    1975-01-01

    Solar energy has been used for space heating and water heating for many years. A less common application, although technically feasible, is solar cooling. This paper describes the techniques employed in the heating and cooling of buildings, and in water heating. The potential for solar energy to displace conventional energy sources is discussed. Water heating for new apartments appears to have some features which could make it a place to begin the resurgence of solar energy applications in the United States. A project to investigate apartment solar water heating, currently in the pilot plant construction phase, is described.

  9. Process for cooling waste water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohner, P

    1976-12-16

    The process for avoiding thermal pollution of waters described rests on the principle of the heat conduction tube, by which heat is conducted from the liquid space into the atmosphere at a lower temperature above it. Such a tube, here called a cooling tube, consists in its simplest form of a heat conducting corrugated tube, made, for example, of copper or a copper alloy or of precious metals, which is sealed to be airtight at both ends, and after evacuation, is partially filled with a medium of low boiling point. The longer leg of the tube, which is bent at right angles, lies close below the surface of the water to be cooled and parallel to it; the shorter leg projects vertically into the atmosphere. The liquid inside the cooling tube fills the horizontal part of the tube to about halfway. A certain part of the liquid is always evaporated in this part. The vapor rising in the vertical part of the tube condenses on the internal wall cooled by the air outside, and gives off its heat to the atmosphere. The condensed medium flows back down the vertical internal wall into the initial position in a continuous cycle. A further development contains a smooth plastic inner tube in an outer corrugated tube, which is shorter than the outer tube; it ends at a distance from the caps sealing the outer tube at both ends. In this design the angle between the vertical and horizontal leg is less than 90/sup 0/. The shorter leg projects vertically from the water surface, below which the longer leg rises slightly from the knee of tube. The quantity of the liquid is gauged as a type of siphon, so that the space between the outer and inner tube at the knee of the tube remains closed by the liquid medium. The medium evaporated from the surface in the long leg of the tube therefore flows over the inner tube, which starts above the level of the medium. Thus evaporation and condensation paths are separated.

  10. Ionization Cooling using Parametric Resonances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Rolland P.

    2008-06-07

    Ionization Cooling using Parametric Resonances was an SBIR project begun in July 2004 and ended in January 2008 with Muons, Inc., (Dr. Rolland Johnson, PI), and Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) (Dr. Yaroslav Derbenev, Subcontract PI). The project was to develop the theory and simulations of Parametric-resonance Ionization Cooling (PIC) so that it could be used to provide the extra transverse cooling needed for muon colliders in order to relax the requirements on the proton driver, reduce the site boundary radiation, and provide a better environment for experiments. During the course of the project, the theoretical understanding of PIC was developed and a final exposition is ready for publication. Workshops were sponsored by Muons, Inc. in May and September of 2007 that were devoted to the PIC technique. One outcome of the workshops was the interesting and somewhat unexpected realization that the beam emittances using the PIC technique can get small enough that space charge forces can be important. A parallel effort to develop our G4beamline simulation program to include space charge effects was initiated to address this problem. A method of compensating for chromatic aberrations by employing synchrotron motion was developed and simulated. A method of compensating for spherical aberrations using beamline symmetry was also developed and simulated. Different optics designs have been developed using the OptiM program in preparation for applying our G4beamline simulation program, which contains all the power of the Geant4 toolkit. However, no PIC channel design that has been developed has had the desired cooling performance when subjected to the complete G4beamline simulation program. This is believed to be the consequence of the difficulties of correcting the aberrations associated with the naturally large beam angles and beam sizes of the PIC method that are exacerbated by the fringe fields of the rather complicated channel designs that have been

  11. Ionization Cooling using Parametric Resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Rolland P.

    2008-01-01

    Ionization Cooling using Parametric Resonances was an SBIR project begun in July 2004 and ended in January 2008 with Muons, Inc., (Dr. Rolland Johnson, PI), and Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) (Dr. Yaroslav Derbenev, Subcontract PI). The project was to develop the theory and simulations of Parametric-resonance Ionization Cooling (PIC) so that it could be used to provide the extra transverse cooling needed for muon colliders in order to relax the requirements on the proton driver, reduce the site boundary radiation, and provide a better environment for experiments. During the course of the project, the theoretical understanding of PIC was developed and a final exposition is ready for publication. Workshops were sponsored by Muons, Inc. in May and September of 2007 that were devoted to the PIC technique. One outcome of the workshops was the interesting and somewhat unexpected realization that the beam emittances using the PIC technique can get small enough that space charge forces can be important. A parallel effort to develop our G4beamline simulation program to include space charge effects was initiated to address this problem. A method of compensating for chromatic aberrations by employing synchrotron motion was developed and simulated. A method of compensating for spherical aberrations using beamline symmetry was also developed and simulated. Different optics designs have been developed using the OptiM program in preparation for applying our G4beamline simulation program, which contains all the power of the Geant4 toolkit. However, no PIC channel design that has been developed has had the desired cooling performance when subjected to the complete G4beamline simulation program. This is believed to be the consequence of the difficulties of correcting the aberrations associated with the naturally large beam angles and beam sizes of the PIC method that are exacerbated by the fringe fields of the rather complicated channel designs that have been

  12. Research for Actively Reducing Infrared Radiation by Thermoelectric Refrigerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hoon; Kim, Kyomin; Kim, Woochul [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    We introduced a technology for reducing infrared radiation through the active cooling of hot surfaces by using a thermoelectric refrigerator. Certain surfaces were heated by aerodynamic heating, and the heat generation processes are proposed here. We calculated the temperatures and radiations from surfaces, while using thermoelectric refrigerators to cool the surfaces. The results showed that the contrast between the radiations of certain surfaces and the ambient environments can be removed using thermoelectric refrigerators.

  13. Advanced Pumps and Cold Plates for Two-Phase Cooling Loops, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced instruments used for earth science missions require improved cooling systems to remove heat from high power electronic components and maintain tight...

  14. Comparing Social Stories™ to Cool versus Not Cool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf, Justin B.; Mitchell, Erin; Townley-Cochran, Donna; McEachin, John; Taubman, Mitchell; Leaf, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    In this study we compared the cool versus not cool procedure to Social Stories™ for teaching various social behaviors to one individual diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. The researchers randomly assigned three social skills to the cool versus not cool procedure and three social skills to the Social Stories™ procedure. Naturalistic probes…

  15. Apparatus and method for transient thermal infrared spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, John F.; Jones, Roger W.

    1991-12-03

    A method and apparatus for enabling analysis of a material (16, 42) by applying a cooling medium (20, 54) to cool a thin surface layer portion of the material and to transiently generate a temperature differential between the thin surface layer portion and the lower portion of the material sufficient to alter the thermal infrared emission spectrum of the material from the black-body thermal infrared emission spectrum of the material. The altered thermal infrared emission spectrum of the material is detected by a spectrometer/detector (28, 50) while the altered thermal infrared emission spectrum is sufficiently free of self-absorption by the material of the emitted infrared radiation. The detection is effected prior to the temperature differential propagating into the lower portion of the material to an extent such that the altered thermal infrared emission spectrum is no longer sufficiently free of self-absorption by the material of emitted infrared radiation, so that the detected altered thermal infrared emission spectrum is indicative of the characteristics relating to the molecular composition of the material.

  16. Cooling Effectiveness Measurements for Air Film Cooling of Thermal Barrier Coated Surfaces in a Burner Rig Environment Using Phosphor Thermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey I.; Shyam, Vikram; Wroblewski, Adam C.; Zhu, Dongming; Cuy, Michael D.; Wolfe, Douglas E.

    2016-01-01

    While the effects of thermal barrier coating (TBC) thermal protection and air film cooling effectiveness are usually studied separately, their contributions to combined cooling effectiveness are interdependent and are not simply additive. Therefore, combined cooling effectiveness must be measured to achieve an optimum balance between TBC thermal protection and air film cooling. In this investigation, surface temperature mapping was performed using recently developed Cr-doped GdAlO3 phosphor thermometry. Measurements were performed in the NASA GRC Mach 0.3 burner rig on a TBC-coated plate using a scaled up cooling hole geometry where both the mainstream hot gas temperature and the blowing ratio were varied. Procedures for surface temperature and cooling effectiveness mapping of the air film-cooled TBC-coated surface are described. Applications are also shown for an engine component in both the burner rig test environment as well as an engine afterburner environment. The effects of thermal background radiation and flame chemiluminescence on the measurements are investigated, and advantages of this method over infrared thermography as well as the limitations of this method for studying air film cooling are discussed.

  17. Passive cooling system for liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors with backup coolant flow path

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunsbedt, A.; Boardman, C.E.

    1993-01-01

    A dual passive cooling system for liquid metal cooled nuclear fission reactors is described, comprising the combination of: a reactor vessel for containing a pool of liquid metal coolant with a core of heat generating fissionable fuel substantially submerged therein, a side wall of the reactor vessel forming an innermost first partition; a containment vessel substantially surrounding the reactor vessel in spaced apart relation having a side wall forming a second partition; a first baffle cylinder substantially encircling the containment vessel in spaced apart relation having an encircling wall forming a third partition; a guard vessel substantially surrounding the containment vessel and first baffle cylinder in spaced apart relation having a side wall forming a forth partition; a sliding seal at the top of the guard vessel edge to isolate the dual cooling system air streams; a second baffle cylinder substantially encircling the guard vessel in spaced part relationship having an encircling wan forming a fifth partition; a concrete silo substantially surrounding the guard vessel and the second baffle cylinder in spaced apart relation providing a sixth partition; a first fluid coolant circulating flow course open to the ambient atmosphere for circulating air coolant comprising at lent one down comer duct having an opening to the atmosphere in an upper area thereof and making fluid communication with the space between the guard vessel and the first baffle cylinder and at least one riser duct having an opening to the atmosphere in the upper area thereof and making fluid communication with the space between the first baffle cylinder and the containment vessel whereby cooling fluid air can flow from the atmosphere down through the down comer duct and space between the forth and third partitions and up through the space between the third and second partition and the riser duct then out into the atmosphere; and a second fluid coolant circulating flow

  18. Semiconductor optoelectronic infrared spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollingworth, A.R.

    2001-08-01

    We use spectroscopy to study infrared optoelectronic inter and intraband semiconductor carrier dynamics. The overall aim of this thesis was to study both III-V and Pb chalcogenide material systems in order to show their future potential use in infrared emitters. The effects of bandstructure engineering have been studied in the output characteristics of mid-IR III-V laser diodes to show which processes (defects, radiative, Auger and phonon) dominate and whether non-radiative processes can be suppressed. A new three-beam pump probe experiment was used to investigate interband recombination directly in passive materials. Experiments on PbSe and theory for non-parabolic near-mirror bands and non-degenerate statistics were in good agreement. Comparisons with HgCdTe showed a reduction in the Auger coefficient of 1-2 orders of magnitude in the PbSe. Using Landau confinement to model spatial confinement in quantum dots (QDs) 'phonon bottlenecking' was studied. The results obtained from pump probe and cyclotron resonance saturation measurements showed a clear suppression in the cooling of carriers when Landau level separation was not resonant with LO phonon energy. When a bulk laser diode was placed in a magnetic field to produce a quasi quantum wire device the resulting enhanced differential gain and reduced Auger recombination lowered I th by 30%. This result showed many peaks in the light output which occurred when the LO phonon energy was a multiple of the Landau level separation. This showed for the first time evidence of the phonon bottleneck in a working laser device. A new technique called time resolved optically detected cyclotron resonance, was used as a precursor to finding the carrier dynamics within a spatially confined quantum dot. By moving to the case of a spatial QD using an optically detected intraband resonance it was possible to measure the energy separation interband levels and conduction and valence sublevels within the dot simultaneously. Furthermore

  19. DUST EXTINCTION FROM BALMER DECREMENTS OF STAR-FORMING GALAXIES AT 0.75 {<=} z {<=} 1.5 WITH HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE/WIDE-FIELD-CAMERA 3 SPECTROSCOPY FROM THE WFC3 INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC PARALLEL SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez, A.; Siana, B.; Masters, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California Riverside, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Henry, A. L.; Martin, C. L. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Scarlata, C.; Bedregal, A. G. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Malkan, M.; Ross, N. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Atek, H.; Colbert, J. W. [Spitzer Science Center, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Teplitz, H. I.; Rafelski, M. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); McCarthy, P.; Hathi, N. P.; Dressler, A. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Bunker, A., E-mail: albertod@ucr.edu [Department of Physics, Oxford University, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom)

    2013-02-15

    Spectroscopic observations of H{alpha} and H{beta} emission lines of 128 star-forming galaxies in the redshift range 0.75 {<=} z {<=} 1.5 are presented. These data were taken with slitless spectroscopy using the G102 and G141 grisms of the Wide-Field-Camera 3 (WFC3) on board the Hubble Space Telescope as part of the WFC3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallel survey. Interstellar dust extinction is measured from stacked spectra that cover the Balmer decrement (H{alpha}/H{beta}). We present dust extinction as a function of H{alpha} luminosity (down to 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 41} erg s{sup -1}), galaxy stellar mass (reaching 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} M {sub Sun }), and rest-frame H{alpha} equivalent width. The faintest galaxies are two times fainter in H{alpha} luminosity than galaxies previously studied at z {approx} 1.5. An evolution is observed where galaxies of the same H{alpha} luminosity have lower extinction at higher redshifts, whereas no evolution is found within our error bars with stellar mass. The lower H{alpha} luminosity galaxies in our sample are found to be consistent with no dust extinction. We find an anti-correlation of the [O III] {lambda}5007/H{alpha} flux ratio as a function of luminosity where galaxies with L {sub H{alpha}} < 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 41} erg s{sup -1} are brighter in [O III] {lambda}5007 than H{alpha}. This trend is evident even after extinction correction, suggesting that the increased [O III] {lambda}5007/H{alpha} ratio in low-luminosity galaxies is likely due to lower metallicity and/or higher ionization parameters.

  20. Laser cooling of neutral atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    A qualitative description of laser cooling of neutral atoms is given. Two of the most important mechanisms utilized in laser cooling, the so-called Doppler Cooling and Sisyphus Cooling, are reviewed. The minimum temperature reached by the atoms is derived using simple arguments. (Author) 7 refs

  1. Technology of power plant cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maulbetsch, J.S.; Zeren, R.W.

    1976-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: the thermodynamics of power generation and the need for cooling water; the technical, economic, and legislative constraints within which the cooling problem must be solved; alternate cooling methods currently available or under development; the water treatment requirements of cooling systems; and some alternatives for modifying the physical impact on aquatic systems

  2. Meltdown reactor core cooling facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Tsuyoshi.

    1992-01-01

    The meltdown reactor core cooling facility comprises a meltdown reactor core cooling tank, a cooling water storage tank situates at a position higher than the meltdown reactor core cooling tank, an upper pipeline connecting the upper portions of the both of the tanks and a lower pipeline connecting the lower portions of them. Upon occurrence of reactor core meltdown, a high temperature meltdown reactor core is dropped on the cooling tank to partially melt the tank and form a hole, from which cooling water is flown out. Since the water source of the cooling water is the cooling water storage tank, a great amount of cooling water is further dropped and supplied and the reactor core is submerged and cooled by natural convection for a long period of time. Further, when the lump of the meltdown reactor core is small and the perforated hole of the meltdown reactor cooling tank is small, cooling water is boiled by the high temperature lump intruding into the meltdown reactor core cooling tank and blown out from the upper pipeline to the cooling water storage tank to supply cooling water from the lower pipeline to the meltdown reactor core cooling tank. Since it is constituted only with simple static facilities, the facility can be simplified to attain improvement of reliability. (N.H.)

  3. The application of infrared synchrotron radiation to the study of interfacial vibrational modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirschmugl, C.J.; Williams, G.P.

    1992-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation provides an extremely bright broad-band source in the infrared which is ideally suited to the study of surface and interface vibrational modes in the range 50--3,000 cm -1 . Thus it covers the important range of molecule-substrate interactions, as well as overlapping with the more easily accessible near-ir region where molecular internal modes are found. Compared to standard broadband infrared sources such as globars, not only is it 1,000 times brighter, but its emittance matches the phase-space of the electrochemical cell leading to full utilization of this brightness advantage. In addition, the source is more stable even than water-cooled globars in vacuum for both short-term and long-term fluctuations. The authors summarize the properties of synchrotron radiation in the infrared, in particular pointing out the distinct differences between this and the x-ray region. They use experimental data in discussing important issues of signal to noise and address the unique problems and advantages of the synchrotron source. Thus they emphasize the important considerations necessary for developing new facilities. This analysis then leads to a discussion of phase-space matching to electrochemical cells, and to other surfaces in vacuum. Finally they show several examples of the application of infrared synchrotron radiation to surface vibrational spectroscopy. The examples are for metal crystal surfaces in ultra-high vacuum and include CO/Cu(100) and (111) and CO/K/Cu(100). The experiments show how the stability of the synchrotron source allows subtle changes in the background to be observed in addition to the discrete vibrational modes. These changes are due to electronic states induced by the adsorbate. In some cases the authors have seen interferences between these and the discrete vibrational modes, leading to a breakdown of the dipole selection rules, and the observation of additional modes

  4. Preoperational test report, recirculation condenser cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-01-01

    This represents a preoperational test report for Recirculation Condenser Systems, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The four system provide condenser cooling water for vapor space cooling of tanks AY1O1, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102. Each system consists of a valved piping loop, a pair of redundant recirculation pumps, a closed-loop evaporative cooling tower, and supporting instrumentation; equipment is located outside the farm on concrete slabs. Piping is routed to the each ventilation condenser inside the farm via below-grade concrete trenches. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System

  5. Preoperational test report, recirculation condenser cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-11-04

    This represents a preoperational test report for Recirculation Condenser Systems, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The four system provide condenser cooling water for vapor space cooling of tanks AY1O1, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102. Each system consists of a valved piping loop, a pair of redundant recirculation pumps, a closed-loop evaporative cooling tower, and supporting instrumentation; equipment is located outside the farm on concrete slabs. Piping is routed to the each ventilation condenser inside the farm via below-grade concrete trenches. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  6. The ATLAS IBL CO2 Cooling System

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00237783; The ATLAS collaboration; Zwalinski, L.; Bortolin, C.; Vogt, S.; Godlewski, J.; Crespo-Lopez, O.; Van Overbeek, M.; Blaszcyk, T.

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel detector has been equipped with an extra B-layer in the space obtained by a reduced beam pipe. This new pixel detector called the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer (IBL) is installed in 2014 and is operational in the current ATLAS data taking. The IBL detector is cooled with evaporative CO2 and is the first of its kind in ATLAS. The ATLAS IBL CO2 cooling system is designed for lower temperature operation (<-35⁰C) than the previous developed CO2 cooling systems in High Energy Physics experiments. The cold temperatures are required to protect the pixel sensors for the high expected radiation dose up to 550 fb^-1 integrated luminosity.

  7. Cooled airfoil in a turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitt, Paul H; Kemp, David A; Lee, Ching-Pang; Marra, John J

    2015-04-21

    An airfoil in a gas turbine engine includes an outer wall and an inner wall. The outer wall includes a leading edge, a trailing edge opposed from the leading edge in a chordal direction, a pressure side, and a suction side. The inner wall is coupled to the outer wall at a single chordal location and includes portions spaced from the pressure and suction sides of the outer wall so as to form first and second gaps between the inner wall and the respective pressure and suction sides. The inner wall defines a chamber therein and includes openings that provide fluid communication between the respective gaps and the chamber. The gaps receive cooling fluid that provides cooling to the outer wall as it flows through the gaps. The cooling fluid, after traversing at least substantial portions of the gaps, passes into the chamber through the openings in the inner wall.

  8. Gas-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulten, R.; Trauger, D.B.

    1976-01-01

    Experience to date with operation of high-temperature gas-cooled reactors has been quite favorable. Despite problems in completion of construction and startup, three high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) units have operated well. The Windscale Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor (AGR) in the United Kingdom has had an excellent operating history, and initial operation of commercial AGRs shows them to be satisfactory. The latter reactors provide direct experience in scale-up from the Windscale experiment to fullscale commercial units. The Colorado Fort St. Vrain 330-MWe prototype helium-cooled HTGR is now in the approach-to-power phase while the 300-MWe Pebble Bed THTR prototype in the Federal Republic of Germany is scheduled for completion of construction by late 1978. THTR will be the first nuclear power plant which uses a dry cooling tower. Fuel reprocessing and refabrication have been developed in the laboratory and are now entering a pilot-plant scale development. Several commercial HTGR power station orders were placed in the U.S. prior to 1975 with similar plans for stations in the FRG. However, the combined effects of inflation, reduced electric power demand, regulatory uncertainties, and pricing problems led to cancellation of the 12 reactors which were in various stages of planning, design, and licensing

  9. Gas cooled leads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shutt, R.P.; Rehak, M.L.; Hornik, K.E.

    1993-01-01

    The intent of this paper is to cover as completely as possible and in sufficient detail the topics relevant to lead design. The first part identifies the problems associated with lead design, states the mathematical formulation, and shows the results of numerical and analytical solutions. The second part presents the results of a parametric study whose object is to determine the best choice for cooling method, material, and geometry. These findings axe applied in a third part to the design of high-current leads whose end temperatures are determined from the surrounding equipment. It is found that cooling method or improved heat transfer are not critical once good heat exchange is established. The range 5 5 but extends over a large of values. Mass flow needed to prevent thermal runaway varies linearly with current above a given threshold. Below that value, the mass flow is constant with current. Transient analysis shows no evidence of hysteresis. If cooling is interrupted, the mass flow needed to restore the lead to its initially cooled state grows exponentially with the time that the lead was left without cooling

  10. Emergency core cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Kenji; Oikawa, Hirohide.

    1990-01-01

    The device according to this invention can ensure cooling water required for emerency core cooling upon emergence such as abnormally, for example, loss of coolant accident, without using dynamic equipments such as a centrifugal pump or large-scaled tank. The device comprises a pressure accumulation tank containing a high pressure nitrogen gas and cooling water inside, a condensate storage tank, a pressure suppression pool and a jet stream pump. In this device there are disposed a pipeline for guiding cooling water in the pressure accumulation tank as a jetting water to a jetting stream pump, a pipeline for guiding cooling water stored in the condensate storage tank and the pressure suppression pool as pumped water to the jetting pump and, further, a pipeline for guiding the discharged water from the jet stream pump which is a mixed stream of pumped water and jetting water into the reactor pressure vessel. In this constitution, a sufficient amount of water ranging from relatively high pressure to low pressure can be supplied into the reactor pressure vessel, without increasing the size of the pressure accumulation tank. (I.S.)

  11. Emergency reactor cooling circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Hidefumi; Matsumoto, Tomoyuki; Kataoka, Yoshiyuki.

    1994-01-01

    Cooling water in a gravitationally dropping water reservoir is injected into a reactor pressure vessel passing through a pipeline upon occurrence of emergency. The pipeline is inclined downwardly having one end thereof being in communication with the pressure vessel. During normal operation, the cooling water in the upper portion of the inclined pipeline is heated by convection heat transfer from the communication portion with the pressure vessel. On the other hand, cooling water present at a position lower than the communication portion forms cooling water lumps. Accordingly, temperature stratification layers are formed in the inclined pipeline. Therefore, temperature rise of water in a vertical pipeline connected to the inclined pipeline is small. With such a constitution, the amount of heat lost from the pressure vessel by way of the water injection pipeline is reduced. Further, there is no worry that cooling water to be injected upon occurrence of emergency is boiled under reduced pressure in the injection pipeline to delay the depressurization of the pressure vessel. (I.N.)

  12. Chemical Soups Around Cool Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This artist's conception shows a young, hypothetical planet around a cool star. A soupy mix of potentially life-forming chemicals can be seen pooling around the base of the jagged rocks. Observations from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope hint that planets around cool stars the so-called M-dwarfs and brown dwarfs that are widespread throughout our galaxy might possess a different mix of life-forming, or prebiotic, chemicals than our young Earth. Life on our planet is thought to have arisen out of a pond-scum-like mix of chemicals. Some of these chemicals are thought to have come from a planet-forming disk of gas and dust that swirled around our young sun. Meteorites carrying the chemicals might have crash-landed on Earth. Astronomers don't know if these same life-generating processes are taking place around stars that are cooler than our sun, but the Spitzer observations show their disk chemistry is different. Spitzer detected a prebiotic molecule, called hydrogen cyanide, in the disks around yellow stars like our sun, but found none around cooler, less massive, reddish stars. Hydrogen cyanide is a carbon-containing, or organic compound. Five hydrogen cyanide molecules can join up to make adenine a chemical element of the DNA molecule found in all living organisms on Earth.

  13. JUELICH: COSY acceleration and cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The COSY cooler synchrotron at the KFA Forschungszentrum Jülich, inaugurated on 1 April, is now well on its way towards precision-defined high energy beams to open new fields for Jülich physics experiments. In two important goals, on 25 May the first beam cooled by electrons circulated inside the accelerator, then on 25 July physicists succeeded in accelerating the beam from the 270 MeV/c injection momentum to 600 MeV. Shortly after, this was pushed well above 1 GeV. Throughout the tuning process the number of stored particles increased steadily, finally peaking at 1.1 x 10 11 , a value compatible with the predicted limit at the injection energy. This success was the result of a painstaking search for the optimum parameter set, the commissioning crew being acutely aware that bringing such a large machine on line was a major experiment in its own right. The 3.3 GeV/c COSY machine belongs to the new class of hadron storage and cooler synchrotrons which started with CERN's LEAR low energy antiproton ring. COSY will 'sharpen' its beams to a narrow momentum spread using both electron and stochastic cooling to control the circulating particles. In addition it will provide space for internal experiments. Both features will allow for novel experimental approaches, and more than 100 physicists are eagerly waiting for the first proton reactions in their detectors

  14. Feldspar, Infrared Stimulated Luminescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Mayank

    2014-01-01

    This entry primarily concerns the characteristics and the origins of infrared-stimulated luminescence in feldspars.......This entry primarily concerns the characteristics and the origins of infrared-stimulated luminescence in feldspars....

  15. Core cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeppner, G.

    1980-01-01

    The reactor cooling system transports the heat liberated in the reactor core to the component - heat exchanger, steam generator or turbine - where the energy is removed. This basic task can be performed with a variety of coolants circulating in appropriately designed cooling systems. The choice of any one system is governed by principles of economics and natural policies, the design is determined by the laws of nuclear physics, thermal-hydraulics and by the requirement of reliability and public safety. PWR- and BWR- reactors today generate the bulk of nuclear energy. Their primary cooling systems are discussed under the following aspects: 1. General design, nuclear physics constraints, energy transfer, hydraulics, thermodynamics. 2. Design and performance under conditions of steady state and mild transients; control systems. 3. Design and performance under conditions of severe transients and loss of coolant accidents; safety systems. (orig./RW)

  16. Reactor cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Etsuji.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To eliminate cleaning steps in the pipelines upon reactor shut-down by connecting a filtrating and desalting device to the cooling system to thereby always clean up the water in the pipelines. Constitution: A filtrating and desalting device is connected to the pipelines in the cooling system by way of drain valves and a check valve. Desalted water is taken out from the exit of the filtrating and desalting device and injected to one end of the cooling system pipelines by way of the drain valve and the check valve and then returned by way of another drain valve to the desalting device. Water in the pipelines is thus always desalted and the cleaning step in the pipelines is no more required in the shut-down. (Kawakami, Y.)

  17. ELECTRON COOLING FOR RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BEN-ZVI, I.; AHRENS, L.; BRENNAN, M.; HARRISON, M.; KEWISCH, J.; MACKAY, W.; PEGGS, S.; ROSER, T.; SATOGATA, T.; TRBOJEVIC, D.; YAKIMENKO, V.

    2001-01-01

    We introduce plans for electron-cooling of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). This project has a number of new features as electron coolers go: It will cool 100 GeV/nucleon ions with 50 MeV electrons; it will be the first attempt to cool a collider at storage-energy; and it will be the first cooler to use a bunched beam and a linear accelerator as the electron source. The linac will be superconducting with energy recovery. The electron source will be based on a photocathode gun. The project is carried out by the Collider-Accelerator Department at BNL in collaboration with the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics

  18. Muon ionization cooling experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2003-01-01

    A neutrino factory based on a muon storage ring is the ultimate tool for studies of neutrino oscillations, including possibly leptonic CP violation. It is also the first step towards muon colliders. The performance of this new and promising line of accelerators relies heavily on the concept of ionisation cooling of minimum ionising muons, for which much R&D is required. The concept of a muon ionisation cooling experiment has been extensively studied and first steps are now being taken towards its realisation by a joint international team of accelerator and particle physicists. The aim of the workshop is to to explore at least two versions of an experiment based on existing cooling channel designs. If such an experiment is feasible, one shall then select, on the basis of effectiveness, simplicity, availability of components and overall cost, a design for the proposed experiment, and assemble the elements necessary to the presentation of a proposal. Please see workshop website.

  19. Emergency core cooling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzaki, Kiyoshi; Inoue, Akihiro.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To improve core cooling effect by making the operation region for a plurality of water injection pumps more broader. Constitution: An emergency reactor core cooling device actuated upon failure of recycling pipe ways is adapted to be fed with cooling water through a thermal sleeve by way of a plurality of water injection pump from pool water in a condensate storage tank and a pressure suppression chamber as water feed source. Exhaust pipes and suction pipes of each of the pumps are connected by way of switching valves and the valves are switched so that the pumps are set to a series operation if the pressure in the pressure vessel is high and the pumps are set to a parallel operation if the pressure in the pressure vessel is low. (Furukawa, Y.)

  20. Monitoring Cray Cooling Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, Don E [ORNL; Ezell, Matthew A [ORNL; Becklehimer, Jeff [Cray, Inc.; Donovan, Matthew J [ORNL; Layton, Christopher C [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    While sites generally have systems in place to monitor the health of Cray computers themselves, often the cooling systems are ignored until a computer failure requires investigation into the source of the failure. The Liebert XDP units used to cool the Cray XE/XK models as well as the Cray proprietary cooling system used for the Cray XC30 models provide data useful for health monitoring. Unfortunately, this valuable information is often available only to custom solutions not accessible by a center-wide monitoring system or is simply ignored entirely. In this paper, methods and tools used to harvest the monitoring data available are discussed, and the implementation needed to integrate the data into a center-wide monitoring system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is provided.

  1. Extragalactic infrared astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gondhalekar, P.M.

    1985-05-01

    The paper concerns the field of Extragalactic Infrared Astronomy, discussed at the Fourth RAL Workshop on Astronomy and Astrophysics. Fifteen papers were presented on infrared emission from extragalactic objects. Both ground-(and aircraft-) based and IRAS infrared data were reviewed. The topics covered star formation in galaxies, active galactic nuclei and cosmology. (U.K.)

  2. AIRS/Aqua Level 1C Infrared (IR) resampled and corrected radiances V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AIRS Infrared (IR) level 1C data set contains AIRS infrared calibrated and geolocated radiances in W/m2/micron/ster. This data set is generated from AIRS level...

  3. Stochastic cooling for beginners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moehl, D.

    1984-01-01

    These two lectures have been prepared to give a simple introduction to the principles. In Part I we try to explain stochastic cooling using the time-domain picture which starts from the pulse response of the system. In Part II the discussion is repeated, looking more closely at the frequency-domain response. An attempt is made to familiarize the beginners with some of the elementary cooling equations, from the 'single particle case' up to equations which describe the evolution of the particle distribution. (orig.)

  4. Sodium cooled fast reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hokkyo, N; Inoue, K; Maeda, H

    1968-11-21

    In a sodium cooled fast neutron reactor, an ultrasonic generator is installed at a fuel assembly hold-down mechanism positioned above a blanket or fission gas reservoir located above the core. During operation of the reactor an ultrsonic wave of frequency 10/sup 3/ - 10/sup 4/ Hz is constantly transmitted to the core to resonantly inject the primary bubble with ultrasonic energy to thereby facilitate its growth. Hence, small bubbles grow gradually to prevent the sudden boiling of sodium if an accident occurs in the cooling system during operation of the reactor.

  5. Cooling pond fog studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, B.B.

    1978-01-01

    The Fog Excess Water Index (FEWI) method of fog prediction has been verified by the use of data obtained at the Dresden cooling pond during 1976 and 1977 and by a reanalysis of observations made in conjunction with a study of cooling pond simulators during 1974. For applications in which the method is applied to measurements or estimates of bulk water temperature, a critical value of about 0.7 mb appears to be most appropriate. The present analyses confirm the earlier finding that wind speed plays little part in determining the susceptibility for fog generation

  6. Infrared Astronomy and Education: Linking Infrared Whole Sky Mapping with Teacher and Student Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borders, Kareen; Mendez, Bryan; Thaller, Michelle; Gorjian, Varoujan; Borders, Kyla; Pitman, Peter; Pereira, Vincent; Sepulveda, Babs; Stark, Ron; Knisely, Cindy; Dandrea, Amy; Winglee, Robert; Plecki, Marge; Goebel, Jeri; Condit, Matt; Kelly, Susan

    The Spitzer Space Telescope and the recently launched WISE (Wide Field Infrared Survey Explorer) observe the sky in infrared light. Among the objects WISE will study are asteroids, the coolest and dimmest stars, and the most luminous galaxies. Secondary students can do authentic research using infrared data. For example, students will use WISE data to mea-sure physical properties of asteroids. In order to prepare students and teachers at this level with a high level of rigor and scientific understanding, the WISE and the Spitzer Space Tele-scope Education programs provided an immersive teacher professional development workshop in infrared astronomy.The lessons learned from the Spitzer and WISE teacher and student pro-grams can be applied to other programs engaging them in authentic research experiences using data from space-borne observatories such as Herschel and Planck. Recently, WISE Educator Ambassadors and NASA Explorer School teachers developed and led an infrared astronomy workshop at Arecibo Observatory in PuertoRico. As many common misconceptions involve scale and distance, teachers worked with Moon/Earth scale, solar system scale, and distance and age of objects in the Universe. Teachers built and used basic telescopes, learned about the history of telescopes, explored ground and satellite based telescopes, and explored and worked on models of WISE Telescope. An in-depth explanation of WISE and the Spitzer telescopes gave participants background knowledge for infrared astronomy observations. We taught the electromagnetic spectrum through interactive stations. We will outline specific steps for sec-ondary astronomy professional development, detail student involvement in infrared telescope data analysis, provide data demonstrating the impact of the above professional development on educator understanding and classroom use, and detail future plans for additional secondary professional development and student involvement in infrared astronomy. Funding was

  7. NPR and ANSI Containment Study Using Passive Cooling Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, J. J.; Iotti, R. C.; Wright, R. F.

    1993-01-01

    Passive containment cooling study of NPR (New Production Reactor) and ANSI (Advanced Neutron Source) following postulated loss of coolant accident with a coincident station blackout due to total loss of all alternating current power are studied analytically and experimentally. All the reactor and containment cooling under this condition would rely on the passive cooling system which removes reactor decay heat and provides emergency core and containment cooling. Containment passive emergency core and containment cooling. Containment passive cooling for this study takes place in the annulus between containment steel shell and concrete shield building by natural convection air flow and concrete shield building by natural convection air flow and thermal radiation. Various heat transfer coefficients inside annular air space were investigated by running the modified Contempt code Contempt-Npr. In order to verify proper heat transfer coefficient, temperature, heat flux and velocity profiles were measured inside annular air space of the test facility which is a 24 foot (7.3m) high, steam heated inner cylinder of three foot (.91m) diameter and five and halt foot (1.7m) diameter outer cylinder. Comparison of Contempt-Npr and WGOTHIC was done for reduced scale Npr. It is concluded that Npr and ANSI containments can be passively cooled with air alone without extended cooling surfaces or passive water spray

  8. Floor cooling. Extreme cooling efficiency due to vapour barrier? Optimized floor heating and cooling system; Flaechenkuehlung. Extreme Kuehlleistung dank Dampfsperre. Optimiertes Fussbodenheiz- und Kuehlsystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, Rolf [Wieland-Werke AG, Ulm (Germany). Technisches Marketing Haustechnik

    2010-07-01

    The active cooling of offices generally is accepted ever more. Among other things this is due to the fact that the climatic change results in a hotter summer on a long-term basis also in Germany. Also the use of computers, printing and copying machines increases the thermal load of the rooms considerably. The architecturally affected facade design with large glass areas also has an impact. The thermal comfort maintains the efficiency in offices. Thus, the efficient space cooling has become standard.

  9. Techno-Economic Analysis of Solar Absorption Cooling for Commercial buildings in India

    OpenAIRE

    Muthalagappan Narayanan

    2017-01-01

    Space cooling and heating always tends to be a major part of the primary energy usage. By using fossil fuel electricity for these purposes, the situation becomes even worse. One of the major electricity consumptions in India is air conditioning. There are a lot of different technologies and few researchers have come up with a debate between solar absorption cooling and PV electric cooling. In a previous paper, PV electric cooling was studied and now as a continuation, this paper focuses on so...

  10. TASK 2.5.7 FIELD EXPERIMENTS TO EVALUATE COOL-COLORED ROOFING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, William A [ORNL; Cherry, Nigel J [ORNL; Allen, Richard Lowell [ORNL; Childs, Phillip W [ORNL; Atchley, Jerald Allen [ORNL; Ronnen, Levinson [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Akbari, Hashem [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Berhahl, Paul [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)

    2010-03-01

    Aesthetically pleasing dark roofs can be formulated to reflect like a highly reflective white roof in the near infrared portion of the solar spectrum. New paint pigments increase the near infrared reflectance of exterior finishes by minimizing the absorption of near-infrared radiation (NIR). The boost in the NIR reflectance drops the surface temperatures of roofs and walls, which in turn reduces cooling-energy use and provides savings for the homeowner and relief for the utilities. In moderate and hot climates, a roof surface with high solar reflectance and high thermal emittance was shown by Akbari et al. (2004) and by Parker and Sherwin (1998) to reduce the exterior temperature and produce savings in comfort cooling. The new cool color pigments can potentially reduce emissions of carbon dioxide, which in turn reduces metropolitan heat buildup and urban smog. The pigments can also help conserve water resources otherwise used to clean and process fuel consumed by fossil-fuel driven power plants. Cool roofs also result in a lower ambient temperature that further decreases the need for air conditioning, retards smog formation, and improves thermal comfort. Parker, Sonne and Sherwin (2002) demonstrated that white barrel and white flat tiles reduced cooling energy consumption by 22% of the base load used by an adjacent and identical home having direct nailed dark shingles. Part of the savings was due to the reflectance of the white tiles; however, another part was due to the mass of the tile and to the venting occurring within the double batten installation. With, Cherry and Haig (2009) have studied the influence of the thermal mass and batten space ventilation and have found that, referenced to an asphalt shingle system, it can be equivalent to an additional 28 points of solar reflectivity. The double batten arrangement has wooden counter battens laid vertically (soffit-to-ridge) against the roof deck, and then the conventional battens are laid horizontally across the

  11. Airborne Laser Infrared Absorption Spectrometer (ALIAS-II) for in situ Atmospheric Measurements of N(sub 2)0, CH(sub 4), CO, HCl, and NO(sub 2) from Balloon or RPA Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, D.; Herman, R.; Webster, C.; May, R.; Flesch, G.; Moyer, E.

    1998-01-01

    The Airborne Laser Infrared Absorption Spectrometer II (ALIAS-II) is a lightweight, high-resolution (0.0003 cm-1), scanning, mid-infrared absorption spectrometer based on cooled (80 K) lead-salt tunable diode laser sources.

  12. Low-Cost and Light-Weight Transpiration-Cooled Thrust Chambers, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed effort aims to evaluate the feasibility of using transpiration-cooled Titanium as the primary material in small-scale thrust chambers for in-space...

  13. Elementary stochastic cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tollestrup, A.V.; Dugan, G

    1983-12-01

    Major headings in this review include: proton sources; antiproton production; antiproton sources and Liouville, the role of the Debuncher; transverse stochastic cooling, time domain; the accumulator; frequency domain; pickups and kickers; Fokker-Planck equation; calculation of constants in the Fokker-Planck equation; and beam feedback. (GHT)

  14. ELECTRON COOLING FOR RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Zvi, I.

    2001-01-01

    The Accelerator Collider Department (CAD) at Brookhaven National Laboratory is operating the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), which includes the dual-ring, 3.834 km circumference superconducting collider and the venerable AGS as the last part of the RHIC injection chain. CAD is planning on a luminosity upgrade of the machine under the designation RHIC II. One important component of the RHIC II upgrade is electron cooling of RHIC gold ion beams. For this purpose, BNL and the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics in Novosibirsk entered into a collaboration aimed initially at the development of the electron cooling conceptual design, resolution of technical issues, and finally extend the collaboration towards the construction and commissioning of the cooler. Many of the results presented in this paper are derived from the Electron Cooling for RHIC Design Report [1], produced by the, BINP team within the framework of this collaboration. BNL is also collaborating with Fermi National Laboratory, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility and the University of Indiana on various aspects of electron cooling

  15. ELECTRON COOLING FOR RHIC.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BEN-ZVI,I.

    2001-05-13

    The Accelerator Collider Department (CAD) at Brookhaven National Laboratory is operating the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), which includes the dual-ring, 3.834 km circumference superconducting collider and the venerable AGS as the last part of the RHIC injection chain. CAD is planning on a luminosity upgrade of the machine under the designation RHIC II. One important component of the RHIC II upgrade is electron cooling of RHIC gold ion beams. For this purpose, BNL and the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics in Novosibirsk entered into a collaboration aimed initially at the development of the electron cooling conceptual design, resolution of technical issues, and finally extend the collaboration towards the construction and commissioning of the cooler. Many of the results presented in this paper are derived from the Electron Cooling for RHIC Design Report [1], produced by the, BINP team within the framework of this collaboration. BNL is also collaborating with Fermi National Laboratory, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility and the University of Indiana on various aspects of electron cooling.

  16. Cooling tower and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, J.; Ederhof, A.; Gosdowski, J.; Harms, A.; Ide, G.; Klotz, B.; Kowalczyk, R.; Necker, P.; Tesche, W.

    The influence of a cooling tower on the environment, or rather the influence of the environment on the cooling tower stands presently -along with the cooling water supply - in the middle of much discussion. The literature on these questions can hardly be overlooked by the experts concerned, especially not by the power station designers and operators. The document 'Cooling Tower and Environment' is intented to give a general idea of the important publications in this field, and to inform of the present state of technology. In this, the explanations on every section make it easier to get to know the specific subject area. In addition to older standard literature, this publication contains the best-known literature of recent years up to spring 1975, including some articles written in English. Further English literature has been collected by the ZAED (KFK) and is available at the VGB-Geschaefsstelle. Furthermore, The Bundesumweltamt compiles the literature on the subject of 'Environmental protection'. On top of that, further documentation centres are listed at the end of this text. (orig.) [de

  17. Warm and Cool Cityscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jubelirer, Shelly

    2012-01-01

    Painting cityscapes is a great way to teach first-grade students about warm and cool colors. Before the painting begins, the author and her class have an in-depth discussion about big cities and what types of buildings or structures that might be seen in them. They talk about large apartment and condo buildings, skyscrapers, art museums,…

  18. Measure Guideline: Ventilation Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, D. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), David, CA (United States); Dakin, B. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), David, CA (United States); German, A. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), David, CA (United States)

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this measure guideline is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for reducing cooling system energy and demand in homes located in hot-dry and cold-dry climates. This guideline provides a prescriptive approach that outlines qualification criteria, selection considerations, and design and installation procedures.

  19. High energy beam cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, H.; Herr, H.; Linnecar, T.; Millich, A.; Milss, F.; Rubbia, C.; Taylor, C.S.; Meer, S. van der; Zotter, B.

    1980-01-01

    The group concerned itself with the analysis of cooling systems whose purpose is to maintain the quality of the high energy beams in the SPS in spite of gas scattering, RF noise, magnet ripple and beam-beam interactions. Three types of systems were discussed. The status of these activities is discussed below. (orig.)

  20. Emergency core cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Masaki.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To actuate an automatic pressure down system (ADS) and a low pressure emergency core cooling system (ECCS) upon water level reduction of a nuclear reactor other than loss of coolant accidents (LOCA). Constitution: ADS in a BWR type reactor is disposed for reducing the pressure in a reactor container thereby enabling coolant injection from a low pressure ECCS upon LOCA. That is, ADS has been actuated by AND signal for a reactor water level low signal and a dry well pressure high signal. In the present invention, ADS can be actuated further also by AND signal of the reactor water level low signal, the high pressure ECCS and not-operation signal of reactor isolation cooling system. In such an emergency core cooling system thus constituted, ADS operates in the same manner as usual upon LOCA and, further, ADS is operated also upon loss of feedwater accident in the reactor pressure vessel in the case where there is a necessity for actuating the low pressure ECCS, although other high pressure ECCS and reactor isolation cooling system are not operated. Accordingly, it is possible to improve the reliability upon reactor core accident and mitigate the operator burden. (Horiuchi, T.)

  1. Emergency core cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Ken.

    1989-01-01

    In PWR type reactors, a cooling water spray portion of emergency core cooling pipelines incorporated into pipelines on high temperature side is protruded to the inside of an upper plenum. Upon rupture of primary pipelines, pressure in a pressure vessel is abruptly reduced to generate a great amount of steams in the reactor core, which are discharged at a high flow rate into the primary pipelines on high temperature side. However, since the inside of the upper plenum has a larger area and the steam flow is slow, as compared with that of the pipelines on the high temperature side, ECCS water can surely be supplied into the reactor core to promote the re-flooding of the reactor core and effectively cool the reactor. Since the nuclear reactor can effectively be cooled to enable the promotion of pressure reduction and effective supply of coolants during the period of pressure reduction upon LOCA, the capacity of the pressure accumulation vessel can be decreased. Further, the re-flooding time for the reactor is shortened to provide an effect contributing to the improvement of the safety and the reduction of the cost. (N.H.)

  2. Conjugate heat transfer investigation on the cooling performance of air cooled turbine blade with thermal barrier coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yongbin; Ma, Chao; Ge, Bing; Zang, Shusheng

    2016-08-01

    A hot wind tunnel of annular cascade test rig is established for measuring temperature distribution on a real gas turbine blade surface with infrared camera. Besides, conjugate heat transfer numerical simulation is performed to obtain cooling efficiency distribution on both blade substrate surface and coating surface for comparison. The effect of thermal barrier coating on the overall cooling performance for blades is compared under varied mass flow rate of coolant, and spatial difference is also discussed. Results indicate that the cooling efficiency in the leading edge and trailing edge areas of the blade is the lowest. The cooling performance is not only influenced by the internal cooling structures layout inside the blade but also by the flow condition of the mainstream in the external cascade path. Thermal barrier effects of the coating vary at different regions of the blade surface, where higher internal cooling performance exists, more effective the thermal barrier will be, which means the thermal protection effect of coatings is remarkable in these regions. At the designed mass flow ratio condition, the cooling efficiency on the pressure side varies by 0.13 for the coating surface and substrate surface, while this value is 0.09 on the suction side.

  3. Air filtration and air cooling in dairies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubzov, J A

    1986-01-01

    In addition to the maintenance of optimum temperatures and relative humidities, a continuous cleaning of the circulating air by means of suspended matter filters and regular disinfection of the spaces and equipment are required in the maturing and storage room for cheese. This contribution presents solutions to the use of suspended matter filters in air cooling plant for dairies in the U.S.S.R.

  4. Cooling Duct Analysis for Transpiration/Film Cooled Liquid Propellant Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micklow, Gerald J.

    1996-01-01

    The development of a low cost space transportation system requires that the propulsion system be reusable, have long life, with good performance and use low cost propellants. Improved performance can be achieved by operating the engine at higher pressure and temperature levels than previous designs. Increasing the chamber pressure and temperature, however, will increase wall heating rates. This necessitates the need for active cooling methods such as film cooling or transpiration cooling. But active cooling can reduce the net thrust of the engine and add considerably to the design complexity. Recently, a metal drawing process has been patented where it is possible to fabricate plates with very small holes with high uniformity with a closely specified porosity. Such a metal plate could be used for an inexpensive transpiration/film cooled liner to meet the demands of advanced reusable rocket engines, if coolant mass flow rates could be controlled to satisfy wall cooling requirements and performance. The present study investigates the possibility of controlling the coolant mass flow rate through the porous material by simple non-active fluid dynamic means. The coolant will be supplied to the porous material by series of constant geometry slots machined on the exterior of the engine.

  5. Cooling Tower Losses in Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Barhm Mohamad

    2017-01-01

    Cooling towers are a very important part of many chemical plants. The primary task of a cooling tower is to reject heat into the atmosphere. They represent a relatively inexpensive and dependable means of removing low-grade heat from cooling water. The make-up water source is used to replenish water lost to evaporation. Hot water from heat exchangers is sent to the cooling tower. The water exits the cooling tower and is sent back to the exchangers or to other units for further cooling.

  6. Cooling concepts for HTS components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binneberg, A.; Buschmann, H.; Neubert, J.

    1993-01-01

    HTS components require that low-cost, reliable cooling systems be used. There are no general solutions to such systems. Any cooling concept has to be tailored to the specific requirements of a system. The following has to he taken into consideration when designing cooling concepts: - cooling temperature - constancy and controllability of the cooling temperature - cooling load and refrigerating capacity - continuous or discontinuous mode - degree of automation - full serviceability or availability before evacuation -malfunctions caused by microphonic, thermal or electromagnetic effects -stationary or mobile application - investment and operating costs (orig.)

  7. Cooling out of the blue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, W.

    2006-01-01

    This article takes a look at solar cooling and air-conditioning, the use of which is becoming more and more popular. The article discusses how further research and development is necessary. The main challenge for professional experts is the optimal adaptation of building, building technology and solar-driven cooling systems to meet these new requirements. Various solar cooling technologies are looked at, including the use of surplus heat for the generation of cold for cooling systems. Small-scale solar cooling systems now being tested in trials are described. Various developments in Europe are discussed, as are the future chances for solar cooling in the market

  8. Instability during bunch shortening of an electron-cooled beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Takanaka

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Bunch shortening causes an electron-cooled beam to be space charge dominated at low energies. Instability during the bunch shortening has been studied using a particle-tracking program where the 3D space-charge field due to the beam is calculated with a simplifying model.

  9. Stochastic cooling of bunched beams from fluctuation and kinetic theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chattopadhyay, S.

    1982-09-01

    A theoretical formalism for stochastic phase-space cooling of bunched beams in storage rings is developed on the dual basis of classical fluctuation theory and kinetic theory of many-body systems in phase-space. The physics is that of a collection of three-dimensional oscillators coupled via retarded nonconservative interactions determined by an electronic feedback loop. At the heart of the formulation is the existence of several disparate time-scales characterizing the cooling process. Both theoretical approaches describe the cooling process in the form of a Fokker-Planck transport equation in phase-space valid up to second order in the strength and first order in the auto-correlation of the cooling signal. With neglect of the collective correlations induced by the feedback loop, identical expressions are obtained in both cases for the coherent damping and Schottky noise diffusion coefficients. These are expressed in terms of Fourier coefficients in a harmonic decomposition in angle of the generalized nonconservative cooling force written in canonical action-angle variables of the particles in six-dimensional phase-space. Comparison of analytic results to a numerical simulation study with 90 pseudo-particles in a model cooling system is presented

  10. Development of a novel rotary desiccant cooling cycle with isothermal dehumidification and regenerative evaporative cooling using thermodynamic analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La, D.; Li, Y.; Dai, Y.J.; Ge, T.S.; Wang, R.Z.

    2012-01-01

    A novel rotary desiccant cooling cycle is proposed and studied using thermodynamic analysis method. The proposed cycle integrates the technologies of isothermal dehumidification and regenerative evaporative cooling, which are beneficial for irreversibility reduction. Thermodynamic investigation on the basic rotary desiccant cooling cycle shows that the exergy efficiency of the basic cycle is only 8.6%. The processes of desiccant dehumidification and evaporative cooling, which are essentially the basis for rotary desiccant cooling, affect the exergy performance of the cycle greatly and account for about one third of the total exergy destruction. The proposed cycle has potential to improve rotary desiccant cooling technology. It is advantageous in terms of both heat source utilization rate and space cooling capacity. The exergy efficiency of the new cycle is enhanced significantly to 29.1%, which is about three times that of the ventilation cycle, and 60% higher than that of the two-stage rotary desiccant cooling cycle. Furthermore, the regeneration temperature is reduced from 80 °C to about 60 °C. The corresponding specific exergy of the supply air is increased by nearly 30% when compared with the conventional cycles. -- Highlights: ► A novel rotary desiccant cooling cycle is developed using thermodynamic analysis method. ► Isothermal dehumidification and regenerative evaporative cooling have been integrated. ► The cycle is advantageous in terms of both heat source utilization rate and space cooling capacity. ► Cascaded energy utilization is beneficial for cycle performance improvement. ► Upper limits, which will be helpful to practical design and optimization, are obtained.

  11. Solar Heating and Cooling of Buildings (Phase O). Volume 1: Executive Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    TRW Systems Group, Redondo Beach, CA.

    The purpose of this study was to establish the technical and economic feasibility of using solar energy for the heating and cooling of buildings. Five selected building types in 14 selected cities were used to determine loads for space heating, space cooling and dehumidification, and domestic service hot water heating. Relying on existing and…

  12. Introductory survey for wireless infrared communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munsif Ali Jatoi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Wireless infrared communications can be defined as the propagation of light waves in free space using infrared radiation whose range is 400–700 nm. This range corresponds to frequencies of hundreds of terahertz, which is high for higher data rate applications. Wireless infrared is applied for higher data rates applications such as wireless computing, wireless video and wireless multimedia communication applications. Introduced by Gfeller, this field has grown with different link configurations, improved transmitter efficiency, increased receiver responsivity and various multiple access techniques for improved quality. Errors are caused because of background light, which causes degradation overall system performance. Error correction techniques are used to remove the errors caused during transmission. This study provides a brief account on field theory used for error correction in wireless infrared systems. The results are produced in terms of bit error rate and signal-to-noise ratio for various bit lengths to show the ability of encoding and decoding algorithms.

  13. Suncatcher and cool pool. Project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, J.

    1981-03-01

    The Suncatcher is a simple, conical solar concentrating device that captures light entering clerestory windows and directs it onto thermal storage elements at the back of a south facing living space. The cone shape and inclination are designed to capture low angle winter sunlight and to reflect away higher angle summer sunlight. It is found that winter radiation through a Suncatcher window is 40 to 50% higher than through an ordinary window, and that the average solar fraction is 59%. Water-filled steal culvert pipes used for thermal storage are found to undergo less stratification, and thus to be more effective, when located where sunlight strikes the bottom rather than the top. Five Suncatcher buildings are described. Designs are considered for 32/sup 0/, 40/sup 0/ and 48/sup 0/ north latitude, and as the latitude increases, the inclination angle of the cone should be lowered. The Cool Pool is an evaporating, shaded roof pond which thermosiphons cool water into water-filled columns within a building. Preliminary experiments indicate that the best shade design has unimpeded north sky view, good ventilation, complete summer shading, a low architectural profile, and low cost attic vent lowers work. Another series of experiments established the satisfactory performance of the Cool Pool on a test building using four water-filled cylinders, two cylinders, and two cylinders connected to the Cool Pool through a heat exchanger. Although an unshaded pool cools better at night than a shaded one, daytime heat gain far offsets this advantage. A vinyl waterbag heat exchanger was developed for use with the Cool Pool. (LEW)

  14. Simulation of an active cooling system for photovoltaic modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelhakim, Lotfi

    2016-01-01

    Photovoltaic cells are devices that convert solar radiation directly into electricity. However, solar radiation increases the photovoltaic cells temperature [1] [2]. The temperature has an influence on the degradation of the cell efficiency and the lifetime of a PV cell. This work reports on a water cooling technique for photovoltaic panel, whereby the cooling system was placed at the front surface of the cells to dissipate excess heat away and to block unwanted radiation. By using water as a cooling medium for the photovoltaic solar cells, the overheating of closed panel is greatly reduced without prejudicing luminosity. The water also acts as a filter to remove a portion of solar spectrum in the infrared band but allows transmission of the visible spectrum most useful for the PV operation. To improve the cooling system efficiency and electrical efficiency, uniform flow rate among the cooling system is required to ensure uniform distribution of the operating temperature of the PV cells. The aims of this study are to develop a 3D thermal model to simulate the cooling and heat transfer in Photovoltaic panel and to recommend a cooling technique for the PV panel. The velocity, pressure and temperature distribution of the three-dimensional flow across the cooling block were determined using the commercial package, Fluent. The second objective of this work is to study the influence of the geometrical dimensions of the panel, water mass flow rate and water inlet temperature on the flow distribution and the solar panel temperature. The results obtained by the model are compared with experimental results from testing the prototype of the cooling device.

  15. Simulation of an active cooling system for photovoltaic modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelhakim, Lotfi [Széchenyi István University of Applied Sciences, Department of Mathematics, P.O.Box 701, H-9007 Győr (Hungary)

    2016-06-08

    Photovoltaic cells are devices that convert solar radiation directly into electricity. However, solar radiation increases the photovoltaic cells temperature [1] [2]. The temperature has an influence on the degradation of the cell efficiency and the lifetime of a PV cell. This work reports on a water cooling technique for photovoltaic panel, whereby the cooling system was placed at the front surface of the cells to dissipate excess heat away and to block unwanted radiation. By using water as a cooling medium for the photovoltaic solar cells, the overheating of closed panel is greatly reduced without prejudicing luminosity. The water also acts as a filter to remove a portion of solar spectrum in the infrared band but allows transmission of the visible spectrum most useful for the PV operation. To improve the cooling system efficiency and electrical efficiency, uniform flow rate among the cooling system is required to ensure uniform distribution of the operating temperature of the PV cells. The aims of this study are to develop a 3D thermal model to simulate the cooling and heat transfer in Photovoltaic panel and to recommend a cooling technique for the PV panel. The velocity, pressure and temperature distribution of the three-dimensional flow across the cooling block were determined using the commercial package, Fluent. The second objective of this work is to study the influence of the geometrical dimensions of the panel, water mass flow rate and water inlet temperature on the flow distribution and the solar panel temperature. The results obtained by the model are compared with experimental results from testing the prototype of the cooling device.

  16. A Detector Scenario for a Muon Cooling Demonstration Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Kirk T.; Lu, Changguo; Prebys, Eric J.

    1998-04-01

    As a verification of the concept of ionization cooling of a muon beam, the Muon Collider Collaboration is planning an experiment to cool the 6-dimensional normalized emittance by a factor of two. We have designed a princeton.edu/mumu/mumu-97-8.ps>detector system to measure the 6-dimensional emittance before and after the cooling apparatus. To avoid the cost associated with preparation of a muon beam bunched at 800 MHz, the nominal frequency of the RF in the muon cooler, we propose to use an unbunched muon beam. Muons will be measured in the detector individually, and a subset chosen corresponding to an ideal input bunch. The muons are remeasured after the cooling apparatus and the output bunch emittance calculated to show the expected reduction in phase-space volume. The technique of tracing individual muons will reproduce all effects encountered by a bunch except for space-charge.

  17. Active cooling of microvascular composites for battery packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pety, Stephen J.; Chia, Patrick X. L.; Carrington, Stephen M.; White, Scott R.

    2017-10-01

    Batteries in electric vehicles (EVs) require a packaging system that provides both thermal regulation and crash protection. A novel packaging scheme is presented that uses active cooling of microvascular carbon fiber reinforced composites to accomplish this multifunctional objective. Microvascular carbon fiber/epoxy composite panels were fabricated and their cooling performance assessed over a range of thermal loads and experimental conditions. Tests were performed for different values of coolant flow rate, channel spacing, panel thermal conductivity, and applied heat flux. More efficient cooling occurs when the coolant flow rate is increased, channel spacing is reduced, and thermal conductivity of the host composite is increased. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were also performed and correlate well with the experimental data. CFD simulations of a typical EV battery pack confirm that microvascular composite panels can adequately cool battery cells generating 500 W m-2 heat flux below 40 °C.

  18. Mid-infrared photonics in silicon and germanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soref, Richard

    2010-08-01

    Ingenious techniques are needed to extend group IV photonics from near-infrared to mid-infrared wavelengths. If achieved, the reward could be on-chip CMOS optoelectronic systems for use in spectroscopy, chemical and biological sensing, and free-space communications.

  19. Magnetic entropy and cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Britt Rosendahl; Kuhn, Luise Theil; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden

    2010-01-01

    Some manifestations of magnetism are well-known and utilized on an everyday basis, e.g. using a refrigerator magnet for hanging that important note on the refrigerator door. Others are, so far, more exotic, such as cooling by making use of the magnetocaloric eect. This eect can cause a change...... in the temperature of a magnetic material when a magnetic eld is applied or removed. For many years, experimentalists have made use of dilute paramagnetic materials to achieve milliKelvin temperatures by use of the magnetocaloric eect. Also, research is done on materials, which might be used for hydrogen, helium...... or nitrogen liquefaction or for room-temperature cooling. The magnetocaloric eect can further be used to determine phase transition boundaries, if a change in the magnetic state occurs at the boundary.In this talk, I will introduce the magnetocaloric eect (MCE) and the two equations, which characterize...

  20. Self pumping magnetic cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhary, V; Wang, Z; Ray, A; Ramanujan, R V; Sridhar, I

    2017-01-01

    Efficient thermal management and heat recovery devices are of high technological significance for innovative energy conservation solutions. We describe a study of a self-pumping magnetic cooling device, which does not require external energy input, employing Mn–Zn ferrite nanoparticles suspended in water. The device performance depends strongly on magnetic field strength, nanoparticle content in the fluid and heat load temperature. Cooling (Δ T ) by ∼20 °C and ∼28 °C was achieved by the application of 0.3 T magnetic field when the initial temperature of the heat load was 64 °C and 87 °C, respectively. These experiments results were in good agreement with simulations performed with COMSOL Multiphysics. Our system is a self-regulating device; as the heat load increases, the magnetization of the ferrofluid decreases; leading to an increase in the fluid velocity and consequently, faster heat transfer from the heat source to the heat sink. (letter)

  1. Laser cooling at resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudkin, Yaakov; Khaykovich, Lev

    2018-05-01

    We show experimentally that three-dimensional laser cooling of lithium atoms on the D2 line is possible when the laser light is tuned exactly to resonance with the dominant atomic transition. Qualitatively, it can be understood by applying simple Doppler cooling arguments to the specific hyperfine structure of the excited state of lithium atoms, which is both dense and inverted. However, to build a quantitative theory, we must resolve to a full model which takes into account both the entire atomic structure of all 24 Zeeman sublevels and the laser light polarization. Moreover, by means of Monte Carlo simulations, we show that coherent processes play an important role in showing consistency between the theory and the experimental results.

  2. ITER cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natalizio, A.; Hollies, R.E.; Sochaski, R.O.; Stubley, P.H.

    1992-06-01

    The ITER reference system uses low-temperature water for heat removal and high-temperature helium for bake-out. As these systems share common equipment, bake-out cannot be performed until the cooling system is drained and dried, and the reactor cannot be started until the helium has been purged from the cooling system. This study examines the feasibility of using a single high-temperature fluid to perform both heat removal and bake-out. The high temperature required for bake-out would also be in the range for power production. The study examines cost, operational benefits, and impact on reactor safety of two options: a high-pressure water system, and a low-pressure organic system. It was concluded that the cost savings and operational benefits are significant; there are no significant adverse safety impacts from operating either the water system or the organic system; and the capital costs of both systems are comparable

  3. Infrared sensitivity of unstable vacua

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krotov, Dmitry; Polyakov, Alexander M.

    2011-01-01

    We discover that some unstable vacua have long memory. By that we mean that even in the theories containing only massive particles, there are correllators and expectation values which grow with time. We examine the cases of instabilities caused by the constant electric fields, expanding and contracting universes and, most importantly, the global de Sitter space. In the last case the interaction leads to a remarkable UV/IR mixing and to a large back reaction. This gives reasons to believe that the cosmological constant problem could be resolved by the infrared physics.

  4. Phase Space Exchange in Thick Wedge Absorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuffer, David [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The problem of phase space exchange in wedge absorbers with ionization cooling is discussed. The wedge absorber exchanges transverse and longitudinal phase space by introducing a position-dependent energy loss. In this paper we note that the wedges used with ionization cooling are relatively thick, so that single wedges cause relatively large changes in beam phase space. Calculation methods adapted to such “thick wedge” cases are presented, and beam phase-space transformations through such wedges are discussed.

  5. Cooling your home naturally

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-10-01

    This fact sheet describes some alternatives to air conditioning which are common sense suggestions and low-cost retrofit options to cool a house. It first describes how to reflect heat away from roofs, walls, and windows. Blocking heat by using insulation or shading are described. The publication then discusses removing built-up heat, reducing heat-generating sources, and saving energy by selecting energy efficient retrofit appliances. A resource list is provided for further information.

  6. Cooling and dehumidifying coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, M.V.K.

    1988-01-01

    The operating features of cooling and dehumidifying coils and their constructional details are discussed. The heat transfer relations as applicable to the boiling refrigerant and a single phase fluid are presented. Methods of accounting for the effect of moisture condensation on the air side heat transfer coefficient and the fin effectiveness are explained. The logic flow necessary to analyze direct expansion coils and chilled water coils is discussed

  7. Solar heating and cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffie, J A

    1976-01-01

    Solar energy is discussed as an energy resource that can be converted into useful energy forms to meet a variety of energy needs. The review briefly explains the nature of this energy resource, the kinds of applications that can be made useful, and the status of several systems to which it has been applied. More specifically, information on solar collectors, solar water heating, solar heating of buildings, solar cooling plus other applications, are included.

  8. Cooling device for reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Kenji.

    1996-01-01

    Upon assembling a static container cooling system to an emergency reactor core cooling system using dynamic pumps in a power plant, the present invention provides a cooling device of lowered center of gravity and having a good cooling effect by lowering the position of a cooling water pool of the static container cooling system. Namely, the emergency reactor core cooling system injects water to the inside of a pressure vessel using emergency cooling water stored in a suppression pool as at least one water source upon loss of reactor coolant accident. In addition, a cooling water pool incorporating a heat exchanger is disposed at the circumference of the suppression pool at the outside of the container. A dry well and the heat exchanger are connected by way of steam supply pipes, and the heat exchanger is connected with the suppression pool by way of a gas exhaustion pipe and a condensate returning pipeline. With such a constitution, the position of the heat exchanger is made higher than an ordinary water level of the suppression pool. As a result, the emergency cooling water of the suppression pool water is injected to the pressure vessel by the operation of the reactor cooling pumps upon loss of coolant accident to cool the reactor core. (I.S.)

  9. Conduction cooling: multicrate fastbus hardware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makowiecki, D.; Sims, W.; Larsen, R.

    1980-11-01

    Described is a new and novel approach for cooling nuclear instrumentation modules via heat conduction. The simplicity of liquid cooled crates and ease of thermal management with conduction cooled modules are described. While this system was developed primarily for the higher power levels expected with Fastbus electronics, it has many general applications

  10. Electron Cooling of RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Barton, Donald; Beavis, Dana; Blaskiewicz, Michael; Bluem, Hans; Brennan, Joseph M; Bruhwiler, David L; Burger, Al; Burov, Alexey; Burrill, Andrew; Calaga, Rama; Cameron, Peter; Chang, Xiangyun; Cole, Michael; Connolly, Roger; Delayen, Jean R; Derbenev, Yaroslav S; Eidelman, Yury I; Favale, Anthony; Fedotov, Alexei V; Fischer, Wolfram; Funk, L W; Gassner, David M; Hahn, Harald; Harrison, Michael; Hershcovitch, Ady; Holmes, Douglas; Hseuh Hsiao Chaun; Johnson, Peter; Kayran, Dmitry; Kewisch, Jorg; Kneisel, Peter; Koop, Ivan; Lambiase, Robert; Litvinenko, Vladimir N; MacKay, William W; Mahler, George; Malitsky, Nikolay; McIntyre, Gary; Meng, Wuzheng; Merminga, Lia; Meshkov, Igor; Mirabella, Kerry; Montag, Christoph; Nagaitsev, Sergei; Nehring, Thomas; Nicoletti, Tony; Oerter, Brian; Parkhomchuk, Vasily; Parzen, George; Pate, David; Phillips, Larry; Preble, Joseph P; Rank, Jim; Rao, Triveni; Rathke, John; Roser, Thomas; Russo, Thomas; Scaduto, Joseph; Schultheiss, Tom; Sekutowicz, Jacek; Shatunov, Yuri; Sidorin, Anatoly O; Skrinsky, Aleksander Nikolayevich; Smirnov, Alexander V; Smith, Kevin T; Todd, Alan M M; Trbojevic, Dejan; Troubnikov, Grigory; Wang, Gang; Wei, Jie; Williams, Neville; Wu, Kuo-Chen; Yakimenko, Vitaly; Zaltsman, Alex; Zhao, Yongxiang; ain, Animesh K

    2005-01-01

    We report progress on the R&D program for electron-cooling of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). This electron cooler is designed to cool 100 GeV/nucleon at storage energy using 54 MeV electrons. The electron source will be a superconducting RF photocathode gun. The accelerator will be a superconducting energy recovery linac. The frequency of the accelerator is set at 703.75 MHz. The maximum electron bunch frequency is 9.38 MHz, with bunch charge of 20 nC. The R&D program has the following components: The photoinjector and its photocathode, the superconducting linac cavity, start-to-end beam dynamics with magnetized electrons, electron cooling calculations including benchmarking experiments and development of a large superconducting solenoid. The photoinjector and linac cavity are being incorporated into an energy recovery linac aimed at demonstrating ampere class current at about 20 MeV. A Zeroth Order Design Report is in an advanced draft state, and can be found on the web at http://www.ags...

  11. Lamination cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippel, Wally E.; Kobayashi, Daryl M.

    2005-10-11

    An electric motor, transformer or inductor having a lamination cooling system including a stack of laminations, each defining a plurality of apertures at least partially coincident with apertures of adjacent laminations. The apertures define a plurality of cooling-fluid passageways through the lamination stack, and gaps between the adjacent laminations are sealed to prevent a liquid cooling fluid in the passageways from escaping between the laminations. The gaps are sealed by injecting a heat-cured sealant into the passageways, expelling excess sealant, and heat-curing the lamination stack. The apertures of each lamination can be coincident with the same-sized apertures of adjacent laminations to form straight passageways, or they can vary in size, shape and/or position to form non-axial passageways, angled passageways, bidirectional passageways, and manifold sections of passageways that connect a plurality of different passageway sections. Manifold members adjoin opposite ends of the lamination stack, and each is configured with one or more cavities to act as a manifold to adjacent passageway ends. Complex manifold arrangements can create bidirectional flow in a variety of patterns.

  12. ITER cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kveton, O.K.

    1990-11-01

    The present specification of the ITER cooling system does not permit its operation with water above 150 C. However, the first wall needs to be heated to higher temperatures during conditioning at 250 C and bake-out at 350 C. In order to use the cooling water for these operations the cooling system would have to operate during conditioning at 37 Bar and during bake-out at 164 Bar. This is undesirable from the safety analysis point of view, and alternative heating methods are to be found. This review suggests that superheated steam or gas heating can be used for both baking and conditioning. The blanket design must consider the use of dual heat transfer media, allowing for change from one to another in both directions. Transfer from water to gas or steam is the most intricate and risky part of the entire heating process. Superheated steam conditioning appears unfavorable. The use of inert gas is recommended, although alternative heating fluids such as organic coolant should be investigated

  13. Reactor container cooling device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, Koji; Kinoshita, Shoichiro

    1995-11-10

    The device of the present invention efficiently lowers pressure and temperature in a reactor container upon occurrence of a severe accident in a BWR-type reactor and can cool the inside of the container for a long period of time. That is, (1) pipelines on the side of an exhaustion tower of a filter portion in a filter bent device of the reactor container are in communication with pipelines on the side of a steam inlet of a static container cooling device by way of horizontal pipelines, (2) a back flow check valve is disposed to horizontal pipelines, (3) a steam discharge valve for a pressure vessel is disposed closer to the reactor container than the joint portion between the pipelines on the side of the steam inlet and the horizontal pipelines. Upon occurrence of a severe accident, when the pressure vessel should be ruptured and steams containing aerosol in the reactor core should be filled in the reactor container, the inlet valve of the static container cooling device is closed. Steams are flown into the filter bent device of the reactor container, where the aerosols can be removed. (I.S.).

  14. Emergency core cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Nobuaki.

    1993-01-01

    A reactor comprises a static emergency reactor core cooling system having an automatic depressurization system and a gravitationally dropping type water injection system and a container cooling system by an isolation condenser. A depressurization pipeline of the automatic depressurization system connected to a reactor pressure vessel branches in the midway. The branched depressurizing pipelines are extended into an upper dry well and a lower dry well, in which depressurization valves are disposed at the top end portions of the pipelines respectively. If loss-of-coolant accidents should occur, the depressurization valve of the automatic depressurization system is actuated by lowering of water level in the pressure vessel. This causes nitrogen gases in the upper and the lower dry wells to transfer together with discharged steams effectively to a suppression pool passing through a bent tube. Accordingly, the gravitationally dropping type water injection system can be actuated faster. Further, subsequent cooling for the reactor vessel can be ensured sufficiently by the isolation condenser. (I.N.)

  15. Transient Infrared Emission Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Roger W.; McClelland, John F.

    1989-12-01

    Transient Infrared Emission Spectroscopy (TIRES) is a new technique that reduces the occurrence of self-absorption in optically thick solid samples so that analytically useful emission spectra may be observed. Conventional emission spectroscopy, in which the sample is held at an elevated, uniform temperature, is practical only for optically thin samples. In thick samples the emission from deep layers of the material is partially absorbed by overlying layers.1 This self-absorption results in emission spectra from most optically thick samples that closely resemble black-body spectra. The characteristic discrete emission bands are severely truncated and altered in shape. TIRES bypasses this difficulty by using a laser to heat only an optically thin surface layer. The increased temperature of the layer is transient since the layer will rapidly cool and thicken by thermal diffusion; hence the emission collection must be correlated with the laser heating. TIRES may be done with both pulsed and cw lasers.2,3 When a pulsed laser is used, the spectrometer sampling must be synchronized with the laser pulsing so that only emission during and immediately after each laser pulse is observed.3 If a cw laser is used, the sample must move rapidly through the beam. The hot, transient layer is then in the beam track on the sample at and immediately behind the beam position, so the spectrometer field of view must be limited to this region near the beam position.2 How much self-absorption the observed emission suffers depends on how thick the heated layer has grown by thermal diffusion when the spectrometer samples the emission. Use of a pulsed laser synchronized with the spectrometer sampling readily permits reduction of the time available for heat diffusion to about 100 acs .3 When a cw laser is used, the heat-diffusion time is controlled by how small the spectrometer field of view is and by how rapidly the sample moves past within this field. Both a very small field of view and a

  16. Proceedings: Cooling tower and advanced cooling systems conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-02-01

    This Cooling Tower and Advanced Cooling Systems Conference was held August 30 through September 1, 1994, in St. Petersburg, Florida. The conference was sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and hosted by Florida Power Corporation to bring together utility representatives, manufacturers, researchers, and consultants. Nineteen technical papers were presented in four sessions. These sessions were devoted to the following topics: cooling tower upgrades and retrofits, cooling tower performance, cooling tower fouling, and dry and hybrid systems. On the final day, panel discussions addressed current issues in cooling tower operation and maintenance as well as research and technology needs for power plant cooling. More than 100 people attended the conference. This report contains the technical papers presented at the conference. Of the 19 papers, five concern cooling tower upgrades and retrofits, five to cooling tower performance, four discuss cooling tower fouling, and five describe dry and hybrid cooling systems. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  17. Infrared microscope inspection apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Steven E.; Caunt, James W.

    1985-02-26

    Apparatus and system for inspecting infrared transparents, such as an array of photovoltaic modules containing silicon solar cells, includes an infrared microscope, at least three sources of infrared light placed around and having their axes intersect the center of the object field and means for sending the reflected light through the microscope. The apparatus is adapted to be mounted on an X-Y translator positioned adjacent the object surface.

  18. A Massive, Cooling-Flow-Induced Starburst in the Core of a Highly Luminous Galaxy Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, M.; Bayliss, M.; Benson, B. A.; Foley, R. J.; Ruel, J.; Sullivan, P.; Veilleux, S.; Aird, K. A.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Bautz, M.; hide

    2012-01-01

    In the cores of some galaxy clusters the hot intracluster plasma is dense enough that it should cool radiatively in the cluster s lifetime, leading to continuous "cooling flows" of gas sinking towards the cluster center, yet no such cooling flow has been observed. The low observed star formation rates and cool gas masses for these "cool core" clusters suggest that much of the cooling must be offset by astrophysical feedback to prevent the formation of a runaway cooling flow. Here we report X-ray, optical, and infrared observations of the galaxy cluster SPT-CLJ2344-4243 at z = 0.596. These observations reveal an exceptionally luminous (L(sub 2-10 keV) = 8.2 10(exp 45) erg/s) galaxy cluster which hosts an extremely strong cooling flow (M(sub cool) = 3820 +/- 530 Stellar Mass/yr). Further, the central galaxy in this cluster appears to be experiencing a massive starburst (740 +/- 160 Stellar Mass/ yr), which suggests that the feedback source responsible for preventing runaway cooling in nearby cool core clusters may not yet be fully established in SPT-CLJ2344-4243. This large star formation rate implies that a significant fraction of the stars in the central galaxy of this cluster may form via accretion of the intracluster medium, rather than the current picture of central galaxies assembling entirely via mergers.

  19. Performance limit of daytime radiative cooling in warm humid environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Suichi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Daytime radiative cooling potentially offers efficient passive cooling, but the performance is naturally limited by the environment, such as the ambient temperature and humidity. Here, we investigate the performance limit of daytime radiative cooling under warm and humid conditions in Okayama, Japan. A cooling device, consisting of alternating layers of SiO2 and poly(methyl methacrylate on an Al mirror, is fabricated and characterized to demonstrate a high reflectance for sunlight and a selective thermal radiation in the mid-infrared region. In the temperature measurement under the sunlight irradiation, the device shows 3.4 °C cooler than a bare Al mirror, but 2.8 °C warmer than the ambient of 35 °C. The corresponding numerical analyses reveal that the atmospheric window in λ = 16 ∼ 25 μm is closed due to a high humidity, thereby limiting the net emission power of the device. Our study on the humidity influence on the cooling performance provides a general guide line of how one can achieve practical passive cooling in a warm humid environment.

  20. Laser-Cooled Ions and Atoms in a Storage Ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinert, J.; Hannemann, S.; Eike, B.; Eisenbarth, U.; Grieser, M.; Grimm, R.; Gwinner, G.; Karpuk, S.; Saathoff, G.; Schramm, U.; Schwalm, D.; Weidemueller, M., E-mail: m.weidemueller@mpi-hd.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Insitut fuer Kernphysik (Germany)

    2003-03-15

    We review recent experiments at the Heidelberg Test Storage Ring which apply advanced laser cooling techniques to stored ion beams. Very high phase-space densities are achieved by three-dimensional laser cooling of a coasting {sup 9}Be{sup +} beam at 7.3 MeV. Laser-cooled, trapped Cs atoms are used as an ultracold precision target for the study of ion-atom interactions with a 74 MeV beam of {sup 12}C{sup 6+} ions.

  1. Far infrared supplement: Catalog of infrared observations, second edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gezari, D.Y.; Schmitz, M.; Mead, J.M.

    1988-08-01

    The Far Infrared Supplement: Catalog of Infrared Observations summarizes all infrared astronomical observations at far infrared wavelengths (5 to 1000 microns) published in the scientific literature from 1965 through 1986. The Supplement list contain 25 percent of the observations in the full Catalog of Infrared Observations (CIO), and essentially eliminates most visible stars from the listings. The Supplement is thus more compact than the main catalog, and is intended for easy reference during astronomical observations. The Far Infrared Supplement (2nd Edition) includes the Index of Infrared Source Positions and the Bibliography of Infrared Astronomy for the subset of far infrared observations listed

  2. ISO, unique explorer of the invisible cool universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-10-01

    As Roger Bonnet, director of ESA's science programme, explains: "The ISO launch will be the culmination of twelve years of intensive effort to build tile mast powerful and precise infrared space telescope to dote, We fully expect astronomers in Europe. and all over the wand, to be rewarded with unprecedented insights into the particularly rich and fertile sources of the universe hidden in the infrared." For the mission looks set to mark a new step forward for astronomy. To date, infrared astronomy has always been hampered by two major difficulties. The first is that infrared radiation is thermal, calorific. This means that any body which is not absolutely cold naturally emits this type of "heat" or "hidden" radiation, Consequently, at the corresponding wavelengths, all telescopes, detectors and the Earth's atmosphere appear to shine spontaneously, Infrared observation is therefore tantamount to attempting to observe the stars in broad daylight using a telescope a million times more luminous than the stars themselves. Moreover, the atmosphere is partly or totally opaque to infrared light. Hence the great attraction of conducting such observations from space, above the Earth's atmospheric layers. using a very low-temperature telescope. The first - and, so far, truly - Satellite actually to have done so is the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) - a joint UK/Dutch/US mission - which surveyed and catalogued the sky far ten months in 1983. A corner of the curtain was thus lifted, The scene was set. Now, the task is to observe each character, each object. And here, infrared astronomy is hampered by a second major difficulty: the very detection of light. For while infrared radiation was discovered back in 1800 (in the solar spectrum). infrared-sensitive photoelectric detectors did not materialise until the Second World War, IRAS itself had to make do without the multi-dimensional set-ups that would have allowed it to record true images. It had to build up its images

  3. Near Infrared LIDAR for Hazard Sensing and Characterization, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — RL Associates, Inc. proposes to conduct research leading to the development of a shortwave infrared (SWIR) range-gated LIDAR system for use in detecting external...

  4. Ge Quantum Dot Infrared Imaging Camera, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Luna Innovations Incorporated proposes to develop a high performance Ge quantum dots-based infrared (IR) imaging camera on Si substrate. The high sensitivity, large...

  5. NanoComposite Polymers for High Resolution Near Infrared Detectors

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop nanocomposite materials with tuned refractive index in the near infra red spectral range as an index-matched immersion lens for high resolution infra-red...

  6. Multi-layer Far-Infrared Component Technology, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase I SBIR will demonstrate the feasibility of a process to create multi-layer thin-film optics for the far-infrared/sub-millimeter wave spectral region. The...

  7. Cooling lubricants; Kuehlschmierstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeiffer, W. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Breuer, D. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Blome, H. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Deininger, C. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Hahn, J.U. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Kleine, H. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Nies, E. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Pflaumbaum, W. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Stockmann, R. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Willert, G. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Sonnenschein, G. [Maschinenbau- und Metall-Berufsgenossenschaft, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    1996-08-01

    As a rule, the base substances used are certain liquid hydrocarbons from mineral oils as well as from native and synthetic oils. Through the addition of further substances the cooling lubricant takes on the particular qualities required for the use in question. Employees working with cooling lubricants are exposed to various hazards. The assessment of the concentrations at the work station is carried out on the basis of existing technical rules for contact with hazardous substances. However, the application/implementation of compulsory investigation and supervision in accordance with these rules is made difficult by the fact that cooling lubricants are, as a rule, made up of complicated compound mixtures. In addition to protecting employees from exposure to mists and vapours from the cooling lubricants, protection for the skin is also of particular importance. Cooling lubricants should not, if at all possible, be brought into contact with the skin. Cleansing the skin and skin care is just as important as changing working clothes regularly, and hygiene and cleanliness at the workplace. Unavoidable emissions are to be immediately collected at the point where they arise or are released and safely disposed of. This means taking into account all sources of emissions. The programme presented in this report therefore gives a very detailed account of the individual protective measures and provides recommendations for the design of technical protection facilities. (orig./MG) [Deutsch] Als Basisstoffe dienen in der Regel bestimmte fluessige Kohlenwasserstoffverbindungen aus Mineraloelen sowie aus nativen oder synthetischen Oelen. Durch die Zugabe von weiteren Stoffen erlangt der Kuehlschmierstoff seine fuer den jeweiligen Anwendungsabfall geforderten Eigenschaften. Beschaeftigte, die mit Kuehlschmierstoffen umgehen, sind unterschiedliche Gefahren ausgesetzt. Die Beurteilung der Kuehlschmierstoffkonzentrationen in der Luft am Arbeitsplatz erfolgt auf der Grundlage bestehender

  8. A Thermal Infrared Radiation Parameterization for Atmospheric Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Ming-Dah; Suarez, Max J.; Liang, Xin-Zhong; Yan, Michael M.-H.; Cote, Charles (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This technical memorandum documents the longwave radiation parameterization developed at the Climate and Radiation Branch, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, for a wide variety of weather and climate applications. Based on the 1996-version of the Air Force Geophysical Laboratory HITRAN data, the parameterization includes the absorption due to major gaseous absorption (water vapor, CO2, O3) and most of the minor trace gases (N2O, CH4, CFCs), as well as clouds and aerosols. The thermal infrared spectrum is divided into nine bands. To achieve a high degree of accuracy and speed, various approaches of computing the transmission function are applied to different spectral bands and gases. The gaseous transmission function is computed either using the k-distribution method or the table look-up method. To include the effect of scattering due to clouds and aerosols, the optical thickness is scaled by the single-scattering albedo and asymmetry factor. The parameterization can accurately compute fluxes to within 1% of the high spectral-resolution line-by-line calculations. The cooling rate can be accurately computed in the region extending from the surface to the 0.01-hPa level.

  9. Improve crossflow cooling tower operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports how various crossflow cooling tower elements can be upgraded. A typical retrofit example is presented. In the past decade, cooling tower technology has progressed. If a cooling tower is over ten years old, chances are the heat transfer media and mechanical equipment were designed over 30 to 40 years ago. When a chemical plant expansion is projected or a facility desires to upgrade its equipment for greater output and energy efficiency, the cooling tower is usually neglected until someone discovers that the limiting factor of production is the quality of cold water returning from the cooling tower

  10. Passive radiative cooling below ambient air temperature under direct sunlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Aaswath P; Anoma, Marc Abou; Zhu, Linxiao; Rephaeli, Eden; Fan, Shanhui

    2014-11-27

    Cooling is a significant end-use of energy globally and a major driver of peak electricity demand. Air conditioning, for example, accounts for nearly fifteen per cent of the primary energy used by buildings in the United States. A passive cooling strategy that cools without any electricity input could therefore have a significant impact on global energy consumption. To achieve cooling one needs to be able to reach and maintain a temperature below that of the ambient air. At night, passive cooling below ambient air temperature has been demonstrated using a technique known as radiative cooling, in which a device exposed to the sky is used to radiate heat to outer space through a transparency window in the atmosphere between 8 and 13 micrometres. Peak cooling demand, however, occurs during the daytime. Daytime radiative cooling to a temperature below ambient of a surface under direct sunlight has not been achieved because sky access during the day results in heating of the radiative cooler by the Sun. Here, we experimentally demonstrate radiative cooling to nearly 5 degrees Celsius below the ambient air temperature under direct sunlight. Using a thermal photonic approach, we introduce an integrated photonic solar reflector and thermal emitter consisting of seven layers of HfO2 and SiO2 that reflects 97 per cent of incident sunlight while emitting strongly and selectively in the atmospheric transparency window. When exposed to direct sunlight exceeding 850 watts per square metre on a rooftop, the photonic radiative cooler cools to 4.9 degrees Celsius below ambient air temperature, and has a cooling power of 40.1 watts per square metre at ambient air temperature. These results demonstrate that a tailored, photonic approach can fundamentally enable new technological possibilities for energy efficiency. Further, the cold darkness of the Universe can be used as a renewable thermodynamic resource, even during the hottest hours of the day.

  11. The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, G.; Habing, H. J.; Van Duinen, R.; Aumann, H. H.; Beichman, C. A.; Baud, B.; Beintema, D. A.; Boggess, N.; Clegg, P. E.; De Jong, T.

    1984-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) consists of a spacecraft and a liquid helium cryostat that contains a cooled IR telescope. The telescope's focal plane assembly is cooled to less than 3 K, and contains 62 IR detectors in the survey array which are arranged so that every source crossing the field of view can be seen by at least two detectors in each of four wavelength bands. The satellite was launched into a 900 km-altitude near-polar orbit, and its cryogenic helium supply was exhausted on November 22, 1983. By mission's end, 72 percent of the sky had been observed with three or more hours-confirming scans, and 95 percent with two or more hours-confirming scans. About 2000 stars detected at 12 and 25 microns early in the mission, and identified in the SAO (1966) catalog, have a positional uncertainty ellipse whose axes are 45 x 9 arcsec for an hours-confirmed source.

  12. Convective heat transfer and infrared thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlomagno, Giovanni M; Astarita, Tommaso; Cardone, Gennaro

    2002-10-01

    Infrared (IR) thermography, because of its two-dimensional and non-intrusive nature, can be exploited in industrial applications as well as in research. This paper deals with measurement of convective heat transfer coefficients (h) in three complex fluid flow configurations that concern the main aspects of both internal and external cooling of turbine engine components: (1) flow in ribbed, or smooth, channels connected by a 180 degrees sharp turn, (2) a jet in cross-flow, and (3) a jet impinging on a wall. The aim of this study was to acquire detailed measurements of h distribution in complex flow configurations related to both internal and external cooling of turbine components. The heated thin foil technique, which involves the detection of surface temperature by means of an IR scanning radiometer, was exploited to measure h. Particle image velocimetry was also used in one of the configurations to precisely determine the velocity field.

  13. Cooling device in thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Tsutomu.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent loss of cooling effect over the entire torus structure directly after accidental toubles in a cooling device of a thermonuclear device. Constitution: Coolant recycling means of a cooling device comprises two systems, which are alternately connected with in-flow pipeways and exit pipeways of adjacent modules. The modules are cooled by way of the in-flow pipeways and the exist pipeways connected to the respective modules by means of the coolant recycling means corresponding to the respective modules. So long as one of the coolant recycling means is kept operative, since every one other modules of the torus structure is still kept cooled, the heat generated from the module put therebetween, for which the coolant recycling is interrupted, is removed by means of heat conduction or radiation from the module for which the cooling is kept continued. No back-up emergency cooling system is required and it can provide high economic reliability. (Kamimura, M.)

  14. Biomedical Use of Aerospace Personal Cooling Garments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webbon, Bruce W.; Montgomery, Leslie D.; Callaway, Robert K.

    1994-01-01

    Personal thermoregulatory systems are required during extravehicular activity (EVA) to remove the metabolic heat generated by the suited astronaut. The Extravehicular and Protective Systems (STE) Branch of NASA Ames Research Center has developed advanced concepts or liquid cooling garments for both industrial and biomedical applications for the past 25 years. Examples of this work include: (1) liquid cooled helmets for helicopter pilots and race car drivers; (2) vests for fire and mine rescue personnel; (3) bras to increase the definition of tumors during thermography; (4) lower body garments for young women with erythomelaigia; and (5) whole body garments used by patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). The benefits of the biomedical application of artificial thermoregulation received national attention through two recent events: (1) the liquid-cooled garment technology was inducted into the United States Space Foundation's Space Technology Hall of Fame (1993); and (2) NASA has signed a joint Memorandum of Understanding with the Multiple Sclerosis Association (1994) to share this technology for use with MS patient treatment. The STE Branch is currently pursuing a program to refine thermoregulatory design in light of recent technology developments that might be applicable for use by several medical patient populations. Projects have been initiated to apply thermoregulatory technology for the treatment and/or rehabilitation of patients with spinal cord injuries, multiple sclerosis, migraine headaches, and to help prevent the loss of hair during chemotherapy.

  15. Cooling water systems design using process integration

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gololo, KV

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Cooling water systems are generally designed with a set of heat exchangers arranged in parallel. This arrangement results in higher cooling water flowrate and low cooling water return temperature thus reducing cooling tower efficiency. Previous...

  16. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE ACS IMAGING OF THE GOALS SAMPLE: QUANTITATIVE STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES OF NEARBY LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES WITH L{sub IR} > 10{sup 11.4} L{sub Sun}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D.-C.; Evans, A. S.; Privon, G. C., E-mail: dkim@nrao.edu, E-mail: aevans@virginia.edu, E-mail: gcp8y@virginia.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, 530 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); and others

    2013-05-10

    A Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys study of the structural properties of 85 luminous and ultraluminous (L{sub IR} > 10{sup 11.4} L{sub Sun }) infrared galaxies (LIRGs and ULIRGs) in the Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey (GOALS) sample is presented. Two-dimensional GALFIT analysis has been performed on F814W ''I-band'' images to decompose each galaxy, as appropriate, into bulge, disk, central point-spread function (PSF) and stellar bar components. The fraction of bulge-less disk systems is observed to be higher in LIRGs (35%) than in ULIRGs (20%), with the disk+bulge systems making up the dominant fraction of both LIRGs (55%) and ULIRGs (45%). Further, bulge+disk systems are the dominant late-stage merger galaxy type and are the dominant type for LIRGs and ULIRGs at almost every stage of galaxy-galaxy nuclear separation. The mean I-band host absolute magnitude of the GOALS galaxies is -22.64 {+-} 0.62 mag (1.8{sup +1.4}{sub -0.4} L{sup *}{sub I}), and the mean bulge absolute magnitude in GOALS galaxies is about 1.1 mag fainter than the mean host magnitude. Almost all ULIRGs have bulge magnitudes at the high end (-20.6 to -23.5 mag) of the GOALS bulge magnitude range. Mass ratios in the GOALS binary systems are consistent with most of the galaxies being the result of major mergers, and an examination of the residual-to-host intensity ratios in GOALS binary systems suggests that smaller companions suffer more tidal distortion than the larger companions. We find approximately twice as many bars in GOALS disk+bulge systems (32.8%) than in pure-disk mergers (15.9%) but most of the disk+bulge systems that contain bars are disk-dominated with small bulges. The bar-to-host intensity ratio, bar half-light radius, and bar ellipticity in GOALS galaxies are similar to those found in nearby spiral galaxies. The fraction of stellar bars decreases toward later merger stages and smaller nuclear separations, indicating that bars are

  17. Bursting Smoke as an Infrared Countermeasure

    OpenAIRE

    Amarjit Singh; P. J. Kamale; S. A. Joshi; L. K. Bankar

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the experimental setup for the evaluation of bursting smoke for anti-infrared role using SR-5000 spectroradiometer and a source of IR radiation (8-13 micrometer) using cadmium-mercury-telluride (CMI) detector cooled by liquid nitrogen. The particle size and shape of the powders used in the bursting smokes were determined microscopically using Carl Zeiss Jena Neophot- 21. Highest attenuation of 97 -lOO percent was produced for about 12 s using a mixture of bronze fl...

  18. Far-infrared spectrophotometer for astronomical observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, H.; Silverberg, R. F.

    1981-01-01

    A liquid-helium-cooled far infrared spectrophotometer was built and used to make low resolution observations of the continua of several kinds of astronomical objects using the Kuiper Airborne Observatory. This instrument fills a gap in both sensitivity to continuum sources and spectral resolution between the broadband photometers with lambda/Delta lambda approximately 1 and spectrometers with lambda/Delta lambda greater than 50. While designed primarily to study planetary nebulae, the instrument permits study of the shape of the continua of many weak sources which cannot easily be observed with high resolution systems.

  19. Handbook of infrared standards II with spectral coverage between

    CERN Document Server

    Meurant, Gerard

    1993-01-01

    This timely compilation of infrared standards has been developed for use by infrared researchers in chemistry, physics, engineering, astrophysics, and laser and atmospheric sciences. Providing maps of closely spaced molecular spectra along with their measured wavenumbers between 1.4vm and 4vm, this handbook will complement the 1986 Handbook of Infrared Standards that included special coverage between 3 and 2600vm. It will serve as a necessary reference for all researchers conducting spectroscopic investigations in the near-infrared region.Key Features:- Provides all new spec

  20. A Mid-Infrared Search for Kardashev Civilizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdsson, Steinn; Wright, J.; Griffith, R.; Povich, M. S.

    2014-01-01

    We are using the WISE all-sky Source Catalog to search for and put upper limits on the existence of extraterrestrial civilizations with large energy supplies. Any galaxy-spanning (Type III) civilization with an energy supply of more than about one percent of its stellar luminosity will have detectable mid-infrared excess, and nearby (extended) galaxies with civilizations with supplies more than about 80% of their stellar luminosity will be well-distinguished from nearly all natural sources in WISE color-color space. Mid-infrared spectra, far-infrared photometry, and radio emission from CO can all be used to distinguish extraterrestrial mid-infrared radiation from dust.