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Sample records for space geodynamics apsg

  1. The Geodynamic Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenfelt, Jørgen S.; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    1996-01-01

    The Danish National lecture: The Geodynamic approach - problem or possibility? - mirrors the authors involvement in projects and research focusing on the impact of the geodynamic approach. The lecture discusses the why and how of some of the geotechnical anomalies and the differences in traditional...

  2. Principles of geodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Scheidegger, Adrian E

    1982-01-01

    Geodynamics is commonly thought to be one of the subjects which provide the basis for understanding the origin of the visible surface features of the Earth: the latter are usually assumed as having been built up by geodynamic forces originating inside the Earth ("endogenetic" processes) and then as having been degrad­ ed by geomorphological agents originating in the atmosphere and ocean ("exogenetic" agents). The modem view holds that the sequence of events is not as neat as it was once thought to be, and that, in effect, both geodynamic and geomorphological processes act simultaneously ("Principle of Antagonism"); however, the division of theoretical geology into the principles of geodynamics and those of theoretical geomorphology seems to be useful for didactic purposes. It has therefore been maintained in the present writer's works. This present treatise on geodynamics is the first part of the author's treatment of theoretical geology, the treatise on Theoretical Geomorphology (also published by the Sprin...

  3. GEODYNAMIC WAVES AND GRAVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Vikulin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available  Gravity phenomena related to the Earth movements in the Solar System and through the Galaxy are reviewed. Such movements are manifested by geological processes on the Earth and correlate with geophysical fields of the Earth. It is concluded that geodynamic processes and the gravity phenomena (including those of cosmic nature are related.  The state of the geomedium composed of blocks is determined by stresses with force moment and by slow rotational waves that are considered as a new type of movements [Vikulin, 2008, 2010]. It is shown that the geomedium has typical rheid properties [Carey, 1954], specifically an ability to flow while being in the solid state [Leonov, 2008]. Within the framework of the rotational model with a symmetric stress tensor, which is developed by the authors [Vikulin, Ivanchin, 1998; Vikulin et al., 2012a, 2013], such movement of the geomedium may explain the energy-saturated state of the geomedium and a possibility of its movements in the form of vortex geological structures [Lee, 1928]. The article discusses the gravity wave detection method based on the concept of interactions between gravity waves and crustal blocks [Braginsky et al., 1985]. It is concluded that gravity waves can be recorded by the proposed technique that detects slow rotational waves. It is shown that geo-gravitational movements can be described by both the concept of potential with account of gravitational energy of bodies [Kondratyev, 2003] and the nonlinear physical acoustics [Gurbatov et al., 2008]. Based on the combined description of geophysical and gravitational wave movements, the authors suggest a hypothesis about the nature of spin, i.e. own moment as a demonstration of the space-time ‘vortex’ properties.  

  4. Seismological Constraints on Geodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomnitz, C.

    2004-12-01

    Earth is an open thermodynamic system radiating heat energy into space. A transition from geostatic earth models such as PREM to geodynamical models is needed. We discuss possible thermodynamic constraints on the variables that govern the distribution of forces and flows in the deep Earth. In this paper we assume that the temperature distribution is time-invariant, so that all flows vanish at steady state except for the heat flow Jq per unit area (Kuiken, 1994). Superscript 0 will refer to the steady state while x denotes the excited state of the system. We may write σ 0=(J{q}0ṡX{q}0)/T where Xq is the conjugate force corresponding to Jq, and σ is the rate of entropy production per unit volume. Consider now what happens after the occurrence of an earthquake at time t=0 and location (0,0,0). The earthquake introduces a stress drop Δ P(x,y,z) at all points of the system. Response flows are directed along the gradients toward the epicentral area, and the entropy production will increase with time as (Prigogine, 1947) σ x(t)=σ 0+α {1}/(t+β )+α {2}/(t+β )2+etc A seismological constraint on the parameters may be obtained from Omori's empirical relation N(t)=p/(t+q) where N(t) is the number of aftershocks at time t following the main shock. It may be assumed that p/q\\sim\\alpha_{1}/\\beta times a constant. Another useful constraint is the Mexican-hat geometry of the seismic transient as obtained e.g. from InSAR radar interferometry. For strike-slip events such as Landers the distribution of \\DeltaP is quadrantal, and an oval-shaped seismicity gap develops about the epicenter. A weak outer triggering maxiμm is found at a distance of about 17 fault lengths. Such patterns may be extracted from earthquake catalogs by statistical analysis (Lomnitz, 1996). Finally, the energy of the perturbation must be at least equal to the recovery energy. The total energy expended in an aftershock sequence can be found approximately by integrating the local contribution over

  5. From Geodynamics to Simplicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D. L.

    2002-12-01

    Mantle convection and plate tectonics are often thought as synonymous. Convection is sometimes treated as the driver or plate tectonics is viewed as simply a manifestation of mantle convection. Mantle plumes are regarded as supplying some of the elements missing in the plate tectonic and mantle convection paradigms, such as island chains, swells and large igneous provinces. An alternate view is motivated by Prigogine's concept of far-from-equilibrium self-organization ( SOFFE), not to be confused with Bak's self-organized criticality ( SOC) . In a SOFFE system the components interact, and the system is small compared to the outside world to which it is open. There must be multiple possible states and dissipation is important. Such a system is sensitive to small changes. Rayleigh-Benard convection in a container with isothermal walls is such a self-organizing system ; the driving bouyancy and the dissipation ( viscosity ) are in the fluid. In Marangoni convection the driving forces ( surface tension ) and dissipation are in the surface film and this organizes the surface and the underlying fluid. The mantle provides energy and matter to the interacting plate system but forces in the plates drive and dissipate the energy. Thus, plate tectonics may be a SOFFEE system that drives convection,as are systems cooled from above, in general. If so, plates will reorganize as boundary conditions change ; incipient plate boundaries will emerge as volcanic chains at tensile regions. Plates are defined as regions of lateral compression ( force chains ), rather than strength, and they are ephemeral. The plate system, rather than mantle viscosity, will modulate mantle cooling. The supercontinent cycle, with episodes of reorganization and massive magmatism, may be a manifestation of this far-from-equilibrium, driven from above, system. Geodynamics may be simpler than we think. Plate tectonics is certainly a more powerful concept once the concepts of rididity, elasticity, homogeneity

  6. KALMAR - "Kurile-Kamchatka and Aleutean Marginal Sea-Island Arc Systems: Geodynamic and Climate Interaction in Space and Time" - an integrated science approach between Russia and Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dullo, Wolf-Christian; Baranov, Boris; van den Bogaard, Christel

    2010-05-01

    The exploration of the arctic seas require an integrated approach applying different infrastructures. In Fall 2009 German and Russian scientists performed a geo marine cruise off Kamchatka and in the western Bering Sea within the frame of the KALMAR-Project. Two main research subjects formed the scientific backbone of the cruise: The first objective focuses on the geodynamic and volcanological-magmatic development of the Kuril-Kamchatka island arc system and the Kamchatka Aleutean Islands Triple-Junction. Very little is known about the composition of the mantle and the oceanic crust as well as of the seamounts including their ages. The best studied site is the Volcanologist's Massif located between the Bering- and the Alpha Fracture Zone (Tsvetkov 1990, Volynets et al. 1992, Yogodzinsky et al. 1994), which structurally belongs to the Komandorsky Basin. The oldest rocks of the Volcanologist's Massif show very similar trace element and isotope signatures like those rocks cropping out in the volcanoes on Kamchatka in the prolongation of the Alpha Fracture Zone (Portnyagin et al. 2005a), indicating similar conditions of magma formation. The top of the Volcanologist's Massif is characterized by the young (Emperor-Seamount chain, having an age of probably > 85 Ma. The only existing basement rocks from this seamount were gained during DSDP Leg 19. These are basalts with MORB like trace element and isotope signatures (Keller et al. 2000, Regelous et al. 2003). These data indicate that the Hawaii-Hotspot was at a MOR in Cretaceous time and that large volumes of depleted mantle material played a role during the magma formation. The second objective focuses on paleo-oceanographic investigations concentrating on the sediments along the eastern continental slope of Kamchatka, in the Komandorsky Basin, and on the Shirshov Ridge in order to explore paleoclimate archives to better understand the subpolar water mass transfer and the oceanographic and climatic development in the

  7. Geodynamics Project. US progress report, 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    The recommendations of the US Geodynamics Committee relative to program activities are presented. US Program progress is reviewed in the following areas: fine structure of the crust and upper mantle; continuous seismic reflection profiling of the deep basement: Hardeman County, Texas; Mid-Atlantic Ridge - evolution of oceanic lithosphere; internal processes and properties; crystal growing; chemical differentiation of magmas; geodynamic modelling; magnetic problems; plate boundaries; plate interiors; geodynamic syntheses; and eustatic cycles of sea level changes. (MHR)

  8. Computational Infrastructure for Geodynamics (CIG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurnis, M.; Kellogg, L. H.; Bloxham, J.; Hager, B. H.; Spiegelman, M.; Willett, S.; Wysession, M. E.; Aivazis, M.

    2004-12-01

    Solid earth geophysicists have a long tradition of writing scientific software to address a wide range of problems. In particular, computer simulations came into wide use in geophysics during the decade after the plate tectonic revolution. Solution schemes and numerical algorithms that developed in other areas of science, most notably engineering, fluid mechanics, and physics, were adapted with considerable success to geophysics. This software has largely been the product of individual efforts and although this approach has proven successful, its strength for solving problems of interest is now starting to show its limitations as we try to share codes and algorithms or when we want to recombine codes in novel ways to produce new science. With funding from the NSF, the US community has embarked on a Computational Infrastructure for Geodynamics (CIG) that will develop, support, and disseminate community-accessible software for the greater geodynamics community from model developers to end-users. The software is being developed for problems involving mantle and core dynamics, crustal and earthquake dynamics, magma migration, seismology, and other related topics. With a high level of community participation, CIG is leveraging state-of-the-art scientific computing into a suite of open-source tools and codes. The infrastructure that we are now starting to develop will consist of: (a) a coordinated effort to develop reusable, well-documented and open-source geodynamics software; (b) the basic building blocks - an infrastructure layer - of software by which state-of-the-art modeling codes can be quickly assembled; (c) extension of existing software frameworks to interlink multiple codes and data through a superstructure layer; (d) strategic partnerships with the larger world of computational science and geoinformatics; and (e) specialized training and workshops for both the geodynamics and broader Earth science communities. The CIG initiative has already started to

  9. The Overshoot Phenomenon in Geodynamics Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kommu, R. K.; Heien, E. M.; Kellogg, L. H.; Bangerth, W.; Heister, T.; Studley, E. H.

    2013-12-01

    The overshoot phenomenon is a common occurrence in numerical software when a continuous function on a finite dimensional discretized space is used to approximate a discontinuous jump, in temperature and material concentration, for example. The resulting solution overshoots, and undershoots, the discontinuous jump. Numerical simulations play an extremely important role in mantle convection research. This is both due to the strong temperature and stress dependence of viscosity and also due to the inaccessibility of deep earth. Under these circumstances, it is essential that mantle convection simulations be extremely accurate and reliable. CitcomS and ASPECT are two finite element based mantle convection simulations developed and maintained by the Computational Infrastructure for Geodynamics. CitcomS is a finite element based mantle convection code that is designed to run on multiple high-performance computing platforms. ASPECT, an adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) code built on the Deal.II library, is also a finite element based mantle convection code that scales well on various HPC platforms. CitcomS and ASPECT both exhibit the overshoot phenomenon. One attempt at controlling the overshoot uses the Entropy Viscosity method, which introduces an artificial diffusion term in the energy equation of mantle convection. This artificial diffusion term is small where the temperature field is smooth. We present results from CitcomS and ASPECT that quantify the effect of the Entropy Viscosity method in reducing the overshoot phenomenon. In the discontinuous Galerkin (DG) finite element method, the test functions used in the method are continuous within each element but are discontinuous across inter-element boundaries. The solution space in the DG method is discontinuous. FEniCS is a collection of free software tools that automate the solution of differential equations using finite element methods. In this work we also present results from a finite element mantle convection

  10. IERS and its importance for global geodynamics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kostelecký, J.; Vondrák, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 131 (2003), s. 7-15 ISSN 1211-1910 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : astrometry * geodesy * geodynamics Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  11. Gravity and low-frequency geodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Teisseyre, Roman

    1989-01-01

    This fourth volume in the series Physics and Evolution of the Earth's Interior, provides a comprehensive review of the geophysical and geodetical aspects related to gravity and low-frequency geodynamics. Such aspects include the Earth's gravity field, geoid shape theory, and low-frequency phenomena like rotation, oscillations and tides.Global-scale phenomena are treated as a response to source excitation in spherical Earth models consisting of several shells: lithosphere, mantle, core and sometimes also the inner solid core. The effect of gravitation and rotation on the Earth's shape is anal

  12. Magnetohydrodynamic Convection in the Outer Core and its Geodynamic Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Weijia; Chao, Benjamin F.; Fang, Ming

    2004-01-01

    The Earth's fluid outer core is in vigorous convection through much of the Earth's history. In addition to generating and maintaining Earth s time-varying magnetic field (geodynamo), the core convection also generates mass redistribution in the core and a dynamical pressure field on the core-mantle boundary (CMB). All these shall result in various core-mantle interactions, and contribute to surface geodynamic observables. For example, electromagnetic core-mantle coupling arises from finite electrically conducting lower mantle; gravitational interaction occurs between the cores and the heterogeneous mantle; mechanical coupling may also occur when the CMB topography is aspherical. Besides changing the mantle rotation via the coupling torques, the mass-redistribution in the core shall produce a spatial-temporal gravity anomaly. Numerical modeling of the core dynamical processes contributes in several geophysical disciplines. It helps explain the physical causes of surface geodynamic observables via space geodetic techniques and other means, e.g. Earth's rotation variation on decadal time scales, and secular time-variable gravity. Conversely, identification of the sources of the observables can provide additional insights on the dynamics of the fluid core, leading to better constraints on the physics in the numerical modeling. In the past few years, our core dynamics modeling efforts, with respect to our MoSST model, have made significant progress in understanding individual geophysical consequences. However, integrated studies are desirable, not only because of more mature numerical core dynamics models, but also because of inter-correlation among the geophysical phenomena, e.g. mass redistribution in the outer core produces not only time-variable gravity, but also gravitational core-mantle coupling and thus the Earth's rotation variation. They are expected to further facilitate multidisciplinary studies of core dynamics and interactions of the core with other

  13. CRYOGENESIS AND GEODYNAMICS OF ICING VALLEYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Alekseyev

    2015-01-01

    heavily influenced by aufeis deposits and processes taking place at the aufeis surfaces, especially in areas of discontinuous and continuous permafrost where an average thickness of the ice cover on rivers ranges from 1.0 to 2.5 m, and the major part of the ice cover is accumulated layer by layer due to freezing of discharged groundwater. In the permafrost zone, the intensity of cryogenic channelling is clearly cyclical, and the cycles depend on accumulation of aufeis ice above the river level during the autumn low-water period. Five stages of cryogenic channelling are distinguished: I – pre-glacial development, II – transgression, III – stabilization, IV – regression, and V – post-glacial development. Each stage is characterised by a specific glaciohydrological regime of runoff channels and their specific shapes, sizes and spatial patterns.The channel network is subject to the maximum transformation in aufeis development stages III and IV, when the transit flow channel is split into several shallow-water branches, producing a complicated plan pattern of the terrain. In the mature aufeis glades, there are sites undergoing various development stages, which gives evidence that aufeis channelling is variable in a wide range in both space and time. With respect to sizes of aufeis glades, river flow capacities and geological, geomorphological, cryo-hydrogeological conditions, aufeis patterns of the channel network are classified into five types as follows: fan-shaped, cone-shaped, treelike, reticular, and longitudinal-insular types. The aufeis channel network is a reliable indicator of intensity of both recent and ancient geodynamic processes in the cryolithozone.In Siberia and the Far East, the aufeis deposits are much larger, more numerous and more important in terms of morpholithology in comparison with the 'classical' (sedimentary metamorphic icing structures. The more contrasting is the terrain, the more active are neotectonic movements, the lower is the mean

  14. Linking plate reconstructions with deforming lithosphere to geodynamic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, R. D.; Gurnis, M.; Flament, N.; Seton, M.; Spasojevic, S.; Williams, S.; Zahirovic, S.

    2011-12-01

    While global computational models are rapidly advancing in terms of their capabilities, there is an increasing need for assimilating observations into these models and/or ground-truthing model outputs. The open-source and platform independent GPlates software fills this gap. It was originally conceived as a tool to interactively visualize and manipulate classical rigid plate reconstructions and represent them as time-dependent topological networks of editable plate boundaries. The user can export time-dependent plate velocity meshes that can be used either to define initial surface boundary conditions for geodynamic models or alternatively impose plate motions throughout a geodynamic model run. However, tectonic plates are not rigid, and neglecting plate deformation, especially that of the edges of overriding plates, can result in significant misplacing of plate boundaries through time. A new, substantially re-engineered version of GPlates is now being developed that allows an embedding of deforming plates into topological plate boundary networks. We use geophysical and geological data to define the limit between rigid and deforming areas, and the deformation history of non-rigid blocks. The velocity field predicted by these reconstructions can then be used as a time-dependent surface boundary condition in regional or global 3-D geodynamic models, or alternatively as an initial boundary condition for a particular plate configuration at a given time. For time-dependent models with imposed plate motions (e.g. using CitcomS) we incorporate the continental lithosphere by embedding compositionally distinct crust and continental lithosphere within the thermal lithosphere. We define three isostatic columns of different thickness and buoyancy based on the tectonothermal age of the continents: Archean, Proterozoic and Phanerozoic. In the fourth isostatic column, the oceans, the thickness of the thermal lithosphere is assimilated using a half-space cooling model. We also

  15. RECENT GEODYNAMICS OF FAULT ZONES: FAULTING IN REAL TIME SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. O. Kuzmin

    2014-01-01

    fault-block’ dilemma is stated for the recent geodynamics of faults in view of interpretations of monitoring results. The matter is that either a block is an active element generating anomalous recent deformation and a fault is a ‘passive’ element, or a fault zone itself is a source of anomalous displacements and blocks are passive elements, i.e. host medium. ‘Paradoxes’ of high and low strain velocities are explainable under the concept that the anomalous recent geodynamics is caused by parametric excitation of deformation processes in fault zones in conditions of a quasi-static regime of loading.Based on empirical data, it is revealed that recent deformation processes migrate in fault zones both in space and time. Two types of waves, ‘inter-fault’ and ‘intra-fault’, are described. A phenomenological model of auto-wave deformation processes is proposed; the model is consistent with monitoring data. A definition of ‘pseudo-wave’ is introduced. Arrangements to establish a system for monitoring deformation auto-waves are described.When applied to geological deformation monitoring, new measurement technologies are associated with result identification problems, including ‘ratios of uncertainty’ such as ‘anomaly’s dimensions – density of monitoring stations’ and ‘anomaly’s duration – details of measurements in time’. It is shown that the RSA interferometry method does not provide for an unambiguous determination of ground surface displacement vectors. 

  16. Applying multi-resolution numerical methods to geodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, David Rhodri

    vigors. However, such configurations have recently been observed. With hot-spots widely-regarded as the surface expression of deep mantle plumes, it is of great importance to ascertain whether or not these conclusions are valid at the dynamical regime of Earth's mantle. Results demonstrate that at these high vigors, steady plumes do arise. However, they do not dominate the planform as in lower vigor cases: they coexist with mobile and ephemeral plumes and display ranging characteristics, which are consistent with hot-spot observations on Earth. Those plumes that do remain steady alter in intensity throughout the simulation, strengthening and weakening over time. Such behavior is caused by an irregular supply of cold material to the core-mantle boundary region, suggesting that subducting slabs are partially responsible for episodic plume magmatism on Earth. With this in mind, the influence of the upper boundary condition upon the planform of mantle convection is further examined. With the modified code, the CPU-time needed to solve a given problem is reduced and, hence, several simulations can be run efficiently, allowing a relatively rapid parameter space mapping of various upper boundary conditions. Results, in accordance with the investigations on upwelling structures, demonstrate that the surface exerts a profound control upon internal dynamics, manifesting itself not only in convective structures, but also in thermal profiles, Nusselt numbers and velocity patterns. Since the majority of geodynamical simulations incorporate a surface condition that is not at all representative of Earth, this is a worrying, yet important conclusion. By failing to address the surface appropriately, geodynamical models, regardless of their sophistication, cannot be truly applicable to Earth. In summary, the techniques developed herein, in both 2- and 3-D, are extremely practical and highly efficient, yielding significant advantages for geodynamical simulations. Indeed, they allow one to

  17. New insights in geodynamics of wider Zagreb area: results of GPS measurements series 2009 on Zagreb Geodynamic Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribičević, Boško; Medak, Damir; ĐApo, Almin

    2010-05-01

    The Geodynamic GPS-Network of the City of Zagreb represents the longest and the most intensive research effort in the field of geodynamics in Croatia. Since the establishment of the Network in 1997, several series of precise GPS measurements have been conducted on specially stabilized points of Geodynamical Network of City of Zagreb with purpose of investigation of tectonic movements and related seismic activity of the wider area of the City of Zagreb. The Network has been densified in 2005 in the most active region of northeastern Mount Medvednica. Since then, several GPS campaigns have been conducted including the last in summer 2009. The paper presents latest results of geodynamic movements of the network points.

  18. The Computational Infrastructure for Geodynamics: An Example of Software Curation and Citation in the Geodynamics Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, L.; Kellogg, L. H.

    2017-12-01

    Curation of software promotes discoverability and accessibility and works hand in hand with scholarly citation to ascribe value to, and provide recognition for software development. To meet this challenge, the Computational Infrastructure for Geodynamics (CIG) maintains a community repository built on custom and open tools to promote discovery, access, identification, credit, and provenance of research software for the geodynamics community. CIG (geodynamics.org) originated from recognition of the tremendous effort required to develop sound software and the need to reduce duplication of effort and to sustain community codes. CIG curates software across 6 domains and has developed and follows software best practices that include establishing test cases, documentation, and a citable publication for each software package. CIG software landing web pages provide access to current and past releases; many are also accessible through the CIG community repository on github. CIG has now developed abc - attribution builder for citation to enable software users to give credit to software developers. abc uses zenodo as an archive and as the mechanism to obtain a unique identifier (DOI) for scientific software. To assemble the metadata, we searched the software's documentation and research publications and then requested the primary developers to verify. In this process, we have learned that each development community approaches software attribution differently. The metadata gathered is based on guidelines established by groups such as FORCE11 and OntoSoft. The rollout of abc is gradual as developers are forward-looking, rarely willing to go back and archive prior releases in zenodo. Going forward all actively developed packages will utilize the zenodo and github integration to automate the archival process when a new release is issued. How to handle legacy software, multi-authored libraries, and assigning roles to software remain open issues.

  19. Variations of the Earth's rotation rate and cyclic processes in geodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.W. Levin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The authors analyzed the relationship between variations of the Earth's rotation rate and the geodynamic processes within the Earth's body, including seismic activity. The rotation rate of a planet determines its uniaxial compression along the axis of rotation and the areas of various surface elements of the body. The Earth's ellipticity variations, caused naturally by the rotation rate variations, are manifested in vertical components of precise GPS measurements. Comparative analysis of these variations is considered in view of modern theoretical ideas concerning the Earth's figure. The results justify further research that is of interest for improvement of space systems and technologies.

  20. A petrological view of early Earth geodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzberg, C.

    2003-04-01

    Xenoliths of low T Archean cratonic mantle consist mostly of harzburgite and lherzolite with geochemical depletions that are characterisitc of igneous residues. Many authors have identified the complementary magmas as komatiites. This model is re-examined in light of work presented in Herzberg & O'Hara (2002) and found to be problematic. Munro-type alumina-undepleted komatiites from Alexo, Pyke Hill, and other locations often contain olivine phenocrysts with maximum Mg# \\cong 94. Residues of fractional melting would consist of pure dunite having Mg# = 97-98, but these are not observed. Residues of equilibrium melting would also be pure dunite with Mg# = 94, but these are also not observed. Olivines with Mg# = 94 are found in rare harzburgites, indicating that residues of alumina-undepleted komatiite have either been overprinted by subsequent magmatism or they have been geodynamically eroded. Alumina-undepleted komatiites can be successfully modeled with a primary magma containing 30% MgO produced by 0.5 mass fractions of equilibrium melting of depleted peridotite. A hot plume interpretation is consistent with both the petrology and helium isotopic compositions of alumina-undepleted komatiites. But what about cratonic mantle? The FeO and MgO contents of residues of fertile mantle peridotite formed by both equilibrium and fractional melting can be predicted and applied to xenoliths of cratonic mantle in most cases. Application to xenoliths from the Kaapvaal and Slave cratons is not possible owing to a second stage of Opx enrichment, but results can be applied to most xenoliths from Siberia, Tanzania, Somerset Island, and east Greenland as they contain less than 45% SiO_2. These xenoliths are very similar to residues produced by fractional melting. Pressures of initial melting were mostly 3 to 5 GPa, but can be as high 7 GPa. Pressures of final melting were highly variable and can be as low as 1 GPa. Potential temperatures (T_P) were typically 1450 to 1600oC and

  1. Global gravity and the geodynamic model of the Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedoma, J.

    1988-01-01

    Plate tectonic hypotheses require the formation of a new oceanic lithosphere at mid-oceanic ridges and imply the further modification and continued evolution towards the continental type of lithosphere in the regions of island arcs and orogenic belts. All these phenomena observed on the Earths's surface are results of all geodynamic processes passing through the Earth's interior. Since geodynamic processes change through the geological epochs, the gravity field also changes during the same geological periods. Thus, the paper is concerned with physical relationships between the global gravity field and the geodynamic processes as well as all geophysical fields affected by the geodynamic processes inside the Earth. The aim of this paper is to analyse the inner and outer gravity field of the Earth during the evolution of the Earth in the course of the geological epochs, and to build the generalized theory of the global gravity field of the Earth from the point of view of the global and local geodynamic processes taking place within the Earth's interior. (author)

  2. Monitoring of global geodynamic processes using satellite observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Tatevian

    2014-06-01

    One of the active tectonic zones of Egypt located in Aswan, is characterized by regional basement rock uplift and regional faulting. In 1997, the African Regional Geodynamic Network was developed around the northern part of Lake Nasser, consists of 11 points, on both sides of the Lake. Its main goal is to study the geodynamical behavior around the northern part of the lake. The collected data were processed using the Bernese software version 5.0. From the velocity results, including also the African plate motion, it can be noticed that all stations of this network are moved to the northeast direction and it is typically the direction of the African plate motion.

  3. Geodynamic and metabolic cycles in the Hadean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Russell

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available High-degree melting of hot dry Hadean mantle at ocean ridges and plumes resulted in a crust about 30km thick, overlain in places by extensive and thick mafic volcanic plateaus. Continental crust, by contrast, was relatively thin and mostly submarine. At constructive and destructive plate boundaries, and above the many mantle plumes, acidic hydrothermal springs at ~400°C contributed Fe and other transition elements as well as P and H2 to the deep ocean made acidulous by dissolved CO2 and minor HCl derived from volcanoes. Away from ocean ridges, submarine hydrothermal fluids were cool (≤100°C, alkaline (pH ~10, highly reduced and also H2-rich. Reaction of solvents in this fluid with those in ocean water was catalyzed in a hydrothermal mound, a natural self-restoring flow reactor and fractionation column developed above the alkaline spring. The mound consisted of brucite, Mg-rich clays, ephemeral carbonates, Fe-Ni sulfide and green rust. Acetate and glycine were the main products, some of which were eluted to the ocean. The rest, along with other organic byproducts were retained and concentrated within Fe-Ni sulfide compartments. These compartments, comprising the natural hydrothermal reactor, consisted partly of greigite (Fe5NiS8. It was from reactions between organic modules confined within these inorganic compartments that the first prokaryotic organism evolved. These acetogenic precursors to the bacteria diversified and migrated down the mound and into the ocean floor to inaugurate the 'deep biosphere'. Once there they were protected from cataclysmic heating events caused by large meteoritic impacts. Geodynamic forces led to the eventual obduction of the deep biosphere into the photic zone where, initially protected by a thin veneer of sediment, the use of solar energy was mastered and photosynthesis emerged. The further evolution to oxygenic photosynthesis was effected as catalytic [Mn,Ca]-bearing molecules that otherwise would have been

  4. Overview of adaptive finite element analysis in computational geodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    May, D. A.; Schellart, W. P.; Moresi, L.

    2013-01-01

    The use of numerical models to develop insight and intuition into the dynamics of the Earth over geological time scales is a firmly established practice in the geodynamics community. As our depth of understanding grows, and hand-in-hand with improvements in analytical techniques and higher

  5. Geodynamic Evolution of the Banda Sea Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaymakci, N.; Decker, J.; Orange, D.; Teas, P.; Van Heiningen, P.

    2013-12-01

    We've carried out a large on- and offshore study in Eastern Indonesia to characterize the major structures and to provide constraints on the Neogene geodynamic evolution of the Banda Sea region. The onshore portion utilized remote sensing data and published geology. We tied the onshore to the offshore using recently acquired high resolution bathymetric data (16m and 25m bin size) and 2D seismic profiles that extend from Sulawesi in the west to Irian Jaya in the east across the northern part of the Banda Arc. We interpret the northern boundary of the 'Birds Head' (BH) of Papua, the Sorong Fault, to be a sinistral strike-slip fault zone with a minimum of 48 km displacement over the last few million years. The western boundary fault of Cendrawasih Basin defines the eastern boundary of BH and corresponds to the Wandamen Peninsula which comprises high pressure metamorphic rocks, including eclogite and granulite facies rocks, with exhumation ages from 4 to 1 Ma. Earthquake focal mechanism solutions indicate that the eastern boundary of BH is linked with a large scale offshore normal fault which we suggest may be related to the exhumation of the Wandamen Peninsula. The eastern boundary of Cendrawasih Basin is defined by a large transpressive belt along which BH is decoupled from the rest of Papua / Irian Jaya. This interpretation is supported by recent GPS studies. We propose that the BH and the Pacific plate are coupled, and therefore the Birds Head is therefore completely detached from Irian Jaya. Furthermore, Aru Basin, located at the NE corner of Banda Arc, is a Fault-Fault-Transform (FFT) type triple junction. According to available literature information the Banda Sea includes three distinct basins with different geologic histories; the North Banda Sea Basin (NBSB) was opened during 12-7 Ma, Wetar-Damar Basin (WDB) during 7-3.5 Ma and Weber Basin (WB) 3-0 Ma. Our bathymetric and seismic data indicated that the NBSB and Weber Basin lack normal oceanic crust and are

  6. Thermal structure and geodynamics of subduction zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Ikuko

    for mantle wedge serpentinization in the forearc but little fluid for melt generation beneath the arc. In contrast, models for colder-slab subduction zones such as NE Japan and Kamchatka predict deeper dehydration, which provides greater fluid supply for melt generation beneath the arc and allows deeper occurrence of intraslab earthquakes but less fluid for forearc mantle wedge serpentinization. The common MDD also explains the intriguing uniform configuration of subduction zones, that is, the volcanic arc always tends to be situated where the slab is at about 100 km depth. The sudden onset of mantle wedge flow downdip of the common MDD overshadows the thermal effect of the slab, and the resultant thermal field and slab dehydration control the location of the volcanic arc. The recognition of the fundamental importance of the MDD has important implications to the study of geodynamics and earthquake hazard in subduction zones.

  7. Overview of adaptive finite element analysis in computational geodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, D. A.; Schellart, W. P.; Moresi, L.

    2013-10-01

    The use of numerical models to develop insight and intuition into the dynamics of the Earth over geological time scales is a firmly established practice in the geodynamics community. As our depth of understanding grows, and hand-in-hand with improvements in analytical techniques and higher resolution remote sensing of the physical structure and state of the Earth, there is a continual need to develop more efficient, accurate and reliable numerical techniques. This is necessary to ensure that we can meet the challenge of generating robust conclusions, interpretations and predictions from improved observations. In adaptive numerical methods, the desire is generally to maximise the quality of the numerical solution for a given amount of computational effort. Neither of these terms has a unique, universal definition, but typically there is a trade off between the number of unknowns we can calculate to obtain a more accurate representation of the Earth, and the resources (time and computational memory) required to compute them. In the engineering community, this topic has been extensively examined using the adaptive finite element (AFE) method. Recently, the applicability of this technique to geodynamic processes has started to be explored. In this review we report on the current status and usage of spatially adaptive finite element analysis in the field of geodynamics. The objective of this review is to provide a brief introduction to the area of spatially adaptive finite analysis, including a summary of different techniques to define spatial adaptation and of different approaches to guide the adaptive process in order to control the discretisation error inherent within the numerical solution. An overview of the current state of the art in adaptive modelling in geodynamics is provided, together with a discussion pertaining to the issues related to using adaptive analysis techniques and perspectives for future research in this area. Additionally, we also provide a

  8. Using borehole measurements with the object of improving the knowledge of upper crust-geodynamic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zugravescu, D.; Polonic, G.; Negoita, V.

    2002-01-01

    km and 6 km depth, including geoisotherms maps on local and regional scales); 4. Acoustic wave propagation (determination of compressional and shear wave velocities on local and regional scales, including specific maps for normal and geodynamic polygon-overpressured conditions); 5. Elastic rock parameters (evaluation of elastic moduli i.e.: space modulus, rigidity modulus, Young's modulus, bulk modulus as well as Poisson's ratio and rock compressibility); 6. Physical and chemical parameters of subsurface waters filling the non-solid part of the rock (electric resistivity, density, compressional wave velocity and salt concentration). The interpretation of 184 formation water samples, extracted from different geological formation and structures revealed on some places a possible vertical water movement around or through fissures/cracks related to the existence of neighboring crustal fractures. Field applications and results are presented in the last part of this work. (authors)

  9. NEW TYPE OF ELASTIC ROTATIONAL WAVES IN GEO-MEDIUM AND VORTEX GEODYNAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Vikulin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural-science concepts of rotational movements and the ‘lumpy’ structure of medium are reviewed with a focus on key aspects. Through using torsional traps for hunting and «implementing» mechanical torque for ignition, Homo sapiens developed to man. Vortex movements «impregnated» in spiral structures of shells and torsional movements of toothy whales and fish were intuitively perceived by man as major stable movements of the environment. Based on the above, the ancient philosophy established the concept of the uniform world represented by atomic («noncuttable» structure of medium and vortex movements of ether. Based on conclusive arguments stated by R. Dekart, H. Helmgolz, Lord Kelvin and others within the framework of classical physics and in the first half of the 20th century by scientists in quantum physics and cosmogony, both «quantum structure» («lumpiness» and rotation («vorticity» are integral features of matter – space – time throughout the whole range from elementary particles to galaxies and galactic clusters.Nowadays researchers in natural sciences, particularly in the Earth sciences, call attention again to the problem of structure of matter and its movements. In the 1920s, Chinese geologist Li Siguang established fundamentals of vortex geodynamics. In the second half of the 20th century, Li Siguan’s concepts were developed by geologists O.I. Slenzak and I.V. Melekestsev. Geologist A.V. Peive, mechanic L.I. Sedov and physicist M.A. Sadovsky put forward a concept of block structure of the geo-medium (geological and geophysical medium and proposed a justified assumption that such blocks can move by own torque. This method of movement is confirmed by results of geological and tectonophysical studies, as well as instrumental geophysical measurements obtained from a variety of stations and focal zones of strong earthquakes. Many researchers, including W. Elsasser and V.N. Nikolaevsky, develop fundamentals of

  10. Geodynamic Zoning For Underground Isolation Of Radioctive Waste

    OpenAIRE

    Morozov, Vladislav; Kagan, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The problem of area selection for underground isolation of radioactive waste is important for all countries using nuclear power. The paper presents the results of modeling the stress-deformed state of Nizhnekanskiy granitoid massif and shows the possibility of using such simulations for the geodynamic zoning of areas. The calculation is given to the most probable directions of groundwater filtration, which is one of the main threats for the nuclear waste repository.

  11. The Computational Infrastructure for Geodynamics as a Community of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, L.; Kellogg, L. H.

    2016-12-01

    Computational Infrastructure for Geodynamics (CIG), geodynamics.org, originated in 2005 out of community recognition that the efforts of individual or small groups of researchers to develop scientifically-sound software is impossible to sustain, duplicates effort, and makes it difficult for scientists to adopt state-of-the art computational methods that promote new discovery. As a community of practice, participants in CIG share an interest in computational modeling in geodynamics and work together on open source software to build the capacity to support complex, extensible, scalable, interoperable, reliable, and reusable software in an effort to increase the return on investment in scientific software development and increase the quality of the resulting software. The group interacts regularly to learn from each other and better their practices formally through webinar series, workshops, and tutorials and informally through listservs and hackathons. Over the past decade, we have learned that successful scientific software development requires at a minimum: collaboration between domain-expert researchers, software developers and computational scientists; clearly identified and committed lead developer(s); well-defined scientific and computational goals that are regularly evaluated and updated; well-defined benchmarks and testing throughout development; attention throughout development to usability and extensibility; understanding and evaluation of the complexity of dependent libraries; and managed user expectations through education, training, and support. CIG's code donation standards provide the basis for recently formalized best practices in software development (geodynamics.org/cig/dev/best-practices/). Best practices include use of version control; widely used, open source software libraries; extensive test suites; portable configuration and build systems; extensive documentation internal and external to the code; and structured, human readable input formats.

  12. Software and the Scientist: Coding and Citation Practices in Geodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Lorraine; Fish, Allison; Soito, Laura; Smith, MacKenzie; Kellogg, Louise H.

    2017-11-01

    In geodynamics as in other scientific areas, computation has become a core component of research, complementing field observation, laboratory analysis, experiment, and theory. Computational tools for data analysis, mapping, visualization, modeling, and simulation are essential for all aspects of the scientific workflow. Specialized scientific software is often developed by geodynamicists for their own use, and this effort represents a distinctive intellectual contribution. Drawing on a geodynamics community that focuses on developing and disseminating scientific software, we assess the current practices of software development and attribution, as well as attitudes about the need and best practices for software citation. We analyzed publications by participants in the Computational Infrastructure for Geodynamics and conducted mixed method surveys of the solid earth geophysics community. From this we learned that coding skills are typically learned informally. Participants considered good code as trusted, reusable, readable, and not overly complex and considered a good coder as one that participates in the community in an open and reasonable manor contributing to both long- and short-term community projects. Participants strongly supported citing software reflected by the high rate a software package was named in the literature and the high rate of citations in the references. However, lacking are clear instructions from developers on how to cite and education of users on what to cite. In addition, citations did not always lead to discoverability of the resource. A unique identifier to the software package itself, community education, and citation tools would contribute to better attribution practices.

  13. Automated Testing Infrastructure and Result Comparison for Geodynamics Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heien, E. M.; Kellogg, L. H.

    2013-12-01

    The geodynamics community uses a wide variety of codes on a wide variety of both software and hardware platforms to simulate geophysical phenomenon. These codes are generally variants of finite difference or finite element calculations involving Stokes flow or wave propagation. A significant problem is that codes of even low complexity will return different results depending on the platform due to slight differences in hardware, software, compiler, and libraries. Furthermore, changes to the codes during development may affect solutions in unexpected ways such that previously validated results are altered. The Computational Infrastructure for Geodynamics (CIG) is funded by the NSF to enhance the capabilities of the geodynamics community through software development. CIG has recently done extensive work in setting up an automated testing and result validation system based on the BaTLab system developed at the University of Wisconsin, Madison. This system uses 16 variants of Linux and Mac platforms on both 32 and 64-bit processors to test several CIG codes, and has also recently been extended to support testing on the XSEDE TACC (Texas Advanced Computing Center) Stampede cluster. In this work we overview the system design and demonstrate how automated testing and validation occurs and results are reported. We also examine several results from the system from different codes and discuss how changes in compilers and libraries affect the results. Finally we detail some result comparison tools for different types of output (scalar fields, velocity fields, seismogram data), and discuss within what margins different results can be considered equivalent.

  14. Monitoring deep geodynamic processes within Vrancea intermediate-depth seismic zone by geodetic means

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besutiu, Lucian; Zlagnean, Luminita

    2015-04-01

    Background Located in the bending zone of East Carpathians, the so-called Vrancea zone is one of the most active seismic regions in Europe. Despite many years of international research, its intermediate-depth seismicity within full intra-continental environment still represents a challenge of the 21st century. Infrastructure In the attempt to join the above-mentioned efforts, the Solid Earth Dynamics Department (SEDD) in the Institute of Geodynamics of the Romanian Academy has developed a special research infrastructure, mainly devoted to gravity and space geodesy observations. A geodetic network covering the epicentre area of the intermediate-depth earthquakes has been designed and implemented for monitoring deep geodynamic processes and their surface echoes. Within each base-station of the above-mentioned network, a still-reinforced concrete pillar allows for high accuracy repeated gravity and GPS determinations. Results Starting from some results of the previously run CERGOP and UNIGRACE European programmes, to which additional SEDD repeated field campaigns were added, an unusual geodynamic behaviour has been revealed in the area. 1) Crust deformation: unlike the overall uprising of East Carpathians, as a result of denudation followed by erosion, their SE bending zone, with Vrancea epicentre area exhibits a slight subsidence. 2) Gravity change: more than 200 microgals non-tidal gravity decrease over a 20 years time-span has been noticed within the subsiding area. Extended observations showed the gravity lowering as a nowadays continuing process. Interpretation This strange combination of topography subsidence and gravity lowering has been interpreted in terms of crust stretching in the Vrancea epicentre zone due to the gravity pull created by densification of the lower crust as a result of phase-transform processes taking place in the lithospheric compartment sunken into the upper mantle. The occurrence of crust earthquakes with vertical-extension focal

  15. Neogene volcanism and extension in Western Anatolian-Aegean area: A new geodynamic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agostini, S; Tonarini, S [Istituto di Geoscienze e Georisorse, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via G. Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Doglioni, C [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Universita La Sapienza, Roma (Italy); Innocenti, F [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Universita di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Manetti, P [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Universita di Firenze, Firenze (Italy)], E-mail: s.agostini@igg.cnr.it

    2008-07-01

    The widespread Western Anatolian-Aegean Neogene volcanism presents a complex geochemical evolution reflecting the uncommon space-time variability of the geodynamic setting of the region. In the Western Anatolian and Central Aegean, a widespread supra-subduction magmatism, with calc-alkaline to shoshonitic affinity, took place from Early to Middle Miocene; this phase of activity ends with spots of ultra-K lavas and dykes. From Late Miocene onwards scattered alkali basaltic lavas with intraplate affinity were emitted, while calc-alkaline activity occurred in the South Aegean arc. Since Late Oligocene-Early Miocene, the region was, and still is, affected by extensional tectonics generally ascribed to a backarc rift. However the Aegean region should rather be considered as an unconventional backarc since its characteristics rather differ from 'typical' backarcs. In fact, in spite of a long lasting(>40Ma) active NE-directed subduction of Africa, the backarc area still maintains a relatively thick continental crust (>20-25 km). Moreover, the upper Eurasian plate is overriding the lower Africa plate with separate segments, with Greece moving faster, and Turkey moving slower. The differential velocity between Greece and Turkey determines extension in the upper plate, unrelated to the loss of subducted retreating lithosphere, which is the usual setting for the origin of 'classic' backarc settings. The geodynamic framework is supported by the geochemical and isotopic features of the supra-subduction magmas revealing the occurrence of a trapped, drying slab, with progressive decreasing of Fluid Mobile Elements/Fluid Immobile Elements ratios, {delta}{sup 11}B and {delta}{sup 7}Li, coupled with scarce variations of Sr and Nd isotopes. Moreover, the differential motion between the Greek and Anatolian micro-plates creates tear zones with the formation of slab ruptures or vertical slab windows. The occurrence of such windows is, in fact, outlined by the

  16. The seismic cycle at subduction thrusts: 2. Dynamic implications of geodynamic simulations validated with laboratory models

    KAUST Repository

    van Dinther, Y.

    2013-04-01

    The physics governing the seismic cycle at seismically active subduction zones remains poorly understood due to restricted direct observations in time and space. To investigate subduction zone dynamics and associated interplate seismicity, we validate a continuum, visco-elasto-plastic numerical model with a new laboratory approach (Paper 1). The analogous laboratory setup includes a visco-elastic gelatin wedge underthrusted by a rigid plate with defined velocity-weakening and -strengthening regions. Our geodynamic simulation approach includes velocity-weakening friction to spontaneously generate a series of fast frictional instabilities that correspond to analog earthquakes. A match between numerical and laboratory source parameters is obtained when velocity-strengthening is applied in the aseismic regions to stabilize the rupture. Spontaneous evolution of absolute stresses leads to nucleation by coalescence of neighboring patches, mainly occurring at evolving asperities near the seismogenic zone limits. Consequently, a crack-, or occasionally even pulse-like, rupture propagates toward the opposite side of the seismogenic zone by increasing stresses ahead of its rupture front, until it arrests on a barrier. The resulting surface displacements qualitatively agree with geodetic observations and show landward and, from near the downdip limit, upward interseismic motions. These are rebound and reversed coseismically. This slip increases adjacent stresses, which are relaxed postseismically by afterslip and thereby produce persistent seaward motions. The wide range of observed physical phenomena, including back-propagation and repeated slip, and the agreement with laboratory results demonstrate that visco-elasto-plastic geodynamic models with rate-dependent friction form a new tool that can greatly contribute to our understanding of the seismic cycle at subduction zones.

  17. The seismic cycle at subduction thrusts: 2. Dynamic implications of geodynamic simulations validated with laboratory models

    KAUST Repository

    van Dinther, Y.; Gerya, T. V.; Dalguer, L. A.; Corbi, F.; Funiciello, F.; Mai, Paul Martin

    2013-01-01

    The physics governing the seismic cycle at seismically active subduction zones remains poorly understood due to restricted direct observations in time and space. To investigate subduction zone dynamics and associated interplate seismicity, we validate a continuum, visco-elasto-plastic numerical model with a new laboratory approach (Paper 1). The analogous laboratory setup includes a visco-elastic gelatin wedge underthrusted by a rigid plate with defined velocity-weakening and -strengthening regions. Our geodynamic simulation approach includes velocity-weakening friction to spontaneously generate a series of fast frictional instabilities that correspond to analog earthquakes. A match between numerical and laboratory source parameters is obtained when velocity-strengthening is applied in the aseismic regions to stabilize the rupture. Spontaneous evolution of absolute stresses leads to nucleation by coalescence of neighboring patches, mainly occurring at evolving asperities near the seismogenic zone limits. Consequently, a crack-, or occasionally even pulse-like, rupture propagates toward the opposite side of the seismogenic zone by increasing stresses ahead of its rupture front, until it arrests on a barrier. The resulting surface displacements qualitatively agree with geodetic observations and show landward and, from near the downdip limit, upward interseismic motions. These are rebound and reversed coseismically. This slip increases adjacent stresses, which are relaxed postseismically by afterslip and thereby produce persistent seaward motions. The wide range of observed physical phenomena, including back-propagation and repeated slip, and the agreement with laboratory results demonstrate that visco-elasto-plastic geodynamic models with rate-dependent friction form a new tool that can greatly contribute to our understanding of the seismic cycle at subduction zones.

  18. Inverse Problems in Geodynamics Using Machine Learning Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahnas, M. H.; Yuen, D. A.; Pysklywec, R. N.

    2018-01-01

    During the past few decades numerical studies have been widely employed to explore the style of circulation and mixing in the mantle of Earth and other planets. However, in geodynamical studies there are many properties from mineral physics, geochemistry, and petrology in these numerical models. Machine learning, as a computational statistic-related technique and a subfield of artificial intelligence, has rapidly emerged recently in many fields of sciences and engineering. We focus here on the application of supervised machine learning (SML) algorithms in predictions of mantle flow processes. Specifically, we emphasize on estimating mantle properties by employing machine learning techniques in solving an inverse problem. Using snapshots of numerical convection models as training samples, we enable machine learning models to determine the magnitude of the spin transition-induced density anomalies that can cause flow stagnation at midmantle depths. Employing support vector machine algorithms, we show that SML techniques can successfully predict the magnitude of mantle density anomalies and can also be used in characterizing mantle flow patterns. The technique can be extended to more complex geodynamic problems in mantle dynamics by employing deep learning algorithms for putting constraints on properties such as viscosity, elastic parameters, and the nature of thermal and chemical anomalies.

  19. Risk and Geodynamically active areas of Carpathian lithosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubomil Pospíšil

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper illustrates an application of multidisciplinary data analysis to the Carpathian–Pannonian region and presents a verification of a Complex model of the Carpathian - Pannonian lithosphere by recent data sets and geophysical data analyses and its utilization for the determination of risk and active geodynamic and tectonic zones of Ist order . This model can be used for the analysing any Carpathian area from the point of view of the seismic risk, hazards and geodynamic activity, which is important to know for the building of a repository for the radioactive wasted material. Besides the traditionally used geological (sedimentological and volcanological data and geomorphological data (Remote Sensing, an emphasis was laid on geodetic, grav/mag data, seismic, seismological and other geophysical data (magnetotelluric, heat flow, paleomagnetic etc.. All available geonomic (geologic, geodetic, geophysical, geomorphological data were verified and unified on the basis of the same scale and in the Western Carpathians on the Remote Sensing data. The paper concentrates on two problematic areas – the so call “rebounding area” in the Eastern Carpathians and the Raba – Muran - Malcov tectonic systems.

  20. Analysis of Geodynamical Conditions of Region of Burning Coal Dumps Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batugin, Andrian; Musina, Valeria; Golovko, Irina

    2017-12-01

    Spontaneous combustion of coal dumps and their impact on the environment of mining regions remain important environmental problem, in spite of the measures that are being taken. The paper presents the hypothesis, which states that the location of coal dumps at the boundaries of geodynamically active crust blocks promotes the appearance of conditions for their combustion. At present geodynamically active crust faults that affect the operating conditions of engineering facilities are observed not only in the areas of tectonic activity, but also on platforms. According to the concept of geodynamical zoning, geodynamically dangerous zones for engineering structures can be not only large, well-developed crust faults, but also just formed fractures that appear as boundaries of geodynamically impacting and hierarchically ordered crust blocks. The purpose of the study is to estimate the linkage of burning dumps to boundaries of geodynamically active crust blocks (geodynamically dangerous zones) for subsequent development of recommendations for reducing environmental hazard. The analysis of 27 coal dumps location was made for one of the Eastern Donbass regions (Russia). Nine of sixteen burning dumps are located in geodynamically dangerous zones, which, taking into account relatively small area occupied by all geodynamically dangerous zones, results that there is a concentration (pcs/km2) of burning dumps, which is 14 times higher than the baseline value. While the probability of accidental obtaining of such a result is extremely low, this can be considered as the evidence of the linkage of burning dumps to geodynamically dangerous zones. Taking into account the stressed state of the rock massif in this region, all geodynamically dangerous zones can be divided into compression and tension zones. The statistic is limited, but nevertheless in tension zones the concentration of burning dumps is 2 times higher than in compression zones. Available results of thermal monitoring of

  1. Geodynamic and petrophysical modelling in the Kraka area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frykman, P.

    2001-01-01

    The present report has been prepared with the aim of presenting a model for the burial history of the chalk section in the Kraka field based on seismic mapping, data from wells, backstripping and decompaction. The parameters and models for the petrophysical properties are also presented in the perspective of being usable in dynamic modelling. The present geological model is based on data originating from an existing study, and does therefore not include more recent well data or additional seismic data. The model is intended to be used for initialising the development of geodynamic flow modelling, and the model will therefore be updated and refined as the project processes. The burial history of the Kraka area will be used to guide the development of reservoir parameters in the chalk section through time. (BA)

  2. Geomorphology and Geodynamics at Crustal Boundaries within Asia and Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The release of SRTM images by NASA over the past two years year has been greeted by foreign Earth scientist's as "NASA's gift to the World". The goodwill that this has engendered in parts of Africa. India, Pakistan and Bangladesh, as scientists in those countries contemplated what many of them considered an unprovoked and unjustifiable US invasion of Iraq, cannot be underestimated. We have used SRTM images from Africa and India and elsewhere to examine aspects of tectonism, geodynamics and tsunami and earthquake hazards. Highlights of this research are itemized in this final report. One difficulty that has arisen is , of course, that the funding for the science lead the availability of the data by more than a year. and as a result many of the findings are as yet unpublished.

  3. Geodynamics branch data base for main magnetic field analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langel, Robert A.; Baldwin, R. T.

    1991-01-01

    The data sets used in geomagnetic field modeling at GSFC are described. Data are measured and obtained from a variety of information and sources. For clarity, data sets from different sources are categorized and processed separately. The data base is composed of magnetic observatory data, surface data, high quality aeromagnetic, high quality total intensity marine data, satellite data, and repeat data. These individual data categories are described in detail in a series of notebooks in the Geodynamics Branch, GSFC. This catalog reviews the original data sets, the processing history, and the final data sets available for each individual category of the data base and is to be used as a reference manual for the notebooks. Each data type used in geomagnetic field modeling has varying levels of complexity requiring specialized processing routines for satellite and observatory data and two general routines for processing aeromagnetic, marine, land survey, and repeat data.

  4. The Earth's heterogeneous mantle a geophysical, geodynamical, and geochemical perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Amir

    2015-01-01

    This book highlights and discusses recent developments that have contributed to an improved understanding of observed mantle heterogeneities and their relation to the thermo-chemical state of Earth's mantle, which ultimately holds the key to unlocking the secrets of the evolution of our planet. This series of topical reviews and original contributions address 4 themes. Theme 1 covers topics in geophysics, including global and regional seismic tomography, electrical conductivity and seismic imaging of mantle discontinuities and heterogeneities in the upper mantle, transition zone and lower mantle. Theme 2 addresses geochemical views of the mantle including lithospheric evolution from analysis of mantle xenoliths, composition of the deep Earth and the effect of water on subduction-zone processes. Theme 3 discusses geodynamical perspectives on the global thermo-chemical structure of the deep mantle. Theme 4 covers application of mineral physics data and phase equilibrium computations to infer the regional-scale ...

  5. A Tractable Disequilbrium Framework for Integrating Computational Thermodynamics and Geodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegelman, M. W.; Tweed, L. E. L.; Evans, O.; Kelemen, P. B.; Wilson, C. R.

    2017-12-01

    The consistent integration of computational thermodynamics and geodynamics is essential for exploring and understanding a wide range of processes from high-PT magma dynamics in the convecting mantle to low-PT reactive alteration of the brittle crust. Nevertheless, considerable challenges remain for coupling thermodynamics and fluid-solid mechanics within computationally tractable and insightful models. Here we report on a new effort, part of the ENKI project, that provides a roadmap for developing flexible geodynamic models of varying complexity that are thermodynamically consistent with established thermodynamic models. The basic theory is derived from the disequilibrium thermodynamics of De Groot and Mazur (1984), similar to Rudge et. al (2011, GJI), but extends that theory to include more general rheologies, multiple solid (and liquid) phases and explicit chemical reactions to describe interphase exchange. Specifying stoichiometric reactions clearly defines the compositions of reactants and products and allows the affinity of each reaction (A = -Δ/Gr) to be used as a scalar measure of disequilibrium. This approach only requires thermodynamic models to return chemical potentials of all components and phases (as well as thermodynamic quantities for each phase e.g. densities, heat capacity, entropies), but is not constrained to be in thermodynamic equilibrium. Allowing meta-stable phases mitigates some of the computational issues involved with the introduction and exhaustion of phases. Nevertheless, for closed systems, these problems are guaranteed to evolve to the same equilibria predicted by equilibrium thermodynamics. Here we illustrate the behavior of this theory for a range of simple problems (constructed with our open-source model builder TerraFERMA) that model poro-viscous behavior in the well understood Fo-Fa binary phase loop. Other contributions in this session will explore a range of models with more petrologically interesting phase diagrams as well as

  6. Geodynamics implication of GPS and satellite altimeter and gravity observations to the Eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled H. Zahran

    2012-06-01

    Results show important zones of mass discontinuity in this region correlated with the seismological activities and temporal gravity variations agree with the crustal deformation obtained from GPS observations. The current study indicates that satellite gravity data is a valuable source of data in understanding the geodynamical behavior of the studied region and that satellite gravity data is an important contemporary source of data in the geodynamical studies.

  7. A deformable particle-in-cell method for advective transport in geodynamic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Henri

    2018-06-01

    This paper presents an improvement of the particle-in-cell method commonly used in geodynamic modeling for solving pure advection of sharply varying fields. Standard particle-in-cell approaches use particle kernels to transfer the information carried by the Lagrangian particles to/from the Eulerian grid. These kernels are generally one-dimensional and non-evolutive, which leads to the development of under- and over-sampling of the spatial domain by the particles. This reduces the accuracy of the solution, and may require the use of a prohibitive amount of particles in order to maintain the solution accuracy to an acceptable level. The new proposed approach relies on the use of deformable kernels that account for the strain history in the vicinity of particles. It results in a significant improvement of the spatial sampling by the particles, leading to a much higher accuracy of the numerical solution, for a reasonable computational extra cost. Various 2D tests were conducted to compare the performances of the deformable particle-in-cell method with the particle-in-cell approach. These consistently show that at comparable accuracy, the deformable particle-in-cell method was found to be four to six times more efficient than standard particle-in-cell approaches. The method could be adapted to 3D space and generalized to cases including motionless transport.

  8. Geodynamic Effects of Ocean Tides: Progress and Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Ray

    1999-01-01

    Satellite altimetry, particularly Topex/Poseidon, has markedly improved our knowledge of global tides, thereby allowing significant progress on some longstanding problems in geodynamics. This paper reviews some of that progress. Emphasis is given to global-scale problems, particularly those falling within the mandate of the new IERS Special Bureau for Tides: angular momentum, gravitational field, geocenter motion. For this discussion I use primarily the new ocean tide solutions GOT99.2, CSR4.0, and TPXO.4 (for which G. Egbert has computed inverse-theoretic error estimates), and I concentrate on new results in angular momentum and gravity and their solid-earth implications. One example is a new estimate of the effective tidal Q at the M_2 frequency, based on combining these ocean models with tidal estimates from satellite laser ranging. Three especially intractable problems are also addressed: (1) determining long-period tides in the Arctic [large unknown effect on the inertia tensor, particularly for Mf]; (2) determining the global psi_l tide [large unknown effect on interpretations of gravimetry for the near-diurnal free wobble]; and (3) determining radiational tides [large unknown temporal variations at important frequencies]. Problems (2) and (3) are related.

  9. Geodynamic methods for assessing methane distribution in bituminous coal deposits and measures to intensify methane fluxes during mine gas drainage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е. В. Гончаров

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores states of methane within the coal bearing stratum and shows heavy dependency of the intrastratal gas migration on the forms of porous space and petrographic properties of coal. The adsorbed methane is found to be predominant in the coal of Kuznetsk Basin. Different forms of coal diffusion and filtration are described revealing their dependency on geological and thermodynamic conditions. The paper provides justification for the primary focus on geodynamic processes when designing gas drainage systems and applicability of morphometric methods and remote sensing data for their identification. The significance of researches into the processes activating exothermic reactions resulting in methane transition to free state is explained. The paper presents the results of using seismic-acoustic stimulation techniques as one of the practical approaches to addressing this issue. Results of successful industrial testing have been compared with the results of numerical modelling of stress-strain state, which can also be managed through seismic-acoustic stimulation.

  10. Geodynamic risk magnitude as an objective indicator of rockburst prevention effectiveness (in terms of apatite mines in Khibiny)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedotova Panin, YuV, VI

    2018-03-01

    The results of the statistical retrospective analysis of the officially recorded geodynamic events in mines of Apatit Company within the Khibiny Massif are presented. The risks and aftereffects of geodynamic events have been calculated. Under discussion are the results of three calculation variants taking into account the scale of human impact on rock mass. The analysis shows that the main damage due to geodynamic events is different-degree destruction of mine workings while the remaining aftereffects account for less than ten percent. That is, the geodynamic risk in apatite mines can be identified as technological.

  11. Geodynamic Constraints on the Sources of Seismic Anisotropy Beneath Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaonarison, T. A.; Stamps, D. S.; Fishwick, S.

    2017-12-01

    The rheological structure of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system controls the degree in which the mantle drives surface motions. Seismic anisotropy is a proxy to infer information about previous tectonic events imprinted in lithospheric structures and/or asthenospheric flow pattern in regions absent of active volcanism, however, distinguishing between the shallow and deeper sources, respectively, remains ambiguous. Madagascar is an ideal natural laboratory to study the sources of anisotropy and the rheological implications for lithosphere-asthenosphere system because 1) active volcanism is minimal or absent, 2) there are well-exposed tectonic fabrics for comparison, and 3) numerous geological and geophysical observations provides evidence of present-day tectonic activities. Recent studies suggest new seismic anisotropy observations in southern Madagascar are sourced from both fossilized lithospheric structure and asthenospheric flow driven by rigid lithospheric plate motion. In this work we compare geodynamic simulations of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system with seismic anisotropy data set that includes all of Madagascar. We use the numerical code Advanced Solver for Problems in Earth's ConvecTion (ASPECT) to calculate instantaneous deformation in the lithosphere and edge-driven convective flow in the asthenosphere accounting for variations in buoyancy forces and temperature dependent viscosity. The initial temperature conditions are based on interpretations from high resolution regional surface wave tomography. We assume visco-plastic rheology for a uniform crust, dislocation creep for a laterally varying mantle lithospheric structure, and diffusion creep for the asthenosphere. To test for the source of anisotropy we compare our velocity solution azimuths with azimuths of anisotropy at 25 km depth intervals. Calculated asthenospheric flow aligns with measured seismic anisotropy with a 15° WRMS at 175 km depth and possibly down to 250 km suggesting the

  12. Water in geodynamical models of mantle convection and plate tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-González, J.; Van Hunen, J.; Chotalia, K.; Lithgow-Bertelloni, C. R.; Rozel, A.; Tackley, P. J.; Nakagawa, T.

    2017-12-01

    The presence of water in the the mantle has a significant effect in the dynamical and thermal evolution of Earth, which partially explains the differences with other planets and is a key factor for the presence of life on Earth. First, a small amount of water can decrease the mantle viscosity by a several orders of magnitude, thereby changing the convection regime and affecting the thermal evolution. Second, the presence of water significantly changes the solidus curve, with crucial implications for melting. Third, water in the mantle can change the Clapeyron slope of mantle materials, which changes the depth at which phase transitions take place. The thermal and dynamical evolution of Earth under the presence of water in the mantle has been the focus of recent studies, but many questions remain unanswered. In this project we intend to investigate how the maximum water capacity of different mantle regions affects water transport and Earth's convective regime. We will study the effect phase transitions under the presence of water, which can change the buoyancy of slabs in the transition zone. We present preliminary results numerical models of global mantle convection for the whole history of earth using the numerical geodynamics software tool StagYY. We will use a new parametrisation of dehydration processes, obtained from high-resolution numerical simulations, to implement a more accurate description of the water released from the slab as it travels through the mantle. We have integrated recent experimental results of the water capacity of deep mantle minerals to study the water circulation and the total water budget. We use data from the most recent experiments and ab-inito calculations to implement a realistic rheology.

  13. The Numidian of northern Tunisia: stratigraphic data and geodynamic interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talbi, F.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The Numidian flysch consists of a thick turbiditic sandy and clayey formation of Oligocene-Lower Miocene age which outcrops largely in northern Tunisia. Concerning the relationship between the Numidian formation and its «substratum», two hypothesis are discussed : i allochtonous Numidian units (tangential abnormal contact ; ii autochtonous Numidian units (sedimentary contact : locally downlap. Detailed investigation undertaken in the study area, based on the survey and the dating of lithological logs, coupled with geodynamic and petrogenetic events, lead to the following results : i absence of tangential tectonic contact in the base of Numidian series ; ii a significant Tertiary tectonics attested by several phases. Moreover, the Numidian siliciclastic series are affected, like the other Tertiary formations in the North of Tunisia, by south-east ward deep-seated thrusts, oriented N50-60.El flysch Numidiense es una formación arenisco-arcillosa de gran espesor y de edad Oligoceno-Mioceno inferior, que aflora en el norte de Túnez. La naturaleza del contacto basal de esta formación ha suscitado numerosas discusiones. De ellas destacan dos hipótesis: 1 las unidades numidienses alóctonas se apoyan en forma de contacto anormal tangencial, y 2 se trata de unidades autóctonas (contacto sedimentario normal, a veces de tipo "downlap".El levantamiento de cortes litológicos detallados y su datación, combinado con datos de tipo geodinámico y petrogenético, ha permitido confirmar la ausencia de un contacto tectónico tangencial en la base del Numidiense y por el contrario, establecer la existencia de una significativa tectónica terciaria desarrollada en varias fases. Asi, las series siliciclásticas Numidienses se ven afectadas, como otras formaciones terciarias del norte de Túnez, por cabalgamientos de vergencia SE.

  14. GIS-project: geodynamic globe for global monitoring of geological processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryakhovsky, V.; Rundquist, D.; Gatinsky, Yu.; Chesalova, E.

    2003-04-01

    A multilayer geodynamic globe at the scale 1:10,000,000 was created at the end of the nineties in the GIS Center of the Vernadsky Museum. A special soft-and-hardware complex was elaborated for its visualization with a set of multitarget object directed databases. The globe includes separate thematic covers represented by digital sets of spatial geological, geochemical, and geophysical information (maps, schemes, profiles, stratigraphic columns, arranged databases etc.). At present the largest databases included in the globe program are connected with petrochemical and isotopic data on magmatic rocks of the World Ocean and with the large and supperlarge mineral deposits. Software by the Environmental Scientific Research Institute (ESRI), USA as well as ArcScan vectrorizator were used for covers digitizing and database adaptation (ARC/INFO 7.0, 8.0). All layers of the geoinformational project were obtained by scanning of separate objects and their transfer to the real geographic co-ordinates of an equiintermediate conic projection. Then the covers were projected on plane degree-system geographic co-ordinates. Some attributive databases were formed for each thematic layer, and in the last stage all covers were combined into the single information system. Separate digital covers represent mathematical descriptions of geological objects and relations between them, such as Earth's altimetry, active fault systems, seismicity etc. Some grounds of the cartographic generalization were taken into consideration in time of covers compilation with projection and co-ordinate systems precisely answered a given scale. The globe allows us to carry out in the interactive regime the formation of coordinated with each other object-oriented databases and thematic covers directly connected with them. They can be spread for all the Earth and the near-Earth space, and for the most well known parts of divergent and convergent boundaries of the lithosphere plates. Such covers and time series

  15. Paleomagnetic and geochronologic constraints on the geodynamic evolution of the Central Dinarides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw, Arjan; Mandic, Oleg; Krijgsman, Wout; Kuiper, Klaudia; Hrvatović, Hazim

    2012-01-01

    The geodynamic evolution of the Dinaride Mountains of southeastern Europe is relatively poorly understood, especially in comparison with the neighboring Alps and Carpathians. Here, we construct a new chronostratigraphy for the post-orogenic intra-montane basins of the Central Dinarides based on

  16. Neogene stratigraphy and Andean geodynamics of southern Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hungerbühler, Dominik; Steinmann, Michael; Winkler, Wilfried; Seward, Diane; Egüez, Arturo; Peterson, Dawn E.; Helg, Urs; Hammer, Cliff

    2002-01-01

    The present paper reviews Tertiary volcanic and sedimentary formations in the Inter-Andean region of southern Ecuador (between 2°S and 4°20'S) in order to develop a geodynamic model of the region. The formations occur in the southern shallow prolongation of the Inter-Andean Valley between the Cordillera Real to the east, and the Cordillera Occidental and Amotape-Tahuín Provinces to the west. One hundred fifty zircon fission-track analyses has established a detailed chronostratigraphy for the sedimentary and volcanic formations and several small intrusions. The Paleogene to early Miocene formations are dominated by intermediate and acidic volcanic and pyroclastic rocks. In addition, relics of Eocene continental sedimentary series have been identified. The Neogene sedimentary series lie unconformably on deformed and eroded metamorphic, sedimentary and volcanic formations. They were deposited in two stages, which are separated by a major unconformity dated at ≈10-9 Ma. (1) During the middle and early late Miocene (≈15-10 Ma) marginal marine deltaic, lagoonal, lacustrine and fluvial environments prevailed, which we group under the heading "Pacific Coastal sequences". They presumably covered a greater surface area in southern Ecuador than their present occurrence in small topographic depressions. We suggest that they were deposited in the shallow marine Cuenca and Loja Embayments. Deposition in a marginal marine environment is also supported by the occurrence of brackish water ostracods and other fauna. (2) Above the regional (angular) unconformity, the coastal facies are overlain by late Miocene (≈9-5 Ma) continental alluvial fan and fluvial facies which are in turn covered by mainly airborne volcanic material. They represent the "Intermontane sequences" of the basins of Cuenca, Girón-Santa Isabel, Nabón, Loja and Malacatos-Vilcabamba. Sedimentologic and stratigraphic results are used to discuss the tectonic setting of Neogene sedimentation in the forearc

  17. The Multi-factor Predictive Seis &Gis Model of Ecological, Genetical, Population Health Risk and Bio-geodynamic Processes In Geopathogenic Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarenko, Y.

    I. Goal and Scope. Human birth rate decrease, death-rate growth and increase of mu- tagenic deviations risk take place in geopathogenic and anthropogenic hazard zones. Such zones create unfavourable conditions for reproductive process of future genera- tions. These negative trends should be considered as a protective answer of the com- plex biosocial system to the appearance of natural and anthropogenic risk factors that are unfavourable for human health. The major goals of scientific evaluation and de- crease of risk of appearance of hazardous processes on the territory of Dnipropetrovsk, along with creation of the multi-factor predictive Spirit-Energy-Information Space "SEIS" & GIS Model of ecological, genetical and population health risk in connection with dangerous bio-geodynamic processes, were: multi-factor modeling and correla- tion of natural and anthropogenic environmental changes and those of human health; determination of indicators that show the risk of destruction structures appearance on different levels of organization and functioning of the city ecosystem (geophys- ical and geochemical fields, soil, hydrosphere, atmosphere, biosphere); analysis of regularities of natural, anthropogenic, and biological rhythms' interactions. II. Meth- ods. The long spatio-temporal researches (Y. Bondarenko, 1996, 2000) have proved that the ecological, genetic and epidemiological processes are in connection with de- velopment of dangerous bio-geophysical and bio-geodynamic processes. Mathemat- ical processing of space photos, lithogeochemical and geophysical maps with use of JEIS o and ERDAS o computer systems was executed at the first stage of forma- tion of multi-layer geoinformation model "Dnipropetrovsk ARC View GIS o. The multi-factor nonlinear correlation between solar activity and cosmic ray variations, geophysical, geodynamic, geochemical, atmospheric, technological, biological, socio- economical processes and oncologic case rate frequency, general and primary

  18. Subduction to the lower mantle – a comparison between geodynamic and tomographic models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. W. Becker

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available It is generally believed that subduction of lithospheric slabs is a major contribution to thermal heterogeneity in Earth's entire mantle and provides a main driving force for mantle flow. Mantle structure can, on the one hand, be inferred from plate tectonic models of subduction history and geodynamic models of mantle flow. On the other hand, seismic tomography models provide important information on mantle heterogeneity. Yet, the two kinds of models are only similar on the largest (1000 s of km scales and are quite different in their detailed structure. Here, we provide a quantitative assessment how good a fit can be currently achieved with a simple viscous flow geodynamic model. The discrepancy between geodynamic and tomography models can indicate where further model refinement could possibly yield an improved fit. Our geodynamical model is based on 300 Myr of subduction history inferred from a global plate reconstruction. Density anomalies are inserted into the upper mantle beneath subduction zones, and flow and advection of these anomalies is calculated with a spherical harmonic code for a radial viscosity structure constrained by mineral physics and surface observations. Model viscosities in the upper mantle beneath the lithosphere are ~1020 Pas, and viscosity increases to ~1023 Pas in the lower mantle above D". Comparison with tomography models is assessed in terms of correlation, both overall and as a function of depth and spherical harmonic degree. We find that, compared to previous geodynamic and tomography models, correlation is improved, presumably because of advances in both plate reconstructions and mantle flow computations. However, high correlation is still limited to lowest spherical harmonic degrees. An important ingredient to achieve high correlation – in particular at spherical harmonic degree two – is a basal chemical layer. Subduction shapes this layer into two rather stable hot but chemically dense "piles

  19. Planetary Sciences, Geodynamics, Impacts, Mass Extinctions, and Evolution: Developments and Interconnections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Urrutia-Fucugauchi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Research frontiers in geophysics are being expanded, with development of new fields resulting from technological advances such as the Earth observation satellite network, global positioning system, high pressure-temperature physics, tomographic methods, and big data computing. Planetary missions and enhanced exoplanets detection capabilities, with discovery of a wide range of exoplanets and multiple systems, have renewed attention to models of planetary system formation and planet’s characteristics, Earth’s interior, and geodynamics, highlighting the need to better understand the Earth system, processes, and spatio-temporal scales. Here we review the emerging interconnections resulting from advances in planetary sciences, geodynamics, high pressure-temperature physics, meteorite impacts, and mass extinctions.

  20. Early signs of geodynamic activity before the 2011–2012 El Hierro eruption

    OpenAIRE

    López, Carmen; García-Cañada, Laura; Martí Molist, Joan; Domínguez Cerdeña, I.

    2016-01-01

    The potential relation between mantle plume dynamics, regional tectonics and eruptive activity in the Canary Islands has not been studied yet through the analysis of long-time series of geophysical observational data. The existence of highly reliable seismic and geodetic data has enabled us to study from 1996 to 2014 the geodynamic evolution of the North Atlantic Azores-Gibraltar region (including the NW African margin) and its relationship with recent volcanic activity in El Hierro (Canary I...

  1. Seismological and Geodynamic Monitoring Network in the "javakheti" Test Zone in the Southern Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakelyan, A.; Babayan, H.; Karakhanyan, A.; Durgaryan, R.; Basilaia, G.; Sokhadze, G.; Bidzinashvili, G.

    2012-12-01

    The Javakheti Highland located in the border region between Armenia and Georgia (sharing a border with Turkey) is an area in the Southern Caucasus of young Holocene-Quaternary volcanism and a region with convergence of a number of active faults. Issues related to the geometry, kinematics and slip-rate of these faults and assessment of their seismic hazard remain unclear in part due to the fragmentary nature of the studies carried out soley within the borders of each of the countries as opposed to region wide. In the frame of the ISTC A-1418 Project "Open network of scientific Centers for mitigation risk of natural hazards in the Southern Caucasus and Central Asia" the Javakheti Highland was selected as a trans-border test-zone. This designation allowed for the expansion and upgrading of the seismological and geodynamic monitoring networks under the auspices of several international projects (ISTC CSP-053 Project "Development of Communication System for seismic hazard situations in the Southern Caucasus and Central Asia", NATO SfP- 983284 Project "Caucasus Seismic Emergency Response") as well as through joint research programs with the National Taiwan University and Institute of Earth Sciences (IES, Taiwan), Universite Montpellier II (France) and Ecole et Observatoire des Sciences de la Terre-Université de Strasbourg (France). Studies of geodynamic processes, and seismicity of the region and their interaction have been carried out utilizing the newly established seismological and geodynamic monitoring networks and have served as a basis for the study of the geologic and tectonic structure . Upgrading and expansion of seismological and geodynamic networks required urgent solutions to the following tasks: Introduction of efficient online systems for information acquisition, accumulation and transmission (including sattelite systems) from permanent and temporary installed stations, Adoption of international standards for organization and management of databases in GIS

  2. Review and comparison of recent methods in space geodesy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varga, M.

    1983-01-01

    The study of geodynamic processes requires the application of new space-born geodesic measuring methods. A terrestrial reference system (TRS) is required for describing geodynamic processes. For this purpose satisfactory knowledge of polar motions, Earth rotation and tidal forces determined by laser, global positioning system (GPS) and VLBI measurements are needed. In addition, gravity and magnetic field of the Earth have to be known, modelled by using satellite to satellite traching (SST), altimetry, gradiometry and magnetometry results. Motions of the Earth-Moon system, as well as the relation between the terrestrial reference system and the inertial system can be determined by means of VLBI measurements. (author)

  3. Mars north polar deposits: stratigraphy, age, and geodynamical response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Roger J; Zuber, Maria T; Smrekar, Suzanne E; Mellon, Michael T; Head, James W; Tanaka, Kenneth L; Putzig, Nathaniel E; Milkovich, Sarah M; Campbell, Bruce A; Plaut, Jeffrey J; Safaeinili, Ali; Seu, Roberto; Biccari, Daniela; Carter, Lynn M; Picardi, Giovanni; Orosei, Roberto; Mohit, P Surdas; Heggy, Essam; Zurek, Richard W; Egan, Anthony F; Giacomoni, Emanuele; Russo, Federica; Cutigni, Marco; Pettinelli, Elena; Holt, John W; Leuschen, Carl J; Marinangeli, Lucia

    2008-05-30

    The Shallow Radar (SHARAD) on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter has imaged the internal stratigraphy of the north polar layered deposits of Mars. Radar reflections within the deposits reveal a laterally continuous deposition of layers, which typically consist of four packets of finely spaced reflectors separated by homogeneous interpacket regions of nearly pure ice. The packet/interpacket structure can be explained by approximately million-year periodicities in Mars' obliquity or orbital eccentricity. The observed approximately 100-meter maximum deflection of the underlying substrate in response to the ice load implies that the present-day thickness of an equilibrium elastic lithosphere is greater than 300 kilometers. Alternatively, the response to the load may be in a transient state controlled by mantle viscosity. Both scenarios probably require that Mars has a subchondritic abundance of heat-producing elements.

  4. RECENT STRONG EARTHQUAKES IN CENTRAL ASIA: REGULAR TECTONOPHYSICAL FEATURES OF LOCATIONS IN THE STRUCTURE AND GEODYNAMICS OF THE LITHOSPHERE. PART 1. MAIN GEODYNAMIC FACTORS PREDETERMINING LOCATIONS OF STRONG EARTHQUAKES IN THE STRUCTURE OF THE LITHOSPHER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Sherman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Studying locations of strong earthquakes (М≥8 in space and time in Central Asia has been among top prob-lems for many years and still remains challenging for international research teams. The authors propose a new ap-proach that requires changing the paradigm of earthquake focus – solid rock relations, while this paradigm is a basis for practically all known physical models of earthquake foci. This paper describes the first step towards developing a new concept of the seismic process, including generation of strong earthquakes, with reference to specific geodynamic features of the part of the study region wherein strong earthquakes were recorded in the past two centuries. Our analysis of the locations of М≥8 earthquakes shows that in the past two centuries such earthquakes took place in areas of the dynamic influence of large deep faults in the western regions of Central Asia. In the continental Asia, there is a clear submeridional structural boundary (95–105°E between the western and eastern regions, and this is a factor controlling localization of strong seismic events in the western regions. Obviously, the Indostan plate’s pressure from the south is an energy source for such events. The strong earthquakes are located in a relatively small part of the territory of Central Asia (i.e. the western regions, which is significantly different from its neighbouring areas at the north, east and west, as evidenced by its specific geodynamic parameters. (1 The crust is twice as thick in the western regions than in the eastern regions. (2 In the western regions, the block structures re-sulting from the crust destruction, which are mainly represented by lense-shaped forms elongated in the submeridio-nal direction, tend to dominate. (3 Active faults bordering large block structures are characterized by significant slip velocities that reach maximum values in the central part of the Tibetan plateau. Further northward, slip velocities decrease

  5. Optimization of Regional Geodynamic Models for Mantle Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knepley, M.; Isaac, T.; Jadamec, M. A.

    2016-12-01

    The SubductionGenerator program is used to construct high resolution, 3D regional thermal structures for mantle convection simulations using a variety of data sources, including sea floor ages and geographically referenced 3D slab locations based on seismic observations. The initial bulk temperature field is constructed using a half-space cooling model or plate cooling model, and related smoothing functions based on a diffusion length-scale analysis. In this work, we seek to improve the 3D thermal model and test different model geometries and dynamically driven flow fields using constraints from observed seismic velocities and plate motions. Through a formal adjoint analysis, we construct the primal-dual version of the multi-objective PDE-constrained optimization problem for the plate motions and seismic misfit. We have efficient, scalable preconditioners for both the forward and adjoint problems based upon a block preconditioning strategy, and a simple gradient update is used to improve the control residual. The full optimal control problem is formulated on a nested hierarchy of grids, allowing a nonlinear multigrid method to accelerate the solution.

  6. MIGRATIONS OF RELEASED SEISMIC ENERGY IN VARIOUS GEODYNAMIC CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Novopashina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The properties of slow seismic activity migration have been revealed by the space-time analysis of the total earthquake energy (LgEsum. Our study of seismic activity covers the fragments of  the Central Asian, Pacific and Alpine seismic belts: the Baikal rift system (BRS, Russia, the San Andreas fault zone (California, USA, the Christchurch fault (New Zealand, the North and East Anatolian faults (Turkey, the Philippine subduction zone, and the central fragment of the Mid-Atlantic oceanic ridge. The chains of LgEsum clusters mark the propagation of the maximum stresses front in the weaker crust areas, the zones of fault dynamic influence, and the regions of conjugated tectonic structures. The migration process is characterized by a periodicity, changes in direction, and similar modular values of the migration rates within a single fault segment (or a fault zone, which is probably related to the mechanical and rheological crust and upper mantle properties. The data analysis shows that a strong earthquake source may occur at a location wherein the front of seismic activity propagates with periodical changes in direction, and such a source can develop within a period that is multiple of the migration fluctuations, probably associated with the influence of external periodic factors. The main periods of migration fluctuations (2–4 years, and 9–13 years, in different ratios are present in the seismic regimes of different seismic belts. The migration rate, as well as the propagation velocity of the maximum stresses front, directly depends on the velocity of movements between the plates in the region.

  7. Principles of the applied geodynamics of explosions. Osnovy prikladnoi geodinamiki vzryva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vovk, A A

    1976-01-01

    The basic theoretical aspects are presented on the dynamics of cohesive water-saturated and rocky soil as well as experimental results on studies of shock wave parameters in various media during the detonation of concentrated and extended exhaust and underground charges. Particular attention is given to the practical application of various geodynamic problems to the needs of mining operations, hydro-reclamation, industrial and road construction. The book is designed for scientific and engineering-technical personnel at various design and production enterprises. It can also be used as an aid to graduate students and students in appropriate fields of specialization at higher institutions of learning.

  8. Geodynamic reactions to recent tectonic events observed on selected sites monitored in Slovakia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petro, L.; Košťák, Blahoslav; Stemberk, Josef; Vlčko, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 4 (2011), s. 453-467 ISSN 1214-9705 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 625.10; GA ČR GA205/06/1828; GA ČR GA205/09/2024; GA AV ČR IAA300120905 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : finite pressure pulse * geodynamic monitoring * tectonic process Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 0.530, year: 2011 http://www.irsm.cas.cz/abstracts/AGG/04_11/7_Petro.pdf

  9. The tholeiitic dolerites from Gaujacq and St-Pandelon (Landes, France). Petrology, geochemistry and geodynamic framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demant, A.; Morata, D.

    1996-01-01

    Sills of basalts, with ophitic textures, are present in the Triassic diapirs of Gaujacq and St-Pandelon (Landes). These lavas were not affected by the Pyrenean metamorphic event; their primary mineralogy is therefore well preserved and comprises olivine, clinopyroxene, plagioclase and oxides. The geochemical signature of these basalts is typical of continental tholeiites. Parental magmas are likely to be issued from an enriched sub-continental lithospheric mantle source. Such characteristics are in accordance with the geodynamic framework which corresponds to the first stages of the North Atlantic rifting. (authors). 47 refs., 9 figs., 13 tabs., 1 photo

  10. Gravity anomalies, compensation mechanisms, and the geodynamics of western Ishtar Terra, Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Robert E.; Phillips, Roger J.

    1991-01-01

    Pioneer Venus line-of-sight orbital accelerations were utilized to calculate the geoid and vertical gravity anomalies for western Ishtar Terra on various planes of altitude z sub 0. The apparent depth of isostatic compensation at z sub 0 = 1400 km is 180 + or - 20 km based on the usual method of minimum variance in the isostatic anomaly. An attempt is made here to explain this observation, as well as the regional elevation, peripheral mountain belts, and inferred age of western Ishtar Terra, in terms of one or three broad geodynamic models.

  11. Magmatic Complexes of the Vetlovaya Marginal Sea Paleobasin (Kamchatka): Composition and Geodynamic Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukanov, N. V.; Saveliev, D. P.; Kovalenko, D. V.

    2018-01-01

    This study presents new geochemical and isotope data on igneous rocks of the Vetlovaya marginal sea paleobasin (part of the Late Mesozoic-Cenozoic margin of the northwestern Pacific). The results show that the rock complexes of this marginal sea basin comprise igneous rocks with geochemical compositions similar to those of normal oceanic tholeiites, enriched transitional tholeiites, and ocean island and back-arc basin basalts. Island-arc tholeiitic basalts are present only rarely. The specific geochemical signatures of these rocks are interpreted as being related to mantle heterogeneity and the geodynamic conditions in the basin.

  12. The temporal subsoil radon variation as indicator and forerunner of the geodynamical catastrophes: Experience of long period experimental investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudakov, V.P.

    1996-01-01

    The emanation (radon) method was one of the non-traditional methods, which being used for the radiometric prospecting, have been used as for the investigations of the geodynamical processes, (earthquakes, volcano eruption e.a.), so for investigations of the local geodynamical processes such as landslips, rock burstings and gas in the mines, provoked seismicity and so on. Now this method very effectively is used for the investigation of the different processes in civil and industrial building, structure-geodynamical mapping on the prognostic grounds and of the oil-gas deposits, in prediction of the earthquakes and in the control of the radioecological situation of the atomic stations environments. (author). 10 refs, 7 figs

  13. Tomographic and Geodynamic Constraints on Convection-Induced Mixing in Earth's Deep Mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafter, D. P.; Forte, A. M.; Bremner, P. M.; Glisovic, P.

    2017-12-01

    Seismological studies reveal two large low-shear-velocity provinces (LLSVPs) in the lowermost mantle (e.g., Su et al. 1994; Wang & Wen 2007; He & Wen 2012), which may represent accumulations of subducted slabs at the CMB (Tan & Gurnis 2005; Christensen & Hoffman 1994) or primordial material generated in the early differentiation of Earth (e.g. Li et al. 2014). The longevity or stability of these large-scale heterogeneities in the deep mantle depends on the vigor and spatial distribution of the convective circulation, which is in turn dependent on the distribution of mantle buoyancy and viscosity (e.g. Glisovic & Forte 2015). Here we explore the state of convective mixing in the mantle using the ASPECT convection code (Kronbichler et al. 2012). A series of experiments are conducted to consider the geochemical and dynamical contributions of LLSVPs to deep-mantle upwellings and corresponding plume-sourced volcanism. The principal feature of these experiments is the use of particle tracers to track geochemical changes in the LLSVPs and mantle plumes in addition to identifying those parts of the mantle that may remain unmixed. We employ 3-D mantle density anomalies derived from joint inversions of seismic, geodynamic and mineral physics constraints and geodynamically-constrained viscosity distributions (Glisovic et al. 2015) to ensure that the predicted flow fields yield a good match to key geophysical constraints (e.g. heat flow, global gravity anomalies and plate velocities).

  14. Early signs of geodynamic activity before the 2011-2012 El Hierro eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Carmen; García-Cañada, Laura; Martí, Joan; Domínguez Cerdeña, Itahiza

    2017-04-01

    The potential relation between mantle plume dynamics, regional tectonics and eruptive activity in the Canary Islands has not been studied yet through the analysis of long-time series of geophysical observational data. The existence of highly reliable seismic and GNSS data has enabled us to study from 1996 to 2014 the geodynamic evolution of the North Atlantic Azores-Gibraltar region and its relationship with recent volcanic activity in El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain). We compiled a new and unified regional seismic catalog and used long time-series of surface displacements recorded by permanent GNSS stations in the region. A regional- and local-scale analysis based on these data enabled us to identify signs of anomalous tectonic activity from 2003 onwards, whose intensity increased in 2007 and finally accelerated three months before the onset of the volcanic eruption on El Hierro in October 2011. This activity includes a regional extension and an uplift process that affects the southern Iberian Peninsula, NW Africa, and the Canary Islands. We interpret these observations as early signs of the geodynamic activity, which led to El Hierro eruption and the subsequent episodes of magma intrusion. Results point to the significant contribution of the mantle plume dynamics (i.e. external forces) in this renewed volcanic activity in the Canary Islands and emphasize the role of mantle dynamics in controlling regional tectonics.

  15. Paleomagnetic and geochronologic constraints on the geodynamic evolution of the Central Dinarides

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leeuw, Arjan; Mandic, Oleg; Krijgsman, Wout; Kuiper, Klaudia; Hrvatović, Hazim

    2013-04-01

    The geodynamic evolution of the Dinaride Mountains of southeastern Europe is relatively poorly understood, especially in comparison with the neighbouring Alps and Carpathians. We have constructed a new chronostratigraphy for the post-orogenic intra-montane basins of the Central Dinarides based on paleomagnetic and 40Ar/39Ar age data. Our results provide time constraints on the formation of these basins and elucidate their subsequent evolution. This is a fundamental step towards a better understanding of the late stage geodynamic evolution of the Central Dinarides. Our paleomagnetic results moreover indicate that the Dinarides have not experienced significant tectonic rotation since the late Oligocene. This implies that the Dinarides were decoupled from the adjacent Adria and the Tisza-Dacia Mega-Units that both underwent major rotation. We provide a reference frame for our rotation results through a review of Late Jurassic to Miocene paleomagnetic data, which elucidates spatial and tectonic rotation patterns in the Adria-Dinarides collision zone. The obtained results significantly improve our insight in the evolution of the Central Dinarides and help reconcile structural geological and paleomagnetic rotation estimates.

  16. Geodynamic evolution of the Taiwan-Luzon-Mindoro belt since the late eocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Jean François; Blanchet, René; Rangin, Claude; Pelletier, Bernard; Letouzey, Jean; Muller, Carla

    1986-05-01

    The structural framework of the Taiwan-Luzon-Mindoro belt (or festoon) is described, following three major transects: the Luzon transect with active subduction and active island arc; the Taiwan transect with active collision; the Mindoro transect with active subduction and inactive collision. Based on this geological study and on available geophysical data, a model for the geodynamic evolution of this portion of the Philippine Sea and Eurasia Plates boundary is proposed in a succession of reconstructions between the Late Eocene and the Present. The major geodynamic events are: (1) beginning of the opening of the South China Sea (S.C.S.) in Lower Oligocene times, contemporaneous with obduction of the Zambales and Angat ophiolites on Luzon. (2) subduction of a Mesozoic (?) oceanic basin along the proto-Manila trench from the Upper Oligocene to the Lower Miocene. (3) obduction of the South China Sea oceanic crust onto the Chinese and Reed Bank—Calamian passive margins in Middle Miocene time (14-15 Ma) related to a major kinematic reorganization (end of opening of the S.C.S.). (4) beginning of collision between the Luzon microblock and the two margins of the S.C.S. in the Upper Miocene (~ 7 Ma); collision is still active in Taiwan whereas it stopped in Mindoro during the Pliocene.

  17. Chapter 4: Regional magnetic domains of the Circum-Arctic: A framework for geodynamic interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltus, R.W.; Miller, E.L.; Gaina, C.; Brown, P.J.

    2011-01-01

    We identify and discuss 57 magnetic anomaly pattern domains spanning the Circum-Arctic. The domains are based on analysis of a new Circum-Arctic data compilation. The magnetic anomaly patterns can be broadly related to general geodynamic classification of the crust into stable, deformed (magnetic and nonmagnetic), deep magnetic high, oceanic and large igneous province domains. We compare the magnetic domains with topography/bathymetry, regional geology, regional free air gravity anomalies and estimates of the relative magnetic 'thickness' of the crust. Most of the domains and their geodynamic classification assignments are consistent with their topographic/bathymetric and geological expression. A few of the domains are potentially controversial. For example, the extent of the Iceland Faroe large igneous province as identified by magnetic anomalies may disagree with other definitions for this feature. Also the lack of definitive magnetic expression of oceanic crust in Baffin Bay, the Norwegian-Greenland Sea and the Amerasian Basin is at odds with some previous interpretations. The magnetic domains and their boundaries provide clues for tectonic models and boundaries within this poorly understood portion of the globe. ?? 2011 The Geological Society of London.

  18. The geodynamic evolution of the eastern Sierras Pampeanas based on geochemical, Sm-Nd, Pb-Pb and SHRIMP data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drobe, M; Lopez de Luchi, M; Steenken, A

    2011-01-01

    , have been carried out to unravel the provenance and the geodynamic history of the Eastern Sierras Pampeanas, Central Argentina. The geochemical and the Sm–Nd data point to a slightly stronger mafic and less-fractionated material in the provenance area of the Sierras de Co´rdoba when compared...

  19. A review of analogue modelling of geodynamic processes: Approaches, scaling, materials and quantification, with an application to subduction experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, Wouter P.; Strak, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    We present a review of the analogue modelling method, which has been used for 200 years, and continues to be used, to investigate geological phenomena and geodynamic processes. We particularly focus on the following four components: (1) the different fundamental modelling approaches that exist in

  20. Space space space

    CERN Document Server

    Trembach, Vera

    2014-01-01

    Space is an introduction to the mysteries of the Universe. Included are Task Cards for independent learning, Journal Word Cards for creative writing, and Hands-On Activities for reinforcing skills in Math and Language Arts. Space is a perfect introduction to further research of the Solar System.

  1. Gnss Geodetic Monitoring as Support of Geodynamics Research in Colombia, South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Paez, H.; Acero-Patino, N.; Rodriguez-Zuluaga, J. S.; Diederix, H.; Bohorquez-Orozco, O. P.; Martinez-Diaz, G. P.; Diaz-Mila, F.; Giraldo-Londono, L. S.; Cardozo-Giraldo, S.; Vasquez-Ospina, A. F.; Lizarazo, S. C.

    2013-05-01

    To support the geodynamics research at the northwestern corner of South America, GEORED, the acronym for "Geodesia: Red de Estudios de Deformación" has been adopted for the Project "Implementation of the National GNSS Network for Geodynamics" carried out by the Colombian Geological Survey, (SGC), formerly INGEOMINAS. Beginning in 2007, discussions within the GEORED group led to a master plan for the distribution of the base permanent GPS/GNSS station array and specific areas of interest for campaign site construction. The use of previously identified active faults as preferred structures along which stresses are transferred through the deformational area led to the idea of segmentation of the North Andes within Colombia into 20 tectonic sub-blocks. Each of the 20 sub-blocks is expected to have, at least, three-four permanent GPS/GNSS stations within the block along with construction of campaign sites along the boundaries. Currently, the GEORED Network is managing 46 continuously including: 40 GEORED GPS/GNSS continuously operating stations; 4 GNSS continuously operating stations provided by the COCONet (Continuously Operating Caribbean GPS Observational Network) Project; the Bogotá IGS GPS station (BOGT), installed in 1994 under the agreement between JPL-NASA and the SGC; and the San Andres Island station, installed in 2007 under the MOU between UCAR and the SGC. In addition to the permanent installations, more than 230 GPS campaign sites have been constructed and are being occupied one time per year. The Authority of the Panama Canal and the Escuela Politecnica de Quito have also provided data of 4 and 5 GPS/GNSS stations respectively. The GPS data are processed using the GIPSY-OASIS II software, and the GPS time series of daily station positions give fundamental information for both regional and local geodynamics studies. Until now, we have obtained 100 quality vector velocities for Colombia, 23 of them as part of the permanent network. The GPS/GNSS stations

  2. Autonomous geodynamics of the Pamir-Tien Shan junction zone from seismology data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukk, A. A.; Shevchenko, V. I.; Leonova, V. G.

    2015-11-01

    The geodynamics of the Tajik Depression, the junction zone of the Pamirs and Tien Shan, is typically considered in the context of plate tectonic concept, which implies intense subhorizontal compression of the zone resulting from the subduction of the Indian and Eurasian lithospheric plates. This convergence has been reliably confirmed by the GPS measurements. However, the joint analysis of the geological structure, seismicity, and geodimeter measurements conducted during a few years at the Garm geodynamical testing site of the Schmidt Institute of Physics of the Earth, Russian Academy of Sciences, demonstrates a widening of the Tajik Depression instead of its shortening, as should be expected from the subhorizontal compression predominant in the present-day stress-state of this region. This conclusion, together with the data from the other regions, suggests that, along with the plate tectonic mechanisms, there are also other, local, autonomous drivers that contribute to the tectogenesis of this region. Besides, the probable existence of these autonomous sources within the Tajik Depression directly follows from the seismology data. Among them is the crustal spreading within the depression suggested by the seismotectonic displacements in the focal mechanisms of the earthquakes. These displacements are directed in different azimuths off the axial's most subsided part of the depression at a depth of 20-30 km. Above this region the distribution of seismotectonic deformations (STD) is chaotic. This pattern of deformation is barely accounted for by a simple model of subhorizontal compression of the Earth's crust in the region. In our opinion, these features of the seismotectonic deformation in the crust within the studied part of the Tajik Depression is probably associated with the gain in the volume of the rocks due to the inflow of the additional material, which is supplied from the bottom crust or upper mantle by the deep fluids. This increase in the rock volume

  3. MIGRATION OF SEISMIC AND VOLCANIC ACTIVITY AS DISPLAY OF WAVE GEODYNAMIC PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Vikulin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Publications about the earthquake foci migration have been reviewed. An important result of such studies is establishment of wave nature of seismic activity migration that is manifested by two types of rotational waves; such waves are responsible for interaction between earthquakes foci and propagate with different velocities. Waves determining long-range interaction of earthquake foci are classified as Type 1; their limiting velocities range from 1 to 10 cm/s. Waves determining short-range interaction of foreshocks and aftershocks of individual earthquakes are classified as Type 2; their velocities range from 1 to 10 km/s. According to the classification described in [Bykov, 2005], these two types of migration waves correspond to slow and fast tectonic waves. The most complete data on earthquakes (for a period over 4.1 million of years and volcanic eruptions (for 12 thousand years of the planet are consolidated in a unified systematic format and analyzed by methods developed by the authors. For the Pacific margin, Alpine-Himalayan belt and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, which are the three most active zones of the Earth, new patterns of spatial and temporal distribution of seismic and volcanic activity are revealed; they correspond to Type 1 of rotational waves. The wave nature of the migration of seismic and volcanic activity is confirmed. A new approach to solving problems of geodynamics is proposed with application of the data on migration of seismic and volcanic activity, which are consolidated in this study, in combination with data on velocities of movement of tectonic plate boundaries. This approach is based on the concept of integration of seismic, volcanic and tectonic processes that develop in the block geomedium and interact with each other through rotating waves with a symmetric stress tensor. The data obtained in this study give grounds to suggest that a geodynamic value, that is mechanically analogous to an impulse

  4. The Lanzarote Geodynamic Laboratory: new capabilities for monitoring of volcanic activity at Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnoso, J.; Vélez, E. J.; Soler, V.; Montesinos, F. G.; Benavent, M.

    2012-04-01

    The volcanic island of Lanzarote is located at the northeastern end of the Canary Islands. Together with Fuerteventura Island, Lanzarote constitutes the emergent part of the East Canary Ridge, which presents a NNE-SSW volcanic alignment. Last eruptive events took place in 1824 and during the period 1730-1736, which is the largest to occur in the archipelago and throw out about 1.3 km3 of volcanic materials. The Lanzarote Geodynamic Laboratory (LGL) was created in 1986 with the idea of making Lanzarote as a natural laboratory to carry out studies in order to acquire more knowledge about its origin, present status and evolution (Vieira et al., 1991; 2006). The LGL has a multidisciplinary scientific purpose and, among others, various objectives are devoted to investigate mass distribution in the Earth system and surface displacements associated to volcanic and/or seismic activity in the island. The influence of LGL is extended throughout the whole geographical area of Lanzarote, including small islands located at the north. The laboratory has 3 observing modules distributed along the island according to its infrastructure and scientific objectives, where more than 70 sensors are recording continuously gravity variations, ground deformations, sea level, seismic activity, meteorological parameters, etc. All these observations are supplemented by periodic measurement of geodetic and geophysical networks that allow us to make studies at local, insular and regional scales. The application of geodetic and geophysical techniques to identify geodynamic signals related to volcanic processes is then a permanent research activity of the laboratory. Nowadays, this fact becomes more interesting due to the ongoing volcanic eruption that is taking place in other island of the Canary Archipelago, El Hierro, since past July 2011. That is, the multidisciplinary research carry on up to now at the LGL allow us to apply multiparameter observations of different kinds of volcanic

  5. StagBL : A Scalable, Portable, High-Performance Discretization and Solver Layer for Geodynamic Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanan, P.; Tackley, P. J.; Gerya, T.; Kaus, B. J. P.; May, D.

    2017-12-01

    StagBL is an open-source parallel solver and discretization library for geodynamic simulation,encapsulating and optimizing operations essential to staggered-grid finite volume Stokes flow solvers.It provides a parallel staggered-grid abstraction with a high-level interface in C and Fortran.On top of this abstraction, tools are available to define boundary conditions and interact with particle systems.Tools and examples to efficiently solve Stokes systems defined on the grid are provided in small (direct solver), medium (simple preconditioners), and large (block factorization and multigrid) model regimes.By working directly with leading application codes (StagYY, I3ELVIS, and LaMEM) and providing an API and examples to integrate with others, StagBL aims to become a community tool supplying scalable, portable, reproducible performance toward novel science in regional- and planet-scale geodynamics and planetary science.By implementing kernels used by many research groups beneath a uniform abstraction layer, the library will enable optimization for modern hardware, thus reducing community barriers to large- or extreme-scale parallel simulation on modern architectures. In particular, the library will include CPU-, Manycore-, and GPU-optimized variants of matrix-free operators and multigrid components.The common layer provides a framework upon which to introduce innovative new tools.StagBL will leverage p4est to provide distributed adaptive meshes, and incorporate a multigrid convergence analysis tool.These options, in addition to a wealth of solver options provided by an interface to PETSc, will make the most modern solution techniques available from a common interface. StagBL in turn provides a PETSc interface, DMStag, to its central staggered grid abstraction.We present public version 0.5 of StagBL, including preliminary integration with application codes and demonstrations with its own demonstration application, StagBLDemo. Central to StagBL is the notion of an

  6. Geodynamic pattern of the West Bohemia region based on permanent GPS measurements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schenk, Vladimír; Schenková, Zdeňka; Jechumtálová, Zuzana

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 3 (2009), s. 329-341 ISSN 0039-3169. [West-Bohemia/Vogtland international workshop "Geodynamics of Earthquake Swarm Areas" /8./. Františkovy Lázně, 16.10.2007-19.10.2007] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC506; GA MŠk 1P05ME781; GA AV ČR IAA300460507; GA AV ČR 1QS300460551 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519; CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : GPS data * horizontal and vertical velocities * West Bohemia Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2009

  7. Pre-collisional geodynamics of the Mediterranean Sea: the Mediterranean Ridge and the Tyrrhenian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Chaumillon

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Today the Mediterranean Sea consists of a series of small-sized and almost geographically disconnected oceanic or continental crust rooted marine basins. It is also an area almost totally surrounded by mountain ranges, which chiefly belong to the alpine realm. This overall geodynamic setting results from a long term convergence between the two major, African and European, plates. Previous collisions have led to the edification of surrounding chains, while subduction and new-collisional processes tend to create new extensional back-arc basins and wide tectonized accretionary prisms. In this paper we briefly outline the most recent and almost land-locked back-arc basin that has developed in the Mediterranean,i.e., the Tyrrhenian Sea, and the Mediterranean Ridge, which may be regarded as a collisional sedimentary wedge predating a future mountain chain.

  8. GEODYNAMIC ACTIVITY OF MODERN STRUCTURES AND TECTONIC STRESS FIELDS IN NORTHEAST ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Imaeva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the analysis of changes in the stress-strain state of the crust at the boundary of the Eurasian and North American tectonic plates, we develop a dynamic model of the main seismogenerating structures inNortheast Asia. We have established a regularity in changes of geodynamic regimes within the interplate boundary between the Kolyma-Chukotka crustal plate and the Eurasian, North American and Pacific tectonic plates: spreading in the Gakkel Ridge area; rifting in the Laptev Sea shelf; a mixture of tectonic stress types in the Kharaulakh segment; transpression in the Chersky seismotectonic zone, in the segment from the Komandor to the Aleutian Islands, and in the Koryak segment; and crustal stretching in the Chukotka segment.

  9. Absolute gravity change in Taiwan: Present result of geodynamic process investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricky Kao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gravity values at 24 sites over 2004 - 2016 measured with absolute gravimeters are used to study geodynamic processes in Taiwan. We model rain-induced grav­ity effects and other temporal effects of non-geodynamic origins to obtain residual gravity, which cannot be fully explained by GPS-derived vertical displacements. We explain the gravity changes associated with deposited debris, earthquake, volcanism and Moho deepening. Gravity changes of 53.37 and 23.38 μGal near Sinwulyu and Laonong Rivers are caused by typhoon Morakot, leading to estimated volumes of 6.0 × 105 and 3.6 × 105 m3 in deposited debris. The observed co-seismic gravity change near the epicenter of the M 6.9 Pingtung earthquake (26 December 2006 is 3.12 ± 0.99 μGal, consistent with a dislocation-based gravity change at the μGal level, thereby supplying a gravity constraint on the modeled fault parameters. The AG re­cord at the Tatun Volcano Group is the longest, but large temporal gravity effects here has led to a current gravity signal-to-noise ratio of less than one, which cannot convince a sinking magma chamber, but supply an error bound for gravity detections of long-term or transient magma movements. The gravity values at Ludao and Lanyu decline steadily at the rates of -2.20 and -0.50 μGal yr-1, consistent with the expected magma states of the two extinct volcanoes. The gravity rates at an uplifting site in central Taiwan and three subsiding sites in eastern Taiwan are negative, and are po­tentially caused by Moho deepening at a rate of -3.34 cm yr-1 and a combined Moho deepening and plate subduction at the rates of -0.18, -2.03, and -1.34 cm yr-1.

  10. Basin geodynamics and sequence stratigraphy of Upper Triassic to Lower Jurassic deposits of Southern Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpentier, Cédric; Hadouth, Suhail; Bouaziz, Samir; Lathuilière, Bernard; Rubino, Jean-Loup

    2016-05-01

    Aims of this paper are to propose a geodynamic and sequential framework for the late Triassic and early Jurassic of and south Tunisia and to evidence the impact of local tectonics on the stratigraphic architecture. Facies of the Upper Triassic to Lower Jurassic of Southern Tunisia have been interpreted in terms of depositional environments. A sequential framework and correlation schemes are proposed for outcrops and subsurface transects. Nineteen middle frequency sequences inserted in three and a half low frequency transgression/regression cycles were evidenced. Despite some datation uncertainties and the unknown durations of Lower Jurassic cycles, middle frequency sequences appear to be controlled by eustasy. In contrast the tectonics acted as an important control on low frequency cycles. The Carnian flooding was certainly favored by the last stages of a rifting episode which started during the Permian. The regression accompanied by the formation of stacked angular unconformities and the deposition of lowstand deposits during the late Carnian and Norian occured during the uplift and tilting of the northern basin margins. The transpressional activity of the Jeffara fault system generated the uplift of the Tebaga of Medenine high from the late Carnian and led to the Rhaetian regional angular Sidi Stout Unconformity. Facies analysis and well-log correlations permitted to evidence that Rhaetian to Lower Jurassic Messaoudi dolomites correspond to brecciated dolomites present on the Sidi Stout unconformity in the North Dahar area. The Early-cimmerian compressional event is a possible origin for the global uplift of the northern African margin and Western Europe during the late Carnian and the Norian. During the Rhaetian and the early Jurassic a new episode of normal faulting occured during the third low frequency flooding. This tectonosedimentary evolution ranges within the general geodynamic framework of the north Gondwana margin controlled by the opening of both

  11. Reconstructing the paleogeography and subduction geodynamics of Greater India: how to apply Ockham's Razor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hinsbergen, D. J. J.; Li, S.; Lippert, P. C.; Huang, W.; Advokaat, E. L.; Spakman, W.

    2017-12-01

    Key in understanding the geodynamics governing subduction and orogeny is reconstructing the paleogeography of `Greater India', the Indian plate lithosphere that subducted since Tibetan Himalayan continental crustal collision with Asia. Here, we discuss how the principle of Ockham's Razor, favoring the simplest scenario as the most likely, may apply to three perspectives on Greater India's paleogeography. We follow recent constraints suggesting a 58 Ma initial collision and update the kinematic restoration of intra-Asian shortening with a recently proposed Indochina extrusion model that reconciles long-debated large and small estimates of Indochina extrusion. The reconstruction is tested against Tibetan paleomagnetic rotation data, and against seismic tomographic constraints on paleo-subduction zone locations. The resulting restoration shows 1000-1200 km of post-collisional intra-Asian shortening, leaving a 2600-3400 km wide Greater India. Ockham's Razor from a paleogeographic, sediment provenance perspective would prefer a fully continental Greater India, although these sediments may also source from the Paleocene-Eocene west Indian orogen unrelated to the India-Asia collision. Ockham's Razor applied from a kinematic, paleomagnetic perspective, prefers major Cretaceous extension and `Greater India Basin' opening within Greater India, but data uncertainty may speculatively allow for minimal extension. Finally, from a geodynamic perspective, assuming a fully continental Greater India would require that the highest subduction rates recorded in the Phanerozoic would have been driven by a subduction of a lithosphere-crust assemblage more buoyant than the mantle, which seems physically improbable. Ockhams Razor thereby isolates the Greater India Basin hypothesis as the only scenario sustainable from all perspectives. Finally, we infer that the old pre-collisional lithosphere rapidly entered the lower mantle sustaining high subduction rates, whilst post

  12. Coupled petrological-geodynamical modeling of a compositionally heterogeneous mantle plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummel, Lisa; Kaus, Boris J. P.; White, Richard W.; Mertz, Dieter F.; Yang, Jianfeng; Baumann, Tobias S.

    2018-01-01

    Self-consistent geodynamic modeling that includes melting is challenging as the chemistry of the source rocks continuously changes as a result of melt extraction. Here, we describe a new method to study the interaction between physical and chemical processes in an uprising heterogeneous mantle plume by combining a geodynamic code with a thermodynamic modeling approach for magma generation and evolution. We pre-computed hundreds of phase diagrams, each of them for a different chemical system. After melt is extracted, the phase diagram with the closest bulk rock chemistry to the depleted source rock is updated locally. The petrological evolution of rocks is tracked via evolving chemical compositions of source rocks and extracted melts using twelve oxide compositional parameters. As a result, a wide variety of newly generated magmatic rocks can in principle be produced from mantle rocks with different degrees of depletion. The results show that a variable geothermal gradient, the amount of extracted melt and plume excess temperature affect the magma production and chemistry by influencing decompression melting and the depletion of rocks. Decompression melting is facilitated by a shallower lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary and an increase in the amount of extracted magma is induced by a lower critical melt fraction for melt extraction and/or higher plume temperatures. Increasing critical melt fractions activates the extraction of melts triggered by decompression at a later stage and slows down the depletion process from the metasomatized mantle. Melt compositional trends are used to determine melting related processes by focusing on K2O/Na2O ratio as indicator for the rock type that has been molten. Thus, a step-like-profile in K2O/Na2O might be explained by a transition between melting metasomatized and pyrolitic mantle components reproducible through numerical modeling of a heterogeneous asthenospheric mantle source. A potential application of the developed method

  13. Software Attribution for Geoscience Applications in the Computational Infrastructure for Geodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, L.; Dumit, J.; Fish, A.; Soito, L.; Kellogg, L. H.; Smith, M.

    2015-12-01

    Scientific software is largely developed by individual scientists and represents a significant intellectual contribution to the field. As the scientific culture and funding agencies move towards an expectation that software be open-source, there is a corresponding need for mechanisms to cite software, both to provide credit and recognition to developers, and to aid in discoverability of software and scientific reproducibility. We assess the geodynamic modeling community's current citation practices by examining more than 300 predominantly self-reported publications utilizing scientific software in the past 5 years that is available through the Computational Infrastructure for Geodynamics (CIG). Preliminary results indicate that authors cite and attribute software either through citing (in rank order) peer-reviewed scientific publications, a user's manual, and/or a paper describing the software code. Attributions maybe found directly in the text, in acknowledgements, in figure captions, or in footnotes. What is considered citable varies widely. Citations predominantly lack software version numbers or persistent identifiers to find the software package. Versioning may be implied through reference to a versioned user manual. Authors sometimes report code features used and whether they have modified the code. As an open-source community, CIG requests that researchers contribute their modifications to the repository. However, such modifications may not be contributed back to a repository code branch, decreasing the chances of discoverability and reproducibility. Survey results through CIG's Software Attribution for Geoscience Applications (SAGA) project suggest that lack of knowledge, tools, and workflows to cite codes are barriers to effectively implement the emerging citation norms. Generated on-demand attributions on software landing pages and a prototype extensible plug-in to automatically generate attributions in codes are the first steps towards reproducibility.

  14. Lithospheric Strength and Stress State: Persistent Challenges and New Directions in Geodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirth, G.

    2017-12-01

    The strength of the lithosphere controls a broad array of geodynamic processes ranging from earthquakes, the formation and evolution of plate boundaries and the thermal evolution of the planet. A combination of laboratory, geologic and geophysical observations provides several independent constraints on the rheological properties of the lithosphere. However, several persistent challenges remain in the interpretation of these data. Problems related to extrapolation in both scale and time (rate) need to be addressed to apply laboratory data. Nonetheless, good agreement between extrapolation of flow laws and the interpretation of microstructures in viscously deformed lithospheric mantle rocks demonstrates a strong foundation to build on to explore the role of scale. Furthermore, agreement between the depth distribution of earthquakes and predictions based on extrapolation of high temperature friction relationships provides a basis to understand links between brittle deformation and stress state. In contrast, problems remain for rationalizing larger scale geodynamic processes with these same rheological constraints. For example, at face value the lab derived values for the activation energy for creep are too large to explain convective instabilities at the base of the lithosphere, but too low to explain the persistence of dangling slabs in the upper mantle. In this presentation, I will outline these problems (and successes) and provide thoughts on where new progress can be made to resolve remaining inconsistencies, including discussion of the role of the distribution of volatiles and alteration on the strength of the lithosphere, new data on the influence of pressure on friction and fracture strength, and links between the location of earthquakes, thermal structure, and stress state.

  15. Understanding the Yellowstone magmatic system using 3D geodynamic inverse models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaus, B. J. P.; Reuber, G. S.; Popov, A.; Baumann, T.

    2017-12-01

    The Yellowstone magmatic system is one of the largest magmatic systems on Earth. Recent seismic tomography suggest that two distinct magma chambers exist: a shallow, presumably felsic chamber and a deeper much larger, partially molten, chamber above the Moho. Why melt stalls at different depth levels above the Yellowstone plume, whereas dikes cross-cut the whole lithosphere in the nearby Snake River Plane is unclear. Partly this is caused by our incomplete understanding of lithospheric scale melt ascent processes from the upper mantle to the shallow crust, which requires better constraints on the mechanics and material properties of the lithosphere.Here, we employ lithospheric-scale 2D and 3D geodynamic models adapted to Yellowstone to better understand magmatic processes in active arcs. The models have a number of (uncertain) input parameters such as the temperature and viscosity structure of the lithosphere, geometry and melt fraction of the magmatic system, while the melt content and rock densities are obtained by consistent thermodynamic modelling of whole rock data of the Yellowstone stratigraphy. As all of these parameters affect the dynamics of the lithosphere, we use the simulations to derive testable model predictions such as gravity anomalies, surface deformation rates and lithospheric stresses and compare them with observations. We incorporated it within an inversion method and perform 3D geodynamic inverse models of the Yellowstone magmatic system. An adjoint based method is used to derive the key model parameters and the factors that affect the stress field around the Yellowstone plume, locations of enhanced diking and melt accumulations. Results suggest that the plume and the magma chambers are connected with each other and that magma chamber overpressure is required to explain the surface displacement in phases of high activity above the Yellowstone magmatic system.

  16. Migrating Toward Fully 4-D Geodynamical Models of Asthenospheric Circulation and Melt Production at Mid-Ocean Ridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dam, L.; Kincaid, C. R.; Pockalny, R. A.; Sylvia, R. T.; Hall, P. S.

    2017-12-01

    Lateral migration of mid-ocean ridge spreading centers is a well-documented phenomenon leading to asymmetric melt production and the surficial expressions thereof. This form of plate motion has been difficult to incorporate into both numerical and analogue geodynamical models, and consequently, current estimates of time-dependent flow, material transport, and melting in the mantle beneath ridges are lacking. To address this, we have designed and built an innovative research apparatus that allows for precise and repeatable simulations of mid-ocean ridge spreading and migration. Three pairs of counter-rotating belts with adjustable lateral orientations are scaled to simulate spreading at, and flow beneath, three 600km wide ridge segments with up to 300km transform offsets. This apparatus is attached to a drive system that allows us to test a full range of axis-parallel to axis-normal migration directions, and is suspended above a reservoir of viscous glucose syrup, a scaled analogue for the upper mantle, and neutrally buoyant tracers. We image plate-driven flow in the syrup with high-resolution digital cameras and use particle image velocimetry methods to obtain information about transport pathlines and flow-induced anisotropy. Suites of experiments are run with and without ridge migration to determine the overall significance of migration on spatial and temporal characteristics of shallow mantle flow. Our experiments cover an expansive parameter space by including various spreading rates, migration speeds and directions, degrees of spreading asymmetry, transform-offset lengths, and upper mantle viscosity conditions. Preliminary results highlight the importance of modeling migratory plate forces. Mantle material exhibits a significant degree of lateral transport, particularly between ridge segments and towards the melt triangle. Magma supply to the melting region is highly complex; parcels of material do not necessarily move along fixed streamlines, rather, they can

  17. Physical mineralogy of (Ca,Al)-rich silicate phases of the Earth's mantle. Geodynamic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautron, Laurent

    2008-01-01

    Mineral physics could provide answers to many questions we asked about mineral phases present in the Earth's mantle, their characteristics, their crystal structure, their phase transitions. In the second part of the twentieth century, high pressure and high temperature experiments could give essential data about materials from the deep Earth: these data could then be combined to those obtained by seismology measurements, geochemistry analyses, experimental and theoretical geodynamics, for a better understanding of the deep parts of our planet. Many former studies revealed that silicate phases bearing calcium and/or aluminium could display very interesting characteristics and properties, with important geodynamics implications. The combination of calcium and aluminium is know to be very useful for mineral phases: indeed, calcium is able to be substituted by atoms which display large cations, while aluminium when replacing silicon atoms could allow the eventual charge compensation required by the substitution of calcium. Moreover, there is an increasing amount of data which reveal the existence of many new (Ca,Al)-rich silicate phases at (P,T) conditions of the Earth's mantle: these phase are found to display very original structure and properties. In this thesis manuscript, we report the main results obtained about the aluminous calcium perovskite, Al-CaSiO 3 , which is one of the three main mineral phases present in the lower mantle. We show that this phase is able to incorporate huge amount of natural actinides uranium and thorium which provide the main part of the heat produced in our planet, by radioactive decay. Then the Al-rich Ca-perovskite bearing U and Th could be the thermal engine of the Earth's lower mantle. These results obtained by mineral physics experiments and methodology are presented with the objective to better constrain the recent geodynamics models. Here, we propose that the (U,Th)-Al-CaSiO 3 perovskite alone is able to provide the entire

  18. Czech permanent GPS observatories for geodynamic investigations of the Bohemian Massif operated by the Institute of Rock Structure and Mechanics, Prague

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schenk, Vladimír; Kottnauer, Pavel; Schenková, Zdeňka; Hájek, Pavel

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 3 (2004), s. 111-114 ISSN 1211-1910. [Czech-Polish-Slovak Conference on Recent Geodynamics of the Sudety Mts and Adjacent Areas /5./. Ramzová, 23.10.2003-25.10.2003] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3046908 Keywords : geodynamics * GPS * permanent observatories Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure

  19. Samovar: a thermomechanical code for modeling of geodynamic processes in the lithosphere-application to basin evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elesin, Y; Gerya, T; Artemieva, Irina

    2010-01-01

    We present a new 2D finite difference code, Samovar, for high-resolution numerical modeling of complex geodynamic processes. Examples are collision of lithospheric plates (including mountain building and subduction) and lithosphere extension (including formation of sedimentary basins, regions...... of extended crust, and rift zones). The code models deformation of the lithosphere with viscoelastoplastic rheology, including erosion/sedimentation processes and formation of shear zones in areas of high stresses. It also models steady-state and transient conductive and advective thermal processes including...... partial melting and magma transport in the lithosphere. The thermal and mechanical parts of the code are tested for a series of physical problems with analytical solutions. We apply the code to geodynamic modeling by examining numerically the processes of lithosphere extension and basin formation...

  20. Using Interactive Visualization to Analyze Solid Earth Data and Geodynamics Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, L. H.; Kreylos, O.; Billen, M. I.; Hamann, B.; Jadamec, M. A.; Rundle, J. B.; van Aalsburg, J.; Yikilmaz, M. B.

    2008-12-01

    The geological sciences are challenged to manage and interpret increasing volumes of data as observations and simulations increase in size and complexity. Major projects such as EarthScope and GeoEarthScope are producing the data needed to characterize the structure and kinematics of Earth's surface and interior at unprecedented resolution. At the same time, high-performance computing enables high-precision and fine- detail simulation of geodynamics processes, complementing the observational data. To facilitate interpretation and analysis of these datasets, to evaluate models, and to drive future calculations, we have developed methods of interactive visualization with a special focus on using immersive virtual reality (VR) environments to interact with models of Earth's surface and interior. VR has traditionally been used primarily as a presentation tool allowing active navigation through data. Reaping the full intellectual benefits of immersive VR as a tool for accelerated scientific analysis requires building on the method's strengths, that is, using both 3D perception and interaction with observed or simulated data. Our approach to VR takes advantage of the specialized skills of geoscientists who are trained to interpret geological and geophysical data generated from field observations. Interactive tools allow the scientist to explore and interpret geodynamic models, tomographic models, and topographic observations, while feature extraction tools support quantitative measurement of structures that emerge from numerical simulations or field observations. The use of VR technology enables us to improve our interpretation of crust and mantle structure and of geodynamical processes. Mapping tools based on computer visualization allow virtual "field studies" in inaccessible regions, and an interactive tool allows us to construct digital fault models for use in numerical models. Using the interactive tools on a high-end platform such as an immersive virtual reality

  1. RECENT GEODYNAMICS OF INTRACONTINENTAL AREAS: INSTRUMENTAL AND GEOMORPHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF CRUSTAL MOVEMENTS AND DEFORMATION IN CENTRAL ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. А. Sankov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies of recent geodynamics have been conducted by the Institute of the Earth’s Crust, SB RAS since 1998. Present-day crustal deformations are monitored at the geodynamic GPS polygon established by the Laboratory of Recent Geodynamics in the Mongol-Baikal region. Original methods and techniques using specialized equipment are applied to research intra-continental tectonic deformation and have already provided original scientific results. Independent data are received concerning the onset and character of processes of neotectonic activation and the state of stresses and deformation of the crust in the southern part of Siberia and in Mongolia. A model of the Late Cenozoic and contemporary geodynamics of the Mongol-Siberian mobile area is proposed. With application of GPS geodesy methods, quantitative parameters of present-day horizontal movements and deformations are determined for Central Asia and a part of the Far East at different scale levels. Present-day velocities of extension of the Baikal rift are estimated, and parameters of rotation of the Amur plate relative to Eurasia are calculated. Data on long-term and contemporary deformation are subject to comparative analyses. The Laboratory develops studies of present-day and historical seismicity in relation to processes of contemporary faulting in active tectonic zones of inter-plate boundaries and diffusive activation of subactive intraplate territories. The first results are obtained in studies of local crustal deformation by methods of satellite radar interferometry and ground polygonometry. Jointly with other institutes of SB RAS, the Laboratory conducts instrumental studies of interaction between the lithosphere and the ionosphere. Looking further ahead, the main scientific fields and prospects of the Laboratory are highlighted.  

  2. Geodynamic models for the post-orogenic exhumation of the lower crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodur, O. F.; Gogus, O.; Karabulut, H.; Pysklywec, R. N.; Okay, A. I.

    2015-12-01

    Recent geodynamic modeling studies suggest that the exhumation of the high pressure and the very/ultra high-pressure crustal rocks may occur due to the slab detachment (break-off), slab roll-back (retreat) and the buoyancy-flow controlled subduction channel. We use convective removal (Rayleigh-Taylor, 'dripping' instability) mechanism to quantitatively investigate the burial and the exhumation pattern of the lower/middle crustal rocks from ocean subduction to post-collisional geodynamic configuration. In order to address the model evolution and track crustal particles for deciphering P-T-t variation, we conduct a series of thermo-mechanical numerical experiments with arbitrary Eularian-Lagrangian finite element code (SOPALE). We show how additional model parameters (e.g moho temperature, upper-middle crustal activation energy, density contrast between the lithosphere and the underlying mantle) can effectively influence the burial and exhumation depths, rate and the styles (e.g clockwise or counterclockwise). First series of experiments are designed to investigate the exhumation of crustal rocks at 32 km depth for only post-collisional tectonic setting -where pre-existing ocean subduction has not been implemented-. Model predictions show that a max. 8 km lower crustal burial occurs concurrent with the lower crustal convergence as a response to the mantle lithosphere dripping instability. The subsequent exhumation of these rocks up to -25 km- is predicted at an exhumation rate of 1.24 cm/year controlled by the removal of the underlying mantle lithosphere instability with crustal extension. At the second series of experiments, we tracked the burial and exhumation history of crustal particles at 22 and 31 km depths while pre-existing ocean subduction has been included before the continental collision. Model results show that burial depths down to 62 km occurs and nearly the 32 km of exhumation is predicted again by the removal of the mantle lithosphere after the

  3. Anisotropy tomography beneath east-central China and its geodynamic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, G.; Zhang, G.

    2017-12-01

    The east-central China primary consists of the southeastern part of the North China Block (NCB), the Middle-Lower Yangtze Block (MLYB), the northern part of Cathaysia Block (CB) and the Qinling-Dabie-Sulu Orogen (QDSO) (Fig. 1). Previous studies have suggested that both the rich mineralization in MLYB and the ultra-high pressure metamorphic belts in QDSO are closely to the Cretaceous magmatism in the east-central China. For discussing the geodynamic process, we have used the teleseismic tomography to study the 3D P-wave velocity structure down to 800 km deep and proposed a double-slab subduction model. In the present study, we introduce another two parameters representing the azimuthal anisotropy based on the isotropy tomography. Compared with the SKS method, the anisotropy tomography can provide the velocity anisotropy structure in different depths. The new anisotropy results show that (1) high-velocity (high-V) anomalies exist beneath the Middle Yangtze Block (MYB) from 200 km to 700 km depths and beneath the Lower Yangtze Block from 500 km to 700 km depths, and (2) low-velocity (low-V) anomalies exist beneath the Lower Yangtze Block from 50 km to 200 km depths and beneath the CB from 300 km to 700 km depths, respectively, and (3) the fast directions of P-wave velocity at 50-100 km depths are chaotic, however they show some regular changes from 200 km to 600 km depths. At 200-km deep, the fast direction of the low-V beneath the LYB is nearly E-W-trending. With the depth increasing, the fast directions of the low-V beneath the CB from 300 km to 600 km depths change to NEE-trending. In other side, the fast directions of eastern part of the high-V beneath the MYB, close to the low-V beneath the CB, denote NW-trending from 300 km to 600 depths. Combing with previous studies, we explain the high-V and the low-V, mentioned above, as the ancient Yangtze Craton and the upwelling asthenospheric materials, respectively. In addition, the NE-trending fast directions in the

  4. Crustal tomographic imaging and geodynamic implications toward south of Southern Granulite Terrain (SGT), India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, Laxmidhar

    2011-09-01

    The crustal structure toward southern part of SGT is poorly defined leaving an opportunity to understand the tectonic and geodynamic evolution of this high-grade granulite terrain surrounded by major shear and tectonically disturbed zones like Achankovil Shear Zone (AKSZ) and Palghat Cauvery Shear Zone (PCSZ). To develop a geologically plausible crustal tectonic model depicting major structural elements, a comprehensive tomographic image was derived using deep-seismic-sounding data corroborated by Bouguer gravity modeling, coincident-reflection-seismic, heat-flow and available geological/geochronological informations along the N-S trending Vattalkundu-Kanyakumari geotransect. The final tectonic model represents large compositional changes of subsurface rocks accompanied by velocity heterogeneities with crustal thinning (44-36 km) and Moho upwarping from north to south. This study also reveals and successfully imaged anomalous zone of exhumation near AKSZ having transpression of exhumed rocks at mid-to-lower crustal level (20-30 km) with significant underplating and mantle upwelling forming a complex metamorphic province. The presence of shear zones with high-grade charnockite massifs in the upper-crust exposed in several places reveal large scale exhumation of granulites during the Pan-African rifting (~ 550 Ma) and provide important insights of plume-continental lithosphere interaction with reconstruction of the Gondwanaland.

  5. Modern Geodynamics of South Yenisei Ridge to Result of the GPS/GLONASS Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatarinov, Viktor; Kaftan, Vladimir; Tatarinova, Tatiana; Manevich, Alexander

    2017-12-01

    Yenisei Ridge is located at the junction of major tectonic structures - Siberian Platform and West Siberian Plate. Its southern part is characterized by stable tectonic regime, the average speed of uplift according to geological data is 0.2-0.3 mm per year with the total amplitude of 400-500 m. However, the speed of modern movements of the Earth’s crust is by more than an order of magnitude higher due to the temporary effect of large-scale geodynamic movements. The Yenisei river divides the area into two parts. The left bank is characterized by predominantly negative vertical movements and the right bank by positive ones. The major tectonic disturbances occur in the areas of the Muratovsky, Atamanovsky, Pravoberezhny and Bolshetelsky submeridional faults. It was investigated the dynamics of changes in the lengths of ΔL baselines for separate epochs of observations. In 2010-2013 the absolute values of ΔL were significantly lower than for the periods 2013-2014 and 2014-2015. For the entire observation period the average value of the differences of the line lengths is 3.8 mm. This suggests that in general the area experienced strain during the period 2010-2015. Maps of the Earth’s surface dilatation zones (deformation rate) showed that the maximum deformations were recorded in the area of Muratovsky and Atamanovsky faults located at the junction of Siberian Platform and West Siberian plate.

  6. Geodynamic movements and deformations of the Sudetic structural unit of the Bohemian Massif

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, V.; Jechumtálová, Z.; Schenková, Z.; Kottnauer, P.

    2003-04-01

    The African plate pushes to European orogenic Alpine structures that transfer the compression further to Variscan structural units, including the Bohemian Massif. Central parts of the Bohemian Massif are relatively deep-seated and, therefore, some of marginal parts of the Massif and its border geological structures should be affected intensively and moved distinctly with respect to the central parts. The geodynamical GPS network EAST SUDETEN is located just over the area mentioned above, i.e. it covers both kinetically quasi-effected and quasi-non-effected structural blocks. GPS data observed already for six annual campaigns (1997-2002) were processed and movement vectors of individual network sites were assessed. Applied data processing did not allow errors in the horizontal direction 2 mm and in the vertical direction 5-6 mm to be exceeded. Since time series of coordinate changes for several network sites gave rather pronounce movement trends, preliminary deformations among individual structural blocks were evaluated and compared to other geological, geophysical and geodetic materials. The investigation has been supported by the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic, projects 205/97/0679 and 205/01/0480, and by the research programme of the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport of the Czech Republic, project LN00A005 "Dynamics of the Earth".

  7. Integrated Remote Sensing and Geophysical Investigations of the Geodynamic Activities at Lake Magadi, Southern Kenyan Rift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinola Adesuji Komolafe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The tectonic lineaments and thermal structure of Lake Magadi, southern Kenyan rift system, were investigated using ASTER data and geophysical methods. Five N-S faults close to known hot springs were identified for geoelectric ground investigation. Aeromagnetic data were employed to further probe faults at greater depths and determine the Curie-point depth. Results indicate a funnel-shaped fluid-filled (mostly saline hydrothermal zone with relatively low resistivity values of less than 1 Ω-m, separated by resistive structures to the west and east, to a depth of 75 m along the resistivity profiles. There was evidence of saline hydrothermal fluid flow toward the surface through the fault splays. The observed faults extend from the surface to a depth of 7.5 km and are probably the ones that bound the graben laterally. They serve as major conduits for the upward heat flux in the study area. The aeromagnetics spectral analysis also revealed heat source emplacement at a depth of about 12 km. The relative shallowness implies a high geothermal gradient evidenced in the surface manifestations of hot springs along the lake margins. Correlation of the heat source with the hypocenters showed that the seismogenetic zone exists directly above the magmatic intrusion, forming the commencement of geodynamic activities.

  8. Some consequences of the geodynamics of sea level on the biosphere. The SE Asian example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husson, Laurent; Sarr, Anta-Clarisse; Pastier, Anne-Morwenn; Sepulchre, Pierre; Pedoja, Kevin; Elliot, Mary; Hantoro, Wahyoe; Jaramillo, Carlos

    2017-04-01

    Mantle flow and subducting slabs dynamically deflect the surface of the Earth. These deflections occasionally suffice to alternatively inundate or emerge vast expanses of landmasses. This is the case in SE Asia, where geomorphological indicators attest for widespread uplift in the East, in "Wallacea" and subsidence in the West, in the very shallow Sunda platform. These movements attest for transient subduction dynamics of the Indo-Australian subduction zone. We conducted fieldwork in key areas : Sulawesi in the East, Belitung in the West. Geomorphological observations and modeling, geophysical measurements and age determinations have enable us to determine Quaternary rates of subsidence (Sunda shelf) and uplift (in Wallacea), of a few tenths of millimeters per year, faster than over longer time scales. We hypothesize that such rates of vertical ground motion triggered by the subducting slabs, though modest, are sufficient to very efficiently impact the external spheres of the Earth. More specifically, because it is associated with modifications of the relative sea level, we propose that they critically altered diverse aspects of the biosphere. We propose that such geodynamics ultimately modulate the dynamics of the biosphere in ways as diverse as boosting reef productivity by an order of magnitude, fostering the development of the "Coral Triangle" center of biodiversity and, in a rather provocative way, even helping Homo erectus reach Java and large faunas cross Sundaland even during interglacial periods.

  9. Metamorphic history and geodynamic significance of the Early Cretaceous Sabzevar granulites (Sabzevar structural zone, NE Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nasrabady

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The Iranian ophiolites are part of the vast orogenic suture zones that mark the Alpine-Himalayan convergence zone. Few petrological and geochronological data are available from these ophiolitic domains, hampering a full assessment of the timing and regimes of subduction zone metamorphism and orogenic construction in the region. This paper describes texture, geochemistry, and the pressure-temperature path of the Early Cretaceous mafic granulites that occur within the Tertiary Sabzevar ophiolitic suture zone of NE Iran. Whole rock geochemistry indicates that the Sabzevar granulites are likely derived from a MORB-type precursor. They are thus considered as remnants of a dismembered dynamo-thermal sole formed during subduction of a back-arc basin (proto-Sabzevar Ocean formed in the upper-plate of the Neotethyan slab. The metamorphic history of the granulites suggests an anticlockwise pressure-temperature loop compatible with burial in a hot subduction zone, followed by cooling during exhumation. Transition from a nascent to a mature stage of oceanic subduction is the geodynamic scenario proposed to accomplish for the reconstructed thermobaric evolution. When framed with the regional scenario, results of this study point to diachronous and independent tectonic evolutions of the different ophiolitic domains of central Iran, for which a growing disparity in the timing of metamorphic equilibration and of pressure-temperature paths can be expected to emerge with further investigations.

  10. Recent crustal movements and geophysical interpretation of geodynamic processes in the Alpine mountain belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubler, E.; Kahle, H. G.

    It is a well-known fact that the surface phenomena of global plate tectonics are most convincingly seen and felt along the boundaries of the moving lithospheric plates. These boundaries are morphologically expressed as mild-ocean ridges or as subduction zones such as deep sea trenches or Himalayan/Alpine fold belts, the latter of which are the subject of this paper. On a global scale, there are kinematic models giving an idea of what kind of rates can be expected. This is due to the fact that magnetic sea floor spreading anomalies are missing in the Alpine environment. On the other hand, the structure and kinematics of the Apulian microplate are of major interest to Switzerland because its northern boundary seems to be formed by the Alpine chain. In Switzerland there are some 14 special study groups actively working in this field of geodynamics. This paper is restricted to the geodetic and gravity studies. With emphasis on the assumed northern boundary of the Apulian microplate, the kinematics of relative plate movements in the Alpine area were investigated. A simplified tectonic map of this region is shown.

  11. Electrical structures in the northwest margin of the Junggar basin: Implications for its late Paleozoic geodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sheng; Xu, Yixian; Jiang, Li; Yang, Bo; Liu, Ying; Griffin, W. L.; Luo, Yong; Huang, Rong; Zhou, Yong; Zhang, Liangliang

    2017-10-01

    Recent geological, geochemical and geophysical data have inclined to support the presence of a remnant Paleozoic oceanic lithosphere beneath the Western Junggar, southwestern Chinese Altaids. However, regional high-resolution geophysical data have been rarely deployed to image its geometry, making it difficult to trace its evolution and final geodynamic setting. Presently, two magnetotelluric (MT) profiles are deployed across the northwest margin of the Junggar basin and the southern Darbut belt to image the electrical structure of the crust and lithospheric mantle. High-quality data at 102 sites and the quasi-2D indications of phase tensor skew angles and impedance phase ellipses for relatively short periods (up to 500 s) allow us to invert the two profile data by a 2-D scheme. The resistivity cross-section of a NW-SE striking LINE2 sheds light on a fossil intraoceanic subduction system, and reveals the Miaoergou intrusions as a bowl-like pluton, indicating that the multi-phase intrusions primarily formed in a post-collisional setting. The resistivity cross-section of striking NE-SW LINE1 reveals a possible oceanic slab with relatively lower resistivity underlying the low-resistivity sedimentary strata and high-resistivity mélange. Given that the profile of LINE1 cuts the out-rise zone of a subducted slab developed during the late Paleozoic, the 2-D resistivity model may thus represent the zone that have experienced heterogeneous deformation, reflecting subduction with barrier variation parallel to the ancient trench. Moreover, as shown in previous results, the new MT data also illustrate that the Darbut Fault is a thin-skinned structure, which has been erased at depths during the subsequent magmatism.

  12. Geodynamics of the East African Rift System ∼30 Ma ago: A stress field model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Ge; Hou, Guiting

    2018-06-01

    The East African Rift System (EARS) is thought to be an intra-continental ridge that meets the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden at the Ethiopian Afar as the failed arm of the Afar triple junction. The geodynamics of EARS is still unclear even though several models have been proposed. One model proposes that the EARS developed in a local tensile stress field derived from far-field loads because of the pushing of oceanic ridges. Alternatively, some scientists suggest that the formation of the EARS can be explained by upwelling mantle plumes beneath the lithospheric weak zone (e.g., the Pan-African suture zone). In our study, a shell model is established to consider the Earth's spherical curvature, the lithospheric heterogeneity of the African continent, and the coupling between the mantle plumes and the mid-ocean ridge. The results are calculated via the finite element method using ANSYS software and fit the geological evidence well. To discuss the effects of the different rock mechanical parameters and the boundary conditions, four comparative models are established with different parameters or boundary conditions. Model I ignores the heterogeneity of the African continent, Model II ignores mid-ocean spreading, Model III ignores the upwelling mantle plumes, and Model IV ignores both the heterogeneity of the African continent and the upwelling mantle plumes. Compared to these models is the original model that shows the best-fit results; this model indicates that the coupling of the upwelling mantle plumes and the mid-ocean ridge spreading causes the initial lithospheric breakup in Afar and East Africa. The extension direction and the separation of the EARS around the Tanzanian craton are attributed to the heterogeneity of the East African basement.

  13. Mineralization mechanism and geodynamic setting of No. 337 deposit in Xiazhuang uranium orefield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhanshi; Wu Jianhua; Liu Shuai; Hua Renmin

    2009-01-01

    Uranium deposit No.337 in Xiazhuang uranium orefield has been regarden as a representative of the earliest forming, relatively high temperature and short time gap between the formation of pluton and the mineralization. But the latest study revealed that the formation age of the Maofeng pluton, which is the most important uranium host granite in Xiazhuang uranium orefield, is 206-238.2 Ma by LA-ICP-MS zircon dating, while the secondary origin muscovite in Maofeng pluton has the age of 131-136 Ma by 40 Ar/ 39 Ar dating which correspond to the main mineralization age of 130.3-138 Ma in uranium deposit No.337. In Guidong granitic complex, Maofeng pluton shown some unique characteristics. It has the Al 2 O 3 /TiO 2 ratio that infers the lowest forming temperature, the lowest ΣREE and it is the only pluton which presents typical tetrad effects of REE, it is also shown a varying δ 18 O values and the lowest( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr) i values. According to the above findings, a concept model of uranium mineralization and geodynamic setting for No.337 uranium deposit might be presented: in late or post-collision stage of Indosinian orogeny, strongly peraluminous granite of Maofeng pluton formed from partial melting of uranium rich formations. Intrusion of maficdyke in late Yanshanian Period(<140 Ma), caused large fluid movement. Uranium was reactivated and extracted from the altered granite,and precipitated in some favorite places to form uranium ore bodies. Uranium deposit No.337 is the typical representative of the first stage uranium mineralization in Xiazhuang uranium orefield. (authors)

  14. A Geodynamic Study of Active Crustal Deformation and Earthquakes in North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Liu, M.

    2005-12-01

    North China is part of the Archaean Sino-Korean craton, yet today it is a region of intense crustal deformation and earthquakes, including 21 M >=7.0 events since 512 AD. More than half of the large events occurred within the Fen-Wei rift system surrounding the stable Ordos plateau; the largest events (M >=7.3) show a sequential southward migration along the rift. However, since 1695 the Fen-Wei rift has became seismically dormant, while seismicity seems having shifted eastward to the North China plain, marked by the 1996 Tangshan earthquake (M=7.8). We have developed a 3D viscoelastic geodynamic model to study the cause of seismicity and its spatial-temporal pattern in North China. Constrained by crustal kinematics from GPS and neotectonic data, the model shows high deviatoric stress in the North China crust, resulting mainly from compression of the expanding Tibetan Plateau and resistance from the stable Siberian block. Within North China seismicity is largely controlled by lateral heterogeneity of lithospheric structures, which explains the concentration of seismicity in the Fen-Wei rift. Our results show that stress triggering may have contributed to the sequential migration of large events along the rift, and the release and migration of stress and strain energy from these large events may partially explain the intense seismicity in the North China plain in the past 300 years. Comparing the predicted long-term spatial pattern of strain energy with seismic energy release provides some insights of potential earthquake risks in North China.

  15. GEODYNAMICS AS WAVE DYNAMICS OF THE MEDIUM COMPOSED OF ROTATING BLOCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Vikulin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The geomedium block concept envisages that stresses in the medium composed of rotating blocks have torque and thus predetermine the medium's energy capacity (in terms of [Ponomarev, 2008]. The present paper describes the wave nature of the global geodynamic process taking place in the medium characterized by the existence of slow and fast rotation strain waves that are classified as a new type of waves. Movements may also occur as rheid, superplastic and/or superfluid motions and facilitate the formation of vortex geological structures in the geomedium.Our analysis of data on almost 800 strong volcanic eruptions shows that the magma chamber’s thickness is generally small, about 0.5 km, and this value is constant, independent of the volcanic process and predetermined by properties of the crust. A new magma chamber model is based on the idea of 'thermal explosion’/‘self-acceleration' manifested by intensive plastic movements along boundaries between the blocks in conditions of the low thermal conductivity of the geomedium. It is shown that if the solid rock in the magma chamber is overheated above its melting point, high stresses may occur in the surrounding area, and their elastic energy may amount to 1015 joules per 1 km3 of the overheated solid rock. In view of such stresses, it is possible to consider the interaction between volcano’s magma chambers as the migration of volcanic activity along the volcanic arc and provide an explanation of the interaction between volcanic activity and seismicity within the adjacent parallel arcs.The thin overheated interlayer/magma chamber concept may be valid for the entire Earth's crust. In our hypothesis, properties of the Moho are determined by the phase transition from the block structure of the crust to the nonblock structure of the upper mantle.

  16. Magmatic dyke swarms of the south shetland islands volcanic arc, west-antarctica - tracers of geodynamic history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, St.; Miller, H.

    2003-04-01

    /Pb, Zr/Hf and also some Ba/HFSE ratios have been used as a powerful means to distinguish the different intrusive events. Thus, combining the relative ages observed in the field with the geochemical information, on Hurd Peninsula (Livingston Island) 6 different intrusive events are traceable. In contrast to the subduction-related, mostly calcalcalic dykes outcropping on the rest of the South Shetland Islands, the quaternary dykes of Penguin Island are composed of Ol-bearing basalt of slightly more alcalic chemism. They are not related to the island arc part of subduction in that area but to the recent opening of the Bransfield Strait as a backarc-basin. The results prove the good suitability of magmatic dyke systems for tracing the change of the tectonic regime over time and space. Present work includes extensive isotope geochemical analysis (Sr, Nd, Pb) to get a hint on the magma sources and their possible changes as a result of changing geodynamic parameters.

  17. Petrological, geochemical, isotopic, and geochronological constraints for the Late Devonian-Early Carboniferous magmatism in SW Gondwana (27-32°LS): an example of geodynamic switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlquist, Juan A.; Alasino, Pablo H.; Basei, Miguel A. S.; Morales Cámera, Matías M.; Macchioli Grande, Marcos; da Costa Campos Neto, Mario

    2018-04-01

    We report a study integrating 13 new U-Pb LA-MC-ICP-MS zircon ages and Hf-isotope data from dated magmatic zircons together with complete petrological and whole-rock geochemistry data for the dated granitic rocks. Sample selection was strongly based on knowledge reported in previous investigations. Latest Devonian-Early Carboniferous granite samples were collected along a transect of 900 km, from the inner continental region (present-day Eastern Sierras Pampeanas) to the magmatic arc (now Western Sierras Pampeanas and Frontal Cordillera). Based on these data together with ca. 100 published whole-rock geochemical analyses we conclude that Late Devonian-Early Carboniferous magmatism at this latitude represents continuous activity (ranging from 322 to 379 Ma) on the pre-Andean margin of SW Gondwana, although important whole-rock and isotopic compositional variations occurred through time and space. Combined whole-rock chemistry and isotope data reveal that peraluminous A-type magmatism started in the intracontinental region during the Late Devonian, with subsequent development of synchronous Carboniferous peraluminous and metaluminous A-type magmatism in the retro-arc region and calc-alkaline magmatism in the western paleomargin. We envisage that magmatic evolution was mainly controlled by episodic fluctuations in the angle of subduction of the oceanic plate (between flat-slab and normal subduction), supporting a geodynamic switching model. Subduction fluctuations were relatively fast (ca. 7 Ma) during the Late Devonian and Early Carboniferous, and the complete magmatic switch-off and switch-on process lasted for 57 Ma. Hf T DM values of zircon (igneous and inherited) from some Carboniferous peraluminous A-type granites in the retro-arc suggest that Gondwana continental lithosphere formed during previous orogenies was partly the source of the Devonian-Carboniferous granitic magmas, thus precluding the generation of the parental magmas from exotic terranes.

  18. Geodynamic condition of formation of favorable structural positions for ore-grade gold placement in auminzatau-beltau ore area (the central kyzyl kum, western uzbekistan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janibekov, Bobir Omonovich; Turapov, M. K.

    2017-09-01

    Work is directed on studying of a geodynamic condition under which the structural positions controlling process of endogenous ore formation were formed. It is shown that explosive region tectonics under the influence of regional tectonic efforts formed structural elements (positions) which controlled formation of gold deposits. It is recognized that structural positions are defined by variety of systems of disjunctive dislocation and their relationship among themselves. Formation of favorable positions depends as well on morphology of ore controlling structures, on degree of their tectonic activity and spatial situation in relation to the direction of tectonic (geodynamic) efforts.

  19. 11th Czech-Polish Workshop on Recent Geodynamics of the Sudeten and Adjacent Areas, Třešť Castle, November 4-6, 2010

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schenková, Zdeňka; Schenk, Vladimír

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 3 (2011), s. 195 ISSN 1214-9705. [Czech-Polish Workshop on Recent Geodynamics of the Sudety Mts. and Adjacent Areas. /11./. Třešť, 04.11.2010-06.11.2010] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC506 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : geodynamics Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.530, year: 2011 http://www.irsm.cas.cz/abstracts/AGG/03_11/1_Preface.pdf

  20. Geodynamic modelling of the rift-drift transition: Application to the Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro, E.; Schettino, A.; Capitanio, F. A.; Ranalli, G.

    2017-12-01

    The onset of oceanic accretion after a rifting phase is generally accompanied by an initial fast pulse of spreading in the case of volcanic margins, such that the effective spreading rate exceeds the relative far-field velocity between the two plates for a short time interval. This pulse has been attributed to edge-driven convention (EDC), although our numerical modelling shows that the shear stress at the base of the lithosphere cannot exceed 1 MPa. In general, we have developed a 2D numerical model of the mantle instabilities during the rifting phase, in order to determine the geodynamic conditions at the rift-drift transition. The model was tested using Underworld II software, variable rheological parameters, and temperature and stress-dependent viscosity. Our results show an increase of strain rates at the top of the lithosphere with the lithosphere thickness as well as with the initial width of the margin up to 300 km. Beyond this value, the influence of the initial rift width can be neglected. An interesting outcome of the numerical model is the existence of an axial zone characterized by higher strain rates, which is flanked by two low-strain stripes. As a consequence, the model suggests the existence of an area of syn-rift compression within the rift valley. Regarding the post-rift phase, we propose that at the onset of a seafloor spreading, a phase of transient creep allows the release of the strain energy accumulated in the mantle lithosphere during the rifting phase, through anelastic relaxation. Then, the conjugated margins would be subject to post-rift contraction and eventually to tectonic inversion of the rift structures. To explore the tenability of this model, we introduce an anelastic component in the lithosphere rheology, assuming both the classical linear Kelvin-Voigt rheology and a non-linear Kelvin model. The non-linear model predicts viable relaxation times ( 1-2Myrs) to explain the post-rift tectonic inversion observed along the Arabian

  1. Geophysical and geochemical constraints on the geodynamic origin of the Vrancea Seismogenic Zone Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillerup, Melvin A.

    The Vrancea Seismogenic Zone (VSZ) of Romania is a steeply NW-dipping volume (30 x 70 x 200 km) of intermediate-depth seismicity in the upper mantle beneath the bend zone of the Eastern Carpathians. The majority of tectonic models lean heavily on subduction processes to explain the Vrancea mantle seismicity and the presence of a Miocene age calc-alkaline volcanic arc in the East Carpathian hinterland. However, recent deep seismic reflection data collected over the Eastern Carpathian bend zone image an orogen lacking (1) a crustal root and (2) dipping crustal-scale fabrics routinely imaged in modern and ancient subduction zones. The DRACULA I and DACIA-PLAN deep seismic reflection profiles show that the East Carpathian orogen is supported by crust only 30-33 km thick while the Focsani basin (foreland) and Transylvanian basin (hinterland) crust is 42 km and 46 km thick respectively. Here the VSZ is interpreted as the former Eastern Carpathian orogenic root which was removed as a result of continental lithospheric delamination and is seismically foundering beneath the East Carpathian bend zone. Because large volumes of calc-alkaline volcanism are typically associated with subduction settings existing geochemical analyses from the Calimani, Gurghiu, and Harghita Mountains (CGH) have been reinterpreted in light of the seismic data which does not advocate the subduction of oceanic lithosphere. CGH rocks exhibit a compositional range from basalt to rhyolite, many with high-Mg# (Mg/Mg+Fe > 0.60), high-Sr (>1000 ppm), and elevated delta-O18 values (6-8.7 /) typical of arc lavas, and are consistent with mixing of mantle-derived melts with a crustal component. The 143Nd/144Nd (0.5123-0.5129) and 87Sr/86Sr (0.7040-0.7103) ratios similarly suggest mixing of mantle and crustal end members to obtain the observed isotopic compositions. A new geochemical model is presented whereby delamination initiates a geodynamic process like subduction but with the distinct absence of subducted

  2. Paleoproterozoic andesitic volcanism in the southern Amazonian craton (northern Brazil); lithofacies analysis and geodynamic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roverato, Matteo; Juliani, Caetano; Capra, Lucia; Dias Fernandes, Carlos Marcelo

    2016-04-01

    volcano-sedimentary basins. Our approach permits to better identify different processes operating on volcanic edifices and to constrain the depositional environment and thus geodynamic setting of Precambrian continental volcanic belts. Acknowledgments: We acknowledge CAPES/CNPq project n° 402564/2012-0 (Programa Ciências sem Fronteiras), CNPq/CT-Mineral (Proc. 550.342/2011-7) and INCT-Geociam (573733/2008-2) - CNPq/MCT/FAPESPA/PETROBRAS.

  3. Seismology and space-based geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tralli, David M.; Tajima, Fumiko

    1993-01-01

    The potential of space-based geodetic measurement of crustal deformation in the context of seismology is explored. The achievements of seismological source theory and data analyses, mechanical modeling of fault zone behavior, and advances in space-based geodesy are reviewed, with emphasis on realizable contributions of space-based geodetic measurements specifically to seismology. The fundamental relationships between crustal deformation associated with an earthquake and the geodetically observable data are summarized. The response and spatial and temporal resolution of the geodetic data necessary to understand deformation at various phases of the earthquake cycle is stressed. The use of VLBI, SLR, and GPS measurements for studying global geodynamics properties that can be investigated to some extent with seismic data is discussed. The potential contributions of continuously operating strain monitoring networks and globally distributed geodetic observatories to existing worldwide modern digital seismographic networks are evaluated in reference to mutually addressable problems in seismology, geophysics, and tectonics.

  4. Geophysical constraints on geodynamic processes at convergent margins: A global perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemieva, Irina; Thybo, Hans; Shulgin, Alexey

    2016-04-01

    convergence rate. (4) Local isostasy is not satisfied at the convergent margins as evidenced by strong free air gravity anomalies of positive and negative signs. However, near-isostatic equilibrium may exist in broad zones of distributed deformation such as Tibet. (5) No systematic patterns are recognized in heat flow data due to strong heterogeneity of measured values which are strongly affected by hydrothermal circulation, magmatic activity, crustal faulting, horizontal heat transfer, and also due to low number of heat flow measurements across many margins. (6) Low upper mantle Vs seismic velocities beneath the convergent margins are restricted to the upper 150 km and may be related to mantle wedge melting which is confined to shallow mantle levels. Artemieva, I.M., Thybo, H., and Shulgin, A., 2015. Geophysical constraints on geodynamic processes at convergent margins: A global perspective. Gondwana Research, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gr.2015.06.010

  5. Sedimentary Markers : a window into deep geodynamic processes Examples from the Western Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabineau, Marina; Aslanian, Daniel; Leroux, Estelle; Pellen, Romain; Gorini, Christian; Moulin, Maryline; Droz, Laurence; Bache, Francois; Molliex, Stephane; Silenzario, Carmine; Rubino, Jean-Loup

    2017-04-01

    window to deep geodynamic processes. Terra Nova 27, 122-129. Moulin, M., Klingelhoefer, F., Afilhado, A., Feld, A., Aslanian, D., Schnurle, P., Nouzé, H., Rabineau, M. & Beslier, M.O., 2015. Deep crustal structure across an young passive margin from wide- angle and reflection seismic date (The SARDINIA Experiment) - I- Gulf of Lion's Margin BSGF, ILP Special Volume, 186 (4-5), pp. 309-330 Afilhado A., M. Moulin, F. Klingelhoefer, D. Aslanian, P. Schnurle, H. Nouzé, M. Rabineau & M.O. Beslier, 2015. Deep crustal structure across a young passive margin from wide- angle and reflection seismic data (The SARDINIA Experiment) - II. Sardinia's margin, BSGF, ILP Special Volume, 186 (4-5), p. 331-351 Pellen, R., Aslanian, D., Rabineau, M., Leroux, E., Gorini, C., Silenzario, C., Blanpied, C., Rubino, J-L., 2016. The Minorca Basin: a buffer zone between Valencia and Provençal Basins, Terra Nova, 28-4, p. 245-256. Rabineau, M., Leroux, E., Aslanian, D., Bache, F., Gorini, C., Moulin, M., Molliex, S., Droz, L., Dos Reis, T., Rubino, J-L., Olivet, J-L., 2014. Quantifying Subsidence and Isostasy using paleobathymetric markers : example from the Gulf of Lion, EPSL, vol. 288, p. 353- 366. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2013.11.059 Rabineau, M., S. Cloetingh, J. Kuroda, D. Aslanian, A Droxler, C. Gorini, D. Garcia-Castellanos, A. Moscariello, Y. Hello, E. Burov, F. Sierro, F. Lirer, F. Roure, P.A. Pezard, L. Matenco, Y. Mart, A. Camerlenghi, A. Tripati and the GOLD and DREAM Working Groups, 2015. Probing connections between deep earth and surface processes in a land-locked ocean basin transformed into a giant saline basin: the Mediterranean GOLD project, Marine and Petroleum Geology, Volume: 66 Pages: 6-17.

  6. Reconciling laboratory and observational models of mantle rheology in geodynamic modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Scott D.

    2016-10-01

    Experimental and geophysical observations constraining mantle rheology are reviewed with an emphasis on their impact on mantle geodynamic modelling. For olivine, the most studied and best-constrained mantle mineral, the tradeoffs associated with the uncertainties in the activation energy, activation volume, grain-size and water content allow the construction of upper mantle rheology models ranging from nearly uniform with depth to linearly increasing from the base of the lithosphere to the top of the transition zone. Radial rheology models derived from geophysical observations allow for either a weak upper mantle or a weak transition zone. Experimental constraints show that wadsleyite and ringwoodite are stronger than olivine at the top of the transition zone; however the uncertainty in the concentration of water in the transition zone precludes ruling out a weak transition zone. Both observational and experimental constraints allow for strong or weak slabs and the most promising constraints on slab rheology may come from comparing inferred slab geometry from seismic tomography with systematic studies of slab morphology from dynamic models. Experimental constraints on perovskite and ferropericlase strength are consistent with general feature of rheology models derived from geophysical observations and suggest that the increase in viscosity through the top of the upper mantle could be due to the increase in the strength of ferropericlase from 20-65 GPa. The decrease in viscosity in the bottom half of the lower mantle could be the result of approaching the melting temperature of perovskite. Both lines of research are consistent with a high-viscosity lithosphere, a low viscosity either in the upper mantle or transition zone, and high viscosity in the lower mantle, increasing through the upper half of the lower mantle and decreasing in the bottom half of the lower mantle, with a low viscosity above the core. Significant regions of the mantle, including high

  7. Origin and Evolution of the Yellowstone Hotspot from Seismic-GPS Imaging and Geodynamic Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. B.; Jordan, M.; Puskas, C. M.; Farrell, J.; Waite, G. P.

    2006-12-01

    the plume beginning at 12 Ma, reducing the rate of large-scale volcanic eruptions in the YSRP. The decapitated plume head beneath Oregon underwent mantle return flow above the subducting Juan de Fuca plate and was responsible for the NW transgressive magmatism of the Newberry system. We then model the overall kinematics of the western U.S. from GPS data as SW motion for the YSRP, ~2 mm/yr, rotating into E-W motion in the Basin-Range, with a cumulative rate of ~4 mm/yr, and rotating to the northwest at rates of up to ~5 mm/yr in the Pacific Northwest, totaling ~10 mm/yr. Geodynamic models employing the GPS data and geometry of the crust-mantle structure suggests that southwest motion of the YSRP is dominated by stresses produced by the high potential energy of the Yellowstone hotspot while westward motion of the Basin-Range is driven by stress differences associated with the high topography of the Rocky Mountains.

  8. Geodynamic inversion to constrain the non-linear rheology of the lithosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, T. S.; Kaus, Boris J. P.

    2015-08-01

    , we first perform a geodynamic inversion of a synthetic forward model of intraoceanic subduction with known parameters. This requires solving an inverse problem with 14-16 parameters, depending on whether temperature is assumed to be known or not. With the help of a massively parallel direct-search combined with a Markov Chain Monte Carlo method, solving the inverse problem becomes feasible. Results show that the rheological parameters and particularly the effective viscosity structure of the lithosphere can be reconstructed in a probabilistic sense. This also holds, with somewhat larger uncertainties, for the case where the temperature distribution is parametrized. Finally, we apply the method to a cross-section of the India-Asia collision system. In this case, the number of parameters is larger, which requires solving around 1.9 × 106 forward models. The resulting models fit the data within their respective uncertainty bounds, and show that the Indian mantle lithosphere must have a high viscosity. Results for the Tibetan plateau are less clear, and both models with a weak Asian mantle lithosphere and with a weak Asian lower crust fit the data nearly equally well.

  9. HYDROGEN IN THE EARTH’S OUTER CORE, AND ITS ROLE IN THE DEEP EARTH GEODYNAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Rumyantsev

    2016-01-01

    molecular hydrogen are important in terms of petrology, mineralogy and geodynamics. At high temperatures, molecular hydrogen can be involved in redox reactions with iron silicates and carbonaceous gases (CO and CO2, and the synthesis of water becomes possible throughout the entire mantle. It is known that water can significantly reduce the temperature of rock melting, which leads to partial melting of the rocks and pluming in the asthenosphere (in the D” layer at the bottom of the mantle, and causes the hydrolysis of magnesium silicates, which results in the chemically bound state (hydroxyl ions. Highly ductile hydroxyl-containing magnesium silicates can alter rheological properties of the rocks. A combination of rheologically weak areas in the mantle rocks and the external cosmic effects can cause significant impacts on the tectonic activity and facilitate its manifestation throughout the entire mantle.

  10. Geodynamic and Magmatic Evolution of the Eastern Anatolian-Arabian Collision Zone, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Mehmet

    2014-05-01

    The Eastern Anatolian-Arabian Collision Zone represents a crucial site within the Tethyan domain where a subduction system involving a volcanic arc (i.e. Cretaceous to Oligocene Pontide volcanic arc in the north) associated with a large subduction-accretion complex (i.e. Cretaceous to Oligocene Eastern Anatolian Accretionary Complex i.e. "EAAC" in the south) turned later into a major continental collision zone that experienced a series of geodynamic events including lithospheric delamination, slab-steepening & breakoff, regional domal uplift, widespread volcanism and tectonic escape via strike slip fault systems. The region includes some of the largest volcanic centers (e.g. Karacadaǧ, Aǧırkaya caldera, Ararat, Nemrut, Tendürek and Süphan volcanoes) and plateaus (e.g. The Erzurum-Kars Plateau) as well as the largest transform fault zones in the Mediterranean region. A recent geodynamic modeling study (Faccenna et al., 2013) has suggested that both the closure of the Tethys Ocean and the resultant collision were driven by a large scale and northerly directed asthenospheric mantle flow named the "Tethyan convection cell". This convection cell initiated around 25 Ma by combined effects of mantle upwelling of the Afar super plume located in the south, around 3,000 km away from the collision zone and the slab-pull of the Tethyan oceanic lithosphere beneath Anatolia in the north. The aforementioned mantle flow dragged Arabia to the north towards Eastern Anatolia with an average velocity of 2 cm/y for the last 20 My, twice as fast as the convergence of the African continent (i.e. 1 cm/y) with western and Central Turkey. This 1 cm/y difference resulted in the formation of the left lateral Dead Sea Strike Slip Fault between the African and Arabian plates. Not only did this mantle flow result in the formation of a positive dynamic topography in the west of Arabian block, but also created a dynamic tilting toward the Persian Gulf (Faccenna et al., 2013). Another

  11. Orogenesis of the Oman Mountains - a new geodynamic model based on structural geology, plate reconstructions and thermochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobe, Arne; Virgo, Simon; von Hagke, Christoph; Ralf, Littke; Urai, Janos L.

    2017-04-01

    Ophiolite obduction is an integral part of mountain building in many orogens. However, because the obduction stage is usually overprinted by later tectonic events, obduction geodynamics and its influence on orogenesis are often elusive. The best-preserved ophiolite on Earth is the Semail Ophiolite, Oman Mountains. 350 km of ophiolite and the entire overthrusted margin sequence are exposed perpendicular to the direction of obduction along the northeastern coast of the Sultanate of Oman. Despite excellent exposure, it has been debated whether early stages of obduction included formation of a micro-plate, or if the Oman Mountains result from collision of two macro-plates (e.g. Breton et al., 2004). Furthermore, different tectonic models for the Oman Mountains exist, and it is unclear how structural and tectonic phases relate to geodynamic context. Here we present a multidisciplinary approach to constrain orogenesis of the Oman Mountains. To this end, we first restore the structural evolution of the carbonate platform in the footwall of the Semail ophiolite. Relative ages of nine structural generations can be distinguished, based on more than 1,500 vein and fault overprintings. Top-to-S overthrusting of the Semail ophiolite is witnessed by three different generations of bedding confined veins in an anticlockwise rotating stress field. Rapid burial induced the formation of overpressure cells, and generation and migration of hydrocarbons (Fink et al., 2015; Grobe et al., 2016). Subsequent tectonic thinning of the ophiolite took place above a top-to-NNE crustal scale, ductile shear zone, deforming existing veins and forming a cleavage in clay-rich layers. Ongoing extension formed normal- to oblique-slip faults and horst-graben structures. This was followed by NE-SW oriented ductile shortening, the formation of the Jebel Akhdar anticline, potentially controlled by the positions of the horst-graben structures. Exhumation in the Cenozoic was associated with low angle normal

  12. Petrogenetic and geodynamic origin of the Neoarchean Doré Lake Complex, Abitibi subprovince, Superior Province, Canada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polat, Ali; Frei, Robert; Longstaffe, Fred J.

    2018-01-01

    Group, which is composed of two cycles of tholeiitic-to-calc-alkaline volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks, siliciclastic and chemical sedimentary rocks, and layered mafic-to-ultramafic sills. In this study, we report major and trace element results, and Nd, Sr, Pb and O isotope data for anorthosites......, leucogabbros, gabbros and mafic dykes from the Doré Lake Complex and spatially associated basalts and gabbros of the Obatogamau Formation to assess their petrogenetic origin and geodynamic setting. Field and petrographic observations indicate that the Doré Lake Complex and associated volcanic rocks underwent...... extensive metamorphic alteration under greenschist facies conditions, resulting in widespread epidotization (20–40%) and chloritization (10–40%) of many rock types. Plagioclase recrystallized mainly to anorthite and albite endmembers, erasing intermediate compositions. Metamorphic alteration also led...

  13. Vertical motion of the lithosphere - From the erosion of rocky coastlines to geo-dynamics via dating with Beryllium-10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regard, V.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis for the 'accreditation to conduct researches' diploma consists of four chapters: 1) the geo-dynamics of subduction zones, 2) the geo-morphology of rocky coastlines, 3) Be 10 - dating and methodology, and 4) the formation of marine or river terraces. The Be 10 dating method is based on the production of Be 10 in the soil by the neutrons forming the most part of the cosmic ray cascade when this cascade reaches the earth surface. By measuring the concentration of Be 10 in a soil sample and according to some assumptions, we can deduce how long a particular surface has been exposed. This method is used here to determine when a particular deposit was made and as a consequence to determine the long-term time evolution of the withdrawal of a cliff by dating samples taken on the terrace at the base of the cliff. (A.C.)

  14. A new view for the geodynamics of Ecuador: Implication in seismogenic source definition and seismic hazard assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yepes, Hugo; Audin, Laurence; Alvarado, Alexandra; Beauval, Céline; Aguilar, Jorge; Font, Yvonne; Cotton, Fabrice

    2016-05-01

    A new view of Ecuador's complex geodynamics has been developed in the course of modeling seismic source zones for probabilistic seismic hazard analysis. This study focuses on two aspects of the plates' interaction at a continental scale: (a) age-related differences in rheology between Farallon and Nazca plates—marked by the Grijalva rifted margin and its inland projection—as they subduct underneath central Ecuador, and (b) the rapidly changing convergence obliquity resulting from the convex shape of the South American northwestern continental margin. Both conditions satisfactorily explain several characteristics of the observed seismicity and of the interseismic coupling. Intermediate-depth seismicity reveals a severe flexure in the Farallon slab as it dips and contorts at depth, originating the El Puyo seismic cluster. The two slabs position and geometry below continental Ecuador also correlate with surface expressions observable in the local and regional geology and tectonics. The interseismic coupling is weak and shallow south of the Grijalva rifted margin and increases northward, with a heterogeneous pattern locally associated to the Carnegie ridge subduction. High convergence obliquity is responsible for the North Andean Block northeastward movement along localized fault systems. The Cosanga and Pallatanga fault segments of the North Andean Block-South American boundary concentrate most of the seismic moment release in continental Ecuador. Other inner block faults located along the western border of the inter-Andean Depression also show a high rate of moderate-size earthquake production. Finally, a total of 19 seismic source zones were modeled in accordance with the proposed geodynamic and neotectonic scheme.

  15. Heat flow study of the Emeishan large igneous province region: Implications for the geodynamics of the Emeishan mantle plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qiang; Qiu, Nansheng; Zhu, Chuanqing

    2018-01-01

    The Emeishan large igneous province (ELIP) is widely considered to be a consequence of a mantle plume. The supporting evidence includes rapid emplacement, voluminous flood basalt eruptions, and high mantle potential temperature estimates. Several studies have suggested that there was surface uplift prior to the eruption of the Emeishan flood basalts. Additionally, the plume's lateral extent is hard to constrain and has been variously estimated to be 800-1400 km in diameter. In this study, we analyzed present-day heat flow data and reconstructed the Permian paleo-heat flow using vitrinite reflectance and zircon (U-Th)/He thermochronology data in the ELIP region and discussed implications for the geodynamics of the Emeishan mantle plume. The present-day heat flow is higher in the inner and intermediate zones than in the outer zone, with a decrease of average heat flow from 76 mW/m2 to 51 mW/m2. Thermal history modeling results show that an abnormal high paleo-heat flow of 90-110 mW/m2 was caused by the Emeishan mantle plume activity. Based on the present-day heat flow data, we can calculate that there is lithospheric thinning in the central ELIP region, which may be due to the destruction of the lithosphere by mantle plume upwelling and magmatic underplating. The Permian paleo-heat flow anomaly implies that there was a temperature anomaly in the mantle. The ascending high-temperature mantle plume and the thinned lithosphere may have induced the large-scale uplift in the ELIP region. According to the range of the surface heat flow anomaly, it can be estimated that the diameter of the flattened head of the Emeishan mantle plume could have reached 1600-1800 km. Our research provides new insights into the geodynamics of the Emeishan mantle plume through study of heat flow.

  16. Terrane-Scale Metastability in Subducted Himalayan Continental Crust as Revealed by Integrated Petrological and Geodynamic Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palin, R. M.; Reuber, G. S.; White, R. W.; Kaus, B. J. P.; Weller, O. M.

    2017-12-01

    The Tso Morari massif, northwest India, is one of only two regions in the Himalayan Range that exposes subduction-related ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphic rocks. The tectonic evolution of the massif is strongly debated, however, as reported pressure estimates for peak metamorphism range between 2.4 GPa and 4.8 GPa. Such ambiguity hinders effective lithospheric-scale modeling of the early stages of the orogen's evolution. We present the results of integrated petrological and geodynamic modeling (Palin et al., 2017, EPSL) that provide new quantitative constraints on the prograde-to-peak pressure-temperature-time (P-T-t) path, and predict the parageneses that felsic and mafic components of the massif crust should have formed under equilibrium conditions. Our model shows that peak P-T conditions of 2.6-2.8 GPa and 600-620 °C, representative of subduction to 90-100 km depth (assuming lithostatic pressure), were reached just 3 Myr after the onset of collision. These P-T-t constraints correlate well with those reported for similar UHP eclogite in the along-strike Kaghan Valley, Pakistan, suggesting that the northwest Himalaya contains dismembered remnants of a 400-km long UHP terrane comparable in size to the Western Gneiss Region, Norway, and the Dabie-Sulu belt, China. The extremely high pressures (up to 4.8 GPa) for peak metamorphism reported by some workers are likely to be unreliable due to thermobarometry having been performed on minerals that did not represent equilibrium assemblages. Furthermore, key high-P minerals predicted to form in subducted Tso Morari continental crust (e.g. jadeite, Mg-rich garnet) are absent from natural samples in the region, reflecting the widespread metastable preservation of lower-pressure protolith assemblages during subduction and exhumation. This result questions the reliability of geodynamic simulations of orogenesis that are commonly predicated on equilibrium metamorphism operating continuously throughout tectonic cycles.

  17. What can zircon ages from the Jack Hills detrital zircon suite really tell us about Hadean geodynamics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, Martin; Nemchin, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    As the only direct sample of the Hadean Earth, detrital zircon grains from the Jack Hills, Western Australia, have been the subject of intense investigation over the almost three decades since their discovery. A wide variety of geochemical and isotopic analyses of these grains, as well as their mineral inclusions, have been used variously to support two fundamentally different models for Hadean geodynamics: (i) Some form of (not necessarily modern-style) plate recycling generating felsic (continental-type?) crust at the boundaries [1, 2], or conversely (ii) the persistence of a long-lived, stagnant basaltic lid within which magmatism occurred as a result of internal temperature perturbations and/or impacts [3, 4], a model also generally consistent with a wide range of observations from post-Hadean geochemical reservoirs. Despite the considerable time and resources expended, the majority of these studies uncritically accept the individual U-Pb zircon ages, even though their veracity is key to many of the interpretations [5, 6]. We report here the results of an in-depth evaluation of all published (and new) U-Pb ages from the Jack Hills zircon suite in order to define age populations that can be used with a high degree of confidence in geodynamic interpretations. A notable problem in the interpretation of U-Pb data from ancient zircon grains (including those as young as the Neoarchean) is that disturbance of the systematics even several 100 Ma after crystallization causes data to spread along the concordia curve without becoming discernably discordant within the relatively large error bounds associated with U/Pb ages from in situ dating methods (e.g. SIMS). While 207Pb/206Pb ages are typically more precise, individually they provide no means to detect Pb-loss-induced younging. However, if two or preferably more analyses have been made in the same zircon growth zone, a reasonable evaluation of the possibility of Pb-loss can be made. In the available Jack Hills zircon

  18. Geodynamics of the Carpathian-Pannonian region: Insights from low temperature thermochronology of the Polish and Ukrainian Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreucci, Benedetta; Zattin, Massimiliano; Castelluccio, Ada; Mazzoli, Stefano; Szaniawski, Rafal; Jankowski, Leszek

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, the geodynamic evolution of the Carpathian-Pannonian region has been the subject of a heated scientific debate. This orogenic system formed between the Late Jurassic and the Neogene by the collision of the Alcapa and Tisza-Dacia microplates with the European Platform, and assumed its present-day configuration mainly during the Miocene, when the extensional Pannonian Basin formed in a retro wedge position, while compression was still active along the Carpathian front. The most common and widely accepted interpretation for the Miocene evolution of this region is based on a classical back-arc extension model and subsequent astenospheric upwelling and slab break-off. Nonetheless several authors proposed other possible driving mechanisms for the formation of the Pannonian Basin, such as lithosphere delamination or lithospheric gravitational instability. Thermochronometry provides important constrains to the depths of burial and to the timing and rates of exhumation. Each geodynamic scenario proposed for the Carpathian-Pannonian region implies a different spatial distribution of burial and a different timing of exhumation. In this work we use a compilation of several low-temperature thermochronometric datasets, referred to the Polish and Ukrainian Carpathians, to evaluate their compatibility with the different geodynamic models proposed so far. In order to achieve this goal we examine the spatial distribution of burial depths and of ages and rates of exhumation and we put them in relation with (i) the spatial trend of the relief, (ii) heat flow, (iii) crustal and lithospheric thickness, and (iv) structural setting. We propose a subdivision of the Polish and Ukrainian Carpathians in three different tectonic domains, based on geophysical and structural parameters. Each single area is characterized also by different burial-exhumation history and requires a specific explanation in terms of driving processes. In particular, we infer that exhumation occurred

  19. Origin and geodynamic significance of the early Mesozoic Weiya LP and HT granulites from the Chinese Eastern Tianshan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Ling-Juan; He, Zhen-Yu; Zhang, Ze-Ming; Klemd, Reiner; Xiang, Hua; Tian, Zuo-Lin; Zong, Ke-Qing

    2015-12-01

    The Chinese Tianshan in the southwestern part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) is characterized by a variety of high-grade metamorphic rocks, which provide critical constraints for understanding the geodynamic evolution of the CAOB. In this paper, we present detailed petrological and zircon U-Pb geochronological studies of the Weiya low-pressure and high-temperature (LP-HT) granulites of the Chinese Eastern Tianshan. These granulites were previously considered to be a product of a regional metamorphic orogenic event. Due to different bulk-rock chemistries the Weiya granulites, which occur as lenses within the contact metamorphic aureole of the Weiya granitic ring complex, have a variety of felsic-pelitic and mafic granulites with different textural equilibrium mineral assemblages including garnet-cordierite-sillimanite-bearing granulites, cordierite-sillimanite-bearing granulites, cordierite-orthopyroxene-bearing granulites, and orthopyroxene-clinopyroxene-bearing granulites. Average P-T thermobarometric calculations and conventional geothermobarometry indicates that the Weiya granulites underwent early prograde metamorphism under conditions of 600-650 °C at 3.2-4.2 kbar and peak metamorphism of 750-840 °C at 2.9-6.3 kbar, indicating a rather high geothermal gradient of ca. 60 °C/km. Zircon U-Pb LA-ICP-MS dating revealed metamorphic ages between 244 ± 1 to 237 ± 3 Ma, which are in accordance with the crystallization age of the Weiya granitic ring complex. We suggest that the formation of the Weiya granulites was related to contemporaneous granitic magmatism instead of a regional metamorphic orogenic event. In addition, a Late Devonian metamorphic age of ca. 380 Ma was recorded in zircon mantle domains from two pelitic samples which is consistent with the metamorphic age of the Xingxingxia metamorphic complex in the Chinese Eastern Tianshan. This suggests that the mantle domains of the zircon grains of the Weiya granulites probably formed during the

  20. Subduction metamorphism in the Himalayan ultrahigh-pressure Tso Morari massif: An integrated geodynamic and petrological modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palin, Richard M.; Reuber, Georg S.; White, Richard W.; Kaus, Boris J. P.; Weller, Owen M.

    2017-06-01

    The Tso Morari massif is one of only two regions where ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphism of subducted crust has been documented in the Himalayan Range. The tectonic evolution of the massif is enigmatic, as reported pressure estimates for peak metamorphism vary from ∼2.4 GPa to ∼4.8 GPa. This uncertainty is problematic for constructing large-scale numerical models of the early stages of India-Asia collision. To address this, we provide new constraints on the tectonothermal evolution of the massif via a combined geodynamic and petrological forward-modelling approach. A prograde-to-peak pressure-temperature-time (P-T-t) path has been derived from thermomechanical simulations tailored for Eocene subduction in the northwestern Himalaya. Phase equilibrium modelling performed along this P-T path has described the petrological evolution of felsic and mafic components of the massif crust, and shows that differences in their fluid contents would have controlled the degree of metamorphic phase transformation in each during subduction. Our model predicts that peak P-T conditions of ∼2.6-2.8 GPa and ∼600-620 ∘C, representative of 90-100 km depth (assuming lithostatic pressure), could have been reached just ∼3 Myr after the onset of subduction of continental crust. This P-T path and subduction duration correlate well with constraints reported for similar UHP eclogite in the Kaghan Valley, Pakistan Himalaya, suggesting that the northwest Himalaya contains dismembered remnants of what may have been a ∼400-km-long UHP terrane comparable in size to the Western Gneiss Region, Norway, and the Dabie-Sulu belt, China. A maximum overpressure of ∼0.5 GPa was calculated in our simulations for a homogeneous crust, although small-scale mechanical heterogeneities may produce overpressures that are larger in magnitude. Nonetheless, the extremely high pressures for peak metamorphism reported by some workers (up to 4.8 GPa) are unreliable owing to conventional thermobarometry

  1. Ash turbidites from Southern Italy help understanding the parent eruptions and contributing to geodynamic evolution cadre of the Tyrrhenian sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doronzo, Domenico Maria

    2010-05-01

    Tephra layers intercalated in sedimentary successions are very interesting since they represent some instants of geodynamic evolution in a sedimentation basin. Furthermore, they can constitute deposits of explosive eruptions whose distal behaviour can be useful for studying the volcanoes activity, especially when pyroclastic deposits in proximal areas are absent. In the Craco area (Matera, Italy), thick ash turbidites intercalated in marine clays deposits have been recently recognized, which interest is related to the considerable cropping out thickness (1 to 5 m), freshness of the material and absence of sedimentary component. Petrography, sedimentology and chemistry of the deposits have been characterized with the aim of defining genesis and deposition of the material. The deposits are essentially made up of ashy pyroclasts, dominated by fresh acidic to intermediate glass, mostly in the form of shards, pumice fragments and groundmass fragments with vitrophyric texture. Rare crystals include Pl, Opx, Cpx, Hbl and Bt. 40Ar/39Ar geochronology on the amphibole dated one level to 2.24 ± 0.06 Ma, indicating the Late Pliocene. The grain size (fine ash) and textural features of the deposits are typical of pyroclastic fall deposits related to explosive eruptions with consequent upward projection of the fragmented material through Plinian columms. The columns turned eastward because of stratospheric winds and the material fell in a marine environment. It deposited on the slope of Pliocene basins in the frontal sector of the Southern Apennine chain. Structural features are the following: fining-upward gradation of the deposits with cross- and convolute laminations at the base and fine-grained massive beds at the top. They suggest that the primary pyroclastic fall deposits were mobilized as volcaniclastic turbidity currents towards a deeper environment. Glass and crystal compositions were investigated by SEM/EDS analysis. Petrographycal and chemical compositions of the

  2. Tectonic drivers of the Wrangell block: Insights on fore-arc sliver processes from 3-D geodynamic models of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynie, K. L.; Jadamec, M. A.

    2017-07-01

    Intracontinental shear zones can play a key role in understanding how plate convergence is manifested in the upper plate in regions of oblique subduction. However, the relative role of the driving forces from the subducting plate and the resisting force from within intracontinental shear zones is not well understood. Results from high-resolution, geographically referenced, instantaneous 3-D geodynamic models of flat slab subduction at the oblique convergent margin of Alaska are presented. These models investigate how viscosity and length of the Denali fault intracontinental shear zone as well as coupling along the plate boundary interface modulate motion of the Wrangell block fore-arc sliver and slip across the Denali fault. Models with a weak Denali fault (1017 Pa s) and strong plate coupling (1021 Pa s) were found to produce the fastest motions of the Wrangell block (˜10 mm/yr). The 3-D models predict along-strike variation in motion along the Denali fault, changing from dextral strike-slip motion in the eastern segment to oblique convergence toward the fault apex. Models further show that the flat slab drives oblique motion of the Wrangell block and contributes to 20% (models with a short fault) and 28% (models with a long fault) of the observed Quaternary slip rates along the Denali fault. The 3-D models provide insight into the general processes of fore-arc sliver mechanics and also offer a 3-D framework for interpreting hazards in regions of flat slab subduction.

  3. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating of shallow marine sediments to develop an analysis method of late Quaternary geodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hataya, Ryuta; Shirai, Masaaki

    2003-01-01

    To develop an analysis method of geodynamics, we have examined the applicability of the OSL dating of marine terrace deposits. We have done the OSL dating, using the multiple-aliquot additive-dose technique, of shallow marine sediments from the upper part the Kioroshi Formation in Ibaraki Prefecture, which are correlated to Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage (MIS) 5e-5c. Marine terrace deposit consists mainly of shallow marine sediment. OSL ages of foreshore and foreshore-shoreface beds are 88-112 Ka, and are in good agreement with the geological/geomorphological data. On the other hand, OSL ages of the backshore bed are younger, and ones of the shoreface bed are older than geologically estimated ages. These results show that OPSL dating method can date shallow marine sediment using samples from foreshore and foreshore-shoreface beds, and that this method can distinguish terrace deposits formed in MIS5 and that in MIS7 by taking geomorphologic information into account. These results contribute to the characterization of long-term geological movement in coastal areas. (author)

  4. Separation of the long-term thermal effects from the strain measurements in the Geodynamics Laboratory of Lanzarote

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venedikov, A. P.; Arnoso, J.; Cai, W.; Vieira, R.; Tan, S.; Velez, E. J.

    2006-01-01

    A 12-year series (1992-2004) of strain measurements recorded in the Geodynamics Laboratory of Lanzarote is investigated. Through a tidal analysis the non-tidal component of the data is separated in order to use it for studying signals, useful for monitoring of the volcanic activity on the island. This component contains various perturbations of meteorological and oceanic origin, which should be eliminated in order to make the useful signals discernible. The paper is devoted to the estimation and elimination of the effect of the air temperature inside the station, which strongly dominates the strainmeter data. For solving this task, a regression model is applied, which includes a linear relation with the temperature and time-dependant polynomials. The regression includes nonlinearly a set of parameters, which are estimated by a properly applied Bayesian approach. The results obtained are: the regression coefficient of the strain data on temperature is equal to (-367.4 ± 0.8) × 10 -9 °C -1, the curve of the non-tidal component reduced by the effect of the temperature and a polynomial approximation of the reduced curve. The technique used here can be helpful to investigators in the domain of the earthquake and volcano monitoring. However, the fundamental and extremely difficult problem of what kind of signals in the reduced curves might be useful in this field is not considered here.

  5. Geodynamical behavior of some active area in Egypt, as deduced from geodetic and gravity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issawy, E.; Mrlina, J.; Radwan, A.; Mahmoud, S.; Rayan, A.

    2009-04-01

    Temporal gravity variation in parallel with the space geodetic technique (GPS) had been started in Egypt for real campaigns in 1997. The geodetic networks around the High Dam, Aswan area was the first net to be measured. More than five measurement epochs were performed. The results had a considerable limit of coincidence between gravity and GPS observations. The trend of gravity changes indicated a positive stress and had the vertical displacement observed for leveling points. The lowest gravity changes along Kalabsha fault reflect extensional and/or strike component of the stress field. Also, the areas around Cairo (Greater Cairo) and due to the occurrence of an earthquake of 1992, such type of measurements were useful for monitoring the recent activity. The data of the geodetic network around Cairo after 5 campaigns showed that, the estimated horizontal velocities for almost all points are 5.5± mm/year in approximately NW-SE direction. The non-tidal changes can explain the dynamic process within the upper crust related to the development of local stress conditions. The trends of gravity changes are more or less coincident with that deduced from GPS deformation analysis and the occurrence of the main shocks in the area. In additions, in 2005 the geodetic network around the southern part of Sinai and the Gulf of Suez were established. One campaign of measurements had been performed and the gravity values were obtained.

  6. GPS Time Series and Geodynamic Implications for the Hellenic Arc Area, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollenstein, Ch.; Heller, O.; Geiger, A.; Kahle, H.-G.; Veis, G.

    The quantification of crustal deformation and its temporal behavior is an important contribution to earthquake hazard assessment. With GPS measurements, especially from continuous operating stations, pre-, co-, post- and interseismic movements can be recorded and monitored. We present results of a continuous GPS network which has been operated in the Hellenic Arc area, Greece, since 1995. In order to obtain coordinate time series of high precision which are representative for crustal deformation, a main goal was to eliminate effects which are not of tectonic origin. By applying different steps of improvement, non-tectonic irregularities were reduced significantly, and the precision could be improved by an average of 40%. The improved time series are used to study the crustal movements in space and time. They serve as a base for the estimation of velocities and for the visualization of the movements in terms of trajectories. Special attention is given to large earthquakes (M>6), which occurred near GPS sites during the measuring time span.

  7. Improvements in Space Geodesy Data Discovery at the CDDIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, C.; Pollack, N.; Michael, P.

    2011-01-01

    The Crustal Dynamics Data Information System (CDDIS) supports data archiving and distribution activities for the space geodesy and geodynamics community. The main objectives of the system are to store space geodesy and geodynamics related data products in a central data bank. to maintain information about the archival of these data, and to disseminate these data and information in a timely manner to a global scientific research community. The archive consists of GNSS, laser ranging, VLBI, and DORIS data sets and products derived from these data. The CDDIS is one of NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) distributed data centers; EOSDIS data centers serve a diverse user community and arc tasked to provide facilities to search and access science data and products. Several activities are currently under development at the CDDIS to aid users in data discovery, both within the current community and beyond. The CDDIS is cooperating in the development of Geodetic Seamless Archive Centers (GSAC) with colleagues at UNAVCO and SIO. TIle activity will provide web services to facilitate data discovery within and across participating archives. In addition, the CDDIS is currently implementing modifications to the metadata extracted from incoming data and product files pushed to its archive. These enhancements will permit information about COOlS archive holdings to be made available through other data portals such as Earth Observing System (EOS) Clearinghouse (ECHO) and integration into the Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS) portal.

  8. Quantitative analysis of surface deformation and ductile flow in complex analogue geodynamic models based on PIV method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krýza, Ondřej; Lexa, Ondrej; Závada, Prokop; Schulmann, Karel; Gapais, Denis; Cosgrove, John

    2017-04-01

    Recently, a PIV (particle image velocimetry) analysis method is optical method abundantly used in many technical branches where material flow visualization and quantification is important. Typical examples are studies of liquid flow through complex channel system, gas spreading or combustion problematics. In our current research we used this method for investigation of two types of complex analogue geodynamic and tectonic experiments. First class of experiments is aimed to model large-scale oroclinal buckling as an analogue of late Paleozoic to early Mesozoic evolution of Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) resulting from nortward drift of the North-China craton towards the Siberian craton. Here we studied relationship between lower crustal and lithospheric mantle flows and upper crustal deformation respectively. A second class of experiments is focused to more general study of a lower crustal flow in indentation systems that represent a major component of some large hot orogens (e.g. Bohemian massif). The most of simulations in both cases shows a strong dependency of a brittle structures shape, that are situated in upper crust, on folding style of a middle and lower ductile layers which is influenced by rheological, geometrical and thermal conditions of different parts across shortened domain. The purpose of PIV application is to quantify material redistribution in critical domains of the model. The derivation of flow direction and calculation of strain-rate and total displacement field in analogue experiments is generally difficult and time-expensive or often performed only on a base of visual evaluations. PIV method operates with set of images, where small tracer particles are seeded within modeled domain and are assumed to faithfully follow the material flow. On base of pixel coordinates estimation the material displacement field, velocity field, strain-rate, vorticity, tortuosity etc. are calculated. In our experiments we used velocity field divergence to

  9. Hydrocarbon degassing of the earth and origin of oil-gas fields (isotope-geochemical and geodynamic aspects)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valyaev, Boris; Dremin, Ivan

    2016-04-01

    formation of traditional and nontraditional hydrocarbon accumulations. The genesis of hydrocarbon fluids turn up to be associated with a hydrocarbon branch of deep degassing and recycling of crustal materials and processes of crust-mantle interaction [1,2,3]. The study was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (RFBR), grant № 14-05-00869. 1. Valyaev B.M., Dremin I.S. Deep Roots of the Fluid Systems and Oil-Gas Fields (Isotope Geochemical and Geodynamic Aspects) // International Conference Goldschmidt2015, Prague, Czech Republic, August 16-21, 2015. Abstracts. P. 3221. 2. Valyaev B., Dremin I. Recycling of crustal matter and the processes of mantle-crust interaction in the genesis of hydrocarbon fluids // International Conference on Gas Geochemistry 2013, Patras, Greece, 1-7 September 2013, Book of abstracts. P. 32. 3. Degassing of the Earth: Geotectonics, Geodynamics, Geofluids; Oil and Gas; Hydrocarbon and Life. Proceedings of the all-Russian with International Participation Conference, devoted the centenary of Academician P.N. Kropotkin, October 18-22, 2010, Moscow. Responsible editors: Academician A.N. Dmitrievsky, senior doctorate B.M. Valyaev. -Moscow: GEOS, 2010. 712 p.

  10. La Galite Archipelago (Tunisia, North Africa): Stratigraphic and petrographic revision and insights for geodynamic evolution of the Maghrebian Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belayouni, Habib; Brunelli, Daniele; Clocchiatti, Roberto; Di Staso, Angelida; El Hassani, Iz-Eddine El Amrani; Guerrera, Francesco; Kassaa, Samia; Ouazaa, Nejia Laridhi; Martín, Manuel Martín; Serrano, Francisco; Tramontana, Mario

    2010-01-01

    The location of the La Galite Archipelago on the Internal/External Zones of the Maghrebian Chain holds strong interest for the reconstruction of the geodynamic evolution of the Mesomediterranean Microplate-Africa Plate Boundary Zone. New stratigraphic and petrographic data on sedimentary successions intruded upon by plutonic rocks enabled a better definition of the palaeogeographic and palaeotectonic evolutionary model of the area during the early-middle Miocene. The lower Miocene sedimentary units ( La Galite Flysch and Numidian-like Flysch) belong to the Mauritanian (internal) and Massylian (external) sub-Domains of the Maghrebian Chain, respectively. These deposits are related to a typical syn-orogenic deposition in the Maghrebian Flysch Basin Domain, successively backthrusted above the internal units. The backthrusting age is post-Burdigalian (probably Langhian-Serravallian) and the compressional phase represents the last stage in the building of the accretionary wedge of the Maghrebian orogen. These flysch units may be co-relatable to the similar well-known formations along the Maghrebian and Betic Chains. The emplacement of potassic peraluminous magmatism, caused local metamorphism in the Late Serravallian-Early Tortonian (14-10 Ma), after the last compressional phase (backthrusting), during an extensional tectonic event. This extensional phase is probably due to the opening of a slab break-off in the deep subduction system. La Galite Archipelago represents a portion of the Maghrebian Flysch Basin tectonically emplaced above the southern margin of the "Mesomediterranean Microplate" which separated the Piemontese-Ligurian Ocean from a southern oceanic branch of the Tethys (i.e. the Maghrebian Flysch Basin). The possible presence of an imbricate thrust system between La Galite Archipelago and northern Tunisia may be useful to exclude the petroleum exploration from the deformed sectors of the offshore area considered.

  11. Length-scales of Slab-induced Asthenospheric Deformation from Geodynamic Modeling, Mantle Deformation Fabric, and Synthetic Shear Wave Splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadamec, M. A.; MacDougall, J.; Fischer, K. M.

    2017-12-01

    The viscosity structure of the Earth's interior is critically important, because it places a first order constraint on plate motion and mantle flow rates. Geodynamic models using a composite viscosity based on experimentally derived flow laws for olivine aggregates show that lateral viscosity variations emerge in the upper mantle due to the subduction dynamics. However, the length-scale of this transition is still not well understood. Two-dimensional numerical models of subduction are presented that investigate the effect of initial slab dip, maximum yield stress (slab strength), and viscosity formulation (Newtonian versus composite) on the emergent lateral viscosity variations in the upper-mantle and magnitude of slab-driven mantle flow velocity. Significant viscosity reductions occur in regions of large flow velocity gradients due to the weakening effect of the dislocation creep deformation mechanism. The dynamic reductions in asthenospheric viscosity (less than 1018 Pa s) occur within approximately 500 km from driving force of the slab, with peak flow velocities occurring in models with a lower yield stress (weaker slab) and higher stress exponent. This leads to a sharper definition of the rheological base of the lithosphere and implies lateral variability in tractions along the base of the lithosphere. As the dislocation creep mechanism also leads to mantle deformation fabric, we then examine the spatial variation in the LPO development in the asthenosphere and calculate synthetic shear wave splitting. The models show that olivine LPO fabric in the asthenosphere generally increases in alignment strength with increased proximity to the slab, but can be transient and spatially variable on small length scales. The vertical flow fields surrounding the slab tip can produce shear-wave splitting variations with back-azimuth that deviate from the predictions of uniform trench-normal anisotropy, a result that bears on the interpretation of complexity in shear

  12. Quartz tube extensometer for observation of Earth tides and local tectonic deformations at the Sopronbanfalva Geodynamic Observatory, Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mentes, Gy.

    2010-01-01

    In May 1990, a quartz tube extensometer was installed in the Sopronbanfalva Geodynamic Observatory of the Geodetic and Geophysical Research Institute (GGRI) of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences for recording Earth tides and recent tectonic movements. The paper describes the construction of the extensometer and a portable calibrator used for the in situ calibration of the instrument. The extensometer is very sensitive. Its scale factor is 2.093±0.032 nm/mV according to the highly precise calibration method developed at the GGRI. Since the stability of extensometers is strongly influenced by the geological structure and properties of the rocks in the vicinity of the recording site, the observatory instrument system was tested by coherence analysis between theoretical (as the input signal) and measured tidal data series (as the output signal). In the semidiurnal tidal frequency band the coherence is better than 0.95, while in the diurnal band it is about 0.8. Probably this is due to the fact that the noise is higher in the diurnal band (0.4-0.5 nstr) than in the semidiurnal band (0.19-0.22 nstr). Coherence analysis between theoretical and measured data corrected for barometric changes yielded a small improvement of coherence in both frequency bands, while using temperature data correction, no observable improvement was obtained. Results of the tidal analysis also show that the observatory instrument system is suitable for recording very small tectonic movements. The 18 years of continuous data series measured by the extensometer prove the high quality of the extensometer. On the basis of investigations, it was pointed out that further efforts should be done to improve the barometric correction method and that correction for ocean load, as well as considering topographic and cavity effects are necessary to increase the accuracy of determining tidal parameters.

  13. Tomography of core-mantle boundary and lowermost mantle coupled by geodynamics: joint models of shear and compressional velocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaia Soldati

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We conduct joint tomographic inversions of P and S travel time observations to obtain models of delta v_P  and delta v_S in the entire mantle. We adopt a recently published method which takes into account the geodynamic coupling between mantle heterogeneity and core-mantle boundary (CMB topography by viscous flow, where sensitivity of the seismic travel times to the CMB is accounted for implicitly in the inversion (i.e. the CMB topography is not explicitly inverted for. The seismic maps of the Earth's mantle and CMB topography that we derive can explain the inverted seismic data while being physically consistent with each other. The approach involved scaling P-wave velocity (more sensitive to the CMB to density anomalies, in the assumption that mantle heterogeneity has a purely thermal origin, so that velocity and density heterogeneity are proportional to one another. On the other hand, it has sometimes been suggested that S-wave velocity might be more directly sensitive to temperature, while P heterogeneity is more strongly influenced by chemical composition. In the present study, we use only S-, and not P-velocity, to estimate density heterogeneity through linear scaling, and hence the sensitivity of core-reflected P phases to mantle structure. Regardless of whether density is more closely related to P- or S-velocity, we think it is worthwhile to explore both scaling approaches in our efforts to explain seismic data. The similarity of the results presented in this study to those obtained by scaling P-velocity to density suggests that compositional anomaly has a limited impact on viscous flow in the deep mantle.

  14. GRAVITY VARIATIONS AND RECENT GEODYNAMICS OF THE SOUTH-WESTERN PART OF THE BAIKAL REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Yu. Timofeev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern methods for determination of gravity values make it possible to obtain measurements with the accuracy up to 10–9 from g0 of the normal value (up to 1 microgal = 10 m/sec2. While all the systematic and periodic effects are excluded, a question is raised about stability of the gravity field of the Earth over time. Changes of the altitude (the Earth’s radius with time can be estimated with an accuracy of 0.1 mm by modern space geodetic techniques, such as VLBI method. Our experiments for evaluation of stability of the gravity values over the past decades are based on the data obtained by Russian and foreign observatories using absolute ballistic laser gravimeters. The results put a limit of 10–10 per year to changes of the Earth’s radius. These estimations can be useful for testing hypotheses in tectonics.Measurements of non-tidal variations of gravity (Δg, which were obtained from 1992 to 2012 at the Talaya seismic station (located in the south-western part of the Baikal region, are interpreted together with GPS observation data. At the Talaya seismic station, the linear component of gravity variations corresponds to changes in the elevation of this site. The correlation coefficient is close to the normal value of the vertical gradient of gravity. At this site, coseismic gravity variations at the time of the Kultuk earthquake (27 August 2008, Mw=6.3 were caused by a combined effect of the change of the site’s elevation and deformation of the crust. Our estimations of the coseismic effects are consistent with results obtained by modeling based on the available seismic data.

  15. U-Pb zircon geochronology of the Paleogene - Neogene volcanism in the NW Anatolia: Its implications for the Late Mesozoic-Cenozoic geodynamic evolution of the Aegean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersoy, E. Yalçın; Akal, Cüneyt; Genç, Ş. Can; Candan, Osman; Palmer, Martin R.; Prelević, Dejan; Uysal, İbrahim; Mertz-Kraus, Regina

    2017-10-01

    The northern Aegean region was shaped by subduction, obduction, collision, and post-collisional extension processes. Two areas in this region, the Rhodope-Thrace-Biga Peninsula to the west and Armutlu-Almacık-Nallıhan (the Central Sakarya) to the east, are characterized by extensive Eocene to Miocene post-collisional magmatic associations. We suggest that comparison of the Cenozoic magmatic events of these two regions may provide insights into the Late Mesozoic to Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the Aegean. With this aim, we present an improved Cenozoic stratigraphy of the Biga Peninsula derived from a new comprehensive set of U-Pb zircon age data obtained from the Eocene to Miocene volcanic units in the region. The compiled radiometric age data show that calc-alkaline volcanic activity occurred at 43-15 Ma in the Biga Peninsula, 43-17 Ma in the Rhodope and Thrace regions, and 53-38 Ma in the Armutlu-Almacık-Nallıhan region, which are slightly overlapping. We discuss the possible cause for the distinct Cenozoic geodynamic evolution of the eastern and western parts of the region, and propose that the Rhodope, Thrace and Biga regions in the north Aegean share the same Late Mesozoic to Cenozoic geodynamic evolution, which is consistent with continuous subduction, crustal accretion, southwestward trench migration and accompanying extension; all preceded by the Late Cretaceous - Paleocene collision along the Vardar suture zone. In contrast, the Armutlu-Almacık-Nallıhan region was shaped by slab break-off and related processes following the Late Cretaceous - Paleocene collision along the İzmir-Ankara suture zone. The eastern and western parts of the region are presently separated by a northeast-southwest trending transfer zone that was likely originally present as a transform fault in the subducted Tethys oceanic crust, and demonstrates that the regional geodynamic evolution can be strongly influenced by the geographical distribution of geologic features on the

  16. Tectono-sedimentary events and geodynamic evolution of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic basins of the Alpine Margin, Gulf of Tunis, north-eastern Tunisia offshore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melki, Fetheddine; Zouaghi, Taher; Chelbi, Mohamed Ben; Bédir, Mourad; Zargouni, Fouad

    2010-09-01

    The structural pattern, tectono-sedimentary framework and geodynamic evolution for Mesozoic and Cenozoic deep structures of the Gulf of Tunis (north-eastern Tunisia) are proposed using petroleum well data and a 2-D seismic interpretation. The structural system of the study area is marked by two sets of faults that control the Mesozoic subsidence and inversions during the Paleogene and Neogene times: (i) a NE-SW striking set associated with folds and faults, which have a reverse component; and (ii) a NW-SE striking set active during the Tertiary extension episodes and delineating grabens and subsiding synclines. In order to better characterize the tectono-sedimentary evolution of the Gulf of Tunis structures, seismic data interpretations are compared to stratigraphic and structural data from wells and neighbouring outcrops. The Atlas and external Tell belonged to the southernmost Tethyan margin record a geodynamic evolution including: (i) rifting periods of subsidence and Tethyan oceanic accretions from Triassic until Early Cretaceous: we recognized high subsiding zones (Raja and Carthage domains), less subsiding zones (Gamart domain) and a completely emerged area (Raouad domain); (ii) compressive events during the Cenozoic with relaxation periods of the Oligocene-Aquitanian and Messinian-Early Pliocene. The NW-SE Late Eocene and Tortonian compressive events caused local inversions with sealed and eroded folded structures. During Middle to Late Miocene and Early Pliocene, we have identified depocentre structures corresponding to half-grabens and synclines in the Carthage and Karkouane domains. The north-south contractional events at the end of Early Pliocene and Late Pliocene periods are associated with significant inversion of subsidence and synsedimentary folded structures. Structuring and major tectonic events, recognized in the Gulf of Tunis, are linked to the common geodynamic evolution of the north African and western Mediterranean basins.

  17. A simulation to study the feasibility of improving the temporal resolution of LAGEOS geodynamic solutions by using a sequential process noise filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Brian Davis

    1995-01-01

    A key drawback to estimating geodetic and geodynamic parameters over time based on satellite laser ranging (SLR) observations is the inability to accurately model all the forces acting on the satellite. Errors associated with the observations and the measurement model can detract from the estimates as well. These 'model errors' corrupt the solutions obtained from the satellite orbit determination process. Dynamical models for satellite motion utilize known geophysical parameters to mathematically detail the forces acting on the satellite. However, these parameters, while estimated as constants, vary over time. These temporal variations must be accounted for in some fashion to maintain meaningful solutions. The primary goal of this study is to analyze the feasibility of using a sequential process noise filter for estimating geodynamic parameters over time from the Laser Geodynamics Satellite (LAGEOS) SLR data. This evaluation is achieved by first simulating a sequence of realistic LAGEOS laser ranging observations. These observations are generated using models with known temporal variations in several geodynamic parameters (along track drag and the J(sub 2), J(sub 3), J(sub 4), and J(sub 5) geopotential coefficients). A standard (non-stochastic) filter and a stochastic process noise filter are then utilized to estimate the model parameters from the simulated observations. The standard non-stochastic filter estimates these parameters as constants over consecutive fixed time intervals. Thus, the resulting solutions contain constant estimates of parameters that vary in time which limits the temporal resolution and accuracy of the solution. The stochastic process noise filter estimates these parameters as correlated process noise variables. As a result, the stochastic process noise filter has the potential to estimate the temporal variations more accurately since the constraint of estimating the parameters as constants is eliminated. A comparison of the temporal

  18. Miocene shoshonite volcanism in Sardinia: Implications for magma sources and geodynamic evolution of the central-western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beccaluva, Luigi; Bianchini, Gianluca; Mameli, Paola; Natali, Claudio

    2013-11-01

    In this paper we document the existence of a Miocene shoshonite (SHO) volcanism in Northern Sardinia (Anglona). This occurrence completes the spectrum of orogenic magmas related to the subduction process which developed from the Eocene along the Palaeo-European continental margin, in concert with the opening of the Ligurian-Balearic back-arc basin and southeastward drift/rotation of the Sardinia-Corsica continental block. K-Ar ages show that the oldest volcanics of the area are calcalkaline (CA) basalts and andesites (~ 21 Ma), overlain by 19.7-18.4 Ma-old more potassic products such as high-potassium calcalkaline (HK-CA) and SHO lavas. CA, HK-CA and SHO suites include basalts and differentiated lavas of andesite and latite composition, respectively, that (according to the PELE software modelling) represent ~ 40-45% residual liquid fraction after shallow fractional crystallization. Application of the "Arc Magma Simulator" software suggests that the generation of primary melts of the distinct suites may occur at similar degrees of partial melting (5-8%) and melting pressures (2-2.2 GPa, ~ 60-70 km depth) in the mantle wedge. By contrast, the potassic character of parental melts of CA, HK-CA and SHO suites is controlled by 1) the amount of subducted continental components (possibly terrigenous sediments) and 2) the pressure (depth) at which these metasomatic agents are released from the slab. Results suggest that the slab depth beneath the volcanic district increased from ~ 80-100 to 100-120 km for CA and SHO magmas, respectively. Accordingly, the evolution from CA to SHO magmatism in the same plumbing system could be related to slab deepening and increase of the subduction angle of ~ 5-10° in the time span of 2-3 Ma. This tectono-magmatic scenario conforms to the major anticlockwise rotation (~ 30°) event of the Sardinia block (between 20.5 and 18 Ma). This geodynamic evolution preludes the development of the volcanism in the Apennine-Tyrrhenian domains, where the

  19. Unraveling the tectonic history of northwest Africa: Insights from shear-wave splitting, receiver functions, and geodynamic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M. S.; Becker, T. W.; Allam, A. A.; Alpert, L. A.; Di Leo, J. F.; Wookey, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    The complex tectonic history and orogenesis in the westernmost Mediterranean are primarily due to Cenozoic convergence of Africa with Eurasia. The Gibraltar system, which includes the Rif Mountains of Morocco and the Betics in Spain, forms a tight arc around the Alboran Basin. Further to the south the Atlas Mountains of Morocco, an example of an intracontinental fold and thrust belt, display only modest tectonic shortening, yet have unusually high topography. To the south of the Atlas, the anti-Atlas is the oldest mountain range in the region, has the lowest relief, and extends toward the northern extent of the West African Craton. To help unravel the regional tectonics, we use new broadband seismic data from 105 stations across the Gibraltar arc into southern Morocco. We use shear wave splitting analysis for a deep (617 km) local S event and over 230 SKS events to infer azimuthal seismic anisotropy and we image the lithospheric structure with receiver functions. One of the most striking discoveries from these methods is evidence for localized, near vertical-offset deformation of both crust-mantle and lithosphere-asthenosphere interfaces at the flanks of the High Atlas. These offsets coincide with the locations of Jurassic-aged normal faults that were reactivated during the Cenozoic. This suggests that these lithospheric-scale discontinuities were involved in the formation of the Atlas and are still active. Shear wave splitting results show that the inferred stretching axes are aligned with the highest topography in the Atlas, suggesting asthenospheric shearing in mantle flow guided by lithospheric topography. Geodynamic modeling shows that the inferred seismic anisotropy may be produced by the interaction of mantle flow with the subducted slab beneath the Alboran, the West African Craton, and the thinned lithosphere beneath the Atlas. Isostatic modeling based on these lithospheric structure estimates indicates that lithospheric thinning alone does not explain the

  20. Towards an Ontology for the Global Geodynamics Project: Automated Extraction of Resource Descriptions from an XML-Based Data Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumb, L. I.; Aldridge, K. D.

    2005-12-01

    Using the Earth Science Markup Language (ESML), an XML-based data model for the Global Geodynamics Project (GGP) was recently introduced [Lumb & Aldridge, Proc. HPCS 2005, Kotsireas & Stacey, eds., IEEE, 2005, 216-222]. This data model possesses several key attributes -i.e., it: makes use of XML schema; supports semi-structured ASCII format files; includes Earth Science affinities; and is on track for compliance with emerging Grid computing standards (e.g., the Global Grid Forum's Data Format Description Language, DFDL). Favorable attributes notwithstanding, metadata (i.e., data about data) was identified [Lumb & Aldridge, 2005] as a key challenge for progress in enabling the GGP for Grid computing. Even in projects of small-to-medium scale like the GGP, the manual introduction of metadata has the potential to be the rate-determining metric for progress. Fortunately, an automated approach for metadata introduction has recently emerged. Based on Gleaning Resource Descriptions from Dialects of Languages (GRDDL, http://www.w3.org/2004/01/rdxh/spec), this bottom-up approach allows for the extraction of Resource Description Format (RDF) representations from the XML-based data model (i.e., the ESML representation of GGP data) subject to rules of transformation articulated via eXtensible Stylesheet Language Transformations (XSLT). In addition to introducing relationships into the GGP data model, and thereby addressing the metadata requirement, the syntax and semantics of RDF comprise a requisite for a GGP ontology - i.e., ``the common words and concepts (the meaning) used to describe and represent an area of knowledge'' [Daconta et al., The Semantic Web, Wiley, 2003]. After briefly reviewing the XML-based model for the GGP, attention focuses on the automated extraction of an RDF representation via GRDDL with XSLT-delineated templates. This bottom-up approach, in tandem with a top-down approach based on the Protege integrated development environment for ontologies (http

  1. Monitoring Global Geophysical Fluids by Space Geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Benjamin F.; Dehant, V.; Gross, R. S.; Ray, R. D.; Salstein, D. A.; Watkins, M.

    1999-01-01

    Since its establishment on 1/1/1998 by the International Earth Rotation Service, the Coordinating Center for Monitoring Global Geophysical Fluids (MGGF) and its seven Special Bureaus have engaged in an effort to support and facilitate the understanding of the geophysical fluids in global geodynamics research. Mass transports in the atmosphere-hydrosphere-solid Earth-core system (the "global geophysical fluids") will cause the following geodynamic effects on a broad time scale: (1) variations in the solid Earth's rotation (in length-of-day and polar motion/nutation) via the conservation of angular momentum and effected by torques at the fluid-solid Earth interface; (2) changes in the global gravitational field according to Newton's gravitational law; and (3) motion in the center of mass of the solid Earth relative to that of the whole Earth ("geocenter") via the conservation of linear momentum. These minute signals have become observable by space geodetic techniques, primarily VLBI, SLR, GPS, and DORIS, with ever increasing precision/accuracy and temporal/spatial resolution. Each of the seven Special Bureaus within MGGF is responsible for calculations related to a specific Earth component or aspect -- Atmosphere, Ocean, Hydrology, Ocean Tides, Mantle, Core, and Gravity/Geocenter. Angular momenta and torques, gravitational coefficients, and geocenter shift will be computed for geophysical fluids based on global observational data, and from state-of-the-art models, some of which assimilate such data. The computed quantities, algorithm and data formats are standardized. The results are archived and made available to the scientific research community. This paper reports the status of the MGGF activities and current results.

  2. New evidence of effusive and explosive volcanism in the Lower Carboniferous formations of the Moroccan Central Hercynian Massif: Geochemical data and geodynamic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntarmouchant, A.; Smaili, H.; Bento dos Santos, T.; Dahire, M.; Sabri, K.; Ribeiro, M. L.; Driouch, Y.; Santos, R.; Calvo, R.

    2016-03-01

    The Azrou-Khénifra basin, located in the SE sector of the Moroccan Central Hercynian Massif of the Western Meseta of Morocco comprises volcanic and volcanoclastic rocks where two magmatic sequences can be distinguished: i) the Dhar Lahmar Sequence, composed of Upper Visean basaltic lava flows and pyroclastic deposits; and ii) the Kef Al Asri Sequence, composed of Visean - Serpukhovian intermediate to acid rocks. A continuous spatial and temporal evolution between the two volcano-sedimentary sequences was observed during the detailed geological work performed in the studied area. Petrography and geochemical studies additionally suggest a continuous compositional evolution from the more basic magmatic rocks to the intermediate/acid rocks, which implies a cogenetic magmatic differentiation controlled by crystal fractionation (with minor crustal assimilation) of a calc-alkaline trend magmatic suite. The inferred magmatic evolution is consistent with a geodynamic environment of an orogenic zone within an active continental margin setting. This partly explosive Visean - Serpukhovian volcanism, identified for the first time in the Western Meseta of Morocco, displays very similar petrographic and geochemical characteristics to its Eastern Meseta analogues, which implies that the emplacement of these magmatic rocks must have occurred in similar collisional geodynamic settings for both major geological domains, further constraining the evolution of this major crustal segment within the Carboniferous events that shaped the Hercynian Orogeny.

  3. Geodynamics Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This GSL facility has evolved over the last three decades to support survivability and protective structures research. Experimental devices include three gas-driven...

  4. A review of analogue modelling of geodynamic processes: Approaches, scaling, materials and quantification, with an application to subduction experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellart, Wouter P.; Strak, Vincent

    2016-10-01

    We present a review of the analogue modelling method, which has been used for 200 years, and continues to be used, to investigate geological phenomena and geodynamic processes. We particularly focus on the following four components: (1) the different fundamental modelling approaches that exist in analogue modelling; (2) the scaling theory and scaling of topography; (3) the different materials and rheologies that are used to simulate the complex behaviour of rocks; and (4) a range of recording techniques that are used for qualitative and quantitative analyses and interpretations of analogue models. Furthermore, we apply these four components to laboratory-based subduction models and describe some of the issues at hand with modelling such systems. Over the last 200 years, a wide variety of analogue materials have been used with different rheologies, including viscous materials (e.g. syrups, silicones, water), brittle materials (e.g. granular materials such as sand, microspheres and sugar), plastic materials (e.g. plasticine), visco-plastic materials (e.g. paraffin, waxes, petrolatum) and visco-elasto-plastic materials (e.g. hydrocarbon compounds and gelatins). These materials have been used in many different set-ups to study processes from the microscale, such as porphyroclast rotation, to the mantle scale, such as subduction and mantle convection. Despite the wide variety of modelling materials and great diversity in model set-ups and processes investigated, all laboratory experiments can be classified into one of three different categories based on three fundamental modelling approaches that have been used in analogue modelling: (1) The external approach, (2) the combined (external + internal) approach, and (3) the internal approach. In the external approach and combined approach, energy is added to the experimental system through the external application of a velocity, temperature gradient or a material influx (or a combination thereof), and so the system is open

  5. The geological and geodynamic condition on the formation of the Dabashan thrust nappe structure: Based on FLAC numerical modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoning Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Dabashan thrust nappe structure at the southern margin of the Qinling orogenic belt suffered at least two stages of evolution which are Late Triassic plate subduction collisional orogeny between North China block, Qinling micro-plate and Yangtze block followed by intracontinental orogeny since the Meso-Cenozoic. A prominent topography characteristic within the Dabashan area is a southwestward extrusive arc (Bashan Arc fault that is one of key factors to understand the geodynamic condition of the Dabashan thrust nappe structure. In this work, two-dimensional plan-view models are constructed to simulate the collisional and intracontinental orogenic movements, and the factors that may control the formation of the Bashan Arc fault are analysed. The modelling results show that the compressive stress produced by the plates collision along both north and south boundaries is the main driving force. The dextral shearing derived from the inconsistent shape on the block margins is the main controller. Rigid tectonic units such as Bikou and Hanan-Micangshan terranes, Foping and Wudang domes, as well as Shennongjia-Huangling anticline also contribute as “anchor” effects. Additionally, the rheology properties of rock material in the Dabashan area affect the shape of the arc.  Condición geológica y geodinámica para la formación estructural de la falla de cabalgamiento en las montañas Dabashan basada en el modelo numérico del software FLAC  Resumen La estructura de la falla de cabalgamiento de las montañas Dabashan en el margen sur del cinturón orogénico de Qinling sufrió por lo menos dos etapas de evolución, la colisión orogénica del Triásico Superior entre el bloque de la China del Norte, la microplaca de Qinling y el bloque Yangtze, y la orogénesis intracontinental desde el Meso-Cenozoico. Una característica topográfica prominente del área de Dabashan es un arco extrusivo (falla Arco de Bashan hacia el suroeste, que es un

  6. Petrogenetic and geodynamic origin of the Neoarchean Doré Lake Complex, Abitibi subprovince, Superior Province, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Ali; Frei, Robert; Longstaffe, Fred J.; Woods, Ryan

    2018-04-01

    The Neoarchean (ca. 2728 Ma) anorthosite-bearing Doré Lake Complex in the northeastern Abitibi subprovince, Quebec, was emplaced into an association of intra-oceanic tholeiitic basalts and gabbros known as the Obatogamau Formation. The Obatogamau Formation constitutes the lower part of the Roy Group, which is composed of two cycles of tholeiitic-to-calc-alkaline volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks, siliciclastic and chemical sedimentary rocks, and layered mafic-to-ultramafic sills. In this study, we report major and trace element results, and Nd, Sr, Pb and O isotope data for anorthosites, leucogabbros, gabbros and mafic dykes from the Doré Lake Complex and spatially associated basalts and gabbros of the Obatogamau Formation to assess their petrogenetic origin and geodynamic setting. Field and petrographic observations indicate that the Doré Lake Complex and associated volcanic rocks underwent extensive metamorphic alteration under greenschist facies conditions, resulting in widespread epidotization (20-40%) and chloritization (10-40%) of many rock types. Plagioclase recrystallized mainly to anorthite and albite endmembers, erasing intermediate compositions. Metamorphic alteration also led to the mobilization of many elements (e.g., LILE and transition metals) and to significant disturbance of the Rb-Sr and U-Pb isotope systems, resulting in 1935 ± 150 and 3326 ± 270 Ma errorchron ages, respectively. The Sm-Nd isotope system was less disturbed, yielding an errorchron age of 2624 ± 160 Ma. On many binary major and trace element diagrams, the least altered anorthosites and leucogabbros, and the gabbros and mafic dykes of the Doré Lake Complex plot in separate fields, signifying the presence of two distinct magma types in the complex. The gabbros and mafic dykes in the Doré Lake Complex share the geochemical characteristics of tholeiitic basalts and gabbros in the Obatogamau Formation, suggesting a possible genetic link between the two rock associations. Initial

  7. New age (ca. 2970 Ma), mantle source composition and geodynamic constraints on the Archean Fiskenæsset anorthosite complex, SW Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polat, A; Frei, Robert; Scherstén, Anders

    2010-01-01

    The Archean Fiskenæsset Complex, SW Greenland, consists of an association of ca. 550-meter-thick layered anorthosite, leucogabbro, gabbro, and ultramafic rocks (peridotite, pyroxenite, dunite, hornblendite). The complex was intruded by tonalite, trondhjemite, and granodiorite (TTG) sheets (now...... orthogneisses) during thrusting that was followed by several phases of isoclinal folding. The trace element systematics of the Fiskenæsset Complex and associated volcanic rocks are consistent with a supra-subduction zone geodynamic setting. The Fiskenæsset anorthosites, leucogabbros, gabbros and ultramafic...... rocks collectively yield an Sm–Nd errorchron age of 2973 ± 28 Ma (MSWD = 33), with an average initial eNd = + 3.3 ± 0.7, consistent with a long-term depleted mantle source. Regression of Pb isotope data define an age of 2945 ± 36 Ma (MSWD = 44); and the regression line intersects the average growth...

  8. The latest geodynamics in Asia: Synthesis of data on volcanic evolution, lithosphere motion, and mantle velocities in the Baikal-Mongolian region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Rasskazov

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available From a synthesis of data on volcanic evolution, movement of the lithosphere, and mantle velocities in the Baikal-Mongolian region, we propose a comprehensive model for deep dynamics of Asia that assumes an important role of the Gobi, Baikal, and North Transbaikal transition-layer melting anomalies. This layer was distorted by lower-mantle fluxes at the beginning of the latest geodynamic stage (i.e. in the early late Cretaceous due to avalanches of slab material that were stagnated beneath the closed fragments of the Solonker, Ural-Mongolian paleoceans and Mongol-Okhotsk Gulf of Paleo-Pacific. At the latest geodynamic stage, Asia was involved in east–southeast movement, and the Pacific plate moved in the opposite direction with subduction under Asia. The weakened upper mantle region of the Gobi melting anomaly provided a counterflow connected with rollback in the Japan Sea area. These dynamics resulted in the formation of the Honshu-Korea flexure of the Pacific slab. A similar weakened upper mantle region of the North Transbaikal melting anomaly was associated with the formation of the Hokkaido-Amur flexure of the Pacific slab, formed due to progressive pull-down of the slab material into the transition layer in the direction of the Pacific plate and Asia convergence. The early–middle Miocene structural reorganization of the mantle processes in Asia resulted in the development of upper mantle low-velocity domains associated with the development of rifts and orogens. We propose that extension at the Baikal Rift was caused by deviator flowing mantle material, initiated under the moving lithosphere in the Baikal melting anomaly. Contraction at the Hangay orogen was created by facilitation of the tectonic stress transfer from the Indo-Asian interaction zone due to the low-viscosity mantle in the Gobi melting anomaly.

  9. Besshi-type mineral systems in the Palaeoproterozoic Bryah Rift-Basin, Capricorn Orogen, Western Australia: Implications for tectonic setting and geodynamic evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Pirajno

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution we use VMS mineral systems in the Bryah rift-basin to constrain the tectonic setting of the widespread mafic and ultramafic magmatism that characterises the rift-basin in question. Two distinct, but temporally closely associated, lithostratigraphic sequences, Narracoota and Karalundi Formations, are discussed. The Karalundi Formation is the main host of VMS mineral systems in the region. The Karalundi Formation consists of turbiditic and immature clastic sediments, which are locally intercalated with basaltic hyaloclastites, dolerites and banded jaspilites. We propose that the basaltic hyaloclastites, dolerites and clastics and jaspilites rocks, form a distinct unit of the Karalundi Formation, named Noonyereena Member. The VMS mineral systems occur near the north-east trending Jenkin Fault and comprise the giant and world-class DeGrussa and the Red Bore deposits. The nature of these deposits and their intimate association with terrigenous clastic rocks and dominantly marine mafic volcanic and subvolcanic rocks, as well as the common development of peperitic margins, are considered indicative of a Besshi-type environment, similar to that of present-day Gulf of California. Our Re-Os age data from a primary pyrite yielded a mean model age of 2012 ± 48 Ma, which coincides (within error with recent published Re-Os data (Hawke et al., 2015 and confirms the timing of the proposed geodynamic evolution. We propose a geodynamic model that attempts to explain the presence of the Narracoota and Karalundi Formations as the result of mantle plume activity, which began with early uplift of continental crust with intraplate volcanism, followed by early stages of rifting with the deposition of the Karalundi Formation (and Noonyereena Member, which led to the formation of Besshi-type VMS deposits. With on-going mantle plume activity and early stages of continental separation, an oceanic plateau was formed and is now represented by mafic

  10. The tectonometamorphic evolution of the Apuseni Mountains (Romania): Geodynamic constraints for the evolution of the Alps-Carpathians-Dinaride system of orogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiser, Martin; Schuster, Ralf; Fügenschuh, Bernhard

    2015-04-01

    New structural, thermobarometric and geochronological data allow integrating kinematics, timing and intensity of tectonic phases into a geodynamic model of the Apuseni Mountain, which provides new constraints for the evolution of the Alps-Carpathians-Dinaride system of orogens. Strong differences in terms of deformation directions between Early and Late Cretaceous events provide new constraints on the regional geodynamic evolution during the Cretaceous. Geochronological and structural data evidence a Late Jurassic emplacement of the South Apuseni Ophiolites on top of the Biharia Nappe System (Dacia Mega-Unit), situated in an external position at the European margin. Following the emplacement of the ophiolites, three compressive deformation phases affected the Apuseni Mountains during Alpine orogeny: a) NE-directed in-sequence nappe stacking and regional metamorphic overprinting under amphibolite-facies conditions during the Early Cretaceous ("Austrian Phase"), b) NW-directed thrusting and folding, associated with greenschist-facies overprinting, during the early Late Cretaceous ("Turonian Phase") and c) E-W internal folding together with brittle thrusting during the latest Cretaceous ("Laramian Phase"). Major tectonic unroofing and exhumation at the transition from Early to Late Cretaceous times is documented through new Sm-Nd Grt, Ar-Ar Ms and Rb-Sr Bt ages from the study area and resulted in a complex thermal structure with strong lateral and vertical thermal gradients. Nappe stacking and medium-grade metamorphic overprinting during the Early Cretaceous exhibits striking parallels between the evolution of the Tisza-Dacia Mega-Units and the Austroalpine Nappes (ALCAPA Mega-Unit) and evidences a close connection. However, Late Cretaceous tectonic events in the study area exhibit strong similarities with the Dinarides. Thus, the Apuseni Mountains represent the "missing link" between the Early Cretaceous Meliata subduction (associated with obduction of ophiolites

  11. Neighborhood spaces

    OpenAIRE

    D. C. Kent; Won Keun Min

    2002-01-01

    Neighborhood spaces, pretopological spaces, and closure spaces are topological space generalizations which can be characterized by means of their associated interior (or closure) operators. The category NBD of neighborhood spaces and continuous maps contains PRTOP as a bicoreflective subcategory and CLS as a bireflective subcategory, whereas TOP is bireflectively embedded in PRTOP and bicoreflectively embedded in CLS. Initial and final structures are described in these categories, and it is s...

  12. Sacred Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelstein, Pamela

    2018-01-01

    A space can be sacred, providing those who inhabit a particular space with sense of transcendence-being connected to something greater than oneself. The sacredness may be inherent in the space, as for a religious institution or a serene place outdoors. Alternatively, a space may be made sacred by the people within it and events that occur there. As medical providers, we have the opportunity to create sacred space in our examination rooms and with our patient interactions. This sacred space can be healing to our patients and can bring us providers opportunities for increased connection, joy, and gratitude in our daily work.

  13. Sobolev spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, Robert A

    2003-01-01

    Sobolev Spaces presents an introduction to the theory of Sobolev Spaces and other related spaces of function, also to the imbedding characteristics of these spaces. This theory is widely used in pure and Applied Mathematics and in the Physical Sciences.This second edition of Adam''s ''classic'' reference text contains many additions and much modernizing and refining of material. The basic premise of the book remains unchanged: Sobolev Spaces is intended to provide a solid foundation in these spaces for graduate students and researchers alike.* Self-contained and accessible for readers in other disciplines.* Written at elementary level making it accessible to graduate students.

  14. CDDIS: NASA's Archive of Space Geodesy Data and Products Supporting GGOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Carey; Michael, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The Crustal Dynamics Data Information System (CDDIS) supports data archiving and distribution activities for the space geodesy and geodynamics community. The main objectives of the system are to store space geodesy and geodynamics related data and products in a central archive, to maintain information about the archival of these data,to disseminate these data and information in a timely manner to a global scientific research community, and provide user based tools for the exploration and use of the archive. The CDDIS data system and its archive is a key component in several of the geometric services within the International Association of Geodesy (IAG) and its observing systemthe Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS), including the IGS, the International DORIS Service (IDS), the International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS), the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS), and the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS). The CDDIS provides on-line access to over 17 Tbytes of dataand derived products in support of the IAG services and GGOS. The systems archive continues to grow and improve as new activities are supported and enhancements are implemented. Recently, the CDDIS has established a real-time streaming capability for GNSS data and products. Furthermore, enhancements to metadata describing the contents ofthe archive have been developed to facilitate data discovery. This poster will provide a review of the improvements in the system infrastructure that CDDIS has made over the past year for the geodetic community and describe future plans for the system.

  15. On the use of the stabilised Q1P0 element for geodynamical simulations and why this is a bad choice for buyoancy-driven flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieulot, Cedric

    2016-04-01

    Many Finite Element geodynamical codes (Fullsack,1995; Zhong et al., 2000; Thieulot, 2011) are based on bi/tri­-linear velocity constant pressure element (commonly called Q1P0), because of its ease of programming and rather low memory footprint, despite the presence of (pressure) checker­board modes. However, it is long known that the Q1P0 is not inf­-sup stable and does not lend itself to the use of iterative solvers, which makes it a less­ than­ ideal candidate for high resolution 3D models. Other attempts were made more recently (Burstedde et al., 2013; Le Pourhiet et al., 2012) with the use of the stabilised Q1Q1 element (bi/tri­-linear velocity and pressure). This element, while also attractive from an implementation and memory standpoint, suffers a major drawback due to the artificial compressibility introduced by the polynomial projection stabilization. These observations have shifted part of the community towards the Finite Difference Method while the remaining part is now embracing inf­sup stable second­ order elements [May et al., 2015; Kronbichler,2012). Rather surprinsingly, a third option exists when it comes to first ­order elements in the form of the stabilised Q1P0 element, but virtually no literature exists concerning its use for geodynamical applications. I will then recall the specificity of the stabilisation and will carry out a series of benchmark experiments and geodynamical tests to assess its performance. While being shown to work as expected in benchmark experiments, the stabilised Q1P0 element turns out to introduce first-order numerical artefacts in the velocity and pressure solutions in the case of buoyancy-driven flows. Burstedde, C., Stadler, G., Alisic, L., Wilcox, L. C., Tan, E., Gurnis, M., & Ghattas, O. (2013). Large­scale adaptive mantle convection simulation. Geophysical Journal International, 192(3), 889­906. Fullsack, P. (1995). An arbitrary Lagrangian­Eulerian formulation for creeping flows and its application in

  16. Design spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    Digital technologies and media are becoming increasingly embodied and entangled in the spaces and places at work and at home. However, our material environment is more than a geometric abstractions of space: it contains familiar places, social arenas for human action. For designers, the integration...... of digital technology with space poses new challenges that call for new approaches. Creative alternatives to traditional systems methodologies are called for when designers use digital media to create new possibilities for action in space. Design Spaces explores how design and media art can provide creative...... alternatives for integrating digital technology with space. Connecting practical design work with conceptual development and theorizing, art with technology, and usesr-centered methods with social sciences, Design Spaces provides a useful research paradigm for designing ubiquitous computing. This book...

  17. Impact of Magmatism on the Geodynamic Evolution of Southern Georgia on the Example of the Lesser Caucasus Artvin-Bolnisi Block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadradze, Nino; Adamia, Shota; Zakariadze, Guram; Beridze, Tamara; Khutsishvili, Sophio

    2017-04-01

    The Georgian region occupies the central part of the collisional zone between the Eurasian and Africa-Arabian continents and is actually a collage of lithospheric fragments of the Tethyan Ocean and its northern and southern continental margins. Magmatic evolution is an important event in the formation and development of the geological structure of Southern Georgia, where several reliably dated volcanogenic and volcanogenic-sedimentary formations are established. The region represents a modern analogue of continental collision zone, where subduction-related volcanic activity lasted from Paleozoic to the end of Paleogene. After the period of dormancy in the Early-Middle Miocene starting from the Late Miocene and as far as the end of the Pleistocene, primarily subaerial volcanic eruptions followed by formation of volcanic highlands and plateaus occurred in the reigon. The Upper Miocene to Holocene volcanic rocks are related to the transverse Van-Transcaucasian uplift and belong to post-collisional calc- alkaline basalt-andesite-dacite-rhyolite series. A system of island arc and intra-arc rift basins (Artvin-Bolnisi and Achara-Trialeti) have been interpreted as characteristic of the pre-collisional stage of the region development, while syn- post-collisional geodynamic events have been attributed to intracontinental stage. Outcrops of the postcollisional magmatic rocks are exposed along the boundaries of the major tectonic units of the region. The Artvin-Bolnisi unit forms the northwestern part of the Lesser Caucasus and represents an island arc domain of so called the Somkheto-Karabakh Island Arc or Baiburt-Garabagh-Kapan belt. It was formed mainly during the Jurassic-Eocene time interval on the southern margin of the Eurasian plate by nort-dipping subduction of the Neotethys Ocean and subsequent collision to the Anatolia-Iranian continental plate. The Artvin-Bolnisi unit, including the Bolnisi district, was developing as a relatively uplifted island arc-type unit

  18. Geodynamic interpretation of the 40Ar/39Ar dating of ophiolitic and arc-related mafics and metamafics of the northern part of the Anadyr-Koryak region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palandzhyan, S.A.; Layer, P.W.; Patton, W.W.; Khanchuk, A.I.

    2011-01-01

    Isotope datings of amphibole-bearing mafics and metamafics in the northern part of the Anadyr-Koryak region allow clarification of the time of magmatic and metamorphic processes, which are synchronous with certain stages of the geodynamic development of the northwest segment of the Pacific mobile belt in the Phanerozoic. To define the 40Ar/39Ar age of amphiboles, eight samples of amphibole gabbroids and metamafics were selected during field work from five massifs representing ophiolites and mafic plutons of the island arc. Rocks from terranes of three foldbelts: 1) Pekulnei (Chukotka region), 2) Ust-Belaya (West Koryak region), and 3) the Tamvatnei and El'gevayam subterranes of the Mainits terrane (Koryak-Kamchatka region), were studied. The isotope investigations enabled us to divide the studied amphiboles into two groups varying in rock petrographic features. The first was represented by gabbroids of the Svetlorechensk massif of the Pekulnei Range and by ophiolites of the Tamvatnei Mts.; their magmatic amphiboles show the distribution of argon isotopes in the form of clearly distinguished plateau with an age ranging within 120-129 Ma. The second group includes metamorphic amphiboles of metagabbroids and apogabbro amphibolites of the Ust-Belaya Mts., Pekulnei and Kenkeren ranges (El'gevayam subterranes). Their age spectra show loss of argon and do not provide well defined plateaus the datings obtained for them are interpreted as minimum ages. Dates of amphiboles from the metagabbro of the upper tectonic plate of the Ust-Belaya allochthon points to metamorphism in the suprasubduction environment in the fragment of Late Neoproterozoic oceanic lithosphere in Middle-Late Devonian time, long before the Uda-Murgal island arc system was formed. The amphibolite metamorphism in the dunite-clinopyroxenite-metagabbro Pekulnei sequence was dated to occur at the Permian-Triassic boundary. The age of amphiboles from gabbrodiorites of the Kenkeren Range was dated to be Early

  19. Space Commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    A robust and competitive commercial space sector is vital to continued progress in space. The United States is committed to encouraging and facilitating the growth of a U.S. commercial space sector that supports U.S. needs, is globally competitive, and advances U.S. leadership in the generation of new markets and innovation-driven entrepreneurship. Energize competitive domestic industries to participate in global markets and advance the development of: satellite manufacturing; satellite-based services; space launch; terrestrial applications; and increased entrepreneurship. Purchase and use commercial space capabilities and services to the maximum practical extent Actively explore the use of inventive, nontraditional arrangements for acquiring commercial space goods and services to meet United States Government requirements, including measures such as public-private partnerships, . Refrain from conducting United States Government space activities that preclude, discourage, or compete with U.S. commercial space activities. Pursue potential opportunities for transferring routine, operational space functions to the commercial space sector where beneficial and cost-effective.

  20. Development of a software package for determination of geodynamic parameters from combined processing of SLR data from LAGEOS and LEO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Ebauer

    2017-05-01

    Results of different solutions with the use of only LAGEOS data or LAGEOS plus LEO satellites data are presented. Pole coordinates obtained from both solutions show comparable accuracy relative to IERS 08 C04 solution. As for UT1 corrections in terms of Length-of-Day an additional improvement in accuracy is found: 1.0 ms for LAGEOS and 0.2 ms for the combined LAGEOS + LEO solution. Time series of the estimated degree-2 gravity field coefficients show a very good agreement with results of the Center of Space Research (Austin/USA. As a final remark, some future mandatory steps are outlined.

  1. Is the Okavango Delta the terminus of the East African Rift System? Towards a new geodynamic model: Geodetic study and geophysical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastier, Anne-Morwenn; Dauteuil, Olivier; Murray-Hudson, Michael; Moreau, Frédérique; Walpersdorf, Andrea; Makati, Kaelo

    2017-08-01

    The Okavango Graben (OG) has been considered as the terminus of the southwestern branch of the East African Rift System (EARS) since the 1970s based on fault morphology and early seismic and geophysical data. Thus it has been assumed to be an incipient rifting zone, analogous to the early stage of mature rifts in the EARS. Recent geodetic data and geophysical studies in the area bring new insights into the local crust and lithosphere, mantle activity and fault activity. In this study, we computed the velocities for three permanent GPS stations surrounding the graben and undertook a review of the new geophysical data available for the area. The northern and southern blocks of the graben show an exclusively low strike-slip displacement rate of about 1mm/year, revealing the transtensional nature of this basin. The seismic record of central and southern Africa was found to be instrumentally biased for the events recorded before 2004 and the OG may not represent the most seismically active area in Botswana anymore. Moreover, no significant lithosphere and crustal thinning is found in the tectonic structure nor any strong negative Bouguer anomaly and surface heat flux. Thus the OG does not match the classical model for a rifting zone. We propose a new geodynamic model for the deformation observed west of the EARS based on accommodation of far-field deformation due to the differential extension rates of the EARS and the displacement of the Kalahari craton relative to the Nubian plate.

  2. Application of an Integrated and Self-contained Electromagnetic Acoustic Recorder for Monitoring the Rock Mass Structure and Development of Geodynamic Processes in Ore Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bespal’ko Anatoly

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a block diagram of the recorder of electromagnetic and acoustic signals. The recorder provides monitoring of electromagnetic and acoustic signals under changing stress-strain state of heterogeneous materials and rocks. The analog amplifier input sensitivity of electromagnetic signals in 4 channels is 10 μV, that of the electromagnetic signal intensity is 10 μ and that of acoustic signals is 50 μV. The operating frequency range of recording is (1÷100 kHz. The averaging of electromagnetic and acoustic signal amplitudes is performed within 1 or 5 seconds. The data on electromagnetic and acoustic emission materials is recorded in digital format in the internal memory of the recorder. The recorder operates off-line within 7 days. Repeated testing of the recorder in natural conditions of the Tashtagol mine showed that the changes in the amplitude and frequency parameters of electromagnetic signals (EMC indicate the structural damage in mines made of rocks which differ in their electrical properties. Measurements of the intensity of electromagnetic signals enable monitoring the changes in the stress-strain state of rocks during and after blasting and other geodynamic phenomena.

  3. Seventeen Years of Geodynamic Monitoring of a Seismic Gap that was Partially Filled by the Nicoya, Costa Rica, Mw=7.6 Earthquake of September 5th, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protti, M.; Gonzalez, V. M.; Schwartz, S. Y.; Dixon, T. H.; Newman, A. V.; Lundgren, P.; Kaneda, Y.; Kato, T.

    2013-05-01

    Nicoya is a segment of the subduction zone at the Middle American Trench, where the Cocos plate subducts under the Caribbean plate. Nicoya had large earthquakes (Mw>7) in 1853, 1900, 1950 and in 2012. The September 5th, 2012, Mw=7.6, Nicoya earthquake ruptured mainly the deeper portion of the seismogenic zone. Pre, co and post earthquake deformation data suggests that the shallow portion of the plate interface might still be locked. Since 1995 a geodynamic control network has been built up over a around what was defined as the Nicoya seismic gap. The aim of this network was to map and understand the seismogenic zone, as well as to record deformation changes at different stages within the earthquake cycle. The Nicoya peninsula sits on top of the seismogenic zone allowing monitoring crustal deformation in the near field at a much lower cost than on most subduction zones in the world. With the goals of finding the upper and lower limits of the seismogenic zone and for documenting the evolution of loading and stress release along this seismic gap, an international effort involving several institutions from Costa Rica, the United States and Japan has been carried out in the region. This effort involved the installation of temporary and permanent seismic and geodetic networks. We will be presenting the history and results of these networks, including co-seismic records from the September 5th, 2012 Nicoya earthquake and will emphasize on the importance of continuous monitoring for the understanding of subduction zone processes.

  4. Mineralogy and geochemistry of picro-dolerite dykes from the central Deccan Traps flood basaltic province, India, and their geodynamic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongre, Ashish; Viljoen, K. S.; Rathod, A.

    2018-04-01

    Constituent mineral compositions and whole rock major element geochemistry of picro-dolerite dykes from the central part of the Deccan flood basalt province are presented and discussed. The dykes are characterized by an MgO content of about 13 wt%, coupled with 13-16 modal percents of olivine. A high whole rock molar Mg# value of 71 and the presence of magnesian olivine phenocrysts ( Fo78) are consistent with a primitive (i.e. unevolved) geochemistry. The nature and composition of clinopyroxene (augite and pigeonite), plagioclase feldspar (labradorite) and Fe-Ti oxides (mostly ilmenite and magnetite) are also discussed, with implications drawn with respect to the geodynamics. High MgO magmas and rocks such as picrites are generally considered to be indicative of plume magmatism, formed by high degrees of partial melting in, e.g. the high-temperature region of a plume head. Recent age data is consistent with a model in which the Deccan LIP picritic magmatism is associated with the main phase of Deccan Trap activity at 66 Ma, as a result of a syn- to post rifting phase associated with the impact of the Rèunion mantle plume. It is speculated that the differentiation of primary olivine basaltic magma of picritic composition, may have been the mechanism for the generation of alkalic basalts which occurs in the Deccan Trap basaltic sequence.

  5. Integration of space geodesy: A US National Geodetic Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunck, Thomas P.; Neilan, Ruth E.

    2005-11-01

    In the interest of improving the performance and efficiency of space geodesy a diverse group in the US, in collaboration with IGGOS, has begun to establish a unified National Geodetic Observatory (NGO). To launch this effort an international team will conduct a multi-year program of research into the technical issues of integrating SLR, VLBI, and GPS geodesy to produce a unified set of global geodetic products. The goal is to improve measurement accuracy by up to an order of magnitude while lowering the cost to current sponsors. A secondary goal is to expand and diversify international sponsorship of space geodesy. Principal benefits will be to open new vistas of research in geodynamics and surface change while freeing scarce NASA funds for scientific studies. NGO will proceed in partnership with, and under the auspices of, the International Association of Geodesy (IAG) as an element of the Integrated Global Geodetic Observation System project. The collaboration will be conducted within, and will make full use of, the IAG's existing international services: the IGS, IVS, ILRS, and IERS. Seed funding for organizational activities and technical analysis will come from NASA's Solid Earth and Natural Hazards Program. Additional funds to develop an integrated geodetic data system known as Inter-service Data Integration for Geodetic Operations (INDIGO), will come from a separate NASA program in Earth science information technology. INDIGO will offer ready access to the full variety of NASA's space geodetic data and will extend the GPS Seamless Archive (GSAC) philosophy to all space geodetic data types.

  6. Apparent rotation properties of space debris extracted from photometric measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šilha, Jiří; Pittet, Jean-Noël; Hamara, Michal; Schildknecht, Thomas

    2018-02-01

    Knowledge about the rotation properties of space debris objects is essential for the active debris removal missions, accurate re-entry predictions and to investigate the long-term effects of the space environment on the attitude motion change. Different orbital regions and object's physical properties lead to different attitude states and their change over time. Since 2007 the Astronomical Institute of the University of Bern (AIUB) performs photometric measurements of space debris objects. To June 2016 almost 2000 light curves of more than 400 individual objects have been acquired and processed. These objects are situated in all orbital regions, from low Earth orbit (LEO), via global navigation systems orbits and high eccentricity orbit (HEO), to geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO). All types of objects were observed including the non-functional spacecraft, rocket bodies, fragmentation debris and uncorrelated objects discovered during dedicated surveys. For data acquisition, we used the 1-meter Zimmerwald Laser and Astrometry Telescope (ZIMLAT) at the Swiss Optical Ground Station and Geodynamics Observatory Zimmerwald, Switzerland. We applied our own method of phase-diagram reconstruction to extract the apparent rotation period from the light curve. Presented is the AIUB's light curve database and the obtained rotation properties of space debris as a function of object type and orbit.

  7. Learning Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Falmagne, Jean-Claude

    2011-01-01

    Learning spaces offer a rigorous mathematical foundation for practical systems of educational technology. Learning spaces generalize partially ordered sets and are special cases of knowledge spaces. The various structures are investigated from the standpoints of combinatorial properties and stochastic processes. Leaning spaces have become the essential structures to be used in assessing students' competence of various topics. A practical example is offered by ALEKS, a Web-based, artificially intelligent assessment and learning system in mathematics and other scholarly fields. At the heart of A

  8. Space Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horneck, Gerda; Klaus, David M.; Mancinelli, Rocco L.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: The responses of microorganisms (viruses, bacterial cells, bacterial and fungal spores, and lichens) to selected factors of space (microgravity, galactic cosmic radiation, solar UV radiation, and space vacuum) were determined in space and laboratory simulation experiments. In general, microorganisms tend to thrive in the space flight environment in terms of enhanced growth parameters and a demonstrated ability to proliferate in the presence of normally inhibitory levels of antibiotics. The mechanisms responsible for the observed biological responses, however, are not yet fully understood. A hypothesized interaction of microgravity with radiation-induced DNA repair processes was experimentally refuted. The survival of microorganisms in outer space was investigated to tackle questions on the upper boundary of the biosphere and on the likelihood of interplanetary transport of microorganisms. It was found that extraterrestrial solar UV radiation was the most deleterious factor of space. Among all organisms tested, only lichens (Rhizocarpon geographicum and Xanthoria elegans) maintained full viability after 2 weeks in outer space, whereas all other test systems were inactivated by orders of magnitude. Using optical filters and spores of Bacillus subtilis as a biological UV dosimeter, it was found that the current ozone layer reduces the biological effectiveness of solar UV by 3 orders of magnitude. If shielded against solar UV, spores of B. subtilis were capable of surviving in space for up to 6 years, especially if embedded in clay or meteorite powder (artificial meteorites). The data support the likelihood of interplanetary transfer of microorganisms within meteorites, the so-called lithopanspermia hypothesis. PMID:20197502

  9. Space psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parin, V. V.; Gorbov, F. D.; Kosmolinskiy, F. P.

    1974-01-01

    Psychological selection of astronauts considers mental responses and adaptation to the following space flight stress factors: (1) confinement in a small space; (2) changes in three dimensional orientation; (3) effects of altered gravity and weightlessness; (4) decrease in afferent nerve pulses; (5) a sensation of novelty and danger; and (6) a sense of separation from earth.

  10. Borel Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Berberian, S K

    2002-01-01

    A detailed exposition of G.W. Mackey's theory of Borel spaces (standard, substandard, analytic), based on results in Chapter 9 of Bourbaki's General Topology. Appended are five informal lectures on the subject (given at the CIMPA/ICPAM Summer School, Nice, 1986), sketching the connection between Borel spaces and representations of operator algebras.

  11. Space engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Harold L.

    1991-01-01

    Human productivity was studied for extravehicular tasks performed in microgravity, particularly including in-space assembly of truss structures and other large objects. Human factors research probed the anthropometric constraints imposed on microgravity task performance and the associated workstation design requirements. Anthropometric experiments included reach envelope tests conducted using the 3-D Acoustic Positioning System (3DAPS), which permitted measuring the range of reach possible for persons using foot restraints in neutral buoyancy, both with and without space suits. Much neutral buoyancy research was conducted using the support of water to simulate the weightlessness environment of space. It became clear over time that the anticipated EVA requirement associated with the Space Station and with in-space construction of interplanetary probes would heavily burden astronauts, and remotely operated robots (teleoperators) were increasingly considered to absorb the workload. Experience in human EVA productivity led naturally to teleoperation research into the remote performance of tasks through human controlled robots.

  12. Space polypropulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellett, B. J.; Griffin, D. K.; Bingham, R.; Campbell, R. N.; Forbes, A.; Michaelis, M. M.

    2008-05-01

    Hybrid space propulsion has been a feature of most space missions. Only the very early rocket propulsion experiments like the V2, employed a single form of propulsion. By the late fifties multi-staging was routine and the Space Shuttle employs three different kinds of fuel and rocket engines. During the development of chemical rockets, other forms of propulsion were being slowly tested, both theoretically and, relatively slowly, in practice. Rail and gas guns, ion engines, "slingshot" gravity assist, nuclear and solar power, tethers, solar sails have all seen some real applications. Yet the earliest type of non-chemical space propulsion to be thought of has never been attempted in space: laser and photon propulsion. The ideas of Eugen Saenger, Georgii Marx, Arthur Kantrowitz, Leik Myrabo, Claude Phipps and Robert Forward remain Earth-bound. In this paper we summarize the various forms of nonchemical propulsion and their results. We point out that missions beyond Saturn would benefit from a change of attitude to laser-propulsion as well as consideration of hybrid "polypropulsion" - which is to say using all the rocket "tools" available rather than possibly not the most appropriate. We conclude with three practical examples, two for the next decades and one for the next century; disposal of nuclear waste in space; a grand tour of the Jovian and Saturnian moons - with Huygens or Lunoxod type, landers; and eventually mankind's greatest space dream: robotic exploration of neighbouring planetary systems.

  13. Knowledge spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Doignon, Jean-Paul

    1999-01-01

    Knowledge spaces offer a rigorous mathematical foundation for various practical systems of knowledge assessment. An example is offered by the ALEKS system (Assessment and LEarning in Knowledge Spaces), a software for the assessment of mathematical knowledge. From a mathematical standpoint, knowledge spaces generalize partially ordered sets. They are investigated both from a combinatorial and a stochastic viewpoint. The results are applied to real and simulated data. The book gives a systematic presentation of research and extends the results to new situations. It is of interest to mathematically oriented readers in education, computer science and combinatorics at research and graduate levels. The text contains numerous examples and exercises and an extensive bibliography.

  14. Space Bugz!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birke, Alexander; Schoenau-Fog, Henrik; Reng, Lars

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents Space Bugz! - a novel crowd game for large venues or cinemas that utilises the audience's smartphones as controllers for the game. This paper explains what crowd gaming is and describes how the approach used in Space Bugz! enables more advanced gameplay concepts and individual...... player control than current technologies allow. The gameplay of Space Bugz! is then explained along with the technical architecture of the game. After this, the iterative design process used to create the game is described together with future perspectives. The article concludes with links to a video...

  15. Space dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corno, S.E.

    1995-01-01

    Analytical methods for Space Dynamics of fission reactors, are presented. It is shown how a few sample problems in space dynamics can be solved, within the one and two group diffusion model, by purely analytical tools, essentially based on Laplace transform and complex Green function techniques. A quite suggestive generalization of this approach, applicable to the fluid core reactors, whose fuel is undergoing a violent mixing, is reported and briefly discussed. (author)

  16. Geodynamic controls on the contamination of Cenozoic arc magmas in the southern Central Andes: Insights from the O and Hf isotopic composition of zircon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rosemary E.; Kirstein, Linda A.; Kasemann, Simone A.; Dhuime, Bruno; Elliott, Tim; Litvak, Vanesa D.; Alonso, Ricardo; Hinton, Richard

    2015-09-01

    Subduction zones, such as the Andean convergent margin of South America, are sites of active continental growth and crustal recycling. The composition of arc magmas, and therefore new continental crust, reflects variable contributions from mantle, crustal and subducted reservoirs. Temporal (Ma) and spatial (km) variations in these contributions to southern Central Andean arc magmas are investigated in relation to the changing plate geometry and geodynamic setting of the southern Central Andes (28-32° S) during the Cenozoic. The in-situ analysis of O and Hf isotopes in zircon, from both intrusive (granitoids) and extrusive (basaltic andesites to rhyolites) Late Cretaceous - Late Miocene arc magmatic rocks, combined with high resolution U-Pb dating, demonstrates distinct across-arc variations. Mantle-like δ18O(zircon) values (+5.4‰ to +5.7‰ (±0.4 (2σ))) and juvenile initial εHf(zircon) values (+8.3 (±0.8 (2σ)) to +10.0 (±0.9 (2σ))), combined with a lack of zircon inheritance suggests that the Late Cretaceous (∼73 Ma) to Eocene (∼39 Ma) granitoids emplaced in the Principal Cordillera of Chile formed from mantle-derived melts with very limited interaction with continental crustal material, therefore representing a sustained period of upper crustal growth. Late Eocene (∼36 Ma) to Early Miocene (∼17 Ma) volcanic arc rocks present in the Frontal Cordillera have 'mantle-like' δ18O(zircon) values (+4.8‰ (±0.2 (2σ) to +5.8‰ (±0.5 (2σ))), but less radiogenic initial εHf(zircon) values (+1.0 (±1.1 (2σ)) to +4.0 (±0.6 (2σ))) providing evidence for mixing of mantle-derived melts with the Late Paleozoic - Early Mesozoic basement (up to ∼20%). The assimilation of both Late Paleozoic - Early Mesozoic Andean crust and a Grenville-aged basement is required to produce the higher than 'mantle-like' δ18O(zircon) values (+5.5‰ (±0.6 (2σ) to +7.2‰ (±0.4 (2σ))) and unradiogenic, initial εHf(zircon) values (-3.9 (±1.0 (2σ)) to +1.6 (±4.4 (2

  17. The role of changing geodynamics in the progressive contamination of Late Cretaceous to Late Miocene arc magmas in the southern Central Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rosemary E.; Kirstein, Linda A.; Kasemann, Simone A.; Litvak, Vanesa D.; Poma, Stella; Alonso, Ricardo N.; Hinton, Richard; EIMF

    2016-10-01

    The tectonic and geodynamic setting of the southern Central Andean convergent margin changed significantly between the Late Cretaceous and the Late Miocene, influencing magmatic activity and its geochemical composition. Here we investigate how these changes, which include changing slab-dip angle and convergence angles and rates, have influenced the contamination of the arc magmas with crustal material. Whole rock geochemical data for a suite of Late Cretaceous to Late Miocene arc rocks from the Pampean flat-slab segment (29-31 °S) of the southern Central Andes is presented alongside petrographic observations and high resolution age dating. In-situ U-Pb dating of magmatic zircon, combined with Ar-Ar dating of plagioclase, has led to an improved regional stratigraphy and provides an accurate temporal constraint for the geochemical data. A generally higher content of incompatible trace elements (e.g. Nb/Zr ratios from 0.019 to 0.083 and Nb/Yb from 1.5 to 16.4) is observed between the Late Cretaceous ( 72 Ma), when the southern Central Andean margin is suggested to have been in extension, and the Miocene when the thickness of the continental crust increased and the angle of the subducting Nazca plate shallowed. Trace and rare earth element compositions obtained for the Late Cretaceous to Late Eocene arc magmatic rocks from the Principal Cordillera of Chile, combined with a lack of zircon inheritance, suggest limited assimilation of the overlying continental crust by arc magmas derived from the mantle wedge. A general increase in incompatible, fluid-mobile/immobile (e.g., Ba/Nb) and fluid-immobile/immobile (e.g., Nb/Zr) trace element ratios is attributed to the influence of the subducting slab on the melt source region and/or the influx of asthenospheric mantle. The Late Oligocene ( 26 Ma) to Early Miocene ( 17 Ma), and Late Miocene ( 6 Ma) arc magmatic rocks present in the Frontal Cordillera show evidence for the bulk assimilation of the Permian-Triassic (P

  18. Space Geodesy Monitoring Mass Transport in Global Geophysical Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Benjamin F.

    2004-01-01

    Mass transports occurring in the atmosphere-hydrosphere-cryosphere-solid Earth-core system (the 'global geophysical fluids') are important geophysical phenomena. They occur on all temporal and spatial scales. Examples include air mass and ocean circulations, oceanic and solid tides, hydrological water and idsnow redistribution, mantle processes such as post-glacial rebound, earthquakes and tectonic motions, and core geodynamo activities. The temporal history and spatial pattern of such mass transport are often not amenable to direct observations. Space geodesy techniques, however, have proven to be an effective tool in monitorihg certain direct consequences of the mass transport, including Earth's rotation variations, gravitational field variations, and the geocenter motion. Considerable advances have been made in recent years in observing and understanding of these geodynamic effects. This paper will use several prominent examples to illustrate the triumphs in research over the past years under a 'Moore's law' in space geodesy. New space missions and projects promise to further advance our knowledge about the global mass transports. The latter contributes to our understanding of the geophysical processes that produce and regulate the mass transports, as well as of the solid Earth's response to such changes in terms of Earth's mechanical properties.

  19. Miocene volcanism in the Oaş-Gutâi Volcanic Zone, Eastern Carpathians, Romania: Relationship to geodynamic processes in the Transcarpathian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Marinel; Seghedi, Ioan; Yamamoto, Masatsugu; Fülöp, Alexandrina; Pécskay, Zoltán; Jurje, Maria

    2017-12-01

    We present the first comprehensive study of Miocene volcanic rocks of the Oaş-Gutâi Volcanic Zone (OGVZ), Romania, which are exposed in the eastern Transcarpathian Basin (TB), within the Eastern Alpine-Western Carpathian-Northern Pannonian (ALCAPA) block. Collision between the ALCAPA block and Europe at 18-16 Ma produced the Carpathian fold-and-thrust belt. This was followed by clockwise rotation and an extensional regime forming core complexes of the separated TB fragment. Based on petrographic and geochemical data, including Srsbnd Nd isotopic compositions and Ksbnd Ar ages, we distinguish three types of volcanic activity in the OGVZ: (1) early Miocene felsic volcanism that produced caldera-related ignimbrites in the Gutâi Mountains (15.4-14.8 Ma); (2) widespread middle-late Miocene intermediate/andesitic volcanism (13.4-7.0 Ma); and (3) minor late Miocene andesitic/rhyolitic volcanism comprising the Oraşu Nou rhyolitic volcano and several andesitic-dacitic domes in the Oaş Mountains (11.3-9.5 Ma). We show that magma evolution in the OGVZ was controlled by assimilation-fractional crystallization and magma-mixing processes within an interconnected multi-level crustal magmatic reservoir. The evolution of volcanic activity within the OGVZ was controlled by the geodynamics of the Transcarpathian Basin. The early felsic and late intermediate Miocene magmas were emplaced in a post-collisional setting and were derived from a mantle source region that was modified by subduction components (dominantly sediment melts) and lower crust. The style of volcanism within the eastern TB system exhibits spatial variations, with andesitic composite volcanoes (Gutâi Mountains) observed at the margins, and isolated andesitic-rhyolitic monogenetic volcanoes (Oaş Mountains) in the center of the basin.

  20. Isotope geochemistry of recent magmatism in the Aegean arc: Sr, Nd, Hf, and O isotopic ratios in the lavas of Milos and Santorini-geodynamic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briqueu, L.; Javoy, M.; Lancelot, J.R.; Tatsumoto, M.

    1986-01-01

    In this comparative study of variations in the isotopic compositions (Sr, Nd, O and Hf) of the calc-alkaline magmas of the largest two volcanoes, Milos and Santorini, of the Aegean arc (eastern Mediterranean) we demonstrate the complexity of the processes governing the evolution of the magmas on the scale both of the arc and of each volcano. On Santorini, the crustal contamination processes have been limited, effecting the magma gradually during its differentiation. The most differentiated lavas (rhyodacite and pumice) are also the most contaminated. On Milos, by contrast, these processes are very extensive. They are expressed in the 143Nd/144Nd vs. 87Sr/86Sr diagram as a continuous mixing curve between a mantle and a crustal end member pole defined by schists and metavolcanic rocks outcropping on these volcanoes. In contrast with Santorini, the least differentiated lavas on Milos are the most contaminated. These isotopic singularities can be correlated with the geodynamic evolution of the Aegean subduction zone, consisting of alternating tectonic phases of distension and compression. The genesis of rhyolitic magmas can be linked to the two phases of distension, and the contamination of the calc-alkaline mantle-derived magmas with the intermediate compressive phase. The isotopic characteristics of uncontaminated calc-alkaline primitive magmas of Milos and Santorini are directly comparable to those of magmas generated in subduction zones for which a contribution of subducted sediments to partial melts from the mantle is suggested, such as in the Aleutian, Sunda, and lesser Antilles island arcs. However, in spite of the importance of the sediment pile in the eastern Mediterranen oceanic crust (6-10 km), the contribution of the subducted terrigenous materials remains of limited amplitude. ?? 1986.

  1. Macro- and micro- geodynamic of Terebliya-Riksk geodetic man-caused polygon of Ukrainian Carpathians influenced by specificities of structure-geological and hydro-geological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulchyzkyy, A.; Serebryannyy, Y.; Tretyak, K.; Trevogo, I.; Zadoroznnyy, V.

    2009-04-01

    Terebliya-Riksk diversion power station is located on two levels ( with difference of 180m ) of south mountainside of Ukrainian Carpathians and separate parts of this power station lie inside rock. Therefore influential parameters of it's stability are geological, tectonic and hydrogeological conditions in complex. Monitoring of intensity and nature of displacements of flow ( pressure) pipe and other objects of power station with geoditic methods indicates that fluctuations of water-level in reservoir caused bouth by natural and artificial efects are of great influence on objects mentioned. Based on geodetical high-precision observations made by LeicaTPS 1201 robotic total station short-periodic components of fundamental vibrations which result in their destructive deformation were determined. Mathematical apparatus ( which uses function of Fourie series and theory of cinematic coefficients ) for displacements determinations of pressure pipe was disigned. Complex of engineering-geological surveys gave an opportunity to define the origin of macro- and micro- geodynamics movements of Terebliya-Riksk diversion power station region. Engineering-geological conditions which influence on power station structure most of all were determined as following : small foldings and cleavage areas appearances, also fluctuations of level of underground water (refered to hydrogeological conditions). Periodic micro-displacemets appearances ( which operate on reducing-stretching scheme) fixed on power station structure are turned to be in direct relation on to what exend reservoir is filled up. Permanent macro- displacements appearances ( which operates in north-west direction ) fixed on pressure pipe are the result sum of residual micro-displacements caused by return periodic movements and are determined by structure-geological, engineering-geological and tectonic conditions.

  2. Geochemistry and chronology of the early Paleozoic diorites and granites in the Huangtupo volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposit, Eastern Tianshan, NW China: Implications for petrogenesis and geodynamic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jiahao; Chai, Fengmei; Feng, Wanyi; Yang, Fuquan; Shen, Ping

    2018-03-01

    The Eastern Tianshan orogen contains many late Paleozoic porphyry Cu and magmatic Cu-Ni deposits. Recent studies demonstrate that several early Paleozoic volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) Cu-polymetallic and porphyry Cu deposits were discovered in the northern part of Eastern Tianshan. This study presents zircon U-Pb, whole-rock geochemical, and Sr-Nd isotopic data for granites and diorites from the Huangtupo VMS Cu-Zn deposit, northern part of the Eastern Tianshan. Our results can provide constraints on the genesis of intermediate and felsic intrusions as well as early Paleozoic geodynamic setting of the northern part of Eastern Tianshan. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb analyses suggest that the granites and diorites were formed at 435 ± 2 Ma and 440 ± 2 Ma, respectively. Geochemical characteristics suggest that the Huangtupo granites and diorites are metaluminous rocks, exhibiting typical subduction-related features such as enrichment in LILE and LREE and depletion in HFSE. The diorites have moderate Mg#, positive εNd(t) values (+6.4 to +7.3), and young Nd model ages, indicative of a depleted mantle origin. The granites exhibit mineral assemblages and geochemical characteristics of I-type granites, and they have positive εNd(t) values (+6.7 to +10.2) and young Nd model ages, suggesting a juvenile crust origin. The early Paleozoic VMS Cu-polymetallic and porphyry Cu deposits in the northern part of Eastern Tianshan were genetically related. The formation of the early Paleozoic magmatic rocks as well as VMS and porphyry Cu deposits in the northern part of Eastern Tianshan was due to a southward subduction of the Junggar oceanic plate.

  3. The lithosphere architecture and geodynamic of the Middle and Lower Yangtze metallogenic belt in eastern China: constraints from integrated geophysical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Qingtian; Shi, Danian; Jiang, Guoming; Dong, Shuwen

    2014-05-01

    The lithosphere structure and deep processes are keys to understanding mineral system and ore-forming processes. Lithosphere-scale process could create big footprints or signatures which can be observed by geophysics methods. SinoProbe has conducted an integrated deep exploration across middle and lower reaches of Yangtze Metallogenic Belt (YMB) in Eastern China, these included broadband seismic, reflection seismic, wide-angle reflection and magnetotellurics survey. Seismic reflection profiles and MT survey were also performed in Luzong, Tongling and Ningwu ore districts to construct 3D geological model. The resulting geophysical data provides new information which help to better understanding the lithosphere structure, geodynamic, deformation and heat and mass transportation that lead to the formation of the Metallogenic Belt. The major results are: (1) Lower velocity body at the top of upper mantle and a SE dipping high velocity body were imaged by teleseismic tomography beneath YMB; (2) Shear wave splitting results show NE parallel fast-wave polarization direction which parallel with tectonic lineament; (3) The reflection seismic data support the crustal-detachment model, the lower and upper crust was detached during contraction deformation near Tanlu fault and Ningwu volcanic basin; (4) Broadband and reflection seismic confirm the shallow Moho beneath YMB; (5) Strong correlation of lower crust reflectivity with magmatism; (6) The lower crust below Luzong Volcanics shows obvious reflective anisotropy both at the crust-mantle transition and the brittle-ductile transition in the crust. All these features suggest that introcontinental subduction, lithosphere delamination, mantle sources magmatic underplating, and MASH process are responsible for the formation of this Mesozoic metallogenic belt. Acknowledgment: We acknowledge the financial support of SinoProbe by the Ministry of Finance and Ministry of Land and Resources, P. R. China, under Grant sinoprobe-03, and

  4. Petrological Geodynamics of Mantle Melting I. AlphaMELTS + Multiphase Flow: Dynamic Equilibrium Melting, Method and Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Tirone

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The complex process of melting in the Earth's interior is studied by combining a multiphase numerical flow model with the program AlphaMELTS which provides a petrological description based on thermodynamic principles. The objective is to address the fundamental question of the effect of the mantle and melt dynamics on the composition and abundance of the melt and the residual solid. The conceptual idea is based on a 1-D description of the melting process that develops along an ideal vertical column where local chemical equilibrium is assumed to apply at some level in space and time. By coupling together the transport model and the chemical thermodynamic model, the evolution of the melting process can be described in terms of melt distribution, temperature, pressure and solid and melt velocities but also variation of melt and residual solid composition and mineralogical abundance at any depth over time. In this first installment of a series of three contributions, a two-phase flow model (melt and solid assemblage is developed under the assumption of complete local equilibrium between melt and a peridotitic mantle (dynamic equilibrium melting, DEM. The solid mantle is also assumed to be completely dry. The present study addresses some but not all the potential factors affecting the melting process. The influence of permeability and viscosity of the solid matrix are considered in some detail. The essential features of the dynamic model and how it is interfaced with AlphaMELTS are clearly outlined. A detailed and explicit description of the numerical procedure should make this type of numerical models less obscure. The general observation that can be made from the outcome of several simulations carried out for this work is that the melt composition varies with depth, however the melt abundance not necessarily always increases moving upwards. When a quasi-steady state condition is achieved, that is when melt abundance does not varies significantly

  5. public spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The topic of this issue is PUBLIC SPACES. It is familiar and clear to every citizen. The streets and courtyards as childhood experiences remain with us forever. And these are the places where we come with our parents at weekends, where we meet friends, where we have dates and where we already come for a walk with our children.The history of public spaces is long and captivating. It was the main city squares where the most important events took place in history. The Agoras of Ancient Greece and the Roman Forums, the squares of Vatican, Paris and London, Moscow and Saint Petersburg… Greve, Trafalgar, Senate, Palace, Red, Bolotnaya – behind every name there is life of capitals, countries and nations.Public spaces, their shapes, image and development greatly influence the perception of the city as a whole. Both visitors and inhabitants can see in public spaces not only the visage but the heart, the soul and the mind of the city.Unfortunately, sometimes we have to prove the value of public spaces and defend them from those who consider them nothing but a blank space, nobody’s land destined for barbarous development.What should happen to make citizens perceive public spaces as their own and to make authorities consider development and maintenance of squares and parks their priority task against the  background of increasing competition between cities and the fight for human capital? Lately they more often say about “a high-quality human capital”. And now, when they say “the city should be liveable” they add “for all groups of citizens, including the creative class”.

  6. Space Rescue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratore, John F.

    2007-01-01

    Space Rescue has been a topic of speculation for a wide community of people for decades. Astronauts, aerospace engineers, diplomats, medical and rescue professionals, inventors and science fiction writers have all speculated on this problem. Martin Caidin's 1964 novel Marooned dealt with the problems of rescuing a crew stranded in low earth orbit. Legend at the Johnson Space Center says that Caidin's portrayal of a Russian attempt to save the American crew played a pivotal role in convincing the Russians to join the real joint Apollo-Soyuz mission. Space Rescue has been a staple in science fiction television and movies portrayed in programs such as Star Trek, Stargate-SG1 and Space 1999 and movies such as Mission To Mars and Red Planet. As dramatic and as difficult as rescue appears in fictional accounts, in the real world it has even greater drama and greater difficulty. Space rescue is still in its infancy as a discipline and the purpose of this chapter is to describe the issues associated with space rescue and the work done so far in this field. For the purposes of this chapter, the term space rescue will refer to any system which allows for rescue or escape of personnel from situations which endanger human life in a spaceflight operation. This will span the period from crew ingress prior to flight through crew egress postlanding. For the purposes of this chapter, the term primary system will refer to the spacecraft system that a crew is either attempting to escape from or from which an attempt is being made to rescue the crew.

  7. Two-phase convection in the high-pressure ice layer of the large icy moons: geodynamical implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalousova, K.; Sotin, C.; Tobie, G.; Choblet, G.; Grasset, O.

    2015-12-01

    Geophysics, 10.15, 509-539. [2] Vance et al. (2014), Planet. Space Sci., 96, 62-70. [3] Kalousova et al. (2014), J. Geophys. Res. Planets, 119(3), 532-549. [4] Tobie et al. (2014), AGU, P43C-3999. [5] Soucek et al. (2014), Geophys. Astro. Fluid, 108(6), 639-666.

  8. Underground spaces/cybernetic spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Novljan

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A modern city space is a space where in the vertical and horizontal direction dynamic, non-linear processes exist, similar as in nature. Alongside the “common” city surface, cities have underground spaces as well that are increasingly affecting the functioning of the former. It is the space of material and cybernetic communication/transport. The psychophysical specifics of using underground places have an important role in their conceptualisation. The most evident facts being their limited volume and often limited connections to the surface and increased level of potential dangers of all kinds. An efficient mode for alleviating the effects of these specific features are artistic interventions, such as: shape, colour, lighting, all applications of the basic principles of fractal theory.

  9. Environmental spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Gutzon

    Using the development of intergovernmental environmental cooperation in the Baltic Sea area as a concrete example, the aim of this study is to explore how the 'environment' in situations of environmental interdependence is identified and institutionalised as political-geographical objects....... 'Environmental interdependence' is to this end conceptualised as a tension between 'political spaces' of discrete state territories and 'environmental spaces' of spatially nested ecosystems. This tension between geographies of political separateness and environmental wholeness is the implicit or explicit basis...... for a large and varied literature. But in both its critical and problemsolving manifestations, this literature tends to naturalise the spatiality of environmental concerns: environmental spaces are generally taken for granted. On the suggestion that there is a subtle politics to the specification...

  10. Tsirelson's space

    CERN Document Server

    Casazza, Peter G

    1989-01-01

    This monograph provides a structure theory for the increasingly important Banach space discovered by B.S. Tsirelson. The basic construction should be accessible to graduate students of functional analysis with a knowledge of the theory of Schauder bases, while topics of a more advanced nature are presented for the specialist. Bounded linear operators are studied through the use of finite-dimensional decompositions, and complemented subspaces are studied at length. A myriad of variant constructions are presented and explored, while open questions are broached in almost every chapter. Two appendices are attached: one dealing with a computer program which computes norms of finitely-supported vectors, while the other surveys recent work on weak Hilbert spaces (where a Tsirelson-type space provides an example).

  11. Space doubt

    OpenAIRE

    Rega, Joseph Mark

    2003-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Comunicação e Expressão. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Inglês e Literatura Correspondente. The recent surge in cyberspace science fiction follows previous trends within the genre, i.e. those connected with future city-space and outer space, and is an inevitable result of economic forces. There has always been a close relationship between capitalism and spatial expansion, compelled by technological innovations that ha...

  12. Transit space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raahauge, Kirsten Marie

    2008-01-01

    This article deals with representations of one specific city, Århus, Denmark, especially its central district. The analysis is based on anthropological fieldwork conducted in Skåde Bakker and Fedet, two well-off neighborhoods. The overall purpose of the project is to study perceptions of space...... and the interaction of cultural, social, and spatial organizations, as seen from the point of view of people living in Skåde Bakker and Fedet. The focus is on the city dwellers’ representations of the central district of Århus with specific reference to the concept of transit space. When applied to various Århusian...

  13. Into Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN PUMIN

    2010-01-01

    @@ China plans to launch an unmanned space module,Tiangong 1,in 2011,said Qi Faren,the chief designer of China's Shenzhou spacecraft,at the sidelines of the annual plenary session of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference(CPPCC),the country's top political advisory body,on March 3.

  14. Training Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Margery

    2010-01-01

    Creating a balanced learning space for employees is about more than trying different types of seating. It is a challenge that an affect how well employees absorb the lessons and whether they will be able to product better results for the company. The possible solutions are as diverse as the learners. This article describes how three companies…

  15. Space Gerontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miquel, J. (Editor); Economos, A. C. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Presentations are given which address the effects of space flght on the older person, the parallels between the physiological responses to weightlessness and the aging process, and experimental possibilities afforded by the weightless environment to fundamental research in gerontology and geriatrics.

  16. Trading Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cort, Cliff

    2006-01-01

    Education administrators face the dual dilemma of crowded, aging facilities and tightening capital budgets. The challenge is to build the necessary classroom, laboratory and activity space while minimizing the length and expense of the construction process. One solution that offers an affordable alternative is modular construction, a method that…

  17. Space research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tempelmayer, A.

    2000-01-01

    Space research in Austria began since 1969 and has its roots in Graz. An overview of the projects performed by Austrian organizations such as local network interconnection via satellites systems, MIGMAS (Microanalysis station), ALP-SAT (Autonomous Libration Point-Satellite), MIDAS (Micro-imaging dust analysis system), among others are described. (nevyjel)

  18. Space Conquest

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    An old water tank from the time of the ISR is being converted into a temporary store for ATLAS muon chambers. This is the last chapter in the big programme by the PH Department to make better use of space at CERN.

  19. WORKSHOP: Inner space - outer space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    During the first week of May, the Fermilab theoretical astrophysics group hosted an international conference on science at the interface of particle physics and cosmology/astrophysics. The conference (Inner Space-Outer Space) was attended by a very diverse group of more than 200 physical scientists, including astronomers, astrophysicists, cosmologists, low-temperature physicists, and elementary particle theorists and experimentalists. The common interest which brought this diverse group to gether is the connection between physics on the smallest scale probed by man - the realm of elementary particle physics - and physics on the largest scale imaginable (the entire Universe) - the realm of cosmology

  20. WORKSHOP: Inner space - outer space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1984-09-15

    During the first week of May, the Fermilab theoretical astrophysics group hosted an international conference on science at the interface of particle physics and cosmology/astrophysics. The conference (Inner Space-Outer Space) was attended by a very diverse group of more than 200 physical scientists, including astronomers, astrophysicists, cosmologists, low-temperature physicists, and elementary particle theorists and experimentalists. The common interest which brought this diverse group to gether is the connection between physics on the smallest scale probed by man - the realm of elementary particle physics - and physics on the largest scale imaginable (the entire Universe) - the realm of cosmology.

  1. Discovery of Miocene adakitic dacite from the Eastern Pontides Belt (NE Turkey) and a revised geodynamic model for the late Cenozoic evolution of the Eastern Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyuboglu, Yener; Santosh, M.; Yi, Keewook; Bektaş, Osman; Kwon, Sanghoon

    2012-08-01

    The Cenozoic magmatic record within the ca. 500 km long eastern Pontides orogen, located within the Alpine metallogenic belt, is critical to evaluate the tectonic history and geodynamic evolution of the eastern Mediterranean region. In this paper we report for the first time late Miocene adakitic rocks from the southeastern part of the eastern Pontides belt and present results from geochemical and Sr-Nd isotopic studies as well as zircon U-Pb geochronology. The Tavdagi dacite that we investigate in this study is exposed as round or ellipsoidal shaped bodies, sills, and dikes in the southeastern part of the belt. Zircons in the dacite show euhedral crystal morphology with oscillatory zoning and high Th/U values (up to 1.69) typical of magmatic origin. Zircon LA-ICPMS analysis yielded a weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 7.86 ± 0.15 Ma. SHRIMP analyses of zircons with typical magmatic zoning from another sample yielded a weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 8.79 ± 0.19 Ma. Both ages are identical and constrain the timing of dacitic magmatism as late Miocene. The Miocene Tavdagi dacite shows adakitic affinity with high SiO2 (68.95-71.41 wt.%), Al2O3 (14.88-16.02 wt.%), Na2O (3.27-4.12 wt.%), Sr (331.4-462.1 ppm), Sr/Y (85-103.7), LaN/YbN (34.3-50.9) and low Y (3.2-5 ppm) values. Their initial 143Nd/144Nd (0.512723-0.512736) and 87Sr/86Sr (0.70484-0.70494) ratios are, respectively, lower and higher than those of normal oceanic crust. The geological, geochemical and isotopic data suggest that the adakitic magmatism was generated by partial melting of the mafic lower crust in the southeastern part of the eastern Pontide belt during the late Miocene. Based on the results presented in this study and a synthesis of the geological and tectonic information on the region, we propose that the entire northern edge of the eastern Pontides-Lesser Caucasus-Elbruz magmatic arc was an active continental margin during the Cenozoic. We identify a migration of the Cenozoic magmatism towards

  2. Seismically imaged shallow and deep crustal structure and potential field anomalies across the Eastern Dharwar Craton, south Indian shield: Possible geodynamical implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, O. P.; Chandrakala, K.; Vasanthi, A.; Kumar, K. Satish

    2018-05-01

    The time-bound crustal evolution and subsequent deformation of the Cuddapah basin, Nellore Schist Belt and Eastern Ghats terrain of Eastern Dharwar Craton, which have undergone sustained geodynamic upheavals since almost 2.0 billion years, remain enigmatic. An attempt is made here to integrate newly available potential field data and other geophysical anomalies with deep seismic structure, to examine the generative mechanism of major crustal features, associated with this sector. Our study indicates that the initial extent of the Cuddapah basin sedimentation may have been much larger, extending by almost 50-60 km west of Tadipatri during Paleoproterozoic period, which subsequently shrank due to massive erosion following thermal uplift, caused by SW Cuddapah mantle plume. Below this region, crust is still quite warm with Moho temperatures exceeding 500 °C. Similarly, Nallamalai Fold Belt rocks, bounded by two major faults and extremely low gravity, may have occupied a large terrain in western Cuddapah basin also, before their abrasion. No geophysical signatures of thrusting are presently seen below this region, and thus it could not be an alien terrain either. In contrast, Nellore Schist Belt is associated with strikingly high positive gravity, possibly caused by a conspicuous horst structure and up dipping mafic crustal layers underneath, that resulted due to India-east Antarctica collision after the cessation of prolonged subduction (1.6-0.95 Ga). Further, the crustal seismic and gravity signatures would confirm presence of a totally distinct geological terrain east of the Cuddapah basin, but the trace of Eastern Ghats Belt is all together missing. Instead, all the geophysical signatures, point out to presence of a Proterozoic sedimentary terrain, east of Nellore Schist Belt. It is likely that the extent of Prorerozoic sedimentation was much larger than thought today. In addition, presence of a seismically detected Gondwana basin over Nellore Schist Belt, apart

  3. Late Early-Cretaceous quartz diorite-granodiorite-monzogranite association from the Gaoligong belt, southeastern Tibet Plateau: Chemical variations and geodynamic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ren-Zhi; Lai, Shao-Cong; Qin, Jiang-Feng; Zhao, Shao-Wei; Wang, Jiang-Bo

    2017-09-01

    Geochemical variations in granitic rocks may be controlled by their source rocks, melting reactions and subsequent magmatic processes, which resulted from various geodynamic processes related to subduction, collision, or slab break-off. Here we report new LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb ages and Hf isotopes, whole-rock chemistry and Sr-Nd isotopes for the late Early Cretaceous quartz diorite, granodiorite and monzogranite in the Gaoligong belt, southeastern Tibet Plateau. The zircon U-Pb dating yield ages of 113.9 ± 1.6, 111.7 ± 0.8, and 112.8 ± 1.7 Ma for the quartz diorite, granodiorite, and monzogranite, respectively, which are coeval with bimodal magmatism in the central and northern Lhasa sub-terrane. There are the distinct sources regions for the quartz diorite and granodiorite-monzogranite association. The quartz diorites are sodic, calc-alkaline and have high Mg# (52-54) values. They also have elevated initial 87Sr/86Sr (0.707019 to 0.709176) and low εNd(t) (- 5.16 to - 7.63), with variable zircon εHf(t) values (+ 5.65 to - 9.02). Zircon chemical data indicate a typical crustal-derived character with high Th (142-1260 ppm) and U (106-1082 ppm) and moderate U/Yb ratios (0.30 to 2.32) and Y content (705-1888 ppm). Those data suggest that the quartz diorites were derived from partial melting of ancient basaltic lower crust by a mantle-derived magma in source region. The granodiorite-monzogranite association has high-K calc-alkaline, weakly peraluminous characters. They show lower Nb/Ta (5.57 to 13.8), CaO/Na2O (0.62 to 1.21), higher Al2O3/TiO2 (24.4 to 44.4) ratios, more evolved whole-rock Sr-Nd and zircon Hf isotopic signatures, all of which suggest derivation from mixed basaltic and metasedimentary source rocks in a deep crustal zone. We propose that the granitic magmatisms at ca. 113-110 Ma in the Gaologong belt was triggered by the slab break-off of Bangong-Nujiang Tethyan oceanic lithosphere. Supplementary Dataset Table 2. Single-grain zircon Hf isotopic data

  4. Active tectonics within the NW and SE extensions of the Pambak-Sevan-Syunik fault: Implications for the present geodynamics of Armenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, Jeff; Avagyan, A.; Mkrtchyan, M.; Nazari, H.; Blard, P. H.; Karakhanian, A.; Philip, H.; Balescu, Sanda; Mahan, Shannon; Huot, Sebastien; Münch, P.; Lamothe, M.

    2016-01-01

    Caucasus-Kura-South Caspian region and brings a new insight into the present geodynamics of Armenia.

  5. Acceleration in the building of floors using the seismo-geodynamic theory; Aceleracion en la construccion de pisos usando la teoria sismo-geodinamica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeevaert Wiechers, L. [Facultad de Ingenieria, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-03-01

    The experience has indicated the importance in the seismic behavior of buildings and in the structural problems taking place in the upper floors of tall buildings, during destructive earthquakes. The interest has aroused in the application of the Seismo geodynamics Theory to solve the seismic problems of the subsoil and foundations, and the method to calculate the acceleration in the floors of buildings because of the seismic effect of the vertical and horizontal rotations of the foundation, and to verify if the structure of the building can take safe the seismic forces. An important seismic observation was made by the author in 1962, from the recorded seudo-acceleration response spectrums, obtained at the ground surface of the Central Park and those obtained at the base of the rigid foundation of the Tower Latino American in Mexico City. The author found that the ratio of the accelerations for 10.0% critical damping between these two places, less than one hundred meters apart, showed that the rigid box type foundation of the Tower Latino suffered only on the order of 50% to 60% of the acceleration with respect to the spectral acceleration at the ground surface in the Central Park. The above observation was verified theoretically by the author. [Spanish] La experiencia ha indicado la importancia que tiene el comportamiento sismico de los edificios y los problemas estructurales que se ocasionan en los pisos altos durante sismos destructivos. Se ha despertado interes en la aplicacion de la Teoria de la sismo-geodinamica para resolver problemas sismicos del subsuelo y cimentaciones, ademas del metodo para calcular la aceleracion en los pisos de los edificios, debido a la accion sismica que produce la rotacion vertical horizontal de la cimentacion, y asi verificar si la estructura del edificio puede tomar con seguridad las fuerzas sismicas. Una observacion importante fue hecha por el autor en el ano de 1962, en registros de los espectros de respuesta de seudo

  6. Space Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.

    2011-01-01

    Safe breathing air for space faring crews is essential whether they are inside an Extravehicular Mobility Suit (EMU), a small capsule such as Soyuz, or the expansive International Space Station (ISS). Sources of air pollution can include entry of propellants, excess offgassing from polymeric materials, leakage of systems compounds, escape of payload compounds, over-use of utility compounds, microbial metabolism, and human metabolism. The toxicological risk posed by a compound is comprised of the probability of escaping to cause air pollution and the magnitude of adverse effects on human health if escape occurs. The risk from highly toxic compounds is controlled by requiring multiple levels of containment to greatly reduce the probability of escape; whereas compounds that are virtually non-toxic may require little or no containment. The potential for toxicity is determined by the inherent toxicity of the compound and the amount that could potentially escape into the breathing air.

  7. Spacing Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stang Våland, Marianne; Georg, Susse

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze how architectural design, and the spatial and material changes this involves, contributes to the continuous shaping of identities in an organization. Based upon a case study of organizational and architectural change in a municipal administration at a time of major public...... sector reforms, we examine how design interventions were used to (re)form work and professional relationships. The paper examines how engagements with spatial arrangements and material artifacts affected people’s sense of both occupational and organizational identity. Taking a relational approach...... to sociomateriality, the paper contributes to the further theorizing of space in organization studies by proposing the concept of spacing identity to capture the fluidity of identity performance....

  8. Communication spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coiera, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Annotations to physical workspaces such as signs and notes are ubiquitous. When densely annotated, work areas become communication spaces. This study aims to characterize the types and purpose of such annotations. A qualitative observational study was undertaken in two wards and the radiology department of a 440-bed metropolitan teaching hospital. Images were purposefully sampled; 39 were analyzed after excluding inferior images. Annotation functions included signaling identity, location, capability, status, availability, and operation. They encoded data, rules or procedural descriptions. Most aggregated into groups that either created a workflow by referencing each other, supported a common workflow without reference to each other, or were heterogeneous, referring to many workflows. Higher-level assemblies of such groupings were also observed. Annotations make visible the gap between work done and the capability of a space to support work. Annotations are repairs of an environment, improving fitness for purpose, fixing inadequacy in design, or meeting emergent needs. Annotations thus record the missing information needed to undertake tasks, typically added post-implemented. Measuring annotation levels post-implementation could help assess the fit of technology to task. Physical and digital spaces could meet broader user needs by formally supporting user customization, 'programming through annotation'. Augmented reality systems could also directly support annotation, addressing existing information gaps, and enhancing work with context sensitive annotation. Communication spaces offer a model of how work unfolds. Annotations make visible local adaptation that makes technology fit for purpose post-implementation and suggest an important role for annotatable information systems and digital augmentation of the physical environment.

  9. Space Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corliss, William R.

    1968-01-01

    This booklet discusses three kinds of space radiation, cosmic rays, Van Allen Belts, and solar plasma. Cosmic rays are penetrating particles that we cannot see, hear or feel, which come from distant stars. Van Allen Belts, named after their discoverer are great belts of protons and electrons that the earth has captured in its magnetic trap. Solar plasma is a gaseous, electrically neutral mixture of positive and negative ions that the sun spews out from convulsed regions on its surface.

  10. Space Handbook,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    thle early life * of" the system. Figure 4-2 shows the variation in power output for polonium - 210 (Po- 210 ) with a 138-day half-life, curium-242 (Cm...miles above the earth’s surface. Above this altitude they must take everything they need with them. The environment will supply them with neither food ...can move large payloads through space. The radioisotope heat cycle engines use high-energy particle sources such as plutonium and polonium . The walls

  11. Space Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2009-01-01

    Optimal nutrition will be critical for crew members who embark on space exploration missions. Nutritional assessment provides an opportunity to ensure that crewmembers begin their missions in optimal nutritional status, to document changes during a mission and, if necessary, to provide intervention to maintain that status throughout the mission, and to assesses changes after landing in order to facilitate the return to their normal status as soon as possible after landing. We report here the findings from our nutritional assessment of astronauts who participated in the International Space Station (ISS) missions, along with flight and ground-based research findings. We also present ongoing and planned nutrition research activities. These studies provide evidence that bone loss, compromised vitamin status, and oxidative damage are the critical nutritional concerns for space travelers. Other nutrient issues exist, including concerns about the stability of nutrients in the food system, which are exposed to longterm storage and radiation during flight. Defining nutrient requirements, and being able to provide and maintain those nutrients on exploration missions, will be critical for maintaining crew member health.

  12. Game Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Erik

    2015-01-01

    , called “pervasive games.” These are games that are based on computer technology, but use a physical space as the game space as opposed to video games. Coupling spatial configuration with performance theory of rituals as liminal phenomena, I put forward a model and a new understanding of the magic circle......When we play games of any kind, from tennis to board games, it is easy to notice that games seem to be configured in space, often using stripes or a kind of map on a board. Some games are clearly performed within this marked border, while it may be difficult to pinpoint such a border in games like...... hide-and-seek, but even these games are still spatially configured. The border (visible or not) both seem to separate and uphold the game that it is meant for. This chapter sets out to analyse the possible border that separates a game from the surrounding world. Johan Huizinga noted this “separateness...

  13. Space Detectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyszka, Steph; Saraiva, Jose; Doran, Rosa

    2017-04-01

    NUCLIO is a Portuguese non-profit organization with a strong record of investing in science education and outreach. We have developed and implemented many activities mostly directed to a young audience, in a bid to awaken and reinforce the interest that young people devote to Astronomy and all things spatial. In this framework, we have created a week-long program called Space Detectives, supported by the Municipality of Cascais, based on a story-line that provided a number of challenges and opportunities for learning matters as diverse as the electro-magnetic spectrum, means of communication, space travel, the martian environment, coding and robotics. We report on the first session that took place in December 2016. We had as participants several kids aged 9 to 12, with a mixed background in terms of interest in the sciences. Their response varied from enthusiastic to somewhat less interested, depending on the nature of the subject and the way it was presented - a reaction not necessarily related to its complexity. This week was taken as something of a trial run, in preparation for the European Commission- funded project "Stories of Tomorrow", to be implemented in schools. The individual activities and the way they were related to the story-line, as well as the smooth transition from one to the next, were subject to an analysis that will allow for improvements in the next installments of this program. We believe this is an excellent approach to the goals of using Space and Astronomy as an anchor for generating and keeping interest in the scientific areas, and of finding new and richer ways of learning.

  14. Space polypropulsion

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kellett, BJ

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available understandably, fallen by the wayside. NASAs putative atom bomb propelled mission, coincidently also baptized ORION, was also curtailed. And last of all, the use of lasers for propulsion remains firmly “stuck in the doldrums.” This mode of access to space...) Except for LOX, very polluting. V. high ζ Launch costs: $20,000/kg. Gas guns. 1 1-4 km/s Most of the system mass stays on the ground. Recoil problems. Large NASA gas gun project abandoned. (too many “g’s”) E-M guns: rail/coil. 1.5 1-10 km...

  15. Space Technospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidmachenko, A. P.; Steklov, A. F.; Primak, N. V.

    2000-01-01

    Two main tendencies of making the Solar System habitable are regarding nowadays: (1) making objects of the Solar System habitable; and (2) making the space of the Solar System habitable. We think that it's better to combine them. We should dezine and build settlements ('technospheres') on such objects as asteroids and comets, using their resources. That is, it is necessary to create 'space technospheres' - a long-termed human settlements in the space. To save energy resources it is necessary to use Near-Earth asteroids enriched with water ice (i. e. extinguished comets) with Near-Earth orbits. To realize listed conceptions it is necessary to decrease (up to 100 times) the cost price of the long-termed settlements. That's why even average UN country will be able to create it's own space house - artificial planet ('technosphere') and maintain life activities there. About 50-100 such artificial planets will represent the future civilization of our Solar System. At the same time Earth will stay basic, maternal planet. There is an interesting problem of correcting orbits of that objects. Orbits can be changed into circular or elongated to make them comfortable for living activities of 5000-10000 settlers, and to maintain connection with maternal planet. Technospheres with the elongated orbits are more advantageous to assimilate the Solar System. While technospheres with circular orbits suit to the industrial cycle with certain specialization. The specialization of the technosphere will depend on mine-workings and/or chosen high-technology industrial process. Because it is profitable to convert raw materials at the technosphere and then to transport finished products to the maternal planet. It worth to be mentioned that because of the low gravitation and changed life cycle technosphere settlers, new 'Columb' of the Solar System will transform into new mankind. It will happen though it is difficult to imaging this. Because long ago, when fish left the ocean, they didn

  16. Space exploration

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    Space Exploration, is one book in the Britannica Illustrated Science Library Series that is correlated to the science curriculum in grades 5-8. The Britannica Illustrated Science Library is a visually compelling set that covers earth science, life science, and physical science in 16 volumes.  Created for ages 10 and up, each volume provides an overview on a subject and thoroughly explains it through detailed and powerful graphics-more than 1,000 per volume-that turn complex subjects into information that students can grasp.  Each volume contains a glossary with full definitions for vocabulary help and an index.

  17. Space Pharmacology

    CERN Document Server

    Wotring, Virginia E

    2012-01-01

    Space Pharmacology” is a review of the current knowledge regarding the use of pharmaceuticals during spaceflights. It is a comprehensive review of the literature, addressing each area of pharmacokinetics and each major physiological system in turn. Every section begins with a topic overview, and is followed by a discussion of published data from spaceflight, and from ground experiments meant to model the spaceflight situation. Includes a discussion looking forward to the new medical challenges we are likely to face on longer duration exploration missions. This book is a snapshot of our current knowledge that also highlights areas of unknown.

  18. Trace spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fajstrup, Lisbeth; Goubault, Eric; Haucourt, Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    in the interleaving semantics of a concurrent program, but rather some equivalence classes. The purpose of this paper is to describe a new algorithm to compute such equivalence classes, and a representative per class, which is based on ideas originating in algebraic topology. We introduce a geometric semantics...... of concurrent languages, where programs are interpreted as directed topological spaces, and study its properties in order to devise an algorithm for computing dihomotopy classes of execution paths. In particular, our algorithm is able to compute a control-flow graph for concurrent programs, possibly containing...... loops, which is “as reduced as possible” in the sense that it generates traces modulo equivalence. A preliminary implementation was achieved, showing promising results towards efficient methods to analyze concurrent programs, with very promising results compared to partial-order reduction techniques....

  19. Space weather and space anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Dorman

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available A large database of anomalies, registered by 220 satellites in different orbits over the period 1971-1994 has been compiled. For the first time, data from 49 Russian Kosmos satellites have been included in a statistical analysis. The database also contains a large set of daily and hourly space weather parameters. A series of statistical analyses made it possible to quantify, for different satellite orbits, space weather conditions on the days characterized by anomaly occurrences. In particular, very intense fluxes (>1000 pfu at energy >10 MeV of solar protons are linked to anomalies registered by satellites in high-altitude (>15000 km, near-polar (inclination >55° orbits typical for navigation satellites, such as those used in the GPS network, NAVSTAR, etc. (the rate of anomalies increases by a factor ~20, and to a much smaller extent to anomalies in geostationary orbits, (they increase by a factor ~4. Direct and indirect connections between anomaly occurrence and geomagnetic perturbations are also discussed.

  20. Geodynamic evolution of the West Africa between 2.2 and 2 Ga: the Archaean style of the Birimian greenstone belts and the sedimentary basins in northeastern Ivory-Coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidal, M.; Pouclet, A.; Delor, C.; Simeon, Y.; Alric, G.

    1996-01-01

    The litho-structural features of Palaeo-proterozoic terrains of northeastern Ivory-Coast, greenstones belts and then sedimentary basin Birimian), are similar to those of Archaean terrains. Their early deformation is only voluminal deformation due to granitoid intrusions, mainly between 2.2 and 2.16 Ga. The shortening deformation (main deformation) is expressed by right folds and transcurrent shear zones ca 2.1 Ga. Neither thrust deformation nor high pressure metamorphic assemblages are known. This pattern of flexible and hot crust, at least between 2.2 and 2.16 Ga, is pole apart to a collisional pattern, proposed for West African Craton by some authors. The Archaean/Palaeo-proterozoic boundary would not represent a drastic change of the geodynamic evolution of the crust. (authors). 60 refs., 5 figs., 6 photos

  1. Reply to Comment of T. Fischer and J. Horálek on "Geodynamic pattern of the West Bohemia region based on permanent GPS measurements" by V. Schenk, Z. Schenková and Z. Jechumtálová

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schenk, Vladimír; Schenková, Zdeňka; Jechumtálová, Zuzana

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 3 (2009), s. 345-350 ISSN 0039-3169. [West-Bohemia/Vogtland international workshop "Geodynamics of Earthquake Swarm Areas" /8./. Františkovy Lázně, 16.10.2007-19.10.2007] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC506; GA MŠk 1P05ME781; GA AV ČR IAA300460507; GA AV ČR 1QS300460551 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519; CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : GPS data reliability * fault plane solutions * regional stress field Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2009

  2. Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Dennis

    2017-01-01

    New range Passage Tomb may be the first structure with known astronomical significance. It was built around 3,200 B.C. in Ireland. It's central passage allows light end-to-end for about 2 weeks around winter solstice. The Sun, Moon, Planets, and Stars held significance in early times due to the seasons, significance for food crops, and mythology. Citation: Corel Photography and Windows to the Universe The Greek may be among the first to pursue analytical interpretations of what they saw in the sky. In about 280 B.C. Aristarchus suggested Earth revolves around the Sun and estimated the distance between. Around 130 B.C. Hipparchus developed the first accurate star map. Today still seek to understand how the universe formed and how we came to be and are we alone. Understanding the causes and consequences of climate change using advanced space missions with major Earth science and applications research. center dotFire the public imagination and inspire students to pursue STEM fields. Train college and graduate students to create a U.S. technical workforce with employees that embody the values of competence, innovation, and service. center dotDrive the technical innovations that enable exploration and become the engine of National economic growth. center dotPartner domestically and internationally to leverage resources to extend the reach of research.

  3. Space Science in Action: Space Exploration [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999

    In this videotape recording, students learn about the human quest to discover what is out in space. Students see the challenges and benefits of space exploration including the development of rocket science, a look back at the space race, and a history of manned space travel. A special section on the Saturn V rocket gives students insight into the…

  4. Large size space construction for space exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondyurin, Alexey

    2016-07-01

    Space exploitation is impossible without large space structures. We need to make sufficient large volume of pressurized protecting frames for crew, passengers, space processing equipment, & etc. We have to be unlimited in space. Now the size and mass of space constructions are limited by possibility of a launch vehicle. It limits our future in exploitation of space by humans and in development of space industry. Large-size space construction can be made with using of the curing technology of the fibers-filled composites and a reactionable matrix applied directly in free space. For curing the fabric impregnated with a liquid matrix (prepreg) is prepared in terrestrial conditions and shipped in a container to orbit. In due time the prepreg is unfolded by inflating. After polymerization reaction, the durable construction can be fitted out with air, apparatus and life support systems. Our experimental studies of the curing processes in the simulated free space environment showed that the curing of composite in free space is possible. The large-size space construction can be developed. A project of space station, Moon base, Mars base, mining station, interplanet space ship, telecommunication station, space observatory, space factory, antenna dish, radiation shield, solar sail is proposed and overviewed. The study was supported by Humboldt Foundation, ESA (contract 17083/03/NL/SFe), NASA program of the stratospheric balloons and RFBR grants (05-08-18277, 12-08-00970 and 14-08-96011).

  5. Realizing spaces as path-component spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Banakh, Taras; Brazas, Jeremy

    2018-01-01

    The path component space of a topological space $X$ is the quotient space $\\pi_0(X)$ whose points are the path components of $X$. We show that every Tychonoff space $X$ is the path-component space of a Tychonoff space $Y$ of weight $w(Y)=w(X)$ such that the natural quotient map $Y\\to \\pi_0(Y)=X$ is a perfect map. Hence, many topological properties of $X$ transfer to $Y$. We apply this result to construct a compact space $X\\subset \\mathbb{R}^3$ for which the fundamental group $\\pi_1(X,x_0)$ is...

  6. Curved twistor spaces and H-space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tod, K.P.

    1980-01-01

    The curved twistor space construction of Penrose for anti-self-dual solutions to the Einstein vacuum equations is described. Curved twistor spaces are defined and it is shown with the aid of an example how to obtain them by deforming the complex structure of regions of flat twistor space. The connection of this procedure with Newman's H-space construction via asymptotic twistor space is outlined. (Auth.)

  7. Preparing future space leaders - International Space University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Barbara A.; Van Reeth, George P.

    1992-01-01

    The International Space University (ISU) concept of developing a cadre of space professionals that will lead the universities and industries into space is discussed. ISU is an innovative, permanent worldwide organization for training and academic instruction in all aspects of space studies. ISU's major goal is to provide the young professional academic instruction in technical and nontechnical areas of modern space exploration and research, and a forum to exchange ideas and develop both personal and professional ties at an international level.

  8. On RC-spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Bielas, Wojciech; Plewik, Szymon

    2018-01-01

    Following Frink's characterization of completely regular spaces, we say that a regular T_1-space is an RC-space whenever the family of all regular open sets constitutes a regular normal base. Normal spaces are RC-spaces and there exist completely regular spaces which are not RC-spaces. So the question arises, which of the known examples of completely regular and not normal spaces are RC-spaces. We show that the Niemytzki plane and the Sorgenfrey plane are RC-spaces.

  9. Atmosphere and Ambient Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ulrik

    Atmosphere and Ambient Space This paper explores the relation between atmosphere and ambient space. Atmosphere and ambient space share many salient properties. They are both ontologically indeterminate, constantly varying and formally diffuse and they are both experienced as a subtle, non......-signifying property of a given space. But from a certain point of view, the two concepts also designate quite dissimilar experiences of space. To be ’ambient’ means to surround. Accordingly, ambient space is that space, which surrounds something or somebody. (Gibson 1987: 65) Since space is essentially...... of a surrounding character, all space can thus be described as having a fundamentally ambient character. So what precisely is an ambient space, then? As I will argue in my presentation, ambient space is a sensory effect of spatiality when a space is experienced as being particularly surrounding: a ‘space effect...

  10. Spaces on sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triebel, Hans

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with spaces B s pq and F s pq of positive smoothness s>0, based on L p -spaces with 0< p≤∞ and reproducing formulae for smooth functions. These spaces are compared with other B-spaces and F-spaces obtained by different means

  11. GNSS monitoring of the ionosphere for Space Weather services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krankowski, A.; Sieradzki, R.; Zakharenkova, I. E.; Cherniak, I. V.

    2012-04-01

    The International GNSS Service (IGS) Ionosphere Working Group routinely provides the users global ionosphere maps (GIMs) of vertical total electron content (vTEC). The IGS GIMs are provided with spatial resolution of 5.0 degrees x 2.5 degrees in longitude and latitude, respectively. The current temporal resolution is 2 hours, however, 1-hour maps are delivered as a pilot project. There are three types IGS GIMs: the final, rapid and predicted. The latencies of the IGS ionospheric final and rapid products are 10 days and 1 day, respectively. The predicted GIMs are generated for 1 and 2 days in advance. There are four IGS Associate Analysis Centres (IAACs) that provide ionosphere maps computed with independent methodologies using GNSS data. These maps are uploaded to the IGS Ionosphere Combination and Validation Center at the GRL/UWM (Geodynamics Research Laboratory of the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland) that produces the IGS official ionospheric products, which are published online via ftp and www. On the other hand, the increasing number of permanently tracking GNSS stations near the North Geomagnetic Pole allow for using satellite observations to detect the ionospheric disturbances at high latitudes with even higher spatial resolution. In the space weather service developed at GRL/UWM, the data from the Arctic stations belonging to IGS/EPN/POLENET networks were used to study TEC fluctuations and scintillations. Since the beginning of 2011, a near real-time service presenting the conditions in the ionosphere have been operational at GRL/UWM www site. The rate of TEC index (ROTI) expressed in TECU/min is used as a measure of TEC fluctuations. The service provides 2-hour maps of the TEC variability. In addition, for each day the daily map of the ionospheric fluctuations as a function geomagnetic local time is also created. This presentation shows the architecture, algorithms, performance and future developments of the IGS GIMs and this new space

  12. A new laser-ranged satellite for General Relativity and space geodesy. III. De Sitter effect and the LARES 2 space experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciufolini, Ignazio [Universita del Salento, Dipt. Ingegneria dell' Innovazione, Lecce (Italy); Centro Fermi, Rome (Italy); Matzner, Richard [University of Texas, Theory Group, Austin (United States); Gurzadyan, Vahe [Alikhanian National Laboratory and Yerevan State University, Center for Cosmology and Astrophysics, Yerevan (Armenia); Penrose, Roger [University of Oxford, Mathematical Institute, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2017-12-15

    In two previous papers we presented the LARES 2 space experiment aimed at a very accurate test of frame-dragging and at other tests of fundamental physics and measurements of space geodesy and geodynamics. We presented the error sources of the LARES 2 experiment, its error budget and Monte Carlo simulations and covariance analyses confirming an accuracy of a few parts in one thousand in the test of frame-dragging. Here we discuss the impact of the orbital perturbation known as the de Sitter effect, or geodetic precession, in the error budget of the LARES 2 frame-dragging experiment. We show that the uncertainty in the de Sitter effect has a negligible impact in the final error budget because of the very accurate results now available for the test of the de Sitter precession and because of its very nature. The total error budget in the LARES 2 test of frame-dragging remains at a level of the order of 0.2%, as determined in the first two papers of this series. (orig.)

  13. A new laser-ranged satellite for General Relativity and space geodesy. III. De Sitter effect and the LARES 2 space experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciufolini, Ignazio; Matzner, Richard; Gurzadyan, Vahe; Penrose, Roger

    2017-01-01

    In two previous papers we presented the LARES 2 space experiment aimed at a very accurate test of frame-dragging and at other tests of fundamental physics and measurements of space geodesy and geodynamics. We presented the error sources of the LARES 2 experiment, its error budget and Monte Carlo simulations and covariance analyses confirming an accuracy of a few parts in one thousand in the test of frame-dragging. Here we discuss the impact of the orbital perturbation known as the de Sitter effect, or geodetic precession, in the error budget of the LARES 2 frame-dragging experiment. We show that the uncertainty in the de Sitter effect has a negligible impact in the final error budget because of the very accurate results now available for the test of the de Sitter precession and because of its very nature. The total error budget in the LARES 2 test of frame-dragging remains at a level of the order of 0.2%, as determined in the first two papers of this series. (orig.)

  14. The Second Space Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawkes, S.

    This paper compares and contrasts the characteristics of the first space race, which ran from the late 1950s to the late 1990s, and the second space race that began with the successful space flight of SpaceShipOne in 2004. The first space race was between superpowers seeking to establish geo-political dominance in the Cold War. The second space race will be between competing companies seeking to establish low cost access to space for ordinary people. The first space race achieved its geo- political objectives but did not open up low cost access to space but rather restricted access to a select few, highly trained astronauts and cosmonauts. The second space race, driven by the size and growth of the travel and tourism industry, promises to open up access to space to millions of space tourists.

  15. Space radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shiqing; Yan Heping

    1995-01-01

    The authors briefly discusses the radiation environment in near-earth space and it's influences on material, and electronic devices using in space airship, also, the research developments in space radiation effects are introduced

  16. Quasi-uniform Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coghetto Roland

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, using mostly Pervin [9], Kunzi [6], [8], [7], Williams [11] and Bourbaki [3] works, we formalize in Mizar [2] the notions of quasiuniform space, semi-uniform space and locally uniform space.

  17. Quasi-uniform Space

    OpenAIRE

    Coghetto Roland

    2016-01-01

    In this article, using mostly Pervin [9], Kunzi [6], [8], [7], Williams [11] and Bourbaki [3] works, we formalize in Mizar [2] the notions of quasiuniform space, semi-uniform space and locally uniform space.

  18. Space Weather in Operation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The “Space Weather in Operations” effort will provide on-demand and near-real time space weather event information to the Data Access Toolkit (DAT), which is the...

  19. On birecurrent spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M.S.

    1991-10-01

    A birecurrent space is defined with its classification and studied with involvement of Einstein, conformally flat, conformally symmetric and conformally recurrent spaces. A necessary and sufficient condition that a birecurrent space be recurrent is found. (author). 6 refs

  20. Conformal Einstein spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozameh, C.N.; Newman, E.T.; Tod, K.P.

    1985-01-01

    Conformal transformations in four-dimensional. In particular, a new set of two necessary and sufficient conditions for a space to be conformal to an Einstein space is presented. The first condition defines the class of spaces conformal to C spaces, whereas the last one (the vanishing of the Bach tensor) gives the particular subclass of C spaces which are conformally related to Einstein spaces. (author)

  1. Compliant Space Mechanisms

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — OBJECTIVES The proposed research will combine the areas of compliant mechanisms and space technology. Compliant mechanisms perform their function through the elastic...

  2. Metric modular spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Chistyakov, Vyacheslav

    2015-01-01

    Aimed toward researchers and graduate students familiar with elements of functional analysis, linear algebra, and general topology; this book contains a general study of modulars, modular spaces, and metric modular spaces. Modulars may be thought of as generalized velocity fields and serve two important purposes: generate metric spaces in a unified manner and provide a weaker convergence, the modular convergence, whose topology is non-metrizable in general. Metric modular spaces are extensions of metric spaces, metric linear spaces, and classical modular linear spaces. The topics covered include the classification of modulars, metrizability of modular spaces, modular transforms and duality between modular spaces, metric  and modular topologies. Applications illustrated in this book include: the description of superposition operators acting in modular spaces, the existence of regular selections of set-valued mappings, new interpretations of spaces of Lipschitzian and absolutely continuous mappings, the existe...

  3. Space Toxicology: Human Health during Space Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan-Mayberry, Noreen; James, John T.; Tyl, ROchelle; Lam, Chiu-Wing

    2010-01-01

    Space Toxicology is a unique and targeted discipline for spaceflight, space habitation and occupation of celestial bodies including planets, moons and asteroids. Astronaut explorers face distinctive health challenges and limited resources for rescue and medical care during space operation. A central goal of space toxicology is to protect the health of the astronaut by assessing potential chemical exposures during spaceflight and setting safe limits that will protect the astronaut against chemical exposures, in a physiologically altered state. In order to maintain sustained occupation in space on the International Space Station (ISS), toxicological risks must be assessed and managed within the context of isolation continuous exposures, reuse of air and water, limited rescue options, and the need to use highly toxic compounds for propulsion. As we begin to explore other celestial bodies in situ toxicological risks, such as inhalation of reactive mineral dusts, must also be managed.

  4. Organic chemistry in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. D.

    1977-01-01

    Organic cosmochemistry, organic materials in space exploration, and biochemistry of man in space are briefly surveyed. A model of Jupiter's atmosphere is considered, and the search for organic molecules in the solar system and in interstellar space is discussed. Materials and analytical techniques relevant to space exploration are indicated, and the blood and urine analyses performed on Skylab are described.

  5. Budgeting Academic Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Watson

    2011-01-01

    There are many articles about space management, including those that discuss space calculations, metrics, and categories. Fewer articles discuss the space budgeting processes used by administrators to allocate space. The author attempts to fill this void by discussing her administrative experiences with Middle Tennessee State University's (MTSU)…

  6. Space Guidelines for Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin Coordinating Committee for Higher Education, Madison.

    The following guidelines are recommended: stack space--for each 10 volumes, one square foot of space; reading room--25 square feet per station x 20% of the total undergraduate population; carrel space--25% of the graduate enrollment x 45 square feet; office and auxilliary space--135 square feet x full time equivalent staff. (NI)

  7. Space Physiology and Operational Space Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuring, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this slide presentation are to teach a level of familiarity with: the effects of short and long duration space flight on the human body, the major medical concerns regarding future long duration missions, the environmental issues that have potential medical impact on the crew, the role and capabilities of the Space Medicine Flight Surgeon and the environmental impacts experienced by the Apollo crews. The main physiological effects of space flight on the human body reviewed in this presentation are: space motion sickness (SMS), neurovestibular, cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, immune/hematopoietic system and behavioral/psycho-social. Some countermeasures are discussed to these effects.

  8. Theory of function spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Triebel, Hans

    1983-01-01

    The book deals with the two scales Bsp,q and Fsp,q of spaces of distributions, where -8spaces, such as Hölder spaces, Zygmund classes, Sobolev spaces, Besov spaces, Bessel-potential spaces, Hardy spaces and spaces of BMO-type. It is the main aim of this book to give a unified treatment of the corresponding spaces on the Euclidean n-space Rn in the framework of Fourier analysis, which is based on the technique of maximal functions, Fourier multipliers and interpolation assertions. These topics are treated in Chapter 2, which is the heart

  9. Radionuclide dating ({sup 21}Pb, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 241}Am) of recent lake sediments in a highly active geodynamic setting (Lakes Puyehue and Icalma-Chilean Lake District)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnaud, F. [Processus et Bilan en Domaine Sedimentaire, UMR CNRS 8110, Bat. SN5, UST Lille 1, F-59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Geodynamique des Chaines Alpines, UMR CNRS 5025, Bat. Belledonne, Universite de Savoie, F-73373 Le Bourget du Lac (France); Magand, O. [Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Geophysique de l' Environnement, UMR CNRS 5183, 54 rue Moliere, F-38402 Saint Martin d' Heres Cedex (France)]. E-mail: magand@lgge.obs.ujf-grenoble.fr; Chapron, E. [Renard Centre of Marine Geology, University of Gent, Department of Geology and Soil Science, Krijgslaan 281 S8, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Bertrand, S. [U.R. Argiles et Paleoclimats, University of Liege, Allee du 6 Aout, B18, ULG-Sart-Tilman, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Boes, X. [U.R. Argiles et Paleoclimats, University of Liege, Allee du 6 Aout, B18, ULG-Sart-Tilman, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Charlet, F. [Renard Centre of Marine Geology, University of Gent, Department of Geology and Soil Science, Krijgslaan 281 S8, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Melieres, M.-A. [Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Geophysique de l' Environnement, UMR CNRS 5183, 54 rue Moliere, F-38402 Saint Martin d' Heres Cedex (France)

    2006-08-01

    This study presents an attempt to use radionuclide profiles to date four short sediment cores taken from two Chilean lakes located in a highly active geodynamic setting. In such settings, sediment series commonly contain earthquake-triggered reworked layers and/or volcanic ash layers. All of these layers affect the vertical distribution of radionuclides. The drawing up of accurate chronologies is made even more problematic by the low fallout rates of both natural ({sup 21}Pb) and artificial ({sup 137}Cs, {sup 241}Am) radionuclides. However, radionuclide profiles can be 'corrected' by subtracting the influence of instantaneous deposits that have been identified from detailed sedimentological studies. Thus, radionuclides can be used to provide approximate dates for sediment. Independent confirmation of these dates can be provided by varve counting and/or the recognition of historical events. For Lake Puyehue, this approach has allowed particular sediment features to be related to the effects of the 1960 Chilean earthquake (Mw 9.5) on the lake basin and its catchment area. For Lake Icalma, there is a good agreement between radionuclide dates and the dates of the three tephra layers formed during large eruptions of the Llaima volcano in 1946, 1917 and 1883. For both lakes, artificial radionuclide fallout, which culminated in 1965, provides more robust chronological information than {sup 21}Pb dating.

  10. National Space Agencies vs. Commercial Space: Towards Improved Space Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelton, J.

    2013-09-01

    Traditional space policies as developed at the national level includes many elements but they are most typically driven by economic and political objectives. Legislatively administered programs apportion limited public funds to achieve "gains" that can involve employment, stimulus to the economy, national defense or other advancements. Yet political advantage is seldom far from the picture.Within the context of traditional space policies, safety issues cannot truly be described as "afterthoughts", but they are usually, at best, a secondary or even tertiary consideration. "Space safety" is often simply assumed to be "in there" somewhere. The current key question is can "safety and risk minimization", within new commercial space programs actually be elevated in importance and effectively be "designed in" at the outset. This has long been the case with commercial aviation and there is at least reasonable hope that this could also be the case for the commercial space industry in coming years. The cooperative role that the insurance industry has now played for centuries in the shipping industry and for decades in aviation can perhaps now play a constructive role in risk minimization in the commercial space domain as well. This paper begins by examining two historical case studies in the context of traditional national space policy development to see how major space policy decisions involving "manned space programs" have given undue primacy to "political considerations" over "safety" and other factors. The specific case histories examined here include first the decision to undertake the Space Shuttle Program (i.e. 1970-1972) and the second is the International Space Station. In both cases the key and overarching decisions were driven by political, schedule and cost considerations, and safety seems absence as a prime consideration. In publicly funded space programs—whether in the United States, Europe, Russia, Japan, China, India or elsewhere—it seems realistic to

  11. Space Sciences Focus Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeves, Geoffrey D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-10

    To advance our understanding of the space environment (from the Sun to the Earth and beyond) and to advance our ability to operate systems in space that protect life and society. Space Science is distinct from other field, such as astrophysics or cosmology, in that Space Science utilizes in-situ measurements from high altitude rockets, balloons and spacecraft or ground-based measurements of objects and conditions in space.

  12. The Austrian Space Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pseiner, K.; Balogh, W.

    2002-01-01

    After several years of preparation and discussion among the involved players, the Austrian Space Plan was approved for implementation in November 2001. Based on careful benchmarking and analysis of the capabilities of the Austrian space sector it aims to create excellent conditions for the sector's further development. The new space strategy embraces Austria's participation in the mandatory and optional programmes of the European Space Agency and establishes a National Space Programme supported by separate funding opportunities. A set of clearly-defined indicators ensures that the progress in implementing the Space Plan can be objectively judged through independent, annual reviews. The National Space Programme promotes international cooperation in space research and space activities with the aim to strengthen the role of space science and to better prepare Austrian space industry for the commercial space market. In the framework of the Space Plan the Austrian Space Agency has been tasked with integrating the industry's growing involvement in aeronautics activities to better utilize synergies with the space sector. This paper reviews the various steps leading to the approval of the new space strategy and discusses the hurdles mastered in this process. It reports on the Space Plan's first results, specifically taking into account projects involving international cooperation. For the first the Austria aerospace-sector can rely on an integrated strategy for aeronautics- and space activities which is firmly rooted in the efforts to enhance the country's R&D activities. It may also act as a useful example for other small space- using countries planning to enhance their involvement in space activities.

  13. Esrange Space Center, a Gate to Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widell, Ola

    Swedish Space Corporation (SSC) is operating the Esrange Space Center in northern Sweden. Space operations have been performed for more than 40 years. We have a unique combination of maintaining balloon and rocket launch operations, and building payloads, providing space vehicles and service systems. Sub-orbital rocket flights with land recovery and short to long duration balloon flights up to weeks are offered. The geographical location, land recovery area and the long term experience makes Swedish Space Corporation and Esrange to an ideal gate for space activities. Stratospheric balloons are primarily used in supporting atmospheric research, validation of satellites and testing of space systems. Balloon operations have been carried out at Esrange since 1974. A large number of balloon flights are yearly launched in cooperation with CNES, France. Since 2005 NASA/CSBF and Esrange provide long duration balloon flights to North America. Flight durations up to 5 days with giant balloons (1.2 Million cubic metres) carrying heavy payload (up to 2500kg) with astronomical instruments has been performed. Balloons are also used as a crane for lifting space vehicles or parachute systems to be dropped and tested from high altitude. Many scientific groups both in US, Europe and Japan have indicated a great need of long duration balloon flights. Esrange will perform a technical polar circum balloon flight during the summer 2008 testing balloon systems and flight technique. We are also working on a permission giving us the opportunity on a circular stratospheric balloon flight around the North Pole.

  14. SpaceTech—Postgraduate space education

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruijn, Ferdi J.; Ashford, Edward W.; Larson, Wiley J.

    2008-07-01

    SpaceTech is a postgraduate program geared primarily for mid-career space professionals seeking to gain or improve their expertise in space systems engineering and in business engineering. SpaceTech provides a lifelong impact on its participants by broadening their capabilities, encouraging systematic "end-to-end" thinking and preparing them for any technical or business-related engineering challenges they may encounter. This flexible 1-year program offers high competency gain and increased business skills. It is held in attractive locations in a flexible, multi-cultural environment. SpaceTech is a highly effective master's program certified by the esteemed Technical University of Delft (TUD), Netherlands. SpaceTech provides expert instructors who place no barriers between themselves and participants. The program combines innovative and flexible new approaches with time-tested methods to give participants the skills required for future missions and new business, while allowing participants to meet their work commitments at the same time as they study for their master's degree. The SpaceTech program is conducted in separate sessions, generally each of 2-week duration, separated by periods of some 6-8 weeks, during which time participants may return to their normal jobs. It also includes introductory online course material that the participants can study at their leisure. The first session is held at the TUD, with subsequent sessions held at strategic space agency locations. By participating at two or more of these sessions, attendees can earn certificates of satisfactory completion from TU Delft. By participating in all of the sessions, as well as taking part in the companion Central Case Project (CCP), participants earn an accredited and highly respected master's degree in Space Systems Engineering from the TUD. Seven distinct SpaceTech modules are provided during these sessions: Space Mission Analysis and Design, Systems Engineering, Business Engineering

  15. A Foothold in Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO BIN

    2011-01-01

    With the successful launch of Tiangong-I (Heavenly Palace -I)unmanned module on September 29,China took a significant step forward in realizing its ambitions in space.China's manned space program consists of three steps.The first step,to send an astronaut into space,was achieved in 2003.The second step,to realize multi-person space flight for extended periods of time,has been fulfilled twice.During China's third manned space flight in 2008,Chinese astronauts walked in space.

  16. Elements of linear space

    CERN Document Server

    Amir-Moez, A R; Sneddon, I N

    1962-01-01

    Elements of Linear Space is a detailed treatment of the elements of linear spaces, including real spaces with no more than three dimensions and complex n-dimensional spaces. The geometry of conic sections and quadric surfaces is considered, along with algebraic structures, especially vector spaces and transformations. Problems drawn from various branches of geometry are given.Comprised of 12 chapters, this volume begins with an introduction to real Euclidean space, followed by a discussion on linear transformations and matrices. The addition and multiplication of transformations and matrices a

  17. Free topological vector spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriyelyan, Saak S.; Morris, Sidney A.

    2016-01-01

    We define and study the free topological vector space $\\mathbb{V}(X)$ over a Tychonoff space $X$. We prove that $\\mathbb{V}(X)$ is a $k_\\omega$-space if and only if $X$ is a $k_\\omega$-space. If $X$ is infinite, then $\\mathbb{V}(X)$ contains a closed vector subspace which is topologically isomorphic to $\\mathbb{V}(\\mathbb{N})$. It is proved that if $X$ is a $k$-space, then $\\mathbb{V}(X)$ is locally convex if and only if $X$ is discrete and countable. If $X$ is a metrizable space it is shown ...

  18. Isometries on Banach spaces function spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Fleming, Richard J

    2002-01-01

    Fundamental to the study of any mathematical structure is an understanding of its symmetries. In the class of Banach spaces, this leads naturally to a study of isometries-the linear transformations that preserve distances. In his foundational treatise, Banach showed that every linear isometry on the space of continuous functions on a compact metric space must transform a continuous function x into a continuous function y satisfying y(t) = h(t)x(p(t)), where p is a homeomorphism and |h| is identically one.Isometries on Banach Spaces: Function Spaces is the first of two planned volumes that survey investigations of Banach-space isometries. This volume emphasizes the characterization of isometries and focuses on establishing the type of explicit, canonical form given above in a variety of settings. After an introductory discussion of isometries in general, four chapters are devoted to describing the isometries on classical function spaces. The final chapter explores isometries on Banach algebras.This treatment p...

  19. Centrioles in Symmetric Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Quast, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We describe all centrioles in irreducible simply connected pointed symmetric spaces of compact type in terms of the root system of the ambient space, and we study some geometric properties of centrioles.

  20. Causal symmetric spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Olafsson, Gestur; Helgason, Sigurdur

    1996-01-01

    This book is intended to introduce researchers and graduate students to the concepts of causal symmetric spaces. To date, results of recent studies considered standard by specialists have not been widely published. This book seeks to bring this information to students and researchers in geometry and analysis on causal symmetric spaces.Includes the newest results in harmonic analysis including Spherical functions on ordered symmetric space and the holmorphic discrete series and Hardy spaces on compactly casual symmetric spacesDeals with the infinitesimal situation, coverings of symmetric spaces, classification of causal symmetric pairs and invariant cone fieldsPresents basic geometric properties of semi-simple symmetric spacesIncludes appendices on Lie algebras and Lie groups, Bounded symmetric domains (Cayley transforms), Antiholomorphic Involutions on Bounded Domains and Para-Hermitian Symmetric Spaces

  1. Deep Space Habitat Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Deep Space Habitat was closed out at the end of Fiscal Year 2013 (September 30, 2013). Results and select content have been incorporated into the new Exploration...

  2. Probabilistic metric spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Schweizer, B

    2005-01-01

    Topics include special classes of probabilistic metric spaces, topologies, and several related structures, such as probabilistic normed and inner-product spaces. 1983 edition, updated with 3 new appendixes. Includes 17 illustrations.

  3. Inform@ed space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Peter; Olsen, Kasper Nefer

    2001-01-01

    Inform@ed space Sensorial Perception And Computer Enchancement - bidrag til Nordisk Arkitekturforskningsforenings IT-konference, AAA april 2001.......Inform@ed space Sensorial Perception And Computer Enchancement - bidrag til Nordisk Arkitekturforskningsforenings IT-konference, AAA april 2001....

  4. Space Robotics Challenge

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Space Robotics Challenge seeks to infuse robot autonomy from the best and brightest research groups in the robotics community into NASA robots for future...

  5. Occupational Space Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarver, William J.

    2012-01-01

    Learning Objectives are: (1) Understand the unique work environment of astronauts. (2) Understand the effect microgravity has on human physiology (3) Understand how NASA Space Medicine Division is mitigating the health risks of space missions.

  6. Stereotype locally convex spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akbarov, S S

    2000-01-01

    We give complete proofs of some previously announced results in the theory of stereotype (that is, reflexive in the sense of Pontryagin duality) locally convex spaces. These spaces have important applications in topological algebra and functional analysis

  7. Stereotype locally convex spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbarov, S S

    2000-08-31

    We give complete proofs of some previously announced results in the theory of stereotype (that is, reflexive in the sense of Pontryagin duality) locally convex spaces. These spaces have important applications in topological algebra and functional analysis.

  8. Stereotype locally convex spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarov, S. S.

    2000-08-01

    We give complete proofs of some previously announced results in the theory of stereotype (that is, reflexive in the sense of Pontryagin duality) locally convex spaces. These spaces have important applications in topological algebra and functional analysis.

  9. Flexible Composites for Space

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Payload mass reduction and packaging efficiency in launch vehicles are essential for deep space exploration.  Inflatable softgoods have been identified as attractive...

  10. Space Radiation Risk Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Project A: Integration and Review: A review of current knowledge from space radiation physics was accepted for publication in Reviews of Modern Physics (Durante and...

  11. Space Power Facility (SPF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Space Power Facility (SPF) houses the world's largest space environment simulation chamber, measuring 100 ft. in diameter by 122 ft. high. In this chamber, large...

  12. Space, time, matter

    CERN Document Server

    Weyl, Hermann

    1922-01-01

    Excellent introduction probes deeply into Euclidean space, Riemann's space, Einstein's general relativity, gravitational waves and energy, and laws of conservation. "A classic of physics." - British Journal for Philosophy and Science.

  13. Space Environment Modeling

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes presentation materials and outputs from operational space environment models produced by the NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC) and...

  14. NASA Space Sounds API

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has released a series of space sounds via sound cloud. We have abstracted away some of the hassle in accessing these sounds, so that developers can play with...

  15. A Conceptual Space Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Jørgen Fischer

    1999-01-01

    Conceptual spaces have been proposed as topological or geometric means for establishing conceptual structures and models. This paper, after briey reviewing conceptual spaces, focusses on the relationship between conceptual spaces and logical concept languages with operations for combining concepts...... to form concepts. Speci cally is introduced an algebraic concept logic, for which conceptual spaces are installed as semantic domain as replacement for, or enrichment of, the traditional....

  16. Space Shuttle Endeavour launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    A smooth countdown culminated in a picture-perfect launch as the Space Shuttle Endeavour (STS-47) climbed skyward atop a ladder of billowing smoke. Primary payload for the plarned seven-day flight was Spacelab-J science laboratory. The second flight of Endeavour marks a number of historic firsts: the first space flight of an African-American woman, the first Japanese citizen to fly on a Space Shuttle, and the first married couple to fly in space.

  17. On Space Warfare: A Space Power Doctrine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lupton, David

    1998-01-01

    .... Nevertheless, the speech was promptly dubbed "Star Wars" because the space environment seems to be the most likely place to deploy a ballistic missile defense system, and several administration...

  18. Space tourism risks: A space insurance perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensoussan, Denis

    2010-06-01

    Space transportation is inherently risky to humans, whether they are trained astronauts or paying tourists, given that spaceflight is still in its relative infancy. However, this is easy to forget when subjected to the hype often associated with space tourism and the ventures seeking to enter that market. The development of commercial spaceflight constitutes a challenge as much as a great opportunity to the insurance industry as new risks emerge and standards, policies and procedures to minimise/mitigate and cover them still to be engineered. Therefore the creation of a viable and affordable insurance regime for future space tourists is a critical step in the development of a real space tourism market to address burning risk management issues that may otherwise ultimately hamper this nascent industry before it has a chance to prove itself.

  19. Function spaces, 1

    CERN Document Server

    Pick, Luboš; John, Oldrich; Fucík, Svatopluk

    2012-01-01

    This is the first part of the second revised and extended edition of a well established monograph. It is an introduction to function spaces defined in terms of differentiability and integrability classes. It provides a catalogue of various spaces and benefits as a handbook for those who use function spaces to study other topics such as partial differential equations. Volum

  20. A Foothold in Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    With the successful launch of Tiangong-1 (Heavenly Palace-1) unmanned module on September 29,China took a significant step forward in realizing its ambitions in space.China’s manned space program consists of three steps.The first step,to send an astronaut into space,was achieved in 2003.The

  1. Venturing Further Into Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China launches a prototype space module as a precursor to a manned space station China’s first unmanned space module Tiangong-1,or Heavenly Palace-1,successfully lifted off from the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center in northwest China’s Gansu Province on September 29. "The successful launch of the 8.5-ton

  2. Beyond spaces of counselling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bank, Mads; Nissen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    The article articulates experiments with spatial constructions in two Danish social work agencies, basing on (a) a sketchy genealogical reconstruction of conceptualisations and uses of space in social work and counselling, (b) a search for theoretical resources to articulate new spaces, and (c...... spaces are forms of spatialisations which might be taken as prototypical in attempts to develop social work and counselling...

  3. Deep Space Telecommunications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiper, T. B. H.; Resch, G. M.

    2000-01-01

    The increasing load on NASA's deep Space Network, the new capabilities for deep space missions inherent in a next-generation radio telescope, and the potential of new telescope technology for reducing construction and operation costs suggest a natural marriage between radio astronomy and deep space telecommunications in developing advanced radio telescope concepts.

  4. Moisture in Crawl Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton TenWolde; Samuel V. Glass

    2013-01-01

    Crawl space foundations can be designed and built to avoid moisture problems. In this article we provide a brief overview of crawl spaces with emphasis on the physics of moisture. We review trends that have been observed in the research literature and summarize cur-rent recommendations for moisture control in crawl spaces.

  5. Pappus in optical space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenderink, Jan J.; van Doorn, Andrea J.; Kappers, Astrid M L; Todd, James T.

    Optical space differs from physical space. The structure of optical space has generally been assumed to be metrical. In contradistinction, we do not assume any metric, but only incidence relations (i.e., we assume that optical points and lines exist and that two points define a unique line, and two

  6. Pappus in optical space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenderink, J.J.; Doorn, A.J. van; Kappers, A.M.L.; Todd, J.T.

    2002-01-01

    Optical space differs from physical space. The structure of optical space has generallybeen assumed to be metrical. In contradistinction,we do not assume anymetric, but only incidence relations (i.e., we assume that optical points and lines exist and that two points define a unique line, and two

  7. Radiation effects in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1987-07-01

    As more people spend more time in space, and the return to the moon and exploratory missions are considered, the risks require continuing examination. The effects of microgravity and radiation are two potential risks in space. These risks increase with increasing mission duration. This document considers the risk of radiation effects in space workers and explorers. 17 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  8. Learning Space Service Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Elliot

    2011-01-01

    Much progress has been made in creating informal learning spaces that incorporate technology and flexibly support a variety of activities. This progress has been principally in designing the right combination of furniture, technology, and space. However, colleges and universities do not design services within learning spaces with nearly the same…

  9. Tholeitic basalts and ophiolitic complexes of the Mesorif Zone (External Rif, Morocco) at the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary and the importance of the Ouerrha Accident in the palaeogeographic and geodynamic evolution of the Rif Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benzaggagh, M.

    2016-10-01

    The stratigraphical series around the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary of the External Rif Mountains, in particular those in the Mesorif Zone, exhibits many outcrops with volcanic materials spread westwards over 200 km. These materials show diverse aspects: basalt lithoclasts reworked into calcareous breccia beds or in marly matrix breccia, interstratified lava flows and volcanoclastic complexes incorporated within the Berriasian marls. In the Central Rif, several magmatic blocks outcrop, usually regarded as granite scales from the Paleozoic basement or as intrusive gabbros of Barremian age. Actually these magmatic massifs display typical ophiolitic sequences and they are overlaid by mega-olistoliths of Jurassic materials and locally by radiolarite layers. Geochemical analysis of several basalt and gabbro samples belonging to the Mesorif Zone evidenced that both display a typical E-MORB magma indicating at least partial oceanization of the Mesorif basement. Concerning geodynamics, the Mesorif Zone had undergone, at the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary interval, two successive palaeogeographic phases: an uplift, close to emersion during the Kimmeridgian-Early Tithonian interval, stressed by important submarine volcanic activities and intense brecciation of the carbonate formations, followed by a general collapse at the Late Tithonian, underlined by lava flows, slumping as mega-olistoliths and the formation of an oceanic crust, at least in the Central Rif. These magmatic materials, distributed on both sides of the Ouerrha Valley, evidence that this westwards extending valley (the Nekor Accident), may correspond in the Central Rif, to two palaeo-subduction planes which become two major overlapping thrusts in the western part of the Rif Mountains. (Author)

  10. Venturing Further Into Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN PUMIN

    2011-01-01

    China's first unmanNed space module Tiangong-Ⅰ,or Heavenly Palace-Ⅰ,successfully lifted off from the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center in northwest China's Gansu Province on September 29."The successful launch of the 8.5-ton prototype space laboratory has opened the gates for China's deep space exploration program," said Qi Faren,former chief designer of China's Shenzhou spacecraft.“It is a decisive leap forward for the Chinese space industry and will bring about the rapid development of space science and related techologies."

  11. At Home in Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Pumin

    2011-01-01

    CHINA'S first unmanned space module Tiangong-1,or Heavenly Palace-1,successfully lifted off from the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center in northwest China's Gansu Province on September 29."The successfullaunch of the 8.5-ton prototype space laboratory has opened the gates for China's deep space exploration program," said Qi Faren,former chief designer of China's Shenzhou spacecraft."It is a decisive leap forward for the Chinese space industry and will bring about the rapid development of space science and related technologies."

  12. Space Station Habitability Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clearwater, Yvonne A.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose and scope of the Habitability Research Group within the Space Human Factors Office at the NASA/Ames Research Center is described. Both near-term and long-term research objectives in the space human factors program pertaining to the U.S. manned Space Station are introduced. The concept of habitability and its relevancy to the U.S. space program is defined within a historical context. The relationship of habitability research to the optimization of environmental and operational determinants of productivity is discussed. Ongoing habitability research efforts pertaining to living and working on the Space Station are described.

  13. TANK SPACE OPTIONS REPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, W.L.; Ahrendt, M.R.

    2009-01-01

    Since this report was originally issued in 2001, several options proposed for increasing double-shell tank (DST) storage space were implemented or are in the process of implementation. Changes to the single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval schedule, completion of DST space saving options, and the DST space saving options in progress have delayed the projected shortfall of DST storage space from the 2007-2011 to the 2018-2025 timeframe (ORP-11242, River Protection Project System Plan). This report reevaluates options from Rev. 0 and includes evaluations of new options for alleviating projected restrictions on SST waste retrieval beginning in 2018 because of the lack of DST storage space.

  14. Space vehicle chassis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Stephen; Dallmann, Nicholas; Seitz, Daniel; Martinez, John; Storms, Steven; Kestell, Gayle

    2017-07-18

    A modular space vehicle chassis may facilitate convenient access to internal components of the space vehicle. Each module may be removable from the others such that each module may be worked on individually. Multiple panels of at least one of the modules may swing open or otherwise be removable, exposing large portions of the internal components of the space vehicle. Such chassis architectures may reduce the time required for and difficulty of performing maintenance or modifications, may allow multiple space vehicles to take advantage of a common chassis design, and may further allow for highly customizable space vehicles.

  15. κ-Rindler space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalski-Glikman, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we construct, and investigate some thermal properties of, the noncommutative counterpart of Rindler space, which we call κ-Rindler space. This space is obtained by changing variables in the defining commutators of κ-Minkowski space. We then rederive the commutator structure of κ-Rindler space with the help of an appropriate star product, obtained from the κ-Minkowski one. Using this star product, following the idea of Padmanabhan, we find the leading order, 1/κ correction to the Hawking thermal spectrum.

  16. Art and Architectural Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unterrainer, Walter

    2014-01-01

    art and architectural space museums and other exhibition spaces or how artists learn to love architects Over the last two decades, innumerable new museums, art galleries and other exhibition spaces have been built and opened all over the globe. The most extreme growth happened in China, where...... purpose of ´uniqueness´ often fail to be a ´home´, a large scale ´picture frame´ or a productive space for communicating art and even do not fulfil basic technical aspects in terms of a consistent indoor climate, optimized lighting or safety. The lecture will focus on inspiring examples of spaces for art...

  17. High-heat geodynamic setting during the Palaeozoic evolution of the Mount Painter Province, SA, Australia: evidence from combined field structural geology and potential-field inversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armit, R. J.; Ailleres, L.; Betts, P. G.; Schaefer, B. F.; Blaikie, T. N.

    2014-10-01

    A method for subsurface recognition of blind geological bodies is presented using combined surface constraints and 3-D structural modelling that incorporates constraints from detailed mapping, and potential-field inversion modelling. This method is applied to the Mount Painter Province and demonstrates that addition of low density material is required to reconcile the gravity signature of the region. This method may be an effective way to construct 3-D models in regions of excellent structural control, and can be used to assess the validity of surface structures with 3-D architecture. Combined geological and potential-field constrained inversion modelling of the Mount Painter Province was conducted to assess the validity of the geological models of the region. Magnetic susceptibility constrained stochastic property inversions indicates that the northeast to southwest structural trend of the relatively magnetic meta-sedimentary rocks of the Radium Creek Group in the Mount Painter Inlier is reconcilable with the similar, northeast to southwest trending positive magnetic anomalies in the region. Radium Creek Group packages are the major contributor of the total magnetic response of the region. However field mapping and the results of initial density constrained stochastic property inversion modelling do not correlate with a large residual negative gravity anomaly central to the region. Further density constrained inversion modelling indicates that an additional large body of relatively low density material is needed within the model space to account for this negative density anomaly. Through sensitivity analysis of multiple geometrical and varied potential-field property inversions, the best-fitting model records a reduction in gravity rms misfit from 21.9 to 1.69 mGal, representing a reduction from 56 to 4.5 per cent in respect to the total dynamic range of 37.5 mGal of the residual anomaly. This best-fitting model incorporates a volumetrically significant source

  18. INFORMATION SPACE– EDUCATIONAL SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica LIA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper has set the objective of researching how education is influenced by the information society. The first step was to define more precisely the information space. The second step was to identify how information space intersects with the family space and institutional space educational levels represented by pre-school / school and pre-university (kindergarten, at elementary / middle school / high school. Interrelationship between the above mentioned areas was another objective of the research. All these elements have been investigated through the original intention to identify how the information space can become an educational tool to support the family space, education and institutional space. Also, the aim of this research is to offer some solutions in this regard. Often the educational efforts appear to be blocked by the existence of this space. But this paper demonstrates that Informational space can be an enemy of the educational system or can support systems if we knew the internal structure and mechanisms. We can make the Informational Space to work in order to accomplish the educational scope.

  19. Kinematic space and wormholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jian-dong [TianQin Research Center for Gravitational Physics, Sun Yat-sen University, Zhuhai 519082, Guangdong (China); Chen, Bin [Department of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, 5 Yiheyuan Rd, Beijing 100871 (China); Center for High Energy Physics, Peking University, 5 Yiheyuan Rd, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2017-01-23

    The kinematic space could play a key role in constructing the bulk geometry from dual CFT. In this paper, we study the kinematic space from geometric points of view, without resorting to differential entropy. We find that the kinematic space could be intrinsically defined in the embedding space. For each oriented geodesic in the Poincaré disk, there is a corresponding point in the kinematic space. This point is the tip of the causal diamond of the disk whose intersection with the Poincaré disk determines the geodesic. In this geometric construction, the causal structure in the kinematic space can be seen clearly. Moreover, we find that every transformation in the SL(2,ℝ) leads to a geodesic in the kinematic space. In particular, for a hyperbolic transformation defining a BTZ black hole, it is a timelike geodesic in the kinematic space. We show that the horizon length of the static BTZ black hole could be computed by the geodesic length of corresponding points in the kinematic space. Furthermore, we discuss the fundamental regions in the kinematic space for the BTZ blackhole and multi-boundary wormholes.

  20. Géodynamique et évolution thermique de la matière organique: exemple du bassin de Qasbat-Tadla, Maroc centralBasin geodynamics and thermal evolution of organic material: example from the Qasbat-Tadla Basin, central Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er-Raïoui, H.; Bouabdelli, M.; Bélayouni, H.; Chellai, H.

    2001-05-01

    Seismic data analysis of the Qasbat-Tadla Basin allows the deciphering of the main tectonic and sedimentary events that characterised the Hercynian orogen and its role in the basin's structural development. The global tectono-sedimentary framework involves structural evolution of an orogenic foreland basin and was the source of rising geotherms in an epizonal metamorphic environment. The complementary effects of these parameters has led to different source rock maturity levels, ranging from oil producing to graphite domains. Different maturity levels result from three distinct structural domains within the basin, each of which exhibit characteristic geodynamic features (tectonic contraints, rate of subsidence, etc.).

  1. Dual spaces of local Morrey-type spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Gogatishvili, A. (Amiran); Mustafayev, R. (Rza)

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we show that associated spaces and dual spaces of the local Morrey-type spaces are so called complementary local Morrey-type spaces. Our method is based on an application of multidimensional reverse Hardy inequalities.

  2. Space Power Theory: Controlling the Medium Without Weapons in Space

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilkerson, Don L

    2008-01-01

    .... strategic space assets and the ability to negate enemy space systems is essential to U.S. space strategy in controlling the geographical environment of space, predominately in the Lower Earth Orbit (LEO...

  3. The Outer Space Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Negotiated at the United Nations and in force since 1967, the Outer Space Treaty has been ratified by over 100 countries and is the most important and foundational source of space law. The treaty, whose full title is "Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, Including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies," governs all of humankind's activities in outer space, including activities on other celestial bodies and many activities on Earth related to outer space. All space exploration and human spaceflight, planetary sciences, and commercial uses of space—such as the global telecommunications industry and the use of space technologies such as position, navigation, and timing (PNT), take place against the backdrop of the general regulatory framework established in the Outer Space Treaty. A treaty is an international legal instrument which balances rights and obligations between states, and exists as a kind of mutual contract of shared understandings, rights, and responsibilities between them. Negotiated and drafted during the Cold War era of heightened political tensions, the Outer Space Treaty is largely the product of efforts by the United States and the USSR to agree on certain minimum standards and obligations to govern their competition in "conquering" space. Additionally, the Outer Space Treaty is similar to other treaties, including treaties governing the high seas, international airspace, and the Antarctic, all of which govern the behavior of states outside of their national borders. The treaty is brief in nature and only contains 17 articles, and is not comprehensive in addressing and regulating every possible scenario. The negotiating states knew that the Outer Space Treaty could only establish certain foundational concepts such as freedom of access, state responsibility and liability, non-weaponization of space, the treatment of astronauts in distress, and the prohibition of non-appropriation of

  4. Space Resources Roundtable 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatiev, A.

    2000-01-01

    Contents include following: Developing Technologies for Space Resource Utilization - Concept for a Planetary Engineering Research Institute. Results of a Conceptual Systems Analysis of Systems for 200 m Deep Sampling of the Martian Subsurface. The Role of Near-Earth Asteroids in Long-Term Platinum Supply. Core Drilling for Extra-Terrestrial Mining. Recommendations by the "LSP and Manufacturing" Group to the NSF-NASA Workshop on Autonomous Construction and Manufacturing for Space Electrical Power Systems. Plasma Processing of Lunar and Planetary Materials. Percussive Force Magnitude in Permafrost. Summary of the Issues Regarding the Martian Subsurface Explorer. A Costing Strategy for Manufacturing in Orbit Using Extraterrestrial Resources. Mine Planning for Asteroid Orebodies. Organic-based Dissolution of Silicates: A New Approach to Element Extraction from LunarRegohth. Historic Frontier Processes Active in Future Space-based Mineral Extraction. The Near-Earth Space Surveillance (NIESS) Mission: Discovery, Tracking, and Characterization of Asteroids, Comets, and Artificial Satellites with a microsatellite. Privatized Space Resource Property Ownership. The Fabrication of Silicon Solar Cells on the Moon Using In-Situ Resources. A New Strategy for Exploration Technology Development: The Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Exploratiori/Commercialization Technology Initiative. Space Resources for Space Tourism. Recovery of Volatiles from the Moon and Associated Issues. Preliminary Analysis of a Small Robot for Martian Regolith Excavation. The Registration of Space-based Property. Continuous Processing with Mars Gases. Drilling and Logging in Space; An Oil-Well Perspective. LORPEX for Power Surges: Drilling, Rock Crushing. An End-To-End Near-Earth Asteroid Resource Exploitation Plan. An Engineering and Cost Model for Human Space Settlement Architectures: Focus on Space Hotels and Moon/Mars Exploration. The Development and Realization of a Silicon-60-based

  5. A Space Apart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Lynch

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how the preschool child is enabled to withdraw from the peer group and create a private, individual space within the institutional collective. The question under consideration is, “What factors are necessary to enable a child to create and maintain a withdrawal space in the preschool?” Data were collected through ethnographic fieldwork at two Montessori schools in the south of Sweden. Analysis of the results reveals that a child is enabled through a combination of two elements: a level of opportunity to create a space and a level of defense of a created space. These two factors are dependent on the teachers’ ability to correctly identify space creation, alongside their desire for the child’s space creation effort to be successful.

  6. Gymnastics in Phase Space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, Alexander Wu; /SLAC

    2012-03-01

    As accelerator technology advances, the requirements on accelerator beam quality become increasingly demanding. Facing these new demands, the topic of phase space gymnastics is becoming a new focus of accelerator physics R&D. In a phase space gymnastics, the beam's phase space distribution is manipulated and precision tailored to meet the required beam qualities. On the other hand, all realization of such gymnastics will have to obey accelerator physics principles as well as technological limitations. Recent examples of phase space gymnastics include Emittance exchanges, Phase space exchanges, Emittance partitioning, Seeded FELs and Microbunched beams. The emittance related topics of this list are reviewed in this report. The accelerator physics basis, the optics design principles that provide these phase space manipulations, and the possible applications of these gymnastics, are discussed. This fascinating new field promises to be a powerful tool of the future.

  7. The International Space University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidian, Kenneth J.

    1990-01-01

    The International Space University (ISU) was founded on the premise that any major space program in the future would require international cooperation as a necessary first step toward its successful completion. ISU is devoted to being a leading center for educating future authorities in the world space industry. ISU's background, goals, current form, and future plans are described. The results and benefits of the type of education and experience gained from ISU include technical reports describing the design projects undertaken by the students, an exposure to the many different disciplines which are a part of a large space project, an awareness of the existing activities from around the world in the space community, and an international professional network which spans all aspects of space activities and covers the globe.

  8. Art and Architectural Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unterrainer, Walter

    2014-01-01

    and its content. The urban and spatial question goes far beyond museums and other buildings for art: how in democratic societies should public spaces be supported by art and how can public art support ´cityness´ and meaning versus spaces of consumerism. Famous but egocentric buildings with the main......art and architectural space museums and other exhibition spaces or how artists learn to love architects Over the last two decades, innumerable new museums, art galleries and other exhibition spaces have been built and opened all over the globe. The most extreme growth happened in China, where...... historically considered even the mother of all arts) - but more relevant: what are appropriate architectural spaces for presenting, exhibiting, contemplating, reflecting, meditating, discussing, enjoying, dissenting, debating creations of art. Simplified, this is a question about the relation between package...

  9. Space biology research development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonting, Sjoerd L.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) Institute is to conduct and promote research related activities regarding the search for extraterrestrial life, particularly intelligent life. Such research encompasses the broad discipline of 'Life in the Universe', including all scientific and technological aspects of astronomy and the planetary sciences, chemical evolution, the origin of life, biological evolution, and cultural evolution. The primary purpose was to provide funding for the Principal Investigator to collaborate with the personnel of the SETI Institute and the NASA-Ames Research center in order to plan and develop space biology research on and in connection with Space Station Freedom; to promote cooperation with the international partners in the space station; to conduct a study on the use of biosensors in space biology research and life support system operation; and to promote space biology research through the initiation of an annual publication 'Advances in Space Biology and Medicine'.

  10. Wastes in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    As human space activities have created more wastes on low and high Earth orbits over the past 50 years than the solar system injected meteorites over billions of years, this report gives an overview of this problem. It identifies the origins of these space debris and wastes (launchers, combustion residues, exploitation wastes, out-of-use satellites, accidental explosions, accidental collisions, voluntary destructions, space erosion), and proposes a stock list of space wastes. Then, it distinguishes the situation for the different orbits: low Earth orbit or LEO (traffic, presence of the International Space Station), medium Earth orbits or MEO (traffic, operating satellites, wastes), geostationary Earth orbit or GEO (traffic, operating satellites, wastes). It also discusses wastes and bacteria present on the moon (due to Apollo missions or to crash tests). It evokes how space and nuclear industry is concerned, and discusses the re-entry issue (radioactive boomerang, metallic boomerang). It also indicates elements of international law

  11. Cyber space bullying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović-Ćitić Branislava

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyber space bullying is a relatively new phenomenon that has received increased attention by scientists, researchers and practitioners in recent years. It is usually defined as an intentionally and repeatedly expression of aggression towards other people through information and communication technologies. Cyber space bullying is characterized by all the primary characteristics of traditional bullying and some specifics ones that clearly differ it from other forms of bullying. In addition to the analysis of characteristics and specifics of cyber space bullying, the paper describes the basic forms of cyber space bullying (flaming, harassment, denigration, impersonation, outing, trickery, exclusion, stalking and happy slapping, as well as, the types of cyber space bullies (vengeful angel, power-hungry, revenge of the nerd, mean girls and inadvertent. The main goal of this paper is to provide initial theoretical guidelines for designing future empirical research on the complex phenomenon of cyber space bullying.

  12. Flat-space singletons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fronsdal, C.

    1987-01-01

    Singletons exist, as particles and as local fields, only in 3+2 de Sitter space. Their kinematical properties make them natural candidates for constituents of massless fields, and perhaps for quarks. It is interesting to find out how to describe this type of compositeness in flat space. A theory of interacting singleton fields in de Sitter space is now available, and in this paper we study the flat-space limit of the Green's functions of that theory. The flat-space limit is an autonomous theory of Green's functions, but is not an operator field theory. The three-point function is calculated and its flat-space limit is found to reveal glimpses of a physical interpretation. Causal and spectral properties are in accord with the tenets of axiomatic field theory. The theory is a generalization of local field theory, in which photons appear as composite objects although the physical S matrix is the same as in conventional QED

  13. Interacting Conceptual Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Bolt, Josef; Coecke, Bob; Genovese, Fabrizio; Lewis, Martha; Marsden, Daniel; Piedeleu, Robin

    2016-01-01

    We propose applying the categorical compositional scheme of [6] to conceptual space models of cognition. In order to do this we introduce the category of convex relations as a new setting for categorical compositional semantics, emphasizing the convex structure important to conceptual space applications. We show how conceptual spaces for composite types such as adjectives and verbs can be constructed. We illustrate this new model on detailed examples.

  14. Space Station galley design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabanino, Rudy; Murphy, George L.; Yakut, M. M.

    1986-01-01

    An Advanced Food Hardware System galley for the initial operating capability (IOC) Space Station is discussed. Space Station will employ food hardware items that have never been flown in space, such as a dishwasher, microwave oven, blender/mixer, bulk food and beverage dispensers, automated food inventory management, a trash compactor, and an advanced technology refrigerator/freezer. These new technologies and designs are described and the trades, design, development, and testing associated with each are summarized.

  15. On discourse space modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Казыдуб, Надежда

    2013-01-01

    Discourse space is a complex structure that incorporates different levels and dimensions. The paper focuses on developing a multidisciplinary approach that is congruent to the complex character of the modern discourse. Two models of discourse space are proposed here. The Integrated Model reveals the interaction of different categorical mechanisms in the construction of the discourse space. The Evolutionary Model describes the historical roots of the modern discourse. It also reveals historica...

  16. Discourses of space

    CERN Document Server

    Ajtony, Zsuzsanna

    2013-01-01

    Ever since the emergence of the spatial turn in several scientific discourses, special attention has been paid to the surrounding space conceived as a construct created by the dynamics of human activity. The notion of space assists us in describing the most varied spheres of human existence. We can speak of various physical, metaphysical, social and cultural, and communicative spaces, as structuring components providing access to various literary, linguistic, social and cultural phenomena, th...

  17. Nuclear power in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aftergood, S.; Hafemeister, D.W.; Prilutsky, O.F.; Rodionov, S.N.; Primack, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear reactors have provided energy for satellites-with nearly disastrous results. Now the US government is proposing to build nuclear-powered boosters to launch Star Wars defenses. These authors represent scientific groups that are opposed to the use of nuclear power in near space. The authors feel that the best course for space-borne reactors is to ban them from Earth orbit and use them in deep space

  18. Space Odyssey Gift Shop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The Space Odyssey Gift Shop located in StenniSphere at the John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., offers every visitor the opportunity to go home with 'the right stuff' from his or her StenniSphere visit. The gift shop is located just inside the front doors to StenniSphere and offers a wide range of space-related apparel, memorabilia, toys, books, mission patches and more.

  19. The past and space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Christian

    2013-01-01

    of legitimate forms of land control, complex combinations of claims emerge. The ubiquity of ‘the past’ in African politics and the increasing competition over space suggest that the naturalness with which some refer to the past and others conceive of space should be under constant scrutiny. Based on work...... that competing social elite groups instrumentalize. Each group sees its interests best served by a particular reading of the past and a particular conception of space....

  20. International Space Station exhibit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) exhibit in StenniSphere at John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., gives visitors an up-close look at the largest international peacetime project in history. Step inside a module of the ISS and glimpse how astronauts will live and work in space. Currently, 16 countries contribute resources and hardware to the ISS. When complete, the orbiting research facility will be larger than a football field.

  1. Space and astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkland, Kyle

    2010-01-01

    Some daring explorers like to study distant frontiers by venturing out into them, but others prefer to study them by bringing them, or representative samples, a little closer to the lab. Both options are pursued in the fields of space and astronomy. Space exploration and astronomy are intricately linked and are examined in-depth in this guide. Dedicated to the scientists who explore the frontiers of space and astronomy-and the results of their unfamiliar findings-each chapter in Space and Astronomy explores one of the frontiers of this science. The development of technology, such as rocket pro

  2. Our Future in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impey, Chris David

    2017-06-01

    The Space Age is half a century old. Its early successes were driven by a fierce superpower rivalry between the Soviet Union and the United States, which tended to obscure the fact that exploration and risk-taking is built into human DNA. Decades after we last set foot on the Moon, and years after the Space Shuttle was retired, the space activity is finally leaving the doldrums. A vibrant private sector led by SpaceX, Blue Origins, and Virgin Galactic plans to launch supplies cheaply into Earth orbit and give anyone the chance of a sub-orbital joy ride. New materials are being developed that could lead to space elevators and transform the economics of space travel. Fighting gravity will always be difficult but engineers are rethinking rockets and developing new propulsion technologies. Permanent bases on the Moon and Mars are now within reach, and a new Space Race is brewing, with China ascendant. Medical advances might even allow us to reach for the stars. The talk will review the history and landmarks of the international space program, give a snapshot of the current dynamic situation, and plot the trajectory of the future of space travel. The time has come to envision our future off-Earth.

  3. Space Law and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronchetti, Fabio

    2017-08-01

    Over the past few years, China has made remarkable achievements in the space sector and become one of the most relevant players in the outer space domain. Highlights of this process have been the deployment in orbit of the first Chinese space station, Tiangong-1, on September 29, 2011; and the landing of the Yutu rover on the lunar surface on December 14, 2013. While technological developments have occurred at such a rapid pace, the same cannot be said of the regulatory framework governing Chinese space activities, which still lays at its infant stage. Indeed, unlike other major space-faring countries, China lacks comprehensive and uniform national space legislation; as of now, China has enacted two low-level administrative regulations addressing the issues of launching and registration of space objects. With the growth of the Chinese space program, such a lack of a structured national space law is beginning to show its limits and to create concerns about its negative impact on business opportunities and the ability of China to fully comply with international obligations. One should keep in mind that the international space treaties (China is part to four international space law treaties) are not self-executing, thus requiring States to adopt domestic measures to ensure their effective implementation. Importantly, Chinese authorities appear to be aware of these issues; as stated by the secretary-general of the Chinese National Space Administration (CNSA) in 2014, national space law has been listed in the national legislation plan and the CNSA is directly engaged in such a process. However, questions remain as to how this drafting process will be conducted and what legal form and content the law will have. For example, China could either decide to proceed with a gradual approach, consisting in the adoption of laws addressing selected issues to be eventually assembled into one single law; or to directly move to the adoption of one comprehensive law. In any case, if

  4. $L$-Topological Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Bajravani

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ‎By substituting the usual notion of open sets in a topological space $X$ with a suitable collection of maps from $X$ to a frame $L$, we introduce the notion of L-topological spaces. Then, we proceed to study the classical notions and properties of usual topological spaces to the newly defined mathematical notion. Our emphasis would be concentrated on the well understood classical connectedness, quotient and compactness notions, where we prove the Thychonoff's theorem and connectedness property for ultra product of $L$-compact and $L$-connected topological spaces, respectively.

  5. Analytical chemistry in space

    CERN Document Server

    Wainerdi, Richard E

    1970-01-01

    Analytical Chemistry in Space presents an analysis of the chemical constitution of space, particularly the particles in the solar wind, of the planetary atmospheres, and the surfaces of the moon and planets. Topics range from space engineering considerations to solar system atmospheres and recovered extraterrestrial materials. Mass spectroscopy in space exploration is also discussed, along with lunar and planetary surface analysis using neutron inelastic scattering. This book is comprised of seven chapters and opens with a discussion on the possibilities for exploration of the solar system by

  6. Learning Space Service Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliot Felix

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Much progress has been made in creating informal learning spaces that incorporate technology and flexibly support a variety of activities. This progress has been principally in designing the right combination of furniture, technology, and space. However, colleges and universities do not design services within learning spaces with nearly the same level of sophistication or integration. Nor do they adequately assess their services. This paper calls for a focus on designing services to facilitate better learning experiences. It describes the fundamentals of service design practice, a selection of exemplary spaces, and the implications for design, budgeting, and staffing.

  7. Space Synthetic Biology (SSB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project focused on employing advanced biological engineering and bioelectrochemical reactor systems to increase life support loop closure and in situ resource...

  8. Sweeping the State Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailund, Thomas

    The thesis describes the sweep-line method, a newly developed reduction method for alleviating the state explosion problem inherent in explicit-state state space exploration. The basic idea underlying the sweep-line method is, when calculating the state space, to recognise and delete states...... that are not reachable from the currently unprocessed states. Intuitively we drag a sweep-line through the state space with the invariant that all states behind the sweep-line have been processed and are unreachable from the states in front of the sweep-line. When calculating the state space of a system we iteratively...

  9. Registration of Space Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Tedd, Bernhard

    2017-07-01

    Space objects are subject to registration in order to allocate "jurisdiction and control" over those objects in the sovereign-free environment of outer space. This approach is similar to the registration of ships in view of the high sea and for aircrafts with respect to the international airspace. Registration is one of the basic principles of space law, starting with UN General Assembly Resolution 1721 B (XVI) of December 20, 1961, followed by Resolution 1962 (XVIII) of December 13, 1963, then formulated in Article VIII of the Outer Space Treaty of 1967 and as specified in the Registration Convention of 1975. Registration of space objects can be seen today as a principle of customary international law, relevant for each spacefaring state. Registration is divided into a national and an international level. The State Party establishes a national registry for its space objects, and those registrations have to be communicated via diplomatic channel to the UN Register of space objects. This UN Register is handled by the UN Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA) and is an open source of information for space objects worldwide. Registration is linked to the so-called launching state of the relevant space object. There might be more than one launching state for the specific launch event, but only one state actor can register a specific space object. The state of registry gains "jurisdiction and control" over the space object and therefore no double registration is permissible. Based on the established UN Space Law, registration practice was subject to some adaptions due to technical developments and legal challenges. After the privatization of the major international satellite organizations, a number of non-registrations had to be faced. The state actors reacted with the UN Registration Practice Resolution of 2007 as elaborated in the Legal Subcommittee of UNCOPUOS, the Committee for the Peaceful Use of Outer Space. In this context an UNOOSA Registration Information

  10. Space Weather Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Space Weather Computational Laboratory is a Unix and PC based modeling and simulation facility devoted to research analysis of naturally occurring electrically...

  11. Management of outer space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perek, Lubos

    1993-10-01

    Various aspects of space-environment management are discussed. Attention is called to the fact that, while space radio communications are already under an adequate management by the International Communications Union, the use of nuclear power sources is regulated by the recently adopted set of principles, and space debris will be discussed in the near future at the UN COPUOS, other aspects of management of outer space received little or no attention of the international community. These include the competency of crews and technical equipment of spacecraft launched by newcomers to space exploration; monitoring of locations and motions of space objects (now in national hands), with relevant data made accessible through a computer network; and the requirement to use space only for beneficial purposes and not for promoting narrow and debatable interests damaging the outer space environment and impeding on astronomical observations. It is suggested that some of these tasks would be best performed by an international space agency within the UN system of organizations.

  12. Radiation environment in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goka, Tateo; Koga, Kiyokazu; Matsumoto, Haruhisa; Komiyama, Tatsuo; Yasuda, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Japanese Experiment Module (Kibo) had been build into the International Space Station (ISS), which is a multipurpose manned facility and laboratory and is operated in orbit at about 400 km in altitude. Two Japanese astronauts stayed in the ISS for long time (4.5 and 5.5 months) for the first time. Space radiation exposure is one of the biggest safety issues for astronauts to stay for such a long duration in space. This special paper is presenting commentary on space radiation environment in ISS, neutrons measurements and light particles (protons and electrons) measurements, the instruments, radiation exposure management for Japanese astronauts and some comments in view of health physics. (author)

  13. Finding industrial space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riesto, Svava

    2011-01-01

    Spaces marked by industrial rationalities are easily overseen or rejected without further consideration during urban redevelopment processes. This is striking in an era where urban space is often seen as a cornerstone for the future city. This article investigates different concepts of open space...... that have been operative in the redevelopment of the so-called Carlsberg Square in Copenhagen between 2006-2009. It concludes with general remarcs on dealing with the complex matter open space in the practices of design and heritage management in urban redevelopment processes....

  14. A primer on Hilbert space theory linear spaces, topological spaces, metric spaces, normed spaces, and topological groups

    CERN Document Server

    Alabiso, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the theory of Hilbert space, a fundamental tool for non-relativistic quantum mechanics. Linear, topological, metric, and normed spaces are all addressed in detail, in a rigorous but reader-friendly fashion. The rationale for an introduction to the theory of Hilbert space, rather than a detailed study of Hilbert space theory itself, resides in the very high mathematical difficulty of even the simplest physical case. Within an ordinary graduate course in physics there is insufficient time to cover the theory of Hilbert spaces and operators, as well as distribution theory, with sufficient mathematical rigor. Compromises must be found between full rigor and practical use of the instruments. The book is based on the author's lessons on functional analysis for graduate students in physics. It will equip the reader to approach Hilbert space and, subsequently, rigged Hilbert space, with a more practical attitude. With respect to the original lectures, the mathematical flavor in all sub...

  15. Intuitionistic supra fuzzy topological spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, S.E.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, We introduce an intuitionistic supra fuzzy closure space and investigate the relationship between intuitionistic supra fuzzy topological spaces and intuitionistic supra fuzzy closure spaces. Moreover, we can obtain intuitionistic supra fuzzy topological space induced by an intuitionistic fuzzy bitopological space. We study the relationship between intuitionistic supra fuzzy closure space and the intuitionistic supra fuzzy topological space induced by an intuitionistic fuzzy bitopological space

  16. Cognitive Neuroscience in Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel G. De la Torre

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Humans are the most adaptable species on this planet, able to live in vastly different environments on Earth. Space represents the ultimate frontier and a true challenge to human adaptive capabilities. As a group, astronauts and cosmonauts are selected for their ability to work in the highly perilous environment of space, giving their best. Terrestrial research has shown that human cognitive and perceptual motor performances deteriorate under stress. We would expect to observe these effects in space, which currently represents an exceptionally stressful environment for humans. Understanding the neurocognitive and neuropsychological parameters influencing space flight is of high relevance to neuroscientists, as well as psychologists. Many of the environmental characteristics specific to space missions, some of which are also present in space flight simulations, may affect neurocognitive performance. Previous work in space has shown that various psychomotor functions degrade during space flight, including central postural functions, the speed and accuracy of aimed movements, internal timekeeping, attentional processes, sensing of limb position and the central management of concurrent tasks. Other factors that might affect neurocognitive performance in space are illness, injury, toxic exposure, decompression accidents, medication side effects and excessive exposure to radiation. Different tools have been developed to assess and counteract these deficits and problems, including computerized tests and physical exercise devices. It is yet unknown how the brain will adapt to long-term space travel to the asteroids, Mars and beyond. This work represents a comprehensive review of the current knowledge and future challenges of cognitive neuroscience in space from simulations and analog missions to low Earth orbit and beyond.

  17. Logic for physical space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aiello, Marco; Bezhanishvili, Guram; Bloch, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    Since the early days of physics, space has called for means to represent, experiment, and reason about it. Apart from physicists, the concept of space has intrigued also philosophers, mathematicians and, more recently, computer scientists. This longstanding interest has left us with a plethora...

  18. Space and economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijs, Jeroen; Heijman, Wim J.M.; Peerlings, Jack H.M.; Rouwendal, Jan; Schipper, Rob A.

    2017-01-01

    The subject area Regional Economics has become topical. This means that in economic analyses the production factor 'space' is of increasing importance. This study book aims to integrate space in the area of General Economics in an analytical way. Models and their applications play a major role in

  19. Space Focus Lead Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeves, Geoffrey D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-10

    The Space Focus team is tasked with the definition of the Space Focused Science Topics, and with the review and ranking of the CSES proposals received in all the program areas. This is achieved by dedicated meetings or a series of informal discussions and/or e-mail reviews.

  20. AU-18 Space Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    CONOPS concept of operations CONUS continental United States COTS commercial off-the-shelf CPB charged particle beam CRT cathode ray tube CSA...Naval Space Surveillance NAVSPOC Naval Space Operations Center NAVWAR navigation warfare NCA National Command Authorities 311 ACRONYMS AND

  1. Reframing Children's Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    Like professional photographers, early childhood teachers can reframe their perspectives to create innovative and inspiring spaces for young children by concentrating on reframing two design elements: color and texture. When thinking about designing spaces for young children, one of the first considerations is the equipment and its arrangement.…

  2. Energy scripts and spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schoor, Tineke

    2016-01-01

    Demand Conference Lancaster 2016 Workshop 9. Space, site and scale in the making of energy demand Abstract: Energy scripts and spaces Tineke van der Schoor, Hanze University of Applied Sciences, Groningen Technology is infused with scripts that indicate how we as users should behave around, live in

  3. Supersymmetry in singular spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, Eric

    2002-01-01

    We discuss supersymmetry in spaces with a boundary, i.e. singular spaces. In particular, we discuss the situation in ten and five dimensions. In both these cases we review the construction of supersymmetric domain wall actions situated at the boundary. These domain walls act as sources inducing a

  4. Dedicated Space | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The three-story, 330,000-square-foot Advanced Technology Research Facility has nearly 40,000 square feet designated as partnership space (shown in blue) for co-location of collaborators from industry, academia, nonprofit sectors, and other government agencies. The partnership space, combined with multiple conference rooms and meeting areas, encourages both internal and

  5. Space Debris Mitigation Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of national and international space debris mitigation guides is to promote the preservation of near-Earth space for applications and exploration missions far into the future. To accomplish this objective, the accumulation of objects, particularly in long-lived orbits, must be eliminated or curtailed.

  6. Changing spaces for sports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kural, René

    2010-01-01

    The author argues that the fundamental values associated with sports seem to have changed. Accordingly spaces for sports are also undergoing change.The essay gives a number of examples of these new sports spaces. Their common denominator lies in their urban proximity, the combination of previously...

  7. Space for Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mariane Ellen; Folmer, Mette Blicher; Mullins, Michael

    SPACE FOR INTERACTION QUALIFYING GROUP TREATMENT FOR PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC PAIN THROUGH OPTIMIZATION(?) OF SPACE. A RANDOMIZED PILOT STUDY. In a Ph-D. Mariane Ellen Jørgensen / Nurse + psykoterapist / maej@rn.dk / Pain Center / Aalborg University Hospital / Denmark / Mette Blicher Folmer / Archit...

  8. Space Van system update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, Len

    1992-07-01

    The Space Van is a proposed commercial launch vehicle that is designed to carry 1150 kg to a space-station orbit for a price of $1,900,000 per flight in 1992 dollars. This price includes return on preoperational investment. Recurring costs are expected to be about $840,000 per flight. The Space Van is a fully reusable, assisted-single-stage-to orbit system. The most innovative new feature of the Space Van system is the assist-stage concept. The assist stage uses only airbreathing engines for vertical takeoff and vertical landing in the horizontal attitude and for launching the rocket-powered orbiter stage at mach 0.8 and an altitude of about 12 km. The primary version of the orbiter is designed for cargo-only without a crew. However, a passenger version of the Space Van should be able to carry a crew of two plus six passengers to a space-station orbit. Since the Space Van is nearly single-stage, performance to polar orbit drops off significantly. The cargo version should be capable of carrying 350 kg to a 400-km polar orbit. In the passenger version, the Space Van should be able to carry two crew members - or one crew member plus a passenger.

  9. Constructing Healthcare Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harty, Chris; Holm Jacobsen, Peter; Tryggestad, Kjell

    2015-01-01

    into the project organisation. The theoretical contribution concerns the ways in which project visualisations plays an active role in developing novel conceptions of space and how these are mobilized in the process of on-boarding, in terms of 1. Design space (especially the engagement of users in the design...

  10. Responsive Space Program Brief

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dors, Eric E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-03-11

    The goal of the Responsive Space program is to make significant, integrated science and technology contributions to the end-to-end missions of the U.S. Government that protect against global emerging and nuclear threats, from the earliest adversary planning through resilient event response report describes the LANL space program, mission, and other activities. The report describes some of their activities.

  11. Geochronology and petrogenesis of the Early Cretaceous A-type granite from the Feie'shan W-Sn deposit in the eastern Guangdong Province, SE China: Implications for W-Sn mineralization and geodynamic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Mao, Jingwen; Santosh, M.; Bao, Zhian; Zeng, Xiaojian; Jia, Lihui

    2018-02-01

    The Feie'shan greisen-type W-Sn deposit in the eastern Guangdong Province forms part of the Southeastern Coastal Metallogenic Belt (SCMB) in South China. Here we present zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb geochronology of the biotite granite which shows a weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 134.7 ± 2.0 Ma, consistent with the zircon U-Pb, biotite 40Ar-39Ar and molybdenite Re-Os ages in the previous study. The biotite granite is peraluminous and belongs to high-K calc-alkaline type. It is characterized by high SiO2, K2O, F, K2O + Na2O and FeOt/(FeOt + MgO), and low CaO, MgO, TiO2 and P2O5 contents, enrichment in Rb, Cs, Th and U, and depletion in Ba, Sr, Zr, Ti and P, with flat REE patterns and distinctly negative Eu anomalies, showing an A2-type affinity. The rocks also display extremely low Ba, Sr and Ti concentrations and high Rb/Sr, Rb/Ba and low CaO/(Na2O + K2O) ratios, indicating high degree of fractionation. Zircon grains from the granite have low Eu/Eu* and Ce4 +/Ce3 + ratios, suggesting low oxygen fugacity. The highly fractionated and reduced features imply that the Feie'shan mineralization is genetically related to the biotite granite. The εNd(t) values and zircon εHf(t) values of the biotite granite range from - 2.96 to - 1.95 and - 5.69 to 0.62, with two-stage Nd and Hf model ages (TDM2) of 1083 to 1164 Ma and 1150 to 1552 Ma, indicating that they were derived from magma hybridization between anatectic granitic and mantle-derived mafic magmas. In combination with previous studies, we propose a geodynamic model for the 145―135 Ma W-Sn mineral system and related magmatism in the southwestern domain of the SCMB. After ca. 145 Ma, the subduction orientation of the Izanagi plate changed from oblique to parallel with respect to the continental margin resulting in large-scale lithosphere extension and thinning, which led to the upwelling of asthenosphere. The ascending mantle-derived mafic magmas provided not only supplied the heat for crustal remelting but also added

  12. Atoms for space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buden, D.

    1990-10-01

    Nuclear technology offers many advantages in an expanded solar system space exploration program. These cover a range of possible applications such as power for spacecraft, lunar and planetary surfaces, and electric propulsion; rocket propulsion for lunar and Mars vehicles; space radiation protection; water and sewage treatment; space mining; process heat; medical isotopes; and self-luminous systems. In addition, space offers opportunities to perform scientific research and develop systems that can solve problems here on Earth. These might include fusion and antimatter research, using the Moon as a source of helium-3 fusion fuel, and manufacturing perfect fusion targets. In addition, nuclear technologies can be used to reduce risk and costs of the Space Exploration Initiative. 1 fig.

  13. Space for personal hygiene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Danielsen, Claus

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on spaces used for personal hygiene in housing over the last hundred years. The paper begins with a description of the hygienic movement in the late 19th century. At that time urinating took place in semi-public spaces outside the dwelling. Today, the WC has moved well...... into the dwelling, and in many dwellings the bathroom has developed into being the most private space. Thus, the bathroom can be regarded as the last domain of privacy in today's housing, and in a number of new dwellings this quality is exploited in new ways. The development of ‘space for hygiene’ in the 20th...... century will be studied by analysing the spatial organisation of dwellings: Where and how has the space for hygiene been situated and designed in housing in different periods over the last hundred years?...

  14. Integrating National Space Visions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Brent

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines value proposition assumptions for various models nations may use to justify, shape, and guide their space programs. Nations organize major societal investments like space programs to actualize national visions represented by leaders as investments in the public good. The paper defines nine 'vision drivers' that circumscribe the motivations evidently underpinning national space programs. It then describes 19 fundamental space activity objectives (eight extant and eleven prospective) that nations already do or could in the future use to actualize the visions they select. Finally the paper presents four contrasting models of engagement among nations, and compares these models to assess realistic pounds on the pace of human progress in space over the coming decades. The conclusion is that orthogonal engagement, albeit unlikely because it is unprecedented, would yield the most robust and rapid global progress.

  15. Strategy and space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker

    2011-01-01

    in different periods and how these strategies can be related to the general conditions of the corporation. The strategic uncertainty of the corporation is investigated as a main determining factor for changes in space strategy based on theories of the relations between strategy and place. These theories......The article is based on results from a research project on space strategies and building values, which included a major case study of the development of facilities for the Danish Broadcasting Corporation over time. The focus is to identify, how different space strategies have been implemented...... include that corporations follows one of the three generic space strategies: Incrementalism, standardization, and value-based strategy. Among the conclusion are, that the space strategies mostly changes between incremental and value-based strategies, but one period of standardization was identified...

  16. Green space as classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentsen, Peter; Schipperijn, Jasper; Jensen, Frank Søndergaard

    2013-01-01

    More and more Danish teachers have started introducing curriculum-based outdoor learning as a weekly or biweekly ‘outdoor school’ day for school children. This move towards schooling in non-classroom spaces presents a challenge for green space managers. Basic managerial knowledge related to what......, who, when and where has thus far only been supported by anecdotal evidence, but seems fundamental to the decision-making of a range of green space providers. The present study aims to describe, characterise and discuss outdoor teachers’ use, preferences and ecostrategies in relation to green space....... A nationwide survey was conducted among Danish teachers practising outdoor teaching (107 respondents), and it showed that a majority used and preferred forest areas. The outdoor teachers used mainly school grounds and local green space for their outdoor teaching with a majority using the same place or mostly...

  17. Atoms for space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buden, D.

    1990-10-01

    Nuclear technology offers many advantages in an expanded solar system space exploration program. These cover a range of possible applications such as power for spacecraft, lunar and planetary surfaces, and electric propulsion; rocket propulsion for lunar and Mars vehicles; space radiation protection; water and sewage treatment; space mining; process heat; medical isotopes; and self-luminous systems. In addition, space offers opportunities to perform scientific research and develop systems that can solve problems here on Earth. These might include fusion and antimatter research, using the Moon as a source of helium-3 fusion fuel, and manufacturing perfect fusion targets. In addition, nuclear technologies can be used to reduce risk and costs of the Space Exploration Initiative. 1 fig

  18. Space: A new frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutolo, Mona; Miranda, Denis M.

    1986-08-01

    The challenges and the promises of space colonization present an exciting opportunity for exploring and analyzing the values, the institutions and the physical environments we have created on Earth. Here we describe an interdisciplinary course, team-taught, that examines the current state of space exploration and the innovative technologies spawned by space research. The course also explores the possible social, economic, political and international impacts of migration to space of people and industries. A course project is to design a space colony for a community of 10,000 people. Given the technical design parameters and other details, the students are to engineer socially an ideal community, bearing in mind the short lifetimes of utopian communities of the past. The process is intended to help the students gain a fair understanding of the dynamics of human societies and of the technologies we have developed that enable us to change our world and to design new worlds.

  19. Space Experiment Module (SEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodell, Charles L.

    1999-01-01

    The Space Experiment Module (SEM) Program is an education initiative sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Shuttle Small Payloads Project. The program provides nationwide educational access to space for Kindergarten through University level students. The SEM program focuses on the science of zero-gravity and microgravity. Within the program, NASA provides small containers or "modules" for students to fly experiments on the Space Shuttle. The experiments are created, designed, built, and implemented by students with teacher and/or mentor guidance. Student experiment modules are flown in a "carrier" which resides in the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle. The carrier supplies power to, and the means to control and collect data from each experiment.

  20. Space 2000 Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the Space 2000 Symposium is to present the creativity and achievements of key figures of the 20th century. It offers a retrospective discussion on space exploration. It considers the future of the enterprise, and the legacy that will be left for future generations. The symposium includes panel discussions, smaller session meetings with some panelists, exhibits, and displays. The first session entitled "From Science Fiction to Science Facts" commences after a brief overview of the symposium. The panel discussions include talks on space exploration over many decades, and the missions of the millennium to search for life on Mars. The second session, "Risks and Rewards of Human Space Exploration," focuses on the training and health risks that astronauts face on their exploratory mission to space. Session three, "Messages and Messengers Informing and Inspire Space Exploration and the Public," focuses on the use of TV medium by educators and actors to inform and inspire a wide variety of audiences with adventures of space exploration. Session four, "The Legacy of Carl Sagan," discusses the influences made by Sagan to scientific research and the general public. In session five, "Space Exploration for a new Generation," two student speakers and the NASA Administrator Daniel S. Goldin address the group. Session six, "Destiny or Delusion? -- Humankind's Place in the Cosmos," ends the symposium with issues of space exploration and some thought provoking questions. Some of these issues and questions are: what will be the societal implications if we discover the origin of the universe, stars, or life; what will be the impact if scientists find clear evidence of life outside the domains of the Earth; should there be limits to what humans can or should learn; and what visionary steps should space-faring people take now for future generations.

  1. Cassava For Space Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Naomi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Njemanze, Philip; Nweke, Felix; Mitsuhashi, Jun; Hachiya, Natumi; Miyashita, Sachiko; Hotta, Atuko

    Space agriculture is an advanced life support enginnering concept based on biological and ecological system ot drive the materials recycle loop and create pleasant life environment on distant planetary bodies. Choice of space diet is one of primary decision required ot be made at designing space agriculture. We propose cassava, Manihot esculenta and, for one major composition of space food materials, and evaluate its value and feasibility of farming and processing it for space diet. Criteria to select space crop species could be stated as follows. 1) Fill th enutritional requirements. There is no perfect food material to meet this requirements without making a combination with others. A set of food materials which are adopted inthe space recipe shall fit to the nutritional requirement. 2) Space food is not just for maintaining physiological activities of human, but an element of human culture. We shall consider joy of dining in space life. In this context, space foos or recipe should be accepted by future astronauts. Food culture is diverse in the world, and has close relatioship to each cultural background. Cassava root tuber is a material to supply mainly energy in the form of carbohydrate, same as cereals and other tuber crops. Cassava leaf is rich in protein high as 5.1 percents about ten times higher content than its tuber. In the food culture in Africa, cassava is a major component. Cassava root tuber in most of its strain contains cyanide, it should be removed during preparation for cooking. However certain strain are less in this cyanogenic compound, and genetically modified cassava can also aboid this problem safely.

  2. Space Sustainment: A New Approach for America in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    international community toward promoting market incentives in international space law. This would open up the competitive space for new entrants ...announces- new -space-situational-awareness-satellite-program.aspx. 29. Gruss, “U.S. Space Assets Face Growing Threat .” 30. McDougall, Heavens and the...November–December 2014 Air & Space Power Journal | 117 SCHRIEVER ESSAY WINNER SECOND PLACE Space Sustainment A New Approach for America in Space Lt

  3. Longitudinal Phase Space Tomography with Space Charge

    CERN Document Server

    Hancock, S; Lindroos, M

    2000-01-01

    Tomography is now a very broad topic with a wealth of algorithms for the reconstruction of both qualitative and quantitative images. In an extension in the domain of particle accelerators, one of the simplest algorithms has been modified to take into account the non-linearity of large-amplitude synchrotron motion. This permits the accurate reconstruction of longitudinal phase space density from one-dimensional bunch profile data. The method is a hybrid one which incorporates particle tracking. Hitherto, a very simple tracking algorithm has been employed because only a brief span of measured profile data is required to build a snapshot of phase space. This is one of the strengths of the method, as tracking for relatively few turns relaxes the precision to which input machine parameters need to be known. The recent addition of longitudinal space charge considerations as an optional refinement of the code is described. Simplicity suggested an approach based on the derivative of bunch shape with the properties of...

  4. Space Debris & its Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Sourabh; Arora, Nishant

    2012-07-01

    Space debris has become a growing concern in recent years, since collisions at orbital velocities can be highly damaging to functioning satellites and can also produce even more space debris in the process. Some spacecraft, like the International Space Station, are now armored to deal with this hazard but armor and mitigation measures can be prohibitively costly when trying to protect satellites or human spaceflight vehicles like the shuttle. This paper describes the current orbital debris environment, outline its main sources, and identify mitigation measures to reduce orbital debris growth by controlling these sources. We studied the literature on the topic Space Debris. We have proposed some methods to solve this problem of space debris. We have also highlighted the shortcomings of already proposed methods by space experts and we have proposed some modification in those methods. Some of them can be very effective in the process of mitigation of space debris, but some of them need some modification. Recently proposed methods by space experts are maneuver, shielding of space elevator with the foil, vaporizing or redirecting of space debris back to earth with the help of laser, use of aerogel as a protective layer, construction of large junkyards around international space station, use of electrodynamics tether & the latest method proposed is the use of nano satellites in the clearing of the space debris. Limitations of the already proposed methods are as follows: - Maneuvering can't be the final solution to our problem as it is the act of self-defence. - Shielding can't be done on the parts like solar panels and optical devices. - Vaporizing or redirecting of space debris can affect the human life on earth if it is not done in proper manner. - Aerogel has a threshold limit up to which it can bear (resist) the impact of collision. - Large junkyards can be effective only for large sized debris. In this paper we propose: A. The Use of Nano Tubes by creating a mesh

  5. Managing the space sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    In April 1994 the National Research Council received a request from NASA that the NRC's Space Studies Board provide guidance on questions relating to the management of NASA's programs in the space sciences. The issues raised in the request closely reflect questions posed in the agency's fiscal year 1994 Senate appropriations report. These questions included the following: Should all the NASA space science programs be gathered into a 'National Institute for Space Science'? What other organizational changes might be made to improve the coordination and oversight of NASA space science programs? What processes should be used for establishing interdisciplinary science priorities based on scientific merit and other criteria, while ensuring opportunities for newer fields and disciplines to emerge? And what steps could be taken to improve utilization of advanced technologies in future space scienc missions? This report details the findings of the Committee on the Future of Space Science (FOSS) and its three task groups: the Task Group on Alternative Organizations, Task Group on Research Prioritization, and the Task Group on Technology.

  6. International Space Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lits

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the modern day technologies that drive our global society are highly dependent on the use of outer space. For example, daily activities such as sending emails, making phone calls and carrying out bank transactions cannot be done unless satellite technologies are involved. When you catch a plane, the air traffic control is dependent on GPS. Even natural disaster management is dependent on satellite imaging. Taking into account the importance of this, it becomes increasingly necessary to be knowledgeable in the field of international law as it is the only sphere of law that reaches beyond the physical boundaries of the Earth, goes deep into space and provides protection for today’s society. With new steps being taken to exploit further the potentials of outer space, and with increasing talk of new space missions and new discoveries, current international space law is being placed under scrutiny, for it should be remembered that the major international legal documents in this field were adopted in the middle of the 20th century, and thus there are fears that the law may have become obsolete, irrelevant in the face of new challenges in the use of outer space. This paper delivers an analysis of existing international space law and attempts to raise several crucial issues pertinent in the area.

  7. Weakly infinite-dimensional spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorchuk, Vitalii V

    2007-01-01

    In this survey article two new classes of spaces are considered: m-C-spaces and w-m-C-spaces, m=2,3,...,∞. They are intermediate between the class of weakly infinite-dimensional spaces in the Alexandroff sense and the class of C-spaces. The classes of 2-C-spaces and w-2-C-spaces coincide with the class of weakly infinite-dimensional spaces, while the compact ∞-C-spaces are exactly the C-compact spaces of Haver. The main results of the theory of weakly infinite-dimensional spaces, including classification via transfinite Lebesgue dimensions and Luzin-Sierpinsky indices, extend to these new classes of spaces. Weak m-C-spaces are characterised by means of essential maps to Henderson's m-compacta. The existence of hereditarily m-strongly infinite-dimensional spaces is proved.

  8. Why Not Space Tethers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Noble H.

    2007-01-01

    The Tethered Satellite System Space Shuttle missions, TSS-1 in 1993 and TSS-1R in 1996, were the height of space tether technology development. Since NASA's investment of some $200M and two Shuttle missions in those two pioneering missions, there have been several smaller tether flight experiments, but interest in this promising technology has waned within NASA as well as the DOD agencies. This is curious in view of the unique capabilities of space tether systems and the fact that they have been flight validated and shown to perform as, or better than, expected in earth orbit. While it is true that the TSS-1, TSS-1R and SEDS-2 missions experienced technical difficulties, the causes of these early developmental problems are now known to be design or materials flaws that are (1) unrelated to the basic viability of space tether technology, and (2) they are readily corrected. The purpose of this paper is to review the dynamic and electrodynamic fundamentals of space tethers and the unique capabilities they afford (that are enabling to certain types of space missions); to elucidate the nature, cause, and solution of the early developmental problems; and to provide an update on progress made in development of the technology. Finally, it is shown that (1) all problems experienced during early development of the technology now have solutions; and (2) the technology has been matured by advances made in strength and robustness of tether materials, high voltage engineering in the space environment, tether health and status monitoring, and the elimination of the broken tether hazard. In view of this, it is inexplicable why this flight-validated technology has not been utilized in the past decade, considering the powerful and unique capabilities that space tethers can afford that are, not only required to carryout, otherwise, unobtainable missions, but can also greatly reduce the cost of certain on-going space operations.

  9. Views from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitmacher, Gary H.

    2002-01-01

    Only in the last century have human beings flown in space and men and machines have explored the worlds of our solar system. Robots have gone to most of the our neighboring worlds, the valleys of Mars and the clouds and moons of Jupiter. Instruments like the Hubble Space Telescope have looked into deep space. Those of us on the earth have been able to participate as vicarious explorers through the records, and experiences and the photographs that have been returned. At the beginning of the space program hardly anyone thought of photographs from space as anything more than a branch of industrial photography. There were pictures of the spaceships, and launches and of astronauts in training, but these were all pictures taken on the ground. When John Glenn became America's first man in orbit, bringing a camera was an afterthought. An Ansco Autoset was purchased in a drug store and hastily modified so the astronaut could use it more easily while in his pressure suit. In 1962, everything that Glenn did was deemed an experiment. At the beginning of the program, no one knew for certain whether weightlessness would prevent a man from seeing, or from breathing, or from eating and swallowing. Photography was deemed nothing more than a recreational extra. Not only was little expected of those first pictures taken from space, but there was serious concern that taking pictures of other nations from orbit would be seen as an act of ill will and even one of war- as sovereign sensitive nations would resent having pictures taken by Americans orbiting overhead. A few years earlier, in 1957, in reaction to the Soviet launch of the first Sputnik satellite, scientists told congressman of the necessity of orbiting our own robot spacecraft-they predicted that one day we would take daily pictures of the world's weather. Congressman were incredulous. But space photography developed quickly. For security purposes, spy satellites took over many of the responsibilities we had depended upon

  10. Space station orbit maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, D. I.; Jones, R. M.

    1983-01-01

    The orbit maintenance problem is examined for two low-earth-orbiting space station concepts - the large, manned Space Operations Center (SOC) and the smaller, unmanned Science and Applications Space Platform (SASP). Atmospheric drag forces are calculated, and circular orbit altitudes are selected to assure a 90 day decay period in the event of catastrophic propulsion system failure. Several thrusting strategies for orbit maintenance are discussed. Various chemical and electric propulsion systems for orbit maintenance are compared on the basis of propellant resupply requirements, power requirements, Shuttle launch costs, and technology readiness.

  11. Space Charge Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrario, M.; Palumbo, L.

    2014-12-19

    The space charge forces are those generated directly by the charge distribution, with the inclusion of the image charges and currents due to the interaction of the beam with a perfectly conducting smooth pipe. Space charge forces are responsible for several unwanted phenomena related to beam dynamics, such as energy loss, shift of the synchronous phase and frequency , shift of the betatron frequencies, and instabilities. We will discuss in this lecture the main feature of space charge effects in high-energy storage rings as well as in low-energy linacs and transport lines.

  12. Space station operations management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Kathleen V.

    1989-01-01

    Space Station Freedom operations management concepts must be responsive to the unique challenges presented by the permanently manned international laboratory. Space Station Freedom will be assembled over a three year period where the operational environment will change as significant capability plateaus are reached. First Element Launch, Man-Tended Capability, and Permanent Manned Capability, represent milestones in operational capability that is increasing toward mature operations capability. Operations management concepts are being developed to accomodate the varying operational capabilities during assembly, as well as the mature operational environment. This paper describes operations management concepts designed to accomodate the uniqueness of Space Station Freedoom, utilizing tools and processes that seek to control operations costs.

  13. Double layers in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlqvist, P.

    1982-07-01

    For more than a decade it has been realised that electrostatic double layers are likely to occur in space. We briefly discuss the theoretical background of such double layers. Most of the paper is devoted to an account of the observational evidence for double layers in the ionosphere and magnetosphere of the Earth. Several different experiments are reviewed including rocket and satellite measurements and ground based observations. It is concluded that the observational evidence for double layers in space is very strong. The experimental results indicate that double layers with widely different properties may exist in space. (Author)

  14. Space plasma simulation chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Scientific results of experiments and tests of instruments performed with the Space Plasma Simulation Chamber and its facility are reviewed in the following six categories. 1. Tests of instruments on board rockets, satellites and balloons. 2. Plasma wave experiments. 3. Measurements of plasma particles. 4. Optical measurements. 5. Plasma production. 6. Space plasms simulations. This facility has been managed under Laboratory Space Plasma Comittee since 1969 and used by scientists in cooperative programs with universities and institutes all over country. A list of publications is attached. (author)

  15. Climate engineering and space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrogl, K.-U.; Summerer, L.

    2016-12-01

    This article provides a comprehensive look at climate engineering and space. Its starting point is that the States are failing to slow down global warming. The consequences for the environment and the economic and societal burden are uncontested. The priority to maintain the use of fossil resources might soon lead to the implementation of deliberate engineering measures to alter the climate instead of reducing the greenhouse gases. The article describes these currently discussed measures for such climate engineering. It will particularly analyse the expected contributions from space to these concepts. Based on this it evaluates the economic and political implications and finally tests the conformity of these concepts with space law.

  16. New city spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gehl, Jan; Gemzøe, Lars

    2001-01-01

    2. rev. udg. engelsk udgave af 'Nye byrum'. This book presents an overview of the developments in the use and planning of public spaces, and offers a detailed description of 9 cities with interesting public space strategies: Barcelona, Lyon, Strasbourg, Freiburg and Copenhagen in Europe, Portland...... in North America, Curitiba and Cordoba in South America and Melbourne in Australia. It also portrays 39 selected public space projects from all parts of the World. The strategies and projects are extensively illustrated by drawings, plans and photographs....

  17. Smart space technology innovations

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Mu-Yen

    2013-01-01

    Recently, ad hoc and wireless communication technologies have made available the device, service and information rich environment for users. Smart Space and ubiquitous computing extend the ""Living Lab"" vision of everyday objects and provide context-awareness services to users in smart living environments. This ebook investigates smart space technology and its innovations around the Living Labs. The final goal is to build context-awareness smart space and location-based service applications that integrate information from independent systems which autonomously and securely support human activ

  18. Evolution to Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    This presentation will discuss recent space exploration results (LCROSS, KEPLER, etc.), increase access to space and the small and cube satellites platform as it relates to the future of space exploration. It will highlight the concept of modularization and the use of biology, and specifically synthetic biology in the future. The presentation will be a general public presentation. When speaking to a younger audience, I will discuss my background. All slides contain only public information. No technical ITAR/Export controlled material will be discussed.

  19. Fundamentals of Space Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, Gilles

    2005-03-01

    A total of more than 240 human space flights have been completed to date, involving about 450 astronauts from various countries, for a combined total presence in space of more than 70 years. The seventh long-duration expedition crew is currently in residence aboard the International Space Station, continuing a permanent presence in space that began in October 2000. During that time, investigations have been conducted on both humans and animal models to study the bone demineralization and muscle deconditioning, space motion sickness, the causes and possible treatment of postflight orthostatic intolerance, the changes in immune function, crew and crew-ground interactions, and the medical issues of living in a space environment, such as the effects of radiation or the risk of developing kidney stones. Some results of these investigations have led to fundamental discoveries about the adaptation of the human body to the space environment. Gilles Clément has been active in this research. This readable text presents the findings from the life science experiments conducted during and after space missions. Topics discussed in this book include: adaptation of sensory-motor, cardio-vascular, bone, and muscle systems to the microgravity of spaceflight; psychological and sociological issues of living in a confined, isolated, and stressful environment; operational space medicine, such as crew selection, training and in-flight health monitoring, countermeasures and support; results of space biology experiments on individual cells, plants, and animal models; and the impact of long-duration missions such as the human mission to Mars. The author also provides a detailed description of how to fly a space experiment, based on his own experience with research projects conducted onboard Salyut-7, Mir, Spacelab, and the Space Shuttle. Now is the time to look at the future of human spaceflight and what comes next. The future human exploration of Mars captures the imagination of both the

  20. Double layers in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlqvist, P.

    1982-01-01

    For more than a decade it has been realised that electrostatic double layers are likely to occur in space. The author briefly discusses the theoretical background of such double layers. Most of the paper is devoted to an account of the observational evidence for double layers in the ionosphere and magnetosphere of the Earth. Several different experiments are reviewed including rocket and satellite measurements and ground based observations. It is concluded that the observational evidence for double layers in space is very strong. The experimental results indicate that double layers with widely different properties may exist in space. (Auth.)

  1. Barrelled locally convex spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez Carreras, P

    1987-01-01

    This book is a systematic treatment of barrelled spaces, and of structures in which barrelledness conditions are significant. It is a fairly self-contained study of the structural theory of those spaces, concentrating on the basic phenomena in the theory, and presenting a variety of functional-analytic techniques.Beginning with some basic and important results in different branches of Analysis, the volume deals with Baire spaces, presents a variety of techniques, and gives the necessary definitions, exploring conditions on discs to ensure that they are absorbed by the barrels of the sp

  2. Twistor space, Minkowski space and the conformal group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broek, P.M. van den

    1983-01-01

    It is shown that the conformal group of compactified Minkowski space is isomorphic to a group of rays of semilinear transformations of twistor space. The action of the conformal group on twistor space is given by an explicit realisation of this isomorphism. In this way we determine the transformation of twistor space under space inversion and time inversion. (orig.)

  3. Space Guiding Us

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primikiri, Athina

    2016-04-01

    Taking into consideration the fact that general education provides the passport for a successful career the charting of Space consists of a constructive instrument available to every single teacher. Activities touching directly upon Space comprise a source of inspiration that encourages pupils to get acquainted with natural sciences and technology while consolidating their cross-curriculum knowledge. The applications and endeavors arising out of Space play a vital role for the further development and growth of our societies. Moreover, the prosperity of people is inextricably bound up with the implementation of Space policies adapted to different sectors such as the Environment, the phenomenon of climate change, matters affecting public or private safety, humanitarian aid and other technological issues. Therefore, the thorough analysis of Space endows us with insights about new products and innovative forms of industrial collaboration. As a teacher, I have consciously chosen to utilize the topic of Space in class as an instructive tool during the last 4 years. The lure of Space combined with the fascination provided by Space flights contributes to the enrichment of children's knowledge in the field of STEM. Space consists of the perfect cross-curriculum tool for the teaching of distinct subjects such as History, Geography, Science, Environment, Literature, Music, Religion and Physical Education. Following the Curriculum for pupils aged 9-10 I opted to teach the topic of Space under the title 'Space Guiding Us' as well as its subunits: • International Space Station • Cassini/Huygens, Mission to Titan • Rosetta & Philae • European Union and Space • Mission X: Train like an Astronaut The main purpose of choosing the module of 'Space' is to stimulate the scientific and critical thought of the pupils, to foster the co-operative spirit among them and to make them aware of how the application of Science affects their everyday lives. Aims • To incite pupils

  4. The Convergent Learning Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Lars Peter; Kjærgaard, Hanne Wacher

    networks are still more prominently expected by students. Against this backdrop, an action research project has worked with the definition and testing of the hypothesized constituents of the Convergent Learning Space and how it challenges our traditional conceptions of learning spaces. The article...... describes this pilot study involving teachers in conscious, documented reflection on methods, approaches, and procedures conducive to learning processes in this new learning space. As a perspective, the article briefly outlines an intervention study aimed at investigating how students benefit from......The concept of the Convergent Learning Space has been hypothesized and explored in an ongoing action research project carried out at undergraduate level in select bachelor programs at a Danish University College, where classrooms are technology rich and students bring their own devices. The changes...

  5. Graphene for Space

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Individual talks by JPL and Caltech experts on graphene to present the different ambits of application in which graphene is currently being used on campus,...

  6. Carving out humanitarian space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Durieux

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Agencies working inside Myanmar to assist forcibly displacedpeople work within an extremely constricted operationalenvironment. Despite occasional glimmers of hope, carvingout sufficient humanitarian space to meet urgent needsremains an uphill struggle.

  7. Carving out humanitarian space

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-François Durieux; Sivanka Dhanapala

    2008-01-01

    Agencies working inside Myanmar to assist forcibly displacedpeople work within an extremely constricted operationalenvironment. Despite occasional glimmers of hope, carvingout sufficient humanitarian space to meet urgent needsremains an uphill struggle.

  8. Mobius invariant QK spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Wulan, Hasi

    2017-01-01

    This monograph summarizes the recent major achievements in Möbius invariant QK spaces. First introduced by Hasi Wulan and his collaborators, the theory of QK spaces has developed immensely in the last two decades, and the topics covered in this book will be helpful to graduate students and new researchers interested in the field. Featuring a wide range of subjects, including an overview of QK spaces, QK-Teichmüller spaces, K-Carleson measures and analysis of weight functions, this book serves as an important resource for analysts interested in this area of complex analysis. Notes, numerous exercises, and a comprehensive up-to-date bibliography provide an accessible entry to anyone with a standard graduate background in real and complex analysis.

  9. Ombud's corner: space invaders

    CERN Multimedia

    Sudeshna Datta-Cockerill

    2015-01-01

    When normal communication breaks down and there is no sharing anymore, office-mates can become ‘space invaders’. Very often, the situation can be resolved effectively by taking just a few simple steps...   The lack of office space at CERN is a permanent issue that the various departments regularly have to address. As a result, very often this precious space where we spend the entire day has to be shared with other colleagues. Office-mates may come from different backgrounds and cultures and may have very different habits and behaviours; they may also have different activities during the day, sometimes requiring unusual, (perhaps even strange?) interactions with the space they occupy; finally, their presence might be irregular, making it very difficult for us to establish a stable relationship. Mark and Claire share an office as well as some professional activities. In the beginning, the relationship seems to work normally but, over time, the communication between them ste...

  10. Mastering the Master Space

    CERN Document Server

    Forcella, Davide; He, Yang-Hui; Zaffaroni, Alberto

    2008-01-01

    Supersymmetric gauge theories have an important but perhaps under-appreciated notion of a master space, which controls the full moduli space. For world-volume theories of D-branes probing a Calabi-Yau singularity X the situation is particularly illustrative. In the case of one physical brane, the master space F is the space of F-terms and a particular quotient thereof is X itself. We study various properties of F which encode such physical quantities as Higgsing, BPS spectra, hidden global symmetries, etc. Using the plethystic program we also discuss what happens at higher number N of branes. This letter is a summary and some extensions of the key points of a longer companion paper arXiv:0801.1585.

  11. The Textile Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Cecilie

    2010-01-01

    Textile has within the last decade increasingly been regarded as an architectural material. Many new textiles have been developed and this has increased its applications in architecture. But how do textile and space meet and which spatial qualities can arise in this meeting? The paper describes...... a series of practical studies of the spatial qualities that can be established through the design of three very different fabrics. The topic is part of an ongoing Ph.D. project at The Danish Design School in Copenhagen. The main theme of the Ph.D. is the inter-play between textile, space and sound. Space...... and it has a special poetry which is not to be found in any other material. Which spatial qualities can be obtained with these textile properties? Contemporary conception of space in architecture can be said still to rely on the modernist conception. In practical experiments it is investigated how...

  12. JAXA's Space Exploration Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, N. S.

    2018-04-01

    Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has been studying space exploration scenario, including human exploration for Japan since 2015, which encompasses goals, knowledge gap assessment, and architecture. assessment, and technology roadmap.

  13. Earth study from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorenko, A. V.

    1981-01-01

    The significance that space studies are making to all Earth sciences in the areas of geography, geodesy, cartography, geology, meteorology, oceanology, agronomy, and ecology is discussed. It is predicted that cosmonautics will result in a revolution in science and technology.

  14. Radiation effects in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1986-01-01

    The paper discusses the radiation environment in space that astronauts are likely to be exposed to. Emphasis is on proton and HZE particle effects. Recommendations for radiation protection guidelines are presented

  15. Analysis in Banach spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Hytönen, Tuomas; Veraar, Mark; Weis, Lutz

    The present volume develops the theory of integration in Banach spaces, martingales and UMD spaces, and culminates in a treatment of the Hilbert transform, Littlewood-Paley theory and the vector-valued Mihlin multiplier theorem. Over the past fifteen years, motivated by regularity problems in evolution equations, there has been tremendous progress in the analysis of Banach space-valued functions and processes. The contents of this extensive and powerful toolbox have been mostly scattered around in research papers and lecture notes. Collecting this diverse body of material into a unified and accessible presentation fills a gap in the existing literature. The principal audience that we have in mind consists of researchers who need and use Analysis in Banach Spaces as a tool for studying problems in partial differential equations, harmonic analysis, and stochastic analysis. Self-contained and offering complete proofs, this work is accessible to graduate students and researchers with a background in functional an...

  16. Space Weather Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of space weather datasets from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and from the World Data Service for Geophysics,...

  17. Space Vehicle Valve System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Anthony R. (Inventor); Lindner, Jeffrey L. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention is a space vehicle valve system which controls the internal pressure of a space vehicle and the flow rate of purged gases at a given internal pressure and aperture site. A plurality of quasi-unique variable dimension peaked valve structures cover the purge apertures on a space vehicle. Interchangeable sheet guards configured to cover valve apertures on the peaked valve structure contain a pressure-activated surface on the inner surface. Sheet guards move outwardly from the peaked valve structure when in structural contact with a purge gas stream flowing through the apertures on the space vehicle. Changing the properties of the sheet guards changes the response of the sheet guards at a given internal pressure, providing control of the flow rate at a given aperture site.

  18. Space, Art and Transcendence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Pinilla Burgos

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the light of Heidegger’s analysis of space and art, and its link with a milestone for modern sculpture such as Eduardo Chillida, space is presented, together with time, as a fundamental element of art and especially of sculpture and architecture. Space is not a homogeneous neutral background, but an original phenomenon that compromises from the beginning the creation and the peculiar kind of transcendence to which every work of art invites us. Every work submerges us on one side in a feverish, sensitive and bodily immanence, in the mystery of the sensitive (aesthetic that we are, but aswell it takes us beyond or nearer than the conventional meanings and relations and our situation. From here, we will consider whether and how we can put the aesthetic experience of space in relation to the transcendence of which religion commonly speaks, illuminated in turn from the study of the sacred of Mircea Eliade.

  19. NASA Space Radiation Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory is a NASA funded facility, delivering heavy ion beams to a target area where scientists...

  20. Inverse scale space decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Marie Foged; Benning, Martin; Schönlieb, Carola-Bibiane

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the inverse scale space flow as a decomposition method for decomposing data into generalised singular vectors. We show that the inverse scale space flow, based on convex and even and positively one-homogeneous regularisation functionals, can decompose data represented...... by the application of a forward operator to a linear combination of generalised singular vectors into its individual singular vectors. We verify that for this decomposition to hold true, two additional conditions on the singular vectors are sufficient: orthogonality in the data space and inclusion of partial sums...... of the subgradients of the singular vectors in the subdifferential of the regularisation functional at zero. We also address the converse question of when the inverse scale space flow returns a generalised singular vector given that the initial data is arbitrary (and therefore not necessarily in the range...

  1. Space-Charge Effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauvin, N

    2013-01-01

    First, this chapter introduces the expressions for the electric and magnetic space-charge internal fields and forces induced by high-intensity beams. Then, the root-mean-square equation with space charge is derived and discussed. In the third section, the one-dimensional Child-Langmuir law, which gives the maximum current density that can be extracted from an ion source, is exposed. Space-charge compensation can occur in the low-energy beam transport lines (located after the ion source). This phenomenon, which counteracts the spacecharge defocusing effect, is explained and its main parameters are presented. The fifth section presents an overview of the principal methods to perform beam dynamics numerical simulations. An example of a particles-in-cells code, SolMaxP, which takes into account space-charge compensation, is given. Finally, beam dynamics simulation results obtained with this code in the case of the IFMIF injector are presented. (author)

  2. Space-Charge Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Chauvin, N.

    2013-12-16

    First, this chapter introduces the expressions for the electric and magnetic space-charge internal fields and forces induced by high-intensity beams. Then, the root-mean-square equation with space charge is derived and discussed. In the third section, the one-dimensional Child-Langmuir law, which gives the maximum current density that can be extracted from an ion source, is exposed. Space-charge compensation can occur in the low-energy beam transport lines (located after the ion source). This phenomenon, which counteracts the spacecharge defocusing effect, is explained and its main parameters are presented. The fifth section presents an overview of the principal methods to perform beam dynamics numerical simulations. An example of a particles-in-cells code, SolMaxP, which takes into account space-charge compensation, is given. Finally, beam dynamics simulation results obtained with this code in the case of the IFMIF injector are presented.

  3. Hyperbolic space for tourists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blasjo, Viktor|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/338038108

    2013-01-01

    We discuss how a creature accustomed to Euclidean space would fare in a world of hyperbolic or spherical geometry, and conversely. Various optical illusions and counterintuitive experiences arise, which can be explicated mathematically using plane models of these geometries.

  4. Staging Sociotechnical Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Christian; Yoshinaka, Yutaka

    2007-01-01

    The management of innovation and product development is increasingly facing complex challenges of staging design processes across heterogeneous organisational spaces, with multiple actor-concerns and sources of knowledge. This paper addresses how insights from the Actor-Network Theory and political...... is elaborated as being an occasioning as well as a result of socio-technical choices and processes, and points to the role of socio-material as well as discursive practices, which frame and render particular spaces open to management and to the coordination of knowledge flows and ideas in early phases...... of product development. The concept of socio-technical spaces is further illustrated through actual examples from industry dealing with early conceptualisation in product development and the role played by management concepts in the configuration of spaces....

  5. Ion accelerators for space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slobodrian, R.J.; Potvin, L.

    1991-01-01

    The main purpose of the accelerators is to allow ion implantation in space stations and their neighborhoods. There are several applications of interest immediately useful in such environment: as ion engines and thrusters, as implanters for material science and for hardening of surfaces (relevant to improve resistance to micrometeorite bombardment of exposed external components), production of man made alloys, etc. The microgravity environment of space stations allows the production of substances (crystalline and amorphous) under conditions unknown on earth, leading to special materials. Ion implantation in situ of those materials would thus lead uninterruptedly to new substances. Accelerators for space require special design. On the one hand it is possible to forego vacuum systems simplifying the design and operation but, on the other hand, it is necessary to pay special attention to heat dissipation. Hence it is necessary to construct a simulator in vacuum to properly test prototypes under conditions prevailing in space

  6. Thermal Space in Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mads Dines

    Present research is revolving around the design process and the use of digital applications to support the design process among architects. This work is made in relation to the current discussions about sustainable architecture and the increased focus on energy consumption and the comfort in our...... and understanding of spaces in buildings can change significantly and instead of the creation of frozen geometrical spaces, thermal spaces can be created as it is suggested in meteorological architecture where functions are distributed in relation to temperature gradients. This creates an interesting contrast......-introducing an increased adaptability in the architecture can be a part of re-defining the environmental agenda and re-establish a link between the environment of the site and the environment of the architecture and through that an increased appreciation of the sensuous space here framed in discussions about thermal...

  7. The Space Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Borrelli, Carmine; Buckon, Danielle; Cogossi, Bruce; Davidson, Cynthia; Ditzler-Smith, Cristie; Doddato, August; Gabrielson, Charles; Hubbard, Kenneth; Jacocks, Kent; Jircitano, Valerie

    2007-01-01

    .... To ensure these, U.S. policy should encourage more commercial activity in space, emphasize a more globally cooperative environment, change acquisition methods to emphasize cost control over performance at any cost...

  8. Machine Learning and Inverse Problem in Geodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahnas, M. H.; Yuen, D. A.; Pysklywec, R.

    2017-12-01

    During the past few decades numerical modeling and traditional HPC have been widely deployed in many diverse fields for problem solutions. However, in recent years the rapid emergence of machine learning (ML), a subfield of the artificial intelligence (AI), in many fields of sciences, engineering, and finance seems to mark a turning point in the replacement of traditional modeling procedures with artificial intelligence-based techniques. The study of the circulation in the interior of Earth relies on the study of high pressure mineral physics, geochemistry, and petrology where the number of the mantle parameters is large and the thermoelastic parameters are highly pressure- and temperature-dependent. More complexity arises from the fact that many of these parameters that are incorporated in the numerical models as input parameters are not yet well established. In such complex systems the application of machine learning algorithms can play a valuable role. Our focus in this study is the application of supervised machine learning (SML) algorithms in predicting mantle properties with the emphasis on SML techniques in solving the inverse problem. As a sample problem we focus on the spin transition in ferropericlase and perovskite that may cause slab and plume stagnation at mid-mantle depths. The degree of the stagnation depends on the degree of negative density anomaly at the spin transition zone. The training and testing samples for the machine learning models are produced by the numerical convection models with known magnitudes of density anomaly (as the class labels of the samples). The volume fractions of the stagnated slabs and plumes which can be considered as measures for the degree of stagnation are assigned as sample features. The machine learning models can determine the magnitude of the spin transition-induced density anomalies that can cause flow stagnation at mid-mantle depths. Employing support vector machine (SVM) algorithms we show that SML techniques can successfully predict the magnitude of the mantle density anomalies and can also be used in characterizing mantle flow patterns. The technique can be extended to more complex problems in mantle dynamics by employing deep learning algorithms for estimation of mantle properties such as viscosity, elastic parameters, and thermal and chemical anomalies.

  9. Petrography, geochemistry and geodynamic environment of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... a low partial melting rate which has been contaminated by crustal materials in its way up. ...... magmas are solidified in low water pressure or even in dry conditions. .... orogen in eastern China: Implications for enrichment processes beneath ...

  10. Geodynamical simulation of the RRF triple junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z.; Wei, D.; Liu, M.; Shi, Y.; Wang, S.

    2017-12-01

    Triple junction is the point at which three plate boundaries meet. Three plates at the triple junction form a complex geological tectonics, which is a natural laboratory to study the interactions of plates. This work studies a special triple junction, the oceanic transform fault intersects the collinear ridges with different-spreading rates, which is free of influence of ridge-transform faults and nearby hotspots. First, we build 3-D numerical model of this triple junction used to calculate the stead-state velocity and temperature fields resulting from advective and conductive heat transfer. We discuss in detail the influence of the velocity and temperature fields of the triple junction from viscosity, spreading rate of the ridge. The two sides of the oceanic transform fault are different sensitivities to the two factors. And, the influence of the velocity mainly occurs within 200km of the triple junction. Then, we modify the model by adding a ridge-transform fault to above model and directly use the velocity structure of the Macquarie triple junction. The simulation results show that the temperature at both sides of the oceanic transform fault decreases gradually from the triple junction, but the temperature difference between the two sides is a constant about 200°. And, there is little effect of upwelling velocity away from the triple junction 100km. The model results are compared with observational data. The heat flux and thermal topography along the oceanic transform fault of this model are consistent with the observed data of the Macquarie triple junction. The earthquakes are strike slip distributed along the oceanic transform fault. Their depths are also consistent with the zone of maximum shear stress. This work can help us to understand the interactions of plates of triple junctions and help us with the foundation for the future study of triple junctions.

  11. Imagined Spaces: Motion Graphics in Performance Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steijn, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    through theories drawn from two different fields. The first is from the field of direct visual perception as explored and described by the American psychologist J. J. Gibson. I supplement this angle by introducing relevant new media theories extracted from writings from L. Manovich. I also briefly...... introduce a second theoretic perspective from neuroscience, especially neurological theories related to aesthetic experiences as studied, categorized and explained by V. S. Ramachandran. Key Words: Motion graphics, video projections, space, direct visual perception, design process, new media, neuroscience...

  12. Hazy spaces, tangent spaces, manifolds and groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodson, C.T.J.

    1977-03-01

    The results on hazy spaces and the developments leading to hazy manifolds and groups are summarized. Proofs have appeared elsewhere so here examples are considered and some motivation for definitions and constructions in the theorems is analyzed. It is shown that quite simple ideas, intuitively acceptable, lead to remarkable similarity with the theory of differentiable manifolds. Hazy n manifolds have tangent bundles that are hazy 2n manifolds and there are hazy manifold structures for groups. Products and submanifolds are easily constructed and in particular the hazy n-sphere manifolds as submanifolds of the standard hazy manifold Zsup(n+1)

  13. Cyber space bullying

    OpenAIRE

    Popović-Ćitić Branislava

    2009-01-01

    Cyber space bullying is a relatively new phenomenon that has received increased attention by scientists, researchers and practitioners in recent years. It is usually defined as an intentionally and repeatedly expression of aggression towards other people through information and communication technologies. Cyber space bullying is characterized by all the primary characteristics of traditional bullying and some specifics ones that clearly differ it from other forms of bullying. In addition to t...

  14. Rethinking humanitarian space

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Sana

    2016-01-01

    This study looks at the humanitarian space in Myanmar which includes not just the humanitarian operations in the country, the access to volatile zones by the humanitarian organisations, the humanitarian principles, but also a space which permits a complementary arrangement of diverse actors holding different positions and skill sets and deliver to those in need. The study is based on the practical experiences and reflections of these different actors on field and their operations in different...

  15. Soviet Space Program Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    in advance and some events were even broadcast live. Immediately following the first success- ful launch of their new Energia space launch vehicle in...early 1988. Just as a handbook written a couple of years ago would need updating with Mir, Energia , and the SL-16, this handbook will one day need up...1986. Johnson, Nicholas L. The Soviet Year in Space 1983. Colorado Springs, CO: Teledyne Brown Engineering, 1984. Lawton, A. " Energia - Soviet Super

  16. Lasers in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelis, M. M.; Forbes, A.; Bingham, R.; Kellett, B. J.; Mathye, A.

    2008-05-01

    A variety of laser applications in space, past, present, future and far future are reviewed together with the contributions of some of the scientists and engineers involved, especially those that happen to have South African connections. Historically, two of the earliest laser applications in space, were atmospheric LIDAR and lunar ranging. These applications involved atmospheric physicists, several astronauts and many of the staff recruited into the Soviet and North American lunar exploration programmes. There is a strong interest in South Africa in both LIDAR and lunar ranging. Shortly after the birth of the laser (and even just prior) theoretical work on photonic propulsion and space propulsion by laser ablation was initiated by Georgii Marx, Arthur Kantrowitz and Eugen Saenger. Present or near future experimental programs are developing in the following fields: laser ablation propulsion, possibly coupled with rail gun or gas gun propulsion; interplanetary laser transmission; laser altimetry; gravity wave detection by space based Michelson interferometry; the de-orbiting of space debris by high power lasers; atom laser interferometry in space. Far future applications of laser-photonic space-propulsion were also pioneered by Carl Sagan and Robert Forward. They envisaged means of putting Saenger's ideas into practice. Forward also invented a laser based method for manufacturing solid antimatter or SANTIM, well before the ongoing experiments at CERN with anti-hydrogen production and laser-trapping. SANTIM would be an ideal propellant for interstellar missions if it could be manufactured in sufficient quantities. It would be equally useful as a power source for the transmission of information over light year distances. We briefly mention military lasers. Last but not least, we address naturally occurring lasers in space and pose the question: "did the Big Bang lase?"

  17. The Changing Collateral Space

    OpenAIRE

    Manmohan Singh

    2013-01-01

    This paper highlights the changing collateral landscape and how it may shape the global demand/supply for collateral. We first identify the key collateral pools (relative to the “old” collateral space) and associated collateral velocities. Post-Lehman and continuing into the European crisis, some aspects of unconventional monetary policies pursued by central banks are significantly altering the collateral space. Moreover, regulatory demands stemming from Basel III, Dodd Frank, EMIR etc., new ...

  18. Public spaces - public life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gehl, Jan; Gemzøe, Lars

    A handbook on how to create human qualities in the city comparing European cities in general to what is obtained in Copenhagen. A metod of assessing urban quality and a thorough insigt into how people use urban spaces.......A handbook on how to create human qualities in the city comparing European cities in general to what is obtained in Copenhagen. A metod of assessing urban quality and a thorough insigt into how people use urban spaces....

  19. The Space Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    advantage. But the solar winds of change are blowing. America’s dominance in this important domain can no longer be taken for granted. Space represents an...venture between Boeing, Energia , Aker Kvaerner, and SDO Yuzhnoye/PO Yuzhmash. The Ukranian Zenit booster, a former ICBM and the Soyuz rocket are also...U.S. customers, and the use of the Russian Energia RD-180 engine in Lockheed Martin’s Atlas V booster. The Nature of the Market The space industry

  20. Magnesium and Space Flight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott M. Smith

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium is an essential nutrient for muscle, cardiovascular, and bone health on Earth, and during space flight. We sought to evaluate magnesium status in 43 astronauts (34 male, 9 female; 47 ± 5 years old, mean ± SD before, during, and after 4–6-month space missions. We also studied individuals participating in a ground analog of space flight (head-down-tilt bed rest; n = 27 (17 male, 10 female, 35 ± 7 years old. We evaluated serum concentration and 24-h urinary excretion of magnesium, along with estimates of tissue magnesium status from sublingual cells. Serum magnesium increased late in flight, while urinary magnesium excretion was higher over the course of 180-day space missions. Urinary magnesium increased during flight but decreased significantly at landing. Neither serum nor urinary magnesium changed during bed rest. For flight and bed rest, significant correlations existed between the area under the curve of serum and urinary magnesium and the change in total body bone mineral content. Tissue magnesium concentration was unchanged after flight and bed rest. Increased excretion of magnesium is likely partially from bone and partially from diet, but importantly, it does not come at the expense of muscle tissue stores. While further study is needed to better understand the implications of these findings for longer space exploration missions, magnesium homeostasis and tissue status seem well maintained during 4–6-month space missions.

  1. Space Psychology and Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanas, N.; Manzey, D.

    2003-09-01

    This book deals with psychological, psychiatric, and psychosocial issues that affect people who live and work in space. Unlike other books that focus on anecdotal reports and ground-based simulation studies, this book emphasizes the findings from psychological research conducted during actual space missions. Both authors have been active in such research. What is presented in this readable text has previously been found only in scientific journal articles. Topics that are discussed include: behavioral adaptation to space; human performance and cognitive effects; crewmember interactions; psychiatric responses; psychological counter-measures related to habitability factors, work-design, selection, training, and in-flight monitoring and support; and the impact of expeditionary missions to Mars and beyond. People finding this book of interest will include: psychology and social science students and professors in universities; medical students and residents in psychiatry and aerospace medicine; human factors workers in space and aviation professions; individuals involved with isolated environments on Earth (e.g., the Antarctic, submarines); aerospace workers in businesses and space agencies such as NASA and ESA; and anyone who is interested in learning the facts about the human side of long-duration space missions. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-1341-8

  2. Smell, Space and Othering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Fe L. Sta Maria

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently experiencing social shift from the rural/coastal to the urban, Matnog, Sorsogon, in the Philippines is left with markings of people who live by the coast, who are confronted by poverty, a poverty which can easily be seen in the space they occupy. The present article concerns itself less with seeing, but rather forms a spin-off from the spatial discourse to that of the smell/scent of a woman enmeshed with the space she inhabits and enabling the unfolding of the reproduction of social differences. As a way of knowing, a methodology, in this embodied qualitative research, the scent/smell becomes the agent and the space as the agency of power are both explored as a purview in cultural studies. The sense of smell as a sociocultural construction that establishes social identity and reifies and reproduces social differences is highlighted and positioned. Extrapolating from field work conducted in Matnog demonstrates that the smell of this rural space is rapidly transitioning to that of the urbane and the smell of women who inhabits that space. Through narrative poetry and the presentation of photographs and verbal analyses, olfactory identities and imprints, social differences, identity and spaces are explored, culminating in the transitional reconfiguration of poverty constructs.

  3. Magnesium and Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium is an essential nutrient for muscle, cardiovascular, and bone health on Earth, and during space flight. We sought to evaluate magnesium status in 43 astronauts (34 male, 9 female; 47 ± 5 years old, mean ± SD) before, during, and after 4–6-month space missions. We also studied individuals participating in a ground analog of space flight (head-down-tilt bed rest; n = 27 (17 male, 10 female), 35 ± 7 years old). We evaluated serum concentration and 24-h urinary excretion of magnesium, along with estimates of tissue magnesium status from sublingual cells. Serum magnesium increased late in flight, while urinary magnesium excretion was higher over the course of 180-day space missions. Urinary magnesium increased during flight but decreased significantly at landing. Neither serum nor urinary magnesium changed during bed rest. For flight and bed rest, significant correlations existed between the area under the curve of serum and urinary magnesium and the change in total body bone mineral content. Tissue magnesium concentration was unchanged after flight and bed rest. Increased excretion of magnesium is likely partially from bone and partially from diet, but importantly, it does not come at the expense of muscle tissue stores. While further study is needed to better understand the implications of these findings for longer space exploration missions, magnesium homeostasis and tissue status seem well maintained during 4–6-month space missions. PMID:26670248

  4. ATLAS Physicist in Space

    CERN Multimedia

    Bengt Lund-Jensen

    2007-01-01

    On December 9, the former ATLAS physicist Christer Fuglesang was launched into space onboard the STS-116 Space Shuttle flight from Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Christer worked on the development of the accordion-type liquid argon calorimeter and SUSY simulations in what eventually became ATLAS until summer 1992 when he became one out of six astronaut trainees with the European Space Agency (ESA). His selection out of a very large number of applicants from all over the ESA member states involved a number of tests in order to choose the most suitable candidates. As ESA astronaut Christer trained with the Russian Soyuz programme in Star City outside of Moscow from 1993 until 1996, when he moved to Houston to train for space shuttle missions with NASA. Christer belonged to the backup crew for the Euromir95 mission. After additional training in Russia, Christer qualified as ‘Soyuz return commander’ in 1998. Christer rerouting cables during his second space walk. (Photo: courtesy NASA) During...

  5. SPS batch spacing optimisation

    CERN Document Server

    Velotti, F M; Carlier, E; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Kotzian, G

    2017-01-01

    Until 2015, the LHC filling schemes used the batch spac-ing as specified in the LHC design report. The maximumnumber of bunches injectable in the LHC directly dependson the batch spacing at injection in the SPS and hence onthe MKP rise time.As part of the LHC Injectors Upgrade project for LHCheavy ions, a reduction of the batch spacing is needed. In thisdirection, studies to approach the MKP design rise time of150ns(2-98%) have been carried out. These measurementsgave clear indications that such optimisation, and beyond,could be done also for higher injection momentum beams,where the additional slower MKP (MKP-L) is needed.After the successful results from 2015 SPS batch spacingoptimisation for the Pb-Pb run [1], the same concept wasthought to be used also for proton beams. In fact, thanksto the SPS transverse feed back, it was already observedthat lower batch spacing than the design one (225ns) couldbe achieved. For the 2016 p-Pb run, a batch spacing of200nsfor the proton beam with100nsbunch spacing wasreque...

  6. Minimal and Maximal Operator Space Structures on Banach Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    P., Vinod Kumar; Balasubramani, M. S.

    2014-01-01

    Given a Banach space $X$, there are many operator space structures possible on $X$, which all have $X$ as their first matrix level. Blecher and Paulsen identified two extreme operator space structures on $X$, namely $Min(X)$ and $Max(X)$ which represents respectively, the smallest and the largest operator space structures admissible on $X$. In this note, we consider the subspace and the quotient space structure of minimal and maximal operator spaces.

  7. Space Electronic Test Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Rodney D.

    2004-01-01

    The Space Power and Propulsion Test Engineering Branch at NASA Glenn Research center has the important duty of controlling electronic test engineering services. These services include test planning and early assessment of Space projects, management and/or technical support required to safely and effectively prepare the article and facility for testing, operation of test facilities, and validation/delivery of data to customer. The Space Electronic Test Engineering Branch is assigned electronic test engineering responsibility for the GRC Space Simulation, Microgravity, Cryogenic, and Combustion Test Facilities. While working with the Space Power and Propulsion Test Engineering Branch I am working on several different assignments. My primary assignment deals with an electrical hardware unit known as Sunny Boy. Sunny Boy is a DC load Bank that is designed for solar arrays in which it is used to convert DC power form the solar arrays into AC power at 60 hertz to pump back into the electricity grid. However, there are some researchers who decided that they would like to use the Sunny Boy unit in a space simulation as a DC load bank for a space shuttle or even the International Space Station hardware. In order to do so I must create a communication link between a computer and the Sunny Boy unit so that I can preset a few of the limits (such power, set & constant voltage levels) that Sunny Boy will need to operate using the applied DC load. Apart from this assignment I am also working on a hi-tech circuit that I need to have built at a researcher s request. This is a high voltage analog to digital circuit that will be used to record data from space ion propulsion rocket booster tests. The problem that makes building this circuit so difficult is that it contains high voltage we must find a way to lower the voltage signal before the data is transferred into the computer to be read. The solution to this problem was to transport the signal using infrared light which will lower

  8. Nuclear power in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anghaie, S.

    2007-01-01

    The development of space nuclear power and propulsion in the United States started in 1955 with the initiation of the ROVER project. The first step in the ROVER program was the KIWI project that included the development and testing of 8 non-flyable ultrahigh temperature nuclear test reactors during 1955-1964. The KIWI project was precursor to the PHOEBUS carbon-based fuel reactor project that resulted in ground testing of three high power reactors during 1965-1968 with the last reactor operated at 4,100 MW. During the same time period a parallel program was pursued to develop a nuclear thermal rocket based on cermet fuel technology. The third component of the ROVER program was the Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Applications (NERVA) that was initiated in 1961 with the primary goal of designing the first generation of nuclear rocket engine based on the KIWI project experience. The fourth component of the ROVER program was the Reactor In-Flight Test (RIFT) project that was intended to design, fabricate, and flight test a NERVA powered upper stage engine for the Saturn-class lunch vehicle. During the ROVER program era, the Unites States ventured in a comprehensive space nuclear program that included design and testing of several compact reactors and space suitable power conversion systems, and the development of a few light weight heat rejection systems. Contrary to its sister ROVER program, the space nuclear power program resulted in the first ever deployment and in-space operation of the nuclear powered SNAP-10A in 1965. The USSR space nuclear program started in early 70's and resulted in deployment of two 6 kWe TOPAZ reactors into space and ground testing of the prototype of a relatively small nuclear rocket engine in 1984. The US ambition for the development and deployment of space nuclear powered systems was resurrected in mid 1980's and intermittently continued to date with the initiation of several research programs that included the SP-100, Space Exploration

  9. Banach spaces of continuous functions as dual spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Dales, H G; Lau, A T -M; Strauss, D

    2016-01-01

    This book gives a coherent account of the theory of Banach spaces and Banach lattices, using the spaces C_0(K) of continuous functions on a locally compact space K as the main example. The study of C_0(K) has been an important area of functional analysis for many years. It gives several new constructions, some involving Boolean rings, of this space as well as many results on the Stonean space of Boolean rings. The book also discusses when Banach spaces of continuous functions are dual spaces and when they are bidual spaces.

  10. Bringing Gravity to Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norsk, P.; Shelhamer, M.

    2016-01-01

    This panel will present NASA's plans for ongoing and future research to define the requirements for Artificial Gravity (AG) as a countermeasure against the negative health effects of long-duration weightlessness. AG could mitigate the gravity-sensitive effects of spaceflight across a host of physiological systems. Bringing gravity to space could mitigate the sensorimotor and neuro-vestibular disturbances induced by G-transitions upon reaching a planetary body, and the cardiovascular deconditioning and musculoskeletal weakness induced by weightlessness. Of particular interest for AG during deep-space missions is mitigation of the Visual Impairment Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome that the majority of astronauts exhibit in space to varying degrees, and which presumably is associated with weightlessness-induced fluid shift from lower to upper body segments. AG could be very effective for reversing the fluid shift and thus help prevent VIIP. The first presentation by Dr. Charles will summarize some of the ground-based and (very little) space-based research that has been conducted on AG by the various space programs. Dr. Paloski will address the use of AG during deep-space exploration-class missions and describe the different AG scenarios such as intra-vehicular, part-of-vehicle, or whole-vehicle centrifugations. Dr. Clement will discuss currently planned NASA research as well as how to coordinate future activities among NASA's international partners. Dr. Barr will describe some possible future plans for using space- and ground-based partial-G analogs to define the relationship between physiological responses and G levels between 0 and 1. Finally, Dr. Stenger will summarize how the human cardiovascular system could benefit from intermittent short-radius centrifugations during long-duration missions.

  11. Space Network Devices Developed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Robert E.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center through a contract with Spectrum Astro, Inc., has been developing space network hardware as an enabling technology using open systems interconnect (OSI) standards for space-based communications applications. The OSI standard is a well-recognized layered reference model that specifies how data should be sent node to node in a communications network. Because of this research and technology development, a space-qualifiable Ethernet-based network interface card (similar to the type found in a networked personal computer) and the associated four-port hub were designed and developed to flight specifications. During this research and development, there also have been many lessons learned for determining approaches for migrating existing spacecraft architectures to an OSI-network-based platform. Industry has recognized the benefits of targeting hardware developed around OSI standards such as Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) or similar protocols for use in future generations of space communication systems. Some of these tangible benefits include overall reductions in mission schedule and cost and in system complexity. This development also brings us a step closer to the realization of a principal investigator on a terrestrial Internet site being able to interact with space platform assets in near real time. To develop this hardware, Spectrum Astro first conducted a technology analysis of alternatives study. For this analysis, they looked at the features of three protocol specifications: Ethernet (IEEE 802.3), Firewire (IEEE 1394), and Spacewire (IEEE 1355). A thorough analysis was performed on the basis of criteria such as current protocol performance and suitability for future space applications. Spectrum Astro also projected future influences such as cost, hardware and software availability, throughput performance, and integration procedures for current and transitive space architectures. After a thorough analysis

  12. Women in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Chiaki

    Since 1963 women have successfully flown and worked in space so much so that having a female aboard the shuttle, on Soyuz or on the International Space Station is considered commonplace. We do know that women have historically been virturally equal in capabilities and performance with their male counterparts. For example, there have been superb shuttle pilots, shuttle commanders, EVA participants as well as mission specialists and payload specialists. Thus, gender is not an issue within the ranks, rather a simple fact. In addition, there is a positive psychological factor that has been noted in that a mixed crew seems to have better intercommunications dynamics. JAXA has conducted the experiments on 7 subjects on bone mineral density in short duration of space flight and noticed a slight decrease in that density in both male and female. Lean body mass was also examined and found to be reduced by 3.0 % on average. There was no significant difference between male and female subjects in short duration of space flight. Unfortunately, only 1 of the 7 subjects was a woman. In fact, only 48 women have flown in total, some more than once, and science is still discovering the effects of the space experience. This is due to the limited exposure on orbit and in microgravity and the limited number of potential subjects. Time in space is beginning to increase with the continued progress of the ISS, thereby creating a demand for more knowledge on what effects long term exposure will have on the female of the species. The presentation will address these and other concerns involved with women in space from the perspective of a female scientist and an astronaut.

  13. Digital radiography in space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Rob; Campbell, Mark R

    2002-06-01

    With the permanent habitation of the International Space Station, the planning of longer duration exploration missions, and the possibility of space tourism, it is likely that digital radiography will be needed in the future to support medical care in space. Ultrasound is currently the medical imaging modality of choice for spaceflight. Digital radiography in space is limited because of prohibitive launch costs (in the region of $20,000/kg) that severely restrict the volume, weight, and power requirements of medical care hardware. Technological increases in radiography, a predicted ten-fold decrease in future launch costs, and an increasing clinical need for definitive medical care in space will drive efforts to expand the ability to provide medical care in space including diagnostic imaging. Normal physiological responses to microgravity, in conjunction with the high-risk environment of spaceflight, increase the risk of injury and could imply an extended recovery period for common injuries. The advantages of gravity on Earth, such as the stabilization of patients undergoing radiography and the drainage of fluids, which provide radiographic contrast, are unavailable in space. This creates significant difficulties in patient immobilization and radiographic positioning. Gravity-dependent radiological signs, such as lipohemarthrosis in knee and shoulder trauma, air or fluid levels in pneumoperitoneum, pleural effusion, or bowel obstruction, and the apical pleural edge in pneumothorax become unavailable. Impaired healing processes such as delayed callus formation following fracture will have implications on imaging, and recovery time lines are unknown. The confined nature of spacecraft and the economic impossibility of launching lead-based personal protective equipment present significant challenges to crew radiation safety. A modified, free-floating radiographic C-arm device equipped with a digital detector and utilizing teleradiology support is proposed as a

  14. Mammalian development in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronca, April E.

    2003-01-01

    Life on Earth, and thus the reproductive and ontogenetic processes of all extant species and their ancestors, evolved under the constant influence of the Earth's l g gravitational field. These considerations raise important questions about the ability of mammals to reproduce and develop in space. In this chapter, I review the current state of our knowledge of spaceflight effects on developing mammals. Recent studies are revealing the first insights into how the space environment affects critical phases of mammalian reproduction and development, viz., those events surrounding fertilization, embryogenesis, pregnancy, birth, postnatal maturation and parental care. This review emphasizes fetal and early postnatal life, the developmental epochs for which the greatest amounts of mammalian spaceflight data have been amassed. The maternal-offspring system, the coordinated aggregate of mother and young comprising mammalian development, is of primary importance during these early, formative developmental phases. The existing research supports the view that biologically meaningful interactions between mothers and offspring are changed in the weightlessness of space. These changes may, in turn, cloud interpretations of spaceflight effects on developing offspring. Whereas studies of mid-pregnant rats in space have been extraordinarily successful, studies of young rat litters launched at 9 days of postnatal age or earlier, have been encumbered with problems related to the design of in-flight caging and compromised maternal-offspring interactions. Possibilities for mammalian birth in space, an event that has not yet transpired, are considered. In the aggregate, the results indicate a strong need for new studies of mammalian reproduction and development in space. Habitat development and systematic ground-based testing are important prerequisites to future research with young postnatal rodents in space. Together, the findings support the view that the environment within which young

  15. Modeling of 3d Space-time Surface of Potential Fields and Hydrogeologic Modeling of Nuclear Waste Disposal Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shestopalov, V.; Bondarenko, Y.; Zayonts, I.; Rudenko, Y.

    extracted from the total vertical and hori- zontal gradient respectively, both shaded from the 5 northeast to 355 northwest. The dip of multi-layer surfaces indicates the down -"gradient" direction in the fields. The methodology of 3D STSI is based on the analysis of vertical and horizontal anisotropy of gravity and magnetic fields, as well as of multi-layer 3D space-time surface model (3D STSM) of the stress fields. The 3D STSM is multi-layer topology structure of 1 lineaments or gradients (edges) and surfaces calculated by uniform matrices of the geophysical fields. One of the information components of the stress fields character- istics is the aspects and slopes for compressive and tensile stresses. Overlaying of the 3D STSI and lineaments with maps of multi-layer gradients enables to create highly reliable 3D Space-Time Kinematic Model "3D STKM". The analysis of 3D STKM in- cluded: - the space-time reconstruct of forces direction and strain distribution scheme during formation of geological structures and structural paragenesis (lineaments) of potential fields; - predict the real location of expected tectonic dislocations, zones of rock fracturing and disintegration, and mass-stable blocks. Based on these data, the 3D STSM are drawn which reflect the geodynamics of territory development on the ground of paleotectonic reconstruction of successive activity stages having formed the present-day lithosphere. Thus three-dimensional STSM allows to construct an un- mixing geodynamic processes in any interval of fixed space-time in coordinates x, y, t(z). The integrated of the 3D STSM and 3D seismic models enables also to create structural-kinematic and geodynamic maps of the Earth's crust at different depth. As a result, the classification of CNPP areas is performed into zones of compressive and tensile stresses characterized by enhanced permeability of rocks, and zones of consoli- dation with minimal rocks permeability. In addition, the vertically alternating zones of

  16. SpaceCube Core Software

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop a flexible, modular and user friendly SpaceCube Core Software system that will dramatically simplify SpaceCube application development and enable any...

  17. Characterization of generalized Orlicz spaces

    KAUST Repository

    Ferreira, Rita; Hä stö , Peter; Ribeiro, Ana Margarida

    2016-01-01

    The norm in classical Sobolev spaces can be expressed as a difference quotient. This expression can be used to generalize the space to the fractional smoothness case. Because the difference quotient is based on shifting the function, it cannot be used in generalized Orlicz spaces. In its place, we introduce a smoothed difference quotient and show that it can be used to characterize the generalized Orlicz-Sobolev space. Our results are new even in Orlicz spaces and variable exponent spaces.

  18. Characterization of generalized Orlicz spaces

    KAUST Repository

    Ferreira, Rita

    2016-12-14

    The norm in classical Sobolev spaces can be expressed as a difference quotient. This expression can be used to generalize the space to the fractional smoothness case. Because the difference quotient is based on shifting the function, it cannot be used in generalized Orlicz spaces. In its place, we introduce a smoothed difference quotient and show that it can be used to characterize the generalized Orlicz-Sobolev space. Our results are new even in Orlicz spaces and variable exponent spaces.

  19. Multimegawatt Space Reactor Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanley, M.L.

    1989-01-01

    The Multimegawatt (MMW) Space Reactor Project supports the Strategic Defense Initiative Office requirement to provide reliable, safe, cost-effective, electrical power in the MMW range. Specifically, power may be used for neutral particle beams, free electron lasers, electromagnetic launchers, and orbital transfer vehicles. This power plant technology may also apply to the electrical power required for other uses such as deep-space probes and planetary exploration. The Multimegawatt Space Reactor Project, the Thermionic Fuel Element Verification Program, and Centaurus Program all support the Multimegawatt Space Nuclear Power Program and form an important part of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) space and defense power systems activities. A major objective of the MMW project is the development of a reference flight system design that provides the desired levels of public safety, health protection, and special nuclear material (SNM) protection when used during its designated missions. The safety requirements for the MMW project are a hierarchy of requirements that consist of safety requirements/regulations, a safety policy, general safety criteria, safety technical specifications, safety design specifications, and the system design. This paper describes the strategy and philosophy behind the development of the safety requirements imposed upon the MMW concept developers. The safety organization, safety policy, generic safety issues, general safety criteria, and the safety technical specifications are discussed

  20. a week in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    collette, christian

    2016-04-01

    COLLETTE Christian Institut Saint Laurent Liège Belgium. I am a science teacher at a technical high school. Generally, my students don't come from a privileged social background and are not particularly motivated for studies. For 10 years, I organize, for one of my sections, a spatial (and special) school year that ends in a spatial week. Throughout this year, with the help of my colleagues, I will introduce into all themes a lot of concepts relating to space. French, history, geography, English, mathematics, technical courses, sciences, and even gymnastics will be training actors in space culture. In spring, I will accompany my class in the Euro Space Center (Redu- Belgium) where we will live one week 24 hours on "like astronauts" One third of the time is dedicated to astronaut training (moonwalk, remote manipulator system, mission simulation, weightless wall, building rockets, satellites, etc.), One third to more intellectual activities on space (lectures, research, discovery of the outside run) the last one third of time in outside visits (museums, site of ESA-Redu) or in movies about space (October sky, Apollo 13, etc.) During this year, the profits, so educational as human, are considerable!

  1. Tethers in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Les; Bilén, Sven G.; Gilchrist, Brian E.; Krause, Linda Habash

    2017-09-01

    This Special Section of Acta Astronautica contains several peer-reviewed papers selected from among those presented at the Fifth International Conference on Tethers in Space (TiS2016). After a hiatus of 21 years since the last Conference on Tethers in Space, TiS2016 brought together experts, practitioners, and other interested in space tethers and related fields. TiS2016 was held May 24-26, 2016 at The University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, Michigan, U.S.A. Leveraging the hard work of a great many volunteers, the conference co-chairs Prof. Brian Gilchrist and Prof. Sven Bilén welcomed an international contingent with authors from the U.S., Canada, Japan, Spain, China, Finland, Estonia, and Italy. The community provided updates on what has transpired since their last gathering by providing lessons learned; describing new technologies and subsystems; and proposing new tether missions and applications. Papers overviewed de-orbit systems, power generation, orbital maneuvering, momentum capture, debris removal, space tugs, space elevators, collision avoidance, and tether dynamics, among others.

  2. Petrogenesis and geodynamic implications of Ediacaran highly fractionated A-type granitoids in the north Arabian-Nubian Shield (Egypt): Constraints from whole-rock geochemistry and Sr-Nd isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sami, Mabrouk; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Farahat, Esam S.; Mohamed, Haroun A.; Hauzenberger, Christoph; Ahmed, Awaad F.

    2018-04-01

    Mineral chemistry, whole-rock geochemical and Sr-Nd isotopic data are reported for the Abu-Diab granitoids in the northern Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS) of Egypt, to investigate their petrogenesis and geodynamic significance. Gabal Abu-Diab constitute a multiphase pluton, consisting largely of two-mica granites (TMGs) enclosing microgranular enclaves and intruded by garnet bearing muscovite granites (GMGs) and muscovite granites (MGs). The granitoids are weakly peraluminous (A/CNK = 1.01-1.12) and show high SiO2 (>72.9 wt%) and alkali (K2O + Na2O = 8.60-9.13) contents. The geochemical features show that they are post-collisional and highly fractionated A-type granitoids. Compared to their host TMGs, the microgranular enclaves are strongly peraluminous (A/CNK = 1.18-1.24) with lower SiO2 and higher abundances of trace elements. The TMGs are depleted in Ba, Nb, P and Ti and are enriched in LREEs relative to HREEs with weakly negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.45-0.64). In contrast, the GMGs and MGs are extremely depleted in Ba, Sr and Ti and have tetrad-type REE patterns (TE1-3 = 1.1-1.3) with strongly pronounced negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.03-0.26), similar to rare metals bearing granites. The Ediacaran (585 ± 24 Ma) TMGs, are characterized by restricted and relatively low initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.70337-0.70382) that suggests their derivation from a depleted mantle source, with little contamination from the older continental crust. In contrast, the GMGs and MGs have extremely high 87Rb/86Sr and 87Sr/86Sr ratios that reflect the disturbance of the Rb-Sr isotopic system and may give an indication for magmatic-fluid interaction. However, all the granitoids display positive εNd(t) (4.41-6.57) and depleted mantle model ages TDM2 between 777 and 956 Ma, which indicate their derivation from a Neoproterozoic juvenile magma sources and preclude the occurrence of pre-Neoproterozoic crustal rocks in the ANS. The microgranular enclaves represent globules of hot mafic

  3. Geodynamic control on melt production in the central Azores : new insights from major and trace elements, Sr, Nd, Pb, Hf isotopic data and K/Ar ages on the islands of Terceira, Sao Jorge and Faial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildenbrand, A.; Weis, D. A.; Madureira, P.; Marques, F. O.

    2012-12-01

    dilute expression of the enriched components. In contrast, the youngest lavas (< 750 ka) erupted along the N110 main structural direction on the three islands are significantly enriched in LILE and LREE, and generally have variable but more radiogenic isotopic compositions. Such characteristics suggest low-degree partial melting and greater incorporation of fertile residual mantle anomalies during passive tectonic reactivation of pre-existing transform faults promoted by recent ridge-push at the MAR. We propose that sub-aerial volcanism over the last 1.3 Myr in the central Azores recorded a sudden change in the conditions of melt generation which most probably reveals a major reconfiguration of regional deformation accompanying the recent geodynamic reorganization of the Eurasia-Nubia plate boundary.

  4. Nutrition for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2005-01-01

    Nutrition has proven to be critical throughout the history of human exploration, on both land and water. The importance of nutrition during long-duration space exploration is no different. Maintaining optimal nutritional status is critical for all bodily systems, especially in light of the fact that that many are also affected by space flight itself. Major systems of concern are bone, muscle, the cardiovascular system, the immune system, protection against radiation damage, and others. The task ahead includes defining the nutritional requirements for space travelers, ensuring adequacy of the food system, and assessing crew nutritional status before, during, and after flight. Accomplishing these tasks will provide significant contributions to ensuring crew health on long-duration missions. In addition, development and testing of nutritional countermeasures to effects of space flight is required, and assessment of the impact of other countermeasures (such as exercise and pharmaceuticals) on nutrition is also critical for maintaining overall crew health. Vitamin D stores of crew members are routinely low after long-duration space flight. This occurs even when crew members take vitamin D supplements, suggesting that vitamin D metabolism may be altered during space flight. Vitamin D is essential for efficient absorption of calcium, and has numerous other benefits for other tissues with vitamin D receptors. Protein is a macronutrient that requires additional study to define the optimal intake for space travelers. Administration of protein to bed rest subjects can effectively mitigate muscle loss associated with disuse, but too much or too little protein can also have negative effects on bone. In another bed rest study, we found that the ratio of protein to potassium was correlated with the level of bone resorption: the higher the ratio, the more bone resorption. These relationships warrant further study to optimize the beneficial effect of protein on both bone and muscle

  5. Spaces of continuous functions

    CERN Document Server

    Groenewegen, G L M

    2016-01-01

    The space C(X) of all continuous functions on a compact space X carries the structure of a normed vector space, an algebra and a lattice. On the one hand we study the relations between these structures and the topology of X, on the other hand we discuss a number of classical results according to which an algebra or a vector lattice can be represented as a C(X). Various applications of these theorems are given. Some attention is devoted to related theorems, e.g. the Stone Theorem for Boolean algebras and the Riesz Representation Theorem. The book is functional analytic in character. It does not presuppose much knowledge of functional analysis; it contains introductions into subjects such as the weak topology, vector lattices and (some) integration theory.

  6. Methane monitoring from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, C.; Alpers, M.; Millet, B.; Ehret, G.; Flamant, P.

    2017-11-01

    Methane is one of the strongest anthropogenic greenhouse gases. It contributes by its radiative forcing significantly to the global warming. For a better understanding of climate changes, it is necessary to apply precise space-based measurement techniques in order to obtain a global view on the complex processes that control the methane concentration in the atmosphere. The MERLIN mission is a joint French-German cooperation, on a micro satellite mission for space-based measurement of spatial and temporal gradients of atmospheric methane columns on a global scale. MERLIN will be the first Integrated Path Differential Absorption LIDAR for greenhouse gas monitoring from space. In contrast to passive methane missions, the LIDAR instrument allows measurements at alllatitudes, all-seasons and during night.

  7. New media sociofugal spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Mubi Brighenti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In a classic piece, Sommer (1967: 654 once defined sociofugal space as ‘a place where people typically try to avoid one another’. And the point is that – because of environmental spatial characteristics – people cannot successfully avoid each other, or can do so only to a limited extent. Typically, we are dealing with open public places, where the first come cannot prevent others from arriving afterwards. Under these conditions, space is often unwillingly shared. Consequently, every new arrival raises the thorny issue of the ‘critical distance’ between two or more co-specific socii (members of the same species, together with the question of how each socius is going to make space for himself or herself inside the shifting geometry that each new socius introduces in a context of inter-visibility (or, more precisely, in the element of visible.

  8. Education in space science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philbrick, C. Russell

    2005-08-01

    The educational process for teaching space science has been examined as a topic at the 17th European Space Agency Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon, and Related Research. The approach used for an introductory course during the past 18 years at Penn State University is considered as an example. The opportunities for using space science topics to motivate the thinking and efforts of advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students are examined. The topics covered in the introductory course are briefly described in an outline indicating the breath of the material covered. Several additional topics and assignments are included to help prepare the students for their careers. These topics include discussions on workplace ethics, project management, tools for research, presentation skills, and opportunities to participate in student projects.

  9. Space power subsystem sizing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geis, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses a Space Power Subsystem Sizing program which has been developed by the Aerospace Power Division of Wright Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. The Space Power Subsystem program (SPSS) contains the necessary equations and algorithms to calculate photovoltaic array power performance, including end-of-life (EOL) and beginning-of-life (BOL) specific power (W/kg) and areal power density (W/m 2 ). Additional equations and algorithms are included in the spreadsheet for determining maximum eclipse time as a function of orbital altitude, and inclination. The Space Power Subsystem Sizing program (SPSS) has been used to determine the performance of several candidate power subsystems for both Air Force and SDIO potential applications. Trade-offs have been made between subsystem weight and areal power density (W/m 2 ) as influenced by orbital high energy particle flux and time in orbit

  10. On spaces of hospitality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Anni

    Although specialists in hospitality have worked extensively on hospitality with respect to relations between different nations or between nations and individuals of a different nationality, for instance when they seek asylum, Jacques Derrida preferred to focus instead upon the relationship between...... the guest and the host. This has provided a much-needed rethinking of how to understand hospitality as a way of relating, as an ethics and as a politics. Within this work, there have often appeared discussions of ‘spaces of hospitality’, but these spaces have remained largely abstract. This is where...... this paper comes in: It will re open discussions of spaces of hospitality with an introduction into an on-going research project that studies the performative, structural and social dynamics of cultural encounters focusing on forms of hospitality that are related to particular sites in the city, namely...

  11. Temporary Design Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Signe

    2017-01-01

    For more than 40 years designers, researchers and engineers have used prototypes and other types of materiality to involve a great number of diverse actors in co-design processes. Researchers such as Blanco, Boujout, Vinck and Jeantet (Blanco & Boujut, 2003; Vinck & Jeantet, 1995) has promoted...... the concept of intermediary objects focusing on direct interactions centred around prototypes. However, not on-ly the prototype foster production and translation of knowledge in design processes, which is why this article introduces the concept of intermediary spaces to broaden the perspective. Intermediary...... spaces offer a framework for analysing design pro-cesses and following the translation and navigation of knowledge and actors from one space to the next. The framework can be used analytically to follow the translation and transformation of knowledge and actors and practically for designers to stage...

  12. Design of Game Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Playing games of any kind, from tennis to board games, it is easy to notice that games are configured in space, often using stripes or a kind of map on a board. Some games are clearly performed within this marked border, while it may be difficult to pinpoint such a visual border in a game like hide....... This makes sense, but also demands that play and non-play can be easily separated. I will examine how games make use of space, and show that the magic circle not only is a viable, though criticized, concept but should be understood as a spatial concept. In order to do this several games are examined, leading...... to introduce a spatial model of the game performance comprising a primary and secondary game space. I will show how new game genres can profit from using this model when designing new games....

  13. Sounds of Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurnett, D. A.

    2005-12-01

    Starting in the early 1960s, spacecraft-borne plasma wave instruments revealed that space is filled with an astonishing variety of radio and plasma wave sounds, which have come to be called "sounds of space." For over forty years these sounds have been collected and played to a wide variety of audiences, often as the result of press conferences or press releases involving various NASA projects for which the University of Iowa has provided plasma wave instruments. This activity has led to many interviews on local and national radio programs, and occasionally on programs haviang world-wide coverage, such as the BBC. As a result of this media coverage, we have been approached many times by composers requesting copies of our space sounds for use in their various projects, many of which involve electronic synthesis of music. One of these collaborations led to "Sun Rings," which is a musical event produced by the Kronos Quartet that has played to large audiences all over the world. With the availability of modern computer graphic techniques we have recently been attempting to integrate some of these sound of space into an educational audio/video web site that illustrates the scientific principles involved in the origin of space plasma waves. Typically I try to emphasize that a substantial gas pressure exists everywhere in space in the form of an ionized gas called a plasma, and that this plasma can lead to a wide variety of wave phenomenon. Examples of some of this audio/video material will be presented.

  14. Pulmonary function in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, J. B.; Elliott, A. R.; Guy, H. J.; Prisk, G. K.

    1997-01-01

    The lung is exquisitely sensitive to gravity, and so it is of interest to know how its function is altered in the weightlessness of space. Studies on National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Spacelabs during the last 4 years have provided the first comprehensive data on the extensive changes in pulmonary function that occur in sustained microgravity. Measurements of pulmonary function were made on astronauts during space shuttle flights lasting 9 and 14 days and were compared with extensive ground-based measurements before and after the flights. Compared with preflight measurements, cardiac output increased by 18% during space flight, and stroke volume increased by 46%. Paradoxically, the increase in stroke volume occurred in the face of reductions in central venous pressure and circulating blood volume. Diffusing capacity increased by 28%, and the increase in the diffusing capacity of the alveolar membrane was unexpectedly large based on findings in normal gravity. The change in the alveolar membrane may reflect the effects of uniform filling of the pulmonary capillary bed. Distributions of blood flow and ventilation throughout the lung were more uniform in space, but some unevenness remained, indicating the importance of nongravitational factors. A surprising finding was that airway closing volume was approximately the same in microgravity and in normal gravity, emphasizing the importance of mechanical properties of the airways in determining whether they close. Residual volume was unexpectedly reduced by 18% in microgravity, possibly because of uniform alveolar expansion. The findings indicate that pulmonary function is greatly altered in microgravity, but none of the changes observed so far will apparently limit long-term space flight. In addition, the data help to clarify how gravity affects pulmonary function in the normal gravity environment on Earth.

  15. Considering the space environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudenot, J.C.; Fillon, T.; Barrillot, C.; Calvet, M.C.

    1999-01-01

    The high levels of radiation encountered in space and in the upper atmosphere can affect the onboard electronics in satellites, launch vehicles and aircraft. The main categories of radiation in space have been classified into four distinct types; radiation belts, solar flares, cosmic radiation and the solar wind. Most of the risk to modern electronic systems arises from heavy ions. In geostationary and low polar orbits, these originate mainly as protons from solar flares. In medium earth orbits, the main source is trapped protons and the South Atlantic anomaly. (authors)

  16. Radiation protection in space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blakely, E.A. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Fry, R.J.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-02-01

    The challenge for planning radiation protection in space is to estimate the risk of events of low probability after low levels of irradiation. This work has revealed many gaps in the present state of knowledge that require further study. Despite investigations of several irradiated populations, the atomic-bomb survivors remain the primary basis for estimating the risk of ionizing radiation. Compared to previous estimates, two new independent evaluations of available information indicate a significantly greater risk of stochastic effects of radiation (cancer and genetic effects) by about a factor of three for radiation workers. This paper presents a brief historical perspective of the international effort to assure radiation protection in space.

  17. Space botanic research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitnik, K.M.; Kordyum, Se.L.

    1980-01-01

    The basic results of investigations in the field of space botanics are considered, starting with the effect of cosmic radiation on quiet spores and seeds and ending with the modern stage of complex study of lower plants, growing and developing within various periods of time under conditions of a real space flight in special chambers and growing systems. The possibility of using different investigation methods such as luminooptic, electronomicroscopic, biochemical, biophysical, physiological and others to estimate the effect of factors of an orbital flight on plants, are discussed [ru

  18. Small Valdivia compact spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Kubi's, W; Kubi\\'s, Wieslaw; Michalewski, Henryk

    2005-01-01

    We prove a preservation theorem for the class of Valdivia compact spaces, which involves inverse sequences of ``simple'' retractions. Consequently, a compact space of weight $\\loe\\aleph_1$ is Valdivia compact iff it is the limit of an inverse sequence of metric compacta whose bonding maps are retractions. As a corollary, we show that the class of Valdivia compacta of weight at most $\\aleph_1$ is preserved both under retractions and under open 0-dimensional images. Finally, we characterize the class of all Valdivia compacta in the language of category theory, which implies that this class is preserved under all continuous weight preserving functors.

  19. The Space Mobile Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, David

    2017-01-01

    The definition and development of the next generation space communications and navigation architecture is underway. The primary goals are to remove communications and navigations constraints from missions and to enable increased autonomy. The Space Mobile Network (SMN) is an architectural concept that includes new technology and operations that will provide flight systems with an similar user experience to terrestrial wireless mobile networks. This talk will describe the SMN and its proposed new features, such as Disruption Tolerant Networking (DTN), optical communications, and User Initiated Services (UIS).

  20. The value of space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panduro, Toke Emil

    The thesis consists of four papers which address the potential and challenges of the hedonic house price method. The aim of the thesis has been to estimate consistent and efficient parameter estimates of spatial varying regressors in the hedonic house price model. In particular, the articles are ...... and provide reliable estimates of the value of different types of green space....... are concerned with the value of different types of green space and how these values can be applied in urban planning policies related to climate adaption. The results presented in this thesis, ensure a “level playing field” in the assessment of the cost and benefits of different climate adaptation strategies...

  1. Protection from space radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, R.K.; Wilson, J.W.; Shinn, J.L.

    2000-01-01

    The exposures anticipated for astronauts in the anticipated human exploration and development of space will be significantly higher (both annual and carrier) than for any other occupational group. In addition, the exposures in deep space result largely from galactic cosmic rays for which there is as yet little experience. Some evidence exists indicating that conventional linear energy transfer defined protection quantities (quality factors) may not be appropriate. The authors evaluate their current understanding of radiation protection with laboratory and flight experimental data and discuss recent improvements in interaction models and transport methods

  2. Problems in Epistemic Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerring, Jens Christian Krarup

    2014-01-01

    be done for modal claims involving epistemic possibility. The main aim of this paper is to investigate the prospects of constructing a space of worlds—epistemic space—that allows us to model what is epistemically possible for ordinary, non-ideally rational agents like you and me. I will argue...... that the prospects look dim for successfully constructing such a space. In turn, this will make a case for the claim that we cannot use the standard possible worlds framework to model what is epistemically possible for ordinary agents....

  3. The OTTI space experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewer, D.A.; Clifton, K.S.; Pearson, S.D.; Barth, J.L.; LaBel, K.; Ritter, J.C.; Peden, J.; Campbell, A.; Liang, R.

    1999-01-01

    The orbiting technology tested initiative (OTTI) provides a concept for a series of space experiment platforms to be flown at 2-year interval over the next ten years. The long-term purpose of this program is to provide a convenient test-beds to simulate high radiation environments. The purposes of the first platform is to evaluate the on-orbit performance of novel, emerging, breakthrough technologies and advanced state-of-the-art devices in high radiation orbits and to provide correlations between the natural space radiation environment and the device response in the flight test-bed. This short article presents the concept of the OTTI program

  4. Space radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitz, G.; Beaujean, R.; Heilmann, C.; Kopp, J.; Strauch, K.; Heinrich, W.

    1996-01-01

    Detector packages consisting of plastic nuclear track detectors, nuclear emusions, and thermoluminescence detectors were exposed at different locations inside the space laboratory Spacelab and at the astronauts' body and in different sections of the MIR space station. Total dose measurements, particle fluence rate and linear energy transfer (LET) spectra of heavy ions, number of nuclear disintegrations and fast neutron fluence rate from this exposure are given in this report. The dose equivalent received by the PSs were calculated from the measurements and range from 190 μSv d -1 to 770 μSv d -3 . (orig.) [de

  5. Space and Planetary Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbud-Madrid, Angel

    2018-02-01

    The space and multitude of celestial bodies surrounding Earth hold a vast wealth of resources for a variety of space and terrestrial applications. The unlimited solar energy, vacuum, and low gravity in space, as well as the minerals, metals, water, atmospheric gases, and volatile elements on the Moon, asteroids, comets, and the inner and outer planets of the Solar System and their moons, constitute potential valuable resources for robotic and human space missions and for future use in our own planet. In the short term, these resources could be transformed into useful materials at the site where they are found to extend mission duration and to reduce the costly dependence from materials sent from Earth. Making propellants and human consumables from local resources can significantly reduce mission mass and cost, enabling longer stays and fueling transportation systems for use within and beyond the planetary surface. Use of finely grained soils and rocks can serve for habitat construction, radiation protection, solar cell fabrication, and food growth. The same material could also be used to develop repair and replacement capabilities using advanced manufacturing technologies. Following similar mining practices utilized for centuries on Earth, identifying, extracting, and utilizing extraterrestrial resources will enable further space exploration, while increasing commercial activities beyond our planet. In the long term, planetary resources and solar energy could also be brought to Earth if obtaining these resources locally prove to be no longer economically or environmentally acceptable. Throughout human history, resources have been the driving force for the exploration and settling of our planet. Similarly, extraterrestrial resources will make space the next destination in the quest for further exploration and expansion of our species. However, just like on Earth, not all challenges are scientific and technological. As private companies start working toward

  6. Space nuclear reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damon, D.; Temme, M.; Brown, N.

    1990-01-01

    Definition of safety requirements and design features of the SP-100 space reactor power system has been guided by a mission risk analysis. The analysis quantifies risk from accidental radiological consequences for a reference mission. Results show that the radiological risk from a space reactor can be made very low. The total mission risk from radiological consequences for a shuttle-launched, earth orbit SP-100 mission is estimated to be 0.05 Person-REM (expected values) based on a 1 mREM/yr de Minimus dose. Results are given for each mission phase. The safety benefits of specific design features are evaluated through risk sensitivity analyses

  7. Fire safety in space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jomaas, Grunde; Torero, Jose L.; Eigenbrod, Christian

    2015-01-01

    experiments has been based on existing knowledge of scenarios that are relevant, yet challenging, for a spacecraft environment. Given that there is always airflow in the space station, all the experiments are conducted with flame spread in either concurrent or opposed flow, though with the flow being stopped...... undocked from the International Space Station (ISS). The tests will be fully automated with the data downlinked at the conclusion of the test before the Cygnus vehicle re-enters the atmosphere. The unmanned, pressurized environment in the Saffire experiments allows for the largest sample sizes ever...

  8. Radiation protection in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blakely, E.A.; Fry, R.J.M.

    1995-01-01

    The challenge for planning radiation protection in space is to estimate the risk of events of low probability after low levels of irradiation. This work has revealed many gaps in the present state of knowledge that require further study. Despite investigations of several irradiated populations, the atomic-bomb survivors remain the primary basis for estimating the risk of ionizing radiation. Compared to previous estimates, two new independent evaluations of available information indicate a significantly greater risk of stochastic effects of radiation (cancer and genetic effects) by about a factor of three for radiation workers. This paper presents a brief historical perspective of the international effort to assure radiation protection in space

  9. Collective space and urbanity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kajita, Masashi

    2015-01-01

    the privacy of individual households? Envisaging potential functions and uses of the shared access route, this paper discusses the importance of continuous reflections of two perspectives: 1) architects’ logic (opportunistic attempt) of space making and 2) residents’ consideration and appropriation of spaces....... lives contest the intension of the architects who wish to open the building towards society. Employing spatial analyses, participative observations and direct interviews with residents as methods for ‘on site’ research, this paper unfolds the potential of the shared access route in the ability...

  10. Space dissipative structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernousenko, V.M.; Kuklin, V.M.; Panachenko, I.P.; Vorob'yov, V.M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on a wide spectrum of oscillations that is excited due to the evolution instabilities, being in a weak above-threshold state, in the inequilibrium media with decaying spectrum. In this case the pumping, whose part is played by an intensive wave or occupation inversion in the active medium, synchronized the phases of excited modes and, thus, forms the space dissipative structure of the field. In dissipative nonlinear media with nondecaying spectrum the space structures, formed due to the development of instability, experience small-scale hexagonal modulation

  11. Lasers in space.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Michaelis, MM

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available cube, laser beam reflectors, placed on the Moon half a century ago. These early achievements will soon be followed by a plethora of experiments involving lasers in low earth orbit (LEO) or at Lagrange points. And not much later, laser communications... will stretch out as far as Mars and beyond. One important low Earth orbit (LEO) application is the removal of space debris by Earth based or LEO relayed lasers as promoted by Phipps et al.3. Another is military communication. The prominent L1 laser space...

  12. Uniformizable Cauchy spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Lowen-Colebunders

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available A family C of filters on a set X is uniformizable if there is a uniformity on X such that C is its collection of Cauchy filters. Using the theory of completions and Cauchy continuous maps for Cauchy spaces, we obtain characterizations of uniformizable Cauchy spaces. In particular, given a Cauchy structure C on X we investigate under what conditions the filter u(C=⋂F∈CF×F is a uniformity and C is its collection of Cauchy filters. This problem is treated using Cauchy covering systems.

  13. Reconnection in space plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terasawa, T.

    1984-01-01

    One of the outstanding problems in space physics is to understand the physical mechanism which governs energy conversion process from magnetic to particle energies, a typical one being the reconnection mechanism. As a possible candidate process of the magnetic reconnection in space, tearing mode instability has been considered. In this paper are discussed selected topics related to the understanding of the tearing mode instability; the effect of the boundary condition, the resonant particle and current filamentation effects, vorticity excitation, and the Hall current effect. 31 refs, 12 figs

  14. National space legislation : future perspectives for Malaysian Space Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saari, Che Zuhaida Binti

    2014-01-01

    This research studies the future perspectives for Malaysian space law. It aims at demonstrating the development of Malaysian outer space activities inclusive of her status with respect to United Nations space conventions and her membership of international and regional space-related organizations.

  15. Compact space-like hypersurfaces in de Sitter space

    OpenAIRE

    Lv, Jinchi

    2005-01-01

    We present some integral formulas for compact space-like hypersurfaces in de Sitter space and some equivalent characterizations for totally umbilical compact space-like hypersurfaces in de Sitter space in terms of mean curvature and higher-order mean curvatures.

  16. Another extension of Orlicz-Sobolev spaces to metric spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noureddine Aïssaoui

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose another extension of Orlicz-Sobolev spaces to metric spaces based on the concepts of the Φ-modulus and Φ-capacity. The resulting space NΦ1 is a Banach space. The relationship between NΦ1 and MΦ1 (the first extension defined in Aïssaoui (2002 is studied. We also explore and compare different definitions of capacities and give a criterion under which NΦ1 is strictly smaller than the Orlicz space LΦ.

  17. NewSpace: The Emerging Commercial Space Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gary

    2016-01-01

    A lecture to students at the International Space University. Topics include: - We are at a turning point in the history of space exploration and development the cusp of a revolution, new industries are being born that use space in many non-traditional ways - The established military industrial space sector is no longer the only game in town - Increased competition and new capabilities will change the marketplace forever - Everyone interested in working in the space sector will be affected.

  18. What's space to learning?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troelsen, Rie

    As “space […] works on its occupants” (Pouler cited in Scheer & Preiser 1994, p. 175), both students and teachers are influenced by the physical contexts in which learning occurs. However, so far focus on the furnishing of classrooms (and built environment as a whole) in universities as being of ...... and practices for technology supported physical learning spaces (JELS). Learning Sciences Research Institute at Nottingham University. Temple, P. (2008). Learning spaces in higher education: an under-researched topic. London Review of Education, 6(3), 229-41......As “space […] works on its occupants” (Pouler cited in Scheer & Preiser 1994, p. 175), both students and teachers are influenced by the physical contexts in which learning occurs. However, so far focus on the furnishing of classrooms (and built environment as a whole) in universities as being...... of importance to the student learning experience has not been overwhelming (Temple 2008). In this paper preliminary findings from a small-scale research project are presented aiming at investigating the influence of spatial conditions on teachers’ views on teaching and learning. Not to evaluate if any given...

  19. Aboard the Space Shuttle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Florence S.

    This 32-page pamphlet contains color photographs and detailed diagrams which illustrate general descriptive comments about living conditions aboard the space shuttle. Described are details of the launch, the cabin, the condition of weightlessness, food, sleep, exercise, atmosphere, personal hygiene, medicine, going EVA (extra-vehicular activity),…

  20. Space Made Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gigone, Fabio

    2009-01-01

    These drawings, published in their first book "Space Made Light", reveal concepts and layouts, physical qualities and technological details, research procedures and origin of the materials, logistics and timetables of planning and realization. The diagrams have been conceived also for several...