WorldWideScience

Sample records for space flight international

  1. Integrating Space Flight Resource Management Skills into Technical Lessons for International Space Station Flight Controller Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Evelyn

    2008-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center s (JSC) International Space Station (ISS) Space Flight Resource Management (SFRM) training program is designed to teach the team skills required to be an effective flight controller. It was adapted from the SFRM training given to Shuttle flight controllers to fit the needs of a "24 hours a day/365 days a year" flight controller. More recently, the length reduction of technical training flows for ISS flight controllers impacted the number of opportunities for fully integrated team scenario based training, where most SFRM training occurred. Thus, the ISS SFRM training program is evolving yet again, using a new approach of teaching and evaluating SFRM alongside of technical materials. Because there are very few models in other industries that have successfully tied team and technical skills together, challenges are arising. Despite this, the Mission Operations Directorate of NASA s JSC is committed to implementing this integrated training approach because of the anticipated benefits.

  2. Space Flight and Re-Entry Trajectories : International Symposium

    CERN Document Server

    Libby, Paul A

    1962-01-01

    In this and a following issue (Vol. VIII, 1962, Fasc. 2-3) of "Astronautica Acta" there will appear the papers presented at the first international symposium sponsored by the International Academy of Astronautics of the International Astronautical Federation. The theme of the meeting was "Space Flight and Re-Entry Trajectories." It was held at Louveciennes outside of Paris on June 19-21, 1961. Sixteen papers by authors from nine countries were presented; attendees numbered from 80 to 100. The organizing committee for the symposium was as follows: Prof. PAUL A. LIBBY, Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn, U.S.A., Chairman; Prof. LuiGI BROGLIO, University of Rome, Italy; Prof. B. FRAEIJS DE VEUBEKE, University of Liege, Belgium; Dr. D. G. KING-HELE, Royal Aircraft Establishment, Farnborough, Rants, United Kingdom; Prof. J. M. J. KooY, Royal Military School, Breda, Netherlands; Prof. JEAN KovALEVSKY, Bureau des Longitudes, Paris, France; Prof. RuDOLF PESEK, Academy of Sciences, Prague, Czechoslovakia. The detailed ...

  3. Mentoring SFRM: A New Approach to International Space Station Flight Control Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huning, Therese; Barshi, Immanuel; Schmidt, Lacey

    2009-01-01

    The Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) of the Johnson Space Center is responsible for providing continuous operations support for the International Space Station (ISS). Operations support requires flight controllers who are skilled in team performance as well as the technical operations of the ISS. Space Flight Resource Management (SFRM), a NASA adapted variant of Crew Resource Management (CRM), is the competency model used in the MOD. ISS flight controller certification has evolved to include a balanced focus on development of SFRM and technical expertise. The latest challenge the MOD faces is how to certify an ISS flight controller (Operator) to a basic level of effectiveness in 1 year. SFRM training uses a twopronged approach to expediting operator certification: 1) imbed SFRM skills training into all Operator technical training and 2) use senior flight controllers as mentors. This paper focuses on how the MOD uses senior flight controllers as mentors to train SFRM skills.

  4. Overview of Pre-Flight Physical Training, In-Flight Exercise Countermeasures and the Post-Flight Reconditioning Program for International Space Station Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerstman, Eric

    2011-01-01

    International Space Station (ISS) astronauts receive supervised physical training pre-flight, utilize exercise countermeasures in-flight, and participate in a structured reconditioning program post-flight. Despite recent advances in exercise hardware and prescribed exercise countermeasures, ISS crewmembers are still found to have variable levels of deconditioning post-flight. This presentation provides an overview of the astronaut medical certification requirements, pre-flight physical training, in-flight exercise countermeasures, and the post-flight reconditioning program. Astronauts must meet medical certification requirements on selection, annually, and prior to ISS missions. In addition, extensive physical fitness testing and standardized medical assessments are performed on long duration crewmembers pre-flight. Limited physical fitness assessments and medical examinations are performed in-flight to develop exercise countermeasure prescriptions, ensure that the crewmembers are physically capable of performing mission tasks, and monitor astronaut health. Upon mission completion, long duration astronauts must re-adapt to the 1 G environment, and be certified as fit to return to space flight training and active duty. A structured, supervised postflight reconditioning program has been developed to prevent injuries, facilitate re-adaptation to the 1 G environment, and subsequently return astronauts to training and space flight. The NASA reconditioning program is implemented by the Astronaut Strength, Conditioning, and Rehabilitation (ASCR) team and supervised by NASA flight surgeons. This program has evolved over the past 10 years of the International Space Station (ISS) program and has been successful in ensuring that long duration astronauts safely re-adapt to the 1 g environment and return to active duty. Lessons learned from this approach to managing deconditioning can be applied to terrestrial medicine and future exploration space flight missions.

  5. Mentoring SFRM: A New Approach to International Space Station Flight Controller Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huning, Therese; Barshi, Immanuel; Schmidt, Lacey

    2008-01-01

    The Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) of the Johnson Space Center is responsible for providing continuous operations support for the International Space Station (ISS). Operations support requires flight controllers who are skilled in team performance as well as the technical operations of the ISS. Space Flight Resource Management (SFRM), a NASA adapted variant of Crew Resource Management (CRM), is the competency model used in the MOD. ISS flight controller certification has evolved to include a balanced focus on development of SFRM and technical expertise. The latest challenge the MOD faces is how to certify an ISS flight controller (operator) to a basic level of effectiveness in 1 year. SFRM training uses a two-pronged approach to expediting operator certification: 1) imbed SFRM skills training into all operator technical training and 2) use senior flight controllers as mentors. This paper focuses on how the MOD uses senior flight controllers as mentors to train SFRM skills. Methods: A mentor works with an operator throughout the training flow. Inserted into the training flow are guided-discussion sessions and on-the-job observation opportunities focusing on specific SFRM skills, including: situational leadership, conflict management, stress management, cross-cultural awareness, self care and team care while on-console, communication, workload management, and situation awareness. The mentor and operator discuss the science and art behind the skills, cultural effects on skills applications, recognition of good and bad skills applications, recognition of how skills application changes subtly in different situations, and individual goals and techniques for improving skills. Discussion: This mentoring program provides an additional means of transferring SFRM knowledge compared to traditional CRM training programs. Our future endeavors in training SFRM skills (as well as other organization s) may benefit from adding team performance skills mentoring. This paper

  6. Post-Flight Back Pain Following International Space Station Missions: Evaluation of Spaceflight Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, Mitzi S.; Murray, Jocelyn D.; Wear, Mary L.; Van Baalen, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Back pain during spaceflight has often been attributed to the lengthening of the spinal column due to the absence of gravity during both short and long-duration missions. Upon landing and re-adaptation to gravity, the spinal column reverts back to its original length thereby causing some individuals to experience pain and muscular spasms, while others experience no ill effects. With International Space Station (ISS) missions, cases of back pain and injury are more common post-flight, but little is known about the potential risk factors.

  7. Studying Planarian Regeneration Aboard the International Space Station within the Student Space Flight Experimental Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vista SSEP Mission 11 Team; Hagstrom, Danielle; Bartee, Christine; Collins, Eva-Maria S.

    2018-05-01

    The growing possibilities of space travel are quickly moving from science fiction to reality. However, to realize the dream of long-term space travel, we must understand how these conditions affect biological and physiological processes. Planarians are master regenerators, famous for their ability to regenerate from very small parts of the original animal. Understanding how this self-repair works may inspire regenerative therapies in humans. Two studies conducted aboard the International Space Station (ISS) showed that planarian regeneration is possible in microgravity. One study reported no regenerative defects, whereas the other study reported behavioral and microbiome alterations post-space travel and found that 1 of 15 planarians regenerated a Janus head, suggesting that microgravity exposure may not be without consequences. Given the limited number of studies and specimens, further microgravity experiments are necessary to evaluate the effects of microgravity on planarian regeneration. Such studies, however, are generally difficult and expensive to conduct. We were fortunate to be sponsored by the Student Spaceflight Experiment Program (SSEP) to investigate how microgravity affects regeneration of the planarian species Dugesia japonica on the ISS. While we were unable to successfully study planarian regeneration within the experimental constraints of our SSEP Mission, we systematically analyzed the cause for the failed experiment, leading us to propose a modified protocol. This work thus opens the door for future experiments on the effects of microgravity on planarian regeneration on SSEP Missions as well as for more advanced experiments by professional researchers.

  8. Studying Planarian Regeneration Aboard the International Space Station Within the Student Space Flight Experimental Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vista SSEP Mission 11 Team

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The growing possibilities of space travel are quickly moving from science fiction to reality. However, to realize the dream of long-term space travel, we must understand how these conditions affect biological and physiological processes. Planarians are master regenerators, famous for their ability to regenerate from very small parts of the original animal. Understanding how this self-repair works may inspire regenerative therapies in humans. Two studies conducted aboard the International Space Station (ISS showed that planarian regeneration is possible in microgravity. One study reported no regenerative defects, whereas the other study reported behavioral and microbiome alterations post-space travel and found that 1 of 15 planarians regenerated a Janus head, suggesting that microgravity exposure may not be without consequences. Given the limited number of studies and specimens, further microgravity experiments are necessary to evaluate the effects of microgravity on planarian regeneration. Such studies, however, are generally difficult and expensive to conduct. We were fortunate to be sponsored by the Student Spaceflight Experiment Program (SSEP to investigate how microgravity affects regeneration of the planarian species Dugesia japonica on the ISS. While we were unable to successfully study planarian regeneration within the experimental constraints of our SSEP Mission, we systematically analyzed the cause for the failed experiment, leading us to propose a modified protocol. This work thus opens the door for future experiments on the effects of microgravity on planarian regeneration on SSEP Missions as well as for more advanced experiments by professional researchers.

  9. Internal Social Media at Marshall Space Flight Center - An Engineer's Snapshot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, David W.

    2013-01-01

    In the brief span of about six years (2004-2010), social media radically enhanced people's ways of maintaining recreational friendships. Social media's impact on public affairs (PAO) and community engagement is equally striking: NASA has involved millions of non-NASA viewers in its activities via outward-facing social media, often in a very two-way street fashion. Use of social media as an internal working tool by NASA's tens of thousands of civil servants, onsite contractor employees, and external stakeholders is evolving more slowly. This paper examines, from an engineer's perspective, Marshall Space Flight Center s (MSFC) efforts to bring the power of social media to the daily working environment. Primary emphasis is on an internal Social Networking Service called Explornet that could be scaled Agency-wide. Other topics include MSFC use of other social media day-to-day for non-PAO purposes, some specialized uses of social techniques in space flight control operations, and how to help a community open up so it can discover and adopt what works well.

  10. International Space Station Bacteria Filter Element Post-Flight Testing and Service Life Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J. L.; von Jouanne, R. G.; Turner, E. H.

    2003-01-01

    The International Space Station uses high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters to remove particulate matter from the cabin atmosphere. Known as Bacteria Filter Elements (BFEs), there are 13 elements deployed on board the ISS's U.S. Segment. The pre-flight service life prediction of 1 year for the BFEs is based upon performance engineering analysis of data collected during developmental testing that used a synthetic dust challenge. While this challenge is considered reasonable and conservative from a design perspective, an understanding of the actual filter loading is required to best manage the critical ISS Program resources. Thus testing was conducted on BFEs returned from the ISS to refine the service life prediction. Results from this testing and implications to ISS resource management are discussed. Recommendations for realizing significant savings to the ISS Program are presented.

  11. Nutritional Biochemistry of Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2000-01-01

    Adequate nutrition is critical for maintenance of crew health during and after extended-duration space flight. The impact of weightlessness on human physiology is profound, with effects on many systems related to nutrition, including bone, muscle, hematology, fluid and electrolyte regulation. Additionally, we have much to learn regarding the impact of weightlessness on absorption, mtabolism , and excretion of nutrients, and this will ultimately determine the nutrient requirements for extended-duration space flight. Existing nutritional requirements for extended-duration space flight have been formulated based on limited flight research, and extrapolation from ground-based research. NASA's Nutritional Biochemistry Laboratory is charged with defining the nutritional requirements for space flight. This is accomplished through both operational and research projects. A nutritional status assessment program is included operationally for all International Space Station astronauts. This medical requirement includes biochemical and dietary assessments, and is completed before, during, and after the missions. This program will provide information about crew health and nutritional status, and will also provide assessments of countermeasure efficacy. Ongoing research projects include studies of calcium and bone metabolism, and iron absorption and metabolism. The calcium studies include measurements of endocrine regulation of calcium homeostasis, biochemical marker of bone metabolism, and tracer kinetic studies of calcium movement in the body. These calcium kinetic studies allow for estimation of intestinal absorption, urinary excretion, and perhaps most importantly - deposition and resorption of calcium from bone. The Calcium Kinetics experiment is currently being prepared for flight on the Space Shuttle in 2001, and potentially for subsequent Shuttle and International Space Station missions. The iron study is intended to assess whether iron absorption is down-regulated dUl1ng

  12. Post-Flight Back Pain Following International Space Station Missions: Evaluation of Spaceflight Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, M. S.; Murray, J. D.; Wear, M. L.; Van Baalen, M.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Back pain during spaceflight has often been attributed to the lengthening of the spinal column due to the absence of gravity during both short and long-duration missions. Upon landing and re-adaptation to gravity, the spinal column reverts back to its original length thereby causing some individuals to experience pain and muscular spasms, while others experience no ill effects. With International Space Station (ISS) missions, cases of back pain and injury are more common post-flight, but little is known about the potential risk factors. Thus, the purpose of this project was to perform an initial evaluation of reported post-flight back pain and injury cases to relevant spaceflight risk factors in United States astronauts that have completed an ISS mission. METHODS All US astronauts who completed an ISS mission between Expeditions (EXP) 1 and 41 (2000-2015) were included in this evaluation. Forty-five astronauts (36 males and 9 females) completed 50 ISS missions during the study time period, as 5 astronauts completed 2 ISS missions. Researchers queried medical records of the 45 astronauts for occurrences of back pain and injury. A case was defined as any reported event of back pain or injury to the cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, or coccyx spine regions. Data sources for the cases included the Flight Medicine Clinic's electronic medical record; Astronaut Strength, Conditioning and Rehabilitation electronic documentation; the Private Medical Conference tool; and the Space Medicine Operations Team records. Post-flight cases were classified as an early case if reported within 45 days of landing (R + 45) or a late case if reported from R + 46 to R + 365 days after landing (R + 1y). Risk factors in the astronaut population for back pain include age, sex, prior military service, and prior history of back pain. Additionally, spaceflight specific risk factors such as type of landing vehicle and onboard exercise countermeasures were included to evaluate their

  13. Magnesium and Space Flight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott M. Smith

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium is an essential nutrient for muscle, cardiovascular, and bone health on Earth, and during space flight. We sought to evaluate magnesium status in 43 astronauts (34 male, 9 female; 47 ± 5 years old, mean ± SD before, during, and after 4–6-month space missions. We also studied individuals participating in a ground analog of space flight (head-down-tilt bed rest; n = 27 (17 male, 10 female, 35 ± 7 years old. We evaluated serum concentration and 24-h urinary excretion of magnesium, along with estimates of tissue magnesium status from sublingual cells. Serum magnesium increased late in flight, while urinary magnesium excretion was higher over the course of 180-day space missions. Urinary magnesium increased during flight but decreased significantly at landing. Neither serum nor urinary magnesium changed during bed rest. For flight and bed rest, significant correlations existed between the area under the curve of serum and urinary magnesium and the change in total body bone mineral content. Tissue magnesium concentration was unchanged after flight and bed rest. Increased excretion of magnesium is likely partially from bone and partially from diet, but importantly, it does not come at the expense of muscle tissue stores. While further study is needed to better understand the implications of these findings for longer space exploration missions, magnesium homeostasis and tissue status seem well maintained during 4–6-month space missions.

  14. Magnesium and Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium is an essential nutrient for muscle, cardiovascular, and bone health on Earth, and during space flight. We sought to evaluate magnesium status in 43 astronauts (34 male, 9 female; 47 ± 5 years old, mean ± SD) before, during, and after 4–6-month space missions. We also studied individuals participating in a ground analog of space flight (head-down-tilt bed rest; n = 27 (17 male, 10 female), 35 ± 7 years old). We evaluated serum concentration and 24-h urinary excretion of magnesium, along with estimates of tissue magnesium status from sublingual cells. Serum magnesium increased late in flight, while urinary magnesium excretion was higher over the course of 180-day space missions. Urinary magnesium increased during flight but decreased significantly at landing. Neither serum nor urinary magnesium changed during bed rest. For flight and bed rest, significant correlations existed between the area under the curve of serum and urinary magnesium and the change in total body bone mineral content. Tissue magnesium concentration was unchanged after flight and bed rest. Increased excretion of magnesium is likely partially from bone and partially from diet, but importantly, it does not come at the expense of muscle tissue stores. While further study is needed to better understand the implications of these findings for longer space exploration missions, magnesium homeostasis and tissue status seem well maintained during 4–6-month space missions. PMID:26670248

  15. Space Flight Ionizing Radiation Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Steve

    2017-01-01

    The space-flight ionizing radiation (IR) environment is dominated by very high-kinetic energy-charged particles with relatively smaller contributions from X-rays and gamma rays. The Earth's surface IR environment is not dominated by the natural radioisotope decay processes. Dr. Steven Koontz's lecture will provide a solid foundation in the basic engineering physics of space radiation environments, beginning with the space radiation environment on the International Space Station and moving outward through the Van Allen belts to cislunar space. The benefits and limitations of radiation shielding materials will also be summarized.

  16. Iron status and its relations with oxidative damage and bone loss during long-duration space flight on the International Space Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwart, Sara R; Morgan, Jennifer L L; Smith, Scott M

    2013-07-01

    Increases in stored iron and dietary intake of iron during space flight have raised concern about the risk of excess iron and oxidative damage, particularly in bone. The objectives of this study were to perform a comprehensive assessment of iron status in men and women before, during, and after long-duration space flight and to quantify the association of iron status with oxidative damage and bone loss. Fasting blood and 24-h urine samples were collected from 23 crew members before, during, and after missions lasting 50 to 247 d to the International Space Station. Serum ferritin and body iron increased early in flight, and transferrin and transferrin receptors decreased later, which indicated that early increases in body iron stores occurred through the mobilization of iron to storage tissues. Acute phase proteins indicated no evidence of an inflammatory response during flight. Serum ferritin was positively correlated with the oxidative damage markers 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (r = 0.53, P < 0.001) and prostaglandin F2α (r = 0.26, P < 0.001), and the greater the area under the curve for ferritin during flight, the greater the decrease in bone mineral density in the total hip (P = 0.031), trochanter (P = 0.006), hip neck (P = 0.044), and pelvis (P = 0.049) after flight. Increased iron stores may be a risk factor for oxidative damage and bone resorption.

  17. Using Monte Carlo Simulation To Improve Cargo Mass Estimates For International Space Station Commercial Resupply Flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The Challenges of ISS Resupply .......................................... 23 F. THE IMPORTANCE OF MASS PROPERTIES IN SPACECRAFT AND MISSION DESIGN...Transportation System TBA trundle bearing assembly VLC verification loads cycle xv EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Resupplying the International Space Station...management priorities. This study addresses those challenges by developing Monte Carlo simulations based on over 13 years of as- flownSS resupply

  18. Space Flight Resource Management for ISS Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Larry; Slack, Kelley; O'Keefe, William; Huning, Therese; Sipes, Walter; Holland, Albert

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the International Space Station (ISS) Operations space flight resource management, which was adapted to the ISS from the shuttle processes. It covers crew training and behavior elements.

  19. International Space Station United States Laboratory Module Water Recovery Management Subsystem Verification from Flight 5A to Stage ULF2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.; Labuda, Laura

    2009-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system comprises of seven subsystems: Atmosphere Control and Supply (ACS), Atmosphere Revitalization (AR), Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS), Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), Vacuum System (VS), Water Recovery and Management (WRM), and Waste Management (WM). This paper provides a summary of the nominal operation of the United States (U.S.) Laboratory Module WRM design and detailed element methodologies utilized during the Qualification phase of the U.S. Laboratory Module prior to launch and the Qualification of all of the modification kits added to it from Flight 5A up and including Stage ULF2.

  20. Proceedings of the 20th International Symposium on Space Flight Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Mark (Editor); Stengle, Tom (Editor)

    2007-01-01

    Topics include: Measuring Image Navigation and Registration Performance at the 3-Sigma Level Using Platinum Quality Landmarks; Flight Dynamics Performances of the MetOp A Satellite during the First Months of Operations; Visual Navigation - SARE Mission; Determining a Method of Enabling and Disabling the Integral Torque in the SDO Science and Inertial Mode Controllers; Guaranteeing Pointing Performance of the SDO Sun-Pointing Controllers in Light of Nonlinear Effects; SDO Delta H Mode Design and Analysis; Observing Mode Attitude Controller for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter; Broken-Plane Maneuver Applications for Earth to Mars Trajectories; ExoMars Mission Analysis and Design - Launch, Cruise and Arrival Analyses; Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Aerobraking Daily Operations and Collision Avoidance; Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Interplanetary Cruise Navigation; Motion Parameters Determination of the SC and Phobos in the Project Phobos-Grunt; GRAS NRT Precise Orbit Determination: Operational Experience; Orbit Determination of LEO Satellites for a Single Pass through a Radar: Comparison of Methods; Orbit Determination System for Low Earth Orbit Satellites; Precise Orbit Determination for ALOS; Anti-Collision Function Design and Performances of the CNES Formation Flying Experiment on the PRISMA Mission; CNES Approaching Guidance Experiment within FFIORD; Maneuver Recovery Analysis for the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission; SIMBOL-X: A Formation Flying Mission on HEO for Exploring the Universe; Spaceborne Autonomous and Ground Based Relative Orbit Control for the TerraSAR-X/TanDEM-X Formation; First In-Orbit Experience of TerraSAR-X Flight Dynamics Operations; Automated Target Planning for FUSE Using the SOVA Algorithm; Space Technology 5 Post-Launch Ground Attitude Estimation Experience; Standardizing Navigation Data: A Status Update; and A Study into the Method of Precise Orbit Determination of a HEO Orbiter by GPS and Accelerometer.

  1. Biosafety in manned space flight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Boever, P.

    2006-01-01

    The main goal of manned exploration is to achieve a prolonged stay in space, for example in an orbital station (such as the International Space Station (ISS)) or in planetary bases on the Moon and/or Mars. It goes without saying that such missions can only be realized when the astronaut's health and well-being is secured. In this respect, the characterization of the microbiological contamination on board spacecraft and orbital stations and the influence of cosmic radiation and microgravity are of paramount importance. Microbial contamination may originate from different sources and includes the initial contamination of space flight materials during manufacturing and assembly, the delivery of supplies to the orbital station, the supplies themselves, secondary contamination during the lifetime of the orbital station, the crew and any other biological material on board e.g. animals, plants, micro-organisms used in scientific experiments. Although most microorganisms do not threaten human health, it has been reported that in a confined environment, such as a space cabin, microorganisms may produce adverse effects on the optimal performance of the space crew and the integrity of the spacecraft or habitat. These effects range from infections, allergies, and toxicities to degradation of air and water supplies. Biodegradation of critical materials may result in system failure and this may jeopardize the crew. The research aims at monitoring the biological airborne and surface contamination during manned space flight. The ISS has been selected as primary test bed for this study. The majority of the investigations are being done by the Russian Institute of Biomedical Problems (IBMP), which is responsible for monitoring the biological contamination in the habitable compartments of the ISS for safety and hygienic reasons. Within the frame of a collaboration between IBMP and the European Space Agency (ESA), SCK-CEN is able to participate in the analyses

  2. Sleep patterns among shift-working flight controllers of the International Space Station: an observational study on the JAXA Flight Control Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Koh; Matsumoto, Akiko; Aiba, Tatsuya; Abe, Takashi; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Masaya; Inoue, Yuichi

    2016-09-01

    Flight controllers of the International Space Station (ISS) are engaged in shift work to provide 24-h coverage to support ISS systems. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and associated factors of shift work sleep disorder (SWSD) among Japanese ISS flight controllers. A questionnaire study was conducted using the Standard Shiftwork Index to evaluate sleep-related problems and possible associated variables. Among 52 respondents out of 73 flight controllers, 30 subjects were identified as night shift workers who worked 3 or more night shifts per month. Those night shift workers who answered "almost always" to questions about experiencing insomnia or excessive sleepiness in any case of work shifts and days off were classified as having SWSD. Additionally, 7 night shift workers participated in supplemental wrist actigraphy data collection for 7 to 8 days including 3 to 4 days of consecutive night shifts. Fourteen of 30 night shift workers were classified as having SWSD. Significant group differences were observed where the SWSD group felt that night shift work was harder and reported more frequent insomniac symptoms after a night shift. However, no other variables demonstrated remarkable differences between groups. Actigraphy results characterized 5 subjects reporting better perceived adaptation as having regular daytime sleep, for 6 to 9 h in total, between consecutive night shifts. On the other hand, 2 subjects reporting perceived maladaptation revealed different sleep patterns, with longer daytime sleep and large day-to-day variation in daytime sleep between consecutive night shifts, respectively. As the tasks for flight control require high levels of alertness and cognitive function, several characteristics, namely shift-working schedule (2 to 4 consecutive night shifts), very short break time (5 to 10 min/h) during work shifts, and cooperative work with onboard astronauts during the evening/night shift, accounted for increasing

  3. Radiations and space flight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maalouf, M.; Vogin, G.; Foray, N.; Maalouf; Vogin, G.

    2011-01-01

    A space flight is submitted to 3 main sources of radiation: -) cosmic radiation (4 protons/cm 2 /s and 10000 times less for the heaviest particles), -) solar radiation (10 8 protons/cm 2 /s in the solar wind), -) the Van Allen belt around the earth: the magnetosphere traps particles and at an altitude of 500 km the proton flux can reach 100 protons/cm 2 /s. If we take into account all the spatial missions performed since 1960, we get an average dose of 400 μGray per day with an average dose rate of 0.28 μGray/mn. A significant risk of radiation-induced cancer is expected for missions whose duration is over 250 days.The cataract appears to be the most likely non-cancerous health hazard due to the exposition to comic radiation. Its risk appears to have been under-estimated, particularly for doses over 8 mGray. Some studies on astronauts have shown for some a very strong predisposition for radio-induced cancers: during the reparation phase of DNA breaking due to irradiation, multiple new damages are added by the cells themselves that behave abnormally. (A.C.)

  4. An Integrated Approach to Thermal Management of International Space Station Logistics Flights, Improving the Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holladay, Jon; Day, Greg; Roberts, Barry; Leahy, Frank

    2003-01-01

    The efficiency of re-useable aerospace systems requires a focus on the total operations process rather than just orbital performance. For the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module this activity included special attention to terrestrial conditions both pre-launch and post-landing and how they inter-relate to the mission profile. Several of the efficiencies implemented for the MPLM Mission Engineering were NASA firsts and all served to improve the overall operations activities. This paper will provide an explanation of how various issues were addressed and the resulting solutions. Topics range from statistical analysis of over 30 years of atmospheric data at the launch and landing site to a new approach for operations with the Shuttle Carrier Aircraft. In each situation the goal was to "tune" the thermal management of the overall flight system for minimizing requirement risk while optimizing power and energy performance.

  5. International Space Station Sustaining Engineering: A Ground-Based Test Bed for Evaluating Integrated Environmental Control and Life Support System and Internal Thermal Control System Flight Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Charles D.; Perry, Jay L.; Callahan, David M.

    2000-01-01

    As the International Space Station's (ISS) various habitable modules are placed in service on orbit, the need to provide for sustaining engineering becomes increasingly important to ensure the proper function of critical onboard systems. Chief among these are the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) and the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS). Without either, life onboard the ISS would prove difficult or nearly impossible. For this reason, a ground-based ECLSS/ITCS hardware performance simulation capability has been developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. The ECLSS/ITCS Sustaining Engineering Test Bed will be used to assist the ISS Program in resolving hardware anomalies and performing periodic performance assessments. The ISS flight configuration being simulated by the test bed is described as well as ongoing activities related to its preparation for supporting ISS Mission 5A. Growth options for the test facility are presented whereby the current facility may be upgraded to enhance its capability for supporting future station operation well beyond Mission 5A. Test bed capabilities for demonstrating technology improvements of ECLSS hardware are also described.

  6. Using microsoft excel applications in the graduate intern program at Goddard Space Flight Center. M.S. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, Lisa

    1992-01-01

    An outline of the Project Operations Branch at Goddard Space Flight Center is presented that describes the management of the division and each subgroup's responsibility. The paper further describes the development of software tools for the Macintosh personal computer, and their impending implementation. A detailed step by step procedure is given for using these software tools.

  7. "Space flight is utter bilge"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeomans, Donald

    2004-01-01

    Despite skepticism and ridicule from scientists and the public alike, a small handful of dreamers kept faith in their vision of space flight and planned for the day when humanity would break loose from Earth.

  8. HUMAN SPACE FLIGHTS: FACTS AND DREAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Bizzarri

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Manned space flight has been the great human and technological adventure of the past half-century. By putting people into places and situations unprecedented in history, it has stirred the imagination while expanding and redefining the human experience. However, space exploration obliges men to confront a hostile environment of cosmic radiation, microgravity, isolation and changes in the magnetic field. Any space traveler is therefore submitted to relevant health threats. In the twenty-first century, human space flight will continue, but it will change in the ways that science and technology have changed on Earth: it will become more networked, more global, and more oriented toward primary objectives. A new international human space flight policy can help achieve these objectives by clarifying the rationales, the ethics of acceptable risk, the role of remote presence, and the need for balance between funding and ambition to justify the risk of human lives.

  9. Multiphase Transport in Porous Media: Gas-Liquid Separation Using Capillary Pressure Gradients International Space Station (ISS) Flight Experiment Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Richard R., Jr.; Holtsnider, John T.; Dahl, Roger W.; Deeks, Dalton; Javanovic, Goran N.; Parker, James M.; Ehlert, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Advances in the understanding of multiphase flow characteristics under variable gravity conditions will ultimately lead to improved and as of yet unknown process designs for advanced space missions. Such novel processes will be of paramount importance to the success of future manned space exploration as we venture into our solar system and beyond. In addition, because of the ubiquitous nature and vital importance of biological and environmental processes involving airwater mixtures, knowledge gained about fundamental interactions and the governing properties of these mixtures will clearly benefit the quality of life here on our home planet. The techniques addressed in the current research involving multiphase transport in porous media and gas-liquid phase separation using capillary pressure gradients are also a logical candidate for a future International Space Station (ISS) flight experiment. Importantly, the novel and potentially very accurate Lattice-Boltzmann (LB) modeling of multiphase transport in porous media developed in this work offers significantly improved predictions of real world fluid physics phenomena, thereby promoting advanced process designs for both space and terrestrial applications.This 3-year research effort has culminated in the design and testing of a zero-g demonstration prototype. Both the hydrophilic (glass) and hydrophobic (Teflon) media Capillary Pressure Gradient (CPG) cartridges prepared during the second years work were evaluated. Results obtained from ground testing at 1-g were compared to those obtained at reduced gravities spanning Martian (13-g), Lunar (16-g) and zero-g. These comparisons clearly demonstrate the relative strength of the CPG phenomena and the efficacy of its application to meet NASAs unique gas-liquid separation (GLS) requirements in non-terrestrial environments.LB modeling software, developed concurrently with the zero-g test effort, was shown to accurately reproduce observed CPG driven gas-liquid separation

  10. Post-Flight Microbial Analysis of Samples from the International Space Station Water Recovery System and Oxygen Generation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birmele, Michele N.

    2011-01-01

    The Regenerative, Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) on the International Space Station (ISS) includes the the Water Recovery System (WRS) and the Oxygen Generation System (OGS). The WRS consists of a Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) and Water Processor Assembly (WPA). This report describes microbial characterization of wastewater and surface samples collected from the WRS and OGS subsystems, returned to KSC, JSC, and MSFC on consecutive shuttle flights (STS-129 and STS-130) in 2009-10. STS-129 returned two filters that contained fluid samples from the WPA Waste Tank Orbital Recovery Unit (ORU), one from the waste tank and the other from the ISS humidity condensate. Direct count by microscopic enumeration revealed 8.38 x 104 cells per mL in the humidity condensate sample, but none of those cells were recoverable on solid agar media. In contrast, 3.32 x lOs cells per mL were measured from a surface swab of the WRS waste tank, including viable bacteria and fungi recovered after S12 days of incubation on solid agar media. Based on rDNA sequencing and phenotypic characterization, a fungus recovered from the filter was determined to be Lecythophora mutabilis. The bacterial isolate was identified by rDNA sequence data to be Methylobacterium radiotolerans. Additional UPA subsystem samples were returned on STS-130 for analysis. Both liquid and solid samples were collected from the Russian urine container (EDV), Distillation Assembly (DA) and Recycle Filter Tank Assembly (RFTA) for post-flight analysis. The bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa and fungus Chaetomium brasiliense were isolated from the EDV samples. No viable bacteria or fungi were recovered from RFTA brine samples (N= 6), but multiple samples (N = 11) from the DA and RFTA were found to contain fungal and bacterial cells. Many recovered cells have been identified to genus by rDNA sequencing and carbon source utilization profiling (BiOLOG Gen III). The presence of viable bacteria and fungi from WRS

  11. Human tolerance to space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntoon, C. L.

    1989-01-01

    Medical studies of astronauts and cosmonauts before, during, and after space missions have identified several effects of weightlessness and other factors that influence the ability of humans to tolerate space flight. Weightlessness effects include space motion sickness, cardiovascular abnormalities, reduction in immune system function, loss of red blood cells, loss of bone mass, and muscle atrophy. Extravehicular activity (EVA) increases the likelihood that decompression sickness may occur. Radiation also gives reason for concern about health of crewmembers, and psychological factors are important on long-term flights. Countermeasures that have been used include sensory preadaptation, prebreathing and use of various air mixtures for EVA, loading with water and electrolytes, exercise, use of pharmacological agents and special diets, and psychological support. It appears that humans can tolerate and recover satisfactorily from at least one year of space flight, but a number of conditions must be further ameliorated before long-duration missions can be considered routine.

  12. Optical Fiber Assemblies for Space Flight from the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Photonics Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Melanie N.; Thoma, William Joe; LaRocca, Frank; Chuska, Richard; Switzer, Robert; Day, Lance

    2009-01-01

    The Photonics Group at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in the Electrical Engineering Division of the Advanced Engineering and Technologies Directorate has been involved in the design, development, characterization, qualification, manufacturing, integration and anomaly analysis of optical fiber subsystems for over a decade. The group supports a variety of instrumentation across NASA and outside entities that build flight systems. Among the projects currently supported are: The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, the Mars Science Laboratory, the James Webb Space Telescope, the Express Logistics Carrier for the International Space Station and the NASA Electronic Parts. and Packaging Program. A collection of the most pertinent information gathered during project support over the past year in regards to space flight performance of optical fiber components is presented here. The objective is to provide guidance for future space flight designs of instrumentation and communication systems.

  13. Ethernet for Space Flight Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Evan; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is adapting current data networking technologies to fly on future spaceflight missions. The benefits of using commercially based networking standards and protocols have been widely discussed and are expected to include reduction in overall mission cost, shortened integration and test (I&T) schedules, increased operations flexibility, and hardware and software upgradeability/scalability with developments ongoing in the commercial world. The networking effort is a comprehensive one encompassing missions ranging from small University Explorer (UNEX) class spacecraft to large observatories such as the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST). Mission aspects such as flight hardware and software, ground station hardware and software, operations, RF communications, and security (physical and electronic) are all being addressed to ensure a complete end-to-end system solution. One of the current networking development efforts at GSFC is the SpaceLAN (Spacecraft Local Area Network) project, development of a space-qualifiable Ethernet network. To this end we have purchased an IEEE 802.3-compatible 10/100/1000 Media Access Control (MAC) layer Intellectual Property (IP) core and are designing a network node interface (NNI) and associated network components such as a switch. These systems will ultimately allow the replacement of the typical MIL-STD-1553/1773 and custom interfaces that inhabit most spacecraft. In this paper we will describe our current Ethernet NNI development along with a novel new space qualified physical layer that will be used in place of the standard interfaces. We will outline our plans for development of space qualified network components that will allow future spacecraft to operate in significant radiation environments while using a single onboard network for reliable commanding and data transfer. There will be a brief discussion of some issues surrounding system implications of a flight Ethernet. Finally, we will

  14. Design, Development and Pre-Flight Testing of the Communications, Navigation, and Networking Reconfigurable Testbed (Connect) to Investigate Software Defined Radio Architecture on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over, Ann P.; Barrett, Michael J.; Reinhart, Richard C.; Free, James M.; Cikanek, Harry A., III

    2011-01-01

    The Communication Navigation and Networking Reconfigurable Testbed (CoNNeCT) is a NASA-sponsored mission, which will investigate the usage of Software Defined Radios (SDRs) as a multi-function communication system for space missions. A softwaredefined radio system is a communication system in which typical components of the system (e.g., modulators) are incorporated into software. The software-defined capability allows flexibility and experimentation in different modulation, coding and other parameters to understand their effects on performance. This flexibility builds inherent redundancy and flexibility into the system for improved operational efficiency, real-time changes to space missions and enhanced reliability/redundancy. The CoNNeCT Project is a collaboration between industrial radio providers and NASA. The industrial radio providers are providing the SDRs and NASA is designing, building and testing the entire flight system. The flight system will be integrated on the Express Logistics Carrier (ELC) on the International Space Station (ISS) after launch on the H-IIB Transfer Vehicle in 2012. This paper provides an overview of the technology research objectives, payload description, design challenges and pre-flight testing results.

  15. The Texas space flight liability act and efficient regulation for the private commercial space flight era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher D.

    2013-12-01

    In the spring of 2011, the American state of Texas passed into law an act limiting the liability of commercial space flight entities. Under it, those companies would not be liable for space flight participant injuries, except in cases of intentional injury or injury proximately caused by the company's gross negligence. An analysis within the framework of international and national space law, but especially informed by the academic discipline of law and economics, discusses the incentives of all relevant parties and attempts to understand whether the law is economically "efficient" (allocating resources so as to yield maximum utility), and suited to further the development of the fledgling commercial suborbital tourism industry. Insights into the Texas law are applicable to other states hoping to foster commercial space tourism and considering space tourism related legislation.

  16. Space Flight-Associated Neuro-ocular Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Andrew G; Mader, Thomas H; Gibson, C Robert; Tarver, William

    2017-09-01

    New and unique physiologic and pathologic systemic and neuro-ocular responses have been documented in astronauts during and after long-duration space flight. Although the precise cause remains unknown, space flight-associated neuro-ocular syndrome (SANS) has been adopted as an appropriate descriptive term. The Space Medicine Operations Division of the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has documented the variable occurrence of SANS in astronauts returning from long-duration space flight on the International Space Station. These clinical findings have included unilateral and bilateral optic disc edema, globe flattening, choroidal and retinal folds, hyperopic refractive error shifts, and nerve fiber layer infarcts. The clinical findings of SANS have been correlated with structural changes on intraorbital and intracranial magnetic resonance imaging and in-flight and terrestrial ultrasonographic studies and ocular optical coherence tomography. Further study of SANS is ongoing for consideration of future manned missions to space, including a return trip to the moon or Mars.

  17. Young PHD's in Human Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Eleanor

    2002-01-01

    The Cooperating Hampton Roads Organizations for Minorities in Engineering (CHROME) in cooperation with the NASA Office of Space Flight, Human Exploration and Development of Space Enterprise sponsored a summer institute, Young PHD#s (Persons Having Dreams) in Human Space Flight. This 3-day institute used the curriculum of a workshop designed for space professionals, 'Human Space Flight-Analysis and Design: An Integrated, Systematic Approach.' The content was tailored to a high school audience. This institute seeks to stimulate the interest of pre-college students in space flight and motivate them to pursue further experiences in this field. Additionally, this institute will serve as a pilot model for a pre- collegiate training program that can be replicated throughout the country. The institute was complemented with a trip to the Goddard Space Flight Center.

  18. Space Flight Resource Management for ISS Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Lacey L.; Slack, Kelley; Holland, Albert; Huning, Therese; O'Keefe, William; Sipes, Walter E.

    2010-01-01

    Although the astronaut training flow for the International Space Station (ISS) spans 2 years, each astronaut or cosmonaut often spends most of their training alone. Rarely is it operationally feasible for all six ISS crewmembers to train together, even more unlikely that crewmembers can practice living together before launch. Likewise, ISS Flight Controller training spans 18 months of learning to manage incredibly complex systems remotely in plug-and-play ground teams that have little to no exposure to crewmembers before a mission. How then do all of these people quickly become a team - a team that must respond flexibly yet decisively to a variety of situations? The answer implemented at NASA is Space Flight Resource Management (SFRM), the so-called "soft skills" or team performance skills. Based on Crew Resource Management, SFRM was developed first for shuttle astronauts and focused on managing human errors during time-critical events (Rogers, et al. 2002). Given the nature of life on ISS, the scope of SFRM for ISS broadened to include teamwork during prolonged and routine operations (O'Keefe, 2008). The ISS SFRM model resembles a star with one competency for each point: Communication, Cross-Culture, Teamwork, Decision Making, Team Care, Leadership/Followership, Conflict Management, and Situation Awareness. These eight competencies were developed with international participation by the Human Behavior and Performance Training Working Group. Over the last two years, these competencies have been used to build a multi-modal SFRM training flow for astronaut candidates and flight controllers that integrates team performance skills into the practice of technical skills. Preliminary results show trainee skill increases as the flow progresses; and participants find the training invaluable to performing well and staying healthy during ISS operations. Future development of SFRM training will aim to help support indirect handovers as ISS operations evolve further with the

  19. Space Flight Orthostatic Intolerance Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luty, Wei

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes investigations conducted on different orthostatic intolerance protection garments. This paper emphasizes on the engineering and operational aspects of the project. The current Shuttle pneumatic Anti-G Suit or AGS at 25 mmHg (0.5 psi) and customized medical mechanical compressive garments (20-30 mmHg) were tested on human subjects. The test process is presented. The preliminary results conclude that mechanical compressive garments can ameliorate orthostatic hypotension in hypovolemic subjects. A mechanical compressive garment is light, small and works without external pressure gas source; however the current garment design does not provide an adjustment to compensate for the loss of mass and size in the lower torso during long term space missions. It is also difficult to don. Compression garments that do not include an abdominal component are less effective countermeasures than garments which do. An early investigation conducted by the Human Adaptation and Countermeasures Division at Johnson Space Center (JSC) has shown there is no significant difference between the protection function of the AGS (at 77 mmHg or 1.5 psi) and the Russian anti-g suit, Kentavr (at 25 mmHg or 0.5 psi). Although both garments successfully countered hypovolemia-induced orthostatic intolerance, the Kentavr provided protection by using lower levels of compression pressure. This more recent study with a lower AGS pressure shows that pressures at 20-30 mmHg is acceptable but protection function is not as effective as higher pressure. In addition, a questionnaire survey with flight crewmembers who used both AGS and Kentavr during different missions was also performed.

  20. Comparing future options for human space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Brent

    2011-09-01

    The paper analyzes the "value proposition" for government-funded human space flight, a vexing question that persistently dogs efforts to justify its $10 10/year expense in the US. The original Mercury/Gemini/Apollo value proposition is not valid today. Neither was it the value proposition actually promoted by von Braun, which the post-Apollo 80% of human space flight history has persistently attempted to fulfill. Divergent potential objectives for human space flight are captured in four strategic options— Explore Mars; accelerate Space Passenger Travel; enable Space Power for Earth; and Settle the Moon—which are then analyzed for their purpose, societal myth, legacy benefits, core needs, and result as measured by the number and type of humans they would fly in space. This simple framework is proposed as a way to support productive dialog with public and other stakeholders, to determine a sustainable value proposition for human space flight.

  1. Extreme Tele-Echocardiography: Methodology for Remote Guidance of In-Flight Echocardiography Aboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, David S.; Borowski, Allan; Bungo, Michael W.; Gladding, Patrick; Greenberg, Neil; Hamilton, Doug; Levine, Benjamin D.; Lee, Stuart M.; Norwood, Kelly; Platts, Steven H.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Methods: In the year before launch of an ISS mission, potential astronaut echocardiographic operators participate in 5 sessions to train for echo acquisitions that occur roughly monthly during the mission, including one exercise echocardiogram. The focus of training is familiarity with the study protocol and remote guidance procedures. On-orbit, real-time guidance of in-flight acquisitions is provided by a sonographer in the Telescience Center of Mission Control. Physician investigators with remote access are able to relay comments on image quality to the sonographer. Live video feed is relayed from the ISS to the ground via the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System with a 2- second transmission delay. The expert sonographer uses these images, along with twoway audio, to provide instructions and feedback. Images are stored in non-compressed DICOM format for asynchronous relay to the ground for subsequent off-line analysis. Results: Since June, 2009, a total of 27 resting echocardiograms and 5 exercise studies have been performed during flight. Average acquisition time has been 45 minutes, reflecting 26,000 km of ISS travel per study. Image quality has been adequate in all studies, and remote guidance has proven imperative for fine-tuning imaging and prioritizing views when communication outages limit the study duration. Typical resting studies have included 27 video loops and 30 still-frame images requiring 750 MB of storage. Conclusions: Despite limited crew training, remote guidance allows research-quality echocardiography to be performed by non-experts aboard the ISS. Analysis is underway and additional subjects are being recruited to define the impact of microgravity on cardiac structure and systolic and diastolic function.

  2. International Space Station exhibit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) exhibit in StenniSphere at John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., gives visitors an up-close look at the largest international peacetime project in history. Step inside a module of the ISS and glimpse how astronauts will live and work in space. Currently, 16 countries contribute resources and hardware to the ISS. When complete, the orbiting research facility will be larger than a football field.

  3. Investigation of periodontal tissue during a long space flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovyeva, Zoya; Viacheslav, Ilyin; Skedina, Marina

    Previous studies conducted on the International Space Station found that upon completion of the space flight there are significant changes in the local immunity and periodontal microflora of astronauts. Also research in ground-based experiments that simulate space flight factors showed that prolonged hypokinesia antiorthostatic leads to impaired functional indicators of the periodontal vascular system, an unidirectional change from the microbiota and the immune system. That results in the appearance and progressive increase of the parodontial pathogenic bacteria and increase of the content of immunoglobulins in the oral fluid. All these changes are classified as risk factors for the development of inflammatory periodontal diseases in astronauts. However, the studies were unable to determine whether the changes result from a long space flight and the peculiarities of formation the local immunity and periodontal microbiota during the space flight, or they are one of the specific manifestations of the readaptationary post-flight condition of the body. In this regard, the planned research in a long space flight suggests: to use the means of microbial control, which can retain of the anaerobes periodontal microbiota sampling directly in the space flight; to assess the specificity of changes of the periodontal immune status under the influence of the space flight factors, and to assess the state of microcirculation of periodontal tissue in astronauts. A comprehensive study of the reaction of dentition during the space flight will make it possible to study the pathogenesis of changes for developing an adequate prevention aimed at optimizing the state of dentition of the astronauts.

  4. Habitability and Behavioral Issues of Space Flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, R. A., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews group behavioral issues from past space missions and simulations such as the Skylab Medical Experiments Altitude Test, Skylab missions, and Shuttle Spacelab I mission. Makes recommendations for future flights concerning commandership, crew selection, and ground-crew communications. Pre- and in-flight behavioral countermeasures are…

  5. Looking Up: Multimedia about Space and Flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Virginia A.

    1998-01-01

    The best CD-ROMs for young people about space and flight exploit the promise of hypermedia to create informative simulations. This article provides an annotated bibliography of CD-ROMs on astronomy and flight for K-12 students; suggests book and Internet connections; and highlights poetry for astronomers, science fiction, a biography of Charles…

  6. The International Space University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidian, Kenneth J.

    1990-01-01

    The International Space University (ISU) was founded on the premise that any major space program in the future would require international cooperation as a necessary first step toward its successful completion. ISU is devoted to being a leading center for educating future authorities in the world space industry. ISU's background, goals, current form, and future plans are described. The results and benefits of the type of education and experience gained from ISU include technical reports describing the design projects undertaken by the students, an exposure to the many different disciplines which are a part of a large space project, an awareness of the existing activities from around the world in the space community, and an international professional network which spans all aspects of space activities and covers the globe.

  7. Human System Risk Management for Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    , established a comprehensive risk management and configuration management plan and data sharing policy. These major developments of standards, the HRP, the HMTA and a forum for review of human system risks (HSRB) facilitated the integration of human research, medical operations, systems engineering and many other disciplines in the comprehensive review of human system risks. The HSRB began a comprehensive review of all potential inflight medical conditions and events and over the course of several reviews consolidated the number of human system risks to 30 where the greatest emphasis is placed for investing program dollars for risk mitigation. The HSRB considers all available evidence from human research, medical operations and occupational surveillance in assessing the risks for appropriate mitigation and future work. All applicable DRMs (low earth orbit 6 and 12 months, deep space sortie for 30 days and 1 year, a one year lunar mission, and a planetary mission for 3 years) are considered as human system risks are modified by the hazards associated with space flight such as microgravity, exposure to radiation, distance from the earth, isolation and a closed environment. Each risk has a summary assessment representing the state of knowledge/evidence base for that risk, the available risk mitigations, traceability to the SFHSS and program requirements, and future work required. These data then can drive coordinated budgets across the HRP, the International Space Station, Crew Health and Safety and Advanced Exploration System budgets. These risk assessments were completed for 6 DRMs in December of 2014 and serve as the baseline for which subsequent research and technology development and crew health care portfolios can be assessed. The HSRB will review each risk at least annually and especially when new information is available that must be considered for effective risk mitigation. The current status of each risk can be reported to program management for operations, budget

  8. Assessment of Nutritional Intake During Space Flight and Space Flight Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Barbara L.; Dlouhy, Holly; Zwart, Sara R.; Smith, Scott M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Maintaining adequate nutrient intake in microgravity is important not only to meet health maintenance needs of astronauts but also to help counteract the negative effects of space flight. Beyond this, food provides psychosocial benefits throughout a mission. Objective: The purpose of this presentation is to discuss dietary intake data from multiple space programs, including Space Shuttle and the International Space Station. Description: These data arise from medical monitoring of both dietary intake and crew health, as well as research protocols designed to assess the role of diet in counteracting bone loss and other health concerns. Ground-based studies are conducted to better understand some of the negative issues related to space flight. Examples of these analog studies are extended bed rest studies, vitamin D supplementation studies in Antarctica, and saturation diving missions on the floor of the ocean. Methods and findings will be presented describing the use of weighed records, diet diaries, and food frequency questionnaires in these various environments. Provision of food and nutrients in spaceflight is important for many body systems including cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, endocrine, immune, and others. Some key areas of concern are loss of body mass, bone and muscle loss, radiation exposure, nutrient intakes during spacewalks, depletion of nutrient stores, and inadequate dietary intake. Initial experimental research studies using food and nutrition as a countermeasure to aid in mitigating these concerns are underway. Conclusion: Beyond their importance for the few individuals leaving the planet, these studies have significant implications for those remaining on Earth.

  9. In-Flight Water Quality Monitoring on the International Space Station (ISS): Measuring Biocide Concentrations with Colorimetric Solid Phase Extraction (CSPE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazda, Daniel B.; Schultz, John R.; Siperko, Lorraine M.; Porter, Marc D.; Lipert, Robert J.; Flint, Stephanie M.; McCoy, J. Torin

    2011-01-01

    The colorimetric water quality monitoring kit (CWQMK) was delivered to the International Space Station (ISS) on STS-128/17A and was initially deployed in September 2009. The kit was flown as a station development test objective (SDTO) experiment to evaluate the acceptability of colorimetric solid phase extraction (CSPE) technology for routine water quality monitoring on the ISS. During the SDTO experiment, water samples from the U.S. water processor assembly (WPA), the U.S. potable water dispenser (PWD), and the Russian system for dispensing ground-supplied water (SVO-ZV) were collected and analyzed with the CWQMK. Samples from the U.S. segment of the ISS were analyzed for molecular iodine, which is the biocide added to water in the WPA. Samples from the SVOZV system were analyzed for ionic silver, the biocide used on the Russian segment of the ISS. In all, thirteen in-flight analysis sessions were completed as part of the SDTO experiment. This paper provides an overview of the experiment and reports the results obtained with the CWQMK. The forward plan for certifying the CWQMK as operational hardware and expanding the capabilities of the kit are also discussed.

  10. Marshall Space Flight Center Faculty Fellowship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six, N. F.; Damiani, R. (Compiler)

    2017-01-01

    The 2017 Marshall Faculty Fellowship Program involved 21 faculty in the laboratories and departments at Marshall Space Flight Center. These faculty engineers and scientists worked with NASA collaborators on NASA projects, bringing new perspectives and solutions to bear. This Technical Memorandum is a compilation of the research reports of the 2017 Marshall Faculty Fellowship program, along with the Program Announcement (Appendix A) and the Program Description (Appendix B). The research affected the following six areas: (1) Materials (2) Propulsion (3) Instrumentation (4) Spacecraft systems (5) Vehicle systems (6) Space science The materials investigations included composite structures, printing electronic circuits, degradation of materials by energetic particles, friction stir welding, Martian and Lunar regolith for in-situ construction, and polymers for additive manufacturing. Propulsion studies were completed on electric sails and low-power arcjets for use with green propellants. Instrumentation research involved heat pipes, neutrino detectors, and remote sensing. Spacecraft systems research was conducted on wireless technologies, layered pressure vessels, and two-phase flow. Vehicle systems studies were performed on life support-biofilm buildup and landing systems. In the space science area, the excitation of electromagnetic ion-cyclotron waves observed by the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission provided insight regarding the propagation of these waves. Our goal is to continue the Marshall Faculty Fellowship Program funded by Center internal project offices. Faculty Fellows in this 2017 program represented the following minority-serving institutions: Alabama A&M University and Oglala Lakota College.

  11. Mouse infection models for space flight immunology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapes, Stephen Keith; Ganta, Roman Reddy; Chapers, S. K. (Principal Investigator)

    2005-01-01

    Several immunological processes can be affected by space flight. However, there is little evidence to suggest that flight-induced immunological deficits lead to illness. Therefore, one of our goals has been to define models to examine host resistance during space flight. Our working hypothesis is that space flight crews will come from a heterogeneous population; the immune response gene make-up will be quite varied. It is unknown how much the immune response gene variation contributes to the potential threat from infectious organisms, allergic responses or other long term health problems (e.g. cancer). This article details recent efforts of the Kansas State University gravitational immunology group to assess how population heterogeneity impacts host health, either in laboratory experimental situations and/or using the skeletal unloading model of space-flight stress. This paper details our use of several mouse strains with several different genotypes. In particular, mice with varying MHCII allotypes and mice on the C57BL background with different genetic defects have been particularly useful tools with which to study infections by Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium, Pasteurella pneumotropica and Ehrlichia chaffeensis. We propose that some of these experimental challenge models will be useful to assess the effects of space flight on host resistance to infection.

  12. 14 CFR 375.50 - Transit flights; scheduled international air service operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transit flights; scheduled international... WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Transit Flights § 375.50 Transit flights; scheduled international air service... to the International Air Services Transit Agreement in transit across the United States may not be...

  13. Radiation investigations during space flight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akatov, A.Yu.; Nevzgodina, L.V.; Sakovich, V.A.; Fekher, I.; Deme, Sh.; Khashchegan, D.

    1986-01-01

    Results of radiation investigations during ''Salyut-6'' orbital station flight are presented. The program of studying the environmental radioactivity at the station included ''Integral'' and ''Pille'' experiments. In the course of the ''Integral'' experiment absorbed dose distributions of cosmic radiation and heavy charged particle fluence for long time intervals were studied. Method, allowing one to study dose distributions and determine individual doses for any time interval rapidity and directly on board the station was tested in the course of ''Pille'' experiment for the first time. Attention is paid to measuring equipment. Effect of heavy charged particles on the cellular structure of air-dry Lactuca sativa lettuce seeds was studied in the course of radiobiological experiments conducted at ''Salyut-6'' station. It is shown, that with the increase of flight duration the frequency of cells with chromosomal aberrations increases

  14. International Space Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lits

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the modern day technologies that drive our global society are highly dependent on the use of outer space. For example, daily activities such as sending emails, making phone calls and carrying out bank transactions cannot be done unless satellite technologies are involved. When you catch a plane, the air traffic control is dependent on GPS. Even natural disaster management is dependent on satellite imaging. Taking into account the importance of this, it becomes increasingly necessary to be knowledgeable in the field of international law as it is the only sphere of law that reaches beyond the physical boundaries of the Earth, goes deep into space and provides protection for today’s society. With new steps being taken to exploit further the potentials of outer space, and with increasing talk of new space missions and new discoveries, current international space law is being placed under scrutiny, for it should be remembered that the major international legal documents in this field were adopted in the middle of the 20th century, and thus there are fears that the law may have become obsolete, irrelevant in the face of new challenges in the use of outer space. This paper delivers an analysis of existing international space law and attempts to raise several crucial issues pertinent in the area.

  15. Space Flight Software Development Software for Intelligent System Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Luis C.; Crumbley, Tim

    2004-01-01

    The slide presentation examines the Marshall Space Flight Center Flight Software Branch, including software development projects, mission critical space flight software development, software technical insight, advanced software development technologies, and continuous improvement in the software development processes and methods.

  16. HUMAN SPACE FLIGHTS: FACTS AND DREAMS

    OpenAIRE

    Mariano Bizzarri; Enrico Saggese

    2011-01-01

    Manned space flight has been the great human and technological adventure of the past half-century. By putting people into places and situations unprecedented in history, it has stirred the imagination while expanding and redefining the human experience. However, space exploration obliges men to confront a hostile environment of cosmic radiation, microgravity, isolation and changes in the magnetic field. Any space traveler is therefore submitted to relevant health threats. In the twenty-first ...

  17. Habitability and Human Factors Contributions to Human Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumaya, Jennifer Boyer

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the work of the Habitability and Human Factors Branch in support of human space flight in two main areas: Applied support to major space programs, and Space research. The field of Human Factors applies knowledge of human characteristics for the design of safer, more effective, and more efficient systems. This work is in several areas of the human space program: (1) Human-System Integration (HSI), (2) Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, (3) Extravehicular Activity (EVA), (4) Lunar Surface Systems, (5) International Space Station (ISS), and (6) Human Research Program (HRP). After detailing the work done in these areas, the facilities that are available for human factors work are shown.

  18. Free flight in parameter space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlstedt, Palle; Nilsson, Per Anders

    2008-01-01

    with continuous interpolation between population members. With a suitable sound engine, the system forms a surprisingly expressive performance instrument, used by the electronic free impro duo pantoMorf in concerts and recording sessions over the last year.......The well-known difficulty of controlling many synthesis parameters in performance, for exploration and expression, is addressed. Inspired by interactive evolution, random vectors in parameter space are assigned to an array of pressure sensitive pads. Vectors are scaled with pressure and added...... to define the current point in parameter space. Vectors can be scaled globally, allowing exploration of the whole space or minute timberal expression. The vector origin can be shifted at any time, allowing exploration of subspaces. In essence, this amounts to mutation-based interactive evolution...

  19. MEMS for Space Flight Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, R.

    1998-01-01

    Micro-Electrical Mechanical Systems (MEMS) are entering the stage of design and verification to demonstrate the utility of the technology for a wide range of applications including sensors and actuators for military, space, medical, industrial, consumer, automotive and instrumentation products.

  20. Biotechnological experiments in space flights on board of space stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechitailo, Galina S.

    2012-07-01

    Space flight conditions are stressful for any plant and cause structural-functional transition due to mobiliation of adaptivity. In space flight experiments with pea tissue, wheat and arabidopsis we found anatomical-morphological transformations and biochemistry of plants. In following experiments, tissue of stevia (Stevia rebaudiana), potato (Solanum tuberosum), callus culture and culture and bulbs of suffron (Crocus sativus), callus culture of ginseng (Panax ginseng) were investigated. Experiments with stevia carried out in special chambers. The duration of experiment was 8-14 days. Board lamp was used for illumination of the plants. After experiment the plants grew in the same chamber and after 50 days the plants were moved into artificial ionexchange soil. The biochemical analysis of plants was done. The total concentration of glycozides and ratio of stevioside and rebauside were found different in space and ground plants. In following generations of stevia after flight the total concentration of stevioside and rebauside remains higher than in ground plants. Experiments with callus culture of suffron carried out in tubes. Duration of space flight experiment was 8-167 days. Board lamp was used for illumination of the plants. We found picrocitina pigment in the space plants but not in ground plants. Tissue culture of ginseng was grown in special container in thermostate under stable temperature of 22 ± 0,5 C. Duration of space experiment was from 8 to 167 days. Biological activity of space flight culutre was in 5 times higher than the ground culture. This difference was observed after recultivation of space flight samples on Earth during year after flight. Callus tissue of potato was grown in tubes in thermostate under stable temperature of 22 ± 0,5 C. Duration of space experiment was from 8 to 14 days. Concentration of regenerates in flight samples was in 5 times higher than in ground samples. The space flight experiments show, that microgravity and other

  1. Immune resistance of man in space flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irina, V.; Konstantinova, M. D.

    The immune system of 72 cosmonauts was studied after their flights on board Salyut 6, 7 and Mir orbital stations. PHA lymphocyte reactivity, T helper activity and NK capacity to recognize and kill the target were decreased on 1-7 days after prolonged (3-11 months) space flights. Certain alterations were found in the ultrastructure of the NK secretory and locomotor apparatuses. Decrement of IL 2 production was shown using the biological test. However immunoenzymatic analysis did not reveal a decrease in IL 2 synthesis. Production of α-interferon remained unchanged while that of γ-interferon either rose or was diminished. Several cosmonanauts displayed a trend towards increased OAF production. The observed decrease in immune system functioning may increase the risk of various diseases during prolonged space flights.

  2. Physiology, medicine, long-duration space flight and the NSBRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhee, J. C.; White, R. J.

    2003-01-01

    The hazards of long-duration space flight are real and unacceptable. In order for humans to participate effectively in long-duration orbital missions or continue the exploration of space, we must first secure the health of the astronaut and the success of such missions by assessing in detail the biomedical risks of space flight and developing countermeasures to these hazards. Acquiring the understanding necessary for building a sound foundation for countermeasure development requires an integrated approach to research in physiology and medicine and a level of cooperative action uncommon in the biomedical sciences. The research program of the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) was designed to accomplish just such an integrated research goal, ameliorating or eliminating the biomedical risks of long-duration space flight and enabling safe and productive exploration of space. The fruits of these labors are not limited to the space program. We can also use the gained understanding of the effects and mechanisms of the physiological changes engendered in space and the applied preventive and rehabilitative methods developed to combat these changes to the benefit of those on Earth who are facing similar physiological and psychological difficulties. This paper will discuss the innovative approach the NSBRI has taken to integrated research management and will present some of the successes of this approach. c2003 International Astronautical Federation. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Preparing future space leaders - International Space University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Barbara A.; Van Reeth, George P.

    1992-01-01

    The International Space University (ISU) concept of developing a cadre of space professionals that will lead the universities and industries into space is discussed. ISU is an innovative, permanent worldwide organization for training and academic instruction in all aspects of space studies. ISU's major goal is to provide the young professional academic instruction in technical and nontechnical areas of modern space exploration and research, and a forum to exchange ideas and develop both personal and professional ties at an international level.

  4. International space science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mark, H.

    1988-01-01

    The author begins his paper by noting the range of international cooperation which has occured in science since its earliest days. The brightest minds were allowed to cross international frontiers even in the face of major wars, to work on their interests and to interact with like minded scientists in other countries. There has of course been a political side to this movement at times. The author makes the point that doing science on an international basis is extemely important but it is not a way of conducting foreign policy. Even though governments may work together on scientific efforts, it is no glue which will bind them to work together on larger political or economic issues. The reason for doing science on an international basis is that it will lead to better science, not better international relations. There are a limited number of great scientists in the world, and they must be allowed to develop their talents. He then discusses two internationl space programs which have has such collaboration, the Soviet-American Space Biology Program, and the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS). He then touches on the NASA space exploration program, and the fact that its basic objectives were laid out in the 1940's and l950's. With this laid out he argues in favor of establishment of a lunar base, one of the key elements of NASA's plan, arguing for the value of this step based upon the infrared astronomical work which could be done from a stable lunar site, away from the earth's atmosphere

  5. Space Flight Applications of Optical Fiber; 30 Years of Space Flight Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Melanie N.

    2010-01-01

    For over thirty years NASA has had success with space flight missions that utilize optical fiber component technology. One of the early environmental characterization experiments that included optical fiber was launched as the Long Duration Exposure Facility in 1978. Since then, multiple missions have launched with optical fiber components that functioned as expected, without failure throughout the mission life. The use of optical fiber in NASA space flight communications links and exploration and science instrumentation is reviewed.

  6. Preparation for Pick-and-Eat Food Production on the International Space Station: Flight Definition for the VEG-04 and VEG-05 Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, G. D.; Wheeler, R. M.; Romeyn, M. W.; Hummerick, M. E.; Spencer, L. E.; Morrow, R. C.; Mitchell, C. A.; Burgner, S.; Whitmire, A. M.; Young, M. H.; hide

    2018-01-01

    Growth of fresh, nutritious, palatable produce for crew consumption during spaceflight may provide health-promoting, bioavailable nutrients and enhance the dietary experience as we move toward longer-duration missions. Tending plants also may serve as a countermeasure for crew psychological stresses associated with long duration spaceflight. However, requirements to support consistent growth of a variety of high quality, nutritious crops under spaceflight environmental conditions is unknown. This study is exploring the potential to grow plants for food production on the International Space Station (ISS) using the Veggie vegetable production system. Ground testing is underway to compare the impacts of several fertilizer and lighting treatments on growth, quality, and nutritional composition of the leafy green crop mizuna, and the dwarf tomato crop Red Robin when subjected to Veggie ISS environmental conditions. Early testing focused on the leafy crop Tokyo Bekana Chinese cabbage, but ground tests indicated that this plant suffered from stress responses when grown under LEDs and the chronically elevated CO2 levels found on the ISS. Mizuna, a related leafy variety that grows well in the presence of high CO2, and has excellent organoleptic characteristics, was selected as an alternate crop. Tomato crops have been grown using two fertilizer formulations and two pollination techniques, and growth tests using different red:blue lighting environments are underway. Chemical analysis is also being conducted and these data, when coupled with the growth results, will be used to down-select to the two best lighting treatments and best fertilizer treatment for future testing of each crop on the ISS. Additionally, seed-source testing has become important, with mizuna seeds from two different vendors growing very differently. A seed source has been selected, and seed-surface-sanitizing methods have been confirmed for mizuna, but these remain under development for tomato. A crop

  7. The Legacy of Space Shuttle Flight Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Christopher J.; Loveall, James B.; Orr, James K.; Klausman, Andrew L.

    2011-01-01

    The initial goals of the Space Shuttle Program required that the avionics and software systems blaze new trails in advancing avionics system technology. Many of the requirements placed on avionics and software were accomplished for the first time on this program. Examples include comprehensive digital fly-by-wire technology, use of a digital databus for flight critical functions, fail operational/fail safe requirements, complex automated redundancy management, and the use of a high-order software language for flight software development. In order to meet the operational and safety goals of the program, the Space Shuttle software had to be extremely high quality, reliable, robust, reconfigurable and maintainable. To achieve this, the software development team evolved a software process focused on continuous process improvement and defect elimination that consistently produced highly predictable and top quality results, providing software managers the confidence needed to sign each Certificate of Flight Readiness (COFR). This process, which has been appraised at Capability Maturity Model (CMM)/Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) Level 5, has resulted in one of the lowest software defect rates in the industry. This paper will present an overview of the evolution of the Primary Avionics Software System (PASS) project and processes over thirty years, an argument for strong statistical control of software processes with examples, an overview of the success story for identifying and driving out errors before flight, a case study of the few significant software issues and how they were either identified before flight or slipped through the process onto a flight vehicle, and identification of the valuable lessons learned over the life of the project.

  8. Micropropulsion Systems for Precision Controlled Space Flight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jack

    . This project is thus concentrating on developing a method by which an entire, ecient, control system compensating for the disturbances from the space environment and thereby enabling precision formation flight can be realized. The space environment is initially studied and the knowledge gained is used......Space science is subject to a constantly increasing demand for larger coherence lengths or apertures of the space observation systems, which in turn translates into a demand for increased dimensions and subsequently cost and complexity of the systems. When this increasing demand reaches...... the pratical limitations of increasing the physical dimensions of the spacecrafts, the observation platforms will have to be distributed on more spacecrafts flying in very accurate formations. Consequently, the observation platform becomes much more sensitive to disturbances from the space environment...

  9. NASA Aerosciences Activities to Support Human Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBeau, Gerald J.

    2011-01-01

    The Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) has been a critical element of the United State's human space flight program for over 50 years. It is the home to NASA s Mission Control Center, the astronaut corps, and many major programs and projects including the Space Shuttle Program, International Space Station Program, and the Orion Project. As part of JSC's Engineering Directorate, the Applied Aeroscience and Computational Fluid Dynamics Branch is charted to provide aerosciences support to all human spacecraft designs and missions for all phases of flight, including ascent, exo-atmospheric, and entry. The presentation will review past and current aeroscience applications and how NASA works to apply a balanced philosophy that leverages ground testing, computational modeling and simulation, and flight testing, to develop and validate related products. The speaker will address associated aspects of aerodynamics, aerothermodynamics, rarefied gas dynamics, and decelerator systems, involving both spacecraft vehicle design and analysis, and operational mission support. From these examples some of NASA leading aerosciences challenges will be identified. These challenges will be used to provide foundational motivation for the development of specific advanced modeling and simulation capabilities, and will also be used to highlight how development activities are increasing becoming more aligned with flight projects. NASA s efforts to apply principles of innovation and inclusion towards improving its ability to support the myriad of vehicle design and operational challenges will also be briefly reviewed.

  10. Cognitive Assessment During Long-Duration Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaton, Kimberly; Kane, R. L.; Sipes, Walter

    2010-01-01

    The Space Flight Cognitive Assessment Tool for Windows (WinSCAT) is a computer-based, self-administered battery of five cognitive assessment tests developed for medical operations at NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. WinSCAT is a medical requirement for U.S. long-duration astronauts and has been implemented with U.S. astronauts from one NASA/Mir mission (NASA-7 mission) and all expeditions to date on the International Space Station (ISS). Its purpose is to provide ISS crew surgeons with an objective clinical tool after an unexpected traumatic event, a medical condition, or the cumulative effects of space flight that could negatively affect an astronaut's cognitive status and threaten mission success. WinSCAT was recently updated to add network capability to support a 6-person crew on the station support computers. Additionally, WinSCAT Version 2.0.28 has increased difficulty of items in Mathematics, increased number of items in Match-to-Sample, incorporates a moving rather than a fixed baseline, and implements stricter interpretation rules. ISS performance data were assessed to compare initial to modified interpretation rules for detecting potential changes in cognitive functioning during space flight. WinSCAT tests are routinely taken monthly during an ISS mission. Performance data from these ISS missions do not indicate significant cognitive decrements due to microgravity/space flight alone but have shown decrements. Applying the newly derived rules to ISS data results in a number of off-nominal performances at various times during and after flight.. Correlation to actual events is needed, but possible explanations for off-nominal performances could include actual physical factors such as toxic exposure, medication effects, or fatigue; emotional factors including stress from the mission or life events; or failure to exert adequate effort on the tests.

  11. The endocrine system in space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, C. S.; Johnson, P. C.; Cintron, N. M.

    Hormones are important effectors of the body's response to microgravity in the areas of fluid and electrolyte metabolism, erythropoiesis, and calcium metabolism. For many years antidiuretic hormone, cortisol and aldosterone have been considered the hormones most important for regulation of body fluid volume and blood levels of electrolytes, but they cannot account totally for losses of fluid and electrolytes during space flight. We have now measured atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), a hormone recently shown to regulate sodium and water excretion, in blood specimens obtained during flight. After 30 or 42 h of weightlessness, mean ANF was elevated. After 175 or 180 h, ANF had decreased by 59%, and it changed little between that time and soon after landing. There is probably an increase in ANF early inflight associated with the fluid shift, followed by a compensatory decrease in blood volume. Increased renal blood flow may cause the later ANF decrease. Erythropoietin (Ep), a hormone involved in the control of red blood cell production, was measured in blood samples taken during the first Spacelab mission and was significantly decreased on the second day of flight, suggesting also an increase in renal blood flow. Spacelab-2 investigators report that the active vitamin D metabolite 1α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 increased early in the flight, indicating that a stimulus for increased bone resorption occurs by 30 h after launch.

  12. Business Plan: The Virginia Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Billie M.

    1997-01-01

    The Virginia Commercial Space Flight Authority (VCSFA) was established on July 1, 1995 and codified at Sections 9-266.1 et seq., Code of Virginia. It is governed by an eleven person Board of Directors representing industry, state and local government and academia. VCSFA has designated the Center for Commercial Space Infrastructure as its Executive Directorate and Operating Agent. This Business Plan has been developed to provide information to prospective customers, prospective investors, state and federal government agencies, the VCSFA Board and other interested parties regarding development and operation of the Virginia Space Flight Center (VSFC) at Wallops Island. The VSFC is an initiative sponsored by VCSFA to achieve its stated objectives in the areas of economic development and education. Further, development of the VSFC is in keeping with the state's economic goals set forth in Opportunity Virginia, the strategic plan for jobs and prosperity, which are to: (1) Strengthen the rapidly growing aerospace industry in space based services including launch services, remote sensing, satellite manufacturing and telecommunications; and (2) Capitalize on intellectual and technical resources throughout the state and become a leader in the development of advanced technology businesses.

  13. Space Launch System Ascent Flight Control Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Jeb S.; Wall, John H.; VanZwieten, Tannen S.; Hall, Charles E.

    2014-01-01

    A robust and flexible autopilot architecture for NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) family of launch vehicles is presented. The SLS configurations represent a potentially significant increase in complexity and performance capability when compared with other manned launch vehicles. It was recognized early in the program that a new, generalized autopilot design should be formulated to fulfill the needs of this new space launch architecture. The present design concept is intended to leverage existing NASA and industry launch vehicle design experience and maintain the extensibility and modularity necessary to accommodate multiple vehicle configurations while relying on proven and flight-tested control design principles for large boost vehicles. The SLS flight control architecture combines a digital three-axis autopilot with traditional bending filters to support robust active or passive stabilization of the vehicle's bending and sloshing dynamics using optimally blended measurements from multiple rate gyros on the vehicle structure. The algorithm also relies on a pseudo-optimal control allocation scheme to maximize the performance capability of multiple vectored engines while accommodating throttling and engine failure contingencies in real time with negligible impact to stability characteristics. The architecture supports active in-flight disturbance compensation through the use of nonlinear observers driven by acceleration measurements. Envelope expansion and robustness enhancement is obtained through the use of a multiplicative forward gain modulation law based upon a simple model reference adaptive control scheme.

  14. Space Flight Operations Center local area network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Ross V.

    1988-01-01

    The existing Mission Control and Computer Center at JPL will be replaced by the Space Flight Operations Center (SFOC). One part of the SFOC is the LAN-based distribution system. The purpose of the LAN is to distribute the processed data among the various elements of the SFOC. The SFOC LAN will provide a robust subsystem that will support the Magellan launch configuration and future project adaptation. Its capabilities include (1) a proven cable medium as the backbone for the entire network; (2) hardware components that are reliable, varied, and follow OSI standards; (3) accurate and detailed documentation for fault isolation and future expansion; and (4) proven monitoring and maintenance tools.

  15. Research & Technology Report Goddard Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffen, Gerald A. (Editor); Truszkowski, Walter (Editor); Ottenstein, Howard (Editor); Frost, Kenneth (Editor); Maran, Stephen (Editor); Walter, Lou (Editor); Brown, Mitch (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    The main theme of this edition of the annual Research and Technology Report is Mission Operations and Data Systems. Shifting from centralized to distributed mission operations, and from human interactive operations to highly automated operations is reported. The following aspects are addressed: Mission planning and operations; TDRSS, Positioning Systems, and orbit determination; hardware and software associated with Ground System and Networks; data processing and analysis; and World Wide Web. Flight projects are described along with the achievements in space sciences and earth sciences. Spacecraft subsystems, cryogenic developments, and new tools and capabilities are also discussed.

  16. Marshall Space Flight Center Faculty Fellowship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six, N. F.; Karr, G.

    2017-01-01

    The research projects conducted by the 2016 Faculty Fellows at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center included propulsion studies on propellant issues, and materials investigations involving plasma effects and friction stir welding. Spacecraft Systems research was conducted on wireless systems and 3D printing of avionics. Vehicle Systems studies were performed on controllers and spacecraft instruments. The Science and Technology group investigated additive construction applied to Mars and Lunar regolith, medical uses of 3D printing, and unique instrumentation, while the Test Laboratory measured pressure vessel leakage and crack growth rates.

  17. Use of Virtual Reality for Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harm, Deborah; Taylor, L. C.; Reschke, M. F.

    2011-01-01

    Virtual environments offer unique training opportunities, particularly for training astronauts and preadapting them to the novel sensory conditions of microgravity. Two unresolved human factors issues in virtual reality (VR) systems are: 1) potential "cybersickness", and 2) maladaptive sensorimotor performance following exposure to VR systems. Interestingly, these aftereffects are often quite similar to adaptive sensorimotor responses observed in astronauts during and/or following space flight. Active exploratory behavior in a new environment, with resulting feedback and the formation of new associations between sensory inputs and response outputs, promotes appropriate perception and motor control in the new environment. Thus, people adapt to consistent, sustained alterations of sensory input such as those produced by microgravity. Our research examining the effects of repeated exposures to a full field of view dome VR system showed that motion sickness and initial decrements in eye movement and postural control were greatly diminished following three exposures. These results suggest that repeated transitions between VR and the normal environment preflight might be a useful countermeasure for neurosensory and sensorimotor effects of space flight. The range of VR applications is enormous, extending from ground-based VR training for extravehicular activities at NASA, to medical and educational uses. It seems reasonable to suggest that other space related uses of VR should be investigated. For example, 1) use of head-mounted VR on orbit to rehearse/practice upcoming operational activities, and 2) ground-based VR training for emergency egress procedures. We propose that by combining VR designed for operational activities preflight, along with an appropriate schedule to facilitate sensorimotor adaptation and improve spatial orientation would potentially accomplish two important goals for astronauts and cosmonauts, preflight sensorimotor adaption and enhanced operational

  18. Infectious Disease Risk Associated with Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Duane L.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation opens with views of the shuttle in various stages of preparation for launch, a few moments after launch prior to external fuel tank separation, a few pictures of the earth,and several pictures of astronomical interest. The presentation reviews the factors effecting the risks of infectious disease during space flight, such as the crew, water, food, air, surfaces and payloads and the factors that increase disease risk, the factors affecting the risk of infectious disease during spaceflight, and the environmental factors affecting immunity, such as stress. One factor in space infectious disease is latent viral reactivation, such as herpes. There are comparisons of the incidence of viral reactivation in space, and in other analogous situations (such as bed rest, or isolation). There is discussion of shingles, and the pain and results of treatment. There is a further discussion of the changes in microbial pathogen characteristics, using salmonella as an example of the increased virulence of microbes during spaceflight. A factor involved in the risk of infectious disease is stress.

  19. Jump-Down Performance Alterations after Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschke, M. F.; Kofman, I. S.; Cerisano, J. M.; Fisher, E. A.; Peters, B. T.; Miller, C. A.; Harm, D. L.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Successful jump performance requires functional coordination of visual, vestibular, and somatosensory systems, which are affected by prolonged exposure to microgravity. Astronauts returning from space flight exhibit impaired ability to coordinate effective landing strategies when jumping from a platform to the ground. This study compares jump strategies used by astronauts before and after flight, changes to those strategies within a test session, and recoveries in jump-down performance parameters across several postflight test sessions. These data were obtained as part of an ongoing interdisciplinary study (Functional Task Test, FTT) designed to evaluate both astronaut postflight functional performance and related physiological changes. METHODS: Seven astronauts from short-duration (Shuttle) and three from long-duration (International Space Station) flights performed 3 two-footed jumps from a platform 30 cm high onto a force plate that measured the ground reaction forces and center-of-pressure displacement from the landings. Neuromuscular activation data were collected from the medial gastrocnemius and anterior tibialis of both legs using surface electromyography electrodes. Two load cells in the platform measured the load exerted by each foot during the takeoff phase of the jump. Data were collected in 2 preflight sessions, on landing day (Shuttle only), and 1, 6, and 30 days after flight. RESULTS: Postural settling time was significantly increased on the first postflight test session and many of the astronauts tested were unable to maintain balance on their first jump landing but recovered by the third jump, showing a learning progression in which performance improvements could be attributed to adjustments in takeoff or landing strategy. Jump strategy changes were evident in reduced air time (time between takeoff and landing) and also in increased asymmetry in foot latencies on takeoff. CONCLUSIONS: The test results revealed significant decrements

  20. Marshall Space Flight Center Faculty Fellowship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six, N. F. (Compiler)

    2015-01-01

    The Faculty Fellowship program was revived in the summer of 2015 at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, following a period of diminished faculty research activity here since 2006 when budget cuts in the Headquarters' Education Office required realignment. Several senior Marshall managers recognized the need to involve the Nation's academic research talent in NASA's missions and projects to the benefit of both entities. These managers invested their funds required to establish the renewed Faculty Fellowship program in 2015, a 10-week residential research involvement of 16 faculty in the laboratories and offices at Marshall. These faculty engineers and scientists worked with NASA collaborators on NASA projects, bringing new perspectives and solutions to bear. This Technical Memorandum is a compilation of the research reports of the 2015 Marshall Faculty Fellowship program, along with the Program Announcement (appendix A) and the Program Description (appendix B). The research touched on seven areas-propulsion, materials, instrumentation, fluid dynamics, human factors, control systems, and astrophysics. The propulsion studies included green propellants, gas bubble dynamics, and simulations of fluid and thermal transients. The materials investigations involved sandwich structures in composites, plug and friction stir welding, and additive manufacturing, including both strength characterization and thermosets curing in space. The instrumentation projects involved spectral interfero- metry, emissivity, and strain sensing in structures. The fluid dynamics project studied the water hammer effect. The human factors project investigated the requirements for close proximity operations in confined spaces. Another team proposed a controls system for small launch vehicles, while in astrophysics, one faculty researcher estimated the practicality of weather modification by blocking the Sun's insolation, and another found evidence in satellite data of the detection of a warm

  1. Apollo experience report: Development flight instrumentation. [telemetry equipment for space flight test program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, N. B.

    1974-01-01

    Development flight instrumentation was delivered for 25 Apollo vehicles as Government-furnished equipment. The problems and philosophies of an activity that was concerned with supplying telemetry equipment to a space-flight test program are discussed. Equipment delivery dates, system-design details, and flight-performance information for each mission also are included.

  2. Long-Duration Space Flight and Bed Rest Effects on Testosterone and Other Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heer, Martina; Wang, Zuwei; Huntoon, Carolyn L.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Limited data suggest that testosterone is decreased during space flight, which could contribute to bone and muscle loss. Objective: The main objective was to assess testosterone and hormone status in long- and short-duration space flight and bed rest environments and to determine relationships with other physiological systems, including bone and muscle. Design: Blood and urine samples were collected before, during, and after long-duration space flight. Samples were also collected before and after 12- to 14-d missions and from participants in 30- to 90-d bed rest studies. Setting: Space flight studies were conducted on the International Space Station and before and after Space Shuttle missions. Bed rest studies were conducted in a clinical research center setting. Data from Skylab missions are also presented. Participants: All of the participants were male, and they included 15 long-duration and nine short-duration mission crew members and 30 bed rest subjects. Main Outcome Measures: Serum total, free, and bioavailable testosterone were measured along with serum and urinary cortisol, serum dehydroepiandrosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and SHBG. Results: Total, free, and bioavailable testosterone was not changed during long-duration space flight but were decreased (P space flight. There were no changes in other hormones measured. Testosterone concentrations dropped before and soon after bed rest, but bed rest itself had no effect on testosterone. Conclusions: There was no evidence for decrements in testosterone during long-duration space flight or bed rest. PMID:22049169

  3. Marshall Space Flight Center's Impact Testing Facility Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finchum, Andy; Hubbs, Whitney; Evans, Steve

    2008-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center s (MSFC) Impact Testing Facility (ITF) serves as an important installation for space and missile related materials science research. The ITF was established and began its research in spacecraft debris shielding in the early 1960s, then played a major role in the International Space Station debris shield development. As NASA became more interested in launch debris and in-flight impact concerns, the ITF grew to include research in a variety of impact genres. Collaborative partnerships with the DoD led to a wider range of impact capabilities being relocated to MSFC as a result of the closure of Particle Impact Facilities in Santa Barbara, California. The Particle Impact Facility had a 30 year history in providing evaluations of aerospace materials and components during flights through rain, ice, and solid particle environments at subsonic through hypersonic velocities. The facility s unique capabilities were deemed a "National Asset" by the DoD. The ITF now has capabilities including environmental, ballistic, and hypervelocity impact testing utilizing an array of air, powder, and two-stage light gas guns to accommodate a variety of projectile and target types and sizes. Numerous upgrades including new instrumentation, triggering circuitry, high speed photography, and optimized sabot designs have been implemented. Other recent research has included rain drop demise characterization tests to obtain data for inclusion in on-going model development. The current and proposed ITF capabilities range from rain to micrometeoroids allowing the widest test parameter range possible for materials investigations in support of space, atmospheric, and ground environments. These test capabilities including hydrometeor, single/multi-particle, ballistic gas guns, exploding wire gun, and light gas guns combined with Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics Code (SPHC) simulations represent the widest range of impact test capabilities in the country.

  4. The Impact of Flight Hardware Scavenging on Space Logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeftering, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    For a given fixed launch vehicle capacity the logistics payload delivered to the moon may be only roughly 20 percent of the payload delivered to the International Space Station (ISS). This is compounded by the much lower flight frequency to the moon and thus low availability of spares for maintenance. This implies that lunar hardware is much more scarce and more costly per kilogram than ISS and thus there is much more incentive to preserve hardware. The Constellation Lunar Surface System (LSS) program is considering ways of utilizing hardware scavenged from vehicles including the Altair lunar lander. In general, the hardware will have only had a matter of hours of operation yet there may be years of operational life remaining. By scavenging this hardware the program, in effect, is treating vehicle hardware as part of the payload. Flight hardware may provide logistics spares for system maintenance and reduce the overall logistics footprint. This hardware has a wide array of potential applications including expanding the power infrastructure, and exploiting in-situ resources. Scavenging can also be seen as a way of recovering the value of, literally, billions of dollars worth of hardware that would normally be discarded. Scavenging flight hardware adds operational complexity and steps must be taken to augment the crew s capability with robotics, capabilities embedded in flight hardware itself, and external processes. New embedded technologies are needed to make hardware more serviceable and scavengable. Process technologies are needed to extract hardware, evaluate hardware, reconfigure or repair hardware, and reintegrate it into new applications. This paper also illustrates how scavenging can be used to drive down the cost of the overall program by exploiting the intrinsic value of otherwise discarded flight hardware.

  5. The International Active Learning Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2015-01-01

    -Danish students receive the basic international and intercultural skills and knowledge they need in current society. The English-language masters’ seminars I teach at the Department of Political Science are international in terms of students and teacher, but they are also Active Learning seminars......-Danish students (and sometimes teachers) rarely speak to each other or learn each other’s names. In the international AL spaces I create, students must work together on joint tasks which require interaction to address tasks and integration in order to benefit from the multinational activity groups. Planning AL...... that complete the seminar soon become vocal advocates of international AL. Ultimately, enriching student learning through immersing Danish and international students in an international AL space is, for me, the best way of ensuring an internationalised learning outcome, rather than just international mobility....

  6. Biochemical and hematologic changes after short-term space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, C. S.

    1992-01-01

    Clinical laboratory data from blood samples obtained from astronauts before and after 28 flights (average duration = 6 days) of the Space Shuttle were analyzed by the paired t-test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and compared with data from the Skylab flights (duration approximately 28, 59, and 84 days). Angiotensin I and aldosterone were elevated immediately after short-term space flights, but the response of angiotensin I was delayed after Skylab flights. Serum calcium was not elevated after Shuttle flights, but magnesium and uric acid decreased after both Shuttle and Skylab. Creatine phosphokinase in serum was reduced after Shuttle but not Skylab flights, probably because exercises to prevent deconditioning were not performed on the Shuttle. Total cholesterol was unchanged after Shuttle flights, but low density lipoprotein cholesterol increased and high density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased. The concentration of red blood cells was elevated after Shuttle flights and reduced after Skylab flights. Reticulocyte count was decreased after both short- and long-term flights, indicating that a reduction in red blood cell mass is probably more closely related to suppression of red cell production than to an increase in destruction of erythrocytes. Serum ferritin and number of platelets were also elevated after Shuttle flights. In determining the reasons for postflight differences between the shorter and longer flights, it is important to consider not only duration but also countermeasures, differences between spacecraft, and procedures for landing and egress.

  7. Testing flight software on the ground: Introducing the hardware-in-the-loop simulation method to the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Wenhao, E-mail: wenhao_sun@126.com [Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Cai, Xudong [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, MA 02139-4307 (United States); Meng, Qiao [Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

    2016-04-11

    Complex automatic protection functions are being added to the onboard software of the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer. A hardware-in-the-loop simulation method has been introduced to overcome the difficulties of ground testing that are brought by hardware and environmental limitations. We invented a time-saving approach by reusing the flight data as the data source of the simulation system instead of mathematical models. This is easy to implement and it works efficiently. This paper presents the system framework, implementation details and some application examples.

  8. The ISS Dynamic Lighting Schedule: An In-Flight Lighting Countermeasure to Facilitate Circadian Adaptation, Improve Sleep and Enhance Alertness and Performance on the International Space Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We began our recruitment efforts in Jan 2013 and we have successfully completed all planned studies. Thirty participants have completed the 8-day inpatient protocol...

  9. International Space Station Future Correlation Analysis Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laible, Michael R.; Pinnamaneni, Murthy; Sugavanam, Sujatha; Grygier, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Ongoing modal analyses and model correlation are performed on different configurations of the International Space Station (ISS). These analyses utilize on-orbit dynamic measurements collected using four main ISS instrumentation systems: External Wireless Instrumentation System (EWIS), Internal Wireless Instrumentation System (IWIS), Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS), and Structural Dynamic Measurement System (SDMS). Remote Sensor Units (RSUs) are network relay stations that acquire flight data from sensors. Measured data is stored in the Remote Sensor Unit (RSU) until it receives a command to download data via RF to the Network Control Unit (NCU). Since each RSU has its own clock, it is necessary to synchronize measurements before analysis. Imprecise synchronization impacts analysis results. A study was performed to evaluate three different synchronization techniques: (i) measurements visually aligned to analytical time-response data using model comparison, (ii) Frequency Domain Decomposition (FDD), and (iii) lag from cross-correlation to align measurements. This paper presents the results of this study.

  10. Mars Science Laboratory Flight Software Internal Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Justin D.; Lam, Danny

    2011-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) team is sending the rover, Curiosity, to Mars, and therefore is physically and technically complex. During my stay, I have assisted the MSL Flight Software (FSW) team in implementing functional test scripts to ensure that the FSW performs to the best of its abilities. There are a large number of FSW requirements that have been written up for implementation; however I have only been assigned a few sections of these requirements. There are many stages within testing; one of the early stages is FSW Internal Testing (FIT). The FIT team can accomplish this with simulation software and the MSL Test Automation Kit (MTAK). MTAK has the ability to integrate with the Software Simulation Equipment (SSE) and the Mission Processing and Control System (MPCS) software which makes it a powerful tool within the MSL FSW development process. The MSL team must ensure that the rover accomplishes all stages of the mission successfully. Due to the natural complexity of this project there is a strong emphasis on testing, as failure is not an option. The entire mission could be jeopardized if something is overlooked.

  11. Men and Women in Space: Bone Loss and Kidney Stone Risk after Long-Duration Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.; Heer, Martina; Hudson, Edgar, K.; Shackelford, Linda; Morgan, Jennifer L. L.

    2014-01-01

    Bone loss on Earth is more prevalent in women than men, leading to the assumption that women may be at greater risk from bone loss during flight. Until recently, the number of women having flown long-duration missions was too small to allow any type of statistical analysis. We report here data from 42 astronauts on long-duration missions to the International Space Station, 33 men and 9 women. Bone mineral density (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), bone biochemistry (from blood and urine samples), and renal stone risk factors were evaluated before and after flight. Data were analyzed in two groups, based on available resistance exercise equipment. The response of bone mineral density to flight was the same for men and women, and the typical decrease in bone mineral density (whole body and/or regional) after flight was not observed for either sex for those using an Advanced Resistive Exercise Device. Bone biochemistry, specifically markers of formation and resorption, generally responded similarly in male and female astronauts. The response of urinary supersaturation risk to space flight was not significantly different between men and women, although risks were typically increased after flight in both groups and risks were generally greater in men than in women before and after flight. Overall, the bone and renal stone responses of men and women to space flight were not different.

  12. Dose limits for cosmic radiation during space flights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draaisma, F.S.

    1991-01-01

    Astronauts are exposed to raised levels of ionizing radiation, which may cause biologic effects during space flights. Insights in these effects should lead to doselimits for astronauts during their full career. (author). 4 refs.; 4 tabs

  13. Salmonella Typhimurium transcription profiles in space flight

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Salmonella transcription profiles were obtained from samples flown on space shuttle mission STS-115 and compared to profiles from Salmonella grown under identical...

  14. Nutrition, endocrinology, and body composition during space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, H. W.; Gretebeck, R. J.; Smith, S. M.

    1998-01-01

    Space flight induces endocrine changes that perturb metabolism. This altered metabolism affects both the astronauts' body composition and the nutritional requirements necessary to maintain their health. During the last 25 years, a combination of studies conducted on Skylab (the first U.S. space laboratory), U.S. Shuttle flights, and Soviet and Russian flights provides a range of data from which general conclusions about energy and protein requirements can be drawn. We have reviewed the endocrine data from those studies and related it to changes in body composition. From these data it appears that protein and energy intake of astronauts are similar to those on Earth. However, a combination of measures, including exercise, appropriate diet, and, potentially, drugs, is required to provide the muscle health needed for long duration space flight.

  15. Efficient Neural Network Modeling for Flight and Space Dynamics Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Hamdy Kassem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents an efficient technique for neural network modeling of flight and space dynamics simulation. The technique will free the neural network designer from guessing the size and structure for the required neural network model and will help to minimize the number of neurons. For linear flight/space dynamics systems, the technique can find the network weights and biases directly by solving a system of linear equations without the need for training. Nonlinear flight dynamic systems can be easily modeled by training its linearized models keeping the same network structure. The training is fast, as it uses the linear system knowledge to speed up the training process. The technique is tested on different flight/space dynamic models and showed promising results.

  16. Microgravity Science Glovebox Aboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    In the Destiny laboratory aboard the International Space Station (ISS), European Space Agency (ESA) astronaut Pedro Duque of Spain is seen working at the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG). He is working with the PROMISS experiment, which will investigate the growth processes of proteins during weightless conditions. The PROMISS is one of the Cervantes program of tests (consisting of 20 commercial experiments). The MSG is managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  17. The endocrine system in space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, C. S.; Johnson, P. C.; Cintron, N. M.

    1988-01-01

    A trial natriuretic factor (ANF), a hormone recently shown to regulate sodium and water excretion, has been measured in blood specimens obtained during flight. After 30 or 42 h of weightlessness, mean ANF was elevated. After 175 or 180 h, ANF has increased by 59 percent, and it changed little between that time and soon after landing. There is probably an increase in ANF early inflight associated with the fluid shift, followed by a compensatory decrease in blood volume. Increased renal blood flow may cause the later ANF decrease. Erythropoietin (Ep), a hormone involved in the control of red blood cell proudction, was measured in blood samples taken during the first Spacelab mission and was significantly decreased on the second day of flight, suggesting also an increase in renal blood flow. Spacelab-2 investigators report that the active vitamin D metabolite 1 alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D-3 increased early in the flight, indicating that a stimulus for increased bone resorption occurs by 30 h after launch.

  18. Internship Abstract - Aerosciences and Flight Mechanics Intern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel, John

    2015-01-01

    Mars is a hard place to land on, but my internship with NASA's Aerosciences & Flight Mechanics branch has shown me the ways in which men and women will one day land safely. I work on Mars Aerocapture, an aeroassist maneuver that reduces the fuel necessary to "capture" into Martian orbit before a descent. The spacecraft flies through the Martian atmosphere to lose energy through heating before it exits back into space, this time at a slower velocity and in orbit around Mars. Spacecraft will need to maneuver through the Martian atmosphere to accurately hit their orbit, and they will need to survive the generated heat. Engineering teams need simulation data to continue their designs, and the guidance algorithm that ensures a proper orbit insertion needs to be refined - two jobs that fell to me at the summer's start. Engineers within my branch have developed two concept aerocapture vehicles, and I run simulations on their behavior during the maneuver. I also test and refine the guidance algorithm. I spent the first few weeks familiarizing myself with the simulation software, troubleshooting various guidance bugs and writing code. Everything runs smoothly now, and I recently sent my first set of trajectory data to a Thermal Protection System group so they can incorporate it into their heat-bearing material designs. I hope to generate plenty of data in the next few weeks for various engineering groups before my internship ends mid-August. My major accomplishment so far is improving the guidance algorithm. It is a relatively new algorithm that promises higher accuracy and fuel efficiency, but it hasn't undergone extensive testing yet. I've had the opportunity to work with the principal developer - a professor at Iowa State University - to find and fix several issues. I was also assigned the task of expanding the branch's aerodynamic heating simulation software. I am excited to do this because engineers in the future will use my work to generate meaningful data and make

  19. Marshall Space Flight Center Technology Investments Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, Mike

    2014-01-01

    NASA is moving forward with prioritized technology investments that will support NASA's exploration and science missions, while benefiting other Government agencies and the U.S. aerospace enterprise. center dotThe plan provides the guidance for NASA's space technology investments during the next four years, within the context of a 20-year horizon center dotThis plan will help ensure that NASA develops technologies that enable its 4 goals to: 1.Sustain and extend human activities in space, 2.Explore the structure, origin, and evolution of the solar system, and search for life past and present, 3.Expand our understanding of the Earth and the universe and have a direct and measurable impact on how we work and live, and 4.Energize domestic space enterprise and extend benefits of space for the Nation.

  20. Space-DRUMS trade mark sign experimental development using parabolic reduced gravity flights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guigne, J.Y.; Millan, D.; Davidson, R.

    2000-01-01

    Space-DRUMS trade mark sign is a microgravity containerless-processing facility that uses acoustic beams to position large diameter liquid or solid samples within a gas-filled chamber. Its capacity to control the position of large diameter (6 cm) low density solid materials was successfully demonstrated on NASA's DC-9 parabolic aircraft in July 1996; two subsequent flights occurred in 1998 using the KC-135 and A-300 aircraft to further refine the technology used in the system. The working environment for the Space-DRUMS trade mark sign facility is the Space Shuttle/Space Station where long duration microgravity experimentation can take place. Since the reduced gravity environment of an A-300 or a KC-135 parabolic flight is much harsher than that of the Space Shuttle in terms of residual acceleration magnitudes experienced by the samples to be held in position; this more extreme environment allows for most Space-DRUMS trade mark sign technical payload functionality tests to be conducted. In addition to flight hardware shakedowns, parabolic flights continue to be extensively used to study and evaluate the behavior of candidate-advanced materials proposed for ISS Space-DRUMS trade mark sign campaigns. The first samples to be processed in 2001 involve combustion synthesis (also known as SHS - Self-propagating High Temperature Synthesis) of large glass-ceramic and of porous ceramic spheres. Upmassing Space-DRUMS trade mark sign for the International Space Station is scheduled for early 2001

  1. The NASA Human Space Flight Supply Chain, Current and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Edgar

    2007-01-01

    The current NASA Human Space Flight transportation system, the Space Shuttle, is scheduled for final flight in 2010. The Exploration initiative will create a new capability with a combination of existing systems and new flight and ground elements. To fully understand and act on the implications of such change it is necessary to understand what, how, when and where such changes occur and more importantly, how all these interact. This paper presents Human Space Flight, with an emphasis on KSC Launch and Landing, as a Supply Chain of both information and materials. A supply chain methodology for understanding the flow of information and materials is presented. Further, modeling and simulation projects funded by the Exploration initiative to understand the NASA Exploration Supply Chain are explained. Key concepts and their purpose, including the Enterprise, Locations, Physical and Organizational Functional Units, Products, and Resources, are explained. It is shown that the art, science and perspective of Supply Chain Management is not only applicable to such a government & contractor operation, it is also an invaluable approach for understanding, focusing improvement and growth. It is shown that such commercial practice applies to Human Space Flight and is invaluable towards one day creating routine, affordable access to and from space.

  2. Life Sciences Research and Development Opportunities During Suborbital Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.

    2010-01-01

    Suborbital space platforms provide a unique opportunity for Space Life Sciences in the next few years. The opportunities include: physiological characterization of the first few minutes of space flight; evaluation of a wide-variety of medical conditions during periods of hyper and hypo-gravity through physiological monitoring; and evaluation of new biomedical and environmental health technologies under hyper and hypo-gravity conditions

  3. Enhancing data from commercial space flights (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Ariel; Paolini, Aaron; Kozacik, Stephen; Kelmelis, Eric J.

    2017-05-01

    Video tracking of rocket launches inherently must be done from long range. Due to the high temperatures produced, cameras are often placed far from launch sites and their distance to the rocket increases as it is tracked through the flight. Consequently, the imagery collected is generally severely degraded by atmospheric turbulence. In this talk, we present our experience in enhancing commercial space flight videos. We will present the mission objectives, the unique challenges faced, and the solutions to overcome them.

  4. NASA's Internal Space Weather Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Cyr, O. C.; Guhathakurta, M.; Bell, H.; Niemeyer, L.; Allen, J.

    2011-01-01

    Measurements from many of NASA's scientific spacecraft are used routinely by space weather forecasters, both in the U.S. and internationally. ACE, SOHO (an ESA/NASA collaboration), STEREO, and SDO provide images and in situ measurements that are assimilated into models and cited in alerts and warnings. A number of years ago, the Space Weather laboratory was established at NASA-Goddard, along with the Community Coordinated Modeling Center. Within that organization, a space weather service center has begun issuing alerts for NASA's operational users. NASA's operational user community includes flight operations for human and robotic explorers; atmospheric drag concerns for low-Earth orbit; interplanetary navigation and communication; and the fleet of unmanned aerial vehicles, high altitude aircraft, and launch vehicles. Over the past three years we have identified internal stakeholders within NASA and formed a Working Group to better coordinate their expertise and their needs. In this presentation we will describe this activity and some of the challenges in forming a diverse working group.

  5. Insulin secretion and sensitivity in space flight: diabetogenic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Brian W.; Uchakin, Peter N.; Leeper-Woodford, Sandra K.

    2002-01-01

    Nearly three decades of space flight research have suggested that there are subclinical diabetogenic changes that occur in microgravity. Alterations in insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity, glucose tolerance, and metabolism of protein and amino acids support the hypothesis that insulin plays an essential role in the maintenance of muscle mass in extended-duration space flight. Experiments in flight and after flight and ground-based bedrest studies have associated microgravity and its experimental paradigms with manifestations similar to those of diabetes, physical inactivity, and aging. We propose that these manifestations are characterized best by an etiology that falls into the clinical category of "other" causes of diabetes, including, but not restricted to, genetic beta-cell defects, insulin action defects, diseases of the endocrine pancreas, endocrinopathies, drug or chemically induced diabetes, infections, immune-mediated metabolic alteration, and a host of genetic related diseases. We present data showing alterations in tumor necrosis factor-alpha production, insulin secretion, and amino acid metabolism in pancreatic islets of Langerhans cultured in a ground-based cell culture bioreactor that mimics some of the effects of microgravity. Taken together, space flight research, ground-based studies, and bioreactor studies of pancreatic islets of Langerhans support the hypothesis that the pancreas is unable to overcome peripheral insulin resistance and amino acid dysregulation during space flight. We propose that measures of insulin secretion and insulin action will be necessary to design effective countermeasures against muscle loss, and we advance the "disposition index" as an essential model to be used in the clinical management of space flight-induced muscle loss.

  6. Motivational profile of astronauts at the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brcic, Jelena

    2010-11-01

    Research has demonstrated that the motive triad of needs for achievement, power, and affiliation can predict variables such as occupational success and satisfaction, innovation, aggressiveness, susceptibility to illness, cooperation, conformity, and many others. The present study documents the motivational profiles of astronauts at three stages of their expedition. Thematic content analysis was employed for references to Winter's well-established motive markers in narratives (media interviews, journals, and oral histories) of 46 astronauts participating in International Space Station (ISS) expeditions. Significant pre-flight differences were found in relation to home agency and job status. NASA astronauts, compared with those from the Russian Space Agency, are motivated by higher need for power, as are commanders in comparison to flight engineers. The need for affiliation motive showed a significant change from pre-flight to in-flight stages. The implications of the relationship between the motivational profile of astronauts and the established behavioural correlates of such profiles are discussed.

  7. 11th International Space Conference on Protection of Materials and Structures from Space Environment

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    The proceedings published in this book document and foster the goals of the 11th International Space Conference on “Protection of Materials and Structures from Space Environment” ICPMSE-11 to facilitate exchanges between members of the various engineering and science disciplines involved in the development of space materials. Contributions cover aspects of interaction with space environment of LEO, GEO, Deep Space, Planetary environments, ground-based qualification and in-flight experiments, as well as lessons learned from operational vehicles that are closely interrelated to disciplines of atmospheric sciences, solar-terrestrial interactions and space life sciences.

  8. R and T report: Goddard Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffen, Gerald A. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    The 1993 Research and Technology Report for Goddard Space Flight Center is presented. Research covered areas such as (1) flight projects; (2) space sciences including cosmology, high energy, stars and galaxies, and the solar system; (3) earth sciences including process modeling, hydrology/cryology, atmospheres, biosphere, and solid earth; (4) networks, planning, and information systems including support for mission operations, data distribution, advanced software and systems engineering, and planning/scheduling; and (5) engineering and materials including spacecraft systems, material and testing, optics and photonics and robotics.

  9. Implementation and Qualifications Lessons Learned for Space Flight Photonic Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Melanie N.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the process for implementation and qualification of space flight photonic components. It discusses the causes for most common anomalies for the space flight components, design compatibility, a specific failure analysis of optical fiber that occurred in a cable in 1999-2000, and another ExPCA connector anomaly involving pins that broke off. It reviews issues around material selection, quality processes and documentation, and current projects that the Photonics group is involved in. The importance of good documentation is stressed.

  10. Space Station flight telerobotic servicer functional requirements development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberright, John; Mccain, Harry; Whitman, Ruth I.

    1987-01-01

    The Space Station flight telerobotic servicer (FTS), a flight robotic system for use on the first Space Station launch, is described. The objectives of the FTS program include: (1) the provision of an alternative crew EVA by supporting the crew in assembly, maintenance, and servicing activities, and (2) the improvement of crew safety by performing hazardous tasks such as spacecraft refueling or thermal and power system maintenance. The NASA/NBS Standard Reference Model provides the generic, hierarchical, structured functional control definition for the system. It is capable of accommodating additional degrees of machine intelligence in the future.

  11. AMS-02 on the International Space Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spada Francesca R.

    2014-04-01

    During the first year in space, several billion events have been recorded. The flight operation, the detector performance, together with early results and perspective for physics measurements are reported.

  12. Deep-Space Ka-Band Flight Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, D. D.

    2017-11-01

    Lower frequency bands have become more congested in allocated bandwidth as there is increased competition between flight projects and other entities. Going to higher frequency bands offers significantly more bandwidth, allowing for the use of much higher data rates. However, Ka-band is more susceptible to weather effects than lower frequency bands currently used for most standard downlink telemetry operations. Future or prospective flight projects considering deep-space Ka-band (32-GHz) telemetry data links have expressed an interest in understanding past flight experience with received Ka-band downlink performance. Especially important to these flight projects is gaining a better understanding of weather effects from the experience of current or past missions that operated Ka-band radio systems. We will discuss the historical flight experience of several Ka-band missions starting from Mars Observer in 1993 up to present-day deep-space missions such as Kepler. The study of historical Ka-band flight experience allows one to recommend margin policy for future missions. Of particular interest, we will review previously reported-on flight experience with the Cassini spacecraft Ka-band radio system that has been used for radio science investigations as well as engineering studies from 2004 to 2015, when Cassini was in orbit around the planet Saturn. In this article, we will focus primarily on the Kepler spacecraft Ka-band link, which has been used for operational telemetry downlink from an Earth trailing orbit where the spacecraft resides. We analyzed the received Ka-band signal level data in order to characterize link performance over a wide range of weather conditions and as a function of elevation angle. Based on this analysis of Kepler and Cassini flight data, we found that a 4-dB margin with respect to adverse conditions ensures that we achieve at least a 95 percent data return.

  13. IceBridge Sigma Space Lidar L0 Raw Time-of-Flight Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA IceBridge Sigma Space Lidar L0 Raw Time-of-Flight Data (ILSIG0) contain raw time-of-flight values for Antarctica and Greenland using the Sigma Space Lidar....

  14. Veggie: Space Vegetables for the International Space Station and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Gioia D.

    2016-01-01

    The Veggie vegetable production system was launched to the International Space Station (ISS) in 2014. Veggie was designed by ORBITEC to be a compact, low mass, low power vegetable production system for astronaut crews. Veggie consists of a light cap containing red, blue, and green LEDs, an extensible transparent bellows, and a baseplate with a root mat reservoir. Seeds are planted in plant pillows, small growing bags that interface with the reservoir. The Veggie technology validation test, VEG-01, was initiated with the first test crop of 'Outredgeous' red romaine lettuce. Prior to flight, lettuce seeds were sanitized and planted in a substrate of arcillite (baked ceramic) mixed with controlled release fertilizer. Upon initiation, astronauts open the packaged plant pillows, install them in the Veggie hardware, and prime the system with water. Operations include plant thinning, watering, and photography. Plants were grown on the ISS for 33 days, harvested, and returned frozen to Earth for analysis. Ground controls were conducted at Kennedy Space Center in controlled environment chambers reproducing ISS conditions of temperature, relative humidity, and CO2. Returned plant samples were analyzed for microbial food safety and chemistry including elements, antioxidants, anthocyanins and phenolics. In addition the entire plant microbiome was sequenced, and returned plant pillows were analyzed via x-ray tomography. Food safety analyses allowed us to gain approvals for future consumption of lettuce by the flight surgeons and the payload safety office. A second crop of lettuce was grown in 2015, and the crew consumed half the produce, with the remainder frozen for later analysis. This growth test was followed by testing of a new crop in Veggie, zinnias. Zinnias were grown to test a longer duration flowering crop in preparation for tests of tomatoes and other fruiting crops in the future. Zinnias were harvested in February. Samples from the second harvest of lettuce and the

  15. System security in the space flight operations center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, David A.

    1988-01-01

    The Space Flight Operations Center is a networked system of workstation-class computers that will provide ground support for NASA's next generation of deep-space missions. The author recounts the development of the SFOC system security policy and discusses the various management and technology issues involved. Particular attention is given to risk assessment, security plan development, security implications of design requirements, automatic safeguards, and procedural safeguards.

  16. Walt Disney visited Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Walt Disney toured the West Test Area during his visit to the Marshall Space Flight Center on April 13, 1965. The three in center foreground are Karl Heimburg, Director, Test Division; Dr. von Braun, Director, MSFC; and Walt Disney. The Dynamic Test Stand with the S-1C stage being installed is in the background.

  17. HAL/S programmer's guide. [space shuttle flight software language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbold, P. M.; Hotz, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    HAL/S is a programming language developed to satisfy the flight software requirements for the space shuttle program. The user's guide explains pertinent language operating procedures and described the various HAL/S facilities for manipulating integer, scalar, vector, and matrix data types.

  18. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Supply Chain Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the working of the Supplier Assessment Program at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The program supports many GSFC projects to ensure suppliers are aware of and are following the contractual requirements, to provide an independent assessment of the suppliers' processes, and provide suppliers' safety and mission assurance organizations information to make the changes within their organization.

  19. Environmental stressors during space flight: potential effects on body temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauchem, J. R.

    1988-01-01

    1. Organisms may be affected by many environmental factors during space flight, e.g., acceleration, weightlessness, decreased pressure, changes in oxygen tension, radiofrequency radiation and vibration. 2. Previous studies of change in body temperature--one response to these environmental factors--are reviewed. 3. Conditions leading to heat stress and hypothermia are discussed.

  20. On-Orbit Prospective Echocardiography on International Space Station Crew

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Douglas R.; Sargsyan, Ashot E.; Martin, David S.; Garcia, Kathleen M.; Melton, Shannon L.; Feiveson, Alan; Dulchavsky, Scott A.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction A prospective trial of echocardiography was conducted on of six crewmembers onboard the International Space Station. The main objective was to determine the efficacy of remotely guided tele-echocardiography, including just-in-time e-training methods and determine what "space normal" echocardiographic data is. Methods Each crewmember operator (n=6) had 2-hour preflight training. Baseline echocardiographic data were collected 55 to 167days preflight. Similar equipment was used in each 60-minute in-flight session (mean microgravity exposure - 114 days (34 -- 190)). On Orbit ultrasound operators used an e-learning system within 24h of these sessions. Expert assistance was provided using ultrasound video downlink and two-way voice. Testing was repeated 5 to 16 days after landing. Separate ANOVA was used on each echocardiographic variable (n=33). Within each ANOVA, three tests were made: a) effect of mission phase (preflight, in-flight, post flight); b) effect of echo technician (two technicians independently analyzed the data); c) interaction between mission phase and technician. Results Nine rejections of the null hypothesis (mission phase or technician or both had no effect) were discovered and considered for follow up. Of these, six rejections were for significant technician effects, not as a result of space flight. Three rejections of the null hypothesis (Aortic Valve time velocity integral, Mitral E wave Velocity and heart rate) were attributable to space flight, however determined not to be clinically significant. No rejections were due to the interaction between technician and space flight. Conclusion No consistent clinically significant effects of long-duration space flight were seen in echocardiographic variables of the given group of subjects.

  1. Science Outreach at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebo, George

    2002-07-01

    At the end of World War II Duane Deming, an internationally known economist enunciated what later came to be called "Total Quality Management" (TQM). The basic thrust of this economic theory called for companies and governments to identify their customers and to do whatever was necessary to meet their demands and to keep them satisfied. It also called for companies to compete internally. That is, they were to build products that competed with their own so that they were always improving. Unfortunately most U.S. corporations failed to heed this advice. Consequently, the Japanese who actively sought Deming's advice and instituted it in their corporate planning, built an economy that outstripped that of the U.S. for the next three to four decades. Only after U.S. corporations reorganized and fashioned joint ventures which incorporated the tenets of TQM with their Japanese competitors did they start to catch up. Other institutions such as the U.S. government and its agencies and schools face the same problem. While the power of the U.S. government is in no danger of being usurped, its agencies and schools face real problems which can be traced back to not heeding Deming's advice. For example, the public schools are facing real pressure from private schools and home school families because they are not meeting the needs of the general public, Likewise, NASA and other government agencies find themselves shortchanged in funding because they have failed to convince the general public that their missions are important. In an attempt to convince the general public that its science mission is both interesting and important, in 1998 the Science Directorate at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) instituted a new outreach effort using the interact to reach the general public as well as the students. They have called it 'Science@NASA'.

  2. Kodak Mirror Assembly Tested at Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    This photo (a frontal view) is of one of many segments of the Eastman-Kodak mirror assembly being tested for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) project at the X-Ray Calibration Facility at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). MSFC is supporting Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in developing the JWST by taking numerous measurements to predict its future performance. The tests are conducted in a vacuum chamber cooled to approximate the super cold temperatures found in space. During its 27 years of operation, the facility has performed testing in support of a wide array of projects, including the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), Solar A, Chandra technology development, Chandra High Resolution Mirror Assembly and science instruments, Constellation X-Ray Mission, and Solar X-Ray Imager, currently operating on a Geostationary Operational Environment Satellite. The JWST is NASA's next generation space telescope, a successor to the Hubble Space Telescope, named in honor of NASA's second administrator, James E. Webb. It is scheduled for launch in 2010 aboard an expendable launch vehicle. It will take about 3 months for the spacecraft to reach its destination, an orbit of 940,000 miles in space.

  3. Epstein-Barr virus shedding by astronauts during space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, D. L.; Stowe, R. P.; Phillips, T. M.; Lugg, D. J.; Mehta, S. K.

    2005-01-01

    Patterns of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation in 32 astronauts and 18 healthy age-matched control subjects were characterized by quantifying EBV shedding. Saliva samples were collected from astronauts before, during, and after 10 space shuttle missions of 5-14 days duration. At one time point or another, EBV was detected in saliva from each of the astronauts. Of 1398 saliva specimens from 32 astronauts, polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that 314 (23%) were positive for EBV DNA. Examination by flight phase showed that 29% of the saliva specimens collected from 28 astronauts before flight were positive for EBV DNA, as were 16% of those collected from 25 astronauts during flight and 16% of those collected after flight from 23 astronauts. The mean number of EBV copies from samples taken during the flights was 417 per mL, significantly greater (p<.05) than the number of viral copies from the preflight (40) and postflight (44) phases. In contrast, the control subjects shed EBV DNA with a frequency of 3.7% and mean number of EBV copies of 40 per mL of saliva. Ten days before flight and on landing day, titers of antibody to EBV viral capsid antigen were significantly (p<.05) greater than baseline levels. On landing day, urinary levels of cortisol and catecholamines were greater than their preflight values. In a limited study (n=5), plasma levels of substance P and other neuropeptides were also greater on landing day. Increases in the number of viral copies and in the amount of EBV-specific antibody were consistent with EBV reactivation before, during, and after space flight.

  4. Modification of Otolith Reflex Asymmetries Following Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Andrew H.; Schoenfeld, Uwe; Wood, Scott J.

    2011-01-01

    We hypothesize that changes in otolith-mediated reflexes adapted for microgravity contribute to perceptual, gaze and postural disturbances upon return to Earth s gravity. Our goal was to determine pre- versus post-fight differences in unilateral otolith reflexes that reflect these adaptive changes. This study represents the first comprehensive examination of unilateral otolith function following space flight. Ten astronauts participated in unilateral otolith function tests three times pre-flight and up to four times after Shuttle flights from landing day through the subsequent 10 days. During unilateral centrifugation (UC, +/- 3.5cm at 400deg/s), utricular function was examined by the perceptual changes reflected by the subjective visual vertical (SVV) and by video-oculographic measurement of the otolith-mediated ocular counter-roll (OOR). Unilateral saccular reflexes were recorded by measurement of collic Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potential (cVEMP). Although data from a few subjects were not obtained early post-flight, a general increase in asymmetry of otolith responses was observed on landing day relative to pre-flight baseline, with a subsequent reversal in asymmetry within 2-3 days. Recovery to baseline levels was achieved within 10 days. This fluctuation in the asymmetry measures appeared strongest for SVV, in a consistent direction for OOR, and in an opposite direction for cVEMP. These results are consistent with our hypothesis that space flight results in adaptive changes in central nervous system processing of otolith input. Adaptation to microgravity may reveal asymmetries in otolith function upon to return to Earth that were not detected prior to the flight due to compensatory mechanisms.

  5. From regional airport to international flight destination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunvor Riber; Lassen, Claus

    2017-01-01

    in the northern part of Denmark, but in the past decade the airport has experienced growth in the number of international arrivals. This paper explores who these international travellers are and why they fly to Northern Denmark. Both Aalborg Airport and Northern Denmark in general has an interest in increasing...... the number of international arrivals, and in the effort to attract more visitors, a better understanding of this group of travellers is necessary. This paper explains that a significant number of the foreign arrivals come to Northern Denmark to visit friends and relatives, and that the geographical reach...... of the airport is larger than expected. This finding challenges the current approach to regional development associated with the airport and this paper suggests two new focus points for the further strategic route development in Aalborg Airport: awareness of the geographical reach of the airport...

  6. CCSDS telemetry systems experience at the Goddard Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carper, Richard D.; Stallings, William H., III

    1990-01-01

    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) designs, builds, manages, and operates science and applications spacecraft in near-earth orbit, and provides data capture, data processing, and flight control services for these spacecraft. In addition, GSFC has the responsibility of providing space-ground and ground-ground communications for near-earth orbiting spacecraft, including those of the manned spaceflight programs. The goal of reducing both the developmental and operating costs of the end-to-end information system has led the GSFC to support and participate in the standardization activities of the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS), including those for packet telemetry. The environment in which such systems function is described, and the GSFC experience with CCSDS packet telemetry in the context of the Gamma-Ray Observatory project is discussed.

  7. The International Space Life Sciences Strategic Planning Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Ronald J.; Rabin, Robert; Lujan, Barbara F.

    1993-01-01

    Throughout the 1980s, ESA and the space agencies of Canada, Germany, France, Japan, and the U.S. have pursued cooperative projects bilaterally and multilaterally to prepare for, and to respond to, opportunities in space life sciences research previously unapproachable in scale and sophistication. To cope effectively with likely future space research opportunities, broad, multilateral, coordinated strategic planning is required. Thus, life scientists from these agencies have allied to form the International Space Life Sciences Strategic Planning Working Group. This Group is formally organized under a charter that specifies the purpose of the Working Group as the development of an international strategic plan for the space life sciences, with periodic revisions as needed to keep the plan current. The plan will be policy-, not operations-oriented. The Working Group also may establish specific implementation teams to coordinate multilateral science policy in specific areas; such teams have been established for space station utilization, and for sharing of flight equipment.

  8. Radiation doses at high altitudes and during space flights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurny, F.

    2001-01-01

    There are three main sources of radiation exposure during space flights and at high altitudes--galactic cosmic radiation, solar cosmic radiation and radiation of the earth's radiation belt. Their basic characteristics are presented in the first part of this paper.Man's exposure during space flights is discussed in the second part of the paper. Particular attention is devoted to the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the radiation exposure on near-earth orbits: both theoretical estimation as well as experimental data are presented. Some remarks on radiation protection rules on-board space vehicles are also given.The problems connected with the radiation protection of air crew and passengers of subsonic and supersonic air transport are discussed in the last part of the paper. General characteristics of on-board radiation fields and their variations with flight altitude, geomagnetic parameters of a flight and the solar activity are presented, both based on theoretical estimates and experimental studies. The questions concerning air crew and passenger radiation protection arising after the publication of ICRP 60 recommendation are also discussed. Activities of different institutions relevant to the topic are mentioned; strategies to manage and check this type of radiation exposure are presented and discussed. Examples of results based on the author's personal experience are given, analyzed and discussed. (author)

  9. Motion perception during tilt and translation after space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, Gilles; Wood, Scott J.

    2013-11-01

    Preliminary results of an ongoing study examining the effects of space flight on astronauts' motion perception induced by independent tilt and translation motions are presented. This experiment used a sled and a variable radius centrifuge that translated the subjects forward-backward or laterally, and simultaneously tilted them in pitch or roll, respectively. Tests were performed on the ground prior to and immediately after landing. The astronauts were asked to report about their perceived motion in response to different combinations of body tilt and translation in darkness. Their ability to manually control their own orientation was also evaluated using a joystick with which they nulled out the perceived tilt while the sled and centrifuge were in motion. Preliminary results confirm that the magnitude of perceived tilt increased during static tilt in roll after space flight. A deterioration in the crewmember to control tilt using non-visual inertial cues was also observed post-flight. However, the use of a tactile prosthesis indicating the direction of down on the subject's trunk improved manual control performance both before and after space flight.

  10. Cognitive Assessment in Long-Duration Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Robert; Seaton, Kimberly; Sipes, Walter

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the development and use of a tool for assessing spaceflight cognitive ability in astronauts. This tool. the Spaceflight Cognitive Assessment Tool for Windows (WinSCAT) has been used to provide ISS flight surgeons with an objective clinical tool to monitor the astronauts cognitive status during long-duration space flight and allow immediate feedback to the astronaut. Its use is medically required for all long-duration missions and it contains a battery of five cognitive assessment subtests that are scheduled monthly and compared against the individual preflight baseline.

  11. Qualification and issues with space flight laser systems and components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Melanie N.; Coyle, D. B.; Canham, John S.; Leidecker, Henning W., Jr.

    2006-02-01

    The art of flight quality solid-state laser development is still relatively young, and much is still unknown regarding the best procedures, components, and packaging required for achieving the maximum possible lifetime and reliability when deployed in the harsh space environment. One of the most important issues is the limited and unstable supply of quality, high power diode arrays with significant technological heritage and market lifetime. Since Spectra Diode Labs Inc. ended their involvement in the pulsed array business in the late 1990's, there has been a flurry of activity from other manufacturers, but little effort focused on flight quality production. This forces NASA, inevitably, to examine the use of commercial parts to enable space flight laser designs. System-level issues such as power cycling, operational derating, duty cycle, and contamination risks to other laser components are some of the more significant unknown, if unquantifiable, parameters that directly effect transmitter reliability. Designs and processes can be formulated for the system and the components (including thorough modeling) to mitigate risk based on the known failures modes as well as lessons learned that GSFC has collected over the past ten years of space flight operation of lasers. In addition, knowledge of the potential failure modes related to the system and the components themselves can allow the qualification testing to be done in an efficient yet, effective manner. Careful test plan development coupled with physics of failure knowledge will enable cost effect qualification of commercial technology. Presented here will be lessons learned from space flight experience, brief synopsis of known potential failure modes, mitigation techniques, and options for testing from the system level to the component level.

  12. [Doctor, may I travel in space? Aeromedical considerations regarding commercial suborbital space flights].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haerkens, Marck H T M; Simons, Ries; Kuipers, André

    2011-01-01

    Within a few years, the first commercial operators will start flying passengers on suborbital flights to the verge of space. Medical data on the effects of space journeys on humans have mainly been provided by professional astronauts. There is very little research into the aeromedical consequences of suborbital flights for the health of untrained passengers. Low air pressure and oxygen tension can be compensated for by pressurising the spacecraft or pressure suit. Rapid changes in gravitational (G-)force pose ultimate challenges to cardiovascular adaptation mechanisms. Zero-gravity and G-force may cause motion sickness. Vibrations and noise during the flight may disturb communication between passengers and crew. In addition, the psychological impact of a suborbital flight should not be underestimated. There are currently no legal requirements available for medical examinations for commercial suborbital flights, but it seems justifiable to establish conditions for potential passengers' states of health.

  13. Nanotechnology Concepts at Marshall Space Flight Center: Engineering Directorate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, B.; Kaul, R.; Shah, S.; Smithers, G.; Watson, M. D.

    2001-01-01

    Nanotechnology is the art and science of building materials and devices at the ultimate level of finesse: atom by atom. Our nation's space program has need for miniaturization of components, minimization of weight, and maximization of performance, and nanotechnology will help us get there. Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) Engineering Directorate is committed to developing nanotechnology that will enable MSFC missions in space transportation, space science, and space optics manufacturing. MSFC has a dedicated group of technologists who are currently developing high-payoff nanotechnology concepts. This poster presentation will outline some of the concepts being developed including, nanophase structural materials, carbon nanotube reinforced metal and polymer matrix composites, nanotube temperature sensors, and aerogels. The poster will outline these concepts and discuss associated technical challenges in turning these concepts into real components and systems.

  14. Deep Space Habitat Configurations Based on International Space Station Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitherman, David; Russell, Tiffany; Baysinger, Mike; Capizzo, Pete; Fabisinski, Leo; Griffin, Brand; Hornsby, Linda; Maples, Dauphne; Miernik, Janie

    2012-01-01

    A Deep Space Habitat (DSH) is the crew habitation module designed for long duration missions. Although humans have lived in space for many years, there has never been a habitat beyond low-Earth-orbit. As part of the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Habitation Project, a study was conducted to develop weightless habitat configurations using systems based on International Space Station (ISS) designs. Two mission sizes are described for a 4-crew 60-day mission, and a 4-crew 500-day mission using standard Node, Lab, and Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) sized elements, and ISS derived habitation systems. These durations were selected to explore the lower and upper bound for the exploration missions under consideration including a range of excursions within the Earth-Moon vicinity, near earth asteroids, and Mars orbit. Current methods for sizing the mass and volume for habitats are based on mathematical models that assume the construction of a new single volume habitat. In contrast to that approach, this study explored the use of ISS designs based on existing hardware where available and construction of new hardware based on ISS designs where appropriate. Findings included a very robust design that could be reused if the DSH were assembled and based at the ISS and a transportation system were provided for its return after each mission. Mass estimates were found to be higher than mathematical models due primarily to the use of multiple ISS modules instead of one new large module, but the maturity of the designs using flight qualified systems have potential for improved cost, schedule, and risk benefits.

  15. Space Shuttle Boundary Layer Transition Flight Experiment Ground Testing Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Karen T.; Anderson, Brian P.; Campbell, Charles H.

    2014-01-01

    In support of the Boundary Layer Transition (BLT) Flight Experiment (FE) Project in which a manufactured protuberance tile was installed on the port wing of Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery for STS-119, STS- 128, STS-131 and STS-133 as well as Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour for STS-134, a significant ground test campaign was completed. The primary goals of the test campaign were to provide ground test data to support the planning and safety certification efforts required to fly the flight experiment as well as validation for the collected flight data. These test included Arcjet testing of the tile protuberance, aerothermal testing to determine the boundary layer transition behavior and resultant surface heating and planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) testing in order to gain a better understanding of the flow field characteristics associated with the flight experiment. This paper provides an overview of the BLT FE Project ground testing. High-level overviews of the facilities, models, test techniques and data are presented, along with a summary of the insights gained from each test.

  16. NASA Space Flight Program and Project Management Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blythe, Michael P.; Saunders, Mark P.; Pye, David B.; Voss, Linda D.; Moreland, Robert J.; Symons, Kathleen E.; Bromley, Linda K.

    2014-01-01

    This handbook is a companion to NPR 7120.5E, NASA Space Flight Program and Project Management Requirements and supports the implementation of the requirements by which NASA formulates and implements space flight programs and projects. Its focus is on what the program or project manager needs to know to accomplish the mission, but it also contains guidance that enhances the understanding of the high-level procedural requirements. (See Appendix C for NPR 7120.5E requirements with rationale.) As such, it starts with the same basic concepts but provides context, rationale, guidance, and a greater depth of detail for the fundamental principles of program and project management. This handbook also explores some of the nuances and implications of applying the procedural requirements, for example, how the Agency Baseline Commitment agreement evolves over time as a program or project moves through its life cycle.

  17. The radiation protection problems of high altitude and space flight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper considers the radiation environment in aircraft at high altitudes and spacecraft in low earth orbit and in deep space and the factors that influence the dose equivalents. Altitude, latitude and solar cycle are the major influences for flights below the radiation belts. In deep space, solar cycle and the occurrence of solar particle events are the factors of influence. The major radiation effects of concern are cancer and infertility in males. In high altitude aircraft the radiation consists mainly of protons and neutrons, with neutrons contributing about half the equivalent dose. The average dose rate at altitudes of transcontinental flights that approach the polar regions are greater by a factor of about 2.5 than on routes at low latitudes. Current estimates of does to air crews suggest they are well within the ICRP (1990) recommended dose limits for radiation workers

  18. The Impact of Apollo-Era Microbiology on Human Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, T. F; Castro, V. A.; Bruce, R. J.; Pierson, D. L.

    2014-01-01

    The microbiota of crewmembers and the spacecraft environment contributes significant risk to crew health during space flight missions. NASA reduces microbial risk with various mitigation methods that originated during the Apollo Program and continued to evolve through subsequent programs: Skylab, Shuttle, and International Space Station (ISS). A quarantine of the crew and lunar surface samples, within the Lunar Receiving Laboratory following return from the Moon, was used to prevent contamination with unknown extraterrestrial organisms. The quarantine durations for the crew and lunar samples were 21 days and 50 days, respectively. A series of infections among Apollo crewmembers resulted in a quarantine before launch to limit exposure to infectious organisms. This Health Stabilization Program isolated the crew for 21 days before flight and was effective in reducing crew illness. After the program developed water recovery hardware for Apollo spacecraft, the 1967 National Academy of Science Space Science Board recommended the monitoring of potable water. NASA implemented acceptability limits of 10 colony forming units (CFU) per mL and the absence of viable E. coli, anaerobes, yeasts, and molds in three separate 150 mL aliquots. Microbiological investigations of the crew and spacecraft environment were conducted during the Apollo program, including the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project and Skylab. Subsequent space programs implemented microbial screening of the crew for pathogens and acceptability limits on spacecraft surfaces and air. Microbiology risk mitigation methods have evolved since the Apollo program. NASA cancelled the quarantine of the crew after return from the lunar surface, reduced the duration of the Health Stabilization Program; and implemented acceptability limits for spacecraft surfaces and air. While microbial risks were not a main focus of the early Mercury and Gemini programs, the extended duration of Apollo flights resulted in the increased scrutiny of

  19. Cosmic ray exposure in aircraft and space flight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosako, Toshiso; Sugiura, Nobuyuki; Iimoto, Takeshi

    2000-01-01

    The exposure from cosmic ray radiation to the workers and public is a new aspect of exposure that was cased by the development of science and technology. ICRP Publication 60 says: 'to provide some practical guidance, the Commission recommends that there should be a requirement to include exposure to natural sources as part of occupational exposure only in the following cases: radon..., some natural radionuclides..., operation of jet air craft, space flight'. For this situation what kind of radiation protection concept is applicable? And what kind of radiation guideline and procedure are possible to propose? Here, we would like to review the past activities on this issue and to summarize the concepts in ICRP concerning to these exposure. Then the recommended radiation protection system will be proposed as one trial to this solution. In the paper the characters of cosmic ray were firstly reviewed. Cosmic rays are consisted by solar one and galactic one. Both of them have high energy and this will cause the difficulty of dosimetry because of lacking of physical and biological data. Next discussion point is a classification of exposure. For this, several classifications were done: jet airplane flight, supersonic airplane flight and space flight. Other classification is aircrew (occupational exposure), passengers (public exposure), frequent flyers (gray zone), space astronauts (special mission), and pregnant women. Considering the real level of radiation the practical radiation control is proposed including the cosmic radiation exposure prediction method by computer codes. The discussion of space astronauts is a little different for the highness of radiation doses. The dose levels will be obtained through the discussion of lifetime risk balancing their mission importance. (author)

  20. The Ionizing Radiation Environment on the International Space Station: Performance vs. Expectations for Avionics and Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Steven L.; Boeder, Paul A.; Pankop, Courtney; Reddell, Brandon

    2005-01-01

    The role of structural shielding mass in the design, verification, and in-flight performance of International Space Station (ISS), in both the natural and induced orbital ionizing radiation (IR) environments, is reported.

  1. In-Space Manufacturing at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center: Enabling Technologies for Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Quincy; Johnston, Mallory; Ordonez, Erick; Ryan, Rick; Prater, Tracie; Werkeiser, Niki

    2015-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center is currently engaged in a number of in-space manufacturing(ISM)activities that have the potential to reduce launch costs, enhance crew safety, and provide the capabilities needed to undertake long duration spaceflight safely and sustainably.

  2. Regulating private human suborbital flight at the international and European level: Tendencies and suggestions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson-Zwaan, Tanja; Moro-Aguilar, Rafael

    2013-12-01

    In the context of the FAST20XX project (Future High-Altitude High-Speed Transport) that started in 2009 under the 7th Framework Programme of the European Union (EU), the authors reexamined the legal status of private human suborbital flight, and researched whether it might be regulated as aviation or as spaceflight. International space law is ambiguous as to accommodating suborbital activities. While some provisions of the UN outer space treaties would seem to exclude them, generally there is not any explicit condition in terms of reaching orbit as a requirement for application. International air law presents equal difficulties in dealing with this activity. The classic definition of "aircraft" as contained in the Annexes to the Chicago Convention does not really encompass the kind of rocket-powered vehicles that are envisaged here. As a result, it is unclear whether the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS), the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), or both could be involved in an eventual international regulation of suborbital flight. In the absence of a uniform international regime, each state has the sovereign right to regulate human suborbital flights operating within its airspace. So far, two practical solutions have been realised or proposed, and will be analyzed. On the one hand, the USA granted power for regulation and licensing over private human suborbital flight to the Office of Commercial Space Transportation of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA/AST). Subsequent regulations by the FAA have set out a series of requirements for companies that want to operate these flights, enabling a market to develop. On the other side of the Atlantic, both the European Space Agency (ESA) and a group of representatives of the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) of the European Union (EU) seem to rather regard this activity as aviation, potentially subject to the regulation and certification competences of EASA

  3. The Integrated Medical Model: A Risk Assessment and Decision Support Tool for Space Flight Medical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerstman, Eric; Minard, Charles; Saile, Lynn; deCarvalho, Mary Freire; Myers, Jerry; Walton, Marlei; Butler, Douglas; Iyengar, Sriram; Johnson-Throop, Kathy; Baumann, David

    2009-01-01

    The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) is a decision support tool that is useful to mission planners and medical system designers in assessing risks and designing medical systems for space flight missions. The IMM provides an evidence based approach for optimizing medical resources and minimizing risks within space flight operational constraints. The mathematical relationships among mission and crew profiles, medical condition incidence data, in-flight medical resources, potential crew functional impairments, and clinical end-states are established to determine probable mission outcomes. Stochastic computational methods are used to forecast probability distributions of crew health and medical resource utilization, as well as estimates of medical evacuation and loss of crew life. The IMM has been used in support of the International Space Station (ISS) medical kit redesign, the medical component of the ISS Probabilistic Risk Assessment, and the development of the Constellation Medical Conditions List. The IMM also will be used to refine medical requirements for the Constellation program. The IMM outputs for ISS and Constellation design reference missions will be presented to demonstrate the potential of the IMM in assessing risks, planning missions, and designing medical systems. The implementation of the IMM verification and validation plan will be reviewed. Additional planned capabilities of the IMM, including optimization techniques and the inclusion of a mission timeline, will be discussed. Given the space flight constraints of mass, volume, and crew medical training, the IMM is a valuable risk assessment and decision support tool for medical system design and mission planning.

  4. International Space Station Crew Restraint Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, M.; Norris, L.; Holden, K.

    2005-01-01

    With permanent human presence onboard the International Space Station (ISS), crews will be living and working in microgravity, dealing with the challenges of a weightless environment. In addition, the confined nature of the spacecraft environment results in ergonomic challenges such as limited visibility and access to the activity areas, as well as prolonged periods of unnatural postures. Without optimum restraints, crewmembers may be handicapped for performing some of the on-orbit tasks. Currently, many of the tasks on ISS are performed with the crew restrained merely by hooking their arms or toes around handrails to steady themselves. This is adequate for some tasks, but not all. There have been some reports of discomfort/calluses on the top of the toes. In addition, this type of restraint is simply insufficient for tasks that require a large degree of stability. Glovebox design is a good example of a confined workstation concept requiring stability for successful use. They are widely used in industry, university, and government laboratories, as well as in the space environment, and are known to cause postural limitations and visual restrictions. Although there are numerous guidelines pertaining to ventilation, seals, and glove attachment, most of the data have been gathered in a 1-g environment, or are from studies that were conducted prior to the early 1980 s. Little is known about how best to restrain a crewmember using a glovebox in microgravity. In 2004, The Usability Testing and Analysis Facility (UTAF) at the NASA Johnson Space Center completed development/evaluation of several design concepts for crew restraints to meet the various needs outlined above. Restraints were designed for general purpose use, for teleoperation (Robonaut) and for use with the Life Sciences Glovebox. All design efforts followed a human factors engineering design lifecycle, beginning with identification of requirements followed by an iterative prototype/test cycle. Anthropometric

  5. Weightlessness and Cardiac Rhythm Disorders: Current Knowledge from Space Flight and Bed-Rest Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caiani, Enrico G.; Martin-Yebra, Alba; Landreani, Federica; Bolea, Juan; Laguna, Pablo; Vaïda, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Isolated episodes of heart rhythm disorders have been reported during 40 years of space flight, triggering research to evaluate the risk of developing life-threatening arrhythmias induced by prolonged exposure to weightlessness. In fact, these events could compromise astronaut performance during exploratory missions, as well as pose at risk the astronaut health, due to limited options of care on board the International Space Station. Starting from original observations, this mini review will explore the latest research in this field, considering results obtained both during space flight and on Earth, the latter by simulating long-term exposure to microgravity by head-down bed rest maneuver in order to elicit cardiovascular deconditioning on normal volunteers.

  6. Weightlessness and Cardiac Rhythm Disorders: Current Knowledge from Space Flight and Bed-Rest Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caiani, Enrico G. [Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Milan (Italy); Martin-Yebra, Alba [Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Milan (Italy); Instituto de Investigación en Ingeniería de Aragón (I3A), Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza (Spain); Landreani, Federica [Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Milan (Italy); Bolea, Juan; Laguna, Pablo [Instituto de Investigación en Ingeniería de Aragón (I3A), Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza (Spain); Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red en Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina, Zaragoza (Spain); Vaïda, Pierre, E-mail: enrico.caiani@polimi.it [École Nationale Supérieure de Cognitique, Institut Polytechnique de Bordeaux, Université de Bordeaux, Bordeaux (France)

    2016-08-23

    Isolated episodes of heart rhythm disorders have been reported during 40 years of space flight, triggering research to evaluate the risk of developing life-threatening arrhythmias induced by prolonged exposure to weightlessness. In fact, these events could compromise astronaut performance during exploratory missions, as well as pose at risk the astronaut health, due to limited options of care on board the International Space Station. Starting from original observations, this mini review will explore the latest research in this field, considering results obtained both during space flight and on Earth, the latter by simulating long-term exposure to microgravity by head-down bed rest maneuver in order to elicit cardiovascular deconditioning on normal volunteers.

  7. Human Factors in Training - Space Flight Resource Management Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryne, Vicky; Connell, Erin; Barshi, Immanuel; Arsintescu, L.

    2009-01-01

    Accidents and incidents show that high workload-induced stress and poor teamwork skills lead to performance decrements and errors. Research on teamwork shows that effective teams are able to adapt to stressful situations, and to reduce workload by using successful strategies for communication and decision making, and through dynamic redistribution of tasks among team members. Furthermore, superior teams are able to recognize signs and symptoms of workload-induced stress early, and to adapt their coordination and communication strategies to the high workload, or stress conditions. Mission Control Center (MCC) teams often face demanding situations in which they must operate as an effective team to solve problems with crew and vehicle during onorbit operations. To be successful as a team, flight controllers (FCers) must learn effective teamwork strategies. Such strategies are the focus of Space Flight Resource Management (SFRM) training. SFRM training in MOD has been structured to include some classroom presentations of basic concepts and case studies, with the assumption that skill development happens in mission simulation. Integrated mission simulations do provide excellent opportunities for FCers to practice teamwork, but also require extensive technical knowledge of vehicle systems, mission operations, and crew actions. Such technical knowledge requires lengthy training. When SFRM training is relegated to integrated simulations, FCers can only practice SFRM after they have already mastered the technical knowledge necessary for these simulations. Given the centrality of teamwork to the success of MCC, holding SFRM training till late in the flow is inefficient. But to be able to train SFRM earlier in the flow, the training cannot rely on extensive mission-specific technical knowledge. Hence, the need for a generic SFRM training framework that would allow FCers to develop basic teamwork skills which are mission relevant, but without the required mission knowledge

  8. Ambiguous Tilt and Translation Motion Cues after Space Flight and Otolith Assessment during Post-Flight Re-Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Scott J.; Clarke, A. H.; Harm, D. L.; Rupert, A. H.; Clement, G. R.

    2009-01-01

    Adaptive changes during space flight in how the brain integrates vestibular cues with other sensory information can lead to impaired movement coordination, vertigo, spatial disorientation and perceptual illusions following Gtransitions. These studies are designed to examine both the physiological basis and operational implications for disorientation and tilt-translation disturbances following short duration space flights.

  9. SpaceCube v2.0 Space Flight Hybrid Reconfigurable Data Processing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrick, Dave

    2014-01-01

    This paper details the design architecture, design methodology, and the advantages of the SpaceCube v2.0 high performance data processing system for space applications. The purpose in building the SpaceCube v2.0 system is to create a superior high performance, reconfigurable, hybrid data processing system that can be used in a multitude of applications including those that require a radiation hardened and reliable solution. The SpaceCube v2.0 system leverages seven years of board design, avionics systems design, and space flight application experiences. This paper shows how SpaceCube v2.0 solves the increasing computing demands of space data processing applications that cannot be attained with a standalone processor approach.The main objective during the design stage is to find a good system balance between power, size, reliability, cost, and data processing capability. These design variables directly impact each other, and it is important to understand how to achieve a suitable balance. This paper will detail how these critical design factors were managed including the construction of an Engineering Model for an experiment on the International Space Station to test out design concepts. We will describe the designs for the processor card, power card, backplane, and a mission unique interface card. The mechanical design for the box will also be detailed since it is critical in meeting the stringent thermal and structural requirements imposed by the processing system. In addition, the mechanical design uses advanced thermal conduction techniques to solve the internal thermal challenges.The SpaceCube v2.0 processing system is based on an extended version of the 3U cPCI standard form factor where each card is 190mm x 100mm in size The typical power draw of the processor card is 8 to 10W and scales with application complexity. The SpaceCube v2.0 data processing card features two Xilinx Virtex-5 QV Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA), eight memory modules, a monitor

  10. FAST20XX: Achievements On European Suborbital Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, A.; Steelant, J.; Adirim, H.; Lentsch, A.; Marini, M.; Pilz, N.

    2011-05-01

    In Europe, the EC co-funded project FAST20XX aims at exploring the borderline between aviation and space by investigating suborbital vehicles. The main focus is the identification and mastering of critical technologies for such vehicles rather than the vehicle development itself. Besides the objectives and overall layout of the project, the paper addresses also the progress made during the first period of the project. Two vehicle concepts are considered. A first one is a space vehicle launched from an airplane providing a low-energy ballistic flight experience using hybrid propulsion. The second is a vertically starting two-stage rocket space vehicle system concept taken as a basis to identify the conditions and constraints experienced during high- energy suborbital ultra-fast transport. The paper mainly discusses the two actual reference vehicles and the technical aspects of prerequisites for commercial operation including safety, human spaceflight, business cases, environmental and legal issues.

  11. Habitability and Performance Issues for Long Duration Space Flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; McQuilkin, Meredith L.; Woolford, Barbara J.

    1997-01-01

    Advancing technology, coupled with the desire to explore space has resulted in increasingly longer manned space missions. Although the Long Duration Space Flights (LDSF) have provided a considerable amount of scientific research on human ability to function in extreme environments, findings indicate long duration missions take a toll on the individual, both physiologically and psychologically. These physiological and psychological issues manifest themselves in performance decrements; and could lead to serious errors endangering the mission, spacecraft and crew. The purpose of this paper is to document existing knowledge of the effects of LDSF on performance, habitability, and workload and to identify and assess potential tools designed to address these decrements as well as propose an implementation plan to address the habitability, performance and workload issues.

  12. Nutrition and human physiological adaptations to space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, H. W.; LeBlanc, A. D.; Putcha, L.; Whitson, P. A.

    1993-01-01

    Space flight provides a model for the study of healthy individuals undergoing unique stresses. This review focuses on how physiological adaptations to weightlessness may affect nutrient and food requirements in space. These adaptations include reductions in body water and plasma volume, which affect the renal and cardiovascular systems and thereby fluid and electrolyte requirements. Changes in muscle mass and function may affect requirements for energy, protein and amino acids. Changes in bone mass lead to increased urinary calcium concentrations, which may increase the risk of forming renal stones. Space motion sickness may influence putative changes in gastro-intestinal-hepatic function; neurosensory alterations may affect smell and taste. Some or all of these effects may be ameliorated through the use of specially designed dietary countermeasures.

  13. The Significant Incidents and Close Calls in Human Space Flight Chart: Lessons Learned Gone Viral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Bill; Pate, Dennis; Thelen, David

    2010-01-01

    This presentation will explore the surprising history and events that transformed a mundane spreadsheet of historical spaceflight incidents into a popular and widely distributed visual compendium of lessons learned. The Significant Incidents and Close Calls in Human Space Flight Chart (a.k.a. The Significant Incidents Chart) is a popular and visually captivating reference product that has arisen from the work of the Johnson Space Center (JSC) Safety and Mission Assurance (S&MA) Flight Safety Office (FSO). It began as an internal tool intended to increase our team s awareness of historical and modern space flight incidents. Today, the chart is widely recognized across the agency as a reference tool. It appears in several training and education programs. It is used in familiarization training in the JSC Building 9 Mockup Facility and is seen by hundreds of center visitors each week. The chart visually summarizes injuries, fatalities, and close calls sustained during the continuing development of human space flight. The poster-sized chart displays over 100 total events that have direct connections to human space flight endeavors. The chart is updated periodically. The update process itself has become a collaborative effort. Many people, spanning multiple NASA organizations, have provided suggestions for additional entries. The FSO maintains a growing list of subscribers who have requested to receive updates. The presenters will discuss the origins and motivations behind the significant incidents chart. A review of the inclusion criteria used to select events will be offered. We will address how the chart is used today by S&MA and offer a vision of how it might be used by other organizations now and in the future. Particular emphasis will be placed on features of the chart that have met with broad acceptance and have helped spread awareness of the most important lessons in human spaceflight.

  14. Dietary and Urinary Sulfur can Predict Changes in Bone Metabolism During Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwart, Sara R.; Heer, Martina; Shackelford, Linda; Smith, Scott M.

    2015-01-01

    Mitigating space flight-induced bone loss is critical for space exploration, and diet can play a major role in this effort. Previous ground-based studies provide evidence that dietary composition can influence bone resorption during bed rest. In this study we examined the role of dietary intake patterns as one factor that can influence bone mineral loss in astronauts during space flight. Crew members were asked to consume, for 4 days at a time, prescribed menus with either a low (0.3-0.6 g/mEq) or high (1.0-1.3 g/mEq) ratio of animal protein to potassium (APro:K). Menus were developed for each crewmember, and were designed to meet both crew preferences and study constraints. Intakes of energy, total protein, calcium, and sodium were held relatively constant between the two diets. The order of the menus was randomized, and crews completed each set (low and high) once before and twice during space flight, for a total of 6 controlled diet sessions. One inflight session and three postflight sessions (R+30, R+180, R+365) monitored typical dietary intake. As of this writing, data are available from 14 crew members. The final three subjects' inflight samples are awaiting return from the International Space Station via Space-X. On the last day of each of the 4-d controlled diet sessions, 24-h urine samples were collected, along with a fasting blood sample on the morning of the 5th day. Preliminary analyses show that urinary excretion of sulfate (normalized to lean body mass) is a significant predictor of urinary n-telopeptide (NTX). Dietary sulfate (normalized to lean body mass) is also a significant predictor of urinary NTX. The results from this study, will be important to better understand diet and bone interrelationships during space flight as well as on Earth. This study was funded by the Human Health Countermeasures Element of the NASA Human Research Program.

  15. Future Standardization of Space Telecommunications Radio System with Core Flight System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briones, Janette C.; Hickey, Joseph P.; Roche, Rigoberto; Handler, Louis M.; Hall, Charles S.

    2016-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is integrating the NASA Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Standard with the Core Flight System (cFS), an avionics software operating environment. The STRS standard provides a common, consistent framework to develop, qualify, operate and maintain complex, reconfigurable and reprogrammable radio systems. The cFS is a flexible, open architecture that features a plugand- play software executive called the Core Flight Executive (cFE), a reusable library of software components for flight and space missions and an integrated tool suite. Together, STRS and cFS create a development environment that allows for STRS compliant applications to reference the STRS application programmer interfaces (APIs) that use the cFS infrastructure. These APIs are used to standardize the communication protocols on NASAs space SDRs. The cFS-STRS Operating Environment (OE) is a portable cFS library, which adds the ability to run STRS applications on existing cFS platforms. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the cFS-STRS OE prototype, preliminary experimental results performed using the Advanced Space Radio Platform (ASRP), the GRC S- band Ground Station and the SCaN (Space Communication and Navigation) Testbed currently flying onboard the International Space Station (ISS). Additionally, this paper presents a demonstration of the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) Spacecraft Onboard Interface Services (SOIS) using electronic data sheets (EDS) inside cFE. This configuration allows for the data sheets to specify binary formats for data exchange between STRS applications. The integration of STRS with cFS leverages mission-proven platform functions and mitigates barriers to integration with future missions. This reduces flight software development time and the costs of software-defined radio (SDR) platforms. Furthermore, the combined benefits of STRS standardization with the flexibility of cFS provide an effective, reliable and

  16. Flight delay performance at Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigoriy Yablonsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main objective of this paper is to determine the annual cyclical flight delays at Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport. Then using other data such as annual precipitation, passenger and aircraft traffic volumes and other factors, we attempted to correlate these factors with overall delays. These data could assist airport management in predicting periods of flight delay.Design/methodology/approach: Data were taken and analyzed from the data base “Research and Innovation Technology Administration” (RITA for the years 2005-2011 for Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport. The data included 2.8 million flights originating and departing from this airport. Data were also gathered from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA showing precipitation. Additional data were gathered from the FAA regarding delay causes, number and types of delays and changes to the infrastructure of ATL airportFindings: There is a repeatable annual pattern of delays at ATL that can be modeled using delay data from the Bureau of Transportation Statistics. This pattern appears to be caused primarily by the frequency and amount of precipitation that falls at ATL and by the amount of flights that arrive and depart at ATL.Originality/value: This information could assist airport operations personnel, FAA air traffic controllers and airlines in anticipating and mitigating delays at specific times of the year.

  17. International Space Station Aeromedical Support in Star City, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Richard; Chamberlin, Blake; Dowell, Gene; Castleberry, Tarah; Savage, Scott

    2010-01-01

    The Space Medicine Division at Johnson Space Center works with the International Space Station s international partners (IP) to accomplish assigned health care tasks. Each IP may assign a flight surgeon to support their assigned crewmembers during all phases of training, in-flight operations, and postflight activities. Because of the extensive amount of astronaut training conducted in Star City; NASA, in collaboration with its IPs, has elected to keep a flight surgeon assigned to NASA s Star City office to provide support to the U.S., Canadian, Japanese, and European astronauts during hazardous training activities and provide support for any contingency landings of Soyuz spacecraft in Kazakhstan. The physician also provides support as necessary to the Mission Control Center in Moscow for non-Russian crew-related activities. In addition, the physician in Star City provides ambulatory medical care to the non-Russian-assigned personnel in Star City and visiting dependents. Additional work involves all medical supplies, administration, and inventory. The Star City physician assists in medical evacuation and/or in obtaining support from western clinics in Moscow when required care exceeds local resources. Overall, the Russians are responsible for operations and the medical care of the entire crew when training in Star City and during launch/landing operations. However, they allow international partner flight surgeons to care for their crewmembers as agreed to in the ISS Medical Operations Requirements Document. Medical support focuses on pressurized, monitored, and other hazardous training activities. One of the most important jobs is to act as a medical advocate for the astronauts and to reduce the threat that these hazardous activities pose. Although the Russians have a robust medical system, evacuation may be needed to facilitate ongoing medical care. There are several international medical evacuation companies that provide this care.

  18. Perception of tilt (somatogravic illusion) in response to sustained linear acceleration during space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, G.; Moore, S. T.; Raphan, T.; Cohen, B.

    2001-01-01

    During the 1998 Neurolab mission (STS-90), four astronauts were exposed to interaural and head vertical (dorsoventral) linear accelerations of 0.5 g and 1 g during constant velocity rotation on a centrifuge, both on Earth and during orbital space flight. Subjects were oriented either left-ear-out or right-ear-out (Gy centrifugation), or lay supine along the centrifuge arm with their head off-axis (Gz centrifugation). Pre-flight centrifugation, producing linear accelerations of 0.5 g and 1 g along the Gy (interaural) axis, induced illusions of roll-tilt of 20 degrees and 34 degrees for gravito-inertial acceleration (GIA) vector tilts of 27 degrees and 45 degrees , respectively. Pre-flight 0.5 g and 1 g Gz (head dorsoventral) centrifugation generated perceptions of backward pitch of 5 degrees and 15 degrees , respectively. In the absence of gravity during space flight, the same centrifugation generated a GIA that was equivalent to the centripetal acceleration and aligned with the Gy or Gz axes. Perception of tilt was underestimated relative to this new GIA orientation during early in-flight Gy centrifugation, but was close to the GIA after 16 days in orbit, when subjects reported that they felt as if they were 'lying on side'. During the course of the mission, inflight roll-tilt perception during Gy centrifugation increased from 45 degrees to 83 degrees at 1 g and from 42 degrees to 48 degrees at 0.5 g. Subjects felt 'upside-down' during in-flight Gz centrifugation from the first in-flight test session, which reflected the new GIA orientation along the head dorsoventral axis. The different levels of in-flight tilt perception during 0.5 g and 1 g Gy centrifugation suggests that other non-vestibular inputs, including an internal estimate of the body vertical and somatic sensation, were utilized in generating tilt perception. Interpretation of data by a weighted sum of body vertical and somatic vectors, with an estimate of the GIA from the otoliths, suggests that

  19. Analysis of Flight of Near-Space Balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Zech; Evans, Austin; Seyfert, James; Leadlove, Kyle; Gumina, Kaitlyn; Martell, Eric

    2015-04-01

    In December 2014, the Electronics class at Millikin University launched a balloon designed to travel into the near-space region of the atmosphere. The balloon was equipped with an instrumentation package including a camera, accelerometer, barometric pressure sensor, temperature probes, as well as a system for tracking using an Automatic Packet Reporting System (APRS). The balloon was launched from Decatur, IL, and landed in Marysville, OH, nearly 320 miles away. The students then analyzed the data from the flight and compared results to expectations.

  20. Methods for microbiological and immunological studies of space flight crews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G. R. (Editor); Zaloguev, S. N. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    Systematic laboratory procedures compiled as an outgrowth of a joint U.S./U.S.S.R. microbiological-immunological experiment performed during the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project space flight are presented. Included are mutually compatible methods for the identification of aerobic and microaerophilic bacteria, yeast and yeastlike microorganisms, and filamentous fungi; methods for the bacteriophage typing of Staphylococcus aureus; and methods for determining the sensitivity of S. aureus to antibiotics. Immunological methods using blood and immunological and biochemical methods using salivary parotid fluid are also described. Formulas for media and laboratory reagents used are listed.

  1. Production and quality assurance automation in the Goddard Space Flight Center Flight Dynamics Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, K. B.; Cox, C. M.; Thomas, C. W.; Cuevas, O. O.; Beckman, R. M.

    1994-01-01

    The Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) generates numerous products for NASA-supported spacecraft, including the Tracking and Data Relay Satellites (TDRS's), the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE), and the space shuttle. These products include orbit determination data, acquisition data, event scheduling data, and attitude data. In most cases, product generation involves repetitive execution of many programs. The increasing number of missions supported by the FDF has necessitated the use of automated systems to schedule, execute, and quality assure these products. This automation allows the delivery of accurate products in a timely and cost-efficient manner. To be effective, these systems must automate as many repetitive operations as possible and must be flexible enough to meet changing support requirements. The FDF Orbit Determination Task (ODT) has implemented several systems that automate product generation and quality assurance (QA). These systems include the Orbit Production Automation System (OPAS), the New Enhanced Operations Log (NEOLOG), and the Quality Assurance Automation Software (QA Tool). Implementation of these systems has resulted in a significant reduction in required manpower, elimination of shift work and most weekend support, and improved support quality, while incurring minimal development cost. This paper will present an overview of the concepts used and experiences gained from the implementation of these automation systems.

  2. International Conference on Function Spaces and Inequalities

    CERN Document Server

    Schmeisser, Hans-Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    This book features original research and survey articles on the topics of function spaces and inequalities. It focuses on (variable/grand/small) Lebesgue spaces, Orlicz spaces, Lorentz spaces, and Morrey spaces and deals with mapping properties of operators, (weighted) inequalities, pointwise multipliers and interpolation. Moreover, it considers Sobolev–Besov and Triebel–Lizorkin type smoothness spaces. The book includes papers by leading international researchers, presented at the International Conference on Function Spaces and Inequalities, held at the South Asian University, New Delhi, India, on 11–15 December 2015, which focused on recent developments in the theory of spaces with variable exponents. It also offers further investigations concerning Sobolev-type embeddings, discrete inequalities and harmonic analysis. Each chapter is dedicated to a specific topic and written by leading experts, providing an overview of the subject and stimulating future research.

  3. Overview of Additive Manufacturing Initiatives at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton, R. G., Jr.

    2018-01-01

    NASA's In Space Manufacturing Initiative (ISM) includes: The case for ISM - why; ISM path to exploration - results from the 3D Printing In Zero-G Technology Demonstration - ISM challenges; In space Robotic Manufacturing and Assembly (IRMA); Additive construction. Additively Manufacturing (AM) development for liquid rocket engine space flight hardware. MSFC standard and specification for additively manufactured space flight hardware. Summary.

  4. Cultural factors and the international space station

    OpenAIRE

    Ritsher, Jennifer Boyd

    2005-01-01

    The American and Russian/Soviet space programs independently uncovered psychosocial risks inherent in long-duration space missions. Now that these two countries are working together on the International Space Station (ISS), American-Russian cultural differences pose an additional set of risk factors. These may echo cultural differences that have been observed in the general population of the two countries and in space analogue settings, but little is known about how relevant these are to the ...

  5. Physical sciences research plans for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, E. H.

    2003-01-01

    The restructuring of the research capabilities of the International Space Station has forced a reassessment of the Physical Sciences research plans and a re-targeting of the major scientific thrusts. The combination of already selected peer-reviewed flight investigations with the initiation of new research and technology programs will allow the maximization of the ISS scientific and technological potential. Fundamental and applied research will use a combination of ISS-based facilities, ground-based activities, and other experimental platforms to address issues impacting fundamental knowledge, industrial and medical applications on Earth, and the technology required for human space exploration. The current flight investigation research plan shows a large number of principal investigators selected to use the remaining planned research facilities. c2003 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Crowd-Sourced Radio Science at Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, C. D.; McTernan, J. K.; Suggs, R. M.; Rawlins, L.; Krause, L. H.; Gallagher, D. L.; Adams, M. L.

    2018-01-01

    August 21, 2017 provided a unique opportunity to investigate the effects of the total solar eclipse on high frequency (HF) radio propagation and ionospheric variability. In Marshall Space Flight Center's partnership with the US Space and Rocket Center (USSRC) and Austin Peay State University (APSU), we engaged citizen scientists and students in an investigation of the effects of an eclipse on the mid-latitude ionosphere. Activities included fieldwork and station-based data collection of HF Amateur Radio frequency bands and VLF radio waves before, during, and after the eclipse to build a continuous record of changing propagation conditions as the moon's shadow marched across the United States. Post-eclipse radio propagation analysis provided insights into ionospheric variability due to the eclipse.

  7. Gregory Merkel Tours Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Gregory A. Merkel (left), high school student from Springfield, Massachusetts, is pictured here with Harry Coons of the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) during a visit to the center. Merkel was among 25 winners of a contest in which some 3,500 high school students proposed experiments for the following year's Skylab mission. The nationwide scientific competition was sponsored by the National Science Teachers Association and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The winning students, along with their parents and sponsor teachers, visited MSFC where they met with scientists and engineers, participated in design reviews for their experiments, and toured MSFC facilities. Of the 25 students, 6 did not see their experiments conducted on Skylab because the experiments were not compatible with Skylab hardware and timelines. Of the 19 remaining, 11 experiments required the manufacture of additional equipment.

  8. Photovoltaic Array Space Power flight experiment plus diagnostics (PASP+) modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooley, W.T.; Adams, S.F.; Reinhardt, K.C.; Piszczor, M.F.

    1992-01-01

    The Photovoltaic Array Space Power Plus Diagnostics flight experiment (PASP+) subsumes twelve solar array modules which represent the state of the art in the space photovoltaic array industry. Each of the twelve modules individually feature specific photovoltaic technologies such as advanced semiconductor materials, multi-bandgap structures, lightweight array designs, advanced interconnect technologies, or concentrator array designs. This paper will describe each module in detail including the configuration, components, materials, anticipated on orbit performance, and some of the aspects of each array technology. The layout of each module and the photovoltaic cell or array cross section will be presented graphically. A discussion on the environmental constraints and materials selection will be included as well as a delineation of the differences between the modules and the baseline array configuration in its intended application

  9. Vitamin D endocrine system after short-term space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoten, William B. (Principal Investigator); Sergeev, Igor N. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    The exposure of the body to microgravity during space flight causes a series of well-documented changes in Ca(2+) metabolism, yet the cellular/molecular mechanisms leading to these changes are poorly understood. There is some evidence for microgravity-induced alterations in the vitamin D endocrine system, which is known to be primarily involved in the regulation of Ca(2+) metabolism. Vitamin D-dependent Ca(2+) binding proteins, or calbindins, are believed to have a significant role in maintaining cellular Ca(2+) homeostasis. We used immunocytochemical, biochemical and molecular approaches to analyze the expression of calbindin-D(sub 28k) and calbindin-D(sub 9k) in kidneys and intestines of rats flown for 9 days aboard the Spacelab 3 mission. The effects of microgravity on calbindins in rats in space vs. 'grounded' animals (synchronous Animal Enclosure Module controls and tail suspension controls) were compared. Exposure to microgravity resulted in a significant decrease in calbindin-D(sub 28k) content in kidneys and calbindin-D(sub 9k) in the intestine of flight and suspended animals, as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Immunocytochemistry (ICC) in combination with quantitative computer image analysis was used to measure in situ the expression of calbindins in kidneys and intestine, and insulin in pancreas. There was a large decrease in the distal tubular cell-associated calbindin-D(sub 28k) and absorptive cell-associated calbindin-D(sub 9k) immunoreactivity in the space and suspension kidneys and intestine, as compared with matched ground controls. No consistent differences in pancreatic insulin immunoreactivity between space, suspension and ground controls was observed. There were significant correlations between results by quantitative ICC and ELISA. Western blot analysis showed no consistent changes in the low levels of intestinal and renal vitamin D receptors. These findings suggest that a decreased expression of calbindins after a short

  10. Cosmic radiation dosimetry in international flights argentine airlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciancio, Vicente R.; Oliveri, Pedro V.; Di Giovan B, Gustavo; Ciancio, Vanina L.; Lewis, Brent J.; Green, Anna R.; Bennet, L.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: In commercial aviation the most important determinants of radiation exposure in humans are the altitude, latitude, flight duration and the solar cycle's period. This study was conducted to address this type of exposure trough radiation dosimetry. Method: The study was performed in the business-class cabin of an Airbus 340-200 aircraft, provided by Argentine Airlines, during 2 flights routes: New York-Miami-Buenos Aires (trans equatorial) and Buenos Aires-Auckland (circumpolar). Measurements addressed the electromagnetic spectrum or low Linear Energy Transfer (LET) and corpuscular radiation (High LET). The instruments used were an Ion Chamber (IC), to measure the ionizing component of radiation (i.e., gamma radiation), the SWENDI, to measure only the neutron component, and the Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter (TEPC) for measuring all radiation types. Results: The routes' dose rates are presented in the table. TEPC rates agreed with the LET findings. The total dose rates of high latitude flights were higher than those of low latitude flights. The SWENDI (High LET) results for the flights over the equator, at low latitude, represented only 1/3 of the total radiation. The New York-Miami and Buenos Aires-Auckland flights, at high latitude, represented just under 1/2 of the Total radiation (-45%). Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, the annual dose rates of radiation exposure of air crew personnel serving on international flights offered by Argentine Airlines is between 3 and 7 mSv. This rate is higher than the maximum recommended for the general population by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), which is 1 milli Sv./y. Therefore, these personnel must be officially considered 'Occupationally Exposed to Radiation' in way to provide the appropriate measures that must be implemented for their protection in accordance to ICRP guidelines. Dose(uSv): Route N Y-Miami, IC 6.07, SWENDI 5.07, TEPC 11.04; Route

  11. Some comments on space flight and radiation limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornton, W.E.

    1997-01-01

    Setting limits on human exposure to space-related radiation involves two very different processes - the appropriate hard science, and certain emotional aspects and expectations of the groups involved. These groups include the general public and their elected politicians, the astronauts and flight crews, and NASA managers, each group with different expectations and concerns. Public and political views of human space flight and human radiation exposures are often poorly informed and are often based on emotional reactions to current events which may be distorted by 'experts' and the media. Career astronauts' and cosmonauts' views are much more realistic about the risks involved and there is a willingness on their part to accept increased necessary risks. However, there is a concern on their part about career-threatening dose limits, the potential for overexposures, and the health effects from all sources of radiation. There is special concern over radiation from medical studies. This last concern continues to raise the question of 'voluntary' participation in studies involving radiation exposure. There is greatly diversity in spaceflight crews and their expectations; and 'official' Astronaut Office positions will reflect strong management direction. NASA management has its own priorities and concerns and this fact will be reflected in their crucial influence on radiation limits. NASA, and especially spaceflight crews, might be best served by exposure limits which address all sources of spaceflight radiation and all potential effects from such exposure. radiation and all potential effects from such exposure

  12. Surviving space flight: case study on MELiSSA's CIII nitrifying compartment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilgrande, Chiara; Lasseur, Christophe; Mastroleo, Felice; Paille, Christel; Leys, Natalie; Morozova, Julia; Ilyin, Vyacheslav; Clauwaert, Peter; Christiaens, Marlies E. R.; Lindeboom, Ralph E. F.; Vlaeminck, Siegfried; Prat, Delphine; Arroyo, Jose M. C.; Conincx, Ilse; Van Hoey, Olivier; Roume, Hugo; Udert, Kai; Sas, Benedikt

    2016-07-01

    Space synthetic biology offers key opportunities for long-term space missions. Planets mining, terraformation, space medicine and Life Support technologies would all benefit from an integrative biological approach. However, space is a harsh environment for life: microgravity, temperature, UV and cosmic radiation can affect the health and functionality of microorganisms and plants, possibly preventing the optimal performance of the systems. The European Space Agency's Life Support System (MELiSSA) has been developed as a model for future long term Space missions and Space habitation. MELiSSA is a 5 compartment artificial ecosystem with microorganisms and higher, that aims at completely recycling gas, liquid and solid waste. In this study, the survival and functional activity after Lower Earth Orbit conditions of microbial nitrogen conversions, relevant for MELiSSA's CIII compartment, was tested. Synthetic communities containing Nitrosomonas europeae, Nitrosomonas ureae, Nitrobacter winogradskyi, Nitrospira moscoviensis and Cupriavidus pinatubonensis were exposed to the Lower Earth Orbit conditions of the International Space Station (ISS) for 7 days. Nitrosomonas europeae, Nitrobacter winogradskyi, Cupriavidus pinatubonensis, and three mixed communities (a urine nitrification sludge, a sludge containing aerobic ammonia oxidizing bacteria and anammox bacteria (OLAND), and an aquaculture sludge containing ammonia oxidizing archaea) were exposed to Lower Earth Orbit conditions for 44 days. Survival after both space flights was demonstrated because nitritation, nitratation, denitrification and anammox activity could be restored at a rate comparable to ground storage conditions. Our results validate the potential survival feasibility and suggest future space applications for N-related microorganisms.

  13. 78 FR 77502 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice (13-154)] NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of..., the National Aeronautics and Space Administration announces a meeting of the NASA International Space...

  14. Changes in Jump-Down Performance After Space Flight: Short- and Long-Term Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofman, I. S.; Reschke, M. F.; Cerisano, J. M.; Fisher, E. A.; Lawrence, E. L.; Peters, B. T.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Successful jump performance requires functional coordination of visual, vestibular, and somatosensory systems, which are affected by prolonged exposure to microgravity. Astronauts returning from space flight exhibit impaired ability to coordinate effective landing strategies when jumping from a platform to the ground. This study compares the jump strategies used by astronauts before and after flight, the changes to those strategies within a test session, and the recoveries in jump-down performance parameters across several postflight test sessions. These data were obtained as part of an ongoing interdisciplinary study (Functional Task Test, FTT) designed to evaluate both astronaut postflight functional performance and related physiological changes. METHODS Six astronauts from short-duration (Shuttle) and three from long-duration (International Space Station) flights performed 3 two-footed jumps from a platform 30 cm high. A force plate measured the ground reaction forces and center-of-pressure displacement from the landings. Muscle activation data were collected from the medial gastrocnemius and anterior tibialis of both legs using surface electromyography electrodes. Two load cells in the platform measured the load exerted by each foot during the takeoff phase of the jump. Data were collected in 2 preflight sessions, on landing day (Shuttle only), and 1, 6, and 30 days after flight. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION Many of the astronauts tested were unable to maintain balance on their first postflight jump landing but recovered by the third jump, showing a learning progression in which the performance improvement could be attributed to adjustments of strategy on takeoff, landing, or both. Takeoff strategy changes were evident in air time (time between takeoff and landing), which was significantly reduced after flight, and also in increased asymmetry in foot latencies on takeoff. Landing modifications were seen in changes in ground reaction force curves. The

  15. Space transportation system flight 2 OSTA-1 scientific payload data management plan: Addendum

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Flight events for the OSTA-1 scientific payload on the second flight of the Space Shuttle, STS-2 are described. Data acquisition is summarized. A discussion of problems encountered and a preliminary evaluation of data quality is also provided.

  16. Functional Task Test: 3. Skeletal Muscle Performance Adaptations to Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Jeffrey W.; Wickwire, P. J.; Buxton, R. E.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Ploutz-Snyder, L.

    2011-01-01

    The functional task test is a multi-disciplinary study investigating how space-flight induced changes to physiological systems impacts functional task performance. Impairment of neuromuscular function would be expected to negatively affect functional performance of crewmembers following exposure to microgravity. This presentation reports the results for muscle performance testing in crewmembers. Functional task performance will be presented in the abstract "Functional Task Test 1: sensory motor adaptations associated with postflight alternations in astronaut functional task performance." METHODS: Muscle performance measures were obtained in crewmembers before and after short-duration space flight aboard the Space Shuttle and long-duration International Space Station (ISS) missions. The battery of muscle performance tests included leg press and bench press measures of isometric force, isotonic power and total work. Knee extension was used for the measurement of central activation and maximal isometric force. Upper and lower body force steadiness control were measured on the bench press and knee extension machine, respectively. Tests were implemented 60 and 30 days before launch, on landing day (Shuttle crew only), and 6, 10 and 30 days after landing. Seven Space Shuttle crew and four ISS crew have completed the muscle performance testing to date. RESULTS: Preliminary results for Space Shuttle crew reveal significant reductions in the leg press performance metrics of maximal isometric force, power and total work on R+0 (pperformance metrics were observed in returning Shuttle crew and these adaptations are likely contributors to impaired functional tasks that are ambulatory in nature (See abstract Functional Task Test: 1). Interestingly, no significant changes in central activation capacity were detected. Therefore, impairments in muscle function in response to short-duration space flight are likely myocellular rather than neuromotor in nature.

  17. Space dosimetry measurement results using the Pille instrument during the EUROMIR/NASAMIR space flights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hejja, I.; Apathy, J.; Deme, S.

    1997-01-01

    The Pille dosimeter developed in Hungary for space applications is described briefly, and its two versions are presented for the two space flights. The results of the EUROMIR mission in 1995-1996 are discussed for positional dosimetric applications. The characteristic dose rates at various space stations in the Salyut range are displayed. The NASAMIR4 mission between January 1997 and September 1998 are also discussed from the dosimetric point of view. The results of the measurements are presented and a preliminary analysis is reported. (R.P.)

  18. News Education: Physics Education Networks meeting has global scale Competition: Competition seeks the next Brian Cox Experiment: New measurement of neutrino time-of-flight consistent with the speed of light Event: A day for all those who teach physics Conference: Students attend first Anglo-Japanese international science conference Celebration: Will 2015 be the 'Year of Light'? Teachers: Challenging our intuition in spectacular fashion: the fascinating world of quantum physics awaits Research: Science sharpens up sport Learning: Kittinger and Baumgartner: on a mission to the edge of space International: London International Youth Science Forum calls for leading young scientists Competition: Physics paralympian challenge needs inquisitive, analytical, artistic and eloquent pupils Forthcoming events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Education: Physics Education Networks meeting has global scale Competition: Competition seeks the next Brian Cox Experiment: New measurement of neutrino time-of-flight consistent with the speed of light Event: A day for all those who teach physics Conference: Students attend first Anglo-Japanese international science conference Celebration: Will 2015 be the 'Year of Light'? Teachers: Challenging our intuition in spectacular fashion: the fascinating world of quantum physics awaits Research: Science sharpens up sport Learning: Kittinger and Baumgartner: on a mission to the edge of space International: London International Youth Science Forum calls for leading young scientists Competition: Physics paralympian challenge needs inquisitive, analytical, artistic and eloquent pupils Forthcoming events

  19. International Cooperation in the Field of International Space Station (ISS) Payload Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimann, Timothy; Larsen, Axel M.; Rose, Summer; Sgobba, Tommaso

    2005-01-01

    In the frame of the International Space Station (ISS) Program cooperation, in 1998, the European Space Agency (ESA) approached the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) with the unique concept of a Payload Safety Review Panel (PSRP) "franchise" based at the European Space Technology Center (ESTEC), where the panel would be capable of autonomously reviewing flight hardware for safety. This paper will recount the course of an ambitious idea as it progressed into a fully functional reality. It will show how a panel initially conceived at NASA to serve a national programme has evolved into an international safety cooperation asset. The PSRP established at NASA began reviewing ISS payloads approximately in late 1994 or early 1995 as an expansion of the pre-existing Shuttle Program PSRP. This paper briefly describes the fundamental Shuttle safety process and the establishment of the safety requirements for payloads intending to use the Space Transportation System and International Space Station (ISS). The paper will also offer some historical statistics about the experiments that completed the payload safety process for Shuttle and ISS. The paper 1 then presents the background of ISS agreements and international treaties that had to be taken into account when establishing the ESA PSRP. The detailed franchising model will be expounded upon, followed by an outline of the cooperation charter approved by the NASA Associate Administrator, Office of Space Flight, and ESA Director of Manned Spaceflight and Microgravity. The resulting ESA PSRP implementation and its success statistics to date will then be addressed. Additionally the paper presents the ongoing developments with the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. The discussion will conclude with ideas for future developments, such to achieve a fully integrated international system of payload safety panels for ISS.

  20. The Value of Biomedical Simulation Environments to Future Human Space Flight Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulugeta, Lealem; Myers, Jerry G.; Skytland, Nicholas G.; Platts, Steven H.

    2010-01-01

    With the ambitious goals to send manned missions to asteroids and onto Mars, substantial work will be required to ensure the well being of the men and women who will undertake these difficult missions. Unlike current International Space Station or Shuttle missions, astronauts will be required to endure long-term exposure to higher levels of radiation, isolation and reduced gravity. These new operation conditions will pose health risks that are currently not well understood and perhaps unanticipated. Therefore, it is essential to develop and apply advanced tools to predict, assess and mitigate potential hazards to astronaut health. NASA s Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) is working to develop and apply computational models of physiologic response to space flight operation conditions over various time periods and environmental circumstances. The collective application and integration of well vetted models assessing the physiology, biomechanics and anatomy is referred to as the Digital Astronaut. The Digital Astronaut simulation environment will serve as a practical working tool for use by NASA in operational activities such as the prediction of biomedical risks and functional capabilities of astronauts. In additional to space flight operation conditions, DAP s work has direct applicability to terrestrial biomedical research by providing virtual environments for hypothesis testing, experiment design, and to reduce animal/human testing. A practical application of the DA to assess pre and post flight responses to exercise is illustrated and the difficulty in matching true physiological responses is discussed.

  1. The unitary space of particle internal states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perjes, Z.

    1978-09-01

    A relativistic theory of particle internal properties has been developed. Suppressing space-time information, internal wave functions and -observables are constructed in a 3-complex-dimensional space. The quantum numbers of a spinning point particle in this unitary space correspond with those of a low-mass hadron. Unitary space physics is linked with space-time notions via the Penrose theory of twistors, where new flavors may be represented by many-twistor systems. It is shown here that a four-twistor particle fits into the unitary space picture as a system of two points with equal masses and oppositely pointing unitary spins. Quantum states fall into the ISU(3) irreducible representations discovered by Sparling and the author. Full details of the computation involving SU(3) recoupling techniques are given. (author)

  2. Using Web 2.0 (and Beyond?) in Space Flight Operations Control Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, David W.

    2010-01-01

    Word processing was one of the earliest uses for small workstations, but we quickly learned that desktop computers were far more than e-typewriters. Similarly, "Web 2.0" capabilities, particularly advanced search engines, chats, wikis, blogs, social networking, and the like, offer tools that could significantly improve our efficiency at managing the avalanche of information and decisions needed to operate space vehicles in realtime. However, could does not necessarily equal should. We must wield two-edged swords carefully to avoid stabbing ourselves. This paper examines some Web 2.0 tools, with an emphasis on social media, and suggests which ones might be useful or harmful in real-time space operations co rnotl environments, based on the author s experience as a Payload Crew Communicator (PAYCOM) at Marshall Space Flight Center s (MSFC) Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC) for the International Space Station (ISS) and on discussions with other space flight operations control organizations and centers. There is also some discussion of an offering or two that may come from beyond the current cyber-horizon.

  3. X-Ray Optics at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Atkins, Carolyn; Broadway, David M.; Elsner, Ronald F.; Gaskin, Jessica A.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Kilaru, Kiranmayee; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery J.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Roche, Jacqueline M.; hide

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) engages in research, development, design, fabrication, coating, assembly, and testing of grazing-incidence optics (primarily) for x-ray telescope systems. Over the past two decades, MSFC has refined processes for electroformed-nickel replication of grazing-incidence optics, in order to produce high-strength, thin-walled, full-cylinder x-ray mirrors. In recent years, MSFC has used this technology to fabricate numerous x-ray mirror assemblies for several flight (balloon, rocket, and satellite) programs. Additionally, MSFC has demonstrated the suitability of this technology for ground-based laboratory applications-namely, x-ray microscopes and cold-neutron microscopes and concentrators. This mature technology enables the production, at moderately low cost, of reasonably lightweight x-ray telescopes with good (15-30 arcsecond) angular resolution. However, achieving arcsecond imaging for a lightweight x-ray telescope likely requires development of other technologies. Accordingly, MSFC is conducting a multi-faceted research program toward enabling cost-effective production of lightweight high-resolution x-ray mirror assemblies. Relevant research topics currently under investigation include differential deposition for post-fabrication figure correction, in-situ monitoring and control of coating stress, and direct fabrication of thin-walled full-cylinder grazing-incidence mirrors.

  4. Critical Technology Determination for Future Human Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.; Vangen, Scott D.; Williams-Byrd, Julie A.; Stecklein, Jonette M.; Rahman, Shamim A.; Rosenthal, Matthew E.; Hornyak, David M.; Alexander, Leslie; Korsmeyer, David J.; Tu, Eugene L.; hide

    2012-01-01

    As the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) prepares to extend human presence throughout the solar system, technical capabilities must be developed to enable long duration flights to destinations such as near Earth asteroids, Mars, and extended stays on the Moon. As part of the NASA Human Spaceflight Architecture Team, a Technology Development Assessment Team has identified a suite of critical technologies needed to support this broad range of missions. Dialog between mission planners, vehicle developers, and technologists was used to identify a minimum but sufficient set of technologies, noting that needs are created by specific mission architecture requirements, yet specific designs are enabled by technologies. Further consideration was given to the re-use of underlying technologies to cover multiple missions to effectively use scarce resources. This suite of critical technologies is expected to provide the needed base capability to enable a variety of possible destinations and missions. This paper describes the methodology used to provide an architecture-driven technology development assessment ("technology pull"), including technology advancement needs identified by trade studies encompassing a spectrum of flight elements and destination design reference missions.

  5. Maturing CCD Photon-Counting Technology for Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallik, Udayan; Lyon, Richard; Petrone, Peter; McElwain, Michael; Benford, Dominic; Clampin, Mark; Hicks, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses charge blooming and starlight saturation - two potential technical problems - when using an Electron Multiplying Charge Coupled Device (EMCCD) type detector in a high-contrast instrument for imaging exoplanets. These problems especially affect an interferometric type coronagraph - coronagraphs that do not use a mask to physically block starlight in the science channel of the instrument. These problems are presented using images taken with a commercial Princeton Instrument EMCCD camera in the Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC), Interferometric Coronagraph facility. In addition, this paper discusses techniques to overcome such problems. This paper also discusses the development and architecture of a Field Programmable Gate Array and Digital-to-Analog Converter based shaped clock controller for a photon-counting EMCCD camera. The discussion contained here will inform high-contrast imaging groups in their work with EMCCD detectors.

  6. An evaluation of the Goddard Space Flight Center Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herner, S.; Lancaster, F. W.; Wright, N.; Ockerman, L.; Shearer, B.; Greenspan, S.; Mccartney, J.; Vellucci, M.

    1979-01-01

    The character and degree of coincidence between the current and future missions, programs, and projects of the Goddard Space Flight Center and the current and future collection, services, and facilities of its library were determined from structured interviews and discussions with various classes of facility personnel. In addition to the tabulation and interpretation of the data from the structured interview survey, five types of statistical analyses were performed to corroborate (or contradict) the survey results and to produce useful information not readily attainable through survey material. Conclusions reached regarding compatability between needs and holdings, services and buildings, library hours of operation, methods of early detection and anticipation of changing holdings requirements, and the impact of near future programs are presented along with a list of statistics needing collection, organization, and interpretation on a continuing or longitudinal basis.

  7. Thermal Stir Welding Development at Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Solid state welding processes have become the focus of welding process development at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. Unlike fusion weld processes such as tungsten inert gas (TIG), variable polarity plasma arc (VPPA), electron beam (EB), etc., solid state welding processes do not melt the material during welding. The resultant microstructure can be characterized as a dynamically recrystallized morphology much different than the casted, dentritic structure typical of fusion weld processes. The primary benefits of solid state processes over fusion weld processes include superior mechanic properties and the elimination of thermal distortion and residual stresses. These solid state processes attributes have profoundly influenced the direction of advanced welding research and development within the NASA agency. Thermal Stir Welding (TSW) is a new solid state welding process being developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center. Unlike friction stir welding, the heating, stirring and forging elements of the weld process can be decoupled for independent control. An induction coil induces energy into a workpiece to attain a desired plastic temperature. An independently controlled stir rod, captured within non-rotating containment plates, then stirs the plasticized material followed by forging plates/rollers that work the stirred weld joint. The independent control (decoupling) of heating, stirring and forging allows, theoretically, for the precision control of microstructure morphology. The TSW process is being used to evaluate the solid state joining of Haynes 230 for ARES J-2X applications. It is also being developed for 500-in (12.5 mm) thick commercially pure grade 2 titanium for navy applications. Other interests include Inconel 718 and stainless steel. This presentation will provide metallurgical and mechanical property data for these high melting temperature alloys.

  8. Robotic and automatic welding development at the Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C. S.; Jackson, M. E.; Flanigan, L. A.

    1988-01-01

    Welding automation is the key to two major development programs to improve quality and reduce the cost of manufacturing space hardware currently undertaken by the Materials and Processes Laboratory of the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. Variable polarity plasma arc welding has demonstrated its effectiveness on class 1 aluminum welding in external tank production. More than three miles of welds were completed without an internal defect. Much of this success can be credited to automation developments which stabilize the process. Robotic manipulation technology is under development for automation of welds on the Space Shuttle's main engines utilizing pathfinder systems in development of tooling and sensors for the production applications. The overall approach to welding automation development undertaken is outlined. Advanced sensors and control systems methodologies are described that combine to make aerospace quality welds with a minimum of dependence on operator skill.

  9. The Ergonomics of Human Space Flight: NASA Vehicles and Spacesuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Christopher R.; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2014-01-01

    Space...the final frontier...these are the voyages of the starship...wait, wait, wait...that's not right...let's try that again. NASA is currently focusing on developing multiple strategies to prepare humans for a future trip to Mars. This includes (1) learning and characterizing the human system while in the weightlessness of low earth orbit on the International Space Station and (2) seeding the creation of commercial inspired vehicles by providing guidance and funding to US companies. At the same time, NASA is slowly leading the efforts of reestablishing human deep space travel through the development of the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) known as Orion and the Space Launch System (SLS) with the interim aim of visiting and exploring an asteroid. Without Earth's gravity, current and future human space travel exposes humans to micro- and partial gravity conditions, which are known to force the body to adapt both physically and physiologically. Without the protection of Earth's atmosphere, space is hazardous to most living organisms. To protect themselves from these difficult conditions, Astronauts utilize pressurized spacesuits for both intravehicular travel and extravehicular activities (EVAs). Ensuring a safe living and working environment for space missions requires the creativity of scientists and engineers to assess and mitigate potential risks through engineering designs. The discipline of human factors and ergonomics at NASA is critical in making sure these designs are not just functionally designed for people to use, but are optimally designed to work within the capacities specific to the Astronaut Corps. This lecture will review both current and future NASA vehicles and spacesuits while providing an ergonomic perspective using case studies that were and are being carried out by the Anthropometry and Biomechanics Facility (ABF) at NASA's Johnson Space Center.

  10. Space-Based Reconfigurable Software Defined Radio Test Bed Aboard International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, Richard C.; Lux, James P.

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) recently launched a new software defined radio research test bed to the International Space Station. The test bed, sponsored by the Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) Office within NASA is referred to as the SCaN Testbed. The SCaN Testbed is a highly capable communications system, composed of three software defined radios, integrated into a flight system, and mounted to the truss of the International Space Station. Software defined radios offer the future promise of in-flight reconfigurability, autonomy, and eventually cognitive operation. The adoption of software defined radios offers space missions a new way to develop and operate space transceivers for communications and navigation. Reconfigurable or software defined radios with communications and navigation functions implemented in software or VHDL (Very High Speed Hardware Description Language) provide the capability to change the functionality of the radio during development or after launch. The ability to change the operating characteristics of a radio through software once deployed to space offers the flexibility to adapt to new science opportunities, recover from anomalies within the science payload or communication system, and potentially reduce development cost and risk by adapting generic space platforms to meet specific mission requirements. The software defined radios on the SCaN Testbed are each compliant to NASA's Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Architecture. The STRS Architecture is an open, non-proprietary architecture that defines interfaces for the connections between radio components. It provides an operating environment to abstract the communication waveform application from the underlying platform specific hardware such as digital-to-analog converters, analog-to-digital converters, oscillators, RF attenuators, automatic gain control circuits, FPGAs, general-purpose processors, etc. and the interconnections among

  11. Future Challenges in Managing Human Health and Performance Risks for Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, Barbara J.; Barratt, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The global economy forces many nations to consider their national investments and make difficult decisions regarding their investment in future exploration. To enable safe, reliable, and productive human space exploration, we must pool global resources to understand and mitigate human health & performance risks prior to embarking on human exploration of deep space destinations. Consensus on the largest risks to humans during exploration is required to develop an integrated approach to mitigating risks. International collaboration in human space flight research will focus research on characterizing the effects of spaceflight on humans and the development of countermeasures or systems. Sharing existing data internationally will facilitate high quality research and sufficient power to make sound recommendations. Efficient utilization of ISS and unique ground-based analog facilities allows greater progress. Finally, a means to share results of human research in time to influence decisions for follow-on research, system design, new countermeasures and medical practices should be developed. Although formidable barriers to overcome, International working groups are working to define the risks, establish international research opportunities, share data among partners, share flight hardware and unique analog facilities, and establish forums for timely exchange of results. Representatives from the ISS partnership research and medical communities developed a list of the top ten human health & performance risks and their impact on exploration missions. They also drafted a multilateral data sharing plan to establish guidelines and principles for sharing human spaceflight data. Other working groups are also developing methods to promote international research solicitations. Collaborative use of analog facilities and shared development of space flight research and medical hardware continues. Establishing a forum for exchange of results between researchers, aerospace physicians

  12. On-Orbit Prospective Echocardiography on International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Douglas R.; Sargsyan, Ashot E.; Martin, David; Garcia, Kathleen M.; Melton, Shannon; Feiverson, Alan; Dulchavsky, Scott A.

    2010-01-01

    A number of echocardiographic research projects and experiments have been flown on almost every space vehicle since 1970, but validation of standard methods and the determination of Space Normal cardiac function has not been reported to date. Advanced Diagnostics in Microgravity (ADUM) -remote guided echocardiographic technique provides a novel and effective approach to on-board assessment of cardiac physiology and structure using a just-in-time training algorithm and real-time remote guidance aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The validation of remotely guided echocardiographic techniques provides the procedures and protocols to perform scientific and clinical echocardiography on the ISS and the Moon. The objectives of this study were: 1.To confirm the ability of non-physician astronaut/cosmonaut crewmembers to perform clinically relevant remotely guided echocardiography using the Human Research Facility on board the ISS. 2.To compare the preflight, postflight and in-flight echocardiographic parameters commonly used in clinical medicine.

  13. Space Environmental Effects Testing Capability at the Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWittBurns, H.; Craven, Paul; Finckenor, Miria; Nehls, Mary; Schneider, Todd; Vaughn, Jason

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the effects of the space environment on materials and systems is fundamental and essential for mission success. If not properly understood and designed for, the effects of the environment can lead to degradation of materials, reduction of functional lifetime, and system failure. In response to this need, the Marshall Space Flight Center has developed world class Space Environmental Effects (SEE) expertise and test facilities to simulate the space environment. Capabilities include multiple unique test systems comprising the most complete SEE testing capability available. These test capabilities include charged particle radiation (electrons, protons, ions), ultraviolet radiation (UV), vacuum ultraviolet radiation (VUV), atomic oxygen, plasma effects, space craft charging, lunar surface and planetary effects, vacuum effects, and hypervelocity impacts as well as the combination of these capabilities. In addition to the uniqueness of the individual test capabilities, MSFC is the only NASA facility where the effects of the different space environments can be tested in one location. Combined with additional analytical capabilities for pre- and post-test evaluation, MSFC is a one-stop shop for materials testing and analysis. The SEE testing and analysis are performed by a team of award winning experts nationally recognized for their contributions in the study of the effects of the space environment on materials and systems. With this broad expertise in space environmental effects and the variety of test systems and equipment available, MSFC is able to customize tests with a demonstrated ability to rapidly adapt and reconfigure systems to meet customers needs. Extensive flight experiment experience bolsters this simulation and analysis capability with a comprehensive understanding of space environmental effects.

  14. Commercial opportunities utilizing the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Michael E.; Mongan, Phil; Overmyer, Carolyn M.; Jackson, Kenneth

    1998-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) has the unique capability of providing a low-g environment for both short- and long-duration experimentation. This environment can provide a unique and competitive research capability to industry; but until recently, utilization of this environment by the private sector has been limited if not totally unavailable. NASA has recently expressed an interest in the commercial development of space and this is now an integral part of the Agency's enabling legislation through the Space Act. NASA's objective is to foster the use of the space environment for the development of commercial products and processes. Through alliances and agreements with several commercial companies and universities, SPACEHAB, Inc., has built a comprehensive package of services designed to provide low-cost reliable access to space for experimenters. These services provide opportunities to support engineering test beds for materials exposure analysis, to mitigate structural failures as observed on the Hubble Space Telescope; materials processing, remote sensing; space environment definition; and electronic experiments. The intent of this paper is to identify commercial opportunities for utilizing the International Space Station and provide examples of several facilities currently being designed and manufactured by commercial companies with the purpose of providing access to the space environment for commercial users.

  15. Gamma Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) Balloon Flight Engineering Model: Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, D. J.; Godfrey, G.; Williams, S. M.; Grove, J. E.; Mizuno, T.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Kamae, T.; Ampe, J.; Briber, Stuart; Dann, James; hide

    2001-01-01

    The Gamma Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) Large Area Telescope (LAT) is a pair-production high-energy (greater than 20 MeV) gamma-ray telescope being built by an international partnership of astrophysicists and particle physicists for a satellite launch in 2006, designed to study a wide variety of high-energy astrophysical phenomena. As part of the development effort, the collaboration has built a Balloon Flight Engineering Model (BFEM) for flight on a high-altitude scientific balloon. The BFEM is approximately the size of one of the 16 GLAST-LAT towers and contains all the components of the full instrument: plastic scintillator anticoincidence system (ACD), high-Z foil/Si strip pair-conversion tracker (TKR), CsI hodoscopic calorimeter (CAL), triggering and data acquisition electronics (DAQ), commanding system, power distribution, telemetry, real-time data display, and ground data processing system. The principal goal of the balloon flight was to demonstrate the performance of this instrument configuration under conditions similar to those expected in orbit. Results from a balloon flight from Palestine, Texas, on August 4, 2001, show that the BFEM successfully obtained gamma-ray data in this high-background environment.

  16. 77 FR 41203 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-12

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice 12-057] NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of..., the National Aeronautics and Space Administration announces an open meeting of the NASA International...

  17. 77 FR 2765 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice (12-003)] NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of..., the National Aeronautics and Space Administration announces an open meeting of the NASA International...

  18. 77 FR 66082 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice 12-090] NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of..., the National Aeronautics and Space Administration announces an open meeting of the NASA International...

  19. Nano-Particle Enhanced Polymer Materials for Space Flight Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criss, Jim M., Jr.; Powell, William D.; Connell, John W.; Stallworth-Bordain, Yemaya; Brown, Tracy R.; Mintz, Eric A.; Schlea, Michelle R.; Shofne, Meisha L.

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in materials technology both in polymer chemistry and nano-materials warrant development of enhanced structures for space flight applications. This work aims to develop spacecraft structures based on polymer matrix composites (PMCs) that utilize these advancements.. Multi-wall carbon nano-tubes (MWCNTs) are expected ·to increase mechanical performance, lower coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), increase electrical conductivity (mitigate electrostatic charge), increase thermal conductivity, and reduce moisture absorption of the resultant space structures. In this work, blends of MWCNTs with PETI-330 were prepared and characterized. The nano-reinforced resins were then resin transfer molded (RTM) into composite panels using M55J carbon fabric and compared to baseline panels fabricated from a cyanate ester (RS-3) or a polyimide (PETI-330) resin containing no MWCNTs. In addition, methods of pre-loading the fabric with the MWCNTs were also investigated. The effects of the MWCNTs on the resin processing properties and on the composite end-use properties were also determined.

  20. Aurora 7 the Mercury space flight of M. Scott Carpenter

    CERN Document Server

    Burgess, Colin

    2016-01-01

    TO A NATION enthralled by the heroic exploits of the Mercury astronauts, the launch of Lt. Cmdr. Scott Carpenter on NASA’s second orbital space flight was a renewed cause for pride, jubilation and celebration. Within hours, that excitement had given way to stunned disbelief and anxiety as shaken broadcasters began preparing the American public for the very real possibility that an American astronaut and his spacecraft may have been lost at sea. In fact, it had been a very close call. Completely out of fuel and forced to manually guide Aurora 7 through the frightening inferno of re-entry, Carpenter brought the Mercury spacecraft down to a safe splashdown in the ocean. In doing so, he controversially overshot the intended landing zone. Despite his efforts, Carpenter’s performance on the MA-7 mission was later derided by powerful figures within NASA. He would never fly into space again. Taking temporary leave of NASA, Carpenter participated in the U.S. Navy’s pioneering Sealab program. For a record 30 days...

  1. Cardiovascular Aspects of Space Shuttle Flights: At the Heart of Three Decades of American Spaceflight Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, John B.; Platts, S. H.

    2011-01-01

    The advent of the Space Shuttle era elevated cardiovascular deconditioning from a research topic in gravitational physiology to a concern with operational consequences during critical space mission phases. NASA has identified three primary cardiovascular risks associate with short-duration (less than 18 d) spaceflight: orthostatic intolerance; decreased maximal oxygen uptake; and cardiac arrhythmias. Orthostatic hypotension (OH) was observed postflight in Mercury astronauts, studied in Gemini and Apollo astronauts, and tracked as it developed in-flight during Skylab missions. A putative hypotensive episode in the pilot during an early shuttle landing, and well documented postflight hypotension in a quarter of crewmembers, catalyzed NASA's research effort to understand its mechanisms and develop countermeasures. Shuttle investigations documented the onset of OH, tested mechanistic hypotheses, and demonstrated countermeasures both simple and complex. Similarly, decreased aerobic capacity in-flight threatened both extravehicular activity and post-landing emergency egress. In one study, peak oxygen uptake and peak power were significantly decreased following flights. Other studies tested hardware and protocols for aerobic conditioning that undergird both current practice on long-duration International Space Station (ISS) missions and plans for interplanetary expeditions. Finally, several studies suggest that cardiac arrhythmias are of less concern during short-duration spaceflight than during long-duration spaceflight. Duration of the QT interval was unchanged and the frequency of premature atrial and ventricular contractions was actually shown to decrease during extravehicular activity. These investigations on short-duration Shuttle flights have paved the way for research aboard long-duration ISS missions and beyond. Efforts are already underway to study the effects of exploration class missions to asteroids and Mars.

  2. Planning to Explore: Using a Coordinated Multisource Infrastructure to Overcome Present and Future Space Flight Planning Challenges

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Few human endeavors present as much of a planning and scheduling challenge as space flight, particularly manned space flight. Just on the operational side of it,...

  3. Marshall Space Flight Center's Virtual Reality Applications Program 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Joseph P., II

    1993-01-01

    A Virtual Reality (VR) applications program has been under development at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) since 1989. Other NASA Centers, most notably Ames Research Center (ARC), have contributed to the development of the VR enabling technologies and VR systems. This VR technology development has now reached a level of maturity where specific applications of VR as a tool can be considered. The objectives of the MSFC VR Applications Program are to develop, validate, and utilize VR as a Human Factors design and operations analysis tool and to assess and evaluate VR as a tool in other applications (e.g., training, operations development, mission support, teleoperations planning, etc.). The long-term goals of this technology program is to enable specialized Human Factors analyses earlier in the hardware and operations development process and develop more effective training and mission support systems. The capability to perform specialized Human Factors analyses earlier in the hardware and operations development process is required to better refine and validate requirements during the requirements definition phase. This leads to a more efficient design process where perturbations caused by late-occurring requirements changes are minimized. A validated set of VR analytical tools must be developed to enable a more efficient process for the design and development of space systems and operations. Similarly, training and mission support systems must exploit state-of-the-art computer-based technologies to maximize training effectiveness and enhance mission support. The approach of the VR Applications Program is to develop and validate appropriate virtual environments and associated object kinematic and behavior attributes for specific classes of applications. These application-specific environments and associated simulations will be validated, where possible, through empirical comparisons with existing, accepted tools and methodologies. These validated VR analytical

  4. International Cooperation in the Field of International Space Station (ISS) Payload Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, C.; Sgobba, T.; Larsen, A.; Rose, S.; Heimann, T.; Ciancone, M.; Mulhern, V.

    2005-12-01

    In the frame of the International Space Station (ISS) Program cooperation, in 1998 the European Space Agency (ESA) approached the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) with the unique concept of a Payload Safety Review Panel (PSRP) "franchise" based at the European Space Technology Center (ESTEC), where the panel would be capable of autonomously reviewing flight hardware for safety. This paper will recount the course of an ambitious idea as it progressed into a fully functional reality. It will show how a panel initially conceived at NASA to serve a national programme has evolved into an international safety cooperation asset. The PSRP established at NASA began reviewing ISS payloads approximately in late 1994 or early 1995 as an expansion of the pre- existing Shuttle Program PSRP. This paper briefly describes the fundamental Shuttle safety process and the establishment of the safety requirements for payloads intending to use the Space Transportation System and ISS. The paper will also offer some historical statistics about the experiments that completed the payload safety process for Shuttle and ISS. The paper then presents the background of ISS agreements and international treaties that had to be considered when establishing the ESA PSRP. The paper will expound upon the detailed franchising model, followed by an outline of the cooperation charter approved by the NASA Associate Administrator, Office of Space Flight, and ESA Director of Manned Spaceflight and Microgravity. The paper will then address the resulting ESA PSRP implementation and its success statistics to date. Additionally, the paper presents ongoing developments with the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). The discussion will conclude with ideas for future developments, such to achieve a fully integrated international system of payload safety panels for ISS.

  5. Ambiguous Tilt and Translation Motion Cues in Astronauts after Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, G.; Harm, D. L.; Rupert, A. H.; Beaton, K. H.; Wood, S. J.

    2008-01-01

    that performance on the closed-loop tilt control task will be improved with this tactile display feedback of tilt orientation. The current plans include testing on eight crewmembers following Space Shuttle missions or short stay onboard the International Space Station. Measurements are obtained pre-flight at L-120 (plus or minus 30), L-90 (plus or minus 30), and L-30, (plus or minus 10) days and post-flight at R+0, R+1, R+2 or 3, R+4 or 5, and R+8 days. Pre-and post-flight testing (from R+1 on) is performed in the Neuroscience Laboratory at the NASA Johnson Space Center on both the Tilt-Translation Device and a variable radius centrifuge. A second variable radius centrifuge, provided by DLR for another joint ESA-NASA project, has been installed at the Baseline Data Collection Facility at Kennedy Space Center to collect data immediately after landing. ZAG was initiated with STS-122/1E and the first post-flight testing will take place after STS-123/1JA landing.

  6. Health Management Applications for International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alena, Richard; Duncavage, Dan

    2005-01-01

    Traditional mission and vehicle management involves teams of highly trained specialists monitoring vehicle status and crew activities, responding rapidly to any anomalies encountered during operations. These teams work from the Mission Control Center and have access to engineering support teams with specialized expertise in International Space Station (ISS) subsystems. Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) applications can significantly augment these capabilities by providing enhanced monitoring, prognostic and diagnostic tools for critical decision support and mission management. The Intelligent Systems Division of NASA Ames Research Center is developing many prototype applications using model-based reasoning, data mining and simulation, working with Mission Control through the ISHM Testbed and Prototypes Project. This paper will briefly describe information technology that supports current mission management practice, and will extend this to a vision for future mission control workflow incorporating new ISHM applications. It will describe ISHM applications currently under development at NASA and will define technical approaches for implementing our vision of future human exploration mission management incorporating artificial intelligence and distributed web service architectures using specific examples. Several prototypes are under development, each highlighting a different computational approach. The ISStrider application allows in-depth analysis of Caution and Warning (C&W) events by correlating real-time telemetry with the logical fault trees used to define off-nominal events. The application uses live telemetry data and the Livingstone diagnostic inference engine to display the specific parameters and fault trees that generated the C&W event, allowing a flight controller to identify the root cause of the event from thousands of possibilities by simply navigating animated fault tree models on their workstation. SimStation models the functional power flow

  7. Understanding the Effects of Long-duration Space Flight on Astronant Functional Task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Batson, Crystal D.; Buxton, Roxanne E.; Feiveson, Al H.; Kofman, Igor S.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Miller, Chris A.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Peters, Brian T.; Phillips, Tiffany; hide

    2014-01-01

    Space flight is known to cause alterations in multiple physiological systems including changes in sensorimotor, cardiovascular, and neuromuscular systems. These physiological changes cause balance, gait and visual disturbances, cardiovascular deconditioning, and loss of muscle mass and strength. These changes may affect a crewmember's ability to perform critical mission tasks immediately after landing on a planetary surface. To understand how changes in physiological function affect functional performance, an interdisciplinary pre- and postflight testing regimen, Functional Task Test (FTT), was developed to systematically evaluate both astronaut functional performance and related physiological changes. Ultimately this information will be used to assess performance risks and inform the design of countermeasures for exploration class missions. We are currently conducting the FTT study on International Space Station (ISS) crewmembers before and after 6-month expeditions. Additionally, in a corresponding study we are using the FTT protocol on subjects before and after 70 days of 6deg head-down bed-rest as an analog for space flight. Bed-rest provides the opportunity for us to investigate the role of prolonged axial body unloading in isolation from the other physiological effects produced by exposure to the microgravity environment of space flight. Therefore, the bed rest analog allows us to investigate the impact of body unloading on both functional tasks and on the underlying physiological factors that lead to decrement in performance and then compare them with the results obtained in our space flight study. Functional tests included ladder climbing, hatch opening, jump down, manual manipulation of objects and tool use, seat egress and obstacle avoidance, recovery from a fall and object translation tasks. Physiological measures included assessments of postural and gait control, dynamic visual acuity, fine motor control, plasma volume, heart rate, blood pressure

  8. Internal space decimation for lattice gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flyvbjerg, H.

    1984-01-01

    By a systematic decimation of internal space lattice gauge theories with continuous symmetry groups are mapped into effective lattice gauge theories with finite symmetry groups. The decimation of internal space makes a larger lattice tractable with the same computational resources. In this sense the method is an alternative to Wilson's and Symanzik's programs of improved actions. As an illustrative test of the method U(1) is decimated to Z(N) and the results compared with Monte Carlo data for Z(4)- and Z(5)-invariant lattice gauge theories. The result of decimating SU(3) to its 1080-element crystal-group-like subgroup is given and discussed. (orig.)

  9. Miniature Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer for Space and Extraterrestrial Applications, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The PI has developed a miniature time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS), which can be op-timized for space and extraterrestrial applications, by using a...

  10. Leadership and Cultural Challenges in Operating the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, J. L.; Ritsher, J. B.; Saylor, S. A.; Kanas, N.

    2006-01-01

    Operating the International Space Station (ISS) involves an indefinite, continuous series of long-duration international missions, and this requires an unprecedented degree of cooperation across multiple sites, organizations, and nations. ISS flight controllers have had to find ways to maintain effective team performance in this challenging new context. The goal of this study was to systematically identify and evaluate the major leadership and cultural challenges faces by ISS flight controllers, and to highlight the approaches that they have found most effective to surmount these challenges. We conducted a qualitative survey using a semi-structured interview. Subjects included 14 senior NASA flight controllers who were chosen on the basis of having had substantial experience working with international partners. Data were content analyzed using an iterative process with multiple coders and consensus meetings to resolve discrepancies. To further explore the meaning of the interview findings, we also conducted some new analyses of data from a previous questionnaire study of Russian and American ISS mission control personnel. The interview data showed that respondents had substantial consensus on several leadership and cultural challenges and on key strategies for dealing with them, and they offered a wide range of specific tactics for implementing these strategies. Surprisingly few respondents offered strategies for addressing the challenge of working with team members whose native language is not American English. The questionnaire data showed that Americans think it is more important than Russians that mission control personnel speak the same dialect of one shared common language. Although specific to the ISS program, our results are consistent with recent management, cultural, and aerospace research. We aim to use our results to improve training for current and future ISS flight controllers.

  11. From CERN to the International Space Station and back

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    In December I flew on the Space Shuttle Discovery to ISS, the International Space Station. The main objectives were to continue building ISS, deliver consumables, spare parts and experiments and for the exchange of one crew member on ISS. During the 8-day stay at ISS, I participated in three space-walks, but also got the opportunity to perform one experiment, ALTEA, related to radiation in space and light flashes seen by many people in space. I will give a quick personal history, from when I was a Fellow at Cern in 1990 and learned that I could apply to become an ESA astronaut, to when I finally boarded a space craft to launch on Dec. 9th 2006. A 17 minute video will tell the story about the flight itself. The second half of the talk will be about research related to radiation in space that I have been involved in since joining ESA in 1992. In particular, about light flashes that were first reported on Apollo-11 in 1969, and the SilEye detectors flown on Mir and ISS to investigate fluxes of charged particles ...

  12. Two X-38 Ship Demonstrators in Development at NASA Johnson Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This photo shows two X-38 Crew Return Vehicle technology demonstrators under development at NASA's Johnson Space Flight Center, Houston, Texas. The X-38 Crew Return Vehicle (CRV) research project is designed to develop the technology for a prototype emergency crew return vehicle, or lifeboat, for the International Space Station. The project is also intended to develop a crew return vehicle design that could be modified for other uses, such as a joint U.S. and international human spacecraft that could be launched on the French Ariane-5 Booster. The X-38 project is using available technology and off-the-shelf equipment to significantly decrease development costs. Original estimates to develop a capsule-type crew return vehicle were estimated at more than $2 billion. X-38 project officials have estimated that development costs for the X-38 concept will be approximately one quarter of the original estimate. Off-the-shelf technology is not necessarily 'old' technology. Many of the technologies being used in the X-38 project have never before been applied to a human-flight spacecraft. For example, the X-38 flight computer is commercial equipment currently used in aircraft and the flight software operating system is a commercial system already in use in many aerospace applications. The video equipment for the X-38 is existing equipment, some of which has already flown on the space shuttle for previous NASA experiments. The X-38's primary navigational equipment, the Inertial Navigation System/Global Positioning System, is a unit already in use on Navy fighters. The X-38 electromechanical actuators come from previous joint NASA, U.S. Air Force, and U.S. Navy research and development projects. Finally, an existing special coating developed by NASA will be used on the X-38 thermal tiles to make them more durable than those used on the space shuttles. The X-38 itself was an unpiloted lifting body designed at 80 percent of the size of a projected emergency crew return vehicle

  13. Back pain in space and post-flight spine injury: Mechanisms and countermeasure development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayson, Jojo V.; Lotz, Jeffrey; Parazynski, Scott; Hargens, Alan R.

    2013-05-01

    During spaceflight many astronauts experience moderate to severe lumbar pain and deconditioning of paraspinal muscles. There is also a significant incidence of herniated nucleus pulposus (HNP) in astronauts post-flight being most prevalent in cervical discs. Relief of in-flight lumbar back pain is facilitated by assuming a knee-to-chest position. The pathogenesis of lumbar back pain during spaceflight is most likely discogenic and somatic referred (from the sinuvertebral nerves) due to supra-physiologic swelling of the lumbar intervertebral discs (IVDs) due to removal of gravitational compressive loads in microgravity. The knee-to-chest position may reduce lumbar back pain by redistributing stresses through compressive loading to the IVDs, possibly reducing disc volume by fluid outflow across IVD endplates. IVD stress redistribution may reduce Type IV mechanoreceptor nerve impulse propagation in the annulus fibrosus and vertebral endplate resulting in centrally mediated pain inhibition during spinal flexion. Countermeasures for lumbar back pain may include in-flight use of: (1) an axial compression harness to prevent excessive IVD expansion and spinal column elongation; (2) the use of an adjustable pulley exercise developed to prevent atrophy of spine muscle stabilisers; and (3) other exercises that provide Earth-like annular stress with low-load repetitive active spine rotation movements. The overall objective of these countermeasures is to promote IVD health and to prevent degenerative changes that may lead to HNPs post-flight. In response to "NASA's Critical Path Roadmap Risks and Questions" regarding disc injury and higher incidence of HNPs after space flight (Integrated Research Plan Gap-B4), future studies will incorporate pre- and post-flight imaging of International Space Station long-duration crew members to investigate mechanisms of lumbar back pain as well as degeneration and damage to spinal structures. Quantitative results on morphological, biochemical

  14. Space Environment Testing of Photovoltaic Array Systems at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Brandon S.; Schneider, Todd A.; Vaughn, Jason A.; Wright, Kenneth H., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    To successfully operate a photovoltaic (PV) array system in space requires planning and testing to account for the effects of the space environment. It is critical to understand space environment interactions not only on the PV components, but also the array substrate materials, wiring harnesses, connectors, and protection circuitry (e.g. blocking diodes). Key elements of the space environment which must be accounted for in a PV system design include: Solar Photon Radiation, Charged Particle Radiation, Plasma, and Thermal Cycling. While solar photon radiation is central to generating power in PV systems, the complete spectrum includes short wavelength ultraviolet components, which photo-ionize materials, as well as long wavelength infrared which heat materials. High energy electron radiation has been demonstrated to significantly reduce the output power of III-V type PV cells; and proton radiation damages material surfaces - often impacting coverglasses and antireflective coatings. Plasma environments influence electrostatic charging of PV array materials, and must be understood to ensure that long duration arcs do not form and potentially destroy PV cells. Thermal cycling impacts all components on a PV array by inducing stresses due to thermal expansion and contraction. Given such demanding environments, and the complexity of structures and materials that form a PV array system, mission success can only be ensured through realistic testing in the laboratory. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has developed a broad space environment test capability to allow PV array designers and manufacturers to verify their system's integrity and avoid costly on-orbit failures. The Marshall Space Flight Center test capabilities are available to government, commercial, and university customers. Test solutions are tailored to meet the customer's needs, and can include performance assessments, such as flash testing in the case of PV cells.

  15. Human space flight and future major space astrophysics missions: servicing and assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thronson, Harley; Peterson, Bradley M.; Greenhouse, Matthew; MacEwen, Howard; Mukherjee, Rudranarayan; Polidan, Ronald; Reed, Benjamin; Siegler, Nicholas; Smith, Hsiao

    2017-09-01

    Some concepts for candidate future "flagship" space observatories approach the payload limits of the largest launch vehicles planned for the next few decades, specifically in the available volume in the vehicle fairing. This indicates that an alternative to autonomous self-deployment similar to that of the James Webb Space Telescope will eventually be required. Moreover, even before this size limit is reached, there will be significant motivation to service, repair, and upgrade in-space missions of all sizes, whether to extend the life of expensive facilities or to replace outworn or obsolete onboard systems as was demonstrated so effectively by the Hubble Space Telescope program. In parallel with these challenges to future major space astronomy missions, the capabilities of in-space robotic systems and the goals for human space flight in the 2020s and 2030s offer opportunities for achieving the most exciting science goals of the early 21st Century. In this paper, we summarize the history of concepts for human operations beyond the immediate vicinity of the Earth, the importance of very large apertures for scientific discovery, and current capabilities and future developments in robot- and astronaut-enabled servicing and assembly.

  16. International Space Station Medical Projects - Full Services to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzyk, R. A.; Primeaux, L. L.; Wood, S. J.; Vessay, W. B.; Platts, S. H.

    2018-01-01

    The International Space Station Medical Projects (ISSMP) Element provides planning, integration, and implementation services for HRP research studies for both spaceflight and flight analog research. Through the implementation of these two efforts, ISSMP offers an innovative way of guiding research decisions to meet the unique challenges of understanding the human risks to space exploration. Flight services provided by ISSMP include leading informed consent briefings, developing and validating in-flight crew procedures, providing ISS crew and ground-controller training, real-time experiment monitoring, on-orbit experiment and hardware operations and facilitating data transfer to investigators. For analog studies at the NASA Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA), the ISSMP team provides subject recruitment and screening, science requirements integration, data collection schedules, data sharing agreements, mission scenarios and facilities to support investigators. The ISSMP also serves as the HRP interface to external analog providers including the :envihab bed rest facility (Cologne, Germany), NEK isolation chamber (Moscow, Russia) and the Antarctica research stations. Investigators working in either spaceflight or analog environments requires a coordinated effort between NASA and the investigators. The interdisciplinary nature of both flight and analog research requires investigators to be aware of concurrent research studies and take into account potential confounding factors that may impact their research objectives. Investigators must define clear research requirements, participate in Investigator Working Group meetings, obtain human use approvals, and provide study-specific training, sample and data collection and procedures all while adhering to schedule deadlines. These science requirements define the technical, functional and performance operations to meet the research objectives. The ISSMP maintains an expert team of professionals with the knowledge and

  17. Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Test Facility at Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Darlene

    1989-01-01

    Different aspects of Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) testing are currently taking place at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Unique to this testing is the variety of test areas and the fact that all are located in one building. The north high bay of building 4755, the Core Module Integration Facility (CMIF), contains the following test areas: the Subsystem Test Area, the Comparative Test Area, the Process Material Management System (PMMS), the Core Module Simulator (CMS), the End-use Equipment Facility (EEF), and the Pre-development Operational System Test (POST) Area. This paper addresses the facility that supports these test areas and briefly describes the testing in each area. Future plans for the building and Space Station module configurations will also be discussed.

  18. International ties. [international cooperation in the space sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    A historical overview of NASA's participation in international activities in space science is given. The Ariel, Alouette, Isis, and San Marco satellite programs are addressed along with sounding rocket and ground based projects. Relations and cooperation with the Soviet Union are also discussed.

  19. Genomic and proteomic analysis of soybean heritable variations induced by space flight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Jie; GAO Yong; SUN Ye-qing

    2009-01-01

    To analyze the biological effects of space environment, the diversity of genomic DNA between the space flight soybean 194(4126) with phenotype of good yield and good fruit quality induced by space flight and the soybean with ground control was studied by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) method, and the polymorphism of space flight soybean 194(4126) was 3.56%. The differences of protein expression of seeds and leaves between the two kinds of soybeans were analysed by two-dimensional electrophoresis, PDQuest software and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Results show that the loss and decrease of protein expression in 194(4126) soybean are subjected to the space fight of seeds, and three special proteins including Dehydrin, MAT1 and ceQORH are identified. It is concluded that the space environment changes the phenotype and geno-type of soybeans due to the space flight of seeds.

  20. Fluid Studies on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motil, Brian J.

    2016-01-01

    Will discuss the recent activities on the international space station, including the adiabatic two phase flow, capillary flow and interfacial phenomena, and boiling and condensation. Will also give a historic introduction to Microgravity Studies at Glenn Research Center. Talk will be given to students and faculty at University of Louisville.

  1. Charge conjugation and internal space time symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavsic, M.; Recami, E.

    1982-01-01

    The relativistic framework in which fundamental particles are regarded as extended objects is adopted. Then it is shown than the geometrical operation which reflects the internal space time particle is equivalent to the operation C which inverts the sign of all its additive charges

  2. Issues concerning outer space investments in international law ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Issues concerning outer space investments in international law. ... Recent improvements in technology have in essence increased the viability of outer space as the next frontier for international investment and development. In addition to ... Key words: Outer Space, Investments, International Law, International Space Station ...

  3. Macromolecular Crystallization in Microfluidics for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, Lisa A.; Spearing, Scott

    2003-01-01

    At NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, the Iterative Biological Crystallization (IBC) project has begun development on scientific hardware for macromolecular crystallization on the International Space Station (ISS). Currently ISS crystallization research is limited to solution recipes that were prepared on the ground prior to launch. The proposed hardware will conduct solution mixing and dispensing on board the ISS, be fully automated, and have imaging functions via remote commanding from the ground. Utilizing microfluidic technology, IBC will allow for on orbit iterations. The microfluidics LabChip(R) devices that have been developed, along with Caliper Technologies, will greatly benefit researchers by allowing for precise fluid handling of nano/pico liter sized volumes. IBC will maximize the amount of science return by utilizing the microfluidic approach and be a valuable tool to structural biologists investigating medically relevant projects.

  4. Space flight calcium: implications for astronaut health, spacecraft operations, and Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M; McCoy, Torin; Gazda, Daniel; Morgan, Jennifer L L; Heer, Martina; Zwart, Sara R

    2012-12-18

    The space flight environment is known to induce bone loss and, subsequently, calcium loss. The longer the mission, generally the more bone and calcium are lost. This review provides a history of bone and calcium studies related to space flight and highlights issues related to calcium excretion that the space program must consider so that urine can be recycled. It also discusses a novel technique using natural stable isotopes of calcium that will be helpful in the future to determine calcium and bone balance during space flight.

  5. Actions Needed to Ensure Scientific and Technical Information is Adequately Reviewed at Goddard Space Flight Center, Johnson Space Center, Langley Research Center, and Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This audit was initiated in response to a hotline complaint regarding the review, approval, and release of scientific and technical information (STI) at Johnson Space Center. The complainant alleged that Johnson personnel conducting export control reviews of STI were not fully qualified to conduct those reviews and that the reviews often did not occur until after the STI had been publicly released. NASA guidance requires that STI, defined as the results of basic and applied scientific, technical, and related engineering research and development, undergo certain reviews prior to being released outside of NASA or to audiences that include foreign nationals. The process includes technical, national security, export control, copyright, and trade secret (e.g., proprietary data) reviews. The review process was designed to preclude the inappropriate dissemination of sensitive information while ensuring that NASA complies with a requirement of the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 (the Space Act)1 to provide for the widest practicable and appropriate dissemination of information resulting from NASA research activities. We focused our audit on evaluating the STI review process: specifically, determining whether the roles and responsibilities for the review, approval, and release of STI were adequately defined and documented in NASA and Center-level guidance and whether that guidance was effectively implemented at Goddard Space Flight Center, Johnson Space Center, Langley Research Center, and Marshall Space Flight Center. Johnson was included in the review because it was the source of the initial complaint, and Goddard, Langley, and Marshall were included because those Centers consistently produce significant amounts of STI.

  6. International Space Station External Contamination Environment for Space Science Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Carlos E.; Mikatarian, Ronald R.; Steagall, Courtney A.; Huang, Alvin Y.; Koontz, Steven; Worthy, Erica

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is the largest and most complex on-orbit platform for space science utilization in low Earth orbit. Multiple sites for external payloads, with exposure to the associated natural and induced environments, are available to support a variety of space science utilization objectives. Contamination is one of the induced environments that can impact performance, mission success and science utilization on the vehicle. The ISS has been designed, built and integrated with strict contamination requirements to provide low levels of induced contamination on external payload assets. This paper addresses the ISS induced contamination environment at attached payload sites, both at the requirements level as well as measurements made on returned hardware, and contamination forecasting maps being generated to support external payload topology studies and science utilization.

  7. Cultural factors and the International Space Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritsher, Jennifer Boyd

    2005-06-01

    The American and Russian/Soviet space programs independently uncovered psychosocial risks inherent in long-duration space missions. Now that these two countries are working together on the International Space Station (ISS), American-Russian cultural differences pose an additional set of risk factors. These may echo cultural differences that have been observed in the general population of the two countries and in space analogue settings, but little is known about how relevant these are to the select population of space program personnel. The evidence for the existence of mission-relevant cultural differences is reviewed and includes cultural values, emotional expressivity, personal space norms, and personality characteristics. The review is focused primarily on Russia and the United States, but also includes other ISS partner countries. Cultural differences among space program personnel may have a wide range of effects. Moreover, culture-related strains may increase the probability of distress and impairment. Such factors could affect the individual and interpersonal functioning of both crewmembers and mission control personnel, whose performance is also critical for mission safety and success. Examples from the anecdotal and empirical literature are given to illustrate these points. The use of existing assessment strategies runs the risk of overlooking important early warning signs of behavioral health difficulties. By paying more attention to cultural differences and how they might be manifested, we are more likely to detect problems early while they are still mild and resolvable.

  8. Keynote speech - Manned Space Flights: Lessons Learned from Space Craft Operation and Maintenance

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    Following graduation in 1973 from the Ecole de l'Air (the French Air Force Academy), Michel Tognini served in the French Air Force as an operational fighter pilot, flight leader in 1976, flight commander in 1979, test pilot then chief test pilot from 1983 to 1985. In 1985, France opened a recruitment program to expand its astronaut corps, and Michel Tognini was one of seven candidates selected by CNES. In July 1986, he was one of four candidates to undergo medical examinations in Moscow. In August 1986, he was assigned as a back-up crew member for the Soyuz TM-7 mission. Although he remained a French Air Force officer, he was placed on detachment to CNES for his space flight activities from September 1986 onwards. In 1991 he went to Star City, Russia, to start prime crew training for the third Soviet-French ANTARES mission. During his stay in Russia, he linked up with Mir (ANTARES mission) and spent 14 days (July 27–Aug. 10, 1992; Soyuz TM-14 and TM-14)carrying out a program of joint Soviet-French experimen...

  9. Psychosocial Research on the International Space Station: Special Privacy Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanas, N.; Salnitskiy, V.; Ritsher, J.; Grund, E.; Weiss, D.; Gushin, V.; Kozerenko, O.

    Conducting psychosocial research with astronauts and cosmonauts requires special privacy and confidentiality precautions due to the high profile nature of the subject population and to individual crewmember perception of the risks inherent in divulging sensitive psychological information. Sampling from this small population necessitates subject protections above and beyond standard scientific human subject protocols. Many of these protections have relevance for psychosocial research on the International Space Station. In our previous study of psychosocial issues involving crewmembers on the Mir space station, special precautions were taken during each phase of the missions. These were implemented in order to gain the trust necessary to ameliorate the perceived risks of divulging potentially sensitive psychological information and to encourage candid responses. Pre-flight, a standard confidentiality agreement was provided along with a special layman's summary indicating that only group-level data would be presented, and subjects chose their own ID codes known only to themselves. In-flight, special procedures and technologies (such as encryption) were employed to protect the data during the collection. Post-flight, an analytic strategy was chosen to further mask subject identifiers, and draft manuscripts were reviewed by the astronaut office prior to publication. All of the eligible five astronauts and eight cosmonauts who flew joint US/Russian missions on the Mir were successfully recruited to participate, and their data completion rate was 76%. Descriptive analyses of the data indicated that there was sufficient variability in all of the measures to indicate that thoughtful, discriminating responses were being provided (e.g., the full range of response options was used in 63 of the 65 items of the Profile of Mood States measure, and both true and false response options were used in all 126 items of the Group Environment and the Work Environment measures). This

  10. Return and profitability of space programs. Information - the main product of flights in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolova, Irena

    The basic branch providing global information, as a product on the market, is astronautics and in particular aero and space flights. Nowadays economic categories like profitability, return, and self-financing are added to space information. The activity in the space information service market niche is an opportunity for realization of high economic efficiency and profitability. The present report aims at examining the possibilities for return and profitability of space programs. Specialists in economics from different countries strive for defining the economic effect of implementing space technologies in the technical branches on earth. Still the priorities here belong to government and insufficient market organization and orientation is apparent. Attracting private investors and searching for new mechanisms of financing are the factors for increasing economic efficiency and return of capital invested in the mentioned sphere. Return of utilized means is an economically justified goal, a motive for a bigger enlargement of efforts and directions for implementing the achievements of astronautics in the branches of economy on earth.

  11. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) sounding-rocket program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidotti, J. G.

    1976-01-01

    An overall introduction to the NASA sounding rocket program as managed by the Goddard Space Flight Center is presented. The various sounding rockets, auxiliary systems (telemetry, guidance, etc.), launch sites, and services which NASA can provide are briefly described.

  12. Digital Data Matrix Scanner Developnent At Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Research at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has resulted in a system for reading hidden identification codes using a hand-held magnetic scanner. It's an invention that could help businesses improve inventory management, enhance safety, improve security, and aid in recall efforts if defects are discovered. Two-dimensional Data Matrix symbols consisting of letters and numbers permanently etched on items for identification and resembling a small checkerboard pattern are more efficient and reliable than traditional bar codes, and can store up to 100 times more information. A team led by Fred Schramm of the Marshall Center's Technology Transfer Department, in partnership with PRI,Torrance, California, has developed a hand-held device that can read this special type of coded symbols, even if covered by up to six layers of paint. Before this new technology was available, matrix symbols were read with optical scanners, and only if the codes were visible. This latest improvement in digital Data Matrix technologies offers greater flexibility for businesses and industries already using the marking system. Paint, inks, and pastes containing magnetic properties are applied in matrix symbol patterns to objects with two-dimensional codes, and the codes are read by a magnetic scanner, even after being covered with paint or other coatings. The ability to read hidden matrix symbols promises a wide range of benefits in a number of fields, including airlines, electronics, healthcare, and the automotive industry. Many industries would like to hide information on a part, so it can be read only by the party who put it there. For instance, the automotive industry uses direct parts marking for inventory control, but for aesthetic purposes the marks often need to be invisible. Symbols have been applied to a variety of materials, including metal, plastic, glass, paper, fabric and foam, on everything from electronic parts to pharmaceuticals to livestock. The portability of the hand

  13. Friction Stir Welding Development at National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Biliyar N.; Carter, Robert W.; Ding, Robert J.; Lawless, Kirby G.; Nunes, Arthur C., Jr.; Russell, Carolyn K.; Shah, Sandeep R.; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents an over-view of friction stir welding (FSW) process development and applications at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). FSW process development started as a laboratory curiosity but soon found support from many users. The FSW process advanced very quickly and has found many applications both within and outside the aerospace industry. It is currently being adapted for joining key elements of the Space Shuttle External Tank for improved producibility and reliability. FSW process modeling is done to better understand and improve the process. Special tools have been developed to weld variable thickness materials including very thin and very thick materials. FSW is now being applied to higher temperature materials such as copper and to advanced materials such as metal matrix composites. FSW technology is being successfully transferred from MSFC laboratory to shop floors of many commercial companies.

  14. Benefits of International Collaboration on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasbrook, Pete; Robinson, Julie A.; Brown Tate, Judy; Thumm, Tracy; Cohen, Luchino; Marcil, Isabelle; De Parolis, Lina; Hatton, Jason; Umezawa, Kazuo; Shirakawa, Masaki; hide

    2017-01-01

    The International Space Station is a valuable platform for research in space, but the benefits are limited if research is only conducted by individual countries. Through the efforts of the ISS Program Science Forum, international science working groups, and interagency cooperation, international collaboration on the ISS has expanded as ISS utilization has matured. Members of science teams benefit from working with counterparts in other countries. Scientists and institutions bring years of experience and specialized expertise to collaborative investigations, leading to new perspectives and approaches to scientific challenges. Combining new ideas and historical results brings synergy and improved peer-reviewed scientific methods and results. World-class research facilities can be expensive and logistically complicated, jeopardizing their full utilization. Experiments that would be prohibitively expensive for a single country can be achieved through contributions of resources from two or more countries, such as crew time, up- and downmass, and experiment hardware. Cooperation also avoids duplication of experiments and hardware among agencies. Biomedical experiments can be completed earlier if astronauts or cosmonauts from multiple agencies participate. Countries responding to natural disasters benefit from ISS imagery assets, even if the country has no space agency of its own. Students around the world participate in ISS educational opportunities, and work with students in other countries, through open curriculum packages and through international competitions. Even experiments conducted by a single country can benefit scientists around the world, through specimen sharing programs and publicly accessible "open data" repositories. For ISS data, these repositories include GeneLab and the Physical Science Informatics System. Scientists can conduct new research using ISS data without having to launch and execute their own experiments. Multilateral collections of research

  15. International Space Station Earth Observations Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanov, William L.; Oikawa, Koki

    2015-01-01

    The multilateral Earth Observations Working Group (EOWG) was chartered in May 2012 in order to improve coordination and collaboration of Earth observing payloads, research, and applications on the International Space Station (ISS). The EOWG derives its authority from the ISS Program Science Forum, and a NASA representative serves as a permanent co-chair. A rotating co-chair position can be occupied by any of the international partners, following concurrence by the other partners; a JAXA representative is the current co-chair. Primary functions of the EOWG include, 1) the exchange of information on plans for payloads, from science and application objectives to instrument development, data collection, distribution and research; 2) recognition and facilitation of opportunities for international collaboration in order to optimize benefits from different instruments; and 3) provide a formal ISS Program interface for collection and application of remotely sensed data collected in response to natural disasters through the International Charter, Space and Major Disasters. Recent examples of EOWG activities include coordination of bilateral data sharing protocols between NASA and TsNIIMash for use of crew time and instruments in support of ATV5 reentry imaging activities; discussion of continued use and support of the Nightpod camera mount system by NASA and ESA; and review and revision of international partner contributions on Earth observations to the ISS Program Benefits to Humanity publication.

  16. The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) experiment on the International Space Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alpat, Behcet E-mail: behcet.alpat@pg.infn.it

    2001-04-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is a detector designed to operate in space to search for antimatter components in cosmic ray, the annihilation products of darkmatter and to study the antiprotons, positrons and light nuclei. A 'baseline' version of the experiment has successfully completed the precursor flight on Space Shuttle Discovery (June 2-12, 1998). The complete AMS is programmed for installation on International Space Station in year 2003 for an operational period of 3 years. In this contribution we report on the experimental configuration of AMS that will be installed on International Space Station.

  17. International Research Results and Accomplishments From the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruttley, Tara M.; Robinson, Julie A.; Tate-Brown, Judy; Perkins, Nekisha; Cohen, Luchino; Marcil, Isabelle; Heppener, Marc; Hatton, Jason; Tasaki, Kazuyuki; Umemura, Sayaka; hide

    2016-01-01

    In 2016, the International Space Station (ISS) partnership published the first-ever compilation of international ISS research publications resulting from research performed on the ISS through 2011. The International Space Station Research Accomplishments: An Analysis of Results From 2000-2011 is a collection of summaries of over 1,200 journal publications that describe ISS research in the areas of biology and biotechnology; Earth and space science; educational activities and outreach; human research; physical sciences; technology development and demonstration; and, results from ISS operations. This paper will summarize the ISS results publications obtained through 2011 on behalf of the ISS Program Science Forum that is made up of senior science representatives across the international partnership. NASA's ISS Program Science office maintains an online experiment database (www.nasa.gov/issscience) that tracks and communicates ISS research activities across the entire ISS partnership, and it is continuously updated. It captures ISS experiment summaries and results and includes citations to the journals, conference proceedings, and patents as they become available. The International Space Station Research Accomplishments: An Analysis of Results From 2000-2011 is a testament to the research that was underway even as the ISS laboratory was being built. It reflects the scientific knowledge gained from ISS research, and how it impact the fields of science in both space and traditional science disciplines on Earth. Now, during a time when utilization is at its busiest, and with extension of the ISS through at least 2024, the ISS partners work together to track the accomplishments and the new knowledge gained in a way that will impact humanity like no laboratory on Earth. The ISS Program Science Forum will continue to capture and report on these results in the form of journal publications, conference proceedings, and patents. We anticipate that successful ISS research will

  18. Why Deep Space Habitats Should Be Different from the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Brand; Brown, MacAulay

    2016-01-01

    It is tempting to view the International Space Station (ISS) as a model for deep space habitats. This is not a good idea for many reasons. The ISS does not have a habitation module; instead the individual crew quarters are dispersed across several modules, the galley is in the US Laboratory and the waste hygiene compartment is in a Node. This distributed arrangement may be inconvenient but more important differences distinguish a deep space habitat from the ISS. First, the Space Shuttle launch system that shaped, sized, and delivered most ISS elements has been retired. Its replacement, the Space Launch System (SLS), is specifically designed for human exploration beyond low-Earth orbit and is capable of transporting more efficient, large diameter, heavy-lift payloads. Next, because of the Earth's protective geomagnetic field, ISS crews are naturally shielded from lethal radiation. Deep space habitat designs must include either a storm shelter or strategically positioned equipment and stowage for radiation protection. Another important difference is the increased transit time with no opportunity for an ISS-type emergency return. It takes 7 to 10 days to go between Earth and cis-lunar locations and 1000 days for the Mars habitat transit. This long commute calls for greater crew autonomy with habitats designed for the crew to fix their own problems. The ISS rack-enclosed, densely packaged subsystems are a product of the Shuttle era and not maintenance friendly. A solution better suited for deep space habitats spreads systems out allowing direct access to single-layer packaging and providing crew access to each component without having to remove another. Operational readiness is another important discriminator. The ISS required over 100 flights to build, resupply, and transport the crew, whereas SLS offers the capability to launch a fully provisioned habitat that is operational without additional outfitting or resupply flights.

  19. NASA's Space Launch System: An Enabling Capability for International Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creech, Stephen D.; May, Todd A.; Robinson, Kimberly F.

    2014-01-01

    As the program moves out of the formulation phase and into implementation, work is well underway on NASA's new Space Launch System, the world's most powerful launch vehicle, which will enable a new era of human exploration of deep space. As assembly and testing of the rocket is taking place at numerous sites around the United States, mission planners within NASA and at the agency's international partners continue to evaluate utilization opportunities for this ground-breaking capability. Developed with the goals of safety, affordability, and sustainability in mind, the SLS rocket will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), equipment, supplies, and major science missions for exploration and discovery. NASA is developing this new capability in an austere economic climate, a fact which has inspired the SLS team to find innovative solutions to the challenges of designing, developing, fielding, and operating the largest rocket in history, via a path that will deliver an initial 70 metric ton (t) capability in December 2017 and then continuing through an incremental evolutionary strategy to reach a full capability greater than 130 t. SLS will be enabling for the first missions of human exploration beyond low Earth in almost half a century, and from its first crewed flight will be able to carry humans farther into space than they have ever voyaged before. In planning for the future of exploration, the International Space Exploration Coordination Group, representing 12 of the world's space agencies, has created the Global Exploration Roadmap, which outlines paths toward a human landing on Mars, beginning with capability-demonstrating missions to the Moon or an asteroid. The Roadmap and corresponding NASA research outline the requirements for reference missions for these destinations. SLS will offer a robust way to transport international crews and the air, water, food, and equipment they would need for such missions.

  20. Getting to First Flight: Equipping Space Engineers to Break the Start-Stop-Restart Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Christopher E.; Dumbacher, Daniel L.

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA s) history is built on a foundation of can-do strength, while pointing to the Saturn/Apollo Moon missions in the 1960s and 1970s as its apex a sentiment that often overshadows the potential that lies ahead. The chronicle of America s civil space agenda is scattered with programs that got off to good starts with adequate resources and vocal political support but that never made it past a certain milestone review, General Accountability Office report, or Congressional budget appropriation. Over the decades since the fielding of the Space Shuttle in the early 1980s, a start-stop-restart cycle has intervened due to many forces. Despite this impediment, the workforce has delivered engineering feats such as the International Space Station and numerous Shuttle and science missions, which reflect a trend in the early days of the Exploration Age that called for massive infrastructure and matching capital allocations. In the new millennium, the aerospace industry must respond to transforming economic climates, the public will, national agendas, and international possibilities relative to scientific exploration beyond Earth s orbit. Two pressing issues - workforce transition and mission success - are intertwined. As this paper will address, U.S. aerospace must confront related workforce development and industrial base issues head on to take space exploration to the next level. This paper also will formulate specific strategies to equip space engineers to move beyond the seemingly constant start-stop-restart mentality to plan and execute flight projects that actually fly.

  1. International cooperation in the Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raney, William P.

    1987-01-01

    The principles and policies governing participation in the International Space Station are examined from a NASA perspective. The history of the program is reviewed; the most important aspects of the partnership concept (functional allocation, shared access, and interface commonality) are considered in detail; and the ongoing outfitting studies are briefly characterized. Major issues remaining to be negotiated include (1) the overall management structure; (2) the division of responsibilities for system design, integration, operation, and utilization; and (3) the sharing of operating costs.

  2. Risk Management for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, J.; Brezovic, Philip

    2002-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is an extremely complex system, both technically and programmatically. The Space Station must support a wide range of payloads and missions. It must be launched in numerous launch packages and be safely assembled and operated in the harsh environment of space. It is being designed and manufactured by many organizations, including the prime contractor, Boeing, the NASA institutions, and international partners and their contractors. Finally, the ISS has multiple customers, (e.g., the Administration, Congress, users, public, international partners, etc.) with contrasting needs and constraints. It is the ISS Risk Management Office strategy to proactively and systematically manages risks to help ensure ISS Program success. ISS program follows integrated risk management process (both quantitative and qualitative) and is integrated into ISS project management. The process and tools are simple and seamless and permeate to the lowest levels (at a level where effective management can be realized) and follows the continuous risk management methodology. The risk process assesses continually what could go wrong (risks), determine which risks need to be managed, implement strategies to deal with those risks, and measure effectiveness of the implemented strategies. The process integrates all facets of risk including cost, schedule and technical aspects. Support analysis risk tools like PRA are used to support programatic decisions and assist in analyzing risks.

  3. Human Space Exploration and Human Space Flight: Latency and the Cognitive Scale of the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Dan; Thronson, Harley

    2011-01-01

    The role of telerobotics in space exploration as placing human cognition on other worlds is limited almost entirely by the speed of light, and the consequent communications latency that results from large distances. This latency is the time delay between the human brain at one end, and the telerobotic effector and sensor at the other end. While telerobotics and virtual presence is a technology that is rapidly becoming more sophisticated, with strong commercial interest on the Earth, this time delay, along with the neurological timescale of a human being, quantitatively defines the cognitive horizon for any locale in space. That is, how distant can an operator be from a robot and not be significantly impacted by latency? We explore that cognitive timescale of the universe, and consider the implications for telerobotics, human space flight, and participation by larger numbers of people in space exploration. We conclude that, with advanced telepresence, sophisticated robots could be operated with high cognition throughout a lunar hemisphere by astronauts within a station at an Earth-Moon Ll or L2 venue. Likewise, complex telerobotic servicing of satellites in geosynchronous orbit can be carried out from suitable terrestrial stations.

  4. Human physiology and psychology in space flight; Uchu hiko ni okeru ningen no seiri to shinri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murai, T. [National Space Development Agency of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-10-05

    Human beings' adaptation to space and the effects on them of a prolonged stay in space are discussed. Some effects may be detrimental to crewmen even when they are medically judged as 'normal' and 'adaptable.' Bone deliming, muscular atrophy, and hypodynamia may be physiologically 'normal' and 'adaptable' in the zero-gravity environment where no strength is required to hold a position or attitude, and they will not cause any serious problems if crewmen are to stay in the zero-gravity environment permanently. Astronauts work on conditions that they return to the earth, however, and they have to stand on their own legs when back on the ground. Such being the case, they in the space vehicle are forced to make efforts at having their bone density and muscular strength sustained. It is inevitable for a space station to be a closed, isolated system, and the crewmen have to live in multinational, multicultural, and multilingual circumstances in case the flight is an international project. They will be exposed to great social and psychological stresses, and their adaptability to such stresses presents an important task. (NEDO)

  5. Physics Research on the International Space Station

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is orbiting Earth at an altitude of around 400 km. It has been manned since November 2000 and currently has a permanent crew of six. On-board ISS science is done in a wide field of sciences, from fundamental physics to biology and human physiology. Many of the experiments utilize the unique conditions of weightlessness, but also the views of space and the Earth are exploited. ESA’s (European Space Agency) ELIPS (European Programme Life and Physical sciences in Space) manages some 150 on-going and planned experiments for ISS, which is expected to be utilized at least to 2020. This presentation will give a short introduction to ISS, followed by an overview of the science field within ELIPS and some resent results. The emphasis, however, will be on ISS experiments which are close to the research performed at CERN. Silicon strip detectors like ALTEA are measuring the flux of ions inside the station. ACES (Atomic Clock Ensemble in Space) will provide unprecedented global ti...

  6. On-Orbit Measurement of Next Generation Space Solar Cell Technology on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolford, David S.; Myers, Matthew G.; Prokop, Norman F.; Krasowski, Michael J.; Parker, David S.; Cassidy, Justin C.; Davies, William E.; Vorreiter, Janelle O.; Piszczor, Michael F.; McNatt, Jeremiah S.

    2015-01-01

    Measurement is essential for the evaluation of new photovoltaic (PV) technology for space solar cells. NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is in the process of measuring several solar cells in a supplemental experiment on NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Robotic Refueling Mission's (RRM) Task Board 4 (TB4). Four industry and government partners have provided advanced PV devices for measurement and orbital environment testing. The experiment will be on-orbit for approximately 18 months. It is completely self-contained and will provide its own power and internal data storage. Several new cell technologies including four- junction (4J) Inverted Metamorphic Multijunction (IMM) cells will be evaluated and the results compared to ground-based measurements.

  7. PREFACE: International Symposium on Physical Sciences in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Andreas; Egry, Ivan

    2011-12-01

    ISPS is the major international scientific forum for researchers in physics utilizing the space environment, in particular microgravity. It is intended to inspire and encourage cross-cutting discussions between different scientific communities working in the same environment. Contributions discussing results of experiments carried out on drop towers, parabolic aircraft flights, sounding rockets, unmanned recoverable capsules and, last but not least, the International Space Station ISS, are the backbone of this conference series, complemented by preparatory ground-based work, both experimentally and theoretically. The first International Symposium on Physical Sciences in Space (ISPS) sponsored by the International Microgravity Strategic Planning Group (IMSPG) took place in 2000 in Sorrento, Italy. IMSPG seeks to coordinate the planning of space for research in physical sciences by space agencies worldwide. AEB (Brazil), ASI (Italy), CNES (France), CSA (Canada), DLR (Germany), ESA (Europe), JAXA (Japan), NASA (USA), NSAU (Ukraine) and RSA (Russia) are members, and CNSA (China) and ISRO (India) are also invited to join IMSPG meetings. ISPS-4 was the fourth symposium in that series, following ISPS-2 organized by CSA in 2004 in Toronto, Canada, and ISPS-3 organized in 2007 by JAXA in Nara, Japan. ISPS-4 was jointly organized by ESA and DLR on behalf of the IMSPG and was held in Bonn from 11-15 July 2011. 230 participants from 17 different countries attended ISPS-4. Recent microgravity experiments were presented, analysed, and set in context to results from Earth bound experiments in 16 plenary and 68 topical talks. Lively discussions continued during two dedicated poster sessions and at the exhibition booths of space industry and research centers with new flight hardware on display. The oral presentations at ISPS4 were selected exclusively on the basis of scientific merit, as evidenced through the submitted abstracts. The selection was performed by the International

  8. Effect of space flight factors on alfalfa seeds | Ren | African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. To explore the effect of space flight factors on the early development of alfalfa seedling, dry seeds were placed onboard a satellite for a 15-day flight. After retrieval, the ultra structure of seed coat and the chemical content of seed were tested, followed by tests for germinate ability, seedling growth, and mitotic and ...

  9. The effects of space flight on some rat liver enzymes regulating carbohydrate and lipid metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, S.; Lin, C. Y.; Klein, H. P.; Volkmann, C.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of space flight conditions on the activities of certain enzymes regulating carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in rat liver are investigated in an attempt to account for the losses in body weight observed during space flight despite preflight caloric consumption. Liver samples were analyzed for the activities of 32 cytosolic and microsomal enzymes as well as hepatic glycogen and individual fatty acid levels for ground control rats and rats flown on board the Cosmos 936 biosatellite under normal space flight conditions and in centrifuges which were sacrificed upon recovery or 25 days after recovery. Significant decreases in the activities of glycogen phosphorylase, alpha-glycerol phosphate acyl transferase, diglyceride acyl transferase, aconitase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase and an increase in palmitoyl CoA desaturase are found in the flight stationary relative to the flight contrifuged rats upon recovery, with all enzymes showing alterations returning to normal values 25 days postflight. The flight stationary group is also observed to be characterized by more than twice the amount of liver glycogen of the flight centrifuged group as well as a significant increase in the ratio of palmitic to palmitoleic acid. Results thus indicate metabolic changes which may be involved in the mechanism of weight loss during weightlessness, and demonstrate the equivalence of centrifugation during space flight to terrestrial gravity.

  10. Space Flight Resource Management Training for International Space Station Flight Controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, William S.

    2011-01-01

    Training includes both SFRM-dedicated lessons and SFRM training embedded into technical lessons. Goal is to reduce certification times by 50% and integrated simulations by 75-90%. SFRM is practiced, evaluated and debriefed in part task trainers and full-task simulation lessons. SFRM model and training are constantly being evaluated against student/management feedback, best practices from industry/ military, and latest research.

  11. Green Monopropellant Status at Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnside, Christopher G.; Pierce, Charles W.; Pedersen, Kevin W.

    2016-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center is continuing investigations into the use of green monopropellants as a replacement for hydrazine in spacecraft propulsion systems. Work to date has been to push technology development through multiple activities designed to understand the capabilities of these technologies. Future work will begin to transition to mission pull as these technologies are mature while still keeping a solid goal of pushing technology development as opportunities become available. The AF-M315E activities began with hot-fire demonstration testing of a 1N monopropellant thruster in FY 14 and FY15. Following successful completion of the preliminary campaign, changes to the test stand to accommodate propellant conditioning capability and better control of propellant operations was incorporated to make testing more streamlined. The goal is to conduct hot-fire testing with warm and cold propellants using the existing feed system and original thruster design. Following the 1N testing, a NASA owned 100 mN thruster will be hot-fire tested in the same facility to show feasibility of scaling to smaller thrusters for cubesat applications. The end goal is to conduct a hot-fire test of an integrated cubesat propulsion system using an SLM printed propellant tank, an MSFC designed propulsion system electronic controller and the 100 mN thruster. In addition to the AF-M315E testing, MSFC is pursuing hot-fire testing with LMP-103S. Following our successful hot-fire testing of the 22N thruster in April 2015, a test campaign was proposed for a 440N LMP-103S thruster with Orbital ATK and Plasma Processes. This activity was funded through the Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) ACO funding call in the last quarter of CY15. Under the same funding source a test activity with Busek and Glenn Research Center for testing of 5N AF-M315E thrusters was proposed and awarded. Both activities are in-work with expected completion of hot-fire testing by the end of FY17. MSFC is

  12. Habitability research priorities for the International Space Station and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, M; Adolf, J A; Woolford, B J

    2000-09-01

    Advanced technology and the desire to explore space have resulted in increasingly longer manned space missions. Long Duration Space Flights (LDSF) have provided a considerable amount of scientific research on the ability of humans to adapt and function in microgravity environments. In addition, studies conducted in analogous environments, such as winter-over expeditions in Antarctica, have complemented the scientific understanding of human performance in LDSF. These findings indicate long duration missions may take a toll on the individual, both physiologically and psychologically, with potential impacts on performance. Significant factors in any manned LDSF are habitability, workload and performance. They are interrelated and influence one another, and therefore necessitate an integrated research approach. An integral part of this approach will be identifying and developing tools not only for assessment of habitability, workload, and performance, but also for prediction of these factors as well. In addition, these tools will be used to identify and provide countermeasures to minimize decrements and maximize mission success. The purpose of this paper is to identify research goals and methods for the International Space Station (ISS) in order to identify critical factors and level of impact on habitability, workload, and performance, and to develop and validate countermeasures. Overall, this approach will provide the groundwork for creating an optimal environment in which to live and work onboard ISS as well as preparing for longer planetary missions.

  13. Integrating ISHM with Flight Avionics Architectures for Cyber-Physical Space Systems, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Substantial progress has been made by NASA in integrating flight avionics and ISHM with well-defined caution and warning system, however, the scope of ACAW alerting...

  14. Cytological changes of root tip cells of alfalfa seeds after space flight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Weibo; Xu Zhu; Chen Libo; Guo Huiqin; Wang Mi; Zhao Liang

    2008-01-01

    To understand the cytological effects of space flight on alfalfa seeds, dry seeds of three lines (Line 1, Line 2 and Line 4) were selected and loaded onto 'Shijian No.8' satellite for space flight. After returning to the ground, root tips of alfalfa were clipped and chromosome aberrations were observed by microscope. Data showed that space flight had two types of effect on cell mitotic: one was positive (Line 2, Line 4) and the other was negative (Line 1). Such chromosome aberrations were observed as micronucleus, chromosome bridge, fragments, lagging and so on. The frequency of aberration varied with the different materials. Conclusion was that space flight had significant effect on root tip cells, which mainly showed as the chromosome aberrations. (authors)

  15. Lunar EVA Dosimetry: MIcroDosimeter iNstrument (MIDN) System Suitable for Space Flight

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MIDN PROTOTYPE FLIGHT INSTRUMENT 1. Based on our experience with the MIDN development, we designed and developed an advanced version of the instrument. 2. A...

  16. Pulmonary function evaluation during and following Skylab space flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawin, C. F.; Nicogossian, A. E.; Schachter, A. P.; Rummel, J. A.; Michel, E. L.

    1974-01-01

    Previous experience during the Apollo postflight exercise testing indicated no major changes in pulmonary function. Although pulmonary function has been studied in detail following exposure to hypoxic and hyperoxic environments, few studies have dealt with normoxic environments at reduced total pressure as encountered during the Skylab missions. Forced vital capacity was measured during the preflight and postflight periods of the Skylab 2 mission. Initial in-flight measurements of vital capacity were obtained during the last two weeks of the second manned mission (Skylab 3). Comprehensive pulmonary function screening was accomplished during the Skylab 4 mission. The primary measurements made during Skylab 4 testing included residual volume determination, closing volume, vital capacity, and forced vital capacity and its derivatives. In addition, comprehensive in-flight vital capacity measurements were made during the Skylab 4 mission. Vital capacity was decreased slightly during flight in all Skylab 4 crewmen. No major preflight to postflight changes were observed in the other parameters.

  17. Research progress on the space-flight mutation breeding of woodyplant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Binbin; Sun Yuhan; Li Yun

    2013-01-01

    The space-flight mutation breeding conception, characteristics, mutagenic effects, research progress at home and abroad in woody plant were reviewed in this paper. Compared with crops, although the research of the woody plants space-flight mutation breeding in China started later, but it has developed rapidly and has gotten certain achievement. Now the satellite and high-altitude balloon experiment were conducted with over 20 tree species such as Populus ussuriensis and 50 flower species such as Paeonia suffruticosa. The above work will has profound significance for space-flight breeding technology application on woody plants. In the end, this thesis analyzes the prospect in the future from four aspects such as using woody plants asexual reproduction characteristic, strengthening the space mutation mechanism study, enhancing new space mutation varieties screen and strengthening ornamental specific types selection. This thesis also thinks that the space mutation breeding is expected to become an effective way in woody plant genetic breeding. (authors)

  18. Design and Parametric Sizing of Deep Space Habitats Supporting NASA'S Human Space Flight Architecture Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toups, Larry; Simon, Matthew; Smitherman, David; Spexarth, Gary

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Human Space Flight Architecture Team (HAT) is a multi-disciplinary, cross-agency study team that conducts strategic analysis of integrated development approaches for human and robotic space exploration architectures. During each analysis cycle, HAT iterates and refines the definition of design reference missions (DRMs), which inform the definition of a set of integrated capabilities required to explore multiple destinations. An important capability identified in this capability-driven approach is habitation, which is necessary for crewmembers to live and work effectively during long duration transits to and operations at exploration destinations beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO). This capability is captured by an element referred to as the Deep Space Habitat (DSH), which provides all equipment and resources for the functions required to support crew safety, health, and work including: life support, food preparation, waste management, sleep quarters, and housekeeping.The purpose of this paper is to describe the design of the DSH capable of supporting crew during exploration missions. First, the paper describes the functionality required in a DSH to support the HAT defined exploration missions, the parameters affecting its design, and the assumptions used in the sizing of the habitat. Then, the process used for arriving at parametric sizing estimates to support additional HAT analyses is detailed. Finally, results from the HAT Cycle C DSH sizing are presented followed by a brief description of the remaining design trades and technological advancements necessary to enable the exploration habitation capability.

  19. Dispute settlement in international space law : a multi-door courthouse for outer space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goh, Gérardine Meishan

    2007-01-01

    The rights, rules and regulations of international space law are futile without an effective enforcement mechanism that provides a sufficient and adequate remedy. International space law is particularly significant in the evolution of international dispute settlement because it involves a

  20. Estimation of absorbed dose for poor shields under conditions of near-earth space flight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konyukov, V.V.; Krajnyukov, V.I.; Trufanov, A.I.

    1995-01-01

    Estimation of electron absorbed dose in materials of a space vehicle for poor shields under conditions of near-earth space flight is carried out. Impact of power and angular distribution of incidence electrons and radiation scattering processes under conditions of complex geometry and multitude of materials of flight vehicle elements and nodes is studied through simulator model by example of isolating layer of aluminium-polyethylene assembly. 3 refs.; 2 figs

  1. Astronauts Need Their Rest Too: Sleep-Wake Actigraphy and Light Exposure During Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czeisler, Charles; Bloomberg, Jacob; Lee, Angie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The success and effectiveness of human space flight depends on astronauts' ability to maintain a high level of cognitive performance and vigilance. This alert state ensures the proper operation of sophisticated instrumentation. An important way for humans to remedy fatigue and maintain alertness is to get plenty of rest. Astronauts, however, commonly experience difficulty sleeping while in space. During flight, they may also experience disruption of the body's circadian rhythm - the natural phases the body goes through every day as we oscillate between states of high activity during the waking day and recuperation, rest, and repair during nighttime sleep. Both of these factors are associated with impairment of alertness and performance, which could have important consequences during a mission in space. The human body was designed to sleep at night and be alert and active during the day. We receive these cues from the time of day or amount of light, such as the rising or setting of the sun. However, in the environment of the Space Shuttle or the International Space Station where light levels are highly variable, the characteristics of a 24-hour light/dark cycle are not present to cue the astronauts' bodies about what time of the day it is. Astronauts orbiting Earth see a sunset and sunrise every 90 minutes, sending potentially disruptive signals to the area of the brain that regulates sleep. On STS-107, researchers will measure sleep-wake activity with state-of-the-art technology to quantify how much sleep astronauts obtain in space. Because light is the most powerful time cue to the body's circadian system, individual light exposure patterns of the astronauts will also be monitored to determine if light exposure is associated with sleep disruption. The results of this research could lead to the development of a new treatment for sleep disturbances, enabling crewmembers to avoid the decrements in alertness and performance due to sleep deprivation. What we learn

  2. International Space Station Bacteria Filter Element Service Life Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J. L.

    2005-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) uses high-efficiency particulate air filters to remove particulate matter from the cabin atmosphere. Known as bacteria filter elements (BFEs), there are 13 elements deployed on board the ISS's U.S. segment in the flight 4R assembly level. The preflight service life prediction of 1 yr for the BFEs is based upon engineering analysis of data collected during developmental testing that used a synthetic dust challenge. While this challenge is considered reasonable and conservative from a design perspective, an understanding of the actual filter loading is required to best manage the critical ISS program resources. Testing was conducted on BFEs returned from the ISS to refine the service life prediction. Results from this testing and implications to ISS resource management are provided.

  3. Habitability Assessment of International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaxton, Sherry

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess habitability during the International Space Station 1-year mission, and subsequent 6-month missions, in order to better prepare for future long-duration spaceflights to destinations such as Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) and Mars, which will require crewmembers to live and work in a confined spacecraft environment for over a year. Data collected using Space Habitability Observation Reporting Tool (iSHORT), crew-collected videos, questionnaires, and PI conferences will help characterize the current state of habitability for the ISS. These naturalistic techniques provide crewmembers with the opportunity to self-report habitability and human factors observations in near real-time, which is not systematically done during ISS missions at present.

  4. Now calling at the International Space Station

    CERN Document Server

    Katarina Anthony

    2012-01-01

    On 31 July, an unmanned Russian Progress spacecraft was launched from the desert steppe of Kazakhstan. Its destination: the International Space Station (ISS). On board: five Timepix detectors developed by the Medipix2 Collaboration.   With the Timepix on board, Progress 48 was launched 31 July from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. Source: RSC Energia. Timepix detectors are small, USB powered particle trackers based on Medipix2 technology. The Timepix chip, which was developed at CERN, is coupled to a silicon sensor and incorporated into a minature readout system - developed at IEAP, Prague - which is about the size of a USB pen drive. These systems have been used across a variety of disciplines: from the study of cosmic rays to biomedical imaging. Now on board the ISS, they are providing highly accurate measurements of space radiation for dosimetry purposes. “There’s nothing else in the world that has quite the capability of Timepix detectors to ...

  5. Return from space: from the International Space Station to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    On 16 May 2011, the space shuttle Endeavour took off for the last time from Cape Canaveral in Florida with six astronauts on board. Their mission (code-named STS-134) was to install the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS), the dark matter and antimatter detector designed at CERN, on the International Space Station. Since then, AMS has been sending data to CERN from space.   On Wednesday 25 July do not miss a rare opportunity to meet the mission’s six astronauts at CERN: Mark E. Kelly, commander (NASA) Greg H. Johnson, pilot (NASA) and the mission’s specialists: Michael Fincke (NASA) Roberto Vittori (ESA and ASI) Andrew J. Feustel (NASA) Greg Chamitoff (NASA) 4:20 pm: the event will kick off with a photo and autograph session at the Globe of Science and Innovation. 5 pm: lecture given by the astronauts for CERN personnel and summer students in the Main Auditorium. (Seats reserved for the summer students - contact: summer.student.info@cern.ch). ...

  6. Use of phytochrome-dependent reaction in evaluating the effect of space flight factors on the plant organism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shteyne, B. A.; Nevzgodina, L. V.; Miller, A. T.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of space flight factors on lettuce seeds aboard the Kosmos-936 and Kosmos-1129 satellites for 20 days were studied. The phytochrome dependent (PD) reaction of light sensitive seeds was a sensitive criterion for evaluating the biological effects of space flight factors. The PD reaction of air dry lettuce seeds was suppressed after space flight, especially if the seeds were exposed to open space during the flight. Space flight affects the physiological activity of both phytochrome forms, and both the phi sub 730 dependent reactions of lettuce seeds were suppressed.

  7. A review of the habitability aspects of prior space flights from the flight crew perspective with an orientation toward designing Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stramler, J. H.

    1990-01-01

    Habitability is a very important issue in long-duration spaceflight. With this concern, a review of much of the existing U.S. Skylab, Spacelab, and some Soviet literature on habitability aspects of long-duratioin space flight was completed for the Astronaut Space Station Support Office. The data were organized to follow as closely as possible the SSF distributed systems, such as Life Support, Data Management, etc. A new definition of habitability is proposed.

  8. International Space Station Configuration Analysis and Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anchondo, Rebekah

    2016-01-01

    Ambitious engineering projects, such as NASA's International Space Station (ISS), require dependable modeling, analysis, visualization, and robotics to ensure that complex mission strategies are carried out cost effectively, sustainably, and safely. Learn how Booz Allen Hamilton's Modeling, Analysis, Visualization, and Robotics Integration Center (MAVRIC) team performs engineering analysis of the ISS Configuration based primarily on the use of 3D CAD models. To support mission planning and execution, the team tracks the configuration of ISS and maintains configuration requirements to ensure operational goals are met. The MAVRIC team performs multi-disciplinary integration and trade studies to ensure future configurations meet stakeholder needs.

  9. Effects of space flight factors on genetic diversity of Buchloe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-05

    Oct 5, 2011 ... results for wheat coleoptiles, lettuce hypocotyls, and garden-cress ... space radiation dose for plant seeds at linear energy transfer (LET) space was 4.79 ... information content (PIC), total genetic diversity of materials i and j.

  10. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center's Space Weather Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Presentation involves educating Goddard Space Weather staff about what our needs are, what type of aircraft we have and to learn what we have done in the past to minimize our exposure to Space Weather Hazards.

  11. The international space year: priorities and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondratyev, K.Y.

    1990-01-01

    Principal purposes of the international space year (ISY) have been discussed. In view of the increasing significance of ecological problems it is becoming clear that there have to be two key directions of the ISY programmes: 1) various problems relevant to the international geosphere-biosphere programme (global climate change, global biosphere dynamics, regional ecological problems: desertification, forest decline, acid rains etc); 2) comparative planetology. One of the most urgent problems is connected with the accomplishment of the 'mission to planet earth' which has to be based on the creation of an optimal global system of satellite and conventional ecological observations (especially for various typical ecosystems). Studies of the other planets have to be coordinated with requirements of further investigations in the field of the earth's ecology

  12. Historical parallels of biological space experiments from Soyuz, Salyut and Mir to Shenzhou flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechitailo, Galina S.; Kondyurin, Alexey

    2016-07-01

    Human exploitation of space is a great achievement of our civilization. After the first space flights a development of artificial biological environment in space systems is a second big step. First successful biological experiments on a board of space station were performed on Salyut and Mir stations in 70-90th of last century such as - first long time cultivation of plants in space (wheat, linen, lettuce, crepis); - first flowers in space (Arabidopsis); - first harvesting of seeds in space (Arabidopsis); - first harvesting of roots (radish); - first full life cycle from seeds to seeds in space (wheat), Guinness recorded; - first tissue culture experiments (Panax ginseng L, Crocus sativus L, Stevia rebaundiana B; - first tree growing in space for 2 years (Limonia acidissima), Guinness recorded. As a new wave, the modern experiments on a board of Shenzhou Chinese space ships are performed with plants and tissue culture. The space flight experiments are now focused on applications of the space biology results to Earth technologies. In particular, the tomato seeds exposed 6 years in space are used in pharmacy industry in more then 10 pharmaceutical products. Tissue culture experiments are performed on the board of Shenzhou spaceship for creation of new bioproducts including Space Panax ginseng, Space Spirulina, Space Stetatin, Space Tomato and others products with unique properties. Space investments come back.

  13. Dreams, Hopes, Realities: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, the First Forty Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Lane E.

    1999-01-01

    Throughout history, the great achievements of civilizations and cultures have been recorded in lists of dates and events. But to look only at the machinery, discoveries, or milestones is to miss the value of these achievements. Each goal achieved or discovery or made represents a supreme effort on the part of individual people who came and worked together for a purpose greater than themselves. Driven by an innate curiosity of the spirit, we have built civilizations and discovered new worlds, always reaching out beyond what we knew or thought was possible. These efforts may have used ships or machinery, but the achievement was that of the humans who made those machines possible- remarkable people willing to endure discomfort, frustration, fatigue, and the risk of failure in the hope of finding out something new. This is the case with the history of the Goddard Space Flight Center. This publication traces the legacy of successes, risks, disappointments and internationally recognized triumphs of the Center's first 40 years. It is a story of technological achievement and scientific discovery; of reaching back to the dawn of time and opening up a new set of eyes on our own planet Earth. In the end, it is not a story about machinery or discoveries, but a story about ourselves. If we were able to step off our planet, and if we continue to discover new mysteries and better technology, it is because the people who work at Goddard always had a passion for exploration and the dedication to make it happen. The text that follows is a testimony to the challenges people at the Goddard Space Flight Center have faced and overcome over almost half a century. Today, we stand on the threshold of a new and equally challenging era. It will once again test our ingenuity, skills, and flexibility as we find new ways of working with our colleagues in industry, government, and academia. Doing more with less is every bit as ambitious as designing the first science instrument to study the

  14. Use of animal models for space flight physiology studies, with special focus on the immune system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    2005-01-01

    Animal models have been used to study the effects of space flight on physiological systems. The animal models have been used because of the limited availability of human subjects for studies to be carried out in space as well as because of the need to carry out experiments requiring samples and experimental conditions that cannot be performed using humans. Experiments have been carried out in space using a variety of species, and included developmental biology studies. These species included rats, mice, non-human primates, fish, invertebrates, amphibians and insects. The species were chosen because they best fit the experimental conditions required for the experiments. Experiments with animals have also been carried out utilizing ground-based models that simulate some of the effects of exposure to space flight conditions. Most of the animal studies have generated results that parallel the effects of space flight on human physiological systems. Systems studied have included the neurovestibular system, the musculoskeletal system, the immune system, the neurological system, the hematological system, and the cardiovascular system. Hindlimb unloading, a ground-based model of some of the effects of space flight on the immune system, has been used to study the effects of space flight conditions on physiological parameters. For the immune system, exposure to hindlimb unloading has been shown to results in alterations of the immune system similar to those observed after space flight. This has permitted the development of experiments that demonstrated compromised resistance to infection in rodents maintained in the hindlimb unloading model as well as the beginning of studies to develop countermeasures to ameliorate or prevent such occurrences. Although there are limitations to the use of animal models for the effects of space flight on physiological systems, the animal models should prove very valuable in designing countermeasures for exploration class missions of the future.

  15. Increased root production in soybeans grown under space flight conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, H. G.; Piastuch, W. C.

    The GENEX ({Gen}e {Ex}pression) spaceflight experiment (flown on STS-87) was developed to investigate whether direct and/or indirect effects of microgravity are perceived as an external stimulus for soybean seedling response. Protocols were designed to optimize root and shoot formation, gas exchange and moisture uniformity. Six surface sterilized soybean seeds (Glycine max cv McCall) were inserted into each of 32 autoclaved plastic seed growth pouches containing an inner germination paper sleeve (for a total of 192 seeds). The pouches were stowed within a mid-deck locker until Mission Flight Day 10, at which time an astronaut added water to each pouch (thereby initiating the process of seed germination on-orbit), and subsequently transferred them to four passive, light-tight aluminum canisters called BRIC-60s (Biological Research In Canisters). We report here on the morphological characteristics of: (1) the recovered flight material, (2) the corresponding ground control population, plus (3) additional controls grown on the ground under clinostat conditions. No significant growth differences were found between the flight, ground control and clinorotated treatments for either the cotyledons or hypocotyls. There were, however, significantly longer primary roots produced in the flight population relative to the ground control population, which in turn had significantly longer primary roots than the clinorotated population. This same pattern was observed relative to the production of lateral roots (flight > control > clinorotated). Taken together with previous literature reports, we believe that there is now sufficient evidence to conclude that plants grown under conditions of microgravity will generally exhibit enhanced root production relative to their ground control counterparts. The mechanism underlying this phenomenon is open to speculation. Funded under NASA Contract NAS10-12180.

  16. Thrust imbalance of solid rocket motor pairs on Space Shuttle flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, W. A., Jr.; Shu, P. H.; Sforzini, R. H.

    1986-01-01

    This analysis extends the investigation presented at the 17th Joint Propulsion Conference in 1981 to include fifteen sets of Space Shuttle flight data. The previous report dealt only with static test data and the first flight pair. The objective is to compare the authors' previous theoretical analysis of thrust imbalance with actual Space Shuttle performance. The theoretical prediction method, which involves a Monte Carlo technique, is reviewed briefly as are salient features of the flight instrumentation system and the statistical analysis. A scheme for smoothing flight data is discussed. The effects of changes in design parameters are discussed with special emphasis on the filament wound motor case being developed to replace the steel case. Good agreement between the predictions and the flight data is demonstrated.

  17. CSLAA and FAA'S Rules: Incorporating a 'Risk Management Framework' to Minimise Human Space Flight Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaddha, S.

    2012-01-01

    th This year marks the 50 anniversary of a landmark victory for humankind in its endeavour of entering and exploring the final frontier. During these years of space activity, we have witnessed a number of cumulative successes. One of which is the emergence of the commercial human space flight, or "space tourism", market. Commercial companies have the aim of travelling people into space safely and affordably. This paper shall consider the U.S. regulatory framework governing the space tourism market. It scrutinises the adequacy of the Commercial Space Launch and Amendment Act of 2004 (CSLAA), as bolstered by the FAA's requirements, to protect launching passengers to an acceptable standard of safety from the inherent risks associated with human space flights. It is argued that the legislative regime embeds a three-limb "risk management framework" as an appropriate response to address the concern over the safety of public space travel.

  18. Student Pave Way for First Microgravity Experiments on International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Chemist Arna Holmes, left, from the University of Alabama in Huntsville, teaches NaLonda Moorer, center, and Maricar Bana, right, both from Terry Parker High School in Jacksonville, Fl, procedures for preparing protein crystal growth samples for flight aboard the International Space Station (ISS). NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL, is a sponsor for this educational activity. The proteins are placed in plastic tubing that is heat-sealed at the ends, then flash-frozen and preserved in a liquid nitrogen Dewar. Aborad the ISS, the nitrogen will be allowed to evaporated so the samples thaw and then slowly crystallize. They will be analyzed after return to Earth. Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

  19. Maintaining outer space for peaceful purposes through international cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, George E.; Thacher, David J.; Kupperman, Helen S.

    1988-01-01

    NASA activities in support of international cooperation in space exploration and exploitation are briefly reviewed, with a focus on their compatibility with UN treaties. Particular attention is given to the provisions of the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 and other applicable legislation, the over 1000 bilateral and international agreements NASA has entered into since 1958, international participation in currently ongoing NASA projects (Hubble Space Telescope, Galileo, Ulysses, Rosat, the D-2 Spacelab mission), and plans for the International Space Station.

  20. Growth Chambers on the International Space Station for Large Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Gioia D.; Wheeler, Raymond M.; Morrow, Robert C.; Levine, Howard G.

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) now has platforms for conducting research on horticultural plant species under LED (Light Emitting Diodes) lighting, and those capabilities continue to expand. The Veggie vegetable production system was deployed to the ISS as an applied research platform for food production in space. Veggie is capable of growing a wide array of horticultural crops. It was designed for low power usage, low launch mass and stowage volume, and minimal crew time requirements. The Veggie flight hardware consists of a light cap containing red (630 nanometers), blue, (455 nanometers) and green (530 nanometers) LEDs. Interfacing with the light cap is an extendable bellowsbaseplate for enclosing the plant canopy. A second large plant growth chamber, the Advanced Plant Habitat (APH), is will fly to the ISS in 2017. APH will be a fully controllable environment for high-quality plant physiological research. APH will control light (quality, level, and timing), temperature, CO2, relative humidity, and irrigation, while scrubbing any cabin or plant-derived ethylene and other volatile organic compounds. Additional capabilities include sensing of leaf temperature and root zone moisture, root zone temperature, and oxygen concentration. The light cap will have red (630 nm), blue (450 nm), green (525 nm), far red (730 nm) and broad spectrum white LEDs (4100K). There will be several internal cameras (visible and IR) to monitor and record plant growth and operations. Veggie and APH are available for research proposals.

  1. International Cooperation of Payload Operations on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, Tina; Onken, Jay

    2003-01-01

    One of the primary goals of the International Space Station (ISS) is to provide an orbiting laboratory to be used to conduct scientific research and commercial products utilizing the unique environment of space. The ISS Program has united multiple nations into a coalition with the objective of developing and outfitting this orbiting laboratory and sharing in the utilization of the resources available. The primary objectives of the real- time integration of ISS payload operations are to ensure safe operations of payloads, to avoid mutual interference between payloads and onboard systems, to monitor the use of integrated station resources and to increase the total effectiveness of ISS. The ISS organizational architecture has provided for the distribution of operations planning and execution functions to the organizations with expertise to perform each function. Each IPP is responsible for the integration and operations of their payloads within their resource allocations and the safety requirements defined by the joint program. Another area of international cooperation is the sharing in the development and on- orbit utilization of unique payload facilities. An example of this cooperation is the Microgravity Science Glovebox. The hardware was developed by ESA and provided to NASA as part of a barter arrangement.

  2. The International Space Station: A Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) Test Bed for Advancements in Space and Environmental Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruttley, Tara M.; Robinson, Julie A.

    2010-01-01

    Ground-based space analog projects such as the NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) can be valuable test beds for evaluation of experimental design and hardware feasibility before actually being implemented on orbit. The International Space Station (ISS) is an closed-system laboratory that orbits 240 miles above the Earth, and is the ultimate extreme environment. Its inhabitants spend hours performing research that spans from fluid physics to human physiology, yielding results that have implications for Earth-based improvements in medicine and health, as well as those that will help facilitate the mitigation of risks to the human body associated with exploration-class space missions. ISS health and medical experiments focus on pre-flight and in-flight prevention, in-flight treatment, and postflight recovery of health problems associated with space flight. Such experiments include those on enhanced medical monitoring, bone and muscle loss prevention, cardiovascular health, immunology, radiation and behavior. Lessons learned from ISS experiments may not only be applicable to other extreme environments that face similar capability limitations, but also serve to enhance standards of care for everyday use on Earth.

  3. New Cryogenic Optical Test Capability at Marshall Space Flight Center's Space Optics Manufacturing Technology Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegley, Jeff; Burdine, Robert V. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A new cryogenic optical testing capability exists at Marshall Space Flight Center's Space Optics Manufacturing Technology Center (SOMTC). SOMTC has been performing optical wavefront testing at cryogenic temperatures since 1999 in the X-ray Cryogenic Test Facility's (XRCF's) large vacuum chamber. Recently the cryogenic optical testing capability has been extended to a smaller vacuum chamber. This smaller horizontal cylindrical vacuum chamber has been outfitted with a helium-cooled liner that can be connected to the facility's helium refrigeration system bringing the existing kilowatt of refrigeration capacity to bear on a 1 meter diameter x 2 meter long test envelope. Cryogenic environments to less than 20 Kelvin are now possible in only a few hours. SOMTC's existing instruments (the Instantaneous Phase-shifting Interferometer (IPI) from ADE Phase-Shift Technologies and the PhaseCam from 4D Vision Technologies) view the optic under test through a 150 mm clear aperture BK-7 window. Since activation and chamber characterization tests in September 2001, the new chamber has been used to perform a cryogenic (less than 30 Kelvin) optical test of a 22.5 cm diameter x 127 cm radius of curvature Si02 mirror, a cryogenic survival (less than 30 Kelvin) test of an adhesive, and a cryogenic cycle (less than 20 Kelvin) test of a ULE mirror. A vibration survey has also been performed on the test chamber. Chamber specifications and performance data, vibration environment data, and limited test results will be presented.

  4. Knowledge Capture and Management for Space Flight Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, John L.

    2005-01-01

    The incorporation of knowledge capture and knowledge management strategies early in the development phase of an exploration program is necessary for safe and successful missions of human and robotic exploration vehicles over the life of a program. Following the transition from the development to the flight phase, loss of underlying theory and rationale governing design and requirements occur through a number of mechanisms. This degrades the quality of engineering work resulting in increased life cycle costs and risk to mission success and safety of flight. Due to budget constraints, concerned personnel in legacy programs often have to improvise methods for knowledge capture and management using existing, but often sub-optimal, information technology and archival resources. Application of advanced information technology to perform knowledge capture and management would be most effective if program wide requirements are defined at the beginning of a program.

  5. Sampling Indoor Aerosols on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Marit E.

    2016-01-01

    In a spacecraft cabin environment, the size range of indoor aerosols is much larger and they persist longer than on Earth because they are not removed by gravitational settling. A previous aerosol experiment in 1991 documented that over 90 of the mass concentration of particles in the NASA Space Shuttle air were between 10 m and 100 m based on measurements with a multi-stage virtual impactor and a nephelometer (Liu et al. 1991). While the now-retired Space Shuttle had short duration missions (less than two weeks), the International Space Station (ISS) has been continually inhabited by astronauts for over a decade. High concentrations of inhalable particles on ISS are potentially responsible for crew complaints of respiratory and eye irritation and comments about 'dusty' air. Air filtration is the current control strategy for airborne particles on the ISS, and filtration modeling, performed for engineering and design validation of the air revitalization system in ISS, predicted that PM requirements would be met. However, aerosol monitoring has never been performed on the ISS to verify PM levels. A flight experiment is in preparation which will provide data on particulate matter in ISS ambient air. Particles will be collected with a thermophoretic sampler as well as with passive samplers which will extend the particle size range of sampling. Samples will be returned to Earth for chemical and microscopic analyses, providing the first aerosol data for ISS ambient air.

  6. Dynamics and cultural specifics of information needs under conditions of long-term space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feichtinger, Elena; Shved, Dmitry; Gushin, Vadim

    Life in conditions of space flight or chamber study with prolonged isolation is associated with lack of familiar stimuli (sensory deprivation), monotony, significant limitation of communication, and deficit of information and media content (Myasnikov V.I., Stepanova S.I. et al., 2000). Fulfillment of a simulation experiment or flight schedule implies necessity of performance of sophisticated tasks and decision making with limited means of external support. On the other hand, the “stream” of information from the Mission Control (MC) and PI’s (reminders about different procedures to be performed, requests of reports, etc.) is often inadequate to communication needs of crewmembers. According to the theory of “information stress” (Khananashvili M.M., 1984), a distress condition could be formed if: a) it’s necessary to process large amounts of information and make decisions under time pressure; b) there is a prolonged deficit of necessary (e.g. for decision making) information. Thus, we suppose that one of the important goals of psychological support of space or space simulation crews should be forming of favorable conditions of information environment. For that purpose, means of crew-MC information exchange (quantitative characteristics and, if possible, content of radiograms, text and video messages, etc.) should be studied, as well as peculiarities of the crewmembers’ needs in different information and media content, and their reactions to incoming information. In the space simulation experiment with 520-day isolation, communication of international crew with external parties had been studied. Dynamics of quantitative and content characteristics of the crew’s messages was related to the experiment’s stage, presence of “key” events in the schedule (periods of high autonomy, simulated “planetary landing”, etc.), as well as to events not related to the experiment (holidays, news, etc.). It was shown that characteristics of information exchange

  7. Rodent Research on the International Space Station - A Look Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapusta, A. B.; Smithwick, M.; Wigley, C. L.

    2014-01-01

    Rodent Research on the International Space Station (ISS) is one of the highest priority science activities being supported by NASA and is planned for up to two flights per year. The first Rodent Research flight, Rodent Research-1 (RR-1) validates the hardware and basic science operations (dissections and tissue preservation). Subsequent flights will add new capabilities to support rodent research on the ISS. RR-1 will validate the following capabilities: animal husbandry for up to 30 days, video downlink to support animal health checks and scientific analysis, on-orbit dissections, sample preservation in RNA. Later and formalin, sample transfer from formalin to ethanol (hindlimbs), rapid cool-down and subsequent freezing at -80 of tissues and carcasses, sample return and recovery. RR-2, scheduled for SpX-6 (Winter 20142015) will add the following capabilities: animal husbandry for up to 60 days, RFID chip reader for individual animal identification, water refill and food replenishment, anesthesia and recovery, bone densitometry, blood collection (via cardiac puncture), blood separation via centrifugation, soft tissue fixation in formalin with transfer to ethanol, and delivery of injectable drugs that require frozen storage prior to use. Additional capabilities are also planned for future flights and these include but are not limited to male mice, live animal return, and the development of experiment unique equipment to support science requirements for principal investigators that are selected for flight. In addition to the hardware capabilities to support rodent research the Crew Office has implemented a training program in generic rodent skills for all USOS crew members during their pre-assignment training rotation. This class includes training in general animal handling, euthanasia, injections, and dissections. The dissection portion of this training focuses on the dissection of the spleen, liver, kidney with adrenals, brain, eyes, and hindlimbs. By achieving and

  8. International Space Station Model Correlation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laible, Michael R.; Fitzpatrick, Kristin; Hodge, Jennifer; Grygier, Michael

    2018-01-01

    This paper summarizes the on-orbit structural dynamic data and the related modal analysis, model validation and correlation performed for the International Space Station (ISS) configuration ISS Stage ULF7, 2015 Dedicated Thruster Firing (DTF). The objective of this analysis is to validate and correlate the analytical models used to calculate the ISS internal dynamic loads and compare the 2015 DTF with previous tests. During the ISS configurations under consideration, on-orbit dynamic measurements were collected using the three main ISS instrumentation systems; Internal Wireless Instrumentation System (IWIS), External Wireless Instrumentation System (EWIS) and the Structural Dynamic Measurement System (SDMS). The measurements were recorded during several nominal on-orbit DTF tests on August 18, 2015. Experimental modal analyses were performed on the measured data to extract modal parameters including frequency, damping, and mode shape information. Correlation and comparisons between test and analytical frequencies and mode shapes were performed to assess the accuracy of the analytical models for the configurations under consideration. These mode shapes were also compared to earlier tests. Based on the frequency comparisons, the accuracy of the mathematical models is assessed and model refinement recommendations are given. In particular, results of the first fundamental mode will be discussed, nonlinear results will be shown, and accelerometer placement will be assessed.

  9. Space Exploration: Manned and Unmanned Flight. Aerospace Education III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coard, E. A.

    This book, for use only in the Air Force ROTC training program, deals with the idea of space exploration. The possibility of going into space and subsequent moon landings have encouraged the government and scientists to formulate future plans in this field. Brief descriptions (mostly informative in nature) of these plans provide an account of…

  10. Cardiovascular response to lower body negative pressure stimulation before, during, and after space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baisch, F.; Beck, L.; Blomqvist, G.; Wolfram, G.; Drescher, J.; Rome, J. L.; Drummer, C.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is well known that space travel cause post-flight orthostatic hypotension and it was assumed that autonomic cardiovascular control deteriorates in space. Lower body negative pressure (LBNP) was used to assess autonomic function of the cardiovascular system. METHODS: LBNP tests were performed on six crew-members before and on the first days post-flight in a series of three space missions. Additionally, two of the subjects performed LBNP tests in-flight. LBNP mimics fluid distribution of upright posture in a gravity independent way. It causes an artificial sequestration of blood, reduces preload, and filtrates plasma into the lower part of the body. Fluid distribution was assessed by bioelectrical impedance and anthropometric measurements. RESULTS: Heart rate, blood pressure, and total peripheral resistance increased significantly during LBNP experiments in-flight. The decrease in stroke volume, the increased pooling of blood, and the increased filtration of plasma into the lower limbs during LBNP indicated that a plasma volume reduction and a deficit of the interstitial volume of lower limbs rather than a change in cardiovascular control was responsible for the in-flight response. Post-flight LBNP showed no signs of cardiovascular deterioration. The still more pronounced haemodynamic changes during LBNP reflected the expected behaviour of cardiovascular control faced with less intravascular volume. In-flight, the status of an intra-and extravascular fluid deficit increases sympathetic activity, the release of vasoactive substances and consequently blood pressure. Post-flight, blood pressure decreases significantly below pre-flight values after restoration of volume deficits. CONCLUSION: We conclude that the cardiovascular changes in-flight are a consequence of a fluid deficit rather than a consequence of changes in autonomic signal processing.

  11. Environmental control and life support testing at the Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schunk, Richard G.; Humphries, William R.

    1987-01-01

    The Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) test program at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is addressed. The immediate goals and current activities of the test program are discussed. Also described are the Core Module Integration Facility (CMIF) and the initial ECLSS test configuration. Future plans for the ECLSS test program and the CMIF are summarized.

  12. Epigenetics Research on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, John; Cooley, Vic

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is a state-of-the orbiting laboratory focused on advancing science and technology research. Experiments being conducted on the ISS include investigations in the emerging field of Epigenetics. Epigenetics refers to stably heritable changes in gene expression or cellular phenotype (the transcriptional potential of a cell) resulting from changes in a chromosome without alterations to the underlying DNA nucleotide sequence (the genetic code), which are caused by external or environmental factors, such as spaceflight microgravity. Molecular mechanisms associated with epigenetic alterations regulating gene expression patterns include covalent chemical modifications of DNA (e.g., methylation) or histone proteins (e.g., acetylation, phorphorylation, or ubiquitination). For example, Epigenetics ("Epigenetics in Spaceflown C. elegans") is a recent JAXA investigation examining whether adaptations to microgravity transmit from one cell generation to another without changing the basic DNA of the organism. Mouse Epigenetics ("Transcriptome Analysis and Germ-Cell Development Analysis of Mice in Space") investigates molecular alterations in organ-specific gene expression patterns and epigenetic modifications, and analyzes murine germ cell development during long term spaceflight, as well as assessing changes in offspring DNA. NASA's first foray into human Omics research, the Twins Study ("Differential effects of homozygous twin astronauts associated with differences in exposure to spaceflight factors"), includes investigations evaluating differential epigenetic effects via comprehensive whole genome analysis, the landscape of DNA and RNA methylation, and biomolecular changes by means of longitudinal integrated multi-omics research. And the inaugural Genes in Space student challenge experiment (Genes in Space-1) is aimed at understanding how epigenetics plays a role in immune system dysregulation by assaying DNA methylation in immune cells

  13. Space weather biological and systems effects for suborbital flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-31

    The Aerospace Corporation was tasked to assess the impacts of space weather on both RLVs and ELVs operating at suborbital altitudes from launch sites located in the low (equatorial regions), middle, and high latitudes. The present report presents a b...

  14. Space/Flight Operable Miniature Six Axis Transducer, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — FUTEK will fully design and manufacture a sensor capable of measuring forces in and about each axis. The unit will measure forces up to 300 Newton's in the principle...

  15. Sol Invictus - Heliophilic Elements in Early Russian Space Flight Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolkowsky, G.

    Common historiographic theory refers to the space age as an extrapolation of the Age of the Enlightenment. According to this thesis, the Copernican transformation of man's place in the universe, and the gradual divergence of science away from Judeo-Christian theology, paved the road to the application of scientific and technological methodologies to the age-old notion of space travel. As an anti-thesis to this historiographic tradition, and in particular reference to the Russian case, one can point at the influence of certain metaphysical elements alien to the Enlightenment, some of which were pagan, on the birth of the space age. At the centre of this metaphysical foundation of astronautics stands the heliophilic motif, namely - the attribution of monistic potency to the sun, and the pursuit of an anthropo-solar affinity by way of space travel.

  16. Current Hypersonic and Space Vehicle Flight Test and Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-22

    ground station hardware and software. B. Space- based Platforms There are already in place several satellite based options to collecting and... Transceive data over very long range at low to very high altitudes DARPA: XS-1 Ground Based Aircraft Based Space Based Future Data...412TW-PA-15264 AIR FORCE TEST CENTER EDWARDS AIR FORCE BASE , CALIFORNIA AIR FORCE MATERIEL COMMAND UNITED STATES AIR FORCE REPORT

  17. Track structure model of cell damage in space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Robert; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wilson, John W.; Shinn, Judy L.; Ngo, Duc M.

    1992-01-01

    The phenomenological track-structure model of cell damage is discussed. A description of the application of the track-structure model with the NASA Langley transport code for laboratory and space radiation is given. Comparisons to experimental results for cell survival during exposure to monoenergetic, heavy-ion beams are made. The model is also applied to predict cell damage rates and relative biological effectiveness for deep-space exposures.

  18. International Space Station Lithium-Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Penni J.; Schwanbeck, Eugene; North, Tim; Balcer, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) primary Electric Power System (EPS) currently uses Nickel-Hydrogen (Ni-H2) batteries to store electrical energy. The electricity for the space station is generated by its solar arrays, which charge batteries during insolation for subsequent discharge during eclipse. The Ni-H2 batteries are designed to operate at a 35 depth of discharge (DOD) maximum during normal operation in a Low Earth Orbit. Since the oldest of the 48 Ni-H2 battery Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs) has been cycling since September 2006, these batteries are now approaching their end of useful life. In 2010, the ISS Program began the development of Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) batteries to replace the Ni-H2 batteries and concurrently funded a Li-Ion ORU and cell life testing project. When deployed, they will be the largest Li-Ion batteries ever utilized for a human-rated spacecraft. This paper will include an overview of the ISS Li-Ion battery system architecture, the Li-Ion battery design and development, controls to limit potential hazards from the batteries, and the status of the Li-Ion cell and ORU life cycle testing.

  19. Omics Research on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, John

    2015-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is an orbiting laboratory whose goals include advancing science and technology research. Completion of ISS assembly ushered a new era focused on utilization, encompassing multiple disciplines such as Biology and Biotechnology, Physical Sciences, Technology Development and Demonstration, Human Research, Earth and Space Sciences, and Educational Activities. The research complement planned for upcoming ISS Expeditions 45&46 includes several investigations in the new field of omics, which aims to collectively characterize sets of biomolecules (e.g., genomic, epigenomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic products) that translate into organismic structure and function. For example, Multi-Omics is a JAXA investigation that analyzes human microbial metabolic cross-talk in the space ecosystem by evaluating data from immune dysregulation biomarkers, metabolic profiles, and microbiota composition. The NASA OsteoOmics investigation studies gravitational regulation of osteoblast genomics and metabolism. Tissue Regeneration uses pan-omics approaches with cells cultured in bioreactors to characterize factors involved in mammalian bone tissue regeneration in microgravity. Rodent Research-3 includes an experiment that implements pan-omics to evaluate therapeutically significant molecular circuits, markers, and biomaterials associated with microgravity wound healing and tissue regeneration in bone defective rodents. The JAXA Mouse Epigenetics investigation examines molecular alterations in organ specific gene expression patterns and epigenetic modifications, and analyzes murine germ cell development during long term spaceflight. Lastly, Twins Study ("Differential effects of homozygous twin astronauts associated with differences in exposure to spaceflight factors"), NASA's first foray into human omics research, applies integrated analyses to assess biomolecular responses to physical, physiological, and environmental stressors associated

  20. International Charter `Space and Major Disasters' Collaborations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, B. K.

    2017-12-01

    The International Charter aims at providing a unified system of space data acquisition and delivery to national disaster authorities of countries affected by natural or man-made disasters. Each of the sixteen Member Agencies has committed resources to support the objectives of the Charter and thus helping to mitigate the effects of disasters on human life and property, getting critical information into the hands of the disaster responders so that they can make informed decisions in the wake of a disaster. The Charter Member Agencies work together to provide remotely sensed imagery to any requesting country that is experiencing a natural or man-made disaster. The Space Agencies contribute priority satellite taskings, archive retrievals, and map production, as well as imagery of the affected areas. The imagery is provided at no cost to the affected country and is made available for the immediate response phase of the disaster. The Charter also has agreements with Sentinel Asia to submit activation requests on behalf of its 30+ member countries and the United Nations Office of Outer Space Affairs (UN OOSA) and United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR)/ United Nations Operational Satellite Applications Programme (UNOSAT) to submit activations on behalf of United Nations relief agencies such as UNICEF and UNOCHA. To further expand accessibility to the Charter Member Agency resources, the Charter has implemented the Universal Access initiative, which allows any country's disaster management authority to submit an application, attend a brief training session, and after successful completion, become an Authorized User able to submit activation requests without assistance from Member Agencies. The data provided by the Charter is used for many purposes including damage assessments, reference maps, evacuation route planning, search and rescue operations, decision maker briefings, scientific evaluations, and other response activities.

  1. Body mass, energy intake, and water consumption of rats and humans during space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, C. E.; Miller, M. M.; Baer, L. A.; Moran, M. M.; Steele, M. K.; Stein, T. P.

    2002-01-01

    Alteration of metabolism has been suggested as a major limiting factor to long-term space flight. In humans and primates, a negative energy balance has been reported. The metabolic response of rats to space flight has been suggested to result in a negative energy balance. We hypothesized that rats flown in space would maintain energy balance as indicated by maintenance of caloric intake and body mass gain. Further, the metabolism of the rat would be similar to that of laboratory-reared animals. We studied the results from 15 space flights lasting 4 to 19 d. There was no difference in average body weight (206 +/- 13.9 versus 206 +/- 14.8 g), body weight gain (5.8 +/- 0.48 versus 5.9 +/- 0.56 g/d), caloric intake (309 +/- 21.0 versus 309 +/- 20.1 kcal/kg of body mass per day), or water intake (200 +/- 8.6 versus 199 +/- 9.3 mL/kg of body mass per day) between flight and ground control animals. Compared with standard laboratory animals of similar body mass, no differences were noted. The observations suggested that the negative balance observed in humans and non-human primates may be due to other factors in the space-flight environment.

  2. Effect of space flight on physiological indexes and antioxidant enzymes of Acer mono

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yunfei; Yang Fan; Ren Yunhui

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effects of space flight on physiological indexes and antioxidant enzymes of Acer mono, seeds were divided into two groups, one was treated by carrying on Shijian No.8 breeding satellite for 15 d, and the other was kept on the ground as controls. 5 years old seedlings that derived from the seeds of space flight and the seeds of ground control were chosen as materials, then the growth characteristics, photosynthetic characteristics, soluble protein content and antioxidant enzymes activities were analyzed. The results showed that the plant growth, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), chlorophyll content, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and soluble protein content of seedlings after space flight were much higher than those of ground control. However, the changes of malondialdehyde (MDA) content, peroxidase (POD), transpiration rate (Tr), intercellular carbon dioxide concentration (Ci) and stomatal conductance (Gs) were not significantly changed. The net photosynthetic rate (Pn), as well as the plant growth of seedlings after space flight were higher than those of the control. The improved ability of photosynthesis may be one of the reasons that seedlings from seeds of space flight have higher speed of growth. (authors)

  3. Automation of Commanding at NASA: Reducing Human Error in Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, Sarah J.

    2010-01-01

    Automation has been implemented in many different industries to improve efficiency and reduce human error. Reducing or eliminating the human interaction in tasks has been proven to increase productivity in manufacturing and lessen the risk of mistakes by humans in the airline industry. Human space flight requires the flight controllers to monitor multiple systems and react quickly when failures occur so NASA is interested in implementing techniques that can assist in these tasks. Using automation to control some of these responsibilities could reduce the number of errors the flight controllers encounter due to standard human error characteristics. This paper will investigate the possibility of reducing human error in the critical area of manned space flight at NASA.

  4. Haploid deletion strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that determine survival during space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johanson, Kelly; Allen, Patricia L.; Gonzalez-Villalobos, Romer A.; Nesbit, Jacqueline; Nickerson, Cheryl A.; Höner zu Bentrup, Kerstin; Wilson, James W.; Ramamurthy, Rajee; D'Elia, Riccardo; Muse, Kenneth E.; Hammond, Jeffrey; Freeman, Jake; Stodieck, Louis S.; Hammond, Timothy G.

    2007-02-01

    This study identifies genes that determine survival during a space flight, using the model eukaryotic organism, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Select strains of a haploid yeast deletion series grew during storage in distilled water in space, but not in ground based static or clinorotation controls. The survival advantages in space in distilled water include a 133-fold advantage for the deletion of PEX19, a chaperone and import receptor for newly- synthesized class I peroxisomal membrane proteins, to 77-40 fold for deletion strains lacking elements of aerobic respiration, isocitrate metabolism, and mitochondrial electron transport. Following automated addition of rich growth media, the space flight was associated with a marked survival advantage of strains with deletions in catalytically active genes including hydrolases, oxidoreductases and transferases. When compared to static controls, space flight was associated with a marked survival disadvantage of deletion strains lacking transporter, antioxidant and catalytic activity. This study identifies yeast deletion strains with a survival advantage during storage in distilled water and space flight, and amplifies our understanding of the genes critical for survival in space.

  5. Contamination Control and Hardware Processing Solutions at Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, DeWitt H.; Hampton, Tammy; Huey, LaQuieta; Mitchell, Mark; Norwood, Joey; Lowrey, Nikki

    2012-01-01

    The Contamination Control Team of Marshall Space Flight Center's Materials and Processes Laboratory supports many Programs/ Projects that design, manufacture, and test a wide range of hardware types that are sensitive to contamination and foreign object damage (FOD). Examples where contamination/FOD concerns arise include sensitive structural bondline failure, critical orifice blockage, seal leakage, and reactive fluid compatibility (liquid oxygen, hydrazine) as well as performance degradation of sensitive instruments or spacecraft surfaces such as optical elements and thermal control systems. During the design phase, determination of the sensitivity of a hardware system to different types or levels of contamination/FOD is essential. A contamination control and FOD control plan must then be developed and implemented through all phases of ground processing, and, sometimes, on-orbit use, recovery, and refurbishment. Implementation of proper controls prevents cost and schedule impacts due to hardware damage or rework and helps assure mission success. Current capabilities are being used to support recent and on-going activities for multiple Mission Directorates / Programs such as International Space Station (ISS), James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), Space Launch System (SLS) elements (tanks, engines, booster), etc. The team also advances Green Technology initiatives and addresses materials obsolescence issues for NASA and external customers, most notably in the area of solvent replacement (e.g. aqueous cleaners containing hexavalent chrome, ozone depleting chemicals (CFC s and HCFC's), suspect carcinogens). The team evaluates new surface cleanliness inspection and cleaning technologies (e.g. plasma cleaning), and maintains databases for processing support materials as well as outgassing and optical compatibility test results for spaceflight environments.

  6. Study of the Most Harmful Solar Energetic Particle for Shielding next Human Space Flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komei Yamashiro, Bryan

    2015-04-01

    Solar energetic particles (SEPs) accelerated by solar events such as flares and coronal mass ejections are radiation risks for humans in space on board the International Space Station (ISS), and will be significant obstacles for future long-duration manned space flight missions. This research supported efforts to improve predictions of large solar storms and aimed for a better understanding of Heliophysics. The main objective was to generate a dated catalog of the highest energy range SEPs measured by the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS-02). Using online graphical user interfaces from the satellites, Solar and Heliospeheric Observatory (SOHO) and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-13, 15), the generated data files from the mounted particle detectors were plotted along a specified energy range. The resulting histograms illustrated the low energy range data from SOHO (4 MeV to 53 MeV) and the low-mid energy range from GOES (0.8 MeV to 500 MeV), which collectively provided a low- to mid-energy range spectrum of the specific event energy ranges versus the SEP proton flux. The high energy range results of the AMS-02 (125 MeV to a few TeV) will eventually be incorporated with the two alternative space satellites of lower energy ranges for a complete analysis across a full SEP energy range. X-ray flux from GOES-15 were then obtained and plotted with the corresponding time to portray initial phenomena of the solar events. This procedure was reproduced for 5 different events determined energetic enough to be measured by AMS-02. The generated plots showed correlation between the different satellite detectors.

  7. Exercise in space: the European Space Agency approach to in-flight exercise countermeasures for long-duration missions on ISS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Nora; Jaekel, Patrick; Rosenberger, Andre; Weber, Tobias; Scott, Jonathan; Castrucci, Filippo; Lambrecht, Gunda; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori; Damann, Volker; Kozlovskaya, Inessa; Mester, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    To counteract microgravity (µG)-induced adaptation, European Space Agency (ESA) astronauts on long-duration missions (LDMs) to the International Space Station (ISS) perform a daily physical exercise countermeasure program. Since the first ESA crewmember completed an LDM in 2006, the ESA countermeasure program has strived to provide efficient protection against decreases in body mass, muscle strength, bone mass, and aerobic capacity within the operational constraints of the ISS environment and the changing availability of on-board exercise devices. The purpose of this paper is to provide a description of ESA's individualised approach to in-flight exercise countermeasures and an up-to-date picture of how exercise is used to counteract physiological changes resulting from µG-induced adaptation. Changes in the absolute workload for resistive exercise, treadmill running and cycle ergometry throughout ESA's eight LDMs are also presented, and aspects of pre-flight physical preparation and post-flight reconditioning outlined. With the introduction of the advanced resistive exercise device (ARED) in 2009, the relative contribution of resistance exercise to total in-flight exercise increased (33-46 %), whilst treadmill running (42-33 %) and cycle ergometry (26-20 %) decreased. All eight ESA crewmembers increased their in-flight absolute workload during their LDMs for resistance exercise and treadmill running (running speed and vertical loading through the harness), while cycle ergometer workload was unchanged across missions. Increased or unchanged absolute exercise workloads in-flight would appear contradictory to typical post-flight reductions in muscle mass and strength, and cardiovascular capacity following LDMs. However, increased absolute in-flight workloads are not directly linked to changes in exercise capacity as they likely also reflect the planned, conservative loading early in the mission to allow adaption to µG exercise, including personal comfort issues

  8. Improving Safety on the International Space Station: Transitioning to Electronic Emergency Procedure Books on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter-Journet, Katrina; Clahoun, Jessica; Morrow, Jason; Duncan, Gary

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) originally designed the International Space Station (ISS) to operate until 2015, but have extended operations until at least 2020. As part of this very dynamic Program, there is an effort underway to simplify the certification of Commercial ]of ]the ]Shelf (COTS) hardware. This change in paradigm allows the ISS Program to take advantage of technologically savvy and commercially available hardware, such as the iPad. The iPad, a line of tablet computers designed and marketed by Apple Inc., was chosen to support this endeavor. The iPad is functional, portable, and could be easily accessed in an emergency situation. The iPad Electronic Flight Bag (EFB), currently approved for use in flight by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), is a fraction of the cost of a traditional Class 2 EFB. In addition, the iPad fs ability to use electronic aeronautical data in lieu of paper in route charts and approach plates can cut the annual cost of paper data in half for commercial airlines. ISS may be able to benefit from this type of trade since one of the most important factors considered is information management. Emergency procedures onboard the ISS are currently available to the crew in paper form. Updates to the emergency books can either be launched on an upcoming visiting vehicle such as a Russian Soyuz flight or printed using the onboard ISS printer. In both cases, it is costly to update hardcopy procedures. A new operations concept was proposed to allow for the use of a tablet system that would provide a flexible platform to support space station crew operations. The purpose of the system would be to provide the crew the ability to view and maintain operational data, such as emergency procedures while also allowing Mission Control Houston to update the procedures. The ISS Program is currently evaluating the safety risks associated with the use of iPads versus paper. Paper products can contribute to the flammability

  9. Effects of prolonged exposure to space flight factors for 175 days on lettuce seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nevzgodina, L.V.; Maximova, E.N.; Akatov, Yu.A.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of prolonged (up to 175 days) exposure of Lactuca sativa seeds to space flight factors, including primary cosmic radiation heavy ions have been studied. The data obtained evidence a significant fourfold increase of spontaneous mutagenesis in seeds both with regard to the total number of aberrant cells as well as the formation of single cells with multiple aberrations. Comparison of the present experiment with earlier works shows that the frequency of such aberrations increases with the duration of the flight

  10. Space shuttle solid rocket booster cost-per-flight analysis technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forney, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    A cost per flight computer model is described which considers: traffic model, component attrition, hardware useful life, turnaround time for refurbishment, manufacturing rates, learning curves on the time to perform tasks, cost improvement curves on quantity hardware buys, inflation, spares philosophy, long lead, hardware funding requirements, and other logistics and scheduling constraints. Additional uses of the model include assessing the cost per flight impact of changing major space shuttle program parameters and searching for opportunities to make cost effective management decisions.

  11. Finding of No Significant Impact and Environmental Assessment for Flight Test to the Edge of Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Runway 22 or on Rogers Dry Lakebed at Edwards AFB. 17 On the basis of the findings of the Environmental Assessment, no significant impact to human...FLIGHT TEST CENTER Environmental Assessment for Flight Test to the Edge of Space Page 5-3 Bowles, A.E., S. Eckert, L . Starke, E. Berg, L . Wolski, and...Numbers. Anne Choate, Laura 20 Pederson , Jeremy Scharfenberg, Henry Farland. Washington, D.C. September. 21 Jeppesen Sanderson, Incorporated 22

  12. International outbreak investigation of Salmonella Heidelberg associated with in-flight catering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebolledo, J; Garvey, P; Ryan, A; O'Donnell, J; Cormican, M; Jackson, S; Cloak, F; Cullen, L; Swaan, C M; Schimmer, B; Appels, R W; Nygard, K; Finley, R; Sreenivasan, N; Lenglet, A; Gossner, C; McKeown, P

    2014-04-01

    Rapid and wide dispersal of passengers after flights makes investigation of flight-related outbreaks challenging. An outbreak of Salmonella Heidelberg was identified in a group of Irish travellers returning from Tanzania. Additional international cases sharing the same flight were identified. Our aim was to determine the source and potential vehicles of infection. Case-finding utilized information exchange using experts' communication networks and national surveillance systems. Demographic, clinical and food history information was collected. Twenty-five additional cases were identified from Ireland, The Netherlands, Norway, USA and Canada. We conducted a case-control study which indicated a significant association between illness and consumption of milk tart (OR 10.2) and an egg dish (OR 6) served on-board the flight. No food consumed before the flight was associated with illness. Cases from countries other than Ireland provided supplementary information that facilitated the identification of likely vehicles of infection. Timely, committed international collaboration is vital in such investigations.

  13. International outbreak investigation of Salmonella Heidelberg associated with in-flight catering.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rebolledo, J

    2013-07-26

    SUMMARY Rapid and wide dispersal of passengers after flights makes investigation of flight-related outbreaks challenging. An outbreak of Salmonella Heidelberg was identified in a group of Irish travellers returning from Tanzania. Additional international cases sharing the same flight were identified. Our aim was to determine the source and potential vehicles of infection. Case-finding utilized information exchange using experts\\' communication networks and national surveillance systems. Demographic, clinical and food history information was collected. Twenty-five additional cases were identified from Ireland, The Netherlands, Norway, USA and Canada. We conducted a case-control study which indicated a significant association between illness and consumption of milk tart (OR 10·2) and an egg dish (OR 6) served on-board the flight. No food consumed before the flight was associated with illness. Cases from countries other than Ireland provided supplementary information that facilitated the identification of likely vehicles of infection. Timely, committed international collaboration is vital in such investigations.

  14. Management of Service Projects in Support of Space Flight Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, J.

    2009-01-01

    Goal:To provide human health and performance countermeasures, knowledge, technologies, and tools to enable safe, reliable, and productive human space exploration . [HRP-47051] Specific Objectives: 1) Develop capabilities, necessary countermeasures, and technologies in support of human space exploration, focusing on mitigating the highest risks to human health and performance. 2) Define and improve human spaceflight medical, environmental, and human factors standards. 3) Develop technologies that serve to reduce medical and environmental risks, to reduce human systems resource requirements (mass, volume, power, data, etc.) and to ensure effective human-system integration across exploration systems. 4) Ensure maintenance of Agency core competencies necessary to enable risk reduction in the following areas: A. Space medicine B. Physiological and behavioral effects of long duration spaceflight on the human body C. Space environmental effects, including radiation, on human health and performance D. Space "human factors" [HRP-47051]. Service projects can form integral parts of research-based project-focused programs to provide specialized functions. Traditional/classic project management methodologies and agile approaches are not mutually exclusive paradigms. Agile strategies can be combined with traditional methods and applied in the management of service projects functioning in changing environments. Creative collaborations afford a mechanism for mitigation of constrained resource limitations.

  15. Development of an Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing Method Suitable for Performing During Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, James H.; Skweres, Joyce A.; Mishra S. K.; McElmeel, M. Letticia; Maher, Louise A.; Mulder, Ross; Lancaster, Michael V.; Pierson, Duane L.

    1997-01-01

    Very little is known regarding the affects of the microgravity environment of space flight upon the action of antimicrobial agents on bacterial pathogens. This study was undertaken to develop a simple method for conducting antibacterial susceptibility tests during a Space Shuttle mission. Specially prepared susceptibility test research cards (bioMerieux Vitek, Hazelwood, MO) were designed to include 6-11 serial two-fold dilutions of 14 antimicrobial agents, including penicillins, cephalosporins, a Beta-lactamase inhibitor, vancomycin, erythromycin, tetracycline, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICS) of the drugs were determined by visual reading of color endpoints in the Vitek research cards made possible by incorporation of a colorimetric growth indicator (alamarBlue(Trademark), Accumed International, Westlake, OH). This study has demonstrated reproducible susceptibility results when testing isolates of Staphylococcus aurezis, Group A Streptococcus, Enterococcusfaecalis, Escherichia coli (beta-lactamase positive and negative strains), Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, and Pseudomoiias aeruginosa. In some instances, the MICs were comparable to those determined using a standard broth microdilution method, while in some cases the unique test media and format yielded slightly different values, that were themselves reproducible. The proposed in-flight experiment will include inoculation of the Vitek cards on the ground prior to launch of the Space Shuttle, storage of inoculated cards at refrigeration temperature aboard the Space Shuttle until experiment initiation, then incubation of the cards for 18-48 h prior to visual interpretation of MICs by the mission's astronauts. Ground-based studies have shown reproducible MICs following storage of inoculated cards for 7 days at 4-8 C to accommodate the mission's time schedule and the astronauts' activities. For comparison, ground-based control

  16. Mutational effects of space flight on Zea mays seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, M.; Qiu, Y.; He, Y.; Bucker, H.; Yang, C. H.

    1994-01-01

    The growth and development of more than 500 Zea mays seeds flown on Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) were studied. Somatic mutations, including white-yellow stripes on leaves, dwarfing, change of leaf sheath color or seedling color were observed in plants developed from these seeds. When the frequency of white-yellow formation was used as the endpoint and compared with data from ground based studies, the dose to which maize seeds might be exposed during the flight was estimated to be equivalent to 635 cGy of gamma rays. Seeds from one particular holder gave a high mutation frequency and a wide mutation spectrum. White-yellow stripes on leaves were also found in some of the inbred progenies from plants displayed somatic mutation. Electron microscopy studies showed that the damage of chloroplast development in the white-yellow stripe on leaves was similar between seeds flown on LDEF and that irradiated by accelerated heavy ions on ground.

  17. Radiation shielding estimates for manned Mars space flight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudkin, V.E.; Kovalev, E.E.; Kolomensky, A.V.; Sakovich, V.A.; Semenov, V.F.; Demin, V.P.; Benton, E.V.

    1992-01-01

    In the analysis of the required radiation shielding for spacecraft during a Mars flight, the specific effects of solar activity (SA) on the intensity of galactic and solar cosmic rays were taken into consideration. Three spaceflight periods were considered: (1) maximum SA; (2) minimum SA; and (3) intermediate SA, when intensities of both galactic and solar cosmic rays are moderately high. Scenarios of spaceflights utilizing liquid-propellant rocket engines, low-and intermediate-thrust nuclear electrojet engines, and nuclear rocket engines, all of which have been designed in the Soviet Union, are reviewed. Calculations were performed on the basis of a set of standards for radiation protection approved by the U.S.S.R. State Committee for Standards. It was found that the lowest estimated mass of a Mars spacecraft, including the radiation shielding mass, obtained using a combination of a liquid propellant engine with low and intermediate thrust nuclear electrojet engines, would be 500-550 metric tons. (author)

  18. Summary results of the first United States manned orbital space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, J. H. Jr

    1963-01-01

    This paper describes the principal findings of the first United States manned orbital space flight in light of the flight mission. Consideration is given to the coordinated tracking network, recovery forces and to the spacecraft and its several functional systems. These include mechanisms for heat protection, escape maneuvers, spacecraft control, power supply, communications, life support and landing. A few difficulties encountered in the flight and deviations from the planned sequence are described. Craft preparation, aeromedical studies, flight plan and particularly flight observations--including the color, light, horizon visibility by day and by night, cloud formations and sunrise and sunset effects are given in some detail. The general conclusion from the MA-6 flight is that man can adapt well to new conditions encountered in space flight and that man can contribute importantly to mission reliability and toward mission achievement through his capacities to control the spacecraft and its multiple systems contribute to decision making and adaptation of programming as well as to direct exploratory and experimental observations.

  19. Custom Gradient Compression Stockings May Prevent Orthostatic Intolerance in Astronauts After Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenger, Michael B.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Westby, Christian M.; Platts, Steven H.

    2010-01-01

    Orthostatic intolerance after space flight is still an issue for astronauts as no in-flight countermeasure has been 100% effective. NASA astronauts currently wear an inflatable anti-gravity suit (AGS) during re-entry, but this device is uncomfortable and loses effectiveness upon egress from the Shuttle. We recently determined that thigh-high, gradient compression stockings were comfortable and effective after space flight, though to a lesser degree than the AGS. We also recently showed that addition of splanchnic compression to this thigh-high compression stocking paradigm improved orthostatic tolerance to a level similar to the AGS, in a ground based model. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate a new, three-piece breast-high gradient compression garment as a countermeasure to post-space flight orthostatic intolerance. Methods: Eight U.S. astronauts have volunteered for this experiment and were individually fitted for a three-piece, breast-high compression garment to provide 55 mmHg compression at the ankle which decreased to approximately 20 mmHg at the top of the leg and provides 15 mmHg over the abdomen. Orthostatic testing occurred 30 days pre-flight (w/o garment) and 2 hours after flight (w/ garment) on landing day. Blood pressure (BP), Heart Rate (HR) and Stroke Volume (SV) were acquired for 2 minutes while the subject lay prone and then for 3.5 minutes after the subject stands up. To date, two astronauts have completed pre- and post-space flight testing. Data are mean SD. Results: BP [pre (prone to stand): 137+/-1.6 to 129+/-2.5; post: 130+/-2.4 to 122+/-1.6 mmHg] and SV [pre (prone to stand): 61+/-1.6 to 38+/-0.2; post: 58+/-6.4 to 37+/-6.0 ml] decreased with standing, but no differences were seen post-flight w/ compression garments compared to pre-flight w/o garments. HR [pre (prone to stand): 66+/-1.6 to 74+/-3.0, post: 67+/-5.6 to 78+/-6.8 bpm] increased with standing, but no differences were seen pre- to post-flight. Conclusion: After space

  20. Psychological Selection of NASA Astronauts for International Space Station Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galarza, Laura

    1999-01-01

    During the upcoming manned International Space Station (ISS) missions, astronauts will encounter the unique conditions of living and working with a multicultural crew in a confined and isolated space environment. The environmental, social, and mission-related challenges of these missions will require crewmembers to emphasize effective teamwork, leadership, group living and self-management to maintain the morale and productivity of the crew. The need for crew members to possess and display skills and behaviors needed for successful adaptability to ISS missions led us to upgrade the tools and procedures we use for astronaut selection. The upgraded tools include personality and biographical data measures. Content and construct-related validation techniques were used to link upgraded selection tools to critical skills needed for ISS missions. The results of these validation efforts showed that various personality and biographical data variables are related to expert and interview ratings of critical ISS skills. Upgraded and planned selection tools better address the critical skills, demands, and working conditions of ISS missions and facilitate the selection of astronauts who will more easily cope and adapt to ISS flights.

  1. Acceptability of risk from radiation: Application to human space flight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This one of NASA's sponsored activities of the NCRP. In 1983, NASA asked NCRP to examine radiation risks in space and to make recommendations about career radiation limits for astronauts (with cancer considered as the principal risk). In conjunction with that effort, NCRP was asked to convene this symposium; objective is to examine the technical, strategic, and philosophical issues pertaining to acceptable risk and radiation in space. Nine papers are included together with panel discussions and a summary. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  2. Acceptability of risk from radiation: Application to human space flight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-30

    This one of NASA`s sponsored activities of the NCRP. In 1983, NASA asked NCRP to examine radiation risks in space and to make recommendations about career radiation limits for astronauts (with cancer considered as the principal risk). In conjunction with that effort, NCRP was asked to convene this symposium; objective is to examine the technical, strategic, and philosophical issues pertaining to acceptable risk and radiation in space. Nine papers are included together with panel discussions and a summary. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  3. Power conditioning for large dc motors for space flight applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veatch, Martin S.; Anderson, Paul M.; Eason, Douglas J.; Landis, David M.

    1988-01-01

    The design and performance of a prototype power-conditioning system for use with large brushless dc motors on NASA space missions are discussed in detail and illustrated with extensive diagrams, drawings, and graphs. The 5-kW 8-phase parallel module evaluated here would be suitable for use in the Space Shuttle Orbiter cargo bay. A current-balancing magnetic assembly with low distributed inductance permits high-speed current switching from a low-voltage bus as well as current balancing between parallel MOSFETs.

  4. Biomechanics of the Treadmill Locomotion on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, John; Cromwell, R. L.; Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.

    2014-01-01

    Exercise prescriptions completed by International Space Station (ISS) crewmembers are typically based upon evidence obtained during ground-based investigations, with the assumption that the results of long-term training in weightlessness will be similar to that attained in normal gravity. Coupled with this supposition are the assumptions that exercise motions and external loading are also similar between gravitational environments. Normal control of locomotion is dependent upon learning patterns of muscular activation and requires continual monitoring of internal and external sensory input [1]. Internal sensory input includes signals that may be dependent on or independent of gravity. Bernstein hypothesized that movement strategy planning and execution must include the consideration of segmental weights and inertia [2]. Studies of arm movements in microgravity showed that individuals tend to make errors but that compensation strategies result in adaptations, suggesting that control mechanisms must include peripheral information [3-5]. To date, however, there have been no studies examining a gross motor activity such as running in weightlessness other than using microgravity analogs [6-8]. The objective of this evaluation was to collect biomechanical data from crewmembers during treadmill exercise before and during flight. The goal was to determine locomotive biomechanics similarities and differences between normal and weightless environments. The data will be used to optimize future exercise prescriptions. This project addresses the Critical Path Roadmap risks 1 (Accelerated Bone Loss and Fracture Risk) and 11 (Reduced Muscle Mass, Strength, and Endurance). Data were collected from 7 crewmembers before flight and during their ISS missions. Before launch, crewmembers performed a single data collection session at the NASA Johnson Space Center. Three-dimensional motion capture data were collected for 30 s at speeds ranging from 1.5 to 9.5 mph in 0.5 mph increments

  5. Approaches in the determination of plant nutrient uptake and distribution in space flight conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyenga, A. G.; Forsman, A.; Stodieck, L. S.; Hoehn, A.; Kliss, M.

    2000-01-01

    The effective growth and development of vascular plants rely on the adequate availability of water and nutrients. Inefficiency in either the initial absorption, transportation, or distribution of these elements are factors which impinge on plant structure and metabolic integrity. The potential effect of space flight and microgravity conditions on the efficiency of these processes is unclear. Limitations in the available quantity of space-grown plant material and the sensitivity of routine analytical techniques have made an evaluation of these processes impractical. However, the recent introduction of new plant cultivating methodologies supporting the application of radionuclide elements and subsequent autoradiography techniques provides a highly sensitive investigative approach amenable to space flight studies. Experiments involving the use of gel based 'nutrient packs' and the radionuclides calcium-45 and iron-59 were conducted on the Shuttle mission STS-94. Uptake rates of the radionuclides between ground and flight plant material appeared comparable.

  6. Exploration Challenges: Transferring Ground Repair Techniques to Space Flight Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLemore, Carole A.; Kennedy, James P.; Rose, Frederick A.; Evans, Brian W.

    2007-01-01

    Fulfilling NASA's Vision for Space Exploration will demand an extended presence in space at distances from our home planet that exceed our current experience in space logistics and maintenance. The ability to perform repairs in lieu of the customary Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU) process where a faulty part is replaced will be elevated from contingency to routine to sustain operations. The use and cost effectiveness of field repairs for ground based operations in industry and the military have advanced with the development of technology in new materials, new repair techniques and new equipment. The unique environments, accessibility constraints and Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) issues of space operations will require extensive assessment and evolution of these technologies to provide an equivalent and expected level of assurance to mission success. Challenges include the necessity of changes in design philosophy and policy, extremes in thermal cycling, disruptive forces (such as static charge and wind entrainment) on developed methods for control of materials, dramatically increased volatility of chemicals for cleaning and other compounds due to extremely low pressures, the limits imposed on dexterity and maneuverability by current EVA equipment and practices, and the necessity of unique verification methodology. This paper describes these challenges in and discusses the effects on the established ground techniques for repair. The paper also describes the leading repair methodology candidates and their beneficial attributes for resolving these issues with the evolution of technology.

  7. Space Station - Opportunity for international cooperation and utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, K. S.

    1984-01-01

    In connection with his announcement regarding the development of a permanently manned Space Station, President Reagan invited the United States' friends and allies to join in the Space Station program. The President's invitation was preceded by more than two years of interaction between NASA and some of its potential partners in Space Station planning activities. Attention is given to international participation in Space Station planning, international cooperation on the Space Station, the guidelines for international cooperation, and the key challenges. Questions regarding quid pro quos are considered along with aspects of technology transfer, commercial use, problems of management, and the next steps concerning the Space Station program.

  8. Constraint and Flight Rule Management for Space Mission Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreiro, J.; Chachere, J.; Frank, J.; Bertels, C.; Crocker, A.

    2010-01-01

    The exploration of space is one of the most fascinating domains to study from a human factors perspective. Like other complex work domains such as aviation (Pritchett and Kim, 2008), air traffic management (Durso and Manning, 2008), health care (Morrow, North, and Wickens, 2006), homeland security (Cooke and Winner, 2008), and vehicle control (Lee, 2006), space exploration is a large-scale sociotechnical work domain characterized by complexity, dynamism, uncertainty, and risk in real-time operational contexts (Perrow, 1999; Woods et al, 1994). Nearly the entire gamut of human factors issues - for example, human-automation interaction (Sheridan and Parasuraman, 2006), telerobotics, display and control design (Smith, Bennett, and Stone, 2006), usability, anthropometry (Chaffin, 2008), biomechanics (Marras and Radwin, 2006), safety engineering, emergency operations, maintenance human factors, situation awareness (Tenney and Pew, 2006), crew resource management (Salas et al., 2006), methods for cognitive work analysis (Bisantz and Roth, 2008) and the like -- are applicable to astronauts, mission control, operational medicine, Space Shuttle manufacturing and assembly operations, and space suit designers as they are in other work domains (e.g., Bloomberg, 2003; Bos et al, 2006; Brooks and Ince, 1992; Casler and Cook, 1999; Jones, 1994; McCurdy et al, 2006; Neerincx et aI., 2006; Olofinboba and Dorneich, 2005; Patterson, Watts-Perotti and Woods, 1999; Patterson and Woods, 2001; Seagull et ai, 2007; Sierhuis, Clancey and Sims, 2002). The human exploration of space also has unique challenges of particular interest to human factors research and practice. This chapter provides an overview of those issues and reports on some of the latest research results as well as the latest challenges still facing the field.

  9. 10th meeting of the International Conference on Protection of Materials and Structures from Space Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Tagawa, Masahito; Kimoto, Yugo; Protection of Materials and Structures From the Space Environment

    2013-01-01

    The goals of the 10th International Space Conference on “Protection of Materials and Structures from Space Environment” ICPMSE-10J, since its inception in 1992, have been to facilitate exchanges between members of the various engineering and science disciplines involved in the development of space materials, including aspects of LEO, GEO and Deep Space environments, ground-based qualification, and in-flight experiments and lessons learned from operational vehicles that are closely interrelated to disciplines of the atmospheric sciences, solar-terrestrial interactions and space life sciences. The knowledge of environmental conditions on and around the Moon, Mars, Venus and the low Earth orbit as well as other possible candidates for landing such as asteroids have become an important issue, and protecting both hardware and human life from the effects of space environments has taken on a new meaning in light of the increased interest in space travel and colonization of other planets.  And while many materia...

  10. Vestibular-Somatosensory Convergence in Head Movement Control During Locomotion after Long-Duration Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Ruttley, Tara; Cohen, Helen; Peters, Brian; Miller, Chris; Brady, Rachel; Merkle, Lauren; Bloomberg, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to the microgravity conditions of space flight induces adaptive modification in the control of vestibular-mediated reflexive head movement during locomotion after space flight. Space flight causes astronauts to be exposed to somatosensory adaptation in both the vestibular and body load-sensing (BLS) systems. The goal of these studies was to examine the contributions of vestibular and BLS-mediated somatosensory influences on head movement control during locomotion after long-duration space flight. Subjects were asked to walk on a treadmill driven at 1.8 m/s while performing a visual acuity task. Data were collected using the same testing protocol from three independent subject groups; 1) normal subjects before and after exposure to 30 minutes of 40% bodyweight unloaded treadmill walking, 2) bilateral labyrinthine deficient (LD) patients and 3) astronauts who performed the protocol before and after long duration space flight. Motion data from head and trunk segmental motion data were obtained to calculate the angular head pitch (HP) movements during walking trials while subjects performed the visual task, to estimate the contributions of vestibular reflexive mechanisms in HP movements. Results showed that exposure to unloaded locomotion caused a significant increase in HP movements, whereas in the LD patients the HP movements were significantly decreased. Astronaut subjects results showed a heterogeneous response of both increases and decreases in the amplitude of HP movement. We infer that BLS-mediated somatosensory input centrally modulates vestibular input and can adaptively modify head-movement control during locomotion. Thus, space flight may cause a central adaptation mediated by the converging vestibular and body load-sensing somatosensory systems.

  11. Evidence Based Medicine in Space Flight: Evaluation of Inflight Vision Data for Operational Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Baalen, Mary; Mason, Sara; Foy, Millennia; Wear, Mary; Taiym, Wafa; Moynihan, Shannan; Alexander, David; Hart, Steve; Tarver, William

    2015-01-01

    Due to recently identified vision changes associated with space flight, JSC Space and Clinical Operations (SCO) implemented broad mission-related vision testing starting in 2009. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), 3 Tesla Brain and Orbit MRIs, Optical Biometry were implemented terrestrially for clinical monitoring. While no inflight vision testing was in place, already available onorbit technology was leveraged to facilitate in-flight clinical monitoring, including visual acuity, Amsler grid, tonometry, and ultrasonography. In 2013, on-orbit testing capabilities were expanded to include contrast sensitivity testing and OCT. As these additional testing capabilities have been added, resource prioritization, particularly crew time, is under evaluation.

  12. Toroidal Plasma Thruster for Interplanetary and Interstellar Space Flights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorelenkov, N.N.; Zakharov, L.E.; Gorelenkova, M.V.

    2001-01-01

    This work involves a conceptual assessment for using the toroidal fusion reactor for deep space interplanetary and interstellar missions. Toroidal thermonuclear fusion reactors, such as tokamaks and stellarators, are unique for space propulsion, allowing for a design with the magnetic configuration localized inside toroidal magnetic field coils. Plasma energetic ions, including charged fusion products, can escape such a closed configuration at certain conditions, a result of the vertical drift in toroidal rippled magnetic field. Escaping particles can be used for direct propulsion (since toroidal drift is directed one way vertically) or to create and heat externally confined plasma, so that the latter can be used for propulsion. Deuterium-tritium fusion neutrons with an energy of 14.1 MeV also can be used for direct propulsion. A special design allows neutrons to escape the shield and the blanket of the tokamak. This provides a direct (partial) conversion of the fusion energy into the directed motion of the propellant. In contrast to other fusion concepts proposed for space propulsion, this concept utilizes the natural drift motion of charged particles out of the closed magnetic field configuration

  13. Psychosocial issues in long-term space flight: overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palinkas, L. A.

    2001-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence of the individual and interpersonal problems that occurred during the Shuttle-Mir Space Program (SMSP) and other long-duration Russian/Soviet missions, and studies of personnel in other isolated and confined extreme (ICE) environments suggest that psychosocial elements of behavior and performance are likely to have a significant impact on the outcome of long-duration missions in space. This impact may range from individual decrements in performance, health and well being, to catastrophic mission failure. This paper reviews our current understanding of the psychosocial issues related to long duration space missions according to three different domains of behavior: the individual domain, the interpersonal domain and the organizational domain. Individual issues include: personality characteristics that predict successful performance, stress due to isolation and confinement and its effect on emotions and cognitive performance, adaptive and maladaptive coping styles and strategies, and requirements for the psychological support of astronauts and their families during the mission. Interpersonal issues include: impact of crew diversity and leadership styles on small group dynamics, adaptive and maladaptive features of ground-crew interactions, and processes of crew cohesion, tension and conflict. Organizational issues include: the influence of organizational culture and mission duration on individual and group performance, and managerial requirements for long duration missions. Improved screening and selection of astronaut candidates, leadership, coping and interpersonal skills training of personnel, and organizational change are key elements in the prevention of performance decrements on long-duration missions.

  14. Space Radiation Measurement on the Polar Route onboard the Korean Commercial Flights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junga Hwang

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed by the policy research project of Ministry of Land, Transport and Maritime Affairs, which title is “Developing safety standards and management of space radiation on the polar route”. In this research, total six experiments were performed using Korean commercial flights (B747. Three of those are on the polar route and the other three are on the north pacific route. Space radiation exposure measured on the polar route is the average 84.7 uSv. The simulation result using CARI-6M program gives 84.9 uSv, which is very similar to measured value. For the departure flight using the north pacific route, the measured space radiation is the average 74.4 uSv. It seems that is not so different to use the polar route or not for the return flight because the higher latitude effect causing the increase of space radiation is compensated by the shortened flight time effect causing decreasing space radiation exposure.

  15. Space flight research leading to the development of enhanced plant products: Results from STS-94

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stodieck, Louis S.; Hoehn, Alex; Heyenga, A. Gerard

    1998-01-01

    Products derived from plants, such as foods, pharmaceuticals, lumber, paper, oils, etc., are pervasive in everyday life and generate revenues in the hundreds of billions of dollars. Research on space-grown plants has the potential to alter quantities, properties and types of plant-derived products in beneficial ways. Research on space grown plants may help expand the utilization of this resource for Earth based benefit to an even greater extent. The use of space flight conditions may help provide a greater understanding and ultimate manipulation of the metabolic and genetic control of commercially important plant products. Companies that derive and sell plant products could significantly benefit from investing in space research and development. A flight investigation was conducted on the Shuttle mission STS-94 to establish the initial experimental conditions necessary to test the hypothesis that the exposure of certain plant forms to an adequate period of microgravity may divert the cell metabolic expenditure on structural compounds such as lignin to alternative secondary metabolic compounds which are of commercial interest. Nine species of plants were grown for 16 days in the Astro/Plant Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus (Astro/PGBA) under well-controlled environmental conditions. Approximately half of the plant species exhibited significant growth comparable with synchronous ground controls. The other flight plant species were stunted and showed signs of stress with the cause still under investigation. For the plants that grew well, analyses are underway and are expected to demonstrate the potential for space flight biotechnology research.

  16. Pancreas of C57 black mice after long-term space flight (Bion-M1 Space Mission).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proshchina, A E; Krivova, Y S; Saveliev, S C

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we analysed the pancreases of C57BL/6N mice in order to estimate the effects of long-term space flights. Mice were flown aboard the Bion-M1 biosatellite, or remained on ground in the control experiment that replicated environmental and housing conditions in the spacecraft. Vivarium control group was used to account for housing effects. Each of the groups included mice designated for recovery studies. Mice pancreases were dissected for histological and immunohistochemical examinations. Using a morphometry and statistical analysis, a strong correlation between the mean islet size and the mean body weight was revealed in all groups. Therefore, we propose that hypokinesia and an increase in nutrition play an important role in alterations of the endocrine pancreas, both in space flight and terrestrial conditions. Copyright © 2015 The Committee on Space Research (COSPAR). Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Spacelab 1 hematology experiment (INS103): Influence of space flight on erythrokinetics in man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, C. S.; Chen, J. P.; Crosby, W.; Dunn, C. D. R.; Johnson, P. C.; Lange, R. D.; Larkin, E.; Tavassoli, M.

    1985-01-01

    An experiment conducted on the 10-day Spacelab 1 mission aboard the ninth Space Shuttle flight in November to December 1983 was designed to measure factors involved in the control of erythrocyte turnover that might be altered during weightlessness. Blood samples were collected before, during, and after the flight. Immediately after landing, red cell mass showed a mean decrease of 9.3 percent in the four astronauts. Neither hyperoxia nor an increase in blood phosphate was a cause of the decrease. Red cell survival time and iron incorporation postflight were not significantly different from their preflight levels. Serum haptoglobin did not decrease, indicating that intravascular hemolysis was not a major cause of red cell mass change. An increase in serum ferritin after the second day of flight may have been caused by red cell breakdown early in flight. Erythropoietin levels decreased during and after flight, but preflight levels were high and the decrease was not significant. The space flight-induced decrease in red cell mass may result from a failure of erythropoiesis to replace cells destroyed by the spleen soon after weightlessness is attained.

  18. A primary report on honeybee space-flight breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Jun; Shi Wei; Ding Guiling; Lv Liping; Liu Zhiguang

    2009-01-01

    The semen of honeybees (Apis mellifera ligustica and Apis mellifera carnica) was carried by the recoverable satellite for a spaceflight and was inseminated instrumentally to the virgin queens after returning to the earth. The preliminary results showed that both the vitality of the sperm and the survival rate of SP 1 queen were lower than those of the control. Obvious variations in morphology appeared on the progeny workers of queens in SP 2 and in SP 3 generations, but most of variation were unfavorable. Mutants with desirable characters were not found after the space fight. (authors)

  19. Analysis of genetic variation in Ganoderma Lucidum after space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Jian-Jun; Ma, Rong-Cai; Chen, Xiang-Dong; Lan, Jin

    A modified CTAB method was used in the extraction of total cellular DNA of Ganoderma lucidum. Four strains Cx, Ch, C3 and C4, and their counterparts, four space flown strains Sx, Xh, S3 and S4, were analysed by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) with several primer combinations. Polymorphic bands were detected between Sx and Cx, S3 and C3, respectively. Somatic incompatibility tests further confirmed their heterogeneity. However, no disparity between Sh and Ch, S4 and C4 was detectable. The results suggest that spaceflight may be used to accelerate breeding of Ganoderma lucidum strains for commercial cultivation.

  20. Microbiology and Crew Medical Events on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oubre, Cherie; Charvat, Jacqueline M.; Kadwa, Biniafer; Taiym, Wafa; Ott, C. Mark; Pierson, Duane; Baalen, Mary Van

    2014-01-01

    The closed environment of the International Space Station (ISS) creates an ideal environment for microbial growth. Previous studies have identified the ubiquitous nature of microorganisms throughout the space station environment. To ensure safety of the crew, microbial monitoring of air and surface within ISS began in December 2000 and continues to be monitored on a quarterly basis. Water monitoring began in 2009 when the potable water dispenser was installed on ISS. However, it is unknown if high microbial counts are associated with inflight medical events. The microbial counts are determined for the air, surface, and water samples collected during flight operations and samples are returned to the Microbiology laboratory at the Johnson Space Center for identification. Instances of microbial counts above the established microbial limit requirements were noted and compared inflight medical events (any non-injury event such as illness, rashes, etc.) that were reported during the same calendar-quarter. Data were analyzed using repeated measures logistic regression for the forty-one US astronauts flew on ISS between 2000 and 2012. In that time frame, instances of microbial counts being above established limits were found for 10 times for air samples, 22 times for surface samples and twice for water. Seventy-eight inflight medical events were reported among the astronauts. A three times greater risk of a medical event was found when microbial samples were found to be high (OR = 3.01; p =.007). Engineering controls, crew training, and strict microbial limits have been established to mitigate the crew medical events and environmental risks. Due to the timing issues of sampling and the samples return to earth, identification of particular microorganisms causing a particular inflight medical event is difficult. Further analyses are underway.

  1. Decline in Aerobic Fitness After Long-Term Stays on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Peggy A.; Minard, Charles; Moore, Alan; Babiak-Vazquez, Adriana

    2010-01-01

    U.S. and non-Russian International Partner astronauts who participate in long-term International Space Station (ISS) expeditions perform submaximal cycle exercise tests before, during, and after space flight. The heart rate (HR) and oxygen uptake (VO2) responses to exercise are used to estimate peak VO2 (EVO2pk). Purpose: To determine if the following factors are associated with the preflight-to-post flight change in EVO2pk: gender, age, body weight (BW), number of aerobic exercise sessions/wk- during flight, length of flight, EVO2pk measured before and late during the flight, ISS Expedition number and time between landing and the first post flight test. Methods: Records of 37 ISS astronauts (30 male, BW=81.6 plus or minus 8.6 kg; 7 female BW=66.1 plus or minus 4.9 kg [mean plus or minus SD]), age 46 plus or minus 4 years, were retrospectively examined. Peak HR and VO2 were measured approximately 9 months before flight to establish the test protocol. The submaximal cycle test consisted of three 5-minute stages designed to elicit 25, 50, and 75% of VO2pk. EVO2pk was calculated using linear least-squares extrapolation of average HR and VO2 during the last minute of each stage to predict VO2 at maximal HR. VO2 was not measured during flight and was assumed to not be different from preflight. Testing was performed 45 days before launch, late during flight, and during the week after landing. A random-intercept multivariate model was used to determine which characteristics significantly contributed to post flight EVO2pk. Results: In-flight aerobic exercise averaged 5.4 plus or minus 1.2 sessions/wk. ISS flight duration averaged 163 plus or minus 39 d. Mean EVO2pk values were 3.41 plus or minus 0.64 L (raised dot) per minute before flight, 3.09 plus or minus 0.57 L (raised dot) per minute late in flight, and 3.02 plus or minus 0.65 L (raised dot) per minute after flight. Late- and after-flight values were lower (p less than 0.05) than preflight values and did not differ

  2. Preliminary analysis of accelerated space flight ionizing radiation testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J. W.; Stock, L. V.; Carter, D. J.; Chang, C. K.

    1982-01-01

    A preliminary analysis shows that radiation dose equivalent to 30 years in the geosynchronous environment can be accumulated in a typical composite material exposed to space for 2 years or less onboard a spacecraft orbiting from perigee of 300 km out to the peak of the inner electron belt (approximately 2750 km). Future work to determine spacecraft orbits better tailored to materials accelerated testing is indicated. It is predicted that a range of 10 to the 9th power to 10 to the 10th power rads would be accumulated in 3-6 mil thick epoxy/graphite exposed by a test spacecraft orbiting in the inner electron belt. This dose is equivalent to the accumulated dose that this material would be expected to have after 30 years in a geosynchronous orbit. It is anticipated that material specimens would be brought back to Earth after 2 years in the radiation environment so that space radiation effects on materials could be analyzed by laboratory methods.

  3. Genetic risks associated with radiation exposures during space flight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grahn, D.

    1983-01-01

    Although the genetic risks of space radiation do not pose a significant hazard to the general population, the risks may be very important to the individual astronaut. The present paper summarizes some experimental results on the induction of dominant lethal mutations and chromosomal damage in the first generation which may be used in the prediction of the genetic risks of radiation exposures of space crews. Young adult male mice were exposed to single, weekly and continuous doses of gamma rays, neutrons in single doses and weekly exposures and continuous doses of Pu-239 alpha particles. Evaluation of fetal survival rates in females mated to the exposed males shows the mutation rate in individuals exposed to gamma rays to decline as the exposure period is prolonged and the dose rate is reduced, while the response to neutrons is in the opposite direction. Cytological determinations show the rate of balanced chromosomal translocations to drop as gamma ray exposures change from one-time to continuous, however little or no dose rate effect is seen with neutron radiation and alpha particle exposure shows no regular dose-response. Based on the above results, it is predicted that the rate of dominant mutations and transmissible chromosome aberrations in astronauts on a 100-day mission will increase by 4.5 to 41.25 percent over the spontaneous rate. 35 references

  4. NASA's Suborbital Missions Teach Engineering and Technology: Goddard Space Flight Center's Wallops Flight Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterton, Joyce L.

    2016-01-01

    A 50 minute-workshop based on NASA publicly available information will be conducted at the International Technology and Engineering Educator Association annual conference. Attendees will include middle and high school teachers and university teacher educators. Engineering and technology are essential to NASA's suborbital missions including sounding rockets, scientific balloon and airborne science. The attendees will learn how to include NASA information on these missions in their teaching.

  5. Immune System Dysregulation, Viral Reactivation and Stress During Short-Duration Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, Brian; Mehta, Satish; Stowe, Raymond; Uchakin, Peter; Quiriarte, Heather; Pierson, Duane; Sams, Clarence

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews a study that was conducted to ascertain if the immune system dysregulation, viral reactivation and stress from short duration space flight were a result of the stress of landing and readjustment to gravity. The objectives of the study were to replace several recent immune studies with one comprehensive study that will include in-flight sampling; address lack of in-flight data: (i.e., determine the in-flight status of immunity, physiological stress, viral immunity/reactivation); determine the clinical risk related to immune dysregulation for exploration class spaceflight; and determine the appropriate monitoring strategy for spaceflight-associated immune dysfunction, that could be used for the evaluation of countermeasures.

  6. Wetlab-2 - Quantitative PCR Tools for Spaceflight Studies of Gene Expression Aboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonfeld, Julie E.

    2015-01-01

    Wetlab-2 is a research platform for conducting real-time quantitative gene expression analysis aboard the International Space Station. The system enables spaceflight genomic studies involving a wide variety of biospecimen types in the unique microgravity environment of space. Currently, gene expression analyses of space flown biospecimens must be conducted post flight after living cultures or frozen or chemically fixed samples are returned to Earth from the space station. Post-flight analysis is limited for several reasons. First, changes in gene expression can be transient, changing over a timescale of minutes. The delay between sampling on Earth can range from days to months, and RNA may degrade during this period of time, even in fixed or frozen samples. Second, living organisms that return to Earth may quickly re-adapt to terrestrial conditions. Third, forces exerted on samples during reentry and return to Earth may affect results. Lastly, follow up experiments designed in response to post-flight results must wait for a new flight opportunity to be tested.

  7. Marshall Space Flight Center Ground Systems Development and Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Gina

    2016-01-01

    Ground Systems Development and Integration performs a variety of tasks in support of the Mission Operations Laboratory (MOL) and other Center and Agency projects. These tasks include various systems engineering processes such as performing system requirements development, system architecture design, integration, verification and validation, software development, and sustaining engineering of mission operations systems that has evolved the Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) into a leader in remote operations for current and future NASA space projects. The group is also responsible for developing and managing telemetry and command configuration and calibration databases. Personnel are responsible for maintaining and enhancing their disciplinary skills in the areas of project management, software engineering, software development, software process improvement, telecommunications, networking, and systems management. Domain expertise in the ground systems area is also maintained and includes detailed proficiency in the areas of real-time telemetry systems, command systems, voice, video, data networks, and mission planning systems.

  8. Selective weighting of cutaneous receptor feedback and associated balance impairments following short duration space flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzalkowski, Nicholas D J; Lowrey, Catherine R; Perry, Stephen D; Williams, David R; Wood, Scott J; Bent, Leah R

    2015-04-10

    The present study investigated the perception of low frequency (3 Hz) vibration on the foot sole and its relationship to standing balance following short duration space flight in nine astronauts. Both 3 Hz vibration perception threshold (VPT) and standing balance measures increased on landing day compared to pre-flight. Contrary to our hypothesis, a positive linear relationship between these measures was not observed; however astronauts with the most sensitive skin (lowest 3 Hz VPT) were found to have the largest sway on landing day. While the change in foot sole sensitivity does not appear to directly relate to standing balance control, an exploratory strategy may be employed by astronauts whose threshold to pressure information is lower. Understanding sensory adaptations and balance control has implications to improve balance control strategies following space flight and in sensory impaired populations on earth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Earth observations during Space Shuttle flight STS-41 - Discovery's mission to planet earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lulla, Kamlesh P.; Helfert, Michael R.; Amsbury, David L.; Whitehead, Victor S.; Richards, Richard N.; Cabana, Robert D.; Shepherd, William M.; Akers, Thomas D.; Melnick, Bruce E.

    1991-01-01

    An overview of space flight STS-41 is presented, including personal observations and comments by the mission astronauts. The crew deployed the Ulysses spacecraft to study the polar regions of the sun and the interplanetary space above the poles. Environmental observations, including those of Lake Turkana, Lake Chad, biomass burning in Madagascar and Argentina, and circular features in Yucatan are described. Observations that include landforms and geology, continental sedimentation, desert landscapes, and river morphology are discussed.

  10. STAIF96: space technology and applications international forum. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Genk, M.S.

    1996-01-01

    These proceedings represent papers presented at the Space Technology and Applications International Forum-STAIF. STAIF-96 hosted four technical conferences sharing the common interest in space exploration, technology, and commercialization. Topics discussed include space station, space transportation, materials processing in space, commercial forum, space power, commercial space ports, microelectronics, automation of robotics-space application, remote sensing, small business innovative research and communications. There were 243 papers presented at the forum, and 138 have been abstracted for the Energy Science and Technology database. STAIF-96 was partly sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy

  11. The dynamics of blood biochemical parameters in cosmonauts during long-term space flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markin, Andrei; Strogonova, Lubov; Balashov, Oleg; Polyakov, Valery; Tigner, Timoty

    Most of the previously obtained data on cosmonauts' metabolic state concerned certain stages of the postflight period. In this connection, all conclusions, as to metabolism peculiarities during the space flight, were to a large extent probabilistic. The purpose of this work was study of metabolism characteristics in cosmonauts directly during long-term space flights. In the capillary blood samples taken from a finger, by "Reflotron IV" biochemical analyzer, "Boehringer Mannheim" GmbH, Germany, adapted to weightlessness environments, the activity of GOT, GPT, CK, gamma-GT, total and pancreatic amylase, as well as concentration of hemoglobin, glucose, total bilirubin, uric acid, urea, creatinine, total, HDL- and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides had been determined. HDL/LDL-cholesterol ratio also was computed. The crewmembers of 6 main missions to the "Mir" orbital station, a total of 17 cosmonauts, were examined. Biochemical tests were carryed out 30-60 days before lounch, and in the flights different stages between the 25-th and the 423-rd days of flights. In cosmonauts during space flight had been found tendency to increase, in compare with basal level, GOT, GPT, total amylase activity, glucose and total cholesterol concentration, and tendency to decrease of CK activity, hemoglobin, HDL-cholesterol concentration, and HDL/LDL — cholesterol ratio. Some definite trends in variations of other determined biochemical parameters had not been found. The same trends of mentioned biochemical parameters alterations observed in majority of tested cosmonauts, allows to suppose existence of connection between noted metabolic alterations with influence of space flight conditions upon cosmonaut's body. Variations of other studied blood biochemical parameters depends on, probably, pure individual causes.

  12. Using the World Wide Web for GIDEP Problem Data Processing at Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, John W.; Haraway, Sandra W.; Whirley, J. Don

    1999-01-01

    Since April 1997, Marshall Space Flight Center has been using electronic transfer and the web to support our processing of the Government-Industry Data Exchange Program (GIDEP) and NASA ALERT information. Specific aspects include: (1) Extraction of ASCII text information from GIDEP for loading into Word documents for e-mail to ALERT actionees; (2) Downloading of GIDEP form image formats in Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) for internal storage display on the MSFC ALERT web page; (3) Linkage of stored GRDEP problem forms with summary information for access from the MSFC ALERT Distribution Summary Chart or from an html table of released MSFC ALERTs (4) Archival of historic ALERTs for reference by GIDEP ID, MSFC ID, or MSFC release date; (5) On-line tracking of ALERT response status using a Microsoft Access database and the web (6) On-line response to ALERTs from MSFC actionees through interactive web forms. The technique, benefits, effort, coordination, and lessons learned for each aspect are covered herein.

  13. Process Improvement for Next Generation Space Flight Vehicles: MSFC Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housch, Helen

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the lessons learned from process improvement for Next Generation Space Flight Vehicles. The contents include: 1) Organizational profile; 2) Process Improvement History; 3) Appraisal Preparation; 4) The Appraisal Experience; 5) Useful Tools; and 6) Is CMMI working?

  14. Forecast of space shuttle flight requirements for launch of commercial communications satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    The number of communication satellites required over the next 25 years to support domestic and regional communication systems for telephony, telegraphy and other low speed data; video teleconferencing, new data services, direct TV broadcasting; INTELSAT; and maritime and aeronautical services was estimated to determine the number of space shuttle flights necessary for orbital launching.

  15. Practical application of HgI2 detectors to a space-flight scanning electron microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, J. G.; Conley, J. M.; Albee, A. L.; Iwanczyk, J. S.; Dabrowski, A. J.

    1989-01-01

    Mercuric iodide X-ray detectors have been undergoing tests in a prototype scanning electron microscope system being developed for unmanned space flight. The detector program addresses the issues of geometric configuration in the SEM, compact packaging that includes separate thermoelectric coolers for the detector and FET, X-ray transparent hermetic encapsulation and electrical contacts, and a clean vacuum environment.

  16. Space shuttle/food system study. Volume 2, Appendix F: Flight food and primary packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    The analysis and selection of food items and primary packaging, the development of menus, the nutritional analysis of diet, and the analyses of alternate food mixes and contingency foods is reported in terms of the overall food system design for space shuttle flight. Stowage weights and cubic volumes associated with each alternate mix were also evaluated.

  17. Do international flights promote FDI? : the role of face-to-face communication

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Kiyoyasu

    2016-01-01

    Air transportation facilitates face-to-face interactions across borders for the spatial expansion of manufacturing production. I investigate the impact of international flights on FDI entry by Japanese firms. I find that FDI entry significantly increases with the weekly frequency of flights from Japan, and the positive impact increases with a proxy for an intensity of face-to-face communication between the parent firm and foreign affiliate. The results are robust to estimation methods, additi...

  18. Mass Reduction: The Weighty Challenge for Exploration Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloeris, Vickie L.

    2014-01-01

    Meeting nutritional and acceptability requirements is critical for the food system for an exploration class space mission. However, this must be achieved within the constraints of available resources such as water, crew time, stowage volume, launch mass and power availability. ? Due to resource constraints, exploration class missions are not expected to have refrigerators or freezers for food storage, and current per person food mass must be reduced to improve mission feasibility. ? The Packaged Food Mass Reduction Trade Study (Stoklosa, 2009) concluded that the mass of the current space food system can be effectively reduced by decreasing water content of certain foods and offering nutrient dense substitutes, such as meal replacement bars and beverages. Target nutrient ranges were established based on the nutritional content of the current breakfast and lunch meals in the ISS standard menu. A market survey of available commercial products produced no viable options for meal replacement bar or beverage products. New prototypes for both categories were formulated to meet target nutrient ranges. Samples of prototype products were packaged in high barrier packaging currently used for ISS and underwent an accelerated shelf life study at 31 degC and 41 degC (50% RH) for 24 weeks. Samples were assessed at the following time points: Initial, 6 weeks, 12 weeks, and 24 weeks. Testing at each time point included the following: color, texture, water activity, acceptability, and hexanal analysis (for food bars only). Proof of concept prototypes demonstrated that meal replacement food bars and beverages can deliver a comparable macronutrient profile while reducing the overall mass when compared to the ISS Standard Menu. Future work suggestions for meal replacement bars: Reformulation to include ingredients that reduce hardness and reduce browning to increase shelf life. Micronutrient analysis and potential fortification. Sensory evaluation studies including satiety tests and

  19. Capabilities of the Environmental Effects Branch at Marshall Space Flight Cente

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Jan; Finckenor, Miria; Nehls, Mary

    2016-01-01

    The Environmental Effects Branch at the Marshall Space Flight Center supports a myriad array of programs for NASA, DoD, and commercial space including human exploration, advanced space propulsion, improving life on Earth, and the study of the Sun, the Earth, and the solar system. The branch provides testing, evaluation, and qualification of materials for use on external spacecraft surfaces and in contamination-sensitive systems. Space environment capabilities include charged particle radiation, ultraviolet radiation, atomic oxygen, impact, plasma, and thermal vacuum, anchored by flight experiments and analysis of returned space hardware. These environmental components can be combined for solar wind or planetary surface environment studies or to evaluate synergistic effects. The Impact Testing Facility allows simulation of impacts ranging from sand and rain to micrometeoroids and orbital debris in order to evaluate materials and components for flight and ground-based systems. The Contamination Control Team is involved in the evaluation of environmentally-friendly replacements for HCFC-225 for use in propulsion oxygen systems, developing cleaning methods for additively manufactured hardware, and reducing risk for the Space Launch System.

  20. Biomechanical Analysis of Treadmill Locomotion on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Witt, J. K.; Fincke, R. S.; Guilliams, M. E.; Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.

    2011-01-01

    Treadmill locomotion exercise is an important aspect of ISS exercise countermeasures. It is widely believed that an optimized treadmill exercise protocol could offer benefits to cardiovascular and bone health. If training heart rate is high enough, treadmill exercise is expected to lead to improvements in aerobic fitness. If impact or bone loading forces are high enough, treadmill exercise may be expected to contribute to improved bone outcomes. Ground-based research suggests that joint loads increase with increased running speed. However, it is unknown if increases in locomotion speed results in similar increases in joint loads in microgravity. Although data exist regarding the biomechanics of running and walking in microgravity, a majority were collected during parabolic flight or during investigations utilizing a microgravity analog. The Second Generation Treadmill (T2) has been in use on the International Space Station (ISS) and records the ground reaction forces (GRF) produced by crewmembers during exercise. Biomechanical analyses will aid in understanding potential differences in typical gait motion and allow for modeling of the human body to determine joint and muscle forces during exercise. By understanding these mechanisms, more appropriate exercise prescriptions can be developed that address deficiencies. The objective of this evaluation is to collect biomechanical data from crewmembers during treadmill exercise prior to and during flight. The goal is to determine if locomotive biomechanics differ between normal and microgravity environments and to determine how combinations of subject load and speed influence joint loading during in-flight treadmill exercise. Further, the data will be used to characterize any differences in specific bone and muscle loading during locomotion in these two gravitational conditions. This project maps to the HRP Integrated Research Plan risks including Risk of Bone Fracture (Gap B15), Risk of Early Onset Osteoporosis Due to

  1. Deep space propulsion a roadmap to interstellar flight

    CERN Document Server

    Long, K F

    2012-01-01

    As humans take their first tentative steps off our home planet, and debate the costs/benefits of sending people back to the Moon and perhaps on to Mars, we must also start to make plans for the day when we will venture forth as pioneers farther out into the Solar System and beyond - perhaps far, far beyond - to explore and settle new worlds around other stars. It is vital that we develop the deep space propulsion technologies that will take us there, first to explore with robotic probes, then to follow ourselves. This is necessary so that if anything catastrophic happened to Earth, our species would survive. And the possibilities for catastrophe are great. An impacting asteroid ended the reign of the dinosaurs, and today we have many other threats such as global war, climate change, pollution, resource limitations and overpopulation. In this book, Kelvin F. Long takes us on all the possible journeys - the mission targets, the technologies we might use to power such journeys, and what scientific knowledge we a...

  2. Effect of prolonged space flight on cardiac function and dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, W. L.; Epstein, S. E.; Griffith, J. M.; Goldstein, R. E.; Redwood, D. R.

    1974-01-01

    Echocardiographic studies were performed preflight 5 days before launch and on recovery day and 1, 2, 4, 11, 31 and 68 days postflight. From these echocardiograms measurements were made. From these primary measurements, left ventricular end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume, stroke volume, and mass were derived using the accepted assumptions. Findings in the Scientist Pilot and Pilot resemble those seen in trained distance runners. Wall thickness measurements were normal in all three crewmembers preflight. Postflight basal studies were unchanged in the Commander on recovery day through 68 days postflight in both the Scientist Pilot and Pilot, however, the left ventricular end-diastolic volume, stroke volume, and mass were decreased slightly. Left ventricular function curves were constructed for the Commander and Pilot by plotting stroke volume versus end-diastolic volume. In both astronauts, preflight and postflight data fell on the same straight line demonstrating that no deterioration in cardiac function had occurred. These data indicate that the cardiovascular system adapts well to prolonged weightlessness and suggest that alterations in cardiac dimensions and function are unlikely to limit man's future in space.

  3. Technology for the Stars: Extending Our Reach. [Research and Technology: 1995 Annual Report of the Marshall Space Flight Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) Advanced Studies, Research, Technology, and Technology Transfer projects are summarized in this report. The focus of the report is on the three spotlights at MSFC in 1995: space transportation technology, microgravity research, and technology transfer.

  4. International Safety Regulation and Standards for Space Travel and Commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelton, J. N.; Jakhu, R.

    The evolution of air travel has led to the adoption of the 1944 Chicago Convention that created the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), headquartered in Montreal, Canada, and the propagation of aviation safety standards. Today, ICAO standardizes and harmonizes commercial air safety worldwide. Space travel and space safety are still at an early stage of development, and the adoption of international space safety standards and regulation still remains largely at the national level. This paper explores the international treaties and conventions that govern space travel, applications and exploration today and analyzes current efforts to create space safety standards and regulations at the national, regional and global level. Recent efforts to create a commercial space travel industry and to license commercial space ports are foreseen as means to hasten a space safety regulatory process.

  5. Telemedicine in Space Flight - Summary of a NASA Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsten, K. N.; Watkins, S. D.; Otto, C.; Baumann, D. K.

    2011-01-01

    The Exploration Medical Capability Element of the Human Research Program at NASA Johnson Space Center hosted the Telemedicine Workshop in January 2011 to discuss the medical operational concept for a crewed mission to a near-Earth asteroid (NEA) and to identify areas for future work and collaboration. With the increased likelihood of a medical incident on a long duration exploration mission to a near-Earth asteroid, as well as the fact that there will likely be limited medical capabilities and resources available to diagnose and treat medical conditions, it is anticipated that a more structured use of telemedicine will become highly desirable. The workshop was convened to solicit expert opinion on current telemedicine practices and on medical care in remote environments. Workshop Objectives: The workshop brought together leaders in telemedicine and remote medicine from The University of Texas Medical Branch, Henry Ford Hospital, Ontario Telemedicine Network, U.S. Army Institute of Surgical Research, University of Miami, American Telemedicine Association, Doctors Without Borders, and the Pan American Health Organization. The primary objectives of the workshop were to document the medical operations concept for a crewed mission to a NEA, to determine gaps between current capabilities and the capabilities outlined in the operations concept, to identify research required to close these gaps, and to discuss potential collaborations with external-to-NASA organizations with similar challenges. Summary of Discussions and Conclusions: The discussions held during the workshop and the conclusions reached by the workshop participants were grouped into seven categories: Crew Medical Officers, Patient Area in Spacecraft, Training, Electronic Medical Records, Intelligent Care Systems, Consultation Protocols, Prophylactic Surgical Procedures, and Data Prioritization. The key points discussed under each category will be presented.

  6. Study of values and interpersonal perception in cosmonauts on board of international space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinokhodova, A. G.; Gushin, V. I.

    2014-01-01

    The increased heterogeneity of International Space Station (ISS) crews' composition (in terms of nationality, profession and gender) together with stressful situations, due to space flight, can have a significant impact on group interaction and cohesion, as well as on communications with Mission Control Center (MCC) and the success of the mission as a whole. Culturally related differences in values, goals, and behavioral norms could influence mutual perception and, thus, cohesive group formation. The purpose of onboard "Interaction-Attitudes" experiment is to study the patterns of small group (space crew) behavior in extended space flight. Onboard studies were performed in the course of ISS Missions 19-30 with participation of twelve Russian crewmembers. Experimental schedule included 3 phases: preflight training and Baseline Data Collection; inflight activities once in two weeks; post-flight measurement. We used Personal Self-Perception and Attitudes (PSPA) software for analyzing subjects' attitudes toward social environment (crewmembers and MCC). It is based on the semantic differential and the repertory grid technique. To study the content of interpersonal perception we used content-analysis with participation of the experts, independently attributing each construct to the 17 semantic categories, which were described in our previous study. The data obtained demonstrated that the system of values and personal attitudes in the majority of participated cosmonauts remained mostly stable under stress-factors of extended space flight. Content-analysis of the important criteria elaborated by the subjects for evaluation of their social environment, showed that the most valuable personal traits for cosmonauts were those that provided the successful fulfillment of professional activity (motivation, intellectual level, knowledge, and self-discipline) and good social relationships (sociability, friendship, and tolerance), as well. Post-flight study of changes in perceptions

  7. Development of an In Flight Vision Self-Assessment Questionnaire for Long Duration Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Vicky E.; Gibson, Charles R.; Pierpoline, Katherine M.

    2010-01-01

    OVERVIEW A NASA Flight Medicine optometrist teamed with a human factors specialist to develop an electronic questionnaire for crewmembers to record their visual acuity test scores and perceived vision assessment. It will be implemented on the International Space Station (ISS) and administered as part of a suite of tools for early detection of potential vision changes. The goal of this effort was to rapidly develop a set of questions to help in early detection of visual (e.g. blurred vision) and/or non-visual (e.g. headaches) symptoms by allowing the ISS crewmembers to think about their own current vision during their spaceflight missions. PROCESS An iterative process began with a Space Shuttle one-page paper questionnaire generated by the optometrist that was updated by applying human factors design principles. It was used as a baseline to establish an electronic questionnaire for ISS missions. Additional questions needed for the ISS missions were included and the information was organized to take advantage of the computer-based file format available. Human factors heuristics were applied to the prototype and then they were reviewed by the optometrist and procedures specialists with rapid-turn around updates that lead to the final questionnaire. CONCLUSIONS With about only a month lead time, a usable tool to collect crewmember assessments was developed through this cross-discipline collaboration. With only a little expenditure of energy, the potential payoff is great. ISS crewmembers will complete the questionnaire at 30 days into the mission, 100 days into the mission and 30 days prior to return to Earth. The systematic layout may also facilitate physicians later data extraction for quick interpretation of the data. The data collected along with other measures (e.g. retinal and ultrasound imaging) at regular intervals could potentially lead to early detection and treatment of related vision problems than using the other measures alone.

  8. Leaders in space: Mission commanders and crew on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brcic, Jelena

    Understanding the relationship between leaders and their subordinates is important for building better interpersonal connections, improving group cohesion and cooperation, and increasing task success. This relationship has been examined in many types of groups but not a great amount of analysis has been applied to spaceflight crews. We specifically investigated differences between mission commanders and flight commanders during missions to the International Space Station (ISS). Astronauts and cosmonauts on the ISS participate in long-duration missions (2 to 6 months in length) in which they live and work in close proximity with their 2 or 3 member crews. The leaders are physically distant from their command centres which may result in delay of instructions or important advice. Therefore, the leaders must be able to make quick, sound decisions with unwavering certainty. Potential complications include that the leaders may not be able to exercise their power fully, since material reward or punishment of any one member affects the whole group, and that the leader's actions (or lack thereof) in this isolated, confined environment could create stress in members. To be effective, the mission commander must be able to prevent or alleviate any group conflict and be able to relate to members on an emotional level. Mission commanders and crew are equal in the competencies of spaceflight; therefore, what are the unique characteristics that enable the commanders to fulfill their role? To highlight the differences between commander and crew, astronaut journals, diaries, pre- flight interviews, NASA oral histories, and letters written to family from space were scored and analyzed for values and coping styles. During pre-flight, mission commanders scored higher than other crew members on the values of Stimulation, Security, Universalism, Conformity, Spirituality, and Benevolence, and more often used Self-Control as a coping style. During the long-duration mission on ISS, mission

  9. Pancreas of C57 black mice after long-term space flight (Bion-M1 Space Mission)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proshchina, A. E.; Krivova, Y. S.; Saveliev, S. C.

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we analysed the pancreases of C57BL/6N mice in order to estimate the effects of long-term space flights. Mice were flown aboard the Bion-M1 biosatellite, or remained on ground in the control experiment that replicated environmental and housing conditions in the spacecraft. Vivarium control group was used to account for housing effects. Each of the groups included mice designated for recovery studies. Mice pancreases were dissected for histological and immunohistochemical examinations. Using a morphometry and statistical analysis, a strong correlation between the mean islet size and the mean body weight was revealed in all groups. Therefore, we propose that hypokinesia and an increase in nutrition play an important role in alterations of the endocrine pancreas, both in space flight and terrestrial conditions.

  10. 78 FR 49296 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    .... Greg Mann, Office of International and Interagency Relations, (202) 358-5140, NASA Headquarters... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice 13-091] NASA International Space Station... meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Public Law 92-463, as amended...

  11. 75 FR 51852 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    .... Donald Miller, Office of International and Interagency Relations, (202) 358-1527, National Aeronautics... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice (10-090)] NASA International Space Station... meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Public Law 92-463, as amended...

  12. Genomic DNA sequence and cytosine methylation changes of adult rice leaves after seeds space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jinming

    In this study, cytosine methylation on CCGG site and genomic DNA sequence changes of adult leaves of rice after seeds space flight were detected by methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP) and Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) technique respectively. Rice seeds were planted in the trial field after 4 days space flight on the shenzhou-6 Spaceship of China. Adult leaves of space-treated rice including 8 plants chosen randomly and 2 plants with phenotypic mutation were used for AFLP and MSAP analysis. Polymorphism of both DNA sequence and cytosine methylation were detected. For MSAP analysis, the average polymorphic frequency of the on-ground controls, space-treated plants and mutants are 1.3%, 3.1% and 11% respectively. For AFLP analysis, the average polymorphic frequencies are 1.4%, 2.9%and 8%respectively. Total 27 and 22 polymorphic fragments were cloned sequenced from MSAP and AFLP analysis respectively. Nine of the 27 fragments from MSAP analysis show homology to coding sequence. For the 22 polymorphic fragments from AFLP analysis, no one shows homology to mRNA sequence and eight fragments show homology to repeat region or retrotransposon sequence. These results suggest that although both genomic DNA sequence and cytosine methylation status can be effected by space flight, the genomic region homology to the fragments from genome DNA and cytosine methylation analysis were different.

  13. Some results of the effect of space flight factors on Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filatova, L.P.; Vaulina, E.N.

    1983-01-01

    Chromosomal effects of space flight factors were investigated in Drosophila melanogaster flown aboard the Salyut 6 orbital station. Drosophila males heterozygous for four linked traits were exposed to space flight conditions for periods of eight days, and the progeny when the males were mated with homozygous recessive females were compared with those from control flies exposed to the same vibration and acceleration environment, and the progeny of laboratory controls. Increases in recombination and nondisjunction frequencies were observed in the flies exposed to the space environment, with recombinant flies also found in the F1 generation of the vibration and acceleration controls. Results suggest that it is the action of heavy particles that accounts for the major portion of the genetic effects observed. 17 references

  14. Previous experience in manned space flight: A survey of human factors lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandlee, George O.; Woolford, Barbara

    1993-01-01

    Previous experience in manned space flight programs can be used to compile a data base of human factors lessons learned for the purpose of developing aids in the future design of inhabited spacecraft. The objectives are to gather information available from relevant sources, to develop a taxonomy of human factors data, and to produce a data base that can be used in the future for those people involved in the design of manned spacecraft operations. A study is currently underway at the Johnson Space Center with the objective of compiling, classifying, and summarizing relevant human factors data bearing on the lessons learned from previous manned space flights. The research reported defines sources of data, methods for collection, and proposes a classification for human factors data that may be a model for other human factors disciplines.

  15. Biofilm initiation and growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on 316L stainless steel in low gravity in orbital space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Paul; Pierson, Duane L.; Allen, Britt; Silverstein, JoAnn

    The formation of biofilms by water microorganisms such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa in spacecraft water systems has been a matter of concern for long-duration space flight. Crewed spacecraft plumbing includes internal surfaces made of 316L stainless steel. Experiments were therefore undertaken to compare the ability of P. aeruginosa to grow in suspension, attach to stainless steel and to grow on stainless steel in low gravity on the space shuttle. Four categories of cultures were studied during two space shuttle flights (STS-69 and STS-77). Cultures on the ground were held in static horizontal or vertical cylindrical containers or were tumbled on a clinostat and activated under conditions identical to those for the flown cultures. The containers used on the ground and in flight were BioServe Space Technologies’ Fluid Processing Apparatus (FPA), an open-ended test tube with rubber septa that allows robotic addition of bacteria to culture media to initiate experiments and the addition of fixative to conclude experiments. Planktonic growth was monitored by spectrophotometry, and biofilms were characterized quantitatively by epifluorescence and scanning electron microscopy. In these experiments it was found that: (1) Planktonic growth in flown cultures was more extensive than in static cultures, as seen repeatedly in the history of space microbiology, and closely resembled the growth of tumbled cultures. (2) Conversely, the attachment of cells in flown cultures was as much as 8 times that in tumbled cultures but not significantly different from that in static horizontal and vertical cultures, consistent with the notion that flowing fluid reduces microbial attachment. (3) The final surface coverage in 8 days was the same for flown and static cultures but less by a factor of 15 in tumbled cultures, where coverage declined during the preceding 4 days. It is concluded that cell attachment to 316L stainless steel in the low gravity of orbital space flight is similar to that

  16. The role of the International Space University in building capacity in emerging space nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Robert

    The International Space University provides graduate-level training to the future leaders of the emerging global space community at its Central Campus in Strasbourg, France, and at locations around the world. In its two-month Summer Session and one-year Masters program, ISU offers its students a unique Core Curriculum covering all disciplines related to space programs and enterprises - space science, space engineering, systems engineering, space policy and law, business and management, and space and society. Both programs also involve an intense student research Team Project providing international graduate students and young space professionals the opportunity to solve complex problems by working together in an intercultural environment. Since its founding in 1987, ISU has graduated more than 2500 students from 96 countries. Together with hundreds of ISU faculty and lecturers from around the world, ISU alumni comprise an extremely effective network of space professionals and leaders that actively facilitates individual career growth, professional activities and international space cooperation.

  17. [Application prospect of human-artificial intelligence system in future manned space flight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jin-he

    2003-01-01

    To make the manned space flight more efficient and safer, a concept of human-artificial (AI) system is proposed in the present paper. The task of future manned space flight and the technique requirement with respect to the human-AI system development were analyzed. The main points are as follows: 1)Astronaut and AI are complementary to each other functionally; 2) Both symbol AI and connectionist AI should be included in the human-AI system, but expert system and Soar-like system are used mainly inside the cabin, the COG-like robots are mainly assigned for EVA either in LEO flight or on the surface of Moon or Mars; 3) The human-AI system is hierarchical in nature with astronaut at the top level; 4) The complex interfaces between astronaut and AI are the key points for running the system reliably and efficiently. As the importance of human-AI system in future manned space flight and the complexity of related technology, it is suggested that the R/D should be planned as early as possible.

  18. Contribution of corresponding member of the USSR Academy of Sciences Ye. A. Korovin to the science of international space law. Anniversary of corresponding member of the USSR Academy of Sciences, Professor Ye. A. Korovin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukov, G. P.

    1980-01-01

    The Soviet Union's participation in the solution of international legal problems as space flights became possible is reviewed with emphasis on the efforts of the most prominent Soviet international lawyer. Some of the professor's 230 writings are highlighted.

  19. Development of a EUV Test Facility at the Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Edward; Pavelitz, Steve; Kobayashi, Ken; Robinson, Brian; Cirtain, Johnathan; Gaskin, Jessica; Winebarger, Amy

    2011-01-01

    This paper will describe a new EUV test facility that is being developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to test EUV telescopes. Two flight programs, HiC - high resolution coronal imager (sounding rocket) and SUVI - Solar Ultraviolet Imager (GOES-R), set the requirements for this new facility. This paper will discuss those requirements, the EUV source characteristics, the wavelength resolution that is expected and the vacuum chambers (Stray Light Facility, Xray Calibration Facility and the EUV test chamber) where this facility will be used.

  20. Storage Information Management System (SIMS) Spaceflight Hardware Warehousing at Goddard Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubicko, Richard M.; Bingham, Lindy

    1995-01-01

    Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) on site and leased warehouses contain thousands of items of ground support equipment (GSE) and flight hardware including spacecraft, scaffolding, computer racks, stands, holding fixtures, test equipment, spares, etc. The control of these warehouses, and the management, accountability, and control of the items within them, is accomplished by the Logistics Management Division. To facilitate this management and tracking effort, the Logistics and Transportation Management Branch, is developing a system to provide warehouse personnel, property owners, and managers with storage and inventory information. This paper will describe that PC-based system and address how it will improve GSFC warehouse and storage management.

  1. Analysis of Light Emitting Diode Technology for Aerospace Suitability in Human Space Flight Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treichel, Todd H.

    Commercial space designers are required to manage space flight designs in accordance with parts selections made from qualified parts listings approved by Department of Defense and NASA agencies for reliability and safety. The research problem was a government and private aerospace industry problem involving how LEDs cannot replace existing fluorescent lighting in manned space flight vehicles until such technology meets DOD and NASA requirements for reliability and safety, and effects on astronaut cognition and health. The purpose of this quantitative experimental study was to determine to what extent commercial LEDs can suitably meet NASA requirements for manufacturer reliability, color reliability, robustness to environmental test requirements, and degradation effects from operational power, while providing comfortable ambient light free of eyestrain to astronauts in lieu of current fluorescent lighting. A fractional factorial experiment tested white and blue LEDs for NASA required space flight environmental stress testing and applied operating current. The second phase of the study used a randomized block design, to test human factor effects of LEDs and a qualified ISS fluorescent for retinal fatigue and eye strain. Eighteen human subjects were recruited from university student members of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. Findings for Phase 1 testing showed that commercial LEDs met all DOD and NASA requirements for manufacturer reliability, color reliability, robustness to environmental requirements, and degradation effects from operational power. Findings showed statistical significance for LED color and operational power variables but degraded light output levels did not fall below the industry recognized <70%. Findings from Phase 2 human factors testing showed no statistically significant evidence that the NASA approved ISS fluorescent lights or blue or white LEDs caused fatigue, eye strain and/or headache, when study participants perform

  2. Satellite Servicing's Autonomous Rendezvous and Docking Testbed on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naasz, Bo J.; Strube, Matthew; Van Eepoel, John; Barbee, Brent W.; Getzandanner, Kenneth M.

    2011-01-01

    The Space Servicing Capabilities Project (SSCP) at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has been tasked with developing systems for servicing space assets. Starting in 2009, the SSCP completed a study documenting potential customers and the business case for servicing, as well as defining several notional missions and required technologies. In 2010, SSCP moved to the implementation stage by completing several ground demonstrations and commencing development of two International Space Station (ISS) payloads-the Robotic Refueling Mission (RRM) and the Dextre Pointing Package (DPP)--to mitigate new technology risks for a robotic mission to service existing assets in geosynchronous orbit. This paper introduces the DPP, scheduled to fly in July of 2012 on the third operational SpaceX Dragon mission, and its Autonomous Rendezvous and Docking (AR&D) instruments. The combination of sensors and advanced avionics provide valuable on-orbit demonstrations of essential technologies for servicing existing vehicles, both cooperative and non-cooperative.

  3. The Logistic Path from the International Space Station to the Moon and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, J. K.; Dempsey, C. A.; Butina, A. J., Sr.

    2005-01-01

    The period from the loss of the Space Shuttle Columbia in February 2003 to resumption of Space Shuttle flights, planned for May 2005, has presented significant challenges to International Space Station (ISS) maintenance operations. Sharply curtailed upmass capability has forced NASA to revise its support strategy and to undertake maintenance activities that have significantly expanded the envelope of the ISS maintenance concept. This experience has enhanced confidence in the ability to continue to support ISS in the period following the permanent retirement of the Space Shuttle fleet in 2010. Even greater challenges face NASA with the implementation of the Vision for Space Exploration that will introduce extended missions to the Moon beginning in the period of 2015 - 2020 and ultimately see human missions to more distant destinations such as Mars. The experience and capabilities acquired through meeting the maintenance challenges of ISS will serve as the foundation for the maintenance strategy that will be employed in support of these future missions.

  4. Cultivation in space flight produces minimal alterations in the susceptibility of Bacillus subtilis cells to 72 different antibiotics and growth-inhibiting compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Michael D; Fajardo-Cavazos, Patricia; Nicholson, Wayne L

    2017-08-18

    Past results have suggested that bacterial antibiotic susceptibility is altered during space flight. To test this notion, Bacillus subtilis cells were cultivated in matched hardware, medium, and environmental conditions either in spaceflight microgravity on the International Space Station, termed Flight (FL) samples, or at Earth-normal gravity, termed Ground Control (GC) samples. Susceptibility of FL and GC samples was compared to 72 antibiotics and growth-inhibitory compounds using the Omnilog Phenotype Microarray (PM) system. Only 9 compounds were identified by PM screening as exhibiting significant differences ( P flight. Importance: This study addresses a major concern of mission planners for human spaceflight, that bacteria accompanying astronauts on long-duration missions might develop a higher level of resistance to antibiotics due to exposure to the spaceflight environment. The results of this study do not support that notion. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  5. Department of Defense International Space Cooperation Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Commands’ regional exercise programs fully integrate appropriate allies’ and partners’ space operations. d. In close coordination with USSTRA TCOM...partners to develop basic operational capabilities through advanced and integrated training programs to grow a sophisticated coalition space cadre. b...1-2600 "’l. ., 5 Lui/ !.Y. 4’/ ,_ , MEMORANDUM FOR SECRETARIES OF THE MILITARY DEPARTMENTS CHAIRMAN OF THE JOINT CHIEFS OF STAFF UNDER SECRET

  6. Real-time Ultrasound Assessment of Astronaut Spinal Anatomy and Disorders on the International Space Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Kathleen M; Harrison, Michael F; Sargsyan, Ashot E; Ebert, Douglas; Dulchavsky, Scott A

    2018-04-01

    Back pain is one of the most common conditions of astronauts during spaceflight and is hypothesized to be attributed to pathologic anatomic changes. Ultrasound (US) represents the only available imaging modality on the International Space Station, but a formal US protocol for imaging the structures of the spinal column does not exist. This investigation developed a method of acquiring diagnostic-quality images of the anterior lumbar and cervical regions of the spine during long-duration spaceflight. Comprehensive spinal US examinations were conducted on 7 long-duration spaceflight astronauts before flight, in flight, and after flight and compared to preflight and postflight magnetic resonance imaging data. In-flight scans were conducted after just-in-time training assisted by remote expert tele-US guidance. Novice users were able to obtain diagnostic-quality spinal images with a 92.5% success rate. Thirty-three anomalous or pathologic findings were identified during the preflight US analysis, and at least 14 new findings or progressions were identified during the postflight US analysis. Common findings included disk desiccation, osteophytes, and qualitative changes in the intervertebral disk height and angle. Ultrasound has proven efficacy as a portable and versatile diagnostic imaging modality under austere conditions. We demonstrated a potential role for US to evaluate spinal integrity and alterations in the extreme environment of space on the International Space Station. Further investigations should be performed to corroborate this imaging technique and to create a larger database related to in-flight spinal conditions during long-duration spaceflight. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  7. Studies on gene expressions analyses for Arabidopsis thaliana plants stimulated by space flight condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jinying; Liu, Min; Pan, Yi; Li, Huasheng

    We carried out whole-genome microarray to screen the transcript profile of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings after three treatment: space microgravity condition( Seedlings grown in microgravity state of space flight of SIMBOX on Shenzhou-8), 1g centrifugal force in space(Seedlings grown in 1g centrifugal force state of space flight of SIMBOX on Shenzhou-8) and ground control. The result of microarray analysis is as followed: There were 368 genes significantly differentially expressed in space microgravity condition compared with that in 1g centrifuge space condition. Space radiation caused 246 genes significantly differentially expressed between seedlings in 1g centrifuge space condition and ground control. Space conditions (including microgravity and radiation) caused 621 genes significantly differentially expressed between seedlings in space microgravity condition and ground control. Microgravity and radiation as a single factor can cause plant gene expression change, but two factors synergism can produce some new effects on plant gene expression. The function of differential expression genes were analyst by bioinformatics, and we found the expression of genes related with stress were more different, such as the dehydration of protein (dehydrin Xero2) expression is up-regulated 57 times; low-temperature-induced protein expression is up-regulated in 49 times; heat shock protein expression is up-regulated 20 times; transcription factor DREB2A expression increase 25 times; protein phosphatase 2C expression is up-regulated 14 times; transcription factor NAM-like protein expression is up-regulated 13 times; cell wall metabolism related genes (xyloglucan, endo-1, 4-beta-D-glucanase) expression is down-regulated in 15 times. The results provide scientific data for the mechanism of space mutation.

  8. Body Unloading Associated with Space Flight and Bed-rest Impacts Functional Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Ballard, K. L.; Batson, C. D.; Buxton, R. E.; Feiveson, A. H.; Kofman, I. S.; Lee, S. M. C.; Miller, C. A.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the Functional Task Test study is to determine the effects of space flight on functional tests that are representative of high priority exploration mission tasks and to identify the key underlying physiological factors that contribute to decrements in performance. Ultimately this information will be used to assess performance risks and inform the design of countermeasures for exploration class missions. We are currently conducting studies on both ISS crewmembers and on subjects experiencing 70 days of 6 degrees head-down bed-rest as an analog for space flight. Bed-rest provides the opportunity for us to investigate the role of prolonged axial body unloading in isolation from the other physiological effects produced by exposure to the microgravity environment of space flight. This allows us to parse out the contribution of the body unloading component on functional performance. In this on-going study both ISS crewmembers and bed-rest subjects were tested using an interdisciplinary protocol that evaluated functional performance and related physiological changes before and after 6 months in space and 70 days of 6? head-down bed-rest, respectively. Functional tests included ladder climbing, hatch opening, jump down, manual manipulation of objects and tool use, seat egress and obstacle avoidance, recovery from a fall, and object translation tasks. Crewmembers were tested three times before flight, and on 1, 6 and 30 days after landing. Bed-rest subjects were tested three times before bed-rest and immediately after getting up from bed-rest as well as 1, 6 and 12 days after reambulation. A comparison of bed-rest and space flight data showed a significant concordance in performance changes across all functional tests. Tasks requiring a greater demand for dynamic control of postural equilibrium (i.e. fall recovery, seat egress/obstacle avoidance during walking, object translation, jump down) showed the greatest decrement in performance. Functional tests with

  9. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Controls Systems Design and Analysis Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilligan, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center maintains a critical national capability in the analysis of launch vehicle flight dynamics and flight certification of GN&C algorithms. MSFC analysts are domain experts in the areas of flexible-body dynamics and control-structure interaction, thrust vector control, sloshing propellant dynamics, and advanced statistical methods. Marshall's modeling and simulation expertise has supported manned spaceflight for over 50 years. Marshall's unparalleled capability in launch vehicle guidance, navigation, and control technology stems from its rich heritage in developing, integrating, and testing launch vehicle GN&C systems dating to the early Mercury-Redstone and Saturn vehicles. The Marshall team is continuously developing novel methods for design, including advanced techniques for large-scale optimization and analysis.

  10. A passion for space adventures of a pioneering female NASA flight controller

    CERN Document Server

    Dyson, Marianne J

    2016-01-01

    Marianne J. Dyson recounts for us a time when women were making the first inroads into space flight control, a previously male-dominated profession. The story begins with the inspiration of the Apollo 11 landing on the Moon and follows the challenges of pursuing a science career as a woman in the 70s and 80s, when it was far from an easy path.  Dyson relates the first five space shuttle flights from the personal perspective of mission planning and operations in Houston at the Johnson Space Center, based almost exclusively on original sources such as journals and NASA weekly activity reports. The book’s historical details about astronaut and flight controller training exemplify both the humorous and serious aspects of space operations up through the Challenger disaster, including the almost unknown fire in Mission Control during STS-5 that nearly caused an emergency entry of the shuttle.  From an insider with a unique perspective and credentials to match, this a must-read for anyone interested in the worki...

  11. Space Technology Demonstrations Using Low Cost, Short-Schedule Airborne and Range Facilities at the Dryden Flight Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, John; Kelly, John; Jones, Dan; Lee, James

    2013-01-01

    There is a national effort to expedite advanced space technologies on new space systems for both government and commercial applications. In order to lower risk, these technologies should be demonstrated in a relevant environment before being installed in new space systems. This presentation introduces several low cost, short schedule space technology demonstrations using airborne and range facilities available at the Dryden Flight Research Center.

  12. Effects of Short- and Long-Duration Space Flight on Neuromuscular Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxton, Roxanne E.; Spiering, Barry A.; Ryder, Jeffrey W.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2010-01-01

    The Functional Task Tests (FTT) is an interdisciplinary study designed to correlate the changes in functional tasks (such as emergency egress, ladder climbing, and hatch opening) with changes in neuromuscular, cardiovascular, and sensorimotor function. One aspect of the FTT, the neuromuscular function test, is used to investigate the neuromuscular component underlying changes in the ability of astronauts to perform functional tasks (representative of critical mission tasks) safely and quickly after flight. PURPOSE: To describe neuromuscular function after short- and long-duration space flight. METHODS: To date, 5 crewmembers on short-duration (10- to 15-day) missions and 3 on long-duration missions have participated. Crewmembers were assessed 30 days before flight, on landing day (short-duration subjects only) and 1, 6, and 30 days after landing. The interpolated twitch technique, which utilizes a combination of maximal voluntary contractions and electrically evoked contractions, was used to assess the maximal voluntary isometric force (MIF) and central activation capacity of the knee extensors. Leg-press and bench-press devices were used to assess MIF and maximal dynamic power of the lower and upper body respectively. Specifically, power was measured during concentric-only ballistic throws of the leg-press sled and bench-press bar loaded to 40% and 30% of MIF respectively. RESULTS: Data are currently being collected from both Shuttle and ISS crewmembers. Emerging data indicate that measures of knee extensor muscle function are decreased with long-duration flight. DISCUSSION: The relationships between flight duration, neural drive, and muscle performance are of particular interest. Ongoing research will add to the current sample size and will focus on defining changes in muscle performance measures after long-duration space flight.

  13. Diagram of the Water Recovery and Management for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This diagram shows the flow of water recovery and management in the International Space Station (ISS). The Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Group of the Flight Projects Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center is responsible for the regenerative ECLSS hardware, as well as providing technical support for the rest of the system. The regenerative ECLSS, whose main components are the Water Recovery System (WRS), and the Oxygen Generation System (OGS), reclaims and recycles water oxygen. The ECLSS maintains a pressurized habitation environment, provides water recovery and storage, maintains and provides fire detection/ suppression, and provides breathable air and a comfortable atmosphere in which to live and work within the ISS. The ECLSS hardware will be located in the Node 3 module of the ISS.

  14. Fundraising flights: a levy on international air travel for adaptation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birch, Tom; Chambwera, Muyeye

    2011-03-15

    Adapting to climate change will not be cheap: it will cost an estimated tens of billions of dollars each year. But where will the money come from? The UN climate negotiations have set up dedicated funds for the task but domestic politics have resulted in insufficient, variable and unreliable contributions from governments. An innovative adaptation levy on international air travel could help fill the gap. A small charge to individual travellers would raise up to US$10 billion a year. The levy, which follows the 'polluter pays' principle, could be implemented very quickly and at minimal cost and would go a long way to raising sums that could make a significant difference.

  15. Countermeasures to Neurobehavioral Deficits from Cumulative Partial Sleep Deprivation During Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinges, David F.

    1999-01-01

    This project is concerned with identifying ways to prevent neurobehavioral and physical deterioration due to inadequate sleep in astronauts during long-duration manned space flight. The performance capability of astronauts during extended-duration space flight depends heavily on achieving recovery through adequate sleep. Even with appropriate circadian alignment, sleep loss can erode fundamental elements of human performance capability including vigilance, cognitive speed and accuracy, working memory, reaction time, and physiological alertness. Adequate sleep is essential during manned space flight not only to ensure high levels of safe and effective human performance, but also as a basic regulatory biology critical to healthy human functioning. There is now extensive objective evidence that astronaut sleep is frequently restricted in space flight to averages between 4 hr and 6.5 hr/day. Chronic sleep restriction during manned space flight can occur in response to endogenous disturbances of sleep (motion sickness, stress, circadian rhythms), environmental disruptions of sleep (noise, temperature, light), and curtailment of sleep due to the work demands and other activities that accompany extended space flight operations. The mechanism through which this risk emerges is the development of cumulative homeostatic pressure for sleep across consecutive days of inadequate sleep. Research has shown that the physiological sleepiness and performance deficits engendered by sleep debt can progressively worsen (i.e., accumulate) over consecutive days of sleep restriction, and that sleep limited to levels commonly experienced by astronauts (i.e., 4 - 6 hr per night) for as little as 1 week, can result in increased lapses of attention, degradation of response times, deficits in complex problem solving, reduced learning, mood disturbance, disruption of essential neuroendocrine, metabolic, and neuroimmune responses, and in some vulnerable persons, the emergence of uncontrolled

  16. The International Space Station: Operations and Assembly - Learning From Experiences - Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Sean; Dillon, William F.

    2006-01-01

    As the Space Shuttle continues flight, construction and assembly of the International Space Station (ISS) carries on as the United States and our International Partners resume the building, and continue to carry on the daily operations, of this impressive and historical Earth-orbiting research facility. In his January 14, 2004, speech announcing a new vision for America s space program, President Bush ratified the United States commitment to completing construction of the ISS by 2010. Since the launch and joining of the first two elements in 1998, the ISS and the partnership have experienced and overcome many challenges to assembly and operations, along with accomplishing many impressive achievements and historical firsts. These experiences and achievements over time have shaped our strategy, planning, and expectations. The continual operation and assembly of ISS leads to new knowledge about the design, development and operation of systems and hardware that will be utilized in the development of new deep-space vehicles needed to fulfill the Vision for Exploration and to generate the data and information that will enable our programs to return to the Moon and continue on to Mars. This paper will provide an overview of the complexity of the ISS Program, including a historical review of the major assembly events and operational milestones of the program, along with the upcoming assembly plans and scheduled missions of the space shuttle flights and ISS Assembly sequence.

  17. Using spaced education to teach interns about teaching skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernar, Luise I M; Corso, Katherine; Lipsitz, Stuart R; Breen, Elizabeth

    2013-07-01

    Despite limited preparation and knowledge base, surgical interns have important teaching responsibilities. Nevertheless, few faculty development programs are aimed at interns. Succinct teaching skill content was electronically distributed over time (spaced education) to interns in academic year 2010/2011. The interns in the previous year served as historic controls. Electronic surveys were distributed for program evaluation. Fifteen of 24 (62.5%) interns and 35 of 49 (71.4%) students responded to the surveys in academic year 2009/2010 and 16 of 27 (59.3%) interns and 38 of 52 (73%) students responded in academic year 2010/2011. Surveys showed improved attitudes toward teaching by interns as well as a higher estimation of interns' teaching skills as rated by students for those interns who received the spaced education program. Using spaced education to improve interns' teaching skills is a potentially powerful intervention that improves interns' enthusiasm for teaching and teaching effectiveness. The changes are mirrored in students' ratings of interns' teaching skills and interns' attitudes toward teaching. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Correlation of Space Shuttle Landing Performance with Post-Flight Cardiovascular Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluskey, R.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: Microgravity induces cardiovascular adaptations resulting in orthostatic intolerance on re-exposure to normal gravity. Orthostasis could interfere with performance of complex tasks during the re-entry phase of Shuttle landings. This study correlated measures of Shuttle landing performance with post-flight indicators of orthostatic intolerance. Methods: Relevant Shuttle landing performance parameters routinely recorded at touchdown by NASA included downrange and crossrange distances, airspeed, and vertical speed. Measures of cardiovascular changes were calculated from operational stand tests performed in the immediate post-flight period on mission commanders from STS-41 to STS-66. Stand test data analyzed included maximum standing heart rate, mean increase in maximum heart rate, minimum standing systolic blood pressure, and mean decrease in standing systolic blood pressure. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated with the null hypothesis that there was no statistically significant linear correlation between stand test results and Shuttle landing performance. A correlation coefficient? 0.5 with a pcorrelations between landing performance and measures of post-flight cardiovascular dysfunction. Discussion: There was no evidence that post-flight cardiovascular stand test data correlated with Shuttle landing performance. This implies that variations in landing performance were not due to space flight-induced orthostatic intolerance.

  19. The Integrated Medical Model: A Risk Assessment and Decision Support Tool for Human Space Flight Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerstman, Eric L.; Minard, Charles; FreiredeCarvalho, Mary H.; Walton, Marlei E.; Myers, Jerry G., Jr.; Saile, Lynn G.; Lopez, Vilma; Butler, Douglas J.; Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Integrated Medical Model (IMM) and its use as a risk assessment and decision support tool for human space flight missions. The IMM is an integrated, quantified, evidence-based decision support tool useful to NASA crew health and mission planners. It is intended to assist in optimizing crew health, safety and mission success within the constraints of the space flight environment for in-flight operations. It uses ISS data to assist in planning for the Exploration Program and it is not intended to assist in post flight research. The IMM was used to update Probability Risk Assessment (PRA) for the purpose of updating forecasts for the conditions requiring evacuation (EVAC) or Loss of Crew Life (LOC) for the ISS. The IMM validation approach includes comparison with actual events and involves both qualitative and quantitaive approaches. The results of these comparisons are reviewed. Another use of the IMM is to optimize the medical kits taking into consideration the specific mission and the crew profile. An example of the use of the IMM to optimize the medical kits is reviewed.

  20. Rat maintenance in the Research Animal Holding Facility during the flight of Space Lab 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, T.; Grindeland, R.; Kraft, L.; Ruder, M.; Vasques, M.

    1985-01-01

    To test the husbandry capabilities of the Research Animal Holding Facility (RAHF) during space flight, 24 male rats were flown on Spacelab 3 for 7 days. Twelve large rats (400 g, LF), 5 of which had telemetry devices implanted (IF), and 12 small rats (200 g, SF) were housed in the RAHF. Examination 3 hr after landing (R + 3) revealed the rats to be free of injury, well nourished, and stained with urine. At R + 10 the rats were lethargic and atonic with hyperemia of the extremities and well groomed except for a middorsal area stained with urine and food. Both LF and SF rats showed weight gains comparable to their IG controls; IF rats grew less than controls. Food and water consumption were similar for flight and control groups. Plasma concentrations of total protein, sodium, albumin and creatinine did not differ between flight and control groups. LF and SF rats had elevated plasma glucose, and SF rats had increased blood urea nitrogen, potassium and glutamic pyruvic transaminase. These observations indicate that rats maintained in the RAHF were healthy, well nourished and experienced minimal stress; physiological changes in the rats can thus be attributed to the effects of space flight.

  1. NASA Glenn Research Center Solar Cell Experiment Onboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Matthew G.; Wolford, David S.; Prokop, Norman F.; Krasowski, Michael J.; Parker, David S.; Cassidy, Justin C.; Davies , William E.; Vorreiter, Janelle O.; Piszczor, Michael F.; Mcnatt, Jeremiah S.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Accurate air mass zero (AM0) measurement is essential for the evaluation of new photovoltaic (PV) technology for space solar cells. The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has flown an experiment designed to measure the electrical performance of several solar cells onboard NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Robotic Refueling Missions (RRM) Task Board 4 (TB4) on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS). Four industry and government partners provided advanced PV devices for measurement and orbital environment testing. The experiment was positioned on the exterior of the station for approximately eight months, and was completely self-contained, providing its own power and internal data storage. Several new cell technologies including four-junction (4J) Inverted Metamorphic Multi-junction (IMM) cells were evaluated and the results will be compared to ground-based measurement methods.

  2. Changes of hormones regulating electrolyte metabolism after space flight and hypokinesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macho, L.; Fickova, M.; Lichardus, B.; Kvetnansky, R.; Carrey, R. M.; Grigoriev, A.; Popova, I. A.; Tigranian, R. A.; Noskov, V. B.

    The changes of hormones in plasma involved in the body fluid regulation were studied in human subjects during and after space flights in relation to redistribution of body fluids in the state of weightlessness. Since hypokinesia was used as a model for simulation of some effects of the stay in microgravity the plasma hormone levels in rats exposed to hypokinesia were also investigated. Plasma aldosterone values showed great individual variations during the first inflight days, the increased levels were observed with prolongation of space flights. The important elevation was found in the recovery period, however it was interesting to note, that in some cosmonauts with repeated exposure to space flight, the postflight plasma aldosterone levels were not elevated. The urine excretion of aldosterone was increased inflight, however in postflight period the decrease or increase were found in the first 1-5 days. The increase of plasma renin activity was observed in flight and postflight period. The rats were exposed to hypokinesia (forced restriction of motor activity) for 1, 7 and 60 days and urine was collected during last 24 hours. The animals were sacrificed and the concentration of electrolytes and of levels of corticosterone aldosteron (A), ANF and plasma-renin activity (PRA) were determined in plasma. In urine excretion of sodium and potassium were estimated. An important increase of plasma renin activity and aldosterone concentration was found after short-term hypokinesia (1 day). These hormonal values appear to decrease with time (7 days) and are not significantly different from controls after long-term hypokinesia (60 days). A decrease of values ANF in plasma was observed after 1 and 7 days hypokinesia. After prolonged hypokinesia a decrease of sodium plasma concentration was observed. The excretion of sodium in urine was higher in long-term hypokinetic animals. There were no significant changes of plasma potassium levels in rats exposed to hypokinesia, however

  3. Marshall Space Flight Center - Launching the Future of Science and Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivers, Alisa; Shivers, Herbert

    2010-01-01

    Topics include: NASA Centers around the country, launching a legacy (Explorer I), Marshall's continuing role in space exploration, MSFC history, lifting from Earth, our next mission STS 133, Space Shuttle propulsion systems, Space Shuttle facts, Space Shuttle and the International Space Station, technologies/materials originally developed for the space program, astronauts come from all over, potential future missions and example technologies, significant accomplishments, living and working in space, understanding our world, understanding worlds beyond, from exploration to innovation, inspiring the next generation, space economy, from exploration to opportunity, new program assignments, NASA's role in education, and images from deep space including a composite of a galaxy with a black hole, Sagittarius A, Pillars of Creation, and an ultra deep field

  4. Space tourism: A flight of fantasy or the next major space product? Paper session 3: Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Barbara A.

    1994-01-01

    In the euphoria of the early 1980's, a number of creative proposals for nontraditional uses of space were suggested. Taking tourists to space, possibly as early as the 1990's, was one such proposal. While it is now obvious that wherever explorers go, tourists (and hoteliers, restauranteurs, and tour guides) will someday follow. This paper discusses past and present efforts to promote space as a tourist destination.

  5. International Space Education Outreach: Taking Exploration to the Global Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreschel, T. W.; Lichtenberger, L. A.; Chetirkin, P. V.; Garner, L. C.; Barfus, J. R.; Nazarenko, V. I.

    2005-01-01

    With the development of the International Space Station and the need for international collaboration for returning to the moon and developing a mission to Mars, NASA has embarked on developing international educational programs related to space exploration. In addition, with the explosion of educational technology, linking students on a global basis is more easily accomplished. This technology is bringing national and international issues into the classroom, including global environmental issues, the global marketplace, and global collaboration in space. We present the successes and lessons learned concerning international educational and public outreach programs that we have been involved in for NASA as well as the importance of sustaining these international peer collaborative programs for the future generations. These programs will undoubtedly be critical in enhancing the classroom environment and will affect the achievements in and attitudes towards science, technology, engineering and mathematics.

  6. Potential commercial use of the International Space Station by the biotechnology/pharmaceutical/biomedical sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenthaler, George W.; Stodieck, Louis

    1999-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is the linch-pin of NASA's future space plans. It emphasizes scientific research by providing a world-class scientific laboratory in which to perform long-term basic science experiments in the space environment of microgravity, radiation, vacuum, vantage-point, etc. It will serve as a test-bed for determining human system response to long-term space flight and for developing the life support equipment necessary for NASA's Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) enterprise. The ISS will also provide facilities (up to 30% of the U.S. module) for testing material, agricultural, cellular, human, aquatic, and plant/animal systems to reveal phenomena heretofore shrouded by the veil of 1-g. These insights will improve life on Earth and will provide a commercial basis for new products and services. In fact, some products, e.g., rare metal-alloys, semiconductor chips, or protein crystals that cannot now be produced on Earth may be found to be sufficiently valuable to be manufactured on-orbit. Biotechnology, pharmaceutical and biomedical experiments have been regularly flown on 10-16 day Space Shuttle flights and on three-month Mir flights for basic science knowledge and for life support system and commercial product development. Since 1985, NASA has created several Commercial Space Centers (CSCs) for the express purpose of bringing university, government and industrial researchers together to utilize space flight and space technology to develop new industrial products and processes. BioServe Space Technologies at the University of Colorado at Boulder and Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas, is such a NASA sponsored CSC that has worked with over 65 companies and institutions in the Biotech Sector in the past 11 years and has successfully discovered and transferred new product and process information to its industry partners. While tests in the space environment have been limited to about two weeks on Shuttle or a few

  7. Development of a NEW Vector Magnetograph at Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Edward; Hagyard, Mona; Gary, Allen; Smith, James; Adams, Mitzi; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper will describe the Experimental Vector Magnetograph that has been developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). This instrument was designed to improve linear polarization measurements by replacing electro-optic and rotating waveplate modulators with a rotating linear analyzer. Our paper will describe the motivation for developing this magnetograph, compare this instrument with traditional magnetograph designs, and present a comparison of the data acquired by this instrument and original MSFC vector magnetograph.

  8. Evolution of the Systems Engineering Education Development (SEED) Program at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagg, Thomas C., III; Brumfield, Mark D.; Jamison, Donald E.; Granata, Raymond L.; Casey, Carolyn A.; Heller, Stuart

    2003-01-01

    The Systems Engineering Education Development (SEED) Program at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center develops systems engineers from existing discipline engineers. The program has evolved significantly since the report to INCOSE in 2003. This paper describes the SEED Program as it is now, outlines the changes over the last year, discusses current status and results, and shows the value of human systems and leadership skills for practicing systems engineers.

  9. Positron-Electron Pairs in Astrophysics (Goddard Space Flight Center, 1983)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, M.L.; Harding, A.K.; Ramaty, R.

    1983-01-01

    A workshop on Position-Electron Pairs in Astrophysics was held in 1983 at the Goddard Space Flight Center. This workshop brought together observers and theorists actively engaged in the study of astrophysical sites, as well as physical processes therein where position-electron pairs have a profound influence on both the overall dynamics of the source region and the properties of the emitted radiation. This volume consists of the workshop proceedings

  10. Elite International Schools in the Global South: Transnational Space, Class Relationalities and the "Middling" International Schoolteacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarc, Paul; Mishra Tarc, Aparna

    2015-01-01

    The elite international school is a rich site for sociological inquiry in global times. In this paper, we conceptualize the international school as a transnational space of agonist social class-making given the dynamic positioning of the complement of international school actors. We position international schoolteachers in the middle of these…

  11. The HYTHIRM Project: Flight Thermography of the Space Shuttle During the Hypersonic Re-entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Thomas J.; Tomek, Deborah M.; Berger, Karen T.; Zalameda, Joseph N.; Splinter, Scott C.; Krasa, Paul W.; Schwartz, Richard J.; Gibson, David M.; Tietjen, Alan B.; Tack, Steve

    2010-01-01

    This report describes a NASA Langley led endeavor sponsored by the NASA Engineering Safety Center, the Space Shuttle Program Office and the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate to demonstrate a quantitative thermal imaging capability. A background and an overview of several multidisciplinary efforts that culminated in the acquisition of high resolution calibrated infrared imagery of the Space Shuttle during hypervelocity atmospheric entry is presented. The successful collection of thermal data has demonstrated the feasibility of obtaining remote high-resolution infrared imagery during hypersonic flight for the accurate measurement of surface temperature. To maximize science and engineering return, the acquisition of quantitative thermal imagery and capability demonstration was targeted towards three recent Shuttle flights - two of which involved flight experiments flown on Discovery. In coordination with these two Shuttle flight experiments, a US Navy NP-3D aircraft was flown between 26-41 nautical miles below Discovery and remotely monitored surface temperature of the Orbiter at Mach 8.4 (STS-119) and Mach 14.7 (STS-128) using a long-range infrared optical package referred to as Cast Glance. This same Navy aircraft successfully monitored the Orbiter Atlantis traveling at approximately Mach 14.3 during its return from the successful Hubble repair mission (STS-125). The purpose of this paper is to describe the systematic approach used by the Hypersonic Thermodynamic Infrared Measurements team to develop and implement a set of mission planning tools designed to establish confidence in the ability of an imaging platform to reliably acquire, track and return global quantitative surface temperatures of the Shuttle during entry. The mission planning tools included a pre-flight capability to predict the infrared signature of the Shuttle. Such tools permitted optimization of the hardware configuration to increase signal-to-noise and to maximize the available

  12. The International Space Station: A Pathway to the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitmacher, Gary H.; Gerstenmaier, William H.; Bartoe, John-David F.; Mustachio, Nicholas

    2004-01-01

    Nearly six years after the launch of the first International Space Station element, and four years after its initial occupation, the United States and our 16 international partners have made great strides in operating this impressive Earth orbiting research facility. This past year we have done so in the face of the adversity of operating without the benefit of the Space Shuttle. In his January 14, 2004, speech announcing a new vision for America's space program, President Bush affirmed the United States' commitment to completing construction of the International Space Station by 2010. The President also stated that we would focus our future research aboard the Station on the longterm effects of space travel on human biology. This research will help enable human crews to venture through the vast voids of space for months at a time. In addition, ISS affords a unique opportunity to serve as an engineering test bed for hardware and operations critical to the exploration tasks. NASA looks forward to working with our partners on International Space Station research that will help open up new pathways for future exploration and discovery beyond low Earth orbit. This paper provides an overview of the International Space Station Program focusing on a review of the events of the past year, as well as plans for next year and the future.

  13. Desdemona and a ticket to space; training for space flight in a 3g motion simulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, M.

    2014-01-01

    On October 5, 2013, Marijn Wouters and two other contestants of a nation-wide competition ‘Nederland Innoveert’ underwent a space training exercise. One by one, the trainees were pushed to their limits in the Desdemona motion simulator, an experience that mimicked the Space Expedition Corporation

  14. Space Environmental Effects (SEE) Testing Capability: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWittBurns, H.; Crave, Paul; Finckenor, Miria; Finchum, Charles; Nehls, Mary; Schneider, Todd; Vaughn, Jason

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the effects of the space environment on materials and systems is fundamental and essential for mission success. If not properly understood and designed for, the space environment can lead to materials degradation, reduction of functional lifetime, and system failure. Ground based testing is critical in predicting performance NASA/MSFC's expertise and capabilities make up the most complete SEE testing capability available.

  15. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) Development Activities at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center - 2006 Accomplishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Richard O.

    2007-01-01

    In 2005-06, the Prometheus program funded a number of tasks at the NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to support development of a Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) system for future manned exploration missions. These tasks include the following: 1. NTP Design Develop Test & Evaluate (DDT&E) Planning 2. NTP Mission & Systems Analysis / Stage Concepts & Engine Requirements 3. NTP Engine System Trade Space Analysis and Studies 4. NTP Engine Ground Test Facility Assessment 5. Non-Nuclear Environmental Simulator (NTREES) 6. Non-Nuclear Materials Fabrication & Evaluation 7. Multi-Physics TCA Modeling. This presentation is a overview of these tasks and their accomplishments

  16. Long-Term International Space Station (ISS) Risk Reduction Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodroci, M. P.; Gafka, G. K.; Lutomski, M. G.; Maher, J. S.

    2012-01-01

    As the assembly of the ISS nears completion, it is worthwhile to step back and review some of the actions pursued by the Program in recent years to reduce risk and enhance the safety and health of ISS crewmembers, visitors, and space flight participants. While the initial ISS requirements and design were intended to provide the best practicable levels of safety, it is always possible to further reduce risk - given the determination, commitment, and resources to do so. The following is a summary of some of the steps taken by the ISS Program Manager, by our International Partners, by hardware and software designers, by operational specialists, and by safety personnel to continuously enhance the safety of the ISS, and to reduce risk to all crewmembers. While years of work went into the development of ISS requirements, there are many things associated with risk reduction in a Program like the ISS that can only be learned through actual operational experience. These risk reduction activities can be divided into roughly three categories: Areas that were initially noncompliant which have subsequently been brought into compliance or near compliance (i.e., Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris [MMOD] protection, acoustics) Areas where initial design requirements were eventually considered inadequate and were subsequently augmented (i.e., Toxicity Hazard Level- 4 [THL] materials, emergency procedures, emergency equipment, control of drag-throughs) Areas where risks were initially underestimated, and have subsequently been addressed through additional mitigation (i.e., Extravehicular Activity [EVA] sharp edges, plasma shock hazards) Due to the hard work and cooperation of many parties working together across the span of more than a decade, the ISS is now a safer and healthier environment for our crew, in many cases exceeding the risk reduction targets inherent in the intent of the original design. It will provide a safe and stable platform for utilization and discovery for years

  17. Virtual Reality Simulation of the International Space Welding Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, James A.

    1996-01-01

    Virtual Reality (VR) is a set of breakthrough technologies that allow a human being to enter and fully experience a 3-dimensional, computer simulated environment. A true virtual reality experience meets three criteria: (1) It involves 3-dimensional computer graphics; (2) It includes real-time feedback and response to user actions; and (3) It must provide a sense of immersion. Good examples of a virtual reality simulator are the flight simulators used by all branches of the military to train pilots for combat in high performance jet fighters. The fidelity of such simulators is extremely high -- but so is the price tag, typically millions of dollars. Virtual reality teaching and training methods are manifestly effective, and we have therefore implemented a VR trainer for the International Space Welding Experiment. My role in the development of the ISWE trainer consisted of the following: (1) created texture-mapped models of the ISWE's rotating sample drum, technology block, tool stowage assembly, sliding foot restraint, and control panel; (2) developed C code for control panel button selection and rotation of the sample drum; (3) In collaboration with Tim Clark (Antares Virtual Reality Systems), developed a serial interface box for the PC and the SGI Indigo so that external control devices, similar to ones actually used on the ISWE, could be used to control virtual objects in the ISWE simulation; (4) In collaboration with Peter Wang (SFFP) and Mark Blasingame (Boeing), established the interference characteristics of the VIM 1000 head-mounted-display and tested software filters to correct the problem; (5) In collaboration with Peter Wang and Mark Blasingame, established software and procedures for interfacing the VPL DataGlove and the Polhemus 6DOF position sensors to the SGI Indigo serial ports. The majority of the ISWE modeling effort was conducted on a PC-based VR Workstation, described below.

  18. STS-102 Astronaut Thomas Views International Space Station Through Shuttle Window

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    STS-102 astronaut and mission specialist, Andrew S.W. Thomas, gazes through an aft window of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery as it approaches the docking bay of the International Space Station (ISS). Launched March 8, 2001, STS-102's primary cargo was the Leonardo, the Italian Space Agency-built Multipurpose Logistics Module (MPLM). The Leonardo MPLM is the first of three such pressurized modules that will serve as the ISS's moving vans, carrying laboratory racks filled with equipment, experiments, and supplies to and from the Station aboard the Space Shuttle. The cylindrical module is approximately 21-feet long and 15- feet in diameter, weighing almost 4.5 tons. It can carry up to 10 tons of cargo in 16 standard Space Station equipment racks. Of the 16 racks the module can carry, 5 can be furnished with power, data, and fluid to support refrigerators or freezers. In order to function as an attached station module as well as a cargo transport, the logistics module also includes components that provide life support, fire detection and suppression, electrical distribution, and computer functions. NASA's 103rd overall mission and the 8th Space Station Assembly Flight, STS-102 mission also served as a crew rotation flight. It delivered the Expedition Two crew to the Station and returned the Expedition One crew back to Earth.

  19. The international handbook of space technology

    CERN Document Server

    Badescu, Viorel

    2014-01-01

    This comprehensive handbook provides an overview of space technology and a holistic understanding of the system-of-systems that is a modern spacecraft. With a foreword by Elon Musk, CEO and CTO of SpaceX, and contributions from globally leading agency experts from NASA, ESA, JAXA, and CNES, as well as European and North American academics and industrialists, this handbook, as well as giving an interdisciplinary overview, offers, through individual self-contained chapters, more detailed understanding of specific fields, ranging through: ·         Launch systems, structures, power, thermal, communications, propulsion, and software, to ·         entry, descent and landing, ground segment, robotics, and data systems, to ·         technology management, legal and regulatory issues, and project management. This handbook is an equally invaluable asset to those on a career path towards the space industry as it is to those already within the industry.

  20. Solar panels for the International Space Station are uncrated and moved in the SSPF

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    In the Space Station Processing Facility, a worker (left) guides the lifting of solar panels for the International Space Station (ISS). The panels are the first set of U.S.-provided solar arrays and batteries for ISS, scheduled to be part of mission STS-97 in December 1999. The mission, fifth in the U.S. flights for construction of ISS, will build and enhance the capabilities of the Space Station. It will deliver the solar panels as well as radiators to provide cooling. The Shuttle will spend 5 days docked to the station, which at that time will be staffed by the first station crew. Two space walks will be conducted to complete assembly operations while the arrays are attached and unfurled. A communications system for voice and telemetry also will be installed.

  1. CM Process Improvement and the International Space Station Program (ISSP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Ginny

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the Configuration Management (CM) process improvements planned and undertaken for the International Space Station Program (ISSP). It reviews the 2004 findings and recommendations and the progress towards their implementation.

  2. Implementation of Intellectual Property Law on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannix, John G.

    2002-01-01

    Because of the importance of intellectual property rights to the private sector, NASA has developed a reference guide to assist business leaders in understanding how the Intellectual Property Articles of the 1998 Intergovernmental Agreement on the International Space Station will be implemented. This reference guide discusses the statutory, regulatory and programmatic strictures on the deployment, utilization and ownership of intellectual property within the Space Station program. This guide presents an analysis of the intellectual property law aspects of the international agreements and documents pertaining to the International Space Station, and then relates them to NASA's authorities for entering into research and development agreements with private entities. This paper will discuss the reference guide and should aid potential agreement participants in understanding the legal environment for entering into agreements with NASA to fly research and development payloads on the International Space Station.

  3. Space Technology and Applications International Forum -1999. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Genk, M.S.

    1999-01-01

    These proceedings represent papers presented at the 1999 Space Technology and Applications International Forum (STAIF-99). This is a large conference in terms of the number of hosted technical sessions and the technical papers presented. This year's theme, ''Opportunities and Challenges for the New Millenium,'' covered a broad spectrum of topics in space science and technology that spans the range from basic research, such as thermophysics in microgravity and breakthrough propulsion physics, to the most recent advances in space power and propulsion, space exploration and commercialization, next generation launch systems, and the international effort to deploy and assemble the international space station. STAIF-99 was co-sponsored by the United States Department of Energy. The two-volume proceedings includes 253 articles, out of which 28 have been abstracted for the Energy,Science and Technology database

  4. International cooperation and competition in space - A current perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, K. S.

    1983-01-01

    International cooperative efforts undertaken by NASA are evaluated and consideration is given to the proposed space station. The Shuttle RMS and Spacelab were constructed through efforts of Canadian and European companies and the ESA. Landsat, with its widely dispersed technology and data, has encouraged international access to its capabilities and start-up of follow-on programs in other countries. Space station planning is proceeding with a view to worldwide utilization of space and to the commitment and resources other nations are willing to place in the station. It is conceded that administrative difficulties will arise if the space station is a completely international effort guided by NASA. Additionally, concern will be present for technology leaks, national security implications on the space station, and reasonably fulfilling the benefits expected by those who become partners in the construction and operation of the station.

  5. Motion Perception and Manual Control Performance During Passive Tilt and Translation Following Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Gilles; Wood, Scott J.

    2010-01-01

    This joint ESA-NASA study is examining changes in motion perception following Space Shuttle flights and the operational implications of post-flight tilt-translation ambiguity for manual control performance. Vibrotactile feedback of tilt orientation is also being evaluated as a countermeasure to improve performance during a closed-loop nulling task. METHODS. Data has been collected on 5 astronaut subjects during 3 preflight sessions and during the first 8 days after Shuttle landings. Variable radius centrifugation (216 deg/s) combined with body translation (12-22 cm, peak-to-peak) is utilized to elicit roll-tilt perception (equivalent to 20 deg, peak-to-peak). A forward-backward moving sled (24-390 cm, peak-to-peak) with or without chair tilting in pitch is utilized to elicit pitch tilt perception (equivalent to 20 deg, peak-to-peak). These combinations are elicited at 0.15, 0.3, and 0.6 Hz for evaluating the effect of motion frequency on tilt-translation ambiguity. In both devices, a closed-loop nulling task is also performed during pseudorandom motion with and without vibrotactile feedback of tilt. All tests are performed in complete darkness. PRELIMINARY RESULTS. Data collection is currently ongoing. Results to date suggest there is a trend for translation motion perception to be increased at the low and medium frequencies on landing day compared to pre-flight. Manual control performance is improved with vibrotactile feedback. DISCUSSION. The results of this study indicate that post-flight recovery of motion perception and manual control performance is complete within 8 days following short-duration space missions. Vibrotactile feedback of tilt improves manual control performance both before and after flight.

  6. Without Gravity: Designing Science Equipment for the International Space Station and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kevin Y.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation discusses space biology research, the space flight factors needed to design hardware to conduct biological science in microgravity, and examples of NASA and commercial hardware that enable space biology study.

  7. Internal Einstein spaces and symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coquereaux, R.

    1984-01-01

    We first define a generalised gauge invariant Yang-Mills Lagrangian: the Killing metric -Ksub(αβ) on the group is replaced by a more general metric hsub(αβ)(x); the field hsub(αβ)(x) -a scalar from the space time point of view- is then covariantly coupled to the gauge field Asub(μ)sup(α) and is also self-coupled via a natural scalar potential (no parameters). Non trivial saddle points of this scalar potential, correspond to non standard Einstein metrics on the group C. the associated shifts lead to an entirely computable mass spectrum for the gauge field

  8. A Management Model for International Participation in Space Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Patrick J.; Pease, Gary M.; Tyburski, Timothy E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes an engineering management model for NASA's future space exploration missions based on past experiences working with the International Partners of the International Space Station. The authors have over 25 years of combined experience working with the European Space Agency, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Canadian Space Agency, Italian Space Agency, Russian Space Agency, and their respective contractors in the design, manufacturing, verification, and integration of their elements electric power system into the United States on-orbit segment. The perspective presented is one from a specific sub-system integration role and is offered so that the lessons learned from solving issues of technical and cultural nature may be taken into account during the formulation of international partnerships. Descriptions of the types of unique problems encountered relative to interactions between international partnerships are reviewed. Solutions to the problems are offered, taking into consideration the technical implications. Through the process of investigating each solution, the important and significant issues associated with working with international engineers and managers are outlined. Potential solutions are then characterized by proposing a set of specific methodologies to jointly develop spacecraft configurations that benefits all international participants, maximizes mission success and vehicle interoperability while minimizing cost.

  9. Validation of the Pulmonary Function System for Use on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleary, Frank A.; Moore, Alan D., Jr.; Hagan, R. Donald

    2007-01-01

    Aerobic deconditioning occurs during long duration space flight despite the use of exercise countermeasures (Convertino, 1996). As a part of International Space Station (ISS) medical operations, periodic tests designed to estimate aerobic capacity are performed to track changes in aerobic fitness and to determine the effectiveness of exercise countermeasures. These tests are performed prior to, during, and after missions of greater than 30 days in duration. Crewmembers selected for missions aboard the ISS perform a graded exercise test on a cycle ergometer approximately 270 days prior to their scheduled launch date in order to measure peak oxygen consumption (VO2PK) and peak heart rate (HRpk). Approximately 30 to 45 days prior to launch, crewmembers perform a submaximal cycle ergometer test at work rates set to elicit 25, 50 and 75% of their pre-flight VO2PK. This test, known as the Periodic Fitness Evaluation (PFE), serves as a baseline measure to which subsequent in-and post-flight exercise tests are compared. While onboard the ISS, crewmembers are normally scheduled to perform the PFE beginning with flight day (FD) 14 and every 30 days thereafter. The PFE is also conducted 5 and 30 days following flight. Using PFE data, aerobic fitness is estimated by quantifying the VO2 vs. HR relationship using linear regression and calculating the VO2 that would occur at the crewmember s previously measured HRpk. Currently, for data collected during flight, this technique assumes that the pre- vs. in-flight oxygen consumption per given cycle workload is similar. However, the validity of this assumption is based upon a sparse amount of data collected during the Skylab era (Michel, et al. 1977). The method of using heart rate and cycle ergometer work rates has been used to estimate aerobic fitness in normal gravity (Astrand and Ryhming, 1954; Lee, 1993). Due to spaceflight induced physiological alterations, such as shifts in extracellular fluid (e.g. plasma) volume, this method

  10. In-flight evaluation of aerodynamic predictions of an air-launched space booster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Robert E.; Mendenhall, Michael R.; Moulton, Bryan

    1993-01-01

    Several analytical aerodynamic design tools that were applied to the Pegasus air-launched space booster were evaluated using flight measurements. The study was limited to existing codes and was conducted with limited computational resources. The flight instrumentation was constrained to have minimal impact on the primary Pegasus missions. Where appropriate, the flight measurements were compared with computational data. Aerodynamic performance and trim data from the first two flights were correlated with predictions. Local measurements in the wing and wing-body interference region were correlated with analytical data. This complex flow region includes the effect of aerothermal heating magnification caused by the presence of a corner vortex and interaction of the wing leading edge shock and fuselage boundary layer. The operation of the first two missions indicates that the aerodynamic design approach for Pegasus was adequate, and data show that acceptable margins were available. Additionally, the correlations provide insight into the capabilities of these analytical tools for more complex vehicles in which design margins may be more stringent.

  11. Experimenting Galileo on Board the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantinato, Samuele; Pozzobon, Oscar; Sands, Obed S.; Welch, Bryan W.; Clapper, Carolyn J.; Miller, James J.; Gamba, Giovanni; Chiara, Andrea; Montagner, Stefano; Giordano, Pietro; hide

    2016-01-01

    The SCaN Testbed is an advanced integrated communications system and laboratory facility installed on the International Space Station (ISS) in 2012. The testbed incorporates a set of new generation of Software Defined Radio (SDR) technologies intended to allow researchers to develop, test, and demonstrate new communications, networking, and navigation capabilities in the actual environment of space. Qascom, in cooperation with ESA and NASA, is designing a Software Defined Radio GalileoGPS Receiver capable to provide accurate positioning and timing to be installed on the ISS SCaN Testbed. The GalileoGPS waveform will be operated in the JPL SDR that is constituted by several hardware components that can be used for experimentations in L-Band and S-Band. The JPL SDR includes an L-Band Dorne Margolin antenna mounted onto a choke ring. The antenna is connected to a radio front end capable to provide one bit samples for the three GNSS frequencies (L1, L2 and L5) at 38 MHz, exploiting the subharmonic sampling. The baseband processing is then performed by an ATMEL AT697 processor (100 MIPS) and two Virtex 2 FPGAs. The JPL SDR supports the STRS (Space Telecommunications Radio System) that provides common waveform software interfaces, methods of instantiation, operation, and testing among different compliant hardware and software products. The standard foresees the development of applications that are modular, portable, reconfigurable, and reusable. The developed waveform uses the STRS infrastructure-provided application program interfaces (APIs) and services to load, verify, execute, change parameters, terminate, or unload an application. The project is divided in three main phases. 1)Design and Development of the GalileoGPS waveform for the SCaN Testbed starting from Qascom existing GNSS SDR receiver. The baseline design is limited to the implementation of the single frequency Galileo and GPS L1E1 receiver even if as part of the activity it will be to assess the

  12. Materials Science Research Rack Onboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagan, Shawn; Frazier, Natalie; Lehman, John

    2016-01-01

    The Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR) is a research facility developed under a cooperative research agreement between NASA and ESA for materials science investigations on the International Space Station (ISS). MSRR was launched on STS-128 in August 2009 and currently resides in the U.S. Destiny Laboratory Module. Since that time, MSRR has logged more than 1400 hours of operating time. The MSRR accommodates advanced investigations in the microgravity environment on the ISS for basic materials science research in areas such as solidification of metals and alloys. The purpose is to advance the scientific understanding of materials processing as affected by microgravity and to gain insight into the physical behavior of materials processing. MSRR allows for the study of a variety of materials, including metals, ceramics, semiconductor crystals, and glasses. Materials science research benefits from the microgravity environment of space, where the researcher can better isolate chemical and thermal properties of materials from the effects of gravity. With this knowledge, reliable predictions can be made about the conditions required on Earth to achieve improved materials. MSRR is a highly automated facility with a modular design capable of supporting multiple types of investigations. The NASA-provided Rack Support Subsystem provides services (power, thermal control, vacuum access, and command and data handling) to the ESA-developed Materials Science Laboratory (MSL) that accommodates interchangeable Furnace Inserts (FI). Two ESA-developed FIs are presently available on the ISS: the Low Gradient Furnace (LGF) and the Solidification and Quenching Furnace (SQF). Sample Cartridge Assemblies (SCAs), each containing one or more material samples, are installed in the FI by the crew and can be processed at temperatures up to 1400?C. ESA continues to develop samples with 14 planned for launch and processing in the near future. Additionally NASA has begun developing SCAs to

  13. NREL Research Takes Off for International Space Station | News | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    hydrogen. Research has proven that nitrate starvation triggers C. vulgaris to go into lipid production mode NREL Research Takes Off for International Space Station NREL Research Takes Off for International the other, Chlorella vulgaris, will make lipids. NREL research dating back to the late 1970s opened

  14. EAC training and medical support for International Space Station astronauts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messerschmid, E; Haignere, J P; Damian, K; Damann, V

    2000-11-01

    The operation of the International Space Station (ISS) will be a global multilateral endeavour. Each International Partner will be responsible for the operation of its elements and for providing a crew complement proportional to its share of the overall resources. The preparations of the European Astronaut Centre to furnish training and medical support for the ISS astronauts are described.

  15. Vision 2040: Evolving the Successful International Space University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gary; Marti, Izan Peris; Tlustos, Reinhard; Lorente, Arnau Pons; Panerati, Jocopo; Mensink, Wendy; Sorkhabi, Elbruz; Garcia, Oriol Gasquez; Musilova, Michaela; Pearson, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Space exploration has always been full of inspiration, innovation, and creativity, with the promise of expanding human civilization beyond Earth. The space sector is currently experiencing rapid change as disruptive technologies, grassroots programs, and new commercial initiatives have reshaped long-standing methods of operation. Throughout the last 28 years, the International Space University (ISU) has been a leading institution for space education, forming international partnerships, and encouraging entrepreneurship in its over 4,000 alumni. In this report, our Vision 2040 team projected the next 25 years of space exploration and analyzed how ISU could remain a leading institution in the rapidly changing industry. Vision 2040 considered five important future scenarios for the space sector: real-time Earth applications, orbital stations, lunar bases, lunar and asteroid mining, and a human presence on Mars. We identified the signals of disruptive change within these scenarios, including underlying driving forces and potential challenges, and derived a set of skills that will be required in the future space industry. Using these skills as a starting point, we proposed strategies in five areas of focus for ISU: the future of the Space Studies Program (SSP), analog missions, outreach, alumni, and startups. We concluded that ISU could become not just an increasingly innovative educational institution, but one that acts as an international organization that drives space commercialization, exploration, innovation, and cooperation.

  16. In-flight simulators and fly-by-wirelight demonstrators a historical account of international aeronautical research

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book offers the first complete account of more than sixty years of international research on In-Flight Simulation and related development of electronic and electro-optic flight control system technologies (“Fly-by-Wire” and “Fly-by-Light”). They have provided a versatile and experimental procedure that is of particular importance for verification, optimization, and evaluation of flying qualities and flight safety of manned or unmanned aircraft systems. Extensive coverage is given in the book to both fundamental information related to flight testing and state-of-the-art advances in the design and implementation of electronic and electro-optic flight control systems, which have made In-Flight Simulation possible. Written by experts, the respective chapters clearly show the interdependence between various aeronautical disciplines and in-flight simulation methods. Taken together, they form a truly multidisciplinary book that addresses the needs of not just flight test engineers, but also other aerona...

  17. Radiation measurement on the International Space Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akopova, A.B.; Manaseryan, M.M.; Melkonyan, A.A.; Tatikyan, S.Sh.; Potapov, Yu.

    2005-01-01

    The results of an investigation of radiation environment on board the ISS with apogee/perigee of 420/380km and inclination 51.6 o are presented. For measurement of important characteristics of cosmic rays (particles fluxes, LET spectrum, equivalent doses and heavy ions with Z>=2) a nuclear photographic emulsion as a controllable threshold detector was used. The use of this detector permits a registration of the LET spectrum of charged particles within wide range of dE/dx and during last years it has already been successfully used on board the MIR station, Space Shuttles and 'Kosmos' spacecrafts. An integral LET spectrum was measured in the range 0.5-2.2x103keV/μm and the value of equivalent dose 360μSv/day was estimated. The flux of biologically dangerous heavy particles with Z>=2 was measured (3.85x103particles/cm2)

  18. Wavefront sensing in space: flight demonstration II of the PICTURE sounding rocket payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Ewan S.; Mendillo, Christopher B.; Cook, Timothy A.; Cahoy, Kerri L.; Chakrabarti, Supriya

    2018-01-01

    A NASA sounding rocket for high-contrast imaging with a visible nulling coronagraph, the Planet Imaging Concept Testbed Using a Rocket Experiment (PICTURE) payload, has made two suborbital attempts to observe the warm dust disk inferred around Epsilon Eridani. The first flight in 2011 demonstrated a 5 mas fine pointing system in space. The reduced flight data from the second launch, on November 25, 2015, presented herein, demonstrate active sensing of wavefront phase in space. Despite several anomalies in flight, postfacto reduction phase stepping interferometer data provide insight into the wavefront sensing precision and the system stability for a portion of the pupil. These measurements show the actuation of a 32 × 32-actuator microelectromechanical system deformable mirror. The wavefront sensor reached a median precision of 1.4 nm per pixel, with 95% of samples between 0.8 and 12.0 nm per pixel. The median system stability, including telescope and coronagraph wavefront errors other than tip, tilt, and piston, was 3.6 nm per pixel, with 95% of samples between 1.2 and 23.7 nm per pixel.

  19. Report of space experiment project, 'Rad Gene', performed in the International Space Station Kibo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, Takeo; Takahashi, Akihisa; Nagamatsu, Aiko

    2010-01-01

    This report summarizes results of the project in the title adopted by Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) (in 2000) aiming to elucidate the biological effect of space environment, and contains 3 major parts of the process of the experiment, and of findings by analysis after flight and in radioadaptive response. The process for the experiment includes training of the experimenter crew (Dr. S. Magnus) in JAXA, preparation of samples (frozen cells with normal and mutated p53 genes derived from human lymphoblast TK6) and their transfer to the Space Shuttle Endeavour STS-126 launched on Nov. 15, 2008 (Japanese time) for cell culturing in Feb., 2009. Analyses after flight back to the Kennedy Space Center on Mar. 29, 2009, done on the ground in Japan thereafter include the physical evaluation, confirmation of DNA damage, and phenotypic expression with DNA- and protein-arrays (genes induced for expression of p53-related phenotypes in those cells which were stored frozen in the space, thawed on the ground and then cultured, genes induced for expressing the phenotypes and p53-related proteins expressed in cells cultured in space). Physically, total absorbed dose and dose equivalent are found to be respectively 43.5 mGy and 71.2 mSv (0.5 mSv/day). Interestingly, the biologically estimated dose by DNA-double strand breaks detected by γH2AX staining, 94.5 mSv (0.7 mSv/day), in living, frozen cells in space, is close to the above physical dose. Expression experiments of p53-related phenotypes have revealed that expression of 750 or more genes in 41,000 genes in the array is changed: enhanced or suppressed by space radiation, micro-gravity and/or their mixed effects in space environment. In 642 protein antibodies in the array, 2 proteins are found enhanced and 8, suppressed whereas heat-shock protein is unchanged. Radioadaptive response is the acquisition of radio-resistance to acute exposure by previous irradiation of small dose (window width 20-100 mSv) in normal p53

  20. Proceedings of the Goddard Space Flight Center Workshop on Robotics for Commercial Microelectronic Processes in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Potential applications of robots for cost effective commercial microelectronic processes in space were studied and the associated robotic requirements were defined. Potential space application areas include advanced materials processing, bulk crystal growth, and epitaxial thin film growth and related processes. All possible automation of these processes was considered, along with energy and environmental requirements. Aspects of robot capabilities considered include system intelligence, ROM requirements, kinematic and dynamic specifications, sensor design and configuration, flexibility and maintainability. Support elements discussed included facilities, logistics, ground support, launch and recovery, and management systems.

  1. Concept for an International Standard related to Space Weather Effects on Space Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiska, W. Kent; Tomky, Alyssa

    There is great interest in developing an international standard related to space weather in order to specify the tools and parameters needed for space systems operations. In particular, a standard is important for satellite operators who may not be familiar with space weather. In addition, there are others who participate in space systems operations that would also benefit from such a document. For example, the developers of software systems that provide LEO satellite orbit determination, radio communication availability for scintillation events (GEO-to-ground L and UHF bands), GPS uncertainties, and the radiation environment from ground-to-space for commercial space tourism. These groups require recent historical data, current epoch specification, and forecast of space weather events into their automated or manual systems. Other examples are national government agencies that rely on space weather data provided by their organizations such as those represented in the International Space Environment Service (ISES) group of 14 national agencies. Designers, manufacturers, and launchers of space systems require real-time, operational space weather parameters that can be measured, monitored, or built into automated systems. Thus, a broad scope for the document will provide a useful international standard product to a variety of engineering and science domains. The structure of the document should contain a well-defined scope, consensus space weather terms and definitions, and internationally accepted descriptions of the main elements of space weather, its sources, and its effects upon space systems. Appendices will be useful for describing expanded material such as guidelines on how to use the standard, how to obtain specific space weather parameters, and short but detailed descriptions such as when best to use some parameters and not others; appendices provide a path for easily updating the standard since the domain of space weather is rapidly changing with new advances

  2. Robust, Radiation Tolerant Command and Data Handling and Power System Electronics from NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hanson C.; Fraction, James; Ortiz-Acosta, Melyane; Dakermanji, George; Kercheval, Bradford P.; Hernandez-Pellerano, Amri; Kim, David S.; Jung, David S.; Meyer, Steven E.; Mallik, Udayan; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Goddard Modular Smallsat Architecture (GMSA) is developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) to address future reliability along with minimizing cost and schedule challenges for NASA Cubesat and Smallsat missions.

  3. International Space Station (ISS) 3D Printer Performance and Material Characterization Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Q. A.; Cooper, K. G.; Edmunson, J. E.; Johnston, M. M.; Werkheiser, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    In order for human exploration of the Solar System to be sustainable, manufacturing of necessary items on-demand in space or on planetary surfaces will be a requirement. As a first step towards this goal, the 3D Printing In Zero-G (3D Print) technology demonstration made the first items fabricated in space on the International Space Station. From those items, and comparable prints made on the ground, information about the microgravity effects on the printing process can be determined. Lessons learned from this technology demonstration will be applicable to other in-space manufacturing technologies, and may affect the terrestrial manufacturing industry as well. The flight samples were received at the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center on 6 April 2015. These samples will undergo a series of tests designed to not only thoroughly characterize the samples, but to identify microgravity effects manifested during printing by comparing their results to those of samples printed on the ground. Samples will be visually inspected, photographed, scanned with structured light, and analyzed with scanning electron microscopy. Selected samples will be analyzed with computed tomography; some will be assessed using ASTM standard tests. These tests will provide the information required to determine the effects of microgravity on 3D printing in microgravity.

  4. EXPOSE-R2: The Astrobiological ESA Mission on Board of the International Space Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Rabbow

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available On July 23, 2014, the Progress cargo spacecraft 56P was launched from Baikonur to the International Space Station (ISS, carrying EXPOSE-R2, the third ESA (European Space Agency EXPOSE facility, the second EXPOSE on the outside platform of the Russian Zvezda module, with four international astrobiological experiments into space. More than 600 biological samples of archaea, bacteria (as biofilms and in planktonic form, lichens, fungi, plant seeds, triops eggs, mosses and 150 samples of organic compounds were exposed to the harsh space environment and to parameters similar to those on the Mars surface. Radiation dosimeters distributed over the whole facility complemented the scientific payload. Three extravehicular activities later the chemical samples were returned to Earth on March 2, 2016, with Soyuz 44S, having spent 588 days in space. The biological samples arrived back later, on June 18, 2016, with 45S, after a total duration in space of 531 days. The exposure of the samples to Low Earth Orbit vacuum lasted for 531 days and was divided in two parts: protected against solar irradiation during the first 62 days, followed by exposure to solar radiation during the subsequent 469 days. In parallel to the space mission, a Mission Ground Reference (MGR experiment with a flight identical Hardware and a complete flight identical set of samples was performed at the premises of DLR (German Aerospace Center in Cologne by MUSC (Microgravity User Support Center, according to the mission data either downloaded from the ISS (temperature data, facility status, inner pressure status or provided by RedShift Design and Engineering BVBA, Belgium (calculated ultra violet radiation fluence data. In this paper, the EXPOSE-R2 facility, the experimental samples, mission parameters, environmental parameters, and the overall mission and MGR sequences are described, building the background for the research papers of the individual experiments, their analysis and results.

  5. An Improvement on Space Focusing Resolution in Two-Field Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yildirim, M.; Aydin, R.; Akin, U.; Kilic, H. S.; Sise, O.; Ulu, M.; Dogan, M.

    2007-01-01

    Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (TOFMS) is a sophisticated device for the mass selective analysis of a variety of samples. The main limitation on TOFMS technique is the obtainable resolution where the two main limiting factors are the initial space and energy spread of particles created in ionization region. Similar charged particles starting at different points will reach the detector at different times. So, this problem makes space focusing is very important subject. We have presented principles of two-fields TOFMS with second-order space focusing both using analytical methods and ray-tracing simulation. This work aims understanding of ion optical system clearly and gives hint of expectation for future developments

  6. Invited Article: Characterization of background sources in space-based time-of-flight mass spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, J. A.; Gershman, D. J.; Gloeckler, G.; Lundgren, R. A.; Zurbuchen, T. H.; Orlando, T. M.; McLain, J.; Steiger, R. von

    2014-01-01

    For instruments that use time-of-flight techniques to measure space plasma, there are common sources of background signals that evidence themselves in the data. The background from these sources may increase the complexity of data analysis and reduce the signal-to-noise response of the instrument, thereby diminishing the science value or usefulness of the data. This paper reviews several sources of background commonly found in time-of-flight mass spectrometers and illustrates their effect in actual data using examples from ACE-SWICS and MESSENGER-FIPS. Sources include penetrating particles and radiation, UV photons, energy straggling and angular scattering, electron stimulated desorption of ions, ion-induced electron emission, accidental coincidence events, and noise signatures from instrument electronics. Data signatures of these sources are shown, as well as mitigation strategies and design considerations for future instruments

  7. Role of HZE particles in space flight - Results from spaceflight and ground-based experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buecker, H.; Facius, R.

    1981-09-01

    Selected results from experiments investigating the potentially specific radiobiological importance of the cosmic HZE (equals high Z, energetic) particles are discussed. Results from the Biostack space flight experiments, which were designed to meet the experimental requirements imposed by the microdosimetric nature of this radiation field, clearly indicate the existence of radiation mechanisms which become effective only at higher values of LET (linear energy transfer). Accelerator irradiation studies are reviewed which conform with this conjecture. The recently discovered production of 'micro-lesions' in mammalian tissues by single HZE particles is possibly the most direct evidence. Open questions concerning the establishment of radiation standards for manned spaceflight, such as late effects, interaction with flight dynamic parameters, and weightlessness, are indicated.

  8. Evaluating the Medical Kit System for the International Space Station(ISS) - A Paradigm Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailey, Melinda J.; Urbina, Michelle C.; Hughlett, Jessica L.; Gilmore, Stevan; Locke, James; Reyna, Baraquiel; Smith, Gwyn E.

    2010-01-01

    Medical capabilities aboard the International Space Station (ISS) have been packaged to help astronaut crew medical officers (CMO) mitigate both urgent and non-urgent medical issues during their 6-month expeditions. Two ISS crewmembers are designated as CMOs for each 3-crewmember mission and are typically not physicians. In addition, the ISS may have communication gaps of up to 45 minutes during each orbit, necessitating medical equipment that can be reliably operated autonomously during flight. The retirement of the space shuttle combined with ten years of manned ISS expeditions led the Space Medicine Division at the NASA Johnson Space Center to reassess the current ISS Medical Kit System. This reassessment led to the system being streamlined to meet future logistical considerations with current Russian space vehicles and future NASA/commercial space vehicle systems. Methods The JSC Space Medicine Division coordinated the development of requirements, fabrication of prototypes, and conducted usability testing for the new ISS Medical Kit System in concert with implementing updated versions of the ISS Medical Check List and associated in-flight software applications. The teams constructed a medical kit system with the flexibility for use on the ISS, and resupply on the Russian Progress space vehicle and future NASA/commercial space vehicles. Results Prototype systems were developed, reviewed, and tested for implementation. Completion of Preliminary and Critical Design Reviews resulted in a streamlined ISS Medical Kit System that is being used for training by ISS crews starting with Expedition 27 (June 2011). Conclusions The team will present the process for designing, developing, , implementing, and training with this new ISS Medical Kit System.

  9. Proceedings of The Twentieth International Symposium on Space Technology and Science. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-31

    The 20th international symposium on space technology and science was held in Nagaragawa city, Gifu prefecture on May 19-25, 1996, and 401 papers were made public. Out of those, 112 papers were summed up as Volume 2 following the previous Volume 1. As to space transportation, the paper included reports titled as follows: Conceptual study of H-IIA rocket (upgraded H-II rocket); Test flight of the launch vehicle; International cooperation in space transportation; etc. Concerning microgravity science, Recent advances in microgravity research; Use of microgravity environment to investigate the effect of magnetic field on flame shape; etc. Relating to satellite communications and broadcasting, `Project GENESYS`: CRL`s R and D project for realizing high data rate satellite communications networks; The Astrolink {sup TM/SM} system; etc. Besides, the paper contained reports on the following fields: lunar and planetary missions and utilization, space science and balloons, earth observations, life science and human presence, international cooperation and space environment, etc

  10. International cooperation in the commercial era of space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allnutt, R. F.

    1984-01-01

    NASA plans permitting international participation in space activities are reviewed, with an emphasis on the increasing commercialization of these endeavors. The potential indicated by the recent success of the STS, long-term and large-scale Soviet missions, and the Ariane launcher is discussed; the development of the Space Station concept is traced; the increasing use of remote-sensing and telecommunications satellites is documented; currently planned space science missions are listed; and the NASA policy on international cooperation (full payment by the second nation, clean payload-spacecraft interfaces to prevent technology transfer, and open availability of scientific results) is outlined. It is argued that space activity, having passed through first and second phases dominated by exploration and military goals, respectively, will now soon enter a primarily commercial phase, with competition in telecommunications and remote-sensing services and private investment in space processing, manufacturing, and even launchers.

  11. Concept of Operations Evaluation for Mitigating Space Flight-Relevant Medical Issues in a Planetary Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsten, Kristina; Hurst, Victor, IV; Scheuring, Richard; Baumann, David K.; Johnson-Throop, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Analogue environments assist the NASA Human Research Program (HRP) in developing capabilities to mitigate high risk issues to crew health and performance for space exploration. The Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) is an analogue habitat used to assess space-related products for planetary missions. The Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) element at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) was tasked with developing planetary-relevant medical scenarios to evaluate the concept of operations for mitigating medical issues in such an environment. Methods: Two medical scenarios were conducted within the simulated planetary habitat with the crew executing two space flight-relevant procedures: Eye Examination with a corneal injury and Skin Laceration. Remote guidance for the crew was provided by a flight surgeon (FS) stationed at a console outside of the habitat. Audio and video data were collected to capture the communication between the crew and the FS, as well as the movements of the crew executing the procedures. Questionnaire data regarding procedure content and remote guidance performance also were collected from the crew immediately after the sessions. Results: Preliminary review of the audio, video, and questionnaire data from the two scenarios conducted within the HDU indicate that remote guidance techniques from an FS on console can help crew members within a planetary habitat mitigate planetary-relevant medical issues. The content and format of the procedures were considered concise and intuitive, respectively. Discussion: Overall, the preliminary data from the evaluation suggest that use of remote guidance techniques by a FS can help HDU crew execute space exploration-relevant medical procedures within a habitat relevant to planetary missions, however further evaluations will be needed to implement this strategy into the complete concept of operations for conducting general space medicine within similar environments

  12. Histological and Transcriptomic Analysis of Adult Japanese Medaka Sampled Onboard the International Space Station.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiko Murata

    Full Text Available To understand how humans adapt to the space environment, many experiments can be conducted on astronauts as they work aboard the Space Shuttle or the International Space Station (ISS. We also need animal experiments that can apply to human models and help prevent or solve the health issues we face in space travel. The Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes is a suitable model fish for studying space adaptation as evidenced by adults of the species having mated successfully in space during 15 days of flight during the second International Microgravity Laboratory mission in 1994. The eggs laid by the fish developed normally and hatched as juveniles in space. In 2012, another space experiment ("Medaka Osteoclast" was conducted. Six-week-old male and female Japanese medaka (Cab strain osteoblast transgenic fish were maintained in the Aquatic Habitat system for two months in the ISS. Fish of the same strain and age were used as the ground controls. Six fish were fixed with paraformaldehyde or kept in RNA stabilization reagent (n = 4 and dissected for tissue sampling after being returned to the ground, so that several principal investigators working on the project could share samples. Histology indicated no significant changes except in the ovary. However, the RNA-seq analysis of 5345 genes from six tissues revealed highly tissue-specific space responsiveness after a two-month stay in the ISS. Similar responsiveness was observed among the brain and eye, ovary and testis, and the liver and intestine. Among these six tissues, the intestine showed the highest space response with 10 genes categorized as oxidation-reduction processes (gene ontogeny term GO:0055114, and the expression levels of choriogenin precursor genes were suppressed in the ovary. Eleven genes including klf9, klf13, odc1, hsp70 and hif3a were upregulated in more than four of the tissues examined, thus suggesting common immunoregulatory and stress responses during space adaptation.

  13. Locomotor Dysfunction after Long-duration Space Flight and Development of Countermeasures to Facilitate Faster Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Wood, Scott; Cohen, Helen; Bloomberg, Jacob

    2012-07-01

    Exposure to the microgravity conditions of space flight induces adaptive modification in sensorimotor function allowing astronauts to operate in this unique environment. This adaptive state, however, is inappropriate for a 1-g environment. Consequently astronauts must spend time readapting to Earth's gravity following their return to Earth. During this readaptation period, alterations in sensorimotor function cause various disturbances in astronaut gait during postflight walking. They often rely more on vision for postural and gait stability and many report the need for greater cognitive supervision of motor actions that previous to space flight were fully automated. Over the last several years our laboratory has investigated postflight astronaut locomotion with the aim of better understanding how adaptive changes in underlying sensorimotor mechanisms contribute to postflight gait dysfunction. Exposure to the microgravity conditions of space flight induces adaptive modification in the control of vestibularly-mediated reflexive head movement during locomotion after space flight. Furthermore, during motor learning, adaptive transitions are composed of two main mechanisms: strategic and plastic. Strategic mechanisms represent immediate and transitory modifications in control to deal with changes in the prevailing environment that, if prolonged, induce plastic mechanisms designed to automate new behavioral responses. The goal of the present study was to examine the contributions of sensorimotor subsystems such as the vestibular and body load sensing (BLS) somatosensory influences on head movement control during locomotion after long-duration space flight. Further we present data on the two motor learning processes during readaptation of locomotor function after long-duration space flight. Eighteen astronauts performed two tests of locomotion before and after 6 months of space flight: a treadmill walking test to examine vestibular reflexive mechanisms controlling head

  14. The Final Count Down: A Review of Three Decades of Flight Controller Training Methods for Space Shuttle Mission Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittermore, Gary; Bertels, Christie

    2011-01-01

    Operations of human spaceflight systems is extremely complex; therefore, the training and certification of operations personnel is a critical piece of ensuring mission success. Mission Control Center (MCC-H), at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, manages mission operations for the Space Shuttle Program, including the training and certification of the astronauts and flight control teams. An overview of a flight control team s makeup and responsibilities during a flight, and details on how those teams are trained and certified, reveals that while the training methodology for developing flight controllers has evolved significantly over the last thirty years the core goals and competencies have remained the same. In addition, the facilities and tools used in the control center have evolved. Changes in methodology and tools have been driven by many factors, including lessons learned, technology, shuttle accidents, shifts in risk posture, and generational differences. Flight controllers share their experiences in training and operating the space shuttle. The primary training method throughout the program has been mission simulations of the orbit, ascent, and entry phases, to truly train like you fly. A review of lessons learned from flight controller training suggests how they could be applied to future human spaceflight endeavors, including missions to the moon or to Mars. The lessons learned from operating the space shuttle for over thirty years will help the space industry build the next human transport space vehicle.

  15. INSPACE CHEMICAL PROPULSION SYSTEMS AT NASA's MARSHALL SPACE FLIGHT CENTER: HERITAGE AND CAPABILITIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRight, P. S.; Sheehy, J. A.; Blevins, J. A.

    2005-01-01

    NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is well known for its contributions to large ascent propulsion systems such as the Saturn V rocket and the Space Shuttle external tank, solid rocket boosters, and main engines. This paper highlights a lesser known but very rich side of MSFC-its heritage in the development of in-space chemical propulsion systems and its current capabilities for spacecraft propulsion system development and chemical propulsion research. The historical narrative describes the flight development activities associated with upper stage main propulsion systems such as the Saturn S-IVB as well as orbital maneuvering and reaction control systems such as the S-IVB auxiliary propulsion system, the Skylab thruster attitude control system, and many more recent activities such as Chandra, the Demonstration of Automated Rendezvous Technology (DART), X-37, the X-38 de-orbit propulsion system, the Interim Control Module, the US Propulsion Module, and multiple technology development activities. This paper also highlights MSFC s advanced chemical propulsion research capabilities, including an overview of the center s Propulsion Systems Department and ongoing activities. The authors highlight near-term and long-term technology challenges to which MSFC research and system development competencies are relevant. This paper concludes by assessing the value of the full range of aforementioned activities, strengths, and capabilities in light of NASA s exploration missions.

  16. How Do Lessons Learned on the International Space Station (ISS) Help Plan Life Support for Mars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.; Hodgson, Edward W.; Gentry, Gregory J.; Kliss, Mark H.

    2016-01-01

    How can our experience in developing and operating the International Space Station (ISS) guide the design, development, and operation of life support for the journey to Mars? The Mars deep space Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) must incorporate the knowledge and experience gained in developing ECLSS for low Earth orbit, but it must also meet the challenging new requirements of operation in deep space where there is no possibility of emergency resupply or quick crew return. The understanding gained by developing ISS flight hardware and successfully supporting a crew in orbit for many years is uniquely instructive. Different requirements for Mars life support suggest that different decisions may be made in design, testing, and operations planning, but the lessons learned developing the ECLSS for ISS provide valuable guidance.

  17. International aircrew sleep and wakefulness after multiple time zone flights - A cooperative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graeber, R. Curtis; Lauber, John K.; Connell, Linda J.; Gander, Philippa H.

    1986-01-01

    An international research team has carried out an electroencephalographic study of sleep and wakefulness in flight crews operating long-haul routes across seven or eight time zones. Following baseline recordings, volunteer crews (n = 56) from four airlines spent their first outbound layover at a sleep laboratory. This paper provides an overview of the project's history, its research design, and the standardization of procedures. The overall results are remarkably consistent among the four participating laboratories and strongly support the feasibility of cooperative international sleep research in the operational arena.

  18. Managing NASA's International Space Station Logistics and Maintenance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butina, Anthony

    2001-01-01

    The International Space Station's Logistics and Maintenance program has had to develop new technologies and a management approach for both space and ground operations. The ISS will be a permanently manned orbiting vehicle that has no landing gear, no international borders, and no organizational lines - it is one Station that must be supported by one crew, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, 365 days a year. It flies partially assembled for a number of years before it is finally completed in 2006. It has over 6,000 orbital replaceable units (ORU), and spare parts which number into the hundreds of thousands, from 127 major US vendors and 70 major international vendors. From conception to operation, the ISS requires a unique approach in all aspects of development and operations. Today the dream is coming true; hardware is flying and hardware is failing. The system has been put into place to support the Station for both space and ground operations. It started with the basic support concept developed for Department of Defense systems, and then it was tailored for the unique requirements of a manned space vehicle. Space logistics is a new concept that has wide reaching consequences for both space travel and life on Earth. This paper discusses what type of organization has been put into place to support both space and ground operations and discusses each element of that organization. In addition, some of the unique operations approaches this organization has had to develop is discussed.

  19. The Evolution of Friction Stir Welding Theory at Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Arthur C.

    2012-01-01

    From 1995 to the present the friction stir welding (FSW) process has been under study at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). This is an account of the progressive emergence of a set of conceptual tools beginning with the discovery of the shear surface, wiping metal transfer, and the invention of a kinematic model and making possible a treatment of both metallurgical structure formation and process dynamics in friction stir welding from a unified point of view. It is generally observed that the bulk of the deformation of weld metal around the FSW pin takes place in a very narrow, almost discontinuous zone with high deformation rates characteristic of metal cutting. By 1999 it was realized that this zone could be treated as a shear surface like that in simple metal cutting models. At the shear surface the seam is drawn out and compressed and pressure and flow conditions determine whether or not a sound weld is produced. The discovery of the shear surface was followed by the synthesis of a simple 3- flow kinematic model of the FSW process. Relative to the tool the flow components are: (1) an approaching translational flow at weld speed V, (2) a rotating cylindrical plug flow with the angular velocity of the tool , and (3) a relatively slow ring vortex flow (like a smoke ring) encircling the tool and driven by shoulder scrolls and pin threads. The rotating plug flow picks up an element of weld metal, rotates it around with the tool, and deposits it behind the tool ( wiping metal transfer ); it forms plan section loops in tracers cut through by the tool. Radially inward flow from the ring vortex component retains metal longer in the rotating plug and outward flow expels metal earlier; this interaction forms the looping weld seam trace and the tongue and groove bimetallic weld contour. The radial components of the translational and ring vortex flows introduce parent metal intrusions into the small grained nugget material close to the tool shoulder; if this feature is

  20. NASA Space Flight Human-System Standard Human Factors, Habitability, and Environmental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holubec, Keith; Connolly, Janis

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the history, and development of NASA-STD-3001, NASA Space Flight Human-System Standard Human Factors, Habitability, and Environmental Health, and the related Human Integration Design Handbook. Currently being developed from NASA-STD-3000, this project standard currently in review will be available in two volumes, (i.e., Volume 1 -- VCrew Health and Volume 2 -- Human Factors, Habitability, and Environmental Health) and the handbook will be both available as a pdf file and as a interactive website.

  1. Overview of the U. S. flight safety process for space nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, G.L.

    1981-01-01

    The two current types of nuclear power sources used in U. S. spacecraft are described along with the flight safety philosophies governing their use. In the case of radioisotope thermoelectric generators, the design philosophy consists of containment, immobilization, and recovery of the nuclear materials. For reactors, the emphasis is on maintaining a subcritical configuration in all credible accident environments. To document the safety activities, a safety analysis report is prepared for each mission. These reports, which are based on the probabilistic risk assessment methodology pioneered by the space nuclear safety community, are subjected to an interagency safety review before a recommendation is made to approve the launch of a nuclear-powered spacecraft

  2. Optical Characteristics of the Marshall Space Flight Center Solar Ultraviolet Magnetograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, E. A.; Porter, J. G.; Davis, J. M.; Gary, G. A.; Adams, M.; Smith, S.; Hraba, J. F.

    2001-01-01

    This paper will describe the scientific objectives of the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Solar Ultraviolet Magnetograph Investigation (SUMI) and the optical components that have been developed to meet those objectives. In order to test the scientific feasibility of measuring magnetic fields in the UV, a sounding rocket payload is being developed. This paper will discuss: (1) the scientific measurements that will be made by the SUMI sounding rocket program, (2) how the optics have been optimized for simultaneous measurements of two magnetic lines CIV (1550 Angstroms) and MgII (2800 Angstroms), and (3) the optical, reflectance, transmission and polarization measurements that have been made on the SUMI telescope mirror and polarimeter.

  3. Space Vehicle Flight Mechanics (La Mecanique du Vol des Vehicules Spatiaux)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    Space Telescope, an astrophysics spacelab mission, Astro , the Gamma Ray Observatory, Spacelab Life Sciences -1 and ESA/NASA Ulysses. The Great...all the hardware/avionics subsystems, the flight software, and the astro - nauts. Here, the software and the interfaces can be thoroughly checked out...rm6di ai re de Il’angl e G ,(F,,, Fz,)~ = h,, 7 (171) de rotatioa des axes lies 5 la Terre F ,U3P rapport aux axes Fxc ; (Fg.30. Iqest la vitesse de

  4. Goddard Space Flight Center: 1994 Maryland/GSFC Earth and Environmental Science Teacher Ambassador Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, James

    1995-01-01

    The Maryland/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Earth and Environmental Science Teacher Ambassador Program was designed to enhance classroom instruction in the Earth and environmental science programs in the secondary schools of the state of Maryland. In October 1992, more than 100 school system administrators from the 24 local Maryland school systems, the Maryland State Department of Education, and the University of Maryland met with NASA GSFC scientists and education officers to propose a cooperative state-wide secondary school science teaching enhancement initiative.

  5. USRA's NCSEFSE: a new National Center for Space, Earth, and Flight Sciences Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livengood, T. A.; Goldstein, J.; Vanhala, H.; Hamel, J.; Miller, E. A.; Pulkkinen, K.; Richards, S.

    2005-08-01

    A new National Center for Space, Earth, and Flight Sciences Education (NCSEFSE) has been created in the Washington, DC metropolitan area under the auspices of the Universities Space Research Association. The NCSEFSE provides education and public outreach services in the areas of NASA's research foci in programs of both national and local scope. Present NCSEFSE programs include: Journey through the Universe, which unites formal and informal education within communities and connects a nationally-distributed network of communities from Hilo, HI to Washington, DC with volunteer Visiting Researchers and thematic education modules; the Voyage Scale Model Solar System exhibition on the National Mall, a showcase for planetary science placed directly outside the National Air and Space Museum; educational module development and distribution for the MESSENGER mission to Mercury through a national cadre of MESSENGER Educator Fellows; Teachable Moments in the News, which capitalizes on current events in space, Earth, and flight sciences to teach the science that underlies students' natural interests; the Voyages Across the Universe Speakers' Bureau; and Family Science Night at the National Air and Space Museum, which reaches audiences of 2000--3000 each year, drawn from the Washington metropolitan area. Staff scientists of NCSEFSE maintain active research programs, presently in the areas of planetary atmospheric composition, structure, and dynamics, and in solar system formation. NCSEFSE scientists thus are able to act as authentic representatives of frontier scientific research, and ensure accuracy, relevance, and significance in educational products. NCSEFSE instructional designers and educators ensure pedagogic clarity and effectiveness, through a commitment to quantitative assessment.

  6. Sensory-Motor Adaptation to Space Flight: Human Balance Control and Artificial Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paloski, William H.

    2004-01-01

    Gravity, which is sensed directly by the otolith organs and indirectly by proprioceptors and exteroceptors, provides the CNS a fundamental reference for estimating spatial orientation and coordinating movements in the terrestrial environment. The sustained absence of gravity during orbital space flight creates a unique environment that cannot be reproduced on Earth. Loss of this fundamental CNS reference upon insertion into orbit triggers neuro-adaptive processes that optimize performance for the microgravity environment, while its reintroduction upon return to Earth triggers neuro-adaptive processes that return performance to terrestrial norms. Five pioneering symposia on The Role of the Vestibular Organs in the Exploration of Space were convened between 1965 and 1970. These innovative meetings brought together the top physicians, physiologists, and engineers in the vestibular field to discuss and debate the challenges associated with human vestibular system adaptation to the then novel environment of space flight. These highly successful symposia addressed the perplexing problem of how to understand and ameliorate the adverse physiological effects on humans resulting from the reduction of gravitational stimulation of the vestibular receptors in space. The series resumed in 2002 with the Sixth Symposium, which focused on the microgravity environment as an essential tool for the study of fundamental vestibular functions. The three day meeting included presentations on historical perspectives, vestibular neurobiology, neurophysiology, neuroanatomy, neurotransmitter systems, theoretical considerations, spatial orientation, psychophysics, motor integration, adaptation, autonomic function, space motion sickness, clinical issues, countermeasures, and rehabilitation. Scientists and clinicians entered into lively exchanges on how to design and perform mutually productive research and countermeasure development projects in the future. The problems posed by long duration

  7. Flight Testing of the Space Launch System (SLS) Adaptive Augmenting Control (AAC) Algorithm on an F/A-18

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennehy, Cornelius J.; VanZwieten, Tannen S.; Hanson, Curtis E.; Wall, John H.; Miller, Chris J.; Gilligan, Eric T.; Orr, Jeb S.

    2014-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Flight Mechanics and Analysis Division developed an adaptive augmenting control (AAC) algorithm for launch vehicles that improves robustness and performance on an as-needed basis by adapting a classical control algorithm to unexpected environments or variations in vehicle dynamics. This was baselined as part of the Space Launch System (SLS) flight control system. The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) was asked to partner with the SLS Program and the Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) Game Changing Development Program (GCDP) to flight test the AAC algorithm on a manned aircraft that can achieve a high level of dynamic similarity to a launch vehicle and raise the technology readiness of the algorithm early in the program. This document reports the outcome of the NESC assessment.

  8. Calcium and Bone Homeostasis During 4-6 Months Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; OBrien, K.; Wastney, M.; Morukov, B.; Larina, I.; Abrams, S.; Lane, H.; Nillen, J.; Davis-Street, J.; Paloski, W. H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Bone and calcium homeostasis are altered by weightlessness. We previously reported calcium studies on three subjects from the first joint US/Russian mission to Mir. We report here data on an additional three male subjects, whose stays on Mir were 4 (n= 1) and 6 (n=2) mos. Data were collected before, during, and after the missions. Inflight studies were conducted at 2-3 mos. Endocrine and biochemical indices were measured, along with 3-wk calcium tracer studies. Percent differences are reported compared to preflight. Ionized calcium was unchanged (2.8 +/-2.1 %) during flight. Calcium absorption was variable inflight, but was decreased after landing. Vitamin D stores were decreased 35 +/-24% inflight, similar to previous reports. Serum PTH was decreased 59 +/-9% during flight (greater than we previously reported), while 1,25(OH)(sub 2)-Vitamin D was decreased in 2 of 3 subjects. Markers of bone resorption (e.g., crosslinks) were increased in all subjects. Bone-specific alkaline phosphatase was decreased (n=1) or unchanged (n=2), while osteocalcin was decreased 34 +/-23%. Previously presented data showed that inflight bone loss is associated with increased resorption and unchanged/decreased formation. The data reported here support these earlier findings. These studies will help to extend our understanding of space flight-induced bone loss, and of bone loss associated with diseases such as osteoporosis or paralysis.

  9. Vision Issues and Space Flight: Evaluation of One-Carbon Metabolism Polymorphisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Gregory, Jesse F.; Zeisel, Steven; Ueland, Per; Gibson, C. R.; Mader, Thomas; Kinchen, Jason; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Zwart, Sara R.

    2015-01-01

    Intermediates of the one-carbon metabolic pathway are altered in astronauts who experience vision-related issues during and after space flight. Serum concentrations of homocysteine, cystathionine, 2-methylcitric acid, and methylmalonic acid were higher in astronauts with ophthalmic changes than in those without (Zwart et al., J Nutr, 2012). These differences existed before, during, and after flight. Potential confounding factors did not explain the differences. Genetic polymorphisms could contribute to these differences, and could help explain why crewmembers on the same mission do not all have ophthalmic issues, despite the same environmental factors (e.g., microgravity, exercise, diet). A follow-up study was conducted to evaluate 5 polymorphisms of enzymes in the one-carbon pathway, and to evaluate how these relate to vision and other ophthalmic changes after flight. Preliminary evaluations of the genetic data indicate that all of the crewmembers with the MTRR GG genotype had vision issues to one degree or another. However, not everyone who had vision issues had this genetic polymorphism, so the situation is more complex than the involvement of this single polymorphism. Metabolomic and further data analyses are underway to clarify these findings, but the preliminary assessments are promising.

  10. Space strategy for Europe and the International Lunar Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldavs, VZ

    2017-09-01

    The 2020-2030 decade offers extraordinary opportunity for the European space sector that is largely not recognized in present space strategy which does not recognize commercial space activities beyond communications satellites, launchers, and earth observation and navigation and downstream activities. Lunar and cislunar development can draw on the extensive experience of Europe in mining, clean energy, ecological systems as well as deep experience in managing the development of technologies through TRL1 through commercial sale via Horizon 2020 and previous Framework programs. The EU has unrivalled experience in coordinating research and advanced technology development from research centers, major firms and SMEs across multiple sovereign states. This capacity to coordinate across national boundaries can be a significant contribution to a global cooperative program like the International Lunar Decade. This paper will present a European space strategy for beyond 2020 and how this can mesh with the International Lunar Decade.

  11. A space exploration strategy that promotes international and commercial participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arney, Dale C.; Wilhite, Alan W.; Chai, Patrick R.; Jones, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    NASA has created a plan to implement the Flexible Path strategy, which utilizes a heavy lift launch vehicle to deliver crew and cargo to orbit. In this plan, NASA would develop much of the transportation architecture (launch vehicle, crew capsule, and in-space propulsion), leaving the other in-space elements open to commercial and international partnerships. This paper presents a space exploration strategy that reverses that philosophy, where commercial and international launch vehicles provide launch services. Utilizing a propellant depot to aggregate propellant on orbit, smaller launch vehicles are capable of delivering all of the mass necessary for space exploration. This strategy has benefits to the architecture in terms of cost, schedule, and reliability.

  12. Habitability and Human Factors: Lessons Learned in Long Duration Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggerman, Susan D.; Rando, Cynthia M.; Duvall, Laura E.

    2006-01-01

    This study documents the investigation of qualitative habitability and human factors feedback provided by scientists, engineers, and crewmembers on lessons learned from the ISS Program. A thorough review and understanding of this data is critical in charting NASA's future path in space exploration. NASA has been involved in ensuring that the needs of crewmembers to live and work safely and effectively in space have been met throughout the ISS Program. Human factors and habitability data has been collected from every U.S. crewmember that has resided on the ISS. The knowledge gained from both the developers and inhabitants of the ISS have provided a significant resource of information for NASA and will be used in future space exploration. The recurring issues have been tracked and documented; the top 5 most critical issues have been identified from this data. The top 5 identified problems were: excessive onsrbit stowage; environment; communication; procedures; and inadequate design of systems and equipment. Lessons learned from these issues will be used to aid in future improvements and developments to the space program. Full analysis of the habitability and human factors data has led to the following recommendations. It is critical for human factors to be involved early in the design of space vehicles and hardware. Human factors requirements need to be readdressed and redefined given the knowledge gained during previous ISS and long-duration space flight programs. These requirements must be integrated into vehicle and hardware technical documentation and consistently enforced. Lastly, space vehicles and hardware must be designed with primary focus on the user/operator to successfully complete missions and maintain a safe working environment. Implementation of these lessons learned will significantly improve NASA's likelihood of success in future space endeavors.

  13. Biological effects of space flight on SP{sub 1} traits of fenugreek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rong, Xu; Jing, Yu; Jiang, Xu; Feng, Zhou; Jun, Chen [The Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Beijing Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Yougang, Liu [Tianjin Univ. of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin (China); Suqin, Sun [Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China)

    2009-04-15

    Fenugreek (Trigonella Foenum-graecum L.) seeds introduced from United Arab Emirates (UAE) were carried to the space by the recoverable satellite 'Shi Jian 8'. After space loading, the seeds were planted to be observed and investigated compared to the control group. The results showed that the germination rate declined after space loading compared to the control group. SP{sub 1} plants grew inhibited first, and then vigorously later at the seedling stage. The branch number, pods and plant weight of SP{sub 1} plants' increased. More important, single pod was changed to dual pod. At the same time, the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) was used to analyze and appraise the fenugreek SP{sub 1} seeds. The results indicated that the major components and the structures remained intact, in another word, space mutation had no obvious effect on the quality of SP{sub 1} seeds. Based on the results, some variations mutated by space flight could appear at the present generation. These variations were important to gain high yield. (authors)

  14. Stimulating effect of space flight factors on Artemia cysts: comparison with irradiation by gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaubin, Y.; Pianezzi, B.; Gasset, G.; Plannel, H.; Kovalev, E.E.

    1986-01-01

    The Artemia cyst, a gastrula in dormant state, is a very suitable material to investigate the individual effects of HZE cosmic particles. Monolayers of Artemia cysts, sandwiched with nuclear emulsions, flew aboard the Soviet biosatellite Cosmos 1129. The space flight stimulated the developmental capacity expressed by higher percentages of emergence, hatching, and alive nauplii at day 4-5. A greater mean life span was reported in Artemias developed from Artemia cysts hit by the cosmic heavy ions. On Earth, Artemia cysts were exposed to 1, 10, 100, 200 and 400 Gy of gamma (gamma) rays. A stimulating effect on developmental capacity was observed for 10 Gy; the mean life span was significantly increased for this dose. These results are discussed in comparison with previous investigations performed on Earth and in space

  15. Space Flight-Induced Reactivation of Latent Epstein-Barr Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowe, Raymond P.; Barrett, Alan D. T.; Pierson, Duane L.

    2001-01-01

    Reactivation of latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) may be an important threat to crew health during extended space missions. Decreased cellular immune function has been reported both during and after space flight. Preliminary studies have demonstrated increased EBV shedding in saliva as well as increased antibody titers to EBV lytic proteins. We hypothesize that the combined effects of microgravity along with associated physical and psychological stress will decrease EBV-specific T-cell immunity and reactivate latent EBV in infected B-lymphocytes. If increased virus production and clonal expansion of infected B-lymphocytes are detected, then pharmacological measures can be developed and instituted prior to onset of overt clinical disease. More importantly, we will begin to understand the basic mechanisms involved in stress-induced reactivation of EBV in circulating B-lymphocytes.

  16. Friction Stir Welding Development at NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Biliyar N.; Carter, Robert W.; Ding, Robert J.; Lawless, Kirby G.; Nunes, Arthur C., Jr.; Russell, Carolyn K.; Shah, Sandeep R.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of friction stir welding (FSW) process development and applications at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). FSW process development started as a laboratory curiosity but soon found support from many users. The FSW process advanced very quickly and has found many applications both within and outside the aerospace industry. It is currently being adapted for joining key elements of the Space Shuttle External Tank for improved producibility and reliability. FSW process modeling is done to better understand and improve the process. Special tools have been developed to weld variable thickness materials including thin and thick materials. FSW is now being applied to higher temperature materials such as copper and to advanced materials such as metal matrix composites. FSW technology is being successfully transferred from MSFC laboratory to shop floors of many commercial companies.

  17. Shuttle Ground Support Equipment (GSE) T-0 Umbilical to Space Shuttle Program (SSP) Flight Elements Consultation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Timmy R.; Kichak, Robert A.; McManamen, John P.; Kramer-White, Julie; Raju, Ivatury S.; Beil, Robert J.; Weeks, John F.; Elliott, Kenny B.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) was tasked with assessing the validity of an alternate opinion that surfaced during the investigation of recurrent failures at the Space Shuttle T-0 umbilical interface. The most visible problem occurred during the Space Transportation System (STS)-112 launch when pyrotechnics used to separate Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) Hold-Down Post (HDP) frangible nuts failed to fire. Subsequent investigations recommended several improvements to the Ground Support Equipment (GSE) and processing changes were implemented, including replacement of ground-half cables and connectors between flights, along with wiring modifications to make critical circuits quad-redundant across the interface. The alternate opinions maintained that insufficient data existed to exonerate the design, that additional data needed to be gathered under launch conditions, and that the interface should be further modified to ensure additional margin existed to preclude failure. The results of the assessment are contained in this report.

  18. Space - A new community of opportunity; Proceedings of the Thirty-fourth Annual AAS International Conference, Houston, TX, Nov. 3-5, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straight, W.G.; Bowes, H.N.

    1989-01-01

    Papers on recent advances in astronautical sciences are presented, covering topics such as governing and policy issues, international space applications, ELV research, astrodynamics and planetary missions, and rocket propulsion for the Space Shuttle and the National Aerospace Plane. Other topics include astronomy, astrophysics, solar system exploration, physiological effects of space flight, bioregenerative life support, medical care in space, tracking and data systems, VLBI, electrophoresis experiment command and data handling, Space Station communications, and telerobotics. Additional subjects include structures and composite materials, automation and robotics for the Space Station, EVA construction, the Space Station and large structures, and automation and robotics for the moon, Mars, and interplanetary missions

  19. Space Flight Experiments to Measure Polymer Erosion and Contamination on Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillis, Maura C.; Youngstrom, Erica E.; Marx, Laura M.; Hammerstrom, Anne M.; Finefrock, Katherine D.; Youngstrom, Christiane A.; Kaminski, Carolyn; Fine, Elizabeth S.; Hunt, Patricia K.; deGroh, Kim K.

    2002-01-01

    Atomic oxygen erosion and silicone contamination are serious issues that could damage or destroy spacecraft components after orbiting for an extended period of time, such as on a space station or satellite. An experiment, the Polymer Erosion And Contamination Experiment (PEACE) will be conducted to study the effects of atomic oxygen (AO) erosion and silicone contamination, and it will provide information and contribute to a solution for these problems. PEACE will fly 43 different polymer materials that will be analyzed for AO erosion effects through two techniques: mass loss measurement and recession depth measurement. Pinhole cameras will provide information about the arrival direction of AO, and silicone contamination pinhole cameras will identify the source of silicone contamination on a spacecraft. All experimental hardware will be passively exposed to AO for up to two weeks in the actual space environment when it flies in the bay of a space shuttle. A second set of the PEACE Polymers is being exposed to the space environment for erosion yield determination as part of a second experiment, Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE). MISSE is a collaboration between several federal agencies and aerospace companies. During a space walk on August 16, 2001, MISSE was attached to the outside of the International Space Station (ISS) during an extravehicular activity (EVA), where it began its exposure to AO for approximately 1.5 years. The PEACE polymers, therefore, will be analyzed after both short-term and long-term AO exposures for a more complete study of AO effects.

  20. Effects of Space Flight, Clinorotation, and Centrifugation on the Growth and Metabolism of Escherichia Coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robert B.

    1999-01-01

    Previous experiments have shown that space flight stimulates bacterial growth and metabolism. An explanation for these results is proposed, which may eventually lead to improved terrestrial pharmaceutical production efficiency. It is hypothesized that inertial acceleration affects bacterial growth and metabolism by altering the transport phenomena in the cells external fluid environment. It is believed that this occurs indirectly through changes in the sedimentation rate acting on the bacteria and buoyancy-driven convection acting on their excreted by-products. Experiments over a broad range of accelerations consistently supported this theory. Experiments at I g indicated that higher concentrations of excreted by products surrounding bacterial cells result in a shorter lag phase. Nineteen additional experiments simulated 0 g and 0.5 g using a clinostat, and achieved 50 g, 180 g, and 400 g using a centrifuge. These experiments showed that final cell density is inversely related to the level of acceleration. The experiments also consistently showed that acceleration affects the length of the lag phase in a non-monotonic, yet predictable, manner. Additional data indicated that E. coli metabolize glucose less efficiently at hypergravity, and more efficiently at hypogravity. A space-flight experiment was also performed. Samples on orbit had a statistically significant higher final cell density and more efficient metabolism than did ground controls. These results. which were similar to simulations of 0 g using a clinostat, support the theory that gravity only affects bacterial growth and metabolism indirectly, through changes in the bacteria's fluid environment.

  1. Space Flight and Manual Control: Implications for Sensorimotor Function on Future Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschke, Millard F.; Kornilova, Ludmila; Tomilovskaya, Elena; Parker, Donald E.; Leigh, R. John; Kozlovskaya, Inessa

    2009-01-01

    Control of vehicles, and other complex mechanical motion systems, is a high-level integrative function of the central nervous system (CNS) that requires good visual acuity, eye-hand coordination, spatial (and, in some cases, geographic) orientation perception, and cognitive function. Existing evidence from space flight research (Paloski et.al., 2008, Clement and Reschke 2008, Reschke et al., 2007) demonstrates that the function of each of these systems is altered by removing (and subsequently by reintroducing) a gravitational field that can be sensed by vestibular, proprioceptive, and haptic receptors and used by the CNS for spatial orientation, navigation, and coordination of movements. Furthermore, much of the operational performance data collected as a function of space flight has not been available for independent analysis, and those data that have been reviewed are equivocal owing to uncontrolled environmental and/or engineering factors. Thus, our current understanding, when it comes to manual control, is limited primarily to a review of those situations where manual control has been a factor. One of the simplest approaches to the manual control problem is to review shuttle landing data. See the Figure below for those landing for which we have Shuttle velocities over the runway threshold.

  2. Ambient Optomechanical Alignment and Pupil Metrology for the Flight Instruments Aboard the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulter, Phillip; Beaton, Alexander; Gum, Jeffrey S.; Hadjimichael, Theodore J.; Hayden, Joseph E.; Hummel, Susann; Hylan, Jason E.; Lee, David; Madison, Timothy J.; Maszkiewicz, Michael; hide

    2014-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope science instruments are in the final stages of being integrated into the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) element. Each instrument is tied into a common coordinate system through mechanical references that are used for optical alignment and metrology within ISIM after element-level assembly. In addition, a set of ground support equipment (GSE) consisting of large, precisely calibrated, ambient, and cryogenic structures are used as alignment references and gauges during various phases of integration and test (I&T). This GSE, the flight instruments, and ISIM structure feature different types of complimentary metrology targeting. These GSE targets are used to establish and track six degrees of freedom instrument alignment during I&T in the vehicle coordinate system (VCS). This paper describes the optomechanical metrology conducted during science instrument integration and alignment in the Spacecraft Systems Development and Integration Facility (SSDIF) cleanroom at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The measurement of each instrument's ambient entrance pupil location in the telescope coordinate system is discussed. The construction of the database of target locations and the development of metrology uncertainties is also discussed.

  3. Assessment of Utilization of Food Variety on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, M. R.; Paradis, R.; Zwart, S. R.; Smith, S. M.; Kloeris, V. L.; Douglas, G. L.

    2018-01-01

    Long duration missions will require astronauts to subsist on a closed food system for at least three years. Resupply will not be an option, and the food supply will be older at the time of consumption and more static in variety than previous missions. The space food variety requirements that will both supply nutrition and support continued interest in adequate consumption for a mission of this duration is unknown. Limited food variety of past space programs (Gemini, Apollo, International Space Station) as well as in military operations resulted in monotony, food aversion, and weight loss despite relatively short mission durations of a few days up to several months. In this study, food consumption data from 10 crew members on 3-6-month International Space Station missions was assessed to determine what percentage of the existing food variety was used by crew members, if the food choices correlated to the amount of time in orbit, and whether commonalities in food selections existed across crew members. Complete mission diet logs were recorded on ISS flights from 2008 - 2014, a period in which space food menu variety was consistent, but the food system underwent an extensive reformulation to reduce sodium content. Food consumption data was correlated to the Food on Orbit by Week logs, archived Data Usage Charts, and a food list categorization table using TRIFACTA software and queries in a SQL SERVER 2012 database.

  4. The Second Annual International Space University Alumni Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Les (Compiler); Robinson, Paul A. (Compiler)

    1994-01-01

    The papers presented at the conference reflect the multidisciplinary nature of the International Space University (ISU) and its alumni. The first papers presented hold special relevance to the design projects, and cover such topics as lunar-based astronomical instrumentation, solar lunar power generation, habitation on the moon, and the legal issues governing multinational astronauts conducting research in space. The next set of papers cover various technical issues such as project success assessment, satellite networks and space station dynamics, thus reflecting the diverse backgrounds of the ISU alumni.

  5. Benchmarking processes for managing large international space programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandell, Humboldt C., Jr.; Duke, Michael B.

    1993-01-01

    The relationship between management style and program costs is analyzed to determine the feasibility of financing large international space missions. The incorporation of management systems is considered to be essential to realizing low cost spacecraft and planetary surface systems. Several companies ranging from large Lockheed 'Skunk Works' to small companies including Space Industries, Inc., Rocket Research Corp., and Orbital Sciences Corp. were studied. It is concluded that to lower the prices, the ways in which spacecraft and hardware are developed must be changed. Benchmarking of successful low cost space programs has revealed a number of prescriptive rules for low cost managements, including major changes in the relationships between the public and private sectors.

  6. Advances in Rodent Research Missions on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, S. Y.; Ronca, A.; Leveson-Gower, D.; Gong, C.; Stube, K.; Pletcher, D.; Wigley, C.; Beegle, J.; Globus, R. K.

    2016-01-01

    A research platform for rodent experiment on the ISS is a valuable tool for advancing biomedical research in space. Capabilities offered by the Rodent Research project developed at NASA Ames Research Center can support experiments of much longer duration on the ISS than previous experiments performed on the Space Shuttle. NASAs Rodent Research (RR)-1 mission was completed successfully and achieved a number of objectives, including validation of flight hardware, on-orbit operations, and science capabilities as well as support of a CASIS-sponsored experiment (Novartis) on muscle atrophy. Twenty C57BL6J adult female mice were launched on the Space-X (SpX) 4 Dragon vehicle, and thrived for up to 37 days in microgravity. Daily health checks of the mice were performed during the mission via downlinked video; all flight animals were healthy and displayed normal behavior, and higher levels of physical activity compared to ground controls. Behavioral analysis demonstrated that Flight and Ground Control mice exhibited the same range of behaviors, including eating, drinking, exploratory behavior, self- and allo-grooming, and social interactions indicative of healthy animals. The animals were euthanized on-orbit and select tissues were collected from some of the mice on orbit to assess the long-term sample storage capabilities of the ISS. In general, the data obtained from the flight mice were comparable to those from the three groups of control mice (baseline, vivarium and ground controls, which were housed in flight hardware), showing that the ISS has adequate capability to support long-duration rodent experiments. The team recovered 35 tissues from 40 RR-1 frozen carcasses, yielding 3300 aliquots of tissues to distribute to the scientific community in the U.S., including NASAs GeneLab project and scientists via Space Biology's Biospecimen Sharing Program Ames Life Science Data Archive. Tissues also were distributed to Russian research colleagues at the Institute for

  7. Marshall Space Flight Center Propulsion Systems Department (PSD) Knowledge Management (KM) Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraccioli, Paul; Varnedoe, Tom; Smith, Randy; McCarter, Mike; Wilson, Barry; Porter, Richard

    2006-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's Propulsion Systems Department (PSD) is four months into a fifteen month Knowledge Management (KM) initiative to support enhanced engineering decision making and analyses, faster resolution of anomalies (near-term) and effective, efficient knowledge infused engineering processes, reduced knowledge attrition, and reduced anomaly occurrences (long-term). The near-term objective of this initiative is developing a KM Pilot project, within the context of a 3-5 year KM strategy, to introduce and evaluate the use of KM within PSD. An internal NASA/MSFC PSD KM team was established early in project formulation to maintain a practitioner, user-centric focus throughout the conceptual development, planning and deployment of KM technologies and capabilities within the PSD. The PSD internal team is supported by the University of Alabama's Aging Infrastructure Systems Center of Excellence (AISCE), lntergraph Corporation, and The Knowledge Institute. The principle product of the initial four month effort has been strategic planning of PSD KNI implementation by first determining the "as is" state of KM capabilities and developing, planning and documenting the roadmap to achieve the desired "to be" state. Activities undertaken to suppoth e planning phase have included data gathering; cultural surveys, group work-sessions, interviews, documentation review, and independent research. Assessments and analyses have beon pedormed including industry benchmarking, related local and Agency initiatives, specific tools and techniques used and strategies for leveraging existing resources, people and technology to achieve common KM goals. Key findings captured in the PSD KM Strategic Plan include the system vision, purpose, stakeholders, prioritized strategic objectives mapped to the top ten practitioner needs and analysis of current resource usage. Opportunities identified from research, analyses, cultural1KM surveys and practitioner interviews include

  8. Overview of diffraction gratings technologies for space-flight satellites and astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotel, Arnaud; Liard, Audrey; Desserouer, Frédéric; Bonnemason, Francis; Pichon, Pierre

    2014-09-01

    The diffraction gratings are widely used in Space-flight satellites for spectrograph instruments or in ground-based telescopes in astronomy. The diffraction gratings are one of the key optical components of such systems and have to exhibit very high optical performances. HORIBA Jobin Yvon S.A.S. (part of HORIBA Group) is in the forefront of such gratings development for more than 40 years. During the past decades, HORIBA Jobin Yvon (HJY) has developed a unique expertise in diffraction grating design and manufacturing processes for holographic, ruled or etched gratings. We will present in this paper an overview of diffraction grating technologies especially designed for space and astronomy applications. We will firstly review the heritage of the company in this field with the space qualification of different grating types. Then, we will describe several key grating technologies developed for specific space or astronomy projects: ruled blazed low groove density plane reflection grating, holographic blazed replica plane grating, high-groove density holographic toroidal and spherical grating and transmission Fused Silica Etched (FSE) grismassembled grating.

  9. The Space Technology-7 Disturbance Reduction System Precision Control Flight Validation Experiment Control System Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, James R.; Hsu, Oscar C.; Maghami, Peirman G.; Markley, F. Landis

    2006-01-01

    As originally proposed, the Space Technology-7 Disturbance Reduction System (DRS) project, managed out of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, was designed to validate technologies required for future missions such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). The two technologies to be demonstrated by DRS were Gravitational Reference Sensors (GRSs) and Colloidal MicroNewton Thrusters (CMNTs). Control algorithms being designed by the Dynamic Control System (DCS) team at the Goddard Space Flight Center would control the spacecraft so that it flew about a freely-floating GRS test mass, keeping it centered within its housing. For programmatic reasons, the GRSs were descoped from DRS. The primary goals of the new mission are to validate the performance of the CMNTs and to demonstrate precise spacecraft position control. DRS will fly as a part of the European Space Agency (ESA) LISA Pathfinder (LPF) spacecraft along with a similar ESA experiment, the LISA Technology Package (LTP). With no GRS, the DCS attitude and drag-free control systems make use of the sensor being developed by ESA as a part of the LTP. The control system is designed to maintain the spacecraft s position with respect to the test mass, to within 10 nm/the square root of Hz over the DRS science frequency band of 1 to 30 mHz.

  10. International Space Station Crew Return Vehicle: X-38. Educational Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The International Space Station (ISS) will provide the world with an orbiting laboratory that will have long-duration micro-gravity experimentation capability. The crew size for this facility will depend upon the crew return capability. The first crews will consist of three astronauts from Russia and the United States. The crew is limited to three…

  11. Environmental "Omics" of International Space Station: Insights, Significance, and Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2016-07-01

    The NASA Space Biology program funded two multi-year studies to catalogue International Space Station (ISS) environmental microbiome. The first Microbial Observatory (MO) experiment will generate a microbial census of the ISS surfaces and atmosphere using advanced molecular microbial community analysis "omics" techniques, supported by traditional culture-based methods and state-of-the art molecular techniques. The second MO experiment will measure presence of viral and select bacterial and fungal pathogens on ISS surfaces and correlate their presence on crew. The "omics" methodologies of the MO experiments will serve as the foundation for an extensive microbial census, offering significant insight into spaceflight-induced changes in the populations of beneficial and potentially harmful microbes. The safety of crewmembers and the maintenance of hardware are the primary goals for monitoring microorganisms in this closed habitat. The statistical analy