WorldWideScience

Sample records for space filling molecular

  1. High resolution color raster computer animation of space filling molecular models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Max, N.L.

    1981-01-01

    The ATOMLLL system efficiently produces realistic photographs of ball-and-stick or space-filling molecular models, with color shading, highlights, shadows, and transparency. The hidden surface problem for a scene composed of intersecting spheres and cylinders is solved on a CDC-7600, which outputs onto magnetic tape the outlines of the visible parts of each object. The outlines are then rendered, at up to 4096 x 4096 resolution, by a Dicomed D-48 color film recorder, controlled by a Varian V-75 minicomputer. The Varian computes the shading and highlights for each pixel in a fast microcoded loop. Recent modifications to give shadows and transparency are described.

  2. High resolution color raster computer animation of space filling molecular models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Max, N.L.

    1981-01-01

    The ATOMLLL system efficiently produces realistic photographs of ball-and-stick or space-filling molecular models, with color shading, highlights, shadows, and transparency. The hidden surface problem for a scene composed of intersecting spheres and cylinders is solved on a CDC-7600, which outputs onto magnetic tape the outlines of the visible parts of each object. The outlines are then rendered, at up to 4096 x 4096 resolution, by a Dicomed D-48 color film recorder, controlled by a Varian V-75 minicomputer. The Varian computes the shading and highlights for each pixel in a fast microcoded loop. Recent modifications to give shadows and transparency are described

  3. New Skeletal-Space-Filling Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Frank H.

    1977-01-01

    Describes plastic, skeletal molecular models that are color-coded and can illustrate both the conformation and overall shape of small molecules. They can also be converted to space-filling counterparts by the additions of color-coded polystyrene spheres. (MLH)

  4. Space-filling polyhedral sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haaland, Peter

    2016-06-21

    Solid sorbents, systems, and methods for pumping, storage, and purification of gases are disclosed. They derive from the dynamics of porous and free convection for specific gas/sorbent combinations and use space filling polyhedral microliths with facial aplanarities to produce sorbent arrays with interpenetrating interstitial manifolds of voids.

  5. Technology of hardening fills for mined spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simek, P.; Holas, M.; Chyla, A.; Pech, P.

    1985-01-01

    The technology is described of hardening fills for mined spaces of uranium deposits in North Bohemian chalk. A special equipment was developed for the controlled preparation of a hardening mixture. The composition of the fill is determined by the strength of the filled rock, expecially by the standard strength, i.e., the minimal strength of the filling under uniaxial pressure. The said parameter determines the consumption of binding materials and thereby the total costs of the filling. A description is presented of the filling technology, including rabbit tube transport of the mixture and quality control. (Pu)

  6. Banach spaces that realize minimal fillings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bednov, B. B.; Borodin, P. A.

    2014-01-01

    It is proved that a real Banach space realizes minimal fillings for all its finite subsets (a shortest network spanning a fixed finite subset always exists and has the minimum possible length) if and only if it is a predual of L 1 . The spaces L 1 are characterized in terms of Steiner points (medians). Bibliography: 25 titles. (paper)

  7. Multiple scattering theory for space filling potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, W.H.; Brown, R.G.; Nesbet, R.K.

    1990-01-01

    Multiple scattering theory (MST) provides an efficient technique for solving the wave equation for the special case of muffin-tin potentials. Here MST is extended to treat space filling non-muffin tin potentials and its validity, accuracy and efficiency are tested by application of the two dimensional empty lattice test. For this test it is found that the traditional formulation of MST does not coverage as the number of partial waves is increased. A simple modification of MST, however, allows this problem to be solved exactly and efficiently. 15 refs., 3 tabs

  8. Molecular investigations on grain filling rate under terminal heat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grain yield under post anthesis high temperature stress is largely influenced by grain filling rate (GFR). To investigate molecular basis of this trait, a set of 111 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from Raj 4014, a heat sensitive genotype and WH 730, heat tolerant cultivar was phenotyped during 2009-2010 and ...

  9. Constructing Delaunay triangulations along space-filling curves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchin, K.; Fiat, A.; Sanders, P.

    2009-01-01

    Incremental construction con BRIO using a space-filling curve order for insertion is a popular algorithm for constructing Delaunay triangulations. So far, it has only been analyzed for the case that a worst-case optimal point location data structure is used which is often avoided in implementations.

  10. Filling the gap in the European administrative space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mastenbroek, Ellen; Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg

    2017-01-01

    European administrative networks (EANs) are a key building block of the European Administrative Space (EAS). Crucially, they are to fill the gap between the EU’s policy ambitions and its limited administrative capacities. Whereas ample research has been done on policy preparation networks, the role...... of implementing EANs has received less attention in the EAS literature. This article fills this gap by providing a systematic review of relevant insights in four adjacent literatures: EU governance; international relations; public administration; and EU compliance. Employing a systematic literature review......, it reports divergent findings on EAN establishment, functioning and impact, as well as variant normative evaluations. These variant findings partly relate to a lack of comparative research, selective policy coverage and predominant focus on North-western states. We conclude by suggesting a number of lines...

  11. When Earth Songs Filled the Void of Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Dennis L.

    2003-01-01

    Before the late 50's we had the planets, our Sun, the stars, galaxies, spectacular clouds of dust and very little else in our universe. There was evidence for a highly tenuous "sea" of dust in interstellar space, but little else. Space was empty above the ionized gases of our upper atmosphere, a little like there was no color in the world before the 40's. The clues were there to think otherwise, however, and in the late 50's and early 60's a few researchers dared to challenge the conventional ideas about space. It was a time of discovery and, with our new ability to fly in space, a time that launched a new science. Today that science makes it possible to literally see some of the plasmas that populate near-Earth space, which are now known to exist everywhere.

  12. Nanocapsules with fluorous filling: A "molecular zipper" approach

    KAUST Repository

    Merican, Zulkifli

    2014-11-26

    Considerable effort has been devoted to thesynthesis of liquid filled microcapsules and nanocapsules owing to their general usefulness. The DCM solution was combined with an equal volume of the aqueous solution of sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS), and the biphasic mixture was subjected to high-power ultrasound treatment. Furthermore, it is likely that the interlocking of the polymer chains in the hydrophobic layer of the capsule shells leads to objects that are strong and stable. It is worth noting that the cryo-TEM images were obtained for a sample that was more than 30 days old. The self-assembly of capsule shells and their stability depend on the nature and size of both hydrophobic and hydrophilic polymer blocks.

  13. Nanocapsules with fluorous filling: A "molecular zipper" approach

    KAUST Repository

    Merican, Zulkifli; Mugemana, Clement; Almahdali, Sarah; Vu, Khanh B.; O'Shea, John Paul; Sougrat, Rachid; Rodionov, Valentin

    2014-01-01

    Considerable effort has been devoted to thesynthesis of liquid filled microcapsules and nanocapsules owing to their general usefulness. The DCM solution was combined with an equal volume of the aqueous solution of sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS), and the biphasic mixture was subjected to high-power ultrasound treatment. Furthermore, it is likely that the interlocking of the polymer chains in the hydrophobic layer of the capsule shells leads to objects that are strong and stable. It is worth noting that the cryo-TEM images were obtained for a sample that was more than 30 days old. The self-assembly of capsule shells and their stability depend on the nature and size of both hydrophobic and hydrophilic polymer blocks.

  14. Multispeed Lattice Boltzmann Model with Space-Filling Lattice for Transcritical Shallow Water Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Peng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Inspired by the recent success of applying multispeed lattice Boltzmann models with a non-space-filling lattice for simulating transcritical shallow water flows, the capabilities of their space-filling counterpart are investigated in this work. Firstly, two lattice models with five integer discrete velocities are derived by using the method of matching hydrodynamics moments and then tested with two typical 1D problems including the dam-break flow over flat bed and the steady flow over bump. In simulations, the derived space-filling multispeed models, together with the stream-collision scheme, demonstrate better capability in simulating flows with finite Froude number. However, the performance is worse than the non-space-filling model solved by finite difference scheme. The stream-collision scheme with second-order accuracy may be the reason since a numerical scheme with second-order accuracy is prone to numerical oscillations at discontinuities, which is worthwhile for further study.

  15. Filling gaps and expanding spaces – voices of student teachers on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Filling gaps and expanding spaces – voices of student teachers on their developing teacher identity ... by Kwan and Lopez-Real (2005) as the 'relational aspects of working together.' The main aim of the ...... and redesigning work. Ergonomics,.

  16. Molecular mobility of nematic E7 confined to molecular sieves with a low filling degree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brás, A R; Frunza, S; Guerreiro, L; Fonseca, I M; Corma, A; Frunza, L; Dionísio, M; Schönhals, A

    2010-06-14

    The nematic liquid crystalline mixture E7 was confined with similar filling degrees to molecular sieves with constant composition but different pore diameters (from 2.8 to 6.8 nm). Fourier transform infrared analysis proved that the E7 molecules interact via the cyanogroup with the pore walls of the molecular sieves. The molecular dynamics of the system was investigated by broadband dielectric spectroscopy (10(-2)-10(9) Hz) covering a wide temperature range of approximately 200 K from temperatures well above the isotropic-nematic transition down to the glass transition of bulk E7. A variety of relaxation processes is observed including two modes that are located close to the bulk behavior in its temperature dependence. For all confined samples, two relaxation processes, at frequencies lower than the processes observed for the bulk, were detected. At lower temperatures, their relaxation rates have different temperature dependencies whereas at higher temperatures, they seem to collapse into one chart. The temperature dependence of the slowest process (S-process) obeys the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann law indicating a glassy dynamics of the E7 molecules anchored to the pore surface. The pore size dependence of both the Vogel temperature and fragility revealed a steplike transition around 4 nm pore size, which indicates a transition from a strong to a fragile behavior. The process with a relaxation rate in between the bulklike and the S-process (I-process) shows no dependence on the pore size. The agreement of the I-process with the behavior of a 5CB surface layer adsorbed on nonporous silica leads to the assignment of E7 molecules anchored at the outer surface of the microcrystals of the molecular sieves.

  17. Space-Time Water-Filling for Composite MIMO Fading Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the ergodic capacity and channel outage probability for a composite MIMO channel model, which includes both fast fading and shadowing effects. The ergodic capacity and exact channel outage probability with space-time water-filling can be evaluated through numerical integrations, which can be further simplified by using approximated empirical eigenvalue and maximal eigenvalue distribution of MIMO fading channels. We also compare the performance of space-time water-filling with spatial water-filling. For MIMO channels with small shadowing effects, spatial water-filling performs very close to space-time water-filling in terms of ergodic capacity. For MIMO channels with large shadowing effects, however, space-time water-filling achieves significantly higher capacity per antenna than spatial water-filling at low to moderate SNR regimes, but with a much higher channel outage probability. We show that the analytical capacity and outage probability results agree very well with those obtained from Monte Carlo simulations.

  18. Correction of aberrations in beams filling elliptical phase-space areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollnik, H.

    1988-01-01

    For the optimization of an optical system it is advantageous to amend the system by a virtual object lens so that the calculation always starts from an upright phase-space distribution. Furthermore, in case of a beam filling an elliptical phase-space volume, the most extreme rays of a beam, filling a parallelogram-like phase-space volume, do not exist, so that the corresponding sum of aberrations is smaller. For an optimization thus corresponding attenuation factors should be taken into accout

  19. Space-filling, multifractal, localized thermal spikes in Si, Ge and ZnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Shoaib; Abbas, Muhammad Sabtain; Yousuf, Muhammad; Javeed, Sumera; Zeeshan, Sumaira; Yaqub, Kashif

    2018-04-01

    The mechanism responsible for the emission of clusters from heavy ion irradiated solids is proposed to be thermal spikes. Collision cascade-based theories describe atomic sputtering but cannot explain the consistently observed experimental evidence for significant cluster emission. Statistical thermodynamic arguments for thermal spikes are employed here for qualitative and quantitative estimation of the thermal spike-induced cluster emission from Si, Ge and ZnO. The evolving cascades and spikes in elemental and molecular semiconducting solids are shown to have fractal characteristics. Power law potential is used to calculate the fractal dimension. With the loss of recoiling particles' energy the successive branching ratios get smaller. The fractal dimension is shown to be dependent upon the exponent of the power law interatomic potential D = 1/2m. Each irradiating ion has the probability of initiating a space-filling, multifractal thermal spike that may sublime a localized region near the surface by emitting clusters in relative ratios that depend upon the energies of formation of respective surface vacancies.

  20. Mechanical and molecular studies of biocomposites filled with oil palm empty fruit bunches microfibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikmatin, S.; Saepulloh, D. R.; Irmansyah; Syafiuddin, A.

    2017-05-01

    The present work aims to investigate mechanical and molecular characteristics of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) composites filled with oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB) microfibers. OPEFB microfibers were produced using mechanical milling. Composite granules were fabricated using single screw extruder. These composites were then used for fabricating helmet according to the Indonesian National Standard (SNI). Mechanical testing confirms that the helmet produced using this biocomposites are suitable to the SNI. Molecular interaction between matrix with OPEFB can be described using orbital hybridization theory. In general, this study has successfully investigated mechanical and molecular properties of the biocomposites.

  1. Filling gaps and expanding spaces – voices of student teachers on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Filling gaps and expanding spaces – voices of student teachers on their ... as part of a broader project – FIRE (Fourth-year Initiative for Research in Education), ... We wanted to determine how we could complement a community of practice ...

  2. Fractal systems of central places based on intermittency of space-filling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yanguang

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The idea of intermittency is introduced into central place model. → The revised central place model suggests incomplete space filling. → New central place fractals are presented for urban analysis. → The average nearest distance is proposed to estimate the fractal dimension. → The concept of distance-based space is replaced by that of dimension-based space. - Abstract: The central place models are fundamentally important in theoretical geography and city planning theory. The texture and structure of central place networks have been demonstrated to be self-similar in both theoretical and empirical studies. However, the underlying rationale of central place fractals in the real world has not yet been revealed so far. This paper is devoted to illustrating the mechanisms by which the fractal patterns can be generated from central place systems. The structural dimension of the traditional central place models is d = 2 indicating no intermittency in the spatial distribution of human settlements. This dimension value is inconsistent with empirical observations. Substituting the complete space filling with the incomplete space filling, we can obtain central place models with fractional dimension D < d = 2 indicative of spatial intermittency. Thus the conventional central place models are converted into fractal central place models. If we further integrate the chance factors into the improved central place fractals, the theory will be able to explain the real patterns of urban places very well. As empirical analyses, the US cities and towns are employed to verify the fractal-based models of central places.

  3. First-Principles Molecular Dynamics Study on Helium- filled Carbon Nanotube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agusta, M K; Prasetiyo, I; Saputro, A G; Dipojono, H K; Maezono, R

    2016-01-01

    Investigation on carbon nanotube (CNT) filled by Helium (He) atoms is conducted using Density Functional Theory and Molecular Dynamics Simulation. It reveals that He atom is repelled by CNT's wall and find its stable position at the tube center. Vibrational analysis on modes corespond to radial inward and outward breathing movement of CNT shows that He filling tends to pull the CNT wall in inward direction. Furthermore, examination on C-C stretch mode reveals that the existence of He improve the stiffness of CNT's wall. Molecular dynamics calculations which are done on (3,3) and (5,5) nanotube with 0.25 gr/cm 3 and 0.5 gr/cm 3 He density at 300 K and 1500 K confirms the increase of stiffness of CNT wall by interaction with He atoms. Effects of variation of chirality, temperature and He density on CNT wall stiffness is also reported. (paper)

  4. Utilization of crushed radioactive concrete for mortar to fill waste container void space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikura, Takeshi; Ohnishi, Kazuhiko; Oguri, Daiichiro; Ueki, Hiroyuki

    2004-01-01

    Minimizing the volume of radioactive waste generated during dismantling of nuclear power plants is a matter of great importance. In Japan waste forms buried in a shallow burial disposal facility as low level radioactive waste must be solidified by cement or other materials with adequate strength and must provide no harmful opening. The authors have developed an improved method to minimize radioactive waste volume by utilizing radioactive concrete for fine aggregate for mortars to fill void space in waste containers. Tests were performed with pre-placed concrete waste and with filling mortar using recycled fine aggregate produced from concrete. It was estimated that the improved method substantially increases the waste fill ratio in waste containers, thereby decreasing the total volume of disposal waste. (author)

  5. A multifractal approach to space-filling recovery for PET quantification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willaime, Julien M. Y., E-mail: julien.willaime@siemens.com; Aboagye, Eric O. [Comprehensive Cancer Imaging Centre, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital, London W12 0NN (United Kingdom); Tsoumpas, Charalampos [Division of Medical Physics, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Turkheimer, Federico E. [Department of Neuroimaging, Institute of Psychiatry, King’s College London, London SE5 8AF (United Kingdom)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: A new image-based methodology is developed for estimating the apparent space-filling properties of an object of interest in PET imaging without need for a robust segmentation step and used to recover accurate estimates of total lesion activity (TLA). Methods: A multifractal approach and the fractal dimension are proposed to recover the apparent space-filling index of a lesion (tumor volume, TV) embedded in nonzero background. A practical implementation is proposed, and the index is subsequently used with mean standardized uptake value (SUV {sub mean}) to correct TLA estimates obtained from approximate lesion contours. The methodology is illustrated on fractal and synthetic objects contaminated by partial volume effects (PVEs), validated on realistic {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET simulations and tested for its robustness using a clinical {sup 18}F-fluorothymidine PET test–retest dataset. Results: TLA estimates were stable for a range of resolutions typical in PET oncology (4–6 mm). By contrast, the space-filling index and intensity estimates were resolution dependent. TLA was generally recovered within 15% of ground truth on postfiltered PET images affected by PVEs. Volumes were recovered within 15% variability in the repeatability study. Results indicated that TLA is a more robust index than other traditional metrics such as SUV {sub mean} or TV measurements across imaging protocols. Conclusions: The fractal procedure reported here is proposed as a simple and effective computational alternative to existing methodologies which require the incorporation of image preprocessing steps (i.e., partial volume correction and automatic segmentation) prior to quantification.

  6. Improved Fractal Space Filling Curves Hybrid Optimization Algorithm for Vehicle Routing Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Yi-xiang; Zhang, Tong; Yue, Qun-xing

    2015-01-01

    Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) is one of the key issues in optimization of modern logistics system. In this paper, a modified VRP model with hard time window is established and a Hybrid Optimization Algorithm (HOA) based on Fractal Space Filling Curves (SFC) method and Genetic Algorithm (GA) is introduced. By incorporating the proposed algorithm, SFC method can find an initial and feasible solution very fast; GA is used to improve the initial solution. Thereafter, experimental software was developed and a large number of experimental computations from Solomon's benchmark have been studied. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the HOA.

  7. Space-Filling Supercapacitor Carpets: Highly scalable fractal architecture for energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiliakos, Athanasios; Trefilov, Alexandra M. I.; Tanasǎ, Eugenia; Balan, Adriana; Stamatin, Ioan

    2018-04-01

    Revamping ground-breaking ideas from fractal geometry, we propose an alternative micro-supercapacitor configuration realized by laser-induced graphene (LIG) foams produced via laser pyrolysis of inexpensive commercial polymers. The Space-Filling Supercapacitor Carpet (SFSC) architecture introduces the concept of nested electrodes based on the pre-fractal Peano space-filling curve, arranged in a symmetrical equilateral setup that incorporates multiple parallel capacitor cells sharing common electrodes for maximum efficiency and optimal length-to-area distribution. We elucidate on the theoretical foundations of the SFSC architecture, and we introduce innovations (high-resolution vector-mode printing) in the LIG method that allow for the realization of flexible and scalable devices based on low iterations of the Peano algorithm. SFSCs exhibit distributed capacitance properties, leading to capacitance, energy, and power ratings proportional to the number of nested electrodes (up to 4.3 mF, 0.4 μWh, and 0.2 mW for the largest tested model of low iteration using aqueous electrolytes), with competitively high energy and power densities. This can pave the road for full scalability in energy storage, reaching beyond the scale of micro-supercapacitors for incorporating into larger and more demanding applications.

  8. 3D Hilbert Space Filling Curves in 3D City Modeling for Faster Spatial Queries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ujang, Uznir; Antón Castro, Francesc/François; Azri, Suhaibah

    2014-01-01

    The advantages of three dimensional (3D) city models can be seen in various applications including photogrammetry, urban and regional planning, computer games, etc. They expand the visualization and analysis capabilities of Geographic Information Systems on cities, and they can be developed using...... method, retrieving portions of and especially searching these 3D city models, will not be done optimally. Even though current developments are based on an open data model allotted by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) called CityGML, its XML-based structure makes it challenging to cluster the 3D urban...... objects. In this research, the authors propose an opponent data constellation technique of space-filling curves (3D Hilbert curves) for 3D city model data representation. Unlike previous methods, that try to project 3D or n-dimensional data down to 2D or 3D using Principal Component Analysis (PCA...

  9. The Application of a Three-Dimensional Printed Product to Fill the Space After Organ Removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Jui-Yu; Wang, Che-Chuna; Chen, Pei-Jar; Lim, Sher-Wei; Kuo, Jinn-Rung

    2017-11-01

    Maintaining body integrity, especially in Asian societies, is an independent predictor of organ donation. Herein, we report the case of an 18-year-old man who suffered a traumatic brain injury with ensuing brain death caused by a car accident. According to the family's wishes, we used a 3-dimensional printer to create simulated heart, kidneys, and liver to fill the spaces after the patient's organs were removed. This is the first case report to introduce this new clinical application of 3-dimensional printed products during transplantation surgery. This new clinical application may have supportive psychological effects on the family and caregivers; however, given the varied responses to our procedure, this ethical issue is worth discussing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Broadband giant-refractive-index material based on mesoscopic space-filling curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Taeyong; Kim, Jong Uk; Kang, Seung Kyu; Kim, Hyowook; Kim, Do Kyung; Lee, Yong-Hee; Shin, Jonghwa

    2016-08-01

    The refractive index is the fundamental property of all optical materials and dictates Snell's law, propagation speed, wavelength, diffraction, energy density, absorption and emission of light in materials. Experimentally realized broadband refractive indices remain 1,800 resulting from a mesoscopic crystal with a dielectric constant greater than three million. This gigantic enhancement effect originates from the space-filling curve concept from mathematics. The principle is inherently very broad band, the enhancement being nearly constant from zero up to the frequency of interest. This broadband giant-refractive-index medium promises not only enhanced resolution in imaging and raised fundamental absorption limits in solar energy devices, but also compact, power-efficient components for optical communication and increased performance in many other applications.

  11. Positrons in gas filled traps and their transport in molecular gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrovic, Z Lj; Bankovic, A; Marjanovic, S; Suvakov, M; Dujko, S; Malovic, G [Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, Pregrevica 118, POB 68, Zemun (Serbia); White, R D [ARC Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, James Cook University, Townsville 4810, QLD (Australia); Buckman, S J, E-mail: zoran@ipb.ac.rs [ARC Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, 0200 (Australia)

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we give a review of two recent developments in positron transport, calculation of transport coefficients for a relatively complete set of collision cross sections for water vapour and for application of they Monte Carlo technique to model gas filled subexcitation positron traps such as Penning Malmberg Surko (Surko) trap. Calculated transport coefficients, very much like those for argon and other molecular gases show several new kinetic phenomena. The most important is the negative differential conductivity (NDC) for the bulk drift velocity when the flux drift velocity shows no sign of NDC. These results in water vapour are similar to the results in argon or hydrogen. The same technique that has been used for positron (and previously electron) transport may be applied to model development of particles in a Surko trap. We have provided calculation of the ensemble of positrons in the trap from an initial beam like distribution to the fully thermalised distribution. This model, however, does not include plasma effects (interaction between charged particles) and may be applied for lower positron densities.

  12. The Fate of DDH Hips Showing Cartilaginous or Fibrous Tissue-filled Joint Spaces Following Primary Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hui Taek; Lee, Tae Hoon; Ahn, Tae Young; Jang, Jae Hoon

    Because the use of magnetic resonance imaging is still not universal for the patients with developmental dysplasia of the hip patients, orthopaedists do not generally distinguish widened joint spaces which are "empty" after primary treatment (and therefore still reducible), from those which are filled and much more difficult to treat. To date no studies have focused on the latter hips. We treated and observed the outcomes for 19 hips which showed filled joint spaces after primary treatment. We retrospectively reviewed 19 cases of developmental dysplasia of the hip: (1) who showed a widened joint space on radiographs after primary treatment; and (2) whose magnetic resonance imaging showed that the widened joint space was accompanied by acetabular cartilage hypertrophy and/or was filled with fibrous tissues. All patients were over 1 year old at the time of primary reduction (reduction was closed in 4 patients, open in 6, and open with pelvic osteotomy in 9). Thirteen patients received at least 1 secondary treatment. Final results were classified using a modified Severin classification. Final outcomes were satisfactory in 10 (52.6%) and unsatisfactory in 9 (47.4%). The widened joint spaces gradually filled with bone, resulting in a shallow acetabulum in the patients with unsatisfactory results. Of 9 patients who underwent combined pelvic osteotomy at the time of primary reduction, results were satisfactory in 6 (66.7%), whereas all patients who had only closed or open primary reduction had unsatisfactory results. Combined pelvic osteotomy at the time of primary reduction is advisable in hips with widened joint spaces. However, hips with filled joint spaces after primary treatment often have unsatisfactory results even after additional pelvic and/or femoral osteotomy. Level IV-prognostic study.

  13. Three dimensional range geometry and texture data compression with space-filling curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xia; Zhang, Song

    2017-10-16

    This paper presents a novel method to effectively store three-dimensional (3D) data and 2D texture data into a regular 24-bit image. The proposed method uses the Hilbert space-filling curve to map the normalized unwrapped phase map to two 8-bit color channels, and saves the third color channel for 2D texture storage. By further leveraging existing 2D image and video compression techniques, the proposed method can achieve high compression ratios while effectively preserving data quality. Since the encoding and decoding processes can be applied to most of the current 2D media platforms, this proposed compression method can make 3D data storage and transmission available for many electrical devices without requiring special hardware changes. Experiments demonstrate that if a lossless 2D image/video format is used, both original 3D geometry and 2D color texture can be accurately recovered; if lossy image/video compression is used, only black-and-white or grayscale texture can be properly recovered, but much higher compression ratios (e.g., 1543:1 against the ASCII OBJ format) are achieved with slight loss of 3D geometry quality.

  14. Nitrogen availability, water-filled pore space, and N2O-N fluxes after biochar application and nitrogen fertilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, Márcia Thaís De Melo; Madari, Beáta Emoke; Bastiaans, Lammert; Oort, Pepijn Adrianus Johannes Van; Leal, Wesley Gabriel De Oliveira; Souza, Diego Mendes De; Santos, Roberto Carlos Dos; Matsushige, Iva; Maia, Aline De Holanda Nunes; Heinemann, Alexandre Bryan; Meinke, Holger

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the impact of the application of wood biochar, combined with N fertilizations, on N2O-N fluxes, nitrogen availability, and water-filled pore space (WFPS) of a clayey Oxisol under rice (wet season) and common bean (dry season) succession. Manual static

  15. Filling the gap in the European administrative space: The role of administrative networks in EU implementation and enforcement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mastenbroek, E.; Sindbjerg Martinsen, D.

    2018-01-01

    European administrative networks (EANs) are a key building block of the European Administrative Space (EAS). Crucially, they are to fill the gap between the EU’s policy ambitions and its limited administrative capacities. Whereas ample research has been done on policy preparation networks, the role

  16. Heat transfer in a Couette flow with part of the space between the plates filled with porous medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrocci, L.R.; Liu, C.Y.; Ismail, K.A.R.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of various parameters in the temperature profile is shown under boundary conditions for the Couette flow between infinite plates with part of the space filled with porous medium. The parameters observed are: pressure gradient, permeability, the non-dimensional product PE (Prandtl number x Eckert number), the relation between the thermal conductibility coefficient between porous region and pure fluid, and finally the non-dimensional product PR (Prandtl number x Reynolds number). (E.G.) [pt

  17. Scaling laws for oxygen transport across the space-filling system of respiratory membranes in the human lung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Chen

    Space-filling fractal surfaces play a fundamental role in how organisms function at various levels and in how structure determines function at different levels. In this thesis, we develop a quantitative theory of oxygen transport to and across the surface of the highly branched, space-filling system of alveoli, the fundamental gas exchange unit (acinar airways), in the human lung. Oxygen transport in the acinar airways is by diffusion, and we treat the two steps---diffusion through the branched airways, and transfer across the alveolar membranes---as a stationary diffusion-reaction problem, taking into account that there may be steep concentration gradients between the entrance and remote alveoli (screening). We develop a renormalization treatment of this screening effect and derive an analytic formula for the oxygen current across the cumulative alveolar membrane surface, modeled as a fractal, space-filling surface. The formula predicts the current from a minimum of morphological data of the acinus and appropriate values of the transport parameters, through a number of power laws (scaling laws). We find that the lung at rest operates near the borderline between partial screening and no screening; that it switches to no screening under exercise; and that the computed currents agree with measured values within experimental uncertainties. From an analysis of the computed current as a function of membrane permeability, we find that the space-filling structure of the gas exchanger is simultaneously optimal with respect to five criteria. The exchanger (i) generates a maximum oxygen current at minimum permeability; (ii) 'wastes' a minimum of surface area; (iii) maintains a minimum residence time of oxygen in the acinar airways; (iv) has a maximum fault tolerance to loss of permeability; and (v) generates a maximum current increase when switching from rest to exercise.

  18. Efficient small molecule bulk heterojunction solar cells with high fill factors via pyrene-directed molecular self-assembly

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Olivia P.; Yiu, Alan T.; Beaujuge, Pierre; Woo, Claire; Holcombe, Thomas W.; Millstone, Jill E.; Douglas, Jessica D.; Chen, Mark S.; Frechet, Jean

    2011-01-01

    Efficient organic photovoltaic (OPV) materials are constructed by attaching completely planar, symmetric end-groups to donor-acceptor electroactive small molecules. Appending C2-pyrene as the small molecule end-group to a diketopyrrolopyrrole core leads to materials with a tight, aligned crystal packing and favorable morphology dictated by π-π interactions, resulting in high power conversion efficiencies and high fill factors. The use of end-groups to direct molecular self-assembly is an effective strategy for designing high-performance small molecule OPV devices. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Efficient small molecule bulk heterojunction solar cells with high fill factors via pyrene-directed molecular self-assembly

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Olivia P.

    2011-10-21

    Efficient organic photovoltaic (OPV) materials are constructed by attaching completely planar, symmetric end-groups to donor-acceptor electroactive small molecules. Appending C2-pyrene as the small molecule end-group to a diketopyrrolopyrrole core leads to materials with a tight, aligned crystal packing and favorable morphology dictated by π-π interactions, resulting in high power conversion efficiencies and high fill factors. The use of end-groups to direct molecular self-assembly is an effective strategy for designing high-performance small molecule OPV devices. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Simulation of oscillatory processes in a beam-plasma system with a virtual cathode in gas-filled interaction space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filatov, R. A.; Hramov, A. E.

    2011-01-01

    Physical processes occurring in an intense electron beam with a virtual cathode in an interaction space filled with neutral gas are studied in a two-dimensional model. A mathematical model is proposed for investigating complicated self-consistent processes of neutral gas ionization by the beam electrons and the dynamics of an electron beam and heavy positive ions in the common space charge field with allowance for the two-dimensional motion of charged particles. Three characteristic dynamic regimes of the system are revealed: complete suppression of oscillations of the virtual cathode as a result of neutralizing its space charge by positive ions; the pulsed generation regime, in which the ions dynamics repeatedly suppresses and restores the virtual cathode oscillations; and the continuous generation regime with an anomalously high level of noisy oscillations.

  1. Improving 3d Spatial Queries Search: Newfangled Technique of Space Filling Curves in 3d City Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uznir, U.; Anton, F.; Suhaibah, A.; Rahman, A. A.; Mioc, D.

    2013-09-01

    The advantages of three dimensional (3D) city models can be seen in various applications including photogrammetry, urban and regional planning, computer games, etc.. They expand the visualization and analysis capabilities of Geographic Information Systems on cities, and they can be developed using web standards. However, these 3D city models consume much more storage compared to two dimensional (2D) spatial data. They involve extra geometrical and topological information together with semantic data. Without a proper spatial data clustering method and its corresponding spatial data access method, retrieving portions of and especially searching these 3D city models, will not be done optimally. Even though current developments are based on an open data model allotted by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) called CityGML, its XML-based structure makes it challenging to cluster the 3D urban objects. In this research, we propose an opponent data constellation technique of space-filling curves (3D Hilbert curves) for 3D city model data representation. Unlike previous methods, that try to project 3D or n-dimensional data down to 2D or 3D using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) or Hilbert mappings, in this research, we extend the Hilbert space-filling curve to one higher dimension for 3D city model data implementations. The query performance was tested using a CityGML dataset of 1,000 building blocks and the results are presented in this paper. The advantages of implementing space-filling curves in 3D city modeling will improve data retrieval time by means of optimized 3D adjacency, nearest neighbor information and 3D indexing. The Hilbert mapping, which maps a subinterval of the [0, 1] interval to the corresponding portion of the d-dimensional Hilbert's curve, preserves the Lebesgue measure and is Lipschitz continuous. Depending on the applications, several alternatives are possible in order to cluster spatial data together in the third dimension compared to its

  2. Molecular Diffusion of Toluene through CaCO3-Filled Natural Rubber Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedayatollah Sadeghi Ghari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The transport properties of liquids and gases through polymeric materialsplay a very important role in some areas of industrial applications. In thisstudy, natural rubber (NR/CaCO3 composites were prepared by melt mixingmethod. By equilibrium swelling test, the transport process of toluene in the prepared natural rubber composites was investigated. The diffusion and transport of toluene through calcium carbonate-filled natural rubber composites have been studied in the temperature range 25–45°C. The diffusion of toluene through these composites was studied with special reference to the effect of filler concentration and temperature.The transport coefficients such as diffusion, permeation and sorption coefficients were estimated from the swelling data. To find out the mechanism of diffusion in prepared composites, the results of swelling studies were applied to an empirical equation. In these composites, diffusion is approximately based on Fickian diffusion mechanism and by increases in temperature; diffusion mechanism is more close to Fickian mechanism. Increase of filler content in composite would result in decreased ultimateswelling and slower diffusion rate of solvent. The diffusion rate, diffusion coefficient and the permeability increased by temperature. The study of the diffusion of toluene through filled natural rubber indicated that the concentration of filler plays an important role in the diffusion, sorption and permeation coefficients. Also interfacial interactions in NR composites were checked by dynamic-mechanical analysis. The microstructure and dispersion of calcium carbonate particles in natural rubber matrix were studiedby field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM. In general, the results of swelling tests, dynamic-mechanical analysis and FE-SEM images show that the optimized value of filler in NR composites is equal to 10 phr calcium carbonate.

  3. Enhanced sensitivity to near-infrared with high fill factor in small molecular organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Hyun-Sub; Kim, Hyo Jung; Kim, Ji Whan; Kim, Sei-Yong; Jeong, Won-Ik; Kim, Tae-Min; Kim, Jang-Joo

    2012-09-01

    High efficiency near-infrared (NIR) absorbing solar cells based on lead phthalocyanine (PbPc) are reported using copper iodide (CuI) as a templating layer to control the crystal structure of PbPc. Devices with CuI inserted between the ITO and PbPc layers exhibit a two times enhancement of the JSC compared to the case in the absence of the CuI layer. This is due to the increase of crystallinity in the molecules grown on the CuI templating layer, which is investigated via an x-ray diffraction study. Moreover, fill factor is also enhanced to 0.63 from 0.57 due to low series resistance although the additional CuI layer is inserted between the ITO and the PbPc layer. As a result, the corrected power conversion efficiency of 2.5% was obtained, which is the highest one reported up to now among the PbPc based solar cells.

  4. Molecular Gas-Filled Hollow Optical Fiber Lasers in the Near Infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-12

    Benabid, F., Roberts , P. J., Light, P. S., and Raymer , M. G., “Generation and photonic guidance of multi-octave optical-frequency combs,” Science, 318...scattering in molecular hydrogen," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 123903 (2004). 16. F. Couny, F. Benabid, P. J. Roberts , P. S. Light, and M. G. Raymer ...Couny, F., Wang, Y. Y., Wheeler, N. V., Roberts , P. J., and Benabid, F., “Double photonic bandgap hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Opt

  5. Verification of shielding effect by the water-filled materials for space radiation in the International Space Station using passive dosimeters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kodaira, S.; Tolochek, R. V.; Ambrožová, Iva; Kawashima, H.; Yasuda, N.; Kurano, M.; Kitamura, H.; Uchihori, Y.; Kobayashi, I.; Hakamada, H.; Suzuki, A.; Kartsev, I. S.; Yarmanova, E. N.; Nikolaev, I. V.; Shurshakov, V. A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 1 (2014), s. 1-7 ISSN 0273-1177 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : space radiation dosimetry * water shield * dose reduction * passive dosimeters * CR-39 * TLD Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.358, year: 2014

  6. Full-potential multiple scattering theory with space-filling cells for bound and continuum states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatada, Keisuke; Hayakawa, Kuniko; Benfatto, Maurizio; Natoli, Calogero R

    2010-05-12

    We present a rigorous derivation of a real-space full-potential multiple scattering theory (FP-MST) that is free from the drawbacks that up to now have impaired its development (in particular the need to expand cell shape functions in spherical harmonics and rectangular matrices), valid both for continuum and bound states, under conditions for space partitioning that are not excessively restrictive and easily implemented. In this connection we give a new scheme to generate local basis functions for the truncated potential cells that is simple, fast, efficient, valid for any shape of the cell and reduces to the minimum the number of spherical harmonics in the expansion of the scattering wavefunction. The method also avoids the need for saturating 'internal sums' due to the re-expansion of the spherical Hankel functions around another point in space (usually another cell center). Thus this approach provides a straightforward extension of MST in the muffin-tin (MT) approximation, with only one truncation parameter given by the classical relation l(max) = kR(b), where k is the electron wavevector (either in the excited or ground state of the system under consideration) and R(b) is the radius of the bounding sphere of the scattering cell. Moreover, the scattering path operator of the theory can be found in terms of an absolutely convergent procedure in the l(max) --> ∞ limit. Consequently, this feature provides a firm ground for the use of FP-MST as a viable method for electronic structure calculations and makes possible the computation of x-ray spectroscopies, notably photo-electron diffraction, absorption and anomalous scattering among others, with the ease and versatility of the corresponding MT theory. Some numerical applications of the theory are presented, both for continuum and bound states.

  7. Molecular and structural properties of polymer composites filled with activated charcoal particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahir, Dahlang, E-mail: dtahir@fmipa.unhas.ac.id; Bakri, Fahrul [Department of Physics, Hasanuddin University, Makassar 90245 Indonesia (Indonesia); Liong, Syarifuddin [Department of Chemistry, Hasanuddin University, Makassar 90245 Indonesia (Indonesia)

    2016-03-11

    We have studied the molecular properties, structural properties, and chemical composition of composites by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy, and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy, respectively. FTIR spectra shows absorption band of hydroxyl group (-OH), methyl group (-CH{sub 3}) and aromatic group (C-C). The absorption band for aromatic group (C-C) shows the formation of carbonaceous in composites. XRF shows chemical composition of composites, which the main chemicals are SO{sub 3}, Cl, and ZnO. The loss on ignition value (LOI) of activated charcoal indicates high carbonaceous matter. The crystallite size for diffraction pattern from hydrogel polymer is about 17 nm and for activated charcoal are about 19 nm. The crystallite size of the polymer is lower than that of activated charcoal, which make possible of the particle from filler in contact with each other to form continuous conducting polymer through polymer matrix.

  8. Investigations of space charge effects in the cryogenic gas filled stopping cell for the FRS ion catcher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heisse, Fabian [IKTP, TU Dresden (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung (Germany); Dickel, Timo; Plass, Wolfgang; Geissel, Hans; Scheidenberger, Christoph [II. Physikalisches Institut, JLU Giessen (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung (Germany); Reiter, Moritz Pascal; Rink, Ann-Kathrin [II. Physikalisches Institut, JLU Giessen (Germany); Zuber, Kai [IKTP, TU Dresden (Germany); Collaboration: FRS Ion Catcher-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    At the FRS Ion Catcher experiment precision mass measurements of short lived projectile and fission fragments are performed. Therefore highly charged ions with relativistic energies need to be thermalized to kinetic energies of several eV. This process takes place in the cryogenic gas filled stopping cell (CSC). All stopping cells suffer at large ion rates under space charge effects, which lead to decreasing efficiencies and can also influence the extraction time. Thus the understanding of space charge effects is of greatest importance to make full use of the higher yields at future rare ion beam facilities like FAIR. For this purpose simulation with the software SIMION {sup registered} concerning space charge effects were done. In this presentation the calculated transport efficiency of the CSC for different intensities, electric fields and spill structures are discussed and compared with measured results. Furthermore an outlook and first results of the simulation for the new CSC for the Low-Energy Branch at FAIR are given.

  9. Biomaterials Used in Injectable Implants (Liquid Embolics) for Percutaneous Filling of Vascular Spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, Olivier; Doelker, Eric; Ruefenacht, Daniel A.

    2005-01-01

    The biomaterials currently used in injectable implants (liquid embolics) for minimally invasive image-guided treatment of vascular lesions undergo, once injected in situ, a phase transition based on a variety of physicochemical principles. The mechanisms leading to the formation of a solid implant include polymerization, precipitation and cross-linking through ionic or thermal process. The biomaterial characteristics have to meet the requirements of a variety of treatment conditions. The viscosity of the liquid is adapted to the access instrument, which can range from 0.2 mm to 3 mm in diameter and from a few centimeters up to 200 cm in length. Once such liquid embolics reach the vascular space, they are designed to become occlusive by inducing thrombosis or directly blocking the lesion when hardening of the embolics occurs. The safe delivery of such implants critically depends on their visibility and their hardening mechanism. Once delivered, the safety and effectiveness issues are related to implant functions such as biocompatibility, biodegradability or biomechanical properties. We review here the available and the experimental products with respect to the nature of the polymer, the mechanism of gel cast formation and the key characteristics that govern the choice of effective injectable implants

  10. Comparative X-ray studies on the behaviour of amalgam and gold fillings at the margins in the approximal space as a function of time of residence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, R.

    1982-01-01

    Within the framework of this thesis, X-ray pictures have been made of 430 gold or amalgam fillings in order to measure the gap between approximal cavity margin and filling margin. With amalgam fillings, the gap width measured after a residence time of half a year was 9.3 μm and widened to 136.9 μm after 8 years, which represents an increase to the 14-fold. The gap widths measured with gold inlays only doubled within this period, increasing from 38.8 μm after half a year to 77.4 μm after 8 years. The number of retention spots found in the approximal-cervical space with amalgam fillings was at least twice that found for gold fillings. From this it is concluded that gold inlays are by far the better solution for dental restorations. (orig./MG) [de

  11. Electron Energy Distribution in Hotspots of Cygnus A:Filling the Gap with Spitzer Space Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stawarz, L.; Cheung, C.C.; Harris, D.E.; Ostrowski, M.

    2007-01-01

    Here we present Spitzer Space Telescope imaging of Cyg A with the Infrared Array Camera at 4.5 (micro)m and 8.0 (micro)m, resulting in the detection of the high-energy tails or cut-offs in the synchrotron spectra for all four hotspots of this archetype radio galaxy. When combined with the other data collected (and re-analyzed) from the literature, our observations allow for detailed modeling of the broad-band (radio-to-X-ray) emission for the brightest spots A and D. We confirm that the X-ray flux detected previously from these features is consistent with the synchrotron self-Compton radiation for the magnetic field intensity B ∼ 170 (micro)G in spot A, and B ∼ 270 (micro)G in spot D. We also find that the energy density of the emitting electrons is most likely larger by a factor of a few than the energy density of the hotspots magnetic field. We construct energy spectra of the radiating ultrarelativistic electrons. We find that for both hotspots A and D these spectra are consistent with a broken power-law extending from at least 100MeV up to ∼ 100GeV, and that the spectral break corresponds almost exactly to the proton rest energy of ∼ 1GeV. We argue that the shape of the electron continuum most likely reflects two different regimes of the electron acceleration process taking place at mildly relativistic shocks, rather than resulting from radiative cooling and/or absorption e.ects. In this picture the protons inertia defines the critical energy for the hotspot electrons above which Fermi-type acceleration processes may play a major role, but below which the operating acceleration mechanism has to be of a different type. At energies ∼> 100 GeV, the electron spectra cut-off/steepen again, most likely as a result of spectral aging due to radiative loss effects. We discuss several implications of the presented analysis for the physics of extragalactic jets

  12. Hamiltonian flow over saddles for exploring molecular phase space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farantos, Stavros C.

    2018-03-01

    Despite using potential energy surfaces, multivariable functions on molecular configuration space, to comprehend chemical dynamics for decades, the real happenings in molecules occur in phase space, in which the states of a classical dynamical system are completely determined by the coordinates and their conjugate momenta. Theoretical and numerical results are presented, employing alanine dipeptide as a model system, to support the view that geometrical structures in phase space dictate the dynamics of molecules, the fingerprints of which are traced by following the Hamiltonian flow above saddles. By properly selecting initial conditions in alanine dipeptide, we have found internally free rotor trajectories the existence of which can only be justified in a phase space perspective. This article is part of the theme issue `Modern theoretical chemistry'.

  13. Space-filling Curves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    void hilbert(int r, int d, int t, int u, int i, int h, int &x, int &y). { if(i >0). { i- -; hilbert ( d,r, u,e ,i,h,x,y); move(r ,h,x,y); hilbert(r,d,t,u,i,h,x,y); move ( d,h,x,y); hilbert(r,d,e,u,i ...

  14. Technical and operational assessment of molecular nanotechnology for space operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKendree, Thomas Lawrence

    2001-07-01

    This study assesses the performance of conventional technology and three levels of molecular nanotechnology (MNT) for space operations. The measures of effectiveness are technical performance parameters for five space transportation architectures, and the total logistics cost for an evaluation scenario with mining, market and factory locations on the Moon, Mars and asteroids. On these measures of effectiveness, improvements of 2--4 orders of magnitude are seen in chemical rockets, solar electric ion engines, solar sail accelerations (but not transit times), and in structural masses for planetary skyhooks and towers. Improvements in tether performance and logistics costs are nearer to 1 order of magnitude. Appendices suggest additional improvements may be possible in space mining, closed-environment life support, flexible operations, and with other space transportation architectures. In order to assess logistics cost, this research extends the facility location problem of location theory to orbital space. This extension supports optimal siting of a single facility serving circular, coplanar orbits, locations in elliptic planetary and moon orbits, and heuristic siting of multiple facilities. It focuses on conventional rocket transportation, and on high performance rockets supplying at least 1 m/s2 acceleration and 500,000 m/s exhaust velocity. Mathematica implementations are provided in appendices. Simple MNT allows diamond and buckytube construction. The main benefits are in chemical rocket performance, solar panel specific power, solar electric ion engine performance, and skyhook and tower structural masses. Complex MNT allows very small machinery, permitting large increases in solar panel specific power, which enables solar electric ion engines that are high performance rockets, and thus reduces total logistics costs an order of magnitude. Most Advance MNT allows molecular manufacturing, which enables self-repair, provides at least marginal improvements in nearly

  15. Heat and mass transfer across gas-filled enclosed spaces between a hot liquid surface and a cooled roof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ralph, J C; Bennett, A W [Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)

    1977-01-01

    A detailed knowledge is required of the amounts of sodium vapour which may be transported from the hot surface of a fast reactor coolant pool through the cover gas to cooler regions of the structure. Evaporation from the unbounded liquid surfaces of lakes and seas has been studied extensively but the heat and mass transfer mechanisms in gas-vapour mixtures which occur in enclosed spaces have received less attention. Recent work at Harwell has provided a theoretical model from which the heat and mass transfer in idealised plane cavities can be calculated. An experimental study is reported in this paper which seeks to verify the theoretical prediction. Heat and mass transfer measurements have been made on a system in which a heated water pool transfers heat and mass across a gas-filled space to a cooled horizontal cover plate. Several cover gases were used in the experiments and the results show that, provided the partial density of the vapour is low compared with that of the gas, the heat transfer mechanism is that of combined convection and radiation. The enhancement in heat transfer due to the presence of the vapour is broadly consistent with assumption of a direct analogy between heat and mass transfer neglecting condensation in the interspace. The mass transfer measurements, in which water condensing on the cooled roof was measured directly, showed for low roof temperatures an imbalance between the mass and heat transfer. This observation is consistent with the theoretical predictions that heat transfer in the convecting system should be independent of the amount of condensation and 'rain-back' within the cavity. The results of tests with helium showed that convection was entirely suppressed by the presence of the water vapour. This confirms the behaviour predicted for gas-vapour mixtures in which the vapour density is of the same order as the gas density. (author)

  16. Soil atmosphere exchange of carbonyl sulfide (COS regulated by diffusivity depending on water-filled pore space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Van Diest

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The exchange of carbonyl sulfide (COS between soil and the atmosphere was investigated for three arable soils from Germany, China and Finland and one forest soil from Siberia for parameterization in the relation to ambient carbonyl sulfide (COS concentration, soil water content (WC and air temperature. All investigated soils acted as sinks for COS. A clear and distinct uptake optimum was found for the German, Chinese, Finnish and Siberian soils at 11.5%, 9%, 11.5%, and 9% soil WC, respectively, indicating that the soil WC acts as an important biological and physical parameter for characterizing the exchange of COS between soils and the atmosphere. Different optima of deposition velocities (Vd as observed for the Chinese, Finnish and Siberian boreal soil types in relation to their soil WC, aligned at 19% in relation to the water-filled pore space (WFPS, indicating the dominating role of gas diffusion. This interpretation was supported by the linear correlation between Vd and bulk density. We suggest that the uptake of COS depends on the diffusivity dominated by WFPS, a parameter depending on soil WC, soil structure and porosity of the soil.

  17. Automated Construction of Molecular Active Spaces from Atomic Valence Orbitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayfutyarova, Elvira R; Sun, Qiming; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic; Knizia, Gerald

    2017-09-12

    We introduce the atomic valence active space (AVAS), a simple and well-defined automated technique for constructing active orbital spaces for use in multiconfiguration and multireference (MR) electronic structure calculations. Concretely, the technique constructs active molecular orbitals capable of describing all relevant electronic configurations emerging from a targeted set of atomic valence orbitals (e.g., the metal d orbitals in a coordination complex). This is achieved via a linear transformation of the occupied and unoccupied orbital spaces from an easily obtainable single-reference wave function (such as from a Hartree-Fock or Kohn-Sham calculations) based on projectors to targeted atomic valence orbitals. We discuss the premises, theory, and implementation of the idea, and several of its variations are tested. To investigate the performance and accuracy, we calculate the excitation energies for various transition-metal complexes in typical application scenarios. Additionally, we follow the homolytic bond breaking process of a Fenton reaction along its reaction coordinate. While the described AVAS technique is not a universal solution to the active space problem, its premises are fulfilled in many application scenarios of transition-metal chemistry and bond dissociation processes. In these cases the technique makes MR calculations easier to execute, easier to reproduce by any user, and simplifies the determination of the appropriate size of the active space required for accurate results.

  18. Molecular-dynamics simulations of crosslinking and confinement effects on structure, segmental mobility and mechanics of filled elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davris, Theodoros; Lyulin, Alexey V.

    2016-05-01

    The significant drop of the storage modulus under uniaxial deformation (Payne effect) restrains the performance of the elastomer-based composites and the development of possible new applications. In this paper molecular-dynamics (MD) computer simulations using LAMMPS MD package have been performed to study the mechanical properties of a coarse-grained model of this family of nanocomposite materials. Our goal is to provide simulational insights into the viscoelastic properties of filled elastomers, and try to connect the macroscopic mechanics with composite microstructure, the strength of the polymer-filler interactions and the polymer mobility at different scales. To this end we simulate random copolymer films capped between two infinite solid (filler aggregate) walls. We systematically vary the strength of the polymer-substrate adhesion interactions, degree of polymer confinement (film thickness), polymer crosslinking density, and study their influence on the equilibrium and non-equilibrium structure, segmental dynamics, and the mechanical properties of the simulated systems. The glass-transition temperature increases once the mesh size became smaller than the chain radius of gyration; otherwise it remained invariant to mesh-size variations. This increase in the glass-transition temperature was accompanied by a monotonic slowing-down of segmental dynamics on all studied length scales. This observation is attributed to the correspondingly decreased width of the bulk density layer that was obtained in films whose thickness was larger than the end-to-end distance of the bulk polymer chains. To test this hypothesis additional simulations were performed in which the crystalline walls were replaced with amorphous or rough walls.

  19. A Molecular Genetic Basis Explaining Altered Bacterial Behavior in Space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Zea

    Full Text Available Bacteria behave differently in space, as indicated by reports of reduced lag phase, higher final cell counts, enhanced biofilm formation, increased virulence, and reduced susceptibility to antibiotics. These phenomena are theorized, at least in part, to result from reduced mass transport in the local extracellular environment, where movement of molecules consumed and excreted by the cell is limited to diffusion in the absence of gravity-dependent convection. However, to date neither empirical nor computational approaches have been able to provide sufficient evidence to confirm this explanation. Molecular genetic analysis findings, conducted as part of a recent spaceflight investigation, support the proposed model. This investigation indicated an overexpression of genes associated with starvation, the search for alternative energy sources, increased metabolism, enhanced acetate production, and other systematic responses to acidity-all of which can be associated with reduced extracellular mass transport.

  20. A Molecular Genetic Basis Explaining Altered Bacterial Behavior in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Nripesh; Levy, Shawn E.; Stodieck, Louis; Jones, Angela; Shrestha, Shristi; Klaus, David

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria behave differently in space, as indicated by reports of reduced lag phase, higher final cell counts, enhanced biofilm formation, increased virulence, and reduced susceptibility to antibiotics. These phenomena are theorized, at least in part, to result from reduced mass transport in the local extracellular environment, where movement of molecules consumed and excreted by the cell is limited to diffusion in the absence of gravity-dependent convection. However, to date neither empirical nor computational approaches have been able to provide sufficient evidence to confirm this explanation. Molecular genetic analysis findings, conducted as part of a recent spaceflight investigation, support the proposed model. This investigation indicated an overexpression of genes associated with starvation, the search for alternative energy sources, increased metabolism, enhanced acetate production, and other systematic responses to acidity—all of which can be associated with reduced extracellular mass transport. PMID:27806055

  1. Solid State Pathways towards Molecular Complexity in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnartz, Harold; Bossa, Jean-Baptiste; Bouwman, Jordy; Cuppen, Herma M.; Cuylle, Steven H.; van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Fayolle, Edith C.; Fedoseev, Gleb; Fuchs, Guido W.; Ioppolo, Sergio; Isokoski, Karoliina; Lamberts, Thanja; Öberg, Karin I.; Romanzin, Claire; Tenenbaum, Emily; Zhen, Junfeng

    2011-12-01

    It has been a long standing problem in astrochemistry to explain how molecules can form in a highly dilute environment such as the interstellar medium. In the last decennium more and more evidence has been found that the observed mix of small and complex, stable and highly transient species in space is the cumulative result of gas phase and solid state reactions as well as gas-grain interactions. Solid state reactions on icy dust grains are specifically found to play an important role in the formation of the more complex ``organic'' compounds. In order to investigate the underlying physical and chemical processes detailed laboratory based experiments are needed that simulate surface reactions triggered by processes as different as thermal heating, photon (UV) irradiation and particle (atom, cosmic ray, electron) bombardment of interstellar ice analogues. Here, some of the latest research performed in the Sackler Laboratory for Astrophysics in Leiden, the Netherlands is reviewed. The focus is on hydrogenation, i.e., H-atom addition reactions and vacuum ultraviolet irradiation of interstellar ice analogues at astronomically relevant temperatures. It is shown that solid state processes are crucial in the chemical evolution of the interstellar medium, providing pathways towards molecular complexity in space.

  2. Molecular ions in the laboratory and in space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, Michael C. [Atomic and Molecular Physics Division, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 02138 (United States)

    2015-01-22

    Molecular ions play a central role in the gas-phase chemistry of the interstellar medium; they also provide information on the physical conditions in astronomical sources (e.g., fractional ionization), and in some cases can be used to infer the abundance of nonpolar molecules such as N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} which can not be observed in the radio band. During the past four years, the rotational spectra of six carbon-chain anions (C{sub 2}H{sup −}, C{sub 4}H{sup −}, C{sub 6}H{sup −}, C{sub 8}H{sup −}, CN{sup −}, C{sub 3}N{sup −}), NCO{sup −} and seven protonated species (HSCO{sup +}, HSCS{sup +}, cis- and trans-HOSO{sup +}, H{sub 2}NCO{sup +}, HNCOH{sup +}, and HNNO{sup +}) have been detected in our laboratory. On the basis of dedicated astronomical searches, all of the carbon-chain anions except C{sub 2}H{sup −} have now been identified in space. In addition to highlighting recent work on carbon-chain anions and protonated HSO{sub 2}{sup +}, efforts to better understand the distribution of anions in space using C{sub 6}H{sup −} as a tracer for negative charge are described.

  3. Proteomics analysis of maize (Zea mays L.) grain based on iTRAQ reveals molecular mechanisms of poor grain filling in inferior grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tao; Li, Geng; Liu, Peng; Dong, Shuting; Zhang, Jiwang; Zhao, Bin

    2017-06-01

    In maize, inferior grains (IG) located on the upper part of the ear have poor grain filling process compared to superior grains (SG) located on the middle and lower parts of the ear. This difference limits satisfactory yield and quality; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Here, using the isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) technology, the proteomes of IG and SG during early and middle grain filling stages were investigated. In total, 4720 proteins were identified in maize grain and 305 differentially accumulated proteins (DiAPs) were detected between IG and SG. These DiAPs were involved in diverse cellular and metabolic processes with preferred distribution in protein synthesis/destination and metabolism. Compared to SG, DiAPs related to cell growth/division and starch synthesis were lag-accumulated and down-regulated in IG, respectively, resulting in smaller sink sizes and lower sink activities in IG. Meanwhile, impediment of the glycolysis pathway in IG may lead to reduce energy supply and building materials for substance synthesis. Additionally, reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis and the defense system were disturbed in IG, which might lead to reduce protection against various environmental stresses. The present study provides new information on the proteomic differences between IG and SG, and explains possible molecular mechanisms for poor grain filling in IG. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Reduction of respiratory ghosting motion artifacts in conventional two-dimensional multi-slice Cartesian turbo spin-echo: which k-space filling order is the best?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yuuji; Yoneyama, Masami; Nakamura, Masanobu; Takemura, Atsushi

    2018-06-01

    The two-dimensional Cartesian turbo spin-echo (TSE) sequence is widely used in routine clinical studies, but it is sensitive to respiratory motion. We investigated the k-space orders in Cartesian TSE that can effectively reduce motion artifacts. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the relationship between k-space order and degree of motion artifacts using a moving phantom. We compared the degree of motion artifacts between linear and asymmetric k-space orders. The actual spacing of ghost artifacts in the asymmetric order was doubled compared with that in the linear order in the free-breathing situation. The asymmetric order clearly showed less sensitivity to incomplete breath-hold at the latter half of the imaging period. Because of the actual number of partitions of the k-space and the temporal filling order, the asymmetric k-space order of Cartesian TSE was superior to the linear k-space order for reduction of ghosting motion artifacts.

  5. A corrected NEGF + DFT approach for calculating electronic transport through molecular devices: Filling bound states and patching the non-equilibrium integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Rui; Zhang Jiaxing; Hou Shimin; Qian Zekan; Shen Ziyong; Zhao Xingyu; Xue Zengquan

    2007-01-01

    We discuss two problems in the conventional approach for studying charge transport in molecular electronic devices that is based on the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism and density functional theory, i.e., the bound states and the numerical integration of the non-equilibrium density matrix. A scheme of filling the bound states in the bias window and a method of patching the non-equilibrium integration are proposed, both of which are referred to as the non-equilibrium correction. The discussion is illustrated by means of calculations on a model system consisting of a 4,4 bipyridine molecule connected to two semi-infinite gold monatomic chains

  6. Computer representation of molecular surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Max, N.L.

    1981-01-01

    This review article surveys recent work on computer representation of molecular surfaces. Several different algorithms are discussed for producing vector or raster drawings of space-filling models formed as the union of spheres. Other smoother surfaces are also considered

  7. A Molecular Genetic Basis Explaining Altered Bacterial Behavior in Space

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Bacterial behavior has been observed to change during spaceflight. Higher final cell counts enhanced biofilm formation increased virulence and reduced susceptibility...

  8. Filling-in of Near-infrared Solar Lines by Terrestrial Fluorescence and Other Geophysical Effects: Simulations and Space-based Observations from SCIAMACHY and GOSAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, Joanna (Editor); Yoshida, Yasuko; Vasilkov, A. P.; Middleton, E. M. (Editor); Campbell, P. K. E.; Yoshida, Y.; Huze, A.; Corp, L. A.

    2012-01-01

    Global mapping of terrestrial vegetation fluorescence from space has recently been accomplished with high spectral resolution (nu/nu greater than 35 000) measurements from the Japanese Greenhouse gases Observing SAellite (GOSAT). These data are of interest because they can potentially provide global information on the functional status of vegetation including light-use efficiency and global primary productivity that can be used for global carbon cycle modeling. Quantifying the impact of fluorescence on the O2-A band is important as this band is used for photon pathlength characterization in cloud- and aerosol-contaminated pixels for trace-gas retrievals including CO2. Here, we examine whether fluorescence information can be derived from space using potentially lower-cost hyperspectral instrumentation, i.e., more than an order of magnitude less spectral resolution (nu/nu approximately 1600) than GOSAT, with a relatively simple algorithm. We discuss laboratory measurements of fluorescence near one of the few wide and deep solar Fraunhofer lines in the long-wave tail of the fluorescence emission region, the calcium (Ca) II line at 866 nm that is observable with a spectral resolution of approximately 0.5 nm. The filling-in of the Ca II line due to additive signals from various atmospheric and terrestrial effects, including fluorescence, is simulated. We then examine filling-in of this line using the SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY) satellite instrument. In order to interpret the satellite measurements, we developed a general approach to correct for various instrumental artifacts that produce false filling-in of solar lines in satellite measurements. The approach is applied to SCIAMACHY at the 866 nm Ca II line and to GOSAT at 758 and 770 nm on the shoulders of the O2-A feature where there are several strong solar Fraunhofer lines that are filled in primarily by vegetation fluorescence. Finally, we compare temporal and

  9. Filling a Conical Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, Kyle; Eslam-Panah, Azar

    2016-11-01

    Root canal treatment involves the removal of infected tissue inside the tooth's canal system and filling the space with a dense sealing agent to prevent further infection. A good root canal treatment happens when the canals are filled homogeneously and tightly down to the root apex. Such a tooth is able to provide valuable service for an entire lifetime. However, there are some examples of poorly performed root canals where the anterior and posterior routes are not filled completely. Small packets of air can be trapped in narrow access cavities when restoring with resin composites. Such teeth can cause trouble even after many years and lead the conditions like acute bone infection or abscesses. In this study, the filling of dead-end conical cavities with various liquids is reported. The first case studies included conical cavity models with different angles and lengths to visualize the filling process. In this investigation, the rate and completeness at which a variety of liquids fill the cavity were observed to find ideal conditions for the process. Then, a 3D printed model of the scaled representation of a molar with prepared post spaces was used to simulate the root canal treatment. The results of this study can be used to gain a better understanding of the restoration for endodontically treated teeth.

  10. Hydraulic Properties of Closely Spaced Dipping Open Fractures Intersecting a Fluid-Filled Borehole Derived From Tube Wave Generation and Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minato, Shohei; Ghose, Ranajit; Tsuji, Takeshi; Ikeda, Michiharu; Onishi, Kozo

    2017-10-01

    Fluid-filled fractures and fissures often determine the pathways and volume of fluid movement. They are critically important in crustal seismology and in the exploration of geothermal and hydrocarbon reservoirs. We introduce a model for tube wave scattering and generation at dipping, parallel-wall fractures intersecting a fluid-filled borehole. A new equation reveals the interaction of tube wavefield with multiple, closely spaced fractures, showing that the fracture dip significantly affects the tube waves. Numerical modeling demonstrates the possibility of imaging these fractures using a focusing analysis. The focused traces correspond well with the known fracture density, aperture, and dip angles. Testing the method on a VSP data set obtained at a fault-damaged zone in the Median Tectonic Line, Japan, presents evidences of tube waves being generated and scattered at open fractures and thin cataclasite layers. This finding leads to a new possibility for imaging, characterizing, and monitoring in situ hydraulic properties of dipping fractures using the tube wavefield.

  11. Transition voltages of vacuum-spaced and molecular junctions with Ag and Pt electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Kunlin; Bai, Meilin; Sanvito, Stefano; Hou, Shimin

    2014-01-01

    The transition voltage of vacuum-spaced and molecular junctions constructed with Ag and Pt electrodes is investigated by non-equilibrium Green's function formalism combined with density functional theory. Our calculations show that, similarly

  12. Effect of the size of the apical enlargement with rotary instruments, single-cone filling, post space preparation with drills, fiber post removal, and root canal filling removal on apical crack initiation and propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çapar, İsmail Davut; Uysal, Banu; Ok, Evren; Arslan, Hakan

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of apical crack initiation and propagation in root dentin after several endodontic procedures. Sixty intact mandibular premolars were sectioned perpendicular to the long axis at 1 mm from the apex, and the apical surface was polished. Thirty teeth were left unprepared and served as a control, and the remaining 30 teeth were instrumented with ProTaper Universal instruments (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) up to size F5. The root canals were filled with the single-cone technique. Gutta-percha was removed with drills of the Rebilda post system (VOCO, Cuxhaven, Germany). Glass fiber-reinforced composite fiber posts were cemented using a dual-cure resin cement. The fiber posts were removed with a drill of the post system. Retreatment was completed after the removal of the gutta-percha. Crack initiation and propagation in the apical surfaces of the samples were examined with a stereomicroscope after each procedure. The absence/presence of cracks was recorded. Logistic regression was performed to analyze statistically the incidence of crack initiation and propagation with each procedure. The initiation of the first crack and crack propagation was associated with F2 and F4 instruments, respectively. The logistic regression analysis revealed that instrumentation and F2 instrument significantly affected apical crack initiation (P .05). Rotary nickel-titanium instrumentation had a significant effect on apical crack initiation, and post space preparation with drills had a significant impact on crack propagation. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Molecular dynamics simulations on desulfurization of n-octane/thiophene mixture using silica filled polydimethylsiloxane nanocomposite membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shariatinia, Zahra; Jalali, Azin Mazloom; Taromi, Faramarz Afshar

    2016-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed at 298.15 K and 1 atm in order to study microstructure and transport behaviors of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membranes containing 0%–8% SiO 2 nanoparticles used for the separation of thiophene from n-octane. It was found that the fractional free volume (FFV) of 0% SiO 2 was the highest (47.24%) among five nanocomposite membranes and addition of 2%–8% silica nanoparticles led to dramatic decrease in the FFV of the cells. The x-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of all membranes showed that they had a semi-crystalline structure containing a broad peak around 15°–18°. The radial distribution function (RDF) analysis proved that the smallest C(CH 2 -octane)–O(SiO 2 ), C(PDMS)–O(SiO 2 ) and H(thiophene)–O(SiO 2 ) distances were present in 4% SiO 2 membrane reflecting the silica–octane, silica–polymer and silica–thiophene interactions were the strongest in this membrane. The mean squared displacement (MSD) and diffusion coefficients of n-octane were both small in the 6% silica membrane but they were high for thiophene suggesting this membrane was the most suitable for the desulfurization process and separation of thiophene from n-octane. (paper)

  14. Formation and acceleration of uniformly filled ellipsoidal electron bunches obtained via space-charge-driven expansion from a cesium-telluride photocathode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Piot

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the experimental generation, acceleration, and characterization of a uniformly filled electron bunch obtained via space-charge-driven expansion (often referred to as “blow-out regime” in an L-band (1.3-GHz radiofrequency photoinjector. The beam is photoemitted from a cesium-telluride semiconductor photocathode using a short (<200  fs ultraviolet laser pulse. The produced electron bunches are characterized with conventional diagnostics and the signatures of their ellipsoidal character are observed. We especially demonstrate the production of ellipsoidal bunches with charges up to ∼0.5  nC corresponding to a ∼20-fold increase compared to previous experiments with metallic photocathodes.

  15. Molecular basis sets - a general similarity-based approach for representing chemical spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavendra, Akshay S; Maggiora, Gerald M

    2007-01-01

    A new method, based on generalized Fourier analysis, is described that utilizes the concept of "molecular basis sets" to represent chemical space within an abstract vector space. The basis vectors in this space are abstract molecular vectors. Inner products among the basis vectors are determined using an ansatz that associates molecular similarities between pairs of molecules with their corresponding inner products. Moreover, the fact that similarities between pairs of molecules are, in essentially all cases, nonzero implies that the abstract molecular basis vectors are nonorthogonal, but since the similarity of a molecule with itself is unity, the molecular vectors are normalized to unity. A symmetric orthogonalization procedure, which optimally preserves the character of the original set of molecular basis vectors, is used to construct appropriate orthonormal basis sets. Molecules can then be represented, in general, by sets of orthonormal "molecule-like" basis vectors within a proper Euclidean vector space. However, the dimension of the space can become quite large. Thus, the work presented here assesses the effect of basis set size on a number of properties including the average squared error and average norm of molecular vectors represented in the space-the results clearly show the expected reduction in average squared error and increase in average norm as the basis set size is increased. Several distance-based statistics are also considered. These include the distribution of distances and their differences with respect to basis sets of differing size and several comparative distance measures such as Spearman rank correlation and Kruscal stress. All of the measures show that, even though the dimension can be high, the chemical spaces they represent, nonetheless, behave in a well-controlled and reasonable manner. Other abstract vector spaces analogous to that described here can also be constructed providing that the appropriate inner products can be directly

  16. Molecular decompostition of anisotropic homogeneous mixed-norm spaces with applications to the boundedness of operators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleanthous, Galatia; Georgiadis, Athanasios; Nielsen, Morten

    2018-01-01

    . Molecular decompositions for all the considered spaces are derived with the help of the algebra of almost diagonal operators. As an application, we obtain boundedness results on the considered spaces for Fourier multipliers and for pseudodifferential operators with suitable adapted homogeneous symbols using...

  17. Chemical Space: Big Data Challenge for Molecular Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awale, Mahendra; Visini, Ricardo; Probst, Daniel; Arús-Pous, Josep; Reymond, Jean-Louis

    2017-10-25

    Chemical space describes all possible molecules as well as multi-dimensional conceptual spaces representing the structural diversity of these molecules. Part of this chemical space is available in public databases ranging from thousands to billions of compounds. Exploiting these databases for drug discovery represents a typical big data problem limited by computational power, data storage and data access capacity. Here we review recent developments of our laboratory, including progress in the chemical universe databases (GDB) and the fragment subset FDB-17, tools for ligand-based virtual screening by nearest neighbor searches, such as our multi-fingerprint browser for the ZINC database to select purchasable screening compounds, and their application to discover potent and selective inhibitors for calcium channel TRPV6 and Aurora A kinase, the polypharmacology browser (PPB) for predicting off-target effects, and finally interactive 3D-chemical space visualization using our online tools WebDrugCS and WebMolCS. All resources described in this paper are available for public use at www.gdb.unibe.ch.

  18. Protein signatures using electrostatic molecular surfaces in harmonic space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sofia Carvalho

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We developed a novel method based on the Fourier analysis of protein molecular surfaces to speed up the analysis of the vast structural data generated in the post-genomic era. This method computes the power spectrum of surfaces of the molecular electrostatic potential, whose three-dimensional coordinates have been either experimentally or theoretically determined. Thus we achieve a reduction of the initial three-dimensional information on the molecular surface to the one-dimensional information on pairs of points at a fixed scale apart. Consequently, the similarity search in our method is computationally less demanding and significantly faster than shape comparison methods. As proof of principle, we applied our method to a training set of viral proteins that are involved in major diseases such as Hepatitis C, Dengue fever, Yellow fever, Bovine viral diarrhea and West Nile fever. The training set contains proteins of four different protein families, as well as a mammalian representative enzyme. We found that the power spectrum successfully assigns a unique signature to each protein included in our training set, thus providing a direct probe of functional similarity among proteins. The results agree with established biological data from conventional structural biochemistry analyses.

  19. Application of the high-temperature ratio method for evaluation of the depth distribution of dose equivalent in a water-filled phantom on board space station Mir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, T.; Hajek, M.; Schoener, W.; Fugger, M.; Vana, N.; Akatov, Y.; Shurshakov, V.; Arkhangelsky, V.; Kartashov, D.

    2002-01-01

    A water-filled tissue equivalent phantom with a diameter of 35 cm was developed at the Institute for Biomedical Problems, Moscow, Russia. It contains four channels perpendicular to each other, where dosemeters can be exposed at different depths. Between May 1997 and February 1999 the phantom was installed at three different locations on board the Mir space station. Thermoluminescence dosemeters (TLDs) were exposed at various depths inside the phantom either parallel or perpendicular to the hull of the spacecraft. The high-temperature ratio (HTR) method was used for the evaluation of the TLDs. The method was developed at the Atominstitute of the Austrian Universities, Vienna, Austria, and has already been used for measurements in mixed radiation fields on earth and in space with great success. It uses the changes of peak height ratios in LiF:Mg,Ti glow curves in dependence on the linear energy transfer (LET), and therefore allows determination of an 'averaged' LET as well as measurement of the absorbed dose. A mean quality factor and, subsequently, the dose equivalent can be calculated according to the Q(LET ( ) relationship proposed by the ICRP. The small size of the LiF dosemeters means that the HTR method can be used to determine the gradient of absorbed dose and dose equivalent inside the tissue equivalent body. (author)

  20. Mechanics of filled carbon nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Monteiro, A.O.; Cachim, P.B.; Da Costa, Pedro M. F. J.

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of filling carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with assorted molecular and crystalline substances have been investigated for the past two decades. Amongst the study of new structural phases, defects, chemical reactions and varied types of host-guest interactions, there is one fundamental characterisation aspect of these systems that continues to be overlooked: the mechanical behaviour of filled CNTs. In contrast to their empty counterparts, the mechanics of filled CNTs is a subject where reports appear far and apart, this despite being key to the application of these materials in technological devices. In the following paragraphs, we review the work that has been carried out up to the present on the mechanics of filled CNTs. The studies discussed range from experimental resonant frequency essays performed within electron microscopes to modelling, via molecular dynamics, of three-point bending of nanotubes filled with gases. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Mechanics of filled carbon nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Monteiro, A.O.

    2014-04-01

    The benefits of filling carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with assorted molecular and crystalline substances have been investigated for the past two decades. Amongst the study of new structural phases, defects, chemical reactions and varied types of host-guest interactions, there is one fundamental characterisation aspect of these systems that continues to be overlooked: the mechanical behaviour of filled CNTs. In contrast to their empty counterparts, the mechanics of filled CNTs is a subject where reports appear far and apart, this despite being key to the application of these materials in technological devices. In the following paragraphs, we review the work that has been carried out up to the present on the mechanics of filled CNTs. The studies discussed range from experimental resonant frequency essays performed within electron microscopes to modelling, via molecular dynamics, of three-point bending of nanotubes filled with gases. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Classification of proteins: available structural space for molecular modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, Antonina

    2012-01-01

    The wealth of available protein structural data provides unprecedented opportunity to study and better understand the underlying principles of protein folding and protein structure evolution. A key to achieving this lies in the ability to analyse these data and to organize them in a coherent classification scheme. Over the past years several protein classifications have been developed that aim to group proteins based on their structural relationships. Some of these classification schemes explore the concept of structural neighbourhood (structural continuum), whereas other utilize the notion of protein evolution and thus provide a discrete rather than continuum view of protein structure space. This chapter presents a strategy for classification of proteins with known three-dimensional structure. Steps in the classification process along with basic definitions are introduced. Examples illustrating some fundamental concepts of protein folding and evolution with a special focus on the exceptions to them are presented.

  3. Can molecular diffusion explain Space Shuttle plume spreading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, R. R.; Plane, John M. C.; Stevens, Michael H.; Paxton, L. J.; Christensen, A. B.; Crowley, G.

    2010-04-01

    The satellite-borne Global Ultraviolet Imager (GUVI) has produced more than 20 images of NASA Space Shuttle main engine plumes in the lower thermosphere. These reveal atomic hydrogen and, by inference, water vapor transport over hemispherical-scale distances with speeds much faster than expected from models of thermospheric wind motions. Furthermore, the hydrogen plumes expand rapidly. We find rates that exceed the horizontal diffusion speed at nominal plume altitudes of 104-112 km. Kelley et al. (2009) have proposed a 2-D turbulence mechanism to explain the observed spreading rates (and rapid advection) of the plumes. But upon further investigation, we conclude that H atom diffusion can indeed account for the observed expansion rates by recognizing that vertical diffusion quickly conveys atoms to higher altitudes where horizontal diffusion is much more rapid. We also find evidence for H atom production directly during the Shuttle's main engine burn.

  4. Machine learning of molecular electronic properties in chemical compound space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montavon, Grégoire; Rupp, Matthias; Gobre, Vivekanand; Vazquez-Mayagoitia, Alvaro; Hansen, Katja; Tkatchenko, Alexandre; Müller, Klaus-Robert; Anatole von Lilienfeld, O.

    2013-09-01

    The combination of modern scientific computing with electronic structure theory can lead to an unprecedented amount of data amenable to intelligent data analysis for the identification of meaningful, novel and predictive structure-property relationships. Such relationships enable high-throughput screening for relevant properties in an exponentially growing pool of virtual compounds that are synthetically accessible. Here, we present a machine learning model, trained on a database of ab initio calculation results for thousands of organic molecules, that simultaneously predicts multiple electronic ground- and excited-state properties. The properties include atomization energy, polarizability, frontier orbital eigenvalues, ionization potential, electron affinity and excitation energies. The machine learning model is based on a deep multi-task artificial neural network, exploiting the underlying correlations between various molecular properties. The input is identical to ab initio methods, i.e. nuclear charges and Cartesian coordinates of all atoms. For small organic molecules, the accuracy of such a ‘quantum machine’ is similar, and sometimes superior, to modern quantum-chemical methods—at negligible computational cost.

  5. Machine learning of molecular electronic properties in chemical compound space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montavon, Grégoire; Müller, Klaus-Robert; Rupp, Matthias; Gobre, Vivekanand; Hansen, Katja; Tkatchenko, Alexandre; Vazquez-Mayagoitia, Alvaro; Anatole von Lilienfeld, O

    2013-01-01

    The combination of modern scientific computing with electronic structure theory can lead to an unprecedented amount of data amenable to intelligent data analysis for the identification of meaningful, novel and predictive structure–property relationships. Such relationships enable high-throughput screening for relevant properties in an exponentially growing pool of virtual compounds that are synthetically accessible. Here, we present a machine learning model, trained on a database of ab initio calculation results for thousands of organic molecules, that simultaneously predicts multiple electronic ground- and excited-state properties. The properties include atomization energy, polarizability, frontier orbital eigenvalues, ionization potential, electron affinity and excitation energies. The machine learning model is based on a deep multi-task artificial neural network, exploiting the underlying correlations between various molecular properties. The input is identical to ab initio methods, i.e. nuclear charges and Cartesian coordinates of all atoms. For small organic molecules, the accuracy of such a ‘quantum machine’ is similar, and sometimes superior, to modern quantum-chemical methods—at negligible computational cost. (paper)

  6. Origins Space Telescope: Tracing Dark Molecular Gas in the Milky Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Desika; Li, Qi; Krumholz, Mark; Dave, Romeel; Origins Space Telescope Science and Technology Definition Team

    2018-01-01

    We present theoretical models for quantifying the fraction of CO-dark molecular gas in galaxies. To do this, we combine novel thermal, chemical, and radiative equilibrium calculations with high-resolution cosmological zoom galaxy formation models. We discuss how this dark molecular gas will be uncovered by the Origins Space Telescope, one of the four science and technology definition studies of NASA Headquarters for the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal survey.

  7. Model of the dissociative recombination of molecular ions based on the statistical 'phase-space theory'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foltin, M.; Lukac, P.; Morva, I.; Foltin, V.

    2004-01-01

    In the paper the statistical 'phase-space theory' extended for chemical reactions and for dissociative recombination of polyatomic ions is applied to the indirect and direct dissociative recombination of diatomic ions with electrons. Numerical calculations are made for molecular neon ion. The good agreement is obtained with experimental results (Authors)

  8. Orbital tomography: Molecular band maps, momentum maps and the imaging of real space orbitals of adsorbed molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Offenbacher, Hannes; Lüftner, Daniel; Ules, Thomas; Reinisch, Eva Maria; Koller, Georg, E-mail: georg.koller@uni-graz.at; Puschnig, Peter; Ramsey, Michael G., E-mail: michael.ramsey@uni-graz.at

    2015-10-01

    Highlights: • Orbital tomography within the plane wave final state approximation. • One electron orbital predictions versus angle resolved photoemission experiment. • Geometric and electronic structure of organic thin films elucidated by ARUPS. • Influence of molecular conformation and orientation on ARUPS. • Retrieval of sexiphenyl and pentacene orbitals in real space. - Abstract: The frontier orbitals of molecules are the prime determinants of their chemical, optical and electronic properties. Arguably, the most direct method of addressing the (filled) frontier orbitals is ultra-violet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS). Although UPS is a mature technique from the early 1970s on, the angular distribution of the photoemitted electrons was thought to be too complex to be analysed quantitatively. Recently angle resolved UPS (ARUPS) work on conjugated molecules both, in ordered thick films and chemisorbed monolayers, has shown that the angular (momentum) distribution of the photocurrent from orbital emissions can be simply understood. The approach, based on the assumption of a plane wave final state is becoming known as orbital tomography. Here we will demonstrate, with selected examples of pentacene (5A) and sexiphenyl (6P), the potential of orbital tomography. First it will be shown how the full angular distribution of the photocurrent (momentum map) from a specific orbital is related to the real space orbital by a Fourier transform. Examples of the reconstruction of 5A orbitals will be given and the procedure for recovering the lost phase information will be outlined. We then move to examples of sexiphenyl where we interrogate the original band maps of thick sexiphenyl in the light of our understanding of orbital tomography that has developed since then. With comparison to theoretical simulations of the molecular band maps, the molecular conformation and orientation will be concluded. New results for the sexiphenyl monolayer on Al(1 1 0) will then be

  9. Application of Molecular Adsorber Coatings in Chamber A for the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Nithin S.

    2017-01-01

    As a coating made of highly porous zeolite materials, the Molecular Adsorber Coating (MAC) was developed to capture outgassed molecular contaminants, such as hydrocarbons and silicones. For spaceflight applications, the adsorptive capabilities of the coating can alleviate on-orbit outgassing concerns on or near sensitive surfaces and instruments within the spacecraft. Similarly, this sprayable paint technology has proven to be significantly beneficial for ground-based space applications, in particular, for vacuum chamber environments. This presentation describes the application of the MAC technology for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). The coating was used as a mitigation tool to entrap outgassed contaminants, specifically silicone-based diffusion pump oil, from within JSCs cryogenic optical vacuum chamber test facility called Chamber A. This presentation summarizes the background, fabrication, installation, chemical analysis test results, and future plans for the MAC technology, which was effectively used to protect the JWST test equipment from vacuum chamber contamination. As a coating made of highly porous zeolite materials, the Molecular Adsorber Coating (MAC) was developed to capture outgassed molecular contaminants, such as hydrocarbons and silicones. For spaceflight applications, the adsorptive capabilities of the coating can alleviate on-orbit outgassing concerns on or near sensitive surfaces and instruments within the spacecraft. Similarly, this sprayable paint technology has proven to be significantly beneficial for ground-based space applications, in particular, for vacuum chamber environments. This presentation describes the application of the MAC technology for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). The coating was used as a mitigation tool to entrap outgassed contaminants, specifically silicone-based diffusion pump oil, from within JSCs cryogenic optical vacuum chamber test

  10. Molecular dynamics investigations on the interfacial energy and adhesive strength between C{sub 60}-filled carbon nanotubes and metallic surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuo, Jenn-Kun [Department of Greenergy, National University of Tainan, Tainan 70005, Taiwan (China); Huang, Pei-Hsing, E-mail: phh@mail.npust.edu.tw [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung 912, Taiwan (China); Wu, Wei-Te; Hsu, Yi-Cheng [Department of Biomechatronics Engineering, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung 912, Taiwan (China)

    2014-01-15

    The mechanical and adhesive properties of C{sub 60}@(10,10) carbon nanopeapods (CNPs) adhering to gold surfaces are investigated by atomistic simulations. The effects of C{sub 60} fill density, tube length, surrounding temperature, and peeling velocity on the adhesion behavior are studied. Results show that the interfacial binding energy of CNPs (which depends on the C{sub 60} fill density and temperature) is 2.0∼4.4% higher than that of (10,10) single-walled CNTs and 3.4∼4.7% lower than that of (5,5)@(10,10) double-walled CNTs (DWCNTs). Despite their lower interfacial binding energy, CNPs have a higher adhesive strength than that of DWCNTs (1.53 nN vs. 1.4 nN). Distinct from the inner tubes of DWCNTs, which have continuum mechanical properties, the discrete C{sub 60} molecules that fill CNPs exhibit unique composite mechanical properties, with high flexibility and bend-buckling resistance. The bend-buckling forces for CNPs filled with a low/medium fill density of C{sub 60} are approximately constant. When the fill density is 1 C{sub 60} molecule per nanometer length, the bend-buckling force dramatically increases. - Highlights: • Adhesion and peeling behaviors of CNPs on metallic substrates are investigated. • Effects of C60 density, CNP length, temperature, and peeling velocity are studied. • CNPs have a higher adhesive strength than that of DWCNTs (1.53 nN vs. 1.4 nN). • Discrete C{sub 60} molecules that fill CNPs exhibit unique composite mechanical properties.

  11. Molecular quantum control landscapes in von Neumann time-frequency phase space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruetzel, Stefan; Stolzenberger, Christoph; Fechner, Susanne; Dimler, Frank; Brixner, Tobias; Tannor, David J.

    2010-10-01

    Recently we introduced the von Neumann representation as a joint time-frequency description for femtosecond laser pulses and suggested its use as a basis for pulse shaping experiments. Here we use the von Neumann basis to represent multidimensional molecular control landscapes, providing insight into the molecular dynamics. We present three kinds of time-frequency phase space scanning procedures based on the von Neumann formalism: variation of intensity, time-frequency phase space position, and/or the relative phase of single subpulses. The shaped pulses produced are characterized via Fourier-transform spectral interferometry. Quantum control is demonstrated on the laser dye IR140 elucidating a time-frequency pump-dump mechanism.

  12. About Dental Amalgam Fillings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Medical Procedures Dental Devices Dental Amalgam About Dental Amalgam Fillings Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... should I have my fillings removed? What is dental amalgam? Dental amalgam is a dental filling material ...

  13. Using the Triple Labelling Technique to apportion N2O Emissions to Nitrification and Denitrification from different Nitrogen Sources at different Water-Filled-Pore-Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loick, Nadine; Dixon, Elizabeth R.; Repullo Ruibérriz de Torres, Miguel A.; Ciganda, Veronica; Lopez-Aizpun, Maria A.; Matthews, G. Peter; Müller, Christoph; Cardenas, Laura M.

    2017-04-01

    labelling technique - i.e. applying NH4NO3 with either the N at the NH4+ or at the NO3-, or in both places being labelled - this study investigates the effects of a low, medium and high water filled pore space (55, 70, 85%) in a clay soil on gaseous N emissions and investigates the source and processes leading to N2O emissions. To assess the utilisation of applied NO3- vs nitrified NO3- from applied NH4+, the model developed by Müller et al. (2007) is used to calculate the immobilisation of added NO3- and NH4+, nitrification of added NH4+, mineralisation of organic N and subsequent nitrification by the analysis of the 15N in the soil. Gross transformation rates, indicating the relative importance of added NO3- and NO3- derived from nitrified added NH4+ are calculated. Bergstermann et al. (2011) Soil Biol. & Biochem. 43, 240-250. Meijide et al. (2010) Eur. J. Soil Sci. 61, 364-374. Cárdenas et al. (2003) Soil Biol. & Biochem. 35, 867-870. Müller et al. (2007) Soil Biol. & Biochem. 39, 715-726.

  14. Machine learning predictions of molecular properties: Accurate many-body potentials and nonlocality in chemical space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, Katja; Biegler, Franziska; Ramakrishnan, Raghunathan; Pronobis, Wiktor; Lilienfeld, O. Anatole von; Müller, Klaus-Robert; Tkatchenko, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneously accurate and efficient prediction of molecular properties throughout chemical compound space is a critical ingredient toward rational compound design in chemical and pharmaceutical industries. Aiming toward this goal, we develop and apply a systematic hierarchy of efficient empirical methods to estimate atomization and total energies of molecules. These methods range from a simple sum over atoms, to addition of bond energies, to pairwise interatomic force fields, reaching to the more sophisticated machine learning approaches that are capable of describing collective interactions between many atoms or bonds. In the case of equilibrium molecular geometries, even simple pairwise force fields demonstrate prediction accuracy comparable to benchmark energies calculated using density functional theory with hybrid exchange-correlation functionals; however, accounting for the collective many-body interactions proves to be essential for approaching the 'holy grail' of chemical accuracy of 1 kcal/mol for both equilibrium and out-of-equilibrium geometries. This remarkable accuracy is achieved by a vectorized representation of molecules (so-called Bag of Bonds model) that exhibits strong nonlocality in chemical space. The same representation allows us to predict accurate electronic properties of molecules, such as their polarizability and molecular frontier orbital energies

  15. Momentum-Space Imaging of the Dirac Band Structure in Molecular Graphene via Quasiparticle Interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Anna; Gomes, Kenjiro K.; Ko, Wonhee; Mar, Warren; Manoharan, Hari C.

    2014-03-01

    Molecular graphene is a nanoscale artificial lattice composed of carbon monoxide molecules arranged one by one, realizing a dream of exploring exotic quantum materials by design. This assembly is done by atomic manipulation with a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) on a Cu(111) surface. To directly probe the transformation of normal surface state electrons into massless Dirac fermions, we map the momentum space dispersion through the Fourier analysis of quasiparticle scattering maps acquired at different energies with the STM. The Fourier analysis not only bridges the real-space and momentum-space data but also reveals the chiral nature of those quasiparticles, through a set of selection rules of allowed scattering involving the pseudospin and valley degrees of freedom. The graphene-like band structure can be reshaped with simple alterations to the lattice, such as the addition of a strain. We analyze the effect on the momentum space band structure of multiple types of strain on our system. Supported by DOE, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering under contract DE-AC02-76SF00515.

  16. Extended phase-space methods for enhanced sampling in molecular simulations: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi eFujisaki

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Molecular Dynamics simulations are a powerful approach to study biomolecular conformational changes or protein-ligand, protein-protein and protein-DNA/RNA interactions. Straightforward applications however are often hampered by incomplete sampling, since in a typical simulated trajectory the system will spend most of its time trapped by high energy barriers in restricted regions of the configuration space. Over the years, several techniques have been designed to overcome this problem and enhance space sampling. Here, we review a class of methods that rely on the idea of extending the set of dynamical variables of the system by adding extra ones associated to functions describing the process under study. In particular, we illustrate the Temperature Accelerated Molecular Dynamics (TAMD, Logarithmic Mean Force Dynamics (LogMFD, andMultiscale Enhanced Sampling (MSES algorithms. We also discuss combinations with techniques for searching reaction paths. We show the advantages presented by this approach and how it allows to quickly sample important regions of the free energy landscape via automatic exploration.

  17. How diverse are diversity assessment methods? A comparative analysis and benchmarking of molecular descriptor space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsoukas, Alexios; Paricharak, Shardul; Galloway, Warren R J D; Spring, David R; Ijzerman, Adriaan P; Glen, Robert C; Marcus, David; Bender, Andreas

    2014-01-27

    Chemical diversity is a widely applied approach to select structurally diverse subsets of molecules, often with the objective of maximizing the number of hits in biological screening. While many methods exist in the area, few systematic comparisons using current descriptors in particular with the objective of assessing diversity in bioactivity space have been published, and this shortage is what the current study is aiming to address. In this work, 13 widely used molecular descriptors were compared, including fingerprint-based descriptors (ECFP4, FCFP4, MACCS keys), pharmacophore-based descriptors (TAT, TAD, TGT, TGD, GpiDAPH3), shape-based descriptors (rapid overlay of chemical structures (ROCS) and principal moments of inertia (PMI)), a connectivity-matrix-based descriptor (BCUT), physicochemical-property-based descriptors (prop2D), and a more recently introduced molecular descriptor type (namely, "Bayes Affinity Fingerprints"). We assessed both the similar behavior of the descriptors in assessing the diversity of chemical libraries, and their ability to select compounds from libraries that are diverse in bioactivity space, which is a property of much practical relevance in screening library design. This is particularly evident, given that many future targets to be screened are not known in advance, but that the library should still maximize the likelihood of containing bioactive matter also for future screening campaigns. Overall, our results showed that descriptors based on atom topology (i.e., fingerprint-based descriptors and pharmacophore-based descriptors) correlate well in rank-ordering compounds, both within and between descriptor types. On the other hand, shape-based descriptors such as ROCS and PMI showed weak correlation with the other descriptors utilized in this study, demonstrating significantly different behavior. We then applied eight of the molecular descriptors compared in this study to sample a diverse subset of sample compounds (4%) from an

  18. Sodium fill of FFTF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldo, J.B.; Greenwell, R.K.; Keasling, T.A.; Collins, J.R.; Klos, D.B.

    1980-02-01

    With construction of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) completed, the first major objective in the startup program was to fill the sodium systems. A sodium fill sequence was developed to match construction completion, and as systems became available, they were inerted, preheated, and filled with sodium. The secondary sodium systems were filled first while dry refueling system testing was in progress in the reactor vessel. The reactor vessel and the primary loops were filled last. This paper describes the methods used and some of the key results achieved for this major FFTF objective

  19. Carbon Nanotube Biosensors for Space Molecule Detection and Clinical Molecular Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jie

    2001-01-01

    Both space molecule detection and clinical molecule diagnostics need to develop ultra sensitive biosensors for detection of less than attomole molecules such as amino acids for DNA. However all the electrode sensor systems including those fabricated from the existing carbon nanotubes, have a background level of nA (nanoAmp). This has limited DNA or other molecule detection to nA level or molecules whose concentration is, much higher than attomole level. A program has been created by NASA and NCI (National Cancer Institute) to exploit the possibility of carbon nanotube based biosensors to solve this problem for both's interest. In this talk, I will present our effort on the evaluation and novel design of carbon nanotubes as electrode biosensors with strategies to minimize background currents while maximizing signal intensity.The fabrication of nanotube electrode arrays, immobilization of molecular probes on nanotube electrodes and in vitro biosensor testing will also be discussed.

  20. The protons of space and brain tumors: II. Cellular and molecular considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagle, W.A.; Moss, A.J. Jr.; Dalrymple, G.V.; Cox, A.B.; Wigle, J.F.; Mitchell, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    An increased incidence of highly malignant gliomas, termed glioblastoma multiforme has been observed in Rhesus monkeys irradiated with 55 MeV protons, and in humans treated with therapeutic irradiation to the head. The results suggest a radiation etiology for these tumors. In this paper, we review briefly some characteristics of glioma tumors, and summarize the genetic changes associated with malignant gliomas in experimental animals and in humans. The genetic abnormalities include cytogenetic alterations, and changes in the structure and expression of specific oncogenes. We discuss the potential for these genetic changes to contribute to several putative mechanism leading to aberrant growth stimulation and, ultimately, to tumorigenesis. In addition, we review briefly some recent data concerning the molecular nature of radiation-induced somatic cell mutation and oncogene activation, and discuss the significance of these results for the radiation etiology of malignant gliomas. Finally, some implications of these results are discussed in relation to human radiation exposure in space

  1. Exploiting Molecular Weight Distribution Shape to Tune Domain Spacing in Block Copolymer Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentekos, Dillon T; Jia, Junteng; Tirado, Erika S; Barteau, Katherine P; Smilgies, Detlef-M; DiStasio, Robert A; Fors, Brett P

    2018-04-04

    We report a method for tuning the domain spacing ( D sp ) of self-assembled block copolymer thin films of poly(styrene- block-methyl methacrylate) (PS- b-PMMA) over a large range of lamellar periods. By modifying the molecular weight distribution (MWD) shape (including both the breadth and skew) of the PS block via temporal control of polymer chain initiation in anionic polymerization, we observe increases of up to 41% in D sp for polymers with the same overall molecular weight ( M n ≈ 125 kg mol -1 ) without significantly changing the overall morphology or chemical composition of the final material. In conjunction with our experimental efforts, we have utilized concepts from population statistics and least-squares analysis to develop a model for predicting D sp based on the first three moments of the MWDs. This statistical model reproduces experimental D sp values with high fidelity (with mean absolute errors of 1.2 nm or 1.8%) and provides novel physical insight into the individual and collective roles played by the MWD moments in determining this property of interest. This work demonstrates that both MWD breadth and skew have a profound influence over D sp , thereby providing an experimental and conceptual platform for exploiting MWD shape as a simple and modular handle for fine-tuning D sp in block copolymer thin films.

  2. Transition voltages of vacuum-spaced and molecular junctions with Ag and Pt electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Kunlin

    2014-07-07

    The transition voltage of vacuum-spaced and molecular junctions constructed with Ag and Pt electrodes is investigated by non-equilibrium Green\\'s function formalism combined with density functional theory. Our calculations show that, similarly to the case of Au-vacuum-Au previously studied, the transition voltages of Ag and Pt metal-vacuum-metal junctions with atomic protrusions on the electrode surface are determined by the local density of states of the p-type atomic orbitals of the protrusion. Since the energy position of the Pt 6p atomic orbitals is higher than that of the 5p/6p of Ag and Au, the transition voltage of Pt-vacuum-Pt junctions is larger than that of both Ag-vacuum-Ag and Au-vacuum-Au junctions. When one moves to analyzing asymmetric molecular junctions constructed with biphenyl thiol as central molecule, then the transition voltage is found to depend on the specific bonding site for the sulfur atom in the thiol group. In particular agreement with experiments, where the largest transition voltage is found for Ag and the smallest for Pt, is obtained when one assumes S binding at the hollow-bridge site on the Ag/Au(111) surface and at the adatom site on the Pt(111) one. This demonstrates the critical role played by the linker-electrode binding geometry in determining the transition voltage of devices made of conjugated thiol molecules. © 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.

  3. Molecular Dynamic Simulation of High Thermal Conductivity Synthetic Spider Silk for Thermal Management in Space

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thermal management is crucial to space technology. Because electronic and other thermally sensitive materials will be located in an essentially airless environment,...

  4. Topological materials discovery using electron filling constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ru; Po, Hoi Chun; Neaton, Jeffrey B.; Vishwanath, Ashvin

    2018-01-01

    Nodal semimetals are classes of topological materials that have nodal-point or nodal-line Fermi surfaces, which give them novel transport and topological properties. Despite being highly sought after, there are currently very few experimental realizations, and identifying new materials candidates has mainly relied on exhaustive database searches. Here we show how recent studies on the interplay between electron filling and nonsymmorphic space-group symmetries can guide the search for filling-enforced nodal semimetals. We recast the previously derived constraints on the allowed band-insulator fillings in any space group into a new form, which enables effective screening of materials candidates based solely on their space group, electron count in the formula unit, and multiplicity of the formula unit. This criterion greatly reduces the computation load for discovering topological materials in a database of previously synthesized compounds. As a demonstration, we focus on a few selected nonsymmorphic space groups which are predicted to host filling-enforced Dirac semimetals. Of the more than 30,000 entires listed, our filling criterion alone eliminates 96% of the entries before they are passed on for further analysis. We discover a handful of candidates from this guided search; among them, the monoclinic crystal Ca2Pt2Ga is particularly promising.

  5. Molecular Dynamics of Flexible Polar Cations in a Variable Confined Space: Toward Exceptional Two-Step Nonlinear Optical Switches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei-Jian; He, Chun-Ting; Ji, Cheng-Min; Chen, Shao-Li; Huang, Rui-Kang; Lin, Rui-Biao; Xue, Wei; Luo, Jun-Hua; Zhang, Wei-Xiong; Chen, Xiao-Ming

    2016-07-01

    The changeable molecular dynamics of flexible polar cations in the variable confined space between inorganic chains brings about a new type of two-step nonlinear optical (NLO) switch with genuine "off-on-off" second harmonic generation (SHG) conversion between one NLO-active state and two NLO-inactive states. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. EDF: Computing electron number probability distribution functions in real space from molecular wave functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, E.; Pendás, A. Martín; Blanco, M. A.

    2008-04-01

    Given an N-electron molecule and an exhaustive partition of the real space ( R) into m arbitrary regions Ω,Ω,…,Ω ( ⋃i=1mΩ=R), the edf program computes all the probabilities P(n,n,…,n) of having exactly n electrons in Ω, n electrons in Ω,…, and n electrons ( n+n+⋯+n=N) in Ω. Each Ω may correspond to a single basin (atomic domain) or several such basins (functional group). In the later case, each atomic domain must belong to a single Ω. The program can manage both single- and multi-determinant wave functions which are read in from an aimpac-like wave function description ( .wfn) file (T.A. Keith et al., The AIMPAC95 programs, http://www.chemistry.mcmaster.ca/aimpac, 1995). For multi-determinantal wave functions a generalization of the original .wfn file has been introduced. The new format is completely backwards compatible, adding to the previous structure a description of the configuration interaction (CI) coefficients and the determinants of correlated wave functions. Besides the .wfn file, edf only needs the overlap integrals over all the atomic domains between the molecular orbitals (MO). After the P(n,n,…,n) probabilities are computed, edf obtains from them several magnitudes relevant to chemical bonding theory, such as average electronic populations and localization/delocalization indices. Regarding spin, edf may be used in two ways: with or without a splitting of the P(n,n,…,n) probabilities into α and β spin components. Program summaryProgram title: edf Catalogue identifier: AEAJ_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEAJ_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 5387 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 52 381 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 77 Computer

  7. Trapped ultracold molecular ions: candidates for an optical molecular clock for a fundamental physics mission in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, B.; Koelemeij, J.; Daerr, H.; Ernsting, I.; Jorgensen, S.; Okhapkin, M.; Wicht, A.; Nevsky, A.; Schiller, S.

    2017-11-01

    Narrow ro-vibrational transitions in ultracold molecules are excellent candidates for frequency references in the near-IR to visible spectral domain and interesting systems for fundamental tests of physics, in particular for a satellite test of the gravitational redshift of clocks. We have performed laser spectroscopy of several ro-vibrational overtone transitions υ = 0 → υ = 4 in HD+ ions at around 1.4 μm. 1+1 REMPD was used as a detection method, followed by measurement of the number of remaining molecules. The molecular ions were stored in a linear radiofrequency trap and cooled to millikelvin temperatures, by sympathetic cooling using laser-cooled Be+ ions simultaneously stored in the same trap.

  8. Mathematical aspects of molecular replacement. III. Properties of space groups preferred by proteins in the Protein Data Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirikjian, G; Sajjadi, S; Toptygin, D; Yan, Y

    2015-03-01

    The main goal of molecular replacement in macromolecular crystallography is to find the appropriate rigid-body transformations that situate identical copies of model proteins in the crystallographic unit cell. The search for such transformations can be thought of as taking place in the coset space Γ\\G where Γ is the Sohncke group of the macromolecular crystal and G is the continuous group of rigid-body motions in Euclidean space. This paper, the third in a series, is concerned with viewing nonsymmorphic Γ in a new way. These space groups, rather than symmorphic ones, are the most common ones for protein crystals. Moreover, their properties impact the structure of the space Γ\\G. In particular, nonsymmorphic space groups contain both Bieberbach subgroups and symmorphic subgroups. A number of new theorems focusing on these subgroups are proven, and it is shown that these concepts are related to the preferences that proteins have for crystallizing in different space groups, as observed in the Protein Data Bank.

  9. Tension-filled Governance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celik, Tim Holst

    on the statesituated tension-filled functional relationship between legitimation and accumulation, the study both historically and theoretically reworks this approach and reapplies it for the post-1970s/1990s governance period. It asks whether and to what extent governance has served as a distinctive post- 1970s/1990s...

  10. filled neutron detectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Boron trifluoride (BF3) proportional counters are used as detectors for thermal neutrons. They are characterized by high neutron sensitivity and good gamma discriminating properties. Most practical BF3 counters are filled with pure boron trifluoride gas enriched up to 96% 10B. But BF3 is not an ideal proportional counter ...

  11. Gas filled detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephan, C.

    1993-01-01

    The main types of gas filled nuclear detectors: ionization chambers, proportional counters, parallel-plate avalanche counters (PPAC) and microstrip detectors are described. New devices are shown. A description of the processes involved in such detectors is also given. (K.A.) 123 refs.; 25 figs.; 3 tabs

  12. Systolic ventricular filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrent-Guasp, Francisco; Kocica, Mladen J; Corno, Antonio; Komeda, Masashi; Cox, James; Flotats, A; Ballester-Rodes, Manel; Carreras-Costa, Francesc

    2004-03-01

    The evidence of the ventricular myocardial band (VMB) has revealed unavoidable coherence and mutual coupling of form and function in the ventricular myocardium, making it possible to understand the principles governing electrical, mechanical and energetical events within the human heart. From the earliest Erasistratus' observations, principal mechanisms responsible for the ventricular filling have still remained obscured. Contemporary experimental and clinical investigations unequivocally support the attitude that only powerful suction force, developed by the normal ventricles, would be able to produce an efficient filling of the ventricular cavities. The true origin and the precise time frame for generating such force are still controversial. Elastic recoil and muscular contraction were the most commonly mentioned, but yet, still not clearly explained mechanisms involved in the ventricular suction. Classical concepts about timing of successive mechanical events during the cardiac cycle, also do not offer understandable insight into the mechanism of the ventricular filling. The net result is the current state of insufficient knowledge of systolic and particularly diastolic function of normal and diseased heart. Here we summarize experimental evidence and theoretical backgrounds, which could be useful in understanding the phenomenon of the ventricular filling. Anatomy of the VMB, and recent proofs for its segmental electrical and mechanical activation, undoubtedly indicates that ventricular filling is the consequence of an active muscular contraction. Contraction of the ascendent segment of the VMB, with simultaneous shortening and rectifying of its fibers, produces the paradoxical increase of the ventricular volume and lengthening of its long axis. Specific spatial arrangement of the ascendent segment fibers, their interaction with adjacent descendent segment fibers, elastic elements and intra-cavitary blood volume (hemoskeleton), explain the physical principles

  13. Useful(filling) Durkheim

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liebst, Lasse Suonperä

    2011-01-01

    Already in the paradigmatic formulation in The Social Logic of Space Bill Hillier and Julienne Hanson stated the theoretical affinity between Space Syntax and sociology. Taking Émile Durkheim’s classic concept of social mor-phology as their analytical starting point, they established an operational...... clarify the way space syntax is embedding urban social life in morpho-logical space. Thus, it is this dual problem caused by the silence of sociology that the current paper is a contribution to transcend. First, the paper revisits Durkheim's social morphology and discusses the Space Syntax’s distinct...

  14. Universal Sample Preparation Module for Molecular Analysis in Space, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lynntech proposes to develop and demonstrate the ability of a compact, light-weight, and automated universal sample preparation module (USPM) to process samples from...

  15. Molecular networks in Position, Momentum, and Phase Space: A Case Study on Simple Hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmider, Hartmut; Ho, Minhhuy

    1996-01-01

    are identified in a series of nine small hydrocarbonic molecules, and the resulting "molecular graphs" are interpreted in terms of symmetry and topology. For the example of a symmetric SN2 reaction, it is shown that the topology of the Husimi function based graphs can be useful for the classification of chemical...

  16. Dynamic control of chiral space in a catalytic asymmetric reaction using a molecular motor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Jiaobing; Feringa, B.L.

    2011-01-01

    Enzymes and synthetic chiral catalysts have found widespread application to produce single enantiomers, but in situ switching of the chiral preference of a catalytic system is very difficult to achieve. Here, we report on a light-driven molecular motor with integrated catalytic functions in which

  17. Dye filled security seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, D.C.

    1982-01-01

    A security seal for providing an indication of unauthorized access to a sealed object includes an elongate member to be entwined in the object such that access is denied unless the member is removed. The elongate member has a hollow, pressurizable chamber extending throughout its length that is filled with a permanent dye under greater than atmospheric pressure. Attempts to cut the member and weld it together are revealed when dye flows through a rupture in the chamber wall and stains the outside surface of the member

  18. Benign gastric filling defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, K. K.; Lee, Y. H.; Cho, O. K.; Park, C. Y.

    1979-01-01

    The gastric lesion is a common source of complaints to Orientals, however, evaluation of gastric symptoms and laboratory examination offer little specific aid in the diagnosis of gastric diseases. Thus roentgenography of gastrointestinal tract is one of the most reliable method for detail diagnosis. On double contract study of stomach, gastric filling defect is mostly caused by malignant gastric cancer, however, other benign lesions can cause similar pictures which can be successfully treated by surgery. 66 cases of benign causes of gastric filling defect were analyzed at this point of view, which was verified pathologically by endoscope or surgery during recent 7 years in Yensei University College of Medicine, Severance Hospital. The characteristic radiological picture of each disease was discussed for precise radiologic diagnosis. 1. Of total 66 cases, there were 52 cases of benign gastric tumor 10 cases of gastric varices, 5 cases of gastric bezoar, 5 cases of corrosive gastritis, 3 cases of granulomatous disease and one case of gastric hematoma. 2. The most frequent causes of benign tumors were adenomatous polyp (35/42) and the next was leiomyoma (4/42). Others were one of case of carcinoid, neurofibroma and cyst. 3. Characteristic of benign adenomatous polyp were relatively small in size, smooth surface and were observed that large size, benign polyp was frequently type IV lesion with a stalk. 4. Submucosal tumors such as leiomyoma needed differential diagnosis with polypoid malignant cancer. However, the characteristic points of differentiation was well circumscribed smooth margined filling defect without definite mucosal destruction on surface. 5. Gastric varices showed multiple lobulated filling defected especially on gastric fundus that changed its size and shape by respiration and posture of patients. Same varices lesions on esophagus and history of liver disease were helpful for easier diagnosis. 6. Gastric bezoar showed well defined movable mass

  19. Benign gastric filling defect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, K. K.; Lee, Y. H.; Cho, O. K.; Park, C. Y. [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-06-15

    The gastric lesion is a common source of complaints to Orientals, however, evaluation of gastric symptoms and laboratory examination offer little specific aid in the diagnosis of gastric diseases. Thus roentgenography of gastrointestinal tract is one of the most reliable method for detail diagnosis. On double contract study of stomach, gastric filling defect is mostly caused by malignant gastric cancer, however, other benign lesions can cause similar pictures which can be successfully treated by surgery. 66 cases of benign causes of gastric filling defect were analyzed at this point of view, which was verified pathologically by endoscope or surgery during recent 7 years in Yensei University College of Medicine, Severance Hospital. The characteristic radiological picture of each disease was discussed for precise radiologic diagnosis. 1. Of total 66 cases, there were 52 cases of benign gastric tumor 10 cases of gastric varices, 5 cases of gastric bezoar, 5 cases of corrosive gastritis, 3 cases of granulomatous disease and one case of gastric hematoma. 2. The most frequent causes of benign tumors were adenomatous polyp (35/42) and the next was leiomyoma (4/42). Others were one of case of carcinoid, neurofibroma and cyst. 3. Characteristic of benign adenomatous polyp were relatively small in size, smooth surface and were observed that large size, benign polyp was frequently type IV lesion with a stalk. 4. Submucosal tumors such as leiomyoma needed differential diagnosis with polypoid malignant cancer. However, the characteristic points of differentiation was well circumscribed smooth margined filling defect without definite mucosal destruction on surface. 5. Gastric varices showed multiple lobulated filling defected especially on gastric fundus that changed its size and shape by respiration and posture of patients. Same varices lesions on esophagus and history of liver disease were helpful for easier diagnosis. 6. Gastric bezoar showed well defined movable mass

  20. Benign gastric filling defect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, K K; Lee, Y H; Cho, O K; Park, C Y [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-06-15

    The gastric lesion is a common source of complaints to Orientals, however, evaluation of gastric symptoms and laboratory examination offer little specific aid in the diagnosis of gastric diseases. Thus roentgenography of gastrointestinal tract is one of the most reliable method for detail diagnosis. On double contract study of stomach, gastric filling defect is mostly caused by malignant gastric cancer, however, other benign lesions can cause similar pictures which can be successfully treated by surgery. 66 cases of benign causes of gastric filling defect were analyzed at this point of view, which was verified pathologically by endoscope or surgery during recent 7 years in Yensei University College of Medicine, Severance Hospital. The characteristic radiological picture of each disease was discussed for precise radiologic diagnosis. 1. Of total 66 cases, there were 52 cases of benign gastric tumor 10 cases of gastric varices, 5 cases of gastric bezoar, 5 cases of corrosive gastritis, 3 cases of granulomatous disease and one case of gastric hematoma. 2. The most frequent causes of benign tumors were adenomatous polyp (35/42) and the next was leiomyoma (4/42). Others were one of case of carcinoid, neurofibroma and cyst. 3. Characteristic of benign adenomatous polyp were relatively small in size, smooth surface and were observed that large size, benign polyp was frequently type IV lesion with a stalk. 4. Submucosal tumors such as leiomyoma needed differential diagnosis with polypoid malignant cancer. However, the characteristic points of differentiation was well circumscribed smooth margined filling defect without definite mucosal destruction on surface. 5. Gastric varices showed multiple lobulated filling defected especially on gastric fundus that changed its size and shape by respiration and posture of patients. Same varices lesions on esophagus and history of liver disease were helpful for easier diagnosis. 6. Gastric bezoar showed well defined movable mass

  1. Protecting Neural Structures and Cognitive Function During Prolonged Space Flight by Targeting the Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor Molecular Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, M. A.; Goodwin, T. J.

    2014-01-01

    Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is the main activity-dependent neurotrophin in the human nervous system. BDNF is implicated in production of new neurons from dentate gyrus stem cells (hippocampal neurogenesis), synapse formation, sprouting of new axons, growth of new axons, sprouting of new dendrites, and neuron survival. Alterations in the amount or activity of BDNF can produce significant detrimental changes to cortical function and synaptic transmission in the human brain. This can result in glial and neuronal dysfunction, which may contribute to a range of clinical conditions, spanning a number of learning, behavioral, and neurological disorders. There is an extensive body of work surrounding the BDNF molecular network, including BDNF gene polymorphisms, methylated BDNF gene promoters, multiple gene transcripts, varied BDNF functional proteins, and different BDNF receptors (whose activation differentially drive the neuron to neurogenesis or apoptosis). BDNF is also closely linked to mitochondrial biogenesis through PGC-1alpha, which can influence brain and muscle metabolic efficiency. BDNF AS A HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT COUNTERMEASURE TARGET Earth-based studies reveal that BDNF is negatively impacted by many of the conditions encountered in the space environment, including oxidative stress, radiation, psychological stressors, sleep deprivation, and many others. A growing body of work suggests that the BDNF network is responsive to a range of diet, nutrition, exercise, drug, and other types of influences. This section explores the BDNF network in the context of 1) protecting the brain and nervous system in the space environment, 2) optimizing neurobehavioral performance in space, and 3) reducing the residual effects of space flight on the nervous system on return to Earth

  2. Hydrogen Filling Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Robert F; Sabacky, Bruce; Anderson II, Everett B; Haberman, David; Al-Hassin, Mowafak; He, Xiaoming; Morriseau, Brian

    2010-02-24

    future. Project partners also conducted a workshop on hydrogen safety and permitting. This provided an opportunity for the various permitting agencies and end users to gather to share experiences and knowledge. As a result of this workshop, the permitting process for the hydrogen filling station on the Las Vegas Valley Water District’s land was done more efficiently and those who would be responsible for the operation were better educated on the safety and reliability of hydrogen production and storage. The lessons learned in permitting the filling station and conducting this workshop provided a basis for future hydrogen projects in the region. Continuing efforts to increase the working pressure of electrolysis and efficiency have been pursued. Research was also performed on improving the cost, efficiency and durability of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) hydrogen technology. Research elements focused upon PEM membranes, electrodes/catalysts, membrane-electrode assemblies, seals, bipolar plates, utilization of renewable power, reliability issues, scale, and advanced conversion topics. Additionally, direct solar-to-hydrogen conversion research to demonstrate stable and efficient photoelectrochemistry (PEC) hydrogen production systems based on a number of optional concepts was performed. Candidate PEC concepts included technical obstacles such as inefficient photocatalysis, inadequate photocurrent due to non-optimal material band gap energies, rapid electron-hole recombination, reduced hole mobility and diminished operational lifetimes of surface materials exposed to electrolytes. Project Objective 1: Design, build, operate hydrogen filling station Project Objective 2: Perform research and development for utilizing solar technologies on the hydrogen filling station and convert two utility vehicles for use by the station operators Project Objective 3: Increase capacity of hydrogen filling station; add additional vehicle; conduct safety workshop; develop a roadmap for

  3. Preparing for faster filling

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Following the programmed technical stop last week, operators focussed on preparing the machine for faster filling, which includes multibunch injection and a faster pre-cycle phase.   The LHC1 screen shot during the first multibunch injection operation. The LHC operational schedule incorporates a technical stop for preventive maintenance roughly every six weeks of stable operation, during which several interventions on the various machines are carried out. Last week these included the replacement of a faulty magnet in the SPS pre-accelerator, which required the subsequent re-setting of the system of particle extraction and transfer to the LHC. At the end of last week, all the machines were handed back for operation and work could start on accommodating all the changes made into the complex systems in order for normal operation to be resumed. These ‘recovery’ operations continued through the weekend and into this week. At the beginning of this week, operators succeeded in pro...

  4. Control of Target Molecular Recognition in a Small Pore Space with Biomolecule-Recognition Gating Membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuyama, Hiroto; Oshiba, Yuhei; Ohashi, Hidenori; Yamaguchi, Takeo

    2018-05-01

    A biomolecule-recognition gating membrane, which introduces thermosensitive graft polymer including molecular recognition receptor into porous membrane substrate, can close its pores by recognizing target biomolecule. The present study reports strategies for improving both versatility and sensitivity of the gating membrane. First, the membrane is fabricated by introducing the receptor via a selectively reactive click reaction improving the versatility. Second, the sensitivity of the membrane is enhanced via an active delivering method of the target molecules into the pores. In the method, the tiny signal of the target biomolecule is amplified as obvious pressure change. Furthermore, this offers 15 times higher sensitivity compared to the previously reported passive delivering method (membrane immersion to sample solution) with significantly shorter recognition time. The improvement will aid in applying the gating membrane to membrane sensors in medical fields. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Bulk-Fill Resin Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Havndrup-Pedersen, Cæcilie; Honoré, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    the restorative procedure. The aim of this study, therefore, was to compare the depth of cure, polymerization contraction, and gap formation in bulk-fill resin composites with those of a conventional resin composite. To achieve this, the depth of cure was assessed in accordance with the International Organization...... for Standardization 4049 standard, and the polymerization contraction was determined using the bonded-disc method. The gap formation was measured at the dentin margin of Class II cavities. Five bulk-fill resin composites were investigated: two high-viscosity (Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill, SonicFill) and three low......-viscosity (x-tra base, Venus Bulk Fill, SDR) materials. Compared with the conventional resin composite, the high-viscosity bulk-fill materials exhibited only a small increase (but significant for Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill) in depth of cure and polymerization contraction, whereas the low-viscosity bulk...

  6. Applications of space-electrophoresis in medicine. [for cellular separations in molecular biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bier, M.

    1976-01-01

    The nature of electrophoresis is reviewed and potential advances realizable in the field of biology and medicine from a space electrophoresis facility are examined. The ground-based applications of electrophoresis: (1) characterization of an ionized species; (2) determination of the quantitative composition of a complex mixture; and (3) isolation of the components of a mixture, separation achieved on the basis of the difference in transport rates is reviewed. The electrophoresis of living cells is considered, touching upon the following areas: the separation of T and B lymphocytes; the genetic influence on mouse lymphocyte mobilities; the abnormal production of specific and monoclonal immunoproteins; and the study of cancer. Schematic diagrams are presented of three types of electrophoresis apparatus: the column assembly for the static electrophoresis experiment on the Apollo-Soyuz mission, the continuous flow apparatus used in the same mission and a miniaturized electrophoresis apparatus.

  7. Filled aperture concepts for the Terrestrial Planet Finder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, Stephen T.

    2003-02-01

    Filled aperture telescopes can deliver a real, high Strehl image which is well suited for discrimination of faint planets in the vicinity of bright stars and against an extended exo-zodiacal light. A filled aperture offers a rich variety of PSF control and diffraction suppression techniques. Filled apertures are under consideration for a wide spectral range, including visible and thermal-IR, each of which offers a significant selection of biomarker molecular bands. A filled aperture visible TPF may be simpler in several respects than a thermal-IR nuller. The required aperture size (or baseline) is much smaller, and no cryogenic systems are required. A filled aperture TPF would look and act like a normal telescope - vendors and users alike would be comfortable with its design and operation. Filled aperture telescopes pose significant challenges in production of large primary mirrors, and in very stringent wavefront requirements. Stability of the wavefront control, and hence of the PSF, is a major issue for filled aperture systems. Several groups have concluded that these and other issues can be resolved, and that filled aperture options are competitive for a TPF precursor and/or for the full TPF mission. Ball, Boeing-SVS and TRW have recently returned architecture reviews on filled aperture TPF concepts. In this paper, I will review some of the major considerations underlying these filled aperture concepts, and suggest key issues in a TPF Buyers Guide.

  8. Detectability of molecular gas signatures on Jupiter’s moon Europa from ground and space-based facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paganini, Lucas; Villanueva, Geronimo Luis; Hurford, Terry; Mandell, Avi; Roth, Lorenz; Mumma, Michael J.

    2017-10-01

    Plumes and their effluent material could provide insights into Europa’s subsurface chemistry and relevant information about the prospect that life could exist, or now exists, within the ocean. In 2016, we initiated a strong observational campaign to characterize the chemical composition of Europa’s surface and exosphere using high-resolution infrared spectroscopy. While several studies have focused on the detection of water, or its dissociation products, there could be a myriad of complex molecules released by erupting plumes. Our IR survey has provided a serendipitous search for several key molecular species, allowing a chemical characterization that can aid the investigation of physical processes underlying its surface. Since our tentative water detection, presented at the 2016 DPS meeting, we have continued the observations of Europa during 2017 covering a significant extent of the moon’s terrain and orbital position (true anomaly), accounting for over 50 hr on source. Current analyses of these data are showing spectral features that grant further investigation. In addition to analysis algorithms tailored to the examination of Europan data, we have developed simulation tools to predict the possible detection of molecular species using ground-based facilities like the Keck Observatory, NASA’s Infrared Telescope and the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). In this presentation we will discuss the detectability of key molecular species with these remote sensing facilities, as well as expected challenges and future strategies with upcoming spacecrafts such as the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), the Large UV/Optical/Infrared Surveyor (LUVOIR), and a possible gas spectrometer onboard an orbiter.This work is supported by NASA’s Keck PI Data Award (PI L.P.) and Solar System Observation Program (PI L.P.), and by the NASA Astrobiology Institute through funding awarded to the Goddard Center for Astrobiology (PI M.J.M.).

  9. Inventorying the molecular potential of Cupriavidus and Ralstonia strains surviving harsh space-related environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijnendonckx, Kristel; van Houdt, Rob; Provoost, Ann; Bossus, Albert; Ott, C. Mark; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Leys, Natalie

    The craving of modern man to explore life beyond earth presents a lot of challenges. The control of microbial contamination of the confined manned spacecraft is an important aspect that has to be taken into account in this journey. Because the human body contains a huge amount of microorganisms, the crew itself is the most important contamination source. But contamination can also originate from residing environmental microorganisms or from materials that are supplied from the Earth. These microbial contaminations can cause problems for the astronauts -well documented to have a decreased immunity -and the infrastructure of the space station. In this study, 14 different Cupriavidus metallidurans and Ralstonia pickettii strains, isolated from such space-related environments, where characterised in detail. These unique strains were isolated from drinking water that returned from ISS (3), from the cooling water system of the American ISS segment (4), from a swab sample of the Mars Odyssey Orbitor surface prior to flight (4), and from an air sample taken in the space assembly facility PHSF during Mars exploration Rover assembly (3). Their resistance to heavy metals and antibiotics was screened. The C. metallidurans isolates were more resistant to Zn2+ and Hg+ but more sensitive to Ni2+ than the R. pickettii strains. The MIC values for Cu2+ ranged from 1,5mM to 12mM, for Co2+ from 1,58mM to 12,63mM and for Cd2+ from 0,25mM to 1mM. For Ni2+ , the MIC values were between 2 and 8mM, except for the strain C. metallidurans IV (0502478) that was able to grow on Ni+2 concentrations up to 48mM. A metal of special interest was Ag+ because it is used to sanitize ISS drinking water. The strains isolated from air and surface samples showed a MIC value ranging from 0,35µM to 4µM. The isolates from the water samples had MIC values from 0,3µM to 2µM, which is lower than (or comparable with) the lowest limit of the silver concentration used in the ISS (1,9µM -4,6µM). However, all

  10. Restricted active space calculations of L-edge X-ray absorption spectra: from molecular orbitals to multiplet states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinjari, Rahul V; Delcey, Mickaël G; Guo, Meiyuan; Odelius, Michael; Lundberg, Marcus

    2014-09-28

    The metal L-edge (2p → 3d) X-ray absorption spectra are affected by a number of different interactions: electron-electron repulsion, spin-orbit coupling, and charge transfer between metal and ligands, which makes the simulation of spectra challenging. The core restricted active space (RAS) method is an accurate and flexible approach that can be used to calculate X-ray spectra of a wide range of medium-sized systems without any symmetry constraints. Here, the applicability of the method is tested in detail by simulating three ferric (3d(5)) model systems with well-known electronic structure, viz., atomic Fe(3+), high-spin [FeCl6](3-) with ligand donor bonding, and low-spin [Fe(CN)6](3-) that also has metal backbonding. For these systems, the performance of the core RAS method, which does not require any system-dependent parameters, is comparable to that of the commonly used semi-empirical charge-transfer multiplet model. It handles orbitally degenerate ground states, accurately describes metal-ligand interactions, and includes both single and multiple excitations. The results are sensitive to the choice of orbitals in the active space and this sensitivity can be used to assign spectral features. A method has also been developed to analyze the calculated X-ray spectra using a chemically intuitive molecular orbital picture.

  11. Genetic analysis and molecular detection of the corn endosperm mutants induced by space flight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Caibo; Zhou Yuanyuan; Wang Hanyu; Wang Hongwei; Wang Shengqing; Rong Tingzhao; Cao Moju

    2013-01-01

    In this study, two maize inbred lines 08-641 and 18-599 were carried into cosmic space by recoverable satellite 'Shijian 8', grain shrunken transparently and opaquely mutants were selected as experimental materials and their soluble sugar content in kernel were measured by annthrone colorimetry. The content of soluble sugar in mutant st1 kernels began to rise in 10 days after pollination, to reach the peak in 25 days and significantly higher than the contrast 08-641, while in mutant sol kernels it began to rise in 10 days after pollination, to reach the peak in 20 days and significantly higher than the contrast 18-599. The results of genetic analysis and allelism test showed that the trait in both mutants was all controlled by a single recessive gene, the mutant st1 was allelic to the su1 and the mutant sol was allelic to the sh2. DNA sequence alignment found 2 single-base mutations in 2 and 13 exon of su1 gene in the mutant st1 and 3 single-base mutations in 2, 5 and 16 exon of sh2 gene in mutant so1 leading to the change in amino acid sequences. So it is inferred that starch biosynthesis in the mutants may be blocked by these mutations, which lead to the increase of soluble sugar content in kernel. (authors)

  12. Gas-filled hohlraum fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar, M.A.; Gobby, P.L.; Foreman, L.R.; Bush, H. Jr.; Gomez, V.M.; Moore, J.E.; Stone, G.F.

    1995-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) researchers have fabricated and fielded gas-filled hohlraums at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Nova laser. Fill pressures of 1--5 atmospheres have been typical. We describe the production of the parts, their assembly and fielding. Emphasis is placed on the production of gas-tight polyimide windows and the fielding apparatus and procedure

  13. Molecular structures enumeration and virtual screening in the chemical space with RetroPath2.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Mathilde; Duigou, Thomas; Carbonell, Pablo; Faulon, Jean-Loup

    2017-12-19

    Network generation tools coupled with chemical reaction rules have been mainly developed for synthesis planning and more recently for metabolic engineering. Using the same core algorithm, these tools apply a set of rules to a source set of compounds, stopping when a sink set of compounds has been produced. When using the appropriate sink, source and rules, this core algorithm can be used for a variety of applications beyond those it has been developed for. Here, we showcase the use of the open source workflow RetroPath2.0. First, we mathematically prove that we can generate all structural isomers of a molecule using a reduced set of reaction rules. We then use this enumeration strategy to screen the chemical space around a set of monomers and predict their glass transition temperatures, as well as around aminoglycosides to search structures maximizing antibacterial activity. We also perform a screening around aminoglycosides with enzymatic reaction rules to ensure biosynthetic accessibility. We finally use our workflow on an E. coli model to complete E. coli metabolome, with novel molecules generated using promiscuous enzymatic reaction rules. These novel molecules are searched on the MS spectra of an E. coli cell lysate interfacing our workflow with OpenMS through the KNIME Analytics Platform. We provide an easy to use and modify, modular, and open-source workflow. We demonstrate its versatility through a variety of use cases including molecular structure enumeration, virtual screening in the chemical space, and metabolome completion. Because it is open source and freely available on MyExperiment.org, workflow community contributions should likely expand further the features of the tool, even beyond the use cases presented in the paper.

  14. Explicit Hilbert-space representations of atomic and molecular photoabsorption spectra: Computational studies of Stieltjes-Tchebycheff functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermann, M.R.; Langhoff, P.W.

    1983-01-01

    Explicit Hilbert-space techniques are reported for construction of the discrete and continuum Schroedinger states required in atomic and molecular photoexcitation and/or photoionization studies. These developments extend and clarify previously described moment-theory methods for determinations of photoabsorption cross sections from discrete basis-set calculations to include explicit construction of underlying wave functions. The appropriate Stieltjes-Tchebycheff excitation and ionization functions of nth order are defined as Radau-type eigenstates of an appropriate operator in an n-term Cauchy-Lanczos basis. The energies of these states are the Radau quadrature points of the photoabsorption cross section, and their (reciprocal) norms provide the corresponding quadrature weights. Although finite-order Stieltjes-Tchebycheff functions are L 2 integrable, and do not have asymptotic spatial tails in the continuous spectrum, the Radau quadrature weights nevertheless provide information for normalization in the conventional Dirac delta-function sense. Since one Radau point can be placed anywhere in the spectrum, appropriately normalized convergent approximations to any of the discrete or continuum Schroedinger states are obtained from the development. Connections with matrix partitioning methods are established, demonstrating that nth-order Stieltjes-Tchebycheff functions are optical-potential solutions of the matrix Schroedinger equation in the full Cauchy-Lanczos basis

  15. Radiopacity of root filling materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer-Olsen, E.M.

    1983-01-01

    A method for measuring the radiopacity of root filling materials is described. Direct measurements were made of the optic density values of the materials in comparison with a standard curve relating optic density to the thickness of an aluminium step wedge exposed simultaneously. By proper selection of film and conditions for exposure and development, it was possible to obtain a near-linear standard curve which added to the safety and reproducibility of the method. The technique of radiographic assessment was modified from clinical procedures in evaluating the obturation in radiographs, and it was aimed at detecting slits or voids between the dental wall and the filling material. This radiographic assessment of potensial leakage was compared with actual in vitro lekage of dye (basic fuchsin) into the roots of filled teeth. The result of the investigation show that root filling materials display a very wide range of radiopacity, from less than 3 mm to more than 12 mm of aluminium. It also seem that tooth roots that appear to be well obturated by radiographic evaluation, stand a good chance of beeing resistant to leakage in vitro, and that the type of filling material rather than its radiographic appearance, determines the susceptibility of the filled tooth to leakage in vitro. As an appendix the report contains a survey of radiopaque additives in root filling materials

  16. A general-model-space diagrammatic perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hose, G.; Kaldor, U.

    1980-01-01

    A diagrammatic many-body perturbation theory applicable to arbitrary model spaces is presented. The necessity of having a complete model space (all possible occupancies of the partially-filled shells) is avoided. This requirement may be troublesome for systems with several well-spaced open shells, such as most atomic and molecular excited states, as a complete model space spans a very broad energy range and leaves out states within that range, leading to poor or no convergence of the perturbation series. The method presented here would be particularly useful for such states. The solution of a model problem (He 2 excited Σ + sub(g) states) is demonstrated. (Auth.)

  17. Molecular Dynamic Simulation of Space and Earth-Grown Crystal Structures of Thermostable T1 Lipase Geobacillus zalihae Revealed a Better Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, Siti Nor Hasmah; Aris, Sayangku Nor Ariati Mohamad; Halim, Khairul Bariyyah Abd; Ali, Mohd Shukuri Mohamad; Leow, Thean Chor; Kamarudin, Nor Hafizah Ahmad; Masomian, Malihe; Rahman, Raja Noor Zaliha Raja Abd

    2017-09-25

    Less sedimentation and convection in a microgravity environment has become a well-suited condition for growing high quality protein crystals. Thermostable T1 lipase derived from bacterium Geobacillus zalihae has been crystallized using the counter diffusion method under space and earth conditions. Preliminary study using YASARA molecular modeling structure program for both structures showed differences in number of hydrogen bond, ionic interaction, and conformation. The space-grown crystal structure contains more hydrogen bonds as compared with the earth-grown crystal structure. A molecular dynamics simulation study was used to provide insight on the fluctuations and conformational changes of both T1 lipase structures. The analysis of root mean square deviation (RMSD), radius of gyration, and root mean square fluctuation (RMSF) showed that space-grown structure is more stable than the earth-grown structure. Space-structure also showed more hydrogen bonds and ion interactions compared to the earth-grown structure. Further analysis also revealed that the space-grown structure has long-lived interactions, hence it is considered as the more stable structure. This study provides the conformational dynamics of T1 lipase crystal structure grown in space and earth condition.

  18. Biocompatibility of root-end filling materials: recent update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payal Saxena

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of a root-end filling is to establish a seal between the root canal space and the periradicular tissues. As root-end filling materials come into contact with periradicular tissues, knowledge of the tissue response is crucial. Almost every available dental restorative material has been suggested as the root-end material of choice at a certain point in the past. This literature review on root-end filling materials will evaluate and comparatively analyse the biocompatibility and tissue response to these products, with primary focus on newly introduced materials.

  19. Removal of root filling materials.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duncan, H.F. Chong, B.S.

    2011-05-01

    Safe, successful and effective removal of root filling materials is an integral component of non-surgical root canal re-treatment. Access to the root canal system must be achieved in order to negotiate to the canal terminus so that deficiencies in the original treatment can be rectified. Since a range of materials have been advocated for filling root canals, different techniques are required for their removal. The management of commonly encountered root filling materials during non-surgical re-treatment, including the clinical procedures necessary for removal and the associated risks, are reviewed. As gutta-percha is the most widely used and accepted root filling material, there is a greater emphasis on its removal in this review.

  20. Better building of valley fills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chironis, N.P.

    1980-03-01

    Current US regulations for building valley fills or head of hollow fills to hold excess spoil resulting from contour mining are meeting with considerable opposition, particularly from operators in steep-slope areas. An alternative method has been submitted to the Office of Surface Mining by Virgina. Known as the zoned concept method, it has already been used successfully in building water-holding dams and coal refuse embankments on sloping terrain. The ways in which drainage and seepage are managed are described.

  1. Subnanopore filling during water vapor adsorption on microporous silica thin films as seen by low-energy positron annihilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Kenji; Yoshimoto, Shigeru; O'Rourke, Brian E.; Oshima, Nagayasu; Kumagai, Kazuhiro

    2018-02-01

    Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) using a low-energy positron microbeam extracted into air was applied to elucidating molecular-level pore structures formed in silicon-oxide-backboned microporous thin films under controlled humidity conditions; as a result, a direct observation of the interstitial spaces in the micropores filled with water molecules was achieved. It was demonstrated that PALS using a microbeam extracted into air in combination with water vapor adsorption is a powerful tool for the in-situ elucidation of both open and closed subnanoscaled pores of functional thin materials under practical conditions.

  2. Structure and chemical composition changes of Pd-rod and reaction product collector irradiated by 10 MeV braking gamma quanta inside high pressure chamber filled with 2.5 kbar molecular hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Didyk, A.Yu.; Wisniewski, R.

    2013-01-01

    A research of the elemental composition and surface structure of a Pd rod saturated with hydrogen and a brass collector of nuclear and chemical reaction products irradiated by 10 MeV braking gamma quanta in dense molecular hydrogen gas at 2.5 kbar pressure is carried out. The changes of the elemental composition and surface structure of the Pd rod and collector similar to analogous changes in the experiment carried out in dense gas deuterium are observed. Possible explanations of the firstly observed phenomenon are offered

  3. QENS investigation of filled rubbers

    CERN Document Server

    Triolo, A; Desmedt, A; Pieper, J K; Lo Celso, F; Triolo, R; Negroni, F; Arrighi, V; Qian, H; Frick, B

    2002-01-01

    The polymer segmental dynamics is investigated in a series of silica-filled rubbers. The presence of inert fillers in polymers greatly affects the mechanical and physical performance of the final materials. For example, silica has been proposed as a reinforcing agent of elastomers in tire production. Results from quasielastic neutron scattering and Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis (DMTA) measurements are presented on styrene-ran-butadiene rubber filled with silica. A clear indication is obtained of the existence of a bimodal dynamics, which can be rationalized in terms of the relaxation of bulk rubber and the much slower relaxation of the rubber adsorbed on the filler surface. (orig.)

  4. Gas-Filled Capillary Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhauer, L. C.; Kimura, W. D.

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a 1-D, quasi-steady-state numerical model for a gas-filled capillary discharge that is designed to aid in selecting the optimum capillary radius in order to guide a laser beam with the required intensity through the capillary. The model also includes the option for an external solenoid B-field around the capillary, which increases the depth of the parabolic density channel in the capillary, thereby allowing for propagation of smaller laser beam waists. The model has been used to select the parameters for gas-filled capillaries to be utilized during the Staged Electron Laser Acceleration -- Laser Wakefield (STELLA-LW) experiment

  5. Arsenic(V) reduction in relation to Iron(III) transformation and molecular characterization of the structural and functional microbial community in sediments of a basin-fill aquifer in Northern Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Babur S; Muruganandam, Subathra; Meng, Xianyu; Sorensen, Darwin L; Dupont, R Ryan; McLean, Joan E

    2014-05-01

    Basin-fill aquifers of the Southwestern United States are associated with elevated concentrations of arsenic (As) in groundwater. Many private domestic wells in the Cache Valley Basin, UT, have As concentrations in excess of the U.S. EPA drinking water limit. Thirteen sediment cores were collected from the center of the valley at the depth of the shallow groundwater and were sectioned into layers based on redoxmorphic features. Three of the layers, two from redox transition zones and one from a depletion zone, were used to establish microcosms. Microcosms were treated with groundwater (GW) or groundwater plus glucose (GW+G) to investigate the extent of As reduction in relation to iron (Fe) transformation and characterize the microbial community structure and function by sequencing 16S rRNA and arsenate dissimilatory reductase (arrA) genes. Under the carbon-limited conditions of the GW treatment, As reduction was independent of Fe reduction, despite the abundance of sequences related to Geobacter and Shewanella, genera that include a variety of dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria. The addition of glucose, an electron donor and carbon source, caused substantial shifts toward domination of the bacterial community by Clostridium-related organisms, and As reduction was correlated with Fe reduction for the sediments from the redox transition zone. The arrA gene sequencing from microcosms at day 54 of incubation showed the presence of 14 unique phylotypes, none of which were related to any previously described arrA gene sequence, suggesting a unique community of dissimilatory arsenate-respiring bacteria in the Cache Valley Basin.

  6. Budgeting Academic Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Watson

    2011-01-01

    There are many articles about space management, including those that discuss space calculations, metrics, and categories. Fewer articles discuss the space budgeting processes used by administrators to allocate space. The author attempts to fill this void by discussing her administrative experiences with Middle Tennessee State University's (MTSU)…

  7. Filling of charged cylindrical capillaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, Siddhartha; Chanda, Sourayon; Eijkel, J.C.T.; Tas, N.R.; Chakraborty, Suman; Mitra, Sushanta K.

    2014-01-01

    We provide an analytical model to describe the filling dynamics of horizontal cylindrical capillaries having charged walls. The presence of surface charge leads to two distinct effects: It leads to a retarding electrical force on the liquid column and also causes a reduced viscous drag force because

  8. The Use of the Molecular Adsorber Coating Technology to Mitigate Vacuum Chamber Contamination During Pathfinder Testing for the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Nithin S.; Hasegawa, Mark M.; Wooldridge, Eve M.; Henderson-Nelson, Kelly A.

    2016-01-01

    As a coating made of highly porous zeolite materials, the Molecular Adsorber Coating (MAC) was developed to capture outgassed molecular contaminants, such as hydrocarbons and silicones. For spaceflight applications, the adsorptive capabilities of the coating can alleviate on-orbit outgassing concerns on or near sensitive surfaces and instruments within the spacecraft. Similarly, this sprayable paint technology has proven to be significantly beneficial for ground based space applications, in particular, for vacuum chamber environments. This paper describes the recent use of the MAC technology during Pathfinder testing of the Optical Ground Support Equipment (OGSE) for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). The coating was used as a mitigation tool to entrap persistent outgassed contaminants, specifically silicone based diffusion pump oil, from within JSC's cryogenic optical vacuum chamber test facility called Chamber A. This paper summarizes the sample fabrication, installation, laboratory testing, post-test chemical analysis results, and future plans for the MAC technology, which was effectively used to protect the JWST test equipment from vacuum chamber contamination.

  9. Fissure fillings from the Klipperaas study site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tullborg, E.L.

    1986-07-01

    The Klipperaas study site is located within the Smaaland-Vaermland granitoid belt in southern Sweden. The area investigated can be subdivided into blocks with different hydraulic character and fracture frequency of the rocks. A fissure filling, study has been carried out within the area. This includes identification of the minerals, mineral frequency, textures within the fissures and isotope analyses of calcites. Four generation of fissure fillings, within the time space c. 1600 M.a. to present, has been distinguished. These are 1) quartz; 2) epidote + muscovite and adularia + hematite; 3) calcite + chlorite +/hematite; 4) calcite, clay minerals and Fe-oxyhydroxide. It is observed that the surface water affect the uppermost part of the bedrock resulting in calcite dissolution, break down of pyrite and precipitation of Fe-oxyhydroxide. It is also obvious from the fracture calcite frequency that calcite dissolution is more intensive close to and within the fracture zones. There, Fe-oxyhydroxide can be found down to at least 400 m depth. This gives valuable information about the physic-chemical character of the groundwater within the bedrock. Several fracture zones have been reactivated. It is also suspected that relatively late movements have taken place causing crushing of the rock and only a slight cementation of the crushed material is visible. Some of the fracture zones correspond to mafic dikes. These zones exhibit lower hydraulic conductivity than other zones due to fracture sealing by clay minerals but also by chlorite and calcite. (author)

  10. Hard-to-fill vacancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ruth

    2010-09-29

    Skills for Health has launched a set of resources to help healthcare employers tackle hard-to-fill entry-level vacancies and provide sustainable employment for local unemployed people. The Sector Employability Toolkit aims to reduce recruitment and retention costs for entry-level posts and repare people for employment through pre-job training programmes, and support employers to develop local partnerships to gain access to wider pools of candidates and funding streams.

  11. Space space space

    CERN Document Server

    Trembach, Vera

    2014-01-01

    Space is an introduction to the mysteries of the Universe. Included are Task Cards for independent learning, Journal Word Cards for creative writing, and Hands-On Activities for reinforcing skills in Math and Language Arts. Space is a perfect introduction to further research of the Solar System.

  12. Dealing with chemical reaction pathways and electronic excitations in molecular systems via renormalized and active-space coupled-cluster methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piecuch, Piotr; Li, Wei; Lutz, Jesse J. [Department of Chemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Włoch, Marta [Department of Chemistry, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, Michigan 49931 (United States); Gour, Jeffrey R. [Department of Chemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA and Department of Chemistry, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2015-01-22

    Coupled-cluster (CC) theory has become the de facto standard for high-accuracy molecular calculations, but the widely used CC and equation-of-motion (EOM) CC approaches, such as CCSD(T) and EOMCCSD, have difficulties with capturing stronger electron correlations that characterize multi-reference molecular problems. This presentation demonstrates that many of these difficulties can be addressed by exploiting the completely renormalized (CR) CC and EOMCC approaches, such as CR-CC(2,3), CR-EOMCCSD(T), and CR-EOMCC(2,3), and their local correlation counterparts applicable to systems with hundreds of atoms, and the active-space CC/EOMCC approaches, such as CCSDt and EOMCCSDt, and their extensions to valence systems via the electron-attached and ionized formalisms.

  13. Filling bore-holes with explosive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfredsson, S H

    1965-03-02

    In this device for filling boreholes formed in a rock formation with particulate explosive, the explosive is conveyed into the hole by means of a pressure fluid through a tube which has a lesser diameter than the hole. The tube is characterized by a lattice work arranged externally on it, and having a structure adapted to allow passage of a pressure fluid returning between the tube and the wall of the hole, but retaining particles of explosive entrained by the returning pressure fluid. In another arrangement of the device, the lattice work has the form of a brush, including filaments or bristles which are dimensioned to bridge the spacing between the tube and the wall of the hole. (12 claims)

  14. Characterization of the conformational space of a triple-stranded beta-sheet forming peptide with molecular dynamics simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soto, P; Colombo, G

    2004-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been performed on a series of mutants of the 20 amino acid peptide Betanova in order to critically assess the ability of MD simulations to reproduce the folding and stability of small beta-sheet-forming peptides on currently accessible timescales. Simulations

  15. Selection and specification criteria for fills for cut-and-fill mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, E. G.

    1980-05-15

    Because of significant differences in placement and loading conditions, the ideal fill material for a cut-and-fill operation has different characteristics to those for a fill for a filled open stoping operation. The differing requirements of the two mining operations must be understood and accounted for in establishing fill selection and specification criteria. Within the paper, aspects of the particular requirements of cut-and-fill mining are analyzed and related to the specific fill tests and properties required. Emphasis is placed upon the role of fill in ground support, though this cannot be isolated from overall fill performance. Where appropriate, test data are introduced and areas requiring continuing research highlighted.

  16. 30 CFR 817.72 - Disposal of excess spoil: Valley fill/head-of-hollow fills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.72 Disposal of excess spoil: Valley fill/head-of-hollow fills.... Uncontrolled surface drainage may not be directed over the outslope of the fill. (2) Runoff from areas above the fill and runoff from the surface of the fill shall be diverted into stabilized diversion channels...

  17. Spectral interpolation - Zero fill or convolution. [image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, M. L.

    1977-01-01

    Zero fill, or augmentation by zeros, is a method used in conjunction with fast Fourier transforms to obtain spectral spacing at intervals closer than obtainable from the original input data set. In the present paper, an interpolation technique (interpolation by repetitive convolution) is proposed which yields values accurate enough for plotting purposes and which lie within the limits of calibration accuracies. The technique is shown to operate faster than zero fill, since fewer operations are required. The major advantages of interpolation by repetitive convolution are that efficient use of memory is possible (thus avoiding the difficulties encountered in decimation in time FFTs) and that is is easy to implement.

  18. Vacuum space charge effects in sub-picosecond soft X-ray photoemission on a molecular adsorbate layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Angela, M; Anniyev, T; Beye, M; Coffee, R; Föhlisch, A; Gladh, J; Kaya, S; Katayama, T; Krupin, O; Nilsson, A; Nordlund, D; Schlotter, W F; Sellberg, J A; Sorgenfrei, F; Turner, J J; Öström, H; Ogasawara, H; Wolf, M; Wurth, W

    2015-03-01

    Vacuum space charge induced kinetic energy shifts of O 1s and Ru 3d core levels in femtosecond soft X-ray photoemission spectra (PES) have been studied at a free electron laser (FEL) for an oxygen layer on Ru(0001). We fully reproduced the measurements by simulating the in-vacuum expansion of the photoelectrons and demonstrate the space charge contribution of the high-order harmonics in the FEL beam. Employing the same analysis for 400 nm pump-X-ray probe PES, we can disentangle the delay dependent Ru 3d energy shifts into effects induced by space charge and by lattice heating from the femtosecond pump pulse.

  19. Charge balancing fill rate monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothman, J.L.; Blum, E.B.

    1995-01-01

    A fill rate monitor has been developed for the NSLS storage rings to allow machine tuning over a very large dynamic range of beam current. Synchrotron light, focused on a photodiode, produces a signal proportional to the beam current. A charge balancing circuit processes the diode current, creating an output signal proportional to the current injected into the ring. The unit operates linearly over a dynamic range of 120 dB and can resolve pulses of injected beam as small as 1 μA

  20. Bio-inspired dental fillings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyhle, Hans; Bunk, Oliver; Buser, Stefan; Krastl, Gabriel; Zitzmann, Nicola U.; Ilgenstein, Bernd; Beckmann, Felix; Pfeiffer, Franz; Weiger, Roland; Müller, Bert

    2009-08-01

    Human teeth are anisotropic composites. Dentin as the core material of the tooth consists of nanometer-sized calcium phosphate crystallites embedded in collagen fiber networks. It shows its anisotropy on the micrometer scale by its well-oriented microtubules. The detailed three-dimensional nanostructure of the hard tissues namely dentin and enamel, however, is not understood, although numerous studies on the anisotropic mechanical properties have been performed and evaluated to explain the tooth function including the enamel-dentin junction acting as effective crack barrier. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) with a spatial resolution in the 10 μm range allows determining the size and orientation of the constituents on the nanometer scale with reasonable precision. So far, only some dental materials, i.e. the fiber reinforced posts exhibit anisotropic properties related to the micrometer-size glass fibers. Dental fillings, composed of nanostructures oriented similar to the natural hard tissues of teeth, however, do not exist at all. The current X-ray-based investigations of extracted human teeth provide evidence for oriented micro- and nanostructures in dentin and enamel. These fundamental quantitative findings result in profound knowledge to develop biologically inspired dental fillings with superior resistance to thermal and mechanical shocks.

  1. Vertical Scan-Conversion for Filling Purposes

    OpenAIRE

    Hersch, R. D.

    1988-01-01

    Conventional scan-conversion algorithms were developed independently of filling algorithms. They cause many problems, when used for filling purposes. However, today's raster printers and plotters require extended use of filling, especially for the generation of typographic characters and graphic line art. A new scan-conversion algorithm, called vertical scan-conversion has been specifically designed to meet the requirements of parity scan line fill algorithms. Vertical scan-conversion ensures...

  2. 7 CFR 58.923 - Filling containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Filling containers. 58.923 Section 58.923 Agriculture... Procedures § 58.923 Filling containers. (a) The filling of small containers with product shall be done in a sanitary manner. The containers shall not contaminate or detract from the quality of the product in any way...

  3. Recent developments in inorganically filled carbon nanotubes: successes and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ujjal K Gautam, Pedro M F J Costa, Yoshio Bando, Xiaosheng Fang, Liang Li, Masataka Imura and Dmitri Golberg

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs are a unique class of nanomaterials that can be imagined as rolled graphene sheets. The inner hollow of a CNT provides an extremely small, one-dimensional space for storage of materials. In the last decade, enormous effort has been spent to produce filled CNTs that combine the properties of both the host CNT and the guest filling material. CNTs filled with various inorganic materials such as metals, alloys, semiconductors and insulators have been obtained using different synthesis approaches including capillary filling and chemical vapor deposition. Recently, several potential applications have emerged for these materials, such as the measurement of temperature at the nanoscale, nano-spot welding, and the storage and delivery of extremely small quantities of materials. A clear distinction between this class of materials and other nanostructures is the existence of an enormous interfacial area between the CNT and the filling matter. Theoretical investigations have shown that the lattice mismatch and strong exchange interaction of CNTs with the guest material across the interface should result in reordering of the guest crystal structure and passivation of the surface dangling bonds and thus yielding new and interesting physical properties. Despite preliminary successes, there remain many challenges in realizing applications of CNTs filled with inorganic materials, such as a comprehensive understanding of their growth and physical properties and control of their structural parameters. In this article, we overview research on filled CNT nanomaterials with special emphasis on recent progress and key achievements. We also discuss the future scope and the key challenges emerging out of a decade of intensive research on these fascinating materials.

  4. Lightweight Hybrid Ablator Incorporating Aerogel-Filled Open-Cell Foam Structural Insulator, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In previous work for NASA and DoD, Ultramet developed lightweight open-cell foam insulators composed of a carbon or ceramic structural foam skeleton filled with a...

  5. Molecular investigations on grain filling rate under terminal heat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ezedom Theresa

    2013-07-10

    Jul 10, 2013 ... under terminal heat stress in bread wheat. (Triticum aestivum L.) Girish Chandra Pandey1, Jagadish ... ficantly in all the bread and durum wheat genotypes, because of significant interaction of each ..... wheat varieties and registered genetic stocks (Triticum L.). Technical. Bulletin No.13, Directorate of Wheat ...

  6. Visualizing Proportions and Dissimilarities by Space-filling Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrizosa, Emilio; Guerrero, Vanesa; Morales, Dolores Romero

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we address the problem of visualizing a set of individuals, which have attached a statistical value given as a proportion, and a dissimilarity measure. Each individual is represented as a region within the unit square, in such a way that the area of the regions represent...... the proportions and the distances between them represent the dissimilarities. To enhance the interpretability of the representation, the regions are required to satisfy two properties. First, they must form a partition of the unit square, namely, the portions in which it is divided must cover its area without...... is solved heuristically by using the Large Neighborhood Search technique. The methodology proposed in this paper is applied to three real-world datasets: the first one concerning financial markets in Europe and Asia, the second one about the letters in the English alphabet, and finally the provinces...

  7. Microhardness of bulk-fill composite materials

    OpenAIRE

    Kelić, Katarina; Matić, Sanja; Marović, Danijela; Klarić, Eva; Tarle, Zrinka

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine microhardness of high- and low-viscosity bulk-fill composite resins and compare it with conventional composite materials. Four materials of high-viscosity were tested, including three bulk-fills: QuiXfi l (QF), x-tra fil (XTF) and Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill (TEBCF), while nanohybrid composite GrandioSO (GSO) served as control. The other four were low-viscosity composites, three bulk-fill materials: Smart Dentin Replacement (SDR), Venus Bulk Fill (VBF) and ...

  8. Review of fill mining technology in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, K. H.; Hedley, D. G.F.

    1980-05-15

    The Canadian mining industry has a long history of being in the fore-front in developing new technology in underground hardrock mines. Examples include the development of hydraulic and cemented fills, undercut-and-fill, mechanized cut-and-fill, post pillar, vertical retreat and blasthole mining methods. The evolution of this technology is briefly described in an historical review. Backfill serves many functions, although it is generally considered in terms of its support capabilities. These functions, mainly related to the mining method used, are evaluated in regard to regional support, pillar support, fill roof, working floor, dilution control and waste disposal. With the advent of blasthole and vertical retreat methods for pillar recovery operations, the freestanding height of backfill walls has assumed greater importance. Consequently, more attention is being given to what fill properties are required to achieve fill wall exposures up to 25 m wide by 90 m high. With the large increases in energy costs, alternatives to partially replace Portland cement in fill are being examined. The validation of mining concepts and the interaction of backfill is perhaps best evaluated by in-situ measurements. Examples are given of stress, deformation and fill pressure measurements in longitudinal cut-and-fill, post pillar mining and blasthole stoping with delayed fill which were taken in several mines in Canada. Finally, the overall design procedure used in deciding mining method, stope and pillar dimensions, sequence of extraction, fill properties and support systems at a new mine is described.

  9. Exciplex-like emission from a closely-spaced, orthogonally-sited anthracenyl-boron dipyrromethene (Bodipy) molecular dyad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benniston, Andrew C; Harriman, Anthony; Whittle, Victoria L; Zelzer, Mischa; Harrington, Ross W; Clegg, William

    2010-07-30

    A molecular dyad, , has been prepared that incorporates a boron dipyrromethene (Bodipy) group functionalized at the meso position with an anthracenyl unit. Emission from the dyad contains contributions from both localized fluorescence from the Bodipy unit and exciplex-like emission associated with an intramolecular charge-transfer state. The peak position, intensity and lifetime of this exciplex emission are solvent dependent and the shift in the emission maximum shows a linear relationship to the solvent polarity function (Deltaf). The calculated dipole moment for the exciplex is 22.5 +/- 2.2 D. The radiative rate constant (k(RAD)) for exciplex emission decreases progressively with increasing solvent polarity. In this latter case, k(RAD) shows an obvious dependence on the energy gap between the exciplex state and the first-excited singlet state resident on the Bodipy unit. The emission characteristics for dissolved in perfluorooctane are used to characterize the refractive index and dielectric constant of the solvent.

  10. Surface Patterning Using Diazonium Ink Filled Nanopipette.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Min; Yu, Yun; Blanchard, Pierre-Yves; Mirkin, Michael V

    2015-11-03

    Molecular grafting of diazonium is a widely employed surface modification technique. Local electrografting of this species is a promising approach to surface doping and related properties tailoring. The instability of diazonium cation complicates this process, so that this species was generated in situ in many reported studies. In this Article, we report the egress transfer of aryl diazonium cation across the liquid/liquid interface supported at the nanopipette tip that can be used for controlled delivery this species to the external aqueous phase for local substrate patterning. An aryl diazonium salt was prepared with weakly coordinating and lipophilic tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate anion stable as a solid and soluble in low polarity media. The chemically stable solution of this salt in 1,2-dichloroethane can be used as "diazonium ink". The ink-filled nanopipette was employed as a tip in the scanning electrochemical microscope (SECM) for surface patterning with the spatial resolution controlled by the pipette orifice radius and a few nanometers film thickness. The submicrometer-size grafted spots produced on the HOPG surface were located and imaged with the atomic force microscope (AFM).

  11. Operation feedback of hydrogen filling station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pregassame, S.; Barral, K.; Allidieres, L.; Charbonneau, T.; Lacombe, Y.

    2004-01-01

    One of the technical challenges of hydrogen technology is the development of hydrogen infrastructures which satisfy either safety requirements and reliability of filling processes. AIR LIQUIDE realized an hydrogen filling station in Sassenage (France) operational since September 2003. This station is able to fill 3 buses a day up to 350bar by equilibrium with high pressure buffers. In parallel with commercial stations, the group wanted to create a testing ground in real conditions running with several objectives: validate on a full scale bench a simulation tool able to predict the temperature of both gas and cylinder's materials during filling processes; define the best filling procedures in order to reach mass, temperature and filling time targets; analyse the temperature distribution and evolution inside the cylinder; get a general knowledge about hydrogen stations from safety and reliability point of view; operate the first full scale refuelling station in France. The station is also up-graded for 700bar filling from either a liquid hydrogen source or a gas booster, with cold filling possibility. This paper presents the results concerning 350bar filling : thermal effects, optimal filling procedures and influence of parameters such as climatic conditions are discussed. (author)

  12. Dielectric-filled radiofrequency linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faehl, R J; Keinigs, R K; Pogue, E W [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-12-31

    High current, high brightness electron beam accelerators promise to open up dramatic new applications. Linear induction accelerators are currently viewed as the appropriate technology for these applications. A concept by Humphries and Hwang may permit radiofrequency accelerators to fulfill the same functions with greater simplicity and enhanced flexibility. This concept involves the replacement of vacuum rf cavities with dielectric filled ones. Simple analysis indicates that the resonant frequencies are reduced by a factor of ({epsilon}{sub 0}/{epsilon}){sup 1/2} while the stored energy is increased by {epsilon}/{epsilon}{sub 0}. For a high dielectric constant like water, this factor can approach 80. A series of numerical calculations of simple pill-box cavities was performed. Eigenfunctions and resonant frequencies for a full system configuration, including dielectric material, vacuum beamline, and a ceramic window separating the two have been computed. These calculations are compared with the results of a small experimental cavity which have been constructed and operated. Low power tests show excellent agreement. (author). 4 figs., 8 refs.

  13. Bayesian screening for active compounds in high-dimensional chemical spaces combining property descriptors and molecular fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Martin; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2008-01-01

    Bayesian classifiers are increasingly being used to distinguish active from inactive compounds and search large databases for novel active molecules. We introduce an approach to directly combine the contributions of property descriptors and molecular fingerprints in the search for active compounds that is based on a Bayesian framework. Conventionally, property descriptors and fingerprints are used as alternative features for virtual screening methods. Following the approach introduced here, probability distributions of descriptor values and fingerprint bit settings are calculated for active and database molecules and the divergence between the resulting combined distributions is determined as a measure of biological activity. In test calculations on a large number of compound activity classes, this methodology was found to consistently perform better than similarity searching using fingerprints and multiple reference compounds or Bayesian screening calculations using probability distributions calculated only from property descriptors. These findings demonstrate that there is considerable synergy between different types of property descriptors and fingerprints in recognizing diverse structure-activity relationships, at least in the context of Bayesian modeling.

  14. Contaminants in ventilated filling boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolster, D. T.; Linden, P. F.

    While energy efficiency is important, the adoption of energy-efficient ventilation systems still requires the provision of acceptable indoor air quality. Many low-energy systems, such as displacement or natural ventilation, rely on temperature stratification within the interior environment, always extracting the warmest air from the top of the room. Understanding buoyancy-driven convection in a confined ventilated space is key to understanding the flow that develops with many of these modern low-energy ventilation schemes. In this work we study the transport of an initially uniformly distributed passive contaminant in a displacement-ventilated space. Representing a heat source as an ideal sourced of buoyancy, analytical and numerical models are developed that allow us to compare the average efficiency of contaminant removal between traditional mixing and modern low-energy systems. A set of small-scale analogue laboratory experiments was also conducted to further validate our analytical and numerical solutions.We find that on average traditional and low-energy ventilation methods are similar with regard to pollutant flushing efficiency. This is because the concentration being extracted from the system at any given time is approximately the same for both systems. However, very different vertical concentration gradients exist. For the low-energy system, a peak in contaminant concentration occurs at the temperature interface that is established within the space. This interface is typically designed to sit at some intermediate height in the space. Since this peak does not coincide with the extraction point, displacement ventilation does not offer the same benefits for pollutant flushing as it does for buoyancy removal.

  15. SIMULATION FROM ENDPOINT-CONDITIONED, CONTINUOUS-TIME MARKOV CHAINS ON A FINITE STATE SPACE, WITH APPLICATIONS TO MOLECULAR EVOLUTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobolth, Asger; Stone, Eric A

    2009-09-01

    Analyses of serially-sampled data often begin with the assumption that the observations represent discrete samples from a latent continuous-time stochastic process. The continuous-time Markov chain (CTMC) is one such generative model whose popularity extends to a variety of disciplines ranging from computational finance to human genetics and genomics. A common theme among these diverse applications is the need to simulate sample paths of a CTMC conditional on realized data that is discretely observed. Here we present a general solution to this sampling problem when the CTMC is defined on a discrete and finite state space. Specifically, we consider the generation of sample paths, including intermediate states and times of transition, from a CTMC whose beginning and ending states are known across a time interval of length T. We first unify the literature through a discussion of the three predominant approaches: (1) modified rejection sampling, (2) direct sampling, and (3) uniformization. We then give analytical results for the complexity and efficiency of each method in terms of the instantaneous transition rate matrix Q of the CTMC, its beginning and ending states, and the length of sampling time T. In doing so, we show that no method dominates the others across all model specifications, and we give explicit proof of which method prevails for any given Q, T, and endpoints. Finally, we introduce and compare three applications of CTMCs to demonstrate the pitfalls of choosing an inefficient sampler.

  16. Iron filled carbon nanostructures from different precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, S.; Borowiak-Palen, E.; Bachmatiuk, A.; Ruemmeli, M.H.; Gemming, T.; Kalenczuk, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    Here, we present a study on the synthesis of different nanostructures with one single-step in situ filling (encapsulation) via carbon vapor deposition (CVD). Ferrocene, acetylferrocene and iron (II) nitrate as iron precursors were explored. The application of each of these compounds resulted in different carbon nanomaterials such as: iron filled multiwalled carbon nanotubes with a low filling ratio (Fe-MWCNT), iron filled nanocapsules and unfilled MWCNT. The as-produced samples were purified by high temperature annealing and acid treatment. The purified materials were characterised using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy

  17. Characterization of Low Density Glass Filled Epoxies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Quesenberry, Matthew

    2003-01-01

    This report discusses the experimental determination and modeling of several thermophysical and mechanical properties of glass filled epoxy composite systems for potential use as electronic potting compounds...

  18. 7 CFR 58.730 - Filling containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Filling containers. 58.730 Section 58.730 Agriculture... Procedures § 58.730 Filling containers. Hot fluid cheese from the cookers may be held in hotwells or hoppers... shall effectively measure the desired amount of product into the pouch or container in a sanitary manner...

  19. Selective filling of Photonic Crystal Fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian; Noordegraaf, Danny; Sørensen, Thorkild

    2005-01-01

    A model for calculating the time necessary for filling one or more specific holes in a photonic crystal fibre is made. This model is verified for water, and its enabling potential is illustrated by a polymer application. Selective filling of the core in an air-guide photonic crystal fibre...

  20. Raman spectra of filled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bose, S.M.; Behera, S.N.; Sarangi, S.N.; Entel, P.

    2004-01-01

    The Raman spectra of a metallic carbon nanotube filled with atoms or molecules have been investigated theoretically. It is found that there will be a three way splitting of the main Raman lines due to the interaction of the nanotube phonon with the collective excitations (plasmons) of the conduction electrons of the nanotube as well as its coupling with the phonon of the filling material. The positions and relative strengths of these Raman peaks depend on the strength of the electron-phonon interaction, phonon frequency of the filling atom and the strength of interaction of the nanotube phonon and the phonon of the filling atoms. Careful experimental studies of the Raman spectra of filled nanotubes should show these three peaks. It is also shown that in a semiconducting nanotube the Raman line will split into two and should be observed experimentally

  1. Large size space construction for space exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondyurin, Alexey

    2016-07-01

    Space exploitation is impossible without large space structures. We need to make sufficient large volume of pressurized protecting frames for crew, passengers, space processing equipment, & etc. We have to be unlimited in space. Now the size and mass of space constructions are limited by possibility of a launch vehicle. It limits our future in exploitation of space by humans and in development of space industry. Large-size space construction can be made with using of the curing technology of the fibers-filled composites and a reactionable matrix applied directly in free space. For curing the fabric impregnated with a liquid matrix (prepreg) is prepared in terrestrial conditions and shipped in a container to orbit. In due time the prepreg is unfolded by inflating. After polymerization reaction, the durable construction can be fitted out with air, apparatus and life support systems. Our experimental studies of the curing processes in the simulated free space environment showed that the curing of composite in free space is possible. The large-size space construction can be developed. A project of space station, Moon base, Mars base, mining station, interplanet space ship, telecommunication station, space observatory, space factory, antenna dish, radiation shield, solar sail is proposed and overviewed. The study was supported by Humboldt Foundation, ESA (contract 17083/03/NL/SFe), NASA program of the stratospheric balloons and RFBR grants (05-08-18277, 12-08-00970 and 14-08-96011).

  2. Buckling of ZnS-filled single-walled carbon nanotubes – The influence of aspect ratio

    KAUST Repository

    Monteiro, André O.; Da Costa, Pedro M. F. J.; Cachim, Paulo B.; Holec, David

    2014-01-01

    The mechanical response of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) filled with crystalline zinc sulphide (ZnS) nanowires under uniaxial compression is studied using classical molecular dynamics. These simulations were used to analyse the behaviour

  3. d-Amino acids in molecular evolution in space - Absolute asymmetric photolysis and synthesis of amino acids by circularly polarized light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugahara, Haruna; Meinert, Cornelia; Nahon, Laurent; Jones, Nykola C; Hoffmann, Søren V; Hamase, Kenji; Takano, Yoshinori; Meierhenrich, Uwe J

    2018-07-01

    Living organisms on the Earth almost exclusively use l-amino acids for the molecular architecture of proteins. The biological occurrence of d-amino acids is rare, although their functions in various organisms are being gradually understood. A possible explanation for the origin of biomolecular homochirality is the delivery of enantioenriched molecules via extraterrestrial bodies, such as asteroids and comets on early Earth. For the asymmetric formation of amino acids and their precursor molecules in interstellar environments, the interaction with circularly polarized photons is considered to have played a potential role in causing chiral asymmetry. In this review, we summarize recent progress in the investigation of chirality transfer from chiral photons to amino acids involving the two major processes of asymmetric photolysis and asymmetric synthesis. We will discuss analytical data on cometary and meteoritic amino acids and their potential impact delivery to the early Earth. The ongoing and future ambitious space missions, Hayabusa2, OSIRIS-REx, ExoMars 2020, and MMX, are scheduled to provide new insights into the chirality of extraterrestrial organic molecules and their potential relation to the terrestrial homochirality. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: d-Amino acids: biology in the mirror, edited by Dr. Loredano Pollegioni, Dr. Jean-Pierre Mothet and Dr. Molla Gianluca. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Text-Filled Stacked Area Graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Martin

    2011-01-01

    -filled stacked area graphs; i.e., graphs that feature stacked areas that are filled with small-typed text. Since these graphs allow for computing the text layout automatically, it is possible to include large amounts of textual detail with very little effort. We discuss the most important challenges and some...... solutions for the design of text-filled stacked area graphs with the help of an exemplary visualization of the genres, publication years, and titles of a database of several thousand PC games....

  5. Droplet Measurement below Single-Layer Grid Fill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitkovic Pavol

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main part of the heat transfer in a cooling tower is in a fill zone. This one is consist of a cooling fill. For the cooling tower is used a film fill or grid fill or splash fill in the generally. The grid fill has lower heat transfer performance like film fill usually. But their advantage is high resistance to blockage of the fill. The grid fill is consisted with independent layers made from plastic usually. The layers consist of several bars connected to the different shapes. For experiment was used the rhombus shape. The drops diameter was measured above and below the Grid fill.

  6. Convex-based void filling method for CAD-based Monte Carlo geometry modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Shengpeng; Cheng, Mengyun; Song, Jing; Long, Pengcheng; Hu, Liqin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We present a new void filling method named CVF for CAD based MC geometry modeling. • We describe convex based void description based and quality-based space subdivision. • The results showed improvements provided by CVF for both modeling and MC calculation efficiency. - Abstract: CAD based automatic geometry modeling tools have been widely applied to generate Monte Carlo (MC) calculation geometry for complex systems according to CAD models. Automatic void filling is one of the main functions in the CAD based MC geometry modeling tools, because the void space between parts in CAD models is traditionally not modeled while MC codes such as MCNP need all the problem space to be described. A dedicated void filling method, named Convex-based Void Filling (CVF), is proposed in this study for efficient void filling and concise void descriptions. The method subdivides all the problem space into disjointed regions using Quality based Subdivision (QS) and describes the void space in each region with complementary descriptions of the convex volumes intersecting with that region. It has been implemented in SuperMC/MCAM, the Multiple-Physics Coupling Analysis Modeling Program, and tested on International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Alite model. The results showed that the new method reduced both automatic modeling time and MC calculation time

  7. Experimental investigation on No-Vent Fill (NVF) process using liquid Nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Cheol; Seo, Man Su; Yoo, Dong Gyu; Jeong, Sang Kwon

    2014-01-01

    For a long-term space mission, filling process of cryogenic liquid propellant is operated on a space vehicle in space. A vent process during transfer and filling of cryogenic propellant is needed to maintain the fuel tank pressure at a safe level due to its volatile characteristic. It is possible that both liquid and vapor phases of the cryogenic propellant are released simultaneously to outer space when the vent process occurs under low gravity environment. As a result, the existing filling process with venting not only accompanies wasting liquid propellant, but also consumes extra fuel to compensate for the unexpected momentum originated from the vent process. No-Vent Fill (NVF) method, a filling procedure without a venting process of cryogenic liquid propellant, is an attractive technology to perform a long-term space mission. In this paper, the preliminary experimental results of the NVF process are described. The experimental set-up consists of a 9-liter cryogenic liquid receiver tank and a supply tank. Liquid nitrogen (LN2) is used to simulate the behavior of cryogenic propellant. The whole situation in the receiver tank during NVF is monitored. The major experimental parameter in the experiment is the mass flow rate of the liquid nitrogen. The experimental results demonstrate that as the mass flow rate is increased, NVF process is conducted successfully. The quality and the inlet temperature of the injected LN2 are affected by the mass flow rate. These parameters determine success of NVF.

  8. The tunable mechanical property of water-filled carbon nanotubes under an electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Hongfei; Zhang, Zhongqiang; Zhang, Hongwu; Chen, Zhen; Zong, Zhi; Zheng, Yonggang

    2014-03-01

    The spring-induced compression of water-filled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) under an electric field is investigated by molecular dynamics simulations. Due to the incompressibility and polarity of water, the mechanical property of CNTs can be tuned through filling with water molecules and applying an electric field. To explore the variation of the mechanical property of water-filled CNTs, the effects of the CNT length, the filling density and the electric field intensity are examined. The simulation results indicate that the water filling and electric field can result in a slight change in the elastic property (the elastic modulus and Poisson's ratio) of water-filled CNTs. However, the yield stress and average post-buckling stress exhibit a significant response to the water density and electric field intensity. As compared to hollow CNTs, the increment in yield stress of the water-filled CNTs under an electric field of 2.0 V Å-1 is up to 35.29%, which is even higher than that resulting from metal filling. The findings from this study provide a valuable theoretical basis for designing and fabricating the controlling units at the nanoscale.

  9. Foil-less plasma-filled diode for HPM generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eltchaninov, A A; Kovalchuk, B M; Kurkan, I K; Zherlitsyn, A A

    2014-01-01

    Plasma-filled diode regarded as perspective source of electron beam feeding HPM generator of GW power level, comparing to conventional explosive emission vacuum diode. Electron beam generation occurs in plasma double layer, where plasma boundary plays as an anode. It allows cancelling the usage of anode foils or grids in HPM generators with the virtual cathode, which could limit its life time to few shots. The presence of ions in the e-beam drift space could raise the limiting current for a drift space, but it could affect to microwave generation also. Sectioned plasma-filled diode with beam current of about 100 kA, electron beam energy of about 0.5 MV and beam current density of 1-10 kA/cm 2 was realized. Cylindrical transport channel with the diameter of 200 mm and the length of about 30 cm was attached to the diode. Beam current measurements in a drift space were performed. Computer simulations of electron beam transport with the presence of ions were carried out with the 2.5D axisymmetric version of PiC-code KARAT. Obtained results would help optimizing electrodynamic system of HPM generator subjected to the presence of ions

  10. Postreplication gap filling in the DNA of X-ray-damaged Chinese hamster cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koerner, I.; Malz, W.

    1975-01-01

    In X-irradiated Chinese hamster cells the newly synthesized DNA has a lower molecular weight than the DNA in control cells. This reduced molecular weight has been interpreted by gap induction opposite the lesions in the parental DNA strands. Within two hours these postreplication gaps were closed. With the aid of BrdUrd-photolys-technique it could be demonstrated that the gaps were filled by de novo synthesis. But we were not able to show a participation of parental DNA in the gap-filling process

  11. PERVAPORATION USING ADSORBENT-FILLED MEMBRANES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Membranes containing selective fillers, such as zeolites and activated carbon, can improve the separation by pervaporation. Applications of adsorbent-filled membranes in pervaporation have been demonstrated by a number of studies. These applications include removal of organic co...

  12. Dural sinus filling defect: intrasigmoid encephalocele

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatag, Ozan; Cosar, Murat; Kizildag, Betul; Sen, Halil Murat

    2013-01-01

    Filling defects of dural venous sinuses are considered to be a challenging problem especially in case of symptomatic patients. Many lesions have to be ruled out such as sinus thrombosis, arachnoid granulations and tumours. Encephalocele into dural sinus is also a rare cause of these filling defects of dural sinuses. Here, we report an extremely rare case with spontaneous occult invagination of temporal brain tissue into the left sigmoid sinus and accompanying cerebellar ectopia. PMID:24311424

  13. Finite element modelling of the mechanics of discrete carbon nanotubes filled with ZnS and comparison with experimental observations

    KAUST Repository

    Monteiro, André O.; Da Costa, Pedro M. F. J.; Cachim, Paulo Barreto

    2013-01-01

    The mechanical response to a uniaxial compressive force of a single carbon nanotube (CNT) filled (or partially-filled) with ZnS has been modelled. A semi-empirical approach based on the finite element method was used whereby modelling outcomes were closely matched to experimental observations. This is the first example of the use of the continuum approach to model the mechanical behaviour of discrete filled CNTs. In contrast to more computationally demanding methods such as density functional theory or molecular dynamics, our approach provides a viable and expedite alternative to model the mechanics of filled multi-walled CNTs. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  14. Finite element modelling of the mechanics of discrete carbon nanotubes filled with ZnS and comparison with experimental observations

    KAUST Repository

    Monteiro, André O.

    2013-09-25

    The mechanical response to a uniaxial compressive force of a single carbon nanotube (CNT) filled (or partially-filled) with ZnS has been modelled. A semi-empirical approach based on the finite element method was used whereby modelling outcomes were closely matched to experimental observations. This is the first example of the use of the continuum approach to model the mechanical behaviour of discrete filled CNTs. In contrast to more computationally demanding methods such as density functional theory or molecular dynamics, our approach provides a viable and expedite alternative to model the mechanics of filled multi-walled CNTs. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  15. Assessment of periapical health, quality of root canal filling, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixty three teeth were found to have short root canal fillings, whereas 74 teeth had adequate root canal fillings, and the remaining 10 teeth had over extended root canal filling. A significant correlation was observed between the length of root filling and apical periodontitis (P = 0,023). Inadequately dense root canal filling was ...

  16. New genome sequence data and molecular tools promote the use of photosynthetic and edible cyanobacteria in bioregenerative systems to support human space exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leys, Natalie; Morin, Nicolas; Janssen, Paul; Mergeay, Max

    Cyanobacteria are daily used as nutritional supplements (e.g. Spirulina) and are considered for promising applications beyond Earth, in space, where they can play a crucial role in closed miniaturised biological waste recycling systems that are currently developed to support future long-term space missions. Cyanobacteria can be cultured with artificial light in controllable photobioreactors, and used for the efficient removal of CO2 from and production of O2 in the at-mosphere of the confined spacecraft, for removal of nitrate from waste water that is recycled to potable water, and as complementary food source. In this context, the filamentous cyanobac-terium Arthrospira sp. PCC 8005 was selected as part of the bio-regenerative life-support system MELiSSA from the European Space Agency. For bioprocess control and optimisation, the access to its genetic information and the development of molecular tools is crucial. Here we report on our efforts to determine the full genome of the cyanobacterium Arthrospira sp. PCC 8005. The obtained sequence data were analysed in detail to gain a better insight in the photosynthetic, nutritive, or potential toxic potential of this strain. In addition, the sensitivity of PCC 8005 to ionizing radiation was investigated because prolonged exposure of PCC 8005 to cosmic radiation in space might have a deleterious effect on its metabolism and oxygenic properties. To our knowledge, of the 6 different research groups across the globe trying to sequence Arthrospira strains, none of them, including us, were yet able to obtain a complete genome sequence. For Arthrospira sp. strain PCC 8005, we obtained 119 contigs (assembled in 16 scaffolds), representing 6,3 Mb, with 5,856 predicted protein-coding sequences (CDSs) and 176 genes encoding RNA. The PCC 8005 genome displays an unusual high number of large repeated sequences, covering around 8% of the genome, which likely hampered the sequenc-ing. The PCC 8005 genome is also ridden by mobile

  17. Microbial Observatory (ISS-MO): Molecular characterization of Bacillus issensis sp. nov. isolated from various quarters of the International Space Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As part of an ongoing effort to catalogue microbial communities inhabiting the International Space Station (ISS) crew-associated environmental samples were collected...

  18. NSLS-II filling pattern measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong Hu; Dalesio, L.B.; Kiman Ha; Pinayev, I.

    2012-01-01

    Multi-bunch injection will be deployed at NSLS-II. High bandwidth diagnostic beam monitors with high speed digitizers are used to measure bunch-by-bunch charge variation. In order to minimize intensity-correlated orbit oscillations due to uneven bunch patterns, we need to measure the filling pattern (also named bunch pattern or bunch structure). This paper focuses on filling pattern measurements: how to measure bunch structure and make this information available in EPICS-based control system. This measurement requires combination of 3 types of beam monitors (Wall Current Monitor, Fast Current Transformer and Beam Position Monitor), data acquisition and controls (fast digitizer, EPICS software, etc.) and Event Timing system. High-bandwidth filling pattern monitor requires high-speed digitizer to sample its analog output signal. The evaluation results of commercial fast digitizer Agilent Acqiris and high bandwidth detector Bergoz FCT are presented. We have also tested the algorithm software for filling pattern measurement as well as the interface to event timing system. It appears that filling pattern measurement system is well understood and the tests for control hardware and software have given good results

  19. Improving the support characteristics of hydraulic fill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corson, D. R.; Dorman, K. R.; Sprute, R. H.

    1980-05-15

    Extensive laboratory and field testing has defined the physical properties of hydraulic fill. Effect of void ratio on percolation rate has been quantified, and tests were developed to estimate waterflow through fill material in a given state underground. Beneficial effect on fill's support capability through addition of cement alone or in conjunction with vibratory compaction has been investigated. Two separate field studies in operating cut-and-fill mines measured vein-wall deformation and loads imposed on backfilled stopes. Technology has been developed that will effectively and efficiently dewater and densify ultra-fine-grained slurries typical of metal mine hydraulic backfill. At least two operators are using this electrokinetic technique to dewater slimes collected in underground sumps or impoundments. This technique opens up the possibility of using the total unclassified tailings product as a hydraulic backfill. Theoretical enhancement of ground support and rock-burst control through improved support capability will be tested in a full-scale mine stope installation. Both a horizontal layer and a vertical column of high modulus fill will be placed in an attempt to reduce stope wall closure, support more ground pressure, and lessen rock-burst occurrence.

  20. Fissure fillings from Finnsjoen and Studsvik Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tullborg, E.-L.; Larsson, S.Aa.

    1982-12-01

    Samples were taken from cores and collected at different levels. The bedrock at Finnsjoen is a Svecokarelian granite-granodiorite, the most frequent mineral in the fissures being calcite. The water from boreholes have a mean S 18 O value of -12 per thousand and saturated by calcite. Isotopically three different groups of calcite have been distinguished. Ages of 29+-13x10 3 years to 79+-25x10 3 years were estimated. Two generations of quartz were recognized the minerals prehnite and lanmontite were found Most fissure filling materials have cation exchange capacities. The bedrock at Studsvik is a Svecokarelian gneiss of sedimentary type which is migmatized with calcite and chlorite as fissure filling minerals. Most fissure fillings are thin and simple Claby minerals of smectite type are also frequent. (G.B.)

  1. One-dimensional Gromov minimal filling problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Alexandr O; Tuzhilin, Alexey A

    2012-01-01

    The paper is devoted to a new branch in the theory of one-dimensional variational problems with branching extremals, the investigation of one-dimensional minimal fillings introduced by the authors. On the one hand, this problem is a one-dimensional version of a generalization of Gromov's minimal fillings problem to the case of stratified manifolds. On the other hand, this problem is interesting in itself and also can be considered as a generalization of another classical problem, the Steiner problem on the construction of a shortest network connecting a given set of terminals. Besides the statement of the problem, we discuss several properties of the minimal fillings and state several conjectures. Bibliography: 38 titles.

  2. Molecular docking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Garrett M; Lim-Wilby, Marguerita

    2008-01-01

    Molecular docking is a key tool in structural molecular biology and computer-assisted drug design. The goal of ligand-protein docking is to predict the predominant binding mode(s) of a ligand with a protein of known three-dimensional structure. Successful docking methods search high-dimensional spaces effectively and use a scoring function that correctly ranks candidate dockings. Docking can be used to perform virtual screening on large libraries of compounds, rank the results, and propose structural hypotheses of how the ligands inhibit the target, which is invaluable in lead optimization. The setting up of the input structures for the docking is just as important as the docking itself, and analyzing the results of stochastic search methods can sometimes be unclear. This chapter discusses the background and theory of molecular docking software, and covers the usage of some of the most-cited docking software.

  3. Posterior bulk-filled resin composite restorations.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dijken, Jan WV; Pallesen, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    up to 4mm as needed to fill the cavity 2mm short of the occlusal cavosurface. The occlusal part was completed with the nano-hybrid resin composite (Ceram X mono+). In the other cavity, the resin composite-only (Ceram X mono+) was placed in 2mm increments. The restorations were evaluated using...... Class II, 4 SDR-CeramX mono+ and 6 CeramXmono+-only restorations. The main reasons for failurewere tooth fracture (6) and secondary caries (4). The annual failure rate (AFR) for all restorations (Class I and II) was for the bulk-filled-1.1% and for the resin composite-only restorations 1...

  4. Alkaline earth filled nickel skutterudite antimonide thermoelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, David Joseph

    2013-07-16

    A thermoelectric material including a body centered cubic filled skutterudite having the formula A.sub.xFe.sub.yNi.sub.zSb.sub.12, where A is an alkaline earth element, x is no more than approximately 1.0, and the sum of y and z is approximately equal to 4.0. The alkaline earth element includes guest atoms selected from the group consisting of Be, Mb, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra and combinations thereof. The filled skutterudite is shown to have properties suitable for a wide variety of thermoelectric applications.

  5. Creep of granulated loose-fill insulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    This report presents a proposal for a standardised method for creep tests and the necessary theoretical framework that can be used to describe creep of a granulated loose-fill material. Furthermore results from a round robin test are shown. The round robin test was carried out in collaboration...... with SP-Building Physics in Sweden and VTT Building Technology in Finland. For the round robin test a cellulosic fibre insulation material was used. The proposed standardised method for creep tests and theories are limited to cases when the granulated loose-fill material is exposed to a constant...

  6. The structure of filled skutterudites and the local vibration behavior of the filling atom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Xiaojuan [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Dongguan Institute of Neutron Science, Dongguan 523808 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zong, Peng-an [State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Chen, Xihong [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Tao, Juzhou, E-mail: taoj@ihep.ac.cn [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Dongguan Institute of Neutron Science, Dongguan 523808 (China); Lin, He, E-mail: linhe@sinap.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai 201204 (China)

    2017-02-15

    Both of atomic pair distribution function (PDF) and extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) experiments have been carried out on unfilled and Yb-filled skutterudites Yb{sub x}Co{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} (x=0, 0.15, 0.2 and 0.25) samples. The structure refinements on PDF data confirm the large amplitude vibration of Yb atom and the dependence of Yb vibration amplitude on the filling content. Temperature dependent EXAFS experiment on filled skutterudites have been carried out at Yb L{sub Ⅲ}-edge in order to explore the local vibration behavior of filled atom. EXAFS experiments show that the Einstein temperature of the filled atom is very low (70.9 K) which agrees with the rattling behavior.

  7. Molecular Simulation Results on Charged Carbon Nanotube Forest-Based Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralidharan, Ajay; Pratt, Lawrence R; Hoffman, Gary G; Chaudhari, Mangesh I; Rempe, Susan B

    2018-05-03

    Electrochemical double-layer capacitances of charged carbon nanotube (CNT) forests with tetraethyl ammonium tetrafluoro borate electrolyte in propylene carbonate are studied on the basis of molecular dynamics simulation. Direct molecular simulation of the filling of pore spaces of the forest is feasible even with realistic, small CNT spacings. The numerical solution of the Poisson equation based on the extracted average charge densities then yields a regular experimental dependence on the width of the pore spaces, in contrast to the anomalous pattern observed in experiments on other carbon materials and also in simulations on planar slot-like pores. The capacitances obtained have realistic magnitudes but are insensitive to electric potential differences between the electrodes in this model. This agrees with previous calculations on CNT forest supercapacitors, but not with experiments which have suggested electrochemical doping for these systems. Those phenomena remain for further theory/modeling work. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Iterative and variational homogenization methods for filled elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudarzi, Taha

    bonded or bonded through finite size interphases) at finite concentrations. Three-dimensional finite element simulations are also carried out to gain further insight into the proposed theoretical solutions. Inter alia, we make use of these solutions to examine the effects of particle concentration, mono- and poly-dispersity of the filler particle size, and the presence of finite size interphases on the macroscopic response of filled elastomers. The solutions are found able to explain and describe experimental results that to date have been understood only in part. More generally, the solutions provide a robust tool to efficiently guide the design of filled elastomers with desired macroscopic properties. The homogenization techniques developed in this work are not limited to nonlinear elasticity, but can be readily utilized to study multi-functional properties as well. For demonstration purposes, we work out a novel exact solution for the macroscopic dielectric response of filled elastomers with interphasial space charges.

  9. Form Filling with Self-Compacting Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Lars Nyholm

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a newly started Ph.D. project with the aim of simulating the form filling ability of Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) taking into account the form geometry, reinforcement configuration, casting technique, and the rheological properties of the concrete. Comparative studies...

  10. Stock keeping unit fill rate specification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunter, R. H.; Syntetos, A. A.; Babai, M. Z.

    2017-01-01

    The fill rate is the most widely applied service level measure in industry and yet there is minimal advice available on how it should be differentiated on an individual Stock Keeping Unit (SKU) basis given that there is an overall system target service level. The typical approach utilized in

  11. Safety distances for hydrogen filling stations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthijsen, A J C M; Kooi, E S

    2006-01-01

    In the context of spatial planning the Dutch Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment asked the Centre for External Safety of the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) to advice on safe distances pertaining to hydrogen filling stations. The RIVM made use of

  12. INS gas-filled recoil isotope separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyatake, M.; Nomura, T.; Kawakami, H.

    1986-09-01

    The characteristics and performance of a small sized gas-filled recoil isotope separator recently made at INS are described. The total efficiency and the ΔBρ/Bρ values have been measured using low velocity 16 O, 40 Ar and 68 As ions and found to be 10 and 5 %, respectively. The Z-dependence of the mean charge is discussed. (author)

  13. Stability of fruit bases and chocolate fillings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joice Natali Miquelim

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Syrups with high sugar content and dehydrated fruits in its composition can be added to chocolate fillings to reduce the need of artificial flavor and dyes attributing a natural appeal to the product. Fruit bases were produced with lyophilized strawberry, passion fruit, and sliced orange peel. Rheological dynamic oscillatory tests were applied to determine the products stability and tendency of shelf life. Values of G´ G´´ were found for orange flavor during the 90 days of storage. It was observed that shear stress values did not vary significantly suggesting product stability during the studied period. For all fillings, it was found a behavior similar to the fruit base indicating that it has great influence on the filling behavior and its stability. The use of a sugar matrix in fillings provided good shelf life for the fruit base, which could be kept under room temperature conditions for a period as long as one year. The good stability and storage conditions allow the use of fruit base for handmade products as well as for industrialized products.

  14. Full-waveform inversion: Filling the gaps

    KAUST Repository

    Beydoun, Wafik B.; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2015-01-01

    After receiving an outstanding response to its inaugural workshop in 2013, SEG once again achieved great success with its 2015 SEG Middle East Workshop, “Full-waveform inversion: Filling the gaps,” which took place 30 March–1 April 2015 in Abu Dhabi

  15. Structure of solvent-free grafted nanoparticles: Molecular dynamics and density-functional theory

    KAUST Repository

    Chremos, Alexandros

    2011-01-01

    The structure of solvent-free oligomer-grafted nanoparticles has been investigated using molecular dynamics simulations and density-functional theory. At low temperatures and moderate to high oligomer lengths, the qualitative features of the core particle pair probability, structure factor, and the oligomer brush configuration obtained from the simulations can be explained by a density-functional theory that incorporates the configurational entropy of the space-filling oligomers. In particular, the structure factor at small wave numbers attains a value much smaller than the corresponding hard-sphere suspension, the first peak of the pair distribution function is enhanced due to entropic attractions among the particles, and the oligomer brush expands with decreasing particle volume fraction to fill the interstitial space. At higher temperatures, the simulations reveal effects that differ from the theory and are likely caused by steric repulsions of the expanded corona chains. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.

  16. Safety Distances for hydrogen filling stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthijsen, A. J. C. M.; Kooi, E. S.

    2005-07-01

    In the Netherlands there is a growing interest in using natural gas as a transport fuel. The most important drivers behind this development are formed by poor inner city air quality and the decision to close several LPG filling stations. Dwellings are not allowed within the safety distances of 45 or 110 meters from the tanker filling point of these LPG stations, depending on the capacity of the station. Another driver is global warming. We are carrying out a study on station supply, compression, storage and filling for natural gas stations, and a similar, simultaneous study on hydrogen as a followup to our risk analysis for the hydrogen filling station in Amsterdam. Here, three buses drive on hydrogen as part of the European CUTE project. Driving on natural gas is an important step in the transition to cars on hydrogen. This study was commissioned by the Dutch Ministry of Spatial Planning, Housing and the Environment to advise on external safety aspects of future hydrogen filling stations. According to Dutch law homes may not be built within an individual risk contour of 10-6 per year of a dangerous object, such as a plant with hazardous materials or a filling station. An individual risk contour of 10-6 is represented by a line around a dangerous object that connects locations with an individual risk level of 10-6 per year. An individual 'located' within this contour line has a chance of one per million per year or more to be killed as a result of an accident caused by this object. The longest distance between the object and such a contour is called a 'safety distance'. A study on safety distances is now in progress for different kinds of hydrogen filling stations (e. g. gaseous and liquid hydrogen) and for different capacities, such as big, medium and small stations. The focus is on different kinds of hydrogen production and the hydrogen supply of the filling station. To decide on the design and supply of the hydrogen station, we examined the

  17. The analytic gradient with a reduced molecular orbital space for the equation-of-motion coupled-cluster theory: systematic study of the magnitudes and trends in simple molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeck, Kyoung K.; Jeon, Sang Il

    2000-01-01

    The analytic gradient method for the equation-of-motion coupled-cluster singles and doubles (EOM-CCSD) energy has been extended to employ a reduced molecular orbital (MO) space. Not only the innermost core MO s but also some of the outermost virtual MO s can be dropped in the reduced MO space, and a substantial amount of computation time can be reduced without deteriorating the results. In order to study the magnitudes and trends of the effects of the dropped MO s , the geometries and vibrational properties of the ground and excited states of BF, CO, CN, N 2 , AlCl, SiS, P 2 , BCl, AlF, CS, SiO, PN and GeSe are calculated with different sizes of molecular orbital space. The 6-31G and the aug-cc-pVTZ basis sets are employed for all molecules except GeSe for which the 6-311 G and the TZV+f basis sets are used. It is shown that the magnitudes of the drop MO effects are about 0.005 A in bond lengths and about 1% on harmonic frequencies and IR intensities provided that the dropped MO s correspond to (1s), (1s,2s,2p), and (1s,2s,2p,3s,3p) atomic orbitals of the first, the second, and the third row atoms, respectively. The geometries and vibrational properties of the first and the second excited states of HCN and HCN are calculated by using a drastically reduced virtual MO space as well as with the well defined frozen core MO space. The results suggest the possibility of using a very small MO space for qualitative study of valence excited states

  18. Root canal filling using Resilon: a review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shanahan, D J

    2011-07-01

    Root canal treatment is achieved by chemo-mechanical debridement of the root canal system followed by filling. The filling material \\'entombs\\' residual bacteria and acts as a barrier which prevents the entrance of oral microorganisms and reinfection of the root canal system through microleakage. However, filling with contemporary root filling materials such as gutta-percha offers limited long-term resistance to microorganisms; as a result other materials such as Resilon have been investigated as alternatives. The aim of this review was to analyse the literature to consider whether Resilon is a suitable root canal filling material. A MEDLINE and Cochrane library search including various keyword searches identified several papers which investigated or discussed Resilon or RealSeal\\/Epiphany. Analysis of the literature demonstrated that the bulk of the literature is in vitro in nature, based largely on leakage-type studies, and demonstrates a wide variety of methodologies with conflicting findings; as a result meaningful conclusions are difficult. Within the limit of these in vitro studies Resilon appears to perform adequately in comparison to gutta-percha, however, as a result of the questionable merit of such studies, it cannot presently be considered an evidence-based alternative to the current gold standard gutta-percha. It is imperative that before Resilon is considered as a replacement material, a better understanding of the physical properties of the resin sealer and the reality of the adhesive \\'monoblock\\' are elucidated. The literature also demonstrates a paucity of quality long-term clinical outcome studies which will need to be addressed before firm conclusions can be reached.

  19. Electrically modulated capillary filling imbibition of nematic liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Jayabrata; Chakraborty, Suman

    2018-04-01

    The flow of nematic liquid crystals (NLCs) in the presence of an electric field is typically characterized by the variation in its rheological properties due to transition in its molecular arrangements. Here, we bring out a nontrivial interplay of a consequent alteration in the resistive viscous effects and driving electrocapillary interactions, toward maneuvering the capillary filling dynamics over miniaturized scales. Considering a dynamic interplay of the relevant bulk and interfacial forces acting in tandem, our results converge nicely to previously reported experimental data. Finally, we attempt a scaling analysis to bring forth further insight to the reported observations. Our analysis paves the way for the development of microfluidic strategies with previously unexplored paradigms of interaction between electrical and fluidic phenomenon, providing with an augmented controllability on capillary filling as compared to tthose reported to be achievable by the existing strategies. This, in turn, holds utilitarian scopes in improved designs of functional capillarities in electro-optical systems, electrorheological utilities, electrokinetic flow control, as well as in interfacing and imaging systems for biomedical microdevices.

  20. Molecular similarity measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggiora, Gerald M; Shanmugasundaram, Veerabahu

    2011-01-01

    Molecular similarity is a pervasive concept in chemistry. It is essential to many aspects of chemical reasoning and analysis and is perhaps the fundamental assumption underlying medicinal chemistry. Dissimilarity, the complement of similarity, also plays a major role in a growing number of applications of molecular diversity in combinatorial chemistry, high-throughput screening, and related fields. How molecular information is represented, called the representation problem, is important to the type of molecular similarity analysis (MSA) that can be carried out in any given situation. In this work, four types of mathematical structure are used to represent molecular information: sets, graphs, vectors, and functions. Molecular similarity is a pairwise relationship that induces structure into sets of molecules, giving rise to the concept of chemical space. Although all three concepts - molecular similarity, molecular representation, and chemical space - are treated in this chapter, the emphasis is on molecular similarity measures. Similarity measures, also called similarity coefficients or indices, are functions that map pairs of compatible molecular representations that are of the same mathematical form into real numbers usually, but not always, lying on the unit interval. This chapter presents a somewhat pedagogical discussion of many types of molecular similarity measures, their strengths and limitations, and their relationship to one another. An expanded account of the material on chemical spaces presented in the first edition of this book is also provided. It includes a discussion of the topography of activity landscapes and the role that activity cliffs in these landscapes play in structure-activity studies.

  1. Effect of boundaries on the dynamic interaction of a liquid-filled ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    liquid-filled porous layer and a supporting continuum ... Biot's theory; Rayleigh waves; Stoneley waves. 1. ... Free waves in the system of layer and half-space ..... Now, we examine the cases that involve the limits of wave number θ(= kh).

  2. The order and volume fill rates in inventory control systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorstenson, Anders; Larsen, Christian

    2011-01-01

    This paper differentiates between an order (line) fill rate and a volume fill rate and specifies their performance for different inventory control systems. When the focus is on filling complete customer orders rather than total quantities the order fill rate would be the preferred service level m...

  3. Via fill properties of organic BARCs in dual-damascene application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Runhui

    2004-05-01

    With the introduction of copper as the interconnect metal, the Dual Damascene (DD) process has been integrated into integrated circuit (IC) device fabrication. The DD process utilizes organic bottom anti-reflective coatings (BARCs) not only to eliminate the thin film interference effects but also to act as via fill materials. However, three serious processing problems are encountered with organic BARCs. One is the formation of voids, which are trapped gas bubbles (evaporating solvent, byproduct of the curing reaction and air) inside the vias. Another problem is non-uniform BARC layer thickness in different via pitch areas. The third problem is the formation of fences during plasma etch. Fences are formed from materials that are removed by plasma and subsequently deposited on the sidewall surrounding the via openings during the etching process. Voids can cause variations in BARC top thickness, optical properties, via fill percentage, and plasma etch rate. This study focuses on the factors that influence the formation of voids and addresses the ways to eliminate them by optimizing the compositions of formulations and the processing conditions. Effects of molecular weight of the polymer, nature of the crosslinker, additives, and bake temperature were examined. The molecular weight of the polymer is one of the important factors that needs to be controlled carefully. Polymers with high molecular weights tend to trap voids inside the vias. Low molecular weight polymers have low Tg and low viscosity, which enables good thermal flow so that the BARC can fill vias easily without voids. Several kinds of crosslinkers were investigated in this study. When used with the same polymer system, formulations with different crosslinkers show varying results that affect planar fill, sidewall coverage, and, in some cases, voids. Additives also can change via fill behavior dramatically, and choosing the right additive will improve the via fill property. Processing conditions such as

  4. Flammability of Gas-Filled Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ushkov Valentin Anatol'evich

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The regularities of flame propagation on the horizontal surface of gas-filled polymers are considered depending on the concentration of oxygen in the oxidizer flow. The values of the coefficients in the expression describing relationship between the rate of flame propagation on the surface of foams and oxygen concentration are obtained. It was shown that with the mass content of reactive organophosphorus compounds reaching 4.0...5.9%, non-smoldering resole foam plastics with high performance characteristics are obtained. It was found that in order to obtain moderately combustible polyurethane foams based on oxyethylated phosphorus-containing polyols, the phosphorus concentration should not exceed 3 % of mass. To obtain flame-retardant urea-formaldehyde foam cellular plastics, the concentration of phosphorus should not exceed 0.3 % of mass. Physical-mechanical properties and flammability indices of developed gas-filled polymers based on reactive oligomers are presented.

  5. Form Filling with Self-Compacting Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Lars Nyholm

    2007-01-01

    to the prospects of improving the structural quality, working environment, productivity, and architectural appearance. However, especially in vertical applications there is a great unused potential. Controlling the casting process is important in many different industries such as the metal, plastic, and food...... the framework of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). CFD is applied to simulate the homogeneous form filling characteristics, i.e. the form filling ability and flow patterns, taking into account the rheological properties and casting technique. It is assumed that the rheological properties of SCC follow...... dimensions. For the heterogeneous flow phenomena, this project focusses on the assessment of blocking, which is of special interest in relation to high quality and complicated structures with a dense reinforcement configuration. A phenomenological micro-mechanical model has been developed, which introduces...

  6. Rainwater drained through fully filled pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhn, B; Koestel, P

    1989-02-01

    The conventional rainwater drainage system according to DIN 1986 always seems to be a point of problemacy in the building services as far as the occupancy of installation shafts and ducts is at stake. The excavation work and the necessary gravity lines are considered to be expensive. The consideration of the necessary slope complicates the installation additionally. Basing on those considerations, the raindraining system with fully filled pipes has been developed. DIN 1986, edition June 1988, part 1, point 6.1.1 allows to install rainwater pipes operated as planned, fully filled without slope. An enterprise specialised in building services investigated all system laws because only by a hydraulically exact balance, the function of the rainwater drainage system operated by negative and positive pressure can be insured. The results of those investigations are integrated in a computer program developed for this purpose.

  7. Cherenkov radiation in a plasma-filled, dielectric coaxial waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jianqiang

    2004-01-01

    Using the self-consistent linear field theory, Cherenkov radiation excitated by the beam-wave interaction of a thin annular relativistic electron beam in a plasma-filled, dielectric coaxial cylindrical waveguide was analyzed. The dispersion equation of the interaction, the synchronized condition and the wave growth rate were derived. The energy exchange between the wave and the electron beam in the presence of background plasma was discussed, and the effects of plasma density on the dispersion characteristics, the wave growth rate and the beam-wave energy exchange were calculated and discussed. It was clear that the Cherenkov radiation results from the coupling between the slow TM mode propagated along the waveguide and the negative-energy space-charge mode propagated along the beam, and the coupling strength is proportional to the beam density. It was theoretically demonstrated that due to the background plasma, the plasma-filled coaxial cylindrical Cherenkov maser could operate at higher frequency, get higher wave growth rate, or have higher beam current at the same operating frequency, leading to higher microwave output power. (authors)

  8. Interactive Molecular Graphics for Augmented Reality Using HoloLens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Christoph; Krone, Michael; Huber, Markus; Biener, Verena; Herr, Dominik; Koch, Steffen; Reina, Guido; Weiskopf, Daniel; Ertl, Thomas

    2018-06-13

    Immersive technologies like stereo rendering, virtual reality, or augmented reality (AR) are often used in the field of molecular visualisation. Modern, comparably lightweight and affordable AR headsets like Microsoft's HoloLens open up new possibilities for immersive analytics in molecular visualisation. A crucial factor for a comprehensive analysis of molecular data in AR is the rendering speed. HoloLens, however, has limited hardware capabilities due to requirements like battery life, fanless cooling and weight. Consequently, insights from best practises for powerful desktop hardware may not be transferable. Therefore, we evaluate the capabilities of the HoloLens hardware for modern, GPU-enabled, high-quality rendering methods for the space-filling model commonly used in molecular visualisation. We also assess the scalability for large molecular data sets. Based on the results, we discuss ideas and possibilities for immersive molecular analytics. Besides more obvious benefits like the stereoscopic rendering offered by the device, this specifically includes natural user interfaces that use physical navigation instead of the traditional virtual one. Furthermore, we consider different scenarios for such an immersive system, ranging from educational use to collaborative scenarios.

  9. Air filled porosity in composting processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruggieri, L.; Gea, T.; Artola, A.; Sanchez, A.

    2009-07-01

    As it is widely known, the composting process consists in the aerobic decomposition of the biodegradable organic matter present in different types of solid wastes. Water and oxygen are necessary for the biological activity of microorganisms involved in the composting process and their availability is directly related to the total and the air filled porosity (AFP). Maintaining adequate AFP level satisfies the oxygen content requirement to achieve the desired composting conditions and thus, tho enhance biological activity. (Author)

  10. Moon - 'Ghost' craters formed during Mare filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruikshank, D. P.; Hartmann, W. K.; Wood, C. A.

    1973-01-01

    This paper discusses formation of 'pathological' cases of crater morphology due to interaction of craters with molten lavas. Terrestrial observations of such a process are discussed. In lunar maria, a number of small impact craters (D less than 10 km) may have been covered by thin layers of fluid lavas, or formed in molten lava. Some specific lunar examples are discussed, including unusual shallow rings resembling experimental craters deformed by isostatic filling.

  11. Mobile myelographic filling defects: Spinal cysticercosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savoiardo, M.; Cimino, C.; Passerini, A.; La Mantia, L.

    1986-03-01

    Cysticercosis usually affects the brain and is easily demonstrated by CT. Spinal cysticercosis is much rarer and is usually diagnosed only at surgery. Myelographic demonstration of multiple rounded filling defects, some of which were mobile, allowed diagnosis of spinal extramedullary cysticercosis in an unsuspected case. The literature on spinal cysticercosis is briefly reviewed. Diagnosis is important in view of the recent development of medical treatment.

  12. The partially filled viscous ring damper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfriend, K. T.

    1973-01-01

    The problem of a spinning satellite with a partially filled viscous ring damper is investigated. It is shown that there are two distinct modes of motion, the nutation-synchronous mode and spin-synchronous mode. From an approximate solution of the equations of motion a time constant is obtained for each mode. From a consideration of the fluid dynamics several methods are developed for determining the damping constant.

  13. Pulse formation of gas-filled counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwatani, Kazuo; Teshima, Kazunori; Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Hasai, Hiromi

    1991-01-01

    The pulse formation of gas-filled counter has been calculated by simple models for the proportional and self-quenching streamer (SQS) modes. Calculated pulse shapes of counter output have accurately reproduced the observed ones for both modes. As a result, it is shown that the special density distribution of ion pairs in a streamer can be estimated with the rising part of observed pulse shape, using the model. (author)

  14. Full-waveform inversion: Filling the gaps

    KAUST Repository

    Beydoun, Wafik B.

    2015-09-01

    After receiving an outstanding response to its inaugural workshop in 2013, SEG once again achieved great success with its 2015 SEG Middle East Workshop, “Full-waveform inversion: Filling the gaps,” which took place 30 March–1 April 2015 in Abu Dhabi, UAE. The workshop was organized by SEG, and its partner sponsors were Saudi Aramco (gold sponsor), ExxonMobil, and CGG. Read More: http://library.seg.org/doi/10.1190/tle34091106.1

  15. Air filled porosity in composting processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggieri, L.; Gea, T.; Artola, A.; Sanchez, A.

    2009-01-01

    As it is widely known, the composting process consists in the aerobic decomposition of the biodegradable organic matter present in different types of solid wastes. Water and oxygen are necessary for the biological activity of microorganisms involved in the composting process and their availability is directly related to the total and the air filled porosity (AFP). Maintaining adequate AFP level satisfies the oxygen content requirement to achieve the desired composting conditions and thus, tho enhance biological activity. (Author)

  16. Boron filled siloxane polymers for radiation shielding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labouriau, Andrea; Robison, Tom; Shonrock, Clinton; Simmonds, Steve; Cox, Brad; Pacheco, Adam; Cady, Carl

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of the present work was to evaluate changes to structure-property relationships of 10B filled siloxane-based polymers when exposed to nuclear reactor radiation. Highly filled polysiloxanes were synthesized with the intent of fabricating materials that could shield high neutron fluences. The newly formulated materials consisted of cross-linked poly-diphenyl-methylsiloxane filled with natural boron and carbon nanofibers. This polymer was chosen because of its good thermal and chemical stabilities, as well as resistance to ionizing radiation thanks to the presence of aromatic groups in the siloxane backbone. Highly isotopically enriched 10B filler was used to provide an efficient neutron radiation shield, and carbon nanofibers were added to improve mechanical strength. This novel polymeric material was exposed in the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) at Sandia National Labs to five different neutron/gamma fluxes consisting of very high neutron fluences within very short time periods. Thermocouples placed on the specimens recorded in-situ temperature changes during radiation exposure, which agreed well with those obtained from our MCNP simulations. Changes in the microstructural, thermal, chemical, and mechanical properties were evaluated by SEM, DSC, TGA, FT-IR NMR, solvent swelling, and uniaxial compressive load measurements. Our results demonstrate that these newly formulated materials are well-suitable to be used in applications that require exposure to different types of ionizing conditions that take place simultaneously.

  17. MORPHOLOGICAL FILLING OF DIGITAL ELEVATION MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Krauß

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new approach for a more detailed post processing and filling of digital elevation models (DEMs in urban areas is presented. To reach the required specifications in a first step the errors in digital surface models (DSMs generated by dense stereo algorithms are analyzed and methods for detection and classification of the different types of errors are implemented. Subsequently the classified erroneous areas are handled in separate manner to eliminate outliers and fill the DSM properly. The errors which can be detected in DSMs range from outliers – single pixels or small areas containing extremely high or low values – over noise from mismatches, single small holes to occlusions, where large areas are not visible in one of the images of the stereo pair. To validate the presented method artificial DSMs are generated and superimposed with all different kinds of described errors like noise (small holes cut in, outliers (small areas moved up/down, occlusions (larger areas beneath steep walls and so on. The method is subsequently applied to the artificial DSMs and the resulting filled DSMs are compared to the original artificial DSMs without the introduced errors. Also the method is applied to stereo satellite generated DSMs from the ISPRS Comission 1 WG4 benchmark dataset and the results are checked with the also provided first pulse laser DSM data. Finally the results are discussed, strengths and weaknesses of the approach are shown and suggestions for application and optimization are given.

  18. Effects of supporting electrolytes on copper electroplating for filling through-hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chien-Hung; Lu, Chun-Wei; Huang, Su-Mei; Dow, Wei-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The through-holes of a printed circuit boardare directly filled by copper electroplating using single organic additive. → The inhibiting strength of the additive on copper deposition is related to a supporting electrolyte. → H 2 SO 4 strongly enhances the inhibiting strength of the additive and results in a conformal deposition, whereas Na 2 SO 4 and K 2 SO 4 do not affect the inhibiting strength and lead to good filling capability. - Abstract: The filling of micron through-holes (THs) in a printed circuit board (PCB) by copper electroplating was investigated in this study. The role of supporting electrolytes, such as H 2 SO 4 , Na 2 SO 4 and K 2 SO 4 , was explored using practical TH filling plating and linear-sweep voltammetry (LSV) analysis of plating solutions. The copper could selectively fill THs using one organic additive, namely, tetranitroblue tetrazolium chloride (TNBT), as an inhibitor. The inhibiting strength of TNBT depended on the supporting electrolytes. Although H 2 SO 4 could enhance the inhibiting strength of TNBT, it also decreased the filling capability of the copper plating solution; Na 2 SO 4 and K 2 SO 4 did not enhance the inhibiting strength of TNBT but they increased the filling capability of the copper plating solution. Additionally, the protons could chemically interact with TNBT to form precipitate, whereas sodium and potassium ions did not easily interact with TNBT. The filling capability of the copper plating solution using Na 2 SO 4 and K 2 SO 4 as supporting electrolytes could be greatly improved by adding a small amount of bis(3-sulfopropyl)-disulfide (SPS) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) with a molecular weight of 600.

  19. Correlation between native bonds in a polymeric material and molecular emissions from the laser-induced plasma observed with space and time resolved imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregoire, S. [CRITT Materiaux Alsace, 19 rue de St Junien, 67300 Schiltigheim (France); Laboratoire de Recherche des Monuments Historiques, 29 rue de Paris, 77420 Champs-sur-Marne (France); Institut Charles Sadron, CNRS and University of Strasbourg, 23 rue de Loess, 67034 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Motto-Ros, V.; Ma, Q.L.; Lei, W.Q.; Wang, X.C. [Universite de Lyon, F-69622, Lyon, France, Universite Lyon 1, Villeurbanne, CNRS, UMR5579, LASIM (France); Pelascini, F.; Surma, F. [CRITT Materiaux Alsace, 19 rue de St Junien, 67300 Schiltigheim (France); Detalle, V., E-mail: vincent.detalle@culture.gouv.fr [Laboratoire de Recherche des Monuments Historiques, 29 rue de Paris, 77420 Champs-sur-Marne (France); Yu, J. [Universite de Lyon, F-69622, Lyon, France, Universite Lyon 1, Villeurbanne, CNRS, UMR5579, LASIM (France)

    2012-08-15

    Emissions from C{sub 2} molecules and CN radicals in laser-induced plasmas on polymeric materials were observed with time-resolved spectroscopic imaging. More precisely, differential imaging with a pair of narrowband filters (one centered on the emission line and another out of the line) was used to extract emission images of interested molecules or radicals. The correlation between the molecular emission image of the plasma and the molecular structure of the polymer to be analyzed was studied for four different types of materials: polyamide (PA) with native CN bonds, polyethylene (PE) with simple CC bonds, polystyrene (PS) with delocalized double CC bonds, and polyoxymethylene (POM) which neither contains CC nor CN bonds. A clear correlation is demonstrated between emission and molecular structure of the material, allowing the identification of several organic compounds by differential spectroscopic imaging. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Plasma imaging method to discriminate different type of polymers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Molecular emissions (CN and C{sub 2}) are spatially and temporally correlated to native bonds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Several formation processes of molecular fragments are observed.

  20. Simulating Smoke Filling in Big Halls by Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. K. Chow

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Many tall halls of big space volume were built and, to be built in many construction projects in the Far East, particularly Mainland China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan. Smoke is identified to be the key hazard to handle. Consequently, smoke exhaust systems are specified in the fire code in those areas. An update on applying Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD in smoke exhaust design will be presented in this paper. Key points to note in CFD simulations on smoke filling due to a fire in a big hall will be discussed. Mathematical aspects concerning of discretization of partial differential equations and algorithms for solving the velocity-pressure linked equations are briefly outlined. Results predicted by CFD with different free boundary conditions are compared with those on room fire tests. Standards on grid size, relaxation factors, convergence criteria, and false diffusion should be set up for numerical experiments with CFD.

  1. A note on the relevance of human population genetic variation and molecular epidemiology to assessing radiation health risk for space travellers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brackley, M.E.; Curry, J.; Glickman, B.W.

    1999-01-01

    We discuss the relevance to space medicine of studies concerning human genetic variation and consequent variable disease susceptibility or sensitivity between individuals. The size of astronaut and cosmonaut populations is both presently and cumulatively small, and despite the launch of the International Space Station, unlikely to increase by orders of magnitude within the foreseeable future. In addition, astronauts-cosmonauts constitute unrepresentative samples of their national populations. While the context of exposure for the astronaut-cosmonaut group is one unlikely to be replicated elsewhere than in space, aspects of specific exposures may be simulated by events such as occupational radiation exposure or radiation therapy. Hence, population-based studies of genetic susceptibility or sensitivity to disease, especially where it is precipitated by events that may simulate consequences of the space environment, likely will prove of value in assessing long-term health risks

  2. Buckling of ZnS-filled single-walled carbon nanotubes – The influence of aspect ratio

    KAUST Repository

    Monteiro, André O.

    2014-08-16

    The mechanical response of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) filled with crystalline zinc sulphide (ZnS) nanowires under uniaxial compression is studied using classical molecular dynamics. These simulations were used to analyse the behaviour of SWCNT, with and without ZnS filling, in terms of critical force and critical strain. Force versus strain curves have been computed for hollow and filled systems, the latter clearly showing an improvement of the mechanical behaviour caused by the ZnS nanowire. The same simulations were repeated for a large range of dimensions in order to evaluate the influence of the aspect ratio on the mechanical response of the tubes.

  3. Fissure fillings from Gideaa, central Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tullborg, E.L.; Larsson, S.Aa.

    1983-08-01

    The most frequent fissure filling minerals at Gideaa are calcite, chlorite, pyrite, laumontite, stilbite, smectite, quartz and epidote. Potentially young minerals, i.e. minerals which can be formed during present conditions, are smectite, calcite and quartz, Equilibrium calculations show that these minerals can be stable in the water analysed from Gideaa. In borehole Gi 2, the water exhibits a greater equilibrium with existing minerals in the fissures than water from Gi 4. This is due to the recharge of the water in Gi 4 and discharge of the water in Gi 2. When carbonate saturated water penetrated through the bedrock, calcite precipitated within the more superficial portions of the rock. However, both calcite and zeolite fissures fillings are associated with certain zones in the drill holes. A large number of fractures can be concluded to be of post-Jotnian age. Stilbite, calcite and smectite are associated with these fractures. Laumontite can also be assumed to belong here. The dolerites in the area exhibit a high fracture frequency but a relatively low hydraulic conductivity. This is due to the fact that smectite is very prevalent in the dolerite fractures, Several generations of fracturefilling minerals (above all calcite) have been found in a single fracture. Stable isotope analyses of fissure filling calcites indicate that there are three different groups of calcite. Most of the calcites could not have been precipitated from water of present-day isotope composition at Gideaa, whereas recent calcite may be found in one of the groups. Another group of calcite was precipitated during hydro-thermal conditions.(author)

  4. Quantifying and Visualizing Uncertainties in Molecular Models

    OpenAIRE

    Rasheed, Muhibur; Clement, Nathan; Bhowmick, Abhishek; Bajaj, Chandrajit

    2015-01-01

    Computational molecular modeling and visualization has seen significant progress in recent years with sev- eral molecular modeling and visualization software systems in use today. Nevertheless the molecular biology community lacks techniques and tools for the rigorous analysis, quantification and visualization of the associated errors in molecular structure and its associated properties. This paper attempts at filling this vacuum with the introduction of a systematic statistical framework whe...

  5. The effect of tube filling on the electronic properties of Fe filled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linganiso, Ella C.; Chimowa, George; Franklyn, Paul J.; Bhattacharyya, Somnath; Coville, Neil J.

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: HRTEM image of a twisted CNT filled with a bent single crystal of Fe. Insets from top to bottom show the power spectra of the corresponding regions, indicating the twisting of the Fe lattice. Inset in the top right shows the relative angling of the lattice fringes to accommodate the twisting of the Fe. Highlights: ► Synthesis of Fe filled CNTs with Fe content varying from 3 to 35%. ► TEM analysis indicates that Fe in the tubes is in contact with the CNTs. ► TEM analysis reveals that α-Fe crystallizes after CNT formation. ► Temperature dependent electronic transport measurements performed. ► Conductivity varies with the % Fe filling in the CNTs. - Abstract: Carbon nanotubes filled with Fe nanostructures (Fe-CNTs) were synthesized using an injection method in a 1-stage horizontal CVD furnace and a bubbling method in a 2-stage horizontal CVD reactor. Fe-CNTs were obtained through the pyrolysis of a mixture of dichlorobenzene and ferrocene in 5%H 2 /Ar. Metal impurities from the Fe-CNTs were removed using 1 M HCl solution. CNTs filled with crystalline Fe nanoparticles, nanorods and nanowires were obtained using these procedures. An intimate interaction between the Fe and the CNT was established by HRTEM studies. The α-Fe phase was observed to be the most dominant fraction found in the synthesized Fe-CNTs. The Fe 2 O 3 residue obtained from the TGA analysis revealed the amount of Fe filled inside the CNTs and this ranged between 3 and 31% by mass after purification. The temperature dependence of the conductivity in the temperature range between 2.5 and 100 K for an entangled network of Fe-CNTs was measured. An increase in conductivity due to the increased Fe filling inside the CNTs with increased temperature was observed. The observed temperature dependence was explained in terms of variable range hopping (VRH) conduction mechanisms. A transition from Efros–Shklovskii behavior at low % Fe filling of the CNTs to Mott 3D VRH behavior at

  6. Characterization of Outer Space Radiation Induced Changes in Extremophiles Utilizing Deep Space Gateway Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswaran, K.; Wang, C.; Smith, D.; Mason, C.; Landry, K.; Rettberg, P.

    2018-02-01

    Extremophilic microbial survival, adaptation, biological functions, and molecular mechanisms associated with outer space radiation can be tested by exposing them onto Deep Space Gateway hardware (inside/outside) using microbiology and molecular biology techniques.

  7. Hydraulic fracturing of rock-fill dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Jie WANG

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The condition in which hydraulic fracturing in core of earth-rock fill dam maybe induced, the mechanism by which the reason of hydraulic fracturing canbe explained, and the failure criterion by which the occurrence of hydraulicfracturing can be determined, were investigated. The condition dependson material properties such as, cracks in the core and low permeability ofcore soil, and “water wedging” action in cracks. An unsaturated core soiland fast impounding are the prerequisites for the formation of “waterwedging” action. The mechanism of hydraulic fracturing can be explainedby fracture mechanics. The crack propagation induced by water pressuremay follow any of mode I, mode II and mixed mode I-II. Based on testingresults of a core soil, a new criterion for hydraulic fracturing was suggested,from which mechanisms of hydraulic fracturing in the core of rock-fill damwere discussed. The results indicated that factors such as angle betweencrack surface and direction of principal stress, local stress state at thecrack, and fracture toughness KIC of core soil may largely affect theinduction of hydraulic fracturing and the mode of the propagation of thecrack.The condition in which hydraulic fracturing in core of earth-rock fill dam maybe induced, the mechanism by which the reason of hydraulic fracturing canbe explained, and the failure criterion by which the occurrence of hydraulicfracturing can be determined, were investigated. The condition dependson material properties such as, cracks in the core and low permeability ofcore soil, and “water wedging” action in cracks. An unsaturated core soiland fast impounding are the prerequisites for the formation of “waterwedging” action. The mechanism of hydraulic fracturing can be explainedby fracture mechanics. The crack propagation induced by water pressuremay follow any of mode I, mode II and mixed mode I-II. Based on testingresults of a core soil, a new criterion for hydraulic fracturing

  8. Carbon Nanotubes Filled with Ferromagnetic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albrecht Leonhardt

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNT filled with ferromagnetic metals like iron, cobalt or nickel are new and very interesting nanostructured materials with a number of unique properties. In this paper we give an overview about different chemical vapor deposition (CVD methods for their synthesis and discuss the influence of selected growth parameters. In addition we evaluate possible growth mechanisms involved in their formation. Moreover we show their identified structural and magnetic properties. On the basis of these properties we present different application possibilities. Some selected examples reveal the high potential of these materials in the field of medicine and nanotechnology.

  9. Carbon Nanotubes Filled with Ferromagnetic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissker, Uhland; Hampel, Silke; Leonhardt, Albrecht; Büchner, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) filled with ferromagnetic metals like iron, cobalt or nickel are new and very interesting nanostructured materials with a number of unique properties. In this paper we give an overview about different chemical vapor deposition (CVD) methods for their synthesis and discuss the influence of selected growth parameters. In addition we evaluate possible growth mechanisms involved in their formation. Moreover we show their identified structural and magnetic properties. On the basis of these properties we present different application possibilities. Some selected examples reveal the high potential of these materials in the field of medicine and nanotechnology. PMID:28883334

  10. Le déficit de filles

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    de la population est une tendance plus récente. C. Le déficit de filles. Le déséquilibre du ratio hommes-femmes en Inde. D. R. O. I. T. S. D. E. S. F. E. M. M. E. S. E. T. P. A. R. T. IC. I. P. A. T. IO. N. C. I. T. O. Y. E. N. N. E. CENTRE DE. RECHERCHES. POUR LE. DÉVELOPPEMENT. INTERNATIONAL. CRDI : Jason Taylor ...

  11. Evaluation of Flowable Fill Surface Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    general, traditional flowable fill is a low- viscosity , grout-like, cementitious blend commonly composed of portland cement, fine aggregate, and water...93.7 45.0 19.6 % Finer No. 200 7.0 0.5 9.1 % Gravel 2.2 0.0 56.1 % Sand 90.8 99.5 34.8 % Silt 3.2 < 0.5 6.8 % Clay 3.8 < 0.5 2.3 Fineness Modulus

  12. Sorption of phenanthrene and benzene on differently structural kerogen: Important role of micropore-filling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yulong; Ma, Xiaoxuan; Ran, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Shale was thermally treated to obtain a series of kerogen with varied maturation. Their chemical, structural and porous properties were related to the sorption and/or desorption behaviors of phenanthrene and benzene. As the treatment temperature increases, aliphatic and carbonyl carbon of the kerogen samples decrease, while their aromaticity and maturation increase. Meanwhile, the isothermal nonlinearity of phenanthrene and benzene increases whereas the sorption capacity and micropore adsorption volumes (V o,d ) initially increase and then decrease. The V o,d of benzene is significantly correlated with, but higher than that of phenanthrene, suggesting similar micropore filling mechanism and molecular sieve effect. The benzene desorption exhibits hysteresis, which is related to the pore deformation of the kerogen and the entrapment of solute in the kerogen matrix. The V o,d of phenanthrene and benzene on the kerogen samples accounts for 23–46% and 36–65% of the maximum sorption volumes, respectively, displaying the importance of the micropore filling. -- Highlights: • The microporosity estimated by benzene vapor differs greatly from that by N 2 . • The micropore volume changes with kerogen maturation. • The phenanthrene or benzene sorption is related to the microporosity of kerogen. • Higher adsorption volume for benzene than for phenanthrene suggests molecular sieve effect. • The pore-filling plays an important role in the sorption of phenanthrene and benzene. -- The sorption behaviors of benzene and phenanthrene are related to the microporosity of the differently matured kerogen, indicating the importance of pore-filling

  13. Liquid-filled ionization chamber temperature dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, L. [Dpto. de Fisica de Particulas, Facultade de Fisica, Universidade de Santiago, Campus Sur S/N, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)]. E-mail: luciaff@usc.es; Gomez, F. [Dpto. de Fisica de Particulas, Facultade de Fisica, Universidade de Santiago, Campus Sur S/N, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Iglesias, A. [Dpto. de Fisica de Particulas, Facultade de Fisica, Universidade de Santiago, Campus Sur S/N, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Pardo, J. [Dpto. de Fisica de Particulas, Facultade de Fisica, Universidade de Santiago, Campus Sur S/N, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Pazos, A. [Dpto. de Fisica de Particulas, Facultade de Fisica, Universidade de Santiago, Campus Sur S/N, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Pena, J. [Dpto. de Fisica de Particulas, Facultade de Fisica, Universidade de Santiago, Campus Sur S/N, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Zapata, M. [Dpto. de Fisica de Particulas, Facultade de Fisica, Universidade de Santiago, Campus Sur S/N, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2006-05-10

    Temperature and pressure corrections of the read-out signal of ionization chambers have a crucial importance in order to perform high-precision absolute dose measurements. In the present work the temperature and pressure dependences of a sealed liquid isooctane filled ionization chamber (previously developed by the authors) for radiotherapy applications have been studied. We have analyzed the thermal response of the liquid ionization chamber in a {approx}20 deg. C interval around room temperature. The temperature dependence of the signal can be considered linear, with a slope that depends on the chamber collection electric field. For example, a relative signal slope of 0.27x10{sup -2}K{sup -1} for an operation electric field of 1.67x10{sup 6}Vm{sup -1} has been measured in our detector. On the other hand, ambient pressure dependence has been found negligible, as expected for liquid-filled chambers. The thermal dependence of the liquid ionization chamber signal can be parametrized within the Onsager theory on initial recombination. Considering that changes with temperature of the detector response are due to variations in the free ion yield, a parametrization of this dependence has been obtained. There is a good agreement between the experimental data and the theoretical model from the Onsager framework.

  14. GRAVITY PIPELINE TRANSPORT FOR HARDENING FILLING MIXTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid KROUPNIK

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In underground mining of solid minerals becoming increasingly common development system with stowing hardening mixtures. In this case the natural ore array after it is replaced by an artificial excavation of solidified filling mixture consisting of binder, aggregates and water. Such a mixture is prepared on the surface on special stowing complexes and transported underground at special stowing pipelines. However, it is transported to the horizons of a few kilometers, which requires a sustainable mode of motion of such a mixture in the pipeline. Hardening stowing mixture changes its rheological characteristics over time, which complicates the calculation of the parameters of pipeline transportation. The article suggests a method of determining the initial parameters of such mixtures: the status coefficient, indicator of transportability, coefficient of hydrodynamic resistance to motion of the mixture. These indicators characterize the mixture in terms of the possibility to transport it through pipes. On the basis of these indicators is proposed methodology for calculating the parameters of pipeline transport hardening filling mixtures in drift mode when traffic on the horizontal part of the mixture under pressure column of the mixture in the vertical part of the backfill of the pipeline. This technique allows stable operation is guaranteed to provide pipeline transportation.

  15. Filling behaviour of wood plastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duretek, I.; Lucyshyn, T.; Holzer, C.

    2017-01-01

    Wood plastic composites (WPC) are a young generation of composites with rapidly growing usage within the plastics industry. The advantages are the availability and low price of the wood particles, the possibility of partially substituting the polymer in the mixture and sustainable use of the earth’s resources. The current WPC products on the market are to a large extent limited to extruded products. Nowadays there is a great interest in the market for consumer products in more use of WPC as an alternative to pure thermoplastics in injection moulding processes. This work presents the results of numerical simulation and experimental visualisation of the mould filling process in injection moulding of WPC. The 3D injection moulding simulations were done with the commercial software package Autodesk® Moldflow® Insight 2016 (AMI). The mould filling experiments were conducted with a box-shaped test part. In contrast to unfilled polymers the WPC has reduced melt elasticity so that the fountain flow often does not develop. This results in irregular flow front shapes in the moulded part, especially at high filler content.

  16. Modeling of the quantum dot filling and the dark current of quantum dot infrared photodetectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ameen, Tarek A.; El-Batawy, Yasser M.; Abouelsaood, A. A.

    2014-01-01

    A generalized drift-diffusion model for the calculation of both the quantum dot filling profile and the dark current of quantum dot infrared photodetectors is proposed. The confined electrons inside the quantum dots produce a space-charge potential barrier between the two contacts, which controls the quantum dot filling and limits the dark current in the device. The results of the model reasonably agree with a published experimental work. It is found that increasing either the doping level or the temperature results in an exponential increase of the dark current. The quantum dot filling turns out to be nonuniform, with a dot near the contacts containing more electrons than one in the middle of the device where the dot occupation approximately equals the number of doping atoms per dot, which means that quantum dots away from contacts will be nearly unoccupied if the active region is undoped

  17. 21 CFR 872.3310 - Coating material for resin fillings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coating material for resin fillings. 872.3310... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3310 Coating material for resin fillings. (a) Identification. A coating material for resin fillings is a device intended to be applied to the...

  18. 33 CFR 183.564 - Fuel tank fill system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel tank fill system. 183.564...) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Manufacturer Requirements § 183.564 Fuel tank fill system. (a) Each fuel fill opening must be located so that a gasoline overflow of up to five...

  19. 46 CFR 98.25-65 - Filling density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Filling density. 98.25-65 Section 98.25-65 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS SPECIAL... § 98.25-65 Filling density. (a) The filling density, or the percent ratio of the liquefied gas that may...

  20. 21 CFR 872.3820 - Root canal filling resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Root canal filling resin. 872.3820 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3820 Root canal filling resin. (a) Identification. A root canal filling resin is a device composed of material, such as methylmethacrylate, intended...

  1. 46 CFR 98.25-50 - Filling and discharge pipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... with a secondary remote control of a type acceptable to the Commandant. (c) The excess flow, internal... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Filling and discharge pipes. 98.25-50 Section 98.25-50... § 98.25-50 Filling and discharge pipes. (a) Filling connections shall be provided with one of the...

  2. Implantation of organic matter through water onto solid substrates by a laser induced molecular jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pihosh, Y.; Goto, M.; Kasahara, A.; Tosa, M.

    2008-01-01

    Organic molecular dots were successfully produced by means of a nano second pulsed dye laser on glass and indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates, with sizes of several hundred nanometres. The method involves the transfer of organic molecules from the source Coumarin 6 (C6) and poly [2-methoxy, 5-(2'-ethyl-hexyloxy)-p-phenylene-venylene] (MEH-PPV) films onto a target material through a water filled space-gap using a laser induced molecular jet (LIMJ). In this way, the organic dots of Coumarin 6 and MEH-PPV molecules were successfully implanted onto the glass and ITO targets. The present results demonstrate the possibility to significantly improve photo electronic or photoelectric devices such as novel photonic crystal and molecular device sensors, and so on

  3. Urethane foam void filling. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    Under the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) Implementation Plan of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE's) Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), non-recyclable process components and debris that are removed from buildings undergoing D and D are disposed of in an on-site disposal facility (OSDF). Critical to the design and operation of the FEMP's OSDF are provisions to protect against subsidence of the OSDF's cap. Subsidence of the cap could occur if void spaces within the OSDF were to collapse under the overburden of debris and the OSDF cap. Subsidence may create depressions in the OSDF's cap in which rainwater could collect and eventually seep into the OSDF. To minimize voids in the FEMP's OSDF, large metallic components are cut into smaller segments that can be arranged more compactly when placed in the OSDF. Component segmentation using an oxy-acetylene torch was the baseline approach used by the FEMP's D and D contractor on Plant 1, B and W Services, Inc., for the dismantlement and size-reduction of large metal components. Although this technology has performed satisfactorily, it is time-consuming, labor-intensive and costly. Use of the oxy-acetylene torch exposes workers to health and safety hazards including the risk of burns, carbon monoxide, and airborne contamination of residual lead-based paints and other contaminants on the surface of the components being segmented. In addition, solvents used to remove paint from the components before segmenting them emit flammable, noxious fumes. This demonstration investigated the feasibility of placing large vessels intact in the OSDF without segmenting them. To prevent the walls of the vessels from collapsing under the overburden or from degradation, an innovative approach was employed which involved filling the voids in the vessels with a fluid material that hardened on standing. The hardened filling would support the walls of the vessels, and prevent them from collapsing. This report

  4. Colloid transport in model fracture filling materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wold, S.; Garcia-Garcia, S.; Jonsson, M.

    2010-12-01

    Colloid transport in model fracture filling materials Susanna Wold*, Sandra García-García and Mats Jonsson KTH Chemical Science and Engineering Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden *Corresponding author: E-mail: wold@kth.se Phone: +46 8 790 6295 In colloid transport in water-bearing fractures, the retardation depends on interactions with the fracture surface by sorption or filtration. These mechanisms are difficult to separate. A rougher surface will give a larger area available for sorption, and also when a particle is physically hindered, it approaches the surface and enables further sorption. Sorption can be explained by electrostatics were the strongest sorption on minerals always is observed at pH below pHpzc (Filby et al., 2008). The adhesion of colloids to mineral surfaces is related to the surface roughness according to a recent study (Darbha et al., 2010). There is a large variation in the characteristics of water-bearing fractures in bedrock in terms of aperture distribution, flow velocity, surface roughness, mineral distributions, presence of fracture filling material, and biological and organic material, which is hard to implement in modeling. The aim of this work was to study the transport of negatively charged colloids in model fracture filling material in relation to flow, porosity, mineral type, colloid size, and surface charge distribution. In addition, the impact on transport of colloids of mixing model fracture filling materials with different retention and immobilization capacities, determined by batch sorption experiments, was investigated. The transport of Na-montmorillonite colloids and well-defined negatively charged latex microspheres of 50, 100, and 200 nm diameter were studied in either columns containing quartz or quartz mixed with biotite. The ionic strength in the solution was exclusively 0.001 and pH 6 or 8.5. The flow rates used were 0.002, 0.03, and 0.6 mL min-1. Sorption of the colloids on the model fracture

  5. Alleviate Cellular Congestion Through Opportunistic Trough Filling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichuan Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The demand for cellular data service has been skyrocketing since the debut of data-intensive smart phones and touchpads. However, not all data are created equal. Many popular applications on mobile devices, such as email synchronization and social network updates, are delay tolerant. In addition, cellular load varies significantly in both large and small time scales. To alleviate network congestion and improve network performance, we present a set of opportunistic trough filling schemes that leverage the time-variation of network congestion and delay-tolerance of certain traffic in this paper. We consider average delay, deadline, and clearance time as the performance metrics. Simulation results show promising performance improvement over the standard schemes. The work shed lights on addressing the pressing issue of cellular overload.

  6. Internal Accident Report: fill it out!

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    It is important to report all accidents, near-misses and dangerous situations so that they can be avoided in the future.   Reporting these events allows the relevant services to take appropriate action and implement corrective and preventive measures. It should be noted that the routing of the internal accident report was recently changed to make sure that the people who need to know are informed. Without information, corrective action is not possible. Without corrective action, there is a risk that the events will recur. As soon as you experience or see something amiss, fill out an internal accident report! If you have any questions the HSE Unit will be happy to answer them. Contact us at safety-general@cern.ch. The HSE Unit

  7. Neutron transmission measurements on hydrogen filled microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyrnjaja, Eva; Hummel, Stefan; Keding, Marcus; Smolle, Marie-Theres; Gerger, Joachim; Zawisky, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Hollow microspheres are promising candidates for future hydrogen storage technologies. Although the physical process for hydrogen diffusion through glass is well understood, measurements of static quantities (e.q. hydrogen pressure inside the spheres) as well as dynamic properties (e.g. diffusion rate of hydrogen through glass) are still difficult to handle due to the small size of the spheres (d≈15μm). For diffusion rate measurements, the long-term stability of the experiment is also mandatory due to the relatively slow diffusion rate. In this work, we present an accurate and long-term stable measurement technique for static and dynamic properties, using neutron radiography. Furthermore, possible applications for hydrogen filled microspheres within the scope of radiation issues are discussed

  8. LHC Abort Gap Filling by Proton Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Fartoukh, Stéphane David; Shaposhnikova, Elena

    2004-01-01

    Safe operation of the LHC beam dump relies on the possibility of firing the abort kicker at any moment during beam operation. One of the necessary conditions for this is that the number of particles in the abort gap should be below some critical level defined by quench limits. Various scenarios can lead to particles filling the abort gap. Time scales associated with these scenarios are estimated for injection energy and also coast where synchrotron radiation losses are not negligible for uncaptured particle motion. Two cases are considered, with RF on and RF off. The equilibrium distribution of lost particles in the abort gap defines the requirements for maximum tolerable relative loss rate and as a consequence the minimum acceptable longitudinal lifetime of the proton beam in collision.

  9. Numerical simulation of mould filling process for pressure plate and valve handle in LFC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Junxia

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In lost foam casting (LFC, the distribution of polymer beads during the bead filling process is not uniform, and the collision between polymer beads determines the distribution of two-phase flow of gas and solid. The interaction between the gas and solid phases reveals as coupling effect of the force that gas exerts on particles or vice versa, or that among particles. The gas-solid flow in filling process is nonlinearity, which makes the coupling effect an essential point to carry out a simulation properly. Therefore, information of each particle’s motion is important for acquiring the law of filling process. In bead filling process, compressed air is pressed into mold cavity, and discharged from gas vent, creating a pressure difference between outer and inner space near the gas vent. This pressure difference directly changes the spatial distribution and motion trace of gas and solid phases. In this paper, Discrete Element Method (DEM and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD are employed to simulate the fluid dynamic character based on Newton’s Third Law of Motion. The simulation results of some casting products such as pressure plate and valve handle are compared with the result obtained from practical experiment in order to test the feasibility of DEM. The comparison shows that this DEM method can be a very promising tool in the mould filling simulation of beads’ movement.

  10. Cooling of molecular ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, A.; Krohn, S.; Kreckel, H.; Lammich, L.; Lange, M.; Strasser, D.; Grieser, M.; Schwalm, D.; Zajfman, D.

    2004-01-01

    An overview of the use of stored ion beams and phase space cooling (electron cooling) is given for the field of molecular physics. Emphasis is given to interactions between molecular ions and electrons studied in the electron cooler: dissociative recombination and, for internally excited molecular ions, electron-induced ro-vibrational cooling. Diagnostic methods for the transverse ion beam properties and for the internal excitation of the molecular ions are discussed, and results for phase space cooling and internal (vibrational) cooling are presented for hydrogen molecular ions

  11. Impact of olive oil usage on physical properties of chocolate fillings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, J.M.; Almeida, M.; Adikevičius, D.; Andzevičius, P.; Alvarenga, N.B.

    2016-01-01

    The development of a new olive oil based chocolate filling was carried out. In this study three different types of virgin olive oil were tested, in three different concentrations in the production of chocolate fillings. An instrumental analysis was carried out for chemical analyses, such as moisture and pH. The color analysis included the CIE 1976 L*a*b* color space and RGB color space. The rheological analysis included the evaluation of flow curve, flow index (n), consistency (K) and dynamic moduli (G’ and G’’). No influence was detected on the moisture or pH of chocolate fillings, due to the concentration or type of olive oil. However, the use of olive oil decreased consistency from 1371 Pasn to 148 - 559 Pasn , even using olive oil concentrations of 20% w/w. Also, G’ registered a similar correlation, where a decrease was observed from 4.42 x 106 Pa to values around 1.70-2.51 x 106 Pa, for 20% w/w olive oil. The fillings presented a darker yellow-green color when using olive oil produced with Galega and Cordovil de Serpa varieties, but olive oil produced with the Arbequina variety did not affect color significantly, although further studies will be required to evaluate the impact of ripening stage. [es

  12. Burning test on a storage drum filled with a mixture of sodiumnitrate and bitumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knotik, K.; Leichter, P.; Spalek, K.

    1979-01-01

    A burning test on a common storage drum filled with a mixture of sodiumnitrate and bitumen was carried out to show the incinerability of said mixture. A 50 l mild steel drum was filled with 80,7 kg sodiumnitrate/bitumen-mixture. The drum was packed in a 200 l mild steel drum, the remaining space was filled with enough sand to cover the top of the inner drum with 15 cm of sand. The sand packing was then soaked with 70 l of light distillate fuel and ignited. The fuel burned until self-extinguishing occurred. 30 % (22,2 l) of the fuel was burned. 0,7 % of the energy potential was absorbed in the sand layer. The highest measured temperature was 34 0 C at the top of the test drum. It can be concluded, that even under severe external actions the ignition temperature of 400 0 C for bitumen/waste mixtures cannot be reached, providing correct technical storage conditions, which means that the void space in the cavities is filled with unburnable absorbing material like sand or salt. (author)

  13. The order and volume fill rates in inventory control systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorstenson, Anders; Larsen, Christian

    2011-01-01

    This paper differentiates between an order (line) fill rate and a volume fill rate and specifies their performance for different inventory control systems. When the focus is on filling complete customer orders rather than total quantities the order fill rate would be the preferred service level...... measure. The main result shows how the order and volume fill rates are related in magnitude. Earlier results derived for a single-item, single-stage, continuous review inventory system with backordering and constant lead times controlled by a base-stock policy are extended in different directions...

  14. Analysis in Banach spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Hytönen, Tuomas; Veraar, Mark; Weis, Lutz

    The present volume develops the theory of integration in Banach spaces, martingales and UMD spaces, and culminates in a treatment of the Hilbert transform, Littlewood-Paley theory and the vector-valued Mihlin multiplier theorem. Over the past fifteen years, motivated by regularity problems in evolution equations, there has been tremendous progress in the analysis of Banach space-valued functions and processes. The contents of this extensive and powerful toolbox have been mostly scattered around in research papers and lecture notes. Collecting this diverse body of material into a unified and accessible presentation fills a gap in the existing literature. The principal audience that we have in mind consists of researchers who need and use Analysis in Banach Spaces as a tool for studying problems in partial differential equations, harmonic analysis, and stochastic analysis. Self-contained and offering complete proofs, this work is accessible to graduate students and researchers with a background in functional an...

  15. Molecular markers for X-ray-insensitive differentiated cells in the Inner and outer regions of the mesenchymal space in planarian Dugesia japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teramoto, Machiko; Kudome-Takamatsu, Tomomi; Nishimura, Osamu; An, Yang; Kashima, Makoto; Shibata, Norito; Agata, Kiyokazu

    2016-09-01

    Planarian's strong regenerative ability is dependent on stem cells (called neoblasts) that are X-ray-sensitive and proliferative stem cells. In addition to neoblasts, another type of X-ray-sensitive cells was newly identified by recent research. Thus, planarian's X-ray-sensitive cells can be divided into at least two populations, Type 1 and Type 2, the latter corresponding to planarian's classically defined "neoblasts". Here, we show that Type 1 cells were distributed in the outer region (OR) immediately underneath the muscle layer at all axial levels from head to tail, while the Type 2 cells were distributed in a more internal region (IR) of the mesenchymal space at the axial levels from neck to tail. To elucidate the biological significance of these two regions, we searched for genes expressed in differentiated cells that were locate close to these X-ray-sensitive cell populations in the mesenchymal space, and identified six genes mainly expressed in the OR or IR, named OR1, OR2, OR3, IR1, IR2 and IR3. The predicted amino acid sequences of these genes suggested that differentiated cells expressing OR1, OR3, IR1, or IR2 provide Type 1 and Type 2 cells with specific extracellular matrix (ECM) environments. © 2016 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  16. THE SPITZER SPACE TELESCOPE SURVEY OF THE ORION A AND B MOLECULAR CLOUDS. II. THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION AND DEMOGRAPHICS OF DUSTY YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megeath, S. T.; Kryukova, E.; Gutermuth, R.; Muzerolle, J.; Hora, J. L.; Myers, P. C.; Fazio, G. G.; Allen, L. E.; Flaherty, K.; Hartmann, L.; Pipher, J. L.; Stauffer, J.; Young, E. T.

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the spatial distribution of dusty young stellar objects (YSOs) identified in the Spitzer Survey of the Orion Molecular clouds, augmenting these data with Chandra X-ray observations to correct for incompleteness in dense clustered regions. We also devise a scheme to correct for spatially varying incompleteness when X-ray data are not available. The local surface densities of the YSOs range from 1 pc −2 to over 10,000 pc −2 , with protostars tending to be in higher density regions. This range of densities is similar to other surveyed molecular clouds with clusters, but broader than clouds without clusters. By identifying clusters and groups as continuous regions with surface densities ≥10 pc −2 , we find that 59% of the YSOs are in the largest cluster, the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC), while 13% of the YSOs are found in a distributed population. A lower fraction of protostars in the distributed population is evidence that it is somewhat older than the groups and clusters. An examination of the structural properties of the clusters and groups shows that the peak surface densities of the clusters increase approximately linearly with the number of members. Furthermore, all clusters with more than 70 members exhibit asymmetric and/or highly elongated structures. The ONC becomes azimuthally symmetric in the inner 0.1 pc, suggesting that the cluster is only ∼2 Myr in age. We find that the star formation efficiency (SFE) of the Orion B cloud is unusually low, and that the SFEs of individual groups and clusters are an order of magnitude higher than those of the clouds. Finally, we discuss the relationship between the young low mass stars in the Orion clouds and the Orion OB 1 association, and we determine upper limits to the fraction of disks that may be affected by UV radiation from OB stars or dynamical interactions in dense, clustered regions

  17. The synthesis and filling of single-walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrichs, Steffi

    2002-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the synthesis, properties and application of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). The two main objectives of the work were the development of a continuous-flow synthesis of SWNTs, using chemical vapour deposition (CVD) techniques, and the application of the hollow SWNTs as moulds for the study of the crystallisation behaviour of inorganic materials in the confined space of their inner cavity. The latter study was mainly performed by interpreting high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images of the filled SWNTs. A so-called focal series restoration approach, which enhances the resolution of the images and thereby increases the information content, was employed where possible. Chapter I reviews the previous work in the field of SWNTs and introduces their basic structure, symmetry, physical and mechanical properties and the common methods of SWNT synthesis. The chapter ends with an overview of the techniques used in the present work for the characterisation of carbon nanotube samples by giving a description of the high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) techniques and the digital image processing method. Other physical measurement techniques used, such as Raman spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), are discussed with reference to their application for the characterisation of carbon nanotubes. Chapter II describes the development of an improved synthesis strategy for SWNTs. A continuous-flow chemical vapour deposition (CVD) method was explored using carbon monoxide or mixtures of methane and hydrogen as the carbon feedstock gas and introducing various volatile organometallic compounds to catalyse the formation of SWNTs. In this study, a special water-cooled copper nozzle was designed and built so as to prevent the premature decompositiont (disproportionation) of the reactants (the carbon monoxide gas) and to allow their direct introduction into the centre of the hot reaction zone. A

  18. Using the Light Microscopy Module (LMM) on the International Space Station (ISS), The Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE) and MacroMolecular Biophysics (MMB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, William; Foster, William M.; Motil, Brian J.; Sicker, Ronald; Abbott-Hearn, Amber; Chao, David; Chiaramonte, Fran; Atherton, Arthur; Beltram, Alexander; Bodzioney, Christopher M.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Light Microscopy Module (LMM) was launched to the International Space Station (ISS) in 2009 and began science operations in 2010. It continues to support Physical and Biological scientific research on ISS. During 2016, if all goes as planned, three experiments will be completed: [1] Advanced Colloids Experiments with Heated base-2 (ACE-H2) and [2] Advanced Colloids Experiments with Temperature control (ACE-T1). Preliminary results, along with an overview of present and future LMM capabilities will be presented; this includes details on the planned data imaging processing and storage system, along with the confocal upgrade to the core microscope. [1] a consortium of universities from the State of Kentucky working through the Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (EPSCoR): Stuart Williams, Gerold Willing, Hemali Rathnayake, et al. and [2] from Chungnam National University, Daejeon, S. Korea: Chang-Soo Lee, et al.

  19. [Creep of amalgam fillings under clasp rests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchers, L; Jung, T; West, M

    1989-10-01

    A clinically realistic experiment was set up to obtain information on the amount of vertical settling of clasp rests in amalgam restorations under functional loading. Mesioocclusal cavities were prepared in 16 lower molar specimens cast in brass. The cavities were filled with amalgam and provided with a mesial rest seat. A constant load of 100 N was applied via a simplified (experimental) saddle to a cobalt-chromium E-clasp cast to the saddle. The duration of the load corresponded to 160 days of clinical function. The chronological course of vertical displacement was analyzed mathematically. According to this result the process can be divided into three components: settling immediately upon load initiation (mean value 96 microns, transition creep (mean value 25 microns) and creep ata constant rate (mean value 15 microns). The mean overall vertical displacement of the rests was 136 microns, the maximum value 287 microns. These findings suggest that vertical settling of a clasp rest into its seat in an amalgam restoration may eventually result in significant changes in occlusion and may almost completely exhaust gingival resilience.

  20. Polymer deformation and filling modes during microembossing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Harry D.; King, William P.

    2004-12-01

    This work investigates the initial stages of polymer deformation during hot embossing micro-manufacturing at processing temperatures near the glass transition temperature (Tg) of polymer films having sufficient thickness such that polymer flow is not supply limited. Several stages of polymer flow can be observed by employing stamp geometries of various widths and varying imprint conditions of time and temperature to modulate polymer viscosity. Experiments investigate conditions affecting cavity filling phenomena, including apparent polymer viscosity. Stamps with periodic ridges of height and width 4 µm and periodicity 30, 50 and 100 µm emboss trenches into polymethyl methacrylate films at Tg - 10 °C time, temperature and load are correlated with replicated polymer shape, height and imprinted area. Polymer replicates are measured by atomic force microscopy and inspected by scanning electron microscopy. Cavity size and the temperature dependence of polymer viscosity significantly influence the nature of polymer deformation in hot embossing micro-manufacturing and must be accounted for in rational process design.

  1. Turbulent flow in a partially filled pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Henry; Cregan, Hope; Dodds, Jonathan; Poole, Robert; Dennis, David

    2017-11-01

    Turbulent flow in a pressure driven pipe running partially full has been investigated using high-speed 2D-3C Stereoscopic Particle Imaging Velocimetry. With the field-of-view spanning the entire pipe cross section we are able to reconstruct the full three dimensional quasi-instantaneous flow field by invoking Taylor's hypothesis. The measurements were carried out over a range of flow depths at a constant Reynolds number based on hydraulic diameter and bulk velocity of Re = 32 , 000 . In agreement with previous studies, the ``velocity dip'' phenomenon, whereby the location of the maximum streamwise velocity occurs below the free surface was observed. A mean flow secondary current is observed near the free surface with each of the counter-rotating rollers filling the half-width of the pipe. Unlike fully turbulent flow in a rectangular open channel or pressurized square duct flow where the secondary flow cells appear in pairs about a corner bisector, the mean secondary motion observed here manifests only as a single pair of vortices mirrored about the pipe vertical centreline.

  2. Application of time series analysis on molecular dynamics simulations of proteins: a study of different conformational spaces by principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alakent, Burak; Doruker, Pemra; Camurdan, Mehmet C

    2004-09-08

    Time series analysis is applied on the collective coordinates obtained from principal component analysis of independent molecular dynamics simulations of alpha-amylase inhibitor tendamistat and immunity protein of colicin E7 based on the Calpha coordinates history. Even though the principal component directions obtained for each run are considerably different, the dynamics information obtained from these runs are surprisingly similar in terms of time series models and parameters. There are two main differences in the dynamics of the two proteins: the higher density of low frequencies and the larger step sizes for the interminima motions of colicin E7 than those of alpha-amylase inhibitor, which may be attributed to the higher number of residues of colicin E7 and/or the structural differences of the two proteins. The cumulative density function of the low frequencies in each run conforms to the expectations from the normal mode analysis. When different runs of alpha-amylase inhibitor are projected on the same set of eigenvectors, it is found that principal components obtained from a certain conformational region of a protein has a moderate explanation power in other conformational regions and the local minima are similar to a certain extent, while the height of the energy barriers in between the minima significantly change. As a final remark, time series analysis tools are further exploited in this study with the motive of explaining the equilibrium fluctuations of proteins. Copyright 2004 American Institute of Physics

  3. Semiflexible crossing-avoiding trails on plane-filling fractals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Živić, I.; Elezović-Hadžić, S.; Milošević, S.

    2015-01-01

    We have studied the statistics of semiflexible polymer chains modeled by crossing-avoiding trails (CAT) situated on the family of plane-filling (PF) fractals. The fractals are compact, that is, their fractal dimension d_f is equal to 2 for all members of the fractal family. By applying the exact and Monte Carlo real-space renormalization group method we have calculated the critical exponent ν, which governs the scaling behavior of the end-to-end distance of the polymer, as well as the entropic critical exponent γ, for a large set of fractals, and various values of polymer flexibility. Our results, obtained for CAT model on PF fractals, show that both critical exponents depend on the polymer flexibility, in such a way that less flexible polymer chains display enlarged values of ν, and diminished values of γ. We have compared the obtained results for CAT model with the known results for the self-avoiding walk and self-avoiding trail models and discussed the influence of excluded volume effect on the values of semiflexible polymer critical exponents, for a large set of studied compact fractals.

  4. Slow Waves in Fractures Filled with Viscous Fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korneev, Valeri

    2008-01-08

    Stoneley guided waves in a fluid-filled fracture generally have larger amplitudes than other waves, and therefore, their properties need to be incorporated in more realistic models. In this study, a fracture is modeled as an infinite layer of viscous fluid bounded by two elastic half-spaces with identical parameters. For small fracture thickness, I obtain a simple dispersion equation for wave-propagation velocity. This velocity is much smaller than the velocity of a fluid wave in a Biot-type solution, in which fracture walls are assumed to be rigid. At seismic prospecting frequencies and realistic fracture thicknesses, the Stoneley guided wave has wavelengths on the order of several meters and an attenuation Q factor exceeding 10, which indicates the possibility of resonance excitation in fluid-bearing rocks. The velocity and attenuation of Stoneley guided waves are distinctly different at low frequencies for water and oil. The predominant role of fractures in fluid flow at field scales is supported by permeability data showing an increase of several orders of magnitude when compared to values obtained at laboratory scales. These data suggest that Stoneley guided waves should be taken into account in theories describing seismic wave propagation in fluid-saturated rocks.

  5. Sorption of Np (Ⅴ) on Beishan granite fracture filling materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Tao; Wang Bo; Bao Liangjin; Zhou Duo; Long Haoqi; Song Zhixin; Chen Xi

    2012-01-01

    The sorption behaviors of Np (Ⅴ) on the granite fracture filling materials were studied by batch experiments under anaerobic in Beishan groundwater. The impact of pH of groundwater, CO 3 2- , humic acid and different components of granite fracture filling materials on sorption of Np (Ⅴ) was investigated. The results show that the granite fracture filling materials have strong capacity of Np (Ⅴ) adsorption. The value of K d , for Np (Ⅴ) sorption on the granite fracture filling materials is 843 mL/g. With the increase of pH, the value of K d increases at first and then decreases. K d of Np sorption on granite fracture filling materials in the presence of CO 3 2- and humic acid decreases. The chlorite and feldspar are major contributors to the sorption of Np (Ⅴ) on Beishan granite fracture filling materials. (authors)

  6. Effects of selective attention on perceptual filling-in.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Weerd, P; Smith, E; Greenberg, P

    2006-03-01

    After few seconds, a figure steadily presented in peripheral vision becomes perceptually filled-in by its background, as if it "disappeared". We report that directing attention to the color, shape, or location of a figure increased the probability of perceiving filling-in compared to unattended figures, without modifying the time required for filling-in. This effect could be augmented by boosting attention. Furthermore, the frequency distribution of filling-in response times for attended figures could be predicted by multiplying the frequencies of response times for unattended figures with a constant. We propose that, after failure of figure-ground segregation, the neural interpolation processes that produce perceptual filling-in are enhanced in attended figure regions. As filling-in processes are involved in surface perception, the present study demonstrates that even very early visual processes are subject to modulation by cognitive factors.

  7. The order and volume fill rates in inventory control systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorstenson, Anders; Larsen, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This paper differentiates between an order (line) fill rate and a volume fill rate and specifies their performance for different inventory control systems. When the focus is on filling complete customer orders rather than total demanded quantity the order fill rate would be the preferred service...... level measure. The main result shows how the order and volume fill rates are related in magnitude. Earlier results derived for a single-item, single-stage, continuous review inventory system with backordering and constant lead times controlled by a base-stock policy are extended in different directions...... extensions consider more general inventory control review policies with backordering, as well as some relations between service measures. A particularly important result in the paper concerns an alternative service measure, the customer order fill rate, and shows how this measure always exceeds the other two...

  8. Differentiated muscles are mandatory for gas-filling of the Drosophila airway system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiwen Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available At the end of development, organs acquire functionality, thereby ensuring autonomy of an organism when it separates from its mother or a protective egg. In insects, respiratory competence starts when the tracheal system fills with gas just before hatching of the juvenile animal. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of this process are not fully understood. Analyses of the phenotype of Drosophila embryos with malformed muscles revealed that they fail to gas-fill their tracheal system. Indeed, we show that major regulators of muscle formation like Lame duck and Blown fuse are important, while factors involved in the development of subsets of muscles including cardiac and visceral muscles are dispensable for this process, suggesting that somatic muscles (or parts of them are essential to enable tracheal terminal differentiation. Based on our phenotypic data, we assume that somatic muscle defect severity correlates with the penetrance of the gas-filling phenotype. This argues that a limiting molecular or mechanical muscle-borne signal tunes tracheal differentiation. We think that in analogy to the function of smooth muscles in vertebrate lungs, a balance of physical forces between muscles and the elasticity of tracheal walls may be decisive for tracheal terminal differentiation in Drosophila.

  9. Determination of absorption coefficient based on laser beam thermal blooming in gas-filled tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafizi, B; Peñano, J; Fischer, R; DiComo, G; Ting, A

    2014-08-01

    Thermal blooming of a laser beam propagating in a gas-filled tube is investigated both analytically and experimentally. A self-consistent formulation taking into account heating of the gas and the resultant laser beam spreading (including diffraction) is presented. The heat equation is used to determine the temperature variation while the paraxial wave equation is solved in the eikonal approximation to determine the temporal and spatial variation of the Gaussian laser spot radius, Gouy phase (longitudinal phase delay), and wavefront curvature. The analysis is benchmarked against a thermal blooming experiment in the literature using a CO₂ laser beam propagating in a tube filled with air and propane. New experimental results are presented in which a CW fiber laser (1 μm) propagates in a tube filled with nitrogen and water vapor. By matching laboratory and theoretical results, the absorption coefficient of water vapor is found to agree with calculations using MODTRAN (the MODerate-resolution atmospheric TRANsmission molecular absorption database) and HITRAN (the HIgh-resolution atmospheric TRANsmission molecular absorption database).

  10. Structure characterization of MHEMT heterostructure elements with In{sub 0.4}Ga{sub 0.6}As quantum well grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs substrate using reciprocal space mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleshin, A. N., E-mail: a.n.aleshin@mail.ru; Bugaev, A. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Ultra High Frequency Semiconductor Electronics (Russian Federation); Ermakova, M. A. [Federal Agency on Technical Regulating and Metrology, Center for Study of Surface and Vacuum Properties (Russian Federation); Ruban, O. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Ultra High Frequency Semiconductor Electronics (Russian Federation)

    2016-03-15

    The crystallographic parameters of elements of a metamorphic high-electron-mobility transistor (MHEMT) heterostructure with In{sub 0.4}Ga{sub 0.6}As quantum well are determined using reciprocal space mapping. The heterostructure has been grown by molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) on the vicinal surface of a GaAs substrate with a deviation angle of 2° from the (001) plane. The structure consists of a metamorphic step-graded buffer (composed of six layers, including an inverse step), a high-temperature buffer of constant composition, and active high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT) layers. The InAs content in the metamorphic buffer layers varies from 0.1 to 0.48. Reciprocal space mapping has been performed for the 004 and 224 reflections (the latter in glancing exit geometry). Based on map processing, the lateral and vertical lattice parameters of In{sub x}Ga{sub 1–x}As ternary solid solutions of variable composition have been determined. The degree of layer lattice relaxation and the compressive stress are found within the linear elasticity theory. The high-temperature buffer layer of constant composition (on which active MHEMT layers are directly formed) is shown to have the highest (close to 100%) degree of relaxation in comparison with all other heterostructure layers and a minimum compressive stress.

  11. Structure characterization of MHEMT heterostructure elements with In0.4Ga0.6As quantum well grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs substrate using reciprocal space mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleshin, A. N.; Bugaev, A. S.; Ermakova, M. A.; Ruban, O. A.

    2016-03-01

    The crystallographic parameters of elements of a metamorphic high-electron-mobility transistor (MHEMT) heterostructure with In0.4Ga0.6As quantum well are determined using reciprocal space mapping. The heterostructure has been grown by molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) on the vicinal surface of a GaAs substrate with a deviation angle of 2° from the (001) plane. The structure consists of a metamorphic step-graded buffer (composed of six layers, including an inverse step), a high-temperature buffer of constant composition, and active high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT) layers. The InAs content in the metamorphic buffer layers varies from 0.1 to 0.48. Reciprocal space mapping has been performed for the 004 and 224 reflections (the latter in glancing exit geometry). Based on map processing, the lateral and vertical lattice parameters of In x Ga1- x As ternary solid solutions of variable composition have been determined. The degree of layer lattice relaxation and the compressive stress are found within the linear elasticity theory. The high-temperature buffer layer of constant composition (on which active MHEMT layers are directly formed) is shown to have the highest (close to 100%) degree of relaxation in comparison with all other heterostructure layers and a minimum compressive stress.

  12. Structure characterization of MHEMT heterostructure elements with In_0_._4Ga_0_._6As quantum well grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs substrate using reciprocal space mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleshin, A. N.; Bugaev, A. S.; Ermakova, M. A.; Ruban, O. A.

    2016-01-01

    The crystallographic parameters of elements of a metamorphic high-electron-mobility transistor (MHEMT) heterostructure with In_0_._4Ga_0_._6As quantum well are determined using reciprocal space mapping. The heterostructure has been grown by molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) on the vicinal surface of a GaAs substrate with a deviation angle of 2° from the (001) plane. The structure consists of a metamorphic step-graded buffer (composed of six layers, including an inverse step), a high-temperature buffer of constant composition, and active high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT) layers. The InAs content in the metamorphic buffer layers varies from 0.1 to 0.48. Reciprocal space mapping has been performed for the 004 and 224 reflections (the latter in glancing exit geometry). Based on map processing, the lateral and vertical lattice parameters of In_xGa_1_–_xAs ternary solid solutions of variable composition have been determined. The degree of layer lattice relaxation and the compressive stress are found within the linear elasticity theory. The high-temperature buffer layer of constant composition (on which active MHEMT layers are directly formed) is shown to have the highest (close to 100%) degree of relaxation in comparison with all other heterostructure layers and a minimum compressive stress.

  13. Curing characteristics of flowable and sculptable bulk-fill composites

    OpenAIRE

    Miletic, Vesna; Pongpruenska, Pong; De Munck, Jan; Brooks, Neil R; Van Meerbeek, Bart

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine and correlate the degree of conversion (DC) with Vickers hardness (VH) and translucency parameter (TP) with the depth of cure (DoC) of five bulk-fill composites. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six specimens per group, consisting of Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill ("TEC Bulk," Ivoclar Vivadent), SonicFill (Kerr), SDR Smart Dentin Replacement ("SDR," Dentsply), Xenius base ("Xenius," StickTech; commercialized as EverX Posterior, GC), Filtek Bul...

  14. [Cermet cements for milk tooth fillings. Preliminary results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickel, R; Petschelt, A; Voss, A

    1989-06-01

    106 Ketac-Silver fillings in deciduous molars were reevaluated after 1 to 3.3 years, i.e. 25 month on the average. About 90% of 50 occlusal fillings and about 84% of 56 multisurface restorations were unchanged. Without claiming statistical evidence for their conclusiveness, we consider these results as an indication that cermet cements are a useful alternative to amalgam fillings in deciduous teeth, particularly since the life of these fillings is limited to the time until the milk tooth is physiologically lost.

  15. Method for automatic filling of nuclear fuel rod cladding tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezold, H.

    1979-01-01

    Prior to welding the zirconium alloy cladding tubes with end caps, they are automatically filled with nuclear fuel tablets and ceramic insulating tablets. The tablets are introduced into magazine drums and led through a drying oven to a discharging station. The empty cladding tubes are removed from this discharging station and filled with tablets. A filling stamp pushes out the columns of tablets in the magazine tubes of the magazine drum into the cladding tube. Weight and measurement of length determine the filled state of the cladding tube. The cladding tubes are then led to the welding station via a conveyor belt. (DG) [de

  16. Initial settlements of rock fills on soft clay

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Truls Martens

    2012-01-01

    Rock fills that hit the seabed will remold the underlying material. If this material is a clay with sufficiently low shear strength, it will adopt rheological properties, causing flow through the rock fill, and contributing to the initial settlements of the rock fill in addition to conventional consolidation theory. The settlements of the rocks depend upon the height of the rock fill and how the rocks have been laid out. This is due to the viscosity of the clay, and the fact that clay is thix...

  17. Laser driven implosion of gas filled microballoons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Key, M.H.; Evans, R.G.; Nicholas, D.J.

    1978-01-01

    The characteristics of the exploding pusher compression process have been studied experimentally and by computer modelling. Time and space resolved imaging and spectroscopy of X-ray emission has been used to determine the plasma parameters in both the outer corona and the implosion core. Neutron yield has been applied as an ion temperature indicator. The data thus obtained are related to 1D computer modelling with emphasis on the role of hot electron energy transport. Physical processes in the plasma corona have been investigated through observations of fast ions, hard X-rays and harmonic generation. Diagnostic methods for dense implosion plasma will be discussed. (author)

  18. Filling the gaps with PCO’s

    OpenAIRE

    Sen, AshokeHarish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhusi, Allahabad, 211019, India; Witten, Edward(School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study, 1 Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ, 08540, U.S.A.)

    2015-01-01

    Superstring perturbation theory is traditionally carried out by using picture-changing operators (PCO’s) to integrate over odd moduli. Naively the PCO’s can be inserted anywhere on a string worldsheet, but actually a constraint must be placed on PCO insertions to avoid spurious singularities. Accordingly, it has been long known that the simplest version of the PCO procedure is valid only locally on the moduli space of Riemann surfaces, and that a correct PCO-based algorithm to compute scatter...

  19. Use of Gap-fills in the Buffer and Backfill of an HLW Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Owan; Lee, Min Soo; Choi, Heui Joo [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The buffer and backfill are significant barrier components of the repository. They play the roles of preventing the inflow of groundwater from the surrounding rock, retarding the release of radionuclides from the waste, supporting disposal container against external impacts, and discharging decay heat from the waste. When the buffer and backfill are installed for the HLW repository, there may be gaps between the container and buffer and between the backfill and the wall of disposal tunnels, respectively. These gaps occur because spaces are allowed for ease of the installation of the buffer and backfill in excavated deposition boreholes and disposal tunnels. If the gaps are left without any sealing as they are, however, the buffer and backfill can't accomplish their functions as the barrier components. This paper reviews the gap-fill concepts of the developed foreign countries, and then suggests a gap-fill concept which is applicable for the KRS. The gap-fill is suggested to employ bentonite- based materials with a type of pellet, granule, and pellet-granule mixture. The roller compression method and extrusion-cutting method are applicable for the fabrication of the bentonite pellets which can have the high density and the required amount for use to the buffer and backfill. For the installation of the gap-fill, the pouring and then pressing method and the shotcrete- blowing method are preferable for the gap of the deposition borehole and the gap of the disposal tunnel, respectively.

  20. Push-out bond strength of different tricalcium silicate-based filling materials to root dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Henrique Stefaneli Marques

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the bond strength of different triccalcium silicate cements to retrograde cavity using a push out test. Thirty maxillary central incisors were shaped using #80 hand files and sectioned transversally. Root slices were obtained from the apical 4 mm after eliminating the apical extremity. The specimens were embedded in acrylic resin and positioned at 45° to the horizontal plane for preparation of root-end cavities with a diamond ultrasonic retrotip. The samples were divided into three groups according to the root-end filling material (n = 10: MTA Angelus, ProRoot MTA and Biodentine. A gutta-percha cone (#80 was tugged-back at the limit between the canal and the root-end cavity. The root-end cavity was filled and the gutta-percha cone was removed after complete setting of the materials. The specimens were placed in an Instron machine with the root-end filling turned downwards. The push-out shaft was inserted in the space previously occupied by the gutta-percha cone and push out testing was performed at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/min. There was no statistically significant difference in resistance to push out by the materials tested (p > 0.01. MTA Angelus and ProRoot MTA showed predominantly mixed failure while Biodentine exhibited mixed and cohesive failures. The tricalcium silicate-based root-end filling materials showed similar bond strength retrograde cavity.

  1. Push-out bond strength of different tricalcium silicate-based filling materials to root dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefaneli Marques, Jorge Henrique; Silva-Sousa, Yara Teresinha Corrêa; Rached-Júnior, Fuad Jacob Abi; Macedo, Luciana Martins Domingues de; Mazzi-Chaves, Jardel Francisco; Camilleri, Josette; Sousa-Neto, Manoel Damião

    2018-03-08

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the bond strength of different triccalcium silicate cements to retrograde cavity using a push out test. Thirty maxillary central incisors were shaped using #80 hand files and sectioned transversally. Root slices were obtained from the apical 4 mm after eliminating the apical extremity. The specimens were embedded in acrylic resin and positioned at 45° to the horizontal plane for preparation of root-end cavities with a diamond ultrasonic retrotip. The samples were divided into three groups according to the root-end filling material (n = 10): MTA Angelus, ProRoot MTA and Biodentine. A gutta-percha cone (#80) was tugged-back at the limit between the canal and the root-end cavity. The root-end cavity was filled and the gutta-percha cone was removed after complete setting of the materials. The specimens were placed in an Instron machine with the root-end filling turned downwards. The push-out shaft was inserted in the space previously occupied by the gutta-percha cone and push out testing was performed at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/min. There was no statistically significant difference in resistance to push out by the materials tested (p > 0.01). MTA Angelus and ProRoot MTA showed predominantly mixed failure while Biodentine exhibited mixed and cohesive failures. The tricalcium silicate-based root-end filling materials showed similar bond strength retrograde cavity.

  2. Increasing Polymer Solar Cell Fill Factor by Trap-Filling with F4-TCNQ at Parts Per Thousand Concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Han; Manion, Joseph G; Yuan, Mingjian; García de Arquer, F Pelayo; McKeown, George R; Beaupré, Serge; Leclerc, Mario; Sargent, Edward H; Seferos, Dwight S

    2016-08-01

    Intrinsic traps in organic semiconductors can be eliminated by trap-filling with F4-TCNQ. Photovoltaic tests show that devices with F4-TCNQ at parts per thousand concentration outperform control devices due to an improved fill factor. Further studies confirm the trap-filling pathway and demonstrate the general nature of this finding. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Dynamics of Coarse-grained Model of Filled Rubber Composite under Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagita, Katsumi; Ueno, Shinichi; Bito, Yasumasa; Takano, Hiroshi; Doi, Masao; Morita, Hiroshi

    2010-03-01

    We presented a result of coarse-grained Molecular Dynamics simulation of filled polymer melts with Sulfur-crosslink under deformation based on the Kremer-Grest Model. Because all polymer chains are connected to one network gel, the size of simulation box under periodic boundary conditions (PBC) is set to about 33nm. We put 4 fillers, 80 polymer chains of 1024 particles, and many crosslink into the PBC box. One filler consists of 1280 particles of the C1280 fullerene structure. A repulsive force from the center of the filler is applied to the particles of C1280 in order to make a sphere whose diameter is about 15nm. Some patterns of distribution of the fillers are examined. The stress-strain curves estimated by applying a deformation to the system in simulations qualitatively agree with those in experiments. It is successful to show hysteresis on the S-S curve between elongation / release of the filled rubber.

  4. The mechanisms for filling carbon nanotubes with molten salts: carbon nanotubes as energy landscape filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, Clare L; Wilson, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The mechanisms for filling carbon nanotubes with molten salts are investigated using molecular dynamics computer simulation. Inorganic nanotubular structures, whose morphologies can be rationalized in terms of the folding, or the removal of sections from, planes of square nets are found to form. The formation mechanisms are found to follow a 'chain-by-chain' motif in which the structures build systematically from charge neutral M-X-M-Xc chains. The formation mechanisms are rationalized in terms of the ion-ion interactions (intra-chain and inter-chain terms). In addition, the mechanisms of filling are discussed in terms of a 'hopping' between basins on the underlying energy landscape. The role of the carbon nanotube as an energy landscape filter is discussed.

  5. Raman scattering study of filled skutterudite compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogita, N; Kojima, R; Hasegawa, T; Takasu, Y; Udagawa, M; Kondo, T; Takeda, N; Ikeno, T; Ishikawa, K; Sugawara, H; Kikuchi, D; Sato, H; Sekine, C; Shirotani, I

    2007-01-01

    Raman scattering of skutterudite compounds RT 4 X 12 (R=La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm and Yb, T=Fe, Ru and Os, X=P and Sb) have been measured. All first-order Raman active phonons are observed and are assigned as the pnicogen vibrations. At the low energy region, the second-order phonons, due to the vibration of the rare earth ions with a flat phonon dispersion, are observed in the spectra of RRu 4 P 12 (R=La and Sm) and ROs 4 Sb 12 (R=La, Ce, Pr, Nd, and Sm). The appearance of the second-order phonons in the spectra is caused by an anharmonic vibrations of rare earth ions in large cage space and a large density of state due to the flat phonon dispersion. However, in spite of the similar cage space, the 2nd-order phonons are hardly observed for RFe 4 Sb 12 and RRu 4 Sb 12 . Thus, these results suggest that the dynamics of the rare earth ion is closely related to not only the cage size but also the electronic state due to the transition metals. Raman spectra of PrRu 4 P 12 show the drastic spectral change due to the metal-insulator transition. The phonon spectra and crystal field excitations due to the structural change have been assigned above and below the transition temperature

  6. COMSOL Multiphysics Model for HLW Canister Filling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesterson, M. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-04-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is building a Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at the Hanford Site in Washington to remediate 55 million gallons of radioactive waste that is being temporarily stored in 177 underground tanks. Efforts are being made to increase the loading of Hanford tank wastes in glass while meeting melter lifetime expectancies and process, regulatory, and product quality requirements. Wastes containing high concentrations of Al2O3 and Na2O can contribute to nepheline (generally NaAlSiO4) crystallization, which can sharply reduce the chemical durability of high level waste (HLW) glass. Nepheline crystallization can occur during slow cooling of the glass within the stainless steel canister. The purpose of this work was to develop a model that can be used to predict temperatures of the glass in a WTP HLW canister during filling and cooling. The intent of the model is to support scoping work in the laboratory. It is not intended to provide precise predictions of temperature profiles, but rather to provide a simplified representation of glass cooling profiles within a full scale, WTP HLW canister under various glass pouring rates. These data will be used to support laboratory studies for an improved understanding of the mechanisms of nepheline crystallization. The model was created using COMSOL Multiphysics, a commercially available software. The model results were compared to available experimental data, TRR-PLT-080, and were found to yield sufficient results for the scoping nature of the study. The simulated temperatures were within 60 ºC for the centerline, 0.0762m (3 inch) from centerline, and 0.2286m (9 inch) from centerline thermocouples once the thermocouples were covered with glass. The temperature difference between the experimental and simulated values reduced to 40 ºC, 4 hours after the thermocouple was covered, and down to 20 ºC, 6 hours after the thermocouple was covered

  7. Estimation of water-filled and air-filled porosity in the unsaturated zone, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, P.H.

    1993-01-01

    Water content and porosity vary considerably within the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain. Measurement of these quantities has been based on core samples. A log-based approach offers the advantage of in-situ measurements, continuous throughout the borehole. This paper describes an algorithm which determines the air-filled and water-filled porosities from density and dielectric logs. The responses of density and dielectric logs are formulated in terms of the matrix properties, air-filled porosity and water-filled porosity. Porosity values obtained from logs from borehole USW G-2 are in reasonable agreement with estimates from core determinations

  8. The Kuramoto–Sivashinsky equation. A Local Attractor Filled with Unstable Periodic Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoli N. Kulikov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A periodic boundary value problem is considered for one version of the KuramotoSivashinsky equation, which is widely known in mathematical physics. Local bifurcations in a neighborhood of the spatially homogeneous equilibrium points in the case when they change stability are studied. It is shown that the loss of stability of homogeneous equilibrium points leads to the appearance of a two-dimensional attractor on which all solutions are periodic functions of time, except one spatially inhomogeneous state. A spectrum of frequencies of the given family of periodic solutions fills the entire number line, and they are all unstable in a sense of Lyapunov definition in the metric of the phase space (space of initial conditions of the corresponding initial boundary value problem. It is chosen the Sobolev space as the phase space. For the periodic solutions which fill the two-dimensional attractor, the asymptotic formulas are given. In order to analyze the bifurcation problem it was used analysis methods for infinite-dimensional dynamical systems: the integral (invariant manifold method, the Poincare normal form theory, and asymptotic methods. The analysis of bifurcations for periodic boundary value problem was reduced to analysing the structure of the neighborhood of the zero solution of the homogeneous Dirichlet boundary value problem for the considered equation. 

  9. Filling the gaps with PCO’s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, Ashoke; Witten, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Superstring perturbation theory is traditionally carried out by using picture-changing operators (PCO’s) to integrate over odd moduli. Naively the PCO’s can be inserted anywhere on a string worldsheet, but actually a constraint must be placed on PCO insertions to avoid spurious singularities. Accordingly, it has been long known that the simplest version of the PCO procedure is valid only locally on the moduli space of Riemann surfaces, and that a correct PCO-based algorithm to compute scattering amplitudes must be based on piecing together local descriptions. Recently, “vertical integration” was proposed as a relatively simple method to do this. Here, we spell out in detail what vertical integration means if carried out systematically. This involves a hierarchical procedure with corrections of high order. One might anticipate such a structure from the viewpoint of super Riemann surfaces.

  10. Filling the gaps with PCO’s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, Ashoke [Harish-Chandra Research Institute,Chhatnag Road, Jhusi, Allahabad 211019 (India); Witten, Edward [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,1 Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Superstring perturbation theory is traditionally carried out by using picture-changing operators (PCO’s) to integrate over odd moduli. Naively the PCO’s can be inserted anywhere on a string worldsheet, but actually a constraint must be placed on PCO insertions to avoid spurious singularities. Accordingly, it has been long known that the simplest version of the PCO procedure is valid only locally on the moduli space of Riemann surfaces, and that a correct PCO-based algorithm to compute scattering amplitudes must be based on piecing together local descriptions. Recently, “vertical integration” was proposed as a relatively simple method to do this. Here, we spell out in detail what vertical integration means if carried out systematically. This involves a hierarchical procedure with corrections of high order. One might anticipate such a structure from the viewpoint of super Riemann surfaces.

  11. Using Habit Reversal to Decrease Filled Pauses in Public Speaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Carolyn; Miltenberger, Raymond G.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of simplified habit reversal in reducing filled pauses that occur during public speaking. Filled pauses consist of "uh," "um," or "er"; clicking sounds; and misuse of the word "like." After baseline, participants received habit reversal training that consisted of…

  12. Optimization of foam-filled bitubal structures for crashworthiness criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yong; Sun, Guangyong; Li, Guangyao; Luo, Zhen; Li, Qing

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The paper aims to optimize foam-filled bitubal squared column for crashworthiness. ► It explores different formulations and configurations of design. ► The optimal foam-filled bitubal column is better than foam-filled monotubal column. ► The optimal foam-filled bitubal column is better than empty bitubal column. -- Abstract: Thin-walled structures have been widely used as key components in automobile and aerospace industry to improve the crashworthiness and safety of vehicles while maintaining overall light-weight. This paper aims to explore the design issue of thin-walled bitubal column structures filled with aluminum foam. As a relatively new filler material, aluminum foam can increase crashworthiness without sacrificing too much weight. To optimize crashworthiness of the foam-filled bitubal square column, the Kriging meta-modeling technique is adopted herein to formulate the objective and constraint functions. The genetic algorithm (GA) and Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA II) are used to seek the optimal solutions to the single and multiobjective optimization problems, respectively. To compare with other thin-walled configurations, the design optimization is also conducted for empty bitubal column and foam-filled monotubal column. The results demonstrate that the foam-filled bitubal configuration has more room to enhance the crashworthiness and can be an efficient energy absorber.

  13. Theory Of Dewetting In A Filled Elastomer Under Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Steven T. J.

    1993-01-01

    Report presents theoretical study of dewetting between elastomeric binder and filler particles of highly filled elastomer under multiaxial tension and resulting dilatation of elastomer. Study directed toward understanding and predicting nonlinear stress-vs.-strain behavior of filled elastomeric rocket propellant, also applicable to rubber in highly loaded tire or in damping pad.

  14. Predicting heat transfer in long, R-134a filled thermosyphons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grooten, M.H.M.; Geld, van der C.W.M.

    2008-01-01

    When traditional air-to-air cooling is too voluminous, heat exchangers with long thermosyphons offer a good alternative. Experiments with a single thermosyphon with a large length-to-diameter ratio (188) and filled with R-134a are presented and analyzed. Saturation temperatures, filling ratios, and

  15. Radiodiagnosis of filled retention bronchial cysts and lung tuberculomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudz', A.E.

    1987-01-01

    Radiological semiotics of filled retention bronchial cysts in 23 patients and of lung tuberculomes in 52 is studied on the basis of the data on roentgenography, tomography and bronchography. Characteristic radiological signs of retention bronchial cysts and tuberculomes are determined. Significance of each radiological sign for differential diagnosis of filled retention bronchial cysts and lung tuberculomes is estimated

  16. CHARACTERISTICS OF FLORIDA FILL MATERIALS AND SOILS 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of laboratory work by the University of Florida in support of the Foundation Fill Data Base project of the Foundation Fill Materials Specifications Task Area of the Florida Radon Research Program (FRRP). Work included determination of radon concentrations...

  17. Simulation of mould filling process for composite skeleton castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dziuba

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work authors showed selected results of simulation and experimental studies on temperature distribution during solidification of skeleton casting and mould filling process. The aim of conducted simulations was the choice of thermal and geometrical parameters for the needs of designed calculations of the skeleton castings and the estimation of the guidelines for the technology of manufacturing. The subject of numerical simulation was the analysis of ability of filling the channels of core by liquid metal at estability technological parameters.. Below the assumptions and results of the initial simulated calculations are presented. The total number of the nodes in the casting was 1920 and of the connectors was 5280 what gave filling of 100% for the nodes and 99,56% for the connectors in the results of the simulation. Together it resulted as 99,78 % of filling the volume of the casting. The nodes and connectors were filled up to the 30 level of the casting in the simulation. The all connectors were filled up to the 25 level of the casting in the simulation. Starting from the 25 level individual connectors at the side surface of the casting weren’t filled up. The connectors weren’t supplied by multi-level getting system. The differences of filling the levels are little (maximally 5 per cent.

  18. The automatic liquid nitrogen filling system for GDA detectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In addition, no physical access to the beam hall is required during routine filling operation. The system consists of ... PSI with the manual valve (MV) on the dewar kept open. For filling the detectors on one ... sequence the opening/closing of the valves depending upon the outlet temperature. By monitoring the time taken for ...

  19. Method and apparatus for filling cryogenic liquid cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remes, S.

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for filling a portable cryogenic liquid cylinder from a large stand tank. The invention employs a regulator valve to perform an automatic throttling function whereby the pressure in the liquid cylinder is maintained at a value slightly lower than the upstream pressure in the stand tank. This significantly reduces filling losses due to flashing

  20. Gap filling strategies and error in estimating annual soil respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil respiration (Rsoil) is one of the largest CO2 fluxes in the global carbon (C) cycle. Estimation of annual Rsoil requires extrapolation of survey measurements or gap-filling of automated records to produce a complete time series. While many gap-filling methodologies have been employed, there is ...

  1. Rapid filling of pipelines with the SPH particle method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, Q.; Zhang, L.X.; Tijsseling, A.S.; Kruisbrink, A.C.H.

    2011-01-01

    The paper reports the development and application of a SPH (smoothed particle hydrodynamics) based simulation of rapid filling of pipelines, for which the rigid-column model is commonly used. In this paper the water-hammer equations with a moving boundary are used to model the pipe filling process,

  2. Rapid filling of pipelines with the SPH particle method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, Q.; Zhang, L.X.; Tijsseling, A.S.; Kruisbrink, A.C.H.

    2012-01-01

    The paper reports the development and application of a SPH (smoothed particle hydrodynamics) based simulation of rapid filling of pipelines, for which the rigid-column model is commonly used. In this paper the water-hammer equations with a moving boundary are used to model the pipe filling process,

  3. Process for automatic filling of nuclear fuel rod cans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezold, H.

    1977-01-01

    A drying section is inserted in the production line for the automation of the filling process for fuel rods with nuclear fuel pellets. The pellets are taken in a drum magazine to a drying furnace and then pushed out one after the other into the can to be filled. (TK) [de

  4. 46 CFR 151.03-21 - Filling density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Filling density. 151.03-21 Section 151.03-21 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES BARGES CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Definitions § 151.03-21 Filling density. The ratio, expressed as...

  5. Excavation/Fill/Soil Disturbance, Self-Study #31419

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grogin, Phillip W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-02-06

    This course, Excavation/Fill/Soil Disturbance Self-Study (#31419), presents an overview of the hazards, controls, and requirements that affect safe excavations at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). An overview of the LANL excavation/fill/soil disturbance permit (EXID permit) approval process is also presented, along with potholing requirements for planning and performing excavations at LANL.

  6. Microbiological studies on bacterial isolates from penicillins filling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aseptic processing is a critical method for the preparation of thermolabile sterile parenteral drug products. Sterile β-lactam antibiotics are extremely deactivated by heat, so the method of choice for their processing is through aseptic filling. The consequences of contamination on aseptically-filled products are harmful to the ...

  7. 27 CFR 4.72 - Metric standards of fill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Metric standards of fill. 4.72 Section 4.72 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Standards of Fill for Wine § 4.72 Metric...

  8. Cassava For Space Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Naomi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Njemanze, Philip; Nweke, Felix; Mitsuhashi, Jun; Hachiya, Natumi; Miyashita, Sachiko; Hotta, Atuko

    Space agriculture is an advanced life support enginnering concept based on biological and ecological system ot drive the materials recycle loop and create pleasant life environment on distant planetary bodies. Choice of space diet is one of primary decision required ot be made at designing space agriculture. We propose cassava, Manihot esculenta and, for one major composition of space food materials, and evaluate its value and feasibility of farming and processing it for space diet. Criteria to select space crop species could be stated as follows. 1) Fill th enutritional requirements. There is no perfect food material to meet this requirements without making a combination with others. A set of food materials which are adopted inthe space recipe shall fit to the nutritional requirement. 2) Space food is not just for maintaining physiological activities of human, but an element of human culture. We shall consider joy of dining in space life. In this context, space foos or recipe should be accepted by future astronauts. Food culture is diverse in the world, and has close relatioship to each cultural background. Cassava root tuber is a material to supply mainly energy in the form of carbohydrate, same as cereals and other tuber crops. Cassava leaf is rich in protein high as 5.1 percents about ten times higher content than its tuber. In the food culture in Africa, cassava is a major component. Cassava root tuber in most of its strain contains cyanide, it should be removed during preparation for cooking. However certain strain are less in this cyanogenic compound, and genetically modified cassava can also aboid this problem safely.

  9. Radiation damage: special reference to gas filled radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaur, Sudha; Joshi, Pankaj Kumar; Rathore, Shakuntla

    2012-01-01

    Radiation damage is a term associated with ionizing radiation. In gas filled particle detectors, radiation damage to gases plays an important role in the device's ageing, especially in devices exposed to high intensity radiation, e.g. detector for the large hadrons collide. Ionization processes require energy above 10 eV, while splitting covalent bond in molecules and generating free radical require only 3-4 eV. The electrical discharges initiated by the ionization event by the particles result in plasma populated by large amount of free radical. The highly reactive free radical can recombine back to original molecules, or initiate a chain of free radical polymerization reaction with other molecules, yielding compounds with increasing molecular weight. These high molecular weight compounds then precipitate from gases phase, forming conductive or non-conductive deposits on the electrodes an insulating surfaces of the detector and distorting it's response. Gases containing hydrocarbon quenchers, e.g. argon-methane, are typically sensitive to ageing by polymerization; addition of oxygen tends to lower the ageing rates. Trace amount of silicon oils, present form out gassing of silicon elastomers and especially from traces of silicon lubricant tend to decompose and form deposits of silicon crystals on the surfaces. Gases mixture of argon (or xenon) with CO 2 and optimally also with 2-3 % of oxygen are highly tolerant to high radiation fluxes. The oxygen is added as noble gas with CO 2 has too high transparency for high energy photons; ozone formed from the oxygen is a strong absorber of ultra violet photons. Carbon tetra fluoride can be used as a component of the gas for high-rate detectors; the fluorine radical produced during the operation however limit the choice of materials for the chambers and electrodes (e.g. gold electrodes are required, as the fluorine radicals attack metals, forming fluorides). Addition of carbon tetra fluoride can however eliminate the

  10. Water balance of an earth fill built of organic clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birle Emanuel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents investigations on the water balance of an earth fill built of organic clay in humid climate. As the organic soil used for the fill contains geogenetically elevated concentrations of arsenic, particular attention is paid on the seepage flow through the fill. The test fill is 5 m high, 30 m long and 25 m wide. The fill consists of the organic clay compacted at water contents wet and dry of Proctor Optimum covered by a drainage mat and a 60 cm thick top layer. For the determination of the water balance extensive measuring systems were installed. The seepage at the bottom measured so far was less than 2 % of the precipitation. The interflow in the drainage mat above the compacted organic clay was of similar magnitude. The estimated evapotranspiration reached approx. 84 % of the precipitation. According to these measurements the percolation is much lower than the percolation of many landfill covers in humid climates.

  11. Development of gap filling technique in HLW repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, Hitoshi; Saito, Akira; Ishii, Takashi; Toguri, Satohito; Okihara, Mitsunobu; Iwasa, Kengo

    2016-01-01

    HLW is supposed to be disposed underground at depths more than 300 m in Japan. Buffer is an artificial barrier that controls radionuclides migrating into the groundwater. The buffer would be made of a natural swelling clay, bentonite. Construction technology for the buffer has been studied for many years, but studies for the gaps surrounding the buffer are little. The proper handling of the gaps is important for guaranteeing the functions of the buffer. In this paper, gap filling techniques using bentonite pellets have been developed in order to the gap having the same performance as the buffer. A new method for manufacturing high-density spherical pellets has been developed to fill the gap higher density ever reported. For the bentonite pellets, the filling performance and how to use were determined. And full-scale filling tests provided availability of the bentonite pellets and filling techniques. (author)

  12. Magnetically Active and Coated Gadolinium-Filled Carbon Nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Fidiani, Elok; Da Costa, Pedro M. F. J.; Wolter, Anja U. B.; Maier, Diana; Buechner, Bernd; Hampel, Silke

    2013-01-01

    Gd-filled carbon nanotubes (which include the so-called gadonanotubes(1)) have been attracting much interest due to their potential use in medical diagnostic applications. In the present work, a vacuum filling method was performed to confine gadolinium(III) iodide in carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Filling yields in excess of 50% were obtained. Cleaning and dosing of the external walls was undertaken, as well as the study of the filled CNT magnetic properties. Overall, we found that the encapsulating procedure can lead to reduction of the lanthanide metal and induce disorder in the initial GdI3-type structure. Notwithstanding, the magnetic response of the material is not compromised, retaining a strong paramagnetic response and an effective magnetic moment of similar to 6 mu B. Our results may entice further investigation into whether an analogous Gd3+ to Gd2+ reduction takes place in other Gd-filled CNT systems.

  13. Magnetically Active and Coated Gadolinium-Filled Carbon Nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Fidiani, Elok

    2013-08-15

    Gd-filled carbon nanotubes (which include the so-called gadonanotubes(1)) have been attracting much interest due to their potential use in medical diagnostic applications. In the present work, a vacuum filling method was performed to confine gadolinium(III) iodide in carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Filling yields in excess of 50% were obtained. Cleaning and dosing of the external walls was undertaken, as well as the study of the filled CNT magnetic properties. Overall, we found that the encapsulating procedure can lead to reduction of the lanthanide metal and induce disorder in the initial GdI3-type structure. Notwithstanding, the magnetic response of the material is not compromised, retaining a strong paramagnetic response and an effective magnetic moment of similar to 6 mu B. Our results may entice further investigation into whether an analogous Gd3+ to Gd2+ reduction takes place in other Gd-filled CNT systems.

  14. Nanopolaritonics with a continuum of molecules: simulations of molecular-induced selectivity in plasmonics transport through a continuous Y-shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhauser, Daniel

    2011-11-28

    Using the recent NF (near-field) formulation for electrodynamics on the nanoscale, we simulate transport in a Y-shape gold nanostructure in the presence of 2-level molecules. NF is shown to be easily integrated with the Liouville equation, producing a simple and efficient nanopolaritons (plasmons-excitons) solver, with a large time step. Two cases are considered: coating of the gold structure with molecular layers thinner than the structure, and filling space with aligned molecules. In both cases significant effects on the radiation transport are obtained even for low molecular densities. At low densities the effects are primarily an overall reduction of the plasmonics peak, but at higher densities there is a significant selectivity control by the molecules. A redshift is predicted, especially for the space-filling case. The combined nanopolariton shows qualitative hybridization, and the spectral peaks separate with increasing coupling, i.e., with increasing molecular densities. The results open the way to "control of light by light," i.e., controlling plasmonic light transport by inducing a change in the direction of the guiding molecular dipoles through radiation or other means.

  15. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF THE SONICFILL™ METHOD FOR LATERAL FILLINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae BARANOV

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of bulk-fill type fillings realized with SONICFill™ over an 18 month interval, on a batch of patients with different ages and occupations. Materials and methods: the study was performed on a batch of 73 patients who addressed the Clinical of OdontologyEndodontics within the Platform of Practical Training (PIP of the Faculty of Dental Medicine of the ”Apollonia” University of Iaşi, between Octomber 1, 2014 - May 1, 2016, subjected to 91 bulk-fill fillings with SonicFill™ on the posterior teeth. Results and discussion: out of the total number of 73 patients, 56 came from the urban environment, and 17 - from the rural medium, the highest ratio being represented by the 21-30 year age group (45%, closely followed by the 31-40 year one (40%. As for gender distribution within the batch, nearly two-thirds are women, the rest being men. The education level influenced patients’ decision – that of accepting a new method of filling application. As to the types of teeth to which restorations were applied, the highest ratio is represented by lower molars (41%, followed by upper molars (23% and mandibular premolars (20%, the lowest number of restorations being applied to maxillary premolars. Out of the total number of 91 bulk-fill restorations, 28 were applied over a base filling while, in 63 restorations, the basic filling was absent. Conclusions: The SonicFill ™ system for bulk-fill posterior restorations has a number of advantages, such as: high photopolymerization depth, significant reduction of setting contraction, better composite adaptation to the cavity walls, long-term predictable clinical results.

  16. Black Sprayable Molecular Adsorber Coating

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The main objective of this technology project is to develop, optimize, and flight qualify a black version of the molecular adsorber coating and a conductive version...

  17. Quality of root fillings performed with two root filling techniques. An in vitro study using micro-CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, L; Wenzel, A; Wegge-Larsen, AM

    2013-01-01

    -section images from Micro-computed Tomography scans. Results. All root canal fillings had voids. Permutation test showed no statistically significant difference between the two root filling techniques in relation to presence of voids (p = 0.092). A statistically significant difference in obturation time between...

  18. The water-filled versus air-filled status of vessels cut open in air: the 'Scholander assumption' revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.T. Tyree; H. Cochard; P. Cruziat

    2003-01-01

    When petioles of transpiring leaves are cut in the air, according to the 'Scholander assumption', the vessels cut open should fill with air as the water is drained away by continued transpiration, The distribution of air-filled vessels versus distance from the cut surface should match the distribution of lengths of 'open vessels', i.e. vessels cut...

  19. SPS batch spacing optimisation

    CERN Document Server

    Velotti, F M; Carlier, E; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Kotzian, G

    2017-01-01

    Until 2015, the LHC filling schemes used the batch spac-ing as specified in the LHC design report. The maximumnumber of bunches injectable in the LHC directly dependson the batch spacing at injection in the SPS and hence onthe MKP rise time.As part of the LHC Injectors Upgrade project for LHCheavy ions, a reduction of the batch spacing is needed. In thisdirection, studies to approach the MKP design rise time of150ns(2-98%) have been carried out. These measurementsgave clear indications that such optimisation, and beyond,could be done also for higher injection momentum beams,where the additional slower MKP (MKP-L) is needed.After the successful results from 2015 SPS batch spacingoptimisation for the Pb-Pb run [1], the same concept wasthought to be used also for proton beams. In fact, thanksto the SPS transverse feed back, it was already observedthat lower batch spacing than the design one (225ns) couldbe achieved. For the 2016 p-Pb run, a batch spacing of200nsfor the proton beam with100nsbunch spacing wasreque...

  20. Characterization of vegetative and grain filling periods of winter wheat by stepwise regression procedure. II. Grain filling period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pržulj Novo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In wheat, rate and duration of dry matter accumulation and remobilization depend on genotype and growing conditions. The objective of this study was to determine the most appropriate polynomial regression of stepwise regression procedure for describing grain filling period in three winter wheat cultivars. The stepwise regression procedure showed that grain filling is a complex biological process and that it is difficult to offer a simple and appropriate polynomial equation that fits the pattern of changes in dry matter accumulation during the grain filling period, i.e., from anthesis to maximum grain weight, in winter wheat. If grain filling is to be represented with a high power polynomial, quartic and quintic equations showed to be most appropriate. In spite of certain disadvantages, a cubic equation of stepwise regression could be used for describing the pattern of winter wheat grain filling.

  1. Geomechanical investigations for the designing of cemented filling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, P.

    1980-05-15

    Laboratory and in situ investigations have led to the identification of the main geomechanical parameters that condition the stability of the cemented fill in the Gavorrano pyrite mine (Tuscany, Italy); such parameters were used for working out a satisfactory mining method. The pyrite is mined with the descending horizontal slice method with integral cemented filling which is obtained by throwing a mixture of limestone aggregates and cement into the mined voids. The laboratory geomechanical investigations carried out on fill samples have pointed out that the physical and mechanical characteristics are highly variable and this is essentially due to the fact that the fill is cast into place by compressed air. In particular, it was pointed out that the strength depends upon the cement content and upon the porosity according to a power law. The in situ measurements of the convergence between the roof and the floor, and the load measurements pointed out the considerable importance of the horizontal and vertical joints that cross the fill mass and that are inevitably brought about by a discontinuity of the fill. The results of the study made it possible to adopt an acceptable geomechanical behaviour model of the fill. On the basis of this model the mining pattern was deeply modified, the width and the height of the slices were considerably enlarged and thus the output was improved.

  2. Modeling and Fault Simulation of Propellant Filling System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Yunchun; Liu Weidong; Hou Xiaobo

    2012-01-01

    Propellant filling system is one of the key ground plants in launching site of rocket that use liquid propellant. There is an urgent demand for ensuring and improving its reliability and safety, and there is no doubt that Failure Mode Effect Analysis (FMEA) is a good approach to meet it. Driven by the request to get more fault information for FMEA, and because of the high expense of propellant filling, in this paper, the working process of the propellant filling system in fault condition was studied by simulating based on AMESim. Firstly, based on analyzing its structure and function, the filling system was modular decomposed, and the mathematic models of every module were given, based on which the whole filling system was modeled in AMESim. Secondly, a general method of fault injecting into dynamic system was proposed, and as an example, two typical faults - leakage and blockage - were injected into the model of filling system, based on which one can get two fault models in AMESim. After that, fault simulation was processed and the dynamic characteristics of several key parameters were analyzed under fault conditions. The results show that the model can simulate effectively the two faults, and can be used to provide guidance for the filling system maintain and amelioration.

  3. Space Shuttle solid rocket booster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, G. B.

    1979-01-01

    Details of the design, operation, testing and recovery procedures of the reusable solid rocket boosters (SRB) are given. Using a composite PBAN propellant, they will provide the primary thrust (six million pounds maximum at 20 s after ignition) within a 3 g acceleration constraint, as well as thrust vector control for the Space Shuttle. The drogues were tested to a load of 305,000 pounds, and the main parachutes to 205,000. Insulation in the solid rocket motor (SRM) will be provided by asbestos-silica dioxide filled acrylonitrile butadiene rubber ('asbestos filled NBR') except in high erosion areas (principally in the aft dome), where a carbon-filled ethylene propylene diene monomer-neopreme rubber will be utilized. Furthermore, twenty uses for the SRM nozzle will be allowed by its ablative materials, which are principally carbon cloth and silica cloth phenolics.

  4. Radio resource management using geometric water-filling

    CERN Document Server

    He, Peter; Zhou, Sheng; Niu, Zhisheng

    2014-01-01

    This brief introduces the fundamental theory and development of managing radio resources using a water-filling algorithm that can optimize system performance in wireless communication. Geometric Water-Filling (GWF) is a crucial underlying tool in emerging communication systems such as multiple input multiple output systems, cognitive radio systems, and green communication systems. Early chapters introduce emerging wireless technologies and provide a detailed analysis of water-filling. The brief investigates single user and multi-user issues of radio resource management, allocation of resources

  5. Measuring Item Fill-Rate Performance in a Finite Horizon

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas J. Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The standard treatment of fill rate relies on stationary and serially independent demand over an infinite horizon. Even if demand is stationary, managers are held accountable for performance over a finite horizon. In a finite horizon, the fill rate is a random variable. Studying the distribution is relevant because a vendor may be subject to financial penalty if she fails to achieve her target fill rate over a specified finite period. It is known that for a zero lead time, base-stock model, t...

  6. Fill Rates of Single-Stage and Multistage Supply Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew J. Sobel

    2004-01-01

    A supply system's fill rate is the fraction of demand that is met from on-hand inventory. This paper presents formulas for the fill rate of periodic review supply systems that use base-stock-level policies. The first part of the paper contains fill-rate formulas for a single-stage system and general distributions of demand. When demand is normally distributed, an exact expression uses only the standard normal distribution and density functions, and a good approximation uses only the standard ...

  7. Magnetismo Molecular (Molecular Magentism)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Mario S [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Brasil; Moreira Dos Santos, Antonio F [ORNL

    2010-07-01

    The new synthesis processes in chemistry open a new world of research, new and surprising materials never before found in nature can now be synthesized and, as a wonderful result, observed a series of physical phenomena never before imagined. Among these are many new materials the molecular magnets, the subject of this book and magnetic properties that are often reflections of the quantum behavior of these materials. Aside from the wonderful experience of exploring something new, the theoretical models that describe the behavior these magnetic materials are, in most cases, soluble analytically, which allows us to know in detail the physical mechanisms governing these materials. Still, the academic interest in parallel this subject, these materials have a number of properties that are promising to be used in technological devices, such as in computers quantum magnetic recording, magnetocaloric effect, spintronics and many other devices. This volume will journey through the world of molecular magnets, from the structural description of these materials to state of the art research.

  8. Molecular ferroelectrics: where electronics meet biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiangyu; Liu, Yuanming; Zhang, Yanhang; Cai, Hong-Ling; Xiong, Ren-Gen

    2013-12-28

    In the last several years, we have witnessed significant advances in molecular ferroelectrics, with the ferroelectric properties of molecular crystals approaching those of barium titanate. In addition, ferroelectricity has been observed in biological systems, filling an important missing link in bioelectric phenomena. In this perspective, we will present short historical notes on ferroelectrics, followed by an overview of the fundamentals of ferroelectricity. The latest developments in molecular ferroelectrics and biological ferroelectricity will then be highlighted, and their implications and potential applications will be discussed. We close by noting molecular ferroelectric as an exciting frontier between electronics and biology, and a number of challenges ahead are also described.

  9. The occurrence of spoilage yeasts in cream-filled bakery products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osimani, Andrea; Milanović, Vesna; Taccari, Manuela; Cardinali, Federica; Pasquini, Marina; Aquilanti, Lucia; Clementi, Francesca

    2017-04-01

    Filling creams can provide an adequate substrate for spoilage yeasts because some yeasts can tolerate the high osmotic stress in these products. To discover the source of spoilage of a cream-filled baked product, end products, raw materials, indoor air and work surfaces were subjected to microbiological and molecular analyses. The efficacy of disinfectants against spoilage yeasts was also assessed. The analyses on end products revealed the presence of the closest relatives to Zygosaccharomyces bailii with counts ranging from 1.40 to 4.72 log cfu g -1 . No spoilage yeasts were found in the indoor air and work surfaces. Polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis, carried out directly on filling creams collected from unopened cans, showed the presence of bands ascribed to the closest relatives to Z. bailii sensu lato, although with counts products, reliable and sensitive methods must be used. Moreover, hygiene and the application of good manufacturing practices represent the most efficient way for the prevention and minimization of cross-contamination. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Thermal properties of lauric acid filled in carbon nanotubes as shape-stabilized phase change materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yanhui; Wei, Runzhi; Huang, Zhi; Zhang, Xinxin; Wang, Ge

    2018-03-14

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) filled with lauric acid (LA) as a kind of shape-stabilized phase change material were prepared and their structures and phase change properties were characterized. The results showed that the melting point and latent heat of LA confined in carbon nanotubes were lower than those of the bulk material, and both decrease as the diameters of CNTs and the filling ratios of LA decrease. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations indicated that LA molecules form a liquid layer near pore walls and crystallize at the pore center. When the LA filling ratio was reduced to a certain value, all LA molecules were attached to the inner walls of CNTs, hindering their crystallization. A linear relationship between the melting temperature shift and structural properties was obtained based on the modified Gibbs-Thomson equation, which gives a reliable interpretation of the size effect of nanochannels in phase change materials. We also found that the thermal conductivity of the composite CNTs/LA was four times larger than that of pure LA. This study will provide insights into the design of novel composite phase change materials with better thermal properties by the selection of suitable porous materials and tailoring their pore structures.

  11. Acoustically modulated magnetic resonance imaging of gas-filled protein nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, George J.; Farhadi, Arash; Szablowski, Jerzy O.; Lee-Gosselin, Audrey; Barnes, Samuel R.; Lakshmanan, Anupama; Bourdeau, Raymond W.; Shapiro, Mikhail G.

    2018-05-01

    Non-invasive biological imaging requires materials capable of interacting with deeply penetrant forms of energy such as magnetic fields and sound waves. Here, we show that gas vesicles (GVs), a unique class of gas-filled protein nanostructures with differential magnetic susceptibility relative to water, can produce robust contrast in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at sub-nanomolar concentrations, and that this contrast can be inactivated with ultrasound in situ to enable background-free imaging. We demonstrate this capability in vitro, in cells expressing these nanostructures as genetically encoded reporters, and in three model in vivo scenarios. Genetic variants of GVs, differing in their magnetic or mechanical phenotypes, allow multiplexed imaging using parametric MRI and differential acoustic sensitivity. Additionally, clustering-induced changes in MRI contrast enable the design of dynamic molecular sensors. By coupling the complementary physics of MRI and ultrasound, this nanomaterial gives rise to a distinct modality for molecular imaging with unique advantages and capabilities.

  12. Production of staphylococcal enterotoxin A in cream-filled cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anunciaçao, L L; Linardi, W R; do Carmo, L S; Bergdoll, M S

    1995-07-01

    Cakes were baked with normal ingredients and filled with cream, inoculated with different size enterotoxigenic-staphylococcal inocula. Samples of the cakes were incubated at room temperature and put in the refrigerator. Samples of cake and filling were taken at different times and analyzed for staphylococcal count and presence of enterotoxin. The smaller the inoculum, the longer the time required for sufficient growth (10(6)) to occur for production of detectable enterotoxin. Enterotoxin added to the cake dough before baking (210 degrees C, 45 min) did not survive the baking. The presence of enterotoxin in the contaminated cream filling indicated this as the cause of staphylococcal food poisoning from cream-filled cakes. Refrigeration of the cakes prevented the growth of the staphylococci.

  13. 3D integrated HYDRA simulations of hohlraums including fill tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinak, M. M.; Milovich, J.; Hammel, B. A.; Macphee, A. G.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Kerbel, G. D.; Sepke, S.; Patel, M. V.

    2017-10-01

    Measurements of fill tube perturbations from hydro growth radiography (HGR) experiments on the National Ignition Facility show spoke perturbations in the ablator radiating from the base of the tube. These correspond to the shadow of the 10 μm diameter glass fill tube cast by hot spots at early time. We present 3D integrated HYDRA simulations of these experiments which include the fill tube. Meshing techniques are described which were employed to resolve the fill tube structure and associated perturbations in the simulations. We examine the extent to which the specific illumination geometry necessary to accommodate a backlighter in the HGR experiment contributes to the spoke pattern. Simulations presented include high resolution calculations run on the Trinity machine operated by the Alliance for Computing at Extreme Scale (ACES) partnership. This work was performed under the auspices of the Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, (LLNS) under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  14. Beeswax as dental filling on a neolithic human tooth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardini, Federico; Tuniz, Claudio; Coppa, Alfredo; Mancini, Lucia; Dreossi, Diego; Eichert, Diane; Turco, Gianluca; Biasotto, Matteo; Terrasi, Filippo; De Cesare, Nicola; Hua, Quan; Levchenko, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Evidence of prehistoric dentistry has been limited to a few cases, the most ancient dating back to the Neolithic. Here we report a 6500-year-old human mandible from Slovenia whose left canine crown bears the traces of a filling with beeswax. The use of different analytical techniques, including synchrotron radiation computed micro-tomography (micro-CT), Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon dating, Infrared (IR) Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), has shown that the exposed area of dentine resulting from occlusal wear and the upper part of a vertical crack affecting enamel and dentin tissues were filled with beeswax shortly before or after the individual's death. If the filling was done when the person was still alive, the intervention was likely aimed to relieve tooth sensitivity derived from either exposed dentine and/or the pain resulting from chewing on a cracked tooth: this would provide the earliest known direct evidence of therapeutic-palliative dental filling.

  15. Beeswax as dental filling on a neolithic human tooth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Bernardini

    Full Text Available Evidence of prehistoric dentistry has been limited to a few cases, the most ancient dating back to the Neolithic. Here we report a 6500-year-old human mandible from Slovenia whose left canine crown bears the traces of a filling with beeswax. The use of different analytical techniques, including synchrotron radiation computed micro-tomography (micro-CT, Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS radiocarbon dating, Infrared (IR Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, has shown that the exposed area of dentine resulting from occlusal wear and the upper part of a vertical crack affecting enamel and dentin tissues were filled with beeswax shortly before or after the individual's death. If the filling was done when the person was still alive, the intervention was likely aimed to relieve tooth sensitivity derived from either exposed dentine and/or the pain resulting from chewing on a cracked tooth: this would provide the earliest known direct evidence of therapeutic-palliative dental filling.

  16. The molecular characterization of weighted Hardy spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Xingmin

    2001-01-01

    [1]Engle, R. F., Granger, C. W. J., Rice, J. et al., Semiparametric estimates of the relation between weather and electricity sales, Journal of the American Statistical Association, 1986, 81: 310.[2]Heckman, N. E., Spline smoothing in partly linear models, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Ser. B, 1986, 48: 244.[3]Rice, J., Convergence rates for partially splined models, Statistics & Probability Letters, 1986, 4: 203.[4]Chen, H., Convergence rates for parametric components in a partly linear model, Annals of Statistics, 1988, 16: 136.[5]Robinson, P. M., Root-n-consistent semiparametric regression, Econometrica, 1988, 56: 931.[6]Speckman, P., Kernel smoothing in partial linear models, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Ser. B, 1988, 50: 413.[7]Cuzick, J., Semiparametric additive regression, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Ser. B, 1992, 54: 831.[8]Cuzick, J., Efficient estimates in semiparametric additive regression models with unknown error distribution, Annals of Statistics, 1992, 20: 1129.[9]Chen, H., Shiau, J. H., A two-stage spline smoothing method for partially linear models, Journal of Statistical Planning & Inference, 1991, 27: 187.[10]Chen, H., Shiau, J. H., Data-driven efficient estimators for a partially linear model, Annals of Statistics, 1994, 22: 211.[11]Schick, A., Root-n consistent estimation in partly linear regression models, Statistics & Probability Letters, 1996, 28: 353.[12]Hamilton, S. A., Truong, Y. K., Local linear estimation in partly linear model, Journal of Multivariate Analysis, 1997, 60: 1.[13]Mills, T. C., The Econometric Modeling of Financial Time Series, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993, 137.[14]Engle, R. F., Autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity with estimates of United Kingdom inflation, Econometrica, 1982, 50: 987.[15]Bera, A. K., Higgins, M. L., A survey of ARCH models: properties of estimation and testing, Journal of Economic Surveys, 1993, 7: 305.[16]Shephand, N., Statistical aspects of ARCH and stochastic volatility, in Time Series Models in Econometrics, Finance and Other Fields (eds. Cox, D. R., Hinkley, D. V., Barndorff-Nielsen, O. E.), London: Chapman & Hall, 1996, 1.[17]Pantula, S. G., Estimation of autoregressive models with ARCH errors, Sankhya, Ser. B, 1988, 50: 119.[18]Campbell, J. Y., Lo, A. W., Mackinlay, A. C., The Econometrics of Financial Markets, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1997, 488.[19]Fan, J., Gijbels, I., Local Polynomial Modeling and Its Applications, London: Chapman & Hall, 1996.[20]Lu, Z. D., A note on geometric ergodicity of autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity (ARCH) model, Statistics and Probability Letters, 1996, 30: 305.[21]Robinson, P. M., Nonparametric estimators for time series, Journal of Time Series Analysis, 1983, 4: 185.[22]Stone, C. J., Optimal rates of convergence for nonparametric estimators, Annals of Statistics, 1980, 8: 1348.[23]Stone, C. J., Optimal global rates of convergence for nonparametric kernel regression, Annals of Statistics, 1982, 10: 1040.[24]Truong, Y. M., Stone, C. J., Nonparametric function estimation involving time series, Annals of Statistics, 1992, 20: 77.[25]Masry, E., Multivariate polynomial regression for time series; uniform strong consistency and rates, Journal of Time Series Analysis, 1996, 17: 571.[26]Ruppert, D., Wand, M. P., Multivariate locally weighted least squares regression, Annals of Statistics, 1994, 22: 1346.[27]Bollerslev, T., Generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity, Journal of Econometrics, 1986, 31: 307.[28]Engle, R. F., Granger, C. W. J., Co-integration and error-correction: representation, estimation and testing, Econometrica, 1987, 55: 251.

  17. Mechanical behaviour of dental composite filling materials using digital holography

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, J.M.; Lopes, H.; Vaz, M.A.P.; Campos, J.C. Reis

    2010-01-01

    One of the most common clinical problems in dentistry is tooth decay. Among the dental filling materials used to repair tooth structure that has been destroyed by decay are dental amalgam and composite materials based on acrylics. Dental amalgam has been used by dentists for the past 150 years as a dental restorative material due to its low cost, ease of application, strength, durability, and bacteriostatic effects. However its safety as a filling material has been questioned due to th...

  18. Simulation of mould filling process for composite skeleton castings

    OpenAIRE

    M. Dziuba; M. Cholewa

    2008-01-01

    In this work authors showed selected results of simulation and experimental studies on temperature distribution during solidification of skeleton casting and mould filling process. The aim of conducted simulations was the choice of thermal and geometrical parameters for the needs of designed calculations of the skeleton castings and the estimation of the guidelines for the technology of manufacturing. The subject of numerical simulation was the analysis of ability of filling the channels of c...

  19. Time effects of water drainage from deposited back-fill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranski, L.A.

    1976-01-01

    Time effects of water drainage from deposited back-fill in mine excavations are considered. The time dependence of drainage from the deposited material was determined from ''in situ'' measurements with the aid of radioisotope gauges. The measurements were performed for given drainage conditions and practically constant grain size composition. It was found that in a few hours after the end of the back-filling operation the mechanical properties of the deposited material are practically constant. (author)

  20. Method for filling a reactor with a catalyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for filling a reactor with a catalyst for the carbonylation of carbonylated compounds in the gas phase. According to said method, a SILP catalyst is covered with a filling agent which is liquid under normal conditions and is volatile under carbonylation reaction...... conditions, and a thus-treated catalyst is introduced into the reactor and the reactor is sealed....

  1. Countering Stryker’s Punch: Algorithmically Filling the Black Hole

    OpenAIRE

    Michael J. Bennett

    2017-01-01

    Two current digital image editing programs are examined in the context of filling in missing visual image data from hole-punched United States Farm Security Administration (FSA) negatives. Specifically, Photoshop's Content-Aware Fill feature and GIMP's Resynthesizer plugin are evaluated and contrasted against comparable images. A possible automated workflow geared towards large scale editing of similarly hole-punched negatives is also explored. Finally, potential future research based upon th...

  2. Grain filling parameters and yield components in wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Brdar Milka; Kobiljski Borislav; Balalić-Kraljević Marija

    2006-01-01

    Grain yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is influenced by number of grains per unit area and grain weight, which is result of grain filling duration and rate. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationships between grain filling parameters in 4 wheat genotypes of different earliness and yield components. Nonlinear regression estimated and observed parameters were analyzed. Rang of estimated parameters corresponds to rang of observed parameters. Stepwise MANOVA indicated that the ...

  3. Vibration characteristics of teak wood filled steel tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danawade, Bharatesh Adappa; Malagi, Ravindra Rachappa

    2018-05-01

    The objective of this paper is to determine fundamental frequency and damping ratio of teak wood filled steel tubes. Mechanically bonded teak wood filled steel tubes have been evaluated by experimental impact hammer test using modal analysis. The results of impact hammer test were verified and validated by finite element tool ANSYS using harmonic analysis. The error between the two methods was observed to be within acceptable limit.

  4. Is a three-dimensional-printed tooth filling possible?

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammet Kerim Ayar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Three-dimensional (3-D) printing is seen as an innovative production process in many fields of dentistry and medicine. But implantation of this novel production process into the treatment of decayed teeth in dentistry remains lacking. Destruction of dental tissues as a result of dental caries is generally treated with dental resin composite fillings. However, a 3-D-printed tooth filling approach, which could be an alternative to traditional approaches, has a potential to reduce ...

  5. Novel use of an air-filled breast prosthesis to allow radiotherapy to recurrent colonic cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Duffy, F

    2011-03-01

    AiM: The authors present the novel and successful use of an air-filled breast prosthesis for extra pelvic exclusion of small bowel to facilitate adjuvant radiotherapy following resection of recurrent adenocarcinoma of the ascending bowel. The therapeutic use of radiotherapy in colon cancer can cause acute or chronic radiation enteropathy. Mobile small bowel can be sequestered in \\'dead space\\' or by adhesions exposing it to adjuvant radiotherapy. A variety of pelvic partitioning methods have been described to exclude bowel from radiation fields using both native and prosthetic materials.

  6. Solar energy storage via liquid filled cans - Test data and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, H.

    1978-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a solar thermal storage test facility with water-filled metal cans as heat storage medium and also presents some preliminary tests results and analysis. This combination of solid and liquid mediums shows unique heat transfer and heat contents characteristics and will be well suited for use with solar air systems for space and hot water heating. The trends of the test results acquired thus far are representative of the test bed characteristics while operating in the various modes.

  7. Influence of filling pattern structure on synchrotron radiation and beam spectrum at ANKA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinmann, Johannes; Brosi, Miriam; Bruendermann, Erik; Caselle, Michele; Blomley, Edmund; Hiller, Nicole; Kehrer, Benjamin; Mueller, Anke-Susanne; Schoenfeldt, Patrik; Schuh, Marcel; Schwarz, Markus; Siegel, Michael [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    We present the effects of the filling pattern structure in multi-bunch mode on the beam spectrum. This effects can be seen by all detectors whose resolution is better than the RF frequency, ranging from stripline and Schottky measurements to high resolution synchrotron radiation measurements. Our heterodyne measurements of the emitted coherent synchrotron radiation at 270 GHz reveal the discrete frequency harmonics around the 100'000 revolution harmonic of ANKA, the synchrotron radiation facility in Karlsruhe, Germany. Significant effects of bunch spacing, gaps between bunch trains and variations in individual bunch currents on the emitted CSR spectrum are described by theory and supported by observations.

  8. Commanding and Planning for Robots in Space Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Autonomous and semi-autonomous systems like unmanned spacecraft or robotic vehicles have filled critical roles in NASA's great successes, surviving the harsh...

  9. Molecular hematology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Provan, Drew; Gribben, John

    2010-01-01

    ... The molecular basis of hemophilia, 219 Paul LF Giangrande 4 The genetics of acute myeloid leukemias, 42 Carolyn J Owen & Jude Fitzgibbon 19 The molecular basis of von Willebrand disease, 233 Luciano Baronc...

  10. Fluid dynamics following flow shut-off in bottle filling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thete, Sumeet; Appathurai, Santosh; Gao, Haijing; Basaran, Osman

    2012-11-01

    Bottle filling is ubiquitous in industry. Examples include filling of bottles with shampoos and cleaners, engine oil and pharmaceuticals. In these examples, fluid flows out of a nozzle to fill bottles in an assembly line. Once the required volume of fluid has flowed out of the nozzle, the flow is shut off. However, an evolving fluid thread or string may remain suspended from the nozzle following flow shut-off and persist. This stringing phenomenon can be detrimental to a bottle filling operation because it can adversely affect line speed and filling accuracy by causing uncertainty in fill volume, product loss and undesirable marring of the bottles' exterior surfaces. The dynamics of stringing are studied numerically primarily by using the 1D, slender-jet approximation of the flow equations. A novel feature entails development and use of a new boundary condition downstream of the nozzle exit to expedite the computations. While the emphasis is on stringing of Newtonian fluids and use of 1D approximations, results will also be presented for situations where (a) the fluids are non-Newtonian and (b) the full set of equations are solved without invoking the 1D approximation. Phase diagrams will be presented that identify conditions for which stringing can be problematic.

  11. Optical properties of mesoporous photonic crystals, filled with dielectrics, ferroelectrics and piezoelectrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Gorelik

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available At present, it is very important to create new types of mirrors, nonlinear light frequency transformers and optical filters with controlled optical properties. In this connection, it is of great interest to study photonic crystals. Their dielectric permittivity varies periodically in space with a period permitting Bragg diffraction of light. In this paper, we have investigated the optical properties of mesoporous three-dimensional (3D opal-type and one-dimensional (1D anodic alumina photonic crystals, filled with different dielectrics, ferroelectrics and piezoelectrics. We have compared the optical properties of initial mesoporous photonic crystals and filled with different substances. The possibility of mesoporous photonic crystals using selective narrow-band light filters in Raman scattering experiments and nonlinear mirrors has been analyzed. The electromagnetic field enhancing in the case of exciting light frequency close to the stop band edges has been established. The optical harmonics and subharmonics generation in mesoporous crystals, filled with ferroelectrics and piezoelectrics was proposed.

  12. Neighborhood spaces

    OpenAIRE

    D. C. Kent; Won Keun Min

    2002-01-01

    Neighborhood spaces, pretopological spaces, and closure spaces are topological space generalizations which can be characterized by means of their associated interior (or closure) operators. The category NBD of neighborhood spaces and continuous maps contains PRTOP as a bicoreflective subcategory and CLS as a bireflective subcategory, whereas TOP is bireflectively embedded in PRTOP and bicoreflectively embedded in CLS. Initial and final structures are described in these categories, and it is s...

  13. To Fill or Not to Fill: Sensitivity Analysis of the Influence of Resolution and Hole Filling on Point Cloud Surface Modeling and Individual Rockfall Event Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Olsen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring unstable slopes with terrestrial laser scanning (TLS has been proven effective. However, end users still struggle immensely with the efficient processing, analysis, and interpretation of the massive and complex TLS datasets. Two recent advances described in this paper now improve the ability to work with TLS data acquired on steep slopes. The first is the improved processing of TLS data to model complex topography and fill holes. This processing step results in a continuous topographic surface model that seamlessly characterizes the rock and soil surface. The second is an advance in the automated interpretation of the surface model in such a way that a magnitude and frequency relationship of rockfall events can be quantified, which can be used to assess maintenance strategies and forecast costs. The approach is applied to unstable highway slopes in the state of Alaska, U.S.A. to evaluate its effectiveness. Further, the influence of the selected model resolution and degree of hole filling on the derived slope metrics were analyzed. In general, model resolution plays a pivotal role in the ability to detect smaller rockfall events when developing magnitude-frequency relationships. The total volume estimates are also influenced by model resolution, but were comparatively less sensitive. In contrast, hole filling had a noticeable effect on magnitude-frequency relationships but to a lesser extent than modeling resolution. However, hole filling yielded a modest increase in overall volumetric quantity estimates. Optimal analysis results occur when appropriately balancing high modeling resolution with an appropriate level of hole filling.

  14. Optimal decentralized valley-filling charging strategy for electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Kangkang; Xu, Liangfei; Ouyang, Minggao; Wang, Hewu; Lu, Languang; Li, Jianqiu; Li, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An implementable charging strategy is developed for electric vehicles connected to a grid. • A two-dimensional pricing scheme is proposed to coordinate charging behaviors. • The strategy effectively works in decentralized way but achieves the systematic valley filling. • The strategy allows device-level charging autonomy, and does not require a bidirectional communication/control network. • The strategy can self-correct when confronted with adverse factors. - Abstract: Uncoordinated charging load of electric vehicles (EVs) increases the peak load of the power grid, thereby increasing the cost of electricity generation. The valley-filling charging scenario offers a cheaper alternative. This study proposes a novel decentralized valley-filling charging strategy, in which a day-ahead pricing scheme is designed by solving a minimum-cost optimization problem. The pricing scheme can be broadcasted to EV owners, and the individual charging behaviors can be indirectly coordinated. EV owners respond to the pricing scheme by autonomously optimizing their individual charge patterns. This device-level response induces a valley-filling effect in the grid at the system level. The proposed strategy offers three advantages: coordination (by the valley-filling effect), practicality (no requirement for a bidirectional communication/control network between the grid and EV owners), and autonomy (user control of EV charge patterns). The proposed strategy is validated in simulations of typical scenarios in Beijing, China. According to the results, the strategy (1) effectively achieves the valley-filling charging effect at 28% less generation cost than the uncoordinated charging strategy, (2) is robust to several potential affecters of the valley-filling effect, such as (system-level) inaccurate parameter estimation and (device-level) response capability and willingness (which cause less than 2% deviation in the minimal generation cost), and (3) is compatible with

  15. High Fill-Factor Transport Experiments on the HCX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prost, L R; Seidl, P A; Lund, S M

    2004-01-01

    Heavy-ion induction linacs have application as drivers for high energy density physics studies and ultimately as drivers for inertial fusion energy. Experiments on the High-Current Experiment (HCX) at LBNL explore heavy-ion beam transport at high fill factors (i.e., the ratio of the maximum transverse extent of the beam to the physical aperture). The fill factor has a large impact on the cost of multi-beam induction accelerators, the 80% fill factor compared with 60% would reduce the cost of an HIF driver by about 1/3. With a coasting low-emittance 1 MeV K + beam, transport through ten electrostatic quadrupoles was achieved at high beam fill factor (80%) without observed emittance growth and with little beam loss ((le) 1%), even though the initial beam distribution is neither ideal nor in thermal equilibrium, see Figure. While 10 quadrupoles are too few for settling questions of emittance evolution in a long system, they are very relevant for studying the rapid initial evolution of the emittance and beam profile that is expected in the front end of an accelerator. Studies at higher fill factors are planned, so that the failure mode can be established. Good envelope control was achieved, suggesting that, in a longer lattice of similar design, rematching only every ten lattice periods (at 80% fill factor) will be sufficient. Agreement was reached between an improved envelope model and the data. Improvements to the model are: realistic quadrupole fringe fields based on 3D field calculations; quadrupole E z from the 3D lattice structure and corresponding radial focusing force; and corrections due to the grounded slit plates of the intercepting diagnostics that short out the self-field of the beam near those plates. We also find that understanding and controlling the time dependence of the envelope parameters is critical to achieving high fill factors, notably because of the injector and matching section dynamics

  16. Structural, electronic, and thermal properties of indium-filled InxIr4Sb12 skutterudites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, M. K.; Li, Jun; Subramanian, M. A.

    2018-06-01

    The "phonon-glass/electron-crystal" approach has been implemented through incorporation of "rattlers" into skutterudite void sites to increase phonon scattering and thus increase the thermoelectric efficiency. Indium filled IrSb3 skutterudites are reported for the first time. Polycrystalline samples of InxIr4Sb12 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.2) were prepared by solid-state reaction under a gas mixture of 5% H2 and 95% Ar. The solubility limit of InxIr4Sb12 was found to be close to 0.18. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction refinements reveal all InxIr4Sb12 phases crystallized in body-centered cubic structure (space group : Im 3 bar) with ∼8% antimony site vacancy and with indium partially occupying the 16f site. Unlike known rattler filled skutterudites, under synthetic conditions employed, indium filling in IrSb3 significantly increases the electrical resistivity and decreases the Seebeck coefficient (n-type) while reducing the thermal conductivity by ∼30%. The resultant power factor offsets the decrease in total thermal conductivity giving rise to a substantial decrease in ZT. Principal thermoelectric properties of InxM4Sb12 (M = Co, Rh, Ir) phases are compared. As iridium is a 5d transition metal, zero field cooled (ZFC) magnetization were performed to unravel the effect of spin-orbit interaction on the electronic properties. These results serve to advance the understanding of filled skutterudites, and provide additional insight on the less explored smaller "rattlers" and their influence on key thermoelectric properties.

  17. TANK 18 AND 19-F TIER 1A EQUIPMENT FILL MOCK UP TEST SUMMARY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanko, D.; Langton, C.

    2011-11-04

    The United States Department of Energy (US DOE) has determined that Tanks 18-F and 19-F have met the F-Tank Farm (FTF) General Closure Plan Requirements and are ready to be permanently closed. The high-level waste (HLW) tanks have been isolated from FTF facilities. To complete operational closure they will be filled with grout for the purpose of: (1) physically stabilizing the tanks, (2) limiting/eliminating vertical pathways to residual waste, (3) discouraging future intrusion, and (4) providing an alkaline, chemical reducing environment within the closure boundary to control speciation and solubility of select radionuclides. Bulk waste removal and heel removal equipment remain in Tanks 18-F and 19-F. This equipment includes the Advance Design Mixer Pump (ADMP), transfer pumps, transfer jets, standard slurry mixer pumps, equipment-support masts, sampling masts, dip tube assemblies and robotic crawlers. The present Tank 18 and 19-F closure strategy is to grout the equipment in place and eliminate vertical pathways by filling voids in the equipment to vertical fast pathways and water infiltration. The mock-up tests described in this report were intended to address placement issues identified for grouting the equipment that will be left in Tank 18-F and Tank 19-F. The Tank 18-F and 19-F closure strategy document states that one of the Performance Assessment (PA) requirements for a closed tank is that equipment remaining in the tank be filled to the extent practical and that vertical flow paths 1 inch and larger be grouted. The specific objectives of the Tier 1A equipment grout mock-up testing include: (1) Identifying the most limiting equipment configurations with respect to internal void space filling; (2) Specifying and constructing initial test geometries and forms that represent scaled boundary conditions; (3) Identifying a target grout rheology for evaluation in the scaled mock-up configurations; (4) Scaling-up production of a grout mix with the target rheology

  18. Spectral properties of molecular iodine in absorption cells filled to specified saturation pressure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrabina, Jan; Šarbort, Martin; Acef, O.; Du Burck, F.; Chiodo, N.; Holá, Miroslava; Číp, Ondřej; Lazar, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 31 (2014), s. 7435-7441 ISSN 1559-128X R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA02010711; GA TA ČR TA01010995; GA TA ČR TE01020233; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01; GA ČR GB14-36681G; GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB14FR040 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : spectroscopy * absorption * laser stabilization * metrological instrumentation Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.784, year: 2014

  19. What fills the space between the partially ionized clouds in the local interstellar medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linsky, Jeffrey; Redfield, Seth

    2015-01-01

    The interstellar matter located between the warm clouds in the LISM and in the Local Cavity is now thought to be photoionized gas with temperatures in the range 10,000-20,000 K. While the hot stars ε CMa and β CMa are the primary photoionizing sources in the LISM, hot white dwarfs also contribute. We consider whether the Stromgren sphere gas produced by very local hot white dwarfs like Sirius B can be important in explaining the local intercloud gas. We find that the Stromgren sphere of Sirius can at least partially explain the intercloud gas in the lines of sight to several nearby stars. We also suggest that the partially ionized warm clouds like the Local Interstellar Cloud in which the Sun is located may be in part Strömgren sphere shells

  20. Theoretical Study of Heat Transfer through a Sun Space Filled with a Porous Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Tawfeeq Ahmed Al-Sammarraie

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical study had been conducted to detect the effect of using a porous medium in sunspace to reduce  heating  load  and  overcoming  coldness  of  winter  in  the  cold  regions.  In  this  work,  the  heat transferred and stored in the storage wall was investigated. The mathematical model was unsteady, heat conduction equation with nonlinear boundary conditions was solved by using finite difference method and the solution technique  of heat conduction had based  on the  Crank Nicholson method. The results had adopted  on  the  aspect  ratio  (H/L=30,  Darcy  number  (Da=10-3,  porosity  (φ=0.35  and  particle  to  fluid thermal conductivity ratio (kp/kf=38.5. The results showed that using the porous medium had enhanced the heat transferred and stored in the storage wall. For   the outside storage wall temperature, an increase of 19.7%  was achieved by using the porous medium instead of the air, while it was 20.3%  for the inside storage wall temperature.

  1. Using a space filling curve approach for the management of dynamic point clouds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Psomadaki, S; van Oosterom, P.J.M.; Tijssen, T.P.M.; Baart, F.

    2016-01-01

    Point cloud usage has increased over the years. The development of low-cost sensors makes it now possible to acquire frequent point cloud measurements on a short time period (day, hour, second). Based on the requirements coming from the coastal monitoring domain, we have developed, implemented and

  2. Use of space-filling curves to select sample locations in natural resource monitoring studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Lister; Charles T. Scott

    2009-01-01

    The establishment of several large area monitoring networks over the past few decades has led to increased research into ways to spatially balance sample locations across the landscape. Many of these methods are well documented and have been used in the past with great success. In this paper, we present a method using geographic information systems (GIS) and fractals...

  3. Rocks Filled with Tiny Spaces Can Turn Green Growing Things Into Stuff We Use Every Day

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikbin, Nima; Josephson, Tyler; Courtney, Timothy

    2013-07-18

    Representing the Catalysis Center for Energy Innovation (CCEI), this document is one of the entries in the Ten Hundred and One Word Challenge. As part of the challenge, the 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers were invited to represent their science in images, cartoons, photos, words and original paintings, but any descriptions or words could only use the 1000 most commonly used words in the English language, with the addition of one word important to each of the EFRCs and the mission of DOE: energy. The mission of CCEI is to design and characterize novel catalysts for the efficient conversion of the complex molecules comprising biomass into chemicals and fuels.

  4. Illuminating Tradespace Decisions Using Efficient Experimental Space-Filling Designs for the Engineered Resilient System Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-30

    facilitate better value and risk identification . If we do not consider how much variation there is in the consequences of our decision, we may end up...from Current Data Table to Prompt. 194 48. Drag a Lineup Box into Module 2. . Right-click the new lineup box and select Move to Corner. 49...Drag the rest of the open contour profilers from the Reports Pane into the lineup box. Put them in a single row across the screen. We will change

  5. Sacred Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelstein, Pamela

    2018-01-01

    A space can be sacred, providing those who inhabit a particular space with sense of transcendence-being connected to something greater than oneself. The sacredness may be inherent in the space, as for a religious institution or a serene place outdoors. Alternatively, a space may be made sacred by the people within it and events that occur there. As medical providers, we have the opportunity to create sacred space in our examination rooms and with our patient interactions. This sacred space can be healing to our patients and can bring us providers opportunities for increased connection, joy, and gratitude in our daily work.

  6. Sobolev spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, Robert A

    2003-01-01

    Sobolev Spaces presents an introduction to the theory of Sobolev Spaces and other related spaces of function, also to the imbedding characteristics of these spaces. This theory is widely used in pure and Applied Mathematics and in the Physical Sciences.This second edition of Adam''s ''classic'' reference text contains many additions and much modernizing and refining of material. The basic premise of the book remains unchanged: Sobolev Spaces is intended to provide a solid foundation in these spaces for graduate students and researchers alike.* Self-contained and accessible for readers in other disciplines.* Written at elementary level making it accessible to graduate students.

  7. Understanding the safety and tolerability of facial filling therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulichova, Daniela; Borovaya, Alyona; Ruzicka, Thomas; Thomas, Peter; Gauglitz, Gerd G

    2014-09-01

    Aesthetic medicine represents an emerging field for many specialties. Nowadays, a plethora of approaches are available to rejuvenate the human body and face, the latter being a frequent target for the placement of filling substances to correct wrinkles and volume loss. Nevertheless, based on the many products on the market, treating clinicians must pay specific attention to the properties of the respective materials, their associated side effects and any specific handling requirements to prevent potential short- and long-term adverse events. Types of filling materials, including biodegradable and non-biodegradable products, related complications, their conservative and invasive treatment options, as well as prevention strategies are described in this review. A profound knowledge of the facial anatomy as well as extensive experience with the various filling techniques and suitable materials for the respective areas remains crucial to prevent adverse events associated with filling procedures to the human face. Since side effects such as malar edema and foreign body granuloma do affect patients physically and psychologically to a significant extent and their successful treatment still remains challenging, further in depth studies on the tolerability of many filling materials utilized are required.

  8. Implications of Earth analogs to Martian sulfate-filled Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, R. M.; Powers, D. W.

    2017-12-01

    Sulfate-filled fractures in fine-grained sediments on Mars are interpreted to be the result of fluid movement during deep burial. Fractures in the Dewey Lake (aka Quartermaster) Formation of southeastern New Mexico and west Texas are filled with gypsum that is at least partially synsedimentary. Sulfate in the Dewey Lake takes two principal forms: gypsum cement and gypsum (mainly fibrous) that fills fractures ranging from horizontal to vertical. Apertures are mainly mm-scale, though some are > 1 cm. The gypsum is antitaxial, fibrous, commonly approximately perpendicular to the wall rock, and displays suture lines and relics of the wall rock. Direct evidence of synsedimentary, near-surface origin includes gypsum intraclasts, intraclasts that include smaller intraclasts that contain gypsum clasts, intraclasts of gypsum with suture lines, gypsum concentrated in small desiccation cracks, and intraclasts that include fibrous gypsum-filled fractures that terminate at the eroded clast boundary. Dewey Lake fracture fillings suggest that their Martian analogs may also have originated in the shallow subsurface, shortly following the deposition of Martian sediments, in the presence of shallow aquifers.

  9. Color of bulk-fill composite resin restorative materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barutcigil, Çağatay; Barutcigil, Kubilay; Özarslan, Mehmet Mustafa; Dündar, Ayşe; Yilmaz, Burak

    2018-03-01

    To evaluate the color stability of novel bulk-fill composite resins. Color measurements of a nanohybrid composite resin (Z550) and 3 bulk-fill composite resins (BLK, AFX, XTF; n = 45) were performed before polymerization. After polymerization, color measurements were repeated and specimens were immersed in distilled water or red wine, or coffee. Color change [CIEDE2000 (ΔE 00 )] was calculated after 24 h, 1 and 3 weeks. Data were analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U and Wilcoxon tests (α = 0.05). Color changes observed after polymerization were significant for all groups. Color changes observed in distilled water for Z550 and AFX were significant. Color changes after stored in red wine and coffee were significant for all groups. Bulk-fill composite resin color change increased over time for all groups in red wine and coffee (P composite resin and bulk-fill composite resins. AFX had the highest color change in distilled water. The color of tested bulk-fill composite resins significantly changed after immersion in beverages and over time. Color change observed with the nanohybrid composite resin after 1 week was stable. Clinicians should keep in mind that tested composite resins may change color when exposed to water and significantly change color immediately after they are polymerized. In addition, the color change continues over time should the patient is a coffee and/or red wine consumer. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Hydroxyapatite clay for gap filling and adequate bone ingrowth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, M; Terayama, K; Ito, M; Takei, T; Kitagawa, E

    1995-03-01

    In uncemented total hip arthroplasty, a complete filling of the gap between femoral prosthesis and the host bone is difficult and defects would remain, because the anatomy of the reamed intramedullary canal cannot fit the prosthesis. Therefore, it seems practical to fill the gap with a clay containing hydroxyapatite (HA), which has an osteoconductive character. The clay (HA clay) is made by mixing HA granules (size 0.1 mm or more) having a homogeneous pore distribution and a porosity of 35-48 vol%, and a viscous substance such as a saline solution of sodium alginate (SSSA). In the first experiment, the ratio of HA granules and sodium alginate in SSSA is set for the same handling properties of HA clay and polymethylmethacrylate bone cement (standard viscosity) before hardening. As a result, the ratio is set for 55 wt% of HA in the clay and 12.5 wt% of sodium alginate in SSSA (i.e., HA:sodium alginate:saline solution = 9.8:1:7). In the second study, the gap between the femoral stem and bone model is completely filled with HA clay. However, the gap is not filled only with HA granules or HA granules mixed with saline solution. In the third animal experiment, using an unloaded model, histology shows that HA clay has an osteoconductive property bridging the gap between the implant and the cortical bone without any adverse reaction. HA clay is considered a useful biomaterial to fill the gap with adequate bone ingrowth.

  11. Depth of cure of bulk-fill flowable composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedalino, Inaam; Hartup, Grant R; Vandewalle, Kraig S

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, manufacturers have introduced flowable composite resins that reportedly can be placed in increments of 4 mm or greater. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the depth of cure of bulk-fill flowable composite resins (SureFil SDR Flow, Grandio Flow, and Venus Bulk Fill) and a conventional flowable composite resin (Revolution Formula 2). Depth of cure was measured in terms of bottom-maximum Knoop hardness number (KHN) ratios and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 4049 scrape technique. Shades A2 and A3 of SureFil SDR Flow, Grandio Flow, and Revolution Formula 2 were tested. Venus Bulk Fill was tested in its only available shade (universal). Specimens in thicknesses of 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 mm were polymerized for 20 or 40 seconds, and a hardness tester was used to determine the hardness ratios for each shade at each thickness. For the scraping technique, after specimens were exposed to the curing light, unpolymerized composite resin was removed with a plastic instrument, the polymerized composite was measured, and the length was divided by 2 per ISO guidelines. According to the KHN ratios and the scrape test, Venus Bulk Fill predictably exceeded the manufacturer's claim of a 4-mm depth of cure at both 20 and 40 seconds of curing time. The overall results for depth of cure showed that Venus Bulk Fill ≥ SureFil SDR Flow ≥ Grandio Flow ≥ Revolution Formula 2.

  12. Elution of monomer from different bulk fill dental composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebe, Mehmet Ata; Cebe, Fatma; Cengiz, Mehmet Fatih; Cetin, Ali Rıza; Arpag, Osman Fatih; Ozturk, Bora

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the elution of Bis-GMA, TEGDMA, HEMA, and Bis-EMA monomers from six bulk fill composite resins over four different time periods, using HPLC. Six different composite resin materials were used in the present study: Tetric Evo Ceram Bulk Fill (Ivoclar Vivadent, Amherst, NY), X-tra Fill (VOCO, Cuxhaven, Germany), Sonic Fill (Kerr, Orange, CA, USA), Filtek Bulk Fill (3M ESPE Dental Product, St. Paul, MN), SDR (Dentsply, Konstanz, Germany), EQUIA (GC America INC, Alsip, IL). The samples (4mm thickness, 5mm diameter) were prepared and polymerized for 20s with a light emitted diode unit. After fabrication, each sample was immediately immersed in 75wt% ethanol/water solution used as extraction fluid and stored in the amber colored bottles at room temperature. Ethanol/water samples were taken (0.5mL) at predefined time intervals:10m (T1), 1h (T2), 24h (T3) and 30 days (T4). These samples were analyzed by HPLC. The obtained data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD at significance level of pcomposites (pcomposite resins in all time periods and the amount of eluted monomers was increased with time. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Entomophagy and space agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, N.; Ishikawa, Y.; Takaoki, M.; Yamashita, M.; Nakayama, S.; Kiguchi, K.; Kok, R.; Wada, H.; Mitsuhashi, J.; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.

    Supplying food for human occupants remains one of the primary issues in engineering space habitation Evidently for long-term occupation on a distant planet it is necessary to start agriculture on site Historically humans have consumed a variety of animals and it is required to fill our nutritional need when they live in space Among many candidate group and species of animal to breed in space agriculture insects are of great interest since they have a number of advantages over mammals and other vertebrates or invertebrates About 70-75 of animal species is insects and they play an important role in materials recycle loop of terrestrial biosphere at their various niche For space agriculture we propose several insect species such as the silkworm Bombyx mori the drugstore beetle Stegobium paniceum and the termite Macrotermes subhyalinus Among many advantages these insects do not compete with human in terms of food resources but convert inedible biomass or waste into an edible food source for human The silkworm has been domesticated since 5 000 years ago in China Silk moth has lost capability of flying after its domestication history This feature is advantageous in control of their breeding Silkworm larvae eat specifically mulberry leaves and metamorphose in their cocoon Silk fiber obtained from cocoon can be used to manufacture textile Farming system of the drugstore beetle has been well established Both the drugstore beetle and the termite are capable to convert cellulose or other inedible biomass

  14. Histological and histomorphometrical evaluation of furcation perforations filled with MTA, CPM and ZOE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, G F; Guerreiro-Tanomaru, J M; Sasso-Cerri, E; Tanomaru-Filho, M; Cerri, P S

    2011-02-01

    To evaluate the biological response of the periodontium adjacent to furcation perforations in rat molars filled with Endo-CPM-Sealer (CPM), MTA-Angelus (MTA) or zinc oxide-eugenol cement (ZOE). The pulp chamber floors of maxillary right first molar teeth were perforated and sealed with CPM, mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) or ZOE; the left first molars, without any treatment, were used as controls (CG). After 7, 15, 30 and 60 days, fragments of maxilla were fixed, decalcified and embedded in paraffin. Sections were stained with H&E, Masson's trichrome and submitted to tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) reaction, used as an osteoclast marker. The width of the periodontal space, the numerical density of inflammatory cells and the number of TRAP-positive osteoclasts in the bone surface were measured, and statistical analyses were performed using analysis of variance and Tukey test (P ≤ 0.05). In all experimental groups, the greatest number of inflammatory cells was observed at 7 days, especially in the ZOE group. In this group, the intense inflammatory process was related to a significant increase (P ≤ 0.05) in the number of osteoclasts and, thereby, in an increase in the width of the periodontal space. At 60 days, no significant differences in osteoclast numbers amongst CPM, MTA and CG groups occurred; the periodontal space was also significantly reduced in the experimental groups in comparison with the initial periods. However, in the ZOE group, the periodontal space was significantly larger (P ≤ 0.05) in comparison with MTA-based materials. The periodontium adjacent to perforations filled with MTA and CPM exhibited clear evidence of re-establishment and thus better biocompatibility than ZOE. © 2010 International Endodontic Journal.

  15. Simultaneous in vivo comparison of water-filled and air-filled pressure measurement catheters: Implications for good urodynamic practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammie, A; Abrams, P; Bevan, W; Ellis-Jones, J; Gray, J; Hassine, A; Williams, J; Hashim, H

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate whether the pressure readings obtained from air-filled catheters (AFCs) are the same as the readings from simultaneously inserted water-filled catheters (WFCs). It also aimed to make any possible recommendations for the use of AFCs to conform to International Continence Society (ICS) Good Urodynamic Practices (GUP). Female patients undergoing urodynamic studies in a single center had water-filled and air-filled catheters simultaneously measuring abdominal and intravesical pressure during filling with saline and during voiding. The pressures recorded by each system at each event during the test were compared using paired t-test and Bland-Altman analyses. 62 patients were recruited, of whom 51 had pressures that could be compared during filling, and 23 during voiding. On average, the pressures measured by the two systems were not significantly different during filling and at maximum flow, but the values for a given patient were found to differ by up to 10 cmH 2 O. This study shows that AFCs and WFCs cannot be assumed to register equal values of pressure. It has further shown that even when the p det readings are compared with their value at the start of a test, a divergence of values of up to 10 cmH 2 O remains. If AFCs are used, care must be taken to compensate for any p det variations that occur during patient movement. Before AFCs are adopted, new normal values for resting pressures need to be developed to allow good quality AFC pressure readings to be made. Neurourol. Urodynam. 35:926-933, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The Space House TM : Space Technologies in Architectural Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gampe, F.; Raitt, D.

    2002-01-01

    The word "space" has always been associated with and had a profound impact upon architectural design. Until relatively recently, however, the term has been used in a different sense to that understood by the aerospace community - for them, space was less abstract, more concrete and used in the context of space flight and space exploration, rather than, say, an empty area or space requiring to be filled by furniture. However, the two senses of the word space have now converged to some extent. Interior designers and architects have been involved in designing the interior of Skylab, the structure of the International Space Station, and futuristic space hotels. Today, architects are designing, and builders are building, houses, offices and other structures which incorporate a plethora of new technologies, materials and production processes in an effort not only to introduce innovative and adventurous ideas but also in an attempt to address environmental and social issues. Foremost among these new technologies and materials being considered today are those that have been developed for and by the space industry. This paper examines some of these space technologies, such as energy efficient solar cells, durable plastics, air and water filtration techniques, which have been adapted to both provide power while reducing energy consumption, conserve resources and so on. Several of these technologies have now been employed by the European Space Agency to develop a Space House TM - the first of its kind, which will be deployed not so much on planets like Mars, but rather here on Earth. The Space House TM, which exhibits many innovative features such as high strength light-weight carbon composites, active noise-damped, (glass and plastic) windows, low-cost solar arrays and latent heat storage, air and water purification systems will be described.

  17. HERSCHEL MEASUREMENTS OF MOLECULAR OXYGEN IN ORION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldsmith, Paul F.; Chen, Jo-Hsin; Li Di; Liseau, Rene; Black, John H.; Bell, Tom A.; Hollenbach, David; Kaufman, Michael J.; Lis, Dariusz C.; Melnick, Gary; Neufeld, David; Pagani, Laurent; Encrenaz, Pierre; Snell, Ronald; Benz, Arnold O.; Bruderer, Simon; Bergin, Edwin; Caselli, Paola; Caux, Emmanuel; Falgarone, Edith

    2011-01-01

    We report observations of three rotational transitions of molecular oxygen (O 2 ) in emission from the H 2 Peak 1 position of vibrationally excited molecular hydrogen in Orion. We observed the 487 GHz, 774 GHz, and 1121 GHz lines using the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far Infrared on the Herschel Space Observatory, having velocities of 11 km s -1 to 12 km s -1 and widths of 3 km s -1 . The beam-averaged column density is N(O 2 ) = 6.5 x 10 16 cm -2 , and assuming that the source has an equal beam-filling factor for all transitions (beam widths 44, 28, and 19''), the relative line intensities imply a kinetic temperature between 65 K and 120 K. The fractional abundance of O 2 relative to H 2 is (0.3-7.3) x 10 -6 . The unusual velocity suggests an association with a ∼5'' diameter source, denoted Peak A, the Western Clump, or MF4. The mass of this source is ∼10 M sun and the dust temperature is ≥150 K. Our preferred explanation of the enhanced O 2 abundance is that dust grains in this region are sufficiently warm (T ≥ 100 K) to desorb water ice and thus keep a significant fraction of elemental oxygen in the gas phase, with a significant fraction as O 2 . For this small source, the line ratios require a temperature ≥180 K. The inferred O 2 column density ≅5 x 10 18 cm -2 can be produced in Peak A, having N(H 2 ) ≅ 4 x 10 24 cm -2 . An alternative mechanism is a low-velocity (10-15 km s -1 ) C-shock, which can produce N(O 2 ) up to 10 17 cm -2 .

  18. Gap filling strategies for long term energy flux data sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falge, E.; Baldocchi, D.; Olson, R.

    2001-01-01

    At present a network of over 100 field sites are measuring carbon dioxide, water vapor and sensible heat fluxes between the biosphere and atmosphere, on a nearly continuous basis. Gaps in the long term measurements of evaporation and sensible heat flux must be filled before these data can be used...... for hydrological and meteorological applications. We adapted methods of gap filling for NEE (net ecosystem exchange of carbon) to energy fluxes and applied them to data sets available from the EUROFLUX and AmeriFlux eddy covariance databases. The average data coverage for the sites selected was 69% and 75......% for latent heat (lambdaE) and sensible heat (H). The methods were based on mean diurnal variations (half-hourly binned means of fluxes based on previous and subsequent days, MDV) and look-up tables for fluxes during assorted meteorological conditions (LookUp), and the impact of different gap filling methods...

  19. Radioactive waste slurry dehydrating and drum filling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichihashi, Toshio; Abe, Kazuaki; Hasegawa, Akira

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain a device for simultaneously filling and dehydrating radioactive waste in a waste can without the necessity of a special device for dehydration. Constitution: This device includes a radioactive waste storage tank, a pump for supplying the waste from the tank to a can, a drain tube having a filter at the lower end and installed displaceable in the axial direction of the can, and a drain pump. The slurry stored in the radioactive waste storage tank is supplied by the pump to the can, and the feedwater in the slurry is removed by another pump through a drain pipe having a filter which does not pass solid content from the can. Accordingly, as the slurry is filled in the can, the feedwater contained therein is removed. Consequently, it can simultaneously dehydrate and fill the dehydrated waste in the can. (Yoshihara, H.)

  20. Process and part filling control in micro injection molding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Schoth, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    The influence of process parameters on μ-injection molding (μIM) and on μ-injection molded parts has been investigated using Design of Experiments. A mold with a sensor applied at injection location was used to monitor actual injection pressure and to determine the cavity filling time. Flow markers...... position was measured on the polymer μ-parts to evaluate filling behavior of the polymer melt flowing through μ-features. Experimental results obtained under different processing conditions were evaluated to correlate the process parameter levels influence on the selected responses. Results showed...... that the injection speed in one of the most influencing process parameters on the μIM process and on the μ-parts filling....

  1. Gas-filled hohlraum experiments at the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, Juan C.; Goldman, S.R.; Kline, J.L.; Dodd, E.S.; Gautier, C.; Grim, G.P.; Hegelich, B.M.; Montgomery, D.S.; Lanier, N.E.; Rose, H.; Schmidt, D.W.; Workman, J.B.; Braun, D.G.; Dewald, E.L.; Landen, O.L.; Campbell, K.M.; Holder, J.P.; MacKinnon, A.J.; Niemann, C.; Schein, J.

    2006-01-01

    Experiments done at the National Ignition Facility laser [J. A. Paisner, E. M. Campbell, and W. Hogan, Fusion Technol. 26, 755 (1994)] using gas-filled hohlraums demonstrate a key ignition design feature, i.e., using plasma pressure from a gas fill to tamp the hohlraum-wall expansion for the duration of the laser pulse. Moreover, our understanding of hohlraum energetics and the ability to predict the hohlraum soft-x-ray drive has been validated in ignition-relevant conditions. Finally, the laser reflectivity from stimulated Raman scattering in the fill plasma, a key threat to hohlraum performance, is shown to be suppressed by choosing a design with a sufficiently high ratio of electron temperature to density

  2. A liquid filled light distributor and a method of use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    the proximal end is arranged to be in optical communication with a light source and wherein the refractive index of the tube wall is n1 and the refractive index of the fluid is n2 and n1/n2 light from the light source travels along the longitudinal direction of the tubular body and that a part......The present invention relates to liquid filled light distributor comprising an elongated tubular body with a tube wall defining an in inner lumen filled with a liquid, said tubular body having -a proximal end closed by first closing means -a distal end closed by second closing means. Wherein...... of the light is emitted through the tube wall along at least a part of the tubular body. Further a method of use for the liquid filled light distributor is provided....

  3. Changes in the Chlorophyll Content and Cytokinin Levels in the Top Three Leaves of New Plant Type Rice During Grain Filling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rubia, L.; Rangan, L.; Kamínek, Miroslav; Dobrev, Petre; Malbeck, Jiří; Fowler, M.; Khush, G.; Elliott, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 1 (2014), s. 66-76 ISSN 0721-7595 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M06030 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Chlorophyll * Cytokinins * Grain filling Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.237, year: 2014

  4. Spectral radiative property control method based on filling solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao, Y.; Liu, L.H.; Hsu, P.-F.

    2014-01-01

    Controlling thermal radiation by tailoring spectral properties of microstructure is a promising method, can be applied in many industrial systems and have been widely researched recently. Among various property tailoring schemes, geometry design of microstructures is a commonly used method. However, the existing radiation property tailoring is limited by adjustability of processed microstructures. In other words, the spectral radiative properties of microscale structures are not possible to change after the gratings are fabricated. In this paper, we propose a method that adjusts the grating spectral properties by means of injecting filling solution, which could modify the thermal radiation in a fabricated microstructure. Therefore, this method overcomes the limitation mentioned above. Both mercury and water are adopted as the filling solution in this study. Aluminum and silver are selected as the grating materials to investigate the generality and limitation of this control method. The rigorous coupled-wave analysis is used to investigate the spectral radiative properties of these filling solution grating structures. A magnetic polaritons mechanism identification method is proposed based on LC circuit model principle. It is found that this control method could be used by different grating materials. Different filling solutions would enable the high absorption peak to move to longer or shorter wavelength band. The results show that the filling solution grating structures are promising for active control of spectral radiative properties. -- Highlights: • A filling solution grating structure is designed to adjust spectral radiative properties. • The mechanism of radiative property control is studied for engineering utilization. • Different grating materials are studied to find multi-functions for grating

  5. Sounds of Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurnett, D. A.

    2005-12-01

    Starting in the early 1960s, spacecraft-borne plasma wave instruments revealed that space is filled with an astonishing variety of radio and plasma wave sounds, which have come to be called "sounds of space." For over forty years these sounds have been collected and played to a wide variety of audiences, often as the result of press conferences or press releases involving various NASA projects for which the University of Iowa has provided plasma wave instruments. This activity has led to many interviews on local and national radio programs, and occasionally on programs haviang world-wide coverage, such as the BBC. As a result of this media coverage, we have been approached many times by composers requesting copies of our space sounds for use in their various projects, many of which involve electronic synthesis of music. One of these collaborations led to "Sun Rings," which is a musical event produced by the Kronos Quartet that has played to large audiences all over the world. With the availability of modern computer graphic techniques we have recently been attempting to integrate some of these sound of space into an educational audio/video web site that illustrates the scientific principles involved in the origin of space plasma waves. Typically I try to emphasize that a substantial gas pressure exists everywhere in space in the form of an ionized gas called a plasma, and that this plasma can lead to a wide variety of wave phenomenon. Examples of some of this audio/video material will be presented.

  6. Pulmonary function in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, J. B.; Elliott, A. R.; Guy, H. J.; Prisk, G. K.

    1997-01-01

    The lung is exquisitely sensitive to gravity, and so it is of interest to know how its function is altered in the weightlessness of space. Studies on National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Spacelabs during the last 4 years have provided the first comprehensive data on the extensive changes in pulmonary function that occur in sustained microgravity. Measurements of pulmonary function were made on astronauts during space shuttle flights lasting 9 and 14 days and were compared with extensive ground-based measurements before and after the flights. Compared with preflight measurements, cardiac output increased by 18% during space flight, and stroke volume increased by 46%. Paradoxically, the increase in stroke volume occurred in the face of reductions in central venous pressure and circulating blood volume. Diffusing capacity increased by 28%, and the increase in the diffusing capacity of the alveolar membrane was unexpectedly large based on findings in normal gravity. The change in the alveolar membrane may reflect the effects of uniform filling of the pulmonary capillary bed. Distributions of blood flow and ventilation throughout the lung were more uniform in space, but some unevenness remained, indicating the importance of nongravitational factors. A surprising finding was that airway closing volume was approximately the same in microgravity and in normal gravity, emphasizing the importance of mechanical properties of the airways in determining whether they close. Residual volume was unexpectedly reduced by 18% in microgravity, possibly because of uniform alveolar expansion. The findings indicate that pulmonary function is greatly altered in microgravity, but none of the changes observed so far will apparently limit long-term space flight. In addition, the data help to clarify how gravity affects pulmonary function in the normal gravity environment on Earth.

  7. Plasma-filled diode based on the coaxial gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zherlitsyn, A. A.; Kovalchuk, B. M.; Pedin, N. N.

    2012-10-01

    The paper presents the results of studies of a coaxial gun for a plasma-filled electron diode. Effects of the discharge channel diameter and gun current on characteristics of the plasma and pulse generated in the diode were investigated. The electron beam with maximum energy of ≥1 MeV at the current of ≈100 kA was obtained in the experiments with a plasma-filled diode. The energy of ≈5 kJ with the peak power of ≥100 GW dissipated in the diode.

  8. Les mobiles de participation des filles au football et autonomisation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cette étude vise à connaître les mobiles qui conditionnent les filles béninoises à pratiquer le football et à les analyser pour développer l'autonomisation des filles en rapport avec les défis du millénaire. Pour ce faire 108 joueuses, dont la moyenne d'âge est de 17 ans, réparties dans 9 équipes parmi les 17 équipes que ...

  9. Plasma-filled diode based on the coaxial gun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zherlitsyn, A A; Kovalchuk, B M; Pedin, N N

    2012-10-01

    The paper presents the results of studies of a coaxial gun for a plasma-filled electron diode. Effects of the discharge channel diameter and gun current on characteristics of the plasma and pulse generated in the diode were investigated. The electron beam with maximum energy of ≥1 MeV at the current of ≈100 kA was obtained in the experiments with a plasma-filled diode. The energy of ≈5 kJ with the peak power of ≥100 GW dissipated in the diode.

  10. Thermal Degradation of Lead Monoxide Filled Polymer Composite Radiation Shields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harish, V.; Nagaiah, N.

    2011-01-01

    Lead monoxide filled Isophthalate resin particulate polymer composites were prepared with different filler concentrations and investigated for physical, thermal, mechanical and gamma radiation shielding characteristics. This paper discusses about the thermo gravimetric analysis of the composites done to understand their thermal properties especially the effect of filler concentration on the thermal stability and degradation rate of composites. Pristine polymer exhibits single stage degradation whereas filled composites exhibit two stage degradation processes. Further, the IDT values as well as degradation rates decrease with the increased filler content in the composite.

  11. Gas-filled hohlraum experiments at the national ignition facility.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández, J. C. (Juan C.); Gautier, D. C. (Donald Cort); Goldman, S. R. (Sanford R.); Grimm, B. M.; Hegelich, B. M. (Bjorn M.); Kline, J. L. (John L.); Montgomery, D. S. (David S.); Lanier, N. E. (Nicholas E.); Rose, H. A. (Harvey A.); Schmidt, D. M. (David M.); Swift, D. C.; Workman, J. B. (Jonathan B.); Alvarez, Sharon; Bower, Dan.; Braun, Dave.; Campbell, K. (Katherine); DeWald, E.; Glenzer, S. (Siegfried); Holder, J. (Joe P.); Kamperschroer, J. H. (James H.); Kimbrough, Joe (Joseph R.); Kirkwood, Robert (Bob); Landen, O. L. (Otto L.); Mccarville, Tom (Tomas J.); Macgowan, B.; Mackinnon, A.; Niemann, C.; Schein, J.; Schneider, M; Watts, Phil; Young, Ben-li [number : znumber] 194154; Young B.

    2004-01-01

    The summary of this paper is: (1) We have fielded on NIF a gas-filled hohlraum designed for future ignition experiments; (2) Wall-motion measurements are consistent with LASNEX simulations; (3) LPI back-scattering results have confounded expectations - (a) Stimulated Brillouin (SBS) dominates Raman (SRS) for any gas-fill species, (b) Measured SBS time-averaged reflectivity values are high, peak values are even higher, (c) SRS and SBS peak while laser-pulse is rising; and (4) Plasma conditions at the onset of high back-scattering yield high SBS convective linear gain - Wavelengths of the back-scattered light is predicted by linear theory.

  12. Effect of Different Filling Materials in Anammox Bacteria Enrichment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek ÖZGÜN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox is a process that ammonium as electron donor is oxidized to nitrogen gas using nitrite as electron acceptor. Compared to conventional nitrification-denitrification processes, this process is used less oxygen and no organic material (methanol, glucose. However, the slow growth rate of Anammox bacteria (11-30 days is disadvantages. Therefore, batch reactors have been carried out in these bacteria enrichment. In this study continuously operated upflow anaerobic sludge reactor (UASB using different filling materials disposing of sensitive and slow-growing Anammox bacteria out of the system is purposed. Design and Methods: System is operated up-flow column reactor at 2 days hydraulic retention time (HRT in 45 days. In this study, ceramic stones and Linpor filling material are used. Using synthetic wastewater containing ammonium and nitrite, Ar/CO2 anaerobic conditions (95/5% supplied with gas. System is operated at a temperature 253 C in UASB. Temperature, pH, ammonia-nitrogen and nitrite nitrogen are measured. Results: Both filling material reactors are operated in 45 days. Ceramic stones filling reactor is observed quickly reaches 90% were used reactor ammonium removal. The ammonium nitrogen removal was slower in Linpor filling materials reactor. Nitrite removal is reached up to 90% in both the reactor. When compared to the stoichiometric equation in Linpor was composed of large amounts of nitrate. At the end of 25 days the results were similar to ceramic stone filling reactor with Linpor filling material reactors. Conclusions and Original Value: Anammox process as from nitrogen removal processes was discovered in 1995. Anammox bacteria that make up this process due to very low growth rates of microbial bacteria in the system must be kept in the system. Most of the studies in the literature, these bacteria enrichment stage is started instead of a continuous batch reactor system. In this study

  13. Three-dimensional wedge filling in ordered and disordered systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenall, M J; Parry, A O; Romero-Enrique, J M

    2004-01-01

    We investigate interfacial structural and fluctuation effects occurring at continuous filling transitions in 3D wedge geometries. We show that fluctuation-induced wedge covariance relations that have been reported recently for 2D filling and wetting have mean-field or classical analogues that apply to higher-dimensional systems. Classical wedge covariance emerges from analysis of filling in shallow wedges based on a simple interfacial Hamiltonian model and is supported by detailed numerical investigations of filling within a more microscopic Landau-like density functional theory. Evidence is presented that classical wedge covariance is also obeyed for filling in more acute wedges in the asymptotic critical regime. For sufficiently short-ranged forces mean-field predictions for the filling critical exponents and covariance are destroyed by pseudo-one-dimensional interfacial fluctuations. We argue that in this filling fluctuation regime the critical exponents describing the divergence of length scales are related to values of the interfacial wandering exponent ζ(d) defined for planar interfaces in (bulk) two-dimensional (d = 2) and three-dimensional (d = 3) systems. For the interfacial height l w ∼ θ-α) -β w , with θ the contact angle and α the wedge tilt angle, we find β w = ζ(2)/2(1-ζ(3)). For pure systems (thermal disorder) we recover the known result β w = 1/4 predicted by interfacial Hamiltonian studies whilst for random-bond disorder we predict the universal critical exponent β ∼ even in the presence of dispersion forces. We revisit the transfer matrix theory of three-dimensional filling based on an effective interfacial Hamiltonian model and discuss the interplay between breather, tilt and torsional interfacial fluctuations. We show that the coupling of the modes allows the problem to be mapped onto a quantum mechanical problem as conjectured by previous authors. The form of the interfacial height probability distribution function predicted by

  14. Plasma-filled diode based on the coaxial gun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zherlitsyn, A. A.; Kovalchuk, B. M.; Pedin, N. N. [Institute of High Current Electronics, 2/3 Academichesky Avenue, 634055 Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2012-10-15

    The paper presents the results of studies of a coaxial gun for a plasma-filled electron diode. Effects of the discharge channel diameter and gun current on characteristics of the plasma and pulse generated in the diode were investigated. The electron beam with maximum energy of {>=}1 MeV at the current of Almost-Equal-To 100 kA was obtained in the experiments with a plasma-filled diode. The energy of Almost-Equal-To 5 kJ with the peak power of {>=}100 GW dissipated in the diode.

  15. Modelling of the filling up of a porous plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampaio, R.; Gama, R.M.S. da.

    1985-01-01

    A generalization of Darcy's law is constructed using Mixture Theory to describe the transient flow of an incompressible fluid through a rigid solid porous matrix. The model is used to study the process of filling-up of an one dimensional unsaturated porous medium that is mathematically described by a system of nonlinear hyperbolic equations that is non-homogeneous due to the drag force between the fluid and the solid matrix. The system is analysed throughly and solved numerically using the Glimm-Chorin method with a splitting to treat the non-homogeneous term. The results are discussed and shown to describe well the filling-up process. (Author) [pt

  16. Plasma-filled diode based on the coaxial gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zherlitsyn, A. A.; Kovalchuk, B. M.; Pedin, N. N.

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the results of studies of a coaxial gun for a plasma-filled electron diode. Effects of the discharge channel diameter and gun current on characteristics of the plasma and pulse generated in the diode were investigated. The electron beam with maximum energy of ≥1 MeV at the current of ≈100 kA was obtained in the experiments with a plasma-filled diode. The energy of ≈5 kJ with the peak power of ≥100 GW dissipated in the diode.

  17. Dynamic compaction with high energy of sandy hydraulic fills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khelalfa Houssam

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A case study about the adoption of the dynamic compaction technique with high energy in a sandy hydraulic fill is presented. The feasibility of this technique to ensure the stability of the caisson workshop and to minimize the risk of liquefaction during manufacture. This Article is interested to establish diagnostic of dynamic compaction test, basing on the results of SPT tests and quality control as well as the details of work of compaction and the properties of filling materials. A theory of soil response to a high-energy impact during dynamic compaction is proposed.

  18. Gas-filled hohlraum experiments at the national ignition facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, J.C.; Gautier, D.C.; Goldman, S.R.; Grimm, B.M.; Hegelich, B.M.; Kline, J.L.; Montgomery, D.S.; Lanier, N.E.; Rose, H.A.; Schmidt, D.M.; Swift, D.C.; Workman, J.B.; Alvarez, Sharon; Bower, Dan; Braun, Dave; Campbell, K.; DeWald, E.; Glenzer, S.; Holder, J.; Kamperschroer, J.H.; Kimbrough, Joe; Kirkwood, Robert; Landen, O.L.; Mccarville, Tom; Macgowan, B.; Mackinnon, A.; Niemann, C.; Schein, J.; Schneider, M.; Watts, Phil; Young, Ben-li; Young B.

    2004-01-01

    The summary of this paper is: (1) We have fielded on NIF a gas-filled hohlraum designed for future ignition experiments; (2) Wall-motion measurements are consistent with LASNEX simulations; (3) LPI back-scattering results have confounded expectations - (a) Stimulated Brillouin (SBS) dominates Raman (SRS) for any gas-fill species, (b) Measured SBS time-averaged reflectivity values are high, peak values are even higher, (c) SRS and SBS peak while laser-pulse is rising; and (4) Plasma conditions at the onset of high back-scattering yield high SBS convective linear gain - Wavelengths of the back-scattered light is predicted by linear theory.

  19. Low pressure gas filling of laser fusion microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, J.C.; Dressler, J.L.; Hendricks, C.D.

    1979-01-01

    In our laser fusion microsphere production, large, thin gel-microspheres are formed before the chemicals are fused into glass. In this transient stage,, the gel-microspheres are found to be highly permeable to argon and many other inert gases. When the gel transforms to glass, the argon gas, for example, is trapped within to form argon filled, fusion target quality, glass microspheres. On the average, the partial pressure of the argon fills attained in this process is around 2 x 10 4 Pa at room temperature

  20. Experimental study of strontium sorption on fissure filling material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksen, T E; Cui, Daqing [Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemistry

    1994-12-01

    We have carried out a comparative study of sorption and desorption of strontium in groundwater on separated magnetic and size fractions of fissure filling material taken from natural fissures in granitic rock. Complete reversibility of the sorption process was demonstrated by identical Freundlich isotherms, isotopic exchangeability and pH dependence of the distribution coefficients Rd. The sorption was found to be strongly pH dependent in the range 3-11. The pH effect can be accommodated in the sorption model by considering the surface areas and surface charges of the minerals in the fissure filling material. 20 refs, 9 figs, 3 tabs.

  1. Experimental study of strontium sorption on fissure filling material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksen, T.E.; Cui, Daqing

    1994-12-01

    We have carried out a comparative study of sorption and desorption of strontium in groundwater on separated magnetic and size fractions of fissure filling material taken from natural fissures in granitic rock. Complete reversibility of the sorption process was demonstrated by identical Freundlich isotherms, isotopic exchangeability and pH dependence of the distribution coefficients Rd. The sorption was found to be strongly pH dependent in the range 3-11. The pH effect can be accommodated in the sorption model by considering the surface areas and surface charges of the minerals in the fissure filling material. 20 refs, 9 figs, 3 tabs

  2. A comparison of the moisture gauge and the neutron log in air-filled holes at NTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hearst, J.R.; Carlson, R.C.

    1993-08-01

    Two methods are commonly used to measure water content of geologic materials by neutron diffusion, the moisture gauge and the neutron log. Both are used at NTS, the moisture gauge in tunnels, the neutron log in vertical drilled holes. In this work, the moisture gauge and the neutron log are compared for use in air-filled holes NTS. The measurement instruments have evolved with very different operational characteristics and one important physics difference, the source to detector spacing. The moisture gauge has a very short, 0--6 cm spacing, with little internal shielding, and count increases with water. The neutron log has a long spacing, 30--50 cm, substantial internal shielding, and exhibits decreasing count with increasing water. The moisture gauge gives better bed resolution than the neutron log. Because its count increases with water, the moisture gauge is more strongly affected by water in the borehole, especially in dry formations. In these conditions the neutron log is the method of choice. In air-filled holes, if source size or logging time is not a constraint, the relative sensitivity of the two tools to water is determined by the relative strengths of borehole effects as fluid, holesize, or tool-wall gap. If source size is a constraint for safety reasons, the short spacing provides higher countrates for a given detector efficiency and thus better relative precision in determining the true count. If source size is limited because of detector or electronics saturation, the short spacing will be better at high water content, while the long spacing will be better at low water content. The short spacing may have an advantage because it can make better contact with the hole wall and can be more easily corrected for gap. The long spacing tool is currently used in vertical holes at NTS because that is the only tool available from logging contractors. Since they are most concerned with high water contents, the short spacing tool could prove to be better

  3. Design spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    Digital technologies and media are becoming increasingly embodied and entangled in the spaces and places at work and at home. However, our material environment is more than a geometric abstractions of space: it contains familiar places, social arenas for human action. For designers, the integration...... of digital technology with space poses new challenges that call for new approaches. Creative alternatives to traditional systems methodologies are called for when designers use digital media to create new possibilities for action in space. Design Spaces explores how design and media art can provide creative...... alternatives for integrating digital technology with space. Connecting practical design work with conceptual development and theorizing, art with technology, and usesr-centered methods with social sciences, Design Spaces provides a useful research paradigm for designing ubiquitous computing. This book...

  4. Southeast Asian Space Programs: Motives, Cooperation, and Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    specific use” after being launched into equatorial orbit on a SpaceX Falcon rocket in 2009; Malaysia sought to fill a niche for equatorial countries...with human users as part of a system,28 the “technique” by which rockets , satellites, and other accoutrements of space access are integrated into...independence and an archipelagic geography that incentivizes use of space as a big tent under which to strengthen national unity, Indonesia’s space

  5. Molecular Diagnostics

    OpenAIRE

    Choe, Hyonmin; Deirmengian, Carl A.; Hickok, Noreen J.; Morrison, Tiffany N.; Tuan, Rocky S.

    2015-01-01

    Orthopaedic infections are complex conditions that require immediate diagnosis and accurate identification of the causative organisms to facilitate appropriate management. Conventional methodologies for diagnosis of these infections sometimes lack accuracy or sufficient rapidity. Current molecular diagnostics are an emerging area of bench-to-bedside research in orthopaedic infections. Examples of promising molecular diagnostics include measurement of a specific biomarker in the synovial fluid...

  6. Molecular genetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkinson, D.R.; Krontiris, T.G.

    1986-01-01

    In this chapter the authors review new findings concerning the molecular genetics of malignant melanoma in the context of other information obtained from clinical, epidemiologic, and cytogenetic studies in this malignancy. These new molecular approaches promise to provide a more complete understanding of the mechanisms involved in the development of melanoma, thereby suggesting new methods for its treatment and prevention

  7. Molecular Modeling

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 9; Issue 5. Molecular Modeling: A Powerful Tool for Drug Design and Molecular Docking. Rama Rao Nadendla. General Article Volume 9 Issue 5 May 2004 pp 51-60. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  8. Novel use of an air-filled breast prosthesis to allow radiotherapy to recurrent colonic cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Duffy, F

    2012-02-01

    AiM: The authors present the novel and successful use of an air-filled breast prosthesis for extra pelvic exclusion of small bowel to facilitate adjuvant radiotherapy following resection of recurrent adenocarcinoma of the ascending bowel. The therapeutic use of radiotherapy in colon cancer can cause acute or chronic radiation enteropathy. Mobile small bowel can be sequestered in \\'dead space\\' or by adhesions exposing it to adjuvant radiotherapy. A variety of pelvic partitioning methods have been described to exclude bowel from radiation fields using both native and prosthetic materials. METHOD: In this case a 68 year old presented with ascending colon adenocarcinoma invading the peritoneum and underwent en bloc peritoneal resection. Thirty-seven months later surveillance CT identified a local recurrence. Subsequent resection resulted in a large iliacus muscle defect which would sequester small bowel loops thus exposing the patient to radiation enteropathy. The lateral position of the defect precluded the use of traditional pelvic partitioning methods which would be unlikely to remain in place long enough to allow radiotherapy. A lightweight air-filled breast prosthesis (Allergan 133 FV 750 cms) secured in place with an omentoplasty was used to fill the defect. RESULTS: Following well tolerated radiotherapy the prosthesis was deflated under ultrasound guidance and removed via a 7-cm transverse incision above the right iliac crest. The patient is disease free 18 months later with no evidence of treatment related morbidity. CONCLUSION: The use of a malleable air-filled prosthesis for pelvic partitioning allows specific tailoring of the prosthesis size and shape for individual patient defects. It is also lightweight enough to be secured in place using an omentoplasty to prevent movement related prosthesis migration. In the absence of adequate omentum a mesh sling may be considered to allow fixation. In this case the anatomy of the prosthesis position allowed for its

  9. 21 CFR 1306.13 - Partial filling of prescriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Partial filling of prescriptions. 1306.13 Section 1306.13 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRESCRIPTIONS Controlled... by revising paragraph (a), effective June 1, 2010. For the convenience of the user, the revised text...

  10. Fire Response of Concrete Filled Hollow Steel Sections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyman, Simon; Virdi, Kuldeep

    2011-01-01

    Advanced and simplified methods of analysis and design for the fire resistance of structural elements and assemblages of structures have been developed in recent years. Some simplified methods for the fire design of concrete filled tubes have appeared in Eurocode 4 part 1.2. Experience to date in...... hollow sections....

  11. Gap filling strategies for long term energy flux data sets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falge, E.; Baldocchi, D.; Olson, R.; Anthoni, P.; Aubinet, M.; Bernhofer, C.; Burba, G.; Ceulemans, R.; Clement, R.; Dolman, H.; Granier, A.; Gross, P.; Grünwald, T.; Hollinger, D.; Jensen, N.O.; Katul, G.; Keronen, P.; Kowalski, A.; Lai, C.T.; Law, B.E.; Meyers, T.; Moncrieff, J.; Moors, E.J.; Munger, J.W.; Pilegaard, K.; Rebmann, C.; Suyker, A.; Tenhunen, J.; Tu, K.

    2001-01-01

    At present a network of over 100 field sites are measuring carbon dioxide, water vapor and sensible heat fluxes between the biosphere and atmosphere, on a nearly continuous basis. Gaps in the long term measurements of evaporation and sensible heat flux must be filled before these data can be used

  12. A water-filled radio frequency accelerating cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faehl, R.J.; Keinigs, R.K.; Pogue, E.W.

    1998-01-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project was to study water-filled resonant cavities as a high-energy density source to drive high-current accelerator configurations. Basic considerations lead to the expectation that a dielectric-filled cavity should be able to store up to e/e o as much energy as a vacuum one with the same dimensions and thus be capable of accelerating a proportionately larger amount of charge before cavity depletion occurs. During this project, we confirmed that water-filled cavities with e/e o = 60-80 did indeed behave with the expected characteristics, in terms of resonant TM modes and cavity Q. We accomplished this result with numerical cavity eigenvalue codes; fully electromagnetic, two-dimensional, particle-in-cell codes; and, most significantly, with scaled experiments performed in water-filled aluminum cavities. The low-power experiments showed excellent agreement with the numerical results. Simulations of the high-field, high-current mode of operation indicated that charged-particle loss on the dielectric windows, which separate the cavity from the beamline, must be carefully controlled to avoid significant distortion of the axial fields

  13. Modelling the filling rate of pit latrines | Brouckaert | Water SA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Excreta (faeces and urine) that are deposited into a pit latrine are subject to biodegradation, which substantially reduces the volume that remains. On the other hand, other matter that is not biodegradable usually finds itsway into pit latrines. The net filling rate is thus dependent on both the rate of addition of material and its ...

  14. Experimental Study of Goaf Filling Materials Based on Red Mud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Mangen; Gao, Xiaozhen; Guo, Taoming; Hu, Xinping

    2018-01-01

    Red mud as soild waste is difficult to treatment. Goaf filling materials can make a large use of red mud. By the experimental study,we find that the red mud, fly ash, ground slag and desulfida-tion gypsum can be used to make goaf filling materials based on the principle of alkali excitation and metalion stability.Through the control variable method, we find that the optimal proportion of goaf filling materials based on red mud is red mud 55%, fly ash 30%, cement 7.5%, fly ash 2.5%, desulfurization gypsum 5%, admixture 1%, and water solid ratio=1:1.2.The 28days final material strength was 2.0 MPa,which achives the technical specification requirements.Through the test of SEM, XRD and IR, it is indicated that the strength formation of goaf filling material based on red mud is from the unformed linking hydration products of amorphous alkali excitation system. With curing time from 3 to 7 days, the unformed linking hydration products grown a lot of vitreous hydration products. When hydration reaction basicly finished after 28 days, the hydration products have developed into a large volume of massive vitreous with an extremely dense structure. The Ca2SiO3 mineral phase is significantly reduced, which is participate in hydration reactions. The decrease of Ca2SiO3 indicates that the Si-O bond in the system have been ruptured and reorganized.

  15. Form Filling with SCC in a Vertical Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Lars Nyholm

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the results obtained from two different vertical form filling experiments with SCC that have been completed as part of the experimental work in an ongoing Ph.D project. The project is carried out at the Danish Technological Institute in collaboration with the Technical...

  16. Biopharmaceutical formulations for pre-filled delivery devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezek, Jan; Darton, Nicholas J; Derham, Barry K; Royle, Nikki; Simpson, Iain

    2013-06-01

    Pre-filled syringes are becoming an increasingly popular format for delivering biotherapeutics conveniently and cost effectively. The device design and stable liquid formulations required to enable this pre-filled syringe format are technically challenging. In choosing the materials and process conditions to fabricate the syringe unit, their compatibility with the biotherapeutic needs to be carefully assessed. The biothereaputic stability demanded for the production of syringe-compatible low-viscosity liquid solutions requires critical excipient choices to be made. The purpose of this review is to discuss key issues related to the stability aspects of biotherapeutics in pre-filled devices. This includes effects on both physical and chemical stability due to a number of stress conditions the product is subjected to, as well as interactions with the packaging system. Particular attention is paid to the control of stability by formulation. We anticipate that there will be a significant move towards polymer primary packaging for most drugs in the longer term. The timescales for this will depend on a number of factors and hence will be hard to predict. Formulation will play a critical role in developing successful products in the pre-filled syringe format, particularly with the trend towards concentrated biotherapeutics. Development of novel, smart formulation technologies will, therefore, be increasingly important.

  17. Methodology for teaching facial filling with hyaluronic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Oliveira Ruiz, R; Laruccia, M M; Gerenutti, M

    2014-01-01

    This paper shows the importance of the methodization in teaching facial dermal filling on the training of physicians who intend to work or are already working in the area of facial aesthetics. The methodology is based on the procedures performed in Iz Clinic of Plastic Surgery from 2007 to 2010, where the results of the use of dermal filling products were observed. We chose the hyaluronic acid for the methodization of education. Even being a safe procedure, the dermal filling needs to be done by trained professionals because some complications may occur. The theoretical discussion of facial anatomy, physiology and classification of aging, rheological characteristics of products and application techniques underpin the practical part, in which the live demo or supervision of the procedure is performed. The idealization of classes, both theoretical and practical, proposed in this work proved to be of great value in teaching physicians. The success of this method can be seen from the results achieved by students and by observing the drop in reports of adverse effects. After learning the techniques of facial dermal filling with products based on hyaluronic acid, a doctor may perform this therapy with other fillers, with harmonious results.

  18. Gaussian Filtering with Tapered Oil-Filled Photonic Bandgap Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunetti, Anna Chiara; Scolari, Lara; Weirich, Johannes

    2008-01-01

    A tunable Gaussian filter based on a tapered oil-filled photonic crystal fiber is demonstrated. The filter is centered at X=1364nm with a bandwidth (FWHM) of 237nm. Tunability is achieved by changing the temperature of the filter. A shift of 210nm of the central wavelength has been observed...

  19. Understanding the viscoelastic behavior of silica filled rubber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Castro, J.G.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the understanding the viscoelastic behavior of silica filled Nitrile Butadiene Rubber (NBR) using different sizes/surface areas in three different regions of deformation that will be developed in 3 chapters. The characterization of the samples used in this work is described in

  20. The intraventricular filling vortex under heightened aortic blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelsen, Nicholas; Gaddam, Manikantam; Santhanakrishnan, Arvind

    2017-11-01

    Hypertension, or high aortic blood pressure, can induce structural changes in the left ventricle (LV) such as concentric hypertrophy. Previous studies have identified that the intraventricular filling vortex serves as an effective means of blood transport during diastolic filling. However, a fundamental understanding of how hypertension affects this vortex is unavailable. This knowledge can be useful for improving diagnosis and treatment of related heart disease conditions, including hypertensive heart failure. In this experimental study, we hypothesized that the circulation of the filling vortex would diminish with increased aortic pressure. Using a LV physical model within a left heart simulator, we performed hemodynamic measurements to acquire pressure and volumetric inflow profiles and 2D particle image velocimetry to visualize the intraventricular flow fields. Peak aortic pressures of 120 mm Hg, 140 mm Hg, and 160 mm Hg were each tested at heart rates of 70, 100, and 110 beats per minute, under: 1) reduced ejection fraction (EF), and 2) constant EF. Our results indicate that peak vortex circulation is reduced under elevated aortic pressures. Hemodynamics and characteristics of the intraventricular filling vortex in all examined experimental cases will be presented.

  1. Liquid filling of photonic crystal fibres for grating writing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Henrik Rokkjær; Canning, John; Lægsgaard, Jesper

    2007-01-01

    liquid filling of photonic crystal fibres reduces the scattering from air–glass interfaces during Bragg grating writing in many layered photonic crystal fibres. Within experimental uncertainty, the grating index modulation of a grating written in germanium-doped photonic crystal fibre with 10 rings...

  2. Left ventricular filling under elevated left atrial pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddam, Manikantam; Samaee, Milad; Santhanakrishnan, Arvind

    2017-11-01

    Left atrial pressure (LAP) is elevated in diastolic dysfunction, where left ventricular (LV) filling is impaired due to increase in ventricular stiffness. The impact of increasing LAP and LV stiffness on intraventricular filling hemodynamics remains unclear. We conducted particle image velocimetry and hemodynamics measurements in a left heart simulator (LHS) under increasing LAP and LV stiffness at a heart rate of 70 bpm. The LHS consisted of a flexible-walled LV physical model fitted within a fluid-filled chamber. LV wall motion was generated by a piston pump that imparted pressure fluctuations in the chamber. Resistance and compliance elements in the flow loop were adjusted to obtain bulk physiological hemodynamics in the least stiff LV model. Two LV models of increasing stiffness were subsequently tested under unchanged loop settings. LAP was varied between 5-20 mm Hg for each LV model, by adjusting fluid level in a reservoir upstream of the LV. For constant LV stiffness, increasing LAP lowered cardiac output (CO), while ejection fraction (EF) and E/A ratio were increased. For constant LAP, increasing LV stiffness lowered CO and EF, and increased E/A ratio. The implications of these altered hemodynamics on intraventricular filling vortex characteristics will be presented.

  3. Evaluation of various filling techniques in distal canals of mandibular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of various filling techniques in distal canals of mandibular molars instrumented with different single-file nickel-titanium systems. ... Comparisons between groups were applied using Student's t-test or one-way ANOVA for normally distributed data. The Mann-Whitney U-test or Kruskal-Wallis test was used when ...

  4. A Preliminary Assessment of Groundwater Samples around a Filling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is a preliminary assessment of groundwater samples around a filling station in Diobu area of Port Harcourt for four years at intervals of two years with a view to determine the level of groundwater pollution. It examines the physiochemical, major ions and heavy metal aspect of groundwater quality around the study ...

  5. Ultrasonically determined fill pressure and density in closed spherical shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asaki, T.J.

    1998-01-01

    Experiments have been conducted in which the D 2 fill pressure has been determined for several closed millimeter-size aluminum and beryllium shells. The vibrational resonance frequency spectrum of the shells was used to calculate the sound velocity of the interior gas. This velocity, along with the equation-of-state, determined the gas pressure and density. The accuracy in determining the fill conditions is within 0.5% in both pressure and density for near critical density (ρ approx-gt 9 mol/L) gas over a wide range of temperatures (190 K to 300 K). Reduced accuracy was apparent at low density. An attempt was made to determine the fill density of one shell by acoustic observation of the dew point temperature. While this temperature was recorded very accurately, the uncertainty in the saturated vapor density curve near the critical point yielded inaccurate results. These methods were shown to be unaffected by small deviations in the sphericity of the gas-filled cavity

  6. Environmental Impact Assessment of Petrol and Gas Filling Stations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated pollutants emissions from filling stations and their impact on the air quality. Gas monitors were employed to identify the different pollutants present in the ambient air of the study areas. The results showed that the most prominent pollutants present in the ambient air are the volatile organic compounds ...

  7. Calculation of piping loads due to filling procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swidersky, Harald; Thiele, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Filling procedures in piping systems are usually not load cases that are studied by fluid dynamic and structure dynamic analyses with respect to the integrity of pipes and supports. Although, their frequency is higher than that of postulated accidental transients, therefore they have to be considered for fatigue analyses. The piping and support loads due to filling procedures are caused by the density differences if the transported fluids, for instance in flows with the transport of gas bubbles. The impact duration of the momentum forces is defined by the flow velocity and the length of discontinuities in the piping segments. Filling procedures end very often with a shock pressure, caused by the impact and decelerating of the fluid front at smaller cross sections. The suitability of the thermally hydraulics program RELAP/MOD3.3 for the calculation of realistic loads from filling procedures was studied, the results compared with experimental data. It is shown that dependent on the discretization level the loads are partial significantly underestimated.

  8. Capillary filling of miniaturized sources for electrospray mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arscott, Steve; Gaudet, Matthieu; Brinkmann, Martin; Ashcroft, Alison E; Blossey, Ralf

    2006-01-01

    Capillary slot-based emitter tips are a novel tool for use in electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry of large biomolecules. We have performed a combined theoretical and experimental study of capillary filling in micron-sized slots with the aim of developing a rational design procedure for miniaturized electrospray sources, ultimately enabling the integration of ESI into laboratory-on-a-chip devices

  9. Laboratory tests on fungal resistance of wood filled polyethylene composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig M. Clemons; Rebecca E. Ibach

    2002-01-01

    A standard method for determining the durability of structural wood was modified for testing the fungal resistance of composites made from high density polyethylene filled with 50% wood flour. Moisture content, mechanical properties, and weight loss were measured over 12 weeks exposure to brown-and white-rot fungi. Mechanical properties were decreased, but irreversible...

  10. The Effects of Iron Filling On Some Mechanical and Physical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    sawdust of particle size 1.18mm and iron fillings of size 300µm, 20g binder (urea formaldehyde) concentration, hot ... The water absorption and thickness swell test results showed that the .... of this type of magnetic material include: easier.

  11. 7 CFR 2902.20 - Fluid-filled transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... transformers. Electric power transformers that are designed to utilize a synthetic ester-based dielectric (non... transformers. Electric power transformers that are designed to utilize a vegetable oil-based dielectric (non... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fluid-filled transformers. 2902.20 Section 2902.20...

  12. Prevalence of low back pain among filling stations attendants in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 12 months prevalence of LBP prior to the study, severity of LBP, history of LBP, causative factors and management of LBP and its effect on filling stations attendant's activities and activities of daily living. It was adapted from a previous study Titled Prevalence of Low Back Pain among Traffic Warden in Lagos state. The data ...

  13. Evaluation of ac conductivity behaviour of graphite filled

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Composites of epoxy resin having different amounts of graphite particles have been prepared by solution casting method. Temperature dependence of dielectric constant, tan and a.c. conductivity was measured in the frequency range, 1–20 kHz, temperature range, 40–180°C for 0.99, 1.96 and 2.91 wt% graphite filled ...

  14. Earthquake induced liquefaction analysis of Tendaho earth-fill dam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fill dam, which is part of Tendaho Dam and Irrigation Project; the largest irrigation project in Ethiopia to date. The dam is located in the most seismic part of Ethiopia and was originally designed to be founded on potentially liquefiable alluvium ...

  15. On Love's approximation for fluid-filled elastic tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caroli, E.; Mainardi, F.

    1980-01-01

    A simple procedure is set up to introduce Love's approximation for wave propagation in thin-walled fluid-filled elastic tubes. The dispersion relation for linear waves and the radial profile for fluid pressure are determined in this approximation. It is shown that the Love approximation is valid in the low-frequency regime. (author)

  16. 27 CFR 5.53 - Certificate of nonstandard fill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certificate of nonstandard fill. 5.53 Section 5.53 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Requirements for Withdrawal...

  17. 27 CFR 4.46 - Certificate of nonstandard fill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certificate of nonstandard fill. 4.46 Section 4.46 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Requirements for Withdrawal of Wine From...

  18. Study of clumping in the Cepheus OB 3 molecular cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    A portion of the Cep OB 3 molecular cloud has been mapped in the (C-13)O (1-0) line on a completely sampled grid with a 1.5-arcmin spacing. A total of 45 individual clouds, or clumps, have been identified in the map, with masses from 3 to 300 solar mass, sizes 3 pc or smaller, and mean densities of a few hundred/cu cm. Power-law correlations are found among the clump properties, namely, M proportional to R exp 2.5 and Delta(v) exp 0.24. These exponents differ somewhat from those found for similar correlations for molecular clouds in previous studies. Determination of the virial masses for the clumps shows that the clumps are not gravitationally bound and must be expanding on a time scale of about 1 Myr. Measurements of the (C-13)O (2-1) line give volume densities of 2000-5000. Comparisons of these densities with the mean volume densities from the (C-13)O (1-0) data suggest that the gas is clumped on a small scale with a volume filling factor of 0.04-0.10. 31 references

  19. Filling of recovered mining areas using solidifying backfill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeman Róbert

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to explore the possibilities for filling recovered mining areas using solidifying backfill .The article describes the preparation of the backfill (backfill formulation with an eventual application using low quality sands, wastes from treatment plants and ash from power plants etc now to transport it as well as its application in practice. Advantageous and disadvantageous of this method are also mentioned.Several factors must be taken info consideration during the preparation process of the backfill mixture. Firstly, the quantities of each individual component must be constantly regulated. Secondly, the properties of each component must be respected. In addition, the needs of the pipeline transport system and the specific conditions of the recovered area to be filled must also be considered.Hydraulic transport and pneumo-hydraulic pipeline transport are used for handling the backfill. Pumps for transporting the solidifying backfill have to carry out demanding tasks.Due to the physical-mechanical properties of the backfill, only highly powerful pumps can be considered. Piston type pumps such as Abel Simplex and Duplex pumps with capacities of up to 100 m3.h-1 and operating pressures of up to 16 MPa would be suitable.This method has been applied abroad for different purposes. For example, solid backfill was used in the Hamr mine during exploitation of uranium using the room-and-pillar system mining method.In the Ostrava–Karvina Coal field, backfill was used in decontamination work, filling areas in a zone of dangerous deformations and for creating a dividing stratum during thick seam mining.Research info the use of solidifying backfill was also done in the Walsum mine in Germany. The aim of this research was:- to investigate the possibilities of filling a collapsing area in a working face using a solidifying mixture of power plant ash and water,- to verify whether towing pipelines proposed by the DMT corporation would be

  20. Space Commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    A robust and competitive commercial space sector is vital to continued progress in space. The United States is committed to encouraging and facilitating the growth of a U.S. commercial space sector that supports U.S. needs, is globally competitive, and advances U.S. leadership in the generation of new markets and innovation-driven entrepreneurship. Energize competitive domestic industries to participate in global markets and advance the development of: satellite manufacturing; satellite-based services; space launch; terrestrial applications; and increased entrepreneurship. Purchase and use commercial space capabilities and services to the maximum practical extent Actively explore the use of inventive, nontraditional arrangements for acquiring commercial space goods and services to meet United States Government requirements, including measures such as public-private partnerships, . Refrain from conducting United States Government space activities that preclude, discourage, or compete with U.S. commercial space activities. Pursue potential opportunities for transferring routine, operational space functions to the commercial space sector where beneficial and cost-effective.

  1. Worship space acoustics 3 decades of design

    CERN Document Server

    Ryherd, Erica; Ronsse, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    This book takes the reader on a wide-ranging tour through churches, synagogues, mosques, and other worship spaces designed during the past 30 years. The book begins with a series of essays on topics ranging from the soundscape of worship spaces to ecclesiastical design at the turn of the 21st Century. Perspective pieces from an architect, audio designer, music director, and worship space owner are also included. The core of the book presents the acoustical and architectural design of a wide variety of individual worship space venues. Acoustical consulting firms, architects, and worship space designers from across the world contributed their recent innovative works in the area of worship space acoustics. The contributions include detailed renderings and architectural drawings, as well as informative acoustic data graphs and evocative descriptions of the spaces. Filled with beautiful photography and fascinating modern design, this book is a must-read for anyone interested in religious architecture, acoustical d...

  2. Sorption of phenanthrene and benzene on differently structural kerogen: important role of micropore-filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yulong; Ma, Xiaoxuan; Ran, Yong

    2014-02-01

    Shale was thermally treated to obtain a series of kerogen with varied maturation. Their chemical, structural and porous properties were related to the sorption and/or desorption behaviors of phenanthrene and benzene. As the treatment temperature increases, aliphatic and carbonyl carbon of the kerogen samples decrease, while their aromaticity and maturation increase. Meanwhile, the isothermal nonlinearity of phenanthrene and benzene increases whereas the sorption capacity and micropore adsorption volumes (Vo,d) initially increase and then decrease. The Vo,d of benzene is significantly correlated with, but higher than that of phenanthrene, suggesting similar micropore filling mechanism and molecular sieve effect. The benzene desorption exhibits hysteresis, which is related to the pore deformation of the kerogen and the entrapment of solute in the kerogen matrix. The Vo,d of phenanthrene and benzene on the kerogen samples accounts for 23-46% and 36-65% of the maximum sorption volumes, respectively, displaying the importance of the micropore filling. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Measurements of density profile evolution during the stably-stratified filling of an open enclosure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarawneh, Constantine M.; Homan, K.O.

    2008-01-01

    The stably-stratified filling of an open enclosure produces an interfacial gradient layer which is transported through the enclosure with the bulk flow. The evolution of this interfacial layer is strongly time-dependent and is driven by the nature of the interaction between the internal gravity waves and the inlet-driven interfacial shear. Measurements of density profile evolution have been completed for a rectangular enclosure with a single corner inlet and density variation produced by saline concentration. This system serves as a mass transfer analog to large-scale, thermally-stratified energy storage devices, preserving dynamic similitude in a laboratory-scale system. The experiments covered jet Reynolds numbers of 200-2200 and Froude numbers of 0.06-0.6 in an enclosure with a width 23 times the jet inlet height. The density profiles are seen to be strongly asymmetric and exhibit growth rates significantly different than due to simple one-dimensional molecular diffusion. In addition, shadowgraph and hydrogen bubble visualizations of the density and velocity fields in the gradient layer show the persistence of complex multi-dimensional flow structure even at relatively late stages of the filling process when the gradient layer has been transported well away from the enclosure inlet. The evolution of the vertical density profile has been compared quantitatively to a quasi one-dimensional model based upon empirical diffusivity coefficients

  4. Learning Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Falmagne, Jean-Claude

    2011-01-01

    Learning spaces offer a rigorous mathematical foundation for practical systems of educational technology. Learning spaces generalize partially ordered sets and are special cases of knowledge spaces. The various structures are investigated from the standpoints of combinatorial properties and stochastic processes. Leaning spaces have become the essential structures to be used in assessing students' competence of various topics. A practical example is offered by ALEKS, a Web-based, artificially intelligent assessment and learning system in mathematics and other scholarly fields. At the heart of A

  5. Toughening Mechanisms in Silica-Filled Epoxy Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Binay S.

    Epoxies are widely used as underfill resins throughout the microelectronics industry to mechanically couple and protect various components of flip-chip assemblies. Generally rigid materials largely surround underfill resins. Improving the mechanical and thermal properties of epoxy resins to better match those of their rigid counterparts can help extend the service lifetime of flip-chip assemblies. Recently, researchers have demonstrated that silica nanoparticles are effective toughening agents for lightly-crosslinked epoxies. Improvements in the fracture toughness of silica-filled epoxy nanocomposites have primarily been attributed to two toughening mechanisms: particle debonding with subsequent void growth and matrix shear banding. Various attempts have been made to model the contribution of these toughening mechanisms to the overall fracture energy observed in silica-filled epoxy nanocomposites. However, disparities still exist between experimental and modeled fracture energy results. In this dissertation, the thermal, rheological and mechanical behavior of eight different types of silica-filled epoxy nanocomposites was investigated. Each nanocomposite consisted of up to 10 vol% of silica nanoparticles with particle sizes ranging from 20 nm to 200 nm, with a variety of surface treatments and particle structures. Fractographical analysis was conducted with new experimental approaches in order to accurately identify morphological evidence for each proposed toughening mechanism. Overall, three major insights into the fracture behavior of real world silica-filled epoxy nanocomposites were established. First, microcracking was observed as an essential toughening mechanism in silica-filled epoxy nanocomposites. Microcracking was observed on the surface and subsurface of fractured samples in each type of silica-filled epoxy nanocomposite. The additional toughening contribution of microcracking to overall fracture energy yielded excellent agreement between experimental

  6. Molecular geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Rodger, Alison

    1995-01-01

    Molecular Geometry discusses topics relevant to the arrangement of atoms. The book is comprised of seven chapters that tackle several areas of molecular geometry. Chapter 1 reviews the definition and determination of molecular geometry, while Chapter 2 discusses the unified view of stereochemistry and stereochemical changes. Chapter 3 covers the geometry of molecules of second row atoms, and Chapter 4 deals with the main group elements beyond the second row. The book also talks about the complexes of transition metals and f-block elements, and then covers the organometallic compounds and trans

  7. Extracting Information about the Electronic Quality of Organic Solar-Cell Absorbers from Fill Factor and Thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaienburg, Pascal; Rau, Uwe; Kirchartz, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Understanding the fill factor in organic solar cells remains challenging due to its complex dependence on a multitude of parameters. By means of drift-diffusion simulations, we thoroughly analyze the fill factor of such low-mobility systems and demonstrate its dependence on a collection coefficient defined in this work. We systematically discuss the effect of different recombination mechanisms, space-charge regions, and contact properties. Based on these findings, we are able to interpret the thickness dependence of the fill factor for different experimental studies from the literature. The presented model provides a facile method to extract the photoactive layer's electronic quality which is of particular importance for the fill factor. We illustrate that over the past 15 years, the electronic quality has not been continuously improved, although organic solar-cell efficiencies increased steadily over the same period of time. Only recent reports show the synthesis of polymers for semiconducting films of high electronic quality that are able to produce new efficiency records.

  8. Molecular Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Karsten Stein

    This thesis includes the synthesis and characterisation of organic compounds designed for molecular electronics. The synthesised organic molecules are mainly based on two motifs, the obigo(phenyleneethynylenes) (OPE)s and tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) as shown below. These two scaffolds (OPE and TTF......) are chemically merged together to form cruciform-like structures that are an essential part of the thesis. The cruciform molecules were subjected to molecular conductance measurements to explore their capability towards single-crystal field-effect transistors (Part 1), molecular wires, and single electron......, however, was obtained by a study of a single molecular transistor. The investigated OPE5-TTF compound was captured in a three-terminal experiment, whereby manipulation of the molecule’s electronic spin was possible in different charge states. Thus, we demonstrated how the cruciform molecules could...

  9. Molecular sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    The research in molecular sciences summarized includes photochemistry, radiation chemistry, geophysics, electromechanics, heavy-element oxidizers , heavy element chemistry collisions, atoms, organic solids. A list of publications is included

  10. Space Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horneck, Gerda; Klaus, David M.; Mancinelli, Rocco L.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: The responses of microorganisms (viruses, bacterial cells, bacterial and fungal spores, and lichens) to selected factors of space (microgravity, galactic cosmic radiation, solar UV radiation, and space vacuum) were determined in space and laboratory simulation experiments. In general, microorganisms tend to thrive in the space flight environment in terms of enhanced growth parameters and a demonstrated ability to proliferate in the presence of normally inhibitory levels of antibiotics. The mechanisms responsible for the observed biological responses, however, are not yet fully understood. A hypothesized interaction of microgravity with radiation-induced DNA repair processes was experimentally refuted. The survival of microorganisms in outer space was investigated to tackle questions on the upper boundary of the biosphere and on the likelihood of interplanetary transport of microorganisms. It was found that extraterrestrial solar UV radiation was the most deleterious factor of space. Among all organisms tested, only lichens (Rhizocarpon geographicum and Xanthoria elegans) maintained full viability after 2 weeks in outer space, whereas all other test systems were inactivated by orders of magnitude. Using optical filters and spores of Bacillus subtilis as a biological UV dosimeter, it was found that the current ozone layer reduces the biological effectiveness of solar UV by 3 orders of magnitude. If shielded against solar UV, spores of B. subtilis were capable of surviving in space for up to 6 years, especially if embedded in clay or meteorite powder (artificial meteorites). The data support the likelihood of interplanetary transfer of microorganisms within meteorites, the so-called lithopanspermia hypothesis. PMID:20197502

  11. Space psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parin, V. V.; Gorbov, F. D.; Kosmolinskiy, F. P.

    1974-01-01

    Psychological selection of astronauts considers mental responses and adaptation to the following space flight stress factors: (1) confinement in a small space; (2) changes in three dimensional orientation; (3) effects of altered gravity and weightlessness; (4) decrease in afferent nerve pulses; (5) a sensation of novelty and danger; and (6) a sense of separation from earth.

  12. Borel Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Berberian, S K

    2002-01-01

    A detailed exposition of G.W. Mackey's theory of Borel spaces (standard, substandard, analytic), based on results in Chapter 9 of Bourbaki's General Topology. Appended are five informal lectures on the subject (given at the CIMPA/ICPAM Summer School, Nice, 1986), sketching the connection between Borel spaces and representations of operator algebras.

  13. NASA Applications of Molecular Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globus, Al; Bailey, David; Han, Jie; Jaffe, Richard; Levit, Creon; Merkle, Ralph; Srivastava, Deepak

    1998-01-01

    Laboratories throughout the world are rapidly gaining atomically precise control over matter. As this control extends to an ever wider variety of materials, processes and devices, opportunities for applications relevant to NASA's missions will be created. This document surveys a number of future molecular nanotechnology capabilities of aerospace interest. Computer applications, launch vehicle improvements, and active materials appear to be of particular interest. We also list a number of applications for each of NASA's enterprises. If advanced molecular nanotechnology can be developed, almost all of NASA's endeavors will be radically improved. In particular, a sufficiently advanced molecular nanotechnology can arguably bring large scale space colonization within our grasp.

  14. Space engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Harold L.

    1991-01-01

    Human productivity was studied for extravehicular tasks performed in microgravity, particularly including in-space assembly of truss structures and other large objects. Human factors research probed the anthropometric constraints imposed on microgravity task performance and the associated workstation design requirements. Anthropometric experiments included reach envelope tests conducted using the 3-D Acoustic Positioning System (3DAPS), which permitted measuring the range of reach possible for persons using foot restraints in neutral buoyancy, both with and without space suits. Much neutral buoyancy research was conducted using the support of water to simulate the weightlessness environment of space. It became clear over time that the anticipated EVA requirement associated with the Space Station and with in-space construction of interplanetary probes would heavily burden astronauts, and remotely operated robots (teleoperators) were increasingly considered to absorb the workload. Experience in human EVA productivity led naturally to teleoperation research into the remote performance of tasks through human controlled robots.

  15. 129 Xe-NMR of carbon black filled elastomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sperling-Ischinsky, K.; Veeman, W.S.

    1999-01-01

    It is shown that 129 Xe-NMR is a powerful tool to investigate carbon black and carbon black filled elastomers. For the carbon black material itself the 129 Xe chemical shift of xenon adsorbed at the surface of carbon black aggregates yields information about the relative average pore size of the carbon black aggregates. The experimental 129 Xe-NMR results of carbon black filled ethylene-propylene-diene (EPDM) can be explained when it is assumed that the xenon atoms in the bound EPDM fraction exchange rapidly on the NMR time scale between a state where they are adsorbed on the carbon black surface and a state in which they are absorbed in the EPDM layer. This would imply that the carbon black aggregates are not completely covered with EPDM chains. (author)

  16. Pool fire upon a balsa-filled shock absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, C.J.

    1990-07-01

    When performing a safety assessment of a transport flask with balsa-filled shock absorbers it is important to know how the shock absorbers, which may have the outer skin punctured by an impact, will perform in a fire. A 30 minute pool test, which satisfied all the requirements of a thermal test under the IAEA regulations, was carried out upon a small, balsa-filled shock absorber. The outer steel shell was partly cut away exposing the wood to the fire and the air. The balsa wood prevented 90% of the heat from the fire from being transferred through the shock absorber, even though the balsa was only 133 mm thick. The maximum heat flux through to the inside of the shock absorber due to the burning of the balsa wood was relatively low, 2.8 kW/m 2 , and occurred 2 to 3 hours after the end of the pool fire. (author)

  17. Background in xenon filled X-ray detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feroci, M.; Costa, E.; Dwyer, J.; Ford, E.; Kaaret, P.; Rapisarda, M.; Soffitta, P.

    1995-01-01

    Xenon based gas mixtures have been often used in proportional counters for X-ray astronomy in order to achieve a good efficiency in the medium/high X-ray energy range. Proportional counters flown on past missions (i.e. HEAO1 and EXOSAT) filled with Xe-based mixtures have shown a higher residual background (after that all the rejection techniques have been applied) with respect to Ar-based ones, operating in the same energy band and in the same radiation environment. We show, by means of Monte Carlo simulations, analytical computations and laboratory measurements, that such difference can be mostly understood in terms of higher internal background production and lower pulse discrimination efficiency in Xe-based gas filling, with respect to Ar-based ones. (orig.)

  18. Study on characteristics of coupled cavity chain filled with plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jianqing; Xiao Shu; Mo Yuanlong

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, by using rigorous field analysis, a coupled-cavity (CC) chain filled with plasma has been analyzed. How the hybrid wave between the cavity mode and plasma mode is formed has been studied. The periodical CC chain filled with plasma demonstrates periodical TG modes with a cutoff frequency of zero. When the plasma density increase to a large scale, the cavity mode of the CC chain overlaps the TG mode, these two modes couple with each other and form the hybrid modes. In the case of hybrid modes, the 'cold' bandwidth and the 'warm' bandwidth expand, and the coupled impedance increases about 5 times larger than that of the vacuum. As a whole, the slow wave characteristics are improved substantially due to the formation of the hybrid mode

  19. Electroactive thermoset shape memory polymer nanocomposite filled with nanocarbon powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leng, Jinsong; Lan, Xin; Liu, Yanju; Du, Shanyi

    2009-01-01

    This paper concerns an electroactive thermoset styrene-based shape memory polymer (SMP) nanocomposite filled with nanosized (30 nm) carbon powders. With an increase of the incorporated nanocarbon powders of the SMP composite, its glass transition temperature (T g ) decreases and storage modulus increases. Due to the high micro-porosity and homogeneous distributions of nanocarbon powders in the SMP matrix, the SMP composite shows good electrical conductivity with a percolation of about 3.8%. This percolation threshold is slightly lower than that of many other carbon-based conductive polymer composites. Consequently, due to the relatively high electrical conductivity, a sample filled with 10 vol% nanocarbon powders shows a good electroactive shape recovery performance heating by a voltage of 30 V above a transition temperature of 56–69 °C

  20. Security of bottle to fill in a high pressure air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todic, M.; Latinovic, T.; Golubovic-Bugarski, V.; Majstorovic, A.

    2018-01-01

    Charging the bottle of high pressure air isolation devices is performed by a high-pressure compressor. The charging time is in function of the compressor capacity and the intensity of the nominal pressure of the air in the bottle. However, in accident situations this time is long and therefore high-pressure accumulators are used where the filling time of the bottle of isolation apparatus has been drastically reduced. Due to the short filling time of the bottle through the air flow, there is a thermodynamic load of bottle material that could endanger the safety of users and other participants in the area. It is therefore necessary to determine the critical parameters of the rapid charge and their intensity.

  1. Electromagnetic radiations from laser interaction with gas-filled Hohlraum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming; Yang, Yongmei; Li, Tingshuai; Yi, Tao; Wang, Chuanke; Liu, Shenye; Jiang, Shaoen; Ding, Yongkun

    2018-01-01

    The emission of intensive electromagnetic pulse (EMP) due to laser-target interactions at the ShenGuang-III laser facility has been evaluated by probes. EMP signals measured using the small discone antennas demonstrated two variation trends including a bilateral oscillation wave and a unilateral oscillation wave. The new trend of unilateral oscillation could be attributed to the hohlraum structure and low-Z gas in the hohlraum. The EMP waveform showed multiple peaks when the gas-filled hohlraum was shot by the high-power laser. Comparing the EMP signals with the verification of stimulated Raman scattering energy and hard x-ray energy spectrum, we found that the intensity of EMP signals decreased with the increase of the hohlraum size. The current results are expected to offer preliminary information to study physical processes on laser injecting gas-filled hohlraums in the National Ignition Facility implementation.

  2. Heat flow in a He II filled fin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, R.P.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter demonstrates the influence of diameter, length, Kapitza conductance and temperature on the heat carrying capacity of an externally cooled, circular He II filled channel with zero net mass flow and of negligible wall thermal resistance. Topics considered include the internal convection mechanism and the heat transfer model (boundary conditions, solution procedure). The large apparent thermal conductivity of He-II is explained by the two fluid model as an internal convection in which there is a counter flow of the normal and superfluids with no net mass flow. A separate bath is considered in which an He-IIp (pressurized superfluid helium) filled fin is immersed which extends from the heated reservoir. A single heat sink can serve multiple heat sources

  3. Exotic behaviours in the Pr-based filled skutterudites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, H; Sugawara, H; Namiki, T; Saha, S R; Osaki, S; Matsuda, T D; Aoki, Y; Inada, Y; Shishido, H; Settai, R; Onuki, Y

    2003-01-01

    The exotic features of the Pr-based filled skutterudites are reviewed based on the electronic transport properties, specific heat and de Haas-van Alphen experiments, putting the emphasis on PrFe 4 P 12 and PrOs 4 Sb 12 . As references, the experiments on the related La- and Ce-filled skutterudites are also examined and discussed. Compared to their La reference compounds, the Fermi surface is very similar in PrOs 4 Sb 12 , suggesting the well localized character of 4f electrons, while it looks largely different in PrFe 4 P 12 . For the cyclotron effective mass, both PrFe 4 P 12 and PrOs 4 Sb 12 exhibit a strong enhancement, in reasonable agreement with the large specific heat coefficient

  4. Flexural Behavior of GFRP Tubes Filled with Magnetically Driven Concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Fang; Chen, Ju; Dong, Xinlong; Feng, Bing

    2018-01-08

    Experimental investigation of GFRP (glass fiber reinforced polymer) tubes that were filled with magnetically driven concrete was carried out to study the flexural behavior of specimens under bending. Specimens having different cross section and lengths were tested. The test specimens were fabricated by filling magnetically driven concrete into the GFRP tubes and the concrete was vibrated using magnetic force. Specimens vibrated using vibrating tube were also tested for comparison. In addition, specimens having steel reinforcing bars and GFRP bars were both tested to study the effect of reinforcing bars on the magnetically driven concrete. The load-displacement curves, load-strain curves, failure mode, and ultimate strengths of test specimens were obtained. Design methods for the flexural stiffness of test specimens were also discussed in this study.

  5. The effect of the atmosphere and the role of pore filling on the sintering of aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaffer, G.B.; Hall, B.J.; Bonner, S.J.; Huo, S.H.; Sercombe, T.B.

    2006-01-01

    Alloys of Al-3.8Cu-1Mg-0.7Si, Al-4Cu-0.6Si-0.1Mg, Al-4Cu-1.2Mg and Al-1.9Mg-1.9Si were made using air atomised powder and conventional press-and-sinter powder metallurgy techniques. These were sintered under nitrogen with a controlled water content which varied from 3 to 630 ppm (a dew point of -69 to -25 deg. C), nitrogen-5%hydrogen, argon and argon-5%hydrogen, all at atmospheric pressure, or a vacuum of -2 torr. Dry nitrogen is the most efficacious atmosphere. Vacuum is more effective than argon while hydrogen, and thus water, is extremely prejudicial to sintered density. The minimum dew point for optimum sintering is -60 deg. C (10.5 ppm H 2 O). The key feature in the beneficial effect of nitrogen is the formation of aluminium nitride. This reduces the pressure in the pore spaces relative to the external atmosphere, which induces pore filling at grain sizes that are smaller than those required for sintering in inert atmospheres. It is suggested that pore filling is an important densification mechanism during the sintering of aluminium

  6. Micro-computed tomography and bond strength analysis of different root canal filling techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Nhata

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality and bond strength of three root filling techniques (lateral compaction, continuous wave of condensation and Tagger′s Hybrid technique [THT] using micro-computed tomography (CT images and push-out tests, respectively. Materials and Methods: Thirty mandibular incisors were prepared using the same protocol and randomly divided into three groups (n = 10: Lateral condensation technique (LCT, continuous wave of condensation technique (CWCT, and THT. All specimens were filled with Gutta-percha (GP cones and AH Plus sealer. Five specimens of each group were randomly chosen for micro-CT analysis and all of them were sectioned into 1 mm slices and subjected to push-out tests. Results: Micro-CT analysis revealed less empty spaces when GP was heated within the root canals in CWCT and THT when compared to LCT. Push-out tests showed that LCT and THT had a significantly higher displacement resistance (P < 0.05 when compared to the CWCT. Bond strength was lower in apical and middle thirds than in the coronal thirds. Conclusions: It can be concluded that LCT and THT were associated with higher bond strengths to intraradicular dentine than CWCT. However, LCT was associated with more empty voids than the other techniques.

  7. Optimization of Design and Manufacturing Process of Metal Foam Filled Anti-Intrusion Bars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villa, Andrea; Mussi, Valerio; Strano, Matteo

    2011-01-01

    The role of an anti-intrusion bar for automotive use is to absorb the kinetic energy of the colliding bodies that is partially converted into internal work of the bodies involved in the crash. The aim of this paper is to investigate the performances of a new kind of anti-intrusion bars for automotive use, filled with metallic foams. The reason for using a cellular material as a filler deals with its capacity to absorb energy during plastic deformation, while being lightweight. The study is the evolution of a previous paper presented by the authors at Esaform 2010 and will present new results and findings. It is conducted by evaluating some key technical issues of the manufacturing problem and by conducting experimental and numerical analyses. The evaluation of materials and shapes of the closed sections to be filled is made in the perspective of a car manufacturer (production costs, weight reduction, space availability in a car door, etc.). Experimentally, foams are produced starting from an industrial aluminium precursor with a TiH 2 blowing agent. Bars are tested in three point bending, in order to evaluate their performances in terms of force-displacement response and other specific performance parameters. In order to understand the role of interface between the inner surface of the tube and the external surface of the foam, different kinds of interface are tested.

  8. Interconnect patterns for printed organic thermoelectric devices with large fill factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordiz, Kiarash; Menon, Akanksha K.; Yee, Shannon K.

    2017-09-01

    Organic materials can be printed into thermoelectric (TE) devices for low temperature energy harvesting applications. The output voltage of printed devices is often limited by (i) small temperature differences across the active materials attributed to small leg lengths and (ii) the lower Seebeck coefficient of organic materials compared to their inorganic counterparts. To increase the voltage, a large number of p- and n-type leg pairs is required for organic TEs; this, however, results in an increased interconnect resistance, which then limits the device output power. In this work, we discuss practical concepts to address this problem by positioning TE legs in a hexagonal closed-packed layout. This helps achieve higher fill factors (˜91%) than conventional inorganic devices (˜25%), which ultimately results in higher voltages and power densities due to lower interconnect resistances. In addition, wiring the legs following a Hilbert spacing-filling pattern allows for facile load matching to each application. This is made possible by leveraging the fractal nature of the Hilbert interconnect pattern, which results in identical sub-modules. Using the Hilbert design, sub-modules can better accommodate non-uniform temperature distributions because they naturally self-localize. These device design concepts open new avenues for roll-to-roll printing and custom TE module shapes, thereby enabling organic TE modules for self-powered sensors and wearable electronic applications.

  9. Calculation of loading on pipes during filling processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiele, Thomas; Swidersky, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Filling processes in pipe systems do normally not belong to load design cases for which the integrity of pipelines and their mountings are verified with fluid- and structure-dynamic analysis. However, their frequency of occurrence is several times higher than those of the postulated incident-induced transients. That is why they have to be taken into consideration within fatigue analysis. The loading on pipes or rather on their mountings during filling processes originates from differences in the density of the transported fluids, e.g. at transport of gas slugs within water flow. The exposure time of the flow momentum force is fixed by the height of the flow velocity and by the length of discontinuities in the pipeline sections. Filling procedures frequently end with a pressure surge which was caused by the impingement and decelaration of the water plug at orifices in pipe systems. The calculation of such processes with 1D fluid-dynamic or rather thermal-hydraulic programs requires an idealization of the real form of the two phase flow or respectively of the two phase interface. In the past, several two phase flow regime maps were developed and implemented in codes for this. In this paper, the applicability of the thermo-hydraulic program RELAP5/MOD3.3 which is established in nuclear engineering is examined in order to calculate realistic loads from plug flows during the filling processes. For this, post-test calculations of experiments have been performed and the results have been compared with the experimental results as well as with the classical analytical approach according to Joukowsky. The comparison shows that, dependent on the discretization, the calculated loads are indeed partly underestimated, though the calculation results according to the Joukowsky-approach lie above the measurements. (orig.)

  10. Multifunctional composite material based on carbon-filled polyurethane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinovskaya, T; Melentyev, S; Pavlov, S

    2015-01-01

    The research paper deals with the performance of composite resistive material heating coatings based on the polyurethane binder, filled with colloidal-graphite preparation C- 1, which can be used in structures of electric heaters. Frequency dependences of transmission and reflection coefficients, dielectric permeability of composite materials with the various content of carbon fillers (technical carbon, graphite) in polyurethane varnish in ranges of frequencies 26-40 GHz and 110-260 GHz are experimentally investigated. (paper)

  11. Apparatus for filling a container with radioactive solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, T.; Hiratake, S.

    1984-01-01

    In apparatus for filling a container suitable for storage with radioactive solid wastes arising from atomic power plants or the like, a plasma arc is irradiated toward a portion of the wastes to melt the portion of the wastes; portions of the wastes are successively moved so as to be subjected to irradiation of the plasma arc to continuously melt the wastes; and the melts obtained by melting the wastes are permitted to flow down toward the bottom of the container

  12. Quench gases for xenon- (and krypton-)filled proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey, B.D.; Agrawal, P.C.

    1988-01-01

    Xenon-filled proportional counters are used extensively in astronomy, particularly in the hard X-ray region. The choice of quench gas can have a significant effect on the operating characteristics of the instrument although the data necessary to make the choice are not easily obtainable. We present results which detail the performance obtained from both cylindrical and parallel field geometries for a wide variety of readily available, ultrahigh or research grade purity, quench gases. (orig.)

  13. Innovations in endodontic filling materials: guttapercha vs Resilon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Filho, Francisco José; Gallina, Giuseppe; Gallottini, Livio; Russo, Riccardo; Cumbo, Enzo Maria

    2012-01-01

    One of the goals of endodontic treatment is to achieve a complete, tridimensional, hermetic sealing of the root canal system to prevent the entry of microorganisms or their products through both the coronal and apical pathways. Gutta-percha is the most widely used material for root canal filling and despite its numerous properties, such as biocompatibility and thermoplasticity, it has however an important limit: the lack of adhesion to the canal walls. Attempts to address this problem have been made over the years by using endodontic cements capable of bonding to canal dentine but their tendency to resorption in time can compromise the quality of treatment. The first step towards a real adhesive endodontic filling(4) is rather recent; in fact, it goes back to 2003 when, on the occasion of the American Dental Association (ADA) Annual Session, Resilon Research LLC introduced a new canal filling adhesive system based on a thermoplastic synthetic resin material called Resilon™. The real innovation of this system is its capacity of creating a core made of Resilon™ bonded to the cement which adheres to dentine walls previously conditioned with a self-etching primer(4) so no changes in the techniques of canal preparation are required. The aim of this study was to evaluate the capacity of two filling materials (gutta-percha and Resilon) to adapt to the canal anatomy, especially on the apical third, using the continuous wave of condensation technique. Our data suggest that in the third apical the gutta-percha best shows rheological properties that are as important as the bond capability.

  14. The dynamic response of carbon fiber-filled polymer composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patterson B.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic (shock responses of two carbon fiber-filled polymer composites have been quantified using gas gun-driven plate impact experimentation. The first composite is a filament-wound, highly unidirectional carbon fiber-filled epoxy with a high degree of porosity. The second composite is a chopped carbon fiber- and graphite-filled phenolic resin with little-to-no porosity. Hugoniot data are presented for the carbon fiber-epoxy (CE composite to 18.6 GPa in the through-thickness direction, in which the shock propagates normal to the fibers. The data are best represented by a linear Rankine-Hugoniot fit: Us = 2.87 + 1.17 ×up(ρ0 = 1.536g/cm3. The shock wave structures were found to be highly heterogeneous, both due to the anisotropic nature of the fiber-epoxy microstructure, and the high degree of void volume. Plate impact experiments were also performed on a carbon fiber-filled phenolic (CP composite to much higher shock input pressures, exceeding the reactants-to-products transition common to polymers. The CP was found to be stiffer than the filament-wound CE in the unreacted Hugoniot regime, and transformed to products near the shock-driven reaction threshold on the principal Hugoniot previously shown for the phenolic binder itself. [19] On-going research is focused on interrogating the direction-dependent dyanamic response and dynamic failure strength (spall for the CE composite in the TT and 0∘ (fiber directions.

  15. Large scale particle image velocimetry with helium filled soap bubbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosbach, Johannes; Kuehn, Matthias; Wagner, Claus [German Aerospace Center (DLR), Institute of Aerodynamics and Flow Technology, Goettingen (Germany)

    2009-03-15

    The application of particle image velocimetry (PIV) to measurement of flows on large scales is a challenging necessity especially for the investigation of convective air flows. Combining helium filled soap bubbles as tracer particles with high power quality switched solid state lasers as light sources allows conducting PIV on scales of the order of several square meters. The technique was applied to mixed convection in a full scale double aisle aircraft cabin mock-up for validation of computational fluid dynamics simulations. (orig.)

  16. Neural correlates of the processing of unfilled and filled pauses

    OpenAIRE

    Eklund, Robert; Fransson, Peter; Ingvar, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneously produced Unfilled Pauses (UPs) andFilled Pauses (FPs) were played to subjects in an fMRI experiment. While both stimuli resulted in increased activity in the Primary Auditory Cortex, FPs, unlike UPs, also elicited modulation in the Supplementary Motor Area, Brodmann Area 6. This observation provides neurocognitive confirmation of the oft-reported difference between FPs and other kinds of speech disfluency and also could provide a partial explanation for the previously reported b...

  17. Contrast material filling of the peroneal tendon sheath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zadravecz, Gy.; Grexa, E.

    1981-01-01

    In case of complaints after fracture of the calcaneus the common sheath of the peroneus tendons was filled up with contrast material. The tendon sheath was punctured Oehind the external ankle. The three-directional radiograms clearly showed the dislocation and compression of the tendons, caused by the exostosis of the calcaneus. The concomitant tendovaginitis caused the complaints. This alteration was observed in 11% of all the calcaneus fractures. (L.E.)

  18. Large scale particle image velocimetry with helium filled soap bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosbach, Johannes; Kühn, Matthias; Wagner, Claus

    2009-03-01

    The application of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) to measurement of flows on large scales is a challenging necessity especially for the investigation of convective air flows. Combining helium filled soap bubbles as tracer particles with high power quality switched solid state lasers as light sources allows conducting PIV on scales of the order of several square meters. The technique was applied to mixed convection in a full scale double aisle aircraft cabin mock-up for validation of Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations.

  19. The position control of a capsule filled with magnetic fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhee, E.J.; Park, M.K.; Yamane, R.; Oshima, S.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, in order to establish the technique of a nozzle-flapper system of a servo valve using magnetic fluid in hydraulic system, a governing equation regarding the levitation of a capsule filled with magnetic fluid is formulated. Using PID control, an experiment for the position control of a capsule was performed. The experimental results were compared with the simulation results found by the governing equation

  20. Topical use of sucralfate in epithelial wound healing: clinical evidences and molecular mechanisms of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuelli, Laura; Tumino, Giovanni; Turriziani, Mario; Modesti, Andrea; Bei, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Sucralfate is a basic aluminium salt of sucrose octasulphate which was orally employed for prevention and treatment of several gastrointestinal diseases including gastroesophageal reflux, gastric and duodenal ulcer. Recent studies have employed sucralfate as a topical drug for the healing of several types of epithelial wounds such as ulcers, inflammatory dermatitis, mucositis and burn wounds. Epithelial wound healing is a well orchestrated process involving hemostasis, inflammatory reaction, cell proliferation and tissue remodelling which leads to granulation tissue development and filling of the wound space. This report will review clinical evidences on the use of topical sucralfate for the management of epithelial lesions and deal with the current knowledge on the molecular mechanisms of action of this compound towards the epithelial wound healing process and will also discuss relevant patents.