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Sample records for space experiment msx

  1. Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX)

    1992-08-01

    activities will occur. Krypton and xenon flash lamps in the CE will contain a small amount of low-level Ni63 radioactive element. The Ni63 will serve as...Radiation emitted from Ni63 is small enough (80 microcuries 0*Ci)) to exempt it from Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensing and Department of...MSX mission, and only the small quantity of radioactive material ( Ni63 ) will be aboard and deorbit (PRA, 1992). 2.1.8 Spacecraft Control and Data

  2. Environmental monitors in the Midcourse Space Experiments (MSX)

    Uy, O. M.

    1993-01-01

    The Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) is an SDIO sponsored space based sensor experiment with a full complement of optical sensors. Because of the possible deleterious effect of both molecular and particulate contamination on these sensors, a suite of environmental monitoring instruments are also being flown with the spacecraft. These instruments are the Total Pressure Sensor based on the cold-cathode gauge, a quadrupole mass spectrometer, a Bennett-type ion mass spectrometer, a cryogenic quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), four temperature-controlled QCM's, and a Xenon and Krypton Flash Lamp Experiment. These instruments have been fully space-qualified, are compact and low cost, and are possible candidate sensors for near-term planetary and atmospheric monitoring. The philosophy adopted during design and fabrication, calibration and ground testing, and modeling will be discussed .

  3. Observations of the orbital debris complex by the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) satellite

    Vilas, Faith; Anz-Meador, Phillip; Talent, Dave

    1997-01-01

    The midcourse space experiment (MSX) provides the opportunity to observe debris at multiple, simultaneous wavelengths, or in conjunction with other sensors and prior data sets. The instruments onboard MSX include an infrared telescope, an infrared interferometer, a visible telescope, an ultraviolet telescope and a spectroscopic imager. The spacecraft carries calibration spheres for instrument calibration and atmospheric drag studies. The experimental program, the implementation aspects, the data reduction techniques and the preliminary results are described.

  4. An opportunity analysis system for space surveillance experiments with the MSX

    Sridharan, Ramaswamy; Duff, Gary; Hayes, Tony; Wiseman, Andy

    1994-01-01

    The Mid-Course Space Experiment consists of a set of payloads on a satellite being designed and built under the sponsorship of Ballistic Missile Defense Office. The MSX satellite will conduct a series of measurements of phenomenology of backgrounds, missile targets, plumes and resident space objects (RSO's); and will engage in functional demonstrations in support of detection, acquisition and tracking for ballistic missile defense and space-based space surveillance missions. A complex satellite like the MSX has several constraints imposed on its operation by the sensors, the supporting instrumentation, power resources, data recording capability, communications and the environment in which all these operate. This paper describes the implementation of an opportunity and feasibility analysis system, developed at Lincoln Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, specifically to support the experiments of the Principal Investigator for space-based surveillance.

  5. Mission planning for space based satellite surveillance experiments with the MSX

    Sridharan, R.; Fishman, T.; Robinson, E.; Viggh, H.; Wiseman, A.

    1994-01-01

    The Midcourse Space Experiment is a BMDO-sponsored scientific satellite set for launch within the year. The satellite will collect phenomenology data on missile targets, plumes, earth limb backgrounds and deep space backgrounds in the LWIR, visible and ultra-violet spectral bands. It will also conduct functional demonstrations for space-based space surveillance. The Space-Based Visible sensor, built by Lincoln Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, is the primary sensor on board the MSX for demonstration of space surveillance. The SBV Processing, Operations and Control Center (SPOCC) is the mission planning and commanding center for all space surveillance experiments using the SBV and other MSX instruments. The guiding principle in the SPOCC Mission Planning System was that all routine functions be automated. Manual analyst input should be minimal. Major concepts are: (I) A high level language, called SLED, for user interface to the system; (2) A group of independent software processes which would generally be run in a pipe-line mode for experiment commanding but can be run independently for analyst assessment; (3) An integrated experiment cost computation function that permits assessment of the feasibility of the experiment. This paper will report on the design, implementation and testing of the Mission Planning System.

  6. Reduction procedures for accurate analysis of MSX surveillance experiment data

    Gaposchkin, E. Mike; Lane, Mark T.; Abbot, Rick I.

    1994-01-01

    Technical challenges of the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) science instruments require careful characterization and calibration of these sensors for analysis of surveillance experiment data. Procedures for reduction of Resident Space Object (RSO) detections will be presented which include refinement and calibration of the metric and radiometric (and photometric) data and calculation of a precise MSX ephemeris. Examples will be given which support the reduction, and these are taken from ground-test data similar in characteristics to the MSX sensors and from the IRAS satellite RSO detections. Examples to demonstrate the calculation of a precise ephemeris will be provided from satellites in similar orbits which are equipped with S-band transponders.

  7. Joint operations planning for space surveillance missions on the MSX satellite

    Stokes, Grant; Good, Andrew

    1994-01-01

    The Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) satellite, sponsored by BMDO, is intended to gather broad-band phenomenology data on missiles, plumes, naturally occurring earthlimb backgrounds and deep space backgrounds. In addition the MSX will be used to conduct functional demonstrations of space-based space surveillance. The JHU/Applied Physics Laboratory (APL), located in Laurel, MD, is the integrator and operator of the MSX satellite. APL will conduct all operations related to the MSX and is charged with the detailed operations planning required to implement all of the experiments run on the MSX except the space surveillance experiments. The non-surveillance operations are generally amenable to being defined months ahead of time and being scheduled on a monthly basis. Lincoln Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (LL), located in Lexington, MA, is the provider of one of the principle MSX instruments, the Space-Based Visible (SBV) sensor, and the agency charged with implementing the space surveillance demonstrations on the MSX. The planning timelines for the space surveillance demonstrations are fundamentally different from those for the other experiments. They are generally amenable to being scheduled on a monthly basis, but the specific experiment sequence and pointing must be refined shortly before execution. This allocation of responsibilities to different organizations implies the need for a joint mission planning system for conducting space surveillance demonstrations. This paper details the iterative, joint planning system, based on passing responsibility for generating MSX commands for surveillance operations from APL to LL for specific scheduled operations. The joint planning system, including the generation of a budget for spacecraft resources to be used for surveillance events, has been successfully demonstrated during ground testing of the MSX and is being validated for MSX launch within the year. The planning system developed for the MSX forms a

  8. Overview and recent results of the Magnetized Shock Experiment (MSX)

    Weber, T. E.; Smith, R. J.; Hsu, S. C.; Omelchenko, Y.

    2015-11-01

    Recent machine and diagnostics upgrades to the Magnetized Shock Experiment (MSX) at LANL have enabled unprecedented access to the physical processes arising from stagnating magnetized (β ~ 1), collisionless, highly supersonic (M ,MA ~ 10) flows, similar in dimensionless parameters to those found in both space and astrophysical shocks. Hot (100s of eV during translation), dense (1022 - 1023 m-3) Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) plasmoids are accelerated to high velocities (100s of km/s) and subsequently impact against a static target such as a strong parallel or anti-parallel (reconnection-wise) magnetic mirror, a solid obstacle, or neutral gas cloud to recreate the physics of interest with characteristic length and time scales that are both large enough to observe yet small enough to fit within the experiment. Long-lived (>50 μs) stagnated plasmas with density enhancement much greater than predicted by fluid theory (>4x) are observed, accompanied by discontinuous plasma structures indicating shocks and jetting (visible emission and interferometry) and copious >1 keV x-ray emission. An overview of the experimental program will be presented, including machine design and capabilities, diagnostics, and an examination of the physical processes that occur during stagnation against a variety of targets. Supported by the DOE Office of Fusion Energy Sciences under contract DE-AC52-06NA25369.

  9. Optical diagnostics on the Magnetized Shock Experiment (MSX)

    Boguski, J. C.; Weber, T. E.; Intrator, T. P.; Smith, R. J.; Dunn, J. P.; Hutchinson, T. M.; Gao, K. W.

    2013-10-01

    The Magnetized Shock Experiment (MSX) at Los Alamos National Laboratory was built to investigate the physics of high Alfvén Mach number, supercritical, magnetized shocks through the acceleration and subsequent stagnation of a Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) plasmoid against a magnetic mirror and/or plasma target. A suite of optical diagnostics has recently been fielded on MSX to characterize plasma conditions during the formation, acceleration, and stagnation phases of the experiment. CCD-backed streak and framing cameras, and a fiber-based visible light array, provide information regarding FRC shape, velocity, and instability growth. Time-resolved narrow and broadband spectroscopy provides information on pre-shock plasma temperature, impurity levels, shock location, and non-thermal ion distributions within the shock region. Details of the diagnostic design, configuration, and characterization will be presented along with initial results. This work is supported by the Center for Magnetic Self Organization, DoE OFES and NNSA under LANS contract DE-AC52-06NA25369. Approved for public release: LA-UR- 13-25190.

  10. Overview and recent progress of the Magnetized Shock Experiment (MSX)

    Weber, T. E.; Intrator, T. P.; Smith, R. J.; Hutchinson, T. M.; Boguski, J. C.; Sears, J. A.; Swan, H. O.; Gao, K. W.; Chapdelaine, L. J.; Winske, D.; Dunn, J. P.

    2013-10-01

    The Magnetized Shock Experiment (MSX) has been constructed to study the physics of super-Alfvènic, supercritical, magnetized shocks. Exhibiting transitional length and time scales much smaller than can be produced through collisional processes, these shocks are observed to create non-thermal distributions, amplify magnetic fields, and accelerate particles to relativistic velocities. Shocks are produced through the acceleration and subsequent stagnation of Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) plasmoids against a high-flux magnetic mirror with a conducting boundary or a plasma target with embedded field. Adjustable shock velocity, density, and magnetic geometry (B parallel, perpendicular, or oblique to k) provide unique access to a wide range of dimensionless parameters relevant to astrophysical shocks. Information regarding the experimental configuration, diagnostics suite, recent simulations, experimental results, and physics goals will be presented. This work is supported by DOE OFES and NNSA under LANS contract DE-AC52-06NA25369 Approved for Public Release: LA-UR-13-24859.

  11. Eliminating Space Debris: Applied Technology and Policy Prescriptions, Fall 2007 - Project 07-02

    2008-01-01

    Selfish maximization of the profit from property rights will lead to a socially efficient outcome. The negative externalities will be eliminated.52...Experiment (MSX)” MSX Celestial Backgrounds. 27 Dec. 2007 <http://www.ipac.caltech.edu/ipac/msx/msx.html> 155 Heyler, Gene “MSX Midcourse Space Experiment

  12. Magnetic Diagnostics on the Magnetized Shock Experiment (MSX)

    Hutchinson, T. M.; Weber, T. E.; Boguski, J. C.; Intrator, T. P.; Smith, R. J.; Dunn, J. P.

    2013-10-01

    The Magnetized Shock Experiment (MSX) at Los Alamos National Laboratory was built to investigate the physics of high-Alfvénic, supercritical, magnetized shocks through the acceleration and subsequent stagnation of a Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) plasmoid against a magnetic mirror and/or plasma target. An array of high-bandwidth, multi-axis, robust, internal magnetic probes has been constructed to characterize flux compression ratios, instability formation, and turbulent macro-scale features of the post-shock plasma. The mirror magnet is mounted on a linear translation stage, providing a capability to axially move the shock layer through the probe field of view. An independent, external probe array also provides conventional information on the FRC shape, velocity, and total pressure during the formation and acceleration phases. Probe design, characterization, configuration, and initial results are presented. This work is supported by the DOE OFES and NNSA under LANS contract DE-AC52-06NA25369. LA-UR-13-25189.

  13. Mid Course Space Experiment (MSX) Environmental Assessment

    1992-03-06

    8217____ a ~~ACTrv=T _ _ _ _ _ _I wTLL USU/SDL =H/APL OSFC VAPE ITP Fabrication -SBV -SPIRIT ft1 -Satellites -Reference -UVISI ___________ Objects...Vandenberg Air Force Base ( VAPE ) Jobit Hopkins University/Applied Physics Laboratoty MM/UAPL) Kausi Tea Facility (KIT 3 Satellite trussn assucttue, OSDP

  14. Pulsed polarimetry progress on the LANL MSX magnetized shock experiment

    Smith, R. J.; Intrator, T. P.; Weber, T. E.; Hutchinson, T. M.; Boguski, J. C.

    2013-10-01

    The UW pulsed polarimeter is a Lidar Thomson scattering diagnostic that can also provide measurements of the internal distribution of B| | as well as ne and Te for Magnetized High Energy Density targets with cm resolution. Scattering has now been observed in MSX and mirror issues that interrupted the last campaign have been corrected. Subsidiary diagnostics are being developed along side to aid in calibration. Fiber optic pulsed polarimetry is also being explored as both measurements can be performed simultaneously with the one instrument. The fiber sensing would allow measurements of modest fields using an internal cladded fiber. Progress in these directions will be presented. This work is supported by DOE Office of Fusion Energy Sciences.

  15. Time maintenance system for the BMDO MSX spacecraft

    Hermes, Martin J.

    1994-01-01

    The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) is responsible for designing and implementing a clock maintenance system for the Ballistic Missile Defense Organizations (BMDO) Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) spacecraft. The MSX spacecraft has an on-board clock that will be used to control execution of time-dependent commands and to time tag all science and housekeeping data received from the spacecraft. MSX mission objectives have dictated that this spacecraft time, UTC(MSX), maintain a required accuracy with respect to UTC(USNO) of +/- 10 ms with a +/- 1 ms desired accuracy. APL's atomic time standards and the downlinked spacecraft time were used to develop a time maintenance system that will estimate the current MSX clock time offset during an APL pass and make estimates of the clock's drift and aging using the offset estimates from many passes. Using this information, the clock's accuracy will be maintained by uplinking periodic clock correction commands. The resulting time maintenance system is a combination of offset measurement, command/telemetry, and mission planning hardware and computing assets. All assets provide necessary inputs for deciding when corrections to the MSX spacecraft clock must be made to maintain its required accuracy without inhibiting other mission objectives. The MSX time maintenance system is described as a whole and the clock offset measurement subsystem, a unique combination of precision time maintenance and measurement hardware controlled by a Macintosh computer, is detailed. Simulations show that the system estimates the MSX clock offset to less than+/- 33 microseconds.

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The Red MSX Source Survey: massive protostars (Lumsden+, 2013)

    Lumsden, S. L.; Hoare, M. G.; Urquhart, J. S.; Oudmaijer, R. D.; Davies, B.; Mottram, J. C.; Cooper, H. D. B.; Moore, T. J. T.

    2013-10-01

    The Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) satellite mission included an astronomy experiment (SPIRIT III) designed to acquire mid-infrared photometry of sources in the Galactic plane (bMSX had a raw resolution of 18.3", a beam size 50 times smaller than that of IRAS at 12 and 25um. MSX observed six bands between 4 and 21um, of which the four between 8 and 21um are sensitive to astronomical sources. We used v2.3 of the MSX PSC (Egan et al. 2003, Cat. V/114) as our basic input, restricting ourselves to the main Galactic plane catalog, which excludes sources seen in only a single observing pass and those seen in multiple passes but with low significance. We restricted our catalog to 10

  17. MSX2 stimulates chondrocyte maturation by controlling Ihh expression.

    Amano, Katsuhiko; Ichida, Fumitaka; Sugita, Atsushi; Hata, Kenji; Wada, Masahiro; Takigawa, Yoko; Nakanishi, Masako; Kogo, Mikihiko; Nishimura, Riko; Yoneda, Toshiyuki

    2008-10-24

    Several studies indicated that a homeobox gene, Msx2, is implicated in regulation of skeletal development by controlling enchondral ossification as well as membranous ossification. However, the molecular basis by which Msx2 conducts chondrogenesis is currently unclear. In this study, we examined the role of Msx2 in chondrocyte differentiation using mouse primary chondrocytes and embryonic metatarsal explants. Treatment with BMP2 up-regulated the expression of Msx2 mRNA along with chondrocyte differentiation in murine primary chondrocytes. Overexpression of wild-type Msx2 stimulated calcification of primary chondrocytes in the presence of BMP2. We also found that constitutively active Msx2 (caMsx2) enhanced BMP2-dependent calcification more efficiently than wild-type Msx2. Consistently, caMsx2 overexpression up-regulated the expression of alkaline phosphatase and collagen type X induced by BMP2. Furthermore, organ culture experiments using mouse embryonic metatarsals indicated that caMsx2 clearly stimulated the maturation of chondrocytes into the prehypertrophic and hypertrophic stages in the presence of BMP2. In contrast, knockdown of Msx2 inhibited maturation of primary chondrocytes. The stimulatory effect of Msx2 on chondrocyte maturation was enhanced by overexpression of Smad1 and Smad4 but inhibited by Smad6, an inhibitory Smad for BMP2 signaling. These data suggest that Msx2 requires BMP2/Smad signaling for its chondrogenic action. In addition, caMsx2 overexpression induced Ihh (Indian hedgehog) expression in mouse primary chondrocytes. Importantly, treatment with cyclopamine, a specific inhibitor for hedgehogs, blocked Msx2-induced chondrogenesis. Collectively, our results indicated that Msx2 promotes the maturation of chondrocytes, at least in part, through up-regulating Ihh expression.

  18. Pulsed Polarimetry and magnetic sensing on the Magnetized Shock Experiment (MSX)

    Smith, R. J.; Hutchinson, T. M.; Weber, T. E.; Taylor, S. F.; Hsu, S. C.

    2014-10-01

    MSX is uniquely positioned to generate the conditions for collision-less magnetized supercritical shocks with Alvenic Mach numbers (MA) of the order 10 and higher. Significant operational strides have been made in forming plasmas over wide parameter ranges: (Te + Ti) of 10-200 eV, average neof 5-60×10+21 m-3, speeds up to 150 km/s and fields up to 1T with a highest plasma flow MA of 5 to date. The MSX plasma is unique in regards to large plasma size of 10 cm and average β higher than 0.8 making the FRC and the magnetized shock structure candidates for the application of Pulsed Polarimetry, a polarization sensitive Lidar technique. The shock dynamics are presently being investigated using internal probes, interferometry and imaging. Internal probe results and an assessment of the shock parameters will dictate the use of the UW pulsed polarimeter system in which internal ne, Teand B are to be measured. Recent results will be presented. Supported by DOE Office of Fusion Energy Sciences Funding DE-FOA-0000755.

  19. MIDCOURSE SPACE EXPERIMENT VERSUS IRAS TWO-COLOR DIAGRAMS AND THE CIRCUMSTELLAR ENVELOPE-SEQUENCE OF OXYGEN-RICH LATE-TYPE STARS

    Sjouwerman, Lorant O.; Capen, Stephanie M.; Claussen, Mark J.

    2009-01-01

    We present Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) two-color diagrams that can be used to characterize circumstellar environments of sources with good quality MSX colors in terms of IRAS color regions for oxygen-rich stars. With these diagrams, we aim to provide a new tool that can be used to study circumstellar environments and to improve detection rates for targeted surveys for circumstellar maser emission similar to the IRAS two-color diagram. This new tool is especially useful for regions in the sky where IRAS was confused, in particular in the Galactic plane and bulge region. Unfortunately, using MSX colors alone does not allow one to distinguish between carbon-rich and oxygen-rich objects. An application of this tool on 86 GHz SiO masers shows that for this type of masers an instantaneous detection rate of 60% to 80% can be achieved if target sources are selected according to MSX color (region). Our investigations may have revealed an error in the MSX point source catalog version 2.3. That is, the photometry of the 21.3 μm (MSX E filter) band for most weak 8.28 μm (or MSX A filter) band sources seems off by about a factor 2 (0.5-1 mag too bright).

  20. New tests of the common calibration context for ISO, IRTS, and MSX

    Cohen, Martin

    1997-01-01

    The work carried out in order to test, verify and validate the accuracy of the calibration spectra provided to the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), to the Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS) and to the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) for external calibration support of instruments, is reviewed. The techniques, used to vindicate the accuracy of the absolute spectra, are discussed. The work planned for comparing far infrared spectra of Mars and some of the bright stellar calibrators with long wavelength spectrometer data are summarized.

  1. Observations of star-forming regions with the Midcourse Space Experiment

    Kraemer, KE; Shipman, RF; Price, SD; Mizuno, DR; Kuchar, T; Carey, SJ

    We have imaged seven nearby star-forming regions, the Rosette Nebula, the Orion Nebula, W3, the Pleiades, G300.2-16.8, S263, and G159.6-18.5, with the Spatial Infrared Imaging Telescope on the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) satellite at 1800 resolution at 8.3, 12.1, 14.7, and 21.3 mum. The large

  2. Space Experiment Module (SEM)

    Brodell, Charles L.

    1999-01-01

    The Space Experiment Module (SEM) Program is an education initiative sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Shuttle Small Payloads Project. The program provides nationwide educational access to space for Kindergarten through University level students. The SEM program focuses on the science of zero-gravity and microgravity. Within the program, NASA provides small containers or "modules" for students to fly experiments on the Space Shuttle. The experiments are created, designed, built, and implemented by students with teacher and/or mentor guidance. Student experiment modules are flown in a "carrier" which resides in the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle. The carrier supplies power to, and the means to control and collect data from each experiment.

  3. Msx1 and Msx2 are functional interacting partners of T-box factors in the regulation of Connexin43.

    Boogerd, Kees-Jan; Wong, L Y Elaine; Christoffels, Vincent M; Klarenbeek, Meinke; Ruijter, Jan M; Moorman, Antoon F M; Barnett, Phil

    2008-06-01

    T-box factors Tbx2 and Tbx3 play key roles in the development of the cardiac conduction system, atrioventricular canal, and outflow tract of the heart. They regulate the gap-junction-encoding gene Connexin43 (Cx43) and other genes critical for heart development and function. Discovering protein partners of Tbx2 and Tbx3 will shed light on the mechanisms by which these factors regulate these gene programs. Employing an yeast 2-hybrid screen and subsequent in vitro pull-down experiments we demonstrate that muscle segment homeobox genes Msx1 and Msx2 are able to bind the cardiac T-box proteins Tbx2, Tbx3, and Tbx5. This interaction, as that of the related Nkx2.5 protein, is supported by the T-box and homeodomain alone. Overlapping spatiotemporal expression patterns of Msx1 and Msx2 together with the T-box genes during cardiac development in mouse and chicken underscore the biological significance of this interaction. We demonstrate that Msx proteins together with Tbx2 and Tbx3 suppress Cx43 promoter activity and down regulate Cx43 gene activity in a rat heart-derived cell line. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis we demonstrate that Msx1 can bind the Cx43 promoter at a conserved binding site located in close proximity to a previously defined T-box binding site, and that the activity of Msx proteins on this promoter appears dependent in the presence of Tbx3. Msx1 and Msx2 can function in concert with the T-box proteins to suppress Cx43 and other working myocardial genes.

  4. [Molecular cloning, expression of rat Msx-1 and Msx-2 during early embryo genesis and roles for mandibular chondrogenesis].

    Ishiguro, S

    1999-03-01

    Quail-chick chimera experiments have shown a contribution of carnial neural crest cells to the craniofacial skeletal elements. Moreover, tissue interactions between epithelial-mesenchymal interaction during early facial process development are required for both skeletal differentiation and morphogenesis. In this study, it was observed that Msx homeobox containing genes expressed in the facial process were important molecules of cartilage morphogenesis. Rat cDNAs were isolated and encoded by Msx-1 and -2, and then the expression patterns using in situ hybridization were investigated during early rat face development. These genes were correlatively expressed in the cranial neural crest forming area (E 9.5 dpc) and the facial process (E 12.5 dpc). Antisence inhibition of Msx genes in the E 12.5 mandibular process exhibited the alteration of their gene expression and cartilage patterns. Antisence inhibition of Msx-1 induced lack of the medial portion of cartilage, and antisence inhibition of Msx-2 enhanced chondrogenesis of mandibular process under the organ culture condition. Thus it was concluded that expression of Msx genes during mandibular process development comprises important signals of chondrogenesis.

  5. The OTTI space experiments

    Brewer, D.A.; Clifton, K.S.; Pearson, S.D.; Barth, J.L.; LaBel, K.; Ritter, J.C.; Peden, J.; Campbell, A.; Liang, R.

    1999-01-01

    The orbiting technology tested initiative (OTTI) provides a concept for a series of space experiment platforms to be flown at 2-year interval over the next ten years. The long-term purpose of this program is to provide a convenient test-beds to simulate high radiation environments. The purposes of the first platform is to evaluate the on-orbit performance of novel, emerging, breakthrough technologies and advanced state-of-the-art devices in high radiation orbits and to provide correlations between the natural space radiation environment and the device response in the flight test-bed. This short article presents the concept of the OTTI program

  6. Msx-1 and Msx-2 in mammary gland development.

    Satoh, Kennichi; Ginsburg, Erika; Vonderhaar, Barbara K

    2004-04-01

    Homeobox genes do not generally function alone to determine cell fate and morphogenesis. Rather it is the distinct combination of various members of the homeobox family of genes and their spatiotemporal patterns of expression that determine cell identity and function. Functional redundancy often makes it difficult to clearly discern the role of any one given homeobox gene. The roles that Msx1 and Msx2 play in branching morphogenesis of the mammary gland are only now becoming more evident. Many signaling pathways and transcription factors are implicated in how these homeobox genes correctly determine the morphological development of the gland. Overexpression of Msx1 and Msx2 may also be involved in tumorigenesis. Additional studies are needed to elucidate the roles of these genes in both breast development and cancer.

  7. A homeodomain transcription factor gene, PfMSX, activates expression of Pif gene in the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata.

    Mi Zhao

    Full Text Available We reported pearl oyster Pinctada fucata cDNA and genomic characterization of a new homeobox-containing protein, PfMSX. The PfMSX gene encodes a transcription factor that was localized to the nucleus. Analyses of PfMSX mRNA in tissues and developmental stages showed high expressions in mantle or D-shaped larvae. In electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs PfMSX binded to MSX consensus binding sites in the 5' flanking region of the Pif promoter. In co-transfection experiment PfMSX transactivated reporter constructs containing Pif promoter sequences, and mutation of the MSX-binding sites attenuated transactivation. A knockdown experiment using PfMSX dsRNA showed decreased Pif mRNA and unregular crystallization of the nacreous layer using scanning electron microscopy. Our results suggested that PfMSX was a conserved homeodomain transcription factor gene, which can activate Pif gene expression through MSX binding site, and was then involved in the mineralization process in pearl oyster Pinctada fucata. Our data provided important clues about mechanisms regulating biomineralization in pearl oyster.

  8. A Homeodomain Transcription Factor Gene, PfMSX, Activates Expression of Pif Gene in the Pearl Oyster Pinctada fucata

    Zhao, Mi; He, Maoxian; Huang, Xiande; Wang, Qi

    2014-01-01

    We reported pearl oyster Pinctada fucata cDNA and genomic characterization of a new homeobox-containing protein, PfMSX. The PfMSX gene encodes a transcription factor that was localized to the nucleus. Analyses of PfMSX mRNA in tissues and developmental stages showed high expressions in mantle or D-shaped larvae. In electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) PfMSX binded to MSX consensus binding sites in the 5′ flanking region of the Pif promoter. In co-transfection experiment PfMSX transactivated reporter constructs containing Pif promoter sequences, and mutation of the MSX-binding sites attenuated transactivation. A knockdown experiment using PfMSX dsRNA showed decreased Pif mRNA and unregular crystallization of the nacreous layer using scanning electron microscopy. Our results suggested that PfMSX was a conserved homeodomain transcription factor gene, which can activate Pif gene expression through MSX binding site, and was then involved in the mineralization process in pearl oyster Pinctada fucata. Our data provided important clues about mechanisms regulating biomineralization in pearl oyster. PMID:25099698

  9. A homeodomain transcription factor gene, PfMSX, activates expression of Pif gene in the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata.

    Zhao, Mi; He, Maoxian; Huang, Xiande; Wang, Qi

    2014-01-01

    We reported pearl oyster Pinctada fucata cDNA and genomic characterization of a new homeobox-containing protein, PfMSX. The PfMSX gene encodes a transcription factor that was localized to the nucleus. Analyses of PfMSX mRNA in tissues and developmental stages showed high expressions in mantle or D-shaped larvae. In electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) PfMSX binded to MSX consensus binding sites in the 5' flanking region of the Pif promoter. In co-transfection experiment PfMSX transactivated reporter constructs containing Pif promoter sequences, and mutation of the MSX-binding sites attenuated transactivation. A knockdown experiment using PfMSX dsRNA showed decreased Pif mRNA and unregular crystallization of the nacreous layer using scanning electron microscopy. Our results suggested that PfMSX was a conserved homeodomain transcription factor gene, which can activate Pif gene expression through MSX binding site, and was then involved in the mineralization process in pearl oyster Pinctada fucata. Our data provided important clues about mechanisms regulating biomineralization in pearl oyster.

  10. On the Nature of Bright Infrared Sources in the Small Magellanic Cloud: Interpreting MSX through the Lens of Spitzer

    Kraemer, Kathleen E.; Sloan, G. C.

    2015-01-01

    We compare infrared observations of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) by the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) and the Spitzer Space Telescope to better understand what components of a metal-poor galaxy dominate radiative processes in the infrared. The SMC, at a distance of ~60 kpc and with a metallicity of ~0.1-0.2 solar, can serve as a nearby proxy for metal-poor galaxies at high redshift. The MSX Point Source Catalog contains 243 objects in the SMC that were detected at 8.3 microns, the most sensitive MSX band. Multi-epoch, multi-band mapping with Spitzer, supplemented with observations from the Two-Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS) and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), provides variability information, and, together with spectra from Spitzer for ~15% of the sample, enables us to determine what these luminous sources are. How many remain simple point sources? What fraction break up into multiple stars? Which are star forming regions, with both bright diffuse emission and point sources? How do evolved stars and stellar remnants contribute at these wavelengths? What role do young stellar objects and HII regions play? Answering these questions sets the stage for understanding what we will see with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST).

  11. Materials science experiments in space

    Gelles, S. H.; Giessen, B. C.; Glicksman, M. E.; Margrave, J. L.; Markovitz, H.; Nowick, A. S.; Verhoeven, J. D.; Witt, A. F.

    1978-01-01

    The criteria for the selection of the experimental areas and individual experiments were that the experiment or area must make a meaningful contribution to the field of material science and that the space environment was either an absolute requirement for the successful execution of the experiment or that the experiment can be more economically or more conveniently performed in space. A number of experimental areas and individual experiments were recommended for further consideration as space experiments. Areas not considered to be fruitful and others needing additional analysis in order to determine their suitability for conduct in space are also listed. Recommendations were made concerning the manner in which these materials science experiments are carried out and the related studies that should be pursued.

  12. Regulation of Msx genes by a Bmp gradient is essential for neural crest specification.

    Tribulo, Celeste; Aybar, Manuel J; Nguyen, Vu H; Mullins, Mary C; Mayor, Roberto

    2003-12-01

    There is evidence in Xenopus and zebrafish embryos that the neural crest/neural folds are specified at the border of the neural plate by a precise threshold concentration of a Bmp gradient. In order to understand the molecular mechanism by which a gradient of Bmp is able to specify the neural crest, we analyzed how the expression of Bmp targets, the Msx genes, is regulated and the role that Msx genes has in neural crest specification. As Msx genes are directly downstream of Bmp, we analyzed Msx gene expression after experimental modification in the level of Bmp activity by grafting a bead soaked with noggin into Xenopus embryos, by expressing in the ectoderm a dominant-negative Bmp4 or Bmp receptor in Xenopus and zebrafish embryos, and also through Bmp pathway component mutants in the zebrafish. All the results show that a reduction in the level of Bmp activity leads to an increase in the expression of Msx genes in the neural plate border. Interestingly, by reaching different levels of Bmp activity in animal cap ectoderm, we show that a specific concentration of Bmp induces msx1 expression to a level similar to that required to induce neural crest. Our results indicate that an intermediate level of Bmp activity specifies the expression of Msx genes in the neural fold region. In addition, we have analyzed the role that msx1 plays on neural crest specification. As msx1 has a role in dorsoventral pattering, we have carried out conditional gain- and loss-of-function experiments using different msx1 constructs fused to a glucocorticoid receptor element to avoid an early effect of this factor. We show that msx1 expression is able to induce all other early neural crest markers tested (snail, slug, foxd3) at the time of neural crest specification. Furthermore, the expression of a dominant negative of Msx genes leads to the inhibition of all the neural crest markers analyzed. It has been previously shown that snail is one of the earliest genes acting in the neural crest

  13. Msx homeobox gene family and craniofacial development.

    Alappat, Sylvia; Zhang, Zun Yi; Chen, Yi Ping

    2003-12-01

    Vertebrate Msx genes are unlinked, homeobox-containing genes that bear homology to the Drosophila muscle segment homeobox gene. These genes are expressed at multiple sites of tissue-tissue interactions during vertebrate embryonic development. Inductive interactions mediated by the Msx genes are essential for normal craniofacial, limb and ectodermal organ morphogenesis, and are also essential to survival in mice, as manifested by the phenotypic abnormalities shown in knockout mice and in humans. This review summarizes studies on the expression, regulation, and functional analysis of Msx genes that bear relevance to craniofacial development in humans and mice. Key words: Msx genes, craniofacial, tooth, cleft palate, suture, development, transcription factor, signaling molecule.

  14. The Creation of Experience Spaces

    Pedersen, Michael Thyrrestrup

    2013-01-01

    will be conducted in the intersection field of collaboration between the Ministry of Culture and four municipalities in East Jutland. The analysis will evolve around how cultural experience spaces are created for the citizens to enjoy. This paper will contribute with knowledge about the creation of experiences...

  15. Homeobox genes Msx-1 and Msx-2 are associated with induction and growth of skin appendages.

    Noveen, A; Jiang, T X; Ting-Berreth, S A; Chuong, C M

    1995-05-01

    The mechanism involved in the morphogenesis of skin appendages is a fundamental issue underlying the development and healing of skin. To identify molecules involved in the induction and growth of skin appendages, we studied the expression of two homeobox genes, Msx-1 and Msx-2, during embryonic chicken skin development. We found that i) both Msx-1 and Msx-2 are early markers of epithelial placodes for skin appendages; ii) both Msx-1 and Msx-2 are expressed in the growing feather bud epithelia but not in the interbud epithelia; iii) although mostly overlapping, there are differences between the expression of the two Msx genes, Msx-1 being expressed more toward the anterior whereas Msx-2 is expressed more toward the distal feather bud; iv) there is no body-position-specific expression pattern as was observed for members of the Hox A-D clusters; v) in the feather follicle, Msx-1 and 2 are expressed in the collar and barb ridge epithelia, both regions of continuous cell proliferation; vi) when feather-bud growth was inhibited by forskolin, an activator of adenylyl cyclase, the expression of both genes was reduced. These results showed that Msx genes are specifically expressed in epithelial domains destined to become skin appendages. Its function in skin-appendage morphogenesis may be twofold, first in making epithelial cells competent to become skin appendages and, second, in making epithelial cells maintain their potential for continuous growth.

  16. Relationships among msx gene structure and function in zebrafish and other vertebrates.

    Ekker, M; Akimenko, M A; Allende, M L; Smith, R; Drouin, G; Langille, R M; Weinberg, E S; Westerfield, M

    1997-10-01

    The zebrafish genome contains at least five msx homeobox genes, msxA, msxB, msxC, msxD, and the newly isolated msxE. Although these genes share structural features common to all Msx genes, phylogenetic analyses of protein sequences indicate that the msx genes from zebrafish are not orthologous to the Msx1 and Msx2 genes of mammals, birds, and amphibians. The zebrafish msxB and msxC are more closely related to each other and to the mouse Msx3. Similarly, although the combinatorial expression of the zebrafish msx genes in the embryonic dorsal neuroectoderm, visceral arches, fins, and sensory organs suggests functional similarities with the Msx genes of other vertebrates, differences in the expression patterns preclude precise assignment of orthological relationships. Distinct duplication events may have given rise to the msx genes of modern fish and other vertebrate lineages whereas many aspects of msx gene functions during embryonic development have been preserved.

  17. Msx2 promotes cardiovascular calcification by activating paracrine Wnt signals

    Shao, Jian-Su; Cheng, Su-Li; Pingsterhaus, Joyce M.; Charlton-Kachigian, Nichole; Loewy, Arleen P.; Towler, Dwight A.

    2005-01-01

    In diabetic LDLR–/– mice, an ectopic BMP2-Msx2 gene regulatory program is upregulated in association with vascular calcification. We verified the procalcific actions of aortic Msx2 expression in vivo. CMV-Msx2 transgenic (CMV-Msx2Tg+) mice expressed 3-fold higher levels of aortic Msx2 than nontransgenic littermates. On high-fat diets, CMV-Msx2Tg+ mice exhibited marked cardiovascular calcification involving aortic and coronary tunica media. This corresponded to regions of Msx2 immunoreactivity...

  18. Homeodomain Transcription Factor Msx-2 Regulates Uterine Progenitor Cell Response to Diethylstilbestrol.

    Yin, Yan; Lin, Congxing; Zhang, Ivy; Fisher, Alexander V; Dhandha, Maulik; Ma, Liang

    The fate of mouse uterine epithelial progenitor cells is determined between postnatal days 5 to 7. Around this critical time window, exposure to an endocrine disruptor, diethylstilbestrol (DES), can profoundly alter uterine cytodifferentiation. We have shown previously that a homeo domain transcription factor MSX-2 plays an important role in DES-responsiveness in the female reproductive tract (FRT). Mutant FRTs exhibited a much more severe phenotype when treated with DES, accompanied by gene expression changes that are dependent on Msx2 . To better understand the role that MSX-2 plays in uterine response to DES, we performed global gene expression profiling experiment in mice lacking Msx2 By comparing this result to our previously published microarray data performed on wild-type mice, we extracted common and differentially regulated genes in the two genotypes. In so doing, we identified potential downstream targets of MSX-2, as well as genes whose regulation by DES is modulated through MSX-2. Discovery of these genes will lead to a better understanding of how DES, and possibly other endocrine disruptors, affects reproductive organ development.

  19. The Galactic Distribution of Massive Star Formation from the Red MSX Source Survey

    Figura, Charles C.; Urquhart, J. S.

    2013-01-01

    Massive stars inject enormous amounts of energy into their environments in the form of UV radiation and molecular outflows, creating HII regions and enriching local chemistry. These effects provide feedback mechanisms that aid in regulating star formation in the region, and may trigger the formation of subsequent generations of stars. Understanding the mechanics of massive star formation presents an important key to understanding this process and its role in shaping the dynamics of galactic structure. The Red MSX Source (RMS) survey is a multi-wavelength investigation of ~1200 massive young stellar objects (MYSO) and ultra-compact HII (UCHII) regions identified from a sample of colour-selected sources from the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) point source catalog and Two Micron All Sky Survey. We present a study of over 900 MYSO and UCHII regions investigated by the RMS survey. We review the methods used to determine distances, and investigate the radial galactocentric distribution of these sources in context with the observed structure of the galaxy. The distribution of MYSO and UCHII regions is found to be spatially correlated with the spiral arms and galactic bar. We examine the radial distribution of MYSOs and UCHII regions and find variations in the star formation rate between the inner and outer Galaxy and discuss the implications for star formation throughout the galactic disc.

  20. Differential expression of homeobox-containing genes Msx-1 and Msx-2 and homeoprotein Msx-2 expression during chick craniofacial development.

    Nishikawa, K; Nakanishi, T; Aoki, C; Hattori, T; Takahashi, K; Taniguchi, S

    1994-03-01

    The expression pattern of chick Msx-1 and Msx-2 homeobox genes in craniofacial primordia was examined by in situ hybridization using cRNA probes. Both genes were expressed in the distal region of the facial primordia, where the distribution of Msx-2 expression was restricted distally within the Msx-1 expression domain. On the contrary, Msx-2 expression in the lateral choroid plexus and cranial skull was broader and more intensive than Msx-1 expression. Our findings suggest that these two genes cooperate to play differential roles in craniofacial development. Msx-2 protein was detected immunohistochemically, and its localization essentially corresponded to the mRNA expression pattern, substantiating the involvement of Msx-2 protein as a transcriptional regulator in developing limb and face.

  1. Analysis of Msx1; Msx2 double mutants reveals multiple roles for Msx genes in limb development.

    Lallemand, Yvan; Nicola, Marie-Anne; Ramos, Casto; Bach, Antoine; Cloment, Cécile Saint; Robert, Benoît

    2005-07-01

    The homeobox-containing genes Msx1 and Msx2 are highly expressed in the limb field from the earliest stages of limb formation and, subsequently, in both the apical ectodermal ridge and underlying mesenchyme. However, mice homozygous for a null mutation in either Msx1 or Msx2 do not display abnormalities in limb development. By contrast, Msx1; Msx2 double mutants exhibit a severe limb phenotype. Our analysis indicates that these genes play a role in crucial processes during limb morphogenesis along all three axes. Double mutant limbs are shorter and lack anterior skeletal elements (radius/tibia, thumb/hallux). Gene expression analysis confirms that there is no formation of regions with anterior identity. This correlates with the absence of dorsoventral boundary specification in the anterior ectoderm, which precludes apical ectodermal ridge formation anteriorly. As a result, anterior mesenchyme is not maintained, leading to oligodactyly. Paradoxically, polydactyly is also frequent and appears to be associated with extended Fgf activity in the apical ectodermal ridge, which is maintained up to 14.5 dpc. This results in a major outgrowth of the mesenchyme anteriorly, which nevertheless maintains a posterior identity, and leads to formation of extra digits. These defects are interpreted in the context of an impairment of Bmp signalling.

  2. The novel adenosine A(2A) antagonist prodrug MSX-4 is effective in animal models related to motivational and motor functions.

    Santerre, Jessica L; Nunes, Eric J; Kovner, Rotem; Leser, Chelsea E; Randall, Patrick A; Collins-Praino, Lyndsey E; Lopez Cruz, Laura; Correa, Merce; Baqi, Younis; Müller, Christa E; Salamone, John D

    2012-10-01

    Adenosine A(2A) and dopamine D2 receptors interact to regulate diverse aspects of ventral and dorsal striatal functions related to motivational and motor processes, and it has been suggested that adenosine A(2A) antagonists could be useful for the treatment of depression, parkinsonism and other disorders. The present experiments were performed to characterize the effects of MSX-4, which is an amino acid ester prodrug of the potent and selective adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonist MSX-2, by assessing its ability to reverse pharmacologically induced motivational and motor impairments. In the first group of studies, MSX-4 reversed the effects of the D2 antagonist eticlopride on a concurrent lever pressing/chow feeding task that is used as a measure of effort-related choice behavior. MSX-4 was less potent after intraperitoneal administration than the comparison compound, MSX-3, though both were equally efficacious. With this task, MSX-4 was orally active in the same dose range as MSX-3. MSX-4 also reversed the locomotor suppression induced by eticlopride in the open field, but did not induce anxiogenic effects as measured by the relative amount of interior activity. Behaviorally active doses of MSX-4 also attenuated the increase in c-Fos and pDARPP-32(Thr34) expression in nucleus accumbens core that was induced by injections of eticlopride. In addition, MSX-4 suppressed the oral tremor induced by the anticholinesterase galantamine, which is consistent with an antiparkinsonian profile. These actions of MSX-4 indicate that this compound could have potential utility as a treatment for parkinsonism, as well as some of the motivational symptoms of depression and other disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Msx1 and Msx2 are expressed in sub-populations of vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Goupille, Olivier; Saint Cloment, Cécile; Lopes, Miguel; Montarras, Didier; Robert, Benoît

    2008-08-01

    Using an nlacZ reporter gene inserted at the Msx1 and Msx2 loci, we could analyze the expression of these homeogenes in the adult mouse. We observed that Msx genes are prominently expressed in a subset of blood vessels. The Msx2nlacZ allele is mainly expressed in a restricted population of mural cells in peripheral arteries and veins. Msx1nlacZ is expressed to a lesser extent by vascular smooth muscle cells of peripheral arteries, but is highly expressed in arterioles and capillaries, making Msx1 a novel marker for a subpopulation of pericytes. Expression is set up early in developing vessels and maintained throughout life. In addition, expression of both genes is observed in a few endothelial cells of the aorta at fetal stages, and only Msx2 continues to be expressed in this layer at the adult stage. These results suggest major functions for Msx genes in vascular mural cell formation and remodeling. Copyright (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Zebrafish msxB, msxC and msxE function together to refine the neural-nonneural border and regulate cranial placodes and neural crest development.

    Phillips, Bryan T; Kwon, Hye-Joo; Melton, Colt; Houghtaling, Paul; Fritz, Andreas; Riley, Bruce B

    2006-06-15

    The zebrafish muscle segment homeobox genes msxB, msxC and msxE are expressed in partially overlapping domains in the neural crest and preplacodal ectoderm. We examined the roles of these msx genes in early development. Disrupting individual msx genes causes modest variable defects, whereas disrupting all three produces a reproducible severe phenotype, suggesting functional redundancy. Neural crest differentiation is blocked at an early stage. Preplacodal development begins normally, but placodes arising from the msx expression domain later show elevated apoptosis and are reduced in size. Cell proliferation is normal in these tissues. Unexpectedly, Msx-deficient embryos become ventralized by late gastrulation whereas misexpression of msxB dorsalizes the embryo. These effects appear to involve Distal-less (Dlx) protein activity, as loss of dlx3b and dlx4b suppresses ventralization in Msx-depleted embryos. At the same time, Msx-depletion restores normal preplacodal gene expression to dlx3b-dlx4b mutants. These data suggest that mutual antagonism between Msx and Dlx proteins achieves a balance of function required for normal preplacodal differentiation and placement of the neural-nonneural border.

  5. Optical/Infrared Signatures for Space-Based Remote Sensing

    Picard, R. H; Dewan, E. M; Winick, J. R; O'Neil, R. R

    2007-01-01

    ... (mesosphere and thermosphere) in terms of the structure of the underlying medium. Advances in non-LTE radiative transfer and atmospheric waves and localized excitations are detailed, as well as analysis and modeling of the databases resulting from two groundbreaking space infrared experiments, DoD MSX/SPIRIT III and NASA TIMED/SABER.

  6. Msx2 Stimulates Chondrocyte Maturation by Controlling Ihh Expression*

    Amano, Katsuhiko; Ichida, Fumitaka; Sugita, Atsushi; Hata, Kenji; Wada, Masahiro; Takigawa, Yoko; Nakanishi, Masako; Kogo, Mikihiko; Nishimura, Riko; Yoneda, Toshiyuki

    2008-01-01

    Several studies indicated that a homeobox gene, Msx2, is implicated in regulation of skeletal development by controlling enchondral ossification as well as membranous ossification. However, the molecular basis by which Msx2 conducts chondrogenesis is currently unclear. In this study, we examined the role of Msx2 in chondrocyte differentiation using mouse primary chondrocytes and embryonic metatarsal explants. Treatment with BMP2 up-regulated the expression of Msx2 mRNA...

  7. CHEMICAL EVOLUTION OF RED MSX SOURCES IN THE SOUTHERN SKY

    Yu, Naiping; Xu, Jinlong

    2016-01-01

    Red Midcourse Space Experiment ( MSX ) Sources (RMSs) are regarded as excellent candidates of massive star-forming regions. In order to characterize the chemical properties of massive star formation, we made a systematic study of 87 RMSs in the southern sky, using archival data taken from the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment Telescope Large Area Survey of the Galaxy (ATLASGAL), the Australia Telescope Compact Array, and the Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team Survey at 90 GHz (MALT90). According to previous multiwavelength observations, our sample could be divided into two groups: massive young stellar objects and H ii regions. Combined with the MALT90 data, we calculated the column densities of N 2 H + , C 2 H, HC 3 N, and HNC and found that they are not much different from previous studies made in other massive star-forming regions. However, their abundances are relatively low compared to infrared dark clouds (IRDCs). The abundances of N 2 H + and HNC in our sample are at least 1 mag lower than those found in IRDCs, indicating chemical depletions in the relatively hot gas. Besides, the fractional abundances of N 2 H + , C 2 H, and HC 3 N seem to decrease as a function of their Lyman continuum fluxes (N L ), indicating that these molecules could be destroyed by UV photons when H ii regions have formed inside. We also find that the C 2 H abundance decreases faster than HC 3 N with respect to N L . The abundance of HNC has a tight correlation with that of N 2 H + , indicating that it may be also preferentially formed in cold gas. We regard our RMSs as being in a relatively late evolutionary stage of massive star formation.

  8. Chemical Evolution of Red MSX Sources in the Southern Sky

    Yu, Naiping; Xu, Jinlong

    2016-12-01

    Red Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) Sources (RMSs) are regarded as excellent candidates of massive star-forming regions. In order to characterize the chemical properties of massive star formation, we made a systematic study of 87 RMSs in the southern sky, using archival data taken from the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment Telescope Large Area Survey of the Galaxy (ATLASGAL), the Australia Telescope Compact Array, and the Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team Survey at 90 GHz (MALT90). According to previous multiwavelength observations, our sample could be divided into two groups: massive young stellar objects and H II regions. Combined with the MALT90 data, we calculated the column densities of N2H+, C2H, HC3N, and HNC and found that they are not much different from previous studies made in other massive star-forming regions. However, their abundances are relatively low compared to infrared dark clouds (IRDCs). The abundances of N2H+ and HNC in our sample are at least 1 mag lower than those found in IRDCs, indicating chemical depletions in the relatively hot gas. Besides, the fractional abundances of N2H+, C2H, and HC3N seem to decrease as a function of their Lyman continuum fluxes (N L ), indicating that these molecules could be destroyed by UV photons when H II regions have formed inside. We also find that the C2H abundance decreases faster than HC3N with respect to N L . The abundance of HNC has a tight correlation with that of N2H+, indicating that it may be also preferentially formed in cold gas. We regard our RMSs as being in a relatively late evolutionary stage of massive star formation.

  9. CHEMICAL EVOLUTION OF RED MSX SOURCES IN THE SOUTHERN SKY

    Yu, Naiping; Xu, Jinlong [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2016-12-20

    Red Midcourse Space Experiment ( MSX ) Sources (RMSs) are regarded as excellent candidates of massive star-forming regions. In order to characterize the chemical properties of massive star formation, we made a systematic study of 87 RMSs in the southern sky, using archival data taken from the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment Telescope Large Area Survey of the Galaxy (ATLASGAL), the Australia Telescope Compact Array, and the Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team Survey at 90 GHz (MALT90). According to previous multiwavelength observations, our sample could be divided into two groups: massive young stellar objects and H ii regions. Combined with the MALT90 data, we calculated the column densities of N{sub 2}H{sup +}, C{sub 2}H, HC{sub 3}N, and HNC and found that they are not much different from previous studies made in other massive star-forming regions. However, their abundances are relatively low compared to infrared dark clouds (IRDCs). The abundances of N{sub 2}H{sup +} and HNC in our sample are at least 1 mag lower than those found in IRDCs, indicating chemical depletions in the relatively hot gas. Besides, the fractional abundances of N{sub 2}H{sup +}, C{sub 2}H, and HC{sub 3}N seem to decrease as a function of their Lyman continuum fluxes (N {sub L}), indicating that these molecules could be destroyed by UV photons when H ii regions have formed inside. We also find that the C{sub 2}H abundance decreases faster than HC{sub 3}N with respect to N{sub L}. The abundance of HNC has a tight correlation with that of N{sub 2}H{sup +}, indicating that it may be also preferentially formed in cold gas. We regard our RMSs as being in a relatively late evolutionary stage of massive star formation.

  10. Regulation of Msx-1, Msx-2, Bmp-2 and Bmp-4 during foetal and postnatal mammary gland development.

    Phippard, D J; Weber-Hall, S J; Sharpe, P T; Naylor, M S; Jayatalake, H; Maas, R; Woo, I; Roberts-Clark, D; Francis-West, P H; Liu, Y H; Maxson, R; Hill, R E; Dale, T C

    1996-09-01

    Expression of the Msx-1 and Msx-2 homeobox genes have been shown to be coordinately regulated with the Bmp-2 and Bmp-4 ligands in a variety of developing tissues. Here we report that transcripts from all four genes are developmentally regulated during both foetal and postnatal mammary gland development. The location and time-course of the Bmp and Msx expression point to a role for Msx and Bmp gene products in the control of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. Expression of Msx-2, but not Msx-1, Bmp-2 or Bmp-4 was decreased following ovariectomy, while expression of the human Msx-2 homologue was regulated by 17beta-oestradiol in the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. The regulation of Msx-2 expression by oestrogen raises the possibility that hormonal regulation of mammary development is mediated through the control of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions.

  11. Interrelated experiments in laboratory and space plasmas

    Koepke, M. E.

    2005-01-01

    Many advances in understanding space plasma phenomena have been linked to insight derived from theoretical modelling and/or laboratory experiments. Here are discussed advances for which laboratory experiments played an important role. How the interpretation of the space plasma data was influenced by one or more laboratory experiments is described. The space-motivation of laboratory investigations and the scaling of laboratory plasma parameters to space plasma conditions are discussed. Examples demonstrating how laboratory experiments develop physical insight, benchmark theoretical models, discover unexpected behaviour, establish observational signatures, and pioneer diagnostic methods for the space community are presented. The various device configurations found in space-related laboratory investigations are outlined. A primary objective of this review is to articulate the overlapping scientific issues that are addressable in space and lab experiments. A secondary objective is to convey the wide range of laboratory and space plasma experiments involved in this interdisciplinary alliance. The interrelation ship between plasma experiments in the laboratory and in space has a long history, with numerous demonstrations of the benefits afforded the space community by laboratory results. An experiment's suitability and limitations for investigating space processes can be quantitatively established using dimensionless parameters. Even with a partial match of these parameters, aspects of waves, instabilities, nonlinearities, particle transport, reconnection, and hydrodynamics are addressable in a way useful to observers and modelers of space phenomena. Because diagnostic access to space plasmas, laboratory-experimentalists awareness of space phenomena, and efforts by theorists and funding agencies to help scientists bridge the gap between the space and laboratory communities are increasing, the range of laboratory and space plasma experiments with overlapping scientific

  12. BMP-Mediated Functional Cooperation between Dlx5;Dlx6 and Msx1;Msx2 during Mammalian Limb Development

    Vieux-Rochas, Maxence; Bouhali, Kamal; Mantero, Stefano; Garaffo, Giulia; Provero, Paolo; Astigiano, Simonetta; Barbieri, Ottavia; Caratozzolo, Mariano F.; Tullo, Apollonia; Guerrini, Luisa; Lallemand, Yvan; Robert, Benoît

    2013-01-01

    The Dlx and Msx homeodomain transcription factors play important roles in the control of limb development. The combined disruption of Msx1 and Msx2, as well as that of Dlx5 and Dlx6, lead to limb patterning defects with anomalies in digit number and shape. Msx1;Msx2 double mutants are characterized by the loss of derivatives of the anterior limb mesoderm which is not observed in either of the simple mutants. Dlx5;Dlx6 double mutants exhibit hindlimb ectrodactyly. While the morphogenetic action of Msx genes seems to involve the BMP molecules, the mode of action of Dlx genes still remains elusive. Here, examining the limb phenotypes of combined Dlx and Msx mutants we reveal a new Dlx-Msx regulatory loop directly involving BMPs. In Msx1;Dlx5;Dlx6 triple mutant mice (TKO), beside the expected ectrodactyly, we also observe the hallmark morphological anomalies of Msx1;Msx2 double mutants suggesting an epistatic role of Dlx5 and Dlx6 over Msx2. In Msx2;Dlx5;Dlx6 TKO mice we only observe an aggravation of the ectrodactyly defect without changes in the number of the individual components of the limb. Using a combination of qPCR, ChIP and bioinformatic analyses, we identify two Dlx/Msx regulatory pathways: 1) in the anterior limb mesoderm a non-cell autonomous Msx-Dlx regulatory loop involves BMP molecules through the AER and 2) in AER cells and, at later stages, in the limb mesoderm the regulation of Msx2 by Dlx5 and Dlx6 occurs also cell autonomously. These data bring new elements to decipher the complex AER-mesoderm dialogue that takes place during limb development and provide clues to understanding the etiology of congenital limb malformations. PMID:23382810

  13. BMP-mediated functional cooperation between Dlx5;Dlx6 and Msx1;Msx2 during mammalian limb development.

    Maxence Vieux-Rochas

    Full Text Available The Dlx and Msx homeodomain transcription factors play important roles in the control of limb development. The combined disruption of Msx1 and Msx2, as well as that of Dlx5 and Dlx6, lead to limb patterning defects with anomalies in digit number and shape. Msx1;Msx2 double mutants are characterized by the loss of derivatives of the anterior limb mesoderm which is not observed in either of the simple mutants. Dlx5;Dlx6 double mutants exhibit hindlimb ectrodactyly. While the morphogenetic action of Msx genes seems to involve the BMP molecules, the mode of action of Dlx genes still remains elusive. Here, examining the limb phenotypes of combined Dlx and Msx mutants we reveal a new Dlx-Msx regulatory loop directly involving BMPs. In Msx1;Dlx5;Dlx6 triple mutant mice (TKO, beside the expected ectrodactyly, we also observe the hallmark morphological anomalies of Msx1;Msx2 double mutants suggesting an epistatic role of Dlx5 and Dlx6 over Msx2. In Msx2;Dlx5;Dlx6 TKO mice we only observe an aggravation of the ectrodactyly defect without changes in the number of the individual components of the limb. Using a combination of qPCR, ChIP and bioinformatic analyses, we identify two Dlx/Msx regulatory pathways: 1 in the anterior limb mesoderm a non-cell autonomous Msx-Dlx regulatory loop involves BMP molecules through the AER and 2 in AER cells and, at later stages, in the limb mesoderm the regulation of Msx2 by Dlx5 and Dlx6 occurs also cell autonomously. These data bring new elements to decipher the complex AER-mesoderm dialogue that takes place during limb development and provide clues to understanding the etiology of congenital limb malformations.

  14. BMP-mediated functional cooperation between Dlx5;Dlx6 and Msx1;Msx2 during mammalian limb development.

    Vieux-Rochas, Maxence; Bouhali, Kamal; Mantero, Stefano; Garaffo, Giulia; Provero, Paolo; Astigiano, Simonetta; Barbieri, Ottavia; Caratozzolo, Mariano F; Tullo, Apollonia; Guerrini, Luisa; Lallemand, Yvan; Robert, Benoît; Levi, Giovanni; Merlo, Giorgio R

    2013-01-01

    The Dlx and Msx homeodomain transcription factors play important roles in the control of limb development. The combined disruption of Msx1 and Msx2, as well as that of Dlx5 and Dlx6, lead to limb patterning defects with anomalies in digit number and shape. Msx1;Msx2 double mutants are characterized by the loss of derivatives of the anterior limb mesoderm which is not observed in either of the simple mutants. Dlx5;Dlx6 double mutants exhibit hindlimb ectrodactyly. While the morphogenetic action of Msx genes seems to involve the BMP molecules, the mode of action of Dlx genes still remains elusive. Here, examining the limb phenotypes of combined Dlx and Msx mutants we reveal a new Dlx-Msx regulatory loop directly involving BMPs. In Msx1;Dlx5;Dlx6 triple mutant mice (TKO), beside the expected ectrodactyly, we also observe the hallmark morphological anomalies of Msx1;Msx2 double mutants suggesting an epistatic role of Dlx5 and Dlx6 over Msx2. In Msx2;Dlx5;Dlx6 TKO mice we only observe an aggravation of the ectrodactyly defect without changes in the number of the individual components of the limb. Using a combination of qPCR, ChIP and bioinformatic analyses, we identify two Dlx/Msx regulatory pathways: 1) in the anterior limb mesoderm a non-cell autonomous Msx-Dlx regulatory loop involves BMP molecules through the AER and 2) in AER cells and, at later stages, in the limb mesoderm the regulation of Msx2 by Dlx5 and Dlx6 occurs also cell autonomously. These data bring new elements to decipher the complex AER-mesoderm dialogue that takes place during limb development and provide clues to understanding the etiology of congenital limb malformations.

  15. Heterodimerization of Msx and Dlx homeoproteins results in functional antagonism.

    Zhang, H; Hu, G; Wang, H; Sciavolino, P; Iler, N; Shen, M M; Abate-Shen, C

    1997-05-01

    Protein-protein interactions are known to be essential for specifying the transcriptional activities of homeoproteins. Here we show that representative members of the Msx and Dlx homeoprotein families form homo- and heterodimeric complexes. We demonstrate that dimerization by Msx and Dlx proteins is mediated through their homeodomains and that the residues required for this interaction correspond to those necessary for DNA binding. Unlike most other known examples of homeoprotein interactions, association of Msx and Dlx proteins does not promote cooperative DNA binding; instead, dimerization and DNA binding are mutually exclusive activities. In particular, we show that Msx and Dlx proteins interact independently and noncooperatively with homeodomain DNA binding sites and that dimerization is specifically blocked by the presence of such DNA sites. We further demonstrate that the transcriptional properties of Msx and Dlx proteins display reciprocal inhibition. Specifically, Msx proteins act as transcriptional repressors and Dlx proteins act as activators, while in combination, Msx and Dlx proteins counteract each other's transcriptional activities. Finally, we show that the expression patterns of representative Msx and Dlx genes (Msx1, Msx2, Dlx2, and Dlx5) overlap in mouse embryogenesis during limb bud and craniofacial development, consistent with the potential for their protein products to interact in vivo. Based on these observations, we propose that functional antagonism through heterodimer formation provides a mechanism for regulating the transcriptional actions of Msx and Dlx homeoproteins in vivo.

  16. Targeted reduction of vascular Msx1 and Msx2 mitigates arteriosclerotic calcification and aortic stiffness in LDLR-deficient mice fed diabetogenic diets.

    Cheng, Su-Li; Behrmann, Abraham; Shao, Jian-Su; Ramachandran, Bindu; Krchma, Karen; Bello Arredondo, Yoanna; Kovacs, Attila; Mead, Megan; Maxson, Robert; Towler, Dwight A

    2014-12-01

    When fed high-fat diets, male LDLR(-/-) mice develop obesity, hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia, and arteriosclerotic calcification. An osteogenic Msx-Wnt regulatory program is concomitantly upregulated in the vasculature. To better understand the mechanisms of diabetic arteriosclerosis, we generated SM22-Cre;Msx1(fl/fl);Msx2(fl/fl);LDLR(-/-) mice, assessing the impact of Msx1+Msx2 gene deletion in vascular myofibroblast and smooth muscle cells. Aortic Msx2 and Msx1 were decreased by 95% and 34% in SM22-Cre;Msx1(fl/fl);Msx2(fl/fl);LDLR(-/-) animals versus Msx1(fl/fl);Msx2(fl/fl);LDLR(-/-) controls, respectively. Aortic calcium was reduced by 31%, and pulse wave velocity, an index of stiffness, was decreased in SM22-Cre;Msx1(fl/fl);Msx2(fl/fl);LDLR(-/-) mice vs. controls. Fasting blood glucose and lipids did not differ, yet SM22-Cre;Msx1(fl/fl);Msx2(fl/fl);LDLR(-/-) siblings became more obese. Aortic adventitial myofibroblasts from SM22-Cre;Msx1(fl/fl);Msx2(fl/fl);LDLR(-/-) mice exhibited reduced osteogenic gene expression and mineralizing potential with concomitant reduction in multiple Wnt genes. Sonic hedgehog (Shh) and Sca1, markers of aortic osteogenic progenitors, were also reduced, paralleling a 78% reduction in alkaline phosphatase (TNAP)-positive adventitial myofibroblasts. RNA interference revealed that although Msx1+Msx2 supports TNAP and Wnt7b expression, Msx1 selectively maintains Shh and Msx2 sustains Wnt2, Wnt5a, and Sca1 expression in aortic adventitial myofibroblast cultures. Thus, Msx1 and Msx2 support vascular mineralization by directing the osteogenic programming of aortic progenitors in diabetic arteriosclerosis. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  17. MSX2 Induces Trophoblast Invasion in Human Placenta.

    Hao Liang

    Full Text Available Normal implantation depends on appropriate trophoblast growth and invasion. Inadequate trophoblast invasion results in pregnancy-related disorders, such as early miscarriage and pre-eclampsia, which are dangerous to both the mother and fetus. Msh Homeobox 2 (MSX2, a member of the MSX family of homeobox proteins, plays a significant role in the proliferation and differentiation of various cells and tissues, including ectodermal organs, teeth, and chondrocytes. Recently, MSX2 was found to play important roles in the invasion of cancer cells into adjacent tissues via the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT. However, the role of MSX2 in trophoblastic invasion during placental development has yet to be explored. In the present study, we detected MSX2 expression in cytotrophoblast, syncytiotrophoblast, and extravillous cytotrophoblast cells of first or third trimester human placentas via immunohistochemistry analysis. Furthermore, we found that the in vitro invasive ability of HTR8/SVneo cells was enhanced by exogenous overexpression of MSX2, and that this effect was accompanied by increased protein expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2, vimentin, and β-catenin. Conversely, treatment of HTR8/SVneo cells with MSX2-specific siRNAs resulted in decreased protein expression of MMP-2, vimentin, and β-catenin, and reduced invasion levels in a Matrigel invasion test. Notably, however, treatment with the MSX2 overexpression plasmid and the MSX2 siRNAs had no effect on the mRNA expression levels of β-catenin. Meanwhile, overexpression of MSX2 and treatment with the MSX2-specific siRNA resulted in decreased and increased E-cadherin expression, respectively, in JEG-3 cells. Lastly, the protein expression levels of MSX2 were significantly lower in human pre-eclamptic placental villi than in the matched control placentas. Collectively, our results suggest that MSX2 may induce human trophoblast cell invasion, and dysregulation of MSX2 expression may

  18. Bioinformatic analysis of Msx1 and Msx2 involved in craniofacial development.

    Dai, Jiewen; Mou, Zhifang; Shen, Shunyao; Dong, Yuefu; Yang, Tong; Shen, Steve Guofang

    2014-01-01

    Msx1 and Msx2 were revealed to be candidate genes for some craniofacial deformities, such as cleft lip with/without cleft palate (CL/P) and craniosynostosis. Many other genes were demonstrated to have a cross-talk with MSX genes in causing these defects. However, there is no systematic evaluation for these MSX gene-related factors. In this study, we performed systematic bioinformatic analysis for MSX genes by combining using GeneDecks, DAVID, and STRING database, and the results showed that there were numerous genes related to MSX genes, such as Irf6, TP63, Dlx2, Dlx5, Pax3, Pax9, Bmp4, Tgf-beta2, and Tgf-beta3 that have been demonstrated to be involved in CL/P, and Fgfr2, Fgfr1, Fgfr3, and Twist1 that were involved in craniosynostosis. Many of these genes could be enriched into different gene groups involved in different signaling ways, different craniofacial deformities, and different biological process. These findings could make us analyze the function of MSX gens in a gene network. In addition, our findings showed that Sumo, a novel gene whose polymorphisms were demonstrated to be associated with nonsyndromic CL/P by genome-wide association study, has protein-protein interaction with MSX1, which may offer us an alternative method to perform bioinformatic analysis for genes found by genome-wide association study and can make us predict the disrupted protein function due to the mutation in a gene DNA sequence. These findings may guide us to perform further functional studies in the future.

  19. EGF does not induce Msx-1 and Msx-2 in dental mesenchyme.

    Wang, Y H; Kollar, E J; Upholt, W B; Mina, M

    1998-01-01

    Previous heterospecific tissue recombinations indicate that mandibular epithelium exerts the first known inductive signal for odontogenesis in mouse embryos. BMP-4 and EGF are two growth factors implicated as signaling molecules mediating the initial inductive epithelial-mesenchymal interactions during odontogenesis. The purpose of the present study was to examine and compare the effects of these growth factors and mouse mandibular epithelium on expression of Msx-1 and Msx-2 genes in molar-forming mesenchyme. Agarose beads soaked in growth factors or pieces of mouse mandibular epithelium (E11) were placed in contact with E11 molar-forming mesenchyme and cultured for 24 h. Whole-mount in situ hybridization analysis revealed that, in contrast to mouse mandibular epithelium and BMP-4-releasing beads, EGF-releasing beads did not induce the expression of Msx-1 and Msx-2 in E11 molar-forming mesenchyme. These observations suggest that whereas BMP-4 may be involved in activation of Msx-1 and Msx-2 in the underlying mesenchyme, EGF may regulate events involved in the formation of dental lamina.

  20. [Expression of homeobox gene Msx-1, Msx-2 and Dlx-2 during murine mandibular first molar development].

    Ma, Li; Chen, Zhi; Song, Guang-tai; Fan, Ming-wen; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Zhi-feng

    2003-11-01

    To observe the expression of homeobox gene Msx-1, Msx-2 and Dlx-2 during murine mandibular first molar development. The murine heads or mandibles on embryonic days 11-18 (E11-18) and postnatal day 1-3 (P1-3) were removed, fixed and embedded, 5 micro m serial sections were cut in the coronal plane. Msx-1, Msx-2 and Dlx-2 RNA probes were synthesized by in vitro transcription and labeled with digoxigenin. Msx-1, Msx-2 and Dlx-2 mRNA expression was observed after in situ hybridization. During molar development Msx-1 transcripts appeared only in mesenchymal cells, not in epithelial cells. Msx-2 and Dlx-2 both expressed in the epithelial and mesenchymal cells. At the initiation stage of the molar development Msx-2 and Dlx-2 had similar expression. At the bud stage (E13-14) Msx-2 mRNA signaling was intensive in the enamel organ and slight in the dental mesenchyme; Dlx-2 signaling was stronger in the dental papilla. At cap stage (E15-16) Msx-2 showed prominent mRNA signaling in enamel knot and Dlx-2 was maximal in the dental papilla. At the late bell stage (P2-3) Msx-2 transcripts were observed in odontoblasts but not labeled in ameloblasts, and Dlx-2 transcripts appeared in ameloblasts but no labeling was seen in odontoblasts. Msx-1, Msx-2 and Dlx-2 are expressed in various patterns during murine mandibular first molar development, suggesting they possibly play a role in the interaction between the epithelium and mesenchyme during the molar development.

  1. Biotechnological experiments in space flights on board of space stations

    Nechitailo, Galina S.

    2012-07-01

    Space flight conditions are stressful for any plant and cause structural-functional transition due to mobiliation of adaptivity. In space flight experiments with pea tissue, wheat and arabidopsis we found anatomical-morphological transformations and biochemistry of plants. In following experiments, tissue of stevia (Stevia rebaudiana), potato (Solanum tuberosum), callus culture and culture and bulbs of suffron (Crocus sativus), callus culture of ginseng (Panax ginseng) were investigated. Experiments with stevia carried out in special chambers. The duration of experiment was 8-14 days. Board lamp was used for illumination of the plants. After experiment the plants grew in the same chamber and after 50 days the plants were moved into artificial ionexchange soil. The biochemical analysis of plants was done. The total concentration of glycozides and ratio of stevioside and rebauside were found different in space and ground plants. In following generations of stevia after flight the total concentration of stevioside and rebauside remains higher than in ground plants. Experiments with callus culture of suffron carried out in tubes. Duration of space flight experiment was 8-167 days. Board lamp was used for illumination of the plants. We found picrocitina pigment in the space plants but not in ground plants. Tissue culture of ginseng was grown in special container in thermostate under stable temperature of 22 ± 0,5 C. Duration of space experiment was from 8 to 167 days. Biological activity of space flight culutre was in 5 times higher than the ground culture. This difference was observed after recultivation of space flight samples on Earth during year after flight. Callus tissue of potato was grown in tubes in thermostate under stable temperature of 22 ± 0,5 C. Duration of space experiment was from 8 to 14 days. Concentration of regenerates in flight samples was in 5 times higher than in ground samples. The space flight experiments show, that microgravity and other

  2. Targeted Reduction of Vascular Msx1 and Msx2 Mitigates Arteriosclerotic Calcification and Aortic Stiffness in LDLR-Deficient Mice Fed Diabetogenic Diets

    Cheng, Su-Li; Behrmann, Abraham; Shao, Jian-Su; Ramachandran, Bindu; Krchma, Karen; Bello Arredondo, Yoanna; Kovacs, Attila; Mead, Megan; Maxson, Robert; Towler, Dwight A.

    2014-01-01

    When fed high-fat diets, male LDLR?/? mice develop obesity, hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia, and arteriosclerotic calcification. An osteogenic Msx-Wnt regulatory program is concomitantly upregulated in the vasculature. To better understand the mechanisms of diabetic arteriosclerosis, we generated SM22-Cre;Msx1(fl/fl);Msx2(fl/fl);LDLR?/? mice, assessing the impact of Msx1+Msx2 gene deletion in vascular myofibroblast and smooth muscle cells. Aortic Msx2 and Msx1 were decreased by 95% and 34% in S...

  3. msh/Msx gene family in neural development.

    Ramos, Casto; Robert, Benoît

    2005-11-01

    The involvement of Msx homeobox genes in skull and tooth formation has received a great deal of attention. Recent studies also indicate a role for the msh/Msx gene family in development of the nervous system. In this article, we discuss the functions of these transcription factors in neural-tissue organogenesis. We will deal mainly with the interactions of the Drosophila muscle segment homeobox (msh) gene with other homeobox genes and the repressive cascade that leads to neuroectoderm patterning; the role of Msx genes in neural-crest induction, focusing especially on the differences between lower and higher vertebrates; their implication in patterning of the vertebrate neural tube, particularly in diencephalon midline formation. Finally, we will examine the distinct activities of Msx1, Msx2 and Msx3 genes during neurogenesis, taking into account their relationships with signalling molecules such as BMP.

  4. Feasibility analysis of gravitational experiments in space

    Everitt, C. W. F.

    1977-01-01

    Experiments on gravitation and general relativity suggested by different workers in the past ten or more years are reviewed, their feasibility examined, and the advantages of performing them in space were studied. The experiments include: (1) the gyro relativity experiment; (2) experiments to test the equivalence of gravitational and inertial mass; (3) an experiment to look for nongeodesic motion of spinning bodies in orbit around the earth; (4) experiments to look for changes of the gravitational constant G with time; (5) a variety of suggestions; laboratory tests of experimental gravity; and (6) gravitational wave experiments.

  5. Spaces of interaction, places for experience

    Benyon, David

    2014-01-01

    Spaces of Interaction, Places for Experience is a book about Human-Computer Interaction (HCI), interaction design (ID) and user experience (UX) in the age of ubiquitous computing. The book explores interaction and experience through the different spaces that contribute to interaction until it arrives at an understanding of the rich and complex places for experience that will be the focus of the next period for interaction design. The book begins by looking at the multilayered nature of interaction and UX-not just with new technologies, but with technologies that are embedded in the world. Peop

  6. Space experiments with high stability clocks

    Vessot, R.F.C.

    1993-01-01

    Modern metrology depends increasingly on the accuracy and frequency stability of atomic clocks. Applications of such high-stability oscillators (or clocks) to experiments performed in space are described and estimates of the precision of these experiments are made in terms of clock performance. Methods using time-correlation to cancel localized disturbances in very long signal paths and a proposed space borne four station VLBI system are described. (TEC). 30 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab

  7. High temperature superconductivity space experiment (HTSSE)

    Nisenoff, M.; Gubser, D.V.; Wolf, S.A.; Ritter, J.C.; Price, G.

    1991-01-01

    The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) is exploring the feasibility of deploying high temperature superconductivity (HTS) devices and components in space. A variety of devices, primarily passive microwave and millimeter wave components, have been procured and will be integrated with a cryogenic refrigerator system and data acquisition system to form the space package, which will be launched late in 1992. This Space Experiment will demonstrate that this technology is sufficiently robust to survive the space environment and has the potential to significantly improved space communications systems. The devices for the initial launch (HTSSE-I) have been received by NRL and evaluated electrically, thermally and mechanically and will be integrated into the final space package early in 1991. In this paper the performance of the devices are summarized and some potential applications of HTS technology in space system are outlined

  8. Videoprocessing with the MSX-computer

    Vliet, G.J. van.

    1988-01-01

    This report deals with the processing of video images with a Philips MSX-2 computer and is directed specifically onto the processing of the videosignals of the beamviewers. The final purpose is to create an extra control function which may be used for intuning the beam. This control function is established by mixing the video signals with a reference image from the computer. 7 figs

  9. Regulated expression of homeobox genes Msx-1 and Msx-2 in mouse mammary gland development suggests a role in hormone action and epithelial-stromal interactions.

    Friedmann, Y; Daniel, C W

    1996-07-10

    The murine homeobox genes Msx-1 and Msx-2 are related to the Drosophila msh gene and are expressed in a variety of tissues during mouse embryogenesis. We now report the developmentally regulated expression of Msx-1 and Msx-2 in the mouse mammary gland and show that their expression patterns point toward significant functional roles. Msx-1 and Msx-2 transcripts were present in glands of virgin mice and in glands of mice in early pregnancy, but transcripts decreased dramatically during late pregnancy. Low levels of Msx-1 transcripts were detected in glands from lactating animals and during the first days of involution, whereas Msx-2 expression was not detected during lactation or early involution. Expression of both genes increased gradually as involution progressed. Msx-2 but not Msx-1 expression was decreased following ovariectomy or following exposure to anti-estrogen implanted directly into the gland. Hormonal regulation of Msx-2 expression was confirmed when transcripts returned to normal levels after estrogen was administered to ovariectomized animals. In situ molecular hybridization for Msx-1 showed transcripts localized to the mammary epithelium, whereas Msx-2 expression was confined to the periductal stroma. Mammary stroma from which mammary epithelium had been removed did not transcribe detectable amounts of Msx-2, showing that expression is regulated by contiguous mammary epithelium, and indicating a role for these homeobox genes in mesenchymal-epithelial interactions during mammary development.

  10. Cell biology experiments conducted in space

    Taylor, G. R.

    1977-01-01

    A review of cell biology experiments conducted during the first two decades of space flight is provided. References are tabulated for work done with six types of living test system: isolated viruses, bacteriophage-host, bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi, protozoans, and small groups of cells (such as hamster cell tissue and fertilized frog eggs). The general results of studies involving the survival of cells in space, the effect of space flight on growing cultures, the biological effects of multicharged high-energy particles, and the effects of space flight on the genetic apparatus of microorganisms are summarized. It is concluded that cell systems remain sufficiently stable during space flight to permit experimentation with models requiring a fixed cell line during the space shuttle era.

  11. The evolution of Msx gene function: expression and regulation of a sea urchin Msx class homeobox gene.

    Dobias, S L; Ma, L; Wu, H; Bell, J R; Maxson, R

    1997-01-01

    Msx- class homeobox genes, characterized by a distinct and highly conserved homeodomain, have been identified in a wide variety of metazoans from vertebrates to coelenterates. Although there is evidence that they participate in inductive tissue interactions that underlie vertebrate organogenesis, including those that pattern the neural crest, there is little information about their function in simple deuterostomes. Both to learn more about the ancient function of Msx genes, and to shed light on the evolution of developmental mechanisms within the lineage that gave rise to vertebrates, we have isolated and characterized Msx genes from ascidians and echinoderms. Here we describe the sequence and expression of a sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpouratus) Msx gene whose homeodomain is very similar to that of vertebrate Msx2. This gene, designated SpMsx, is first expressed in blastula stage embryos, apparently in a non-localized manner. Subsequently, during the early phases of gastrulation, SpMsx transcripts are expressed intensely in the invaginating archenteron and secondary mesenchyme, and at reduced levels in the ectoderm. In the latter part of gastrulation, SpMsx transcripts are concentrated in the oral ectoderm and gut, and continue to be expressed at those sites through the remainder of embryonic development. That vertebrate Msx genes are regulated by inductive tissue interactions and growth factors suggested to us that the restriction of SpMsx gene expression to the oral ectoderm and derivatives of the vegetal plate might similarly be regulated by the series of signaling events that pattern these embryonic territories. As a first test of this hypothesis, we examined the influence of exogastrulation and cell-dissociation on SpMsx gene expression. In experimentally-induced exogastrulae, SpMsx transcripts were distributed normally in the oral ectoderm, evaginated gut, and secondary mesenchyme. However, when embryos were dissociated into their component cells, SpMsx

  12. Double-slit experiment in momentum space

    Ivanov, I. P.; Seipt, D.; Surzhykov, A.; Fritzsche, S.

    2016-08-01

    Young's classic double-slit experiment demonstrates the reality of interference when waves and particles travel simultaneously along two different spatial paths. Here, we propose a double-slit experiment in momentum space, realized in the free-space elastic scattering of vortex electrons. We show that this process proceeds along two paths in momentum space, which are well localized and well separated from each other. For such vortex beams, the (plane-wave) amplitudes along the two paths acquire adjustable phase shifts and produce interference fringes in the final angular distribution. We argue that this experiment can be realized with the present-day technology. We show that it gives experimental access to the Coulomb phase, a quantity which plays an important role in all charged particle scattering but which usual scattering experiments are insensitive to.

  13. MSX-1 gene expression and regulation in embryonic palatal tissue.

    Nugent, P; Greene, R M

    1998-01-01

    The palatal cleft seen in Msx-1 knock-out mice suggests a role for this gene in normal palate development. The cleft is presumed secondary to tooth and jaw malformations, since in situ hybridization suggests that Msx-1 mRNA is not highly expressed in developing palatal tissue. In this study we demonstrate, by Northern blot analysis, the expression of Msx-1, but not Msx-2, in the developing palate and in primary cultures of murine embryonic palate mesenchymal cells. Furthermore, we propose a role for Msx-1 in retinoic acid-induced cleft palate, since retinoic acid inhibits Msx-1 mRNA expression in palate mesenchymal cells. We also demonstrate that transforming growth factor beta inhibits Msx-1 mRNA expression in palate mesenchymal cells, with retinoic acid and transforming growth factor beta acting synergistically when added simultaneously to these cells. These data suggest a mechanistic interaction between retinoic acid, transforming growth factor beta, and Msx-1 in the etiology of retinoic acid-induced cleft palate.

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Chemical properties of red MSX sources (RMSs) (Yu+, 2016)

    Yu, N.; Xu, J.

    2017-05-01

    Our molecular line data come from the Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team Survey at 90GHz (MALT90) (e.g., Foster+ 2011, J/ApJS/197/25; Jackson+ 2013PASA...30...57J). This project is performed with Mopra, a 22m single-dish radio telescope located near Coonabarabran in New South Wales, Australia. The angular resolution of Mopra is 38", with a beam efficiency between 0.49 at 86GHz and 0.42 at 115GHz. The pointing accuracy of the main MALT90 maps is about 8", and the absolute flux uncertainty is in the range of 10%-17% depending on the transition in question. The target clumps of this survey are selected from the 870um Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) Telescope Large Area Survey of the Galaxy (ATLASGAL; Schuller+ 2009A&A...504..415S; Contreras+ 2013, J/A+A/549/A45; superseded by J/A+A/568/A41). Using Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA), Urquhart+ (2007, J/A+A/461/11) observed radio emissions of 826 Red Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) Sources (RMSs) in the southern sky. We also have checked our sources with the data taken from the Sydney University Molonglo Sky Survey (SUMSS) carried out at 843MHz with the Molonglo Observatory Synthesis Telescope (MOST; Mauch+ 2003, VIII/81). See section 2 for further explanations. (5 data files).

  15. The MSX1 homeobox transcription factor is a downstream target of PHOX2B and activates the Delta-Notch pathway in neuroblastoma

    Revet, Ingrid; Huizenga, Gerda; Chan, Alvin; Koster, Jan; Volckmann, Richard; Sluis, Peter van; Ora, Ingrid; Versteeg, Rogier; Geerts, Dirk

    2008-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is an embryonal tumour of the peripheral sympathetic nervous system (SNS). One of the master regulator genes for peripheral SNS differentiation, the homeobox transcription factor PHOX2B, is mutated in familiar and sporadic neuroblastomas. Here we report that inducible expression of PHOX2B in the neuroblastoma cell line SJNB-8 down-regulates MSX1, a homeobox gene important for embryonic neural crest development. Inducible expression of MSX1 in SJNB-8 caused inhibition of both cell proliferation and colony formation in soft agar. Affymetrix micro-array and Northern blot analysis demonstrated that MSX1 strongly up-regulated the Delta-Notch pathway genes DLK1, NOTCH3, and HEY1. In addition, the proneural gene NEUROD1 was down-regulated. Western blot analysis showed that MSX1 induction caused cleavage of the NOTCH3 protein to its activated form, further confirming activation of the Delta-Notch pathway. These experiments describe for the first time regulation of the Delta-Notch pathway by MSX1, and connect these genes to the PHOX2B oncogene, indicative of a role in neuroblastoma biology. Affymetrix micro-array analysis of a neuroblastic tumour series consisting of neuroblastomas and the more benign ganglioneuromas showed that MSX1, NOTCH3 and HEY1 are more highly expressed in ganglioneuromas. This suggests a block in differentiation of these tumours at distinct developmental stages or lineages

  16. Bone morphogenetic protein-induced MSX1 and MSX2 inhibit myocardin-dependent smooth muscle gene transcription.

    Hayashi, Ken'ichiro; Nakamura, Seiji; Nishida, Wataru; Sobue, Kenji

    2006-12-01

    During the onset and progression of atherosclerosis, the vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) phenotype changes from differentiated to dedifferentiated, and in some cases, this change is accompanied by osteogenic transition, resulting in vascular calcification. One characteristic of dedifferentiated VSMCs is the down-regulation of smooth muscle cell (SMC) marker gene expression. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), which are involved in the induction of osteogenic gene expression, are detected in calcified vasculature. In this study, we found that the BMP2-, BMP4-, and BMP6-induced expression of Msx transcription factors (Msx1 and Msx2) preceded the down-regulation of SMC marker expression in cultured differentiated VSMCs. Either Msx1 or Msx2 markedly reduced the myocardin-dependent promoter activities of SMC marker genes (SM22alpha and caldesmon). We further investigated interactions between Msx1 and myocardin/serum response factor (SRF)/CArG-box motif (cis element for SRF) using coimmunoprecipitation, gel-shift, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Our results showed that Msx1 or Msx2 formed a ternary complex with SRF and myocardin and inhibited the binding of SRF or SRF/myocardin to the CArG-box motif, resulting in inhibition of their transcription.

  17. Bone Morphogenetic Protein-Induced Msx1 and Msx2 Inhibit Myocardin-Dependent Smooth Muscle Gene Transcription▿

    Hayashi, Ken'ichiro; Nakamura, Seiji; Nishida, Wataru; Sobue, Kenji

    2006-01-01

    During the onset and progression of atherosclerosis, the vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) phenotype changes from differentiated to dedifferentiated, and in some cases, this change is accompanied by osteogenic transition, resulting in vascular calcification. One characteristic of dedifferentiated VSMCs is the down-regulation of smooth muscle cell (SMC) marker gene expression. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), which are involved in the induction of osteogenic gene expression, are detected in calcified vasculature. In this study, we found that the BMP2-, BMP4-, and BMP6-induced expression of Msx transcription factors (Msx1 and Msx2) preceded the down-regulation of SMC marker expression in cultured differentiated VSMCs. Either Msx1 or Msx2 markedly reduced the myocardin-dependent promoter activities of SMC marker genes (SM22α and caldesmon). We further investigated interactions between Msx1 and myocardin/serum response factor (SRF)/CArG-box motif (cis element for SRF) using coimmunoprecipitation, gel-shift, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Our results showed that Msx1 or Msx2 formed a ternary complex with SRF and myocardin and inhibited the binding of SRF or SRF/myocardin to the CArG-box motif, resulting in inhibition of their transcription. PMID:17030628

  18. Space experiments with particle accelerators: SEPAC

    Obayashi, T.

    1978-01-01

    In this paper, the program of the space experiments with particle accelerators (SEPAC) is described. The SEPAC is to be prepared for the Space Shuttle/First Spacelab Mission. It is planned in the SEPAC to carry out the active and interactive experiments on and in the Earth's ionosphere and magnetosphere. It is also intended to make an initial performance test for the overall program of Spacelab/SEPAC experiments. The instruments to be used are electron beam accelerators, MPD arcjects, and associated diagnostic equipments. The main scientific objectives of the experiments are Vehicle Charge Neutralization, Beam Plasma Physics, and Beam Atmosphere Interactions. The SEPAC system consists of the following subsystems. Those are accelerators, monitoring and diagnostic equipments, and control and data management equipments. The SEPAC functional objectives for experiment operations are SEPAC system checkout, EBA firing test, MPD firing test, electron beam experiments, plasma beam propagation, artificial aurora excitation, equatorial aerochemistry, electron echo experiment, E parallel B experiment, passive experiments, SEPAC system deactivation, and battery charging. Most experiment procedures are carried out by the pre-set computer program. (Kato, T.)

  19. Presence Experiences - the eventalisation of urban space

    Pløger, John

    2010-01-01

    Cultural events are, as part of an urban development strategy, about (symbolic) representations, but for the human beings participating in the event it may include acts of in/visibility (anonymity versus expressivity) and different articulations of meaning or subjectivity in space. A particular...... of space that make these events a desired experience and the qualities of the presence-experience more desired than, for instance, the political content of the event. Why it is so is theoretically and philosophically explored by discussing the expressive signification of such events. If expressive...

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: IR-bright MSX sources in the SMC with Spitzer/IRS (Kraemer+, 2017)

    Kraemer, K. E.; Sloan, G. C.; Wood, P. R.; Jones, O. C.; Egan, M. P.

    2017-07-01

    Our original set of infrared spectra of MSX SMC sources was obtained in Spitzer Cycle 1 (Program ID 3277, P.I. M. Egan). This program included 35 targets from the MSX SMC catalog. 24 targets were discussed in previous papers; this paper examines the remaining 11 sources in the sample. We also selected 4 objects in the MSX SMC catalog with similar photometric characteristics in an effort to uncover additional sources with crystalline dust. We observed these targets in Spitzer Cycle 3 (Program ID 30355, P.I. J. Houck). See tables 1 and 2 for observation data and basic properties of the targets. Table 3 lists 20 additional MSX SMC sources that were observed by other Spitzer IRS programs. Overall, 59 MSX SMC sources were observed with the IRS. The spectra were observed using the low-resolution modules of the IRS, Short-Low (SL) and Long-Low (LL), which provided spectra in the 5-14 and 14-37um ranges, respectively, at a resolution between ~60 and 120. For 10 evolved stars with oxygen-rich dust in our Cycle 1 program, we obtained spectra from 0.45 to 1.03um with the Double-Beam Spectrograph at the 2.3m telescope of the Australian National University at Siding Spring Observatory. A 0.45-0.89um spectrum for one of the stars in program 30355 was also observed. These spectra have a resolution of 10Å. Tables 5-7: catalog based on the 243 sources detected in the MSX survey of the SMC, updated with positions and photometry from more recent space-based missions and ground-based surveys. See the Appendix section for more details. The SMC catalog from MSX consists of the 243 sources in the main MSX catalog (Egan+ 2003, see V/114) that lie within the region 7°

  1. Early space symmetry restoration and neutrino experiments

    Volkov, G.G.; Liparteliani, A.G.; Monich, V.A.

    1986-01-01

    The problem of early space symmetry restoration on the left-right symmetry models and the models with the extended (due to mirror quarks and leptons) fermion sector is being discussed. The experiments in which the derivations from the standard model of electroweak interactions should be studied are presented

  2. Msx and dlx homeogene expression in epithelial odontogenic tumors.

    Ruhin-Poncet, Blandine; Ghoul-Mazgar, Sonia; Hotton, Dominique; Capron, Frédérique; Jaafoura, Mohamed Habib; Goubin, Gérard; Berdal, Ariane

    2009-01-01

    Epithelial odontogenic tumors are rare jaw pathologies that raise clinical diagnosis and prognosis dilemmas notably between ameloblastomas and clear cell odontogenic carcinomas (CCOCs). In line with previous studies, the molecular determinants of tooth development-amelogenin, Msx1, Msx2, Dlx2, Dlx3, Bmp2, and Bmp4-were analyzed by RT-PCR, ISH, and immunolabeling in 12 recurrent ameloblastomas and in one case of CCOC. Although Msx1 expression imitates normal cell differentiation in these tumors, other genes showed a distinct pattern depending on the type of tumor and the tissue involved. In benign ameloblastomas, ISH localized Dlx3 transcripts and inconstantly detected Msx2 transcripts in epithelial cells. In the CCOC, ISH established a lack of both Dlx3 and Msx2 transcripts but allowed identification of the antisense transcript of Msx1, which imitates the same scheme of distribution between mesenchyme and epithelium as in the cup stage of tooth development. Furthermore, while exploring the expression pattern of signal molecules by RT-PCR, Bmp2 was shown to be completely inactivated in the CCOC and irregularly noticeable in ameloblastomas. Bmp4 was always expressed in all the tumors. Based on the established roles of Msx and Dlx transcription factors in dental cell fates, these data suggest that their altered expression is a proposed trail to explain the genesis and/or the progression of odontogenic tumors.

  3. Msh homeobox 1 (Msx1)- and Msx2-overexpressing bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells resemble blastema cells and enhance regeneration in mice.

    Taghiyar, Leila; Hesaraki, Mahdi; Sayahpour, Forough Azam; Satarian, Leila; Hosseini, Samaneh; Aghdami, Naser; Baghaban Eslaminejad, Mohamadreza

    2017-06-23

    Amputation of the proximal region in mammals is not followed by regeneration because blastema cells (BCs) and expression of regenerative genes, such as Msh homeobox ( Msx ) genes, are absent in this animal group. The lack of BCs and positional information in other cells is therefore the main obstacle to therapeutic approaches for limb regeneration. Hence, this study aimed to create blastema-like cells (BlCs) by overexpressing Msx1 and Msx2 genes in mouse bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (mBMSCs) to regenerate a proximally amputated digit tip. We transduced mBMSCs with Msx1 and Msx2 genes and compared osteogenic activity and expression levels of several Msx -regulated genes ( Bmp4 , Fgf8 , and keratin 14 ( K14 )) in BlC groups, including MSX1, MSX2, and MSX1/2 (in a 1:1 ratio) with those in mBMSCs and BCs in vitro and in vivo following injection into the amputation site. We found that Msx gene overexpression increased expression of specific blastemal markers and enhanced the proliferation rate and osteogenesis of BlCs compared with mBMSCs and BCs via activation of Fgf8 and Bmp4 Histological analyses indicated full regrowth of digit tips in the Msx -overexpressing groups, particularly in MSX1/2, through endochondral ossification 6 weeks post-injection. In contrast, mBMSCs and BCs formed abnormal bone and nail. Full digit tip was regenerated only in the MSX1/2 group and was related to boosted Bmp4, Fgf8 , and K14 gene expression and to limb-patterning properties resulting from Msx1 and Msx2 overexpression. We propose that Msx -transduced cells that can regenerate epithelial and mesenchymal tissues may potentially be utilized in limb regeneration. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. he First Superconductivity Experiment in Space

    Polturak, E.; Koren, G.

    1999-01-01

    One of the most promising applications of high Tc superconductors is in the field of satellite communications. In view of the rapidly increasing demand for satellite communication channels due to the formation of global networks of cellular phones, internet, etc., one needs to (develop more efficient ways of dividing the finite frequency band into more and more channels without paying for it with excessive interference or an increasingly large weight of conventional filters. Superconductive components can save an order of magnitude on the weight and volume of such filters, a very important factor in satellite design. Yet, up to now superconductors were never tested in space. We present the design and performance of the first such experiment to reach space. The experiment consists of a thin film HTSC device integrated with a miniature cryo cooler. It was launched into space in July 1998 aboard the Thatch's-II micro satellite. We will present data obtained from this experiment until the present time. Long term survivability of HTSC devices in space would be discussed

  5. The zebrafish genome: a review and msx gene case study.

    Postlethwait, J H

    2006-01-01

    Zebrafish is one of several important teleost models for understanding principles of vertebrate developmental, molecular, organismal, genetic, evolutionary, and genomic biology. Efficient investigation of the molecular genetic basis of induced mutations depends on knowledge of the zebrafish genome. Principles of zebrafish genomic analysis, including gene mapping, ortholog identification, conservation of syntenies, genome duplication, and evolution of duplicate gene function are discussed here using as a case study the zebrafish msxa, msxb, msxc, msxd, and msxe genes, which together constitute zebrafish orthologs of tetrapod Msx1, Msx2, and Msx3. Genomic analysis suggests orthologs for this difficult to understand group of paralogs.

  6. Astronaut exposure to space radiation - Space Shuttle experience

    Atwell, W.

    1990-01-01

    Space Shuttle astronauts are exposed to both the trapped radiation and the galactic cosmic radiation environments. In addition, the sun periodically emits high-energy particles which could pose a serious threat to flight crews. NASA adheres to federal regulations and recommended exposure limits for radiation protection and has established a radiological health and risk assessment program. Using models of the space radiation environment, a Shuttle shielding model, and an anatomical human model, crew exposure estimates are made for each Shuttle flight. The various models are reviewed. Dosimeters are worn by each astronaut and are flown at several fixed locations to obtain inflight measurements. The dosimetry complement is discussed in detail. A comparison between the premission calculations and measurements is presented. Extrapolation of Shuttle experience to long-duration exposure is explored. 14 refs

  7. Disruption of Msx-1 and Msx-2 reveals roles for these genes in craniofacial, eye, and axial development.

    Foerst-Potts, L; Sadler, T W

    1997-05-01

    In mouse embryos, the muscle segment homeobox genes, Msx-1 and Msx-2 are expressed during critical stages of neural tube, neural crest, and craniofacial development, suggesting that these genes play important roles in organogenesis and cell differentiation. Although the patterns of expression are intriguing, little is known about the function of these genes in vertebrate embryonic development. Therefore, the expression of both genes, separately and together, was disrupted using antisense oligodeoxynucleotides and whole embryo culture techniques. Antisense attenuation of Msx-1 during early stages of neurulation produced hypoplasia of the maxillary, mandibular, and frontonasal prominences, eye anomalies, and somite and neural tube abnormalities. Eye defects consisted of enlarged optic vesicles, which may ultimately result in micropthalmia similar to that observed in Small eye mice homozygous for mutations in the Pax-6 gene. Histological sections and SEM analysis revealed a thinning of the neuroepithelium in the diencephalon and optic vesicle and mesenchymal deficiencies in the craniofacial region. Injections of Msx-2 antisense oligodeoxynucleotides produced similar malformations as those targeting Msx-1, with the exception that there was an increase in number and severity of neural tube and somite defects. Embryos injected with the combination of Msx-1 + Msx-2 antisense oligodeoxynucleotides showed no novel abnormalities, suggesting that the genes do not operate in a redundant manner.

  8. On minimalism in architecture - space as experience

    Vasilski Dragana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Architecture has to be experienced to be understood. The complexity of the experience is seen through a better understanding of the relationship between objectivity (architecture and subjectivity (our life. Being physically, emotionally and psychologically aware of the space we occupy is an experience that could be described as being present, which is a sensation that is personal and difficult to explicitly describe. Research into experience through perception and emotion positions architecture within scientific fields, in particular psychological disciplines. Relying on the standpoints of Immanuel Kant, the paper considers the juxtaposition between (minimalism in architecture and philosophy on the topic of experience. Starting from the basic aspects of perception and representation of the world around us, a thesis is presented in which the notions of silence and light as experienced in minimalism (in architecture are considered as adequate counterparts to Kant’s factors of experience - the awareness of the objective order of events and the impossibility to perceive time itself. Through a case study we verify the starting hypothesis on minimalism (in architecture whereby space becomes an experience of how the world touches us.

  9. Roles for Msx and Dlx homeoproteins in vertebrate development.

    Bendall, A J; Abate-Shen, C

    2000-04-18

    This review provides a comparative analysis of the expression patterns, functions, and biochemical properties of Msx and Dlx homeobox genes. These comprise multi-gene families that are closely related with respect to sequence features as well as expression patterns during vertebrate development. Thus, members of the Msx and Dlx families are expressed in overlapping, but distinct, patterns and display complementary or antagonistic functions, depending upon the context. A common theme shared among Msx and Dlx genes is that they are required during early, middle, and late phases of development where their differential expression mediates patterning, morphogenesis, and histogenesis of tissues in which they are expressed. With respect to their biochemical properties, Msx proteins function as transcriptional repressors, while Dlx proteins are transcriptional activators. Moreover, their ability to oppose each other's transcriptional actions implies a mechanism underlying their complementary or antagonistic functions during development.

  10. Conservation and diversification of Msx protein in metazoan evolution.

    Takahashi, Hirokazu; Kamiya, Akiko; Ishiguro, Akira; Suzuki, Atsushi C; Saitou, Naruya; Toyoda, Atsushi; Aruga, Jun

    2008-01-01

    Msx (/msh) family genes encode homeodomain (HD) proteins that control ontogeny in many animal species. We compared the structures of Msx genes from a wide range of Metazoa (Porifera, Cnidaria, Nematoda, Arthropoda, Tardigrada, Platyhelminthes, Mollusca, Brachiopoda, Annelida, Echiura, Echinodermata, Hemichordata, and Chordata) to gain an understanding of the role of these genes in phylogeny. Exon-intron boundary analysis suggested that the position of the intron located N-terminally to the HDs was widely conserved in all the genes examined, including those of cnidarians. Amino acid (aa) sequence comparison revealed 3 new evolutionarily conserved domains, as well as very strong conservation of the HDs. Two of the three domains were associated with Groucho-like protein binding in both a vertebrate and a cnidarian Msx homolog, suggesting that the interaction between Groucho-like proteins and Msx proteins was established in eumetazoan ancestors. Pairwise comparison among the collected HDs and their C-flanking aa sequences revealed that the degree of sequence conservation varied depending on the animal taxa from which the sequences were derived. Highly conserved Msx genes were identified in the Vertebrata, Cephalochordata, Hemichordata, Echinodermata, Mollusca, Brachiopoda, and Anthozoa. The wide distribution of the conserved sequences in the animal phylogenetic tree suggested that metazoan ancestors had already acquired a set of conserved domains of the current Msx family genes. Interestingly, although strongly conserved sequences were recovered from the Vertebrata, Cephalochordata, and Anthozoa, the sequences from the Urochordata and Hydrozoa showed weak conservation. Because the Vertebrata-Cephalochordata-Urochordata and Anthozoa-Hydrozoa represent sister groups in the Chordata and Cnidaria, respectively, Msx sequence diversification may have occurred differentially in the course of evolution. We speculate that selective loss of the conserved domains in Msx family

  11. The FAST (FRC Acceleration Space Thruster) Experiment

    Martin, Adam; Eskridge, R.; Lee, M.; Richeson, J.; Smith, J.; Thio, Y. C. F.; Slough, J.; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Field Reverse Configuration (FRC) is a magnetized plasmoid that has been developed for use in magnetic confinement fusion. Several of its properties suggest that it may also be useful as a thruster for in-space propulsion. The FRC is a compact toroid that has only poloidal field, and is characterized by a high plasma beta = (P)/(B (sup 2) /2Mu0), the ratio of plasma pressure to magnetic field pressure, so that it makes efficient use of magnetic field to confine a plasma. In an FRC thruster, plasmoids would be repetitively formed and accelerated to high velocity; velocities of = 250 km/s (Isp = 25,000s) have already been achieved in fusion experiments. The FRC is inductively formed and accelerated, and so is not subject to the problem of electrode erosion. As the plasmoid may be accelerated over an extended length, it can in principle be made very efficient. And the achievable jet powers should be scalable to the MW range. A 10 kW thruster experiment - FAST (FRC Acceleration Space Thruster) has just started at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The design of FAST and the status of construction and operation will be presented.

  12. MSX1 gene in the etiology orofacial deformities

    Anna Paradowska-Stolarz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The muscle segment homeobox (MSX1 gene plays a crucial role in epithelial-mesenchymal tissue interactions in craniofacial development. It plays a regulative role in cellular proliferation, differentiation and cell death. The human MSX1 domain was also found in cow (Bt 302906, mouse (Mm 123311, rat (Rn13592001, chicken (Gg 170873 and clawed toad (XI 547690. Cleft lip and palate is the most common anomaly of the facial part of the skull. The etiology is not fully understood, but it is believed that the key role is played by the genetic factor activated by environmental factors. Among the candidate genes whose mutations could lead to formation of the cleft, the MSX1 homeobox gene is mentioned. Mutations in the gene MSX1 can lead to isolated cleft deformities, but also cause other dismorphic changes. Among the most frequently mentioned is loss of permanent tooth buds (mostly of less than 4 teeth – hypodontia, including second premolars. Mutations of MSX1 are observed in the Pierre- Robin sequence, which may be one of the features of congenital defects or is observed as an isolated defect. Mutation of the gene can lead to the occurrence of a rare congenital defect Wiktop (dental-nail syndrome. Deletion of a fragment MSX1 (4p16.3 located in the WHS critical region, may be a cause of some symptoms of Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome.

  13. Domain duplication, divergence, and loss events in vertebrate Msx paralogs reveal phylogenomically informed disease markers.

    Finnerty, John R; Mazza, Maureen E; Jezewski, Peter A

    2009-01-20

    Msx originated early in animal evolution and is implicated in human genetic disorders. To reconstruct the functional evolution of Msx and inform the study of human mutations, we analyzed the phylogeny and synteny of 46 metazoan Msx proteins and tracked the duplication, diversification and loss of conserved motifs. Vertebrate Msx sequences sort into distinct Msx1, Msx2 and Msx3 clades. The sister-group relationship between MSX1 and MSX2 reflects their derivation from the 4p/5q chromosomal paralogon, a derivative of the original "MetaHox" cluster. We demonstrate physical linkage between Msx and other MetaHox genes (Hmx, NK1, Emx) in a cnidarian. Seven conserved domains, including two Groucho repression domains (N- and C-terminal), were present in the ancestral Msx. In cnidarians, the Groucho domains are highly similar. In vertebrate Msx1, the N-terminal Groucho domain is conserved, while the C-terminal domain diverged substantially, implying a novel function. In vertebrate Msx2 and Msx3, the C-terminal domain was lost. MSX1 mutations associated with ectodermal dysplasia or orofacial clefting disorders map to conserved domains in a non-random fashion. Msx originated from a MetaHox ancestor that also gave rise to Tlx, Demox, NK, and possibly EHGbox, Hox and ParaHox genes. Duplication, divergence or loss of domains played a central role in the functional evolution of Msx. Duplicated domains allow pleiotropically expressed proteins to evolve new functions without disrupting existing interaction networks. Human missense sequence variants reside within evolutionarily conserved domains, likely disrupting protein function. This phylogenomic evaluation of candidate disease markers will inform clinical and functional studies.

  14. Domain duplication, divergence, and loss events in vertebrate Msx paralogs reveal phylogenomically informed disease markers

    Finnerty John R

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Msx originated early in animal evolution and is implicated in human genetic disorders. To reconstruct the functional evolution of Msx and inform the study of human mutations, we analyzed the phylogeny and synteny of 46 metazoan Msx proteins and tracked the duplication, diversification and loss of conserved motifs. Results Vertebrate Msx sequences sort into distinct Msx1, Msx2 and Msx3 clades. The sister-group relationship between MSX1 and MSX2 reflects their derivation from the 4p/5q chromosomal paralogon, a derivative of the original "MetaHox" cluster. We demonstrate physical linkage between Msx and other MetaHox genes (Hmx, NK1, Emx in a cnidarian. Seven conserved domains, including two Groucho repression domains (N- and C-terminal, were present in the ancestral Msx. In cnidarians, the Groucho domains are highly similar. In vertebrate Msx1, the N-terminal Groucho domain is conserved, while the C-terminal domain diverged substantially, implying a novel function. In vertebrate Msx2 and Msx3, the C-terminal domain was lost. MSX1 mutations associated with ectodermal dysplasia or orofacial clefting disorders map to conserved domains in a non-random fashion. Conclusion Msx originated from a MetaHox ancestor that also gave rise to Tlx, Demox, NK, and possibly EHGbox, Hox and ParaHox genes. Duplication, divergence or loss of domains played a central role in the functional evolution of Msx. Duplicated domains allow pleiotropically expressed proteins to evolve new functions without disrupting existing interaction networks. Human missense sequence variants reside within evolutionarily conserved domains, likely disrupting protein function. This phylogenomic evaluation of candidate disease markers will inform clinical and functional studies.

  15. Expression of Msx genes in regenerating and developing limbs of axolotl.

    Koshiba, K; Kuroiwa, A; Yamamoto, H; Tamura, K; Ide, H

    1998-12-15

    Msx genes, homeobox-containing genes, have been isolated as homologues of the Drosophila msh gene and are thought to play important roles in the development of chick or mouse limb buds. We isolated two Msx genes, Msx1 and Msx2, from regenerating blastemas of axolotl limbs and examined their expression patterns using Northern blot and whole mount in situ hybridization during regeneration and development. Northern blot analysis revealed that the expression level of both Msx genes increased during limb regeneration. The Msx2 expression level increased in the blastema at the early bud stage, and Msx1 expression level increased at the late bud stage. Whole mount in situ hybridization revealed that Msx2 was expressed in the distal mesenchyme and Msx1 in the entire mesenchyme of the blastema at the late bud stage. In the developing limb bud, Msx1 was expressed in the entire mesenchyme, while Msx2 was expressed in the distal and peripheral mesenchyme. The expression patterns of Msx genes in the blastemas and limb buds of the axolotl were different from those reported for chick or mouse limb buds. These expression patterns of axolotl Msx genes are discussed in relation to the blastema or limb bud morphology and their possible roles in limb patterning.

  16. Isolation, characterization, and expression of Le-msx, a maternally expressed member of the msx gene family from the glossiphoniid leech, Helobdella.

    Master, V A; Kourakis, M J; Martindale, M Q

    1996-12-01

    The msx gene family is one of the most highly conserved of the nonclustered homeobox-containing genes. We have isolated an msx homolog (Le-msx) from the glossiphoniid leech, Helobdella robusta, and characterized its pattern of expression by whole mount in situ hybridization. In situ expression and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) data results show that Le-msx is a maternal transcript initially uniformly distributed in the cortex of immature oocytes that becomes asymmetrically localized to the polar regions of the uncleaved zygote. This is the earliest reported expression for the msx gene family and the first maternally expressed homeodomain-containing transcription factor reported in annelids. During embryonic development, Le-msx is expressed in all 10 embryonic stem cells and their segmental founder cell descendants. At midembryonic stages, Le-msx is expressed in the expanding germinal plate. Le-msx is confined to the central nervous system and nephridia at late (stage 9) stages and subsequently disappears from nephridia. In addition, we present a phylogenetic hypothesis for the evolution of the msx gene family, including the identification of a putative C. elegans msx homolog and the realignment of the sponge msx homolog to the NK class of homeodomain genes.

  17. Msx2 Plays a central Role in Regulating Branching Morphogenesis During Mammary Development

    Liu, Yi-Hsin

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the role of a transcriptional factor, Msx2, in regulating branching events in the development of the mouse mammary gland To define the function of Msx2 gene...

  18. Biomineralization, life-time of odontogenic cells and differential expression of the two homeobox genes MSX-1 and DLX-2 in transgenic mice.

    Lézot, F; Thomas, B; Hotton, D; Forest, N; Orestes-Cardoso, S; Robert, B; Sharpe, P; Berdal, A

    2000-03-01

    Msx and Dlx homeobox genes encode for transcription factors that control early morphogenesis. More specifically, Msx-1, Msx-2, and Dlx-2 homeobox genes contribute to the initial patterning of the dentition. The present study is devoted to the potential role of those homeobox genes during the late formation of mineralized tissues, using the rodent incisor as an experimental system. The continuously erupting mandibular incisor allows (1) the coinvestigation of the whole sequences of amelogenesis and dentinogenesis, aligned along the main dental axis in a single sample in situ and (2) the differential characterization of transcripts generated by epithelial and ectomesenchymal odontogenic cells. Northern blot experiments on microdissected cells showed the continuing expression of Msx-2 and Dlx-2 in the later stages of dental biomineralization, differentially in epithelial and ectomesenchymal compartments. Transgenic mice produced with LacZ reporter constructs for Dlx-2 and Msx-1 were used to detect different components of the gene expression patterns with the sensitive beta-galactosidase histoenzymology. The results show a prominent epithelial involvement of Dlx-2, with stage-specific variations in the cells involved in enamel formation. Quantitative analyses identified specific modulations of Dlx-2 expression in ameloblasts depending on the anatomical sites of the incisor, showing more specifically an inverse linear relationship between the Dlx-2 promoter activity level and enamel thickness. This investigation extends the role of homeoproteins to postmitotic stages, which would control secretory cell activity, in a site-specific manner as shown here for Dlx-2.

  19. Differential induction of four msx homeobox genes during fin development and regeneration in zebrafish.

    Akimenko, M A; Johnson, S L; Westerfield, M; Ekker, M

    1995-02-01

    To study the genetic regulation of growth control and pattern formation during fin development and regeneration, we have analysed the expression of four homeobox genes, msxA, msxB, msxC and msxD in zebrafish fins. The median fin fold, which gives rise to the unpaired fins, expresses these four msx genes during development. Transcripts of the genes are also present in cells of the presumptive pectoral fin buds. The most distal cells, the apical ectodermal ridge of the paired fins and the cleft and flanking cells of the median fin fold express all these msx genes with the exception of msxC. Mesenchymal cells underlying the most distal cells express all four genes. Expression of the msx genes in the fin fold and fin buds is transient and, by 3 days after fertilization, msx expression in the median fin fold falls below levels detectable by in situ hybridization. Although the fins of adult zebrafish normally have levels of msx transcripts undetectable by in situ hybridization, expression of all four genes is strongly reinduced during regeneration of both paired and unpaired fins. Induction of msx gene expression in regenerating caudal fins occurs as early as 30 hours postamputation. As the blastema forms, the levels of expression increase and reach a maximum between the third and fifth days. Then, msx expression progressively declines and disappears by day 12 when the caudal fin has grown back to its normal size. In the regenerating fin, the blastema cells that develop at the tip of each fin ray express msxB and msxC. Cells of the overlying epithelium express msxA and msxD, but do not express msxB or msxC. Amputations at various levels along the proximodistal axis of the fin suggest that msxB expression depends upon the position of the blastema, with cells of the rapidly proliferating proximal blastema expressing higher levels than the cells of the less rapidly proliferating distal blastema. Expression of msxC and msxD is independent of the position of the blastema cell

  20. Radiobiological experiments in space: a review

    Horneck, G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper deals mainly with results from space experiments on the biological effects of cosmic ray high charge, high energy (HZE) particles and on their potential interactions with the microgravity environment. So far, mainly with resting systems, such as viruses, bacterial spores, plant seeds or shrimp cysts, as well as in a few embryonic systems, methods have been applied to trace injuries to the passage of a single HZE particle of comic radiation Most effects point to damage to the genetic material such as mutations, tumour induction, chromosomal aberrations, cell inactivation, or development anomalies. Using higher organisms, including mammals, a few attempts have been made to identify tissue damage along the passage of single HZE particles, such as microscopically visible injury in brain or eyes, or the light flash sensation. The latter, correlated with orbital parameters, showed highest frequency during the passage of the South Atlantic Anomaly. To study potential interactions of ionizing radiation with microgravity, either additional irradiation was applied, pre-, in-, or post-flight, or a 1 g reference centrifuge was utilized in combination with methods of particle effect correlation. Especially in embryonic systems, synergistic interactions were observed in producing mutations or anomalies with high frequency. It is assumed that, among other mechanisms, microgravity might interfere with the function of DNA repair systems. On the basis of the results obtained on the biological effectiveness of radiation in space and in view of upcoming space activities with an increasing number of manned missions, perspectives are given for future experimental approaches in space radiation biology. (author)

  1. Possible involvement of MSX-2 homeoprotein in v-ras-induced transformation.

    Takahashi, C; Akiyama, N; Kitayama, H; Takai, S; Noda, M

    1997-04-01

    A truncated MSX-2 homeoprotein was found to induce flat reversion when expressed in v-Ki-ras-transformed NIH3T3 cells. Although the expression of endogenous MSX-2 gene is low in most of the normal adult tissues examined, it is frequently activated in carcinoma-derived cell lines. Likewise, the gene is inactive in untransformed cells but is transcriptionally activated after transformation by v-Ki-ras oncogene, suggesting that the intact MSX-2 may play a positive, rather than suppressive, role in cell transformation. To test this possibility, we isolated a full-length human MSX-2 cDNA and tested its activities in two cell systems: fibroblast and myoblast. In NIH3T3 fibroblasts, although the gene by itself failed to confer a transformed phenotype, antisense MSX-2 cDNA as well as truncated MSX-2 cDNA interfered with the transforming activities of both v-Ki-ras and v-raf oncogene. In C2C12 myoblasts, MSX-2 was found to suppress MyoD gene expression, as do activated ras oncogenes, under certain culture conditions, and truncated MSX-2 cDNA was found to inhibit the activities of both MSX-2 and ras in this system as well. Our findings not only suggest that the truncated version MSX-2 may act as a dominant suppressor of intact MSX-2 but also raise the possibility that MSX-2 gene may be an important downstream target for the Ras signaling pathways.

  2. The murine homeobox gene Msx-3 shows highly restricted expression in the developing neural tube.

    Shimeld, S M; McKay, I J; Sharpe, P T

    1996-04-01

    The mouse homeobox-genes Msx-1 and Msx-2 are expressed in several areas of the developing embryo, including the neural tube, neural crest, facial processes and limb buds. Here we report the characterisation of a third mouse Msx gene, which we designate Msx-3. The embryonic expression of Msx-3 was found to differ from that of Msx-1 and -2 in that it was confined to the dorsal neural tube. In embryos with 5-8 somites a segmental pattern of expression was observed in the hindbrain, with rhombomeres 3 and 5 lacking Msx-3 while other rhombomeres expressed Msx-3. This pattern was transient, however, such that in embryos with 18 or more somites expression was continuous throughout the dorsal hindbrain and anterior dorsal spinal cord. Differentiation of dorsal cell types in the neural tube can be induced by addition of members of the Tgf-beta family. Additionally, Msx-1 and -2 have been shown to be activated by addition of the Tgf-beta family member Bmp-4. To determine if Bmp-4 could activate Msx-3, we incubated embryonic hindbrain explants with exogenous Bmp-4. The dorsal expression of Msx-3 was seen to expand into more ventral regions of the neurectoderm in Bmp-4-treated cultures, implying that Bmp-4 may be able to mimic an in vivo signal that induces Msx-3.

  3. First results of transcritical magnetized collisionless shock studies on MSX

    Weber, T. E.; Smith, R. J.; Hutchinson, T. M.; Taylor, S. F.; Hsu, S. C.

    2014-10-01

    Magnetized collisionless shocks exhibit transitional length and time scales much shorter than can be created through collisional processes. They are common throughout the cosmos, but have historically proven difficult to create in the laboratory. The Magnetized Shock Experiment (MSX) at LANL produces super-Alfvénic shocks through the acceleration and subsequent stagnation of Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) plasmoids against a strong magnetic mirror and flux-conserving vacuum boundary. Plasma flows have been produced with sonic and Alfvén Mach numbers up to ~10 over a wide range of plasma beta with embedded perpendicular, oblique, and parallel magnetic field. Macroscopic ion skin-depth and long ion-gyroperiod enable diagnostic access to relevant shock physics using common methods. Variable plasmoid velocity, density, temperature, and magnetic field provide access to a wide range of shock conditions, and a campaign to study the physics of transcritical and supercritical shocks within the FRC plasmoid is currently underway. An overview of the experimental design, diagnostics suite, physics objectives, and recent results will be presented. Supported by DOE Office of Fusion Energy Sciences under DOE Contract DE-AC52-06NA25369.

  4. Analysis of Msx1 and Msx2 transactivation function in the context of the heat shock 70 (Hspa1b) gene promoter.

    Zhuang, Fengfeng; Nguyen, Manuel P; Shuler, Charles; Liu, Yi-Hsin

    2009-04-03

    Previous studies have shown that Msx proteins control gene transcription predominantly through repression mechanisms. However, gene expression studies using either the gain-of-function or the loss-of-function mutants revealed many gene targets whose expression require functional Msx proteins. To date, investigations into the mechanisms of Msx-dependent transactivation have been hindered by the lack of a responsive promoter. Here, we demonstrated the usefulness of the mouse Hspa1b promoter in probing Msx-dependent mechanisms of gene activation. We showed that Msx protein activates Hspa1b promoter via its C-terminal domain. The activation absolutely depends on the HSEs and physical interactions between Msx proteins and heat shock factors may play a contributing role.

  5. Anyalysis of Msx1 and Msx2 Transactivation Function in the Context of the Heat Shock 70 (Hspa1b) Gene Promoter

    Zhuang, Fengfeng; Nguyen, Manuel P.; Shuler, Charles; Liu, Yi-Hsin

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that Msx proteins control gene transcription predominantly through repression mechanisms. However, gene expression studies using either the gain-of-function or the loss-of-function mutants revealed many gene targets whose expression require functional Msx proteins. To date, investigations into the mechanisms of Msx-dependent trans-activation have been hindered by the lack of a responsive promoter. Here, we demonstrated the usefulness of the mouse Hspa1b promoter in probing Msx-dependent mechanisms of gene activation. We showed that Msx protein activates Hspa1b promoter via its C-terminal domain. The activation absolutely depends on the HSEs and physical interactions between Msx proteins and Heat shock factors may play a contributing role. PMID:19338779

  6. MSX-3D: a tool to validate 3D protein models using mass spectrometry.

    Heymann, Michaël; Paramelle, David; Subra, Gilles; Forest, Eric; Martinez, Jean; Geourjon, Christophe; Deléage, Gilbert

    2008-12-01

    The technique of chemical cross-linking followed by mass spectrometry has proven to bring valuable information about the protein structure and interactions between proteic subunits. It is an effective and efficient way to experimentally investigate some aspects of a protein structure when NMR and X-ray crystallography data are lacking. We introduce MSX-3D, a tool specifically geared to validate protein models using mass spectrometry. In addition to classical peptides identifications, it allows an interactive 3D visualization of the distance constraints derived from a cross-linking experiment. Freely available at http://proteomics-pbil.ibcp.fr

  7. Crystal structure of the Msx-1 homeodomain/DNA complex.

    Hovde, S; Abate-Shen, C; Geiger, J H

    2001-10-09

    The Msx-1 homeodomain protein plays a crucial role in craniofacial, limb, and nervous system development. Homeodomain DNA-binding domains are comprised of 60 amino acids that show a high degree of evolutionary conservation. We have determined the structure of the Msx-1 homeodomain complexed to DNA at 2.2 A resolution. The structure has an unusually well-ordered N-terminal arm with a unique trajectory across the minor groove of the DNA. DNA specificity conferred by bases flanking the core TAAT sequence is explained by well ordered water-mediated interactions at Q50. Most interactions seen at the TAAT sequence are typical of the interactions seen in other homeodomain structures. Comparison of the Msx-1-HD structure to all other high resolution HD-DNA complex structures indicate a remarkably well-conserved sphere of hydration between the DNA and protein in these complexes.

  8. [Construction and functional identification of eukaryotic expression vector carrying Sprague-Dawley rat MSX-2 gene].

    Yang, Xian-Xian; Zhang, Mei; Yan, Zhao-Wen; Zhang, Ru-Hong; Mu, Xiong-Zheng

    2008-01-01

    To construct a high effective eukaryotic expressing plasmid PcDNA 3.1-MSX-2 encoding Sprague-Dawley rat MSX-2 gene for the further study of MSX-2 gene function. The full length SD rat MSX-2 gene was amplified by PCR, and the full length DNA was inserted in the PMD1 8-T vector. It was isolated by restriction enzyme digest with BamHI and Xhol, then ligated into the cloning site of the PcDNA3.1 expression plasmid. The positive recombinant was identified by PCR analysis, restriction endonudease analysis and sequence analysis. Expression of RNA and protein was detected by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis in PcDNA3.1-MSX-2 transfected HEK293 cells. Sequence analysis and restriction endonudease analysis of PcDNA3.1-MSX-2 demonstrated that the position and size of MSX-2 cDNA insertion were consistent with the design. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis showed specific expression of mRNA and protein of MSX-2 in the transfected HEK293 cells. The high effective eukaryotic expression plasmid PcDNA3.1-MSX-2 encoding Sprague-Dawley Rat MSX-2 gene which is related to craniofacial development can be successfully reconstructed. It may serve as the basis for the further study of MSX-2 gene function.

  9. Anyalysis of Msx1 and Msx2 Transactivation Function in the Context of the Heat Shock 70 (Hspa1b) Gene Promoter

    Zhuang, Fengfeng; Nguyen, Manuel P.; Shuler, Charles; Liu, Yi-Hsin

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that Msx proteins control gene transcription predominantly through repression mechanisms. However, gene expression studies using either the gain-of-function or the loss-of-function mutants revealed many gene targets whose expression require functional Msx proteins. To date, investigations into the mechanisms of Msx-dependent trans-activation have been hindered by the lack of a responsive promoter. Here, we demonstrated the usefulness of the mouse Hspa1b promoter in...

  10. The human homeobox genes MSX-1, MSX-2, and MOX-1 are differentially expressed in the dermis and epidermis in fetal and adult skin.

    Stelnicki, E J; Kömüves, L G; Holmes, D; Clavin, W; Harrison, M R; Adzick, N S; Largman, C

    1997-10-01

    In order to identify homeobox genes which may regulate skin development and possibly mediate scarless fetal wound healing we have screened amplified human fetal skin cDNAs by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using degenerate oligonucleotide primers designed against highly conserved regions within the homeobox. We identified three non-HOX homeobox genes, MSX-1, MSX-2, and MOX-1, which were differentially expressed in fetal and adult human skin. MSX-1 and MSX-2 were detected in the epidermis, hair follicles, and fibroblasts of the developing fetal skin by in situ hybridization. In contrast, MSX-1 and MSX-2 expression in adult skin was confined to epithelially derived structures. Immunohistochemical analysis of these two genes suggested that their respective homeoproteins may be differentially regulated. While Msx-1 was detected in the cell nucleus of both fetal and adult skin; Msx-2 was detected as a diffuse cytoplasmic signal in fetal epidermis and portions of the hair follicle and dermis, but was localized to the nucleus in adult epidermis. MOX-1 was expressed in a pattern similar to MSX early in gestation but then was restricted exclusively to follicular cells in the innermost layer of the outer root sheath by 21 weeks of development. Furthermore, MOX-1 expression was completely absent in adult cutaneous tissue. These data imply that each of these homeobox genes plays a specific role in skin development.

  11. Msx1 is expressed in retina endothelial cells at artery branching sites

    Miguel Lopes

    2012-02-01

    Msx1 and Msx2 encode homeodomain transcription factors that play a role in several embryonic developmental processes. Previously, we have shown that in the adult mouse, Msx1lacZ is expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs and pericytes, and that Msx2lacZ is also expressed in VSMCs as well as in a few endothelial cells (ECs. The mouse retina and choroid are two highly vascularized tissues. Vessel alterations in the retina are associated with several human diseases and the retina has been intensely used for angiogenesis studies, whereas the choroid has been much less investigated. Using the Msx1lacZ and Msx2lacZ reporter alleles, we observed that Msx2 is not expressed in the eye vascular tree in contrast to Msx1, for which we establish the spatial and temporal expression pattern in these tissues. In the retina, expression of Msx1 takes place from P3, and by P10, it becomes confined to a subpopulation of ECs at branching points of superficial arterioles. These branching sites are characterized by a subpopulation of mural cells that also show specific expression programs. Specific Msx gene inactivation in the endothelium, using Msx1 and Msx2 conditional mutant alleles together with a Tie2-Cre transgene, did not lead to conspicuous structural defects in the retinal vascular network. Expression of Msx1 at branching sites might therefore be linked to vessel physiology. The retinal blood flow is autonomously regulated and perfusion of capillaries has been proposed to depend on arteriolar precapillary structures that might be the sites for Msx1 expression. On the other hand, branching sites are subject to shear stress that might induce Msx1 expression. In the choroid vascular layer Msx1lacZ is expressed more broadly and dynamically. At birth Msx1lacZ expression takes place in the endothelium but at P21 its expression has shifted towards the mural layer. We discuss the possible functions of Msx1 in the eye vasculature.

  12. Msx1 is expressed in retina endothelial cells at artery branching sites.

    Lopes, Miguel; Goupille, Olivier; Saint Cloment, Cécile; Robert, Benoît

    2012-04-15

    Msx1 and Msx2 encode homeodomain transcription factors that play a role in several embryonic developmental processes. Previously, we have shown that in the adult mouse, Msx1(lacZ) is expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and pericytes, and that Msx2(lacZ) is also expressed in VSMCs as well as in a few endothelial cells (ECs). The mouse retina and choroid are two highly vascularized tissues. Vessel alterations in the retina are associated with several human diseases and the retina has been intensely used for angiogenesis studies, whereas the choroid has been much less investigated. Using the Msx1(lacZ) and Msx2(lacZ) reporter alleles, we observed that Msx2 is not expressed in the eye vascular tree in contrast to Msx1, for which we establish the spatial and temporal expression pattern in these tissues. In the retina, expression of Msx1 takes place from P3, and by P10, it becomes confined to a subpopulation of ECs at branching points of superficial arterioles. These branching sites are characterized by a subpopulation of mural cells that also show specific expression programs. Specific Msx gene inactivation in the endothelium, using Msx1 and Msx2 conditional mutant alleles together with a Tie2-Cre transgene, did not lead to conspicuous structural defects in the retinal vascular network. Expression of Msx1 at branching sites might therefore be linked to vessel physiology. The retinal blood flow is autonomously regulated and perfusion of capillaries has been proposed to depend on arteriolar precapillary structures that might be the sites for Msx1 expression. On the other hand, branching sites are subject to shear stress that might induce Msx1 expression. In the choroid vascular layer Msx1(lacZ) is expressed more broadly and dynamically. At birth Msx1(lacZ) expression takes place in the endothelium but at P21 its expression has shifted towards the mural layer. We discuss the possible functions of Msx1 in the eye vasculature.

  13. MSX-Basis program for analyzing of gamma radiation spectra

    Marin, E.; Hernandez, M.; Soto Moran, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    A MSX-Basic language program, called ESPEC-1, which provides a very flexible data reduction facility during gamma spectrum analysis applications, is described. The program provides the performance needed for demonstrative uses, and ease of operation for the laboratory classroom

  14. MSX-Basis program for analyzing of gamma radiation spectra

    Soto Moran, R.L.; Marin, E.; Hernandez, M.

    1992-01-01

    A MSX-Basic language program, called ESPEC-2, which carries out the analytical evaluation of gamma spectrum and involves an smoothing routine, a zero area rectangular transform to locate peaks, and a Gaussian fitting technique for the peaks, is described. The program provides the performance needed for demonstrative uses, and ease of operation for the laboratory classroom

  15. The evolution of hydrocarbons past the asymptotic giant branch: the case of MSX SMC 029

    Pauly, Tyler; Sloan, Gregory C.; Kraemer, Kathleen E.; Bernard-Salas, Jeronimo; Lebouteiller, Vianney; Goes, Christopher; Barry, Donald

    2015-01-01

    We present an optimally extracted high-resolution spectrum of MSX SMC 029 obtained by the Infrared Spectrograph on the Spitzer Space Telescope. MSX SMC 029 is a carbon-rich object in the Small Magellanic Cloud that has evolved past the asymptotic giant branch (AGB). The spectrum reveals a cool carbon-rich dust continuum with emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and absorption from simpler hydrocarbons, both aliphatic and aromatic, including acetylene and benzene. The spectrum shows many similarities to the carbon-rich post-AGB objects SMP LMC 011 in the Large Magellanic Cloud and AFGL 618 in the Galaxy. Both of these objects also show infrared absorption features from simple hydrocarbons. All three spectra lack strong atomic emission lines in the infrared, indicating that we are observing the evolution of carbon-rich dust and free hydrocarbons in objects between the AGB and planetary nebulae. These three objects give us a unique view of the elusive phase when hydrocarbons exist both as relatively simple molecules and the much more complex and ubiquitous PAHs. We may be witnessing the assembly of amorphous carbon into PAHs.

  16. [Comparative study of expression of homeobox gene Msx-1, Msx-2 mRNA during the hard tissue formation of mouse tooth development].

    Wang, Y; Wang, J; Gao, Y

    2001-07-01

    To observe and compare the expression pattern of Msx-1, Msx-2 mRNA during the different stages of hard tissue formation in the first mandibular molar of mouse and investigate the relationship between the two genes. First mandibular molar germs from 1, 3, 7 and 14-days old mouse were separated and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was performed on the total RNA of them using Msx-1, Msx-2 specific primers separately. Expression of both genes were detected during the different stages of hard tissue formation in the mouse first mandibular molars, but there was some interesting differences in the quantitiy between the two genes. Msx-1 transcripts appeared at the 1 day postnatally, and increase through 3 day, 7 day, then maximally expressed at 14 days postnatally; while Msx-2 mRNA was seen and expressed maximally at the 3 days postnatally, then there was a gradual reduction at 7 days, and 14 days postnatally. The homeobox gene Msx-1, Msx-2 may play a role in the events of the hard tissue formation. The complementary expression pattern of them during the specific stage of hard tissue formation indicates that there may be some functional redundancy between them during the biomineralization.

  17. Transmission of the haplosporidian parasite MSX Haplosporidium nelsoni to the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica in an upweller system.

    Sunila, I; Karolus, J; Lang, E P; Mroczka, M E; Volk, J

    2000-08-31

    The haplosporidian oyster parasite MSX (Multinucleated Sphere X) Haplosporidium nelsoni was transmitted to eastern oysters Crassostrea virginica. Hatchery-raised, MSX-free juvenile oysters were placed in upweller tanks. Water to the tanks was filtered through a screen with 1 mm2 openings and originated from the water column overlaying naturally infected oysters beds (MSX prevalence 17 to 57%). MSX was diagnosed by histopathological analysis. MSX-disease (57% prevalence) with increased mortality (19%) was observed 11 wk after the beginning of the exposure and mortality of 80% after 16 wk. The study demonstrates transmission of MSX via water-borne infectious agents capable of passing through a 1 mm filter.

  18. Msx2 alters the timing of retinal ganglion cells fate commitment and differentiation

    Jiang, Shao-Yun, E-mail: jiangshaoyun@yahoo.com [School of Dentistry, Tianjin Medical University, 12 Qi Xiang Tai Street, Tianjin 300070 (China); Wang, Jian-Tao, E-mail: wangjiantao65@hotmail.com [Eye Center, Tianjin Medical University, 64 Tongan Road, Tianjin 300070 (China); Dohney Eye Institute, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, 1355 San Pablo Street, DOH 314, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States)

    2010-05-14

    Timing of cell fate commitment determines distinct retinal cell types, which is believed to be controlled by a tightly coordinated regulatory program of proliferation, cell cycle exit and differentiation. Although homeobox protein Msx2 could induce apoptosis of optic vesicle, it is unclear whether Msx2 regulates differentiation and cell fate commitment of retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) to retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). In this study, we show that overexpression of Msx2 transiently suppressed the expression of Cyclin D1 and blocked cell proliferation. Meanwhile, overexpression of Msx2 delayed the expression of RGC-specific differentiation markers (Math5 and Brn3b), which showed that Msx2 could affect the timing of RGCs fate commitment and differentiation by delaying the timing of cell cycle exit of retinal progenitors. These results indicate Msx2 possesses dual regulatory functions in controlling cell cycle progression of retinal RPCs and timing of RGCs differentiation.

  19. Centrifuge in space fluid flow visualization experiment

    Arnold, William A.; Wilcox, William R.; Regel, Liya L.; Dunbar, Bonnie J.

    1993-01-01

    A prototype flow visualization system is constructed to examine buoyancy driven flows during centrifugation in space. An axial density gradient is formed by imposing a thermal gradient between the two ends of the test cell. Numerical computations for this geometry showed that the Prandtl number plays a limited part in determining the flow.

  20. Uterine inactivation of muscle segment homeobox (Msx) genes alters epithelial cell junction proteins during embryo implantation

    Sun, Xiaofei; Park, Craig B.; Deng, Wenbo; Potter, S. Steven; Dey, Sudhansu K.

    2015-01-01

    Embryo implantation requires that the uterus differentiate into the receptive state. Failure to attain uterine receptivity will impede blastocyst attachment and result in a compromised pregnancy. The molecular mechanism by which the uterus transitions from the prereceptive to the receptive stage is complex, involving an intricate interplay of various molecules. We recently found that mice with uterine deletion of Msx genes (Msx1d/d/Msx2d/d) are infertile because of implantation failure associ...

  1. Uterine inactivation of muscle segment homeobox (Msx) genes alters epithelial cell junction proteins during embryo implantation.

    Sun, Xiaofei; Park, Craig B; Deng, Wenbo; Potter, S Steven; Dey, Sudhansu K

    2016-04-01

    Embryo implantation requires that the uterus differentiate into the receptive state. Failure to attain uterine receptivity will impede blastocyst attachment and result in a compromised pregnancy. The molecular mechanism by which the uterus transitions from the prereceptive to the receptive stage is complex, involving an intricate interplay of various molecules. We recently found that mice with uterine deletion ofMsxgenes (Msx1(d/d)/Msx2(d/d)) are infertile because of implantation failure associated with heightened apicobasal polarity of luminal epithelial cells during the receptive period. However, information on Msx's roles in regulating epithelial polarity remains limited. To gain further insight, we analyzed cell-type-specific gene expression by RNA sequencing of separated luminal epithelial and stromal cells by laser capture microdissection fromMsx1(d/d)/Msx2(d/d)and floxed mouse uteri on d 4 of pseudopregnancy. We found that claudin-1, a tight junction protein, and small proline-rich (Sprr2) protein, a major component of cornified envelopes in keratinized epidermis, were substantially up-regulated inMsx1(d/d)/Msx2(d/d)uterine epithelia. These factors also exhibited unique epithelial expression patterns at the implantation chamber (crypt) inMsx1(f/f)/Msx2(f/f)females; the patterns were lost inMsx1(d/d)/Msx2(d/d)epithelia on d 5, suggesting important roles during implantation. The results suggest thatMsxgenes play important roles during uterine receptivity including modulation of epithelial junctional activity.-Sun, X., Park, C. B., Deng, W., Potter, S. S., Dey, S. K. Uterine inactivation of muscle segment homeobox (Msx) genes alters epithelial cell junction proteins during embryo implantation. © FASEB.

  2. United States Army Space Experiment 601

    1992-07-29

    impossible to urinate except into a diaper . The LES is hot and humid, bulky and heavy, and is unacceptable for space flight. The risk versus comfort...that the DSP satellite solar panels -r::eived enough sunlight reflected from the Earth to completely power the spacecraft, making the CRU output voltage...that were excessively cloudy were excluded from the statistics (if > 90% of pixels in the sample had brightness values above the threshold). The solar

  3. INSPIRE - Premission. [Interactive NASA Space Physics Ionosphere Radio Experiment

    Taylor, William W. L.; Mideke, Michael; Pine, William E.; Ericson, James D.

    1992-01-01

    The Interactive NASA Space Physics Ionosphere Radio Experiment (INSPIRE) designed to assist in a Space Experiments with Particle Accelerators (SEPAC) project is discussed. INSPIRE is aimed at recording data from a large number of receivers on the ground to determine the exact propagation paths and absorption of radio waves at frequencies between 50 Hz and 7 kHz. It is indicated how to participate in the experiment that will involve high school classes, colleges, and amateur radio operators.

  4. Msx genes define a population of mural cell precursors required for head blood vessel maturation.

    Lopes, Miguel; Goupille, Olivier; Saint Cloment, Cécile; Lallemand, Yvan; Cumano, Ana; Robert, Benoît

    2011-07-01

    Vessels are primarily formed from an inner endothelial layer that is secondarily covered by mural cells, namely vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in arteries and veins and pericytes in capillaries and veinules. We previously showed that, in the mouse embryo, Msx1(lacZ) and Msx2(lacZ) are expressed in mural cells and in a few endothelial cells. To unravel the role of Msx genes in vascular development, we have inactivated the two Msx genes specifically in mural cells by combining the Msx1(lacZ), Msx2(lox) and Sm22α-Cre alleles. Optical projection tomography demonstrated abnormal branching of the cephalic vessels in E11.5 mutant embryos. The carotid and vertebral arteries showed an increase in caliber that was related to reduced vascular smooth muscle coverage. Taking advantage of a newly constructed Msx1(CreERT2) allele, we demonstrated by lineage tracing that the primary defect lies in a population of VSMC precursors. The abnormal phenotype that ensues is a consequence of impaired BMP signaling in the VSMC precursors that leads to downregulation of the metalloprotease 2 (Mmp2) and Mmp9 genes, which are essential for cell migration and integration into the mural layer. Improper coverage by VSMCs secondarily leads to incomplete maturation of the endothelial layer. Our results demonstrate that both Msx1 and Msx2 are required for the recruitment of a population of neural crest-derived VSMCs.

  5. Msx1 is expressed in retina endothelial cells at artery branching sites

    Miguel Lopes; Olivier Goupille; Cécile Saint Cloment; Benoît Robert

    2012-01-01

    Summary Msx1 and Msx2 encode homeodomain transcription factors that play a role in several embryonic developmental processes. Previously, we have shown that in the adult mouse, Msx1lacZ is expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and pericytes, and that Msx2lacZ is also expressed in VSMCs as well as in a few endothelial cells (ECs). The mouse retina and choroid are two highly vascularized tissues. Vessel alterations in the retina are associated with several human diseases and the ret...

  6. Expression of an Msx homeobox gene in ascidians: insights into the archetypal chordate expression pattern.

    Ma, L; Swalla, B J; Zhou, J; Dobias, S L; Bell, J R; Chen, J; Maxson, R E; Jeffery, W R

    1996-03-01

    The Msx homeobox genes are expressed in complex patterns during vertebrate development in conjunction with inductive tissue interactions. As a means of understanding the archetypal role of Msx genes in chordates, we have isolated and characterized an Msx gene in ascidians, protochordates with a relatively simple body plan. The Mocu Msx-a and McMsx-a genes, isolated from the ascidians Molgula oculata and Molgula citrina, respectively, have homeodomains that place them in the msh-like subclass of Msx genes. Therefore, the Molgula Msx-a genes are most closely related to the msh genes previously identified in a number of invertebrates. Southern blot analysis suggests that there are one or two copies of the Msx-a gene in the Molgula genome. Northern blot and RNase protection analysis indicate that Msx-a transcripts are restricted to the developmental stages of the life cycle. In situ hybridization showed that Msx-a mRNA first appears just before gastrulation in the mesoderm (presumptive notochord and muscle) and ectoderm (neural plate) cells. Transcript levels decline in mesoderm cells after the completion of gastrulation, but are enhanced in the folding neural plate during neurulation. Later, Msx-a mRNA is also expressed in the posterior ectoderm and in a subset of the tail muscle cells. The ectoderm and mesoderm cells that express Msx-a are undergoing morphogenetic movements during gastrulation, neurulation, and tail formation. Msx-a expression ceases after these cells stop migrating. The ascidian M. citrina, in which adult tissues and organs begin to develop precociously in the larva, was used to study Msx-a expression during adult development. Msx-a transcripts are expressed in the heart primordium and the rudiments of the ampullae, epidermal protrusions with diverse functions in the juvenile. The heart and ampullae develop in regions where mesenchyme cells interact with endodermal or epidermal epithelia. A comparison of the expression patterns of the Molgula genes

  7. Ectopic expression of Msx2 in mammalian myotubes recapitulates aspects of amphibian muscle dedifferentiation

    Atilgan Yilmaz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to urodele amphibians and teleost fish, mammals lack the regenerative responses to replace large body parts. Amphibian and fish regeneration uses dedifferentiation, i.e., reversal of differentiated state, as a means to produce progenitor cells to eventually replace damaged tissues. Therefore, induced activation of dedifferentiation responses in mammalian tissues holds an immense promise for regenerative medicine. Here we demonstrate that ectopic expression of Msx2 in cultured mouse myotubes recapitulates several aspects of amphibian muscle dedifferentiation. We found that MSX2, but not MSX1, leads to cellularization of myotubes and downregulates the expression of myotube markers, such as MHC, MRF4 and myogenin. RNA sequencing of myotubes ectopically expressing Msx2 showed downregulation of over 500 myotube-enriched transcripts and upregulation of over 300 myoblast-enriched transcripts. MSX2 selectively downregulated expression of Ptgs2 and Ptger4, two members of the prostaglandin pathway with important roles in myoblast fusion during muscle differentiation. Ectopic expression of Msx2, as well as Msx1, induced partial cell cycle re-entry of myotubes by upregulating CyclinD1 expression but failed to initiate S-phase. Finally, MSX2-induced dedifferentiation in mouse myotubes could be recapitulated by a pharmacological treatment with trichostatin A (TSA, bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4 and fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1. Together, these observations indicate that MSX2 is a major driver of dedifferentiation in mammalian muscle cells.

  8. Rocket experiment METS - Microwave Energy Transmission in Space

    Kaya, N.; Matsumoto, H.; Akiba, R.

    A Microwave Energy Transmission in Space (METS) rocket experiment is being planned by the Solar Power Satellite Working Group at the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science in Japan for the forthcoming International Space Year, 1992. The METS experiment is an advanced version of the previous MINIX rocket experiment (Matsumoto et al., 1990). This paper describes a conceptual design of the METS rocket experiment. It aims at verifying a newly developed microwave energy transmission system for space use and to study nonlinear effects of the microwave energy beam in the space plasma environment. A high power microwave of 936 W will be transmitted by the new phased-array antenna from a mother rocket to a separated target (daughter rocket) through the ionospheric plasma. The active phased-array system has a capability of focusing the microwave energy around any spatial point by controlling the digital phase shifters individually.

  9. Rocket experiment METS Microwave Energy Transmission in Space

    Kaya, N.; Matsumoto, H.; Akiba, R.

    A METS (Microwave Energy Transmission in Space) rocket experiment is being planned by the SPS (Solar Power Satellite) Working Group at the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) in Japan for the forthcoming International Space Year (ISY), 1992. The METS experiment is an advanced version of our MINIX rocket experiment. This paper describes the conceptual design for the METS rocket experiment. Aims are to verify the feasibility of a newly developed microwave energy transmission system designed for use in space and to study nonlinear effects of the microwave energy beam on space plasma. A high power microwave (936 W) will be transmitted by a new phase-array antenna from a mother rocket to a separate target (daughter rocket) through the Earth's ionospheric plasma. The active phased-array system has the capability of being able to focus the microwave energy at any spatial point by individually controlling the digital phase shifters.

  10. The Information Science Experiment System - The computer for science experiments in space

    Foudriat, Edwin C.; Husson, Charles

    1989-01-01

    The concept of the Information Science Experiment System (ISES), potential experiments, and system requirements are reviewed. The ISES is conceived as a computer resource in space whose aim is to assist computer, earth, and space science experiments, to develop and demonstrate new information processing concepts, and to provide an experiment base for developing new information technology for use in space systems. The discussion covers system hardware and architecture, operating system software, the user interface, and the ground communication link.

  11. The City's new hybrid experience spaces

    Andersson, Lasse; Kiib, Hans

    2007-01-01

    In a series of workshops in Danish cities during the last couple of years, we have been establishing new ways of working with a clear local perspective in the new global discourse on culture, creativity and urbanity - urban innovation and urban branding in what could be called the experience city...... serve as frameworks for traditional functions, while simultaneously taking on new roles, new meanings and new narratives. This article serves as the first tentative reflection on results from a workshop at the ‘Skanok 05'; a conference on the experience economy held in Aalborg, October 2005.In...

  12. Hybrid Experience Space for Cultural Heritage Communication

    Veirum, Niels Einar; Christensen, Mogens Fiil; Mayerhofer, Mikkel

    2006-01-01

    by daily use of experience products like computer-games, IMAX cinemas and theme parks featuring virtual reality installations. “It’s a question of stone-axe displays versus Disney-power installations” as one of the involved museum professionals point it, “but we don’t want any of these possibilities...

  13. The adenosine A2A antagonist MSX-3 reverses the effort-related effects of dopamine blockade: differential interaction with D1 and D2 family antagonists.

    Worden, Lila T; Shahriari, Mona; Farrar, Andrew M; Sink, Kelly S; Hockemeyer, Jörg; Müller, Christa E; Salamone, John D

    2009-04-01

    Brain dopamine (DA) participates in the modulation of instrumental behavior, including aspects of behavioral activation and effort-related choice behavior. Rats with impaired DA transmission reallocate their behavior away from food-seeking behaviors that have high response requirements, and instead select less effortful alternatives. Although accumbens DA is considered a critical component of the brain circuitry regulating effort-related choice behavior, emerging evidence demonstrates a role for adenosine A(2A) receptors. Adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonism has been shown to reverse the effects of DA antagonism. The present experiments were conducted to determine if this effect was dependent upon the subtype of DA receptor that was antagonized to produce the changes in effort-related choice. The adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonist MSX-3 (0.5-2.0 mg/kg IP) was assessed for its ability to reverse the effects of the D1 family antagonist SCH39166 (ecopipam; 0.2 mg/kg IP) and the D2 family antagonist eticlopride (0.08 mg/kg IP), using a concurrent lever pressing/chow feeding procedure. MSX-3 produced a substantial dose-related reversal of the effects of eticlopride on lever pressing and chow intake. At the highest dose of MSX-3, there was a complete reversal of the effects of eticlopride on lever pressing. In contrast, MSX-3 produced only a minimal attenuation of the effects of SCH39166, as measured by regression and effect size analyses. The greater ability of MSX-3 to reverse the effects of D2 vs. D1 blockade may be related to the colocalization of D2 and adenosine A(2A) receptors on the same population of striatal neurons.

  14. The function and evolution of Msx genes: pointers and paradoxes.

    Davidson, D

    1995-10-01

    The Msx genes of vertebrates comprise a small family of chromosomally unlinked homeobox-containing genes related to the Drosophila gene muscle-segment homeobox (msh). Despite their ancient pedigree, the Msx genes are expressed in a range of vertebrate-specific tissues, including neural crest, cranial sensory placodes, bone and teeth. They are active in numerous systems, which have been used as models to study pattern formation and tissue interaction, and are, therefore, attracting a growing interest among developmental biologists. But beyond their presumed role as transcription factors, we do not know what their functions are in the cell or the embryo. Here, I review recent evidence that is beginning to address this problem and might eventually increase our understanding of how the vertebrate embryo has evolved.

  15. NKL homeobox gene MSX1 acts like a tumor suppressor in NK-cell leukemia.

    Nagel, Stefan; Pommerenke, Claudia; Meyer, Corinna; Kaufmann, Maren; MacLeod, Roderick A F; Drexler, Hans G

    2017-09-15

    NKL homeobox gene MSX1 is physiologically expressed in lymphoid progenitors and subsequently downregulated in developing T- and B-cells. In contrast, elevated expression levels of MSX1 persist in mature natural killer (NK)-cells, indicating a functional role in this compartment. While T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) subsets exhibit aberrant overexpression of MSX1, we show here that in malignant NK-cells the level of MSX1 transcripts is aberrantly downregulated. Chromosomal deletions at 4p16 hosting the MSX1 locus have been described in NK-cell leukemia patients. However, NK-cell lines analyzed here showed normal MSX1 gene configurations, indicating that this aberration might be uncommon. To identify alternative MSX1 regulatory mechanisms we compared expression profiling data of primary normal NK-cells and malignant NK-cell lines. This procedure revealed several deregulated genes including overexpressed IRF4, MIR155HG and MIR17HG and downregulated AUTS2, EP300, GATA3 and HHEX. As shown recently, chromatin-modulator AUTS2 is overexpressed in T-ALL subsets where it mediates aberrant transcriptional activation of MSX1. Here, our data demonstrate that in malignant NK-cell lines AUTS2 performed MSX1 activation as well, but in accordance with downregulated MSX1 transcription therein we detected reduced AUTS2 expression, a small genomic deletion at 7q11 removing exons 3 and 4, and truncating mutations in exon 1. Moreover, genomic profiling and chromosomal analyses of NK-cell lines demonstrated amplification of IRF4 at 6p25 and deletion of PRDM1 at 6q21, highlighting their potential oncogenic impact. Functional analyses performed via knockdown or forced expression of these genes revealed regulatory network disturbances effecting downregulation of MSX1 which may underlie malignant development in NK-cells.

  16. Structural Design and Analysis of a Rigidizable Space Shuttle Experiment

    Holstein

    2004-01-01

    .... Once in space, the experiment will inflate and rigidize three composite structures and perform a vibration analysis on each by exciting the tubes using piezoelectric patches and collecting data via an accelerometer...

  17. MESSAGE 2 space experiment with Rhodospirillum rubrum S1H

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — R. rubrum S1H inoculated on solid agar rich media was sent to the ISS in October 2003 (MESSAGE-part 2 experiment). After 10 days flight R. rubrum cultures returned...

  18. Quadrupole transport experiment with space charge dominated cesium ion beam

    Faltens, A.; Keefe, D.; Kim, C.; Rosenblum, S.; Tiefenback, M.; Warwick, A.

    1984-08-01

    The purpose of the experiment is to investigate the beam current transport limit in a long quadrupole-focussed transport channel in the space charge dominated region where the space charge defocussing force is almost as large as the average focussing force of the channel

  19. Students' Experience of University Space: An Exploratory Study

    Cox, Andrew M.

    2011-01-01

    The last decade has seen a wave of new building across British universities, so that it would appear that despite the virtualization discourses around higher education, space still matters in learning. Yet studies of student experience of the physical space of the university are rather lacking. This paper explores the response of one group of…

  20. Some scoping experiments for a space reactor

    Alexander, C.A.; Ogden, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    Some scoping experiments were performed to evaluate fuel performance in a lithium heat pipe reactor operating at a nominal 1500K heat pipe temperature. Fuel-coolant and fuel-coolant-clad relationships showed that once a failed heat pipe occurs temperatures can rise high enough so that large concentrations of uranium can be transported by the vapor phase. Upon condensation this uranium would be capable of penetrating heat pipes adjacent to the failed pipe. The potential for propagation of failure exists with UO 2 and a lithium heat pipe. Changing the composition of the metal of the heat pipe would have only a second order effect on the kinetics of the failure mechanism. Uranium carbide and nitride were considered as potential fuels which are nonreactive in a lithium environment. At high temperatures the nitride would be favored because of its better compatibility with potential cladding materials. Compositions of UN with small additions of YN appear to offer very attractive properties for a compact high temperature high power density reactor

  1. Msx homeobox genes critically regulate embryo implantation by controlling paracrine signaling between uterine stroma and epithelium.

    Shanmugasundaram Nallasamy

    Full Text Available The mammalian Msx homeobox genes, Msx1 and Msx2, encode transcription factors that control organogenesis and tissue interactions during embryonic development. We observed overlapping expression of these factors in uterine epithelial and stromal compartments of pregnant mice prior to embryo implantation. Conditional ablation of both Msx1 and Msx2 in the uterus resulted in female infertility due to a failure in implantation. In these mutant mice (Msx1/2(d/d, the uterine epithelium exhibited persistent proliferative activity and failed to attach to the embryos. Gene expression profiling of uterine epithelium and stroma of Msx1/2(d/d mice revealed an elevated expression of several members of the Wnt gene family in the preimplantation uterus. Increased canonical Wnt signaling in the stromal cells activated β-catenin, stimulating the production of a subset of fibroblast growth factors (FGFs in these cells. The secreted FGFs acted in a paracrine manner via the FGF receptors in the epithelium to promote epithelial proliferation, thereby preventing differentiation of this tissue and creating a non-receptive uterus refractory to implantation. Collectively, these findings delineate a unique signaling network, involving Msx1/2, Wnts, and FGFs, which operate in the uterus at the time of implantation to control the mesenchymal-epithelial dialogue critical for successful establishment of pregnancy.

  2. Msx homeobox genes critically regulate embryo implantation by controlling paracrine signaling between uterine stroma and epithelium.

    Nallasamy, Shanmugasundaram; Li, Quanxi; Bagchi, Milan K; Bagchi, Indrani C

    2012-01-01

    The mammalian Msx homeobox genes, Msx1 and Msx2, encode transcription factors that control organogenesis and tissue interactions during embryonic development. We observed overlapping expression of these factors in uterine epithelial and stromal compartments of pregnant mice prior to embryo implantation. Conditional ablation of both Msx1 and Msx2 in the uterus resulted in female infertility due to a failure in implantation. In these mutant mice (Msx1/2(d/d)), the uterine epithelium exhibited persistent proliferative activity and failed to attach to the embryos. Gene expression profiling of uterine epithelium and stroma of Msx1/2(d/d) mice revealed an elevated expression of several members of the Wnt gene family in the preimplantation uterus. Increased canonical Wnt signaling in the stromal cells activated β-catenin, stimulating the production of a subset of fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) in these cells. The secreted FGFs acted in a paracrine manner via the FGF receptors in the epithelium to promote epithelial proliferation, thereby preventing differentiation of this tissue and creating a non-receptive uterus refractory to implantation. Collectively, these findings delineate a unique signaling network, involving Msx1/2, Wnts, and FGFs, which operate in the uterus at the time of implantation to control the mesenchymal-epithelial dialogue critical for successful establishment of pregnancy.

  3. Enamel protein regulation and dental and periodontal physiopathology in MSX2 mutant mice.

    Molla, Muriel; Descroix, Vianney; Aïoub, Muhanad; Simon, Stéphane; Castañeda, Beatriz; Hotton, Dominique; Bolaños, Alba; Simon, Yohann; Lezot, Frédéric; Goubin, Gérard; Berdal, Ariane

    2010-11-01

    Signaling pathways that underlie postnatal dental and periodontal physiopathology are less studied than those of early tooth development. Members of the muscle segment homeobox gene (Msx) family encode homeoproteins that show functional redundancy during development and are known to be involved in epithelial-mesenchymal interactions that lead to crown morphogenesis and ameloblast cell differentiation. This study analyzed the MSX2 protein during mouse postnatal growth as well as in the adult. The analysis focused on enamel and periodontal defects and enamel proteins in Msx2-null mutant mice. In the epithelial lifecycle, the levels of MSX2 expression and enamel protein secretion were inversely related. Msx2+/- mice showed increased amelogenin expression, enamel thickness, and rod size. Msx2-/- mice displayed compound phenotypic characteristics of enamel defects, related to both enamel-specific gene mutations (amelogenin and enamelin) in isolated amelogenesis imperfecta, and cell-cell junction elements (laminin 5 and cytokeratin 5) in other syndromes. These effects were also related to ameloblast disappearance, which differed between incisors and molars. In Msx2-/- roots, Malassez cells formed giant islands that overexpressed amelogenin and ameloblastin that grew over months. Aberrant expression of enamel proteins is proposed to underlie the regional osteopetrosis and hyperproduction of cellular cementum. These enamel and periodontal phenotypes of Msx2 mutants constitute the first case report of structural and signaling defects associated with enamel protein overexpression in a postnatal context.

  4. The homeobox gene Msx in development and transdifferentiation of jellyfish striated muscle.

    Galle, Sabina; Yanze, Nathalie; Seipel, Katja

    2005-01-01

    Bilaterian Msx homeobox genes are generally expressed in areas of cell proliferation and in association with multipotent progenitor cells. Likewise, jellyfish Msx is expressed in progenitor cells of the developing entocodon, a cell layer giving rise to the striated and smooth muscles of the medusa. However, in contrast to the bilaterian homologs, Msx gene expression is maintained at high levels in the differentiated striated muscle of the medusa in vivo and in vitro. This tissue exhibits reprogramming competence. Upon induction, the Msx gene is immediately switched off in the isolated striated muscle undergoing transdifferentiation, to be upregulated again in the emerging smooth muscle cells which, in a stem cell like manner, undergo quantal cell divisions producing two cell types, a proliferating smooth muscle cell and a differentiating nerve cell. This study indicates that the Msx protein may be a key component of the reprogramming machinery responsible for the extraordinary transdifferentation and regeneration potential of striated muscle in the hydrozoan jellyfish.

  5. Expression of Msx-2 during development, regeneration, and wound healing in axolotl limbs.

    Carlson, M R; Bryant, S V; Gardiner, D M

    1998-12-15

    Msx genes are transcription factors that are expressed during embryogenesis of developing appendages in regions of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. Various lines of evidence indicate that these genes function to maintain embryonic tissues in an undifferentiated, proliferative state. We have identified the axolotl homolog of Msx-2, and investigated its expression during limb development, limb regeneration, and wound healing. As in limb buds of higher vertebrates, axolotl Msx-2 is expressed in the apical epidermis and mesenchyme; however, its expression domain is more extensive, reflecting the broader region of the apical epidermal cap in amphibians. Msx-2 expression is downregulated at late stages of limb development, but is reexpressed within one hour after limb amputation. Msx-2 is also reexpressed during wound healing, and may be essential in the early stages of initiation of the limb regeneration cascade.

  6. MSX1 cooperates with histone H1b for inhibition of transcription and myogenesis.

    Lee, Hansol; Habas, Raymond; Abate-Shen, Cory

    2004-06-11

    During embryogenesis, differentiation of skeletal muscle is regulated by transcription factors that include members of the Msx homeoprotein family. By investigating Msx1 function in repression of myogenic gene expression, we identified a physical interaction between Msx1 and H1b, a specific isoform of mouse histone H1. We found that Msx1 and H1b bind to a key regulatory element of MyoD, a central regulator of skeletal muscle differentiation, where they induce repressed chromatin. Moreover, Msx1 and H1b cooperate to inhibit muscle differentiation in cell culture and in Xenopus animal caps. Our findings define a previously unknown function for "linker" histones in gene-specific transcriptional regulation.

  7. Biological and Medical Experiments on the Space Shuttle, 1981 - 1985

    Halstead, Thora W. (Editor); Dufour, Patricia A. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    This volume is the first in a planned series of reports intended to provide a comprehensive record of all the biological and medical experiments and samples flown on the Space Shuttle. Experiments described have been conducted over a five-year period, beginning with the first plant studies conducted on STS-2 in November 1981, and extending through STS 61-C, the last mission to fly before the tragic Challenger accident of January 1986. Experiments were sponsored within NASA not only by the Life Sciences Division of the Office of Space Science and Applications, but also by the Shuttle Student Involvement Program (SSIP) and the Get Away Special (GAS) Program. Independent medical studies were conducted as well on the Shuttle crew under the auspices of the Space Biomedical Research Institute at Johnson Space Center. In addition, cooperative agreements between NASA and foreign government agencies led to a number of independent experiments and also paved the way for the joint US/ESA Spacelab 1 mission and the German (DFVLR) Spacelab D-1. Experiments included: (1) medically oriented studies of the crew aimed at identifying, preventing, or treating health problems due to space travel; (2) projects to study morphological, physiological, or behavioral effects of microgravity on animals and plants; (3) studies of the effects of microgravity on cells and tissues; and (4) radiation experiments monitoring the spacecraft environment with chemical or biological dosimeters or testing radiation effects on simple organisms and seeds.

  8. Laboratory science with space data accessing and using space-experiment data

    van Loon, Jack J W A; Zell, Martin; Beysens, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    For decades experiments conducted on space stations like MIR and the ISS have been gathering data in many fields of research in the natural sciences, medicine and engineering. The European Union-sponsored ULISSE project focused on exploring the wealth of unique experimental data provided by revealing raw and metadata from these studies via an Internet Portal. This book complements the portal. It serves as a handbook of space experiments and describes the various types of experimental infrastructure areas of research in the life and physical sciences and technology space missions that hosted scientific experiments the types and structures of the data produced and how one can access the data through ULISSE for further research. The book provides an overview of the wealth of space experiment data that can be used for additional research and will inspire academics (e.g. those looking for topics for their PhD thesis) and research departments in companies for their continued development.

  9. Endogenous Msx1 antisense transcript: In vivo and in vitro evidences, structure, and potential involvement in skeleton development in mammals

    Blin-Wakkach, C.; Lezot, F.; Ghoul-Mazgar, S.; Hotton, D.; Monteiro, S.; Teillaud, C.; Pibouin, L.; Orestes-Cardoso, S.; Papagerakis, P.; Macdougall, M.; Robert, B.; Berdal, A.

    2001-01-01

    Msx1 is a key factor for the development of tooth and craniofacial skeleton and has been proposed to play a pivotal role in terminal cell differentiation. In this paper, we demonstrated the presence of an endogenous Msx1 antisense RNA (Msx1-AS RNA) in mice, rats, and humans. In situ analysis revealed that this RNA is expressed only in differentiated dental and bone cells with an inverse correlation with Msx1 protein. These in vivo data and overexpression of Msx1 sense and AS RNA in an odontob...

  10. Model Experiments for the Determination of Airflow in Large Spaces

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    Model experiments are one of the methods used for the determination of airflow in large spaces. This paper will discuss the formation of the governing dimensionless numbers. It is shown that experiments with a reduced scale often will necessitate a fully developed turbulence level of the flow....... Details of the flow from supply openings are very important for the determination of room air distribution. It is in some cases possible to make a simplified supply opening for the model experiment....

  11. Binding of [3H]MSX-2 (3-(3-hydroxypropyl)-7-methyl-8-(m-methoxystyryl)-1-propargylxanthine) to rat striatal membranes--a new, selective antagonist radioligand for A(2A) adenosine receptors.

    Müller, C E; Maurinsh, J; Sauer, R

    2000-01-01

    The present study describes the preparation and binding properties of a new, potent, and selective A(2A) adenosine receptor (AR) antagonist radioligand, [3H]3-(3-hydroxypropyl)-7-methyl-8-(m-methoxystyryl)-1-propargy lxanth ine ([3H]MSX-2). [3H]MSX-2 binding to rat striatal membranes was saturable and reversible. Saturation experiments showed that [3H]MSX-2 labeled a single class of binding sites with high affinity (K(d)=8.0 nM) and limited capacity (B(max)=1.16 fmol.mg(-1) of protein). The presence of 100 microM GTP, or 10 mM magnesium chloride, respectively, had no effect on [3H]MSX-2 binding. AR agonists competed with the binding of 1 nM [3H]MSX-2 with the following order of potency: 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA)>2-[4-(carboxyethyl)phenylethylamino]-5'-N-ethylcarboxami doaden osine (CGS-21680)>2-chloroadenosine (2-CADO)>N(6)-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA). AR antagonists showed the following order of potency: 8-(m-bromostyryl)-3, 7-dimethyl-1-propargylxanthine (BS-DMPX)>1, 3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine (DPCPX)>(R)-5, 6-dimethyl-7-(1-phenylethyl)-2-(4-pyridyl)-7H-pyrrolo[2, 3-d]pyrimidine-4-amine (SH-128)>3,7-dimethyl-1-propargylxanthine (DMPX)>caffeine. The K(i) values for antagonists were in accordance with data from binding studies with the agonist radioligand [3H]CGS21680, while agonist affinities were 3-7-fold lower. [3H]MSX-2 is a highly selective A(2A) AR antagonist radioligand exhibiting a selectivity of at least two orders of magnitude versus all other AR subtypes. The new radioligand shows high specific radioactivity (85 Ci/mmol, 3150 GBq/mmol) and acceptable nonspecific binding at rat striatal membranes of 20-30%, at 1 nM.

  12. Lead-Free Experiment in a Space Environment

    Blanche, J. F.; Strickland, S. M.

    2012-01-01

    This Technical Memorandum addresses the Lead-Free Technology Experiment in Space Environment that flew as part of the seventh Materials International Space Station Experiment outside the International Space Station for approximately 18 months. Its intent was to provide data on the performance of lead-free electronics in an actual space environment. Its postflight condition is compared to the preflight condition as well as to the condition of an identical package operating in parallel in the laboratory. Some tin whisker growth was seen on a flight board but the whiskers were few and short. There were no solder joint failures, no tin pest formation, and no significant intermetallic compound formation or growth on either the flight or ground units.

  13. Which Space? Whose Space? An Experience in Involving Students and Teachers in Space Design

    Casanova, Diogo; Di Napoli, Roberto; Leijon, Marie

    2018-01-01

    To date, learning spaces in higher education have been designed with little engagement on the part of their most important users: students and teachers. In this paper, we present the results of research carried out in a UK university. The research aimed to understand how students and teachers conceptualise learning spaces when they are given the…

  14. The Living With a Star Space Environment Testbed Experiments

    Xapsos, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    The focus of the Living With a Star (LWS) Space Environment Testbed (SET) program is to improve the performance of hardware in the space radiation environment. The program has developed a payload for the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Demonstration and Science Experiments (DSX) spacecraft that is scheduled for launch in August 2015 on the SpaceX Falcon Heavy rocket. The primary structure of DSX is an Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV) Secondary Payload Adapter (ESPA) ring. DSX will be in a Medium Earth Orbit (MEO). This oral presentation will describe the SET payload.

  15. Radiation dose assessment in space missions. The MATROSHKA experiment

    Reitz, Guenther

    2010-01-01

    The exact determination of radiation dose in space is a demanding and challenging task. Since January 2004, the International Space Station is equipped with a human phantom which is a key part of the MATROSHKA Experiment. The phantom is furnished with thousands of radiation sensors for the measurement of depth dose distribution, which has enabled the organ dose calculation and has demonstrated that personal dosemeter at the body surface overestimates the effective dose during extra-vehicular activity by more than a factor two. The MATROSHKA results serve to benchmark models and have therefore a large impact on the extrapolation of models to outer space. (author)

  16. MSX1 Mutation in Witkop Syndrome; A Case Report

    Faezeh Ghaderi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Witkop syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the absence of several teeth and abnormalities of the nails. This is the first report of a rare genetic tooth and nail syndrome diagnosed in a 2.5-year-old boy with early exfoliation of the primary canine, absence of the primary incisors, and nail dysplasia. A homozygous mutation was identified in 3’-UTR of MSX1 gene in the proband. The parents of the patient had no dental and nail anomalies.

  17. History of Los Alamos Participation in Active Experiments in Space

    Pongratz, Morris B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-02-06

    Beginning with the Teak nuclear test in 1958, Los Alamos has a long history of participation in active experiments in space. The last pertinent nuclear tests were the five explosions as part of the Dominic series in 1962. The Partial Test Ban Treaty signed in August 1963 prohibited all test detonations of nuclear weapons except for those conducted underground. Beginning with the “Apple” thermite barium release in June 1968 Los Alamos has participated in nearly 100 non-nuclear experiments in space, the last being the NASA-sponsored “AA-2” strontium and europium doped barium thermite releases in the Arecibo beam in July of 1992. The rationale for these experiments ranged from studying basic plasma processes such as gradientdriven structuring and velocity-space instabilities to illuminating the convection of plasmas in the ionosphere and polar cap to ionospheric depletion experiments to the B.E.A.R. 1-MeV neutral particle beam test in 1989. This report reviews the objectives, techniques and diagnostics of Los Alamos participation in active experiments in space.

  18. Cross-talk between Msx/Dlx homeobox genes and vitamin D during tooth mineralization.

    Lézot, F; Descroix, V; Mesbah, M; Hotton, D; Blin, C; Papagerakis, P; Mauro, N; Kato, S; MacDougall, M; Sharpe, P; Berdal, A

    2002-01-01

    Rickets is associated with site-specific disorders of enamel and dentin formation, which may reflect the impact of vitamin D on a morphogenetic pathway. This study is devoted to potential cross-talk between vitamin D and Msx/Dlx transcription factors. We raised the question of a potential link between tooth defects seen in mice with rickets and Msx2 gene misexpression, using mutant mice lacking the nuclear vitamin D receptor as an animal model. Our data showed a modulation of Msx2 expression. In order to search for a functional impact of this Msx2 misexpression secondary to rickets, we focused our attention on osteocalcin as a target gene for both vitamin D and Msx2. Combining Msx2 overexpression and vitamin D addition in vitro, we showed an inhibitory effect on osteocalcin expression in immortalized MO6-G3 odontoblasts. Finally, in the same cells, such combinations appeared to modulate VDR expression outlining the existence of complex cross-regulations between vitamin D and Msx/Dix pathways.

  19. Expression of bone morphogenetic proteins and Msx genes during root formation.

    Yamashiro, T; Tummers, M; Thesleff, I

    2003-03-01

    Like crown development, root formation is also regulated by interactions between epithelial and mesenchymml tissues. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), together with the transcription factors Msx1 and Msx2, play important roles in these interactions during early tooth morphogenesis. To investigate the involvement of this signaling pathway in root development, we analyzed the expression patterns of Bmp2, Bmp3, Bmp4, and Bmp7 as well as Msx1 and Msx2 in the roots of mouse molars. Bmp4 was expressed in the apical mesenchyme and Msx2 in the root sheath. However, Bmps were not detected in the root sheath epithelium, and Msx transcripts were absent from the underlying mesenchyme. These findings indicate that this Bmp signaling pathway, required for tooth initiation, does not regulate root development, but we suggest that root shape may be regulated by a mechanism similar to that regulating crown shape in cap-stage tooth germs. Msx2 expression continued in the epithelial cell rests of Malassez, and the nearby cementoblasts intensely expressed Bmp3, which may regulate some functions of the fragmented epithelium.

  20. Msx homeobox genes inhibit differentiation through upregulation of cyclin D1.

    Hu, G; Lee, H; Price, S M; Shen, M M; Abate-Shen, C

    2001-06-01

    During development, patterning and morphogenesis of tissues are intimately coordinated through control of cellular proliferation and differentiation. We describe a mechanism by which vertebrate Msx homeobox genes inhibit cellular differentiation by regulation of the cell cycle. We show that misexpression of Msx1 via retroviral gene transfer inhibits differentiation of multiple mesenchymal and epithelial progenitor cell types in culture. This activity of Msx1 is associated with its ability to upregulate cyclin D1 expression and Cdk4 activity, while Msx1 has minimal effects on cellular proliferation. Transgenic mice that express Msx1 under the control of the mouse mammary tumor virus long terminal repeat (MMTV LTR) display impaired differentiation of the mammary epithelium during pregnancy, which is accompanied by elevated levels of cyclin D1 expression. We propose that Msx1 gene expression maintains cyclin D1 expression and prevents exit from the cell cycle, thereby inhibiting terminal differentiation of progenitor cells. Our model provides a framework for reconciling the mutant phenotypes of Msx and other homeobox genes with their functions as regulators of cellular proliferation and differentiation during embryogenesis.

  1. Msx-2 expression and glucocorticoid-induced overexpression in embryonic mouse submandibular glands.

    Jaskoll, T; Luo, W; Snead, M L

    1998-01-01

    It is well known that the process of branching morphogenesis requires epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. One outstanding model for the study of tissue interactions during branching morphogenesis is the embryonic mouse submandibular gland (SMG). Although it has been clearly demonstrated that the branching pattern is dependent on interactions between the epithelium and the surrounding mesenchyme, little is known about the molecular mechanism underlying the branching process. One group of transcription factors that likely participates in the control of epithelial-mesenchymal inductive interactions are the Msx-class of homeodomain-containing proteins. In this paper, we focus on Msx-2 because its developmental expression is correlated with inductive interactions, suggesting that Msx-2 may play a functional role during cell-cell interactions. We demonstrate the expression of Msx-2 mRNA and protein to be primarily in the branching epithelia with progressive embryonic (E13 to E15) SMG development and, to a lesser extent, in the mesenchyme. We also show that Msx-2 is expressed by embryonic SMG primordia cultured under defined conditions. In addition, to begin to delineate a functional role for Msx-2, we employed an experimental strategy by using exogenous glucocorticoid (CORT) treatment of embryonic SMGs in vitro and in vivo to significantly enhance branching morphogenesis and evaluate the effect of CORT treatment on embryonic SMG Msx-2 expression. A marked increase in Msx-2 transcripts and protein is detected with in vitro and in vivo CORT treatment. Our studies indicate that one mechanism of CORT regulation of salivary gland morphogenesis is likely through the modulation of Msx-2 gene expression.

  2. Optical observations on critical ionization velocity experiments in space

    Stenbaek-Nielsen, H.C.

    1993-01-01

    A number of Critical Ionization Velocity (CIV) experiments have been performed in space. CIV has been observed in laboratory experiments, but experiments in space have been inconclusive. Most space experiments have used barium which ionizes easily, and with emission lines from both neutrals and ions in the visible optical observations can be made from the ground. Also other elements, such as xenon, strontium and calcium, have been used. High initial ionization in some barium release experiments has been claimed due to CIV. However, a number of reactions between barium and the ambient plasma have been suggested as more likely processes. Currently the most popular process in this debate is charge exchange with O + . This process has a large cross section, but is it large enough? The cross section for charge exchange with calcium should be even larger, but in a double release of barium and calcium (part of the NASA CRRES release experiments) most ionization was observed from the barium release. Moreover, if charge exchange is the dominant process, the amount of ionization should relate to the oxygen ion density, and that does not appear to be the case. Other processes, such as associative ionization, have also been proposed, but yields are uncertain because the reaction rates are very poorly known

  3. Cell culture experiments planned for the space bioreactor

    Morrison, Dennis R.; Cross, John H.

    1987-01-01

    Culturing of cells in a pilot-scale bioreactor remains to be done in microgravity. An approach is presented based on several studies of cell culture systems. Previous and current cell culture research in microgravity which is specifically directed towards development of a space bioprocess is described. Cell culture experiments planned for a microgravity sciences mission are described in abstract form.

  4. Sun Radio Interferometer Space Experiment (SunRISE)

    Kasper, Justin C.; SunRISE Team

    2018-06-01

    The Sun Radio Interferometer Space Experiment (SunRISE) is a NASA Heliophysics Explorer Mission of Opportunity currently in Phase A. SunRISE is a constellation of spacecraft flying in a 10-km diameter formation and operating as the first imaging radio interferometer in space. The purpose of SunRISE is to reveal critical aspects of solar energetic particle (SEP) acceleration at coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and transport into space by making the first spatially resolved observations of coherent Type II and III radio bursts produced by electrons accelerated at CMEs or released from flares. SunRISE will focus on solar Decametric-Hectometric (DH, 0.1 space before major SEP events, but cannot be seen on Earth due to ionospheric absorption. This talk will describe SunRISE objectives and implementation. Presented on behalf of the entire SunRISE team.

  5. Regulation of Calbindin-D28k Expression by Msx2 in the Dental Epithelium

    Bolaños, Alba; Hotton, Dominique; Ferbus, Didier; Loiodice, Sophia; Berdal, Ariane; Babajko, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    Amelogenesis involves the coordinated expression of a set of molecules that includes enamel matrix proteins and calcium-binding proteins. Msx2 is a member of the divergent homeobox gene family and is instrumental in dental morphogenesis and biomineralization. This study focused on an EF-hand calcium-binding protein, calbindin-D28k, which is highly expressed in dental epithelium. In vivo data showed that calbindin-D28k levels were higher in ameloblasts from Msx2+/− mice than Msx2+/+ mice. Cons...

  6. Space Life Sciences Research: The Importance of Long-Term Space Experiments

    1993-01-01

    This report focuses on the scientific importance of long-term space experiments for the advancement of biological science and the benefit of humankind. It includes a collection of papers that explore the scientific potential provided by the capability to manipulate organisms by removing a force that has been instrumental in the evolution and development of all organisms. Further, it provides the scientific justification for why the long-term space exposure that can be provided by a space station is essential to conduct significant research.

  7. Solar array experiments on the SPHINX satellite. [Space Plasma High voltage INteraction eXperiment satellite

    Stevens, N. J.

    1974-01-01

    The Space Plasma, High Voltage Interaction Experiment (SPHINX) is the name given to an auxiliary payload satellite scheduled to be launched in January 1974. The principal experiments carried on this satellite are specifically designed to obtain the engineering data on the interaction of high voltage systems with the space plasma. The classes of experiments are solar array segments, insulators, insulators with pin holes and conductors. The satellite is also carrying experiments to obtain flight data on three new solar array configurations: the edge illuminated-multijunction cells, the teflon encased cells, and the violet cells.

  8. In-space research, technology and engineering experiments and Space Station

    Tyson, Richard; Gartrell, Charles F.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Space Station will serve as a technology research laboratory, a payload-servicing facility, and a large structure fabrication and assembly facility. Space structures research will encompass advanced structural concepts and their dynamics, advanced control concepts, sensors, and actuators. Experiments dealing with fluid management will gather data on such fundamentals as multiphase flow phenomena. As requirements for power systems and thermal management grow, experiments quantifying the performance of energy systems and thermal management concepts will be undertaken, together with expanded efforts in the fields of information systems, automation, and robotics.

  9. Longevity of a Paramecium cell clone in space: Hypergravity experiments as a basis for microgravity experiments

    Kato, Yuko; Mogami, Yoshihiro; Baba, Shoji A.

    We proposed a space experiment aboard International Space Station to explore the effects of microgravity on the longevity of a Paramecium cell clone. Earlier space experiments in CYTOS and Space Lab D-1 demonstrated that Paramecium proliferated faster in space. In combination with the fact that aging process in Paramecium is largely related to the fission age, the results of the proliferation experiment in space may predict that the longevity of Paramecium decreases when measured by clock time. In preparation of the space experiment, we assessed the aging process under hypergravity, which is known to reduce the proliferation rate. As a result, the length of autogamy immaturity increased when measured by clock time, whereas it remained unchanged by fission age. It is therefore expected that autogamy immaturity in the measure of the clock time would be shortened under microgravity. Since the length of clonal life span of Paramecium is related to the length of autogamy immaturity, the result of hypergravity experiment supports the prediction that the clonal longevity of Paramecium under microgravity decreases. Effects of gravity on proliferation are discussed in terms of energetics of swimming during gravikinesis and gravitaxis of Paramecium.

  10. Reduced homeobox protein MSX1 in human endometrial tissue is linked to infertility.

    Bolnick, Alan D; Bolnick, Jay M; Kilburn, Brian A; Stewart, Tamika; Oakes, Jonathan; Rodriguez-Kovacs, Javier; Kohan-Ghadr, Hamid-Reza; Dai, Jing; Diamond, Michael P; Hirota, Yasushi; Drewlo, Sascha; Dey, Sudhansu K; Armant, D Randall

    2016-09-01

    Is protein expression of the muscle segment homeobox gene family member MSX1 altered in the human secretory endometrium by cell type, developmental stage or fertility? MSX1 protein levels, normally elevated in the secretory phase endometrium, were significantly reduced in endometrial biopsies obtained from women of infertile couples. Molecular changes in the endometrium are important for fertility in both animals and humans. Msx1 is expressed in the preimplantation mouse uterus and regulates uterine receptivity for implantation. The MSX protein persists a short time, after its message has been down-regulated. Microarray analysis of the human endometrium reveals a similar pattern of MSX1 mRNA expression that peaks before the receptive period, with depressed expression at implantation. Targeted deletion of uterine Msx1 and Msx2 in mice prevents the loss of epithelial cell polarity during implantation and causes infertility. MSX1 mRNA and cell type-specific levels of MSX1 protein were quantified from two retrospective cohorts during the human endometrial cycle. MSX1 protein expression patterns were compared between fertile and infertile couples. Selected samples were dual-labeled by immunofluorescence microscopy to localize E-cadherin and β-catenin in epithelial cells. MSX1 mRNA was quantified by PCR in endometrium from hysterectomies (n = 14) determined by endometrial dating to be in the late-proliferative (cycle days 10-13), early-secretory (cycle days 14-19) or mid-secretory (cycle days 20-24) phase. MSX1 protein was localized using high-throughput, semi-quantitative immunohistochemistry with sectioned endometrial biopsy tissues from fertile (n = 89) and infertile (n = 89) couples. Image analysis measured stain intensity specifically within the luminal epithelium, glands and stroma during the early-, mid- and late- (cycle days 25-28) secretory phases. MSX1 transcript increased 5-fold (P MSX1 protein displayed strong nuclear localization in the luminal epithelium

  11. Laser transmitter for Lidar In-Space Technology Experiment

    Chang, John; Cimolino, Marc; Petros, Mulugeta

    1991-01-01

    The Lidar In-Space Technology Experiment (LITE) Laser Transmitter Module (LTM) flight laser optical architecture has been space qualified by extensive testing at the system, subsystem and component level. The projected system output performance has been verified using an optically and electrically similar breadboard version of the laser. Parasitic lasing was closely examined and completely suppressed after design changes were implemented and tested. Oscillator and amplifier type heads were separately tested to 150 million shots. Critical subassemblies have undergone environmental testing to Shuttle qualification levels. A superior three color anti-reflection coating was developed and tested for use on 14 surfaces after the final amplifier.

  12. Injections of the selective adenosine A2A antagonist MSX-3 into the nucleus accumbens core attenuate the locomotor suppression induced by haloperidol in rats.

    Ishiwari, Keita; Madson, Lisa J; Farrar, Andrew M; Mingote, Susana M; Valenta, John P; DiGianvittorio, Michael D; Frank, Lauren E; Correa, Merce; Hockemeyer, Jörg; Müller, Christa; Salamone, John D

    2007-03-28

    There is considerable evidence of interactions between adenosine A2A receptors and dopamine D2 receptors in striatal areas, and antagonists of the A2A receptor have been shown to reverse the motor effects of DA antagonists in animal models. The D2 antagonist haloperidol produces parkinsonism in humans, and also induces motor effects in rats, such as suppression of locomotion. The present experiments were conducted to study the ability of the adenosine A2A antagonist MSX-3 to reverse the locomotor effects of acute or subchronic administration of haloperidol in rats. Systemic (i.p.) injections of MSX-3 (2.5-10.0 mg/kg) were capable of attenuating the suppression of locomotion induced by either acute or repeated (i.e., 14 day) administration of 0.5 mg/kg haloperidol. Bilateral infusions of MSX-3 directly into the nucleus accumbens core (2.5 microg or 5.0 microg in 0.5 microl per side) produced a dose-related increase in locomotor activity in rats treated with 0.5 mg/kg haloperidol either acutely or repeatedly. There were no overall significant effects of MSX-3 infused directly into the dorsomedial nucleus accumbens shell or the ventrolateral neostriatum. These results indicate that antagonism of adenosine A2A receptors can attenuate the locomotor suppression produced by DA antagonism, and that this effect may be at least partially mediated by A2A receptors in the nucleus accumbens core. These studies suggest that adenosine and dopamine systems interact to modulate the locomotor and behavioral activation functions of nucleus accumbens core.

  13. Giving children space: A phenomenological exploration of student experiences in space science inquiry

    Horne, Christopher R.

    This study explores the experiences of 4th grade students in an inquiry-based space science classroom. At the heart of the study lies the essential question: What is the lived experience of children engaged in the process of space science inquiry? Through the methodology of phenomenological inquiry, the author investigates the essence of the lived experience of twenty 4th grade students as well as the reflections of two high school students looking back on their 4th grade space science experience. To open the phenomenon more deeply, the concept of space is explored as an overarching theme throughout the text. The writings of several philosophers including Martin Heidegger and Hans-Georg Gadamer are opened up to understand the existential aspects of phenomenology and the act of experiencing the classroom as a lived human experience. The methodological structure for the study is based largely on the work of Max van Manen (2003) in his seminal work, Researching Lived Experience, which describes a structure of human science research. A narrative based on classroom experiences, individual conversations, written reflections, and group discussion provides insight into the students' experiences. Their stories and thoughts reveal the themes of activity , interactivity, and "inquiractivity," each emerging as an essential element of the lived experience in the inquiry-based space science classroom. The metaphor of light brings illumination to the themes. Activity in the classroom is associated with light's constant and rapid motion throughout the Milky Way and beyond. Interactivity is seen through students' interactions just as light's reflective nature is seen through the illumination of the planets. Finally, inquiractivity is connected to questioning, the principal aspect of the inquiry-based classroom just as the sun is the essential source of light in our solar system. As the era of No Child Left Behind fades, and the next generation of science standards emerge, the

  14. Advanced Life Support Project: Crop Experiments at Kennedy Space Center

    Sager, John C.; Stutte, Gary W.; Wheeler, Raymond M.; Yorio, Neil

    2004-01-01

    Crop production systems provide bioregenerative technologies to complement human crew life support requirements on long duration space missions. Kennedy Space Center has lead NASA's research on crop production systems that produce high value fresh foods, provide atmospheric regeneration, and perform water processing. As the emphasis on early missions to Mars has developed, our research focused on modular, scalable systems for transit missions, which can be developed into larger autonomous, bioregenerative systems for subsequent surface missions. Components of these scalable systems will include development of efficient light generating or collecting technologies, low mass plant growth chambers, and capability to operate in the high energy background radiation and reduced atmospheric pressures of space. These systems will be integrated with air, water, and thermal subsystems in an operational system. Extensive crop testing has been done for both staple and salad crops, but limited data is available on specific cultivar selection and breadboard testing to meet nominal Mars mission profiles of a 500-600 day surface mission. The recent research emphasis at Kennedy Space Center has shifted from staple crops, such as wheat, soybean and rice, toward short cycle salad crops such as lettuce, onion, radish, tomato, pepper, and strawberry. This paper will review the results of crop experiments to support the Exploration Initiative and the ongoing development of supporting technologies, and give an overview of capabilities of the newly opened Space Life Science (SLS) Lab at Kennedy Space Center. The 9662 square m (104,000 square ft) SLS Lab was built by the State of Florida and supports all NASA research that had been performed in Hanger-L. In addition to NASA research, the SLS Lab houses the Florida Space Research Institute (FSRI), responsible for co-managing the facility, and the University of Florida (UF) has established the Space Agriculture and Biotechnology Research and

  15. Modal survey testing of the Lidar In-space Technology Experiment (LITE) - A Space Shuttle payload

    Anderson, J. B.; Coleman, A. D.; Driskill, T. C.; Lindell, M. C.

    This paper presents the results of the modal survey test of the Lidar In-space Technology Experiment (LITE), a Space Shuttle payload mounted in a Spacelab flight single pallet. The test was performed by the Dynamics Test Branch at Marshall Space Flight Center, AL and run in two phases. In the first phase, an unloaded orthogrid connected to the pallet with 52 tension struts was tested. This test included 73 measurement points in three directions. In the second phase, the pallet was integrated with mass simulators mounted on the flight support structure to represent the dynamics (weight and center of gravity) of the various components comprising the LITE experiment and instrumented at 213 points in 3 directions. The test article was suspended by an air bag system to simulate a free-free boundary condition. This paper presents the results obtained from the testing and analytical model correlation efforts. The effect of the suspension system on the test article is also discussed.

  16. Report of space experiment project, 'Rad Gene', performed in the International Space Station Kibo

    Ohnishi, Takeo; Takahashi, Akihisa; Nagamatsu, Aiko

    2010-01-01

    This report summarizes results of the project in the title adopted by Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) (in 2000) aiming to elucidate the biological effect of space environment, and contains 3 major parts of the process of the experiment, and of findings by analysis after flight and in radioadaptive response. The process for the experiment includes training of the experimenter crew (Dr. S. Magnus) in JAXA, preparation of samples (frozen cells with normal and mutated p53 genes derived from human lymphoblast TK6) and their transfer to the Space Shuttle Endeavour STS-126 launched on Nov. 15, 2008 (Japanese time) for cell culturing in Feb., 2009. Analyses after flight back to the Kennedy Space Center on Mar. 29, 2009, done on the ground in Japan thereafter include the physical evaluation, confirmation of DNA damage, and phenotypic expression with DNA- and protein-arrays (genes induced for expression of p53-related phenotypes in those cells which were stored frozen in the space, thawed on the ground and then cultured, genes induced for expressing the phenotypes and p53-related proteins expressed in cells cultured in space). Physically, total absorbed dose and dose equivalent are found to be respectively 43.5 mGy and 71.2 mSv (0.5 mSv/day). Interestingly, the biologically estimated dose by DNA-double strand breaks detected by γH2AX staining, 94.5 mSv (0.7 mSv/day), in living, frozen cells in space, is close to the above physical dose. Expression experiments of p53-related phenotypes have revealed that expression of 750 or more genes in 41,000 genes in the array is changed: enhanced or suppressed by space radiation, micro-gravity and/or their mixed effects in space environment. In 642 protein antibodies in the array, 2 proteins are found enhanced and 8, suppressed whereas heat-shock protein is unchanged. Radioadaptive response is the acquisition of radio-resistance to acute exposure by previous irradiation of small dose (window width 20-100 mSv) in normal p53

  17. Characterization of a Smad motif similar to Drosophila mad in the mouse Msx 1 promoter.

    Alvarez Martinez, Cristina E; Binato, Renata; Gonzalez, Sayonara; Pereira, Monica; Robert, Benoit; Abdelhay, Eliana

    2002-03-01

    Mouse Msx 1 gene, orthologous of the Drosophila msh, is involved in several developmental processes. BMP family members are major proteins in the regulation of Msx 1 expression. BMP signaling activates Smad 1/5/8 proteins, which associate to Smad 4 before translocating to the nucleus. Analysis of Msx 1 promoter revealed the presence of three elements similar to the consensus established for Mad, the Smad 1 Drosophila counterpart. Notably, such an element was identified in an enhancer important for Msx 1 regulation. Gel shift analysis demonstrated that proteins from 13.5 dpc embryo associate to this enhancer. Remarkably, supershift assays showed that Smad proteins are present in the complex. Purified Smad 1 and 4 also bind to this fragment. We demonstrate that functional binding sites in this enhancer are confined to the Mad motif and flanking region. Our data suggest that this Mad motif may be functional in response to BMP signaling. ©2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  18. An amphioxus Msx gene expressed predominantly in the dorsal neural tube.

    Sharman, A C; Shimeld, S M; Holland, P W

    1999-04-01

    Genomic and cDNA clones of an Msx class homeobox gene were isolated from amphioxus (Branchiostoma floridae). The gene, AmphiMsx, is expressed in the neural plate from late gastrulation; in later embryos it is expressed in dorsal cells of the neural tube, excluding anterior and posterior regions, in an irregular reiterated pattern. There is transient expression in dorsal cells within somites, reminiscent of migrating neural crest cells of vertebrates. In larvae, mRNA is detected in two patches of anterior ectoderm proposed to be placodes. Evolutionary analyses show there is little phylogenetic information in Msx protein sequences; however, it is likely that duplication of Msx genes occurred in the vertebrate lineage.

  19. Review of Nuclear Physics Experiments for Space Radiation

    Norbury, John W.; Miller, Jack; Adamczyk, Anne M.; Heilbronn, Lawrence H.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Blattnig, Steve R.; Norman, Ryan B.; Guetersloh, Stephen B.; Zeitlin, Cary J.

    2011-01-01

    Human space flight requires protecting astronauts from the harmful effects of space radiation. The availability of measured nuclear cross section data needed for these studies is reviewed in the present paper. The energy range of interest for radiation protection is approximately 100 MeV/n to 10 GeV/n. The majority of data are for projectile fragmentation partial and total cross sections, including both charge changing and isotopic cross sections. The cross section data are organized into categories which include charge changing, elemental, isotopic for total, single and double differential with respect to momentum, energy and angle. Gaps in the data relevant to space radiation protection are discussed and recommendations for future experiments are made.

  20. CCSDS telemetry systems experience at the Goddard Space Flight Center

    Carper, Richard D.; Stallings, William H., III

    1990-01-01

    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) designs, builds, manages, and operates science and applications spacecraft in near-earth orbit, and provides data capture, data processing, and flight control services for these spacecraft. In addition, GSFC has the responsibility of providing space-ground and ground-ground communications for near-earth orbiting spacecraft, including those of the manned spaceflight programs. The goal of reducing both the developmental and operating costs of the end-to-end information system has led the GSFC to support and participate in the standardization activities of the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS), including those for packet telemetry. The environment in which such systems function is described, and the GSFC experience with CCSDS packet telemetry in the context of the Gamma-Ray Observatory project is discussed.

  1. The Architectonic Experience of Body and Space in Augmented Interiors

    Pasqualini, Isabella; Blefari, Maria Laura; Tadi, Tej; Serino, Andrea; Blanke, Olaf

    2018-01-01

    The environment shapes our experience of space in constant interaction with the body. Architectonic interiors amplify the perception of space through the bodily senses; an effect also known as embodiment. The interaction of the bodily senses with the space surrounding the body can be tested experimentally through the manipulation of multisensory stimulation and measured via a range of behaviors related to bodily self-consciousness. Many studies have used Virtual Reality to show that visuotactile conflicts mediated via a virtual body or avatar can disrupt the unified subjective experience of the body and self. In the full-body illusion paradigm, participants feel as if the avatar was their body (ownership, self-identification) and they shift their center of awareness toward the position of the avatar (self-location). However, the influence of non-bodily spatial cues around the body on embodiment remains unclear, and data about the impact of architectonic space on human perception and self-conscious states are sparse. We placed participants into a Virtual Reality arena, where large and narrow virtual interiors were displayed with and without an avatar. We then applied synchronous or asynchronous visuotactile strokes to the back of the participants and avatar, or, to the front wall of the void interiors. During conditions of illusory self-identification with the avatar, participants reported sensations of containment, drift, and touch with the architectonic environment. The absence of the avatar suppressed such feelings, yet, in the large space, we found an effect of continuity between the physical and the virtual interior depending on the full-body illusion. We discuss subjective feelings evoked by architecture and compare the full-body illusion in augmented interiors to architectonic embodiment. A relevant outcome of this study is the potential to dissociate the egocentric, first-person view from the physical point of view through augmented architectonic space. PMID

  2. The Architectonic Experience of Body and Space in Augmented Interiors.

    Pasqualini, Isabella; Blefari, Maria Laura; Tadi, Tej; Serino, Andrea; Blanke, Olaf

    2018-01-01

    The environment shapes our experience of space in constant interaction with the body. Architectonic interiors amplify the perception of space through the bodily senses; an effect also known as embodiment. The interaction of the bodily senses with the space surrounding the body can be tested experimentally through the manipulation of multisensory stimulation and measured via a range of behaviors related to bodily self-consciousness. Many studies have used Virtual Reality to show that visuotactile conflicts mediated via a virtual body or avatar can disrupt the unified subjective experience of the body and self. In the full-body illusion paradigm, participants feel as if the avatar was their body (ownership, self-identification) and they shift their center of awareness toward the position of the avatar (self-location). However, the influence of non-bodily spatial cues around the body on embodiment remains unclear, and data about the impact of architectonic space on human perception and self-conscious states are sparse. We placed participants into a Virtual Reality arena, where large and narrow virtual interiors were displayed with and without an avatar. We then applied synchronous or asynchronous visuotactile strokes to the back of the participants and avatar, or, to the front wall of the void interiors. During conditions of illusory self-identification with the avatar, participants reported sensations of containment, drift, and touch with the architectonic environment. The absence of the avatar suppressed such feelings, yet, in the large space, we found an effect of continuity between the physical and the virtual interior depending on the full-body illusion. We discuss subjective feelings evoked by architecture and compare the full-body illusion in augmented interiors to architectonic embodiment. A relevant outcome of this study is the potential to dissociate the egocentric, first-person view from the physical point of view through augmented architectonic space.

  3. The Architectonic Experience of Body and Space in Augmented Interiors

    Isabella Pasqualini

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The environment shapes our experience of space in constant interaction with the body. Architectonic interiors amplify the perception of space through the bodily senses; an effect also known as embodiment. The interaction of the bodily senses with the space surrounding the body can be tested experimentally through the manipulation of multisensory stimulation and measured via a range of behaviors related to bodily self-consciousness. Many studies have used Virtual Reality to show that visuotactile conflicts mediated via a virtual body or avatar can disrupt the unified subjective experience of the body and self. In the full-body illusion paradigm, participants feel as if the avatar was their body (ownership, self-identification and they shift their center of awareness toward the position of the avatar (self-location. However, the influence of non-bodily spatial cues around the body on embodiment remains unclear, and data about the impact of architectonic space on human perception and self-conscious states are sparse. We placed participants into a Virtual Reality arena, where large and narrow virtual interiors were displayed with and without an avatar. We then applied synchronous or asynchronous visuotactile strokes to the back of the participants and avatar, or, to the front wall of the void interiors. During conditions of illusory self-identification with the avatar, participants reported sensations of containment, drift, and touch with the architectonic environment. The absence of the avatar suppressed such feelings, yet, in the large space, we found an effect of continuity between the physical and the virtual interior depending on the full-body illusion. We discuss subjective feelings evoked by architecture and compare the full-body illusion in augmented interiors to architectonic embodiment. A relevant outcome of this study is the potential to dissociate the egocentric, first-person view from the physical point of view through augmented

  4. Deep space propagation experiments at Ka-band

    Butman, Stanley A.

    1990-01-01

    Propagation experiments as essential components of the general plan to develop an operational deep space telecommunications and navigation capability at Ka-band (32 to 35 GHz) by the end of the 20th century are discussed. Significant benefits of Ka-band over the current deep space standard X-band (8.4 GHz) are an improvement of 4 to 10 dB in telemetry capacity and a similar increase in radio navigation accuracy. Propagation experiments are planned on the Mars Observer Mission in 1992 in preparation for the Cassini Mission to Saturn in 1996, which will use Ka-band in the search for gravity waves as well as to enhance telemetry and navigation at Saturn in 2002. Subsequent uses of Ka-band are planned for the Solar Probe Mission and the Mars Program.

  5. Msx genes are important apoptosis effectors downstream of the Shh/Gli3 pathway in the limb.

    Lallemand, Yvan; Bensoussan, Vardina; Cloment, Cécile Saint; Robert, Benoît

    2009-07-15

    In tetrapods, the anteroposterior (AP) patterning of the limb is under the control of the antagonistic activities of the secreted factor Sonic hedgehog (Shh) and Gli3R, the truncated repressor form of the transcription factor Gli3. In this report, we show that Msx1 and Msx2 are targets and downstream effectors of Gli3R. Consequently, in Shh null mutants, Msx genes are overexpressed and, furthermore, partially responsible for the limb phenotype. This is exemplified by the fact that reducing Msx activity in Shh mutants partially restores a normal limb development. Finally, we show that the main action of the Msx genes, in both normal and Shh(-/-) limb development, is to control cell death in the mesenchyme. We propose that, in the limb, Msx genes act downstream of the Shh/Gli3 pathway by transducing BMP signaling and that, in the absence of Shh signaling, their deregulation contributes to the extensive apoptosis that impairs limb development.

  6. Mirror-image duplication of the primary axis and heart in Xenopus embryos by the overexpression of Msx-1 gene.

    Chen, Y; Solursh, M

    1995-10-01

    The Msx-1 gene (formerly known as Hox-7) is a member of a discrete subclass of homeobox-containing genes. Examination of the expression pattern of Msx-1 in murine and avian embryos suggests that this gene may be involved in the regionalization of the medio-lateral axis during earlier development. We have examined the possible functions of Xenopus Msx-1 during early Xenopus embryonic development by overexpression of the Msx-1 gene. Overexpression of Msx-1 causes a left-right mirror-image duplication of primary axial structures, including notochord, neural tube, somites, suckers, and foregut. The embryonic developing heart is also mirror-image duplicated, including looping directions and polarity. These results indicate that Msx-1 may be involved in the mesoderm formation as well as left-right patterning in the early Xenopus embryonic development.

  7. Measurement of Critical Contact Angle in a Microgravity Space Experiment

    Concus, P.; Finn, R.; Weislogel, M.

    1998-01-01

    Mathematical theory predicts that small changes in container shape or in contact angle can give rise to large shifts of liquid in a microgravity environment. This phenomenon was investigated in the Interface Configuration Experiment on board the USMT,2 Space Shuttle flight. The experiment's "double proboscis" containers were designed to strike a balance between conflicting requirements of sizable volume of liquid shift (for ease of observation) and abruptness of the shift (for accurate determination of critical contact angle). The experimental results support the classical concept of macroscopic contact angle and demonstrate the role of hysteresis in impeding orientation toward equilibrium.

  8. Potentiality of an orbiting interferometer for space-time experiments

    Grassi Strini, A.M.; Strini, G.; Tagliaferri, G.

    1979-01-01

    It is suggested that by putting a Michelson interferometer aboard a spacecraft orbiting around the earth, very substantial progress could be made in space-time experiments. It is estimated that in measurements of e.g. some anisotropy of the light velocity, a spacecraft-borne interferometer of quite small size (0.1 m arm-length) would reach a sensitivity greater by a factor of approximately 10 8 than the best achievements to date of ground-based devices. (author)

  9. NF-kappaB mediates FGF signal regulation of msx-1 expression.

    Bushdid, P B; Chen, C L; Brantley, D M; Yull, F; Raghow, R; Kerr, L D; Barnett, J V

    2001-09-01

    The nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) family of transcription factors is involved in proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis in a stage- and cell-dependent manner. Recent evidence has shown that NF-kappaB activity is necessary for both chicken and mouse limb development. We report here that the NF-kappaB family member c-rel and the homeodomain gene msx-1 have partially overlapping expression patterns in the developing chick limb. In addition, inhibition of NF-kappaB activity resulted in a decrease in msx-1 mRNA expression. Sequence analysis of the msx-1 promoter revealed three potential kappaB-binding sites similar to the interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) kappaB-binding site. These sites bound to c-Rel, as shown by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Furthermore, inhibition of NF-kappaB activity significantly reduced transactivation of the msx-1 promoter in response to FGF-2/-4, known stimulators of msx-1 expression. These results suggest that NF-kappaB mediates the FGF-2/-4 signal regulation of msx-1 gene expression. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  10. Conditional deletion of Msx homeobox genes in the uterus inhibits blastocyst implantation by altering uterine receptivity.

    Daikoku, Takiko; Cha, Jeeyeon; Sun, Xiaofei; Tranguch, Susanne; Xie, Huirong; Fujita, Tomoko; Hirota, Yasushi; Lydon, John; DeMayo, Francesco; Maxson, Robert; Dey, Sudhansu K

    2011-12-13

    An effective bidirectional communication between an implantation-competent blastocyst and the receptive uterus is a prerequisite for mammalian reproduction. The blastocyst will implant only when this molecular cross-talk is established. Here we show that the muscle segment homeobox gene (Msh) family members Msx1 and Msx2, which are two highly conserved genes critical for epithelial-mesenchymal interactions during development, also play crucial roles in embryo implantation. Loss of Msx1/Msx2 expression correlates with altered uterine luminal epithelial cell polarity and affects E-cadherin/β-catenin complex formation through the control of Wnt5a expression. Application of Wnt5a in vitro compromised blastocyst invasion and trophoblast outgrowth on cultured uterine epithelial cells. The finding that Msx1/Msx2 genes are critical for conferring uterine receptivity and readiness to implantation could have clinical significance, because compromised uterine receptivity is a major cause of pregnancy failure in IVF programs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Chicken homeobox gene Msx-1: structure, expression in limb buds and effect of retinoic acid.

    Yokouchi, Y; Ohsugi, K; Sasaki, H; Kuroiwa, A

    1991-10-01

    A chicken gene carrying a homeobox highly homologous to the Drosophila muscle segment homeobox (msh) gene was isolated and designated as Msx-1. Conceptual translation from the longest ORF gave a protein of 259 amino acids lacking the conserved hexapeptide. Northern analysis detected a single 2.6 kb transcript. As early as day 2 of incubation, the transcript was detected but was not found in adult tissue. In situ hybridization analysis revealed that Msx-1 expression is closely related to a particular mesenchymal cell lineage during limb bud formation. In early stage embryos, Msx-1 was expressed in the somatopleure. When primordial mesenchyme cells for limb bud were generated from the Wolffian ridge of the somatopleure, Msx-1 expression began to diminish in the posterior half of the limb bud then in the presumptive cartilage-forming mesenchyme. In developing limb buds, remarkable expression was seen in the apical ectodermal ridge (AER), which is responsible for the sustained outgrowth and development of the limb. The Msx-1 transcripts were found in the limb mesenchymal cells in the region covering the necrotic zone and ectodermal cells overlying such mesenchymal cells. Both ectodermal and mesenchymal expression in limb bud were rapidly suppressed by local treatment of retinoic acid which can generate mirror-image duplication of digits. This indicates that retinoic acid alters the marginal presumptive non-cartilage forming mesenchyme cell lineage through suppression of Msx-1 expression.

  12. Msx genes are expressed in the carapacial ridge of turtle shell: a study of the European pond turtle, Emys orbicularis.

    Vincent, Christine; Bontoux, Martine; Le Douarin, Nicole M; Pieau, Claude; Monsoro-Burq, Anne-Hélène

    2003-09-01

    The turtle shell forms by extensive ossification of dermis ventrally and dorsally. The carapacial ridge (CR) controls early dorsal shell formation and is thought to play a similar role in shell growth as the apical ectodermal ridge during limb development. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying carapace development are still unknown. Msx genes are involved in the development of limb mesenchyme and of various skeletal structures. In particular, precocious Msx expression is recorded in skeletal precursors that develop close to the ectoderm, such as vertebral spinous processes or skull. Here, we have studied the embryonic expression of Msx genes in the European pond turtle, Emys orbicularis. The overall Msx expression in head, limb, and trunk is similar to what is observed in other vertebrates. We have focused on the CR area and pre-skeletal shell condensations. The CR expresses Msx genes transiently, in a pattern similar to that of fgf10. In the future carapace domain, the dermis located dorsal to the spinal cord expresses Msx genes, as in other vertebrates, but we did not see expansion of this expression in the dermis located more laterally, on top of the dermomyotomes. In the ventral plastron, although the dermal osseous condensations form in the embryonic Msx-positive somatopleura, we did not observe enhanced Msx expression around these elements. These observations may indicate that common mechanisms participate in limb bud and CR early development, but that pre-differentiation steps differ between shell and other skeletal structures and involve other gene activities than that of Msx genes.

  13. Msx1-modulated muscle satellite cells retain a primitive state and exhibit an enhanced capacity for osteogenic differentiation

    Ding, Ke; Liu, Wen-ying; Zeng, Qiang; Hou, Fang; Xu, Jian-zhong; Yang, Zhong

    2017-01-01

    Multipotent muscle satellite cells (MuSCs) have been identified as potential seed cells for bone tissue engineering. However, MuSCs exhibit a rapid loss of stemness after in vitro culturing, thereby compromising their therapeutic efficiency. Muscle segment homeobox gene 1 (msx1) has been found to induce the dedifferentiation of committed progenitor cells, as well as terminally differentiated myotubes. In this study, a Tet-off retroviral gene delivery system was used to modulate msx1 expression. After ten passages, MuSCs that did not express msx-1 (e.g., the non-msx1 group) were compared with MuSCs with induced msx-1 expression (e.g., the msx1 group). The latter group exhibited a more juvenile morphology, it contained a significantly lower percentage of senescent cells characterized by positive β-galactosidase staining, and it exhibited increased proliferation and a higher proliferation index. Immunocytochemical stainings further detected a more primitive gene expression profile for the msx1 group, while osteogenic differentiation assays and ectopic bone formation assays demonstrated an improved capacity for the msx1 group to undergo osteogenic differentiation. These results suggest that transient expression of msx1 in MuSCs can retain a primitive state, thereby enhancing their capacity for osteogenic differentiation and restoring the potential for MuSCs to serve as seed cells for bone tissue engineering.

  14. Msx1-modulated muscle satellite cells retain a primitive state and exhibit an enhanced capacity for osteogenic differentiation.

    Ding, Ke; Liu, Wen-Ying; Zeng, Qiang; Hou, Fang; Xu, Jian-Zhong; Yang, Zhong

    2017-03-01

    Multipotent muscle satellite cells (MuSCs) have been identified as potential seed cells for bone tissue engineering. However, MuSCs exhibit a rapid loss of stemness after in vitro culturing, thereby compromising their therapeutic efficiency. Muscle segment homeobox gene 1 (msx1) has been found to induce the dedifferentiation of committed progenitor cells, as well as terminally differentiated myotubes. In this study, a Tet-off retroviral gene delivery system was used to modulate msx1 expression. After ten passages, MuSCs that did not express msx-1 (e.g., the non-msx1 group) were compared with MuSCs with induced msx-1 expression (e.g., the msx1 group). The latter group exhibited a more juvenile morphology, it contained a significantly lower percentage of senescent cells characterized by positive β-galactosidase staining, and it exhibited increased proliferation and a higher proliferation index. Immunocytochemical stainings further detected a more primitive gene expression profile for the msx1 group, while osteogenic differentiation assays and ectopic bone formation assays demonstrated an improved capacity for the msx1 group to undergo osteogenic differentiation. These results suggest that transient expression of msx1 in MuSCs can retain a primitive state, thereby enhancing their capacity for osteogenic differentiation and restoring the potential for MuSCs to serve as seed cells for bone tissue engineering. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Msx1-modulated muscle satellite cells retain a primitive state and exhibit an enhanced capacity for osteogenic differentiation

    Ding, Ke, E-mail: dingke@med.uestc.edu.cn [Department of Pediatric Surgery, School of medicine, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610072 (China); Sichuan Academy of Medical Sciences & Sichuan Provincial People' s Hospital, Chengdu 610072 (China); Department of Orthopaedics, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Liu, Wen-ying; Zeng, Qiang; Hou, Fang [Department of Pediatric Surgery, School of medicine, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610072 (China); Sichuan Academy of Medical Sciences & Sichuan Provincial People' s Hospital, Chengdu 610072 (China); Xu, Jian-zhong, E-mail: xjzspine@163.com [Department of Orthopaedics, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Yang, Zhong, E-mail: zyang1999@163.com [Department of Clinical Hematology, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China)

    2017-03-01

    Multipotent muscle satellite cells (MuSCs) have been identified as potential seed cells for bone tissue engineering. However, MuSCs exhibit a rapid loss of stemness after in vitro culturing, thereby compromising their therapeutic efficiency. Muscle segment homeobox gene 1 (msx1) has been found to induce the dedifferentiation of committed progenitor cells, as well as terminally differentiated myotubes. In this study, a Tet-off retroviral gene delivery system was used to modulate msx1 expression. After ten passages, MuSCs that did not express msx-1 (e.g., the non-msx1 group) were compared with MuSCs with induced msx-1 expression (e.g., the msx1 group). The latter group exhibited a more juvenile morphology, it contained a significantly lower percentage of senescent cells characterized by positive β-galactosidase staining, and it exhibited increased proliferation and a higher proliferation index. Immunocytochemical stainings further detected a more primitive gene expression profile for the msx1 group, while osteogenic differentiation assays and ectopic bone formation assays demonstrated an improved capacity for the msx1 group to undergo osteogenic differentiation. These results suggest that transient expression of msx1 in MuSCs can retain a primitive state, thereby enhancing their capacity for osteogenic differentiation and restoring the potential for MuSCs to serve as seed cells for bone tissue engineering.

  16. Development of an efficient Procedure for Resist Wall Space Experiment

    Matsumoto, Shouhei; Kumasaki, Saori; Higuchi, Sayoko; Kirihata, Kuniaki; Inoue, Yasue; Fujie, Miho; Soga, Kouichi; Wakabayashi, Kazuyuki; Hoson, Takayuki

    The Resist Wall space experiment aims to examine the role of the cortical microtubule-plasma membrane-cell wall continuum in plant resistance to the gravitational force, thereby clarifying the mechanism of gravity resistance. For this purpose, we will cultivate Arabidopsis mutants defective in organization of cortical microtubules (tua6 ) or synthesis of membrane sterols (hmg1 ) as well as the wild type under microgravity and 1 g conditions in the European Modular Cultivation System on the International Space Station up to reproductive stage, and compare phenotypes on growth and development. We will also analyze cell wall properties and gene expression levels using collected materials. However, the amounts of materials collected will be severely limited, and we should develop an efficient procedure for this space experiment. In the present study, we examined the possibility of analyzing various parameters successively using the identical material. On orbit, plant materials will be fixed with RNAlater solution, kept at 4° C for several days and then frozen in a freezer at -20° C. We first examined whether the cell wall extensibility of inflorescence stems can be measured after RNAlater fixation. The gradient of the cell wall extensibility along inflorescence stems was detected in RNAlater-fixed materials as in methanol-killed ones. The sufficient amounts of RNA to analyze the gene expression were also obtained from the materials after measurement of the cell wall extensibility. Furthermore, the levels and composition of cell wall polysaccharides could be measured using the materials after extraction of RNA. These results show that we can analyze the physical and chemical properties of the cell wall as well as gene expression using the identical material obtained in the space experiments.

  17. Interactions between Bmp-4 and Msx-1 act to restrict gene expression to odontogenic mesenchyme.

    Tucker, A S; Al Khamis, A; Sharpe, P T

    1998-08-01

    Tooth development is regulated by a reciprocal series of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. Bmp4 has been identified as a candidate signalling molecule in these interactions, initially as an epithelial signal and then later at the bud stage as a mesenchymal signal (Vainio et al. [1993] Cell 75:45-58). A target gene for Bmp4 signalling is the homeobox gene Msx-1, identified by the ability of recombinant Bmp4 protein to induce expression in mesenchyme. There is, however, no evidence that Bmp4 is the endogenous inducer of Msx-1 expression. Msx-1 and Bmp-4 show dynamic, interactive patterns of expression in oral epithelium and ectomesenchyme during the early stages of tooth development. In this study, we compare the temporal and spatial expression of these two genes to determine whether the changing expression patterns of these genes are consistent with interactions between the two molecules. We show that changes in Bmp-4 expression precede changes in Msx-1 expression. At embryonic day (E)10.5-E11.0, expression patterns are consistent with BMP4 from the epithelium, inducing or maintaining Msx-1 in underlying mesenchyme. At E11.5, Bmp-4 expression shifts from epithelium to mesenchyme and is rapidly followed by localised up-regulation of Msx-1 expression at the sites of Bmp-4 expression. Using cultured explants of developing mandibles, we confirm that exogenous BMP4 is capable of replacing the endogenous source in epithelium and inducing Msx-1 gene expression in mesenchyme. By using noggin, a BMP inhibitor, we show that endogenous Msx-1 expression can be inhibited at E10.5 and E11.5, providing the first evidence that endogenous Bmp-4 from the epithelium is responsible for regulating the early spatial expression of Msx-1. We also show that the mesenchymal shift in Bmp-4 is responsible for up-regulating Msx-1 specifically at the sites of future tooth formation. Thus, we establish that a reciprocal series of interactions act to restrict expression of both genes to future

  18. Interrelationship between Plasma Experiments in the Laboratory and in Space

    Koepke, Mark E. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2017-05-25

    Funds were expended to offset the travel costs of three students and three postdoctoral research associates to participate in and present work at the 2015 International Workshop on the Interrelationship between Plasma Experiments in the Laboratory and in Space (IPELS2015), 23-28 August 2015, Pitlochry, Scotland, UK. Selection was priority-ranked by lab-space engagement, first, and topic relevance, second. Supplementary selection preference was applied to under-represented populations, applicants lacking available travel-resources in their home research group, applicants unusually distant from the conference venue, and the impact of the applicant’s attendance in increasing the diversity of conference participation. One support letter per student was required. The letters described the specific benefit of IPELS2015 to the student dissertation or the postdoc career development, and document the evidence for the ordering criteria.

  19. Photovoltaic Array Space Power flight experiment plus diagnostics (PASP+) modules

    Cooley, W.T.; Adams, S.F.; Reinhardt, K.C.; Piszczor, M.F.

    1992-01-01

    The Photovoltaic Array Space Power Plus Diagnostics flight experiment (PASP+) subsumes twelve solar array modules which represent the state of the art in the space photovoltaic array industry. Each of the twelve modules individually feature specific photovoltaic technologies such as advanced semiconductor materials, multi-bandgap structures, lightweight array designs, advanced interconnect technologies, or concentrator array designs. This paper will describe each module in detail including the configuration, components, materials, anticipated on orbit performance, and some of the aspects of each array technology. The layout of each module and the photovoltaic cell or array cross section will be presented graphically. A discussion on the environmental constraints and materials selection will be included as well as a delineation of the differences between the modules and the baseline array configuration in its intended application

  20. FIRST experiment: Fragmentation of Ions Relevant for Space and Therapy

    Agodi, C.; Abou-Haidar, Z.; Alvarez, M. A. G.; Aumann, T.; Balestra, F.; Battistoni, G.; Bocci, A.; Bohlen, T. T.; Bondì, M.; Boudard, A.; Brunetti, A.; Carpinelli, M.; Cappuzzello, F.; Cavallaro, M.; Carbone, D.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cortes-Giraldo, M. A.; Cuttone, G.; De Napoli, M.; Durante, M.; Fernandez-Garcia, J. P.; Finck, C.; Foti, A.; Gallardo, M. I.; Golosio, B.; Iarocci, E.; Iazzi, F.; Ickert, G.; Introzzi, R.; Juliani, D.; Krimmer, J.; Kurz, N.; Labalme, M.; Lavagno, A.; Leifels, Y.; Le Fevre, A.; Leray, S.; Marchetto, F.; Monaco, V.; Morone, M. C.; Nicolosi, D.; Oliva, P.; Paoloni, A.; Patera, V.; Piersanti, L.; Pleskac, R.; Quesada, J. M.; Randazzo, N.; Romano, F.; Rossi, D.; Rosso, V.; Rousseau, M.; Sacchi, R.; Sala, P.; Sarti, A.; Scheidenberger, C.; Schuy, C.; Sciubba, A.; Sfienti, C.; Simon, H.; Sipala, V.; Spiriti, E.; Stuttge, L.; Tropea, S.; Younis, H.

    2013-03-01

    Nuclear fragmentation processes are relevant in different fields of basic research and applied physics and are of particular interest for tumor therapy and for space radiation protection applications. The FIRST (Fragmentation of Ions Relevant for Space and Therapy) experiment at SIS accelerator of GSI laboratory in Darmstadt, has been designed for the measurement of different ions fragmentation cross sections at different energies between 100 and 1000 MeV/nucleon. The experiment is performed by an international collaboration made of institutions from Germany, France, Italy and Spain. The experimental apparatus is partly based on an already existing setup made of the ALADIN magnet, the MUSIC IV TPC, the LAND2 neutron detector and the TOFWALL scintillator TOF system, integrated with newly designed detectors in the interaction Region (IR) around the carbon removable target: a scintillator Start Counter, a Beam Monitor drift chamber, a silicon Vertex Detector and a Proton Tagger for detection of light fragments emitted at large angles (KENTROS). The scientific program of the FIRST experiment started on summer 2011 with the study of the 400 MeV/nucleon 12C beam fragmentation on thin (8mm) carbon target.

  1. Short-range inverse-square law experiment in space

    Strayer, D.M.; Paik, H.J.; Moody, M.V.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of ISLES (inverse-square law experiment in space) is to perform a null test of Newton's law on the ISS with a resolution of one part in 10 5 at ranges from 100 mm to 1 mm. ISLES will be sensitive enough to detect axions with the strongest allowed coupling and to test the string-theory prediction with R>= 5 μm. To accomplish these goals on the rather noisy International Space Station, the experiment is set up to provide immunity from the vibrations and other common-mode accelerations. The measures to be applied for reducing the effects of disturbances will be described in this presentation. As designed, the experiment will be cooled to less than 2 K in NASA's low temperature facility the LTMPF, allowing superconducting magnetic levitation in microgravity to obtain very soft, low-loss suspension of the test masses. The low-damping magnetic levitation, combined with a low-noise SQUID, leads to extremely low intrinsic noise in the detector. To minimize Newtonian errors, ISLES employs a near-null source of gravity, a circular disk of large diameter-to-thickness ratio. Two test masses, also disk-shaped, are suspended on the two sides of the source mass at a distance of 100 μm to 1 mm. The signal is detected by a superconducting differential accelerometer, making a highly sensitive sensor of the gravity force generated by the source mass

  2. TANPOPO: Microbe and micrometeoroid capture experiments on International Space Station.

    Yamagishi, Akihiko; Kobayashi, Kensei; Yano, Hajime; Yokobori, Shinichi; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Kawai, Hideyuki; Yamashita, Masamichi

    There is a long history of the microbe-collection experiments at high altitude. Microbes have been collected using balloons, aircraft and meteorological rockets from 1936 to 1976. Spore forming fungi and Bacilli, and Micrococci have been isolated in these experiments. It is not clear how high do microbes go up. If the microbes might have been present even at higher altitudes, the fact would endorse the possibility of interplanetary migration of life. TANPOPO, dandelion, is the name of a grass whose seeds with floss are spread by the wind. We propose the analyses of interplanetary migration of microbes, organic compounds and meteoroids on Japan Experimental Module (JEM) of the International Space Station (ISS). Ultra low-density aerogel will be used to capture micrometeoroid and debris. Particles captured by aerogel will be used for several analyses after the initial inspection of the gel and tracks. Careful analysis of the tracks in the aerogel will provide the size and velocity dependence of debris flux. The particles will be analyzed for mineralogical, organic and microbiological characteristics. Aerogels are ready for production in Japan. Aerogels and trays are space proven. All the analytical techniques are ready. The Tanpopo mission was accepted as a candidate experiments on Exposed Facility of ISS-JEM.

  3. Artificial ionospheric modification: The Metal Oxide Space Cloud experiment

    Caton, Ronald G.; Pedersen, Todd R.; Groves, Keith M.; Hines, Jack; Cannon, Paul S.; Jackson-Booth, Natasha; Parris, Richard T.; Holmes, Jeffrey M.; Su, Yi-Jiun; Mishin, Evgeny V.; Roddy, Patrick A.; Viggiano, Albert A.; Shuman, Nicholas S.; Ard, Shaun G.; Bernhardt, Paul A.; Siefring, Carl L.; Retterer, John; Kudeki, Erhan; Reyes, Pablo M.

    2017-05-01

    Clouds of vaporized samarium (Sm) were released during sounding rocket flights from the Reagan Test Site, Kwajalein Atoll in May 2013 as part of the Metal Oxide Space Cloud (MOSC) experiment. A network of ground-based sensors observed the resulting clouds from five locations in the Republic of the Marshall Islands. Of primary interest was an examination of the extent to which a tailored radio frequency (RF) propagation environment could be generated through artificial ionospheric modification. The MOSC experiment consisted of launches near dusk on two separate evenings each releasing 6 kg of Sm vapor at altitudes near 170 km and 180 km. Localized plasma clouds were generated through a combination of photoionization and chemi-ionization (Sm + O → SmO+ + e-) processes producing signatures visible in optical sensors, incoherent scatter radar, and in high-frequency (HF) diagnostics. Here we present an overview of the experiment payloads, document the flight characteristics, and describe the experimental measurements conducted throughout the 2 week launch window. Multi-instrument analysis including incoherent scatter observations, HF soundings, RF beacon measurements, and optical data provided the opportunity for a comprehensive characterization of the physical, spectral, and plasma density composition of the artificial plasma clouds as a function of space and time. A series of companion papers submitted along with this experimental overview provide more detail on the individual elements for interested readers.

  4. FIRST experiment: Fragmentation of Ions Relevant for Space and Therapy

    Agodi, C; Bondì, M; Cavallaro, M; Carbone, D; Cirrone, G A P; Cuttone, G; Abou-Haidar, Z; Alvarez, M A G; Bocci, A; Aumann, T; Durante, M; Balestra, F; Battistoni, G; Bohlen, T T; Boudard, A; Brunetti, A; Carpinelli, M; Cappuzzello, F; Cortes-Giraldo, M A; Napoli, M De

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear fragmentation processes are relevant in different fields of basic research and applied physics and are of particular interest for tumor therapy and for space radiation protection applications. The FIRST (Fragmentation of Ions Relevant for Space and Therapy) experiment at SIS accelerator of GSI laboratory in Darmstadt, has been designed for the measurement of different ions fragmentation cross sections at different energies between 100 and 1000 MeV/nucleon. The experiment is performed by an international collaboration made of institutions from Germany, France, Italy and Spain. The experimental apparatus is partly based on an already existing setup made of the ALADIN magnet, the MUSIC IV TPC, the LAND2 neutron detector and the TOFWALL scintillator TOF system, integrated with newly designed detectors in the interaction Region (IR) around the carbon removable target: a scintillator Start Counter, a Beam Monitor drift chamber, a silicon Vertex Detector and a Proton Tagger for detection of light fragments emitted at large angles (KENTROS). The scientific program of the FIRST experiment started on summer 2011 with the study of the 400 MeV/nucleon 12C beam fragmentation on thin (8 mm) carbon target.

  5. Space Shuttle Boundary Layer Transition Flight Experiment Ground Testing Overview

    Berger, Karen T.; Anderson, Brian P.; Campbell, Charles H.

    2014-01-01

    In support of the Boundary Layer Transition (BLT) Flight Experiment (FE) Project in which a manufactured protuberance tile was installed on the port wing of Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery for STS-119, STS- 128, STS-131 and STS-133 as well as Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour for STS-134, a significant ground test campaign was completed. The primary goals of the test campaign were to provide ground test data to support the planning and safety certification efforts required to fly the flight experiment as well as validation for the collected flight data. These test included Arcjet testing of the tile protuberance, aerothermal testing to determine the boundary layer transition behavior and resultant surface heating and planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) testing in order to gain a better understanding of the flow field characteristics associated with the flight experiment. This paper provides an overview of the BLT FE Project ground testing. High-level overviews of the facilities, models, test techniques and data are presented, along with a summary of the insights gained from each test.

  6. A 12 years brazilian space education activity experience

    Stancato, Fernando; Gustavo Catalani Racca, João; Ballarotti, MaurícioG.

    2001-03-01

    A multidisciplinary group of students from the university and latter also from the high school was formed in 1988 with the objective to make them put in practice their knowledge in physics, chemistry and mathematics and engineering fields in experimental rocketry. The group was called "Grupo de Foguetes Experimentais", GFE. Since that time more than 150 students passed throw the group and now many of them are in the space arena. The benefits for students in a space hands-on project are many: More interest in their school subjects is gotten as they see an application for them; Interrelation attitudes are learned as space projects is a team activity; Responsibility is gained as each is responsible for a part of a critical mission project; Multidisciplinary and international experience is gotten as these are space project characteristics; Learn how to work in a high stress environment as use to be a project launch. This paper will cover the educational experiences gotten during these years and how some structured groups work. It is explained the objectives and how the group was formed. The group structure and the different phases that at each year the new team passes are described. It is shown the different activities that the group uses to do from scientific seminars, scientific club and international meetings to technical tours and assistance to rocket activities in regional schools. It is also explained the group outreach activities as some launches were covered by the media in more then 6 articles in newspaper and 7 television news. In 1999 as formed an official group called NATA, Núcleo de Atividades Aerospaciais within the Universidade Estadual de Londrina, UEL, by some GFE members and teachers from university. It is explained the first group project results.

  7. Deep-Space Ka-Band Flight Experience

    Morabito, D. D.

    2017-11-01

    Lower frequency bands have become more congested in allocated bandwidth as there is increased competition between flight projects and other entities. Going to higher frequency bands offers significantly more bandwidth, allowing for the use of much higher data rates. However, Ka-band is more susceptible to weather effects than lower frequency bands currently used for most standard downlink telemetry operations. Future or prospective flight projects considering deep-space Ka-band (32-GHz) telemetry data links have expressed an interest in understanding past flight experience with received Ka-band downlink performance. Especially important to these flight projects is gaining a better understanding of weather effects from the experience of current or past missions that operated Ka-band radio systems. We will discuss the historical flight experience of several Ka-band missions starting from Mars Observer in 1993 up to present-day deep-space missions such as Kepler. The study of historical Ka-band flight experience allows one to recommend margin policy for future missions. Of particular interest, we will review previously reported-on flight experience with the Cassini spacecraft Ka-band radio system that has been used for radio science investigations as well as engineering studies from 2004 to 2015, when Cassini was in orbit around the planet Saturn. In this article, we will focus primarily on the Kepler spacecraft Ka-band link, which has been used for operational telemetry downlink from an Earth trailing orbit where the spacecraft resides. We analyzed the received Ka-band signal level data in order to characterize link performance over a wide range of weather conditions and as a function of elevation angle. Based on this analysis of Kepler and Cassini flight data, we found that a 4-dB margin with respect to adverse conditions ensures that we achieve at least a 95 percent data return.

  8. Capacity building in emerging space nations: Experiences, challenges and benefits

    Jason, Susan; da Silva Curiel, Alex; Liddle, Doug; Chizea, Francis; Leloglu, Ugur Murat; Helvaci, Mustafa; Bekhti, Mohammed; Benachir, Djouad; Boland, Lee; Gomes, Luis; Sweeting, Martin

    2010-09-01

    This paper focuses on ways in which space is being used to build capacity in science and technology in order to: Offer increasing support for national and global solutions to current and emerging problems including: how to improve food security; resource management; understanding the impacts of climate change and how to deal with them; improving disaster mitigation, management and response. Support sustainable economic development. We present some of the experiences, lessons learned and benefits gained in capacity building projects undertaken by Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd. and our partners from developing and mature space nations. We focus on the Turkish, Algerian and Nigerian know-how and technology transfer programmes which form part of the first Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC) in orbit. From the lessons learned on Surrey's know-how and technology transfer partnership programmes, it is clear that space technology needs to be implemented responsibly as part of a long-term capacity building plan to be a sustainable one. It needs to be supported with appropriate policy and legal frameworks, institutional development, including community participation, human resources development and strengthening of managerial systems. In taking this on board, DMC has resulted in a strong international partnership combining national objectives, humanitarian aid and commerce. The benefits include: Ownership of space-based and supporting ground assets with low capital expenditure that is in line with national budgets of developing nations. Ownership of data and control over data acquisition. More for the money via collaborative consortium. Space related capacity building in organisations and nations with the goal of sustainable development. Opportunities for international collaboration, including disaster management and relief.

  9. Preparation of guinea pig macrophage for electrophoretic experiments in space

    1979-01-01

    Methods of storage and cultivation of macrophage cells in preparation for space experiments were investigated. Results show that freezing and thawing immediately after extraction did not cause any change in viability or electrophoretic mobility of the cells. A prolonged storage at -80 C did cause cell damage as indicated by a 95% reduction in variable cells. Cell damage was decreased when Glycerol or Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO) was added as a cryogenic protective agent. A 100% viability was observed in cultivation experiments after two weeks due to the additional serum. Results from gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase study showed a zero activity rate. It is suggested that a flat stationary field be used for the collection and use of macrophage. It was found that a 24-hour delay in obtaining macrophage cells helps to maintain a pure culture.

  10. Deep Space Networking Experiments on the EPOXI Spacecraft

    Jones, Ross M.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Space Communications & Navigation Program within the Space Operations Directorate is operating a program to develop and deploy Disruption Tolerant Networking [DTN] technology for a wide variety of mission types by the end of 2011. DTN is an enabling element of the Interplanetary Internet where terrestrial networking protocols are generally unsuitable because they rely on timely and continuous end-to-end delivery of data and acknowledgments. In fall of 2008 and 2009 and 2011 the Jet Propulsion Laboratory installed and tested essential elements of DTN technology on the Deep Impact spacecraft. These experiments, called Deep Impact Network Experiment (DINET 1) were performed in close cooperation with the EPOXI project which has responsibility for the spacecraft. The DINET 1 software was installed on the backup software partition on the backup flight computer for DINET 1. For DINET 1, the spacecraft was at a distance of about 15 million miles (24 million kilometers) from Earth. During DINET 1 300 images were transmitted from the JPL nodes to the spacecraft. Then, they were automatically forwarded from the spacecraft back to the JPL nodes, exercising DTN's bundle origination, transmission, acquisition, dynamic route computation, congestion control, prioritization, custody transfer, and automatic retransmission procedures, both on the spacecraft and on the ground, over a period of 27 days. The first DINET 1 experiment successfully validated many of the essential elements of the DTN protocols. DINET 2 demonstrated: 1) additional DTN functionality, 2) automated certain tasks which were manually implemented in DINET 1 and 3) installed the ION SW on nodes outside of JPL. DINET 3 plans to: 1) upgrade the LTP convergence-layer adapter to conform to the international LTP CL specification, 2) add convergence-layer "stewardship" procedures and 3) add the BSP security elements [PIB & PCB]. This paper describes the planning and execution of the flight experiment and the

  11. Homeobox transcription factor muscle segment homeobox 2 (Msx2) correlates with good prognosis in breast cancer patients and induces apoptosis in vitro.

    Lanigan, Fiona

    2010-01-01

    The homeobox-containing transcription factor muscle segment homeobox 2 (Msx2) plays an important role in mammary gland development. However, the clinical implications of Msx2 expression in breast cancer are unclear. The aims of this study were to investigate the potential clinical value of Msx2 as a breast cancer biomarker and to clarify its functional role in vitro.

  12. Laboratory Experiments Enabling Electron Beam use in Tenuous Space Plasmas

    Miars, G.; Leon, O.; Gilchrist, B. E.; Delzanno, G. L.; Castello, F. L.; Borovsky, J.

    2017-12-01

    A mission concept is under development which involves firing a spacecraft-mounted electron beam from Earth's magnetosphere to connect distant magnetic field lines in real time. To prevent excessive spacecraft charging and consequent beam return, the spacecraft must be neutralized in the tenuous plasma environment of the magnetosphere. Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulations suggest neutralization can be accomplished by emitting a neutral plasma with the electron beam. Interpretation of these simulations also led to an ion emission model in which ion current is emitted from a quasi-neutral plasma as defined by the space charge limit [1,2]. Experiments were performed at the University of Michigan's Plasmadynamics and Electric Propulsion Laboratory (PEPL) to help validate the ion emission model. A hollow cathode plasma contactor was used as a representative spacecraft and charged with respect to the chamber walls to examine the effect of spacecraft charging on ion emission. Retarding Potential Analyzer (RPA) measurements were performed to understand ion flow velocity as this parameter relates directly to the expected space charge limit. Planar probe measurements were also made to identify where ion emission primarily occurred and to determine emission current density levels. Evidence of collisions within the plasma (particularly charge exchange collisions) and a simple model predicting emitted ion velocities are presented. While a detailed validation of the ion emission model and of the simulation tools used in [1,2] is ongoing, these measurements add to the physical understanding of ion emission as it may occur in the magnetosphere. 1. G.L. Delzanno, J.E. Borovsky, M.F. Thomsen, J.D. Moulton, and E.A. MacDonald, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics 120, 3647, 2015. 2. G.L. Delzanno, J.E. Borovsky, M.F. Thomsen, and J.D. Moulton, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics 120, 3588, 2015. ________________________________ * This work is supported by Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  13. Concept definition for space station technology development experiments. Experiment definition, task 2

    1986-01-01

    The second task of a study with the overall objective of providing a conceptual definition of the Technology Development Mission Experiments proposed by LaRC on space station is discussed. During this task, the information (goals, objectives, and experiment functional description) assembled on a previous task was translated into the actual experiment definition. Although still of a preliminary nature, aspects such as: environment, sensors, data acquisition, communications, handling, control telemetry requirements, crew activities, etc., were addressed. Sketches, diagrams, block diagrams, and timeline analyses of crew activities are included where appropriate.

  14. Dedicated Slosh Dynamics Experiment on ISS using SPHERES (Advanced Space Operations in CR)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — At the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) the Launch Services Program is leading an effort to conduct an experiment aboard the International Space Station (ISS) to validate...

  15. Computer modeling of active experiments in space plasmas

    Bollens, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    The understanding of space plasmas is expanding rapidly. This is, in large part, due to the ambitious efforts of scientists from around the world who are performing large scale active experiments in the space plasma surrounding the earth. One such effort was designated the Active Magnetospheric Particle Tracer Explorers (AMPTE) and consisted of a series of plasma releases that were completed during 1984 and 1985. What makes the AMPTE experiments particularly interesting was the occurrence of a dramatic anomaly that was completely unpredicted. During the AMPTE experiment, three satellites traced the solar-wind flow into the earth's magnetosphere. One satellite, built by West Germany, released a series of barium and lithium canisters that were detonated and subsequently photo-ionized via solar radiation, thereby creating an artificial comet. Another satellite, built by Great Britain and in the vicinity during detonation, carried, as did the first satellite, a comprehensive set of magnetic field, particle and wave instruments. Upon detonation, what was observed by the satellites, as well as by aircraft and ground-based observers, was quite unexpected. The initial deflection of the ion clouds was not in the ambient solar wind's flow direction (rvec V) but rather in the direction transverse to the solar wind and the background magnetic field (rvec V x rvec B). This result was not predicted by any existing theories or simulation models; it is the main subject discussed in this dissertation. A large three dimensional computer simulation was produced to demonstrate that this transverse motion can be explained in terms of a rocket effect. Due to the extreme computer resources utilized in producing this work, the computer methods used to complete the calculation and the visualization techniques used to view the results are also discussed

  16. Experiences with integral microelectronics on smart structures for space

    Nye, Ted; Casteel, Scott; Navarro, Sergio A.; Kraml, Bob

    1995-05-01

    One feature of a smart structure implies that some computational and signal processing capability can be performed at a local level, perhaps integral to the controlled structure. This requires electronics with a minimal mechanical influence regarding structural stiffening, heat dissipation, weight, and electrical interface connectivity. The Advanced Controls Technology Experiment II (ACTEX II) space-flight experiments implemented such a local control electronics scheme by utilizing composite smart members with integral processing electronics. These microelectronics, tested to MIL-STD-883B levels, were fabricated with conventional thick film on ceramic multichip module techniques. Kovar housings and aluminum-kapton multilayer insulation was used to protect against harsh space radiation and thermal environments. Development and acceptance testing showed the electronics design was extremely robust, operating in vacuum and at temperature range with minimal gain variations occurring just above room temperatures. Four electronics modules, used for the flight hardware configuration, were connected by a RS-485 2 Mbit per second serial data bus. The data bus was controlled by Actel field programmable gate arrays arranged in a single master, four slave configuration. An Intel 80C196KD microprocessor was chosen as the digital compensator in each controller. It was used to apply a series of selectable biquad filters, implemented via Delta Transforms. Instability in any compensator was expected to appear as large amplitude oscillations in the deployed structure. Thus, over-vibration detection circuitry with automatic output isolation was incorporated into the design. This was not used however, since during experiment integration and test, intentionally induced compensator instabilities resulted in benign mechanical oscillation symptoms. Not too surprisingly, it was determined that instabilities were most detectable by large temperature increases in the electronics, typically

  17. Comparative study of MSX-2, DLX-5, and DLX-7 gene expression during early human tooth development.

    Davideau, J L; Demri, P; Hotton, D; Gu, T T; MacDougall, M; Sharpe, P; Forest, N; Berdal, A

    1999-12-01

    Msx and Dlx family transcription factors are key elements of craniofacial development and act in specific combinations with growth factors to control the position and shape of various skeletal structures in mice. In humans, the mutations of MSX and DLX genes are associated with specific syndromes, such as tooth agenesis, craniosynostosis, and tricho-dento-osseous syndrome. To establish some relationships between those reported human syndromes, previous experimental data in mice, and the expression patterns of MSX and DLX homeogenes in the human dentition, we investigated MSX-2, DLX-5, and DLX-7 expression patterns and compared them in orofacial tissues of 7.5- to 9-wk-old human embryos by using in situ hybridization. Our data showed that MSX-2 was strongly expressed in the progenitor cells of human orofacial skeletal structures, including mandible and maxilla bones, Meckel's cartilage, and tooth germs, as shown for DLX-5. DLX-7 expression was restricted to the vestibular lamina and, later on, to the vestibular part of dental epithelium. The comparison of MSX-2, DLX-5, and DLX-7 expression patterns during the early stages of development of different human tooth types showed the existence of spatially ordered sequences of homeogene expression along the vestibular/lingual axis of dental epithelium. The expression of MSX-2 in enamel knot, as well as the coincident expression of MSX-2, DLX-5, and DLX-7 in a restricted vestibular area of dental epithelium, suggests the existence of various organizing centers involved in the control of human tooth morphogenesis.

  18. Synthesis and properties of a new water-soluble prodrug of the adenosine A 2A receptor antagonist MSX-2.

    Vollmann, Karl; Qurishi, Ramatullah; Hockemeyer, Jörg; Müller, Christa E

    2008-02-12

    The compound L-valine-3-{8-[(E)-2-[3-methoxyphenyl)ethenyl]-7-methyl-1-propargylxanthine-3-yl}propyl ester hydrochloride (MSX-4) was synthesized as an amino acid ester prodrug of the adenosine A2A receptor antagonist MSX-2. It was found to be stable in artificial gastric acid, but readily cleaved by pig liver esterase.

  19. Synthesis and Properties of a New Water-Soluble Prodrug of the Adenosine A2A Receptor Antagonist MSX-2

    Christa E. Müller

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The compound L-valine-3-{8-[(E-2-[3-methoxyphenylethenyl]-7-methyl-1-propargylxanthine-3-yl}propyl ester hydrochloride (MSX-4 was synthesized as an aminoacid ester prodrug of the adenosine A2A receptor antagonist MSX-2. It was found to bestable in artificial gastric acid, but readily cleaved by pig liver esterase.

  20. The MSX1 homeoprotein recruits G9a methyltransferase to repressed target genes in myoblast cells.

    Jingqiang Wang

    Full Text Available Although the significance of lysine modifications of core histones for regulating gene expression is widely appreciated, the mechanisms by which these modifications are incorporated at specific regulatory elements during cellular differentiation remains largely unknown. In our previous studies, we have shown that in developing myoblasts the Msx1 homeoprotein represses gene expression by influencing the modification status of chromatin at its target genes. We now show that genomic binding by Msx1 promotes enrichment of the H3K9me2 mark on repressed target genes via recruitment of G9a histone methyltransferase, the enzyme responsible for catalyzing this histone mark. Interaction of Msx1 with G9a is mediated via the homeodomain and is required for transcriptional repression and regulation of cellular differentiation, as well as enrichment of the H3K9me2 mark in proximity to Msx1 binding sites on repressed target genes in myoblast cells as well as the developing limb. We propose that regulation of chromatin status by Msx1 recruitment of G9a and other histone modifying enzymes to regulatory regions of target genes represents an important means of regulating the gene expression during development.

  1. Growth factors FGF8 and FGF2 and their receptor FGFR1, transcriptional factors Msx-1 and MSX-2, and apoptotic factors p19 and RIP5 participate in the early human limb development.

    Becic, Tina; Kero, Darko; Vukojevic, Katarina; Mardesic, Snjezana; Saraga-Babic, Mirna

    2018-04-01

    The expression pattern of fibroblast growth factors FGF8 and FGF2 and their receptor FGFR1, transcription factors MSX-1 and MSX-2, as well as cell proliferation (Ki-67) and cell death associated caspase-3, p19 and RIP5 factors were analyzed in histological sections of eight 4th-9th-weeks developing human limbs by immunohistochemistry and semi-thin sectioning. Increasing expression of all analyzed factors (except FGF8) characterized both the multilayered human apical ectodermal ridge (AER), sub-ridge mesenchyme (progress zone) and chondrocytes in developing human limbs. While cytoplasmic co-expression of MSX-1 and MSX-2 was observed in both limb epithelium and mesenchyme, p19 displayed strong cytoplasmic expression in non-proliferating cells. Nuclear expression of Ki-67 proliferating cells, and partly of MSX-1 and MSX-2 was detected in the whole limb primordium. Strong expression of factors p19 and RIP5, both in the AER and mesenchyme of human developing limbs indicates their possible involvement in control of cell senescence and cell death. In contrast to animal studies, expression of FGFR1 in the surface ectoderm and p19 in the whole limb primordium might reflect interspecies differences in limb morphology. Expression of FGF2 and downstream RIP5 gene, and transcription factors Msx-1 and MSX-2 did not show human-specific changes in expression pattern. Based on their spatio-temporal expression during human limb development, our study indicates role of FGFs and Msx genes in stimulation of cell proliferation, limb outgrowth, digit elongation and separation, and additionally MSX-2 in control of vasculogenesis. The cascade of orchestrated gene expressions, including the analyzed developmental factors, jointly contribute to the complex human limb development. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Experiments in teleoperator and autonomous control of space robotic vehicles

    Alexander, Harold L.

    1991-01-01

    A program of research embracing teleoperator and automatic navigational control of freely flying satellite robots is presented. Current research goals include: (1) developing visual operator interfaces for improved vehicle teleoperation; (2) determining the effects of different visual interface system designs on operator performance; and (3) achieving autonomous vision-based vehicle navigation and control. This research program combines virtual-environment teleoperation studies and neutral-buoyancy experiments using a space-robot simulator vehicle currently under development. Visual-interface design options under investigation include monoscopic versus stereoscopic displays and cameras, helmet-mounted versus panel-mounted display monitors, head-tracking versus fixed or manually steerable remote cameras, and the provision of vehicle-fixed visual cues, or markers, in the remote scene for improved sensing of vehicle position, orientation, and motion.

  3. New calorimeters for space experiments: physics requirements and technological challenges

    Marrocchesi, Pier Simone

    2015-07-01

    Direct measurements of charged cosmic radiation with instruments in Low Earth Orbit (LEO), or flying on balloons above the atmosphere, require the identification of the incident particle, the measurement of its energy and possibly the determination of its sign-of-charge. The latter information can be provided by a magnetic spectrometer together with a measurement of momentum. However, magnetic deflection in space experiments is at present limited to values of the Maximum Detectable Rigidity (MDR) hardly exceeding a few TV. Advanced calorimetric techniques are, at present, the only way to measure charged and neutral radiation at higher energies in the multi-TeV range. Despite their mass limitation, calorimeters may achieve a large geometric factor and provide an adequate proton background rejection factor, taking advantage of a fine granularity and imaging capabilities. In this lecture, after a brief introduction on electromagnetic and hadronic calorimetry, an innovative approach to the design of a space-borne, large acceptance, homogeneous calorimeter for the detection of high energy cosmic rays will be described.

  4. FCJ-133 The Scripted Spaces of Urban Ubiquitous Computing: The experience, poetics, and politics of public scripted space

    Christian Ulrik Andersen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes and introduces the concept of ‘scripted space’ as a new perspective on ubiquitous computing in urban environments. Drawing on urban history, computer games, and a workshop study of the city of Lund the article discusses the experience of digitally scripted spaces, and their relation to the history of public spaces. In conclusion, the article discusses the potential for employing scripted spaces as a reinvigoration of urban public space.

  5. Historical parallels of biological space experiments from Soyuz, Salyut and Mir to Shenzhou flights

    Nechitailo, Galina S.; Kondyurin, Alexey

    2016-07-01

    Human exploitation of space is a great achievement of our civilization. After the first space flights a development of artificial biological environment in space systems is a second big step. First successful biological experiments on a board of space station were performed on Salyut and Mir stations in 70-90th of last century such as - first long time cultivation of plants in space (wheat, linen, lettuce, crepis); - first flowers in space (Arabidopsis); - first harvesting of seeds in space (Arabidopsis); - first harvesting of roots (radish); - first full life cycle from seeds to seeds in space (wheat), Guinness recorded; - first tissue culture experiments (Panax ginseng L, Crocus sativus L, Stevia rebaundiana B; - first tree growing in space for 2 years (Limonia acidissima), Guinness recorded. As a new wave, the modern experiments on a board of Shenzhou Chinese space ships are performed with plants and tissue culture. The space flight experiments are now focused on applications of the space biology results to Earth technologies. In particular, the tomato seeds exposed 6 years in space are used in pharmacy industry in more then 10 pharmaceutical products. Tissue culture experiments are performed on the board of Shenzhou spaceship for creation of new bioproducts including Space Panax ginseng, Space Spirulina, Space Stetatin, Space Tomato and others products with unique properties. Space investments come back.

  6. Epidermal dysplasia and abnormal hair follicles in transgenic mice overexpressing homeobox gene MSX-2.

    Jiang, T X; Liu, Y H; Widelitz, R B; Kundu, R K; Maxson, R E; Chuong, C M

    1999-08-01

    The homeobox gene Msx-2 is expressed specifically in sites of skin appendage formation. To explore its part in skin morphogenesis, we produced transgenic mice expressing Msx-2 under the control of the cytomegalovirus promoter. The skin of these transgenic mice was flaky, exhibiting desquamation and shorter hairs. Histologic analysis showed thickened epidermis with hyperproliferation, which was restricted to the basal layer. Hyperkeratosis was also evident. A wide zone of suprabasal cells were misaligned and coexpressed keratins 14 and 10. There was reduced expression of integrin beta 1 and DCC in the basal layer. Hair follicles were misaligned with a shrunken matrix region. The dermis showed increased cellularity and empty vacuoles. We suggest that Msx-2 is involved in the growth control of skin and skin appendages.

  7. Solid deuterated water in space: detection constraints from laboratory experiments

    Urso, R. G.; Palumbo, M. E.; Baratta, G. A.; Scirè, C.; Strazzulla, G.

    2018-06-01

    The comparison between astronomical spectra and laboratory experiments is fundamental to spread light on the structure and composition of ices found in interstellar dense molecular clouds and in Solar System bodies. Water is among the most abundant solid-phase species observed in these environments, and several attempts have been made to investigate the presence of its solid-phase isotopologues. In particular, the detection of the O-D stretching mode band at 4.1 μm due to both D2O and HDO within icy grain mantles is still under debate, and no detection have been reported about the presence of these species within icy bodies in the Solar System yet. In the near future, an important contribution could derive from the data acquired in the O-D stretching mode spectral range by the sensitive instruments on board the James Webb Space Telescope. With this in mind, we performed several laboratory experiments to study the O-D stretching mode band in solid mixtures containing water and deuterated water deposited in the temperature range between 17 and 155 K, in order to simulate astrophysical relevant conditions. Furthermore, samples have been studied at various temperature and irradiated with energetic ions (200 keV H+) in order to study the effects induced by both thermal and energetic processing. Our results provide some constraints on the detection of the 4.1 μm band in astronomical environments.

  8. Virtual Reality Simulation of the International Space Welding Experiment

    Phillips, James A.

    1996-01-01

    Virtual Reality (VR) is a set of breakthrough technologies that allow a human being to enter and fully experience a 3-dimensional, computer simulated environment. A true virtual reality experience meets three criteria: (1) It involves 3-dimensional computer graphics; (2) It includes real-time feedback and response to user actions; and (3) It must provide a sense of immersion. Good examples of a virtual reality simulator are the flight simulators used by all branches of the military to train pilots for combat in high performance jet fighters. The fidelity of such simulators is extremely high -- but so is the price tag, typically millions of dollars. Virtual reality teaching and training methods are manifestly effective, and we have therefore implemented a VR trainer for the International Space Welding Experiment. My role in the development of the ISWE trainer consisted of the following: (1) created texture-mapped models of the ISWE's rotating sample drum, technology block, tool stowage assembly, sliding foot restraint, and control panel; (2) developed C code for control panel button selection and rotation of the sample drum; (3) In collaboration with Tim Clark (Antares Virtual Reality Systems), developed a serial interface box for the PC and the SGI Indigo so that external control devices, similar to ones actually used on the ISWE, could be used to control virtual objects in the ISWE simulation; (4) In collaboration with Peter Wang (SFFP) and Mark Blasingame (Boeing), established the interference characteristics of the VIM 1000 head-mounted-display and tested software filters to correct the problem; (5) In collaboration with Peter Wang and Mark Blasingame, established software and procedures for interfacing the VPL DataGlove and the Polhemus 6DOF position sensors to the SGI Indigo serial ports. The majority of the ISWE modeling effort was conducted on a PC-based VR Workstation, described below.

  9. Embodiment and the experience of built space: the contributions of ...

    This paper explores the problem of how we perceive built space and the ways that we relate to its abstract representations. Poincaré presented the problem that space poses for the 20th century in his essay 'The Relativity of Space', in which the human body and technics are already a part of our spatial perceptions.

  10. Midcourse Space Experiment Observations of Small Solar System Bodies

    Kraemer, Kathleen E.; Lisse, C. M.; Price, Stephan D.; Mizuno, D.; Walker, R. G.; Farnham, T. L.; Mäkinen, T.

    2005-11-01

    Eight comets, two transition objects (extinct comet candidates), and two near-Earth asteroids were imaged in four infrared bands with the SPIRIT III instrument on the Midcourse Space Experiment, namely, C/1996 B2 (Hyakutake), C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp), C/1996 Q1 (Tabur), 126P/IRAS, 22P/Kopff, 46P/Wirtanen, (3200) Phaethon, (4015) 107P/Wilson-Harrington, (4179) Toutatis, (4197) 1982 TA, 125P/Spacewatch, and 55P/Tempel-Tuttle. We present maps of each object detected and a description of their characteristics. Five of the comets had extended dust tails, all of which show evidence for silicate emission in the 8.3 μm band. The comet C/Hyakutake had a strong secondary dust tail along the direction of the comet's motion, which the dynamical models showed was consistent with emission from large particles. The dust trail from P/Kopff was detected more than 2° from the coma in three of the four bands and is probably composed of large particles emitted during the 1996 apparition.

  11. Structural and functional analysis of mouse Msx1 gene promoter: sequence conservation with human MSX1 promoter points at potential regulatory elements.

    Gonzalez, S M; Ferland, L H; Robert, B; Abdelhay, E

    1998-06-01

    Vertebrate Msx genes are related to one of the most divergent homeobox genes of Drosophila, the muscle segment homeobox (msh) gene, and are expressed in a well-defined pattern at sites of tissue interactions. This pattern of expression is conserved in vertebrates as diverse as quail, zebrafish, and mouse in a range of sites including neural crest, appendages, and craniofacial structures. In the present work, we performed structural and functional analyses in order to identify potential cis-acting elements that may be regulating Msx1 gene expression. To this end, a 4.9-kb segment of the 5'-flanking region was sequenced and analyzed for transcription-factor binding sites. Four regions showing a high concentration of these sites were identified. Transfection assays with fragments of regulatory sequences driving the expression of the bacterial lacZ reporter gene showed that a region of 4 kb upstream of the transcription start site contains positive and negative elements responsible for controlling gene expression. Interestingly, a fragment of 130 bp seems to contain the minimal elements necessary for gene expression, as its removal completely abolishes gene expression in cultured cells. These results are reinforced by comparison of this region with the human Msx1 gene promoter, which shows extensive conservation, including many consensus binding sites, suggesting a regulatory role for them.

  12. Msx1 Homeodomain Protein Represses the αGSU and GnRH Receptor Genes During Gonadotrope Development

    Xie, Huimin; Cherrington, Brian D.; Meadows, Jason D.; Witham, Emily A.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple homeodomain transcription factors are crucial for pituitary organogenesis and cellular differentiation. A homeodomain repressor, Msx1, is expressed from the ventral aspect of the developing anterior pituitary and implicated in gonadotrope differentiation. Here, we find that Msx1 represses transcription of lineage-specific pituitary genes such as the common α-glycoprotein subunit (αGSU) and GnRH receptor (GnRHR) promoters in the mouse gonadotrope-derived cell lines, αT3-1 and LβT2. Repression of the mouse GnRHR promoter by Msx1 is mediated through a consensus-binding motif in the downstream activin regulatory element (DARE). Truncation and mutation analyses of the human αGSU promoter map Msx1 repression to a site at −114, located at the junctional regulatory element (JRE). Dlx activators are closely related to the Msx repressors, acting through the same elements, and Dlx3 and Dlx2 act as transcriptional activators for GnRHR and αGSU, respectively. Small interfering RNA knockdown of Msx1 in αT3-1 cells increases endogenous αGSU and GnRHR mRNA expression. Msx1 gene expression reaches its maximal expression at the rostral edge at e13.5. The subsequent decline in Msx1 expression specifically coincides with the onset of expression of both αGSU and GnRHR. The expression levels of both αGSU and GnRHR in Msx1-null mice at e18.5 are higher compared with wild type, further confirming a role for Msx1 in the repression of αGSU and GnRHR. In summary, Msx1 functions as a negative regulator early in pituitary development by repressing the gonadotrope-specific αGSU and GnRHR genes, but a temporal decline in Msx1 expression alleviates this repression allowing induction of GnRHR and αGSU, thus serving to time the onset of gonadotrope-specific gene program. PMID:23371388

  13. Msx1 homeodomain protein represses the αGSU and GnRH receptor genes during gonadotrope development.

    Xie, Huimin; Cherrington, Brian D; Meadows, Jason D; Witham, Emily A; Mellon, Pamela L

    2013-03-01

    Multiple homeodomain transcription factors are crucial for pituitary organogenesis and cellular differentiation. A homeodomain repressor, Msx1, is expressed from the ventral aspect of the developing anterior pituitary and implicated in gonadotrope differentiation. Here, we find that Msx1 represses transcription of lineage-specific pituitary genes such as the common α-glycoprotein subunit (αGSU) and GnRH receptor (GnRHR) promoters in the mouse gonadotrope-derived cell lines, αT3-1 and LβT2. Repression of the mouse GnRHR promoter by Msx1 is mediated through a consensus-binding motif in the downstream activin regulatory element (DARE). Truncation and mutation analyses of the human αGSU promoter map Msx1 repression to a site at -114, located at the junctional regulatory element (JRE). Dlx activators are closely related to the Msx repressors, acting through the same elements, and Dlx3 and Dlx2 act as transcriptional activators for GnRHR and αGSU, respectively. Small interfering RNA knockdown of Msx1 in αT3-1 cells increases endogenous αGSU and GnRHR mRNA expression. Msx1 gene expression reaches its maximal expression at the rostral edge at e13.5. The subsequent decline in Msx1 expression specifically coincides with the onset of expression of both αGSU and GnRHR. The expression levels of both αGSU and GnRHR in Msx1-null mice at e18.5 are higher compared with wild type, further confirming a role for Msx1 in the repression of αGSU and GnRHR. In summary, Msx1 functions as a negative regulator early in pituitary development by repressing the gonadotrope-specific αGSU and GnRHR genes, but a temporal decline in Msx1 expression alleviates this repression allowing induction of GnRHR and αGSU, thus serving to time the onset of gonadotrope-specific gene program.

  14. Three-dimensional analysis of tooth dimensions in the MSX1-missense mutation

    Creton, M.; Boogaard, M.J. van den; Maal, T.J.; Verhamme, L.M.; Fennis, W.M.M.; Carels, C.E.L.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Cune, M.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: A novel, 3D technique to measure the differences in tooth crown morphology between the MSX1 cases and non-affected controls was designed to get a better understanding of dental phenotype-genotype associations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight Dutch subjects from a single family with tooth

  15. Three-dimensional analysis of tooth dimensions in the MSX1-missense mutation

    Creton, Marijn; van den Boogaard, Marie-Jose; Maal, Thomas; Verhamme, Luc; Fennis, Willem; Carels, Carine; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne Marie; Cune, Marco

    A novel, 3D technique to measure the differences in tooth crown morphology between the MSX1 cases and non-affected controls was designed to get a better understanding of dental phenotype-genotype associations. Eight Dutch subjects from a single family with tooth agenesis, all with an established

  16. MSX1 gene variant - its presence in tooth absence - a case control genetic study.

    Reddy, Naveen Admala; Adusumilli, Gopinath; Devanna, Raghu; Pichai, Saravanan; Rohra, Mayur Gobindram; Arjunan, Sharmila

    2013-10-01

    Non Syndromic tooth agenesis is a congenital anomaly with significant medical, psychological and social ramifications. There is sufficient evidence to hypothesize that locus for this condition can be identified by candidate genes. The aim of this study was to test whether MSX1 671 T>C gene variant was involved in etiology of Non Syndromic tooth agenesis in Raichur Patients. Blood samples were collected with informed consent from 50 subjects having Non Syndromic tooth agenesis and 50 controls. Genomic DNA was extracted from the blood samples, Polymerase Chain Reaction was performed (PCR) and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) was performed for digestion products that were evaluated. The RESULTS showed positive correlation between MSX1671 T>C gene variant and Non Syndromic tooth agenesis in Raichur Patients. MSX1 671 T>C gene variant may be a good screening marker for Non Syndromic tooth agenesis in Raichur Patients . How to cite this article:Reddy NA, Adusumilli G, Devanna R, Pichai S, Rohra MG, Arjunan S. Msx1 Gene Variant - Its Presence in Tooth Absence - A Case Control Genetic Study. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(5):20-6.

  17. The role of Msx1 and Pax9 in pathogenetic mechanisms of tooth agenesis

    Yani Corvianindya Rahayu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tooth agenesis is one of the most common developmental anomalies in human, which one or a few teeth are absent because they have never formed, may cause cosmetic or occlusal harm, while severe agenesis which are relatively rare require clinical attention to support and maintain the dental function. Molecular studies have demonstrated that tooth development is under strict genetic control. Purpose: This article want to review the genetic regulating that are responsible for tooth agenesis especially the role of Msx1 and Pax9 in pathogenetic mechanisms of tooth agenesis. Review: Tooth agenesis is a consequence of a qualitatively or quantitatively impaired function of genetic networks, which regulate tooth development. Mutations in Msx1 and Pax9 genes are dominant for tooth agenesis in humans. The Pax9 gene, which codes for a paired domain-containing transcription factor that plays an essential role in the development of mammal dentition, has been associated with selective tooth agenesis in humans and mice. Conclusion: Reduced amount of functional Msx1 or Pax9 protein in the tooth forming cells is able to cause severe and selective tooth agenesis. There are differences in the frequency of agenesis of specific teeth associated with the defects in Msx1 and defects in Pax9.

  18. Transcriptional autorepression of Msx1 gene is mediated by interactions of Msx1 protein with a multi-protein transcriptional complex containing TATA-binding protein, Sp1 and cAMP-response-element-binding protein-binding protein (CBP/p300).

    Shetty, S; Takahashi, T; Matsui, H; Ayengar, R; Raghow, R

    1999-01-01

    The TATA-less murine Msx1 promoter contains two Msx1-binding motifs, located at -568 to -573 and +25 to +30, and is subject to potent autorepression [Takahashi, Guron, Shetty, Matsui and Raghow (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 22667-22678]. To investigate the molecular mechanism by which Msx1 represses the activity of its own promoter, we transfected C2C12 myoblasts with Msx1-promoter-luciferase constructs and assessed reporter gene activity, with and without the exogenous expression of Msx1. We de...

  19. The YES2 Experience : Towards Sustainable Space Transportation using Tethers

    Van der Heide, E.J.; Kruijff, M.; Ockels, W.J.

    2008-01-01

    Today there is no common vision on sustainable space transportation. Rockets expel gasses and solid rockets often small particles. These have negative effect on the environment, but it is not understood to what extent. With ever growing demand for access to space, sustainable technology developments

  20. Analysis of ATLAS FLB-EC6 Experiment using SPACE Code

    Lee, Donghyuk; Kim, Yohan; Kim, Seyun

    2013-01-01

    The new code is named SPACE(Safety and Performance Analysis Code for Nuclear Power Plant). As a part of code validation effort, simulation of ATLAS FLB(Feedwater Line Break) experiment using SPACE code has been performed. The FLB-EC6 experiment is economizer break of a main feedwater line. The calculated results using the SPACE code are compared with those from the experiment. The ATLAS FLB-EC6 experiment, which is economizer feedwater line break, was simulated using the SPACE code. The calculated results were compared with those from the experiment. The comparisons of break flow rate and steam generator water level show good agreement with the experiment. The SPACE code is capable of predicting physical phenomena occurring during ATLAS FLB-EC6 experiment

  1. Crucible: A System for Space Synthetic Biology Experiments

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this project is to expand the capability and methodologies in experimental extreme biology as a step towards Martian ecopoiesis. The objectives in...

  2. Upper-Atmospheric Space and Earth Weather Experiment

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The USEWX project is seeking to monitor, record, and distribute atmospheric measurements of the radiation environment by installing a variety of dosimeters and other...

  3. Space, body, time and relationship experiences of recess physical activity

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Andersen, Henriette Bondo; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increasing recess physical activity has been the aim of several interventions, as this setting can provide numerous physical activity opportunities. However, it is unclear if these interventions are equally effective for all children, or if they only appeal to children who are already...... the classroom as a space for physical activity, designing schoolyards with smaller secluded spaces and varied facilities, improving children's self-esteem and body image, e.g., during physical education, and creating teacher organised play activities during recess....

  4. Life science experiments performed in space in the ISS/Kibo facility and future research plans.

    Ohnishi, Takeo

    2016-08-01

    Over the past several years, current techniques in molecular biology have been used to perform experiments in space, focusing on the nature and effects of space radiation. In the Japanese 'Kibo' facility in the International Space Station (ISS), the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has performed five life science experiments since 2009, and two additional experiments are currently in progress. The first life science experiment in space was the 'Rad Gene' project, which utilized two human cultured lymphoblastoid cell lines containing a mutated P53 : gene (m P53 : ) and a parental wild-type P53 : gene (wt P53 : ) respectively. Four parameters were examined: (i) detecting space radiation-induced DSBs by observing γH2AX foci; (ii) observing P53 : -dependent gene expression during space flight; (iii) observing P53 : -dependent gene expression after space flight; and (iv) observing the adaptive response in the two cell lines containing the mutated and wild type P53 : genes after exposure to space radiation. These observations were completed and have been reported, and this paper is a review of these experiments. In addition, recent new information from space-based experiments involving radiation biology is presented here. These experiments involve human cultured cells, silkworm eggs, mouse embryonic stem cells and mouse eggs in various experiments designed by other principal investigators in the ISS/Kibo. The progress of Japanese science groups involved in these space experiments together with JAXA are also discussed here. The Japanese Society for Biological Sciences in Space (JSBSS), the Utilization Committee of Space Environment Science (UCSES) and the Science Council of Japan (ACJ) have supported these new projects and new experimental facilities in ISS/Kibo. Currently, these organizations are proposing new experiments for the ISS through 2024. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and

  5. Life science experiments performed in space in the ISS/Kibo facility and future research plans

    Ohnishi, Takeo

    2016-01-01

    Over the past several years, current techniques in molecular biology have been used to perform experiments in space, focusing on the nature and effects of space radiation. In the Japanese ‘Kibo’ facility in the International Space Station (ISS), the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has performed five life science experiments since 2009, and two additional experiments are currently in progress. The first life science experiment in space was the ‘Rad Gene’ project, which utilized two human cultured lymphoblastoid cell lines containing a mutated p53 gene (mp53) and a parental wild-type p53 gene (wtp53) respectively. Four parameters were examined: (i) detecting space radiation–induced DSBs by observing γH2AX foci; (ii) observing p53-dependent gene expression during space flight; (iii) observing p53-dependent gene expression after space flight; and (iv) observing the adaptive response in the two cell lines containing the mutated and wild type p53 genes after exposure to space radiation. These observations were completed and have been reported, and this paper is a review of these experiments. In addition, recent new information from space-based experiments involving radiation biology is presented here. These experiments involve human cultured cells, silkworm eggs, mouse embryonic stem cells and mouse eggs in various experiments designed by other principal investigators in the ISS/Kibo. The progress of Japanese science groups involved in these space experiments together with JAXA are also discussed here. The Japanese Society for Biological Sciences in Space (JSBSS), the Utilization Committee of Space Environment Science (UCSES) and the Science Council of Japan (ACJ) have supported these new projects and new experimental facilities in ISS/Kibo. Currently, these organizations are proposing new experiments for the ISS through 2024

  6. Relativity effects for space-based coherent lidar experiments

    Gudimetla, V. S. Rao

    1996-01-01

    An effort was initiated last year in the Astrionics Laboratory at Marshall Space Flight Center to examine and incorporate, if necessary, the effects of relativity in the design of space-based lidar systems. A space-based lidar system, named AEOLUS, is under development at Marshall Space Flight Center and it will be used to accurately measure atmospheric wind profiles. Effects of relativity were also observed in the performance of space-based systems, for example in case of global positioning systems, and corrections were incorporated into the design of instruments. During the last summer, the effects of special relativity on the design of space-based lidar systems were studied in detail, by analyzing the problem of laser scattering off a fixed target when the source and a co-located receiver are moving on a spacecraft. Since the proposed lidar system uses a coherent detection system, errors even in the order of a few microradians must be corrected to achieve a good signal-to-noise ratio. Previous analysis assumed that the ground is flat and the spacecraft is moving parallel to the ground, and developed analytical expressions for the location, direction and Doppler shift of the returning radiation. Because of the assumptions used in that analysis, only special relativity effects were involved. In this report, that analysis is extended to include general relativity and calculate its effects on the design.

  7. Murine homeobox-containing gene, Msx-1: analysis of genomic organization, promoter structure, and potential autoregulatory cis-acting elements.

    Kuzuoka, M; Takahashi, T; Guron, C; Raghow, R

    1994-05-01

    Detailed molecular organization of the coding and upstream regulatory regions of the murine homeodomain-containing gene, Msx-1, is reported. The protein-encoding portion of the gene is contained in two exons, 590 and 1214 bp in length, separated by a 2107-bp intron; the homeodomain is located in the second exon. The two-exon organization of the murine Msx-1 gene resembles a number of other homeodomain-containing genes. The 5'-(GTAAGT) and 3'-(CCCTAG) splicing junctions and the mRNA polyadenylation signal (UAUAA) of the murine Msx-1 gene are also characteristic of other vertebrate genes. By nuclease protection and primer extension assays, the start of transcription of the Msx-1 gene was located 256 bp upstream of the first AUG. Computer analysis of the promoter proximal 1280-bp sequence revealed a number of potentially important cis-regulatory sequences; these include the recognition elements for Ap-1, Ap-2, Ap-3, Sp-1, a possible binding site for RAR:RXR, and a number of TCF-1 consensus motifs. Importantly, a perfect reverse complement of (C/G)TTAATTG, which was recently shown to be an optimal binding sequence for the homeodomain of Msx-1 protein (K.M. Catron, N. Iler, and C. Abate (1993) Mol. Cell. Biol. 13:2354-2365), was also located in the murine Msx-1 promoter. Binding of bacterially expressed Msx-1 homeodomain polypeptide to Msx-1-specific oligonucleotide was experimentally demonstrated, raising a distinct possibility of autoregulation of this developmentally regulated gene.

  8. Calibration and application of medical particle accelerators to space radiation experiments

    Ryu, Kwangsun; Park, Miyoung; Chae, Jangsoo; Yoon, Sangpil; Shin, Dongho

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce radioisotope facilities and medical particle accelerators that can be applied to space radiation experiments and the experimental conditions required by the space radiation experiments. Space radiation experiments on the ground are critical in determining the lifetimes of satellites and in choosing or preparing the appropriate electrical parts to assure the designated mission lifetime. Before the completion of building the 100-MeV proton linear accelerator in Gyeongju, or even after the completion, the currently existing proton accelerators for medical purposes could suggest an alternative plan. We have performed experiments to calibrate medical proton beam accelerators to investigate whether the beam conditions are suitable for applications to space radiation experiments. Based on the calibration results, we propose reference beam operation conditions for space radiation experiments.

  9. Space-Charge Experiments at the CERN Proton Synchrotron

    Franchetti, Giuliano; Hofmann, I; Martini, M; Métral, E; Qiang, J; Ryne, D; Steerenberg, R; CFA Beam Dynamics Workshop “High Intensity and Brightness Hadron Beams”

    2005-01-01

    Benchmarking of the simulation codes used for the design of the next generation of high beam power accelerators is of paramount importance due to the very demanding requirements on the level of beam losses. This is usually accomplished by comparing simulation results against available theories, and more importantly, against experimental observations. To this aim, a number of well-defined test cases, obtained by accurate measurements made in existing machines, are of great interest. Such measurements have been made in the CERN Proton Synchrotron to probe three space-charge effects: (i) transverse emittance blow-up due to space-charge induced crossing of the integer or half-integer stop-band, (ii) space-charge and octupole driven resonance trapping, and (iii) intensity-dependent emittance transfer between the two transverse planes. The last mechanism is discussed in detail in this paper and compared to simulation predictions.

  10. The microelectronics and photonics test bed (MPTB) space, ground test and modeling experiments

    Campbell, A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper is an overview of the MPTB (microelectronics and photonics test bed) experiment, a combination of a space experiment, ground test and modeling programs looking at the response of advanced electronic and photonic technologies to the natural radiation environment of space. (author)

  11. Msx-1 is suppressed in bisphosphonate-exposed jaw bone analysis of bone turnover-related cell signalling after bisphosphonate treatment.

    Wehrhan, F; Hyckel, P; Amann, K; Ries, J; Stockmann, P; Schlegel, Ka; Neukam, Fw; Nkenke, E

    2011-05-01

    Bone-destructive disease treatments include bisphosphonates and antibodies against receptor activator for nuclear factor κB ligand (aRANKL). Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) is a side-effect. Aetiopathology models failed to explain their restriction to the jaw. The osteoproliferative transcription factor Msx-1 is expressed constitutively only in mature jaw bone. Msx-1 expression might be impaired in bisphosphonate-related ONJ. This study compared the expression of Msx-1, Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP)-2 and RANKL, in ONJ-affected and healthy jaw bone. An automated immunohistochemistry-based alkaline phosphatase-anti-alkaline phosphatase method was used on ONJ-affected and healthy jaw bone samples (n = 20 each): cell-number ratio (labelling index, Bonferroni adjustment). Real-time RT-PCR was performed to quantitatively compare Msx-1, BMP-2, RANKL and GAPDH mRNA levels. Labelling indices were significantly lower for Msx-1 (P Msx-1, 22-fold lower (P Msx-1, RANKL suppression and BMP-2 induction were consistent with the bisphosphonate-associated osteopetrosis and impaired bone remodelling in BP- and aRANKL-induced ONJ. Msx-1 suppression suggested a possible explanation of the exclusivity of ONJ in jaw bone. Functional analyses of Msx-1- RANKL interaction during bone remodelling should be performed in the future. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. Survival of Spores of Trichoderma longibrachiatum in Space: data from the Space Experiment SPORES on EXPOSE-R

    Neuberger, Katja; Lux-Endrich, Astrid; Panitz, Corinna

    2015-01-01

    In the space experiment `Spores in artificial meteorites' (SPORES), spores of the fungus Trichoderma longibrachiatum were exposed to low-Earth orbit for nearly 2 years on board the EXPOSE-R facility outside of the International Space Station. The environmental conditions tested in space were: space vacuum at 10-7-10-4 Pa or argon atmosphere at 105 Pa as inert gas atmosphere, solar extraterrestrial ultraviolet (UV) radiation at λ > 110 nm or λ > 200 nm with fluences up to 5.8 × 108 J m-2, cosmic radiation of a total dose range from 225 to 320 mGy, and temperature fluctuations from -25 to +50°C, applied isolated or in combination. Comparable control experiments were performed on ground. After retrieval, viability of spores was analysed by two methods: (i) ethidium bromide staining and (ii) test of germination capability. About 30% of the spores in vacuum survived the space travel, if shielded against insolation. However, in most cases no significant decrease was observed for spores exposed in addition to the full spectrum of solar UV irradiation. As the spores were exposed in clusters, the outer layers of spores may have shielded the inner part. The results give some information about the likelihood of lithopanspermia, the natural transfer of micro-organisms between planets. In addition to the parameters of outer space, sojourn time in space seems to be one of the limiting parameters.

  13. The journey to school: Space, geography and experiences of rural ...

    ... in dialogue and discussion. The study provided insights into the implications of family dynamics on children's school journey and the meaning of the school journey to the children. It illuminated how children actively define and re-define the varied places, power-laden spaces and social relations embedded in the journey.

  14. Setting priorities for space research: An experiment in methodology

    1995-01-01

    In 1989, the Space Studies Board created the Task Group on Priorities in Space Research to determine whether scientists should take a role in recommending priorities for long-term space research initiatives and, if so, to analyze the priority-setting problem in this context and develop a method by which such priorities could be established. After answering the first question in the affirmative in a previous report, the task group set out to accomplish the second task. The basic assumption in developing a priority-setting process is that a reasoned and structured approach for ordering competing initiatives will yield better results than other ways of proceeding. The task group proceeded from the principle that the central criterion for evaluating a research initiative must be its scientific merit -- the value of the initiative to the proposing discipline and to science generally. The group developed a two-stage methodology for priority setting and constructed a procedure and format to support the methodology. The first of two instruments developed was a standard format for structuring proposals for space research initiatives. The second instrument was a formal, semiquantitative appraisal procedure for evaluating competing proposals. This report makes available complete templates for the methodology, including the advocacy statement and evaluation forms, as well as an 11-step schema for a priority-setting process. From the beginning of its work, the task group was mindful that the issue of priority setting increasingly pervades all of federally supported science and that its work would have implications extending beyond space research. Thus, although the present report makes no recommendations for action by NASA or other government agencies, it provides the results of the task group's work for the use of others who may study priority-setting procedures or take up the challenge of implementing them in the future.

  15. Experiments as Liminal Learning Spaces in Leadership Development

    Kjærgaard, Annemette; Meier, Frank; Tangkjær, Christian

    In this paper we address the question of what professional practitioner students learn from experiments in leadership development programs. Drawing from our own design and teaching in a leadership programme, we explore how certain models and frameworks become threshold concepts for students’ lear...... practical implications for using threshold concepts in designing experiments in leadership development education for professional practitioners....

  16. Life science research objectives and representative experiments for the space station

    Johnson, Catherine C. (Editor); Arno, Roger D. (Editor); Mains, Richard (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    A workshop was convened to develop hypothetical experiments to be used as a baseline for space station designer and equipment specifiers to ensure responsiveness to the users, the life science community. Sixty-five intra- and extramural scientists were asked to describe scientific rationales, science objectives, and give brief representative experiment descriptions compatible with expected space station accommodations, capabilities, and performance envelopes. Experiment descriptions include hypothesis, subject types, approach, equipment requirements, and space station support requirements. The 171 experiments are divided into 14 disciplines.

  17. Benchmark experiments at ASTRA facility on definition of space distribution of 235U fission reaction rate

    Bobrov, A. A.; Boyarinov, V. F.; Glushkov, A. E.; Glushkov, E. S.; Kompaniets, G. V.; Moroz, N. P.; Nevinitsa, V. A.; Nosov, V. I.; Smirnov, O. N.; Fomichenko, P. A.; Zimin, A. A.

    2012-01-01

    Results of critical experiments performed at five ASTRA facility configurations modeling the high-temperature helium-cooled graphite-moderated reactors are presented. Results of experiments on definition of space distribution of 235 U fission reaction rate performed at four from these five configurations are presented more detail. Analysis of available information showed that all experiments on criticality at these five configurations are acceptable for use them as critical benchmark experiments. All experiments on definition of space distribution of 235 U fission reaction rate are acceptable for use them as physical benchmark experiments. (authors)

  18. Embodied Space: a Sensorial Approach to Spatial Experience

    Durão, Maria João

    2009-03-01

    A reflection is presented on the significance of the role of the body in the interpretation and future creation of spatial living structures. The paper draws on the body as cartography of sensorial meaning that includes vision, touch, smell, hearing, orientation and movement to discuss possible relationships with psychological and sociological parameters of 'sensorial space'. The complex dynamics of body-space is further explored from the standpoint of perceptual variables such as color, light, materialities, texture and their connections with design, technology, culture and symbology. Finally, the paper discusses the integration of knowledge and experimentation in the design of future habitats where body-sensitive frameworks encompass flexibility, communication, interaction and cognitive-driven solutions.

  19. Interpretation of laboratory experiments of interest to space physics

    Block, L.P.

    1976-06-01

    The merits and limitations of experiments designed for studies of: 1) solar wind interaction with magnetospheres (terrella experiments) and non-magnetized bodies, 2) neutral lines and sheets, 3) wave-particle interactions, 4) anomalous resistivity, 5) double layers, 6) magnetically field-aligned electric fields in strong magnetic mirrors, and 7) the critical ionization velocity of a plasma moving through natural gas, are discussed. (Auth.)

  20. MIT-NASA/KSC space life science experiments - A telescience testbed

    Oman, Charles M.; Lichtenberg, Byron K.; Fiser, Richard L.; Vordermark, Deborah S.

    1990-01-01

    Experiments performed at MIT to better define Space Station information system telescience requirements for effective remote coaching of astronauts by principal investigators (PI) on the ground are described. The experiments were conducted via satellite video, data, and voice links to surrogate crewmembers working in a laboratory at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Teams of two PIs and two crewmembers performed two different space life sciences experiments. During 19 three-hour interactive sessions, a variety of test conditions were explored. Since bit rate limits are necessarily imposed on Space Station video experiments surveillance video was varied down to 50 Kb/s and the effectiveness of PI controlled frame rate, resolution, grey scale, and color decimation was investigated. It is concluded that remote coaching by voice works and that dedicated crew-PI voice loops would be of great value on the Space Station.

  1. Ameloblastin inhibits cranial suture closure by modulating MSX2 expression and proliferation.

    Phimon Atsawasuwan

    Full Text Available Deformities of cranial sutures such as craniosynostosis and enlarged parietal foramina greatly impact human development and quality of life. Here we have examined the role of the extracellular matrix protein ameloblastin (Ambn, a recent addition to the family of non-collagenous extracellular bone matrix proteins, in craniofacial bone development and suture formation. Using RT-PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry, Ambn was localized in mouse calvarial bone and adjacent condensed mesenchyme. Five-fold Ambn overexpression in a K14-driven transgenic mouse model resulted in delayed posterior frontal suture fusion and incomplete suture closure. Moreover, Ambn overexpressor skulls weighed 13.2% less, their interfrontal bones were 35.3% thinner, and the width between frontal bones plus interfrontal suture was 14.3% wider. Ambn overexpressing mice also featured reduced cell proliferation in suture blastemas and in mesenchymal cells from posterior frontal sutures. There was a more than 2-fold reduction of Msx2 in Ambn overexpressing calvariae and suture mesenchymal cells, and this effect was inversely proportionate to the level of Ambn overexpression in different cell lines. The reduction of Msx2 expression as a result of Ambn overexpression was further enhanced in the presence of the MEK/ERK pathway inhibitor O126. Finally, Ambn overexpression significantly reduced Msx2 down-stream target gene expression levels, including osteogenic transcription factors Runx2 and Osx, the bone matrix proteins Ibsp, ColI, Ocn and Opn, and the cell cycle-related gene CcnD1. Together, these data suggest that Ambn plays a crucial role in the regulation of cranial bone growth and suture closure via Msx 2 suppression and proliferation inhibition.

  2. Exploring Inpatients' Experiences of Healing and Healing Spaces

    Lorissa MacAllister PhD, AIA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand a patient’s healing experience it is essential to understand the elements that they, the patient, believes contributed to their healing. Previous research has focused on symptom reducers or contributors through environment such as stress. A person’s experience of healing happens over time not instantaneous. Therefore, in this study, the interviews with patients happened after forty-eight hours of hospitalization. This mixed methods study describes the experiences of seventeen inpatients from two healthcare systems using a phenomenological approach combined with evidence based design evaluation methods to document the setting. The qualitative data was analyzed first for reoccurring themes then further explored and defined through quantitative environmental observations. The seventeen patients defined healing as “getting better/well.” Seventy three statements were recorded about contributors and detractors to healing in the physical environment. Three primary themes emerged from the data as positive influencers of a healing experience: being cared for, being comfortable and experiencing something familiar or like home. These results demonstrate that patients perceive their inpatient healing experience through a supported environment.

  3. MSX ₁ gene variant and non-syndromic clefting: association or rejection?

    Reddy, Naveen Admala; Gopinath, Adusumilli; Reddy, Jayaprakash Thirumala; Devanna, Raghu; Saravanan, Pichai; Rohra, Mayur G

    2014-01-01

    Non-syndromic cleft lip/palate (NSCL/P) is a congenital anomaly with significant medical, psychological and social ramifications. There is sufficient evidence to hypothesize that locus for this condition can be identified by candidate genes. The aim of this study is to amplify the chosen region (799 G >T) of MSX 1 gene, investigate the degree of association and perform a mutation research from Raichur cleft lip and palate patient sample. Case history and clinical examination of the patient were recorded to rule. Written consent was obtained from patients and controls for in vivo study. STUDY WAS DESIGNED IN FOUR STEPS AS FOLLOWS: a. Collection of a blood sample; b. Genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extraction; c. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR); d. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Blood samples were collected from 50 subjects having NSCL/P and 50 controls. Genomic DNA was extracted, PCR and RFLP was performed for digestion products that were evaluated. Chi-square test with P value at 95% confidence intervals. The results showed a positive correlation between MSX 1 799 G >T gene variant and NSCL/P patients in Raichur patients. From a genetically diverse etiology MSX 1 799 G >T gene variant may be a good screening marker for NSCL/P in Raichur patients.

  4. MSX1 gene and nonsyndromic oral clefts in a Southern Brazilian population

    L.T. Souza

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Nonsyndromic oral clefts (NSOC are the most common craniofacial birth defects in humans. The etiology of NSOC is complex, involving both genetic and environmental factors. Several genes that play a role in cellular proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis have been associated with clefting. For example, variations in the homeobox gene family member MSX1, including a CA repeat located within its single intron, may play a role in clefting. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between MSX1 CA repeat polymorphism and NSOC in a Southern Brazilian population using a case-parent triad design. We studied 182 nuclear families with NSOC recruited from the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre in Southern Brazil. The polymorphic region was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction and analyzed by using an automated sequencer. Among the 182 families studied, four different alleles were observed, at frequencies of 0.057 (175 bp, 0.169 (173 bp, 0.096 (171 bp and 0.67 (169 bp. A transmission disequilibrium test with a family-based association test (FBAT software program was used for analysis. FBAT analysis showed overtransmission of the 169 bp allele in NSOC (P=0.0005. These results suggest that the CA repeat polymorphism of the MSX1 gene may play a role in risk of NSOC in populations from Southern Brazil.

  5. MSX1 gene and nonsyndromic oral clefts in a Southern Brazilian population

    Souza, L.T. [Laboratório de Medicina Genômica, Centro de Pesquisa Experimental, Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Programa de Pós-Graduaçãoo em Saúde da Criança e do Adolescente, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Kowalski, T.W. [Laboratório de Medicina Genômica, Centro de Pesquisa Experimental, Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Collares, M.V.M. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Departamento de Cirurgia, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, Departamento de Cirurgia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Félix, T.M. [Laboratório de Medicina Genômica, Centro de Pesquisa Experimental, Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Programa de Pós-Graduaçãoo em Saúde da Criança e do Adolescente, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Serviço de Genética Médica, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, Serviço de Genética Médica, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2013-08-10

    Nonsyndromic oral clefts (NSOC) are the most common craniofacial birth defects in humans. The etiology of NSOC is complex, involving both genetic and environmental factors. Several genes that play a role in cellular proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis have been associated with clefting. For example, variations in the homeobox gene family member MSX1, including a CA repeat located within its single intron, may play a role in clefting. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between MSX1 CA repeat polymorphism and NSOC in a Southern Brazilian population using a case-parent triad design. We studied 182 nuclear families with NSOC recruited from the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre in Southern Brazil. The polymorphic region was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction and analyzed by using an automated sequencer. Among the 182 families studied, four different alleles were observed, at frequencies of 0.057 (175 bp), 0.169 (173 bp), 0.096 (171 bp) and 0.67 (169 bp). A transmission disequilibrium test with a family-based association test (FBAT) software program was used for analysis. FBAT analysis showed overtransmission of the 169 bp allele in NSOC (P=0.0005). These results suggest that the CA repeat polymorphism of the MSX1 gene may play a role in risk of NSOC in populations from Southern Brazil.

  6. MSX1 gene and nonsyndromic oral clefts in a Southern Brazilian population

    Souza, L.T.; Kowalski, T.W.; Collares, M.V.M.; Félix, T.M.

    2013-01-01

    Nonsyndromic oral clefts (NSOC) are the most common craniofacial birth defects in humans. The etiology of NSOC is complex, involving both genetic and environmental factors. Several genes that play a role in cellular proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis have been associated with clefting. For example, variations in the homeobox gene family member MSX1, including a CA repeat located within its single intron, may play a role in clefting. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between MSX1 CA repeat polymorphism and NSOC in a Southern Brazilian population using a case-parent triad design. We studied 182 nuclear families with NSOC recruited from the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre in Southern Brazil. The polymorphic region was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction and analyzed by using an automated sequencer. Among the 182 families studied, four different alleles were observed, at frequencies of 0.057 (175 bp), 0.169 (173 bp), 0.096 (171 bp) and 0.67 (169 bp). A transmission disequilibrium test with a family-based association test (FBAT) software program was used for analysis. FBAT analysis showed overtransmission of the 169 bp allele in NSOC (P=0.0005). These results suggest that the CA repeat polymorphism of the MSX1 gene may play a role in risk of NSOC in populations from Southern Brazil

  7. Morphological diversity of the avian foot is related with the pattern of msx gene expression in the developing autopod.

    Gañan, Y; Macias, D; Basco, R D; Merino, R; Hurle, J M

    1998-04-01

    The formation of the digits in amniota embryos is accompanied by apoptotic cell death of the interdigital mesoderm triggered through BMP signaling. Differences in the intensity of this apoptotic process account for the establishment of the different morphological types of feet observed in amniota (i.e., free-digits, webbed digits, lobulated digits). The molecular basis accounting for the differential pattern of interdigital cell death remains uncertain since the reduction of cell death in species with webbed digits is not accompanied by a parallel reduction in the pattern of expression of bmp genes in the interdigital regions. In this study we show that the duck interdigital web mesoderm exhibits an attenuated response to both BMP-induced apoptosis and TGFbeta-induced chondrogenesis in comparison with species with free digits. The attenuated response to these signals is accompanied by a reduced pattern of expression of msx-1 and msx-2 genes. Local application of FGF in the duck interdigit expands the domain of msx-2 expression but not the domain of msx-1 expression. This change in the expression of msx-2 is followed by a parallel increase in spontaneous and exogenous BMP-induced interdigital cell death, while the chondrogenic response to TGFbetas is unchanged. The regression of AER, as deduced by the pattern of extinction of fgf-8 expression, takes place in a similar fashion in the chick and duck regardless of the differences in interdigital cell death and msx gene expression. Implantation of BMP-beads in the distal limb mesoderm induces AER regression in both the chick and duck. This finding suggests an additional role for BMPs in the physiological regression of the AER. It is proposed that the formation of webbed vs free-digit feet in amniota results from a premature differentiation of the interdigital mesoderm into connective tissue caused by a reduced expression of msx genes in the developing autopod. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  8. Expression of Dlx-5 and Msx-1 in Craniofacial Skeletons and Ilia of Rats Treated With Zoledronate.

    Xuan, Bin; Yang, Pan; Wu, Shichao; Li, Lin; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Wenyi

    2017-05-01

    Because of the different embryologic origins of the craniofacial skeleton and ilium, differences in gene expression patterns have been observed between the jaw bones and ilium. Distal-less homeobox (Dlx) genes and Msh homeobox genes, particularly Dlx-5 and Msx-1, play major roles in cell differentiation and osteogenesis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of zoledronate (ZOL) on the craniofacial skeleton and ilium by detecting changes in Dlx-5 and Msx-1 expression at both the protein and messenger RNA levels. A total of 24 female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 2 groups: ZOL group (n = 12), in which the rats were injected intraperitoneally with zoledronic acid for 12 weeks, and control group (n = 12), in which the rats were injected with saline solution for 12 weeks. By use of immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, the expression levels of Dlx-5 and Msx-1 in the craniofacial skeleton (including the maxilla, mandible, and parietal bone) and ilium were examined. Dlx-5 expression in the maxilla and mandible was increased at the protein and messenger RNA levels in the ZOL group compared with the control group (P Msx-1 expression in the maxilla and mandible was decreased in the ZOL group (P Msx-1 expression in the ilium was decreased in the ZOL group (P Msx-1 expression in the parietal bone was observed between the 2 groups (P > .05). Site-specific differences in the effects of ZOL on the craniofacial skeleton and ilium could be explained by differently altered tendencies in Dlx-5 and Msx-1 expression. The jaw bones were more susceptible to the effects of ZOL than the parietal bone and ilium. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Tests of gravity with future space-based experiments

    Sakstein, Jeremy

    2018-03-01

    Future space-based tests of relativistic gravitation—laser ranging to Phobos, accelerometers in orbit, and optical networks surrounding Earth—will constrain the theory of gravity with unprecedented precision by testing the inverse-square law, the strong and weak equivalence principles, and the deflection and time delay of light by massive bodies. In this paper, we estimate the bounds that could be obtained on alternative gravity theories that use screening mechanisms to suppress deviations from general relativity in the Solar System: chameleon, symmetron, and Galileon models. We find that space-based tests of the parametrized post-Newtonian parameter γ will constrain chameleon and symmetron theories to new levels, and that tests of the inverse-square law using laser ranging to Phobos will provide the most stringent constraints on Galileon theories to date. We end by discussing the potential for constraining these theories using upcoming tests of the weak equivalence principle, and conclude that further theoretical modeling is required in order to fully utilize the data.

  10. Experimenting Galileo on Board the International Space Station

    Fantinato, Samuele; Pozzobon, Oscar; Sands, Obed S.; Welch, Bryan W.; Clapper, Carolyn J.; Miller, James J.; Gamba, Giovanni; Chiara, Andrea; Montagner, Stefano; Giordano, Pietro; hide

    2016-01-01

    The SCaN Testbed is an advanced integrated communications system and laboratory facility installed on the International Space Station (ISS) in 2012. The testbed incorporates a set of new generation of Software Defined Radio (SDR) technologies intended to allow researchers to develop, test, and demonstrate new communications, networking, and navigation capabilities in the actual environment of space. Qascom, in cooperation with ESA and NASA, is designing a Software Defined Radio GalileoGPS Receiver capable to provide accurate positioning and timing to be installed on the ISS SCaN Testbed. The GalileoGPS waveform will be operated in the JPL SDR that is constituted by several hardware components that can be used for experimentations in L-Band and S-Band. The JPL SDR includes an L-Band Dorne Margolin antenna mounted onto a choke ring. The antenna is connected to a radio front end capable to provide one bit samples for the three GNSS frequencies (L1, L2 and L5) at 38 MHz, exploiting the subharmonic sampling. The baseband processing is then performed by an ATMEL AT697 processor (100 MIPS) and two Virtex 2 FPGAs. The JPL SDR supports the STRS (Space Telecommunications Radio System) that provides common waveform software interfaces, methods of instantiation, operation, and testing among different compliant hardware and software products. The standard foresees the development of applications that are modular, portable, reconfigurable, and reusable. The developed waveform uses the STRS infrastructure-provided application program interfaces (APIs) and services to load, verify, execute, change parameters, terminate, or unload an application. The project is divided in three main phases. 1)Design and Development of the GalileoGPS waveform for the SCaN Testbed starting from Qascom existing GNSS SDR receiver. The baseline design is limited to the implementation of the single frequency Galileo and GPS L1E1 receiver even if as part of the activity it will be to assess the

  11. Racialized Space: Framing Latino and Latina Experience in Public Schools

    Barajas, Heidi Lasley; Ronnkvist, Amy

    2007-01-01

    Background: Educational research shows differences in experience, access, and outcomes across racial groups with some groups advantaged and others disadvantaged. One of the concepts used to explain racial differences, racialization, is a taken-for-granted term that is yet to be fully defined in the context of the school. We differentiate the term…

  12. Experiments with suspended cells on the Space Shuttle

    Morrison, D. R.; Chapes, S. K.; Guikema, J. A.; Spooner, B. S.; Lewis, M. L.

    1992-01-01

    Spaceflight experiments since 1981 have demonstrated that certain cell functions are altered by micro-g. Biophysical models suggest that cell membranes and organelles should not be affected directly by gravity, however, the chemical microenvironment surrounding the cell and molecular transport could be altered by reduced gravity. Most experiments have used suspended live cells in small chambers without stirring or medium exchange. Flight results include increased attachment of anchorage-dependent human cells to collagen coated microcarriers, reduced secretion of growth hormone from pituitary cells, decreased mitogenic response of lymphocytes, increased Interferon-alpha by lymphocytes, increased Interleukin-1 and Tumor Necrosis Factor secretion by macrophages. Related experiments on cells immediately postflight and on procaryotic cells have shown significant changes in secretory capacity, cell proliferation, differentiation and development. Postulated mechanism include altered cell-cell interactions, altered calcium ion transport, effects on cell cytoskeleton, transport of transmitters and interactions with receptors. The discussion includes use of new molecular methods, considerations for cell environmental control and a preview of several experiments planned for the Shuttle and Spacelab flights to study the basic effects of microgravity on cellular physiology and potential interactions of spaceflight with radiation damage and cellular repair mechanisms.

  13. Public open space as the only urban space for walking: Sumatera Utara experience

    Nasution, A. D.; Zahrah, W.; Ginting, Nurlisa

    2018-03-01

    One of successful public open space (POS) criteria is the proper pedestrian linkage. Furthermore, a good quality POS should pay attention to pedestrian activities. This will contribute to the physical and mental health of people and enhance their quality of life. The research means to investigate how POS accommodate the pedestrians. The study takes place in twenty small towns in Sumatra Utara province, Indonesia. The analysis is a descriptive, explorative study that collects data about physical elements of POS. The survey also uses a set of questionnaire to get information about the visitors walking tradition. The result of the study shows that most of the citizens approach and get to the POS by vehicle, both cars, and motorcycles. They use their private vehicles although the distance between their houses and the POS is less than one kilometer. There is no pedestrian linkage that connects the POS with the other part of urban space. However, the POS is active by various physical activities, such as walking, playing and exercising. These events occur both in pedestrian ways in the periphery, inside the POS, and in the other spots of the POS, such as grass field or multipurpose plaza. The visitors’ vehicle tradition relates to the whole urban space which is planned in a car-oriented way. Thus, the POS becomes the only space that people can walk and enjoy the environment.

  14. Shared Space, Liminal Space: Five Years into a Community-University Place-Based Experiment

    Barajas, Heidi Lasley; Martin, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    This article explores shared space at the University of Minnesota's Robert J. Jones Urban Research and Outreach Engagement Center (UROC), located four miles off campus in a community strong in assets, but facing inequality, disinvestment and racism. UROC's mission promotes university-community collaboration to solve critical urban challenges. We…

  15. Space potential profiles in ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) experiment

    Bieniosek, F.M.; Connor, K.A.

    1983-01-01

    Spatially resolved measurements of the electric space potential in the ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) have been made by a heavy ion beam probe. The EBT-I device is characterized by positive potentials in the surface plasma the order of 100 V and by a nearly symmetric potential well in the core plasma of up to 300 V with respect to the surface potential. The EBT-S device has a similar potential structure with well depth and peak potential similar to or greater than that of EBT-I. Peak potential and well depth increase as the edge gas pressure is lowered and as the microwave power is increased. The potential structure is strongly linked to the specific heating geometry. The ambipolar electric field is large enough generally to dominate the core electron neoclassical diffusion. The potential profile is approximately parabolic in the core, which is shown to be a natural consequence of the spatially uniform plasma source function

  16. PSR experience with beam losses, instabilities and space charge effects

    Macek, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    Average current from the PSR has been limited to ∼70 μA at 20 Hz by beam losses of 0.4 to 0.5 μA which arise from two principal causes, production of H 0 excited states and stored-beam scattering in the stripper foil. To reduce beam losses, an upgrade from the two-step H 0 injection to direct H - injection is underway and will be completed in 1998. Peak intensity from the PSR is limited by a strong instability that available evidence indicates is the two-stream e-p instability. New evidence for the e-p hypothesis is presented. At operating intensities, the incoherent space charge tune shift depresses both horizontal and vertical tunes past the integer without additional beam loss although some intensity-dependent emittance growth is observed. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  17. PSR experience with beam losses, instabilities and space charge effects

    Macek, Robert J.

    1998-01-01

    Average current from the PSR has been limited to ∼70 μA at 20 Hz by beam losses of 0.4 to 0.5 μA which arise from two principal causes, production of H 0 excited states and stored-beam scattering in the stripper foil. To reduce beam losses, an upgrade from the two-step H 0 injection to direct H - injection is underway and will be completed in 1998. Peak intensity from the PSR is limited by a strong instability that available evidence indicates is the two-stream e-p instability. New evidence for the e-p hypothesis is presented. At operating intensities, the incoherent space charge tune shift depresses both horizontal and vertical tunes past the integer without additional beam loss although some intensity-dependent emittance growth is observed

  18. T-Rex: A Japanese Space Tether Experiment

    Johnson, Les

    2009-01-01

    Electrodynamic tether (EDT) thrusters work by virtue of the force a magnetic field exerts on a wire carrying an electrical current. The force, which acts on any charged particle moving through a magnetic field (including the electrons moving in a current-carrying wire), were concisely expressed by Lorentz in 1895 in an equation that now bears his name. The force acts in a direction perpendicular to both the direction of current flow and the magnetic field vector. Electric motors make use of this force: a wire loop in a magnetic field is made to rotate by the torque the Lorentz Force exerts on it due to an alternating current in the loop times so as to keep the torque acting in the same sense. The motion of the loop is transmitted to a shaft, thus providing work. Although the working principle of EDT thrusters is not new, its application to space transportation may be significant. In essence, an EDT thruster is just a clever way of getting an electrical current to flow in a long orbiting wire (the tether) so that the Earth s magnetic field will accelerate the wire and, consequently the payload attached to the wire. The direction of current flow in the tether, either toward or away from the Earth along the local vertical, determines whether the magnetic force will raise or lower the orbit. The bias voltage of a vertically deployed metal tether, which results just from its orbital motion (assumed eastward) through Earth s magnetic field, is positive with respect to the ambient plasma at the top and negative at the bottom. This polarization is due to the action of the Lorentz force on the electrons in the tether. Thus, the natural current flow is the result of negative electrons being attracted to the upper end and then returned to the plasma at the lower end. The magnetic force in this case has a component opposite to the direction of motion, and thus leads to a lowering of the orbit and eventually to re-entry. In this generator mode of operation the Lorentz Force

  19. Special relativity effects for space-based coherent lidar experiments

    Raogudimetla, V. S.

    1994-01-01

    There is a great need to develop a system that can measure accurately atmospheric wind profiles because an accurate data of wind profiles in the atmosphere constitutes single most input for reliable simulations of global climate numerical methods. Also such data helps us understand atmospheric circulation and climate dynamics better. Because of this need for accurate wind measurements, a space-based Laser Atmospheric Winds Sounder (LAWS) is being designed at MSFC to measure wind profiles in the lower atmosphere of the earth with an accuracy of 1 m/s at lower altitudes to 5m/s at higher altitudes. This system uses an orbiting spacecraft with a pulsed laser source and measures the Doppler shift between the transmitted and received frequencies to estimate the atmospheric wind velocities. If a significant return from the ground (sea) is possible, the spacecraft speed and height are estimated from it and these results and the Doppler shift are then used to estimate the wind velocities in the atmosphere. It is expected that at the proposed wavelengths, there will be enough backscatter from the aerosols but there may no be significant return from the ground. So a coherent (heterodyne) detection system is being proposed for signal processing because it can provide high signal to noise ratio and sensitivity and thus make the best use of low ground return. However, for a heterodyne detection scheme to provide the best results, it is important that the receiving aperture be aligned properly for the proposed wind sounder, this amounts to only a few microradians tolerance in alignment. It is suspected that the satellite motion relative to the ground may introduce errors in the order of a few microradians because of special relativity. Hence, the problem of laser scattering off a moving fixed target when the source and receiver are moving, which was not treated in the past in the literature, was analyzed in the following, using relativistic electrodynamics and applied to the

  20. International cooperation in the Space Station programme - Assessing the experience to date

    Logsdon, John M.

    1991-01-01

    The origins and framework for cooperation in the Space Station program are outlined. Particular attention is paid to issues and commitments between the countries and to the political context of the Station partnership. A number of conclusions concerning international cooperation in space are drawn based on the Space Station experience. Among these conclusions is the assertion that an international partnership requires realistic assesments, mutual trust, and strong commitments in order to work.

  1. Multiplexed data independent acquisition (MSX-DIA) applied by high resolution mass spectrometry improves quantification quality for the analysis of histone peptides.

    Sidoli, Simone; Fujiwara, Rina; Garcia, Benjamin A

    2016-08-01

    We present the MS-based application of the innovative, although scarcely exploited, multiplexed data-independent acquisition (MSX-DIA) for the analysis of histone PTMs. Histones are golden standard for complexity in MS based proteomics, due to their large number of combinatorial modifications, leading to isobaric peptides after proteolytic digestion. DIA has, thus, gained popularity for the purpose as it allows for MS/MS-based quantification without upfront assay development. In this work, we evaluated the performance of traditional DIA versus MSX-DIA in terms of MS/MS spectra quality, instrument scan rate and quantification precision using histones from HeLa cells. We used an MS/MS isolation window of 10 and 6 m/z for DIA and MSX-DIA, respectively. Four MS/MS scans were multiplexed for MSX-DIA. Despite MSX-DIA was programmed to perform two-fold more MS/MS events than traditional DIA, it acquired on average ∼5% more full MS scans, indicating even faster scan rate. Results highlighted an overall decrease of background ion signals using MSX-DIA, and we illustrated specific examples where peptides of different precursor masses were co-fragmented by DIA but not MSX-DIA. Taken together, MSX-DIA proved thus to be a more favorable method for histone analysis in data independent mode. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. A common transport system for methionine, L-methionine-DL-sulfoximine (MSX), and phosphinothricin (PPT) in the diazotrophic cyanobacterium Nostoc muscorum.

    Singh, Arvind Kumar; Syiem, Mayashree B; Singh, Rajkumar S; Adhikari, Samrat; Rai, Amar Nath

    2008-05-01

    We present evidence, for the first time, of the occurrence of a transport system common for amino acid methionine, and methionine/glutamate analogues L-methionine-DL-sulfoximine (MSX) and phosphinothricin (PPT) in cyanobacterium Nostoc muscorum. Methionine, which is toxic to cyanobacterium, enhanced its nitrogenase activity at lower concentrations. The cyanobacterium showed a biphasic pattern of methionine uptake activity that was competitively inhibited by the amino acids alanine, isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine, proline, valine, glutamine, and asparagine. The methionine/glutamate analogue-resistant N. muscorum strains (MSX-R and PPT-R strains) also showed methionine-resistant phenotype accompanied by a drastic decrease in 35S methionine uptake activity. Treatment of protein extracts from these mutant strains with MSX and PPT reduced biosynthetic glutamine synthetase (GS) activity only in vitro and not in vivo. This finding implicated that MSX- and PPT-R phenotypes may have arisen due to a defect in their MSX and PPT transport activity. The simultaneous decrease in methionine uptake activity and in vitro sensitivity toward MSX and PPT of GS protein in MSX- and PPT-R strains indicated that methionine, MSX, and PPT have a common transport system that is shared by other amino acids as well in N. muscorum. Such information can become useful for isolation of methionine-producing cyanobacterial strains.

  3. Autonomous GPS/INS navigation experiment for Space Transfer Vehicle

    Upadhyay, Triveni N.; Cotterill, Stephen; Deaton, A. W.

    1993-01-01

    An experiment to validate the concept of developing an autonomous integrated spacecraft navigation system using on board Global Positioning System (GPS) and Inertial Navigation System (INS) measurements is described. The feasibility of integrating GPS measurements with INS measurements to provide a total improvement in spacecraft navigation performance, i.e. improvement in position, velocity and attitude information, was previously demonstrated. An important aspect of this research is the automatic real time reconfiguration capability of the system designed to respond to changes in a spacecraft mission under the control of an expert system.

  4. BASE-A space experiment with Rhodospirillum rubrum S1H

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — R. rubrum S1H inoculated on solid minimal media was sent to the ISS in September 2006 (BASE-A experiment). After 10 days flight R. rubrum cultures returned back to...

  5. The Sun Radio Imaging Space Experiment (SunRISE) Mission

    Kasper, J. C.; Lazio, J.; Alibay, F.; Amiri, N.; Bastian, T.; Cohen, C.; Landi, E.; Hegedus, A. M.; Maksimovic, M.; Manchester, W.; Reinard, A.; Schwadron, N.; Cecconi, B.; Hallinan, G.; Krupar, V.

    2017-12-01

    Radio emission from coronal mass ejections (CMEs) is a direct tracer of particle acceleration in the inner heliosphere and potential magnetic connections from the lower solar corona to the larger heliosphere. Energized electrons excite Langmuir waves, which then convert into intense radio emission at the local plasma frequency, with the most intense acceleration thought to occur within 20 R_S. The radio emission from CMEs is quite strong such that only a relatively small number of antennas is required to detect and map it, but many aspects of this particle acceleration and transport remain poorly constrained. Ground-based arrays would be quite capable of tracking the radio emission associated with CMEs, but absorption by the Earth's ionosphere limits the frequency coverage of ground-based arrays (nu > 15 MHz), which in turn limits the range of solar distances over which they can track the radio emission (concept: A constellation of small spacecraft in a geostationary graveyard orbit designed to localize and track radio emissions in the inner heliosphere. Each spacecraft would carry a receiving system for observations below 25 MHz, and SunRISE would produce the first images of CMEs more than a few solar radii from the Sun. Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  6. Developmental Regulation of Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Gene Expression by the MSX and DLX Homeodomain Protein Families*

    Givens, Marjory L.; Rave-Harel, Naama; Goonewardena, Vinodha D.; Kurotani, Reiko; Berdy, Sara E.; Swan, Christo H.; Rubenstein, John L. R.; Robert, Benoit; Mellon, Pamela L.

    2010-01-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is the central regulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, controlling sexual maturation and fertility in diverse species from fish to humans. GnRH gene expression is limited to a discrete population of neurons that migrate through the nasal region into the hypothalamus during embryonic development. The GnRH regulatory region contains four conserved homeodomain binding sites (ATTA) that are essential for basal promoter activity and cell-specific expression of the GnRH gene. MSX and DLX are members of the Antennapedia class of non-Hox homeodomain transcription factors that regulate gene expression and influence development of the craniofacial structures and anterior forebrain. Here, we report that expression patterns of the Msx and Dlx families of homeodomain transcription factors largely coincide with the migratory route of GnRH neurons and co-express with GnRH in neurons during embryonic development. In addition, MSX and DLX family members bind directly to the ATTA consensus sequences and regulate transcriptional activity of the GnRH promoter. Finally, mice lacking MSX1 or DLX1 and 2 show altered numbers of GnRH-expressing cells in regions where these factors likely function. These findings strongly support a role for MSX and DLX in contributing to spatiotemporal regulation of GnRH transcription during development. PMID:15743757

  7. Supplementation of Nucleosides During Selection can Reduce Sequence Variant Levels in CHO Cells Using GS/MSX Selection System.

    Tang, Danming; Lam, Cynthia; Louie, Salina; Hoi, Kam Hon; Shaw, David; Yim, Mandy; Snedecor, Brad; Misaghi, Shahram

    2018-01-01

    In the process of generating stable monoclonal antibody (mAb) producing cell lines, reagents such as methotrexate (MTX) or methionine sulfoximine (MSX) are often used. However, using such selection reagent(s) increases the possibility of having higher occurrence of sequence variants in the expressed antibody molecules due to the effects of MTX or MSX on de novo nucleotide synthesis. Since MSX inhibits glutamine synthase (GS) and results in both amino acid and nucleoside starvation, it is questioned whether supplementing nucleosides into the media could lower sequence variant levels without affecting titer. The results show that the supplementation of nucleosides to the media during MSX selection decreased genomic DNA mutagenesis rates in the selected cells, probably by reducing nucleotide mis-incorporation into the DNA. Furthermore, addition of nucleosides enhance clone recovery post selection and does not affect antibody expression. It is further observed that nucleoside supplements lowered DNA mutagenesis rates only at the initial stage of the clone selection and do not have any effect on DNA mutagenesis rates after stable cell lines are established. Therefore, the data suggests that addition of nucleosides during early stages of MSX selection can lower sequence variant levels without affecting titer or clone stability in antibody expression. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Developmental regulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone gene expression by the MSX and DLX homeodomain protein families.

    Givens, Marjory L; Rave-Harel, Naama; Goonewardena, Vinodha D; Kurotani, Reiko; Berdy, Sara E; Swan, Christo H; Rubenstein, John L R; Robert, Benoit; Mellon, Pamela L

    2005-05-13

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is the central regulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, controlling sexual maturation and fertility in diverse species from fish to humans. GnRH gene expression is limited to a discrete population of neurons that migrate through the nasal region into the hypothalamus during embryonic development. The GnRH regulatory region contains four conserved homeodomain binding sites (ATTA) that are essential for basal promoter activity and cell-specific expression of the GnRH gene. MSX and DLX are members of the Antennapedia class of non-Hox homeodomain transcription factors that regulate gene expression and influence development of the craniofacial structures and anterior forebrain. Here, we report that expression patterns of the Msx and Dlx families of homeodomain transcription factors largely coincide with the migratory route of GnRH neurons and co-express with GnRH in neurons during embryonic development. In addition, MSX and DLX family members bind directly to the ATTA consensus sequences and regulate transcriptional activity of the GnRH promoter. Finally, mice lacking MSX1 or DLX1 and 2 show altered numbers of GnRH-expressing cells in regions where these factors likely function. These findings strongly support a role for MSX and DLX in contributing to spatiotemporal regulation of GnRH transcription during development.

  9. [Development and application of a multi-species water quality model for water distribution systems with EPANET-MSX].

    Sun, Fu; Chen, Ji-ning; Zeng, Si-yu

    2008-12-01

    A conceptual multi-species water quality model for water distribution systems was developed on the basis of the toolkit of the EPANET-MSX software. The model divided the pipe segment into four compartments including pipe wall, biofilm, boundary layer and bulk liquid. The involved processes were substrate utilization and microbial growth, decay and inactivation of microorganisms, mass transfer of soluble components through the boundary layer, adsorption and desorption of particular components between bulk liquid and biofilm, oxidation and halogenation of organic matter by residual chlorine, and chlorine consumption by pipe wall. The fifteen simulated variables included the seven common variables both in the biofilm and in the bulk liquid, i.e. soluble organic matter, particular organic matter, ammonia nitrogen, residual chlorine, heterotrophic bacteria, autotrophic bacteria and inert solids, as well as biofilm thickness on the pipe wall. The model was validated against the data from a series of pilot experiments, and the simulation accuracy for residual chlorine and turbidity were 0.1 mg/L and 0.3 NTU respectively. A case study showed that the model could reasonably reflect the dynamic variation of residual chlorine and turbidity in the studied water distribution system, while Monte Carlo simulation, taking into account both the variability of finished water from the waterworks and the uncertainties of model parameters, could be performed to assess the violation risk of water quality in the water distribution system.

  10. INSPIRE: Interactive NASA Space Physics Ionosphere Radio Experiment

    Franzen, K. A.; Garcia, L. N.; Webb, P. A.; Green, J. L.

    2007-12-01

    The INSPIRE Project is a non-profit scientific and educational corporation whose objective is to bring the excitement of observing very low frequency (VLF) natural radio waves to high school students. Underlying this objective is the conviction that science and technology are the underpinnings of our modern society, and that only with an understanding of these disciplines can people make correct decisions in their lives. Since 1989, the INSPIRE Project has provided specially designed radio receiver kits to over 2,500 students and other groups to make observations of signals in the VLF frequency range. These kits provide an innovative and unique opportunity for students to actively gather data that can be used in a basic research project. Natural VLF emissions that can be studied with the INSPIRE receiver kits include sferics, tweeks, whistlers, and chorus, which originate from phenomena such as lightning. These emissions can either come from the local atmospheric environment within a few tens of kilometers of the receiver or from outer space thousands of kilometers from the Earth. VLF emissions are at such low frequencies that they can be received, amplified and turned into sound that we can hear, with each emission producing in a distinctive sound. In 2006 INSPIRE was re-branded and its mission has expanded to developing new partnerships with multiple science projects. Links to magnetospheric physics, astronomy, and meteorology are being identified. This presentation will introduce the INSPIRE project, display the INSPIRE receiver kits, show examples of the types of VLF emissions that can be collected and provide information on scholarship programs being offered.

  11. Pre-launch simulation experiment of microwave-ionosphere nonlinear interaction rocket experiment in the space plasma chamber

    Kaya, N. (Kobe University, Kobe, Japan); Tsutsui, M. (Kyoto University, Uji, Japan); Matsumoto, H. (Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan)

    1980-09-01

    A pre-flight test experiment of a microwave-ionosphere nonlinear interaction rocket experiment (MINIX) has been carried out in a space plasma simulation chamber. Though the first rocket experiment ended up in failure because of a high voltage trouble, interesting results are observed in the pre-flight experiment. A significant microwave heating of plasma up to 300% temperature increase is observed. Strong excitations of plasma waves by the transmitted microwaves in the VLF and HF range are observed as well. These microwave effects may have to be taken into account in solar power satellite projects in the future.

  12. Experience with Space Forums and Engineering Courses Organized for the Broad Dissemination of Space-related Information

    Dessimoz, J.-D.; D'Aquino, U.; Gander, J.-G.; Sekler, J.

    2002-01-01

    , the basics of propulsion techniques, and selected chapters in specific fields, such as communication, microgravity issues, space journeys, telerobotics, space instrumentation or bio-medical experiments, to mention just a few topics. Both types of actions are complementary and have each so far involved more than thousand participants, notably with very little overlap between both groups of attendees. Those numbers are particularly significant in view of the small country size and the low urban concentration of Switzerland. For the successful organisation of such actions, the co-ordinated effort of several institutions is mandatory. Among other main contributors, the SRV could gratefully count on the support and help from the European Space Agency (ESA), the Swiss Space Office (SSO), the Swiss Academy for Technical Sciences (SATW), as well as on numerous universities, schools, space industries and dedicated individuals. The communication mainly reports here on two types of actions: the Space technology courses for engineering students and professionals and our Space Forums for the interested public. In addition, the SRV association is also active in the realisation of yet other kinds of events: Space days, initiatives at the Swiss Transportation Museum, encouragement of applied R&D studies sponsored by the Swiss government (i.e. the CTI - Swiss Commission for Technology and Innovation), website offering and maintenance, newsletters, etc.

  13. Life into Space: Space Life Sciences Experiments, Ames Research Center, Kennedy Space Center, 1991-1998, Including Profiles of 1996-1998 Experiments

    Souza, Kenneth (Editor); Etheridge, Guy (Editor); Callahan, Paul X. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    We have now conducted space life sciences research for more than four decades. The continuing interest in studying the way living systems function in space derives from two main benefits of that research. First, in order for humans to engage in long-term space travel, we must understand and develop measures to counteract the most detrimental effects of space flight on biological systems. Problems in returning to the conditions of Earth must be kept to a manageable level. Second, increasing our understanding of how organisms function in the absence of gravity gives us new understanding of fundamental biological processes. This information can be used to improve human health and the quality of life on Earth.

  14. Lost in space: design of experiments and scientific exploration in a Hogarth Universe.

    Lendrem, Dennis W; Lendrem, B Clare; Woods, David; Rowland-Jones, Ruth; Burke, Matthew; Chatfield, Marion; Isaacs, John D; Owen, Martin R

    2015-11-01

    A Hogarth, or 'wicked', universe is an irregular environment generating data to support erroneous beliefs. Here, we argue that development scientists often work in such a universe. We demonstrate that exploring these multidimensional spaces using small experiments guided by scientific intuition alone, gives rise to an illusion of validity and a misplaced confidence in that scientific intuition. By contrast, design of experiments (DOE) permits the efficient mapping of such complex, multidimensional spaces. We describe simulation tools that enable research scientists to explore these spaces in relative safety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Regulation of proliferation in developing human tooth germs by MSX homeodomain proteins and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p19INK4d.

    Kero, Darko; Vukojevic, Katarina; Stazic, Petra; Sundov, Danijela; Mardesic Brakus, Snjezana; Saraga-Babic, Mirna

    2017-10-02

    Before the secretion of hard dental tissues, tooth germs undergo several distinctive stages of development (dental lamina, bud, cap and bell). Every stage is characterized by specific proliferation patterns, which is regulated by various morphogens, growth factors and homeodomain proteins. The role of MSX homeodomain proteins in odontogenesis is rather complex. Expression domains of genes encoding for murine Msx1/2 during development are observed in tissues containing highly proliferative progenitor cells. Arrest of tooth development in Msx knockout mice can be attributed to impaired proliferation of progenitor cells. In Msx1 knockout mice, these progenitor cells start to differentiate prematurely as they strongly express cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p19 INK4d . p19 INK4d induces terminal differentiation of cells by blocking the cell cycle in mitogen-responsive G1 phase. Direct suppression of p19 INK4d by Msx1 protein is, therefore, important for maintaining proliferation of progenitor cells at levels required for the normal progression of tooth development. In this study, we examined the expression patterns of MSX1, MSX2 and p19 INK4d in human incisor tooth germs during the bud, cap and early bell stages of development. The distribution of expression domains of p19 INK4d throughout the investigated period indicates that p19 INK4d plays active role during human tooth development. Furthermore, comparison of expression domains of p19 INK4d with those of MSX1, MSX2 and proliferation markers Ki67, Cyclin A2 and pRb, indicates that MSX-mediated regulation of proliferation in human tooth germs might not be executed by the mechanism similar to one described in developing tooth germs of wild-type mouse.

  16. The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) experiment on the International Space Station

    Alpat, Behcet E-mail: behcet.alpat@pg.infn.it

    2001-04-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is a detector designed to operate in space to search for antimatter components in cosmic ray, the annihilation products of darkmatter and to study the antiprotons, positrons and light nuclei. A 'baseline' version of the experiment has successfully completed the precursor flight on Space Shuttle Discovery (June 2-12, 1998). The complete AMS is programmed for installation on International Space Station in year 2003 for an operational period of 3 years. In this contribution we report on the experimental configuration of AMS that will be installed on International Space Station.

  17. Aerosol and cloud observations from the Lidar In-space Technology Experiment

    Winker, D. M.

    1995-01-01

    The Lidar In-Space Technology Experiment (LITE) is a backscatter lidar built by NASA Langley Research Center to fly on the Space Shuttle. The purpose of the program was to develop the engineering processes required for space lidar and to demonstrate applications of space lidar to remote sensing of the atmosphere. The instrument was flown on Discovery in September 1994. Global observations of clouds and aerosols were made between the latitudes of 57 deg N and 57 deg S during 10 days of the mission.

  18. Space Flight Experiments to Measure Polymer Erosion and Contamination on Spacecraft

    Lillis, Maura C.; Youngstrom, Erica E.; Marx, Laura M.; Hammerstrom, Anne M.; Finefrock, Katherine D.; Youngstrom, Christiane A.; Kaminski, Carolyn; Fine, Elizabeth S.; Hunt, Patricia K.; deGroh, Kim K.

    2002-01-01

    Atomic oxygen erosion and silicone contamination are serious issues that could damage or destroy spacecraft components after orbiting for an extended period of time, such as on a space station or satellite. An experiment, the Polymer Erosion And Contamination Experiment (PEACE) will be conducted to study the effects of atomic oxygen (AO) erosion and silicone contamination, and it will provide information and contribute to a solution for these problems. PEACE will fly 43 different polymer materials that will be analyzed for AO erosion effects through two techniques: mass loss measurement and recession depth measurement. Pinhole cameras will provide information about the arrival direction of AO, and silicone contamination pinhole cameras will identify the source of silicone contamination on a spacecraft. All experimental hardware will be passively exposed to AO for up to two weeks in the actual space environment when it flies in the bay of a space shuttle. A second set of the PEACE Polymers is being exposed to the space environment for erosion yield determination as part of a second experiment, Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE). MISSE is a collaboration between several federal agencies and aerospace companies. During a space walk on August 16, 2001, MISSE was attached to the outside of the International Space Station (ISS) during an extravehicular activity (EVA), where it began its exposure to AO for approximately 1.5 years. The PEACE polymers, therefore, will be analyzed after both short-term and long-term AO exposures for a more complete study of AO effects.

  19. Space, the final frontier: A critical review of recent experiments performed in microgravity.

    Vandenbrink, Joshua P; Kiss, John Z

    2016-02-01

    Space biology provides an opportunity to study plant physiology and development in a unique microgravity environment. Recent space studies with plants have provided interesting insights into plant biology, including discovering that plants can grow seed-to-seed in microgravity, as well as identifying novel responses to light. However, spaceflight experiments are not without their challenges, including limited space, limited access, and stressors such as lack of convection and cosmic radiation. Therefore, it is important to design experiments in a way to maximize the scientific return from research conducted on orbiting platforms such as the International Space Station. Here, we provide a critical review of recent spaceflight experiments and suggest ways in which future experiments can be designed to improve the value and applicability of the results generated. These potential improvements include: utilizing in-flight controls to delineate microgravity versus other spaceflight effects, increasing scientific return via next-generation sequencing technologies, and utilizing multiple genotypes to ensure results are not unique to one genetic background. Space experiments have given us new insights into plant biology. However, to move forward, special care should be given to maximize science return in understanding both microgravity itself as well as the combinatorial effects of living in space. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  20. Design and Development of a CPCI-Based Electronics Package for Space Station Experiments

    Kolacz, John S.; Clapper, Randy S.; Wade, Raymond P.

    2006-01-01

    The NASA John H. Glenn Research Center is developing a Compact-PCI (CPCI) based electronics package for controlling space experiment hardware on the International Space Station. Goals of this effort include an easily modified, modular design that allows for changes in experiment requirements. Unique aspects of the experiment package include a flexible circuit used for internal interconnections and a separate enclosure (box in a box) for controlling 1 kW of power for experiment fuel heating requirements. This electronics package was developed as part of the FEANICS (Flow Enclosure Accommodating Novel Investigations in Combustion of Solids) mini-facility which is part of the Fluids and Combustion Facility s Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR). The CIR will be the platform for future microgravity combustion experiments and will reside on the Destiny Module of the International Space Station (ISS). The FEANICS mini-facility will be the primary means for conducting solid fuel combustion experiments in the CIR on ISS. The main focus of many of these solid combustion experiments will be to conduct applied scientific investigations in fire-safety to support NASA s future space missions. A description of the electronics package and the results of functional testing are the subjects of this report. The report concludes that the use of innovative packaging methods combined with readily available COTS hardware can provide a modular electronics package which is easily modified for changing experiment requirements.

  1. Drawing and conceiving space : how to express spatial experience through drawing?

    Schaeverbeke, R.; Aarts, H.M.T.; Heylighen, A.

    2015-01-01

    Teaching drawing in architectural education raises questions regarding the representation of spatial experiences: to what extent can sensory experiences of space be intensified through observing and drawing and, perhaps equally important, what those drawings would look like? In the context of their

  2. Community-Based Field Experiences in Teacher Education: Possibilities for a Pedagogical Third Space

    Hallman, Heidi L.

    2012-01-01

    The present article discusses the importance of community-based field experiences as a feature of teacher education programs. Through a qualitative case study, prospective teachers' work with homeless youth in an after-school initiative is presented. Framing community-based field experiences in teacher education through "third space" theory, the…

  3. Erosion Results of the MISSE 7 Polymers Experiment and Zenith Polymers Experiment After 1.5 Years of Space Exposure

    De Groh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Yi, Grace T.; Haloua, Athena; Imka, Emily C.; Mitchell, Gianna G.; Asmar, Olivia C.; Leneghan, Halle A.; Sechkar, Edward A.

    2016-01-01

    Polymers and other oxidizable materials on the exterior of spacecraft in the low Earth orbit (LEO) space environment can be eroded due to reaction with atomic oxygen (AO). Therefore, in order to design durable spacecraft it is important to know the LEO AO erosion yield (E(sub y), volume loss per incident oxygen atom) of materials susceptible to AO reaction. Two spaceflight experiments, the Polymers Experiment and the Zenith Polymers Experiment, were developed to determine the AO E(sub y) of various polymers flown in ram, wake or zenith orientations in LEO. These experiments were flown as part of the Materials International Space Station Experiment 7 (MISSE 7) mission for 1.5 years on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS). The experiments included Kapton H(TradeMark) witness samples for AO fluence determination in ram and zenith orientations. The Polymers Experiment also included samples to determine whether AO erosion of high and low ash containing polymers is dependent on fluence. This paper provides an overview of the MISSE 7 mission, a description of the flight experiments with details on the polymers flown, the characterization techniques used, the AO fluence for each exposure orientation, and the LEO E(sub y) results. The E(sub y) values ranged from 7.99x10(exp -28)cu cm/atom for TiO2/Al2O3 coated Teflon(TradeMark) fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) flown in the ram orientation to 1.22x10(exp -23cu cm/atom for polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) flown in the zenith orientation. The E(sub y) of similar samples flown in different orientations has been compared to help determine solar exposure and associated heating effects on AO erosion. The E(sub y) data from these ISS spaceflight experiments provides valuable information for LEO spacecraft design purposes.

  4. Accuracy of the improved quasistatic space-time method checked with experiment

    Kugler, G.; Dastur, A.R.

    1976-10-01

    Recent experiments performed at the Savannah River Laboratory have made it possible to check the accuracy of numerical methods developed to simulate space-dependent neutron transients. The experiments were specifically designed to emphasize delayed neutron holdback. The CERBERUS code using the IQS (Improved Quasistatic) method has been developed to provide a practical yet accurate tool for spatial kinetics calculations of CANDU reactors. The code was tested on the Savannah River experiments and excellent agreement was obtained. (author)

  5. A space-qualified experiment integrating HTS digital circuits and small cryocoolers

    Silver, A.; Akerling, G.; Auten, R.

    1996-01-01

    High temperature superconductors (HTS) promise to achieve electrical performance superior to that of conventional electronics. For application in space systems, HTS systems must simultaneously achieve lower power, weight, and volume than conventional electronics, and meet stringent space qualification and reliability requirements. Most effort to date has focused on passive RF/microwave applications. However, incorporation of active microwave components such as amplifiers, mixers, and phase shifters, and on-board high data rate digital signal processing is limited by the power and weight of their spacecraft electronic and support modules. Absence of data on active HTS components will prevent their utilization in space. To validate the feasibility in space of HTS circuits and components based on Josephson junctions, one needs to demonstrate HTS circuits and critical supporting technologies, such as space-qualified packaging and interconnects, closed-cycle cryocooling, and interface electronics. This paper describes the packaging, performance, and space test plan of an integrated, space-qualified experimental package consisting of HTS Josephson junction circuits and all the supporting components for NRL's high temperature superconductor space experiment (HTSSE-II). Most of the technical challenges and approaches are equally applicable to passive and active RF/microwave and digital electronic components, and this experiment will provide valuable validation data

  6. BMPs regulate msx gene expression in the dorsal neuroectoderm of Drosophila and vertebrates by distinct mechanisms.

    Esteves, Francisco F; Springhorn, Alexander; Kague, Erika; Taylor, Erika; Pyrowolakis, George; Fisher, Shannon; Bier, Ethan

    2014-09-01

    In a broad variety of bilaterian species the trunk central nervous system (CNS) derives from three primary rows of neuroblasts. The fates of these neural progenitor cells are determined in part by three conserved transcription factors: vnd/nkx2.2, ind/gsh and msh/msx in Drosophila melanogaster/vertebrates, which are expressed in corresponding non-overlapping patterns along the dorsal-ventral axis. While this conserved suite of "neural identity" gene expression strongly suggests a common ancestral origin for the patterning systems, it is unclear whether the original regulatory mechanisms establishing these patterns have been similarly conserved during evolution. In Drosophila, genetic evidence suggests that Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs) act in a dosage-dependent fashion to repress expression of neural identity genes. BMPs also play a dose-dependent role in patterning the dorsal and lateral regions of the vertebrate CNS, however, the mechanism by which they achieve such patterning has not yet been clearly established. In this report, we examine the mechanisms by which BMPs act on cis-regulatory modules (CRMs) that control localized expression of the Drosophila msh and zebrafish (Danio rerio) msxB in the dorsal central nervous system (CNS). Our analysis suggests that BMPs act differently in these organisms to regulate similar patterns of gene expression in the neuroectoderm: repressing msh expression in Drosophila, while activating msxB expression in the zebrafish. These findings suggest that the mechanisms by which the BMP gradient patterns the dorsal neuroectoderm have reversed since the divergence of these two ancient lineages.

  7. BMPs regulate msx gene expression in the dorsal neuroectoderm of Drosophila and vertebrates by distinct mechanisms.

    Francisco F Esteves

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In a broad variety of bilaterian species the trunk central nervous system (CNS derives from three primary rows of neuroblasts. The fates of these neural progenitor cells are determined in part by three conserved transcription factors: vnd/nkx2.2, ind/gsh and msh/msx in Drosophila melanogaster/vertebrates, which are expressed in corresponding non-overlapping patterns along the dorsal-ventral axis. While this conserved suite of "neural identity" gene expression strongly suggests a common ancestral origin for the patterning systems, it is unclear whether the original regulatory mechanisms establishing these patterns have been similarly conserved during evolution. In Drosophila, genetic evidence suggests that Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs act in a dosage-dependent fashion to repress expression of neural identity genes. BMPs also play a dose-dependent role in patterning the dorsal and lateral regions of the vertebrate CNS, however, the mechanism by which they achieve such patterning has not yet been clearly established. In this report, we examine the mechanisms by which BMPs act on cis-regulatory modules (CRMs that control localized expression of the Drosophila msh and zebrafish (Danio rerio msxB in the dorsal central nervous system (CNS. Our analysis suggests that BMPs act differently in these organisms to regulate similar patterns of gene expression in the neuroectoderm: repressing msh expression in Drosophila, while activating msxB expression in the zebrafish. These findings suggest that the mechanisms by which the BMP gradient patterns the dorsal neuroectoderm have reversed since the divergence of these two ancient lineages.

  8. Out-reach in-space technology experiments program: Control of flexible robot manipulators in zero gravity, experiment definition phase

    Phillips, Warren F.

    1989-01-01

    The results obtained show that it is possible to control light-weight robots with flexible links in a manner that produces good response time and does not induce unacceptable link vibrations. However, deflections induced by gravity cause large static position errors with such a control system. For this reason, it is not possible to use this control system for controlling motion in the direction of gravity. The control system does, on the other hand, have potential for use in space. However, in-space experiments will be needed to verify its applicability to robots moving in three dimensions.

  9. Ion Irradiation Experiments on the Murchison CM2 Carbonaceous Chondrite: Simulating Space Weathering of Primitive Asteroids

    Keller, L. P.; Christoffersen, R.; Dukes, C. A.; Baragiola, R. A.; Rahman, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Remote sensing observations show that space weathering processes affect all airless bodies in the Solar System to some degree. Sample analyses and lab experiments provide insights into the chemical, spectroscopic and mineralogic effects of space weathering and aid in the interpretation of remote- sensing data. For example, analyses of particles returned from the S-type asteroid Itokawa by the Hayabusa mission revealed that space-weathering on that body was dominated by interactions with the solar wind acting on LL ordinary chondrite-like materials [1, 2]. Understanding and predicting how the surface regoliths of primitive carbonaceous asteroids respond to space weathering processes is important for future sample return missions (Hayabusa 2 and OSIRIS-REx) that are targeting objects of this type. Here, we report the results of our preliminary ion irradiation experiments on a hydrated carbonaceous chondrite with emphasis on microstructural and infrared spectral changes.

  10. The experience of lived space in persons with dementia: a systematic meta-synthesis.

    Førsund, Linn Hege; Grov, Ellen Karine; Helvik, Anne-Sofie; Juvet, Lene Kristine; Skovdahl, Kirsti; Eriksen, Siren

    2018-02-01

    Identifying how persons with dementia experience lived space is important for enabling supportive living environments and creating communities that compensate for the fading capabilities of these persons. Several single studies have explored this topic; however, few studies have attempted to explicitly review and synthesize this research literature. The aim of this systematic meta-synthesis was therefore to interpret and synthesize knowledge regarding persons with dementia's experience of space. A systematic, computerized search of AgeLine, CINAHL Complete, Embase, Medline and PsycINFO was conducted using a search strategy that combined MeSH terms and text words for different types of dementia with different descriptions of experience. Studies with 1) a sample of persons with dementia, 2) qualitative interviews as a research method and 3) a description of experiences of lived space were included. The search resulted in 1386 articles, of which 136 were identified as eligible and were read and assessed using the CASP criteria. The analysis was inspired by qualitative content analyses. This interpretative qualitative meta-synthesis included 45 articles encompassing interviews with 672 persons with dementia. The analysis showed that living in one's own home and living in long-term care established different settings and posed diverse challenges for the experience of lived space in persons with dementia. The material revealed four main categories that described the experience of lived space: (1) belonging; (2) meaningfulness; (3) safety and security; and (4) autonomy. It showed how persons with dementia experienced a reduction in their lived space due to the progression of dementia. A comprehensive understanding of the categories led to the latent theme: "Living with dementia is like living in a space where the walls keep closing in". This meta-synthesis reveals a process whereby lived space gradually becomes smaller for persons with dementia. This underscores the

  11. Fluid Phase Separation (FPS) experiment for flight on a space shuttle Get Away Special (GAS) canister

    Peters, Bruce; Wingo, Dennis; Bower, Mark; Amborski, Robert; Blount, Laura; Daniel, Alan; Hagood, Bob; Handley, James; Hediger, Donald; Jimmerson, Lisa

    1990-01-01

    The separation of fluid phases in microgravity environments is of importance to environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) and materials processing in space. A successful fluid phase separation experiment will demonstrate a proof of concept for the separation technique and add to the knowledge base of material behavior. The phase separation experiment will contain a premixed fluid which will be exposed to a microgravity environment. After the phase separation of the compound has occurred, small samples of each of the species will be taken for analysis on the Earth. By correlating the time of separation and the temperature history of the fluid, it will be possible to characterize the process. The experiment has been integrated into space available on a manifested Get Away Special (GAS) experiment, CONCAP 2, part of the Consortium for Materials Complex Autonomous Payload (CAP) Program, scheduled for STS-42. The design and the production of a fluid phase separation experiment for rapid implementation at low cost is presented.

  12. Multinational Experiment 7. Protecting Access to Space: Presentation to Senior Leaders

    2013-07-08

    Multinational Experiment 7: Outcome 3: Space Access Briefing to SLS 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...operations Consequence management Ship status during search & rescue Tele-medicine Broadband internet TV signal distribution Satellite radio Rural...military-usage • Significant economic & societal consequences Access to space at risk • Current approach unsustainable • Broad range of threats

  13. Development of a Plastic Melt Waste Compactor for Space Missions Experiments and Prototype Design

    Pace, Gregory; Wignarajah, Kanapathipillai; Pisharody, Suresh; Fisher, John

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes development at NASA Ames Research Center of a heat melt compactor that can be used on both near term and far term missions. Experiments have been performed to characterize the behavior of composite wastes that are representative of the types of wastes produced on current and previous space missions such as International Space Station, Space Shuttle, MIR and Skylab. Experiments were conducted to characterize the volume reduction, bonding, encapsulation and biological stability of the waste composite and also to investigate other key design issues such as plastic extrusion, noxious off-gassing and removal of the of the plastic waste product from the processor. The experiments provided the data needed to design a prototype plastic melt waste processor, a description of which is included in the paper.

  14. Standardization of XML Database Exchanges and the James Webb Space Telescope Experience

    Gal-Edd, Jonathan; Detter, Ryan; Jones, Ron; Fatig, Curtis C.

    2007-01-01

    Personnel from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Project have been working with various standard communities such the Object Management Group (OMG) and the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) to assist in the definition of a common extensible Markup Language (XML) for database exchange format. The CCSDS and OMG standards are intended for the exchange of core command and telemetry information, not for all database information needed to exercise a NASA space mission. The mission-specific database, containing all the information needed for a space mission, is translated from/to the standard using a translator. The standard is meant to provide a system that encompasses 90% of the information needed for command and telemetry processing. This paper will discuss standardization of the XML database exchange format, tools used, and the JWST experience, as well as future work with XML standard groups both commercial and government.

  15. Characterization of a human MSX-2 cDNA and its fragment isolated as a transformation suppressor gene against v-Ki-ras oncogene.

    Takahashi, C; Akiyama, N; Matsuzaki, T; Takai, S; Kitayama, H; Noda, M

    1996-05-16

    A cDNA (termed CT124) encoding a carboxyl-terminal fragment of the human homeobox protein MSX-2 was found to induce flat reversion when expressed in v-Ki-ras-transformed NIH3T3 cells. Although the expression of endogenous MSX-2 gene is low in most of the normal adult tissues examined, it is frequently activated in carcinoma-derived cell lines. Likewise, the gene is inactive in NIH3T3 cells but is transcriptionally activated after transformation by v-Ki-ras oncogene, suggesting that the intact MSX-2 may play a positive, rather than suppressive, role in cell transformation. To test this possibility, we isolated a near full-length human MSX-2 cDNA and tested its activities in two cell systems, i.e. fibroblast and myoblast. In NIH3T3 fibroblasts, although the gene by itself failed to confer a transformed phenotype, antisense MSX-2 cDNA as well as truncated CT124 cDNA interfered with the transforming activities of v-Ki-ras oncogene. In C2C12 myoblasts, MSX-2 was found to suppress MyoD gene expression, as do activated ras oncogenes, under certain culture conditions, and CT124 was found to inhibit the activities of both MSX-2 and ras in this system as well. Our findings not only suggest that CT124 may act as a dominant suppressor of MSX-2 but also raise the possibility that MSX-2 gene may be an important downstream target for the Ras signaling pathways.

  16. Tethered elevator and platforms as space station facilities: Systems studies and demonstrative experiments

    1986-01-01

    Several key concepts of the science and applications tethered platforms were studied. Some conclusions reached are herein listed. Tether elevator and platform could improve the space station scientific and applicative capabilities. The space elevator presents unique characteristics as microgravity facility and as a tethered platform servicing vehicle. Pointing platforms could represent a new kind of observation facility for large class of payloads. The dynamical, control and technological complexity of these concepts advised demonstrative experiments. The on-going tethered satellite system offers the opportunity to perform such experiments. And feasibility studies are in progress.

  17. ``From seed-to-seed'' experiment with wheat plants under space-flight conditions

    Mashinsky, A.; Ivanova, I.; Derendyaeva, T.; Nechitailo, G.; Salisbury, F.

    1994-11-01

    An important goal with plant experiments in microgravity is to achieve a complete life cycle, the ``seed-to-seed experiment''. Some Soviet attempts to reach this goal are described, notably an experiment with the tiny mustard, Arabidopsis thaliana, in the Phyton 3 device on Salyut 7. Normal seeds were produced although yields were reduced and development was delayed. Several other experiments have shown abnormalities in plants grown in space. In recent work, plants of wheat (Triticum aestivum) were studied on the ground and then in a preliminary experiment in space. Biometric indices of vegetative space plants were 2 to 2.5 times lower than those of controls, levels of chlorophyll a and b were reduced (no change in the ratio of the two pigments), carotenoids were reduced, there was a serious imbalance in major minerals, and membrane lipids were reduced (no obvious change in lipid patterns). Following the preliminary studies, an attempt was made with the Svetoblock-M growth unit to grow a super-dwarf wheat cultivar through a life cycle. The experiment lasted 167 d on Mir. Growth halted from about day 40 to day 100, when new shoots appeared. Three heads had appeared in the boot (surrounded by leaves) when plants were returned to earth. One head was sterile, but 28 seeds matured on earth, and most of these have since produced normal plants and seeds. In principle, a seed-to-seed experiment with wheat should be successful in microgravity.

  18. A minimal murine Msx-1 gene promoter. Organization of its cis-regulatory motifs and their role in transcriptional activation in cells in culture and in transgenic mice.

    Takahashi, T; Guron, C; Shetty, S; Matsui, H; Raghow, R

    1997-09-05

    To dissect the cis-regulatory elements of the murine Msx-1 promoter, which lacks a conventional TATA element, a putative Msx-1 promoter DNA fragment (from -1282 to +106 base pairs (bp)) or its congeners containing site-specific alterations were fused to luciferase reporter and introduced into NIH3T3 and C2C12 cells, and the expression of luciferase was assessed in transient expression assays. The functional consequences of the sequential 5' deletions of the promotor revealed that multiple positive and negative regulatory elements participate in regulating transcription of the Msx-1 gene. Surprisingly, however, the optimal expression of Msx-1 promoter in either NIH3T3 or C2C12 cells required only 165 bp of the upstream sequence to warrant detailed examination of its structure. Therefore, the functional consequences of site-specific deletions and point mutations of the cis-acting elements of the minimal Msx-1 promoter were systematically examined. Concomitantly, potential transcriptional factor(s) interacting with the cis-acting elements of the minimal promoter were also studied by gel electrophoretic mobility shift assays and DNase I footprinting. Combined analyses of the minimal promoter by DNase I footprinting, electrophoretic mobility shift assays, and super shift assays with specific antibodies revealed that 5'-flanking regions from -161 to -154 and from -26 to -13 of the Msx-1 promoter contains an authentic E box (proximal E box), capable of binding a protein immunologically related to the upstream stimulating factor 1 (USF-1) and a GC-rich sequence motif which can bind to Sp1 (proximal Sp1), respectively. Additionally, we observed that the promoter activation was seriously hampered if the proximal E box was removed or mutated, and the promoter activity was eliminated completely if the proximal Sp1 site was similarly altered. Absolute dependence of the Msx-1 minimal promoter on Sp1 could be demonstrated by transient expression assays in the Sp1-deficient

  19. Use of Competitive PCR to Detect and Quantify Haplosporidium nelsoni Infection (MSX disease) in the Eastern Oyster (Crassostrea virginica).

    Day, J Michael; Franklin, Dean E.; Brown, Bonnie L.

    2000-09-01

    This study was undertaken to develop a quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay that would improve the utility of PCR for detecting Haplosporidium nelsoni (MSX), a serious parasite of the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica. A competitive PCR sequence was generated from the H. nelsoni small subunit ribosomal DNA fragment, originally described by Stokes and colleagues, that was amplified by the same PCR primers and had similar amplification performance. Assays performed using competitor dilutions ranging from 0.05 to 500 pg/µl DNA were used to test oyster samples designated using histological techniques as having "light" or "heavy" MSX infections. Visual diagnoses were confirmed equally well with three methods: densitometry of ethidium-bromide-stained agarose, densitometry of SYBRGreen-stained polyacrylamide gels, and analysis by GeneScan 3.0 of fluorescent products detected in ultrathin gels. Oysters diagnosed as negative for MSX tested as negative or light by PCR. Oysters with light MSX infections generally had less than 5 pg/µl infectious DNA. Oysters with heavy infections generally corresponded to 5 pg/µl or greater competitor dilutions.

  20. "EGM" (Electrostatics of Granular Matter): A Space Station Experiment to Examine Natural Particulate Systems

    Marshall, J.; Sauke, T.; Buehler, M.; Farrell, W.; Green, R.; Birchenough, A.

    1999-09-01

    A granular-materials experiment is being developed for a 2002 launch for Space Station deployment. The experiment is funded by NASA HQ and managed through NASA Lewis Research Center. The experiment will examine electrostatic aggregation of coarse granular materials with the goals of (a) obtaining proof for an electrostatic dipole model of grain interactions, and (b) obtaining knowledge about the way aggregation affects the behavior of natural particulate masses: (1) in unconfined dispersions (clouds such as nebulae, aeolian dust palls, volcanic plumes), (2) in semi-confined, self-loaded masses as in fluidized flows (pyroclastic surges, avalanches) and compacted regolith, or (3) in semi-confined non-loaded masses as in dust layers adhering to solar cells or space suits on Mars. The experiment addresses both planetary/astrophysical issues as well as practical concerns for human exploration of Mars or other solar system bodies. Additional information is contained in the original.

  1. Murine craniofacial development requires Hdac3-mediated repression of Msx gene expression.

    Singh, Nikhil; Gupta, Mudit; Trivedi, Chinmay M; Singh, Manvendra K; Li, Li; Epstein, Jonathan A

    2013-05-15

    Craniofacial development is characterized by reciprocal interactions between neural crest cells and neighboring cell populations of ectodermal, endodermal and mesodermal origin. Various genetic pathways play critical roles in coordinating the development of cranial structures by modulating the growth, survival and differentiation of neural crest cells. However, the regulation of these pathways, particularly at the epigenomic level, remains poorly understood. Using murine genetics, we show that neural crest cells exhibit a requirement for the class I histone deacetylase Hdac3 during craniofacial development. Mice in which Hdac3 has been conditionally deleted in neural crest demonstrate fully penetrant craniofacial abnormalities, including microcephaly, cleft secondary palate and dental hypoplasia. Consistent with these abnormalities, we observe dysregulation of cell cycle genes and increased apoptosis in neural crest structures in mutant embryos. Known regulators of cell cycle progression and apoptosis in neural crest, including Msx1, Msx2 and Bmp4, are upregulated in Hdac3-deficient cranial mesenchyme. These results suggest that Hdac3 serves as a critical regulator of craniofacial morphogenesis, in part by repressing core apoptotic pathways in cranial neural crest cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Adaptive Coding and Modulation Experiment With NASA's Space Communication and Navigation Testbed

    Downey, Joseph; Mortensen, Dale; Evans, Michael; Briones, Janette; Tollis, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)'s Space Communication and Navigation Testbed is an advanced integrated communication payload on the International Space Station. This paper presents results from an adaptive coding and modulation (ACM) experiment over S-band using a direct-to-earth link between the SCaN Testbed and the Glenn Research Center. The testing leverages the established Digital Video Broadcasting Second Generation (DVB-S2) standard to provide various modulation and coding options, and uses the Space Data Link Protocol (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) standard) for the uplink and downlink data framing. The experiment was conducted in a challenging environment due to the multipath and shadowing caused by the International Space Station structure. Several approaches for improving the ACM system are presented, including predictive and learning techniques to accommodate signal fades. Performance of the system is evaluated as a function of end-to-end system latency (round-trip delay), and compared to the capacity of the link. Finally, improvements over standard NASA waveforms are presented.

  3. The Importance of Conducting Life Sciences Experiments on the Deep Space Gateway Platform

    Bhattacharya, S.

    2018-01-01

    Over the last several decades important information has been gathered by conducting life science experiments on the Space Shuttle and on the International Space Station. It is now time to leverage that scientific knowledge, as well as aspects of the hardware that have been developed to support the biological model systems, to NASA's next frontier - the Deep Space Gateway. In order to facilitate long duration deep space exploration for humans, it is critical for NASA to understand the effects of long duration, low dose, deep space radiation on biological systems. While carefully controlled ground experiments on Earth-based radiation facilities have provided valuable preliminary information, we still have a significant knowledge gap on the biological responses of organisms to chronic low doses of the highly ionizing particles encountered beyond low Earth orbit. Furthermore, the combined effects of altered gravity and radiation have the potential to cause greater biological changes than either of these parameters alone. Therefore a thorough investigation of the biological effects of a cis-lunar environment will facilitate long term human exploration of deep space.

  4. NASA Glenn Research Center Solar Cell Experiment Onboard the International Space Station

    Myers, Matthew G.; Wolford, David S.; Prokop, Norman F.; Krasowski, Michael J.; Parker, David S.; Cassidy, Justin C.; Davies , William E.; Vorreiter, Janelle O.; Piszczor, Michael F.; Mcnatt, Jeremiah S.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Accurate air mass zero (AM0) measurement is essential for the evaluation of new photovoltaic (PV) technology for space solar cells. The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has flown an experiment designed to measure the electrical performance of several solar cells onboard NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Robotic Refueling Missions (RRM) Task Board 4 (TB4) on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS). Four industry and government partners provided advanced PV devices for measurement and orbital environment testing. The experiment was positioned on the exterior of the station for approximately eight months, and was completely self-contained, providing its own power and internal data storage. Several new cell technologies including four-junction (4J) Inverted Metamorphic Multi-junction (IMM) cells were evaluated and the results will be compared to ground-based measurement methods.

  5. Centralising Space: The Physical Education and Physical Activity Experiences of South Asian, Muslim Girls

    Stride, Annette

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the physical education (PE) and physical activity experiences of a group of South Asian, Muslim girls, a group typically marginalised in PE and physical activity research. The study responds to ongoing calls for research to explore across different spaces in young people's lives. Specifically, I draw on a…

  6. A high resolution, low power time-of-flight system for the space experiment AMS

    Alvisi, D.; Anselmo, F.; Baldini, L.; Bari, G.; Basile, M.; Bellagamba, L.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Boscherini, D.; Casadei, D.; Cara Romeo, G.; Castellini, G.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Contin, A.; De Pasquale, S.; Giusti, P.; Iacobucci, G.; Laurenti, G.; Levi, G.; Margotti, A.; Massam, T.; Nania, R.; Palmonari, F.; Polini, A.; Recupero, S.; Sartorelli, G.; Williams, C.; Zichichi, A.

    1999-01-01

    The system of plastic scintillator counters for the AMS experiment is described. The main characteristics of the detector are: (a) large sensitive area (four 1.6 m 2 planes) with small dead space; (b) low-power consumption (150 W for the power and the read-out electronics of 336 PMs); (c) 120 ps time resolution

  7. Seeds-in-space education experiment during the Dutch soyuz mission DELTA

    Weterings, Koen; Wamsteker, Jasper; Loon, Jack van

    2007-09-01

    We have used the broad appeal of the universe and space flight to boost interest in science education in The Netherlands via a classroom experiment designated Seeds In Space (SIS). By germinating Rucola seeds in the dark and in the light in ground classrooms and by comparing these results with those obtained in the same experiment performed in the International Space Station (ISS) during the Dutch Soyuz mission DELTA, students could learn about the cues that determine direction of plant growth. This paper describes both the preparations that led up to the SIS experiment as well as the popular and scientific outcome. Within The Netherlands, some 80.000 students participated, representing 15% of the population in the age group of 10-14 years old. In addition, another 80.000 German pupils, a few local schools in the Moscow -Koroljov- area and some in the Dutch Antilles also participated in the SIS experiment. Considering these numbers, it can be concluded that SIS was a very successful educational project and might be considered for future space flight missions.

  8. Small-Scale Design Experiments as Working Space for Larger Mobile Communication Challenges

    Lowe, Sarah; Stuedahl, Dagny

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a design experiment using Instagram as a cultural probe is submitted as a method for analyzing the challenges that arise when considering the implementation of social media within a distributed communication space. It outlines how small, iterative investigations can reveal deeper research questions relevant to the education of…

  9. Hilbert, Fock and Cantorian spaces in the quantum two-slit gedanken experiment

    El Naschie, M.S.

    2006-01-01

    On the one hand, a rigorous mathematical formulation of quantum mechanics requires the introduction of a Hilbert space and as we move to the second quantization, a Fock space. On the other hand, the Cantorian E-infinity approach to quantum physics was developed largely without any direct reference to the afore mentioned mathematical spaces. In the present work we utilize some novel reinterpretations of basic E (∞) Cantorian spacetime relations in terms of the Hilbert space of quantum mechanics. Proceeding in this way, we gain a better understanding of the physico-mathematical structure of quantum spacetime which is at the heart of the paradoxical and non-intuitive outcome of the famous quantum two-slit gedanken experiment

  10. Erosion Data from the MISSE 8 Polymers Experiment After 2 Years of Space Exposure on the International Space Station

    de Groh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Asmar, Olivia C.; Yi, Grace T.; Mitchell, Gianna G.; Guo, Aobo; Sechkar, Edward A.

    2016-01-01

    The Polymers Experiment was exposed to the low Earth orbit (LEO) space environment for 2.14 and 2.0 years as part of the Materials International Space Station Experiment 8 (MISSE 8) and the Optical Reflector Materials Experiment-III (ORMatE-III), respectively. The experiment contained 42 samples, which were flown in either ram, wake, or zenith orientations. The primary objective was to determine the effect of solar exposure on the atomic oxygen erosion yield (Ey) of fluoropolymers. This paper provides an overview of the experiment with details on the polymers flown, the characterization techniques used, the atomic oxygen fluence for each exposure orientation, and the LEO Ey results. The Ey values for the fluoropolymers range from 1.45 x 10(exp -25) cm(exp 3)/atom for white Tedlar Registered Trademark? (polyvinyl fluoride with white titanium dioxide pigment) flown in the ram orientation to 6.32 x 10(exp -24) cm(exp 3)/atom for aluminized-Teflon Registered Trademark? fluorinated ethylene propylene (Al-FEP) flown in the zenith orientation. Erosion yield data for FEP flown in ram, wake and zenith orientations are compared, and the Ey was found to be highly dependent on orientation, hence environmental exposure. Teflon FEP had an order of magnitude higher Ey when flown in the zenith direction (6.32 x10(exp -24) cm(exp3)/atom) as compared to the ram direction (2.37 x 10(exp -25) cm(exp 3)/atom). The Ey of FEP was found to increase with a direct correlation to the solar exposure/AO fluence ratio showing the effect of solar radiation and/or heating due to solar exposure on FEP erosion. In addition, back-surface carbon painted FEP (C-FEP) flown in the zenith orientation had a significantly higher Ey than clear FEP or Al-FEP further indicating that heating has a significant impact on the erosion of FEP, particularly in the zenith orientation.

  11. Definition of common support equipment and space station interface requirements for IOC model technology experiments

    Russell, Richard A.; Waiss, Richard D.

    1988-01-01

    A study was conducted to identify the common support equipment and Space Station interface requirements for the IOC (initial operating capabilities) model technology experiments. In particular, each principal investigator for the proposed model technology experiment was contacted and visited for technical understanding and support for the generation of the detailed technical backup data required for completion of this study. Based on the data generated, a strong case can be made for a dedicated technology experiment command and control work station consisting of a command keyboard, cathode ray tube, data processing and storage, and an alert/annunciator panel located in the pressurized laboratory.

  12. The Komplast Experiment: Space Environmental Effects after 12 Years in LEO (and Counting)

    Golden, J. L.; Shaevich, S.; Aleksandrov, N. G.; Shumov, A. E.; Novikov, L. S.; Alred, J. A.; Shindo, D. J.; Kravchenko, M.

    2014-01-01

    The Komplast materials experiment was designed by the Khrunichev Space Center, together with other Russian scientific institutes, and has been carried out by Mission Control Moscow since 1998. The purpose is to study the effect of the low earth orbit (LEO) environment on exposed samples of various spacecraft materials. The Komplast experiment began with the launch of the first International Space Station (ISS) module on November 20, 1998. Two of eight experiment panels were retrieved during Russian extravehicular activity in February 2011 after 12 years of LEO exposure, and were subsequently returned to Earth by Space Shuttle "Discovery" on the STS-133/ULF-5 mission. The retrieved panels contained an experiment to detect micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) impacts, radiation sensors, a temperature sensor, several pieces of electrical cable, both carbon composite and adhesive-bonded samples, and many samples made from elastomeric and fluoroplastic materials. Our investigation is complete and a summary of the results obtained from this uniquely long-duration exposure experiment will be presented.

  13. Laboratory simulation of the formation of an ionospheric depletion using Keda Space Plasma EXperiment (KSPEX

    Pengcheng Yu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In the work, the formation of an ionospheric depletion was simulated in a controlled laboratory plasma. The experiment was performed by releasing chemical substance sulfur hexafluoride (SF6 into the pure argon discharge plasma. Results indicate that the plasma parameters change significantly after release of chemicals. The electron density is nearly depleted due to the sulfur hexafluoride-electron attachment reaction; and the electron temperature and space potential experience an increase due to the decrease of the electron density. Compared to the traditional active release experiments, the laboratory scheme can be more efficient, high repetition rate and simpler measurement of the varying plasma parameter after chemical releasing. Therefore, it can effective building the bridge between the theoretical work and real space observation.

  14. Photometric Calibration of the Barium Cloud Image in a Space Active Experiment: Determining the Release Efficiency

    Xie Liang-Hai; Li Lei; Wang Jing-Dong; Tao Ran; Cheng Bing-Jun; Zhang Yi-Teng

    2014-01-01

    The barium release experiment is an effective method to explore the near-earth environment and to study all kinds of space physics processes. The first space barium release experiment in China was successfully carried out by a sounding rocket on April 5, 2013. This work is devoted to calculating the release efficiency of the barium release by analyzing the optical image observed during the experiment. First, we present a method to calibrate the images grey value of barium cloud with the reference stars to obtain the radiant fluxes at different moments. Then the release efficiency is obtained by a curve fitting with the theoretical evolution model of barium cloud. The calculated result is basically consistent with the test value on ground

  15. Space Shuttle Program (SSP) Shock Test and Specification Experience for Reusable Flight Hardware Equipment

    Larsen, Curtis E.

    2012-01-01

    As commercial companies are nearing a preliminary design review level of design maturity, several companies are identifying the process for qualifying their multi-use electrical and mechanical components for various shock environments, including pyrotechnic, mortar firing, and water impact. The experience in quantifying the environments consists primarily of recommendations from Military Standard-1540, Product Verification Requirement for Launch, Upper Stage, and Space Vehicles. Therefore, the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) formed a team of NASA shock experts to share the NASA experience with qualifying hardware for the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) and other applicable programs and projects. Several team teleconferences were held to discuss past experience and to share ideas of possible methods for qualifying components for multiple missions. This document contains the information compiled from the discussions

  16. Materials on the International Space Station - Forward Technology Solar Cell Experiment

    Walters, R. J.; Garner, J. C.; Lam, S. N.; Vazquez, J. A.; Braun, W. R.; Ruth, R. E.; Lorentzen, J. R.; Bruninga, R.; Jenkins, P. P.; Flatico, J. M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a space solar cell experiment currently being built by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) in collaboration with NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), and the US Naval Academy (USNA). The experiment has been named the Forward Technology Solar Cell Experiment (FTSCE), and the purpose is to rapidly put current and future generation space solar cells on orbit and provide validation data for these technologies. The FTSCE is being fielded in response to recent on-orbit and ground test anomalies associated with space solar arrays that have raised concern over the survivability of new solar technologies in the space environment and the validity of present ground test protocols. The FTSCE is being built as part of the Fifth Materials on the International Space Station (MISSE) Experiment (MISSE-5), which is a NASA program to characterize the performance of new prospective spacecraft materials when subjected to the synergistic effects of the space environment. Telemetry, command, control, and communication (TNC) for the FTSCE will be achieved through the Amateur Satellite Service using the PCSat2 system, which is an Amateur Radio system designed and built by the USNA. In addition to providing an off-the-shelf solution for FTSCE TNC, PCSat2 will provide a communications node for the Amateur Radio satellite system. The FTSCE and PCSat2 will be housed within the passive experiment container (PEC), which is an approximately 2ft x2ft x 4in metal container built by NASA Langley Research Center (NASA LaRC) as part of the MISSE-5 program. NASA LaRC has also supplied a thin film materials experiment that will fly on the exterior of the thermal blanket covering the PCSat2. The PEC is planned to be transported to the ISS on a Shuttle flight. The PEC will be mounted on the exterior of the ISS by an astronaut during an extravehicular activity (EVA). After nominally one year, the PEC will be retrieved and returned to Earth. At the time of writing this paper, the

  17. Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE): Overview, Accomplishments and Future Needs

    deGroh, Kim K.; Jaworske, Donald A.; Pippin, Gary; Jenkins, Philip P.; Walters, Robert J.; Thibeault, Sheila A.; Palusinski, Iwona; Lorentzen, Justin R.

    2014-01-01

    Materials and devices used on the exterior of spacecraft in low Earth orbit (LEO) are subjected to environmental threats that can cause degradation in material properties, possibly threatening spacecraft mission success. These threats include: atomic oxygen (AO), ultraviolet and x-ray radiation, charged particle radiation, temperature extremes and thermal cycling, micrometeoroid and debris impacts, and contamination. Space environmental threats vary greatly based on spacecraft materials, thicknesses and stress levels, and the mission environment and duration. For more than a decade the Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) has enabled the study of the long duration environmental durability of spacecraft materials in the LEO environment. The overall objective of MISSE is to test the stability and durability of materials and devices in the space environment in order to gain valuable knowledge on the performance of materials in space, as well as to enable lifetime predictions of new materials that may be used in future space flight. MISSE is a series of materials flight experiments, which are attached to the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS). Individual experiments were loaded onto suitcase-like trays, called Passive Experiment Containers (PECs). The PECs were transported to the ISS in the Space Shuttle cargo bay and attached to, and removed from, the ISS during extravehicular activities (EVAs). The PECs were retrieved after one or more years of space exposure and returned to Earth enabling post-flight experiment evaluation. MISSE is a multi-organization project with participants from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Department of Defense (DoD), industry and academia. MISSE has provided a platform for environmental durability studies for thousands of samples and numerous devices, and it has produced many tangible impacts. Ten PECs (and one smaller tray) have been flown, representing MISSE 1 through MISSE

  18. MCNP benchmark analyses of critical experiments for the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion program

    Selcow, E.C.; Cerbone, R.J.; Ludewig, H.; Mughabghab, S.F.; Schmidt, E.; Todosow, M.; Parma, E.J.; Ball, R.M.; Hoovler, G.S.

    1993-01-01

    Benchmark analyses have been performed of Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) critical experiments (CX) using the MCNP radiation transport code. The experiments have been conducted at the Sandia National Laboratory reactor facility in support of the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) program. The test reactor is a nineteen element water moderated and reflected thermal system. A series of integral experiments have been carried out to test the capabilities of the radiation transport codes to predict the performance of PBR systems. MCNP was selected as the preferred radiation analysis tool for the benchmark experiments. Comparison between experimental and calculational results indicate close agreement. This paper describes the analyses of benchmark experiments designed to quantify the accuracy of the MCNP radiation transport code for predicting the performance characteristics of PBR reactors

  19. MCNP benchmark analyses of critical experiments for the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion program

    Selcow, Elizabeth C.; Cerbone, Ralph J.; Ludewig, Hans; Mughabghab, Said F.; Schmidt, Eldon; Todosow, Michael; Parma, Edward J.; Ball, Russell M.; Hoovler, Gary S.

    1993-01-01

    Benchmark analyses have been performed of Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) critical experiments (CX) using the MCNP radiation transport code. The experiments have been conducted at the Sandia National Laboratory reactor facility in support of the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) program. The test reactor is a nineteen element water moderated and reflected thermal system. A series of integral experiments have been carried out to test the capabilities of the radiation transport codes to predict the performance of PBR systems. MCNP was selected as the preferred radiation analysis tool for the benchmark experiments. Comparison between experimental and calculational results indicate close agreement. This paper describes the analyses of benchmark experiments designed to quantify the accuracy of the MCNP radiation transport code for predicting the performance characteristics of PBR reactors.

  20. Perception, experience and the use of public urban spaces by residents of urban neighbourhoods

    Nataša Bratina Jurkovič

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In cities, public green open spaces offer residents a potentially better quality of life. The behavioural patterns by which people experience and use these spaces is therefore a valuable source of information for spatial planning. Indeed, studying how these spaces are used has also shown a significant difference between the intentions of planners and users. Only the frequency of visits to these public green spaces ultimately testifies to their appropriate and successful planning. Based on empirical research conducted in a residential area of Ljubljana, this article addresses the significance and methods of obtaining information on the experience and use of urban open spaces by residents of that neighbourhood. The article identifies factors (that could also be used by planners that significantly impact satisfaction levels among the intended users of the neighbourhood. The focus group method and socio spatial schema method were used, based on the assumption that a multi method approach provides more accurate and reliable information that is verifiable, and therefore more useful in developing planning policies. According to the research findings, residents perceive their “neighbourhood” to be the area around their home in which they know each other and socialise with neighbours. The factors that trigger a sense of satisfaction with their neighbourhood are well maintained green areas in the vicinity of their home, parks with trees that provide spaces for a variety of activities, tree lined streets, green areas connected into a system, the opportunity to use these areas for recreation and sports, and street furniture for rest or play. The spatial elements that hinder the use of such open spaces are, in particular, busy streets, unprotected pedestrian crossings, large garage areas and car parking.

  1. Transcriptional control of the tissue-specific, developmentally regulated osteocalcin gene requires a binding motif for the Msx family of homeodomain proteins.

    Hoffmann, H M; Catron, K M; van Wijnen, A J; McCabe, L R; Lian, J B; Stein, G S; Stein, J L

    1994-12-20

    The OC box of the rat osteocalcin promoter (nt -99 to -76) is the principal proximal regulatory element contributing to both tissue-specific and developmental control of osteocalcin gene expression. The central motif of the OC box includes a perfect consensus DNA binding site for certain homeodomain proteins. Homeodomain proteins are transcription factors that direct proper development by regulating specific temporal and spatial patterns of gene expression. We therefore addressed the role of the homeodomain binding motif in the activity of the OC promoter. In this study, by the combined application of mutagenesis and site-specific protein recognition analysis, we examined interactions of ROS 17/2.8 osteosarcoma cell nuclear proteins and purified Msx-1 homeodomain protein with the OC box. We detected a series of related specific protein-DNA interactions, a subset of which were inhibited by antibodies directed against the Msx-1 homeodomain but which also recognize the Msx-2 homeodomain. Our results show that the sequence requirements for binding the Msx-1 or Msx-2 homeodomain closely parallel those necessary for osteocalcin gene promoter activity in vivo. This functional relationship was demonstrated by transient expression in ROS 17/2.8 osteosarcoma cells of a series of osteocalcin promoter (nt -1097 to +24)-reporter gene constructs containing mutations within and flanking the homeodomain binding site of the OC box. Northern blot analysis of several bone-related cell types showed that all of the cells expressed msx-1, whereas msx-2 expression was restricted to cells transcribing osteocalcin. Taken together, our results suggest a role for Msx-1 and -2 or related homeodomain proteins in transcription of the osteocalcin gene.

  2. The Mice Drawer System (MDS experiment and the space endurance record-breaking mice.

    Ranieri Cancedda

    Full Text Available The Italian Space Agency, in line with its scientific strategies and the National Utilization Plan for the International Space Station (ISS, contracted Thales Alenia Space Italia to design and build a spaceflight payload for rodent research on ISS: the Mice Drawer System (MDS. The payload, to be integrated inside the Space Shuttle middeck during transportation and inside the Express Rack in the ISS during experiment execution, was designed to function autonomously for more than 3 months and to involve crew only for maintenance activities. In its first mission, three wild type (Wt and three transgenic male mice over-expressing pleiotrophin under the control of a bone-specific promoter (PTN-Tg were housed in the MDS. At the time of launch, animals were 2-months old. MDS reached the ISS on board of Shuttle Discovery Flight 17A/STS-128 on August 28(th, 2009. MDS returned to Earth on November 27(th, 2009 with Shuttle Atlantis Flight ULF3/STS-129 after 91 days, performing the longest permanence of mice in space. Unfortunately, during the MDS mission, one PTN-Tg and two Wt mice died due to health status or payload-related reasons. The remaining mice showed a normal behavior throughout the experiment and appeared in excellent health conditions at landing. During the experiment, the mice health conditions and their water and food consumption were daily checked. Upon landing mice were sacrificed, blood parameters measured and tissues dissected for subsequent analysis. To obtain as much information as possible on microgravity-induced tissue modifications, we organized a Tissue Sharing Program: 20 research groups from 6 countries participated. In order to distinguish between possible effects of the MDS housing conditions and effects due to the near-zero gravity environment, a ground replica of the flight experiment was performed at the University of Genova. Control tissues were collected also from mice maintained on Earth in standard vivarium cages.

  3. The Mice Drawer System (MDS) experiment and the space endurance record-breaking mice.

    Cancedda, Ranieri; Liu, Yi; Ruggiu, Alessandra; Tavella, Sara; Biticchi, Roberta; Santucci, Daniela; Schwartz, Silvia; Ciparelli, Paolo; Falcetti, Giancarlo; Tenconi, Chiara; Cotronei, Vittorio; Pignataro, Salvatore

    2012-01-01

    The Italian Space Agency, in line with its scientific strategies and the National Utilization Plan for the International Space Station (ISS), contracted Thales Alenia Space Italia to design and build a spaceflight payload for rodent research on ISS: the Mice Drawer System (MDS). The payload, to be integrated inside the Space Shuttle middeck during transportation and inside the Express Rack in the ISS during experiment execution, was designed to function autonomously for more than 3 months and to involve crew only for maintenance activities. In its first mission, three wild type (Wt) and three transgenic male mice over-expressing pleiotrophin under the control of a bone-specific promoter (PTN-Tg) were housed in the MDS. At the time of launch, animals were 2-months old. MDS reached the ISS on board of Shuttle Discovery Flight 17A/STS-128 on August 28(th), 2009. MDS returned to Earth on November 27(th), 2009 with Shuttle Atlantis Flight ULF3/STS-129 after 91 days, performing the longest permanence of mice in space. Unfortunately, during the MDS mission, one PTN-Tg and two Wt mice died due to health status or payload-related reasons. The remaining mice showed a normal behavior throughout the experiment and appeared in excellent health conditions at landing. During the experiment, the mice health conditions and their water and food consumption were daily checked. Upon landing mice were sacrificed, blood parameters measured and tissues dissected for subsequent analysis. To obtain as much information as possible on microgravity-induced tissue modifications, we organized a Tissue Sharing Program: 20 research groups from 6 countries participated. In order to distinguish between possible effects of the MDS housing conditions and effects due to the near-zero gravity environment, a ground replica of the flight experiment was performed at the University of Genova. Control tissues were collected also from mice maintained on Earth in standard vivarium cages.

  4. Mechanical and thermal design of an experiment aboard the space shuttle: the Spacelab spectrometer

    Besson, J.

    1985-01-01

    The spectrometer designed by ONERA and IASB (Belgium Space Aeronomy Institute) to measure atmospheric trace constituents was flown aboard Spacelab 1 during the 9 th mission of the American Space Shuttle from November 28 to December 8, 1983. After a brief summary of the history of the project related to Spacelab, the mechanical and thermal design of the spectrometer is described. Some methods, calculations and characteristic tests are detailed as examples. The behaviour of the experiment during the mission and the results of the post-flight tests are shortly analyzed in order to prepare the qualification for a reflight [fr

  5. Experience from the Student Programme REXUS/BEXUS: A Stepping Stone to a Space Career

    Berquand, A.

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to give an inside view to the REXUS/BEXUS programme from the perspective of a student who has been involved in the project. Each year, the German Aerospace Center (DLR) and the Swedish National Space Board (SNSB), in cooperation with the European Space Agency (ESA), offer the opportunity to European University Students to fly an experiment on board sounding rockets or stratospheric balloons in the frame of the REXUS/BEXUS programme. From December 2012 to May 2014 a team of master students from KTH, the Royal Institute of Technology, worked on ISAAC project, an atmospheric experiment launched on board REXUS 15. The author was part of this student team and was involved in the whole process of the ISAAC project from design building and testing phases to the launch campaign and results analysis. The points raised in this article were presented on the occasion of a keynote speech during the 22nd ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programmes and Related Research, in Tromsø (Norway) from the 7th to the 12th ofJune 2015. The aim of this presentation was to demonstrate the benefits of hands-on Education programme at University level. In addition to the research opportunities, future space engineers and scientists can profit from a first practical experience under the supervision of experimented experts. The results of the ISAAC project were also presented in the frame of this conference [1].

  6. Your place or mine: shared sensory experiences elicit a remapping of peripersonal space.

    Maister, Lara; Cardini, Flavia; Zamariola, Giorgia; Serino, Andrea; Tsakiris, Manos

    2015-04-01

    Our perceptual systems integrate multisensory information about objects that are close to our bodies, which allow us to respond quickly and appropriately to potential threats, as well as act upon and manipulate useful tools. Intriguingly, the representation of this area close to our body, known as the multisensory 'peripersonal space' (PPS), can expand or contract during social interactions. However, it is not yet known how different social interactions can alter the representation of PPS. In particular, shared sensory experiences, such as those elicited by bodily illusions such as the enfacement illusion, can induce feelings of ownership over the other's body which has also been shown to increase the remapping of the other's sensory experiences onto our own bodies. The current study investigated whether such shared sensory experiences between two people induced by the enfacement illusion could alter the way PPS was represented, and whether this alteration could be best described as an expansion of one's own PPS towards the other or a remapping of the other's PPS onto one's own. An audio-tactile integration task allowed us to measure the extent of the PPS before and after a shared sensory experience with a confederate. Our results showed a clear increase in audio-tactile integration in the space close to the confederate's body after the shared experience. Importantly, this increase did not extend across the space between participant and confederate, as would be expected if the participant's PPS had expanded. Thus, the pattern of results is more consistent with a partial remapping of the confederate's PPS onto the participant's own PPS. These results have important consequences for our understanding of interpersonal space during different kinds of social interactions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Prediction and characterisation of a highly conserved, remote and cAMP responsive enhancer that regulates Msx1 gene expression in cardiac neural crest and outflow tract.

    Miller, Kerry Ann; Davidson, Scott; Liaros, Angela; Barrow, John; Lear, Marissa; Heine, Danielle; Hoppler, Stefan; MacKenzie, Alasdair

    2008-05-15

    Double knockouts of the Msx1 and Msx2 genes in the mouse result in severe cardiac outflow tract malformations similar to those frequently found in newborn infants. Despite the known role of the Msx genes in cardiac formation little is known of the regulatory systems (ligand receptor, signal transduction and protein-DNA interactions) that regulate the tissue-specific expression of the Msx genes in mammals during the formation of the outflow tract. In the present study we have used a combination of multi-species comparative genomics, mouse transgenic analysis and in-situ hybridisation to predict and validate the existence of a remote ultra-conserved enhancer that supports the expression of the Msx1 gene in migrating mouse cardiac neural crest and the outflow tract primordia. Furthermore, culturing of embryonic explants derived from transgenic lines with agonists of the PKC and PKA signal transduction systems demonstrates that this remote enhancer is influenced by PKA but not PKC dependent gene regulatory systems. These studies demonstrate the efficacy of combining comparative genomics and transgenic analyses and provide a platform for the study of the possible roles of Msx gene mis-regulation in the aetiology of congenital heart malformation.

  8. YB1/p32, a nuclear Y-box binding protein 1, is a novel regulator of myoblast differentiation that interacts with Msx1 homeoprotein

    Song, Young Joon [Department of Biological Sciences, College of Natural Science, Inha University, 253 Yonghyun-dong, Nam-Gu, Incheon, Korea, 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hansol, E-mail: hlee@inha.ac.kr [Department of Biological Sciences, College of Natural Science, Inha University, 253 Yonghyun-dong, Nam-Gu, Incheon, Korea, 402-751 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    Precisely controlled cellular differentiation is essential for the proper development of vertebrate embryo and deregulated differentiation is a major cause of many human congenital diseases as well as cancer. Msx1 is a member of the homeoprotein family implicated in these processes, which inhibits the differentiation of skeletal muscle and other cell types, presumably by regulating transcription of target genes through interaction with other cellular factors. We presently show that YB1/p32, a nuclear Y-box binding protein 1, interacts with Msx1 homeoprotein and functions as a regulator of C2C12 myoblast differentiation. We demonstrate that YB1/p32 functionally interacts with Msx1 through its N-terminal region and colocalizes with Msx1 at the nuclear periphery. Moreover, we find that YB1/p32 is competent for inhibition of C2C12 myoblast differentiation, which is correlated with its activity as a negative regulator of MyoD gene expression and binding to the MyoD core enhancer region (CER). Furthermore, YB1/p32 cooperates with Msx1 in transcriptional repression and knocking down the expression of endogenous YB1 attenuates the effects of Msx1. Taken together, our study has uncovered a new function of YB1/p32, a regulator of skeletal muscle differentiation.

  9. YB1/p32, a nuclear Y-box binding protein 1, is a novel regulator of myoblast differentiation that interacts with Msx1 homeoprotein

    Song, Young Joon; Lee, Hansol

    2010-01-01

    Precisely controlled cellular differentiation is essential for the proper development of vertebrate embryo and deregulated differentiation is a major cause of many human congenital diseases as well as cancer. Msx1 is a member of the homeoprotein family implicated in these processes, which inhibits the differentiation of skeletal muscle and other cell types, presumably by regulating transcription of target genes through interaction with other cellular factors. We presently show that YB1/p32, a nuclear Y-box binding protein 1, interacts with Msx1 homeoprotein and functions as a regulator of C2C12 myoblast differentiation. We demonstrate that YB1/p32 functionally interacts with Msx1 through its N-terminal region and colocalizes with Msx1 at the nuclear periphery. Moreover, we find that YB1/p32 is competent for inhibition of C2C12 myoblast differentiation, which is correlated with its activity as a negative regulator of MyoD gene expression and binding to the MyoD core enhancer region (CER). Furthermore, YB1/p32 cooperates with Msx1 in transcriptional repression and knocking down the expression of endogenous YB1 attenuates the effects of Msx1. Taken together, our study has uncovered a new function of YB1/p32, a regulator of skeletal muscle differentiation.

  10. Homeobox protein MSX-1 inhibits expression of bone morphogenetic protein 2, bone morphogenetic protein 4, and lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1 via Wnt/β-catenin signaling to prevent differentiation of dental mesenchymal cells during the late bell stage.

    Feng, Xiao-Yu; Wu, Xiao-Shan; Wang, Jin-Song; Zhang, Chun-Mei; Wang, Song-Lin

    2018-02-01

    Homeobox protein MSX-1 (hereafter referred to as MSX-1) is essential for early tooth-germ development. Tooth-germ development is arrested at bud stage in Msx1 knockout mice, which prompted us to study the functions of MSX-1 beyond this stage. Here, we investigated the roles of MSX-1 during late bell stage. Mesenchymal cells of the mandibular first molar were isolated from mice at embryonic day (E)17.5 and cultured in vitro. We determined the expression levels of β-catenin, bone morphogenetic protein 2 (Bmp2), Bmp4, and lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1 (Lef1) after knockdown or overexpression of Msx1. Our findings suggest that knockdown of Msx1 promoted expression of Bmp2, Bmp4, and Lef1, resulting in elevated differentiation of odontoblasts, which was rescued by blocking the expression of these genes. In contrast, overexpression of Msx1 decreased the expression of Bmp2, Bmp4, and Lef1, leading to a reduction in odontoblast differentiation. The regulation of Bmp2, Bmp4, and Lef1 by Msx1 was mediated by the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Additionally, knockdown of Msx1 impaired cell proliferation and slowed S-phase progression, while overexpression of Msx1 also impaired cell proliferation and prolonged G1-phase progression. We therefore conclude that MSX-1 maintains cell proliferation by regulating transition of cells from G1-phase to S-phase and prevents odontoblast differentiation by inhibiting expression of Bmp2, Bmp4, and Lef1 at the late bell stage via the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. © 2017 Eur J Oral Sci.

  11. Scanning electron microscope observations of brine shrimp larvae from space shuttle experiments

    DeBell, L.; Paulsen, A.; Spooner, B.

    1992-01-01

    Brine shrimp are encysted as gastrula stage embryos, and may remain dehydrated and encysted for years without compromising their viability. This aspect of brine shrimp biology is desirable for studying development of animals during space shuttle flight, as cysts placed aboard a spacecraft may be rehydrated at the convenience of an astronaut, guaranteeing that subsequent brine shrimp development occurs only on orbit and not on the pad during launch delays. Brine shrimp cysts placed in 5 ml syringes were rehydrated with salt water and hatched during a 9 day space shuttle mission. Subsequent larvae developed to the 8th larval stage in the sealed syringes. We studied the morphogenesis of the brine shrimp larvae and found the larvae from the space shuttle experiments similar in rate of growth and extent of development, to larvae grown in sealed syringes on the ground. Extensive differentiation and development of embryos and larvae can occur in a microgravity environment.

  12. Previous experience in manned space flight: A survey of human factors lessons learned

    Chandlee, George O.; Woolford, Barbara

    1993-01-01

    Previous experience in manned space flight programs can be used to compile a data base of human factors lessons learned for the purpose of developing aids in the future design of inhabited spacecraft. The objectives are to gather information available from relevant sources, to develop a taxonomy of human factors data, and to produce a data base that can be used in the future for those people involved in the design of manned spacecraft operations. A study is currently underway at the Johnson Space Center with the objective of compiling, classifying, and summarizing relevant human factors data bearing on the lessons learned from previous manned space flights. The research reported defines sources of data, methods for collection, and proposes a classification for human factors data that may be a model for other human factors disciplines.

  13. International Summer School on Astronomy and Space Science in Chile, first experience.

    Stepanova, M.; Arellano-Baeza, A. A.

    I International Summer School on Astronomy and Space Science took place in the Elqui Valley Chile January 15-29 2005 Eighty 12-17 year old students from Chile Russia Venezuela and Bulgaria obtained a valuable experience to work together with outstanding scientists from Chile and Russia and with Russian cosmonaut Alexander Balandine They also had opportunity to visit the main astronomical observatories and to participate in workshops dedicated to the telescope and satellite design and remote sensing This activity was supported by numerous institutions in Chile including the Ministry of Education the European Southern Observatory Chilean Space Agency Chilean Air Force Latin American Association of Space Geophysics the principal Chilean universities and the First Lady Mrs Luisa Duran

  14. The Red MSX Source Survey: The Massive Young Stellar Population of Our Galaxy

    Lumsden, S. L.; Hoare, M. G.; Urquhart, J. S.; Oudmaijer, R. D.; Davies, B.; Mottram, J. C.; Cooper, H. D. B.; Moore, T. J. T.

    2013-09-01

    We present the Red MSX Source survey, the largest statistically selected catalog of young massive protostars and H II regions to date. We outline the construction of the catalog using mid- and near-infrared color selection. We also discuss the detailed follow up work at other wavelengths, including higher spatial resolution data in the infrared. We show that within the adopted selection bounds we are more than 90% complete for the massive protostellar population, with a positional accuracy of the exciting source of better than 2 arcsec. We briefly summarize some of the results that can be obtained from studying the properties of the objects in the catalog as a whole; we find evidence that the most massive stars form: (1) preferentially nearer the Galactic center than the anti-center; (2) in the most heavily reddened environments, suggestive of high accretion rates; and (3) from the most massive cloud cores.

  15. THE RED MSX SOURCE SURVEY: THE MASSIVE YOUNG STELLAR POPULATION OF OUR GALAXY

    Lumsden, S. L.; Hoare, M. G.; Oudmaijer, R. D.; Cooper, H. D. B.; Urquhart, J. S.; Davies, B.; Moore, T. J. T.; Mottram, J. C.

    2013-01-01

    We present the Red MSX Source survey, the largest statistically selected catalog of young massive protostars and H II regions to date. We outline the construction of the catalog using mid- and near-infrared color selection. We also discuss the detailed follow up work at other wavelengths, including higher spatial resolution data in the infrared. We show that within the adopted selection bounds we are more than 90% complete for the massive protostellar population, with a positional accuracy of the exciting source of better than 2 arcsec. We briefly summarize some of the results that can be obtained from studying the properties of the objects in the catalog as a whole; we find evidence that the most massive stars form: (1) preferentially nearer the Galactic center than the anti-center; (2) in the most heavily reddened environments, suggestive of high accretion rates; and (3) from the most massive cloud cores

  16. THE RED MSX SOURCE SURVEY: THE MASSIVE YOUNG STELLAR POPULATION OF OUR GALAXY

    Lumsden, S. L.; Hoare, M. G.; Oudmaijer, R. D.; Cooper, H. D. B. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Urquhart, J. S. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, Bonn (Germany); Davies, B.; Moore, T. J. T. [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool L3 5RF (United Kingdom); Mottram, J. C. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2013-09-01

    We present the Red MSX Source survey, the largest statistically selected catalog of young massive protostars and H II regions to date. We outline the construction of the catalog using mid- and near-infrared color selection. We also discuss the detailed follow up work at other wavelengths, including higher spatial resolution data in the infrared. We show that within the adopted selection bounds we are more than 90% complete for the massive protostellar population, with a positional accuracy of the exciting source of better than 2 arcsec. We briefly summarize some of the results that can be obtained from studying the properties of the objects in the catalog as a whole; we find evidence that the most massive stars form: (1) preferentially nearer the Galactic center than the anti-center; (2) in the most heavily reddened environments, suggestive of high accretion rates; and (3) from the most massive cloud cores.

  17. Structure of massive star forming clumps from the Red MSX Source Survey

    Figura, Charles C.; Urquhart, J. S.; Morgan, L.

    2014-01-01

    We present ammonia (1,1) and (2,2) emission maps of 61 high-mass star forming regions drawn from the Red MSX Source (RMS) Survey and observed with the Green Bank Telescope's K-Band Focal Plane Array. We use these observations to investigate the spatial distribution of the environmental conditions associated with this sample of embedded massive young stellar objects (MYSOs). Ammonia is an excellent high-density tracer of star-forming regions as its hyperfine structure allows relatively simple characterisation of the molecular environment. These maps are used to measure the column density, kinetic gas temperature distributions and velocity structure across these regions. We compare the distribution of these properties to that of the associated dust and mid-infrared emission traced by the ATLASGAL 870 micron emission maps and the Spitzer GLIMPSE IRAC images. We present a summary of these results and highlight some of more interesting finds.

  18. Cytotoxic xanthone-anthraquinone heterodimers from an unidentified fungus of the order Hypocreales (MSX 17022).

    Ayers, Sloan; Graf, Tyler N; Adcock, Audrey F; Kroll, David J; Shen, Qi; Swanson, Steven M; Matthew, Susan; Carcache de Blanco, Esperanza J; Wani, Mansukh C; Darveaux, Blaise A; Pearce, Cedric J; Oberlies, Nicholas H

    2012-01-01

    Two new xanthone-anthraquinone heterodimers, acremoxanthone C (5) and acremoxanthone D (2), have been isolated from an extract of an unidentified fungus of the order Hypocreales (MSX 17022) by bioactivity-directed fractionation as part of a search for anticancer leads from filamentous fungi. Two known related compounds, acremonidin A (4) and acremonidin C (3) were also isolated, as was a known benzophenone, moniliphenone (1). The structures of these isolates were determined via extensive use of spectroscopic and spectrometric tools in conjunction with comparisons to the literature. All compounds (1-5) were evaluated against a suite of biological assays, including those for cytotoxicity, inhibition of the 20S proteasome, mitochondrial transmembrane potential and nuclear factor-κB.

  19. Thermal and orbital analysis of Earth monitoring Sun-synchronous space experiments

    Killough, Brian D.

    1990-01-01

    The fundamentals of an Earth monitoring Sun-synchronous orbit are presented. A Sun-synchronous Orbit Analysis Program (SOAP) was developed to calculate orbital parameters for an entire year. The output from this program provides the required input data for the TRASYS thermal radiation computer code, which in turn computes the infrared, solar and Earth albedo heat fluxes incident on a space experiment. Direct incident heat fluxes can be used as input to a generalized thermal analyzer program to size radiators and predict instrument operating temperatures. The SOAP computer code and its application to the thermal analysis methodology presented, should prove useful to the thermal engineer during the design phases of Earth monitoring Sun-synchronous space experiments.

  20. REXUS/BEXUS: launching student experiments -a step towards a stronger space science community

    Fittock, Mark; Stamminger, Andreas; Maria, Roth; Dannenberg, Kristine; Page, Helen

    The REXUS/BEXUS (Rocket/Balloon Experiments for University Students) programme pro-vides opportunities to teams of European student scientists and engineers to fly experiments on sounding rockets and high altitude balloons. This is an opportunity for students and the scientific community to benefit from encouragement and support for experiments. An important feature of the programme is that the students experience a full project life-cycle which is typically not a part of their university education and which helps to prepare them for further scientific work. They have to plan, organize, and control their project in order to develop and build up an experiment but must also work on the scientic aspects. Many of the students continue to work in the field on which they focused in the programme and can often build upon both the experience and the results from flight. Within the REXUS/BEXUS project cycle, they are encouraged to write and present papers about their experiments and results; increasing amounts of scientific output are seen from the students who participate. Not only do the students learn and develop from REXUS/BEXUS but the scientific community also reaps significant benefits. Another major benefit of the programme is the promotion that the students are able to bring to the whole space community. Not only are the public made more aware of advanced science and technical concepts but an advantage is present in the contact that the students who participate have to other university level students. Students are less restricted in their publicity and attract large public followings online as well as presenting themselves in more traditional media outlets. Many teams' creative approach to outreach is astonishing. The benefits are not only for the space science community as a whole; institutes, universities and departments can see increased interest following the support of participating students in the programme. The programme is realized under a bilateral Agency

  1. Space fireworks for upper atmospheric wind measurements by sounding rocket experiments

    Yamamoto, M.

    2016-01-01

    Artificial meteor trains generated by chemical releases by using sounding rockets flown in upper atmosphere were successfully observed by multiple sites on ground and from an aircraft. We have started the rocket experiment campaign since 2007 and call it "Space fireworks" as it illuminates resonance scattering light from the released gas under sunlit/moonlit condition. By using this method, we have acquired a new technique to derive upper atmospheric wind profiles in twilight condition as well as in moonlit night and even in daytime. Magnificent artificial meteor train images with the surrounding physics and dynamics in the upper atmosphere where the meteors usually appear will be introduced by using fruitful results by the "Space firework" sounding rocket experiments in this decade.

  2. Subjective Experiences of Space and Time: Self, Sensation, and Phenomenal Time

    Ram Lakhan Pandey Vimal

    2008-01-01

    The investigation of subjective experiences (SEs) of space and time is at the core of consciousness research. The term ‘space’ includes the subject and objects. The SE of subject, I-ness, is defined as ‘Self’. The SEs of objects, subject’s external body, and subject’s internal states such as feelings, thoughts, and so on can be investigated using the proto-experience (PE)-SE framework. The SE of time is defined as ‘phenomenal time’ (...

  3. Tests of the gravitational redshift effect in space-born and ground-based experiments

    Vavilova, I. B.

    2018-02-01

    This paper provides a brief overview of experiments as concerns with the tests of the gravitational redshift (GRS) effect in ground-based and space-born experiments. In particular, we consider the GRS effects in the gravitational field of the Earth, the major planets of the Solar system, compact stars (white dwarfs and neutron stars) where this effect is confirmed with a higher accuracy. We discuss availabilities to confirm the GRS effect for galaxies and galaxy clusters in visible and X-ray ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum.

  4. Free Space Laser Communication Experiments from Earth to the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter in Lunar Orbit

    Sun, Xiaoli; Skillman, David R.; Hoffman, Evan D.; Mao, Dandan; McGarry, Jan F.; Zellar, Ronald S.; Fong, Wai H; Krainak, Michael A.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Smith, David E.

    2013-01-01

    Laser communication and ranging experiments were successfully conducted from the satellite laser ranging (SLR) station at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) to the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) in lunar orbit. The experiments used 4096-ary pulse position modulation (PPM) for the laser pulses during one-way LRO Laser Ranging (LR) operations. Reed-Solomon forward error correction codes were used to correct the PPM symbol errors due to atmosphere turbulence and pointing jitter. The signal fading was measured and the results were compared to the model.

  5. Race Has Always Mattered: An Intergeneration Look at Race, Space, Place, and Educational Experiences of Blacks

    Denise G. Yull

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Within school settings race continues to be one of the most formidable obstacles for Black children in the United States (US school system. This paper expands the discussions of race in education by exploring how the social links among race, space, and place provide a lens for understanding the persistence of racism in the educational experiences of Black children. This paper examines how differences in a rural versus urban geographical location influence a student’s experience with race, racism, and racial identity across four generations of Black people in the context of school and community. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  6. Safe Software for Space Applications: Building on the DO-178 Experience

    Dorsey, Cheryl A.; Dorsey, Timothy A.

    2013-09-01

    DO-178, Software Considerations in Airborne Systems and Equipment Certification, is the well-known international standard dealing with the assurance of software used in airborne systems [1,2]. Insights into the DO-178 experiences, strengths and weaknesses can benefit the international space community. As DO-178 is an excellent standard for safe software development when used appropriately, this paper provides lessons learned and suggestions for using it effectively.

  7. Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III on the International Space Station (SAGE III/ISS)

    Gasbarre, Joseph; Walker, Richard; Cisewski, Michael; Zawodny, Joseph; Cheek, Dianne; Thornton, Brooke

    2015-01-01

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III on the International Space Station (SAGE III/ISS) mission will extend the SAGE data record from the ideal vantage point of the International Space Station (ISS). The ISS orbital inclination is ideal for SAGE measurements providing coverage between 70 deg north and 70 deg south latitude. The SAGE data record includes an extensively validated data set including aerosol optical depth data dating to the Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement (SAM) experiments in 1975 and 1978 and stratospheric ozone profile data dating to the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) in 1979. These and subsequent data records, notably from the SAGE II experiment launched on the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite in 1984 and the SAGE III experiment launched on the Russian Meteor-3M satellite in 2001, have supported a robust, long-term assessment of key atmospheric constituents. These scientific measurements provide the basis for the analysis of five of the nine critical constituents (aerosols, ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), water vapor (H2O), and air density using O2) identified in the U.S. National Plan for Stratospheric Monitoring. SAGE III on ISS was originally scheduled to fly on the ISS in the same timeframe as the Meteor-3M mission, but was postponed due to delays in ISS construction. The project was re-established in 2009.

  8. The Capillary Flow Experiments Aboard the International Space Station: Increments 9-15

    Jenson, Ryan M.; Weislogel, Mark M.; Tavan, Noel T.; Chen, Yongkang; Semerjian, Ben; Bunnell, Charles T.; Collicott, Steven H.; Klatte, Jorg; dreyer, Michael E.

    2009-01-01

    This report provides a summary of the experimental, analytical, and numerical results of the Capillary Flow Experiment (CFE) performed aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The experiments were conducted in space beginning with Increment 9 through Increment 16, beginning August 2004 and ending December 2007. Both primary and extra science experiments were conducted during 19 operations performed by 7 astronauts including: M. Fincke, W. McArthur, J. Williams, S. Williams, M. Lopez-Alegria, C. Anderson, and P. Whitson. CFE consists of 6 approximately 1 to 2 kg handheld experiment units designed to investigate a selection of capillary phenomena of fundamental and applied importance, such as large length scale contact line dynamics (CFE-Contact Line), critical wetting in discontinuous structures (CFE-Vane Gap), and capillary flows and passive phase separations in complex containers (CFE-Interior Corner Flow). Highly quantitative video from the simply performed flight experiments provide data helpful in benchmarking numerical methods, confirming theoretical models, and guiding new model development. In an extensive executive summary, a brief history of the experiment is reviewed before introducing the science investigated. A selection of experimental results and comparisons with both analytic and numerical predictions is given. The subsequent chapters provide additional details of the experimental and analytical methods developed and employed. These include current presentations of the state of the data reduction which we anticipate will continue throughout the year and culminate in several more publications. An extensive appendix is used to provide support material such as an experiment history, dissemination items to date (CFE publication, etc.), detailed design drawings, and crew procedures. Despite the simple nature of the experiments and procedures, many of the experimental results may be practically employed to enhance the design of spacecraft engineering

  9. Passive Thermal Design Approach for the Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) Testbed Experiment on the International Space Station (ISS)

    Siamidis, John; Yuko, Jim

    2014-01-01

    The Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) Program Office at NASA Headquarters oversees all of NASAs space communications activities. SCaN manages and directs the ground-based facilities and services provided by the Deep Space Network (DSN), Near Earth Network (NEN), and the Space Network (SN). Through the SCaN Program Office, NASA GRC developed a Software Defined Radio (SDR) testbed experiment (SCaN testbed experiment) for use on the International Space Station (ISS). It is comprised of three different SDR radios, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) radio, Harris Corporation radio, and the General Dynamics Corporation radio. The SCaN testbed experiment provides an on-orbit, adaptable, SDR Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) - based facility to conduct a suite of experiments to advance the Software Defined Radio, Space Telecommunications Radio Systems (STRS) standards, reduce risk (Technology Readiness Level (TRL) advancement) for candidate Constellation future space flight hardware software, and demonstrate space communication links critical to future NASA exploration missions. The SCaN testbed project provides NASA, industry, other Government agencies, and academic partners the opportunity to develop and field communications, navigation, and networking technologies in the laboratory and space environment based on reconfigurable, software defined radio platforms and the STRS Architecture.The SCaN testbed is resident on the P3 Express Logistics Carrier (ELC) on the exterior truss of the International Space Station (ISS). The SCaN testbed payload launched on the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV) and was installed on the ISS P3 ELC located on the inboard RAM P3 site. The daily operations and testing are managed out of NASA GRC in the Telescience Support Center (TSC).

  10. Training for life science experiments in space at the NASA Ames Research Center

    Rodrigues, Annette T.; Maese, A. Christopher

    1993-01-01

    As this country prepares for exploration to other planets, the need to understand the affects of long duration exposure to microgravity is evident. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Research Center's Space Life Sciences Payloads Office is responsible for a number of non-human life sciences payloads on NASA's Space Shuttle's Spacelab. Included in this responsibility is the training of those individuals who will be conducting the experiments during flight, the astronauts. Preparing a crew to conduct such experiments requires training protocols that build on simple tasks. Once a defined degree of performance proficiency is met for each task, these tasks are combined to increase the complexity of the activities. As tasks are combined into in-flight operations, they are subjected to time constraints and the crew enhances their skills through repetition. The science objectives must be completely understood by the crew and are critical to the overall training program. Completion of the in-flight activities is proof of success. Because the crew is exposed to the background of early research and plans for post-flight analyses, they have a vested interest in the flight activities. The salient features of this training approach is that it allows for flexibility in implementation, consideration of individual differences, and a greater ability to retain experiment information. This training approach offers another effective alternative training tool to existing methodologies.

  11. Aerosol and cloud sensing with the Lidar In-space Technology Experiment (LITE)

    Winker, D. M.; McCormick, M. P.

    1994-01-01

    The Lidar In-space Technology Experiment (LITE) is a multi-wavelength backscatter lidar developed by NASA Langley Research Center to fly on the Space Shuttle. The LITE instrument is built around a three-wavelength ND:YAG laser and a 1-meter diameter telescope. The laser operates at 10 Hz and produces about 500 mJ per pulse at 1064 nm and 532 nm, and 150 mJ per pulse at 355 nm. The objective of the LITE program is to develop the engineering processes required for space lidar and to demonstrate applications of space-based lidar to remote sensing of the atmosphere. The LITE instrument was designed to study a wide range of cloud and aerosol phenomena. To this end, a comprehensive program of scientific investigations has been planned for the upcoming mission. Simulations of on-orbit performance show the instrument has sufficient sensitivity to detect even thin cirrus on a single-shot basis. Signal averaging provides the capability of measuring the height and structure of the planetary boundary layer, aerosols in the free troposphere, the stratospheric aerosol layer, and density profiles to an altitude of 40 km. The instrument has successfully completed a ground-test phase and is scheduled to fly on the Space Shuttle Discovery for a 9-day mission in September 1994.

  12. The Rhetoric of Multi-Display Learning Spaces: exploratory experiences in visual art disciplines

    Brett Bligh

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Multi-Display Learning Spaces (MD-LS comprise technologies to allow the viewing of multiple simultaneous visual materials, modes of learning which encourage critical reflection upon these materials, and spatial configurations which afford interaction between learners and the materials in orchestrated ways. In this paper we provide an argument for the benefits of Multi-Display Learning Spaces in supporting complex, disciplinary reasoning within learning, focussing upon our experiences within postgraduate visual arts education. The importance of considering the affordances of the physical environment within education has been acknowledged by the recent attention given to Learning Spaces, yet within visual art disciplines the perception of visual material within a given space has long been seen as a key methodological consideration with implications for the identity of the discipline itself. We analyse the methodological, technological and spatial affordances of MD-LS to support learning, and discuss comparative viewing as a disciplinary method to structure visual analysis within the space which benefits from the simultaneous display of multiple partitions of visual evidence. We offer an analysis of the role of the teacher in authoring and orchestration and conclude by proposing a more general structure for what we term ‘multiple perspective learning’, in which the presentation of multiple pieces of visual evidence creates the conditions for complex argumentation within Higher Education.

  13. The experience to use space data as educational resources for secondary school students

    Zaitzev, A.; Boyarchuk, K.

    The space science data available free from Internet and include all kind of data: solar images from SOHO and GOES-12 satellites, WIND and ACE interplanetary data, ground-based and satellite aurora images and magnetic field variations in real time, ionospheric data etc. Beside that we have the direct transmissions of meteorological images from NOAA satellites in the APT and HRPT modes. All such sources of data can be used for educational programs for secondary school students. During last 10 years we conduct special classes in local school, where we use such space data. After introduction course each student might choose the topic which he can study in details. Each year the students prepare the original papers and participate in the special conferences, which one is in The Space Day, April 12. As curriculum materials we also use Russian language magazine "Novosti Kosmonavtiki", original data bases with space data available on CD-ROMs and publications in English. Such approach stimulate students to lean English also. After finish the classes K-12 students motivated well to continue education into space science and IZMIRAN will plan to support that students. In past two years we pay attention to use microsatellites for education. Last one is Russian-Australian KOLIBRI-2000 microsatellite, which was launched March 2002. KOLIBRI-2000 conduct simple measurements as magnetic field and particles. The experience in the usage of microsatellites data in classes are analyzed. The prospects and recommendations are discussed.

  14. The dimensionality of stellar chemical space using spectra from the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment

    Price-Jones, Natalie; Bovy, Jo

    2018-03-01

    Chemical tagging of stars based on their similar compositions can offer new insights about the star formation and dynamical history of the Milky Way. We investigate the feasibility of identifying groups of stars in chemical space by forgoing the use of model derived abundances in favour of direct analysis of spectra. This facilitates the propagation of measurement uncertainties and does not pre-suppose knowledge of which elements are important for distinguishing stars in chemical space. We use ˜16 000 red giant and red clump H-band spectra from the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) and perform polynomial fits to remove trends not due to abundance-ratio variations. Using expectation maximized principal component analysis, we find principal components with high signal in the wavelength regions most important for distinguishing between stars. Different subsamples of red giant and red clump stars are all consistent with needing about 10 principal components to accurately model the spectra above the level of the measurement uncertainties. The dimensionality of stellar chemical space that can be investigated in the H band is therefore ≲10. For APOGEE observations with typical signal-to-noise ratios of 100, the number of chemical space cells within which stars cannot be distinguished is approximately 1010±2 × (5 ± 2)n - 10 with n the number of principal components. This high dimensionality and the fine-grained sampling of chemical space are a promising first step towards chemical tagging based on spectra alone.

  15. The International Space Station: Operations and Assembly - Learning From Experiences - Past, Present, and Future

    Fuller, Sean; Dillon, William F.

    2006-01-01

    As the Space Shuttle continues flight, construction and assembly of the International Space Station (ISS) carries on as the United States and our International Partners resume the building, and continue to carry on the daily operations, of this impressive and historical Earth-orbiting research facility. In his January 14, 2004, speech announcing a new vision for America s space program, President Bush ratified the United States commitment to completing construction of the ISS by 2010. Since the launch and joining of the first two elements in 1998, the ISS and the partnership have experienced and overcome many challenges to assembly and operations, along with accomplishing many impressive achievements and historical firsts. These experiences and achievements over time have shaped our strategy, planning, and expectations. The continual operation and assembly of ISS leads to new knowledge about the design, development and operation of systems and hardware that will be utilized in the development of new deep-space vehicles needed to fulfill the Vision for Exploration and to generate the data and information that will enable our programs to return to the Moon and continue on to Mars. This paper will provide an overview of the complexity of the ISS Program, including a historical review of the major assembly events and operational milestones of the program, along with the upcoming assembly plans and scheduled missions of the space shuttle flights and ISS Assembly sequence.

  16. PhysioSpace: relating gene expression experiments from heterogeneous sources using shared physiological processes.

    Michael Lenz

    Full Text Available Relating expression signatures from different sources such as cell lines, in vitro cultures from primary cells and biopsy material is an important task in drug development and translational medicine as well as for tracking of cell fate and disease progression. Especially the comparison of large scale gene expression changes to tissue or cell type specific signatures is of high interest for the tracking of cell fate in (trans- differentiation experiments and for cancer research, which increasingly focuses on shared processes and the involvement of the microenvironment. These signature relation approaches require robust statistical methods to account for the high biological heterogeneity in clinical data and must cope with small sample sizes in lab experiments and common patterns of co-expression in ubiquitous cellular processes. We describe a novel method, called PhysioSpace, to position dynamics of time series data derived from cellular differentiation and disease progression in a genome-wide expression space. The PhysioSpace is defined by a compendium of publicly available gene expression signatures representing a large set of biological phenotypes. The mapping of gene expression changes onto the PhysioSpace leads to a robust ranking of physiologically relevant signatures, as rigorously evaluated via sample-label permutations. A spherical transformation of the data improves the performance, leading to stable results even in case of small sample sizes. Using PhysioSpace with clinical cancer datasets reveals that such data exhibits large heterogeneity in the number of significant signature associations. This behavior was closely associated with the classification endpoint and cancer type under consideration, indicating shared biological functionalities in disease associated processes. Even though the time series data of cell line differentiation exhibited responses in larger clusters covering several biologically related patterns, top scoring

  17. The MISSE 7 Flexural Stress Effects Experiment After 1.5 Years of Wake Space Exposure

    Snow, Kate E.; De Groh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce A.

    2017-01-01

    Low Earth orbit space environment conditions, including ultraviolet radiation, thermal cycling, and atomic oxygen exposure, can cause degradation of exterior spacecraft materials over time. Radiation and thermal exposure often results in bond- breaking and embrittlement of polymers, reducing mechanical strength and structural integrity. An experiment called the Flexural Stress Effects Experiment (FSEE) was flown with the objective of determining the role of space environmental exposure on the degradation of polymers under flexural stress. The FSEE samples were flown in the wake orientation on the exterior of International Space Station for 1.5 years. Twenty-four samples were flown: 12 bent over a 0.375 in. mandrel and 12 were over a 0.25 in. mandrel. This was designed to simulate flight configurations of insulation blankets on spacecraft. The samples consisted of assorted polyimide and fluorinated polymers with various coatings. Half the samples were designated for bend testing and the other half will be tensile tested. A non-standard bend-test procedure was designed to determine the surface strain at which embrittled polymers crack. All ten samples designated for bend testing have been tested. None of the control samples' polymers cracked, even under surface strains up to 19.7%, although one coating cracked. Of the ten flight samples tested, seven show increased embrittlement through bend-test induced cracking at surface strains from 0.70%to 11.73%. These results show that most of the tested polymers are embrittled due to space exposure, when compared to their control samples. Determination of the extent of space induced embrittlement of polymers is important for designing durable spacecraft.

  18. Spaceflight hardware for conducting plant growth experiments in space: the early years 1960-2000

    Porterfield, D. M.; Neichitailo, G. S.; Mashinski, A. L.; Musgrave, M. E.

    2003-01-01

    The best strategy for supporting long-duration space missions is believed to be bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS). An integral part of a BLSS is a chamber supporting the growth of higher plants that would provide food, water, and atmosphere regeneration for the human crew. Such a chamber will have to be a complete plant growth system, capable of providing lighting, water, and nutrients to plants in microgravity. Other capabilities include temperature, humidity, and atmospheric gas composition controls. Many spaceflight experiments to date have utilized incomplete growth systems (typically having a hydration system but lacking lighting) to study tropic and metabolic changes in germinating seedlings and young plants. American, European, and Russian scientists have also developed a number of small complete plant growth systems for use in spaceflight research. Currently we are entering a new era of experimentation and hardware development as a result of long-term spaceflight opportunities available on the International Space Station. This is already impacting development of plant growth hardware. To take full advantage of these new opportunities and construct innovative systems, we must understand the results of past spaceflight experiments and the basic capabilities of the diverse plant growth systems that were used to conduct these experiments. The objective of this paper is to describe the most influential pieces of plant growth hardware that have been used for the purpose of conducting scientific experiments during the first 40 years of research. c2002 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Ectopic expression of Msx-2 in posterior limb bud mesoderm impairs limb morphogenesis while inducing BMP-4 expression, inhibiting cell proliferation, and promoting apoptosis.

    Ferrari, D; Lichtler, A C; Pan, Z Z; Dealy, C N; Upholt, W B; Kosher, R A

    1998-05-01

    During early stages of chick limb development, the homeobox-containing gene Msx-2 is expressed in the mesoderm at the anterior margin of the limb bud and in a discrete group of mesodermal cells at the midproximal posterior margin. These domains of Msx-2 expression roughly demarcate the anterior and posterior boundaries of the progress zone, the highly proliferating posterior mesodermal cells underneath the apical ectodermal ridge (AER) that give rise to the skeletal elements of the limb and associated structures. Later in development as the AER loses its activity, Msx-2 expression expands into the distal mesoderm and subsequently into the interdigital mesenchyme which demarcates the developing digits. The domains of Msx-2 expression exhibit considerably less proliferation than the cells of the progress zone and also encompass several regions of programmed cell death including the anterior and posterior necrotic zones and interdigital mesenchyme. We have thus suggested that Msx-2 may be in a regulatory network that delimits the progress zone by suppressing the morphogenesis of the regions of the limb mesoderm in which it is highly expressed. In the present study we show that ectopic expression of Msx-2 via a retroviral expression vector in the posterior mesoderm of the progress zone from the time of initial formation of the limb bud severely impairs limb morphogenesis. Msx-2-infected limbs are typically very narrow along the anteroposterior axis, are occasionally truncated, and exhibit alterations in the pattern of formation of skeletal elements, indicating that as a consequence of ectopic Msx-2 expression the morphogenesis of large portions of the posterior mesoderm has been suppressed. We further show that Msx-2 impairs limb morphogenesis by reducing cell proliferation and promoting apoptosis in the regions of the posterior mesoderm in which it is ectopically expressed. The domains of ectopic Msx-2 expression in the posterior mesoderm also exhibit ectopic

  20. Obionin B: An o-pyranonaphthoquinone decaketide from an unidentified fungus (MSX 63619) from the Order Pleosporales.

    Ayers, Sloan; Graf, Tyler N; Adcock, Audrey F; Kroll, David J; Shen, Qi; Swanson, Steven M; Wani, Mansukh C; Darveaux, Blaise A; Pearce, Cedric J; Oberlies, Nicholas H

    2011-10-05

    A fungal extract (MSX 63619), from the Mycosynthetix library of over 50,000 fungi, displayed promising cytotoxicity against a human tumor cell panel. Bioactivity-directed fractionation led to the isolation of an o-pyranonaphthoquinone decaketide, which we termed obionin B (1). The structure of 1 was deduced via spectroscopic and spectrometric techniques. The IC(50) value of 1 was moderate, ranging from 3 to 13 μM, depending on the cell line tested.

  1. First Look at Results from the Metal Oxide Space Cloud (MOSC) Experiment

    Caton, R. G.; Pedersen, T. R.; Parris, R. T.; Groves, K. M.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Cannon, P. S.

    2013-12-01

    During the moon down period from 28 April to 10 May 2013, the NASA Sounding Rocket Program successfully completed a series of two launches from the Kwajalein Atoll for the Air Force Research Laboratory's Metal Oxide Space Cloud (MOSC) experiment. Payloads on both Terrier Improved Orion rockets flown during the mission included two 5 kg of canisters of Samarium (Sm) powder in a thermite mix for immediate expulsion and vaporization and a two-frequency Coherent Electromagnetic Radio Tomography (CERTO) beacon provided by the Naval Research Laboratory. The launches were carefully timed for dusk releases of Sm vapor at preselected altitudes creating artificially generated layers lasting several hours. A host of ground sensors were deployed to fully probe and characterize the localized plasma cloud produced as a result of charge exchange with the background oxygen (Sm + O → SmO+ + e-). In addition to incoherent scatter probing of the ionization cloud with the ALTAIR radar, ground diagnostics included GPS and CERTO beacon receivers at five locations in the Marshall Islands. Researchers from QinetiQ and the UK MOD participated in the MOSC experiment with the addition of an HF transmitting system and an array of receivers distributed across multiple islands to examine the response of the HF propagation environment to the artificially generated layer. AFRL ground equipment included a pair of All-Sky Imagers, optical spectrographs, and two DPS-4D digisondes spaced ~200 km apart providing vertical and oblique soundings. As the experimental team continues to evaluate the data, this paper will present a first look at early results from the MOSC experiment. Data collected will be used to improve existing models and tailor future experiments targeted at demonstrating the ability to temporarily control the RF propagation environment through an on-demand modification of the ionosphere. Funding for the launch was provided by the DoD Space Test Program.

  2. Ground-based simulation of telepresence for materials science experiments. [remote viewing and control of processes aboard Space Station

    Johnston, James C.; Rosenthal, Bruce N.; Bonner, Mary JO; Hahn, Richard C.; Herbach, Bruce

    1989-01-01

    A series of ground-based telepresence experiments have been performed to determine the minimum video frame rate and resolution required for the successive performance of materials science experiments in space. The approach used is to simulate transmission between earth and space station with transmission between laboratories on earth. The experiments include isothermal dendrite growth, physical vapor transport, and glass melting. Modifications of existing apparatus, software developed, and the establishment of an inhouse network are reviewed.

  3. Identification of a spatially specific enhancer element in the chicken Msx-2 gene that regulates its expression in the apical ectodermal ridge of the developing limb buds of transgenic mice.

    Sumoy, L; Wang, C K; Lichtler, A C; Pierro, L J; Kosher, R A; Upholt, W B

    1995-07-01

    Msx-2 is a member of the Msx family of homeobox-containing genes expressed in a variety of embryonic tissues involved in epithelial-mesenchymal interactions and pattern formation. In the developing chick limb bud, Msx-2 is expressed in the apical ectodermal ridge, which plays a crucial role in directing the growth and patterning of limb mesoderm. In addition, Msx-2 is expressed in the anterior nonskeletal-forming mesoderm of the limb bud, in the posterior necrotic zone, and in the interdigital mesenchyme. Studies of the altered expression patterns of Msx-2 in amelic and polydactylous mutant chick limbs have suggested that the apical ectodermal ridge and mesodermal domains of Msx-2 expression are independently regulated and that there might be separate cis-regulatory elements in the Msx-2 gene controlling its spatially distinct domains of expression. To test this hypothesis, we have isolated the chicken Msx-2 gene and have tested the ability of various regions of the gene to target expression of LacZ reporter gene to specific regions of the limbs of transgenic mice. A variety of these constructs are consistently expressed only in the apical ectodermal ridge and the ectoderm of the genital tubercle and are not expressed in the mesoderm of the limb bud or in other regions of the embryo where the endogenous Msx-2 gene is expressed. These results suggest the presence of spatially specific cis-regulatory elements in the Msx-2 gene. We identified a 348-bp region in the 5' flanking region of the Msx-2 gene which can act as an apical ectodermal ridge enhancer element when placed in reverse orientation in front of the reporter gene with transcription initiation directed by the minimal hsp68 promoter.

  4. Theory and experiments in model-based space system anomaly management

    Kitts, Christopher Adam

    This research program consists of an experimental study of model-based reasoning methods for detecting, diagnosing and resolving anomalies that occur when operating a comprehensive space system. Using a first principles approach, several extensions were made to the existing field of model-based fault detection and diagnosis in order to develop a general theory of model-based anomaly management. Based on this theory, a suite of algorithms were developed and computationally implemented in order to detect, diagnose and identify resolutions for anomalous conditions occurring within an engineering system. The theory and software suite were experimentally verified and validated in the context of a simple but comprehensive, student-developed, end-to-end space system, which was developed specifically to support such demonstrations. This space system consisted of the Sapphire microsatellite which was launched in 2001, several geographically distributed and Internet-enabled communication ground stations, and a centralized mission control complex located in the Space Technology Center in the NASA Ames Research Park. Results of both ground-based and on-board experiments demonstrate the speed, accuracy, and value of the algorithms compared to human operators, and they highlight future improvements required to mature this technology.

  5. Variable Coding and Modulation Experiment Using NASA's Space Communication and Navigation Testbed

    Downey, Joseph A.; Mortensen, Dale J.; Evans, Michael A.; Tollis, Nicholas S.

    2016-01-01

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)'s Space Communication and Navigation Testbed on the International Space Station provides a unique opportunity to evaluate advanced communication techniques in an operational system. The experimental nature of the Testbed allows for rapid demonstrations while using flight hardware in a deployed system within NASA's networks. One example is variable coding and modulation, which is a method to increase data-throughput in a communication link. This paper describes recent flight testing with variable coding and modulation over S-band using a direct-to-earth link between the SCaN Testbed and the Glenn Research Center. The testing leverages the established Digital Video Broadcasting Second Generation (DVB-S2) standard to provide various modulation and coding options. The experiment was conducted in a challenging environment due to the multipath and shadowing caused by the International Space Station structure. Performance of the variable coding and modulation system is evaluated and compared to the capacity of the link, as well as standard NASA waveforms.

  6. Comparison of MARS-KS and SPACE for UPTF TRAM Loop Seal Clearing Experiment

    Kim, Min Gil; Lee, Won Woong; Lee, Jeong Ik [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Bang, Young Seok [KINS, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In this study, the authors assessed SPACE code, which was developed by a consortium led by Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd. (KHNP), now in licensing process and MARS-KS code for UPTF TRAM loop seal clearing experiment to evaluate the code predictability regarding loop seal clearing for supporting the regulatory review. The sensitivity of PT/CT sagging contact angle has been studied. The results of sagging contact angle could explain in different ways. In the case of wide sagging contact angle, the result is quite conservative in the aspect of containment as the heat is well-transferred to moderator. it causes the moderator to heat up. On the other hand, the narrow sagging contact angle results fuel heatup and give limiting condition for fuel integrity. As a result of estimation, a proper application of sagging contact angle is required to provide limiting condition for subsequent analysis. The results from the two codes were compared to the experimental data, but due to the lack of information on the uncertainties it is too early to conclude the both code's performance. However, from the obtained analysis results, some differences between MARS-KS and SPACE are initially observed. Especially, SPACE has larger oscillation in the calculated mass flow rate value than MARS-KS. This phenomenon was observed in comparison of SPACE and MARS-KS CCFL model as well.

  7. The Space Technology-7 Disturbance Reduction System Precision Control Flight Validation Experiment Control System Design

    O'Donnell, James R.; Hsu, Oscar C.; Maghami, Peirman G.; Markley, F. Landis

    2006-01-01

    As originally proposed, the Space Technology-7 Disturbance Reduction System (DRS) project, managed out of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, was designed to validate technologies required for future missions such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). The two technologies to be demonstrated by DRS were Gravitational Reference Sensors (GRSs) and Colloidal MicroNewton Thrusters (CMNTs). Control algorithms being designed by the Dynamic Control System (DCS) team at the Goddard Space Flight Center would control the spacecraft so that it flew about a freely-floating GRS test mass, keeping it centered within its housing. For programmatic reasons, the GRSs were descoped from DRS. The primary goals of the new mission are to validate the performance of the CMNTs and to demonstrate precise spacecraft position control. DRS will fly as a part of the European Space Agency (ESA) LISA Pathfinder (LPF) spacecraft along with a similar ESA experiment, the LISA Technology Package (LTP). With no GRS, the DCS attitude and drag-free control systems make use of the sensor being developed by ESA as a part of the LTP. The control system is designed to maintain the spacecraft s position with respect to the test mass, to within 10 nm/the square root of Hz over the DRS science frequency band of 1 to 30 mHz.

  8. Space chamber experiments of ohmic heating by high power microwave from the solar power satellite

    Kaya, N.; Matsumoto, H.

    1981-12-01

    It is quantitatively predicted that a high power microwave from the Solar Power Satellite (SPS) nonlinearly interacts with the ionospheric plasma. The possible nonlinear interactions are ohmic heating, self-focusing and parametric instabilities. A rocket experiment called MINIX (Microwave-Ionosphere Nonlinear Interaction Experiment) has been attempted to examine these effects, but is note reported here. In parallel to the rocket experiment, a laboratory experiment in a space plasma simulation chamber has been carried out in order to examine ohmic heating in detail and to develop a system of the rocket experiment. Interesting results were observed and these results were utilized to revise the system of the rocket experiments. A significant microwave heating of plasma up to 150% temperature increase was observed with little electron density decrease. It was shown that the temperature increase is not due to the RF breakdown but to the ohmic heating in the simulated ionospheric plasma. These microwave effects have to be taken into account in the SPS Project in the future.

  9. Two-phase reduced gravity experiments for a space reactor design

    Antoniak, Z.I.

    1986-08-01

    Future space missions envision the use of large nuclear reactors utilizing either a single or a two-phase alkali-metal working fluid. The design and analysis of such reactors require state-of-the-art computer codes that can properly treat alkali-metal flow and heat transfer in a reduced-gravity environment. New flow regime maps, models, and correlations are required if the codes are to be successfully applied to reduced-gravity flow and heat transfer. General plans are put forth for the reduced-gravity experiments which will have to be performed, at NASA facilities, with benign fluids. Data from the reduced-gravity experiments with innocuous fluids are to be combined with normal gravity data from two-phase alkali-metal experiments. Because these reduced-gravity experiments will be very basic, and will employ small test loops of simple geometry, a large measure of commonality exists between them and experiments planned by other organizations. It is recommended that a committee be formed, to coordinate all ongoing and planned reduced gravity flow experiments

  10. Possible linkage of non-syndromic cleft lip and palate to the MSX1 homebox gene on chromosome 4p

    Wang, S.; Walczak, C.; Erickson, R.P.

    1994-09-01

    The MSX1 (HOX7) gene has been shown recently to cause cleft palate in a mouse model deficient for its product. Several features of this mouse model make the human homolog of this gene an excellent candidate for non-syndromic cleft palate. We tested this hypothesis by linkage studies in two large multiplex human families using a microsatellite marker in the human MSX1 gene. A LOD score of 1.7 was obtained maximizing at a recombination fraction of 0.09. Computer simulation power calculations using the program SIMLINK indicated that a LOD score this large is expected to occur only about 1/200 times by chance alone for a marker locus with comparable informativeness if unlinked to the disease gene. This suggestive finding is being followed up by attempts to recruit and study additional families and by DNA sequence analyses of the MSX1 gene in these families and other cleft lip and/or cleft palate subjects and these further results will also be reported.

  11. Differential regulation of msx genes in the development of the gonopodium, an intromittent organ, and of the "sword," a sexually selected trait of swordtail fishes (Xiphophorus).

    Zauner, Hans; Begemann, Gerrit; Marí-Beffa, Manuel; Meyer, Axel

    2003-01-01

    The possession of a conspicuous extension of colored ventral rays of the caudal fin in male fish of swordtails (genus Xiphophorus) is a prominent example for a trait that evolved by sexual selection. To understand the evolutionary history of this so-called sword molecularly, it is of interest to unravel the developmental pathways responsible for extended growth of sword rays during development of swordtail males. We isolated two msx genes and showed that they are differentially regulated during sword outgrowth. During sword growth in juvenile males, as well as during testosterone-induced sword development and fin ray regeneration in the sword after amputation, expression of msxC is markedly up-regulated in the sword forming fin rays. In contrast, msxE/1 is not differentially expressed in ventral and dorsal male fin rays, suggesting a link between the development of male secondary sexual characters in fins and up-regulation of msxC expression. In addition, we showed that msx gene expression patterns differ significantly between Xiphophorus and zebrafish. We also included in our study the gonopodium, a testosterone-dependent anal fin modification that serves as a fertilization organ in males of live-bearing fishes. Our finding that increased levels of msxC expression are associated with the testosterone-induced outgrowth of the gonopodium might suggest either that at least parts of the signaling pathways that pattern the evolutionary older gonopodium have been coopted to evolve a sexually selected innovation such as the sword or that increased msxC expression may be inherent to the growth process of long fin rays in general.

  12. Expression of Msx-1 is suppressed in bisphosphonate associated osteonecrosis related jaw tissue-etiopathology considerations respecting jaw developmental biology-related unique features.

    Wehrhan, Falk; Hyckel, Peter; Ries, Jutta; Stockmann, Phillip; Nkenke, Emeka; Schlegel, Karl A; Neukam, Friedrich W; Amann, Kerstin

    2010-10-13

    Bone-destructive disease treatments include bisphosphonates and antibodies against the osteoclast differentiator, RANKL (aRANKL); however, osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) is a frequent side-effect. Current models fail to explain the restriction of bisphosphonate (BP)-related and denosumab (anti-RANKL antibody)-related ONJ to jaws. Msx-1 is exclusively expressed in craniofacial structures and pivotal to cranial neural crest (CNC)-derived periodontal tissue remodeling. We hypothesised that Msx-1 expression might be impaired in bisphosphonate-related ONJ. The study aim was to elucidate Msx-1 and RANKL-associated signal transduction (BMP-2/4, RANKL) in ONJ-altered and healthy periodontal tissue. Twenty ONJ and twenty non-BP exposed periodontal samples were processed for RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. An automated staining-based alkaline phosphatase-anti-alkaline phosphatase method was used to measure the stained cells:total cell-number ratio (labelling index, Bonferroni adjustment). Real-time RT-PCR was performed on ONJ-affected and healthy jaw periodontal samples (n = 20 each) to quantitatively compare Msx-1, BMP-2, RANKL, and GAPDH mRNA levels. Semi-quantitative assessment of the ratio of stained cells showed decreased Msx-1 and RANKL and increased BMP-2/4 (all p Msx-1 (p Msx-1 suppression in ONJ-adjacent periodontal tissue suggested a bisphosphonate-related impairment in cellular differentiation that occurred exclusively jaw remodelling. Further research on developmental biology-related unique features of jaw bone structures will help to elucidate pathologies restricted to maxillofacial tissue.

  13. Things That Squeak and Make You Feel Bad: Building Scalable User Experience Programs for Space Assessment

    Rebecca Kuglitsch

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This article suggests a process for creating a user experience (UX assessment of space program that requires limited resources and minimal prior UX experience. By beginning with small scale methods, like comment boxes and easel prompts, librarians can overturn false assumptions about user behaviors, ground deeper investigations such as focus groups, and generate momentum. At the same time, these methods should feed into larger efforts to build trust and interest with peers and administration, laying the groundwork for more in-depth space UX assessment and more significant changes. The process and approach we suggest can be scaled for use in both large and small library systems. Developing a user experience space assessment program can seem overwhelming, especially without a dedicated user experience librarian or department, but does not have to be. In this piece, we explore how to scale and sequence small UX projects, communicate UX practices and results to stakeholders, and build support in order to develop an intentional but still manageable space assessment program. Our approach takes advantage of our institutional context—a large academic library system with several branch locations, allowing us to pilot projects at different scales. We were able to coordinate across a complex multi-site system, as well as in branch libraries with a staffing model analogous to libraries at smaller institutions. This gives us confidence that our methods can be applied at libraries of different sizes. As subject librarians who served as co-coordinators of a UX team on a voluntary basis, we also confronted the question of how we could attend to user needs while staying on top of our regular workload. Haphazard experimentation is unsatisfying and wasteful, particularly when there is limited time, so we sought to develop a process we could implement that applied approachable, purposeful UX space assessments while building trust and buy-in with colleagues

  14. Simulations and experiments of intense ion beam compression in space and time

    Yu, S.S.; Seidl, P.A.; Roy, P.K.; Lidia, S.M.; Coleman, J.E.; Kaganovich, I.D.; Gilson, E.P.; Welch, Dale Robert; Sefkow, Adam B.; Davidson, R.C.

    2008-01-01

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory has achieved 60-fold longitudinal pulse compression of ion beams on the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX) (P. K. Roy et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 234801 (2005)). To focus a space-charge-dominated charge bunch to sufficiently high intensities for ion-beam-heated warm dense matter and inertial fusion energy studies, simultaneous transverse and longitudinal compression to a coincident focal plane is required. Optimizing the compression under the appropriate constraints can deliver higher intensity per unit length of accelerator to the target, thereby facilitating the creation of more compact and cost-effective ion beam drivers. The experiments utilized a drift region filled with high-density plasma in order to neutralize the space charge and current of an ∼300 keV K + beam and have separately achieved transverse and longitudinal focusing to a radius Z 2 MeV) ion beam user-facility for warm dense matter and inertial fusion energy-relevant target physics experiments.

  15. The Paucity Problem: Where Have All the Space Reactor Experiments Gone?

    Bess, John D.; Marshall, Margaret A.

    2016-10-01

    The Handbooks of the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) and the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) together contain a plethora of documented and evaluated experiments essential in the validation of nuclear data, neutronics codes, and modeling of various nuclear systems. Unfortunately, only a minute selection of handbook data (twelve evaluations) are of actual experimental facilities and mockups designed specifically for space nuclear research. There is a paucity problem, such that the multitude of space nuclear experimental activities performed in the past several decades have yet to be recovered and made available in such detail that the international community could benefit from these valuable historical research efforts. Those experiments represent extensive investments in infrastructure, expertise, and cost, as well as constitute significantly valuable resources of data supporting past, present, and future research activities. The ICSBEP and IRPhEP were established to identify and verify comprehensive sets of benchmark data; evaluate the data, including quantification of biases and uncertainties; compile the data and calculations in a standardized format; and formally document the effort into a single source of verified benchmark data. See full abstract in attached document.

  16. Calocube—A highly segmented calorimeter for a space based experiment

    D'Alessandro, R.; Adriani, O.; Agnesi, A.; Albergo, S.; Auditore, L.; Basti, A.; Berti, E.; Bigongiari, G.; Bonechi, L.; Bonechi, S.; Bongi, M.; Bonvicini, V.

    2016-01-01

    Future research in High Energy Cosmic Ray Physics concerns fundamental questions on their origin, acceleration mechanism, and composition. Unambiguous measurements of the energy spectra and of the composition of cosmic rays at the “knee” region could provide some of the answers to the above questions. Only ground based observations, which rely on sophisticated models describing high energy interactions in the earth's atmosphere, have been possible so far due to the extremely low particle rates at these energies. A calorimeter based space experiment can provide not only flux measurements but also energy spectra and particle identification, especially when coupled to a dE/dx measuring detector, and thus overcome some of the limitations plaguing ground based experiments. For this to be possible very large acceptances are needed if enough statistic is to be collected in a reasonable time. This contrasts with the lightness and compactness requirements for space based experiments. A novel idea in calorimetry is discussed here which addresses these issues while limiting the mass and volume of the detector. In fact a small prototype is currently being built and tested with ions. In this paper the results obtained will be presented in light of the simulations performed.

  17. Calocube—A highly segmented calorimeter for a space based experiment

    D' Alessandro, R., E-mail: candi@fi.infn.it [University of Florence, Department of Physics and Astronomy, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) (Italy); INFN Firenze, via B. Rossi 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) (Italy); Adriani, O. [University of Florence, Department of Physics and Astronomy, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) (Italy); INFN Firenze, via B. Rossi 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) (Italy); Agnesi, A. [University of Pavia, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale e dell' Informazione, Pavia (Italy); INFN Pavia, via A. Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Albergo, S. [University of Catania, Department of Physics and Astronomy, via S. Sofia 64, I-95123 Catania (Italy); INFN Catania, via S. Sofia 64, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Auditore, L. [University of Messina, Department of Physics, sal. Sperone 31, I-98166 Messina (Italy); INFN Catania, via S. Sofia 64, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Basti, A. [University of Siena, Department of Physical Sciences, Earth and Environment, I-53100 Siena (Italy); INFN Pisa, via F. Buonarroti 2, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Berti, E. [University of Florence, Department of Physics and Astronomy, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) (Italy); INFN Firenze, via B. Rossi 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) (Italy); Bigongiari, G. [University of Siena, Department of Physical Sciences, Earth and Environment, I-53100 Siena (Italy); INFN Pisa, via F. Buonarroti 2, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bonechi, L. [INFN Firenze, via B. Rossi 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) (Italy); Bonechi, S. [University of Siena, Department of Physical Sciences, Earth and Environment, I-53100 Siena (Italy); INFN Pisa, via F. Buonarroti 2, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bongi, M. [University of Florence, Department of Physics and Astronomy, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) (Italy); INFN Firenze, via B. Rossi 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) (Italy); Bonvicini, V. [INFN Trieste, via Valerio 2, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); and others

    2016-07-11

    Future research in High Energy Cosmic Ray Physics concerns fundamental questions on their origin, acceleration mechanism, and composition. Unambiguous measurements of the energy spectra and of the composition of cosmic rays at the “knee” region could provide some of the answers to the above questions. Only ground based observations, which rely on sophisticated models describing high energy interactions in the earth's atmosphere, have been possible so far due to the extremely low particle rates at these energies. A calorimeter based space experiment can provide not only flux measurements but also energy spectra and particle identification, especially when coupled to a dE/dx measuring detector, and thus overcome some of the limitations plaguing ground based experiments. For this to be possible very large acceptances are needed if enough statistic is to be collected in a reasonable time. This contrasts with the lightness and compactness requirements for space based experiments. A novel idea in calorimetry is discussed here which addresses these issues while limiting the mass and volume of the detector. In fact a small prototype is currently being built and tested with ions. In this paper the results obtained will be presented in light of the simulations performed.

  18. Experiments Using a Ground-Based Electrostatic Levitator and Numerical Modeling of Melt Convection for the Iron-Cobalt System in Support of Space Experiments

    Lee, Jonghyun; SanSoucie, Michael P.

    2017-08-01

    Materials research is being conducted using an electromagnetic levitator installed in the International Space Station. Various metallic alloys were tested to elucidate unknown links among the structures, processes, and properties. To accomplish the mission of these space experiments, several ground-based activities have been carried out. This article presents some of our ground-based supporting experiments and numerical modeling efforts. Mass evaporation of Fe50Co50, one of flight compositions, was predicted numerically and validated by the tests using an electrostatic levitator (ESL). The density of various compositions within the Fe-Co system was measured with ESL. These results are being served as reference data for the space experiments. The convection inside a electromagnetically-levitated droplet was also modeled to predict the flow status, shear rate, and convection velocity under various process parameters, which is essential information for designing and analyzing the space experiments of some flight compositions influenced by convection.

  19. A space standards application to university-class microsatellites: The UNISAT experience

    Graziani, Filippo; Piergentili, Fabrizio; Santoni, Fabio

    2010-05-01

    Hands-on education is recognized as an invaluable tool to improve students' skills, to stimulate their enthusiasm and to educate them to teamwork. University class satellite programs should be developed keeping in mind that education is the main goal and that university satellites are a unique opportunity to make involved students familiar with all the phases of space missions. Moreover university budgets for education programs are much lower than for industrial satellites programs. Therefore two main constraints must be respected: a time schedule fitting with the student course duration and a low economic budget. These have an impact on the standard which can be followed in university class satellite programs. In this paper university-class satellite standardization is discussed on the basis of UNISAT program experience, reporting successful project achievements and lessons learned through unsuccessful experiences. The UNISAT program was established at the Scuola di Ingegneria Aerospaziale by the Group of Astrodynamics of the University of Rome "La Sapienza" (GAUSS) as a research and education program in which Ph.D. and graduate students have the opportunity to gain hands-on experience on small space missions. Four university satellites (UNISAT, UNISAT-2, UNISAT-3, UNISAT-4), weighing about 10 kg, have been designed, manufactured, tested and launched every two years since 2000 in the framework of this program In the paper, after a brief overview of new GAUSS programs, an analysis of the UNISAT satellites ground test campaign is carried out, identifying the most critical procedures and requirements to be fulfilled. Moreover a device for low earth orbit low-cost satellite end-of-life disposal is presented; this system (SIRDARIA) complies with the international guidelines on space debris.

  20. The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE III) on the International Space Station (ISS) Mission

    Cisewski, Michael; Zawodny, Joseph; Gasbarre, Joseph; Eckman, Richard; Topiwala, Nandkishore; Rodriquez-Alvarez, Otilia; Cheek, Dianne; Hall, Steve

    2014-01-01

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III on the International Space Station (SAGE III/ISS) mission will provide the science community with high-vertical resolution and nearly global observations of ozone, aerosols, water vapor, nitrogen dioxide, and other trace gas species in the stratosphere and upper-troposphere. SAGE III/ISS measurements will extend the long-term Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement (SAM) and SAGE data record begun in the 1970s. The multi-decadal SAGE ozone and aerosol data sets have undergone intense scrutiny and are considered the international standard for accuracy and stability. SAGE data have been used to monitor the effectiveness of the Montreal Protocol. Key objectives of the mission are to assess the state of the recovery in the distribution of ozone, to re-establish the aerosol measurements needed by both climate and ozone models, and to gain further insight into key processes contributing to ozone and aerosol variability. The space station mid-inclination orbit allows for a large range in latitude sampling and nearly continuous communications with payloads. The SAGE III instrument is the fifth in a series of instruments developed for monitoring atmospheric constituents with high vertical resolution. The SAGE III instrument is a moderate resolution spectrometer covering wavelengths from 290 nm to 1550 nm. Science data is collected in solar occultation mode, lunar occultation mode, and limb scatter measurement mode. A SpaceX Falcon 9 launch vehicle will provide access to space. Mounted in the unpressurized section of the Dragon trunk, SAGE III will be robotically removed from the Dragon and installed on the space station. SAGE III/ISS will be mounted to the ExPRESS Logistics Carrier-4 (ELC-4) location on the starboard side of the station. To facilitate a nadir view from this location, a Nadir Viewing Platform (NVP) payload was developed which mounts between the carrier and the SAGE III Instrument Payload (IP).

  1. The microbe capture experiment in space: Fluorescence microscopic detection of microbes captured by aerogel

    Sugino, Tomohiro; Yokobori, Shin-Ichi; Yang, Yinjie; Kawaguchi, Yuko; Okudaira, Kyoko; Tabata, Makoto; Kawai, Hideyuki; Hasegawa, Sunao; Yamagishi, Akihiko

    Microbes have been collected at the altitude up to about 70 km in the sampling experiment done by several groups[1]. We have also collected high altitude microbes, by using an airplane and balloons[2][3][4][5]. We collected new deinococcal strain (Deinococcus aetherius and Deinococ-cus aerius) and several strains of spore-forming bacilli from stratosphere[2][4][5]. However, microbe sampling in space has never been reported. On the other hand, "Panspermia" hy-pothesis, where terrestrial life is originated from outside of Earth, has been proposed[6][7][8][9]. Recent report suggesting existence of the possible microbe fossils in the meteorite of Mars origin opened the serious debate on the possibility of migration of life embedded in meteorites (and cosmic dusts)[10][11]. If we were able to find terrestrial microbes in space, it would suggest that the terrestrial life can travel between astronomical bodies. We proposed a mission "Tanpopo: Astrobiology Exposure and Micrometeoroid Capture Experiments" to examine possible inter-planetary migration of microbes, organic compounds and meteoroids on Japan Experimental Module of the International Space Station (ISS)[12]. Two of six sub themes in this mission are directly related to interplanetary migration of microbes. One is the direct capturing experi-ment of microbes (probably within the particles such as clay) in space by the exposed ultra-low density aerogel. Another is the exposure experiment to examine survivability of the microbes in harsh space environment. They will tell us the possibility of interplanetary migration of microbes (life) from Earth to outside of Earth (or vise versa). In this report, we will report whether aerogel that have been used for the collection of space debris and cosmic dusts can be used for microbe sampling in space. We will discuss how captured particles by aerogel can be detected with DNA-specific fluorescent dye, and how to distinguish microbes from other mate-rials (i.e. aerogel and

  2. Exposure to space radiation of high-performance infrared multilayer filters and materials technology experiments (A0056)

    Seeley, J. S.; Hunneman, R.; Whatley, A.; Lipscombe, D. R.

    1984-01-01

    Infrared multilayer interface filter which were used in satellite radiometers were examined. The ability of the filters to withstand the space environment in these applications is critical. An experiment on the LDEF subjects the filters to authoritative spectral measurements following space exposure to ascertain their suitability for spacecraft use and to permit an understanding of degradation mechanisms. The understanding of the effects of prolonged space exposure on spacecraft materials, surface finishes, and adhesive systems is important to the spacecraft designer. Materials technology experiments and experiment on infrared multilayer filters are discussed.

  3. Experiments on ion space-charge neutralization with pulsed electron beams

    Herleb, U; Riege, H [CERN LHC-Division, Geneva (Switzerland)

    1997-12-31

    The method of space-charge neutralization of heavy ion beams with electron beam pulses generated with electron guns incorporating ferroelectric cathodes was investigated experimentally. Several experiments are described, the results of which prove that the intensity of selected ion beam parts with defined charge states generated in a laser ion source can be increased by an order of magnitude. For elevated charge states the intensity amplification is more significant and may reach a factor of 4 for highly charged ions from an Al target. (author). 7 figs., 3 -refs.

  4. Data collecting and treatment control system in the «Alpha-Electron» space experiment on board the International Space Station

    Galper, A M; Batischev, A G; Naumov, P P; Naumov, P Yu

    2017-01-01

    The fast multilayer scintillation detector of the new telescope-spectrometer for the ALFA-ELECTRON space experiment is in ground testing mode now. Modules of data control system for spectrometer are discussed. The structure of the main data format and functional blocks for data treatment are presented. The device will planned to install on the outer surface of the Russian Segment (RS) of the International Space Station (ISS) in 2018. (paper)

  5. Discovering a misaligned CO outflow related to the red MSX source G034.5964-01.0292

    Paron, S.; Ortega, M. E.; Petriella, A.; Rubio, M.

    2014-07-01

    Aims: The red MSX source G034.5964-01.0292 (MSXG34), catalogued as a massive young stellar object, was observed in molecular lines with the aim of discovering and studying molecular outflows. Methods: We mapped a region of 3'× 3' centred at MSXG34 using the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment in the 12CO J = 3-2 and HCO+J = 4-3 lines with an angular and spectral resolution of 22'' and 0.11 km s-1. Additionally, public 13CO J = 1-0 and near-IR UKIDSS data obtained from the Galactic Ring Survey and the WFCAM Sciencie Archive were analysed. Results: We found that the 12CO spectra towards the YSO present a self-absorption dip, as is common in star-forming regions, and spectral wings that indicate outflow activity. The HCO+ was detected only towards the MSXG34 position at vLSR ~ 14.2 km s-1, in coincidence with the 12CO absorption dip and approximately with the velocity of previous ammonia observations. HCO+ and NH3 are known to be enhanced in molecular outflows. When we analysed the spectral wings of the 12CO line, we discovered misaligned red- and blue-shifted molecular outflows associated with MSXG34. The near-IR emission shows a cone-like nebulosity composed of two arc-like features related to the YSO, which might be due to a cavity cleared in the circumstellar material by a precessing jet. This can explain the misalignment in the molecular outflows. From the analysis of the 13CO J = 1-0 data we suggest that the YSO is very likely related to a molecular clump ranging between 10 and 14 km s-1. This suggests that MSXG34, with an associated central velocity of about 14 km s-1, may be located in the background of this clump. Thus, the blue-shifted outflow is probably deflected by the interaction with dense gas along the line of sight. From a spectral energy distribution analysis of MSXG34 we found that its central object probably is an intermediate-mass protostar.

  6. Swimming in a contained space: Understanding the experience of indoor lap swimmers.

    Ward, Miranda

    2017-07-01

    Drawing on ethnographic work, this paper explores the convergence of bodies, materialities and practices found at the indoor swimming pool - a space that has not often been the subject of geographical study, in spite of the fact that swimming is one of the most popular forms of exercise in countries such as the UK. The paper focuses on the "contained" nature of the indoor pool environment, examining the distinct experience this can create for lap swimmers. This focus is placed in the context of a broader politics of exercise, with an emphasis on the popularity and potential benefits of swimming, as well as less encouraging facts about participation and facility provision, suggesting that in order to encourage further uptake of swimming and preservation of swimming facilities the voices and experiences of regular swimmers should be considered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Role of HZE particles in space flight - Results from spaceflight and ground-based experiments

    Buecker, H.; Facius, R.

    1981-09-01

    Selected results from experiments investigating the potentially specific radiobiological importance of the cosmic HZE (equals high Z, energetic) particles are discussed. Results from the Biostack space flight experiments, which were designed to meet the experimental requirements imposed by the microdosimetric nature of this radiation field, clearly indicate the existence of radiation mechanisms which become effective only at higher values of LET (linear energy transfer). Accelerator irradiation studies are reviewed which conform with this conjecture. The recently discovered production of 'micro-lesions' in mammalian tissues by single HZE particles is possibly the most direct evidence. Open questions concerning the establishment of radiation standards for manned spaceflight, such as late effects, interaction with flight dynamic parameters, and weightlessness, are indicated.

  8. The relative benefits of green versus lean office space: three field experiments.

    Nieuwenhuis, Marlon; Knight, Craig; Postmes, Tom; Haslam, S Alexander

    2014-09-01

    Principles of lean office management increasingly call for space to be stripped of extraneous decorations so that it can flexibly accommodate changing numbers of people and different office functions within the same area. Yet this practice is at odds with evidence that office workers' quality of life can be enriched by office landscaping that involves the use of plants that have no formal work-related function. To examine the impact of these competing approaches, 3 field experiments were conducted in large commercial offices in The Netherlands and the U.K. These examined the impact of lean and "green" offices on subjective perceptions of air quality, concentration, and workplace satisfaction as well as objective measures of productivity. Two studies were longitudinal, examining effects of interventions over subsequent weeks and months. In all 3 experiments enhanced outcomes were observed when offices were enriched by plants. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Analysis and evaluation of ZPPR critical experiments for a 100 kilowatt-electric space reactor

    McFarlane, H.F.; Collins, P.J.; Carpenter, S.G.; Olsen, D.N.; Smith, D.M.; Schaefer, R.W.; Doncals, R.A.; Andre, S.V.; Porter, C.A.; Cowan, C.L.; Stewart, S.L.; Protsik, R.

    1990-01-01

    ZPPR critical experiments were used for physics testing the reactor design of the SP-100, a 100-kW thermoelectric LMR that is being developed to provide electrical power for space applications. These tests validated all key physics characteristics of the design, including the ultimate safety in the event of a launch or re-entry accident. Both the experiments and the analysis required the use of techniques not previously needed for fast reactor designs. A few significant discrepancies between the experimental and calculated results leave opportunities for further reductions in the mass of the SP-100. An initial investigation has been made into application of the ZPPR-20 results, along with those of other relevant integral data, to the SP-100 design

  10. Novel human mutation and CRISPR/Cas genome-edited mice reveal the importance of C-terminal domain of MSX1 in tooth and palate development.

    Mitsui, Silvia Naomi; Yasue, Akihiro; Masuda, Kiyoshi; Naruto, Takuya; Minegishi, Yoshiyuki; Oyadomari, Seiichi; Noji, Sumihare; Imoto, Issei; Tanaka, Eiji

    2016-12-05

    Several mutations, located mainly in the MSX1 homeodomain, have been identified in non-syndromic tooth agenesis predominantly affecting premolars and third molars. We identified a novel frameshift mutation of the highly conserved C-terminal domain of MSX1, known as Msx homology domain 6 (MH6), in a Japanese family with non-syndromic tooth agenesis. To investigate the importance of MH6 in tooth development, Msx1 was targeted in mice with CRISPR/Cas system. Although heterozygous MH6 disruption did not alter craniofacial development, homozygous mice exhibited agenesis of lower incisors with or without cleft palate at E16.5. In addition, agenesis of the upper third molars and the lower second and third molars were observed in 4-week-old mutant mice. Although the upper second molars were present, they were abnormally small. These results suggest that the C-terminal domain of MSX1 is important for tooth and palate development, and demonstrate that that CRISPR/Cas system can be used as a tool to assess causality of human disorders in vivo and to study the importance of conserved domains in genes.

  11. Fluid Physical and Transport Phenomena Studies aboard the International Space Station: Planned Experiments

    Singh, Bhim S.

    1999-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the microgravity fluid physics and transport phenomena experiments planned for the International Spare Station. NASA's Office of Life and Microgravity Science and Applications has established a world-class research program in fluid physics and transport phenomena. This program combines the vast expertise of the world research community with NASA's unique microgravity facilities with the objectives of gaining new insight into fluid phenomena by removing the confounding effect of gravity. Due to its criticality to many terrestrial and space-based processes and phenomena, fluid physics and transport phenomena play a central role in the NASA's Microgravity Program. Through widely publicized research announcement and well established peer-reviews, the program has been able to attract a number of world-class researchers and acquired a critical mass of investigations that is now adding rapidly to this field. Currently there arc a total of 106 ground-based and 20 candidate flight principal investigators conducting research in four major thrust areas in the program: complex flows, multiphase flow and phase change, interfacial phenomena, and dynamics and instabilities. The International Space Station (ISS) to be launched in 1998, provides the microgravity research community with a unprecedented opportunity to conduct long-duration microgravity experiments which can be controlled and operated from the Principal Investigators' own laboratory. Frequent planned shuttle flights to the Station will provide opportunities to conduct many more experiments than were previously possible. NASA Lewis Research Center is in the process of designing a Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) to be located in the Laboratory Module of the ISS that will not only accommodate multiple users but, allow a broad range of fluid physics and transport phenomena experiments to be conducted in a cost effective manner.

  12. Feasibility analysis of large length-scale thermocapillary flow experiment for the International Space Station

    Alberts, Samantha J.

    The investigation of microgravity fluid dynamics emerged out of necessity with the advent of space exploration. In particular, capillary research took a leap forward in the 1960s with regards to liquid settling and interfacial dynamics. Due to inherent temperature variations in large spacecraft liquid systems, such as fuel tanks, forces develop on gas-liquid interfaces which induce thermocapillary flows. To date, thermocapillary flows have been studied in small, idealized research geometries usually under terrestrial conditions. The 1 to 3m lengths in current and future large tanks and hardware are designed based on hardware rather than research, which leaves spaceflight systems designers without the technological tools to effectively create safe and efficient designs. This thesis focused on the design and feasibility of a large length-scale thermocapillary flow experiment, which utilizes temperature variations to drive a flow. The design of a helical channel geometry ranging from 1 to 2.5m in length permits a large length-scale thermocapillary flow experiment to fit in a seemingly small International Space Station (ISS) facility such as the Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR). An initial investigation determined the proposed experiment produced measurable data while adhering to the FIR facility limitations. The computational portion of this thesis focused on the investigation of functional geometries of fuel tanks and depots using Surface Evolver. This work outlines the design of a large length-scale thermocapillary flow experiment for the ISS FIR. The results from this work improve the understanding thermocapillary flows and thus improve technological tools for predicting heat and mass transfer in large length-scale thermocapillary flows. Without the tools to understand the thermocapillary flows in these systems, engineers are forced to design larger, heavier vehicles to assure safety and mission success.

  13. Analysis of the presence of cell proliferation-related molecules in the Tgf-β3 null mutant mouse palate reveals misexpression of EGF and Msx-1.

    del Río, A; Barrio, M C; Murillo, J; Maldonado, E; López-Gordillo, Y; Martínez-Sanz, E; Martínez, M L; Martínez-Álvarez, C

    2011-01-01

    The Tgf-β(3) null mutant mouse palate presents several cellular anomalies that lead to the appearance of cleft palate. One of them concerns the cell proliferation of both the palatal medial edge epithelium and mesenchyme. In this work, our aim was to determine whether there was any variation in the presence/distribution of several cell proliferation-related molecules that could be responsible for the cell proliferation defects observed in these palates. Our results showed no difference in the presence of EGF-R, PDGF-A, TGF-β(2), Bmp-2, and Bmp-4, and differences were minimal for FGF-10 and Shh. However, the expression of EGF and Msx-1 changed substantially. The shift of the EGF protein expression was the one that most correlated with that of cell proliferation. This molecule is regulated by TGF-β(3), and experiments blocking its activity in culture suggest that EGF misexpression in the Tgf-β(3) null mutant mouse palate plays a role in the cell proliferation defect observed. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Designing new collaborative learning spaces in clinical environments: experiences from a children's hospital in Australia.

    Bines, Julie E; Jamieson, Peter

    2013-09-01

    Hospitals are complex places that provide a rich learning environment for students, staff, patients and their families, professional groups and the community. The "new" Royal Children's Hospital opened in late 2011. Its mission is focused on improving health and well-being of children and adolescents through leadership in healthcare, research and education. Addressing the need to create "responsive learning environments" aligned with the shift to student-centred pedagogy, two distinct learning environments were developed within the new Royal Children's Hospital; (i) a dedicated education precinct providing a suite of physical environments to promote a more active, collaborative and social learning experience for education and training programs conducted on the Royal Children's Hospital campus and (ii) a suite of learning spaces embedded within clinical areas so that learning becomes an integral part of the daily activities of this busy Hospital environment. The aim of this article is to present the overarching educational principles that lead the design of these learning spaces and describe the opportunities and obstacles encountered in the development of collaborative learning spaces within a large hospital development.

  15. A Technology Demonstration Experiment for Laser Cooled Atomic Clocks in Space

    Klipstein, W. M.; Kohel, J.; Seidel, D. J.; Thompson, R. J.; Maleki, L.; Gibble, K.

    2000-01-01

    We have been developing a laser-cooling apparatus for flight on the International Space Station (ISS), with the intention of demonstrating linewidths on the cesium clock transition narrower than can be realized on the ground. GLACE (the Glovebox Laser- cooled Atomic Clock Experiment) is scheduled for launch on Utilization Flight 3 (UF3) in 2002, and will be mounted in one of the ISS Glovebox platforms for an anticipated 2-3 week run. Separate flight definition projects funded at NIST and Yale by the Micro- gravity Research Division of NASA as a part of its Laser Cooling and Atomic Physics (LCAP) program will follow GLACE. Core technologies for these and other LCAP missions are being developed at JPL, with the current emphasis on developing components such as the laser and optics subsystem, and non-magnetic vacuum-compatible mechanical shutters. Significant technical challenges in developing a space qualifiable laser cooling apparatus include reducing the volume, mass, and power requirements, while increasing the ruggedness and reliability in order to both withstand typical launch conditions and achieve several months of unattended operation. This work was performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  16. Fluid Physics Experiments onboard International Space Station: Through the Eyes of a Scientist.

    Shevtsova, Valentina

    Fluids are present everywhere in everyday life. They are also present as fuel, in support systems or as consumable in rockets and onboard of satellites and space stations. Everyone experiences every day that fluids are very sensitive to gravity: on Earth liquids flow downwards and gases mostly rise. Nowadays much of the interest of the scientific community is on studying the phenomena at microscales in so-called microfluidic systems. However, at smaller scales the experimental investigation of convective flows becomes increasingly difficult as the control parameter Ra scales with g L (3) (g; acceleration level, L: length scale). A unique alternative to the difficulty of investigating systems with small length scale on the ground is to reduce the gravity level g. In systems with interfaces, buoyancy forces are proportional to the volume of the liquid, while capillary forces act solely on the liquid surface. The importance of buoyancy diminishes either at very small scales or with reducing the acceleration level. Under the weightless conditions of space where buoyancy is virtually eliminated, other mechanisms such as capillary forces, diffusion, vibration, shear forces, electrostatic and electromagnetic forces are dominating in the fluid behaviour. This is why research in space represents a powerful tool for scientific research in this field. Understanding how fluids work really matters and so does measuring their properties accurately. Presently, a number of scientific laboratories, as usual goes with multi-user instruments, are involved in fluid research on the ISS. The programme of fluid physics experiments on-board deals with capillary flows, diffusion, dynamics in complex fluids (foams, emulsions and granular matter), heat transfer processes with phase change, physics and physico-chemistry near or beyond the critical point and it also extends to combustion physics. The top-level objectives of fluid research in space are as follows: (i) to investigate fluid

  17. Capillary-Driven Heat Transfer Experiment: Keeping It Cool in Space

    Lekan, Jack F.; Allen, Jeffrey S.

    1998-01-01

    Capillary-pumped loops (CPL's) are devices that are used to transport heat from one location to another--specifically to transfer heat away from something. In low-gravity applications, such as satellites (and possibly the International Space Station), CPL's are used to transfer heat from electrical devices to space radiators. This is accomplished by evaporating one liquid surface on the hot side of the CPL and condensing the vapor produced onto another liquid surface on the cold side. Capillary action, the phenomenon that causes paper towels to absorb spilled liquids, is used to "pump" the liquid back to the evaporating liquid surface (hot side) to complete the "loop." CPL's require no power to operate and can transfer heat over distances as large as 30 ft or more. Their reliance upon evaporation and condensation to transfer heat makes them much more economical in terms of weight than conventional heat transfer systems. Unfortunately, they have proven to be unreliable in space operations, and the explanation for this unreliability has been elusive. The Capillary-Driven Heat Transfer (CHT) experiment is investigating the fundamental fluid physics phenomena thought to be responsible for the failure of CPL's in low-gravity operations. If the failure mechanism can be identified, then appropriate design modifications can be developed to make capillary phase-change heat-transport devices a more viable option in space applications. CHT was conducted onboard the Space Shuttle Columbia during the first Microgravity Science Laboratory (MSL-1) mission, STS-94, which flew from July 1 to 17, 1997. The CHT glovebox investigation, which was conceived by Dr. Kevin Hallinan and Jeffrey Allen of the University of Dayton, focused on studying the dynamics associated with the heating and cooling at the evaporating meniscus within a capillary phase-change device in a low-gravity environment. The CHT experimental hardware was designed by a small team of engineers from Aerospace Design

  18. Test Facilities and Experience on Space Nuclear System Developments at the Kurchatov Institute

    Ponomarev-Stepnoi, Nikolai N.; Garin, Vladimir P.; Glushkov, Evgeny S.; Kompaniets, George V.; Kukharkin, Nikolai E.; Madeev, Vicktor G.; Papin, Vladimir K.; Polyakov, Dmitry N.; Stepennov, Boris S.; Tchuniyaev, Yevgeny I.; Tikhonov, Lev Ya.; Uksusov, Yevgeny I.

    2004-01-01

    The complexity of space fission systems and rigidity of requirement on minimization of weight and dimension characteristics along with the wish to decrease expenditures on their development demand implementation of experimental works which results shall be used in designing, safety substantiation, and licensing procedures. Experimental facilities are intended to solve the following tasks: obtainment of benchmark data for computer code validations, substantiation of design solutions when computational efforts are too expensive, quality control in a production process, and 'iron' substantiation of criticality safety design solutions for licensing and public relations. The NARCISS and ISKRA critical facilities and unique ORM facility on shielding investigations at the operating OR nuclear research reactor were created in the Kurchatov Institute to solve the mentioned tasks. The range of activities performed at these facilities within the implementation of the previous Russian nuclear power system programs is briefly described in the paper. This experience shall be analyzed in terms of methodological approach to development of future space nuclear systems (this analysis is beyond this paper). Because of the availability of these facilities for experiments, the brief description of their critical assemblies and characteristics is given in this paper

  19. The Colorado Student Space Weather Experiment: A successful student-run scientific spacecraft mission

    Schiller, Q.; Li, X.; Palo, S. E.; Blum, L. W.; Gerhardt, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Colorado Student Space Weather Experiment is a spacecraft mission developed and operated by students at the University of Colorado, Boulder. The 3U CubeSat was launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base in September 2012. The massively successful mission far outlived its 4 month estimated lifetime and stopped transmitting data after over two years in orbit in December 2014. CSSWE has contributed to 15 scientific or engineering peer-reviewed journal publications. During the course of the project, over 65 undergraduate and graduate students from CU's Computer Science, Aerospace, and Mechanical Engineering Departments, as well as the Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences Department participated. The students were responsible for the design, development, build, integration, testing, and operations from component- to system-level. The variety of backgrounds on this unique project gave the students valuable experience in their own focus area, but also cross-discipline and system-level involvement. However, though the perseverance of the students brought the mission to fruition, it was only possible through the mentoring and support of professionals in the Aerospace Engineering Sciences Department and CU's Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics.

  20. Control of an experiment to measure acoustic noise in the space shuttle

    Cameron, Charles B.

    1989-06-01

    The potential use of a general-purpose controller to measure acoustic vibration autonomously in the Space Shuttle Cargo Bay during launch is described. The experimental package will be housed in a Shuttle Get Away Special (GAS) canister. The control functions were implemented with software written largely in the C programming language. An IBM MS DOS computer and C cross-compiler were used to generate Z-80 assembly language code, assemble and link this code, and then transfer it to EPROM for use in the experiment's controller. The software is written in a modular fashion to permit adapting it easily to other applications. The software combines the experimental control functions with a menu-driven, diagnostic subsystem to ensure that the software will operate in practice as it does in theory and under test. The experiment uses many peripheral devices controlled by the software described here. These devices include: (1) a solid-state data recorder; (2) a bubble memory storage module; (3) a real-time clock; (4) an RS-232C serial interface; (5) a power control subsystem; (6) a matched filter subsystem to detect activation of the Space Shuttle's auxillary power units five minutes prior to launch; (7) a launch detection subsystem based on vibrational and barometric sensors; (8) analog-to-digital converters; and (9) a heater subsystem. The matched filter design is discussed in detail and the results of a computer simulation of the performance of its most critical sub-circuit are presented.

  1. Flow Boiling and Condensation Experiment (FBCE) for the International Space Station

    Mudawar, Issam; O'Neill, Lucas; Hasan, Mohammad; Nahra, Henry; Hall, Nancy; Balasubramaniam, R.; Mackey, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    An effective means to reducing the size and weight of future space vehicles is to replace present mostly single-phase thermal management systems with two-phase counterparts. By capitalizing upon both latent and sensible heat of the coolant rather than sensible heat alone, two-phase thermal management systems can yield orders of magnitude enhancement in flow boiling and condensation heat transfer coefficients. Because the understanding of the influence of microgravity on two-phase flow and heat transfer is quite limited, there is an urgent need for a new experimental microgravity facility to enable investigators to perform long-duration flow boiling and condensation experiments in pursuit of reliable databases, correlations and models. This presentation will discuss recent progress in the development of the Flow Boiling and Condensation Experiment (FBCE) for the International Space Station (ISS) in collaboration between Purdue University and NASA Glenn Research Center. Emphasis will be placed on the design of the flow boiling module and on new flow boiling data that were measured in parabolic flight, along with extensive flow visualization of interfacial features at heat fluxes up to critical heat flux (CHF). Also discussed a theoretical model that will be shown to predict CHF with high accuracy.

  2. Source-space EEG neurofeedback links subjective experience with brain activity during effortless awareness meditation.

    van Lutterveld, Remko; Houlihan, Sean D; Pal, Prasanta; Sacchet, Matthew D; McFarlane-Blake, Cinque; Patel, Payal R; Sullivan, John S; Ossadtchi, Alex; Druker, Susan; Bauer, Clemens; Brewer, Judson A

    2017-05-01

    Meditation is increasingly showing beneficial effects for psychiatric disorders. However, learning to meditate is not straightforward as there are no easily discernible outward signs of performance and thus no direct feedback is possible. As meditation has been found to correlate with posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) activity, we tested whether source-space EEG neurofeedback from the PCC followed the subjective experience of effortless awareness (a major component of meditation), and whether participants could volitionally control the signal. Sixteen novice meditators and sixteen experienced meditators participated in the study. Novice meditators were briefly trained to perform a basic meditation practice to induce the subjective experience of effortless awareness in a progressively more challenging neurofeedback test-battery. Experienced meditators performed a self-selected meditation practice to induce this state in the same test-battery. Neurofeedback was provided based on gamma-band (40-57Hz) PCC activity extracted using a beamformer algorithm. Associations between PCC activity and the subjective experience of effortless awareness were assessed by verbal probes. Both groups reported that decreased PCC activity corresponded with effortless awareness (Pneurofeedback to link an objective measure of brain activity with the subjective experience of effortless awareness, and suggest potential utility of this paradigm as a tool for meditation training. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Visual Experience Shapes the Neural Networks Remapping Touch into External Space.

    Crollen, Virginie; Lazzouni, Latifa; Rezk, Mohamed; Bellemare, Antoine; Lepore, Franco; Collignon, Olivier

    2017-10-18

    Localizing touch relies on the activation of skin-based and externally defined spatial frames of reference. Psychophysical studies have demonstrated that early visual deprivation prevents the automatic remapping of touch into external space. We used fMRI to characterize how visual experience impacts the brain circuits dedicated to the spatial processing of touch. Sighted and congenitally blind humans performed a tactile temporal order judgment (TOJ) task, either with the hands uncrossed or crossed over the body midline. Behavioral data confirmed that crossing the hands has a detrimental effect on TOJ judgments in sighted but not in early blind people. Crucially, the crossed hand posture elicited enhanced activity, when compared with the uncrossed posture, in a frontoparietal network in the sighted group only. Psychophysiological interaction analysis revealed, however, that the congenitally blind showed enhanced functional connectivity between parietal and frontal regions in the crossed versus uncrossed hand postures. Our results demonstrate that visual experience scaffolds the neural implementation of the location of touch in space. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In daily life, we seamlessly localize touch in external space for action planning toward a stimulus making contact with the body. For efficient sensorimotor integration, the brain has therefore to compute the current position of our limbs in the external world. In the present study, we demonstrate that early visual deprivation alters the brain activity in a dorsal parietofrontal network typically supporting touch localization in the sighted. Our results therefore conclusively demonstrate the intrinsic role that developmental vision plays in scaffolding the neural implementation of touch perception. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/3710097-07$15.00/0.

  4. Space, place and atmosphere. Emotion and peripherical perception in architectural experience

    Juhani Pallasmaa

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Architectural experiences are essentially multi-sensory and simultaneous, and a complex entity is usually grasped as an atmosphere, ambience or feeling. In fact, the judgement concerning the character of a space or place calls for categories of sensing that extend beyond the five Aristotelian senses, such as the embodied existential sense, and, as a result, the entity is perceived in a diffuse, peripheral and unconscious manner. Paradoxically, we grasp an atmosphere before we have consciously identified its constituent factors and ingredients. «We perceive atmospheres through our emotional sensibility – a form of perception that works incredibly quickly, and which we humans evidently need to help us survive», Peter Zumthor suggests. We are mentally and emotionally affected by works of art before we understand them, or we may not understand them intellectually at all. Sensitive artists and architects intuit experiential and emotive qualities of spaces, places and images. This capacity calls for a specific kind of imagination, an emphatic imagination. Atmospheres are percieved peripherally through diffuse vision interacting with other sense modalities, and they are experienced emotionally rather than intellectually. The studies on the differentiation of the two brain hemispheres suggest that atmospheres are perceived through the right hemisphere. Somewhat surprisingly, atmospheres are more conscious objectives in literature, cinema, theater, painting and music than in architecture, which has been traditionally approached formally and perceived primarily through focused vision. Yet, when we see a thing in focus, we are outsiders to it, whereas the experience of being in a space calls for peripheral and unfocused perception. One of the reasons for the experiential poverty of contemporary settings could be in the poverty of their peripheral stimuli.

  5. Project Based Learning experiences in the space engineering education at Technical University of Madrid

    Rodríguez, Jacobo; Laverón-Simavilla, Ana; del Cura, Juan M.; Ezquerro, José M.; Lapuerta, Victoria; Cordero-Gracia, Marta

    2015-10-01

    This work describes the innovation activities performed in the field of space education since the academic year 2009/10 at the Technical University of Madrid (UPM), in collaboration with the Spanish User Support and Operations Center (E-USOC), the center assigned by the European Space Agency (ESA) in Spain to support the operations of scientific experiments on board the International Space Station. These activities have been integrated within the last year of the UPM Aerospace Engineering degree. A laboratory has been created, where students have to validate and integrate the subsystems of a microsatellite using demonstrator satellites. In parallel, the students participate in a Project Based Learning (PBL) training process in which they work in groups to develop the conceptual design of a space mission. One student in each group takes the role of project manager, another one is responsible for the mission design and the rest are each responsible for the design of one of the satellite subsystems. A ground station has also been set up with the help of students developing their final thesis, which will allow future students to perform training sessions and learn how to communicate with satellites, how to receive telemetry and how to process the data. Several surveys have been conducted along two academic years to evaluate the impact of these techniques in engineering learning. The surveys evaluate the acquisition of specific and generic competences, as well as the students' degree of satisfaction with respect to the use of these learning methodologies. The results of the surveys and the perception of the lecturers show that PBL encourages students' motivation and improves their results. They not only acquire better technical training, but also improve their transversal skills. It is also pointed out that this methodology requires more dedication from lecturers than traditional methods.

  6. CaloCube: an innovative homogeneous calorimeter for the next-generation space experiments

    Pacini, L.; Adriani, O.; Agnesi, A.; Albergo, S.; Auditore, L.; Basti, A.; Berti, E.; Bigongiari, G.; Bonechi, L.; Bonechi, S.; Bongi, M.; Bonvicini, V.; Bottai, S.; Brogi, P.; Cappello, G.; Carotenuto, G.; Castellini, G.; Cattaneo, P. W.; Chiari, M.; Daddi, N.; DAlessandro, R.; Detti, S.; Fasoli, M.; Finetti, N.; Lenzi, P.; Maestro, P.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Miritello, M.; Mori, N.; Orzan, G.; Olmi, M.; Papini, P.; Pellegriti, M. G.; Pirzio, F.; Rappoldi, A.; Ricciarini, S.; Spillantini, P.; Starodubtsev, O.; Stolzi, F.; Suh, J. E.; Sulaj, A.; Tiberio, A.; Tricomi, A.; Trifirò, A.; Trimarchi, M.; Vannuccini, E.; Vedda, A.; Zampa, G.; Zampa, N.

    2017-11-01

    The direct measurement of the cosmic-ray spectrum, up to the knee region, is one of the instrumental challenges for next generation space experiments. The main issue for these measurements is a steeply falling spectrum with increasing energy, so the physics performance of the space calorimeters are primarily determined by their geometrical acceptance and energy resolution. CaloCube is a three-year R&D project, approved and financed by INFN in 2014, aiming to optimize the design of a space-born calorimeter. The peculiarity of the design of CaloCube is its capability of detecting particles coming from any direction, and not only those on its upper surface. To ensure that the quality of the measurement does not depend on the arrival direction of the particles, the calorimeter will be designed as homogeneous and isotropic as possible. In addition, to achieve a high discrimination power for hadrons and nuclei with respect to electrons, the sensitive elements of the calorimeter need to have a fine 3-D sampling capability. In order to optimize the detector performances with respect to the total mass of the apparatus, which is the most important constraint for a space launch, a comparative study of different scintillating materials has been performed using detailed Monte Carlo simulation based on the FLUKA package. In parallel to simulation studies, a prototype consisting in 14 layers of 3 x 3 CsI(Tl) crystals per layer has been assembled and tested with particle beams. An overview of the obtained results during the first two years of the project will be presented and the future of the detector will be discussed too.

  7. Electromagnetic Emissions During Rock-fracturing Experiments Inside Magnetic Field Free Space

    Wang, H.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, T.; Jin, H.

    2012-12-01

    Abnormal electromagnetic emission (EME) signal is one type of the most important precursors before earthquake, which has been widely observed and recorded before large earthquake, but the physical mechanism underlying the phenomenon is unclear and under controversy. Monitoring the EME signals during rock-fracturing experiments in laboratory is an effective way to study the phenomena and their underlying mechanism. Electromagnetic noise is everywhere because industrial and civilian electrical equipments have been widely used, which make difficulties to the in-lab experiments and field monitoring. To avoid the interference from electromagnetic noise, electromagnetic experiments must be carried out inside shielded space. Magnetic Field Free Space (MFFS) was constructed by Institute of Geophysics, China Earthquake Administration in 1980s. MFFS is a near-spherical polyhedron 'space' with 26 faces and inside diameter about 2.3 m. It is enclosed by 8-layer permalloy 1J85 for shielding magnetic field and 2-layer purified aluminium for shielding electric field. MFFS mainly shields static magnetic field by a factor of 160-4000 for the magnetic signals with the frequencies ranging from 0.01 Hz to 10 Hz. The intensity of magnetic field inside the space is less than 20 nT and its fluctuation is less than 0.3 nT in 90 hours. MFFS can dramatically shield EME signals in the frequency range of EME antennas utilized in our experiments, (several to ~320) kHz, by at least 90%, based on observation. Rock specimens (granite, marble) were fractured by two ways inside MFFS. 1) Cuboid bulk specimens were drilled, filled with static cracking agent, and then dilated from inside until fracture. 2) Cylindrical rock specimens were stressed until fracture by using a non-magnetic rock testing machine with the maximum testing force 300kN. EME, acoustic emission (AE) and strain signals were collected synchronously by the same data acquisitor, Acoustic Emission Workstation made by Physical Acoustics

  8. Public school teachers in the U.S. evaluate the educational impact of student space experiments launched by expendable vehicles, aboard Skylab, and aboard Space Shuttle.

    Burkhalter, B B; McLean, J E; Curtis, J P; James, G S

    1991-12-01

    Space education is a discipline that has evolved at an unprecedented rate over the past 25 years. Although program proceedings, research literature, and historical documentation have captured fragmented pieces of information about student space experiments, the field lacks a valid comprehensive study that measures the educational impact of sounding rockets, Skylab, Ariane, AMSAT, and Space Shuttle. The lack of this information is a problem for space educators worldwide which led to a national study with classroom teachers. Student flown experiments continue to offer a unique experiential approach to teach students thinking and reasoning skills that are imperative in the current international competitive environment in which they live and will work. Understanding the history as well as the current status and educational spin-offs of these experimental programs strengthens the teaching capacity of educators throughout the world to develop problem solving skills and various higher mental processes in the schools. These skills and processes enable students to use their knowledge more effectively and efficiently long after they leave the classroom. This paper focuses on student space experiments as a means of motivating students to meet this educational goal successfully.

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: MSX high-contrast IRDCs with NH3 (Chira+,

    Chira, R.-A.; Beuther, H.; Linz, H.; Walmsley, C. M.; Menten, K. M.; Bonfman, L.

    2013-02-01

    Based on MSX data, a catalogue of more than 10,000 candidate IRDCs was compiled. From this catalogue we selected a complete sample of northern hemisphere high-contrast IRDCs with Galactic longitudes >=19.27° (and nine exceptions with Galactic longitudes <19°). The sample was observed in ammonia (1,1) and (2,2) inversion transitions with the Effelsberg 100-m telescope. NH3 parameters are derived for 109 sample sources. For each source galactic coordinates, brightness temperatures, line width FWHMs and optical depths of (1,1) and (2,2) inversion lines and LSR velocity of (1,1) inversion line are given. Furthermore, we derived the rotation and kinetic temperatures, ammonia column densities, kinematic distances and virial masses using the NH3 data. In addition, notes about whether the sources being associated with Spitzer sources or not are given. Using ATLASGAL data, the 870 micron flux densities gas masses, virial parameters, H2 column densities and NH3 abundances are given. In addition, we listed the sample sources where no ammonia which did not fulfil our selection criteria. (4 data files).

  10. Peptaibols, tetramic acid derivatives, isocoumarins, and sesquiterpenes from a Bionectria sp. (MSX 47401).

    Figueroa, Mario; Raja, Huzefa; Falkinham, Joseph O; Adcock, Audrey F; Kroll, David J; Wani, Mansukh C; Pearce, Cedric J; Oberlies, Nicholas H

    2013-06-28

    An extract of the filamentous fungus Bionectria sp. (MSX 47401) showed both promising cytotoxic activity (>90% inhibition of H460 cell growth at 20 μg/mL) and antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). A bioactivity-directed fractionation study yielded one new peptaibol (1) and one new tetramic acid derivative (2), and the fungus biosynthesized diverse secondary metabolites with mannose-derived units. Five known compounds were also isolated: clonostachin (3), virgineone (4), virgineone aglycone (5), AGI-7 (6), and 5,6-dihydroxybisabolol (7). Compounds 5 and 7 have not been described previously from natural sources. Compound 1 represents the second member of the peptaibol structural class that contains an ester-linked sugar alcohol (mannitol) instead of an amide-linked amino alcohol, and peptaibols and tetramic acid derivatives have not been isolated previously from the same fungus. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated primarily by high-field NMR (950 and 700 MHz), HRESIMS/MS, and chemical degradations (Marfey's analysis). All compounds (except 6) were examined for antibacterial and antifungal activities. Compounds 2, 4, and 5 showed antimicrobial activity against S. aureus and several MRSA isolates.

  11. Molecular line study of massive star-forming regions from the Red MSX Source survey

    Yu, Naiping; Wang, Jun-Jie

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we have selected a sample of massive star-forming regions from the Red MSX Source survey, in order to study star formation activities (mainly outflow and inflow signatures). We have focused on three molecular lines from the Millimeter Astronomy Legacy Team Survey at 90 GHz: HCO+(1-0), H13CO+(1-0) and SiO(2-1). According to previous observations, our sources can be divided into two groups: nine massive young stellar object candidates (radio-quiet) and 10 H II regions (which have spherical or unresolved radio emissions). Outflow activities have been found in 11 sources, while only three show inflow signatures in all. The high outflow detection rate means that outflows are common in massive star-forming regions. The inflow detection rate was relatively low. We suggest that this was because of the beam dilution of the telescope. All three inflow candidates have outflow(s). The outward radiation and thermal pressure from the central massive star(s) do not seem to be strong enough to halt accretion in G345.0034-00.2240. Our simple model of G318.9480-00.1969 shows that it has an infall velocity of about 1.8 km s-1. The spectral energy distribution analysis agrees our sources are massive and intermediate-massive star formation regions.

  12. Widespread survey finds no evidence of Haplosporidium nelsoni (MSX) in Gulf of Mexico oysters.

    Ford, Susan E; Paterno, Jenny; Scarpa, Emily; Stokes, Nancy A; Kim, Yungkul; Powell, Eric N; Bushek, David

    2011-02-22

    The advent of molecular detection assays has provided a set of very sensitive tools for the detection of pathogens in marine organisms, but it has also raised problems of how to interpret positive signals that are not accompanied by visual confirmation. PCR-positive results have recently been reported for Haplosporidium nelsoni (MSX), a pathogen of the oyster Crassostrea virginica in 31 of 40 oysters from 6 sites in the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea. Histological confirmation of the PCR results was not undertaken, and no haplosporidian has been reported from the numerous histological studies and surveys of oysters in the region. To further investigate the possibility that H. nelsoni is present in this region, we sampled 210 oysters from 40 sites around the Gulf of Mexico and Puerto Rico using PCR and 180 of these using tissue-section histology also. None of the oysters showed evidence of H. nelsoni by PCR or of any haplosporidian by histology. We cannot, therefore, confirm that H. nelsoni is present and widespread in the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea. Our results do not prove that H. nelsoni is absent from the region, but taken together with results from previous histological surveys, they suggest that for the purposes of controlling oyster importation, the region should continue to be considered free of the parasite.

  13. Simultaneous Occurence of an Autosomal Dominant Inherited MSX1 Mutation and an X-linked Recessive Inherited EDA Mutation in One Chinese Family with Non-syndromic Oligodontia.

    Zhang, Xiao Xia; Wong, Sing Wai; Han, Dong; Feng, Hai Lan

    2015-01-01

    To describe the simultaneous occurence of an autosomal dominant inherited MSX1 mutation and an X-linked recessive inherited EDA mutation in one Chinese family with nonsyndromic oligodontia. Clinical data of characteristics of tooth agenesis were collected. MSX1 and EDA gene mutations were detected in a Chinese family of non-syndromic oligodontia. Mild hypodontia in the parents and severe oligodontia in the son was recorded. A novel missense heterozygous mutation c.517C>A (p.Arg173Ser) was detected in the MSX1 gene in the boy and the father. A homozygous missense mutation c.1001G>A (p.Arg334His) was detected in the EDA gene in the boy and the same mutant occurred heterozygously in the mother. Simultaneous occurence of two different gene mutations with different inheritence patterns, which both caused oligodontia, which occurred in one subject and in one family, was reported.

  14. Research on the space-borne coherent wind lidar technique and the prototype experiment

    Gao, Long; Tao, Yuliang; An, Chao; Yang, Jukui; Du, Guojun; Zheng, Yongchao

    2016-10-01

    Space-borne coherent wind lidar technique is considered as one of the most promising and appropriate remote Sensing methods for successfully measuring the whole global vector wind profile between the lower atmosphere and the middle atmosphere. Compared with other traditional methods, the space-borne coherent wind lidar has some advantages, such as, the all-day operation; many lidar systems can be integrated into the same satellite because of the light-weight and the small size, eye-safe wavelength, and being insensitive to the background light. Therefore, this coherent lidar could be widely applied into the earth climate research, disaster monitoring, numerical weather forecast, environment protection. In this paper, the 2μm space-borne coherent wind lidar system for measuring the vector wind profile is proposed. And the technical parameters about the sub-system of the coherent wind lidar are simulated and the all sub-system schemes are proposed. For sake of validating the technical parameters of the space-borne coherent wind lidar system and the optical off-axis telescope, the weak laser signal detection technique, etc. The proto-type coherent wind lidar is produced and the experiments for checking the performance of this proto-type coherent wind lidar are finished with the hard-target and the soft target, and the horizontal wind and the vertical wind profile are measured and calibrated, respectively. For this proto-type coherent wind lidar, the wavelength is 1.54μm, the pulse energy 80μJ, the pulse width 300ns, the diameter of the off-axis telescope 120mm, the single wedge for cone scanning with the 40°angle, and the two dualbalanced InGaAs detector modules are used. The experiment results are well consisted with the simulation process, and these results show that the wind profile between the vertical altitude 4km can be measured, the accuracy of the wind velocity and the wind direction are better than 1m/s and +/-10°, respectively.

  15. The Role of Space in Learning: Spatio-Educational Experiences of Female Students within Emirati Higher Education

    Zaidan, Gergana

    2015-01-01

    This interdisciplinary research examines the intersectional relationship between\\ud the domains of space, gender and education. It aims, first, to understand the\\ud spatio-educational experience of Emirati female learners; and second, to make\\ud it possible to enhance their learning experience by exploring the role of space in\\ud learning in a single gender context. This thesis addresses the lack of literature\\ud on women’s spatiality and space in learning, specifically in relation to Arab\\ud...

  16. A new laser-ranged satellite for General Relativity and space geodesy: I. An introduction to the LARES2 space experiment

    Ciufolini, Ignazio; Paolozzi, Antonio; Pavlis, Erricos C.; Sindoni, Giampiero; Koenig, Rolf; Ries, John C.; Matzner, Richard; Gurzadyan, Vahe; Penrose, Roger; Rubincam, David; Paris, Claudio

    2017-08-01

    We introduce the LARES 2 space experiment recently approved by the Italian Space Agency (ASI). The LARES 2 satellite is planned for launch in 2019 with the new VEGA C launch vehicle of ASI, ESA and ELV. The orbital analysis of LARES 2 experiment will be carried out by our international science team of experts in General Relativity, theoretical physics, space geodesy and aerospace engineering. The main objectives of the LARES 2 experiment are gravitational and fundamental physics, including accurate measurements of General Relativity, in particular a test of frame-dragging aimed at achieving an accuracy of a few parts in a thousand, i.e., aimed at improving by about an order of magnitude the present state-of-the-art and forthcoming tests of this general relativistic phenomenon. LARES 2 will also achieve determinations in space geodesy. LARES 2 is an improved version of the LAGEOS 3 experiment, proposed in 1984 to measure frame-dragging and analyzed in 1989 by a joint ASI and NASA study.

  17. Performance Evaluation of the International Space Station Flow Boiling and Condensation Experiment (FBCE) Test Facility

    Hasan, Mohammad; Balasubramaniam, R.; Nahra, Henry; Mackey, Jeff; Hall, Nancy; Frankenfield, Bruce; Harpster, George; May, Rochelle; Mudawar, Issam; Kharangate, Chirag R.; hide

    2016-01-01

    A ground-based experimental facility to perform flow boiling and condensation experiments is built in support of the development of the long duration Flow Boiling and Condensation Experiment (FBCE) destined for operation on board of the International Space Station (ISS) Fluid Integrated Rack (FIR). We performed tests with the condensation test module oriented horizontally and vertically. Using FC-72 as the test fluid and water as the cooling fluid, we evaluated the operational characteristics of the condensation module and generated ground based data encompassing the range of parameters of interest to the condensation experiment to be performed on the ISS. During this testing, we also evaluated the pressure drop profile across different components of the fluid subsystem, heater performance, on-orbit degassing subsystem, and the heat loss from different components. In this presentation, we discuss representative results of performance testing of the FBCE flow loop. These results will be used in the refinement of the flight system design and build-up of the FBCE which is scheduled for flight in 2019.

  18. The beginning of Space Life Science in China exploration rockets for biological experiment during 1960's

    Jiang, Peidong; Zhang, Jingxue

    The first step of space biological experiment in China was a set of five exploration rockets launched during 1964 to 1966, by Shanghai Institute of Machine and Electricity, and Institute of Biophysics of The Chinese Academy of Sciences. Three T-7AS1rockets for rats, mice and other samples in a biological cabin were launched and recovered safely in July of 1964 and June of 1965. Two T-7AS2rockets for dog, rats, mice and other samples in a biological cabin were launched and recovered safely in July of 1966. Institute of Biophysics in charged of the general design of biological experiments, telemetry of physiological parameters, and selection and training of experiment animals. The samples on-board were: rats, mice, dogs, and test tubes with fruit fly, enzyme, bacteria, E. Coli., lysozyme, bacteriaphage, RNAase, DNAase, crystals of enzyme, etc. Physiological, biochemical, bacte-riological, immunological, genetic, histochemical studies had been conducted, in cellular and sub cellular level. The postures of rat and dog were monitored during flight and under weight-lessness. Physiological parameters of ECG, blood pressure, respiration rate, body temperature were recorded. A dog named"Xiao Bao"was flight in 1966 with video monitor, life support system and conditioned reflex equipment. It flighted for more than 20 minutes and about 70km high. After 40 years, the experimental data recorded of its four physiological parameters during the flight process was reviewed. The change of 4 parameters during various phase of total flight process were compared, analyzed and discussed.

  19. Overlapping and differential localization of Bmp-2, Bmp-4, Msx-2 and apoptosis in the endocardial cushion and adjacent tissues of the developing mouse heart.

    Abdelwahid, E; Rice, D; Pelliniemi, L J; Jokinen, E

    2001-07-01

    The bone morphogenetic proteins BMP-2 and BMP-4 and the homeobox gene MSX-2 are required for normal development of many embryonic tissues. To elucidate their possible roles during the remodeling of the tubular heart into a fully septated four-chambered heart, we have localized the mRNA of Bmp-2, Bmp-4, Msx-2 and apoptotic cells in the developing mouse heart from embryonic day (E)11 to E17. mRNA was localized by in situ hybridization, and apoptotic cells by TUNEL (TDT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end-labeling) as well as by transmission electron microscopy. By analyzing adjacent serial sections, we demonstrated that the expression of Msx-2 and Bmp-2 strikingly overlapped in the atrioventricular canal myocardium, in the atrioventricular junctional myocardium, and in the maturing myocardium of the atrioventricular valves. Bmp-4 was expressed in the outflow tract myocardium and in the endocardial cushion of the outflow tract ridges from E12 to E14. Msx-2 appeared in the mesenchyme of the atrioventricular endocardial cushion from E11 to E14, while Bmp-2 and Bmp-4 were detected between E11 and E14. Apoptotic cells were also detected in the mesenchyme of the endocardial cushion between E12 and E14. Our results suggest that BMP-2 and MSX-2 are tightly linked to the formation of the atrioventricular junction and valves and that BMP-4 is involved in the development of the outflow tract myocardium and of the endocardial cushion. In addition, BMP-2, BMP-4 and MSX-2 and apoptosis seem to be associated with differentiation of the endocardial cushion.

  20. Expression of Msx-1 is suppressed in bisphosphonate associated osteonecrosis related jaw tissue-etiopathology considerations respecting jaw developmental biology-related unique features

    Schlegel Karl A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone-destructive disease treatments include bisphosphonates and antibodies against the osteoclast differentiator, RANKL (aRANKL; however, osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ is a frequent side-effect. Current models fail to explain the restriction of bisphosphonate (BP-related and denosumab (anti-RANKL antibody-related ONJ to jaws. Msx-1 is exclusively expressed in craniofacial structures and pivotal to cranial neural crest (CNC-derived periodontal tissue remodeling. We hypothesised that Msx-1 expression might be impaired in bisphosphonate-related ONJ. The study aim was to elucidate Msx-1 and RANKL-associated signal transduction (BMP-2/4, RANKL in ONJ-altered and healthy periodontal tissue. Methods Twenty ONJ and twenty non-BP exposed periodontal samples were processed for RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. An automated staining-based alkaline phosphatase-anti-alkaline phosphatase method was used to measure the stained cells:total cell-number ratio (labelling index, Bonferroni adjustment. Real-time RT-PCR was performed on ONJ-affected and healthy jaw periodontal samples (n = 20 each to quantitatively compare Msx-1, BMP-2, RANKL, and GAPDH mRNA levels. Results Semi-quantitative assessment of the ratio of stained cells showed decreased Msx-1 and RANKL and increased BMP-2/4 (all p Conclusions These results explain the sclerotic and osteopetrotic changes of periodontal tissue following BP application and substantiate clinical findings of BP-related impaired remodeling specific to periodontal tissue. RANKL suppression substantiated the clinical finding of impaired bone remodelling in BP- and aRANKL-induced ONJ-affected bone structures. Msx-1 suppression in ONJ-adjacent periodontal tissue suggested a bisphosphonate-related impairment in cellular differentiation that occurred exclusively jaw remodelling. Further research on developmental biology-related unique features of jaw bone structures will help to elucidate pathologies restricted to

  1. Progesterone receptor activates Msx2 expression by downregulating TNAP/Akp2 and activating the Bmp pathway in EpH4 mouse mammary epithelial cells.

    Jodie M Fleming

    Full Text Available Previously we demonstrated that EpH4 mouse mammary epithelial cells induced the homeobox transcription factor Msx2 either when transfected with the progesterone receptor (PR or when treated with Bmp2/4. Msx2 upregulation was unaffected by Wnt inhibitors s-FRP or Dkk1, but was inhibited by the Bmp antagonist Noggin. We therefore hypothesized that PR signaling to Msx2 acts through the Bmp receptor pathway. Herein, we confirm that transcripts for Alk2/ActR1A, a non-canonical BmpR Type I, are upregulated in mammary epithelial cells overexpressing PR (EpH4-PR. Increased phosphorylation of Smads 1,5, 8, known substrates for Alk2 and other BmpR Type I proteins, was observed as was their translocation to the nucleus in EpH4-PR cells. Analysis also showed that Tissue Non-Specific Alkaline Phosphatase (TNAP/Akp2 was also found to be downregulated in EpH4-PR cells. When an Akp2 promoter-reporter construct containing a ½PRE site was transfected into EpH4-PR cells, its expression was downregulated. Moreover, siRNA mediated knockdown of Akp2 increased both Alk2 and Msx2 expression. Collectively these data suggest that PR inhibition of Akp2 results in increased Alk2 activity, increased phosphorylation of Smads 1,5,8, and ultimately upregulation of Msx2. These studies imply that re-activation of the Akp2 gene could be helpful in downregulating aberrant Msx2 expression in PR+ breast cancers.

  2. Overview of the MISSE 7 Polymers and Zenith Polymers Experiments After 1.5 Years of Space Exposure

    Yi, Grace T.; de Groh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Haloua, Athena; Imka, Emily C.; Mitchell, Gianna G.

    2013-01-01

    As part of the Materials International Space Station Experiment 7 (MISSE 7), two experiments called the Polymers Experiment and the Zenith Polymers Experiment were flown on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS) and exposed to the low Earth orbit (LEO) space environment for 1.5 years. The Polymers Experiment contained 47 samples, which were flown in a ram or wake flight orientation. The objectives of the Polymers Experiment were to determine the LEO atomic oxygen erosion yield (Ey, volume loss per incident oxygen atoms, given in cu cm/atom) of the polymers, and to determine if atomic oxygen erosion of high and low ash containing polymers is dependent on fluence. The Zenith Polymers Experiment was flown in a zenith flight orientation. The primary objective of the Zenith Polymers Experiment was to determine the effect of solar exposure on the erosion of fluoropolymers. Kapton H (DuPont, Wilmington, DE) was flown in each experiment for atomic oxygen fluence determination. This paper provides an introduction to both the MISSE 7 Polymers Experiment and the MISSE 7 Zenith Polymers Experiment, and provides initial erosion yield results.

  3. A unified 3D default space consciousness model combining neurological and physiological processes that underlie conscious experience

    Jerath, Ravinder; Crawford, Molly W.; Barnes, Vernon A.

    2015-01-01

    The Global Workspace Theory and Information Integration Theory are two of the most currently accepted consciousness models; however, these models do not address many aspects of conscious experience. We compare these models to our previously proposed consciousness model in which the thalamus fills-in processed sensory information from corticothalamic feedback loops within a proposed 3D default space, resulting in the recreation of the internal and external worlds within the mind. This 3D default space is composed of all cells of the body, which communicate via gap junctions and electrical potentials to create this unified space. We use 3D illustrations to explain how both visual and non-visual sensory information may be filled-in within this dynamic space, creating a unified seamless conscious experience. This neural sensory memory space is likely generated by baseline neural oscillatory activity from the default mode network, other salient networks, brainstem, and reticular activating system. PMID:26379573

  4. A unified 3D default space consciousness model combining neurological and physiological processes that underlie conscious experience

    Ravinder eJerath

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Global Workspace Theory and Information Integration Theory are two of the most currently accepted consciousness models; however, these models do not address many aspects of conscious experience. We compare these models to our previously proposed consciousness model in which the thalamus fills-in processed sensory information from corticothalamic feedback loops within a proposed 3D default space, resulting in the recreation of the internal and external worlds within the mind. This 3D default space is composed of all cells of the body, which communicate via gap junctions and electrical potentials to create this unified space. We use 3D illustrations to explain how both visual and non-visual sensory information is filled-in within this dynamic space, creating a unified seamless conscious experience. This neural sensory memory space is likely generated by baseline neural oscillatory activity from the default mode network, other salient networks, brainstem, and reticular activating system.

  5. A unified 3D default space consciousness model combining neurological and physiological processes that underlie conscious experience.

    Jerath, Ravinder; Crawford, Molly W; Barnes, Vernon A

    2015-01-01

    The Global Workspace Theory and Information Integration Theory are two of the most currently accepted consciousness models; however, these models do not address many aspects of conscious experience. We compare these models to our previously proposed consciousness model in which the thalamus fills-in processed sensory information from corticothalamic feedback loops within a proposed 3D default space, resulting in the recreation of the internal and external worlds within the mind. This 3D default space is composed of all cells of the body, which communicate via gap junctions and electrical potentials to create this unified space. We use 3D illustrations to explain how both visual and non-visual sensory information may be filled-in within this dynamic space, creating a unified seamless conscious experience. This neural sensory memory space is likely generated by baseline neural oscillatory activity from the default mode network, other salient networks, brainstem, and reticular activating system.

  6. Discrete- vs. Continuous-Time Modeling of Unequally Spaced Experience Sampling Method Data

    Silvia de Haan-Rietdijk

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Experience Sampling Method is a common approach in psychological research for collecting intensive longitudinal data with high ecological validity. One characteristic of ESM data is that it is often unequally spaced, because the measurement intervals within a day are deliberately varied, and measurement continues over several days. This poses a problem for discrete-time (DT modeling approaches, which are based on the assumption that all measurements are equally spaced. Nevertheless, DT approaches such as (vector autoregressive modeling are often used to analyze ESM data, for instance in the context of affective dynamics research. There are equivalent continuous-time (CT models, but they are more difficult to implement. In this paper we take a pragmatic approach and evaluate the practical relevance of the violated model assumption in DT AR(1 and VAR(1 models, for the N = 1 case. We use simulated data under an ESM measurement design to investigate the bias in the parameters of interest under four different model implementations, ranging from the true CT model that accounts for all the exact measurement times, to the crudest possible DT model implementation, where even the nighttime is treated as a regular interval. An analysis of empirical affect data illustrates how the differences between DT and CT modeling can play out in practice. We find that the size and the direction of the bias in DT (VAR models for unequally spaced ESM data depend quite strongly on the true parameter in addition to data characteristics. Our recommendation is to use CT modeling whenever possible, especially now that new software implementations have become available.

  7. Experience of Multisensory Environments in Public Space among People with Visual Impairment

    Gavin R. Jenkins

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative study explored the role of sensory characteristics embedded in the built environment and whether they support or hinder people with visual impairment in their use of public spaces. An online survey link was e-mailed to the presidents and committee members of each state’s chapters and associations of the National Federation of the Blind in the United States, resulting in 451 direct invitations to participate. Written responses of the survey questions from 48 respondents with visual impairment were analyzed. Three main themes: Barriers, Supporters, and Context-Dependence emerged from the respondents’ experience of multisensory characteristics within the built environment. The four subthemes subsumed in Barriers were: (1 Population specific design, (2 Extreme sensory backgrounds, (3 Uneven ground surfaces and objects, and (4 Inconsistent lighting. For Supporters, respondents provided specific examples of various sensory characteristics in built environments, including audible cues and echoes, smells, tactile quality of the ground surface, and temperature. Context-Dependence referred to the effects of sensory characteristics embedded in public spaces depending on one’s vision condition, the proximity to the sensory cues and the purpose of the activities one was performing at that moment. Findings provide occupational therapy practitioners an in-depth understanding of the transactional relationship between embedded sensory characteristics in the built environment, occupations, and people with visual impairment in order to make appropriate modifications or removal of barriers that affect occupational performance and engagement. Suggestions for occupational therapists as well as architects, designers, planners, policy makers/legislators related to functional sensory cues in the design of built environments were provided to increase accessibility in the use of public spaces by people with visual impairment.

  8. Experience of Multisensory Environments in Public Space among People with Visual Impairment.

    Jenkins, Gavin R; Yuen, Hon K; Vogtle, Laura K

    2015-07-23

    This qualitative study explored the role of sensory characteristics embedded in the built environment and whether they support or hinder people with visual impairment in their use of public spaces. An online survey link was e-mailed to the presidents and committee members of each state's chapters and associations of the National Federation of the Blind in the United States, resulting in 451 direct invitations to participate. Written responses of the survey questions from 48 respondents with visual impairment were analyzed. Three main themes: Barriers, Supporters, and Context-Dependence emerged from the respondents' experience of multisensory characteristics within the built environment. The four subthemes subsumed in Barriers were: (1) Population specific design, (2) Extreme sensory backgrounds, (3) Uneven ground surfaces and objects, and (4) Inconsistent lighting. For Supporters, respondents provided specific examples of various sensory characteristics in built environments, including audible cues and echoes, smells, tactile quality of the ground surface, and temperature. Context-Dependence referred to the effects of sensory characteristics embedded in public spaces depending on one's vision condition, the proximity to the sensory cues and the purpose of the activities one was performing at that moment. Findings provide occupational therapy practitioners an in-depth understanding of the transactional relationship between embedded sensory characteristics in the built environment, occupations, and people with visual impairment in order to make appropriate modifications or removal of barriers that affect occupational performance and engagement. Suggestions for occupational therapists as well as architects, designers, planners, policy makers/legislators related to functional sensory cues in the design of built environments were provided to increase accessibility in the use of public spaces by people with visual impairment.

  9. Gravity Probe B: final results of a space experiment to test general relativity.

    Everitt, C W F; DeBra, D B; Parkinson, B W; Turneaure, J P; Conklin, J W; Heifetz, M I; Keiser, G M; Silbergleit, A S; Holmes, T; Kolodziejczak, J; Al-Meshari, M; Mester, J C; Muhlfelder, B; Solomonik, V G; Stahl, K; Worden, P W; Bencze, W; Buchman, S; Clarke, B; Al-Jadaan, A; Al-Jibreen, H; Li, J; Lipa, J A; Lockhart, J M; Al-Suwaidan, B; Taber, M; Wang, S

    2011-06-03

    Gravity Probe B, launched 20 April 2004, is a space experiment testing two fundamental predictions of Einstein's theory of general relativity (GR), the geodetic and frame-dragging effects, by means of cryogenic gyroscopes in Earth orbit. Data collection started 28 August 2004 and ended 14 August 2005. Analysis of the data from all four gyroscopes results in a geodetic drift rate of -6601.8±18.3  mas/yr and a frame-dragging drift rate of -37.2±7.2  mas/yr, to be compared with the GR predictions of -6606.1  mas/yr and -39.2  mas/yr, respectively ("mas" is milliarcsecond; 1  mas=4.848×10(-9)  rad).

  10. Quadrupole beam-transport experiment for heavy ions under extreme space charge conditions

    Chupp, W.; Faltens, A.; Hartwig, E.C.

    1983-03-01

    A Cs ion-beam-transport experiment is in progress to study beam behavior under extreme space-charge conditions. A five-lens section matches the beam into a periodic electrostatic quadrupole FODO channel and its behavior is found to agree with predictions. With the available parameters (less than or equal to 200 keV, less than or equal to 20 mA, πepsilon/sub n/ greater than or equal to 10 - 7 π rad-m, up to 41 periods) the transverse (betatron) occillation frequency (nu) can be depressed down to one-tenth of its zero current value (nu/sub 0/), where nu/sup 2/ = nu/sub 0//sup 2/ -#betta#/sub p/ 2 /2, and #betta#/sub p/ is the beam plasma frequency. The current can be controlled by adjustment of the gun and the emittance can be controlled independently by means of a set of charged grids

  11. Simulating and assessing boson sampling experiments with phase-space representations

    Opanchuk, Bogdan; Rosales-Zárate, Laura; Reid, Margaret D.; Drummond, Peter D.

    2018-04-01

    The search for new, application-specific quantum computers designed to outperform any classical computer is driven by the ending of Moore's law and the quantum advantages potentially obtainable. Photonic networks are promising examples, with experimental demonstrations and potential for obtaining a quantum computer to solve problems believed classically impossible. This introduces a challenge: how does one design or understand such photonic networks? One must be able to calculate observables using general methods capable of treating arbitrary inputs, dissipation, and noise. We develop complex phase-space software for simulating these photonic networks, and apply this to boson sampling experiments. Our techniques give sampling errors orders of magnitude lower than experimental correlation measurements for the same number of samples. We show that these techniques remove systematic errors in previous algorithms for estimating correlations, with large improvements in errors in some cases. In addition, we obtain a scalable channel-combination strategy for assessment of boson sampling devices.

  12. Mini-magnetosphere plasma experiment for space radiation protection in manned spaceflight

    Jia Xianghong; Xu Feng; Jia Shaoxia; Wan Jun; Wang Shouguo

    2012-01-01

    With the development of Chinese manned spaceflight, the planetary missions will become true in the future. The protection of astronauts from cosmic radiation is an unavoidable problem that should be considered. There are many revolutionary ideas for shielding including Electrostatic Fields, Confined Magnetic Field, Unconfined Magnetic Field and Plasma Shielding etc. The concept using cold plasma to expand a magnetic field was recommended for further assessment. Magnetic field inflation was produced by the injection of plasma onto the magnetic field. The method can be used to deflect charged ions and to reduce space radiation dose. It can supply the suitable radiation protection for astronauts and spacecraft. Principle experiments demonstrated that the magnetic field was inflated by the injection of the plasma in the vacuum chamber and the magnetic field intensity strengthened with the increasing of input RF power in this paper. The mechanism should be studied in following steps. (authors)

  13. CREAM - a Cosmic Radiation Effects and Activation Monitor for space experiments: Pt. 1

    Mapper, D.; Stephen, J.H.; Farren, J.; Stimpson, B.P.; Bolus, D.J.; Ellaway, A.M.

    1987-12-01

    A detailed account is given of the design and construction of the experimental CREAM packages, intended for flight in the mid-deck area of the Space Transport System (Shuttle) Mission in 1986. The complete experiment involved; 1) a self-contained and battery powered activation monitor for measuring energy losses of charged particles; 2) CR-39 and Kapton polymer solid state nuclear track detectors for the detection of ionising particles; 3) metal foils of nickel, titanium and gold for neutron monitoring; and 4) thermoluminescent detectors for dosimetry measurements of the radiation background. The circuit design and detailed functioning of the active monitor is fully described, together with a complete discussion of the principles and operation of the passive monitors. (author)

  14. Experiments and Observations on Intense Alfven Waves in the Laboratory and in Space

    Gekelman, W.; VanZeeland, M.; Vincena, S.; Pribyl, P.

    2003-01-01

    There are many situations, which occur in space (coronal mass ejections, supernovas), or are man-made (upper atmospheric detonations) in which a dense plasma expands into a background magnetized plasma that can support Alfven waves. The LArge Plasma Device (LAPD) is a machine, at UCLA, in which Alfven wave propagation in homogeneous and inhomogeneous plasmas has been studied. These will be briefly reviewed. A new class of experiments which involve the expansion of a dense (initially, δn/no>>1) laser-produced plasma into an ambient highly magnetized background plasma capable of supporting Alfven waves will be presented. Measurements are used to estimate the coupling efficiency of the laser energy and kinetic energy of the dense plasma into wave energy. The wave generation mechanism is due to field aligned return currents, coupled to the initial electron current, which replace fast electrons escaping the initial blast

  15. 3D Printing in Zero-G Experiment, In Space Manufacturing (LPS, 4)

    Bean, Quincy; Cooper, Ken; Werkheiser, Niki

    2015-01-01

    The 3D Printing in Zero-G Experiment has been an ongoing effort for several years. In June 2014 the technology demonstration 3D printer was launched to the International Space Station. In November 2014 the first 21 parts were manufactured in orbit marking the beginning of a paradigm shift that will allow astronauts to be more self-sufficient and pave the way to larger scale orbital manufacturing. Prior to launch the 21 parts were built on the ground with the flight unit with the same feedstock. These ground control samples are to be tested alongside the flight samples in order to determine if there is a measurable difference between parts built on the ground vs. parts built in space. As of this writing, testing has not yet commenced. Tests to be performed are structured light scanning for volume and geometric discrepancies, CT scanning for density measurement, destructive testing of mechanical samples, and SEM analysis for inter-laminar adhesion discrepancies. Additionally, an ABS material characterization was performed on mechanical samples built from the same CAD files as the flight and ground samples on different machine / feedstock combinations. The purpose of this testing was twofold: first to obtain mechanical data in order to have a baseline comparison for the flight and ground samples and second to ascertain if there is a measurable difference between machines and feedstock.

  16. Spacelab 1 hematology experiment (INS103): Influence of space flight on erythrokinetics in man

    Leach, C. S.; Chen, J. P.; Crosby, W.; Dunn, C. D. R.; Johnson, P. C.; Lange, R. D.; Larkin, E.; Tavassoli, M.

    1985-01-01

    An experiment conducted on the 10-day Spacelab 1 mission aboard the ninth Space Shuttle flight in November to December 1983 was designed to measure factors involved in the control of erythrocyte turnover that might be altered during weightlessness. Blood samples were collected before, during, and after the flight. Immediately after landing, red cell mass showed a mean decrease of 9.3 percent in the four astronauts. Neither hyperoxia nor an increase in blood phosphate was a cause of the decrease. Red cell survival time and iron incorporation postflight were not significantly different from their preflight levels. Serum haptoglobin did not decrease, indicating that intravascular hemolysis was not a major cause of red cell mass change. An increase in serum ferritin after the second day of flight may have been caused by red cell breakdown early in flight. Erythropoietin levels decreased during and after flight, but preflight levels were high and the decrease was not significant. The space flight-induced decrease in red cell mass may result from a failure of erythropoiesis to replace cells destroyed by the spleen soon after weightlessness is attained.

  17. Magnetic field-aligned plasma expansion in critical ionization velocity space experiments

    Singh, N.

    1989-01-01

    Motivated by the recent Critical Ionization Velocity (CIV) experiments in space, the temporal evolution of a plasma cloud released in an ambient plasma is studied. Time-dependent Vlasov equations for both electrons and ions, along with the Poisson equation for the self-consistent electric field parallel to the ambient magnetic field, are solved. The initial cloud is assumed to consist of cold, warm, and hot electrons with temperatures T/sub c/ ≅ 0.2 eV, T/sub w/ ≅ 2 eV, and T/sub h/ ≅ 10 eV, respectively. It is found that the minor hot electrons escape the cloud, and their velocity distribution function shows the typical time-of-flight dispersion feature - that is, the larger the distance from the cloud, the larger is the average drift velocity of the escaping electrons. The major warm electrons expand along the magnetic field line with the corresponding ion-acoustic speed. The combined effect of the escaping hot electrons and the expanding warm ones sets up an electric potential structure which accelerates the ambient electrons into the cloud. Thus, the energy loss due to the electron escape is partly replenished. The electric field distribution in the potential structure depends on the stage of the evolution; before the rarefaction waves propagating from the edges of the cloud reach its center, the electric fields point into the cloud. After this stage the cloud divides into two subclouds, with each having their own bipolar electric fields. Effects of collisions on the evolution of plasma clouds are also discussed. The relevance of the results seen from the calculations are discussed in the context of recent space experiments on CIV

  18. The Virtual Glovebox (VGX): An Immersive Simulation System for Training Astronauts to Perform Glovebox Experiments in Space

    Smith, Jeffrey D.; Dalton, Bonnie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The era of the International Space Station (ISS) has finally arrived, providing researchers on Earth a unique opportunity to study long-term effects of weightlessness and the space environment on structures, materials and living systems. Many of the physical, biological and material science experiments planned for ISS will require significant input and expertise from astronauts who must conduct the research, follow complicated assay procedures and collect data and samples in space. Containment is essential for Much of this work, both to protect astronauts from potentially harmful biological, chemical or material elements in the experiments as well as to protect the experiments from contamination by air-born particles In the Space Station environment. When astronauts must open the hardware containing such experiments, glovebox facilities provide the necessary barrier between astronaut and experiment. On Earth, astronauts are laced with the demanding task of preparing for the many glovebox experiments they will perform in space. Only a short time can be devoted to training for each experimental task and gl ovebox research only accounts for a small portion of overall training and mission objectives on any particular ISS mission. The quality of the research also must remain very high, requiring very detailed experience and knowledge of instrumentation, anatomy and specific scientific objectives for those who will conduct the research. This unique set of needs faced by NASA has stemmed the development of a new computer simulation tool, the Virtual Glovebox (VGB), which is designed to provide astronaut crews and support personnel with a means to quickly and accurately prepare and train for glovebox experiments in space.

  19. Thielavin B methyl ester: a cytotoxic benzoate trimer from an unidentified fungus (MSX 55526) from the Order Sordariales.

    Ayers, Sloan; Ehrmann, Brandie M; Adcock, Audrey F; Kroll, David J; Wani, Mansukh C; Pearce, Cedric J; Oberlies, Nicholas H

    2011-11-02

    As part of our ongoing investigation of filamentous fungi for anticancer leads, an active fungal extract was identified from the Mycosynthetix library (MSX 55526; from the Order Sordariales). Bioactivity-directed fractionation yielded the known ergosterol peroxide (2) and 5α,8α-epidioxyergosta-6,9(11),22-trien-3β-ol(3), and a new benzoate trimer, termed thielavin B methyl ester (1). The structure elucidation of 1 was facilitated by the use of HRMS coupled to an APPI (atmospheric pressure photoionization) source. Compound 1 proved to be moderately active against a panel of three cancer cell lines.

  20. Observing floods from space: Experience gained from COSMO-SkyMed observations

    Pierdicca, N.; Pulvirenti, L.; Chini, M.; Guerriero, L.; Candela, L.

    2013-03-01

    The COSMO-SkyMed mission offers a unique opportunity to obtain all weather radar images characterized by short revisit time, thus being useful for flood evolution mapping. The COSMO-SkyMed system has been activated several times in the last few years in occasion of flood events all over the world in order to provide very high resolution X-band SAR images useful for flood detection purposes. This paper discusses the major outcomes of the experience gained, within the framework of the OPERA Pilot Project funded by the Italian Space Agency, from using COSMO-SkyMed data for the purpose of near real time generation of flood maps. A review of the mechanisms which determine the imprints of the inundation on the radar images and of the fundamental simulation tools able to predict these imprints and help image interpretation is provided. The approach developed to process the data and to generate the flood maps is also summarized. Then, the paper illustrates the experience gained with COSMO-SkyMed by describing and discussing a number of significant examples. These examples demonstrate the potential of the COSMO-SkyMed system and the suitability of the approach developed for generating the final products, but they also highlight some critical aspects that require further investigations to improve the reliability of the flood maps.

  1. Characterization of 3-dimensional superconductive thin film components for gravitational experiments in space

    Hechler, S.; Nawrodt, R.; Nietzsche, S.; Vodel, W.; Seidel, P. [Friedrich-Schiller-Univ. Jena (Germany). Inst. fuer Festkoerperphysik; Dittus, H. [ZARM, Univ. Bremen (Germany); Loeffler, F. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) are used for high precise gravitational experiments. One of the most impressive experiments is the satellite test of the equivalence principle (STEP) of NASA/ESA. The STEP mission aims to prove a possible violation of Einstein's equivalence principle at an extreme level of accuracy of 1 part in 10{sup 18} in space. In this contribution we present an automatically working measurement equipment to characterize 3-dimensional superconducting thin film components like i.e. pick-up coils and test masses for STEP. The characterization is done by measurements of the transition temperature between the normal and the superconducting state using a special built anti-cryostat. Above all the setup was designed for use in normal LHe transport Dewars. The sample chamber has a volume of 150 cm{sup 3} and can be fully temperature controlled over a range from 4.2 K to 300 K with a resolution of better then 100 mK. (orig.)

  2. An expert system for fault management assistance on a space sleep experiment

    Atamer, A.; Delaney, M.; Young, L. R.

    2002-01-01

    The expert system, Principal Investigator-in-a-box, or [PI], was designed to assist astronauts or other operators in performing experiments outside their expertise. Currently, the software helps astronauts calibrate instruments for a Sleep and Respiration Experiment without contact with the investigator on the ground. It flew on the Space Shuttle missions STS-90 and STS-95. [PI] displays electrophysiological signals in real time, alerts astronauts via the indicator lights when a poor signal quality is detected, and advises astronauts how to restore good signal quality. Thirty subjects received training on the sleep instrumentation and the [PI] interface. A beneficial effects of [PI] and training reduced troubleshooting time. [PI] benefited subjects on the most difficult scenarios, even though its lights were not 100% accurate. Further, questionnaires showed that most subjects preferred monitoring waveforms with [PI] assistance rather than monitoring waveforms alone. This study addresses problems of complex troubleshooting and the extended time between training and execution that is common to many human operator situations on earth such as in power plant operation, and marine exploration.

  3. Working with Space and Shape in Early Childhood Education: Experiences in Collaboration

    Karina Luiza da Silva Fernandes

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This report shows the experience of a work conducted with the Meli-Melo puzzle in two early childhood education classes at two different schools in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. With the work’s activities as a starting point, aspects related to space and shape, as well as quantities and measures, were approached. Children from two and a half to five years old participated in the playful activities, which had the following goals: to develop spatial and geometric skills, to allow measuring actions, to favor dialogue and to boost group work experience. There were several activities, like handling the pieces, assembling images freely or according with outlines and models, assembling three-dimensional figures, and the length game. The following questions were considered in the evaluation of the work: how was the children’s participation in large groups and small groups? How did children of different age groups engage in the different proposals? Which activities were easier or more difficult for each group? Which behaviors and conversations showed us new knowledge? The fulfillment of the planned activities showed that the children had several hypotheses regarding shapes and that they were able to identify similarities and differences, use geometry vocabulary, and discuss their thoughts, particularly when working in small groups, which favored the participation of nearly all children. We believe the work reported has allowed learnings and a contact with mathematics in early childhood education.

  4. CVB: the Constrained Vapor Bubble Capillary Experiment on the International Space Station MARANGONI FLOW REGION

    Wayner, Peter C., Jr.; Kundan, Akshay; Plawsky, Joel

    2014-01-01

    The Constrained Vapor Bubble (CVB) is a wickless, grooved heat pipe and we report on a full- scale fluids experiment flown on the International Space Station (ISS). The CVB system consists of a relatively simple setup a quartz cuvette with sharp corners partially filled with either pentane or an ideal mixture of pentane and isohexane as the working fluids. Along with temperature and pressure measurements, the two-dimensional thickness profile of the menisci formed at the corners of the quartz cuvette was determined using the Light Microscopy Module (LMM). Even with the large, millimeter dimensions of the CVB, interfacial forces dominate in these exceedingly small Bond Number systems. The experiments were carried out at various power inputs. Although conceptually simple, the transport processes were found to be very complex with many different regions. At the heated end of the CVB, due to a high temperature gradient, we observed Marangoni flow at some power inputs. This region from the heated end to the central drop region is defined as a Marangoni dominated region. We present a simple analysis based on interfacial phenomena using only measurements from the ISS experiments that lead to a predictive equation for the thickness of the film near the heated end of the CVB. The average pressure gradient for flow in the film is assumed due to the measured capillary pressure at the two ends of the liquid film and that the pressure stress gradient due to cohesion self adjusts to a constant value over a distance L. The boundary conditions are the no slip condition at the wall interface and an interfacial shear stress at the liquid- vapor interface due to the Marangoni stress, which is due to the high temperature gradient. Although the heated end is extremely complex, since it includes three- dimensional variations in radiation, conduction, evaporation, condensation, fluid flow and interfacial forces, we find that using the above simplifying assumptions, a simple successful

  5. Inner-shell photoelectron angular distributions from fixed-in-space OCS molecules: comparison between experiment and theory

    Golovin, A V [Photon Factory, Institute of Materials Structure Science, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Institute of Physics, St Petersburg State University, 198504 St Petersburg (Russian Federation); Adachi, J [Photon Factory, Institute of Materials Structure Science, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Motoki, S [Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, (Japan); Takahashi, M [Institute for Molecular Science, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan); Yagishita, A [Photon Factory, Institute of Materials Structure Science, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2005-10-28

    Photoelectron angular distributions (PADs) for O 1s, C 1s and S 2p{sub 1/2}, 2p{sub 3/2} ionization of OCS molecules have been measured in shape resonance regions. These PAD results are compared with the results for O 1s and C 1s ionization of CO molecules, and multi-scattering X{alpha} (MSX{alpha}) calculations. The mechanism of the PAD formation both for parallel and perpendicular transitions differs very significantly in these molecules and a step from a two-centre potential (CO) to a three-centre potential (OCS) plays a principal role in electron scattering and the formation of the resulting PAD. For parallel transitions, it is found that for the S 2p and O 1s ionization the photoelectrons are emitted preferentially in a hemisphere directed to the ionized S and O atom, respectively. In OCS O 1s ionization, the S-C fragment plays the role of a strong 'scatterer' for photoelectrons, and in the shape resonance region most intensities of the PADs are concentrated on the region directed to the O atom. The MSX{alpha} calculations for perpendicular transitions reproduce the experimental data, but not so well as in the case of parallel transitions. The results of PAD, calculated with different l{sub max} on different atomic centres, reveal the important role of the d (l = 2) partial wave for the S atom in the partial wave decompositions of photoelectron wavefunctions.

  6. The Atmospheric Waves Experiment (AWE): Quantifying the Impact of Gravity Waves on the Edge of Space

    Taylor, M. J.; Forbes, J. M.; Fritts, D. C.; Eckermann, S. D.; Snively, J. B.; Liu, H.; Janches, D.; Syrstad, E. A.; Esplin, R. W.; Pautet, P. D.; Zhao, Y.; Pendleton, W. R.

    2017-12-01

    New theory and modeling now indicate that upward-propagating gravity waves (GWs) originating in the lower atmosphere have profound effects on the variability and mean state of the ionosphere-thermosphere-mesosphere (ITM) system. A major unknown is the spectrum of small-scale ( 30-300 km) GWs entering this system from below. Yet, this part of the spectrum contains most of the waves that will produce the greatest ITM effects. To address this knowledge gap, the Atmospheric Waves Experiment (AWE) plans to deploy a high-resolution imager (based on the successful Utah State University Advanced Mesospheric Temperature Mapper) on the International Space Station (ISS) to gain a transformative set of GW-resolving temperature measurements using the OH nightglow emission (altitude 87 km). The ISS provides the ideal combination of altitude, geographic and local time coverage to accomplish our proposed science objectives, which seeks not only near-global measurements of GW characteristics in the mesopause region, but also quantification of GW momentum and energy fluxes driving the IT from below. Combined with state-of-the-art high-resolution models, the AWE mission will also assess the relative importance of sources versus propagation conditions in explaining the observed spatial and temporal variability of the GWs. The AWE mission was recently selected for a "Phase A" study as part of the NASA 2016 Heliophysics Explorers Mission of Opportunity (MO) Program. In this presentation, we describe the primary goals of this program and introduce our proposed research methods using proven IR instrument technology. AWE's exceptional capabilities are illustrated with recent discoveries in observing GWs from the ground and from aircraft during the NSF DEEPWAVE campaign, promising a major step forward in understanding how troposphere weather translates to space weather.

  7. Experiments and simulation of a net closing mechanism for tether-net capture of space debris

    Sharf, Inna; Thomsen, Benjamin; Botta, Eleonora M.; Misra, Arun K.

    2017-10-01

    This research addresses the design and testing of a debris containment system for use in a tether-net approach to space debris removal. The tether-net active debris removal involves the ejection of a net from a spacecraft by applying impulses to masses on the net, subsequent expansion of the net, the envelopment and capture of the debris target, and the de-orbiting of the debris via a tether to the chaser spacecraft. To ensure a debris removal mission's success, it is important that the debris be successfully captured and then, secured within the net. To this end, we present a concept for a net closing mechanism, which we believe will permit consistently successful debris capture via a simple and unobtrusive design. This net closing system functions by extending the main tether connecting the chaser spacecraft and the net vertex to the perimeter and around the perimeter of the net, allowing the tether to actuate closure of the net in a manner similar to a cinch cord. A particular embodiment of the design in a laboratory test-bed is described: the test-bed itself is comprised of a scaled-down tether-net, a supporting frame and a mock-up debris. Experiments conducted with the facility demonstrate the practicality of the net closing system. A model of the net closure concept has been integrated into the previously developed dynamics simulator of the chaser/tether-net/debris system. Simulations under tether tensioning conditions demonstrate the effectiveness of the closure concept for debris containment, in the gravity-free environment of space, for a realistic debris target. The on-ground experimental test-bed is also used to showcase its utility for validating the dynamics simulation of the net deployment, and a full-scale automated setup would make possible a range of validation studies of other aspects of a tether-net debris capture mission.

  8. Plant experiments with light-emitting diode module in Svet space greenhouse

    Ilieva, Iliyana; Ivanova, Tania; Naydenov, Yordan; Dandolov, Ivan; Stefanov, Detelin

    Light is necessary for photosynthesis and shoot orientation in the space plant growth facilities. Light modules (LM) must provide sufficient photosynthetic photon flux for optimal efficiency of photosynthetic processes and also meet the constraints for power, volume and mass. A new LM for SVET Space Greenhouse using Cree R XLamp R 7090 XR light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is developed. Three types of monochromic LEDs emitting in the red, green, and blue region of the spectrum are used. The new LM contains 36 LED spots - 30 LED spots with one red, green and blue LED and 6 LED spots with three red LEDs. DMX programming device controls the LED spots and can set 231 levels of light intensity thus achieving Photosynthetic Photon Flux Density (PPFD) in the range 0-400 µmol.m-2 .s-1 and different percentages of the red, green and blue light, depending on the experimental objectives. Two one-month experiments with "salad-type" plants - lettuce and chicory were carried at 400 µmol.m-2 .s-1 PPFD (high light - HL) and 220 µmol.m-2 .s-1 PPFD (low light - LL) and composition 70% red, 20% green and 10% blue light. In vivo modulated chlorophyll fluorescence was measured by a PAM fluorometer on leaf discs and the following parameters: effective quantum yield of Photosystem II (ΦP SII ) and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) were calculated. Both lettuce and chicory plants grown at LL express higher photochemical activity of Photosystem II (PSII) than HL grown plants, evaluated by the actual PSII quantum yield, ΦP SII . The calculated steady state NPQ values did not differ significantly in lettuce and chicory. The rapid phase of the NPQ increase was accelerated in all studied LL leaves. In conclusion low light conditions ensured more effective functioning of PSII than HL when lettuce and chicory plants were grown at 70% red, 20% green and 10% blue light composition.

  9. EXPERIENCE OF THE INTEGRATION OF CLOUD SERVICES GOOGLE APPS INTO INFORMATION AND EDUCATIONAL SPACE OF HIGHER EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTION

    Vasyl P. Oleksyuk

    2013-01-01

    The article investigated the concept of «information and educational space» and determined the aspects of integration of its services. The unified authentication is an important component of information and educational space. It can be based on LDAP-directory. The article analyzes the concept of «cloud computing». This study presented the main advantages of using Google Apps in process of learning. We described the experience of the cloud Google Apps integration into information and education...

  10. Displacement Damage Effects in Solar Cells: Mining Damage From the Microelectronics and Photonics Test Bed Space Experiment

    Hardage, Donna (Technical Monitor); Walters, R. J.; Morton, T. L.; Messenger, S. R.

    2004-01-01

    The objective is to develop an improved space solar cell radiation response analysis capability and to produce a computer modeling tool which implements the analysis. This was accomplished through analysis of solar cell flight data taken on the Microelectronics and Photonics Test Bed experiment. This effort specifically addresses issues related to rapid technological change in the area of solar cells for space applications in order to enhance system performance, decrease risk, and reduce cost for future missions.

  11. Integration and Testing Challenges of Small Satellite Missions: Experiences from the Space Technology 5 Project

    Sauerwein, Timothy A.; Gostomski, Tom

    2007-01-01

    The Space Technology 5(ST5) payload was successfully carried into orbit on an OSC Pegasus XL launch vehicle, which was carried aloft and dropped from the OSC Lockheed L-1011 from Vandenberg Air Force Base March 22,2006, at 9:03 am Eastern time, 6:03 am Pacific time. In order to reach the completion of the development and successful launch of ST 5, the systems integration and test(I&T) team determined that a different approach was required to meet the project requirements rather than the standard I&T approach used for single, room-sized satellites. The ST5 payload, part of NASA's New Millennium Program headquartered at JPL, consisted of three micro satellites (approximately 30 kg each) and the Pegasus Support Structure (PSS), the system that connected the spacecrafts to the launch vehicle and deployed the spacecrafts into orbit from the Pegasus XL launch vehicle. ST5 was a technology demonstration payload, intended to test six (6) new technologies for potential use for future space flights along with demonstrating the ability of small satellites to perform quality science. The main technology was a science grade magnetometer designed to take measurements of the earth's magnetic field. The three spacecraft were designed, integrated, and tested at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center with integration and environmental testing occurring in the Bldg. 7-1 0-15-29. The three spacecraft were integrated and tested by the same I&T team. The I&T Manager determined that there was insufficient time in the schedule to perform the three I&T spacecraft activities in series used standard approaches. The solution was for spacecraft #1 to undergo integration and test first, followed by spacecraft #2 and #3 simultaneously. This simultaneous integration was successful for several reasons. Each spacecraft had a Lead Test Conductor who planned and coordinated their spacecraft through its integration and test activities. One team of engineers and technicians executed the integration of all

  12. Self-supervised learning as an enabling technology for future space exploration robots: ISS experiments on monocular distance learning

    van Hecke, Kevin; de Croon, Guido C. H. E.; Hennes, Daniel; Setterfield, Timothy P.; Saenz-Otero, Alvar; Izzo, Dario

    2017-11-01

    Although machine learning holds an enormous promise for autonomous space robots, it is currently not employed because of the inherent uncertain outcome of learning processes. In this article we investigate a learning mechanism, Self-Supervised Learning (SSL), which is very reliable and hence an important candidate for real-world deployment even on safety-critical systems such as space robots. To demonstrate this reliability, we introduce a novel SSL setup that allows a stereo vision equipped robot to cope with the failure of one of its cameras. The setup learns to estimate average depth using a monocular image, by using the stereo vision depths from the past as trusted ground truth. We present preliminary results from an experiment on the International Space Station (ISS) performed with the MIT/NASA SPHERES VERTIGO satellite. The presented experiments were performed on October 8th, 2015 on board the ISS. The main goals were (1) data gathering, and (2) navigation based on stereo vision. First the astronaut Kimiya Yui moved the satellite around the Japanese Experiment Module to gather stereo vision data for learning. Subsequently, the satellite freely explored the space in the module based on its (trusted) stereo vision system and a pre-programmed exploration behavior, while simultaneously performing the self-supervised learning of monocular depth estimation on board. The two main goals were successfully achieved, representing the first online learning robotic experiments in space. These results lay the groundwork for a follow-up experiment in which the satellite will use the learned single-camera depth estimation for autonomous exploration in the ISS, and are an advancement towards future space robots that continuously improve their navigation capabilities over time, even in harsh and completely unknown space environments.

  13. Meaningful experiences in science education: Engaging the space researcher in a cultural transformation to greater science literacy

    Morrow, Cherilynn A.

    1993-01-01

    The visceral appeal of space science and exploration is a very powerful emotional connection to a very large and diverse collection of people, most of whom have little or no perspective about what it means to do science and engineering. Therein lies the potential of space for a substantially enhanced positive impact on culture through education. This essay suggests that through engaging more of the space research and development community in enabling unique and 'meaningful educational experiences' for educators and students at the pre-collegiate levels, space science and exploration can amplify its positive feedback on society and act as an important medium for cultural transformation to greater science literacy. I discuss the impact of space achievements on people and define what is meant by a 'meaningful educational experience,' all of which points to the need for educators and students to be closer to the practice of real science. I offer descriptions of two nascent science education programs associated with NASA which have the needed characteristics for providing meaningful experiences that can cultivate greater science literacy. Expansion of these efforts and others like it will be needed to have the desired impact on culture, but I suggest that the potential for the needed resources is there in the scientific research communities. A society in which more people appreciate and understand science and science methods would be especially conducive to human progress in space and on Earth.

  14. Maximizing Science Return from Future Rodent Experiments on the International Space Station (ISS): Tissue Preservation

    Choi, S. Y.; Lai, S.; Klotz, R.; Popova, Y.; Chakravarty, K.; Beegle, J. E.; Wigley, C. L.; Globus, R. K.

    2014-01-01

    To better understand how mammals adapt to long duration habitation in space, a system for performing rodent experiments on the ISS is under development; Rodent Research-1 is the first flight and will include validation of both on-orbit animal support and tissue preservation. To evaluate plans for on-orbit sample dissection and preservation, we simulated conditions for euthanasia, tissue dissection, and prolonged sample storage on the ISS, and we also developed methods for post-flight dissection and recovery of high quality RNA from multiple tissues following prolonged storage in situ for future science. Mouse livers and spleens were harvested under conditions that simulated nominal, on-orbit euthanasia and dissection operations including storage at -80 C for 4 months. The RNA recovered was of high quality (RNA Integrity Number, RIN(is) greater than 8) and quantity, and the liver enzyme contents and activities (catalase, glutathione reductase, GAPDH) were similar to positive controls, which were collected under standard laboratory conditions. We also assessed the impact of possible delayed on-orbit dissection scenarios (off-nominal) by dissecting and preserving the spleen (RNAlater) and liver (fast-freezing) at various time points post-euthanasia (from 5 min up to 105 min). The RNA recovered was of high quality (spleen, RIN (is) greater than 8; liver, RIN (is) greater than 6) and liver enzyme activities were similar to positive controls at all time points, although an apparent decline in select enzyme activities was evident at the latest time (105 min). Additionally, various tissues were harvested from either intact or partially dissected, frozen carcasses after storage for approximately 2 months; most of the tissues (brain, heart, kidney, eye, adrenal glands and muscle) were of acceptable RNA quality for science return, whereas some tissues (small intestine, bone marrow and bones) were not. These data demonstrate: 1) The protocols developed for future flight

  15. EXPERIENCE OF THE INTEGRATION OF CLOUD SERVICES GOOGLE APPS INTO INFORMATION AND EDUCATIONAL SPACE OF HIGHER EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTION

    Vasyl P. Oleksyuk

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article investigated the concept of «information and educational space» and determined the aspects of integration of its services. The unified authentication is an important component of information and educational space. It can be based on LDAP-directory. The article analyzes the concept of «cloud computing». This study presented the main advantages of using Google Apps in process of learning. We described the experience of the cloud Google Apps integration into information and educational space of the Department of Physics and Mathematics of Ternopil V. Hnatyuk National Pedagogical University.

  16. Neutron dose study with bubble detectors aboard the International Space Station as part of the Matroshka-R experiment

    Machrafi, R.; Garrow, K.; Ing, H.; Smith, M. B.; Andrews, H. R.; Akatov, Yu; Arkhangelsky, V.; Chernykh, I.; Mitrikas, V.; Petrov, V.; Shurshakov, V.; Tomi, L.; Kartsev, I.; Lyagushin, V.

    2009-01-01

    As part of the Matroshka-R experiments, a spherical phantom and space bubble detectors (SBDs) were used on board the International Space Station to characterise the neutron radiation field. Seven experimental sessions with SBDs were carried out during expeditions ISS-13, ISS-14 and ISS-15. The detectors were positioned at various places throughout the Space Station, in order to determine dose variations with location and on/in the phantom in order to establish the relationship between the neutron dose measured externally to the body and the dose received internally. Experimental data on/in the phantom and at different locations are presented. (authors)

  17. A Decade of Life Sciences Experiment Unique Equipment Development for Spacelab and Space Station, 1990-1999

    Savage, Paul D.; Connolly, J. P.; Navarro, B. J.

    1999-01-01

    Ames Research Center's Life Sciences Division has developed and flown an extensive array of spaceflight experiment unique equipment (EUE) during the last decade of the twentieth century. Over this ten year span, the EUE developed at ARC supported a vital gravitational biology flight research program executed on several different platforms, including the Space Shuttle, Spacelab, and Space Station Mir. This paper highlights some of the key EUE elements developed at ARC and flown during the period 1990-1999. Resulting lessons learned will be presented that can be applied to the development of similar equipment for the International Space Station.

  18. Ground-Laboratory to In-Space Atomic Oxygen Correlation for the Polymer Erosion and Contamination Experiment (PEACE) Polymers

    Stambler, Arielle H.; Inoshita, Karen E.; Roberts, Lily M.; Barbagallo, Claire E.; deGroh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce A.

    2011-01-01

    The Materials International Space Station Experiment 2 (MISSE 2) Polymer Erosion and Contamination Experiment (PEACE) polymers were exposed to the environment of low Earth orbit (LEO) for 3.95 years from 2001 to 2005. There were 41 different PEACE polymers, which were flown on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS) in order to determine their atomic oxygen erosion yields. In LEO, atomic oxygen is an environmental durability threat, particularly for long duration mission exposures. Although spaceflight experiments, such as the MISSE 2 PEACE experiment, are ideal for determining LEO environmental durability of spacecraft materials, ground-laboratory testing is often relied upon for durability evaluation and prediction. Unfortunately, significant differences exist between LEO atomic oxygen exposure and atomic oxygen exposure in ground-laboratory facilities. These differences include variations in species, energies, thermal exposures and radiation exposures, all of which may result in different reactions and erosion rates. In an effort to improve the accuracy of ground-based durability testing, ground-laboratory to in-space atomic oxygen correlation experiments have been conducted. In these tests, the atomic oxygen erosion yields of the PEACE polymers were determined relative to Kapton H using a radio-frequency (RF) plasma asher (operated on air). The asher erosion yields were compared to the MISSE 2 PEACE erosion yields to determine the correlation between erosion rates in the two environments. This paper provides a summary of the MISSE 2 PEACE experiment; it reviews the specific polymers tested as well as the techniques used to determine erosion yield in the asher, and it provides a correlation between the space and ground laboratory erosion yield values. Using the PEACE polymers asher to in-space erosion yield ratios will allow more accurate in-space materials performance predictions to be made based on plasma asher durability evaluation.

  19. Laboratory and space experiments as a key to the plasma universe

    Faelthammar, C.G.

    1993-08-01

    Almost all of the known matter in our universe is in the state of plasma. Because of the complexity of the plasma state, a reliable understanding has to be built on empirical knowledge, since theoretical models easily become misleading unless guided by experiment or observation. Cosmical plasmas cover a vast range of densities and temperatures, but in important respects they can be classified into three main categories: high, medium, and low density plasmas. The ability of a plasma to carry electric current is very different in different kinds of plasma, varying from high density plasmas, where the ordinary Ohms law applies to low density plasmas, where no local macroscopic relation needs to exist between electric field and current density. According to classical formulas, the electrical conductivity of many plasmas should be practically infinite. But on the basis of laboratory experiments and in situ measurements in space we now know that in important cases the plasmas ability to carry electric current can be reduced by many powers of ten, and even collisionless plasmas may support significant magnetic-field aligned electric fields. A small number of processes responsible for this have been identified. They include anomalous resistivity, magnetic mirror effect and electric double layers. One of the consequences is possible violation of the frozen field condition, which greatly simplifies the analysis but can be dangerously misleading. Another is the possibility of extremely efficient release of magnetically stored energy. Cosmical plasmas have a strong tendency to form filamentary and cellular structures, which complicates their theoretical description by making homogeneous models inappropriate. In situ observations in the Earths magnetosphere have revealed completely unexpected and still not fully understood chemical separation processes that are likely to be important also in astrophysical plasmas. 108 refs

  20. Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) Cell Culture Unit (CCU) and incubator for International Space Station (ISS) cell culture experiments

    Vandendriesche, Donald; Parrish, Joseph; Kirven-Brooks, Melissa; Fahlen, Thomas; Larenas, Patricia; Havens, Cindy; Nakamura, Gail; Sun, Liping; Krebs, Chris; de Luis, Javier; hide

    2004-01-01

    The CCU and Incubator are habitats under development by SSBRP for gravitational biology research on ISS. They will accommodate multiple specimen types and reside in either Habitat Holding Racks, or the Centrifuge Rotor, which provides selectable gravity levels of up to 2 g. The CCU can support multiple Cell Specimen Chambers, CSCs (18, 9 or 6 CSCs; 3, 10 or 30 mL in volume, respectively). CSCs are temperature controlled from 4-39 degrees C, with heat shock to 45 degrees C. CCU provides automated nutrient supply, magnetic stirring, pH/O2 monitoring, gas supply, specimen lighting, and video microscopy. Sixty sample containers holding up to 2 mL each, stored at 4-39 degrees C, are available for automated cell sampling, subculture, and injection of additives and fixatives. CSCs, sample containers, and fresh/spent media bags are crew-replaceable for long-term experiments. The Incubator provides a 4-45 degrees C controlled environment for life science experiments or storage of experimental reagents. Specimen containers and experiment unique equipment are experimenter-provided. The Specimen Chamber exchanges air with ISS cabin and has 18.8 liters of usable volume that can accommodate six trays and the following instrumentation: five relocatable thermometers, two 60 W power outlets, four analog ports, and one each relative humidity sensor, video port, ethernet port and digital input/output port.

  1. Strata-1: An International Space Station Experiment into Fundamental Regolith Processes in Microgravity

    Fries, M.; Abell, P.; Brisset, J.; Britt, D.; Colwell, J.; Durda, D.; Dove, A.; Graham, L.; Hartzell, C.; John, K.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Strata-1 experiment will study the evolution of asteroidal regolith through long-duration exposure of simulant materials to the microgravity environment on the International Space Station (ISS). Many asteroids feature low bulk densities, which implies high values of porosity and a mechanical structure composed of loosely bound particles, (i.e. the "rubble pile" model), a prime example of a granular medium. Even the higher-density, mechanically coherent asteroids feature a significant surface layer of loose regolith. These bodies are subjected to a variety of forces and will evolve in response to very small perturbations such as micrometeoroid impacts, planetary flybys, and the YORP effect. Our understanding of this dynamical evolution and the inter-particle forces involved would benefit from long-term observations of granular materials exposed to small vibrations in microgravity. A detailed understanding of asteroid mechanical evolution is needed in order to predict the surface characteristics of as-of-yet unvisited bodies, to understand the larger context of samples collected by missions such as OSIRIS-REx and Hayabusa 1 and 2, and to mitigate risks for both manned and unmanned missions to asteroidal bodies. Understanding regolith dynamics will inform designs of how to land and set anchors, safely sample/move material on asteroidal surfaces, process large volumes of material for in situ resource utilization (ISRU) purposes, and, in general, predict behavior of large and small particles on disturbed asteroid surfaces.

  2. HF propagation results from the Metal Oxide Space Cloud (MOSC) experiment

    Joshi, Dev; Groves, Keith M.; McNeil, William; Carrano, Charles; Caton, Ronald G.; Parris, Richard T.; Pederson, Todd R.; Cannon, Paul S.; Angling, Matthew; Jackson-Booth, Natasha

    2017-06-01

    With support from the NASA sounding rocket program, the Air Force Research Laboratory launched two sounding rockets in the Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands in May 2013 known as the Metal Oxide Space Cloud experiment. The rockets released samarium metal vapor at preselected altitudes in the lower F region that ionized forming a plasma cloud. Data from Advanced Research Project Agency Long-range Tracking and Identification Radar incoherent scatter radar and high-frequency (HF) radio links have been analyzed to understand the impacts of the artificial ionization on radio wave propagation. The HF radio wave ray-tracing toolbox PHaRLAP along with ionospheric models constrained by electron density profiles measured with the ALTAIR radar have been used to successfully model the effects of the cloud on HF propagation. Up to three new propagation paths were created by the artificial plasma injections. Observations and modeling confirm that the small amounts of ionized material injected in the lower F region resulted in significant changes to the natural HF propagation environment.

  3. Scale-model Experiment of Magnetoplasma Sail for Future Deep Space Missions

    Funaki, Ikkoh; Yamakawa, Hiroshi; Ueno, Kazuma; Kimura, Toshiyuki; Ayabe, Tomohiro; Horisawa, Hideyuki

    2008-01-01

    When Magnetic sail (MagSail) spacecraft is operated in space, the supersonic solar wind plasma flow is blocked by an artificially produced magnetic cavity to accelerate the spacecraft in the direction leaving the Sun. To evaluate the momentum transferring process from the solar wind to the coil onboard the MagSail spacecraft, we arranged a laboratory experiment of MagSail spacecraft. Based on scaling considerations, a solenoidal coil was immersed into the plasma flow from a magnetoplasmadynamic arcjet in a quasi-steady mode of about 1 ms duration. In this setup, it is confirmed that a magnetic cavity, which is similar to that of the geomagnetic field, was formed around the coil to produce thrust in the ion Larmor scale interaction. Also, the controllability of magnetic cavity size by a plasma jet from inside the coil of MagSail is demonstrated, although the thrust characteristic of the MagSail with plasma jet, which is so called plasma sail, is to be clarified in our next step

  4. Analysis of Waves in Space Plasma (WISP) near field simulation and experiment

    Richie, James E.

    1992-01-01

    The WISP payload scheduler for a 1995 space transportation system (shuttle flight) will include a large power transmitter on board at a wide range of frequencies. The levels of electromagnetic interference/electromagnetic compatibility (EMI/EMC) must be addressed to insure the safety of the shuttle crew. This report is concerned with the simulation and experimental verification of EMI/EMC for the WISP payload in the shuttle cargo bay. The simulations have been carried out using the method of moments for both thin wires and patches to stimulate closed solids. Data obtained from simulation is compared with experimental results. An investigation of the accuracy of the modeling approach is also included. The report begins with a description of the WISP experiment. A description of the model used to simulate the cargo bay follows. The results of the simulation are compared to experimental data on the input impedance of the WISP antenna with the cargo bay present. A discussion of the methods used to verify the accuracy of the model is shown to illustrate appropriate methods for obtaining this information. Finally, suggestions for future work are provided.

  5. AMO EXPRESS: A Command and Control Experiment for Crew Autonomy Onboard the International Space Station

    Stetson, Howard K.; Haddock, Angie T.; Frank, Jeremy; Cornelius, Randy; Wang, Lui; Garner, Larry

    2015-01-01

    NASA is investigating a range of future human spaceflight missions, including both Mars-distance and Near Earth Object (NEO) targets. Of significant importance for these missions is the balance between crew autonomy and vehicle automation. As distance from Earth results in increasing communication delays, future crews need both the capability and authority to independently make decisions. However, small crews cannot take on all functions performed by ground today, and so vehicles must be more automated to reduce the crew workload for such missions. NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems Program funded Autonomous Mission Operations (AMO) project conducted an autonomous command and control experiment on-board the International Space Station that demonstrated single action intelligent procedures for crew command and control. The target problem was to enable crew initialization of a facility class rack with power and thermal interfaces, and involving core and payload command and telemetry processing, without support from ground controllers. This autonomous operations capability is enabling in scenarios such as initialization of a medical facility to respond to a crew medical emergency, and representative of other spacecraft autonomy challenges. The experiment was conducted using the Expedite the Processing of Experiments for Space Station (EXPRESS) rack 7, which was located in the Port 2 location within the U.S Laboratory onboard the International Space Station (ISS). Activation and deactivation of this facility is time consuming and operationally intensive, requiring coordination of three flight control positions, 47 nominal steps, 57 commands, 276 telemetry checks, and coordination of multiple ISS systems (both core and payload). Utilization of Draper Laboratory's Timeliner software, deployed on-board the ISS within the Command and Control (C&C) computers and the Payload computers, allowed development of the automated procedures specific to ISS without having to certify

  6. Differential binding of Lef1 and Msx1/2 transcription factors to Dkk1 CNEs correlates with reporter gene expression in vivo.

    Oliver Lieven

    Full Text Available Besides the active Wnt signalling itself, the extracellular inhibition by Dkk1 is important for various embryonic developmental processes, such as optic vesicle differentiation and facial outgrowth. Although a feedback crosstalk of the active Wnt/β-catenin signaling and Dkk1 regulation has been suggested, the control of Dkk1 transcription by the Tcf/Lef1 mediated Wnt signalling and its connection to additional signalling factors has not been elucidated in vivo. Here, we used a combination of transgenic mouse approaches and biochemical analyses to unravel the direct Dkk1 transcriptional regulation via Tcf/Lefs. By using site directed mutagenesis, we tested several conserved Tcf/Lef1 binding sites within Dkk1 conserved non-coding elements (CNEs and found that these are required for tissue specific reporter expression. In addition a conserved Msx1/2 binding site is required for retinal reporter expression and Msx2 but not Msx1 binds its conserved binding site within CNE195 in the optic cups. Within craniofacial expression domains, Lef1 interferes with Dkk1 directly via two conserved Tcf/Lef1 binding sites in the craniofacial enhancer CNE114, both of which are required for the general craniofacial Dkk1 reporter activation. Furthermore, these Tcf/Lef1 sites are commonly bound in the whisker hair bud mesenchyme but specifically Tcf/Lef1 (no. 2 is required for mandibular activation and repression of maxillar Dkk1 activation. Lastly, we tested the Tcf/Lef1 binding capacities of the Dkk1 promoter and found that although Lef1 binds the Dkk1 promoter, these sites are not sufficient for tissue specific Dkk1 activation. Together, we here present the importance of conserved Tcf/Lef1 and Msx1/2 sites that are required for differential Dkk1 transcriptional reporter activation in vivo. This requirement directly correlates with Lef1 and Msx1/2 interaction with these genomic loci.

  7. Radon mitigation experience in houses with basements and adjoining crawl spaces

    Messing, M.; Henschel, D.B.

    1990-01-01

    Active soil depressurization systems were installed in four basement houses with adjoining crawl spaces in Maryland. In addition, existing soil depressurization systems were modified in two additional basement-plus-crawl-space houses. These six houses were selected to include both good and poor communication beneath the basement slab, and different degrees of importance of the crawl space as a source of the indoor radon. The radon reduction effectiveness was compared for: depressurization only under the basement slab; depressurization only under a polyethylene liner over the unpaved crawl-space floor; and simultaneous depressurization under both the basement slab and the crawl-space liner. The objective of this paper is to identify under what conditions treatment of the basement alone might provide sufficient radon reductions in houses of this substructure, and what incremental benefits might be achieved by also treating the crawl space

  8. Autogenic feedback training experiment: A preventative method for space motion sickness

    Cowings, Patricia S.

    1993-01-01

    Space motion sickness is a disorder which produces symptoms similar to those of motion sickness on Earth. This syndrome has affected approximately 50 percent of all astronauts and cosmonauts exposed to microgravity in space, but it differs from what is commonly known as motion sickness in a number of critical ways. There is currently no ground-based method for predicting susceptibility to motion sickness in space. Antimotion sickness drugs have had limited success in preventing or counteracting symptoms in space, and frequently caused debilitating side effects. The objectives were: (1) to evaluate the effectiveness of Autogenic-Feedback Training as a countermeasure for space motion sickness; (2) to compare physiological data and in-flight symptom reports to ground-based motion sickness data; and (3) to predict susceptibility to space motion sickness based on pre-flight data of each treatment group crew member.

  9. Advancing Space Sciences through Undergraduate Research Experiences at UC Berkeley's Space Sciences Laboratory - a novel approach to undergraduate internships for first generation community college students

    Raftery, C. L.; Davis, H. B.; Peticolas, L. M.; Paglierani, R.

    2015-12-01

    The Space Sciences Laboratory at UC Berkeley launched an NSF-funded Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) program in the summer of 2015. The "Advancing Space Sciences through Undergraduate Research Experiences" (ASSURE) program recruited heavily from local community colleges and universities, and provided a multi-tiered mentorship program for students in the fields of space science and engineering. The program was focussed on providing a supportive environment for 2nd and 3rd year undergraduates, many of whom were first generation and underrepresented students. This model provides three levels of mentorship support for the participating interns: 1) the primary research advisor provides academic and professional support. 2) The program coordinator, who meets with the interns multiple times per week, provides personal support and helps the interns to assimilate into the highly competitive environment of the research laboratory. 3) Returning undergraduate interns provided peer support and guidance to the new cohort of students. The impacts of this program on the first generation students and the research mentors, as well as the lessons learned will be discussed.

  10. Further Analyses of the NASA Glenn Research Center Solar Cell and Photovoltaic Materials Experiment Onboard the International Space Station

    Myers, Matthew G.; Prokop, Norman F.; Krasowski, Michael J.; Piszczor, Michael F.; McNatt, Jeremiah S.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate air mass zero (AM0) measurement is essential for the evaluation of new photovoltaic (PV) technology for space solar cells. The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has flown an experiment designed to measure the electrical performance of several solar cells onboard NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Robotic Refueling Mission's (RRM) Task Board 4 (TB4) on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS). Four industry and government partners provided advanced PV devices for measurement and orbital environment testing. The experiment was positioned on the exterior of the station for approximately eight months, and was completely self-contained, providing its own power and internal data storage. Several new cell technologies including four-junction (4J) Inverted Metamorphic Multi-Junction (IMM) cells were evaluated and the results will be compared to ground-based measurement methods.

  11. Radiation dosimetry for microbial experiments in the International Space Station using different etched track and luminescent detectors

    Goossens, O.; Vanhavere, F.; Leys, N.; De Boever, P.; O'Sullivan, D.; Zhou, D.; Spurný, František; Yukihara, E.; Gaza, R.; McKeever, S.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 120, 1- 4 (2006), s. 433-437 ISSN 0144-8420 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1P05OC032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : bacteria l experiments * space flight * etched track detectors * thermoluminescent detectors Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 0.446, year: 2006

  12. Track calorimeter (TCAL) of alpha magnetic spectrometer (AMS) (a particle physics experiment on the international space station alpha)

    Anosov, V.; Baranov, S.; Bednyakov, V.

    1999-01-01

    Based on the simulation and R and D results the JINR project - to supplement AMS with a finely granulated scintillator calorimeter (TCAL) - is discussed. The project cost is about 1 million USD. TCAL would essentially increase the AMS potential in the studies of antimatter, matter and missing matter in the experiments in outer space

  13. Charge retention test experiences on Hubble Space Telescope nickel-hydrogen battery cells

    Nawrocki, Dave E.; Driscoll, J. R.; Armantrout, J. D.; Baker, R. C.; Wajsgras, H.

    1993-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) nickel-hydrogen battery module was designed by Lockheed Missile & Space Co (LMSC) and manufactured by Eagle-Picher Ind. (EPI) for the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) as an Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU) for the nickel-cadmium batteries originally selected for this low earth orbit mission. The design features of the HST nickel hydrogen battery are described and the results of an extended charge retention test are summarized.

  14. Three-dimensional growth of human endothelial cells in an automated cell culture experiment container during the SpaceX CRS-8 ISS space mission - The SPHEROIDS project.

    Pietsch, Jessica; Gass, Samuel; Nebuloni, Stefano; Echegoyen, David; Riwaldt, Stefan; Baake, Christin; Bauer, Johann; Corydon, Thomas J; Egli, Marcel; Infanger, Manfred; Grimm, Daniela

    2017-04-01

    Human endothelial cells (ECs) were sent to the International Space Station (ISS) to determine the impact of microgravity on the formation of three-dimensional structures. For this project, an automatic experiment unit (EU) was designed allowing cell culture in space. In order to enable a safe cell culture, cell nourishment and fixation after a pre-programmed timeframe, the materials used for construction of the EUs were tested in regard to their biocompatibility. These tests revealed a high biocompatibility for all parts of the EUs, which were in contact with the cells or the medium used. Most importantly, we found polyether ether ketones for surrounding the incubation chamber, which kept cellular viability above 80% and allowed the cells to adhere as long as they were exposed to normal gravity. After assembling the EU the ECs were cultured therein, where they showed good cell viability at least for 14 days. In addition, the functionality of the automatic medium exchange, and fixation procedures were confirmed. Two days before launch, the ECs were cultured in the EUs, which were afterwards mounted on the SpaceX CRS-8 rocket. 5 and 12 days after launch the cells were fixed. Subsequent analyses revealed a scaffold-free formation of spheroids in space. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. LIFE experiment: isolation of cryptoendolithic organisms from Antarctic colonized sandstone exposed to space and simulated Mars conditions on the international space station.

    Scalzi, Giuliano; Selbmann, Laura; Zucconi, Laura; Rabbow, Elke; Horneck, Gerda; Albertano, Patrizia; Onofri, Silvano

    2012-06-01

    Desiccated Antarctic rocks colonized by cryptoendolithic communities were exposed on the International Space Station (ISS) to space and simulated Mars conditions (LiFE-Lichens and Fungi Experiment). After 1.5 years in space samples were retrieved, rehydrated and spread on different culture media. Colonies of a green alga and a pink-coloured fungus developed on Malt-Agar medium; they were isolated from a sample exposed to simulated Mars conditions beneath a 0.1 % T Suprasil neutral density filter and from a sample exposed to space vacuum without solar radiation exposure, respectively. None of the other flight samples showed any growth after incubation. The two organisms able to grow were identified at genus level by Small SubUnit (SSU) and Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) rDNA sequencing as Stichococcus sp. (green alga) and Acarospora sp. (lichenized fungal genus) respectively. The data in the present study provide experimental information on the possibility of eukaryotic life transfer from one planet to another by means of rocks and of survival in Mars environment.

  16. Landing in the future: Biological experiments on Earth and in space orbit

    Pokrovskiy, A.

    1980-01-01

    The development of an Earth biosatellite to duplicate the parameters of pressure, temperature, humidity and others in a space environment onboard Cosmos-1129 is discussed. Effects of a space environment on fruit flies, dogs, laboratory rats in procreation, behavior, stress, biorhythm, body composition, gravitation preference, and cell cultures are examined. The space environment for agricultural products is also studied. The effects of heavy nuclei of galactic space radiation on biological objects inside and outside the satellite is studied, and methods of electrostatic protection are developed.

  17. Landing in the future: Biological experiments on Earth and in space orbit

    Pokrovskiy, A.

    1980-09-01

    The development of an Earth biosatellite to duplicate the parameters of pressure, temperature, humidity and others in a space environment onboard Cosmos-1129 is discussed. Effects of a space environment on fruit flies, dogs, laboratory rats in procreation, behavior, stress, biorhythm, body composition, gravitation preference, and cell cultures are examined. The space environment for agricultural products is also studied. The effects of heavy nuclei of galactic space radiation on biological objects inside and outside the satellite is studied, and methods of electrostatic protection are developed.

  18. Bacillus subtilis spores PROTECT experiment Space-exposed and Mars-exposed vs. Earth-control

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Because of their ubiquity and resistance to spacecraft decontamination bacterial spores are considered likely potential forward contaminants on robotic missions to...

  19. Integration and Testing Challenges of Small, Multiple Satellite Missions: Experiences from the Space Technology 5 Project

    Sauerwein, Timothy A.; Gostomski, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    The ST5 technology demonstration mission led by GSFC of NASA's New Millennium Program managed by JPL consisted of three micro satellites (approximately 30 kg each) deployed into orbit from the Pegasus XL launch vehicle. In order to meet the launch date schedule of ST5, a different approach was required rather than the standard I&T approach used for single, room-sized satellites. The three spacecraft were designed, integrated, and tested at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. It was determined that there was insufficient time in the schedule to perform three spacecraft I&T activities in series using standard approaches. The solution was for spacecraft #1 to undergo integration and test first, followed by spacecraft #2 and #3 simultaneously. This simultaneous integration was successful for several reasons. Each spacecraft had a Lead Test Conductor who planned and coordinated their spacecraft through its integration and test activities. One team of engineers and technicians executed the integration of all three spacecraft, learning and gaining knowledge and efficiency as spacecraft #1 integration and testing progressed. They became acutely familiar with the hardware, operation and processes for I&T, thus had the experience and knowledge to safely execute I&T for spacecraft #2 and #3. The integration team was extremely versatile; each member could perform many different activities or work any spacecraft, when needed. ST5 was successfully integrated, tested and shipped to the launch site per the I&T schedule that was planned three years previously. The I&T campaign was completed with ST5's successful launch on March 22, 2006.

  20. A new laser-ranged satellite for General Relativity and space geodesy. III. De Sitter effect and the LARES 2 space experiment

    Ciufolini, Ignazio [Universita del Salento, Dipt. Ingegneria dell' Innovazione, Lecce (Italy); Centro Fermi, Rome (Italy); Matzner, Richard [University of Texas, Theory Group, Austin (United States); Gurzadyan, Vahe [Alikhanian National Laboratory and Yerevan State University, Center for Cosmology and Astrophysics, Yerevan (Armenia); Penrose, Roger [University of Oxford, Mathematical Institute, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2017-12-15

    In two previous papers we presented the LARES 2 space experiment aimed at a very accurate test of frame-dragging and at other tests of fundamental physics and measurements of space geodesy and geodynamics. We presented the error sources of the LARES 2 experiment, its error budget and Monte Carlo simulations and covariance analyses confirming an accuracy of a few parts in one thousand in the test of frame-dragging. Here we discuss the impact of the orbital perturbation known as the de Sitter effect, or geodetic precession, in the error budget of the LARES 2 frame-dragging experiment. We show that the uncertainty in the de Sitter effect has a negligible impact in the final error budget because of the very accurate results now available for the test of the de Sitter precession and because of its very nature. The total error budget in the LARES 2 test of frame-dragging remains at a level of the order of 0.2%, as determined in the first two papers of this series. (orig.)