Sample records for space expeditionary forces

  1. Supporting Air and Space Expeditionary Forces. Capabilities and Sustainability of Air and Space Expeditionary Forces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Snyder, Don; Mills, Patrick; Carrillo, Manuel; Resnick, Adam


    The Department of Defense in recent years has shifted from a focus on sizing and shaping its forces to meet specific war plans to policies based on capabilities that can be directed toward a spectrum of missions...

  2. Expeditionary Warfare- Force Protection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Higgins, Eric


    In 2003, the Systems Engineering and Analysis students were tasked to develop a system of systems conceptual solution to provide force protection for the Sea Base conceptualized in the 2002 Expeditionary Warfare study...

  3. Integrating Space Systems Operations at the Marine Expeditionary Force Level (United States)


    Operation ARSST Army Space Support Team BCT Brigade Combat Team BDA Battle Damage Assessment BLOS Beyond Line of Site C2 Command and Control CMCC-CP...accurate imagery of known target locations. Additionally, ISR systems provide a convenient battle damage assessment ( BDA ) option necessary to determine

  4. Air Force's Transformation to an Expeditionary Culture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anderson, Richard D


    .... In response, leadership developed the Air Expeditionary Force (AEF) whereby units and personnel could schedule training, education, and family events such as holidays, vacations, graduations and weddings...

  5. From Territorial Defence to Expeditionary Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyemann, Dorthe; Staun, Jørgen Meedom


    After the Cold War the Danish Armed Forces moved away from its traditional role of territorial defense of Danish soil and towards a role as a globally deployable expeditionary force, imbedded with UK and/or US forces. This shift in national strategy amplified the requirements of the young officer...

  6. Supporting Air and Space Expeditionary Forces: Expanded Operational Architecture for Combat Support Execution Planning and Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mills, Patrick; Evers, Ken; Kinlin, Donna; Tripp, Robert S


    During the past decade, the U.S. military has supported continuous deployments of forces around the world, often on very short notice and for prolonged duration, to meet the needs of a wide range of peacekeeping and humanitarian...

  7. [Egyptian medicine at the time of Bonaparte's expeditionary force]. (United States)

    Hutin, Jean-François


    When the civils of the Commission for Sciences and Arts and the doctors from Bonaparte's expeditionary forces under Desgenettes and Larrey's orders arrived in Egypt, they described richly the state of medecine and surgery, the therapeutical knowledges and the medical organisation of the conquered land. They were surprised at first and desappointed to see how poorly Herophile and Ibn-An-Nafis' "Art of Healing" was considered. However they quickly managed to extract its most original qualities - in particular in the pharmacopoeia--all the more because the loss of the hospital-ships and Aboukir's defeat forced them to stay in Egypt and to find there the remedies they were lacking of.

  8. Finding the Middle Ground: The U.S. Air Force, Space Weaponization, and Arms Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ruhm, Brian


    .... US development of an Expeditionary Space Force (ESF) would be one element of a comprehensive strategy that would include changes to US space architecture and cooperative measures with other countries...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel ORDEANUL


    Full Text Available The ADM/CBRN military or terrorist attack is most likely to be enforced on the force deployed in the theaters of operations (TO, as peace making troops, peace keeping troops, etc. For the medical protection of the expeditionary forces deployed in external theaters of operations (T.O., when using biological agents, we conducted a documentary study on the prophylaxis and specific treatment for the medical force protection, when using biological agents, by updating and improving the medical protection countermeasures against BWA, by anti-infective prophylaxis (antibacterial and antiviral pre-exposure, post-exposure and anti-infective etiology and support of the vital fuctions treatment.

  10. The nurses of the Brazilian expeditionary force and the dissemination of their return home. (United States)

    Oliveira, Alexandre Barbosa de; Santos, Tânia Cristina Franco; Barreira, Ieda de Alencar; Almeida Filho, Antonio José de


    This historical-social study aimed to examine the symbolic elements that express the hierarchizing division between the male and female, contained in newspaper reports published about the return home of the nurses who worked in the Brazilian Expeditionary Force's Health Service, and to discuss the symbolic effects these reports produced. The historical sources of the study, consisting of photographic, written and oral documents, were classified and analyzed in the light of Pierre Bourdieu's Social Theory and Michelle Perrot's studies on Women's History. The research revealed that the way the news reports about the arrival of these nurses to Brazil were disseminated represented the reproduction of a symbolic strategy to enforce political and social interests in force, and that contained the ideas about the hierarchizing division of the social world into male and female.

  11. Canadian Air Force Leadership and Command: Implications for the Human Dimension of Expeditionary Air Force Operations (United States)


    HTP ) at Rivers. The RCAF purchased six CH-113 Labradors, which were similar to the Voyageurs in many ways, for search and rescue (SAR) work. The Army...Voyageurs were subsequently modified to the Labrador configuration and re-roled as SAR aircraft in 1975. The RCASC’s No. 1 HTP would form the basis...doctrine manual (B-GA-400 Out of the Sun) includes no reference to expeditionary operations, while the companion support doctrine manual (B-GA-410

  12. The United States Air Force Expeditionary Center: Airpower from the Ground Up (United States)


    On the bookshelf of the Air Force’s advanced training capabilities, the USAF photo Expeditionary Airmen of the 96th Aero Squadron, American...bookends of this bookshelf is the ability to evolve with the speed of change and thus remain relevant to Airmen charged with over-the-horizon global

  13. Pathology and Laboratory Medicine Support for the American Expeditionary Forces by the US Army Medical Corps During World War I. (United States)

    Wright, James R; Baskin, Leland B


    Historical research on pathology and laboratory medicine services in World War I has been limited. In the Spanish American War, these efforts were primarily focused on tropical diseases. World War I problems that could be addressed by pathology and laboratory medicine were strikingly different because of the new field of clinical pathology. Geographic differences, changing war tactics, and trench warfare created new issues. To describe the scope of pathology and laboratory medicine services in World War I and the value these services brought to the war effort. Available primary and secondary sources related to American Expeditionary Forces' laboratory services were analyzed and contrasted with the British and German approaches. The United States entered the war in April 1917. Colonel Joseph Siler, MD, a career medical officer, was the director, and Colonel Louis B. Wilson, MD, head of pathology at the Mayo Clinic, was appointed assistant director of the US Army Medical Corps Division of Laboratories and Infectious Disease, based in Dijon, France. During the next year, they organized 300 efficient laboratories to support the American Expeditionary Forces. Autopsies were performed to better understand treatment of battlefield injuries, effects of chemical warfare agents, and the influenza pandemic; autopsies also generated teaching specimens for the US Army Medical Museum. Bacteriology services focused on communicable diseases. Laboratory testing for social diseases was very aggressive. Significant advances in blood transfusion techniques, which allowed brief blood storage, occurred during the war but were not primarily overseen by laboratory services. Both Siler and Wilson received Distinguished Service Medals. Wilson's vision for military pathology services helped transform American civilian laboratory services in the 1920s.

  14. Supporting the Future Total Force: A Methodology for Evaluating Potential Air National Guard Mission Assignments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lynch, Kristin F; Drew, John G; Sleeper, Sally; Williams, William A; Masters, James M; Luangkesorn, Louis; Tripp, Robert S; Lichter, Dahlia S; Roll, Charles R


    Manpower end-strength reductions of active duty personnel in the U.S. Air Force are making it more difficult to support the air and space expeditionary force construct using current force employment practices...

  15. Recruiting for Foreign Language Skills Strategies for the Air Force

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Higgins, Maureen B


    .... The expeditionary Air Force (AF) mission demands Airmen with international insight, foreign language proficiency, and cultural knowledge to understand the specific regional context in which air and space power may be applied...

  16. The Effect of Improving the Logistics Pipeline on Supply Support of Aerospace Expeditionary Forces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martinez, Steven


    .... If so, the Air Force should be able to trim its wartime stocks of aircraft spares. This thesis investigated the effect of improving the logistics pipeline on the size and cost of Air Force mobility readiness spares packages (MRSPs...

  17. Air Force Space Situational Awareness (United States)


    time sensitivity and CyberWorx capacity. One method, which maximizes solution agility and the educational benefit to warfighters and the Air Force might best exploit commercial, academic, and foreign SSA data to improve space outcomes. Question Background & Participants Modern industry and even in their personal lives. CyberWorx was asked to address the challenges of incorporating non- traditional (open source, academic

  18. A Discussion of Patient Safety Programs in the United States Air Force Ground Medical Expeditionary Environment and an Analysis of Potential Solutions for Increasing Their Effectiveness (United States)


    deployed environment . Finally, recommendations are introduced to help realize the ultimate trusted care goal of “zero (patient) harm,” wherever care may...Defense Medical Treatment Facilities (MTFs).10 Specifically, Department of Defense health care organizations were now required to establish “a...expeditionary environment , to the maximum extent possible. Trusted Care begins with me, you, and us all – everywhere and anywhere care may be provided

  19. Expeditionary Strike Group: Command Structure Design Support

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hutchins, Susan G; Kemple, William G; Kleinman, David L; Hocevar, Susan P


    An Expeditionary Strike Group (ESG) is a new capability mix that combines the combat power of three surface combatants and one submarine with an Amphibious Readiness Group/ Marine Expeditionary Unit...

  20. India's Approaching Expeditionary Armed Forces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liermann, Christopher R


    .... As the world's fastest growing population with an enormous capitalist appetite, India finds itself a strategic partner of the United States, and yet a global competitor interested in agreements...



    EABs enable the dispersal of key assets to cloud adversary targeting process while 8 providing the joint force proximity to the area of...environment, the denial of ISR capabilities is critical to maintaining an adversary’s uncertainty and cloud his situational awareness. To this task...James E. 2014. "Expeditionary Force 21." Expeditionary Force 21, Forward and Ready: Now and in the Future. Washington, DC: HQ USMC, March 4. Board

  2. Evaluation of the Nutrition of the Bulgarian Army Military Personnel During the Preparation for Participation in Expeditionary Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nichev Nikolay


    Full Text Available The development of the military art and of the rapidly changing security environment, define the developing and the formation of new capabilities for their management. The increasing importance of the Expeditionary Forces of NATO demands the developing of the national legislation, connected with the nutrition of the Bulgarian Army military personnel, participating in expeditionary operations. In response to the tasks, delegated to the armed forces during their participation in expeditionary operations, the provision of the units with food becomes a priority logistic capability.

  3. Logistics Support of Naval Expeditionary Units

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nilsen, Jan


    .... Based on literature from strategic management, logistics, and supply chain management, the research evaluates the existing theater logistics capabilities and the requirements of the supported expeditionary units...

  4. As enfermeiras da força expedicionária brasileira no front italiano Las enfermeras de la feb en el front italiano The brazilian expeditionary force's nurses in the italian front

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida Maria Rocha Bernardes


    -historical study analyzes the proximity between the nurses at the Brazilian Expeditionary Force (FEB, in the Portuguese-language acronym and the authorities in charge of the U.S. the Brazilian Armies in World War II. Primary sources: two photographs that complement each other and reports from nine nurses who participated in the conflict. Secondary sources: literature on the subject. Some of Pierre Bourdieu's concepts were used to give support to the discussion. Conclusions: in the military milieu the nurses received a special treatment from the commanders of the U.S. and the Brazilian Armies, and had more visibility to the Brazilian nurses amongst soldiers and in the media. The nurses won a battle by being respected in a new and unknown world, within the universe of the Armed Forces, which is historically dominated by men. Working as part of a team, those nurses struggled for self-affirmation and respect in that peculiar historical moment.

  5. Dame Maud McCarthy (1859-1949): Matron-in-Chief, British Expeditionary Forces France and Flanders, First World War. (United States)

    Shields, Rosemary; Shields, Linda


    Emma Maud McCarthy was one of the most decorated nurses of the First World War. Born in Sydney in 1859, she trained as a nurse at The London Hospital in England. She was one of the first nurses to go to the South African War and in 1914 was one of the first members of Queen Alexandra's Imperial Nursing Service. Maud McCarthy went to France as Matron-in-Chief of British, Colonial and US nursing services until the end of hostilities in 1918. After the First World War she became Matron-in-Chief of the Territorial Army Nursing Service and retired five years later. She was appointed Dame Grand Cross in 1918 and earned awards from Britain, France, Belgium and America. Her influence on nursing was profound. One of the first senior nurses to recognise the impact of war on minds, she set up separate units for men who had self-harmed and she pioneered nurse anaesthetists in the British Armed Forces. Dame Maud McCarthy was an administrator par excellence whose determination to provide the best conditions possible for both her nurses and the men for whom they cared made possible the highest standards of nursing care in the First World War. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Is There Space for the Objective Force?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coffin, Timothy


    The Army has launched itself on a daring trajectory toward the Objective Force. It will transform the Army forces into a more lethal and devastating force through the combination of precision weapons and knowledge-based warfare...

  7. Attractive and repulsive quantum forces from dimensionality of space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bialynicki-Birula, I.; Cirone, M.A.; Dahl, Jens Peder


    Two particles of identical mass attract and repel each other even when there exist no classical external forces and their average relative momentum vanishes. This quantum force depends crucially on the number of dimensions of space.......Two particles of identical mass attract and repel each other even when there exist no classical external forces and their average relative momentum vanishes. This quantum force depends crucially on the number of dimensions of space....

  8. The Quantum Space Phase Transitions for Particles and Force Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung D.-Y.


    Full Text Available We introduce a phenomenological formalism in which the space structure is treated in terms of attachment space and detachment space. Attachment space attaches to an object, while detachment space detaches from the object. The combination of these spaces results in three quantum space phases: binary partition space, miscible space and binary lattice space. Binary lattice space consists of repetitive units of alternative attachment space and detachment space. In miscible space, attachment space is miscible to detachment space, and there is no separation between attachment space and detachment spaces. In binary partition space, detachment space and attachment space are in two separat continuous regions. The transition from wavefunction to the collapse of wavefuction under interference becomes the quantum space phase transition from binary lattice space to miscible space. At extremely conditions, the gauge boson force field undergoes a quantum space phase transition to a "hedge boson force field", consisting of a "vacuum" core surrounded by a hedge boson shell, like a bubble with boundary.

  9. Benchmarking Outdoor Expeditionary Program Risk Management Strategies (United States)

    Meerts-Brandsma, Lisa; Furman, Nate; Sibthorp, Jim


    In 2003, the University of Utah and the National Outdoor Leadership School (NOLS) completed a study that developed a risk management taxonomy in the outdoor adventure industry and assessed how different outdoor expeditionary programs (OEPs) managed risk (Szolosi, Sibthorp, Paisley, & Gookin, 2003). By unifying the language around risk, the…

  10. Space and Air Force: Rhetoric or Reality

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cashin, James


    ... to meet requirements set forth in the National Security Strategy (NSS). Joint Vision 2010, the Air Force's Global Engagement, and several long-range plans all establish requirements that can only be fulfilled through the application of spacepower...

  11. Additive Construction with Mobile Emplacement (ACME) / Automated Construction of Expeditionary Structures (ACES) Materials Delivery System (MDS) (United States)

    Mueller, R. P.; Townsend, I. I.; Tamasy, G. J.; Evers, C. J.; Sibille, L. J.; Edmunson, J. E.; Fiske, M. R.; Fikes, J. C.; Case, M.


    The purpose of the Automated Construction of Expeditionary Structures, Phase 3 (ACES 3) project is to incorporate the Liquid Goods Delivery System (LGDS) into the Dry Goods Delivery System (DGDS) structure to create an integrated and automated Materials Delivery System (MDS) for 3D printing structures with ordinary Portland cement (OPC) concrete. ACES 3 is a prototype for 3-D printing barracks for soldiers in forward bases, here on Earth. The LGDS supports ACES 3 by storing liquid materials, mixing recipe batches of liquid materials, and working with the Dry Goods Feed System (DGFS) previously developed for ACES 2, combining the materials that are eventually extruded out of the print nozzle. Automated Construction of Expeditionary Structures, Phase 3 (ACES 3) is a project led by the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) and supported by NASA. The equivalent 3D printing system for construction in space is designated Additive Construction with Mobile Emplacement (ACME) by NASA.

  12. Outsourcing Sealift for the Modular Force

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Donnie Walker, Jr, Flem B


    .... Army transforms its force to modular expeditionary brigade combat teams to compensate for these evolving challenges and threats, the importance of strategic sealift becomes paramount in terms of power projection...

  13. The implications of force reflection for teleoperation in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draper, J.V.; Herndon, J.N.; Moore, W.E.


    This paper reviews previous research on teleoperator force feedback and reports results of a testing program which assessed the impact of force reflection on teleoperator task performance. Force reflection is a type of force feedback in which the forces acting on the remote portion of the teleoperator are displayed to the operator by back-driving the master controller. The testing program compared three force reflection levels: 4 to 1 (four units of force on the slave produce one unit of force at the master controller), 1 to 1, and infinity to 1 (no force reflection). Time required to complete tasks, rate of occurrence of errors, the maximum force applied to tasks components, and variability in forces applied to components during completion of representative remote handling tasks were used as dependent variables. Operators exhibited lower error rates, lower peak forces, and more consistent application of forces using force reflection than they did without it. These data support the hypothesis that force reflection provides useful information for teleoperator users. The earlier literature and the results of the experiment are discussed in terms of their implications for space-based teleoperator systems. The discussion describes the impact of force reflection on task completion performance and task strategies, as suggested by the literature. It is important to understand the trade-offs involved in using telerobotic systems with and without force reflection. Force-reflecting systems are typically more expensive (in mass, volume, and price per unit), but they reduce mean time to repair and may be safer to use, compared to systems without force reflection

  14. The United States Space Force: Not If, But When (United States)


    the World View satellites and Falcon -9 rockets produced today by private companies are helping to forge a path to the heavens. In both of these... Rocket Force, Strategic Support Force. January 3. Accessed February 25, 2016. rocket -force...Betting Big on Space Warfare — Against China and Russia. February 12. Accessed February 12, 2016.

  15. Marine Corps Expeditionary Rifle Platoon Energy Burden (United States)


    26  a.  Step 1: The Flight to MRP AOR ............................................26  b...Terrain and Troops MEU Marine Expeditionary Unit MRP Marine Rifle Platoon NVG Night Vision Goggles SAW Squad automatic weapon SPOD Seaport...rifle platoon ( MRP ). The MRP is an infantry unit, which is the core component of the GCE. Each MRP consists of 40–45 Marines and requires energy

  16. Implementation of Space Charge Forces in BimBim

    CERN Document Server

    Gottlob, Emmanuel; Oeftiger, Adrian

    An numerical algorithm is described for the implementation of linearised coherent space charge forces into BimBim, an eigenvalue solver for the coherent modes of oscillation of multibunch beams in the presence of beam coupling impedance, beam-beam, transverse feedback and now space charge effects. First results obtained with the model are described and compared to existing results where applicable.

  17. Space station operations task force. Panel 4 report: Management integration (United States)


    The Management Integration Panel of the Space Station Operations Task Force was chartered to provide a structure and ground rules for integrating the efforts of the other three panels and to address a number of cross cutting issues that affect all areas of space station operations. Issues addressed include operations concept implementation, alternatives development and integration process, strategic policy issues and options, and program management emphasis areas.

  18. Comparison of Prime Movers Suitable for USMC Expeditionary Power Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theiss, T J; Conklin, J. C.; Thomas, John F.; Armstrong, T. R.


    This report documents the results of the ORNL investigation into prime movers that would be desirable for the construction of a power system suitable for the United States Marine Corps (USMC) expeditionary forces under Operational Maneuvers From The Sea (OMFTS) doctrine. Discrete power levels of {approx}1, 5, 15, and 30 kW are considered. The only requirement is that the prime mover consumes diesel fuel. A brief description is given for the prime movers to describe their basic scientific foundations and relative advantages and disadvantages. A list of key attributes developed by ORNL has been weighted by the USMC to indicate the level of importance. A total of 14 different prime movers were scored by ORNL personnel in four size ranges (1,5, 15, & 30 kW) for their relative strength in each attribute area. The resulting weighted analysis was used to indicate which prime movers are likely to be suitable for USMC needs. No single engine or prime mover emerged as the clear-cut favorite but several engines scored as well or better than the diesel engine. At the higher load levels (15 & 30 kW), the results indicate that the open Brayton (gas turbine) is a relatively mature technology and likely a suitable choice to meet USMC needs. At the lower power levels, the situation is more difficult and the market alone is not likely to provide an optimum solution in the time frame desired (2010). Several prime movers should be considered for future developments and may be satisfactory; specifically, the Atkinson cycle, the open Brayton cycle (gas turbine), the 2-stroke diesel. The rotary diesel and the solid oxide fuel cell should be backup candidates. Of all these prime movers, the Atkinson cycle may well be the most suitable for this application but is an immature technology. Additional demonstrations of this engine will be conducted at ORNL. If this analysis is positive, then the performance of a generator set using this engine, the open Brayton and the 2-stroke diesel should

  19. Future Force Warrior: Insights from Air Assault Expeditionary Force Assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Turner, Daniel D; Carstens, Christian B


    .... Each system included the FFW uniform and helmet, body armor chassis, global positioning system tracking receivers, radio communication equipment, a computer system with operating software, and voice-activated controls...

  20. The Joint Expeditionary Culture Gap (United States)


    and three, politically powerful lobbies- feminists , homosexuals, even the disabled-will be enraged that the force you have assembled does not look... therapy of victimhood.61 Present recruiting methodology stresses incentives and boasts benefits, while undermining the privilege and honor of

  1. Cancellation of the centrifugal space-charge force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E.P.


    The transverse dynamics of high-energy electrons confined in curved geometry are examined, including the effects of space-charge-induced fields. Attention is restricted to the centrifugal-space-charge force, which is the result of noncancellation of beam-induced transverse electric and magnetic fields in the curved geometry. This force is shown to be nearly cancelled in the evaluation of the horizontal tune and chromaticity by another, often overlooked term in the equation of motion. The additional term is the consequence of oscillations of the kinetic energy, which accompany betatron oscillations in the beam-induced electric potential. In curved geometry this term is of first order in the amplitude of the radial oscillation. A highly simplified system model is employed so that physical effects appear in as clear a form as possible. We assume azimuthal and median plane symmetry, static fields, and ultrarelativistic particle velocity (1/γ 2 ->0). (author) 9 refs

  2. Redefining the Air Force Medical Service in the New Millennium: Should the AFMS Outsource Physician Training and Residency Education Programs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baker, Susan


    ... that will greatly impact military readiness. Providing the correct mix of physicians to the Air Expeditionary Forces for contingency and wartime operations will partially determine the effectiveness of the deployed forces...

  3. Tough Tommy’s Space Force: General Thomas S. Power and the Air Force Space Program (United States)


    watching a barnstorming pilot over a nearby cow pasture with a World War I-era Curtiss Jenny trainer.4 Fascinated by what he saw, Tommy asked the aerodynamic heating problem.” Schriever continued that the engineering “data required cover a broader range isolate artificially the ICBM from the desire to develop space capability. It must also be stressed that Schriever himself was of two minds

  4. Development of a Refined Space Vehicle Rollout Forcing Function (United States)

    James, George; Tucker, Jon-Michael; Valle, Gerard; Grady, Robert; Schliesing, John; Fahling, James; Emory, Benjamin; Armand, Sasan


    For several decades, American manned spaceflight vehicles and the associated launch platforms have been transported from final assembly to the launch pad via a pre-launch phase called rollout. The rollout environment is rich with forced harmonics and higher order effects can be used for extracting structural dynamics information. To enable this utilization, processing tools are needed to move from measured and analytical data to dynamic metrics such as transfer functions, mode shapes, modal frequencies, and damping. This paper covers the range of systems and tests that are available to estimate rollout forcing functions for the Space Launch System (SLS). The specific information covered in this paper includes: the different definitions of rollout forcing functions; the operational and developmental data sets that are available; the suite of analytical processes that are currently in-place or in-development; and the plans and future work underway to solve two immediate problems related to rollout forcing functions. Problem 1 involves estimating enforced accelerations to drive finite element models for developing design requirements for the SLS class of launch vehicles. Problem 2 involves processing rollout measured data in near real time to understand structural dynamics properties of a specific vehicle and the class to which it belongs.

  5. Einstein's dream : the space-time unification of fundamental forces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salam, A [International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy)


    The historical developments in physics which started with Galileo in the 11th century, Newton in the 17 century, culminated in the unification of space-time by Einstein in this century are traced. The theories put forward by Einstein himself and by subsequent workers in the field after him, regarding the unification of all basic forces of nature (i.e.) the electromagnetic and the gravitational ones and the weak and strong nuclear forces are discussed. The experiments being conducted in Kolar and other places to detect a heavier photon which would be a positive proof of the validity of the unification theory, are touched upon. The possible application of this concept even in industry has been pointed out.

  6. Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) Air Force facility (United States)

    Beck, David F.

    The Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) Program is an initiative within the US Air Force to acquire and validate advanced technologies that could be used to sustain superior capabilities in the area or space nuclear propulsion. The SNTP Program has a specific objective of demonstrating the feasibility of the particle bed reactor (PBR) concept. The term PIPET refers to a project within the SNTP Program responsible for the design, development, construction, and operation of a test reactor facility, including all support systems, that is intended to resolve program technology issues and test goals. A nuclear test facility has been designed that meets SNTP Facility requirements. The design approach taken to meet SNTP requirements has resulted in a nuclear test facility that should encompass a wide range of nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) test requirements that may be generated within other programs. The SNTP PIPET project is actively working with DOE and NASA to assess this possibility.

  7. The Quantum Space Phase Transitions for Particles and Force Fields


    Chung D.-Y.; Krasnoholovets V.


    We introduce a phenomenological formalism in which the space structure is treated in terms of attachment space and detachment space. Attachment space attaches to an object, while detachment space detaches from the object. The combination of these spaces results in three quantum space phases: binary partition space, miscible space and binary lattice space. Binary lattice space consists of repetitive units of alternative attachment space and detachment spac...

  8. Entropic force, holography and thermodynamics for static space-times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konoplya, R.A.


    Recently Verlinde has suggested a new approach to gravity which interprets gravitational interaction as a kind of entropic force. The new approach uses the holographic principle by stating that the information is kept on the holographic screens which coincide with equipotential surfaces. Motivated by this new interpretation of gravity (but not being limited by it) we study equipotential surfaces, the Unruh-Verlinde temperature, energy and acceleration for various static space-times: generic spherically symmetric solutions, axially symmetric black holes immersed in a magnetic field, traversable spherically symmetric wormholes of an arbitrary shape function, system of two and more extremely charged black holes in equilibrium. In particular, we have shown that the Unruh-Verlinde temperature of the holographic screen reaches absolute zero on the wormhole throat independently of the particular form of the wormhole solution. (orig.)

  9. Additive Manufacturing (AM) in Expeditionary Operations: Current Needs, Technical Challenges, and Opportunities (United States)


    REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 06-30-2014 to 06-17-2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING (AM) IN EXPEDITIONARY OPERATIONS: CUR...CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) Additive manufacturing (AM), or 3D printing, is poised to change the world of military expeditionary operations...unlimited ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING (AM) IN EXPEDITIONARY OPERATIONS: CURRENT NEEDS, TECHNICAL CHALLENGES, AND OPPORTUNITIES Matthew Daniel Friedell Captain

  10. Service life determination of munition during expeditionary missions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerk, W.P.C. de; Heijden, A.E.D.M. van der


    For a more in-depth understanding of the aging processes of munitions in expeditionary operations, research is performed with respect to the influence of transport, storage and use on the safety of ammunition. Within this programme the influences of parameters like temperature, humidity, vibrations,

  11. A Space Roadmap for the 21st Century Aerospace Force, Volume 1 Summary

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Borky, John


    .... While this report stands alone, it builds on the foundation of the Doable Space Quick-Look study led by the Air Force Chief Scientist and it complements the Aerospace Integration Task Force work...

  12. Ten Propositions Regarding Space Power: The Dawn of a Space Force (United States)


    perspective, space contributions z 97will account for an estimated $209 billion in 1947- 1950-T 1960-T 1970- 1980- 1990- the 2006 global economy. 2 4 50 60...Assessmu~t o ational awareiess, rhe transportation industry, A{,OaO{ dampaigns in 2010 and financial markers. 7TN PWOPSOI()S ] JWARII ’G SPA(E POWER, manner thot pmvteets one vital secnty intei blue, anI gray forces. The goal is rapid, acca - ests. We wil deter theati to our intrets, anid rate

  13. Force-sensed interface for control and training space robot (United States)

    Moiseev, O. S.; Sarsadskikh, A. S.; Povalyaev, N. D.; Gorbunov, V. I.; Kulakov, F. M.; Vasilev, V. V.


    A method of positional and force-torque control of robots is proposed. Prototypes of the system and the master handle have been created. Algorithm of bias estimation and gravity compensation for force-torque sensor and force-torque trajectory correction are described.

  14. Phase space imaging of a beam of charged particles by frictional forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, H.


    In the case of frictional forces, defined by always acting opposite to the particle motion, Liouville's theorem does not apply. The effect of such forces on a beam of charged particles is calculated in closed form. Emphasis is given to the phase space imaging by a moderator. Conditions for an increase in phase space density are discussed. (Auth.)

  15. Moving an Expeditionary Force: Three Case Studies in Afghanistan (United States)


    Afghanistan,” Stars and Stripes (9 October 2001), 1 [on-line @ http:// ww2, accessed 19 August 2002]; Newman, 60. 228...hard to detect by radar, infrared or satellite because it flies 3 to 90 feet above the surface.314 A rudimentary comparison of USAF strategic...and Stripes, 9 October 2001 [on-line @ http:// ww2, accessed 19 August 2002]. Koch, Andrew, Kim Burger and

  16. Expeditionary Economics: A Force Multiplier in the Counterinsurgency Fight (United States)


    Cambridge, 2009. Smith, Adam. An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes ofthe Wealth ofNations. London: Methuen and Co. Inc. , 1904. Takamae, Fiji ...theories guided many policy decisions undertaken during the Great 2 Adam Smith. An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes ofthe Wealth ofNations (London...individual’s liberty is a recipe for disaster . Even though it could be well intentioned, Hayek believed that it would have unintended and far

  17. In-Transit Visibility Systems for an Expeditionary Force (United States)


    November–December 2015 Army Sustainment42 In September 2014, the outbreak of Ebola virus disease in West Africa overwhelmed the region’s...of system failures in theater, the MCB developed procedures to ensure that ITV was captured and maintained for all cargo entering Liberia . The...II during redeployment. All the systems were reimaged prior to arriving in Liberia and were capa- ble of operating alone or through a very small

  18. Analysis of I Marine Expeditionary Force Support Team Reset Operations (United States)


    in the process. For the hands that have assisted in providing information and that have truly been a catalyst and a crutch for the completion...simulation-Marine Corps. Point paper . Retrieved February 20, 2013 from Burton, L.D. (2005). Strategic Inventory

  19. Anatomy of a Reform: The Expeditionary Aerospace Force

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Davis, Richard G


    .... Yet the nation's strategy of selective engagement dictated that the service be ready to fight and win two nearly simultaneous major theater wars, while maintaining its commitments to a growing string...

  20. How Should Air Force Expeditionary Medical Capabilities Be Expressed (United States)


    Biosecurity and Bioterrorism: Biodefense Strategy, Practice, and Sci- ence, Vol. 4, 2006, pp. 135–146; Sarah A. Lister, Hurricane Katrina: The Public...setting this might mean releasing the patient to a nursing home. In a domestic civilian disaster setting, it may mean releasing the patient to some...described below. The Mobile Aeromedical Staging Facility (MASF) is a 15-person, communications-capable UTC that provides supportive/resuscita- tive nursing

  1. Unattended Ground Sensors for Expeditionary Force 21 Intelligence Collections (United States)


    little impact on modern intelligence collections. This thesis analyzes and compares the units and individual Marine skillsets that employ UGS, and the...the sensor employment planning cycle, and the socialization of this plan through the proper chain-of-command [4]. Figure 8 depicts the Sensor...the use of newly developed cellphone based technologies and emerging UGS capabilities to assist in Listening Post/ Observation Post (LP/OP

  2. US Department of The Space Force: A Necessary Evolution (United States)


    not dismayed; I am your God. I will strengthen you, and help you, and uphold you with my right hand. Isaiah 41:10 To my wife & children...Security Space: Report to Congress of the Independent Assessment Panel on the Organization and Management of National Security Space, by A. Thomas Young...Allard Commission Chairman, A. Thomas Young, concluded, “. . . there has been ‘no adult supervision’ in national security space.” 36 This

  3. Stress energy of elastic globe in curved space and a slip-out force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, S.N.


    The energy of stresses in an elastic globe in the flat space and in curved space is expressed through scalar invariants of the curved space. This energy creates an additional force acting on elastic bodies in a gravitational field. 4 refs

  4. Joint Space Forces in Theater: Coordination is No Longer Sufficient

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Livergood, Brian K


    .... The explosive growth of and demand for joint space capabilities have outstripped the joint community's ability to provide unifying doctrine and a command and control structure to meet the demands...

  5. A clinical investigation of force delivery systems for orthodontic space closure. (United States)

    Nightingale, C; Jones, S P


    To investigate the force retention, and rates of space closure achieved by elastomeric chain and nickel titanium coil springs. Randomized clinical trial. Eastman Dental Hospital, London and Queen Mary's University Hospital, Roehampton, 1998-2000. Twenty-two orthodontic patients, wearing the pre-adjusted edgewise appliance undergoing space closure in opposing quadrants, using sliding mechanics on 0.019 x 0.025-inch posted stainless steel archwires. Medium-spaced elastomeric chain [Durachain, OrthoCare (UK) Ltd., Bradford, UK] and 9-mm nickel titanium coil springs [OrthoCare (UK) Ltd.] were placed in opposing quadrants for 15 patients. Elastomeric chain only was used in a further seven patients. The initial forces on placement and residual forces at the subsequent visit were measured with a dial push-pull gauge [Orthocare (UK) Ltd]. Study models of eight patients were taken before and after space closure, from which measurements were made to establish mean space closure. The forces were measured in grammes and space closure in millimetres. Fifty-nine per cent (31/53) of the elastomeric sample maintained at least 50 per cent of the initial force over a time period of 1-15 weeks. No sample lost all its force, and the mean loss was 47 per cent (range: 0-76 per cent). Nickel titanium coil springs lost force rapidly over 6 weeks, following that force levels plateaued. Forty-six per cent (12/26) maintained at least 50 per cent of their initial force over a time period of 1-22 weeks, and mean force loss was 48 per cent (range: 12-68 per cent). The rate of mean weekly space closure for elastomeric chain was 0.21 mm and for nickel titanium coil springs 0.26 mm. There was no relationship between the initial force applied and rate of space closure. None of the sample failed during the study period giving a 100 per cent response rate. In clinical use, the force retention of elastomeric chain was better than previously concluded. High initial forces resulted in high force decay

  6. Space station operations task force. Panel 3 report: User development and integration (United States)


    The User Development and Integration Panel of the Space Station Operations Task Force was chartered to develop concepts relating to the operations of the Space Station manned base and the platforms, user accommodation and integration activities. The needs of the user community are addressed in the context with the mature operations phase of the Space Station. Issues addressed include space station pricing options, marketing strategies, payload selection and resource allocation options, and manifesting techniques.

  7. Diversity in the Danish Armed Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaub Jr, Gary John; Pradhan-Blach, Flemming; Larsen, Esben Salling

    The Danish Armed Forces face the functional imperative of becoming a smaller, professional expeditionary force and the societal imperative of including women and ethnic minorities. It currently lags behind its NATO partners in gender and ethnic diversity. Lessons to be learned from NATO members...... and realistic goals, systematically developing recruitment, development, and retention policies, and the superiority of an all-volunteer force over conscription in fulfilling this societal imperative....

  8. Casimir force in the Goedel space-time and its possible induced cosmological inhomogeneity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khodabakhshi, Sh. [University of Tehran, Department of Physics, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shojai, A. [University of Tehran, Department of Physics, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), Foundations of Physics Group, School of Physics, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    The Casimir force between two parallel plates in the Goedel universe is computed for a scalar field at finite temperature. It is observed that when the plates' separation is comparable with the scale given by the rotation of the space-time, the force becomes repulsive and then approaches zero. Since it has been shown previously that the universe may experience a Goedel phase for a small period of time, the induced inhomogeneities from the Casimir force are also studied. (orig.)

  9. Air Force Space Command: A Transformation Case Study (United States)


    34 HIowevSe ir Stmbor asserts that a gradhnal, seamless shift in an organizatin s operational en- mironment does not constitnte t’rans- Jformation hnt...along the way to the ultimate requiring reasoned and focused action by the goal line play an important part in main- space community’s leadership , or...great potential but did not begin to pre- OCate a Guiding Coalition. The leadership dict the extent or manner of their employment must identif), convert

  10. Entropic stochastic resonance without external force in oscillatory confined space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Huai; Jiang, Huijun; Hou, Zhonghuai, E-mail: [Department of Chemical Physics and Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscales, iChEM, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)


    We have studied the dynamics of Brownian particles in a confined geometry of dumbbell-shape with periodically oscillating walls. Entropic stochastic resonance (ESR) behavior, characterizing by a maximum value of the coherent factor Q at some optimal level of noise, is observed even without external periodic force in the horizontal direction, which is necessary for conventional ESR where the wall is static and the particle is subjected to the force. Interestingly, the ESR can be remarkably enhanced by the particle gravity G, in contrast to the conventional case. In addition, Q decreases (increases) with G in the small (large) noise limit, respectively, while it non-monotonically changes with G for moderate noise levels. We have applied an effective 1D coarsening description to illustrate such a nontrivial dependence on G, by investigating the property of the 1D effective potential of entropic nature and paying special attention to the excess part resulting from the boundary oscillation. Dependences of the ESR strength with other related parameters are also discussed.

  11. Serving a Nation at War: A Campaign Quality Army with Joint and Expeditionary Capabilities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brownlee, Les; Schoomaker, Peter J


    .... He was right. After our initial expeditionary responses and successful major combat operations in Afghanistan and Iraq, those operations have become protracted campaigns where we are providing the conditions...

  12. Russian marine expeditionary investigations of the world ocean - NOAA Atlas NESDIS 56 (NODC Accession 0000954) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession is an Adobe(tm) Acrobat(tm) file (.pdf) of the publication 'Russian marine expeditionary investigations of the world ocean - NOAA Atlas NESDIS 56'....

  13. Operations Data Files, driving force behind International Space Station operations (United States)

    Hoppenbrouwers, Tom; Ferra, Lionel; Markus, Michael; Wolff, Mikael


    Almost all tasks performed by the astronauts on-board the International Space Station (ISS) and by ground controllers in Mission Control Centre, from operation and maintenance of station systems to the execution of scientific experiments or high risk visiting vehicles docking manoeuvres, would not be possible without Operations Data Files (ODF). ODFs are the User Manuals of the Space Station and have multiple faces, going from traditional step-by-step procedures, scripts, cue cards, over displays, to software which guides the crew through the execution of certain tasks. Those key operational documents are standardized as they are used on-board the Space Station by an international crew constantly changing every 3 months. Furthermore this harmonization effort is paramount for consistency as the crew moves from one element to another in a matter of seconds, and from one activity to another. On ground, a significant large group of experts from all International Partners drafts, prepares reviews and approves on a daily basis all Operations Data Files, ensuring their timely availability on-board the ISS for all activities. Unavailability of these operational documents will halt the conduct of experiments or cancel milestone events. This paper will give an insight in the ground preparation work for the ODFs (with a focus on ESA ODF processes) and will present an overview on ODF formats and their usage within the ISS environment today and show how vital they are. Furthermore the focus will be on the recently implemented ODF features, which significantly ease the use of this documentation and improve the efficiency of the astronauts performing the tasks. Examples are short video demonstrations, interactive 3D animations, Execute Tailored Procedures (XTP-versions), tablet products, etc.

  14. Expeditionary Border Security Operations: Eliminating the Seams

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zinno, Michael J


    .... This convergence greatly expands the scope and capability of each individual terrorist or criminal organization and the cumulative effect can overwhelm the security forces of many nations and provide...

  15. Technique for forcing high Reynolds number isotropic turbulence in physical space (United States)

    Palmore, John A.; Desjardins, Olivier


    Many common engineering problems involve the study of turbulence interaction with other physical processes. For many such physical processes, solutions are expressed most naturally in physical space, necessitating the use of physical space solutions. For simulating isotropic turbulence in physical space, linear forcing is a commonly used strategy because it produces realistic turbulence in an easy-to-implement formulation. However, the method resolves a smaller range of scales on the same mesh than spectral forcing. We propose an alternative approach for turbulence forcing in physical space that uses the low-pass filtered velocity field as the basis of the forcing term. This method is shown to double the range of scales captured by linear forcing while maintaining the flexibility and low computational cost of the original method. This translates to a 60% increase of the Taylor microscale Reynolds number on the same mesh. An extension is made to scalar mixing wherein a scalar field is forced to have an arbitrarily chosen, constant variance. Filtered linear forcing of the scalar field allows for control over the length scale of scalar injection, which could be important when simulating scalar mixing.

  16. The effect of nonlinear forces on coherently oscillating space-charge-dominated beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celata, C.M.


    A particle-in-cell computer simulation code has been used to study the transverse dynamics of nonrelativistic misaligned space-charge-dominated coasting beams in an alternating gradient focusing channel. In the presence of nonlinear forces due to dodecapole or octupole imperfections of the focusing fields or to image forces, the transverse rms emittance grows in a beat pattern. Analysis indicates that this emittance dilution is due to the driving of coherent modes of the beam near their resonant frequencies by the nonlinear force. The effects of the dodecapole and images forces can be made to effectively cancel for some boundary conditions, but the mechanism is not understood at this time

  17. Axial and Radial Forces of Cross-Bridges Depend on Lattice Spacing (United States)

    Williams, C. David; Regnier, Michael; Daniel, Thomas L.


    Nearly all mechanochemical models of the cross-bridge treat myosin as a simple linear spring arranged parallel to the contractile filaments. These single-spring models cannot account for the radial force that muscle generates (orthogonal to the long axis of the myofilaments) or the effects of changes in filament lattice spacing. We describe a more complex myosin cross-bridge model that uses multiple springs to replicate myosin's force-generating power stroke and account for the effects of lattice spacing and radial force. The four springs which comprise this model (the 4sXB) correspond to the mechanically relevant portions of myosin's structure. As occurs in vivo, the 4sXB's state-transition kinetics and force-production dynamics vary with lattice spacing. Additionally, we describe a simpler two-spring cross-bridge (2sXB) model which produces results similar to those of the 4sXB model. Unlike the 4sXB model, the 2sXB model requires no iterative techniques, making it more computationally efficient. The rate at which both multi-spring cross-bridges bind and generate force decreases as lattice spacing grows. The axial force generated by each cross-bridge as it undergoes a power stroke increases as lattice spacing grows. The radial force that a cross-bridge produces as it undergoes a power stroke varies from expansive to compressive as lattice spacing increases. Importantly, these results mirror those for intact, contracting muscle force production. PMID:21152002

  18. Effect of the space-charge force on tracking at low energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furman, M.A.


    The authors present tracking results for the SSC's Low Energy Booster at injection energy, including the effect of the space-charge force. The bunches are assumed to be gaussian with elliptical cross-section. Magnet errors and sextupoles are not included, but an RF cavity is. The authors compare the phase space with and without synchrotron oscillations, with and without space-charge. The effective emittance is not significantly altered. They also present results on tune shifts with amplitude

  19. Lean, Mean, and Green: An Expeditionary Imperative (United States)


    buildup of combat power and the conduct of combat operations, followed by a turnover with occupatio.nal forces and subsequent withdrawal. 3 To...Afghanistan: Invasion and Resistance (London: Arms and Armour Press, 1989!t 16-24. 12 Mark Urban, War in Afghanistan, 2nd ed. (Houndmills...Invasion and Resistance. London: Arms and Armour Press, 1989. Jalali, Ali Ahmad, and Lester W. Grau. Afghan Guerrilla Waifare: In the Words of the

  20. Assessment of Logistics Effectiveness for Expeditionary Units (United States)


    CFO Chief Financial Officer CJSOTF Combined Joint Special Operations Task Force CNO Chief of Naval Operations CO Commanding Officer COA Course...status, contrary to the Chief Financial Officer (CFO) Act of 1990. By signing the CFO Act of 1990, President Bush required that “the government Chief Financial Officers Act of 1990, Pub. L. No. 101-576 (1990). Retrieved from

  1. Annual Expeditionary Warfare Conference (22nd) (United States)


    Shipbuilding has what it takes to build the military ships that keep America and our allies safe. Leonardo DRS is a prime contractor , leading technology...innovator and supplier of integrated products, services and support to military forces, intelligence agencies and defense contractors worldwide. The...deployed with HMM- 264, HMM-365 and HMM-162. He has served as a Basic and Advanced Flight Instructor at Helicopter Training Squadron ( HT ) 18, NAS

  2. An Analysis of Shelf Space Allocation at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base Commissary. (United States)


    Company performed a major shelf space allocation study involving 59 of their stores. The study involved planning and executing a shelf by shelf reset...Betty Crocker Chocolate .a9 2 Betty CrocKer Yellow .93 3 Betty Crocker Devils Food .92 4 Betty Crocker Choc . Choc . Chip .94 5 Betty Crocker German...Headquarters Air Force Commissary Services. ACOS Executive Summary. 28 January 19d6. 12. deadquarters Air Force Commissary Services. Store _Layout

  3. Final Environmental Assessment for the California Space Center at Vandenberg Air Force Base, California (United States)


    rooted , mesophylic plant species that Chapter 3. Affected Environment Final Environmental Assessment - California Space Center, Vandenberg Air...Chapter 3. Affected Environment 3-12 Final Environmental Assessment - California Space Center, Vandenberg Air Force Base the root and debris zone of the...protruding objects, slippery soils or mud, and biological hazards including vegetation (i.e. poison oak and stinging nettle ), animals (i.e. insects

  4. Engaging environmental turbulence : Drivers of organizational flexibility in the armed forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Waard, E.; Volberda, H.W.; Soeters, J.M.M.L.


    Since the transformation was set in motion to change Western armed forces from large-scale mechanized defensive organizations into smaller agile expeditionary crisis response forces, the call for organizational flexibility has rocketed. Yet, actual research into the key organizational drivers of

  5. Using PHM to measure equipment usable life on the Air Force's next generation reusable space booster (United States)

    Blasdel, A.

    The U.S. Air Force procures many launch vehicles and launch vehicle services to place their satellites at their desired location in space. The equipment on-board these satellite and launch vehicle often suffer from premature failures that result in the total loss of the satellite or a shortened mission life sometimes requiring the purchase of a replacement satellite and launch vehicle. The Air Force uses its EELV to launch its high priority satellites. Due to a rise in the cost of purchasing a launch using the Air Force's EELV from 72M in 1997 to as high as 475M per launch today, the Air Force is working to replace the EELV with a reusable space booster (RSB). The RSB will be similar in design and operations to the recently cancelled NASA reusable space booster known as the Space Shuttle. If the Air Force uses the same process that procures the EELV and other launch vehicles and satellites, the RSB will also suffer from premature equipment failures thus putting the payloads at a similar high risk of mission failure. The RSB is expected to lower each launch cost by 50% compared to the EELV. The development of the RSB offers the Air Force an opportunity to use a new reliability paradigm that includes a prognostic and health management program and a condition-based maintenance program. These both require using intelligent, decision making self-prognostic equipment The prognostic and health management program and its condition-based maintenance program allows increases in RSB equipment usable life, lower logistics and maintenance costs, while increasing safety and mission assurance. The PHM removes many decisions from personnel that, in the past resulted in catastrophic failures and loss of life. Adding intelligent, decision-making self-prognostic equipment to the RSB will further decrease launch costs while decreasing risk and increasing safety and mission assurance.

  6. Evaluation of force-torque displays for use with space station telerobotic activities (United States)

    Hendrich, Robert C.; Bierschwale, John M.; Manahan, Meera K.; Stuart, Mark A.; Legendre, A. Jay


    Recent experiments which addressed Space Station remote manipulation tasks found that tactile force feedback (reflecting forces and torques encountered at the end-effector through the manipulator hand controller) does not improve performance significantly. Subjective response from astronaut and non-astronaut test subjects indicated that force information, provided visually, could be useful. No research exists which specifically investigates methods of presenting force-torque information visually. This experiment was designed to evaluate seven different visual force-torque displays which were found in an informal telephone survey. The displays were prototyped in the HyperCard programming environment. In a within-subjects experiment, 14 subjects nullified forces and torques presented statically, using response buttons located at the bottom of the screen. Dependent measures included questionnaire data, errors, and response time. Subjective data generally demonstrate that subjects rated variations of pseudo-perspective displays consistently better than bar graph and digital displays. Subjects commented that the bar graph and digital displays could be used, but were not compatible with using hand controllers. Quantitative data show similar trends to the subjective data, except that the bar graph and digital displays both provided good performance, perhaps do to the mapping of response buttons to display elements. Results indicate that for this set of displays, the pseudo-perspective displays generally represent a more intuitive format for presenting force-torque information.

  7. The Case For Space: A Legislative Framework For An Independent United States Space Force (United States)


    example of an organization created by competing bureaucratic interests, ARPA hampered and muddled early service efforts to think clearly about space.12...change the way we think and prepare for that eventuality.”54 As aptly stated recently by Melissa de Zwart, Dean of Law at the University of Adelaide in...NASA Bets on Private Companies to Exploit Moon’s Resources,”, 9 February 2014,

  8. Ab initio nonequilibrium quantum transport and forces with the real-space projector augmented wave method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Jingzhe; Thygesen, Kristian S.; Jacobsen, Karsten W.


    We present an efficient implementation of a nonequilibrium Green's function method for self-consistent calculations of electron transport and forces in nanostructured materials. The electronic structure is described at the level of density functional theory using the projector augmented wave method...... over k points and real space makes the code highly efficient and applicable to systems containing several hundreds of atoms. The method is applied to a number of different systems, demonstrating the effects of bias and gate voltages, multiterminal setups, nonequilibrium forces, and spin transport....

  9. State-Space Realization of the Wave-Radiation Force within FAST: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, T.; Sarmento, A.; Alves, M.; Jonkman, J.


    Several methods have been proposed in the literature to find a state-space model for the wave-radiation forces. In this paper, four methods were compared, two in the frequency domain and two in the time domain. The frequency-response function and the impulse response of the resulting state-space models were compared against the ones derived by the numerical code WAMIT. The implementation of the state-space module within the FAST offshore wind turbine computer-aided engineering (CAE) tool was verified, comparing the results against the previously implemented numerical convolution method. The results agreed between the two methods, with a significant reduction in required computational time when using the state-space module.

  10. 77 FR 5781 - Record of Decision for the Air Space Training Initiative Shaw Air Force Base, South Carolina... (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Air Force Record of Decision for the Air Space Training Initiative Shaw Air Force Base, South Carolina Final Environmental Impact Statement ACTION: Notice of... signed the ROD for the Airspace Training Initiative Shaw Air Force Base, South Carolina Final...

  11. CETF Space Station payload pointing system design and analysis feasibility study. [Critical Evaluation Task Force (United States)

    Smagala, Tom; Mcglew, Dave


    The expected pointing performance of an attached payload coupled to the Critical Evaluation Task Force Space Station via a payload pointing system (PPS) is determined. The PPS is a 3-axis gimbal which provides the capability for maintaining inertial pointing of a payload in the presence of disturbances associated with the Space Station environment. A system where the axes of rotation were offset from the payload center of mass (CM) by 10 in. in the Z axis was studied as well as a system having the payload CM offset by only 1 inch. There is a significant improvement in pointing performance when going from the 10 in. to the 1 in. gimbal offset.

  12. Space Industry Study Industrial College of the Armed Forces National Defense University (United States)


    information technologies , especially fiber, cable, and cellular communications, which forced space systems away from old market roles and denied entry to... technologies fill market niches. As technology matures, small satellites have been viewed a partial solution to this cycle, enabling faster programs...years, the largely unforeseen growth in the internet has proven a valuable new market for satellite service providers. And over the past few years

  13. The effect of space charge force on beams extracted from ECR ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Z.Q.


    A new 3 dimensional ray tracing code BEAM-3D, with a simple model to calculate the space charge force of multiple ion species, is under development and serves as a theoretical tool to study the ECRIS beam formation. Excellent agreement between the BEAM-3D calculations and beam profile and emittance measurements of the total extracted helium 1+ beam from the RTECR ion source was obtained when a low degree of beam neutralization was assumed in the calculations. The experimental evidence indicates that the positive space charge effects dominate the early RTECR ion source beam formation and beamline optics matching process. A review of important beam characteristics is made, including a conceptual model for the space charge beam blow up. Better beam transport through the RTECR beamline analysis magnet has resulted after an extraction geometry modification in which the space charge force was more correctly matched. This work involved the development of an online beam characteristic measuring apparatus which will also be described

  14. Dynamics of space and polarization charges of ferroelectric thin films measured by atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Y.J.; Lee, J.H.; Jo, W.


    Retention behavior and local hysteresis characteristics in Pb(Zr 0.52 Ti 0.48 )O 3 (PZT) thin films on Pt electrodes have been investigated by electrostatic force microscopy (EFM). A sol-gel method is used to synthesize PZT thin films and drying conditions are carefully explored over a wide range of temperature. Decay and retention mechanisms of single-poled and reverse-poled regions of the ferroelectric thin films are explained by space charge redistribution. Trapping behavior of space charges is dependent on the nature of interface between ferroelectric thin films and bottom electrodes. Local measurement of polarization-electric field curves by EFM shows inhomogeneous space charge entrapment

  15. Report by the International Space Station (ISS) Management and Cost Evaluation (IMCE) Task Force (United States)

    Young, A. Thomas; Kellogg, Yvonne (Technical Monitor)


    The International Space Station (ISS) Management and Cost Evaluation Task Force (IMCE) was chartered to conduct an independent external review and assessment of the ISS cost, budget, and management. In addition, the Task Force was asked to provide recommendations that could provide maximum benefit to the U.S. taxpayers and the International Partners within the President's budget request. The Task Force has made the following principal findings: (1) The ISS Program's technical achievements to date, as represented by on-orbit capability, are extraordinary; (2) The Existing ISS Program Plan for executing the FY 02-06 budget is not credible; (3) The existing deficiencies in management structure, institutional culture, cost estimating, and program control must be acknowledged and corrected for the Program to move forward in a credible fashion; (4) Additional budget flexibility, from within the Office of Space Flight (OSF) must be provided for a credible core complete program; (5) The research support program is proceeding assuming the budget that was in place before the FY02 budget runout reduction of $1B; (6) There are opportunities to maximize research on the core station program with modest cost impact; (7) The U.S. Core Complete configuration (three person crew) as an end-state will not achieve the unique research potential of the ISS; (8) The cost estimates for the U.S.-funded enhancement options (e.g., permanent seven person crew) are not sufficiently developed to assess credibility. After these findings, the Task Force has formulated several primary recommendations which are published here and include: (1) Major changes must be made in how the ISS program is managed; (2) Additional cost reductions are required within the baseline program; (3) Additional funds must be identified and applied from the Human Space Flight budget; (4) A clearly defined program with a credible end-state, agreed to by all stakeholders, must be developed and implemented.

  16. Adaptive magnetorheological seat suspension for the expeditionary fighting vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiemenz, G J; Hu, W; Wereley, N M


    The Expeditionary Fighting Vehicle (EFV) is an amphibious vehicle designed to operate through harsh conditions and at much higher speeds than its predecessors. These unique capabilities and broadly varying operational conditions lead to a complex design and human factors scenario for the forward seating positions that cannot be solved using conventional passive seat suspension systems. Injurious shock loads transmitted to the occupants when traversing over water in high sea states and/or at high speeds, as well as harmful shock and vibration transmitted to the occupants when the vehicle is travelling over land, pose a threat to occupant health and significantly limit mission duration. In this study, a semi-active magnetorheological (MR) seat suspension is developed which adapts to broadly varying operational conditions, as well as occupant weight, to provide optimal protection of EFV occupants. It is shown that this MR seat suspension system will reduce the shock and vibration transmitted to the occupant by up to 33% and 65%, respectively, as compared to the existing passive suspension.

  17. Adaptive magnetorheological seat suspension for the expeditionary fighting vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiemenz, G J [Techno-Sciences, Inc., 11750 Beltsville Dr. Ste. 300, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States); Hu, W; Wereley, N M [Aerospace Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20712 (United States)], E-mail:, E-mail:


    The Expeditionary Fighting Vehicle (EFV) is an amphibious vehicle designed to operate through harsh conditions and at much higher speeds than its predecessors. These unique capabilities and broadly varying operational conditions lead to a complex design and human factors scenario for the forward seating positions that cannot be solved using conventional passive seat suspension systems. Injurious shock loads transmitted to the occupants when traversing over water in high sea states and/or at high speeds, as well as harmful shock and vibration transmitted to the occupants when the vehicle is travelling over land, pose a threat to occupant health and significantly limit mission duration. In this study, a semi-active magnetorheological (MR) seat suspension is developed which adapts to broadly varying operational conditions, as well as occupant weight, to provide optimal protection of EFV occupants. It is shown that this MR seat suspension system will reduce the shock and vibration transmitted to the occupant by up to 33% and 65%, respectively, as compared to the existing passive suspension.

  18. A Computer Mediated Learning Environment for a Joint and Expeditionary Mindset (United States)


    Denzin & Lincoln , 2003). The initial responsibility of the working group was to identify capabilities of high priority in Joint and expeditionary...naturalistic observations (Camic et al., 2003; Denzin & Lincoln , 2003; Tashakkori & Teddlie, 1998). The concurrent development of a grounded theory 9...Creative Technologies. Denzin , N.K, & Lincoln Y.S. (Eds.) (2003). Strategies for qualitative inquiry. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Defense

  19. Defense Forensics: Additional Planning and Oversight Needed to Establish an Enduring Expeditionary Forensic Capability (United States)


    forensic pathology, forensic anthropology, and forensic toxicology . 13DOD’s forensic directive defines DOD components as the Office of the...DEFENSE FORENSICS Additional Planning and Oversight Needed to Establish an Enduring Expeditionary Forensic ...COVERED 00-00-2013 to 00-00-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Defense Forensics : Additional Planning and Oversight Needed to Establish an Enduring

  20. Principled Neglect and Compliance: Responses to NCLB and the CCSS at an Expeditionary Learning Middle School (United States)

    Stern, Rebecca


    This qualitative study explored educators' sense making of and responses to No Child Left Behind and the Common Core State Standards at one urban Expeditionary Learning middle school. Sense-making theory (Spillane, Reiser, & Reimer, 2002) and inquiry as stance (Cochran-Smith & Lytle, 2009) were used as complementary conceptual frameworks…

  1. 15th Annual Expeditionary Warfare Conference - Expeditionary Operations - What’s Next (United States)


    kinetic, low-order, high-order neutralization Forensics  Radiographic systems  Post Blast investigation  Wireless transmission/reception* Where...mentoring and partnering; and establishes the conditions for successful introduction of follow-on forces in zone IOT support the expansion of...Readiness Review CDD Spec Development Milestones/ Reviews Follow Vessel Schedule AoA Lead Vessel Schedule DT&E/ OT&E/ LFT&E IOT &E T&E Program

  2. U.S. Force Posture Strategy in the Asia Pacific Region: An Independent Assessment (United States)


    is important to note that the Philippine Senate in 1992 changed the constitution to prohibit permanent bases; U.S. forces‘ access is based on the...Expeditionary Force MILCON—Military Construction MOU—Memorandum of Understanding NAFTA —North American Free Trade Agreement NDAA—National Defense

  3. The Official Home Page of the U.S. Air Force (United States)

    -world scenarios. (U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 3rd Class Anthony J. Rivera) A 27th from the 38th Rescue Squadron climb a ladder into an HH-60G Pave Hawk, Aug. 7, 2017, near Dog Island where a military working dog with the 379th Expeditionary Security Forces Squadron, detected

  4. Emittance growth due to static and radiative space charge forces in an electron bunch compressor (United States)

    Talman, Richard; Malitsky, Nikolay; Stulle, Frank


    -21, MOCOS05, available at], a code with similar capabilities. For this comparison an appropriately new, 50 MeV, “standard chicane” is introduced. Unlike CSRTrack (which neglects vertical forces) the present simulation shows substantial growth of vertical emittance. But “turning off” vertical forces in the UAL code (to match the CSRTrack treatment) brings the two codes into excellent agreement. (iii) Results are also obtained for 5 GeV electrons passing through a previously introduced “standard chicane” [Coherent Synchrotron Radiation, CSR Workshop, Berlin 2002,] [of the sort needed for linear colliders and free electron lasers (FEL’s) currently under design or construction]. Relatively little emittance growth is predicted for typical bunch parameters at such high electron energy. Results are obtained for both round beams and ribbon beams (like those actually needed in practice). Little or no excess emittance growth is found for ribbon bunches compared to round bunches of the same charge and bunch width. The UAL string space charge formulation (like TraFic4 and CSRTrack) avoids the regularization step (subtracting the free-space space charge force) which is required (to remove divergence) in some methods. Also, by avoiding the need to calculate a retarded-time, four-dimensional field history, the computation time needed for realistic bunch evolution calculations is modest. Some theories of bunch dilution, because they ascribe emittance growth entirely to CSR, break down at low energy. In the present treatment, as well as CSR, all free-space Coulomb and magnetic space charge forces (but not image forces), and also the centrifugal space charge force (CSCF) are included. Charge-dependent beam steering due to CSCF, as observed recently by Beutner et al. [B. Beutner , in Proceedings of FEL Conference, BESSY, Berlin, Germany, 2006, MOPPH009], is also investigated.

  5. Advance Force Operations: The Middleweight Force’s Essential Role in the Joint Operations (United States)


    program in the 1990s as a measure of success and the model the Marine Corps should utilize to reform its expeditionary capabilities. Their...must revisit the corps-level reconnaissance capability.”41 From 1952 to 1956, the Marine Corps tested and revaluated its requirement for force...companies as an organic element of the Division Recon Battalions citing the associated cost saving. 75 His actions prompted another study titled

  6. Aquatic Sciences and Its Appeal for Expeditionary Research Science Education (United States)

    Aguilar, C.; Cuhel, R. L.


    Our multi-program team studies aim to develop specific "hard" and "soft" STEM skills that integrate, literally, both disciplinary and socio-economic aspects of students lives to include peer mentoring, advisement, enabling, and professional mentorship, as well as honestly productive, career-developing hands-on research. Specifically, we use Interdependent, multidisciplinary research experiences; Development and honing of specific disciplinary skill (you have to have something TO network); Use of skill in a team to produce big picture product; Interaction with varied, often outside professionals; in order to Finish with self-confidence and a marketable skill. In a given year our umbrella projects involve linked aquatic science disciplines: Analytical Chemistry; Geology; Geochemistry; Microbiology; Engineering (Remotely Operated Vehicles); and recently Policy (scientist-public engagement). We especially use expeditionary research activities aboard our research vessel in Lake Michigan, during which (a dozen at a time, from multiple programs) students: Experience ocean-scale research cruise activities; Apply a learned skill in real time to characterize a large lake; Participate in interdisciplinary teamwork; Learn interactions among biology, chemistry, geology, optics, physics for diverse aquatic habitats; and, importantly, Experience leadership as "Chief Scientist-for-a-station". These team efforts achieve beneficial outcomes: Develop self-confidence in application of skills; Enable expression of leadership capabilities; Provide opportunity to assess "love of big water"; Produce invaluable long-term dataset for the studied region (our benefit); and they are Often voted as a top influence for career decisions. These collectively have led to some positive outcomes for "historical" undergraduate participants - more than half in STEM graduate programs, only a few not still involved in a STEM career at some level, or involved as for example a lawyer in environmental policy.

  7. A two dimensional fibre reinforced micropolar thermoelastic problem for a half-space subjected to mechanical force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailawalia Praveen


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study the two dimensional deformation of fibre reinforced micropolar thermoelastic medium in the context of Green-Lindsay theory of thermoelasticity. A mechanical force is applied along the interface of fluid half space and fibre reinforced micropolar thermoelastic half space. The normal mode analysis has been applied to obtain the exact expressions for displacement component, force stress, temperature distribution and tangential couple stress. The effect of anisotropy and micropolarity on the displacement component, force stress, temperature distribution and tangential couple stress has been depicted graphically.

  8. Queen Margarethe II Wants You! Diversity in the Danish Armed Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaub Jr, Gary John

    The Danish Armed Forces face the functional imperative of becoming a smaller, professional expeditionary force and the societal imperative of including women and ethnic minorities. It currently lags behind its NATO partners in gender and ethnic diversity. Lessons to be learned from NATO members...... and realistic goals, systematically developing recruitment, development, and retention policies, and the superiority of an all-volunteer force over conscription in fulfilling this societal imperative....

  9. Photon Pressure Force on Space Debris TOPEX/Poseidon Measured by Satellite Laser Ranging (United States)

    Kucharski, D.; Kirchner, G.; Bennett, J. C.; Lachut, M.; Sośnica, K.; Koshkin, N.; Shakun, L.; Koidl, F.; Steindorfer, M.; Wang, P.; Fan, C.; Han, X.; Grunwaldt, L.; Wilkinson, M.; Rodríguez, J.; Bianco, G.; Vespe, F.; Catalán, M.; Salmins, K.; del Pino, J. R.; Lim, H.-C.; Park, E.; Moore, C.; Lejba, P.; Suchodolski, T.


    The (TOPography EXperiment) TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P) altimetry mission operated for 13 years before the satellite was decommissioned in January 2006, becoming a large space debris object at an altitude of 1,340 km. Since the end of the mission, the interaction of T/P with the space environment has driven the satellite's spin dynamics. Satellite laser ranging (SLR) measurements collected from June 2014 to October 2016 allow for the satellite spin axis orientation to be determined with an accuracy of 1.7°. The spin axis coincides with the platform yaw axis (formerly pointing in the nadir direction) about which the body rotates in a counterclockwise direction. The combined photometric and SLR data collected over the 11 year time span indicates that T/P has continuously gained rotational energy at an average rate of 2.87 J/d and spins with a period of 10.73 s as of 19 October 2016. The satellite attitude model shows a variation of the cross-sectional area in the Sun direction between 8.2 m2 and 34 m2. The direct solar radiation pressure is the main factor responsible for the spin-up of the body, and the exerted photon force varies from 65 μN to 228 μN around the mean value of 138.6 μN. Including realistic surface force modeling in orbit propagation algorithms will improve the prediction accuracy, giving better conjunction warnings for scenarios like the recent close approach reported by the ILRS Space Debris Study Group—an approximate 400 m flyby between T/P and Jason-2 on 20 June 2017.

  10. Sensitivity of Space Launch System Buffet Forcing Functions to Buffet Mitigation Options (United States)

    Piatak, David J.; Sekula, Martin K.; Rausch, Russ D.


    Time-varying buffet forcing functions arise from unsteady aerodynamic pressures and are one of many load environments, which contribute to the overall loading condition of a launch vehicle during ascent through the atmosphere. The buffet environment is typically highest at transonic conditions and can excite the vehicle dynamic modes of vibration. The vehicle response to these buffet forcing functions may cause high structural bending moments and vibratory environments, which can exceed the capabilities of the structure, or of vehicle components such as payloads and avionics. Vehicle configurations, protuberances, payload fairings, and large changes in stage diameter can trigger undesirable buffet environments. The Space Launch System (SLS) multi-body configuration and its structural dynamic characteristics presented challenges to the load cycle design process with respect to buffet-induced loads and responses. An initial wind-tunnel test of a 3-percent scale SLS rigid buffet model was conducted in 2012 and revealed high buffet environments behind the booster forward attachment protuberance, which contributed to reduced vehicle structural margins. Six buffet mitigation options were explored to alleviate the high buffet environments including modified booster nose cones and fences/strakes on the booster and core. These studies led to a second buffet test program that was conducted in 2014 to assess the ability of the buffet mitigation options to reduce buffet environments on the vehicle. This paper will present comparisons of buffet forcing functions from each of the buffet mitigation options tested, with a focus on sectional forcing function rms levels within regions of the vehicle prone to high buffet environments.

  11. Emittance growth due to static and radiative space charge forces in an electron bunch compressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Talman


    2004 FEL Conference, pp. 18–21, MOCOS05, available at], a code with similar capabilities. For this comparison an appropriately new, 50 MeV, “standard chicane” is introduced. Unlike CSRTrack (which neglects vertical forces the present simulation shows substantial growth of vertical emittance. But “turning off” vertical forces in the UAL code (to match the CSRTrack treatment brings the two codes into excellent agreement. (iii Results are also obtained for 5 GeV electrons passing through a previously introduced “standard chicane” [Coherent Synchrotron Radiation, CSR Workshop, Berlin 2002,] [of the sort needed for linear colliders and free electron lasers (FEL’s currently under design or construction]. Relatively little emittance growth is predicted for typical bunch parameters at such high electron energy. Results are obtained for both round beams and ribbon beams (like those actually needed in practice. Little or no excess emittance growth is found for ribbon bunches compared to round bunches of the same charge and bunch width. The UAL string space charge formulation (like TraFic4 and CSRTrack avoids the regularization step (subtracting the free-space space charge force which is required (to remove divergence in some methods. Also, by avoiding the need to calculate a retarded-time, four-dimensional field history, the computation time needed for realistic bunch evolution calculations is modest. Some theories of bunch dilution, because they ascribe emittance growth entirely to CSR, break down at low energy. In the present treatment, as well as CSR, all free-space Coulomb and magnetic space charge forces (but not image forces, and also the centrifugal space charge force (CSCF are included. Charge-dependent beam steering due to CSCF, as observed recently by Beutner et al. [B. Beutner et al., in Proceedings of FEL Conference, BESSY, Berlin, Germany, 2006, MOPPH009], is also investigated.

  12. Longitudinal holes in debunched particle beams in storage rings, perpetuated by space-charge forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shane Koscielniak


    Full Text Available Stationary, self-consistent, and localized longitudinal density perturbations on an unbunched charged-particle beam, which are solutions of the nonlinearized Vlasov-Poisson equation, have recently received some attention. In particular, we address the case that space charge is the dominant longitudinal impedance and the storage ring operates below transition energy so that the negative mass instability is not an explanation for persistent beam structure. Under the customary assumption of a bell-shaped steady-state distribution, about which the expansion is made, the usual wave theory of Keil and Schnell for perturbations on unbunched beams predicts that self-sustaining perturbations are possible only (below transition if the impedance is inductive (or resistive or if the bell shape is inverted. Space charge gives a capacitive impedance. Nevertheless, we report numerous experimental measurements made at the CERN Proton Synchrotron Booster that plainly show the longevity of holelike structures in coasting beams. We shall also report on computer simulations of boosterlike beams that provide compelling evidence that it is space-charge force which perpetuates the holes. We shall show that the localized solitonlike structures, i.e., holes, decouple from the steady-state distribution and that they are simple solutions of the nonlinearized time-independent Vlasov equation. We have derived conditions for stationarity of holes that satisfy the requirement of self-consistency; essentially, the relation between the momentum spread and depth of the holes is given by the Hamiltonian—with the constraint that the phase-space density be high enough to support the solitons. The stationarity conditions have scaling laws similar to the Keil-Schnell criteria except that the charge and momentum spread of the hole replaces that of the beam.

  13. Task-space separation principle: a force-field approach to motion planning for redundant manipulators. (United States)

    Tommasino, Paolo; Campolo, Domenico


    In this work, we address human-like motor planning in redundant manipulators. Specifically, we want to capture postural synergies such as Donders' law, experimentally observed in humans during kinematically redundant tasks, and infer a minimal set of parameters to implement similar postural synergies in a kinematic model. For the model itself, although the focus of this paper is to solve redundancy by implementing postural strategies derived from experimental data, we also want to ensure that such postural control strategies do not interfere with other possible forms of motion control (in the task-space), i.e. solving the posture/movement problem. The redundancy problem is framed as a constrained optimization problem, traditionally solved via the method of Lagrange multipliers. The posture/movement problem can be tackled via the separation principle which, derived from experimental evidence, posits that the brain processes static torques (i.e. posture-dependent, such as gravitational torques) separately from dynamic torques (i.e. velocity-dependent). The separation principle has traditionally been applied at a joint torque level. Our main contribution is to apply the separation principle to Lagrange multipliers, which act as task-space force fields, leading to a task-space separation principle. In this way, we can separate postural control (implementing Donders' law) from various types of tasks-space movement planners. As an example, the proposed framework is applied to the (redundant) task of pointing with the human wrist. Nonlinear inverse optimization (NIO) is used to fit the model parameters and to capture motor strategies displayed by six human subjects during pointing tasks. The novelty of our NIO approach is that (i) the fitted motor strategy, rather than raw data, is used to filter and down-sample human behaviours; (ii) our framework is used to efficiently simulate model behaviour iteratively, until it converges towards the experimental human strategies.

  14. Air Force electrochemical power research and technology program for space applications (United States)

    Allen, Douglas


    An overview is presented of the existing Air Force electrochemical power, battery, and fuel cell programs for space application. Present thrusts are described along with anticipated technology availability dates. Critical problems to be solved before system applications occur are highlighted. Areas of needed performance improvement of batteries and fuel cells presently used are outlined including target dates for key demonstrations of advanced technology. Anticipated performance and current schedules for present technology programs are reviewed. Programs that support conventional military satellite power systems and special high power applications are reviewed. Battery types include bipolar lead-acid, nickel-cadmium, silver-zinc, nickel-hydrogen, sodium-sulfur, and some candidate advanced couples. Fuel cells for pulsed and transportation power applications are discussed as are some candidate advanced regenerative concepts.

  15. Force and power characteristics of a resistive exercise device for use in space (United States)

    Berg, Hans E.; Tesch, Per A.

    We have developed a non-gravity dependent mechanical device, which provides resistance during coupled concentric and eccentric muscle actions, through the inertia of a spinning fly-wheel (Fly-Wheel Ergometry; FWE). Our research shows that lower-limb FWE exercise can produce forces and thus muscular stress comparable to what is typical of advanced resistance training using free weights. FWE also offers greater training stimuli during eccentric relative to concentric muscle actions, as evidenced by force and electromyographic (EMG) measurements. Muscle use of specific muscle groups, as assessed by the exercise-induced contrast shift of magnetic resonance images, is similar during lower-limb FWE and the barbell squat. Unlike free-weight exercise, FWE allows for maximal voluntary effort in each repetition of an exercise bout. Likewise, FWE exercise, not unassisted free-weight exercise, produces eccentric "overload". Collectively, the inherent features of this resistive exercise device and the results of the physiological evaluations we have performed, suggest that resistance exercise using FWE could be used as an effective exercise counter-measure in space. The flywheel principle can be employed to any exercise configuration and designed into a compact device allowing for exercises stressing those muscles and bone structures, which are thought to be most affected by long-duration spaceflight.

  16. Bridging the Economic Development Gap: Establishing a Practical Military Expeditionary Economics Continuum (United States)


    The Military Expeditionary Economics Continuum Stage of Emergency Grants Savings Plans Microcredit Soft Loans...Transformation:Assessing and Improving the Impact of Microcredit ." Microcredit Summit Meeting of Councils. Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire:, 1999...Jahangir, M., and Alam Chowdhury. "Poverty and Microfinance: An Investigation into the Role of Microcredit in Reducing the Poverty Level of Borrowing

  17. Hydrogen disposal investigation for the Space Shuttle launch complex at Vandenberg Air Force Base (United States)

    Breit, Terry J.; Elliott, George


    The concern of an overpressure condition on the aft end of the Space Shuttle caused by ignition of unburned hydrogen being trapped in the Space Shuttle Main Engine exhaust duct at the Vandenberg AFB launch complex has been investigated for fifteen months. Approximately twenty-five concepts have been reviewed, with four concepts being thoroughly investigated. The four concepts investigated were hydrogen burnoff ignitors (ignitors located throughout the exhaust duct to continuously ignite any unburned hydrogen), jet mixing (utilizing large volumes of high pressure air to ensure complete combustion of the hydrogen), steam inert (utilizing flashing hot water to inert the duct with steam) and open duct concept (design an open duct or above grade J-deflector to avoid trapping hydrogen gas). Extensive studies, analyses and testing were performed at six test sites with technical support from twenty-two major organizations. In December 1986, the Air Force selected the steam inert concept to be utilized at the Vandenberg launch complex and authorized the design effort.

  18. Design and implementation of a novel modal space active force control concept for spatial multi-DOF parallel robotic manipulators actuated by electrical actuators. (United States)

    Yang, Chifu; Zhao, Jinsong; Li, Liyi; Agrawal, Sunil K


    Robotic spine brace based on parallel-actuated robotic system is a new device for treatment and sensing of scoliosis, however, the strong dynamic coupling and anisotropy problem of parallel manipulators result in accuracy loss of rehabilitation force control, including big error in direction and value of force. A novel active force control strategy named modal space force control is proposed to solve these problems. Considering the electrical driven system and contact environment, the mathematical model of spatial parallel manipulator is built. The strong dynamic coupling problem in force field is described via experiments as well as the anisotropy problem of work space of parallel manipulators. The effects of dynamic coupling on control design and performances are discussed, and the influences of anisotropy on accuracy are also addressed. With mass/inertia matrix and stiffness matrix of parallel manipulators, a modal matrix can be calculated by using eigenvalue decomposition. Making use of the orthogonality of modal matrix with mass matrix of parallel manipulators, the strong coupled dynamic equations expressed in work space or joint space of parallel manipulator may be transformed into decoupled equations formulated in modal space. According to this property, each force control channel is independent of others in the modal space, thus we proposed modal space force control concept which means the force controller is designed in modal space. A modal space active force control is designed and implemented with only a simple PID controller employed as exampled control method to show the differences, uniqueness, and benefits of modal space force control. Simulation and experimental results show that the proposed modal space force control concept can effectively overcome the effects of the strong dynamic coupling and anisotropy problem in the physical space, and modal space force control is thus a very useful control framework, which is better than the current joint

  19. Bayesian inverse problems in measure spaces with application to Burgers and Hamilton–Jacobi equations with white noise forcing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoang, Viet Ha


    This paper formulates Bayesian inverse problems for inference in a topological measure space given noisy observations. Conditions for the validity of the Bayes’ formula and the well posedness of the posterior measure are studied. The abstract theory is then applied to Burgers and Hamilton–Jacobi equations on a semi-infinite time interval with forcing functions which are white noise in time. Inference is made on the white noise forcing, assuming the Wiener measure as the prior. (paper)

  20. Strengthening Sustainability and Resiliency of a Future Force, Phase 1. FY2010-2011 Summer Study (United States)


    Resiliency of a Future Force: Phase I Interim Report - 48 Please Enter Custom Water factor adjustments below: m Unit Level* (Gat/Ptisan/ Dti ...cost of mov- ing the consumables in terms of the assets required to move the commodity and the security Intra Theater Resupply: 4 Legs Army...Expeditionary Force-Logistics ResupplyDetails Legl Leg 2 Leg 3 Leg 4 Resupply Trip Legs Super FOB (Div)to Base Camp (bde) Base Camp (Bde) to FOB (Bn

  1. Forced heat convection in annular spaces; Convection forcee de la chaleur dans les espaces annulaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelce, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    This report deals with the experimental study of forced heat convection in annular spaces through which flow of air is passing when a uniform heat flux is dissipated across the inner wall. These observations took place chiefly in the region where thermal equilibrium are not yet established. Amongst other things it became apparent that, both in the region where thermal equilibrium conditions are on the way to establishment and where they are already established, the following relationship held good: the longitudinal temperature gradient, either on the wall or in the fluid stream, is proportional to the heat flux dissipated q, and inversely proportional to the average flow rate V: dT/dx = B (q/V). From this result the next step is to express the variations of the local convection coefficient {alpha} (or of the Margoulis number M) in a relationship of the form: 1/M = {psi}(V) + F(x). If this relationship is compared with the classical empirical relationship {alpha} = KV{sup n} (where n is close to 0.8), the relationship: 1/M = {xi}V{sup 1-n} + F(x) is obtained ({xi} is a constant for a given annular space); from this it was possible to coordinate the whole set of experimental results. (author) [French] Il s'agit precisement de l'etude experimentale de la convection forcee de la chaleur dans des espaces annulaires parcourus par de l'air en ecoulement turbulent, lorsqu'on dissipe a travers la paroi interieure un flux de chaleur uniforme. Ces observations ont eu lieu principalement dans la region ou le regime thermique n'est pas encore etabli. Il est apparu, entre autre, qu'il existait, tant dans la region ou le regime thermique est en voie d'etablissement qu'en regime etabli, la relation suivante: le gradient longitudinal des temperatures, que ce soit sur la paroi ou dans l'ecoulement fluide, est proportionnel au flux de la chaleur dissipee q, et inversement proportionnel a la vitesse moyenne V de l'ecoulement: dT/dx = B (q/V). Ce resultat a pour consequence de traduire

  2. The effect of different environmental factors on force degradation of three common systems of orthodontic space closure. (United States)

    Oshagh, Morteza; Khajeh, Farzaneh; Heidari, Somayeh; Torkan, Sepideh; Fattahi, Hamid Reza


    Different environmental conditions, such as high temperature or exposure to some chemical agents, may affect the force decay of different methods of space closure during orthodontic treatment. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the force decay pattern in the presence of tea as a popular drink in some parts of the world and two mouthwashes that are usually prescribed by the orthodontist once the treatment is in progress. Elastic chain (EC), nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) closed coil spring and tie-back (TB) method were used as the means of space closure. The specimens were placed in five different media: Hot tea, hot water (65°), chlorhexidine mouthwash, fluoride mouthwash and the control group (water at 37°). The specimens were stretched 25 mm and the elastic force of three systems was measured at the beginning of the study, after 24 h, after 1 week and after 3 weeks. One-way ANOVA was used to compare the results between the groups and Duncan test was carried out to compare the sets of means in different groups (P ≤ 0.05). Tea increases the force decay in the EC and TB groups. Oral mouthwashes also resulted in more rapid force decay than the control group. EC and Ni-Ti groups were not much affected in the presence of oral mouthwashes. Regarding the immersion media, TB method showed the biggest variation in different media and Ni-Ti coil spring was least affected by the type of media.

  3. Forces associated with launch into space do not impact bone fracture healing (United States)

    Childress, Paul; Brinker, Alexander; Gong, Cynthia-May S.; Harris, Jonathan; Olivos, David J.; Rytlewski, Jeffrey D.; Scofield, David C.; Choi, Sungshin Y.; Shirazi-Fard, Yasaman; McKinley, Todd O.; Chu, Tien-Min G.; Conley, Carolynn L.; Chakraborty, Nabarun; Hammamieh, Rasha; Kacena, Melissa A.


    Experimental (identical to Launch Positive Control group, but placed in qualified spaceflight hardware); 5) Hindlimb Unloaded (HLU, were subjected to HLU immediately after launch simulation tests to simulate unloading in spaceflight); and 6) HLU Control (single housed in identical HLU cages but not suspended). Mice were euthanized 28 days after launch simulation and bone healing was examined via micro-Computed Tomography (μCT). These studies demonstrated that the mice post-surgery can tolerate launch conditions. Additionally, forces and vibrations associated with launch did not impact bone healing (p = .3). However, HLU resulted in a 52.5% reduction in total callus volume compared to HLU Controls (p = .0003). Taken together, these findings suggest that mice having a femoral SBD surgery tolerated the vibration and hypergravity associated with launch, and that launch simulation itself did not impact bone healing, but that the prolonged lack of weight bearing associated with HLU did impair bone healing. Based on these findings, we proceeded with testing the efficacy of FDA approved and novel SBD therapies using the unique spaceflight environment as a novel unloading model on SpaceX CRS-10.

  4. Lightweight, High-Flow, Low Connection-Force, In-Space Cryogenic Propellant Coupling, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Three of the key abilities needed for making future NASA and commercial in-space transportation systems more affordable and capable are: a) the ability to 'live off...

  5. Lightweight, High-Flow, Low Connection-Force, In-Space Cryogenic Propellant Coupling, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Three of the key abilities needed for making future NASA and commercial launch and in-space transportation systems more affordable and capable are: a) the ability to...

  6. Finite element analysis of the effect of force directions on tooth movement in extraction space closure with miniscrew sliding mechanics. (United States)

    Kojima, Yukio; Kawamura, Jun; Fukui, Hisao


    Miniscrews placed in bone have been used as orthodontic anchorage in extraction space closure with sliding mechanics. The movement patterns of the teeth depend on the force directions. To move the teeth in a desired pattern, the appropriate direction of force must be selected. The purpose of this article is to clarify the relationship between force directions and movement patterns. By using the finite element method, orthodontic movements were simulated based on the remodeling law of the alveolar bone. The power arm length and the miniscrew position were varied to change the force directions. When the power arm was lengthened, rotation of the entire maxillary dentition decreased. The posterior teeth were effective for preventing rotation of the anterior teeth through an archwire. In cases of a high position of a miniscrew, bodily tooth movement was almost achieved. The vertical component of the force produced intrusion or extrusion of the entire dentition. Within the limits of the method, the mechanical simulations demonstrated the effect of force direction on movement patterns. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. 75 FR 24781 - Task Force on Space Industry Workforce and Economic Development (United States)


    ... economic and workforce-development efforts through a Task Force composed of senior-level Administration... officials on existing committees or task forces addressing technological development, research, or aerospace... Office of Management and Budget relating to budgetary, administrative, or legislative proposals. (c) This...

  8. Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems (SUAS) Flight Plan: 2016-2036. Bridging the Gap Between Tactical and Strategic (United States)


    commonly known encryp- tion types are variations of the Data Encryption Standard (DES), Advanced Encryption Standard ( AES ), and National Security...Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast AEF Air and Space Expeditionary Force AES Advanced Encryption Standard AETF Air Expeditionary Task Force AFI Air Force...28 4.5. Encryption

  9. Forecasting Cool Season Daily Peak Winds at Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (United States)

    Barrett, Joe, III; Short, David; Roeder, William


    The expected peak wind speed for the day is an important element in the daily 24-Hour and Weekly Planning Forecasts issued by the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) for planning operations at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS). The morning outlook for peak speeds also begins the warning decision process for gusts ^ 35 kt, ^ 50 kt, and ^ 60 kt from the surface to 300 ft. The 45 WS forecasters have indicated that peak wind speeds are a challenging parameter to forecast during the cool season (October-April). The 45 WS requested that the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) develop a tool to help them forecast the speed and timing of the daily peak and average wind, from the surface to 300 ft on KSC/CCAFS during the cool season. The tool must only use data available by 1200 UTC to support the issue time of the Planning Forecasts. Based on observations from the KSC/CCAFS wind tower network, surface observations from the Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF), and CCAFS upper-air soundings from the cool season months of October 2002 to February 2007, the AMU created multiple linear regression equations to predict the timing and speed of the daily peak wind speed, as well as the background average wind speed. Several possible predictors were evaluated, including persistence, the temperature inversion depth, strength, and wind speed at the top of the inversion, wind gust factor (ratio of peak wind speed to average wind speed), synoptic weather pattern, occurrence of precipitation at the SLF, and strongest wind in the lowest 3000 ft, 4000 ft, or 5000 ft. Six synoptic patterns were identified: 1) surface high near or over FL, 2) surface high north or east of FL, 3) surface high south or west of FL, 4) surface front approaching FL, 5) surface front across central FL, and 6) surface front across south FL. The following six predictors were selected: 1) inversion depth, 2) inversion strength, 3) wind gust factor, 4) synoptic weather pattern, 5) occurrence of

  10. Simulated non-contact atomic force microscopy for GaAs surfaces based on real-space pseudopotentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Minjung; Chelikowsky, James R.


    We simulate non-contact atomic force microscopy (AFM) with a GaAs(1 1 0) surface using a real-space ab initio pseudopotential method. While most ab initio simulations include an explicit model for the AFM tip, our method does not introduce the tip modeling step. This approach results in a considerable reduction of computational work, and also provides complete AFM images, which can be directly compared to experiment. By analyzing tip-surface interaction forces in both our results and previous ab initio simulations, we find that our method provides very similar force profile to the pure Si tip results. We conclude that our method works well for systems in which the tip is not chemically active.

  11. Evaluation of Technical and Utility Programmatic Challenges With Residential Forced-Air Integrated Space/Water Heat Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kingston, Tim [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Vadnal, Hillary [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Scott, Shawn [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Kalensky, Dave [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Des Plaines, IL (United States)


    This multi-unit field demonstration of combined space and water heating (combi) systems was conducted to help document combi system installation and performance issues that needed to be addressed through research. The objective of the project was to put commercialized forced-air tankless combi units into the field through local contractors that were trained by manufacturers and GTI staff under the auspices of utility-implemented ETPs.

  12. An Analysis of a Joint and Expeditionary Mindset

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walsh, William J; Shingledecker, Clark


    ... I. The goal of the research was to identify cognitive readiness skills necessary for ground component forces to deploy anywhere in the world on short notice, and the meta-cognitive awareness necessary...

  13. Toward an Expeditionary Army: New Options for Combatant Commanders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peltz, Eric


    .... Within this research, we have examined how prepositioning might be leveraged as part of a three-pronged strategy for improving the strategic responsiveness of our nation's ground forces. I appreciate the opportunity to take part in this dialog today.

  14. Effects of ponderomotive forces and space-charge field on laser plasma hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cang Yu; Lu Xin; Wu Huichun; Zhang Jie


    Using a two-fluid two-temperature hydrodynamic code, authors studied the hydrodynamics in the interaction of intense (10 15 W/cm 2 ) ultrashort (150 fs) laser pulses and linear density plasmas. The simulation results show the ponderomotive force effect on the formation of the electron density ripples in under-dense region, such ripples increase the reflection of the laser pulse, and on the separation of the plasma in critical surface. Quasi-electroneutrality is not suitable in this case because of the different ponderomotive force and the gradient of thermal-pressure for ions and electrons. Ions are moved by the electrostatic force. Comparing with the simulation results from one-fluid two-temperature code, authors find that under strong ponderomotive force and gradient of thermo-pressure, two-fluid code is more suitable to simulate the hydrodynamics of plasmas. (authors)

  15. Chemical stabilization of subgrade soil for the strategic expeditionary landing field (United States)

    Conaway, M. H.


    The Strategic Expeditionary Landing Field (SELF) is a military expeditionary-type airfield with an aluminum matted surface that is designed for sustained tactical and cargo airlift operations in an amphibious objective area. Because of the operational traffic parameters such as loads of the various types of aircraft, tire pressures and volume of traffic, a base layer must be constructed over subgrade soil support conditions which may be only marginal. The base layer could be constructed with conventional soil construction techniques (compaction) and yield the required strength. It would be difficult, however, to maintain this strength for the required one-year service life under many climatic conditions due to the degrading effects of water on the support capacity of many soils. Chemical soil stabilization with lime, portland cement and asphalt stabilizing agents could be used to treat the soil. These additives, when properly mixed with certain types of soils, initiate reactions which will increase soil support strength and enhance durability (resistance to the degrading effects of water). Technically, this procedure is quite viable but logistically, it may not be feasible.

  16. Transformation through expeditionary change using online learning and competence-building technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald M. Norris


    Full Text Available This paper presents a patterns-based model of the evolution of learning and competence-building technologies, grounded in examples of current practice. The model imagines five simple stages in how institutions use ‘expeditionary change' to innovate more nimbly. It builds upon three assertions. First, the pervasiveness of web-based knowledge-sharing in higher education's communities, observatories and social networks makes it easier to: introduce relevant technologies, find people doing similar things, learn from their experiences, find and collaborate with early adopters of learning technologies, hear about relevant innovations, and discover and exploit news of opportunities, threats and trends. Second, expeditionary change based on such knowledge-sharing facilitates transformations in: production functions for learning, roles of faculty and mentors, business models, patterns and cadences of interactivity, use of open resources, and the roles of learners. Third, those transformations make it easier for disruptive forms of higher education to emerge; for example, dynamically updated curricula that address emerging and important knowledge gaps, and thereby increase students' employability.

  17. Operational Energy/Operational Effectiveness Investigation for Scalable Marine Expeditionary Brigade Forces in Contingency Response Scenarios (United States)


    need and ending in customer satisfaction (Foorsberg and Cotterman 2005). The process started with an initial primitive need and ended with findings and...DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words ) In today’s austere fiscal environment the United States Marine Corps (USMC) seeks to increase...less than three miles to the southwest across the mouth of the river. In the case of insertion via LCAC, it is also likely that resupply missions

  18. The Operational Capability of the American Expeditionary Forces in the World War (United States)


    attend the Advance Military Studies Program, COLs Michael Getchell, John Marr, and John Norris . Finally, to my college mentor, Dario Lorenzetti, killed...the United States Army and the War Department was selecting a general to lead the American Army in France. Since the end of the Spanish -American...formation since the end of the Spanish -American War. This proved to be a great challenge for the American Army in finding leaders to command the large

  19. The American Expeditionary Force Siberia: A Case Study of Operational Art with Ambiguous Strategic Objectives (United States)


    advocated increased military interventionism. In March 1918, when the Bolshevik government signed the Treaty of Brest -Litovsk, the Allied powers faced...question of Russia’s future was one of the main issues during the Paris Peace Conference. In fact, the State Department had informed the War...Siberia was no longer valid because the question of Russia’s future was decided at the Paris Peace Conference. The Allies remained in Russia after June

  20. The Marine Corps Operating Concept: How an Expeditionary Force Operates in the 21st Century (United States)


    intelligence ( OSINT ) into every aspect of situational understanding to expand the scope of our knowledge base and greatly ease the challenges of sharing...role of OSINT and augmenting it with classified intelligence only where it adds value.  Explore data strategies and information sharing

  1. The American Expeditionary Forces Tank Corps in World War I: From Creation to Combat (United States)


    United States to provide 1,500 Liberty twelve-cylinder air- -raft P•pr•nri- (from which the tanks name was derived), starters. clutches, rad4itrz-, fanc ...Major’ Gene -al H. B. Crosby, 23 April 192D, Patton Military Papers. Box 47, Personal ’.•Perience Reports of Tank Cperations-1918. Pattc.ri Cc.liection. 99

  2. Expeditionary Forensic Support to Joint Force Commanders: What Changes or Considerations are Warranted? (United States)


    builders . Human Intelligence (HUMINT) and Signals Intelligence (SIGINT) could then also be prioritized and employed accordingly for optimal 8...responsibility for digital and multimedia forensics, and DIA responsibility for forensic intelligence activities and programs.31 The Army is also currently...aligning functional oversight of Forensics, Biometrics, Law Enforcement, Detainee Operations, and Physical Security 11 under one overarching

  3. Transformation of Marine Corps Artillery in Support of the 2015 Expeditionary Force (United States)


    artillery electronics maintenance, and meterological sections in support ofsubordinate elements. On order, the Regiment assumes the primary civil...3rd order capability), engineer, counterbattery radar, artillery electronics maintenance, and meterological sections in support ofsubordinate (accessed December 15,2007). Training and Education Command. MOS Roadmap: 0847 - Field Artillery Meterological Crew Member. Quantico

  4. Upper Incisor Changes Due to Modifying the Point of Application of Forces during Space Closure in MBT Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ravanmehr


    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: A recent technique (MBT has been introduced for easy and efficient orthodontic treatment by means of straight wire fixed appliances. Although this technique has many advantages, in space closure stage causes up righting problem in upper incisors, which should be adjusted by applying additional torque in anterior region.Purpose: The purpose of this clinical trial was to determine whether there is a significant difference in final incisor inclination (torque of two groups one treated with MBT technique and the other by changing the point of application of the closing force (in anterior region.Materials and Methods: Twelve patients (8 girls, 4 boys with Cl I malocclusion and crowding, whom were candidate for first premolars extraction, were selected.For space closure, 6 anterior teeth (canine to canine in upper and lower jaws ligated and the applied force was from the hooks on canines to hooks on the first molars.After space closure the results compared with the results of a previous study which treatment plan was according to original MBT technique (anterior hooks soldered to arch wire. Forces applied randomly among quadrants by NiTi coil spring (American Orthodontics Co. or active tie backs with elastic modules (Dentaurum Co.Results: The results showed a statistically significant difference between final torques of two techniques (P=0.0001. Also, the rate of space closure with NiTi coils was significantly greater than active tie back (P=0.0001.Conclusion: Anchorage loss in two groups compared and the results indicated significantly lower anchorage loss in NiTi coil spring group (P=0.035.

  5. Evaluation of the WavTrac Expeditionary Mobility Matting System (United States)


    Dr. Timothy W. Rushing was Chief, APB; Dr. Gordon W. McMahon was Chief, ESMD; and Nicholas Boone was the Technical Director for Force Projection...were tan in color and had a nonskid material applied to the wearing surface. Typical mat dimensions were 12 ft, 2 in. wide by 48 ft, 6 in. long

  6. Thermal convection in a closed cavity in zero-gravity space conditions with stationary magnetic forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyubimova, T; Mailfert, A


    The paper deals with the investigation of thermo-magnetic convection in a paramagnetic liquid subjected to a non-uniform magnetic field in weightlessness conditions. Indeed, in zero-g space conditions such as realized in International Space Station (ISS), or in artificial satellite, or in free-flight space vessels, the classical thermo-gravitational convection in fluid disappears. In any cases, it may be useful to restore the convective thermal exchange inside fluids such as liquid oxygen. In this paper, the restoration of heat exchange by the way of creation of magnetic convection is numerically studied.

  7. Measure Guideline. Combination Forced-Air Space and Tankless Domestic Hot Water Heating Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, Armin [Building Science Corporation Industry Team (BSC), Somerville, MA (United States)


    This document describes design and application guidance for combination space and tankless domestic hot water heating systems (combination systems) used in residential buildings, based on field evaluation, testing, and industry meetings conducted by Building Science Corporation. As residential building enclosure improvements continue to drive heating loads down, using the same water heating equipment for both space heating and domestic water heating becomes attractive from an initial cost and space-saving perspective. This topic is applicable to single- and multi-family residential buildings, both new and retrofitted.

  8. Sustaining Air Force Space Systems: A Model for the Global Positioning System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Snyder, Don; Mills, Patrick; Comanor, Katherine; Roll, Jr, Charles R


    ... and sustainment affect the performance of space systems. In this monograph, we develop a pilot framework for analyzing these and related questions in the ground segment of the Global Positioning System and recommend steps for implementing this framework...

  9. Expeditionary Air Base Defense: Historical Cases and Modern Implications (United States)


    203. 50 As violence in Iraq’s urban areas surged in 2006, IDF attacks against Balad Air Base reached their peak, with approximately 475...defense operations when appropriate, but it is not a singular solution for quickly or completely reducing violence in the area of air bases. The case of...forces “drawing from the units available.”3 This is appropriate for small combat outposts ( COP ) or forward operating bases (FOB) in lower threat

  10. Lorentz-force equations as Heisenberg equations for a quantum system in the euclidean space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez D, R.


    In an earlier work, the dynamic equations for a relativistic charged particle under the action of electromagnetic fields were formulated by R. Yamaleev in terms of external, as well as internal momenta. Evolution equations for external momenta, the Lorentz-force equations, were derived from the evolution equations for internal momenta. The mapping between the observables of external and internal momenta are related by Viete formulae for a quadratic polynomial, the characteristic polynomial of the relativistic dynamics. In this paper we show that the system of dynamic equations, can be cast into the Heisenberg scheme for a four-dimensional quantum system. Within this scheme the equations in terms of internal momenta play the role of evolution equations for a state vector, whereas the external momenta obey the Heisenberg equation for an operator evolution. The solutions of the Lorentz-force equation for the motion inside constant electromagnetic fields are presented via pentagonometric functions. (Author)

  11. History of Space-Based Infrared Astronomy and the Air Force Infrared Celestial Backgrounds Program (United States)


    previous work by ASE in the classified domain. The Air Force was receptive to providing support to place a small aperture (1 cm²) Geiger counter aboard...1970). On July 4, 1969 we loaded up a U-Haul trailer , having put the baby grand piano into storage, and set off for Boston, arriving two days later... movies were shown in the pub, Thursday had evening shopping and, on an occasional Saturday afternoon, amateur Australian rules football. Otherwise

  12. Effects of supplemental vibrational force on space closure, treatment duration, and occlusal outcome: A multicenter randomized clinical trial. (United States)

    DiBiase, Andrew T; Woodhouse, Neil R; Papageorgiou, Spyridon N; Johnson, Nicola; Slipper, Carmel; Grant, James; Alsaleh, Maryam; Khaja, Yousef; Cobourne, Martyn T


    A multicenter parallel 3-arm randomized clinical trial was carried out in 3 university hospitals in the United Kingdom to investigate the effect of supplemental vibratory force on space closure and treatment outcome with fixed appliances. Eighty-one subjects less than 20 years of age with mandibular incisor irregularity undergoing extraction-based fixed appliance treatment were randomly allocated to supplementary (20 minutes/day) use of an intraoral vibrational device (AcceleDent; OrthoAccel Technologies, Houston, Tex) (n = 29), an identical nonfunctional (sham) device (n = 25), or fixed-appliance only (n = 27). Space closure in the mandibular arch was measured from dental study casts taken at the start of space closure, at the next appointment, and at completion of space closure. Final records were taken at completion of treatment. Data were analyzed blindly on a per-protocol basis with descriptive statistics, 1-way analysis of variance, and linear regression modeling with 95% confidence intervals. Sixty-one subjects remained in the trial at start of space closure, with all 3 groups comparable for baseline characteristics. The overall median rate of initial mandibular arch space closure (primary outcome) was 0.89 mm per month with no difference for either the AcceleDent group (difference, -0.09 mm/month; 95% CI, -0.39 to 0.22 mm/month; P = 0.57) or the sham group (difference, -0.02 mm/month; 95% CI, -0.32 to 0.29 mm/month; P = 0.91) compared with the fixed only group. Similarly, no significant differences were identified between groups for secondary outcomes, including overall treatment duration (median, 18.6 months; P >0.05), number of visits (median, 12; P >0.05), and percentage of improvement in the Peer Assessment Rating (median, 90.0%; P >0.05). Supplemental vibratory force during orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances does not affect space closure, treatment duration, total number of visits, or final occlusal outcome. NCT02314975

  13. Application of a rat hindlimb model: a prediction of force spaces reachable through stimulation of nerve fascicles. (United States)

    Johnson, Will L; Jindrich, Devin L; Zhong, Hui; Roy, Roland R; Edgerton, V Reggie


    A device to generate standing or locomotion through chronically placed electrodes has not been fully developed due in part to limitations of clinical experimentation and the high number of muscle activation inputs of the leg. We investigated the feasibility of functional electrical stimulation paradigms that minimize the input dimensions for controlling the limbs by stimulating at nerve fascicles, utilizing a model of the rat hindlimb, which combined previously collected morphological data with muscle physiological parameters presented herein. As validation of the model, we investigated the suitability of a lumped-parameter model for the prediction of muscle activation during dynamic tasks. Using the validated model, we found that the space of forces producible through activation of muscle groups sharing common nerve fascicles was nonlinearly dependent on the number of discrete muscle groups that could be individually activated (equivalently, the neuroanatomical level of activation). Seven commonly innervated muscle groups were sufficient to produce 78% of the force space producible through individual activation of the 42 modeled hindlimb muscles. This novel, neuroanatomically derived reduction in input dimension emphasizes the potential to simplify controllers for functional electrical stimulation to improve functional recovery after a neuromuscular injury.

  14. Kaluza-Klein-Carmeli Metric from Quaternion-Clifford Space, Lorentz' Force, and Some Observables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christianto V.


    Full Text Available It was known for quite long time that a quaternion space can be generalized to a Clifford space, and vice versa; but how to find its neat link with more convenient metric form in the General Relativity theory, has not been explored extensively. We begin with a representation of group with non-zero quaternions to derive closed FLRW metric [1], and from there obtains Carmeli metric, which can be extended further to become 5D and 6D metric (which we propose to call Kaluza-Klein-Carmeli metric. Thereafter we discuss some plausible implications of this metric, beyond describing a galaxy’s spiraling motion and redshift data as these have been done by Carmeli and Hartnett [4, 5, 6]. In subsequent section we explain Podkletnov’s rotating disc experiment. We also note possible implications to quantum gravity. Further observations are of course recommended in order to refute or verify this proposition.

  15. Environmental Assessment for the California Space Center at Vandenberg Air Force Base, California (United States)


    shallow- rooted , mesophylic plant species that Chapter 3. Affected Environment Final Draft Environmental Assessment - California Space Center...buckwheat flowers and buds where the larvae feed until maturation. Upon maturation larvae burrow into the soil and pupate, usually within the root and...terrain, sharp or protruding objects, slippery soils or mud, and biological hazards including vegetation (i.e. poison oak and stinging nettle

  16. Non-static nuclear forces in a Kerr-Newman background space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radmore, P.M.


    In the Kerr-Newman background space, an explicit expression for the source term due to a particle moving along a geodesic near the event horizon in the equatorial plane of the black hole is found. This is used, together with the solutions of the Klein-Gordon equation near the event horizon (found elsewhere) to show that the meson field near the black hole vanishes as the source crosses the event horizon. (author)

  17. Exploring the Impact of Fuel Data Acquisition Technology on the USMC Expeditionary Energy Command and Control System (United States)


    CA: Sage Publications, Inc. Tulusan, J., Soi, L., Paefgen, J., Brogle, M., & Staake, T. (2011). Eco -efficient feedback technologies : Which eco ...IMPACT OF FUEL DATA ACQUISITION TECHNOLOGY ON THE USMC EXPEDITIONARY ENERGY COMMAND AND CONTROL SYSTEM by Jeremy F. Thomas September 2016...DATE September 2016 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE EXPLORING THE IMPACT OF FUEL DATA ACQUISITION TECHNOLOGY

  18. Fertilization of sea urchin eggs and sperm motility are negatively impacted under low hypergravitational forces significant to space flight (United States)

    Tash, J. S.; Kim, S.; Schuber, M.; Seibt, D.; Kinsey, W. H.


    Sperm and other flagellates swim faster in microgravity (microG) than in 1 G, raising the question of whether fertilization is altered under conditions of space travel. Such alterations have implications for reproduction of plant and animal food and for long-term space habitation by man. We previously demonstrated that microG accelerates protein phosphorylation during initiation of sperm motility but delays the sperm response to the egg chemotactic factor, speract. Thus sperm are sensitive to changes in gravitational force. New experiments using the NiZeMi centrifugal microscope examined whether low hypergravity (hyperG) causes effects opposite to microG on sperm motility, signal transduction, and fertilization. Sperm % motility and straight-line velocity were significantly inhibited by as little as 1.3 G. The phosphorylation states of FP130, an axonemal phosphoprotein, and FP160, a cAMP-dependent salt-extractable flagellar protein, both coupled to motility activation, showed a more rapid decline in hyperG. Most critically, hyperG caused an approximately 50% reduction in both the rate of sperm-egg binding and fertilization. The similar extent of inhibition of both fertilization parameters in hyperG suggests that the primary effect is on sperm rather than eggs. These results not only support our earlier microG data demonstrating that sperm are sensitive to small changes in gravitational forces but more importantly now show that this sensitivity affects the ability of sperm to fertilize eggs. Thus, more detailed studies on the impact of space flight on development should include studies of sperm function and fertilization.

  19. Considering space weather forces interaction on human health: the equilibrium paradigm in clinical cosmobiology - is it equal? (United States)

    Stoupel, Eliyahu


    We are constantly affected by changes in space weather. The principal "players" are solar activity (SA), geomagnetic activity (GMA) and antagonistic to them, cosmic ray activity (CRA) and high energy proton flux. CRA is measured by neutron activity on the earth's surface in imp/min. SA and GMA are linked and serve as a shield for the earth from CRA. For a long time SA and GMA were the main areas of studies. The aim of this study was to compare some effects of the mentioned forces and discuss the temporal distribution of both groups of space weather, in relation to their effects on humans. The time distribution of GMA storms (daily) was compared with quiet (low) GMA, with higher CRA (neutron activity). Space weather data were obtained from the USA, Russia and Finland. A total of 4383 days were analyzed in the years 2000-2012. A total of 71 days (1.62%) of geomagnetic storms (GS) and 2753 days (63.8%) of quiet (I0) GMA were registered. A second study was provided including the years 1983-2007 (9131 days); here 3800 days (41.62%) were quiet GMA days and 400 storm days (4.38%). According to publications in the medical literature, many phenomena are connected with the extremes of space weather. Despite a great number of publications and the significant role of GS, it is a relatively rare event and most medical emergencies and deaths occur on days of low GMA, accompanied by higher CRA (neutron activity). High neutron activity deserves more attention when analyzing space effects on human health and their mechanism of action.

  20. Emittance growth due to static and radiative space charge forces in an electron bunch compressor

    CERN Document Server

    Talman, Richard; Stulle, Frank


    Evolution of short intense electron bunches passing through bunch-compressing beam lines is studied using the UAL (Unified Accelerator Libraries) string space charge formulation [R. Talman, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 7, 100701 (2004); N. Malitsky and R. Talman, in Proceedings of the 9th European Particle Accelerator Conference, Lucerne, 2004 (EPS-AG, Lucerne, 2004); R. Talman, Accelerator X-Ray Sources (Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2006), Chap. 13]. Three major configurations are studied, with the first most important and studied in greatest detail (because actual experimental results are available and the same results have been simulated with other codes): (i) Experimental bunch compression results were obtained at CTF-II, the CERN test facility for the “Compact Linear Collider” using electrons of about 40 MeV. Previous simulations of these results have been performed (using trafic4* [A. Kabel et al., Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 455, 185 (2000)] and elegant [M. Borland, Argonne National Laboratory...

  1. An Objective Verification of the North American Mesoscale Model for Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (United States)

    Bauman, William H., III


    The 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) Launch Weather Officers (LWO's) use the 12-km resolution North American Mesoscale (NAM) model (MesoNAM) text and graphical product forecasts extensively to support launch weather operations. However, the actual performance of the model at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) has not been measured objectively. In order to have tangible evidence of model performance, the 45 WS tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU; Bauman et ai, 2004) to conduct a detailed statistical analysis of model output compared to observed values. The model products are provided to the 45 WS by ACTA, Inc. and include hourly forecasts from 0 to 84 hours based on model initialization times of 00, 06, 12 and 18 UTC. The objective analysis compared the MesoNAM forecast winds, temperature (T) and dew pOint (T d), as well as the changes in these parameters over time, to the observed values from the sensors in the KSC/CCAFS wind tower network shown in Table 1. These objective statistics give the forecasters knowledge of the model's strengths and weaknesses, which will result in improved forecasts for operations.

  2. Quantitative assessment of force fields on both low-energy conformational basins and transition-state regions of the (phi-psi) space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Z.; Ensing, B.; Moore, P.B.


    The free energy surfaces (FESs) of alanine dipeptide are studied to illustrate a new strategy to assess the performance of classical molecular mechanics force field on the full range of the (phi-psi) conformational space. The FES is obtained from metadynamics simulations with five commonly used

  3. Removal of Inorganic, Microbial, and Particulate Contaminants from a Fresh Surface Water: Village Marine Tec. Expeditionary Unit Water Purifier, Generation 1 (United States)

    The Village Marine Tec. Generation 1 Expeditionary Unit Water Purifier (EUWP) is a mobile skid-mounted system employing ultrafiltration (UF) and reverse osmosis (RO) to produce drinking water from a variety of different water quality sources. The UF components were evaluated to t...

  4. Statistical Analysis of Model Data for Operational Space Launch Weather Support at Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (United States)

    Bauman, William H., III


    The 12-km resolution North American Mesoscale (NAM) model (MesoNAM) is used by the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) Launch Weather Officers at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) to support space launch weather operations. The 45 WS tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit to conduct an objective statistics-based analysis of MesoNAM output compared to wind tower mesonet observations and then develop a an operational tool to display the results. The National Centers for Environmental Prediction began running the current version of the MesoNAM in mid-August 2006. The period of record for the dataset was 1 September 2006 - 31 January 2010. The AMU evaluated MesoNAM hourly forecasts from 0 to 84 hours based on model initialization times of 00, 06, 12 and 18 UTC. The MesoNAM forecast winds, temperature and dew point were compared to the observed values of these parameters from the sensors in the KSC/CCAFS wind tower network. The data sets were stratified by model initialization time, month and onshore/offshore flow for each wind tower. Statistics computed included bias (mean difference), standard deviation of the bias, root mean square error (RMSE) and a hypothesis test for bias = O. Twelve wind towers located in close proximity to key launch complexes were used for the statistical analysis with the sensors on the towers positioned at varying heights to include 6 ft, 30 ft, 54 ft, 60 ft, 90 ft, 162 ft, 204 ft and 230 ft depending on the launch vehicle and associated weather launch commit criteria being evaluated. These twelve wind towers support activities for the Space Shuttle (launch and landing), Delta IV, Atlas V and Falcon 9 launch vehicles. For all twelve towers, the results indicate a diurnal signal in the bias of temperature (T) and weaker but discernable diurnal signal in the bias of dewpoint temperature (T(sub d)) in the MesoNAM forecasts. Also, the standard deviation of the bias and RMSE of T, T(sub d), wind speed and wind

  5. Deep Space Exploration: Will We Be Ready? Infectious Diseases, Microgravity and Other Forces Affecting Health Pose Challenges for Humans Planning to Explore Space (United States)

    LaRocco, Mark T.; Pierson, Duane L.


    In contemplating space travel beyond earth orbits, we humans face significant barriers and major challenges. Although researchers involved in several scientific subdisciplines, including space medicine and space life sciences, may provide insights to help overcome those barriers, their efforts are at an early stage of development, leaving open many questions of potentially major consequence.

  6. Real-Time Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station High-Resolution Model Implementation and Verification (United States)

    Shafer, Jaclyn A.; Watson, Leela R.


    Customer: NASA's Launch Services Program (LSP), Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO), and Space Launch System (SLS) programs. NASA's LSP, GSDO, SLS and other programs at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) use the daily and weekly weather forecasts issued by the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) as decision tools for their day-to-day and launch operations on the Eastern Range (ER). For example, to determine if they need to limit activities such as vehicle transport to the launch pad, protect people, structures or exposed launch vehicles given a threat of severe weather, or reschedule other critical operations. The 45 WS uses numerical weather prediction models as a guide for these weather forecasts, particularly the Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA) 1.67 kilometer Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Considering the 45 WS forecasters' and Launch Weather Officers' (LWO) extensive use of the AFWA model, the 45 WS proposed a task at the September 2013 Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) Tasking Meeting requesting the AMU verify this model. Due to the lack of archived model data available from AFWA, verification is not yet possible. Instead, the AMU proposed to implement and verify the performance of an ER version of the AMU high-resolution WRF Environmental Modeling System (EMS) model (Watson 2013) in real-time. The tasking group agreed to this proposal; therefore the AMU implemented the WRF-EMS model on the second of two NASA AMU modeling clusters. The model was set up with a triple-nested grid configuration over KSC/CCAFS based on previous AMU work (Watson 2013). The outer domain (D01) has 12-kilometer grid spacing, the middle domain (D02) has 4-kilometer grid spacing, and the inner domain (D03) has 1.33-kilometer grid spacing. The model runs a 12-hour forecast every hour, D01 and D02 domain outputs are available once an hour and D03 is every 15 minutes during the forecast period. The AMU assessed the WRF-EMS 1

  7. Space Psychology and Psychiatry (United States)

    Kanas, N.; Manzey, D.


    This book deals with psychological, psychiatric, and psychosocial issues that affect people who live and work in space. Unlike other books that focus on anecdotal reports and ground-based simulation studies, this book emphasizes the findings from psychological research conducted during actual space missions. Both authors have been active in such research. What is presented in this readable text has previously been found only in scientific journal articles. Topics that are discussed include: behavioral adaptation to space; human performance and cognitive effects; crewmember interactions; psychiatric responses; psychological counter-measures related to habitability factors, work-design, selection, training, and in-flight monitoring and support; and the impact of expeditionary missions to Mars and beyond. People finding this book of interest will include: psychology and social science students and professors in universities; medical students and residents in psychiatry and aerospace medicine; human factors workers in space and aviation professions; individuals involved with isolated environments on Earth (e.g., the Antarctic, submarines); aerospace workers in businesses and space agencies such as NASA and ESA; and anyone who is interested in learning the facts about the human side of long-duration space missions. Link:

  8. Using C-Band Dual-Polarization Radar Signatures to Improve Convective Wind Forecasting at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and NASA Kennedy Space Center (United States)

    Amiot, Corey G.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Roeder, William P.; McNamara, Todd M.; Blakeslee, Richard J.


    The United States Air Force's 45th Weather Squadron (45WS) is the organization responsible for monitoring atmospheric conditions at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and NASA Kennedy Space Center (CCAFS/KSC) and issuing warnings for hazardous weather conditions when the need arises. One such warning is issued for convective wind events, for which lead times of 30 and 60 minutes are desired for events with peak wind gusts of 35 knots or greater (i.e., Threshold-1) and 50 knots or greater (i.e., Threshold-2), respectively (Roeder et al. 2014).

  9. Report of the Defense Science Board/Air Force Scientific Advisory Board Joint Task Force on Acquisition of National Security Space Programs (United States)


    space requires both contractors---at least until sustainable performance is demonstrated • EELV program has occurred in highly cost constrained...both contractors • Take necessary actions to assure both contractors remain viable---at least until sustainable performance is demonstrated

  10. Sixteen-week analysis of unaltered elastomeric chain relating in-vitro force degradation with in-vivo extraction space tooth movement. (United States)

    Evans, Kristin S; Wood, Cory M; Moffitt, Allen H; Colgan, John A; Holman, J Kevin; Marshall, Steven D; Pope, D Spencer; Sample, Lew B; Sherman, Stephen L; Sinclair, Peter M; Trulove, Tim S


    The purposes of this study were to evaluate whether unaltered elastomeric chain can continue to move teeth for 16 weeks and to relate it to the amount of force remaining for the same batch of elastomeric chains. The in-vivo portion of the study had a sample of 30 paired extraction space sites from 22 subjects who were measured for closure of the space every 28 days. The altered side elastomeric chain served as the control and was replaced at 28-day intervals whereas the experimental side remained unaltered. In the in-vitro portion of the study, 100 each of 2-unit and 3-unit segments of the same batch of elastomeric chains were placed in a water bath, and the force was measured for 20 of each segment length at the 28-day measurement points. Statistically significant amounts of space closure occurred at both the altered and unaltered sites at all measurement time points. The mean space closure at the altered sites was minimally greater than that observed at the paired unaltered sites. The mean differences of space closure between the altered and unaltered sites ranged from a minimum of -0.05 mm at 4 weeks to a maximum of -0.14 mm at 8 weeks. The elastomeric chain force degraded rapidly by 4 weeks but continued a gradual diminution of force to 86 g at 16 weeks. Unaltered elastomeric chain continued to move teeth into extraction spaces for 16 weeks in this sample from both statistically and clinically significant standpoints. There were minimal and statistically insignificant differences in the mean space closure measurements between the paired altered and unaltered sites. The elastomeric chain force at 16 weeks was less than 100 g, yet at the same time point, teeth continued to move clinically. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Combined Discrete Space Voltage Vector with Direct Torque Control for Bearingless Brushless DC Motor and Closed-Loop Suspended Force Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiran Wang


    Full Text Available In order to improve the performance of bearingless brushless DC motor, a closed-loop suspended force controller combining the discrete space voltage vector modulation is applied and the direct torque control is presented in this paper. Firstly, we increase the number of the control vector to reduce the torque ripple. Then, the suspending equation is constructed which is spired by the direct torque control algorithm. As a result, the closed-loop suspended force controller is built. The simulated and experimental results evaluate the performance of the proposed method. The more advantage is that the proposed algorithm can achieve the fast torque response, reduce the torque ripple, and follow ideal stator flux track. Furthermore, the motor which implants the closed-loop suspended force controller cannot onlyobtain the dynamic response rapidly and displacement control accurately, but also has the characteristics of bearingless brushless DC motor (such as simple structure, high energy efficiency, small volume and low failure rate.

  12. Influence of Alcohol and Alcohol-free Mouthrinses on Force Degradation of Different Types of Space Closure Auxiliaries used in Sliding Mechanics


    Vivek Mahajan; Anil Singla; Anurag Negi; Harupinder Singh Jaj; Vikrant Bhandari


    Introduction: The objective of the study was to evaluate the percentage of force degradation of elastomeric chains, NiTi closed coil spring and stainless steel closed coil spring at different time intervals in different media. Materials and methods: Three types of space closing auxiliaries, such as elastomeric chains, NiTi closed coil springs and stainless steel coil springs immersed in artificial saliva, alcohol-free mouthrinse (Colgate plax) and alcohol-containing mouthrinse (Listerine...

  13. Blue Sky Below My Feet. Adventures in Space Technology, Forces, Fibers, Foods. 4-H Leader/Teacher Handbook. (United States)

    Manholt, Donna; And Others

    This teaching guide for 4th through 6th grade classes integrates science, language arts, and math concepts into ready-to-use space and space technology lessons. Significant learning outcomes for this curriculum are linked to Ohio's educational objectives for science in an at-a-glance curriculum matrix. A summary of the significant 4-H life skills…

  14. Space-time symmetry and quantum Yang-Mills gravity how space-time translational gauge symmetry enables the unification of gravity with other forces

    CERN Document Server

    Hsu, Jong-Ping


    Yang-Mills gravity is a new theory, consistent with experiments, that brings gravity back to the arena of gauge field theory and quantum mechanics in flat space-time. It provides solutions to long-standing difficulties in physics, such as the incompatibility between Einstein's principle of general coordinate invariance and modern schemes for a quantum mechanical description of nature, and Noether's 'Theorem II' which showed that the principle of general coordinate invariance in general relativity leads to the failure of the law of conservation of energy. Yang-Mills gravity in flat space-time a

  15. Tool for Forecasting Cool-Season Peak Winds Across Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (United States)

    Barrett, Joe H., III; Roeder, William P.


    The expected peak wind speed for the day is an important element in the daily morning forecast for ground and space launch operations at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS). The 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) must issue forecast advisories for KSC/CCAFS when they expect peak gusts for >= 25, >= 35, and >= 50 kt thresholds at any level from the surface to 300 ft. In Phase I of this task, the 45 WS tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) to develop a cool-season (October - April) tool to help forecast the non-convective peak wind from the surface to 300 ft at KSC/CCAFS. During the warm season, these wind speeds are rarely exceeded except during convective winds or under the influence of tropical cyclones, for which other techniques are already in use. The tool used single and multiple linear regression equations to predict the peak wind from the morning sounding. The forecaster manually entered several observed sounding parameters into a Microsoft Excel graphical user interface (GUI), and then the tool displayed the forecast peak wind speed, average wind speed at the time of the peak wind, the timing of the peak wind and the probability the peak wind will meet or exceed 35, 50 and 60 kt. The 45 WS customers later dropped the requirement for >= 60 kt wind warnings. During Phase II of this task, the AMU expanded the period of record (POR) by six years to increase the number of observations used to create the forecast equations. A large number of possible predictors were evaluated from archived soundings, including inversion depth and strength, low-level wind shear, mixing height, temperature lapse rate and winds from the surface to 3000 ft. Each day in the POR was stratified in a number of ways, such as by low-level wind direction, synoptic weather pattern, precipitation and Bulk Richardson number. The most accurate Phase II equations were then selected for an independent verification. The Phase I and II forecast methods were

  16. Air Force Host and Tenant Agreements Between the 50th Space Wing, the Joint National Integration Center, and Tenants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    .... The 50th Space Wing makes available by permit two buildings on the base's real property records, 720 and 730, to the Joint National Integration Center, a Component of the Missile Defense Agency...

  17. 78 FR 32241 - U.S. Air Force Seeks Industry Input for National Security Space Launch Assessment (United States)


    ..., seeks industry views and perspectives to inform an on-going strategic National Security Space Launch... the U.S. Government. 2. What are the critical issues that concern current and prospective launch...

  18. Implementation of National Space Policy on US Air Force End of Life Operations and Orbital Debris Mitigation (United States)


    Space Development and Test Directorate, Kirtland AFB, NM, 87117 Recent changes to US space policy regarding the execution of satellite End of Life ( EOL ...procedures have been driven by the rising significance of the orbital debris problem in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). Therefore current EOL plans are...considerations for writing operational EOL plans, with special applicability to military missions and focus on LEO satellites that are unable to relocate

  19. Lessons In Operational Art: An Analysis of the Allied Expeditionary Forces in North Russia, 1918-1919 (United States)


    reducing the risk to their newfound power, Lenin and Trotsky sought and gained an end to the war with Germany. The Brest -Litovsk Treaty of March 1918...between Germany and Russia terminated the eastern front of the war in Europe. As Kinvig describes, The treaty of Brest -Litovsk represented one of...Council of the Peace Conference of Paris in January 1919. The SCPC’s principle purpose was to bring the armistice in Europe to a formalized treaty and

  20. Strategic Agility: Using the Expeditionary Aerospace Force as a Framework for Assuring Strategic Relevancy in the USAF (United States)


    70 Deptula, interview. 71 Major General Charles Link quoted in Michael Barzelay and Colin Campbell, Preparing for the Future: Strategic Planning...interview. 32 Colin Clark, “Two War Strategy Dead: Cartwright” DoD Buzz, 15 July 2009,’s 2,250 fighters and that that ought to be our target. Well who says? Or why we have 1,763 F-35s as our target goal. Now the dirty

  1. Force Projection, the 5th Marine Expeditionary Brigade, and the Planned Amphibious Assault during the 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis (United States)


    was a threat to the peace and safety of the United States.15 Essentially, Monroe had just drawn a line in the sand that the United States intended to...toward Cuba would fluctuate between heavy-handed coercion to a hands-off approach.16 To manage and control Cuba (and protect U.S. interests) while...M. Beer , “The U.S. Navy and the Cuban Missile Crisis” (A Trident Scholar Project, U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD, 1990), 12. 32 Falcon, 22

  2. Year 2000 Issues Within the U.S. Pacific Command’s Area of Responsibility, III Marine Expeditionary Force (United States)


    report in final form. We appreciate the courtesies extended to the audit staff. Questions on the audit should be directed to Mr. Robert M. Murrell at... Smedley D. Butler, Okinawa, and Marine Corps Air Station, Futenma, Japan. A Y2K project team was appointed and the infrastructure inventory was completed...the Assistant Inspector General for Auditing, DoD, produced this report. Paul J. Granetto Robert M. Murrell Nancee K. Needham Peter J. Larson Charles R. Johnson John R. Huddleston Elizabeth Lavallee Elizabeth Ramos

  3. The Mexican Expeditionary Air Force in World War II: The Organization, Training, and Operations of the 201st Squadron (United States)


    artículos de reemplazo y mantenimiento para la unidad, se proporcionarán por medio de los conductos de abastecimiento normales de los Estados Unidos. El... mantenimiento abarca artículos de ministración standard, incluyendo subsistencias y servicios proporcionados normalmente a la unidades de las Fuerzas...Aéreas de los Estados Unidos. Todos los artículos de ministración inicial, los de reemplazo y mantenimiento , se cargarán de acuerdo con los

  4. Forward Support Base Operations in Support of Low/Mid Intensity Conflict Contingency and Expeditionary Force Operations (United States)


    and for airland battle. SKCURITV CLASSIIPCATION OF THIS PACK(tmen Data lntered) USAWC MILITARY STUDIES PROGRAM PAPER The views expressed in this paper ...connectivity of echeloned support. Doctrine must be able to provide for all conflict on all scales. Strategic Logestic System (SLS) Initiatives need to be

  5. Global Energy Trade and the Joint Expeditionary Force: Supporting Friends and Influencing Others on the New Silk Road (United States)


    porcelain to wool and cobalt were transported over the centuries from East to West and West to East. The overland and maritime extensions of the...various Turkish tribes and renewed control over the Tarim Basin and Eastern Turkestan. The Chinese faced powerful enemies in the form of the...controls all oil tanker traffic from the Middle East to China and Japan. Chinese strategic planners, for good reason, are concerned about an

  6. Defense Acquisition Workforce: The Air Force Needs to Evaluate Changes in Funding for Civilians Engaged in Space Acquisition (United States)


    1) revitalize the acquisition workforce; (2) improve the requirements generation process; (3) instill budget and financial DOD Acquisition...with our four recommended actions (see app . I). In concurring with our recommendations, DOD stated that the Air Force will evaluate the pilot program

  7. Flare-generated clouds as compact force-free toroidal configurations: magnetic measurements by the Vega-1 and Vega-2 space probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, K.G.; Kharshiladze, A.F.; Eroshenko, E.G.; Styazhkin, V.A.


    Magnetic field experimental profiles, obtained during Vega-I and Vega-2 space vehicles passing through interplanetary cloud on the 16.02.1986, are compared with approximate theoretical profiles, taken from different hypotheses about such clouds structure. Maximum correlation of the theory and experiment is obtained with cloud presentation as flattened compact force-free toroid, which equatorial plane is approximately parallel to great circle plane, passing through flare on the 14.02.86 parallel to magnetic axis nearest to bipolar group flare

  8. PLA Aerospace Power: A Primer on Trends in China’s Military Air, Space, and Missile Forces (United States)


    Strategic Deterrence,” Santa Monica: The RAND Corporation , 2016, p. 43. 30 The Science of Strategy , 1987, p. 115 cited in Chase, p. 12. 69 PLA Aerospace...branches of the People’s Liberation Army’s aerospace assets and forces, CASI will also explore topics and areas related to the support infrastructure...regional security strategy that involves deterring any adversary, and, should deterrence fail, prevailing in combat. At the start of 2016, Chinese

  9. Developing Empirical Lightning Cessation Forecast Guidance for the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and Kennedy Space Center (United States)


    345th Weather Squadron, Patrick Air Force Base, Cocoa Beach, Florida, USA. Copyright 2010 by the American Geophysical Union. 0148‐0227/10/2009JD013034...V. Mazur, W. D. Rust, W. L. Taylor, and B. C. Johnson (1989), Lightning rates relative to tornadic storm evolution on 22 May 1981, J. Atmos. Sci...Marshall, T. C., M. Stolzenburg, P. R. Krehbiel, N. R. Lund, and C. R. Maggio (2009), Electrical evolution during the decay stage of New Mexico thunderstorms

  10. Building a Quality Controlled Database of Meteorological Data from NASA Kennedy Space Center and the United States Air Force's Eastern Range (United States)

    Brenton, James C.; Barbre. Robert E., Jr.; Decker, Ryan K.; Orcutt, John M.


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Natural Environments Branch (EV44) has provided atmospheric databases and analysis in support of space vehicle design and day-of-launch operations for NASA and commercial launch vehicle programs launching from the NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC), co-located on the United States Air Force's Eastern Range (ER) at the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. The ER complex is one of the most heavily instrumented sites in the United States with over 31 towers measuring various atmospheric parameters on a continuous basis. An inherent challenge with large sets of data consists of ensuring erroneous data is removed from databases, and thus excluded from launch vehicle design analyses. EV44 has put forth great effort in developing quality control (QC) procedures for individual meteorological instruments, however no standard QC procedures for all databases currently exists resulting in QC databases that have inconsistencies in variables, methodologies, and periods of record. The goal of this activity is to use the previous efforts by EV44 to develop a standardized set of QC procedures from which to build meteorological databases from KSC and the ER, while maintaining open communication with end users from the launch community to develop ways to improve, adapt and grow the QC database. Details of the QC procedures will be described. As the rate of launches increases with additional launch vehicle programs, it is becoming more important that weather databases are continually updated and checked for data quality before use in launch vehicle design and certification analyses.

  11. Modification of the RTMTRACE program for numerical simulation of particle dynamics at racetrack microtrons with account of space charge forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surma, I.V.; Shvedunov, V.I.


    The paper presents modification results of the program for simulation of particle dynamics in cyclic accelerators with RTMTRACE linear gap. The program was modified with regard for the effect of space charge effect on particle dynamics. Calculation results of particle dynamics in 1 MeV energy continuous-duty accelerator with 10 kw beam were used to develop continuous powerful commercial accelerator. 3 refs., 2 figs

  12. Influence of Alcohol and Alcohol-free Mouthrinses on Force Degradation of Different Types of Space Closure Auxiliaries used in Sliding Mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Mahajan


    Full Text Available Introduction: The objective of the study was to evaluate the percentage of force degradation of elastomeric chains, NiTi closed coil spring and stainless steel closed coil spring at different time intervals in different media. Materials and methods: Three types of space closing auxiliaries, such as elastomeric chains, NiTi closed coil springs and stainless steel coil springs immersed in artificial saliva, alcohol-free mouthrinse (Colgate plax and alcohol-containing mouthrinse (Listerine at time interval of 1, 4, 7,14, 21 and 28 days were divided into nine groups of 15 each: Group I- 15 polyurethane elastomeric chain immersed inside artificial saliva (Control. Group II-15 polyurethane elastomeric chain immersed inside alcohol-free mouthrinse. Group III- 15 polyurethane elastomeric chain immersed inside alcohol-containing mouthrinse. Group IV-15 stainless steel closed coil springs immersed inside artificial saliva (Control. Group V- 15 stainless steel closed coil springs immersed inside alcohol-free mouthrinse. Group VI-15 stainless steel closed coil springs immersed inside alcohol-containing mouthrinse. Group VII- 15 NiTi closed coil springs immersed inside artificial saliva (Control. Group VIII-15 nickel titanium closed coil springs immersed inside alcohol-free mouthrinse. Group IX- 15 NiTi closed coil springs immersed inside alcohol-containing mouthrinse. The percentage of force degradation was measured with the universal testing machine. Results: The force produced by elastomeric chain, stainless steel closed coil spring and NiTi closed coil spring at seven time intervals in artificial saliva, alcohol-free mouthwash and alcohol-containing mouthwash showed a statistically significant difference (p < 0.001. Conclusion: The force degradation in alcohol-containing mouthwash solution (Listerine is more as compared to alcohol-free mouthwash solution (Colgate plax .

  13. Shrinking social space in the doctor-modern patient relationship: a review of forces for, and implications of, homologisation. (United States)

    Buetow, Stephen; Jutel, Annemarie; Hoare, Karen


    Forces for modernisation appear to have led to role convergence and reduced social distances between doctors and modern patients. This review aims to document and understand this process in theory and practice, and to consider the implications for modern patients in particular but also non-modern patients and doctors. Narrative review of published and grey literature identified from sources including electronic databases, the Internet and reference lists of retrieved works. Forces for role convergence between doctors and modern patients include consumerism and increased patient literacy; socio-technological changes; values convergence; increased licence for doctors to use their emotions in patient care; and structural changes in the social organisation of health care. As a result, modern patients appear to have gained more in health care than they have lost and more than have the non-modern (or less modern) patients. Doctors have lost authority and autonomy in patient care. The net impulse toward role convergence is, on balance, a positive development. The differential uptake of modernisation by patients has increased health inequalities between modern and non-modern patients. The need of doctors to accommodate these changes has contributed to a form of reprofessonalisation. A key challenge is to make available the benefits of modernisation, for example through patient education, to as many patients as possible while minimising the risk of harm. It is important therefore to elucidate and be responsive to patient preferences for modernisation, for example by enlisting the support of the modern patients in overcoming barriers to the modernisation of non-modern patients. There is also a need to support doctors as they redefine their own professional role identity.

  14. Armenian Expedition of Emperor Constantius II in 338/339 A.D. and Military Units of Thracian Expeditionary Army at the Near East: on the Late Roman Military Organization in the Mid-4th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the history of military corps, which Roman emperor Constantius II sent to Great Armenia in 338/339 A.D. for to fight with the Persians. The main evidence on Constantius II’s Persian expedition are preserved in the works of prominent Armenian historians, that are Moses Khorenatsi and Pawstos Buzand. Constantius II held this campaign in order to free Armenia from the Persians and to bring back its state freedom. According to Moses Khorenatsi and Pawstos Buzand, Constantius II sent in Armenia bodyguards, who were representatives of Armenian noble families allied to the Romans, but the Roman regular forces themselves collected in Galatia (the Asia Minor, moved in Mesopotamia and Atropatene (south of modern Azerbaijan and Iranian Azerbaijan. As the author supposes, Roman troops arrived in Armenia and took part in fight with the Persians, strictly due to Roman military help Armenian naχarars could expel the Persians from Armenia. In this connection the author poses a question – which military units arrived at the Roman Near East (in Mesopotamia from the Asia Minor and how Constantius II’s military campaign in Armenia influenced on the further development of Roman-Persian frontier and its defence system. On the ground of epigraphic data (inscriptions from Mesopotamia and Arabia author made a conclusion that in 338/339 A.D. Constantius II moved at the Near East military units which previously were parts of Thracian expeditionary army and garrisoned in Thracia, since inscriptions under discussion mention soldiers who bear Thracian names that reveal their Thracian origin.

  15. Far-field dynamic behavior of a half-space under an inertial strip foundation subjected to a time-harmonic force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dehestani

    Full Text Available Recent research works demonstrated that the interaction between the loads and the carrying structure's boundary which is related to the inertia of the load is an influential factor on the dynamic response of the structure. Although effects of the inertia in moving loads were considered in many works, very few papers can be found on the inertial effects of the stationary loads on structures. In this paper, an elastodynamic formulation was employed to investigate the dynamic response of a homogeneous isotropic elastic half-space under an inertial strip foundation subjected to a time-harmonic force. Fourier integral transformation was used to solve the system of Poisson-type partial differential equation considering the boundary conditions and the inertial effects. Steepest descent method was employed to obtain the approximate far-field displacements and stresses. A numerical example is presented to illustrate the methodology and typical results.

  16. Data recovery program to mitigate the effects of the construction of space transportation system facilities on seven archaeological sites on Vandenberg Air Force Base, Santa Barbara County, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glassow, M.A.


    A plan is proposed for the recovery of data from three prehistoric habitation sites, 4-SBa-539, 670, and 931, which will be adversely affected by the Space Transportation System Project, Vandenberg Air Force Base, California. Phase II testing suggests that SBa-539 and 670, fall within the Late Period, AD 1000 to European contact, with a possible Middle-Period component at 670, while SBa-931, radiocarbon-dated to BC 6000, represents the Early Period, or Millingstone Horizon, of Southern California prehistory. Excavation will utilize conventional fine scale techniques and specialized sample collection. Data analysis will provide information on prehistoric subsistence and settlement patterns, inter-regional trade, and functions of distinctive artifact types. Cultural change will be identified and comparisons made between cultural developments of Vandenberg and neighboring regions

  17. LightForce Photon-Pressure Collision Avoidance: Efficiency Assessment on an Entire Catalogue of Space Debris (United States)

    Stupl, Jan Michael; Faber, Nicolas; Foster, Cyrus; Yang Yang, Fan; Levit, Creon


    The potential to perturb debris orbits using photon pressure from ground-based lasers has been confirmed by independent research teams. Two useful applications of this scheme are protecting space assets from impacts with debris and stabilizing the orbital debris environment, both relying on collision avoidance rather than de-orbiting debris. This paper presents the results of a new assessment method to analyze the efficiency of the concept for collision avoidance. Earlier research concluded that one ground based system consisting of a 10 kW class laser, directed by a 1.5 m telescope with adaptive optics, can prevent a significant fraction of debris-debris collisions in low Earth orbit. That research used in-track displacement to measure efficiency and restricted itself to an analysis of a limited number of objects. As orbit prediction error is dependent on debris object properties, a static displacement threshold should be complemented with another measure to assess the efficiency of the scheme. In this paper we present the results of an approach using probability of collision. Using a least-squares fitting method, we improve the quality of the original TLE catalogue in terms of state and co-state accuracy. We then calculate collision probabilities for all the objects in the catalogue. The conjunctions with the highest risk of collision are then engaged by a simulated network of laser ground stations. After those engagements, the perturbed orbits are used to re-assess the collision probability in a 20 minute window around the original conjunction. We then use different criteria to evaluate the utility of the laser-based collision avoidance scheme and assess the number of base-line ground stations needed to mitigate a significant number of high probability conjunctions. Finally, we also give an account how a laser ground station can be used for both orbit deflection and debris tracking.

  18. Mesoscopic nonequilibrium thermodynamics of solid surfaces and interfaces with triple junction singularities under the capillary and electromigration forces in anisotropic three-dimensional space. (United States)

    Ogurtani, Tarik Omer


    A theory of irreversible thermodynamics of curved surfaces and interfaces with triple junction singularities is elaborated to give a full consideration of the effects of the specific surface Gibbs free energy anisotropy in addition to the diffusional anisotropy, on the morphological evolution of surfaces and interfaces in crystalline solids. To entangle this intricate problem, the internal entropy production associated with arbitrary virtual displacements of triple junction and ordinary points on the interfacial layers, embedded in a multicomponent, multiphase, anisotropic composite continuum system, is formulated by adapting a mesoscopic description of the orientation dependence of the chemical potentials in terms of the rotational degree of freedom of individual microelements. The rate of local internal entropy production resulted generalized forces and conjugated fluxes not only for the grain boundary triple junction transversal and longitudinal movements, but also for the ordinary points. The natural combination of the mesoscopic approach coupled with the rigorous theory of irreversible thermodynamics developed previously by the global entropy production hypothesis yields a well-posed, nonlinear, moving free-boundary value problem in two-dimensional (2D) space, as a unified theory. The results obtained for 2D space are generalized into the three-dimensional continuum by utilizing the invariant properties of the vector operators in connection with the descriptions of curved surfaces in differential geometry. This mathematical model after normalization and scaling procedures may be easily adapted for computer simulation studies without introducing any additional phenomenological system parameters (the generalized mobilities), other than the enlarged concept of the surface stiffness.

  19. A Sounding-based Severe Weather Tool to Support Daily Operations at Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (United States)

    Bauman, William H.; Roeder, William P.


    People and property at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) are at risk when severe weather occurs. Strong winds, hail and tornadoes can injure individuals and cause costly damage to structures if not properly protected. NASA's Launch Services Program and Ground Systems Development and Operations Program and other KSC programs use the daily and weekly severe weather forecasts issued by the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) to determine if they need to limit an activity such as working on gantries, or protect property such as a vehicle on a pad. The 45 WS requested the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) develop a warm season (May-September) severe weather tool for use in the Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS) based on the late morning, 1500 UTC (1100 local time), CCAFS (XMR) sounding. The 45 WS frequently makes decisions to issue a severe weather watch and other severe weather warning support products to NASA and the 45th Space Wing in the late morning, after the 1500 UTC sounding. The results of this work indicate that certain stability indices based on the late morning XMR soundings can depict differences between days with reported severe weather and days with no reported severe weather. The AMU determined a frequency of reported severe weather for the stability indices and implemented an operational tool in MIDDS.

  20. Objective Lightning Forecasting at Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station using Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Surveillance System Data (United States)

    Lambert, Winfred; Wheeler, Mark; Roeder, William


    The 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) at Cape Canaveral Air-Force Station (CCAFS)ln Florida issues a probability of lightning occurrence in their daily 24-hour and weekly planning forecasts. This information is used for general planning of operations at CCAFS and Kennedy Space Center (KSC). These facilities are located in east-central Florida at the east end of a corridor known as 'Lightning Alley', an indication that lightning has a large impact on space-lift operations. Much of the current lightning probability forecast is based on a subjective analysis of model and observational data and an objective forecast tool developed over 30 years ago. The 45 WS requested that a new lightning probability forecast tool based on statistical analysis of more recent historical warm season (May-September) data be developed in order to increase the objectivity of the daily thunderstorm probability forecast. The resulting tool is a set of statistical lightning forecast equations, one for each month of the warm season, that provide a lightning occurrence probability for the day by 1100 UTC (0700 EDT) during the warm season.

  1. A Cost Benefit Analysis of Emerging LED Water Purification Systems in Expeditionary Environments (United States)


    Air Force strategy. It provides the nation its global reach, underpins its role as a global power, and ensures that tomorrow, just as today , the...force responsible for national defense and reaction to calls for humanitarian aid across the globe. Rapid Global Mobility is a major tenant of the...exceeds the cost of adopting the emerging technology (Douglas, 1978). The maximum profit method is used when equipment is owned by businesses

  2. Air Force Operational Medicine: Using the Estimating Supplies Program to Develop Materiel Solutions for the Operational Clinical Requirements of the Expeditionary Medical Support (EMEDS) System. Volume 1. The Small Portable Expeditionary Aeromedical Rapid Response (SPEARR) System (United States)


    ACUTE UPPER  RESPIRATORY  INFECTION NOS  4  493.90  ASTHMA NOS  1  787.91  DIARRHEA  2  535.00  ACUTE GASTRTIS W/O HMRHG  2  401.90  HYPERTENSION NOS...2006.  8.  Joint Publication 4‐02, Health Service Support: Joint Chiefs of Staff; 2006.  9.  Zouris JM, Wade AL, Mango C. Projections of  Disease  and...STER TCT75 LINEAR  CUTTER 75MM  YES  EA  2  2  0.767  0.100  $116.58  0.767  0.100  $116.58  A  6515009354088  STETHOSCOPE  ADL SZ 24" LG TWO  POSN VALVE

  3. Real-space and real-time dynamics of CRISPR-Cas9 visualized by high-speed atomic force microscopy. (United States)

    Shibata, Mikihiro; Nishimasu, Hiroshi; Kodera, Noriyuki; Hirano, Seiichi; Ando, Toshio; Uchihashi, Takayuki; Nureki, Osamu


    The CRISPR-associated endonuclease Cas9 binds to a guide RNA and cleaves double-stranded DNA with a sequence complementary to the RNA guide. The Cas9-RNA system has been harnessed for numerous applications, such as genome editing. Here we use high-speed atomic force microscopy (HS-AFM) to visualize the real-space and real-time dynamics of CRISPR-Cas9 in action. HS-AFM movies indicate that, whereas apo-Cas9 adopts unexpected flexible conformations, Cas9-RNA forms a stable bilobed structure and interrogates target sites on the DNA by three-dimensional diffusion. These movies also provide real-time visualization of the Cas9-mediated DNA cleavage process. Notably, the Cas9 HNH nuclease domain fluctuates upon DNA binding, and subsequently adopts an active conformation, where the HNH active site is docked at the cleavage site in the target DNA. Collectively, our HS-AFM data extend our understanding of the action mechanism of CRISPR-Cas9.

  4. Future Expansion of the Lightning Surveillance System at the Kennedy Space Center and the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida, USA (United States)

    Mata, C. T.; Wilson, J. G.


    The NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and the Air Force Eastern Range (ER) use data from two cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning detection networks, the Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Surveillance System (CGLSS) and the U.S. National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN), and a volumetric mapping array, the lightning detection and ranging II (LDAR II) system: These systems are used to monitor and characterize lightning that is potentially hazardous to launch or ground operations and hardware. These systems are not perfect and both have documented missed lightning events when compared to the existing lightning surveillance system at Launch Complex 39B (LC39B). Because of this finding it is NASA's plan to install a lightning surveillance system around each of the active launch pads sharing site locations and triggering capabilities when possible. This paper shows how the existing lightning surveillance system at LC39B has performed in 2011 as well as the plan for the expansion around all active pads.

  5. Taking the Flight to the Enemy: Chinese Thinking About Long-Distance and Expeditionary Operations (United States)


    would be pulled off the market , the authors would likely be subject to 8 re-education, and probably be forced to leave active duty in the PLA. However...ensure world peace. 5. Marc McDonald , “China Confirms Naval Role in Gulf of Aden,” The New York Times, December 18, 2008, available from

  6. Leveraging Manet and Mobile Devices in Ship-to-Objective Maneuver and Expeditionary MAGTF Operations (United States)


    support and firepower. ECO allows for the Marine Corps to deploy a lower- level maneuver unit as an economy of force measure to assert combat power the Global Information Grid ( GIG ) is the course of action the Marine Corps should adopt (Price & McHuen, 2009). My proposed research addresses

  7. Exercise Countermeasures for Bone Loss During Space Flight: A Method for the Study of Ground Reaction Forces and their Implications for Bone Strain (United States)

    Peterman, M.; McCrory, J. L.; Sharkey, N. A.; Piazza, S.; Cavanagh, P. R.


    Effective countermeasures to prevent loss of bone mineral during long duration space flight remain elusive. Despite an exercise program on MIR flights, the data from LeBlanc et al. (1996) indicated that there was still a mean rate of loss of bone mineral density in the proximal femur of 1.58% per month (n=18, flight duration 4 - 14.4 months). The specific mechanisms regulating bone mass are not known, but most investigators agree that bone maintenance is largely dependent upon mechanical demand and the resultant local bone strains. A plausible hypothesis is that bone loss during space flight, such as that reported by LeBlanc et al. (1996), may result from failure to effectively load the skeleton in order to generate localized bone strains of sufficient magnitude to prevent disuse osteoporosis. A variety of methods have been proposed to simulate locomotor exercise in reduced gravity. In such simulations, and in an actual microgravity environment, a gravity replacement load (GRL) must always be added to return the exercising subject to the support surface and the resulting skeletal load is critically dependent upon the magnitude of the GRL. To our knowledge, GRLs during orbital flight have only been measured once (on STS 81) and it is likely that most or all prior treadmill exercise in space has used GRLs that were less than one body weight. McCrory (1997) has shown that subjects walking and running in simulated zero-G can tolerate GRLs of 1 if an appropriate harness is used. Several investigators have attempted to measure in vivo strains and forces in the bones of humans, but have faced ethical and technical limitations. The anteromedial aspect of the tibial midshaft has been a common site for the placement of strain gauges; one reason to measure strains in the anterior tibia is that this region is surgically accessible. Aamodt et al. (1997) were able to measure strains on the lateral surface of the proximal femur only because their experimental subjects were

  8. Current flow and pair creation at low altitude in rotation-powered pulsars' force-free magnetospheres: space charge limited flow (United States)

    Timokhin, A. N.; Arons, J.


    steady (stationary with small fluctuations in the rotating frame), finding that such steady flows can occupy only a small fraction of the current density parameter space exhibited by the force-free magnetospheric model. The generic polar flow dynamics and pair creation are strongly time dependent. The model has an essential difference from almost all previous quantitative studies, in that we sought the accelerating voltage (with pair creation, when the voltage drops are sufficiently large; without, when they are small) as a function of the applied current. The 1D results described here characterize the dependence of acceleration and pair creation on the magnitude and sign of current. The dependence on the spatial distribution of the current is a multi-dimensional problem, possibly exhibiting more chaotic behaviour. We briefly outline possible relations of the electric field fluctuations observed in the polar flows (both with and without pair creation discharges) to direct emission of radio waves, as well as revive the possible relation of the observed limit cycle behaviour to microstructure in the radio emission. Actually modelling these effects requires the multi-dimensional treatment, to be reported in a later paper.

  9. Space space space

    CERN Document Server

    Trembach, Vera


    Space is an introduction to the mysteries of the Universe. Included are Task Cards for independent learning, Journal Word Cards for creative writing, and Hands-On Activities for reinforcing skills in Math and Language Arts. Space is a perfect introduction to further research of the Solar System.

  10. Qualitative and quantitative composition of microplastics particles during the expeditionary measurement program in the South-Eastern Baltic Sea (United States)

    Esiukova, Elena; Bagaeva, Margarita; Chubarenko, Natalia


    According to the tasks of the Russian Science Foundation project "Physical and dynamical properties of marine microplastics particles and their transport in a basin with vertical and horizontal salinity gradient on the example of the Baltic Sea" number 15-17-10020, a comprehensive expeditionary program of measurements in the South-Eastern Baltic started. The project is aimed at finding solutions for a number of problems caused by superfluous plastic pollution in the World Ocean and, in particular, in the Baltic Sea. This pollution has been accumulating for years and just recently it has become obvious that only multidisciplinary approach (geographical, biological, chemical, etc.) to the issues related to the processes of transformation of properties and propagation of plastic particles will allow the study of physical aspects of the problem. During the first stage of the study samples should be selected from the water surface, water column at various horizons, bottom sediments in the Baltic Sea, from different areas at the beaches - in order to further examine the qualitative and quantitative composition of microplastic particles in different seasons for different hydrophysical situations. Reconnaissance survey was begun to choose the fields for research close to point and distributed sources of microplastics. Preference is given to those beaches that are exposed to maximum anthropogenic pollution: areas around the town of Baltiysk, the northern part of the Vistula Spit (near the settlement of Kosa), and the Sambia peninsula coast (settlements of Yantarny, Donskoye, Primorye, Kulikovo, towns of Svetlogorsk, Pionersky, Zelenogradsk). Locations for experimental sites were found in order to assess time for formation of microplastics (Vistula Spit, Kosa settlement). In June-November, 2015 there were 5 expeditions in the waters of the South-Eastern Baltic, 7 expeditions along the coast line of the Baltic Sea (in Kaliningrad Oblast), and 5 expeditions to the Vistula

  11. HMM and Auction-based Formulations of ISR Coordination Mechanisms for the Expeditionary Strike Group Missions (United States)


    package corresponds to the following binary programming problem ( BPP ), one for each task r:   (1) 1 (1) 1 (1) min s.t. , 1,2...Here the superscript (1) denotes the best solution to the BPP . In addition, is the cost of moving sensor q from its current location to the location of...qrqC d We employed a branch-and-bound algorithm for generating M-best solutions to the BPP in (1) by partitioning the space of feasible solutions

  12. Clap and Fling Interaction of Bristled Wings: Effects of Varying Reynolds Number and Bristle Spacing on Force Generation and Flow Structures (United States)

    Kasoju, Vishwa Teja

    The smallest flying insects with body lengths under 1 mm, such as thrips and fairyflies, typically show the presence of long bristles on their wings. Thrips have been observed to use wing-wing interaction via 'clap and fling' for flapping flight at low Reynolds number (Re) on the order of 10, where a wing pair comes into close contact at the end of upstroke and fling apart at the beginning of downstroke. We examined the effects of varying the following parameters on force generation and flow structures formed during clap and fling: (1) Re ranging from 5 to 15 for a bristled wing pair (G/D = 17) and a geometrically equivalent solid wing pair; and (2) ratio of spacing between bristles to bristle diameter (G/D) for Re = 10. The G/D ratio in 70 thrips species were quantified from published forewing images. Scaled-up physical models of three bristled wing pairs of varying G/D (5, 11, 17) and a solid wing pair (G/D = 0) were fabricated. A robotic model was used for this study, in which a wing pair was immersed in an aquarium tank filled with glycerin and driven by stepper motors to execute clap and fling kinematics. Dimensionless lift and drag coefficients were determined from strain gauge measurements. Phase-locked particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements were used to examine flow through the bristles. Chordwise PIV was used to visualize the leading edge vortex (LEV) and trailing edge vortex (TEV) formed over the wings during clap and fling. With increasing G/D, larger reduction was observed in peak drag coefficients as compared to reduction in peak lift coefficients. Net circulation, defined as the difference in circulation (strength) of LEV and TEV, diminished with increasing G/D. Reduction in net circulation resulted in reducing lift generated by bristled wings as compared to solid wings. Leaky, recirculating flow through the bristles provided large drag reduction during fling of a bristled wing pair. If flight efficiency is defined as the ratio of lift to drag

  13. An Analysis of Contract Management Processes at the Space and Missile Systems Center and the Air Force Life Cycle Management Center (Wright-Patterson) Using the Contract Management Maturity Model (United States)


    graduation, Capt Chang’s next assignment is at Los Angeles Air Force Base in the Space and Missile Systems Center (SMC). Capt Chang is unmarried with... married to the former Ms. Laura Hazzard, and they have three children, Madden, and twins Aubrey and Tyler. Captain Keith V. Philaphandeth is an Air...2012 SPONSORED RESEARCH TOPICS Acquisition Management  Acquiring Combat Capability via Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs)  BCA: Contractor vs

  14. Invisible force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panek, Richard


    Astronomers have compiled evidence that what we always thought of as the actual universe- all the planets, stars, galaxies and matter in space -represents a mere 4% of what's out there. The rest is dark: 23% is called dark matter, 73% dark energy. Scientists have ideas about what dark matter is, but hardly any understanding about dark energy. This has led to rethinking traditional physics and cosmology. Assuming the existence of dark matter and that the law of gravitation is universal, two teams of astrophysicists, from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the Australian National University, analysed the universe's growth and to their surprise both concluded that the universe expansion is not slowing but speeding up. If the dominant force of evolution isn't gravity what is it?

  15. Subatomic forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, C.


    Inside the atom, particles interact through two forces which are never felt in the everyday world. But they may hold the key to the Universe. These ideas on subatomic forces are discussed with respect to the strong force, the electromagnetic force and the electroweak force. (author)

  16. Hydrostatic force sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, M.S.; Stoughton, R.S.; Kazerooni, H.


    This paper presents a theoretical and experimental investigation of a new kind of force sensor which detects forces by measuring an induced pressure change in a material of large Poisson's ratio. In this investigation we develop mathematical expressions for the sensor's sensitivity and bandwidth, and show that its sensitivity can be much larger and its bandwidth is usually smaller than those of existing strain-gage-type sensors. This force sensor is well-suited for measuring large but slowly varying forces. It can be installed in a space smaller than that required by existing sensors

  17. Space-Time Equalization for High-Speed Wireless Digital Communications Based on Multipath-Incorporating Matched Filtering, Zero Forcing Equalization, and MMSE

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zoltowski, Michael D


    The project has successfully demonstrated reduced-rank, space-time equalization for high-speed wireless digital communications capable of reliably transmitting multimedia data in support of military...

  18. Analytical treatment of the nonlinear electron cloud effect and the combined effects with beam-beam and space charge nonlinear forces in storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Jie


    In this paper we treat first some nonlinear beam dynamics problems in storage rings, such as beam dynamic apertures due to magnetic multipoles, wiggles, beam-beam effects, nonlinear space charge effect, and then nonlinear electron cloud effect combined with beam-beam and space charge effects, analytically. This analytical treatment is applied to BEPC II. The corresponding analytical expressions developed in this paper are useful both in understanding the physics behind these problems and also in making practical quick hand estimations. (author)



    Fulfillment of the Graduation Requirements Proposal Adviser: Dr. Patricia Lessane Project Advisor: Dr. Gregory F. Intoccia Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama... SBIRS ), and Ground Based Missile Warning Radars (GBMWR). 7 In unison, these assets monitor ballistic missile launches and help prevent surprise

  20. Environmental Assessment for the Operation and Launch of the Falcon 1 and Falcon 9 Space Vehicles at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Florida (United States)


    Florida, the Pacific Ocean off the coast of California, or the Pacific Ocean near the Marshall Islands . Dragon Capsule Re-entry and Recovery The...California and a third location is in the equatorial Pacific near the Marshall Islands . The capsule would be directed along a pre-planned trajectory to...Water Separator PAE Potentially Adverse Effect PAFB Patrick Air Force Base PAH Poly-nuclear aromatic hydrocarbons Pb lead PCB Poly

  1. Boundary Element Analysis of the Steady-state Response of an Elastic Half-Space to a Moving Force on its Surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars; Nielsen, Søren R. K.


    The paper deals with the boundary element method formulation of the steady-state wave propagation through elastic media due to a source moving with constant velocity. The Greens' function for the three-dimensional full-space is formulated in a local frame of reference following the source...... is approximated, but the error which is introduced in this way is insignificant. Numerical examples are given for a moving rectangular load on an elastic half-space. The result from a boundary element code based on the derived Green's function are compared with a semi-analytic solution....

  2. US Carrier Strike and the Mediterranean, 1970-89 - Lessons in Littoral Crisis Response for the United Kingdom’s Joint Expeditionary Force (United States)


    SDR) put it: In the post-Cold War world, we must be prepared to go to crisis, rather than have crisis come to us. So we plan to buy two new larger...Report of Session, Volume 15 In this context, extension of the Al-Qaida franchise into opinion for armed retaliation, and in the hope of buying time to secure Allied backing for the same, Reagan opted to cut all trade, directed

  3. Air Force Operational Medicine: Using the Estimating Supplies Program to Develop Materiel Solutions for the Operational Clinical Requirements of the Expeditionary Medical Support (EMEDS). Volume Three: EMEDS+10 (United States)


    1,480.50 D 7420011828535 CALCULATOR ELECTRONIC SOLAR CELL 8 DIGIT LIQ EA 1.00 0.00 1.15 0.15 $12.63 0.00 0.00 0.00 A 7240000893827 CAN WATER MILITARY PLAS...4110014974328 RECORDER TEMP BLD PLASM FRZER 115V 11.5 CU EA 1.00 1.00 120.00 14.00 $7,212.00 120.00 14.00 $7,212.00 A 4110012494476 REFRIGERATOR

  4. Report of Hero Board: Proceedings of the Board of Officers Convened by the Following Order, General Headquarters, American Expeditionary Forces, Office, Chief of Artillery (United States)


    brigade to battery inclusive. Interchangeability of all dry cells for all F. A. equipment. Kinds of projectiles fuzes and charges in use at...Battery, inclusive. Interchangeability of all dry cells used for all Field Artillery equipment. Kinds of projectiles and fuzes in use at present...obtaining horses of sufficient stamins and in sufficient numbers to properly handle the ammunition supply during combat, together with the serious

  5. Air Force Operational Medicine: Using the Enterprise Estimating Supplies Program to Develop Materiel Solutions for the Expeditionary Medical Support (EMEDS). Volume 4. EMEDS+25 (United States)


    MATTRESS LITTER F/AEROMEDICAL PT TRANSFER EA 7 7 14.00 12.45 $1,855.00 14.00 12.45 $1,855.00 A 6515015593946 NEGATIVE PRESSURE WOUND THERAPY ...AGAR5%SHE PG 10 5 10.00 5.00 $271.70 5.00 2.50 $135.85 C 6550013168746 CULTURE MED CHOCOLATE AGAR W/HEMOGLOBIN&ENRIC PG 2 1 1.70 0.02 $34.20 0.85

  6. 33 CFR 334.540 - Banana River at the Eastern Range, 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL... (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banana River at the Eastern Range... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.540 Banana River at the Eastern Range, 45th Space Wing, Cape... navigable waters of the United States, as defined at 33 CFR part 329, within the Banana River contiguous to...

  7. Expeditionary Rubber Removal Capability (United States)


    the modified spray unit or system with equivalent capabilities. 24 25 9.8. A pressure sensor or caster wheels should be incorporated into the...DISCUSSION 18 8.0 CONCLUSIONS 23 9.0 RECOMMENDATIONS 24 APPENDIX A – DETAILED LIST OF EQUIPMENT AND MODIFICATIONS 26 APPENDIX B – LIST OF SOURCES FOR...tall Weight – 4820 lb (No Attachments) Top Speed – 18 mph High Flow Hydraulics (Optional) – 26 gpm Steering – All Wheel Steering Cargo Max Load

  8. Expeditionary Oblong Mezzanine (United States)


    Operating System OSI Open Systems Interconnection OS X Operating System Ten PDU Power Distribution Unit POE Power Over Ethernet xvii SAAS ...providing infrastructure as a service (IaaS) and software as a service ( SaaS ) cloud computing technologies. IaaS is a way of providing computing services...such as servers, storage, and network equipment services (Mell & Grance, 2009). SaaS is a means of providing software and applications as an on

  9. Labor Force (United States)

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012


    The labor force is the number of people ages 16 or older who are either working or looking for work. It does not include active-duty military personnel or the institutionalized population, such as prison inmates. Determining the size of the labor force is a way of determining how big the economy can get. The size of the labor force depends on two…

  10. Crew roles and interactions in scientific space exploration (United States)

    Love, Stanley G.; Bleacher, Jacob E.


    Future piloted space exploration missions will focus more on science than engineering, a change which will challenge existing concepts for flight crew tasking and demand that participants with contrasting skills, values, and backgrounds learn to cooperate as equals. In terrestrial space flight analogs such as Desert Research And Technology Studies, engineers, pilots, and scientists can practice working together, taking advantage of the full breadth of all team members' training to produce harmonious, effective missions that maximize the time and attention the crew can devote to science. This paper presents, in a format usable as a reference by participants in the field, a successfully tested crew interaction model for such missions. The model builds upon the basic framework of a scientific field expedition by adding proven concepts from aviation and human space flight, including expeditionary behavior and cockpit resource management, cooperative crew tasking and adaptive leadership and followership, formal techniques for radio communication, and increased attention to operational considerations. The crews of future space flight analogs can use this model to demonstrate effective techniques, learn from each other, develop positive working relationships, and make their expeditions more successful, even if they have limited time to train together beforehand. This model can also inform the preparation and execution of actual future space flights.

  11. A Theory of the Podkletnov Effect based on General Relativity: Anti-Gravity Force due to the Perturbed Non-Holonomic Background of Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabounski D.


    Full Text Available We consider the Podkletnov effect — the weight loss of an object located over a superconducting disc in air due to support by an alternating magnetic field. We consider this problem using the mathematical methods of General Relativity. We show via Einstein’s equations and the geodesic equations in a space perturbed by a disc undergoing oscillatory bounces orthogonal to its own plane, that there is no r ˆ ole of superconductivity; the Podkletnov effect is due to the fact that the field of the background space non-holonomity (the basic non-othogonality of time lines to the spatial section, being perturbed by such an oscillating disc produces energy and momentum flow in order to compensate the perturbation in itself. Such a momentum flow is directed above the disc in Podkletnov’s experiment, so it works like negative gravity (anti-gravity. We propose a simple mechanical system which, simulating the Podkletnov effect, is an experimental test of the whole theory. The theory allows for other “anti-gravity devices”, which simulate the Podkletnov effect without use of very costly superconductor technology. Such devices could be applied to be used as a cheap source of new energy, and could have implications to air and space travel.

  12. Ponderomotive Forces in Cosmos (United States)

    Lundin, R.; Guglielmi, A.


    This review is devoted to ponderomotive forces and their importance for the acceleration of charged particles by electromagnetic waves in space plasmas. Ponderomotive forces constitute time-averaged nonlinear forces acting on a media in the presence of oscillating electromagnetic fields. Ponderomotive forces represent a useful analytical tool to describe plasma acceleration. Oscillating electromagnetic fields are also related with dissipative processes, such as heating of particles. Dissipative processes are, however, left outside these discussions. The focus will be entirely on the (conservative) ponderomotive forces acting in space plasmas. The review consists of seven sections. In Section 1, we explain the rational for using the auxiliary ponderomotive forces instead of the fundamental Lorentz force for the study of particle motions in oscillating fields. In Section 2, we present the Abraham, Miller, Lundin-Hultqvist and Barlow ponderomotive forces, and the Bolotovsky-Serov ponderomotive drift. The hydrodynamic, quasi-hydrodynamic, and ‘`test-particle’' approaches are used for the study of ponderomotive wave-particle interaction. The problems of self-consistency and regularization are discussed in Section 3. The model of static balance of forces (Section 4) exemplifies the interplay between thermal, gravitational and ponderomotive forces, but it also introduces a set of useful definitions, dimensionless parameters, etc. We analyze the Alfvén and ion cyclotron waves in static limit with emphasis on the specific distinction between traveling and standing waves. Particular attention has been given to the impact of traveling Alfvén waves on the steady state anabatic wind that blows over the polar regions (Section~5). We demonstrate the existence of a wave-induced cold anabatic wind. We also show that, at a critical point, the ponderomotive acceleration of the wind is a factor of 3 greater than the thermal acceleration. Section 6 demonstrates various

  13. Dispersion Forces

    CERN Document Server

    Buhmann, Stefan Yoshi


    In this book, a modern unified theory of dispersion forces on atoms and bodies is presented which covers a broad range of advanced aspects and scenarios. Macroscopic quantum electrodynamics is shown to provide a powerful framework for dispersion forces which allows for discussing general properties like their non-additivity and the relation between microscopic and macroscopic interactions. It is demonstrated how the general results can be used to obtain dispersion forces on atoms in the presence of bodies of various shapes and materials. Starting with a brief recapitulation of volume I, this volume II deals especially with bodies of irregular shapes, universal scaling laws, dynamical forces on excited atoms, enhanced forces in cavity quantum electrodynamics, non-equilibrium forces in thermal environments and quantum friction. The book gives both the specialist and those new to the field a thorough overview over recent results in the field. It provides a toolbox for studying dispersion forces in various contex...

  14. A Delphi Study Executive Skills 2010: A Toolbox of Competencies for Air Force Medical Service Corps Officers of the 21st Century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stevens, Douglas


    .... The domains were leadership, expeditionary operations, resource management, technology and information, business management, health plan management, human resource management, contracting, strategic...

  15. 14 CFR 1203b.106 - Use of deadly force. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of deadly force. 1203b.106 Section... AUTHORITY AND USE OF FORCE BY NASA SECURITY FORCE PERSONNEL § 1203b.106 Use of deadly force. Deadly force shall be used only in those circumstances where the security force officer reasonably believes that...

  16. Space doubt


    Rega, Joseph Mark


    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Comunicação e Expressão. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Inglês e Literatura Correspondente. The recent surge in cyberspace science fiction follows previous trends within the genre, i.e. those connected with future city-space and outer space, and is an inevitable result of economic forces. There has always been a close relationship between capitalism and spatial expansion, compelled by technological innovations that ha...

  17. Different forces

    CERN Multimedia


    The different forces, together with a pictorial analogy of how the exchange of particles works. The table lists the relative strength of the couplings, the quanta associated with the force fields and the bodies or phenomena in which they have a dominant role.

  18. Labor Force (United States)

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2010


    The labor force is the number of people aged 16 or older who are either working or looking for work. It does not include active-duty military personnel or institutionalized people, such as prison inmates. Quantifying this total supply of labor is a way of determining how big the economy can get. Labor force participation rates vary significantly…

  19. Multifunctional Battalion Task Force Training: Slovenian Armed Forces Battalion Training Cycle (United States)


    Capable of protecting vehicle mounted personnel against kinetic threats up non-AP small arms / 155 mm artillery bursts at 100 m and under belly hand...oyttmcbreen2001.pdf. Rock , Aaron J., Lance Corporal. “One step away from deployment, 26thu mewwraps up computex.” 26th Marine Expeditionary Unit, November

  20. Effects of Force Fields on Interface Dynamics, in view of Two-Phase Heat Transfer Enhancement and Phase Management for Space Applications (United States)

    Di Marco, P.; Saccone, G.


    On earth, gravity barely influences the dynamics of interfaces. For what concerns bubbles, buoyancy governs the dynamics of boiling mechanism and thus affects boiling heat transfer capacity. While, for droplets, the coupled effects of wettability and gravity affects interface exchanges. In space, in the lack of gravity, rules are changed and new phenomena come into play. The present work is aimed to study the effects of electric field on the shape and behaviour of bubbles and droplets in order to understand how to handle microgravity applications; in particular, the replacement of gravity with electric field and their coupled effects are evaluated. The experiments spread over different setups, gravity conditions, working fluids, interface conditions. Droplets and bubbles have been analysed with and without electric field, with and without (adiabatic) heat and mass transfer across the interface. Furthermore, the results of the 4 ESA Parabolic Flight Campaigns (PFC 58, 60, 64 & 66), for adiabatic bubbles, adiabatic droplets and evaporating droplets, will be summarized, discussed, and compared with the ground tests.

  1. Statistical Short-Range Guidance for Peak Wind Speed Forecasts on Kennedy Space Center/Cape Canaveral Air Force Station: Phase I Results (United States)

    Lambert, Winifred C.; Merceret, Francis J. (Technical Monitor)


    This report describes the results of the ANU's (Applied Meteorology Unit) Short-Range Statistical Forecasting task for peak winds. The peak wind speeds are an important forecast element for the Space Shuttle and Expendable Launch Vehicle programs. The Keith Weather Squadron and the Spaceflight Meteorology Group indicate that peak winds are challenging to forecast. The Applied Meteorology Unit was tasked to develop tools that aid in short-range forecasts of peak winds at tower sites of operational interest. A 7 year record of wind tower data was used in the analysis. Hourly and directional climatologies by tower and month were developed to determine the seasonal behavior of the average and peak winds. In all climatologies, the average and peak wind speeds were highly variable in time. This indicated that the development of a peak wind forecasting tool would be difficult. Probability density functions (PDF) of peak wind speed were calculated to determine the distribution of peak speed with average speed. These provide forecasters with a means of determining the probability of meeting or exceeding a certain peak wind given an observed or forecast average speed. The climatologies and PDFs provide tools with which to make peak wind forecasts that are critical to safe operations.

  2. NASA/Air Force Cost Model: NAFCOM (United States)

    Winn, Sharon D.; Hamcher, John W. (Technical Monitor)


    The NASA/Air Force Cost Model (NAFCOM) is a parametric estimating tool for space hardware. It is based on historical NASA and Air Force space projects and is primarily used in the very early phases of a development project. NAFCOM can be used at the subsystem or component levels.

  3. Nuclear forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holinde, K.


    In this paper the present status of the meson theory of nuclear forces is reviewed. After some introductory remarks about the relevance of the meson exchange concept in the era of QCD and the empirical features of the NN interaction, the exciting history of nuclear forces is briefly outlined. In the main part, the author gives the basic physical ideas and sketch the derivation of the one-boson-exchange model of the nuclear force, in the Feynman approach. Secondly we describe, in a qualitative way, various necessary extensions, leading to the Bonn model of the N interaction. Finally, points to some interesting pen questions connected with the extended quark structure of the hadrons, which are topics of current research activity

  4. Army Space and Transformation (United States)


    Command – Space and Global Strike JFCOM Joint Forces Command JFRL Joint Forces Restricted Frequency List JIC Joint Integrating Concept JIM Joint...into the theater’s Joint Restricted Frequency List (JRFL). The ARSST trained the coalition and US soldiers on installation, use and troubleshooting

  5. Crew Roles and Interactions in Scientific Space Exploration (United States)

    Love, Stanley G.; Bleacher, Jacob E.


    Future piloted space exploration missions will focus more on science than engineering, a change which will challenge existing concepts for flight crew tasking and demand that participants with contrasting skills, values, and backgrounds learn to cooperate as equals. In terrestrial space flight analogs such as Desert Research And Technology Studies, engineers, pilots, and scientists can practice working together, taking advantage of the full breadth of all team members training to produce harmonious, effective missions that maximize the time and attention the crew can devote to science. This paper presents, in a format usable as a reference by participants in the field, a successfully tested crew interaction model for such missions. The model builds upon the basic framework of a scientific field expedition by adding proven concepts from aviation and human spaceflight, including expeditionary behavior and cockpit resource management, cooperative crew tasking and adaptive leadership and followership, formal techniques for radio communication, and increased attention to operational considerations. The crews of future spaceflight analogs can use this model to demonstrate effective techniques, learn from each other, develop positive working relationships, and make their expeditions more successful, even if they have limited time to train together beforehand. This model can also inform the preparation and execution of actual future spaceflights.

  6. Air Force Space Systems Development Program (United States)


    the inumnission of revels/flee of which le ony areneer N as sererliorial4 porno is prehibiled by law. 2. Bombardment Satellite The feasibility and...which in soy wanner Man voossfitswizod porno is osohibitod by low. distress signals ’and re-transmission with location data to a ground station can be...Seahme 713 and 794. Na transmission or wavolotion of which in any 111111111111M ho an onoolitorizatt porno is prohibited by low. Appendix B

  7. Force sum rules at surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaschner, R.; Ziesche, P.


    Hellmann-Feynman theorems for partially extended arrangements of atoms (chains, strips, layers, wires and slabs) are derived and applied to one-, two-, and three-dimensional solids. The derivatives of the bulk energy with respect to the lattice spacings are related to the Hellmann-Feynman forces in the corresponding semi-infinite unrelaxed solids. These forces have to alternate going from the surface into the bulk provided that the latter is in equilibrium. (author)

  8. Gap Task Force

    CERN Multimedia

    Lissuaer, D

    One of the more congested areas in the ATLAS detector is the GAP region (the area between the Barrel Calorimeter and the End Cap calorimeter) where Inner Detector services, LAr Services and some Tile services all must co-habitat in a very limited area. It has been clear for some time that the space in the GAP region is not sufficient to accommodate all that is needed. In the last few month additional problems of routing all the services to Z=0 have been encountered due to the very limited space between the Tile Calorimeter and the first layer of Muon chambers. The Technical Management Board (TMB) and the Executive Board (EB) decided in the middle of March to establish a Task Force to look at this problem and come up with a solution within well-specified guidelines. The task force consisted of experts from the ID, Muon, Liquid Argon and Tile systems in addition to experts from the Technical Coordination team and the Physics coordinator. The task force held many meetings and in general there were some very l...

  9. Space Charge Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrario, M.; Palumbo, L.


    The space charge forces are those generated directly by the charge distribution, with the inclusion of the image charges and currents due to the interaction of the beam with a perfectly conducting smooth pipe. Space charge forces are responsible for several unwanted phenomena related to beam dynamics, such as energy loss, shift of the synchronous phase and frequency , shift of the betatron frequencies, and instabilities. We will discuss in this lecture the main feature of space charge effects in high-energy storage rings as well as in low-energy linacs and transport lines.

  10. Low force cementation. (United States)

    Wilson, P R


    The marginal adaptation of full coverage restorations is adversely affected by the introduction of luting agents of various minimum film thicknesses during the cementation process. The increase in the marginal opening may have long-term detrimental effects on the health of both pulpal and periodontal tissues. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of varying seating forces (2.5, 12.5, 25 N), venting, and cement types on post-cementation marginal elevation in cast crowns. A standardized cement space of 40 microns was provided between a machined gold crown and a stainless steel die. An occlusal vent was placed that could be opened or closed. The post-cementation crown elevation was measured, following the use of two commercially available capsulated dental cements (Phosphacap, and Ketac-cem Applicap). The results indicate that only the combination of Ketac-Cem Applicap and crown venting produced post-cementation crown elevation of less than 20 microns when 12.5 N seating force was used. Higher forces (25 N) and venting were required for comparable seating when using Phosphacap (19 microns). The amount of force required to allow maximum seating of cast crowns appears to be cement specific, and is reduced by effective venting procedures.

  11. 14 CFR 23.155 - Elevator control force in maneuvers. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Elevator control force in maneuvers. 23.155 Section 23.155 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Controllability and Maneuverability § 23.155 Elevator control force in maneuvers. (a) The elevator control force...

  12. Coriolis Force (United States)

    Marciuc, Daly; Solschi, Viorel


    Understanding the Coriolis effect is essential for explaining the movement of air masses and ocean currents. The lesson we propose aims to familiarize students with the manifestation of the Coriolis effect. Students are guided to build, using the GeoGebra software, a simulation of the motion of a body, related to a rotating reference system. The mathematical expression of the Coriolis force is deduced, for particular cases, and the Foucault's pendulum is presented and explained. Students have the opportunity to deepen the subject, by developing materials related to topics such as: • Global Wind Pattern • Ocean Currents • Coriolis Effect in Long Range Shooting • Finding the latitude with a Foucault Pendulum

  13. Centrifuges and inertial shear forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, van J.J.W.A.; Folgering, H.T.E.; Bouten, C.V.C.; Smit, T.H.


    Centrifuges are often used in biological studies for 1xg control samples in space flight microgravity experiments as well as in ground based research. Using centrifugation as a tool to generate an Earth like acceleration introduces unwanted inertial shear forces to the sample. Depending on the

  14. Plasmonic Force Propulsion Revolutionizes Nano/PicoSatellite Capability (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to assess the ability of plasmonic force propulsion to advance the state-of-the-art. We propose to numerically simulate plasmonic force fields with...

  15. Fatal injury epidemiology among the New Zealand military forces in the First World War. (United States)

    Wilson, Nick; Summers, Jennifer A; Baker, Michael G; Thomson, George; Harper, Glyn


    Despite the large mortality burden of First World War (WW1) on New Zealand (NZ) military forces, no analysis using modern epidemiological methods has ever been conducted. We therefore aimed to study injury-related mortality amongst NZ military forces in WW1. An electronic version of the Roll-of-Honour for NZ Expeditionary Force (NZEF) personnel was supplemented with further coding and analysed statistically. We also performed literature searches to provide context. Out of a total of 16,703 deaths occurring during the war (28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918), injury deaths predominated: 65.1% were "killed in action" (KIA), 23.4% "died of wounds" (DOW), 1.0% were other injuries (e.g. "accidents", drownings, suicides and executions), and 10.5% were other causes (mainly disease). During the course of the war, the annual mortality rate from injury (for KIA + DOW) per 10,000 NZEF personnel in the North Hemisphere peaked at 1335 in 1915 (Gallipoli campaign) and then peaked again in 1917 at 937 (largely the Battle of Passchendaele). Some of the offensive campaigns involved very high mortality peaks (e.g. 2 days with over 450 deaths per day in October 1917). Participation in First World War was by far the worst fatal injury event in New Zealand's history. Many of these injury deaths could be considered to have been preventable through: better diplomacy (to prevent the war), improved military planning to reduce failed campaigns (e.g. Gallipoli, Passchendaele), earlier use of protective equipment such as helmets, and improved healthcare services.

  16. Space charge effects: tune shifts and resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, W.T.


    The effects of space charge and beam-beam interactions on single particle motion in the transverse degree of freedom are considered. The space charge force and the resulting incoherent tune shift are described, and examples are given from the AGS and CERN's PSB. Equations of motion are given for resonances in the presence of the space charge force, and particle behavior is examined under resonance and space charge conditions. Resonance phase space structure is described with and without space charge. Uniform and bunched beams are compared. Beam-beam forces and resonances and beam-beam detuning are described. 18 refs., 15 figs

  17. Computer-Controlled Force Generator, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TDA Research, Inc. is developing a compact, low power, Next-Generation Exercise Device (NGRED) that can generate any force between 5 and 600 lbf. We use a closed...

  18. Dispersive force between dissimilar materials: Geometrical effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguez, Cecilia; Roman-Velazquez, C.E.


    We calculate the Casimir force or dispersive van der Waals force between a spherical nanoparticle and a planar substrate, both with arbitrary dielectric properties. We show that the force between the sphere and half-space can be calculated through the interacting surface plasmons of the bodies. Using a Spectral Representation formalism, we show that the force of a sphere made of a material A and a half-space made of a material B differs from the case when the sphere is made of B, and the half-space is made of A. We find that the difference depends on the plasma frequency of the materials, the geometry, and the distance of separation between the sphere and half-space. The differences show the importance of the geometry, and make evident the necessity of realistic descriptions of the system beyond the Derjaguin Approximation or Proximity Theorem Approximation

  19. Centrifugal force: a few surprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramowicz, M.A.; Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik und Astrophysik, Garching


    The need for a rather fundamental revision in understanding of the nature of the centrifugal force is discussed. It is shown that in general relativity (and contrary to the situation in Newtonian theory) rotation of a reference frame is a necessary but not sufficient condition for the centrifugal force to appear. A sufficient condition for its appearance, in the instantaneously corotating reference frame of a particle, is that the particle motion in space (observed in the global rest frame) differs from a photon trajectory. The direction of the force is the same as that of the gradient of the effective potential for photon motion. In some cases, the centrifugal force will attract towards the axis of rotation. (author)

  20. Expeditionary Logistics: How the Marine Corps Supports Its Expeditionary Operations (United States)


    Asset Planning at the Lowest Level .................60  5.  Improve Field Testing of All New Data Systems .............................60  C...Figure 7.  The Levels of Logistic Support. (from MCDP 4, 1997) ..................................21  Figure 8.  Case Study Methodology (Yin, 2009, p. 1...Combat Support System–Marine Corps GCE Ground Combat Element JOPES Joint Operational Planning and Execution System LCE Logistics Combat Element MAGTF

  1. Defining Commercial Space's Place in the Battlespace

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DeMello, Bruce


    ... (to include ALLIED FORCE, ENDURING FREEDOM and IRAQI FREEDOM), the U.S. has needed to extend beyond the capabilities of dedicated DoD and national space assets, relying on the commercial space sector to provide...

  2. 12th Air Force > Home (United States)

    Force AOR Travel Info News prevnext Slide show 76,410 pounds of food delivered to Haiti 12th Air Force the French Air Force, Colombian Air Force, Pakistan Air Force, Belgian Air Force, Brazilian Air Force

  3. Expeditionary Diplomacy: A Security Challenge (United States)


    Proliferation of nuclear materials; • Shocks or disruptions to the global economy /marketplace; • Irreversible climate change; • Cybersecurity...include all the members of the Emergency Action Committee ( EAC ), this exercise puts them through a rigorous one-day round table exercise, where...diplomatic presence dispersed amongst a number of different compounds or buildings. The idea behind this being the economy of scale, and in Benghazi

  4. Army Transformation to Expeditionary Formations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bryson, Jeff


    This thesis explores the path of transformation in the U.S. Army from its inception in the late 1990s by then Chief of Staff GEN Eric Shinseki to the Interim Brigade Combat Team and through Operations Enduring and Iraqi Freedom...

  5. Expeditionary Mobile Operations Center (EMOC) (United States)


    16,798 kg) Cruising Range 320 miles (515 km) Alternator 570 amp Voltage 24 volts with 12 volt accessory provision in capsule Battery Four, 12...power outlets by allowing the shutdown of unused outlets. This feature prevents prohibited items, such as phones and coffee pots, from drawing power

  6. Indigenous Architecture for Expeditionary Installations (United States)


    engineers to choose from pre-established contract line items to custom-order buildings depending on the need. This process is quick and easy, often...extremely strong and capable of withstanding strong windstorms (Nabokov, 1989: 340). Like the Navajo, the Pima and Papago tribes also adapted their...CLTD values could not be found for the subject wall assemblies; therefore, a straight temperature difference was used. Furthermore, since the focus

  7. Force Modulator System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redmond Clark


    Many metal parts manufacturers use large metal presses to shape sheet metal into finished products like car body parts, jet wing and fuselage surfaces, etc. These metal presses take sheet metal and - with enormous force - reshape the metal into a fully formed part in a manner of seconds. Although highly efficient, the forces involved in forming metal parts also damage the press itself, limit the metals used in part production, slow press operations and, when not properly controlled, cause the manufacture of large volumes of defective metal parts. To date, the metal-forming industry has not been able to develop a metal-holding technology that allows full control of press forces during the part forming process. This is of particular importance in the automotive lightweighting efforts under way in the US automotive manufacturing marketplace. Metalforming Controls Technology Inc. (MC2) has developed a patented press control system called the Force Modulator that has the ability to control these press forces, allowing a breakthrough in stamping process control. The technology includes a series of hydraulic cylinders that provide controlled tonnage at all points in the forming process. At the same time, the unique cylinder design allows for the generation of very high levels of clamping forces (very high tonnages) in very small spaces; a requirement for forming medium and large panels out of HSS and AHSS. Successful production application of these systems testing at multiple stamping operations - including Ford and Chrysler - has validated the capabilities and economic benefits of the system. Although this technology has been adopted in a number of stamping operations, one of the primary barriers to faster adoption and application of this technology in HSS projects is system cost. The cost issue has surfaced because the systems currently in use are built for each individual die as a custom application, thus driving higher tooling costs. This project proposed to better

  8. Força de mordida em crianças com mantenedor de espaço funcional na fase da dentadura mista inicial Bite force in children with functional space maintainer in early mixed dentition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzane Rodrigues Jacinto-Gonçalves


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar a influência do mantenedor de espaço funcional (MEF na força muscular em crianças com perda prematura de molares decíduos na fase inicial da dentadura mista (5,5 a 6,5 anos de idade com oclusão normal, considerando-se o padrão facial. MÉTODOS: a amostra foi constituída por dois grupos: Grupo MEF (n = 15, com perda precoce de pelo menos um molar decíduo; e Grupo Controle (n = 16. Determinou-se a força de mordida máxima (FM com um tubo transmissor pressurizado, conectado a um circuito eletrônico analógico/digital antes (t0, um mês (t1 e 6 meses (t6 após a instalação do mantenedor. O padrão facial foi determinado pelo índice de Jarabak (FHR. Os dados foram analisados pela estatística descritiva, análise de variância para medidas repetidas, teste t e correlação de Pearson. RESULTADOS:a FM foi significativamente menor em t0 e t1 para o Grupo MEF em relação ao Controle. Em t6 não houve diferença. Os dois grupos apresentaram a FM significativamente maior em t6, em relação a t0, mas o percentual de variação para o Grupo MEF foi significativamente maior. Os valores de FHR não se correlacionaram com a FM, não ocorrendo diferença entre os tipos faciais intragrupos. Os dolicofaciais do Grupo MEF apresentaram a FM significativamente menor que os do Grupo Controle, em t0 e t1, mas não em t6. CONCLUSÃO: o maior aumento na FM para o Grupo MEF após 6 meses foi favorecido pelo maior número de contatos oclusais, devido aos dentes artificiais, melhorando a função e recuperando a força muscular.AIM: To verify the influence of a functional space maintainer (FSM in muscle strength in children with premature loss of primary molars in early mixed dentition (5.5-6.5 years old with normal occlusion, considering the facial pattern. METHODS: The sample was distributed in: FSM Group (n = 15, with premature loss of at least one primary molar and a Control Group (n = 16. It was determined the maximal bite force (BF

  9. Space station orbit maintenance (United States)

    Kaplan, D. I.; Jones, R. M.


    The orbit maintenance problem is examined for two low-earth-orbiting space station concepts - the large, manned Space Operations Center (SOC) and the smaller, unmanned Science and Applications Space Platform (SASP). Atmospheric drag forces are calculated, and circular orbit altitudes are selected to assure a 90 day decay period in the event of catastrophic propulsion system failure. Several thrusting strategies for orbit maintenance are discussed. Various chemical and electric propulsion systems for orbit maintenance are compared on the basis of propellant resupply requirements, power requirements, Shuttle launch costs, and technology readiness.

  10. Force and motion

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C


    Intimidated by inertia? Frightened by forces? Mystified by Newton s law of motion? You re not alone and help is at hand. The stop Faking It! Series is perfect for science teachers, home-schoolers, parents wanting to help with homework all of you who need a jargon-free way to learn the background for teaching middle school physical science with confidence. With Bill Roberton as your friendly, able but somewhat irreverent guide, you will discover you CAN come to grips with the basics of force and motion. Combining easy-to-understand explanations with activities using commonly found equipment, this book will lead you through Newton s laws to the physics of space travel. The book is as entertaining as it is informative. Best of all, the author understands the needs of adults who want concrete examples, hands-on activities, clear language, diagrams and yes, a certain amount of empathy. Ideas For Use Newton's laws, and all of the other motion principles presented in this book, do a good job of helping us to underst...

  11. Space power subsystem sizing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geis, J.W.


    This paper discusses a Space Power Subsystem Sizing program which has been developed by the Aerospace Power Division of Wright Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. The Space Power Subsystem program (SPSS) contains the necessary equations and algorithms to calculate photovoltaic array power performance, including end-of-life (EOL) and beginning-of-life (BOL) specific power (W/kg) and areal power density (W/m 2 ). Additional equations and algorithms are included in the spreadsheet for determining maximum eclipse time as a function of orbital altitude, and inclination. The Space Power Subsystem Sizing program (SPSS) has been used to determine the performance of several candidate power subsystems for both Air Force and SDIO potential applications. Trade-offs have been made between subsystem weight and areal power density (W/m 2 ) as influenced by orbital high energy particle flux and time in orbit

  12. Handbook of force transducers

    CERN Document Server

    Stefanescu, Dan Mihai


    Part I introduces the basic ""Principles and Methods of Force Measurement"" acording to a classification into a dozen of force transducers types: resistive, inductive, capacitive, piezoelectric, electromagnetic, electrodynamic, magnetoelastic, galvanomagnetic (Hall-effect), vibrating wires, (micro)resonators, acoustic and gyroscopic. Two special chapters refer to force balance techniques and to combined methods in force measurement. Part II discusses the ""(Strain Gauge) Force Transducers Components"", evolving from the classical force transducer to the digital / intelligent one, with the inco

  13. 75 FR 32186 - Task Force on Community Preventive Services (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Task Force on Community Preventive Services Name: Task Force on Community Preventive Services meeting. Times and Dates: 8... by space available. Purpose: The mission of the Task Force is to develop and publish the Guide to...

  14. 75 FR 4402 - Task Force on Community Preventive Services (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Task Force on Community Preventive Services Name: Task Force on Community Preventive Services meeting. Times and Dates: 8..., limited only by space available. Purpose: The mission of the Task Force is to develop and publish the...

  15. Army Global Basing Posture: An Analytic Framework for Maximizing Responsiveness and Effectiveness (United States)


    Aires Australia Darwin IAP Darwin Bahamas Grand Bahama IAP Freeport Bangladesh Shah Amanat IAP Chittagong Cameroon Douala AB Douala Costa Rica...McGarvey, Robert S. Tripp, Louis Luangkesorn, Thomas Lang, and Charles Robert Roll, Jr., Evaluation of Options for Overseas Combat Support Basing...Robert S. Tripp, Ronald G. McGarvey, Edward W. Chan, and Charles Robert Roll Jr., Supporting Air and Space Expeditionary Forces: Analysis of

  16. Space-Charge Effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauvin, N


    First, this chapter introduces the expressions for the electric and magnetic space-charge internal fields and forces induced by high-intensity beams. Then, the root-mean-square equation with space charge is derived and discussed. In the third section, the one-dimensional Child-Langmuir law, which gives the maximum current density that can be extracted from an ion source, is exposed. Space-charge compensation can occur in the low-energy beam transport lines (located after the ion source). This phenomenon, which counteracts the spacecharge defocusing effect, is explained and its main parameters are presented. The fifth section presents an overview of the principal methods to perform beam dynamics numerical simulations. An example of a particles-in-cells code, SolMaxP, which takes into account space-charge compensation, is given. Finally, beam dynamics simulation results obtained with this code in the case of the IFMIF injector are presented. (author)

  17. Space-Charge Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Chauvin, N.


    First, this chapter introduces the expressions for the electric and magnetic space-charge internal fields and forces induced by high-intensity beams. Then, the root-mean-square equation with space charge is derived and discussed. In the third section, the one-dimensional Child-Langmuir law, which gives the maximum current density that can be extracted from an ion source, is exposed. Space-charge compensation can occur in the low-energy beam transport lines (located after the ion source). This phenomenon, which counteracts the spacecharge defocusing effect, is explained and its main parameters are presented. The fifth section presents an overview of the principal methods to perform beam dynamics numerical simulations. An example of a particles-in-cells code, SolMaxP, which takes into account space-charge compensation, is given. Finally, beam dynamics simulation results obtained with this code in the case of the IFMIF injector are presented.

  18. Interfacial force measurements using atomic force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chu, L.


    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) can not only image the topography of surfaces at atomic resolution, but can also measure accurately the different interaction forces, like repulsive, adhesive and lateral existing between an AFM tip and the sample surface. Based on AFM, various extended techniques have

  19. The Outer Space Treaty (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher Daniel


    Negotiated at the United Nations and in force since 1967, the Outer Space Treaty has been ratified by over 100 countries and is the most important and foundational source of space law. The treaty, whose full title is "Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, Including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies," governs all of humankind's activities in outer space, including activities on other celestial bodies and many activities on Earth related to outer space. All space exploration and human spaceflight, planetary sciences, and commercial uses of space—such as the global telecommunications industry and the use of space technologies such as position, navigation, and timing (PNT), take place against the backdrop of the general regulatory framework established in the Outer Space Treaty. A treaty is an international legal instrument which balances rights and obligations between states, and exists as a kind of mutual contract of shared understandings, rights, and responsibilities between them. Negotiated and drafted during the Cold War era of heightened political tensions, the Outer Space Treaty is largely the product of efforts by the United States and the USSR to agree on certain minimum standards and obligations to govern their competition in "conquering" space. Additionally, the Outer Space Treaty is similar to other treaties, including treaties governing the high seas, international airspace, and the Antarctic, all of which govern the behavior of states outside of their national borders. The treaty is brief in nature and only contains 17 articles, and is not comprehensive in addressing and regulating every possible scenario. The negotiating states knew that the Outer Space Treaty could only establish certain foundational concepts such as freedom of access, state responsibility and liability, non-weaponization of space, the treatment of astronauts in distress, and the prohibition of non-appropriation of

  20. Space Resources Roundtable 2 (United States)

    Ignatiev, A.


    Contents include following: Developing Technologies for Space Resource Utilization - Concept for a Planetary Engineering Research Institute. Results of a Conceptual Systems Analysis of Systems for 200 m Deep Sampling of the Martian Subsurface. The Role of Near-Earth Asteroids in Long-Term Platinum Supply. Core Drilling for Extra-Terrestrial Mining. Recommendations by the "LSP and Manufacturing" Group to the NSF-NASA Workshop on Autonomous Construction and Manufacturing for Space Electrical Power Systems. Plasma Processing of Lunar and Planetary Materials. Percussive Force Magnitude in Permafrost. Summary of the Issues Regarding the Martian Subsurface Explorer. A Costing Strategy for Manufacturing in Orbit Using Extraterrestrial Resources. Mine Planning for Asteroid Orebodies. Organic-based Dissolution of Silicates: A New Approach to Element Extraction from LunarRegohth. Historic Frontier Processes Active in Future Space-based Mineral Extraction. The Near-Earth Space Surveillance (NIESS) Mission: Discovery, Tracking, and Characterization of Asteroids, Comets, and Artificial Satellites with a microsatellite. Privatized Space Resource Property Ownership. The Fabrication of Silicon Solar Cells on the Moon Using In-Situ Resources. A New Strategy for Exploration Technology Development: The Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Exploratiori/Commercialization Technology Initiative. Space Resources for Space Tourism. Recovery of Volatiles from the Moon and Associated Issues. Preliminary Analysis of a Small Robot for Martian Regolith Excavation. The Registration of Space-based Property. Continuous Processing with Mars Gases. Drilling and Logging in Space; An Oil-Well Perspective. LORPEX for Power Surges: Drilling, Rock Crushing. An End-To-End Near-Earth Asteroid Resource Exploitation Plan. An Engineering and Cost Model for Human Space Settlement Architectures: Focus on Space Hotels and Moon/Mars Exploration. The Development and Realization of a Silicon-60-based

  1. Neighborhood spaces


    D. C. Kent; Won Keun Min


    Neighborhood spaces, pretopological spaces, and closure spaces are topological space generalizations which can be characterized by means of their associated interior (or closure) operators. The category NBD of neighborhood spaces and continuous maps contains PRTOP as a bicoreflective subcategory and CLS as a bireflective subcategory, whereas TOP is bireflectively embedded in PRTOP and bicoreflectively embedded in CLS. Initial and final structures are described in these categories, and it is s...

  2. Air Force Operational Medicine: Using the Estimating Supplies Program to Develop Materiel Solutions for the Operational Clinical Requirements of the Expeditionary Medical Support (EMEDS). Volume 2. EMEDS System [Basic (United States)


    A  6515011767570  NIPPLE ‐NUT CONNECTOR UNIVERSAL OXYGEN 250S  PG  1  1  0.64  0.0738  $113.97  0.64  0.074  $113.97   A  6530011190015  PAD BED LINEN...6532000811804  COAT  MENS  PAJAMA LAR FULL LG COAT   EA  10  17  5  0.46  $118.60  8.5  0.782  $201.62  C = Quantity Decrease            F = Add, New Item    F...Qty  Wgt  Cube  Wgt  Cube  B  6532000811802  COAT  MENS  PAJAMA MED FULL LG COAT   EA  10  17  5  0.46  $112.10  8.5  0.782  $190.57  F  6510015573093

  3. Unexpected properties of the centrifugal force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramowicz, M.A.


    Contrary to what is stated in the Newtonian dynamics, rotation of a reference frame is not sufficient for the occurrence of the centrifugal force. Instead, the necessary and sufficient condition is a motion along a path different from that of a photon trajectory in space. This calls for a rather fundamental change in understanding of the very nature of the centrifugal force. It also has important practical physical consequences: in a strong gravitational field, where light trajectories are substantially curved, centrifugal force is much weaker than the Newtonian theory predicts. In addition, when there are closed (circular) photon trajectories in space, the centrifugal force may reverse its direction - it attracts towards the rotation axis!. The weakening of the centrifugal force in strong gravitational fields and the reversal of its direction in the neighbourhood of close photon trajectories in space fully and clearly explain puzzling examples of counter intuitive behaviour of dynamical effects of rotation found previously by several authors: e.g. reversal of the ellipticity behaviour of the relativistic Maclaurin spheroids (Chandrasekhar and Miller, 1974), reversal of the viscous torque action (Anderson and Lemos, 1988), or the fact that rotation increases internal pressure of a sufficiently compact star (Abramowicz and Wagoner, 1974). Weakening of the centrifugal force implies that rotating neutron stars are less oblate (and probably more stable) than the Newtonian theory predicts. This is important for the recently discussed question of how fast can pulsars spin. (author). 23 refs, 3 figs

  4. Unexpected properties of the centrifugal force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramowicz, M.A.


    Contrary to what is stated in the Newtonian dynamics, rotation of a reference frame is not sufficient for the occurrence of the centrifugal force. Instead, the necessary and sufficient condition is a motion along a path different from that of a photon trajectory in space. This calls for a rather fundamental change in understanding of the very nature of the centrifugal force. It also has important practical physical consequences: in a strong gravitational field, where light trajectories are substantially curved, centrifugal force is much weaker than the Newtonian theory predicts. In addition, when there are closed (circular) photon trajectories in space, the centrifugal force may reverse its direction - it attracts towards the rotation axis. The weakening of the centrifugal force in strong gravitational fields and the reversal of its direction in the neighborhood of close photon trajectories in space fully and clearly explain puzzling examples of counter intuitive behaviour of dynamical effects of rotation found previously by several authors: e.g. reversal of the ellipticity behaviour of the relativistic Maclaurin spheroids (Chandrasekhar and Miller, 1974), reversal of the viscous torque action (Anderson and Lemos, 1988) or the fact that rotation increases internal pressure of a sufficiently compact star (Abramowicz and Wagoner, 1974). Weakening of the centrifugal force implies that rotating neutron stars are less oblate (and probably more stable) than the Newtonian theory predicts. This is important for the recently discussed question of how fast can pulsars spins. (author). 31 refs, 3 figs

  5. Forces of nature

    CERN Document Server



    A breathtaking and beautiful exploration of our planet. This groundbreaking book, which accompanies the new BBC1 TV series, provides the deepest answers to the simplest questions. 'Why is the sky blue?' 'Why is the Earth round?' 'Why is every snowflake unique?' To answer these and many other questions, Professor Brian Cox will reveal some of the most extraordinary phenomena and events on Earth and in the Universe and beyond. From the immensity of Earth's globe to all the world's myriad snowflakes, the forces of nature shape everything we see. Pushed to extremes, the results are astonishing. From the realm of auroras to the heart of our planet, the ingredients that make everything on Earth connect each one of us in an eternal cycle of life. Brian will reveal why Earth is the most colourful world we know, exploring the white light of the sun as it travels through the darkness of space until it hits Earth's atmosphere where it begins a new journey, splitting into a rainbow of colours. From the great plains of th...

  6. Forces in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridgely, Charles T


    Many textbooks dealing with general relativity do not demonstrate the derivation of forces in enough detail. The analyses presented herein demonstrate straightforward methods for computing forces by way of general relativity. Covariant divergence of the stress-energy-momentum tensor is used to derive a general expression of the force experienced by an observer in general coordinates. The general force is then applied to the local co-moving coordinate system of a uniformly accelerating observer, leading to an expression of the inertial force experienced by the observer. Next, applying the general force in Schwarzschild coordinates is shown to lead to familiar expressions of the gravitational force. As a more complex demonstration, the general force is applied to an observer in Boyer-Lindquist coordinates near a rotating, Kerr black hole. It is then shown that when the angular momentum of the black hole goes to zero, the force on the observer reduces to the force on an observer held stationary in Schwarzschild coordinates. As a final consideration, the force on an observer moving in rotating coordinates is derived. Expressing the force in terms of Christoffel symbols in rotating coordinates leads to familiar expressions of the centrifugal and Coriolis forces on the observer. It is envisioned that the techniques presented herein will be most useful to graduate level students, as well as those undergraduate students having experience with general relativity and tensor analysis.

  7. Sacred Space. (United States)

    Adelstein, Pamela


    A space can be sacred, providing those who inhabit a particular space with sense of transcendence-being connected to something greater than oneself. The sacredness may be inherent in the space, as for a religious institution or a serene place outdoors. Alternatively, a space may be made sacred by the people within it and events that occur there. As medical providers, we have the opportunity to create sacred space in our examination rooms and with our patient interactions. This sacred space can be healing to our patients and can bring us providers opportunities for increased connection, joy, and gratitude in our daily work.

  8. Sobolev spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, Robert A


    Sobolev Spaces presents an introduction to the theory of Sobolev Spaces and other related spaces of function, also to the imbedding characteristics of these spaces. This theory is widely used in pure and Applied Mathematics and in the Physical Sciences.This second edition of Adam''s ''classic'' reference text contains many additions and much modernizing and refining of material. The basic premise of the book remains unchanged: Sobolev Spaces is intended to provide a solid foundation in these spaces for graduate students and researchers alike.* Self-contained and accessible for readers in other disciplines.* Written at elementary level making it accessible to graduate students.

  9. Malaysia and forced migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzura Idris


    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the phenomenon of “forced migration” in Malaysia. It examines the nature of forced migration, the challenges faced by Malaysia, the policy responses and their impact on the country and upon the forced migrants. It considers forced migration as an event hosting multifaceted issues related and relevant to forced migrants and suggests that Malaysia has been preoccupied with the issue of forced migration movements. This is largely seen in various responses invoked from Malaysia due to “south-south forced migration movements.” These responses are, however, inadequate in terms of commitment to the international refugee regime. While Malaysia did respond to economic and migration challenges, the paper asserts that such efforts are futile if she ignores issues critical to forced migrants.

  10. Labor Force Participation Rate (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — This thematic map presents the labor force participation rate of working-age people in the United States in 2010. The 2010 Labor Force Participation Rate shows the...

  11. Three-nucleon forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, P.U.


    In this paper, the role of three-nucleon forces in ab initio calculations of nuclear systems is investigated. The difference between genuine and induced many-nucleon forces is emphasized. Induced forces arise in the process of solving the nuclear many-body problem as technical intermediaries toward calculationally converged results. Genuine forces make up the Hamiltonian. They represent the chosen underlying dynamics. The hierarchy of contributions arising from genuine two-, three- and many-nucleon forces is discussed. Signals for the need of the inclusion of genuine three-nucleon forces are studied in nuclear systems, technically best under control, especially in three-nucleon and four-nucleon systems. Genuine three-nucleon forces are important for details in the description of some observables. Their contributions to observables are small on the scale set by two-nucleon forces. (author)

  12. RSOI: Force Deployment Bottleneck

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    D'Amato, Mark


    .... This runs counter to the popular belief that strategic lift is the limiting constraint. The study begins by highlighting the genesis of the military's current force projection strategy and the resulting importance of rapid force deployments...

  13. Acoustic force spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sitters, G.; Kamsma, D.; Thalhammer, G.; Ritsch-Marte, M.; Peterman, E.J.G.; Wuite, G.J.L.


    Force spectroscopy has become an indispensable tool to unravel the structural and mechanochemical properties of biomolecules. Here we extend the force spectroscopy toolbox with an acoustic manipulation device that can exert forces from subpiconewtons to hundreds of piconewtons on thousands of

  14. Crossflow force transducer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulcahy, T.M.


    A force transducer for measuring lift and drag coefficients for a circular cylinder in turbulent water flow is presented. In addition to describing the actual design and construction of the strain-gauged force- ring based transducer, requirements for obtained valid fluid force test data are discussed, and pertinent flow test experience is related

  15. Forces in General Relativity (United States)

    Ridgely, Charles T.


    Many textbooks dealing with general relativity do not demonstrate the derivation of forces in enough detail. The analyses presented herein demonstrate straightforward methods for computing forces by way of general relativity. Covariant divergence of the stress-energy-momentum tensor is used to derive a general expression of the force experienced…

  16. Air Force Senior Leaders (United States)

    Force TV Radio Week in Photos About Us Air Force Senior Leaders SECAF CSAF CMSAF Biographies Adjunct Professors Senior Mentor Biographies Fact Sheets Commander's Call Topics CCT Archive CSAF Reading List 2017 Media Sites Site Registration Contact Us Search Home > About Us > Air Force Senior Leaders

  17. Magnetic force micropiston: An integrated force/microfluidic device for the application of compressive forces in a confined environment (United States)

    Fisher, J. K.; Kleckner, N.


    Cellular biology takes place inside confining spaces. For example, bacteria grow in crevices, red blood cells squeeze through capillaries, and chromosomes replicate inside the nucleus. Frequently, the extent of this confinement varies. Bacteria grow longer and divide, red blood cells move through smaller and smaller passages as they travel to capillary beds, and replication doubles the amount of DNA inside the nucleus. This increase in confinement, either due to a decrease in the available space or an increase in the amount of material contained in a constant volume, has the potential to squeeze and stress objects in ways that may lead to changes in morphology, dynamics, and ultimately biological function. Here, we describe a device developed to probe the interplay between confinement and the mechanical properties of cells and cellular structures, and forces that arise due to changes in a structure's state. In this system, the manipulation of a magnetic bead exerts a compressive force upon a target contained in the confining space of a microfluidic channel. This magnetic force microfluidic piston is constructed in such a way that we can measure (a) target compliance and changes in compliance as induced by changes in buffer, extract, or biochemical composition, (b) target expansion force generated by changes in the same parameters, and (c) the effects of compression stress on a target's structure and function. Beyond these issues, our system has general applicability to a variety of questions requiring the combination of mechanical forces, confinement, and optical imaging.

  18. Space/Flight Operable Miniature Six Axis Transducer, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — FUTEK will fully design and manufacture a sensor capable of measuring forces in and about each axis. The unit will measure forces up to 300 Newton's in the principle...

  19. Analysis of the Capabilities Supporting Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief Operations of the Indonesian Navy (TNI AL) and the United States Marine Corps Marine Expeditionary Unit (USMC MEU) (United States)


    Operating Procedure SPMAGTF Special Purpose Marine Air Ground Task Force SSB Single Side Band STP Shock Trauma Platoon TACRON Tactical Air Control...Platoon ( STP ) that is capable of conducting emergency treatment and triage. The remaining corpsmen are dispersed throughout the individual sub-units of...Jane’s navigating the emerging markets , Indonesia. Retrieved from Jane’s Information Group

  20. Quantum fictitious forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bialynicki-Birula, I; Cirone, M.A.; Dahl, Jens Peder


    We present Heisenberg's equation of motion for the radial variable of a free non-relativistic particle in D dimensions. The resulting radial force consists of three contributions: (i) the quantum fictitious force which is either attractive or repulsive depending on the number of dimensions, (ii......) a singular quantum force located at the origin, and (iii) the centrifugal force associated with non-vanishing angular momentum. Moreover, we use Heisenberg's uncertainty relation to introduce a lower bound for the kinetic energy of an ensemble of neutral particles. This bound is quadratic in the number...... of atoms and can be traced back to the repulsive quantum fictitious potential. All three forces arise for a free particle: "Force without force"....

  1. Current Hypersonic and Space Vehicle Flight Test and Instrumentation (United States)


    ground station hardware and software. B. Space- based Platforms There are already in place several satellite based options to collecting and... Transceive data over very long range at low to very high altitudes DARPA: XS-1 Ground Based Aircraft Based Space Based Future Data...412TW-PA-15264 AIR FORCE TEST CENTER EDWARDS AIR FORCE BASE , CALIFORNIA AIR FORCE MATERIEL COMMAND UNITED STATES AIR FORCE REPORT

  2. Methane monitoring from space (United States)

    Stephan, C.; Alpers, M.; Millet, B.; Ehret, G.; Flamant, P.


    Methane is one of the strongest anthropogenic greenhouse gases. It contributes by its radiative forcing significantly to the global warming. For a better understanding of climate changes, it is necessary to apply precise space-based measurement techniques in order to obtain a global view on the complex processes that control the methane concentration in the atmosphere. The MERLIN mission is a joint French-German cooperation, on a micro satellite mission for space-based measurement of spatial and temporal gradients of atmospheric methane columns on a global scale. MERLIN will be the first Integrated Path Differential Absorption LIDAR for greenhouse gas monitoring from space. In contrast to passive methane missions, the LIDAR instrument allows measurements at alllatitudes, all-seasons and during night.

  3. Design spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    Digital technologies and media are becoming increasingly embodied and entangled in the spaces and places at work and at home. However, our material environment is more than a geometric abstractions of space: it contains familiar places, social arenas for human action. For designers, the integration...... of digital technology with space poses new challenges that call for new approaches. Creative alternatives to traditional systems methodologies are called for when designers use digital media to create new possibilities for action in space. Design Spaces explores how design and media art can provide creative...... alternatives for integrating digital technology with space. Connecting practical design work with conceptual development and theorizing, art with technology, and usesr-centered methods with social sciences, Design Spaces provides a useful research paradigm for designing ubiquitous computing. This book...

  4. A high space-time resolution dataset linking meteorological forcing and hydro-sedimentary response in a mesoscale Mediterranean catchment (Auzon) of the Ardèche region, France (United States)

    Nord, Guillaume; Boudevillain, Brice; Berne, Alexis; Branger, Flora; Braud, Isabelle; Dramais, Guillaume; Gérard, Simon; Le Coz, Jérôme; Legoût, Cédric; Molinié, Gilles; Van Baelen, Joel; Vandervaere, Jean-Pierre; Andrieu, Julien; Aubert, Coralie; Calianno, Martin; Delrieu, Guy; Grazioli, Jacopo; Hachani, Sahar; Horner, Ivan; Huza, Jessica; Le Boursicaud, Raphaël; Raupach, Timothy H.; Teuling, Adriaan J.; Uber, Magdalena; Vincendon, Béatrice; Wijbrans, Annette


    A comprehensive hydrometeorological dataset is presented spanning the period 1 January 2011-31 December 2014 to improve the understanding of the hydrological processes leading to flash floods and the relation between rainfall, runoff, erosion and sediment transport in a mesoscale catchment (Auzon, 116 km2) of the Mediterranean region. Badlands are present in the Auzon catchment and well connected to high-gradient channels of bedrock rivers which promotes the transfer of suspended solids downstream. The number of observed variables, the various sensors involved (both in situ and remote) and the space-time resolution ( ˜ km2, ˜ min) of this comprehensive dataset make it a unique contribution to research communities focused on hydrometeorology, surface hydrology and erosion. Given that rainfall is highly variable in space and time in this region, the observation system enables assessment of the hydrological response to rainfall fields. Indeed, (i) rainfall data are provided by rain gauges (both a research network of 21 rain gauges with a 5 min time step and an operational network of 10 rain gauges with a 5 min or 1 h time step), S-band Doppler dual-polarization radars (1 km2, 5 min resolution), disdrometers (16 sensors working at 30 s or 1 min time step) and Micro Rain Radars (5 sensors, 100 m height resolution). Additionally, during the special observation period (SOP-1) of the HyMeX (Hydrological Cycle in the Mediterranean Experiment) project, two X-band radars provided precipitation measurements at very fine spatial and temporal scales (1 ha, 5 min). (ii) Other meteorological data are taken from the operational surface weather observation stations of Météo-France (including 2 m air temperature, atmospheric pressure, 2 m relative humidity, 10 m wind speed and direction, global radiation) at the hourly time resolution (six stations in the region of interest). (iii) The monitoring of surface hydrology and suspended sediment is multi-scale and based on nested

  5. Space Commercialization (United States)

    Martin, Gary L.


    A robust and competitive commercial space sector is vital to continued progress in space. The United States is committed to encouraging and facilitating the growth of a U.S. commercial space sector that supports U.S. needs, is globally competitive, and advances U.S. leadership in the generation of new markets and innovation-driven entrepreneurship. Energize competitive domestic industries to participate in global markets and advance the development of: satellite manufacturing; satellite-based services; space launch; terrestrial applications; and increased entrepreneurship. Purchase and use commercial space capabilities and services to the maximum practical extent Actively explore the use of inventive, nontraditional arrangements for acquiring commercial space goods and services to meet United States Government requirements, including measures such as public-private partnerships, . Refrain from conducting United States Government space activities that preclude, discourage, or compete with U.S. commercial space activities. Pursue potential opportunities for transferring routine, operational space functions to the commercial space sector where beneficial and cost-effective.

  6. StringForce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barendregt, Wolmet; Börjesson, Peter; Eriksson, Eva


    In this paper, we present the forced collaborative interaction game StringForce. StringForce is developed for a special education context to support training of collaboration skills, using readily available technologies and avoiding the creation of a "mobile bubble". In order to play String......Force two or four physically collocated tablets are required. These tablets are connected to form one large shared game area. The game can only be played by collaborating. StringForce extends previous work, both technologically and regarding social-emotional training. We believe String......Force to be an interesting demo for the IDC community, as it intertwines several relevant research fields, such as mobile interaction and collaborative gaming in the special education context....

  7. Quantum anticentrifugal force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cirone, M.A.; Schleich, W.P.; Straub, F.; Rzazewski, K.; Wheeler, J.A.


    In a two-dimensional world, a free quantum particle of vanishing angular momentum experiences an attractive force. This force originates from a modification of the classical centrifugal force due to the wave nature of the particle. For positive energies the quantum anticentrifugal force manifests itself in a bunching of the nodes of the energy wave functions towards the origin. For negative energies this force is sufficient to create a bound state in a two-dimensional δ-function potential. In a counterintuitive way, the attractive force pushes the particle away from the location of the δ-function potential. As a consequence, the particle is localized in a band-shaped domain around the origin

  8. Relativistic Linear Restoring Force (United States)

    Clark, D.; Franklin, J.; Mann, N.


    We consider two different forms for a relativistic version of a linear restoring force. The pair comes from taking Hooke's law to be the force appearing on the right-hand side of the relativistic expressions: d"p"/d"t" or d"p"/d["tau"]. Either formulation recovers Hooke's law in the non-relativistic limit. In addition to these two forces, we…

  9. Space Operations (United States)


    support, products, and services, as required. US Tenth Fleet is the SSE for fleet satellite (FLTSAT) and ultrahigh frequency follow-on ( UFO ). support of Navy and joint forces. These systems include FLTSAT, UFO , MUOS, and varied payloads (Interim Polar and GBS). 10. Air Force Component...33-50 GHz S S-band, 2-4 GHz SHF super high frequency UFO ultrahigh frequency (UHF) follow-on WGS Wideband Global Satellite Communications System X

  10. Soldier/Warfighter Operationally Responsive Deployer for Space (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The SWORDS launcher is a cooperative project between Office of the  Secretary of Defense, U.S. Army Space and Missile Defense Command/ Army Forces Strategic Command...

  11. Environmental Disturbance Modeling for Large Inflatable Space Structures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Davis, Donald


    Tightening space budgets and stagnating spacelift capabilities are driving the Air Force and other space agencies to focus on inflatable technology as a reliable, inexpensive means of deploying large structures in orbit...

  12. Force induced DNA melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santosh, Mogurampelly; Maiti, Prabal K


    When pulled along the axis, double-strand DNA undergoes a large conformational change and elongates by roughly twice its initial contour length at a pulling force of about 70 pN. The transition to this highly overstretched form of DNA is very cooperative. Applying a force perpendicular to the DNA axis (unzipping), double-strand DNA can also be separated into two single-stranded DNA, this being a fundamental process in DNA replication. We study the DNA overstretching and unzipping transition using fully atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and argue that the conformational changes of double-strand DNA associated with either of the above mentioned processes can be viewed as force induced DNA melting. As the force at one end of the DNA is increased the DNA starts melting abruptly/smoothly above a critical force depending on the pulling direction. The critical force f m , at which DNA melts completely decreases as the temperature of the system is increased. The melting force in the case of unzipping is smaller compared to the melting force when the DNA is pulled along the helical axis. In the case of melting through unzipping, the double-strand separation has jumps which correspond to the different energy minima arising due to sequence of different base pairs. The fraction of Watson-Crick base pair hydrogen bond breaking as a function of force does not show smooth and continuous behavior and consists of plateaus followed by sharp jumps.

  13. Intermolecular and surface forces

    CERN Document Server

    Israelachvili, Jacob N


    This reference describes the role of various intermolecular and interparticle forces in determining the properties of simple systems such as gases, liquids and solids, with a special focus on more complex colloidal, polymeric and biological systems. The book provides a thorough foundation in theories and concepts of intermolecular forces, allowing researchers and students to recognize which forces are important in any particular system, as well as how to control these forces. This third edition is expanded into three sections and contains five new chapters over the previous edition.· starts fr

  14. RSOI: Force Deployment Bottleneck

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    D'Amato, Mark


    This study uses The Theory Of Constraints (TOC) management methodology and recent military missions to show that RSOI operations are generally the limiting constraint to force deployment operations...

  15. Air Force Academy Homepage (United States)

    Communications Focal Point Contracting Squadron Force Support Squadron Mortuary Affairs Logistics Readiness Squadron Cadet Logistics Deployment and Distribution Material Management Operations PM Equipment Lab

  16. Learning Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Falmagne, Jean-Claude


    Learning spaces offer a rigorous mathematical foundation for practical systems of educational technology. Learning spaces generalize partially ordered sets and are special cases of knowledge spaces. The various structures are investigated from the standpoints of combinatorial properties and stochastic processes. Leaning spaces have become the essential structures to be used in assessing students' competence of various topics. A practical example is offered by ALEKS, a Web-based, artificially intelligent assessment and learning system in mathematics and other scholarly fields. At the heart of A

  17. Simulation of a force on force exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terhune, R.; Van Slyke, D.; Sheppard, T.; Brandrup, M.


    The Security Exercise Evaluation System (SEES) is under development for use in planning Force on Force exercises and as an aid in post-exercise evaluation. This study is part of the development cycle where the simulation results are compared to field data to provide guidance for further development of the model. SEES is an event-driven stochastic computer program simulating individual movement and combat within an urban terrain environment. The simulator models the physics of movement, line of sight, and weapon effects. It relies on the controllers to provide all knowledge of security tactics, which are entered by the controllers during the simulation using interactive color graphic workstations. They are able to develop, modify and implement plans promptly as the simulator maintains real time. This paper reports on how SEES will be used to develop an intrusion plan, test the security response tactics and develop observer logistics. A Force on Force field exercise will then be executed to follow the plan with observations recorded. An analysis is made by first comparing the plan and events of the simulation with the field exercise, modifying the simulation plan to match the actual field exercise, and then running the simulation to develop a distribution of possible outcomes

  18. Equilibrium capillary forces with atomic force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprakel, J.H.B.; Besseling, N.A.M.; Leermakers, F.A.M.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.


    We present measurements of equilibrium forces resulting from capillary condensation. The results give access to the ultralow interfacial tensions between the capillary bridge and the coexisting bulk phase. We demonstrate this with solutions of associative polymers and an aqueous mixture of gelatin

  19. Sparse regularization for force identification using dictionaries (United States)

    Qiao, Baijie; Zhang, Xingwu; Wang, Chenxi; Zhang, Hang; Chen, Xuefeng


    The classical function expansion method based on minimizing l2-norm of the response residual employs various basis functions to represent the unknown force. Its difficulty lies in determining the optimum number of basis functions. Considering the sparsity of force in the time domain or in other basis space, we develop a general sparse regularization method based on minimizing l1-norm of the coefficient vector of basis functions. The number of basis functions is adaptively determined by minimizing the number of nonzero components in the coefficient vector during the sparse regularization process. First, according to the profile of the unknown force, the dictionary composed of basis functions is determined. Second, a sparsity convex optimization model for force identification is constructed. Third, given the transfer function and the operational response, Sparse reconstruction by separable approximation (SpaRSA) is developed to solve the sparse regularization problem of force identification. Finally, experiments including identification of impact and harmonic forces are conducted on a cantilever thin plate structure to illustrate the effectiveness and applicability of SpaRSA. Besides the Dirac dictionary, other three sparse dictionaries including Db6 wavelets, Sym4 wavelets and cubic B-spline functions can also accurately identify both the single and double impact forces from highly noisy responses in a sparse representation frame. The discrete cosine functions can also successfully reconstruct the harmonic forces including the sinusoidal, square and triangular forces. Conversely, the traditional Tikhonov regularization method with the L-curve criterion fails to identify both the impact and harmonic forces in these cases.

  20. Generalized force in classical field theory. [Euler-Lagrange equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, J [Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas


    The source strengths of the Euler-Lagrange equations, for a system of interacting fields, are heuristically interpreted as generalized forces. The canonical form of the energy-momentum tensor thus consistently appears, without recourse to space-time symmetry arguments. A concept of 'conservative' generalized force in classical field theory is also briefly discussed.

  1. Lower ionosphere response to external forcing: A brief review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laštovička, Jan


    Roč. 43, č. 1 (2009), s. 1-14 ISSN 0273-1177 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/07/1367; GA ČR GA205/08/1356 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : lower ionosphere * space weather forcing * solar activity * solar forcing * atmospheric waves * atmospheric forcing Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.079, year: 2009

  2. The Air Force and Diversity: The Awkward Embrace (United States)


    diversity across the force. Table. Reasons for leaving the Air Force (2002 data) Reasons for Leaving the Air Force % Critical/Significant Factor % Not a... source in which members pro- vide reasons that women officers leave as well as possible solutions. May–June 2014 Air & Space Power Journal | 122...response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources , gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and

  3. Space Microbiology (United States)

    Horneck, Gerda; Klaus, David M.; Mancinelli, Rocco L.


    Summary: The responses of microorganisms (viruses, bacterial cells, bacterial and fungal spores, and lichens) to selected factors of space (microgravity, galactic cosmic radiation, solar UV radiation, and space vacuum) were determined in space and laboratory simulation experiments. In general, microorganisms tend to thrive in the space flight environment in terms of enhanced growth parameters and a demonstrated ability to proliferate in the presence of normally inhibitory levels of antibiotics. The mechanisms responsible for the observed biological responses, however, are not yet fully understood. A hypothesized interaction of microgravity with radiation-induced DNA repair processes was experimentally refuted. The survival of microorganisms in outer space was investigated to tackle questions on the upper boundary of the biosphere and on the likelihood of interplanetary transport of microorganisms. It was found that extraterrestrial solar UV radiation was the most deleterious factor of space. Among all organisms tested, only lichens (Rhizocarpon geographicum and Xanthoria elegans) maintained full viability after 2 weeks in outer space, whereas all other test systems were inactivated by orders of magnitude. Using optical filters and spores of Bacillus subtilis as a biological UV dosimeter, it was found that the current ozone layer reduces the biological effectiveness of solar UV by 3 orders of magnitude. If shielded against solar UV, spores of B. subtilis were capable of surviving in space for up to 6 years, especially if embedded in clay or meteorite powder (artificial meteorites). The data support the likelihood of interplanetary transfer of microorganisms within meteorites, the so-called lithopanspermia hypothesis. PMID:20197502

  4. Space psychology (United States)

    Parin, V. V.; Gorbov, F. D.; Kosmolinskiy, F. P.


    Psychological selection of astronauts considers mental responses and adaptation to the following space flight stress factors: (1) confinement in a small space; (2) changes in three dimensional orientation; (3) effects of altered gravity and weightlessness; (4) decrease in afferent nerve pulses; (5) a sensation of novelty and danger; and (6) a sense of separation from earth.

  5. Borel Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Berberian, S K


    A detailed exposition of G.W. Mackey's theory of Borel spaces (standard, substandard, analytic), based on results in Chapter 9 of Bourbaki's General Topology. Appended are five informal lectures on the subject (given at the CIMPA/ICPAM Summer School, Nice, 1986), sketching the connection between Borel spaces and representations of operator algebras.

  6. Space engineering (United States)

    Alexander, Harold L.


    Human productivity was studied for extravehicular tasks performed in microgravity, particularly including in-space assembly of truss structures and other large objects. Human factors research probed the anthropometric constraints imposed on microgravity task performance and the associated workstation design requirements. Anthropometric experiments included reach envelope tests conducted using the 3-D Acoustic Positioning System (3DAPS), which permitted measuring the range of reach possible for persons using foot restraints in neutral buoyancy, both with and without space suits. Much neutral buoyancy research was conducted using the support of water to simulate the weightlessness environment of space. It became clear over time that the anticipated EVA requirement associated with the Space Station and with in-space construction of interplanetary probes would heavily burden astronauts, and remotely operated robots (teleoperators) were increasingly considered to absorb the workload. Experience in human EVA productivity led naturally to teleoperation research into the remote performance of tasks through human controlled robots.

  7. Rate of force development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Aagaard, Per; Blazevich, Anthony J


    The evaluation of rate of force development during rapid contractions has recently become quite popular for characterising explosive strength of athletes, elderly individuals and patients. The main aims of this narrative review are to describe the neuromuscular determinants of rate of force devel...

  8. The forces in Nature

    CERN Multimedia



    The different forces, together with a pictorial analogy of how the exchange of particles works. The table lists the relative strength of the couplings, the quanta associated with the force fields and the bodies of phenomena in which they have a dominant role.

  9. New force in nature?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischbach, E.; Sudarsky, D.; Szafer, A.; Talmadge, C.; Aronson, S.H.


    We review recent experimental and theoretical work dealing with the proposed fifth force. Further analysis of the original Eoetvoes experiments has uncovered no challenges to our original assertion that these data evidence a correlation characteristic of the presence of a new coupling to baryon number or hypercharge. Various models suggest that the proposed fifth force could be accomodated naturally into the existing theoretical framework

  10. Quantum mechanics on Laakso spaces (United States)

    Kauffman, Christopher J.; Kesler, Robert M.; Parshall, Amanda G.; Stamey, Evelyn A.; Steinhurst, Benjamin A.


    We first review the spectrum of the Laplacian operator on a general Laakso space before considering modified Hamiltonians for the infinite square well, parabola, and Coulomb potentials. Additionally, we compute the spectrum for the Laplacian and its multiplicities when certain regions of a Laakso space are compressed or stretched and calculate the Casimir force experienced by two uncharged conducting plates by imposing physically relevant boundary conditions and then analytically regularizing the resulting zeta function. Lastly, we derive a general formula for the spectral zeta function and its derivative for Laakso spaces with strict self-similar structure before listing explicit spectral values for some special cases

  11. Intrinsic space charge resonances and the space charge limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parzen, G.


    A study has been done of the dependence of the space charge limit on the choice of ν-values using a simulation program. This study finds a strong dependence of the space charge limit on the location of the ν-values relative to the intrinsic space charge resonances, which are driven by the space charge forces due to the beam itself. Four accelerators were studied. For some of these accelerators the study suggest that the space charge limit can be increased by about a factor of 2 proper choice of the ν-values. The lower order 1/2 and 1/4 intrinsic resonances appear to be the important resonances. There is some evidence for effects due to the 1/6 and 1/8 intrinsic resonances, particularly for larger synchrotrons. 5 figs

  12. NLDAS Forcing Data L4 Hourly 0.125 x 0.125 degree V001 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains the forcing data for Phase 1 of the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS-1). The data are in 1/8th degree grid spacing and...

  13. Space polypropulsion (United States)

    Kellett, B. J.; Griffin, D. K.; Bingham, R.; Campbell, R. N.; Forbes, A.; Michaelis, M. M.


    Hybrid space propulsion has been a feature of most space missions. Only the very early rocket propulsion experiments like the V2, employed a single form of propulsion. By the late fifties multi-staging was routine and the Space Shuttle employs three different kinds of fuel and rocket engines. During the development of chemical rockets, other forms of propulsion were being slowly tested, both theoretically and, relatively slowly, in practice. Rail and gas guns, ion engines, "slingshot" gravity assist, nuclear and solar power, tethers, solar sails have all seen some real applications. Yet the earliest type of non-chemical space propulsion to be thought of has never been attempted in space: laser and photon propulsion. The ideas of Eugen Saenger, Georgii Marx, Arthur Kantrowitz, Leik Myrabo, Claude Phipps and Robert Forward remain Earth-bound. In this paper we summarize the various forms of nonchemical propulsion and their results. We point out that missions beyond Saturn would benefit from a change of attitude to laser-propulsion as well as consideration of hybrid "polypropulsion" - which is to say using all the rocket "tools" available rather than possibly not the most appropriate. We conclude with three practical examples, two for the next decades and one for the next century; disposal of nuclear waste in space; a grand tour of the Jovian and Saturnian moons - with Huygens or Lunoxod type, landers; and eventually mankind's greatest space dream: robotic exploration of neighbouring planetary systems.

  14. Toys in Space, 2 (United States)

    Herbert, Dexter (Editor)


    In this educational video from the 'Liftoff to Learning' series, astronauts from the STS-54 Mission (Mario Runco, John Casper, Don McMonagle, Susan Helms, and Greg Harbaugh) explain how microgravity and weightlessness in space affects motion by using both mechanical and nonmechanical toys (gravitrons, slinkys, dart boards, magnetic marbles, and others). The gravitational effects on rotation, force, acceleration, magnetism, magnetic fields, center of axis, and velocity are actively demonstrated using these toys through experiments onboard the STS-54 Mission flight as a part of their spaceborne experiment payload. [Resource Guide referenced in the video is not available.

  15. Knowledge spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Doignon, Jean-Paul


    Knowledge spaces offer a rigorous mathematical foundation for various practical systems of knowledge assessment. An example is offered by the ALEKS system (Assessment and LEarning in Knowledge Spaces), a software for the assessment of mathematical knowledge. From a mathematical standpoint, knowledge spaces generalize partially ordered sets. They are investigated both from a combinatorial and a stochastic viewpoint. The results are applied to real and simulated data. The book gives a systematic presentation of research and extends the results to new situations. It is of interest to mathematically oriented readers in education, computer science and combinatorics at research and graduate levels. The text contains numerous examples and exercises and an extensive bibliography.

  16. Space Bugz!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birke, Alexander; Schoenau-Fog, Henrik; Reng, Lars


    This paper presents Space Bugz! - a novel crowd game for large venues or cinemas that utilises the audience's smartphones as controllers for the game. This paper explains what crowd gaming is and describes how the approach used in Space Bugz! enables more advanced gameplay concepts and individual...... player control than current technologies allow. The gameplay of Space Bugz! is then explained along with the technical architecture of the game. After this, the iterative design process used to create the game is described together with future perspectives. The article concludes with links to a video...

  17. Transverse force on a moving vortex with the acoustic geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Pengming; Cao Liming; Duan Yishi; Zhong Chengkui


    We consider the transverse force on a moving vortex with the acoustic metric using the phi-mapping topological current theory. In the frame of effective space-time geometry the vortex appear naturally by virtue of the vortex tensor in the Lorentz space-time and we show that it is just the vortex derived with the order parameter in the condensed matter. With the usual Lagrangian we obtain the equation of motion for the vortex. At last, we show that the transverse force on the moving vortex in our equation is just the usual Magnus force in a simple model

  18. Air Force Civil Engineer, Volume 10, Number 1, Spring 2002 (United States)


    gone into the 823rd Expeditionary RED HORSE Squadron�s military construction (MILCON) funded ramp project at Al Udeid Air Base, Qatar , and the main...AE W P ub lic A ff ai rs an Air Base RED HORSE builds MILCON project in Qatar SSgt Chuck Risinger, 823rd RHS, operates a slip form paver March 24...and were not designed to limit or contain the migration of lead into the environ- ment and sub-surface groundwater aquifers . An estimated 2,000

  19. OOTW Force Design Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, R.E.; Hartley, D.S.III; Packard, S.L.


    This report documents refined requirements for tools to aid the process of force design in Operations Other Than War (OOTWs). It recommends actions for the creation of one tool and work on other tools relating to mission planning. It also identifies the governmental agencies and commands with interests in each tool, from whom should come the user advisory groups overseeing the respective tool development activities. The understanding of OOTWs and their analytical support requirements has matured to the point where action can be taken in three areas: force design, collaborative analysis, and impact analysis. While the nature of the action and the length of time before complete results can be expected depends on the area, in each case the action should begin immediately. Force design for OOTWs is not a technically difficult process. Like force design for combat operations, it is a process of matching the capabilities of forces against the specified and implied tasks of the operation, considering the constraints of logistics, transport and force availabilities. However, there is a critical difference that restricts the usefulness of combat force design tools for OOTWs: the combat tools are built to infer non-combat capability requirements from combat capability requirements and cannot reverse the direction of the inference, as is required for OOTWs. Recently, OOTWs have played a larger role in force assessment, system effectiveness and tradeoff analysis, and concept and doctrine development and analysis. In the first Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR), each of the Services created its own OOTW force design tool. Unfortunately, the tools address different parts of the problem and do not coordinate the use of competing capabilities. These tools satisfied the immediate requirements of the QDR, but do not provide a long-term cost-effective solution.

  20. Forced magnetic reconnection (United States)

    Vekstein, G.


    This is a tutorial-style selective review explaining basic concepts of forced magnetic reconnection. It is based on a celebrated model of forced reconnection suggested by J. B. Taylor. The standard magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory of this process has been pioneered by Hahm & Kulsrud (Phys. Fluids, vol. 28, 1985, p. 2412). Here we also discuss several more recent developments related to this problem. These include energetics of forced reconnection, its Hall-mediated regime, and nonlinear effects with the associated onset of the secondary tearing (plasmoid) instability.

  1. Bi-Force

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Peng; Speicher, Nora K; Röttger, Richard


    of pairwise similarities. We first evaluated the power of Bi-Force to solve dedicated bicluster editing problems by comparing Bi-Force with two existing algorithms in the BiCluE software package. We then followed a biclustering evaluation protocol in a recent review paper from Eren et al. (2013) (A...... comparative analysis of biclustering algorithms for gene expressiondata. Brief. Bioinform., 14:279-292.) and compared Bi-Force against eight existing tools: FABIA, QUBIC, Cheng and Church, Plaid, BiMax, Spectral, xMOTIFs and ISA. To this end, a suite of synthetic datasets as well as nine large gene expression...

  2. Mathias forcing and combinatorial covering properties of filters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chodounský, David; Repovš, D.; Zdomskyy, L.


    Roč. 80, č. 4 (2015), s. 1398-1410 ISSN 0022-4812 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190902 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Menger space * Hurewicz space * Mathias forcing Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.510, year: 2015

  3. Space dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corno, S.E.


    Analytical methods for Space Dynamics of fission reactors, are presented. It is shown how a few sample problems in space dynamics can be solved, within the one and two group diffusion model, by purely analytical tools, essentially based on Laplace transform and complex Green function techniques. A quite suggestive generalization of this approach, applicable to the fluid core reactors, whose fuel is undergoing a violent mixing, is reported and briefly discussed. (author)

  4. Computational force, mass, and energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numrich, R.W.


    This paper describes a correspondence between computational quantities commonly used to report computer performance measurements and mechanical quantities from classical Newtonian mechanics. It defines a set of three fundamental computational quantities that are sufficient to establish a system of computational measurement. From these quantities, it defines derived computational quantities that have analogous physical counterparts. These computational quantities obey three laws of motion in computational space. The solutions to the equations of motion, with appropriate boundary conditions, determine the computational mass of the computer. Computational forces, with magnitudes specific to each instruction and to each computer, overcome the inertia represented by this mass. The paper suggests normalizing the computational mass scale by picking the mass of a register on the CRAY-1 as the standard unit of mass

  5. Quadrupole transport experiment with space charge dominated cesium ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faltens, A.; Keefe, D.; Kim, C.; Rosenblum, S.; Tiefenback, M.; Warwick, A.


    The purpose of the experiment is to investigate the beam current transport limit in a long quadrupole-focussed transport channel in the space charge dominated region where the space charge defocussing force is almost as large as the average focussing force of the channel

  6. Chaos as an intermittently forced linear system. (United States)

    Brunton, Steven L; Brunton, Bingni W; Proctor, Joshua L; Kaiser, Eurika; Kutz, J Nathan


    Understanding the interplay of order and disorder in chaos is a central challenge in modern quantitative science. Approximate linear representations of nonlinear dynamics have long been sought, driving considerable interest in Koopman theory. We present a universal, data-driven decomposition of chaos as an intermittently forced linear system. This work combines delay embedding and Koopman theory to decompose chaotic dynamics into a linear model in the leading delay coordinates with forcing by low-energy delay coordinates; this is called the Hankel alternative view of Koopman (HAVOK) analysis. This analysis is applied to the Lorenz system and real-world examples including Earth's magnetic field reversal and measles outbreaks. In each case, forcing statistics are non-Gaussian, with long tails corresponding to rare intermittent forcing that precedes switching and bursting phenomena. The forcing activity demarcates coherent phase space regions where the dynamics are approximately linear from those that are strongly nonlinear.The huge amount of data generated in fields like neuroscience or finance calls for effective strategies that mine data to reveal underlying dynamics. Here Brunton et al.develop a data-driven technique to analyze chaotic systems and predict their dynamics in terms of a forced linear model.

  7. The Casimir effect: a force from nothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambrecht, Astrid


    The attractive force between two surfaces in a vacuum - first predicted by Hendrik Casimir over 50 years ago - could affect everything from micro machines to unified theories of nature. What happens if you take two mirrors and arrange them so that they are facing each other in empty space? Your first reaction might be 'nothing at all'. In fact, both mirrors are mutually attracted to each other by the simple presence of the vacuum. This startling phenomenon was first predicted in 1948 by the Dutch theoretical physicist Hendrik Casimir while he was working at Philips Research Laboratories in Eindhoven on - of all things - colloidal solutions (see box). The phenomenon is now dubbed the Casimir effect, while the force between the mirrors is known as the Casimir force. For many years the Casimir effect was little more than a theoretical curiosity. But interest in the phenomenon has blossomed in recent years. Experimental physicists have realized that the Casimir force affects the workings of micro machined devices, while advances in instrumentation have enabled the force to be measured with ever-greater accuracy. The new enthusiasm has also been fired by fundamental physics. Many theorists have predicted the existence of 'large' extra dimensions in 10- and 11-dimensional unified field theories of the fundamental forces. These dimensions, they say, could modify classical Newtonian gravitation at sub-millimetre distances. Measuring the Casimir effect could therefore help physicists to test the validity of such radical ideas. (U.K.)

  8. Institutionalizing Security Force Assistance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Binetti, Michael R


    .... It looks at the manner in which security assistance guidance is developed and executed. An examination of national level policy and the guidance from senior military and civilian leaders highlights the important role of Security Force Assistance...

  9. Hanscom Air Force Base (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — MIT Lincoln Laboratory occupies 75 acres (20 acres of which are MIT property) on the eastern perimeter of Hanscom Air Force Base, which is at the nexus of Lexington,...

  10. Packing force data correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiman, S.M.


    One of the issues facing valve maintenance personnel today deals with an appropriate methodology for installing and setting valve packing that will minimize leak rates, yet ensure functionality of the the valve under all anticipated operating conditions. Several variables can affect a valve packing's ability to seal, such as packing bolt torque, stem finish, and lubrication. Stem frictional force can be an excellent overall indicator of some of the underlying conditions that affect the sealing characteristics of the packing and the best parameter to use when adjusting the packing. This paper addresses stem friction forces, analytically derives the equations related to these forces, presents a methodology for measuring these forces on valve stems, and attempts to correlate the data directly to the underlying variables

  11. public spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva


    Full Text Available The topic of this issue is PUBLIC SPACES. It is familiar and clear to every citizen. The streets and courtyards as childhood experiences remain with us forever. And these are the places where we come with our parents at weekends, where we meet friends, where we have dates and where we already come for a walk with our children.The history of public spaces is long and captivating. It was the main city squares where the most important events took place in history. The Agoras of Ancient Greece and the Roman Forums, the squares of Vatican, Paris and London, Moscow and Saint Petersburg… Greve, Trafalgar, Senate, Palace, Red, Bolotnaya – behind every name there is life of capitals, countries and nations.Public spaces, their shapes, image and development greatly influence the perception of the city as a whole. Both visitors and inhabitants can see in public spaces not only the visage but the heart, the soul and the mind of the city.Unfortunately, sometimes we have to prove the value of public spaces and defend them from those who consider them nothing but a blank space, nobody’s land destined for barbarous development.What should happen to make citizens perceive public spaces as their own and to make authorities consider development and maintenance of squares and parks their priority task against the  background of increasing competition between cities and the fight for human capital? Lately they more often say about “a high-quality human capital”. And now, when they say “the city should be liveable” they add “for all groups of citizens, including the creative class”.

  12. Space Rescue (United States)

    Muratore, John F.


    Space Rescue has been a topic of speculation for a wide community of people for decades. Astronauts, aerospace engineers, diplomats, medical and rescue professionals, inventors and science fiction writers have all speculated on this problem. Martin Caidin's 1964 novel Marooned dealt with the problems of rescuing a crew stranded in low earth orbit. Legend at the Johnson Space Center says that Caidin's portrayal of a Russian attempt to save the American crew played a pivotal role in convincing the Russians to join the real joint Apollo-Soyuz mission. Space Rescue has been a staple in science fiction television and movies portrayed in programs such as Star Trek, Stargate-SG1 and Space 1999 and movies such as Mission To Mars and Red Planet. As dramatic and as difficult as rescue appears in fictional accounts, in the real world it has even greater drama and greater difficulty. Space rescue is still in its infancy as a discipline and the purpose of this chapter is to describe the issues associated with space rescue and the work done so far in this field. For the purposes of this chapter, the term space rescue will refer to any system which allows for rescue or escape of personnel from situations which endanger human life in a spaceflight operation. This will span the period from crew ingress prior to flight through crew egress postlanding. For the purposes of this chapter, the term primary system will refer to the spacecraft system that a crew is either attempting to escape from or from which an attempt is being made to rescue the crew.

  13. The AFIT of Today is the Air Force of Tomorrow (United States)


    marketing 5/11/2012 9 The AFIT of today is the Air Force of tomorrow. 1 Air University: The Intellectual and Leadership Center of the Air Force Aim High...Center of the Air Force Aim High…Fly - Fight - Win The AFIT of Today is the Air Force of Tomorrow. LS Accomplishments • Initiated market -based, fee-for...USAFA Swarming Formation Flying Sponsor: SMC Space Traffic Control Iridium and Globalstar Modems Sponsor: AFRL/RV; SMC/ STP CubeSat Plume Detector

  14. Underground spaces/cybernetic spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Novljan


    Full Text Available A modern city space is a space where in the vertical and horizontal direction dynamic, non-linear processes exist, similar as in nature. Alongside the “common” city surface, cities have underground spaces as well that are increasingly affecting the functioning of the former. It is the space of material and cybernetic communication/transport. The psychophysical specifics of using underground places have an important role in their conceptualisation. The most evident facts being their limited volume and often limited connections to the surface and increased level of potential dangers of all kinds. An efficient mode for alleviating the effects of these specific features are artistic interventions, such as: shape, colour, lighting, all applications of the basic principles of fractal theory.

  15. Next stop: space

    CERN Multimedia

    Paola Catapano


    At 6:30 a.m. on 25 August, the runway at Geneva International Airport was more crowded than usual, as dozens of airport staff and a few CERN personnel gathered as close as possible to watch the landing of one of the world's largest aircraft, a USAF (US Air Force) C5 Super Galaxy. Having left Afghanistan (where it transported provisions for the US military contingent) the day before, it had spent a few hours at a US military base in Iraq before finally landing in Geneva on a very special mission: to load AMS-02, the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer, into its huge cargo bay.   On 25 August, after an 11 hour-long flight, the US Air Force C-5 Galaxy carrying the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS-02) experiment landed at the Kennedy Space Centre (KSC) in Florida, US. Weighing 7.5 tonnes and measuring 5 by 4 by 3 metres, AMS-02 is one of the most complex scientific instruments ever built for space. The experiment, assembled and tested at CERN, uses particle physics technologies but smaller and lighter (by pa...

  16. Walking Ahead: The Headed Social Force Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Farina

    Full Text Available Human motion models are finding an increasing number of novel applications in many different fields, such as building design, computer graphics and robot motion planning. The Social Force Model is one of the most popular alternatives to describe the motion of pedestrians. By resorting to a physical analogy, individuals are assimilated to point-wise particles subject to social forces which drive their dynamics. Such a model implicitly assumes that humans move isotropically. On the contrary, empirical evidence shows that people do have a preferred direction of motion, walking forward most of the time. Lateral motions are observed only in specific circumstances, such as when navigating in overcrowded environments or avoiding unexpected obstacles. In this paper, the Headed Social Force Model is introduced in order to improve the realism of the trajectories generated by the classical Social Force Model. The key feature of the proposed approach is the inclusion of the pedestrians' heading into the dynamic model used to describe the motion of each individual. The force and torque representing the model inputs are computed as suitable functions of the force terms resulting from the traditional Social Force Model. Moreover, a new force contribution is introduced in order to model the behavior of people walking together as a single group. The proposed model features high versatility, being able to reproduce both the unicycle-like trajectories typical of people moving in open spaces and the point-wise motion patterns occurring in high density scenarios. Extensive numerical simulations show an increased regularity of the resulting trajectories and confirm a general improvement of the model realism.

  17. Air Force construction automation/robotics (United States)

    Nease, AL; Dusseault, Christopher


    The Air Force has several unique requirements that are being met through the development of construction robotic technology. The missions associated with these requirements place construction/repair equipment operators in potentially harmful situations. Additionally, force reductions require that human resources be leveraged to the maximum extent possible and that more stringent construction repair requirements push for increased automation. To solve these problems, the U.S. Air Force is undertaking a research and development effort at Tyndall AFB, FL to develop robotic teleoperation, telerobotics, robotic vehicle communications, automated damage assessment, vehicle navigation, mission/vehicle task control architecture, and associated computing environment. The ultimate goal is the fielding of robotic repair capability operating at the level of supervised autonomy. The authors of this paper will discuss current and planned efforts in construction/repair, explosive ordnance disposal, hazardous waste cleanup, fire fighting, and space construction.

  18. Reclaiming Pedestrian Space from Car Dominated Neighborhoods


    Andreas L. Savvides


    For a long time as a result of accommodating car traffic, planning ideologies in the past put a low priority on public space, pedestrianism and the role of city space as a meeting place for urban dwellers. In addition, according to authors such as Jan Gehl, market forces and changing architectural perceptions began to shift the focus of planning practice from the integration of public space in various pockets around the contemporary city to individual buildings. Eventuall...

  19. Exploration of the utility of military man in space in the year 2025 (United States)

    Hansen, Daniel L.


    It is absolutely essential for the well being of today's space forces as well as the future space forces of 2025, that DOD develop manned advanced technology space systems in lieu of or in addition to unmannned systems to effectively utilize mulitary man's compelling and aggressive warfighting abilities to accomplish the critical wartime mission elements of space control and force application. National space policy, military space doctrine and common all dictate they should do so if space superiority during future, inevitable conflict with enemy space forces is the paramount objective. Deploying military man in space will provide that space superiority and he will finally become the 'center of gravity' of the U.S. space program.

  20. Institutional Memory and the US Air Force (United States)


    38 | Air & Space Power Journal Institutional Memory and the US Air Force Lt Col Daniel J. Brown, USAF Disclaimer: The views and opinions expressed...or implied in the Journal are those of the authors and should not be construed as carrying the official sanction of the Department of Defense, Air...national defense. After each ad- vance is tested in combat, a new round of intellectual sparring commences regarding Summer 2016 | 39 Institutional Memory

  1. Environmental spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Gutzon

    Using the development of intergovernmental environmental cooperation in the Baltic Sea area as a concrete example, the aim of this study is to explore how the 'environment' in situations of environmental interdependence is identified and institutionalised as political-geographical objects....... 'Environmental interdependence' is to this end conceptualised as a tension between 'political spaces' of discrete state territories and 'environmental spaces' of spatially nested ecosystems. This tension between geographies of political separateness and environmental wholeness is the implicit or explicit basis...... for a large and varied literature. But in both its critical and problemsolving manifestations, this literature tends to naturalise the spatiality of environmental concerns: environmental spaces are generally taken for granted. On the suggestion that there is a subtle politics to the specification...

  2. Tsirelson's space

    CERN Document Server

    Casazza, Peter G


    This monograph provides a structure theory for the increasingly important Banach space discovered by B.S. Tsirelson. The basic construction should be accessible to graduate students of functional analysis with a knowledge of the theory of Schauder bases, while topics of a more advanced nature are presented for the specialist. Bounded linear operators are studied through the use of finite-dimensional decompositions, and complemented subspaces are studied at length. A myriad of variant constructions are presented and explored, while open questions are broached in almost every chapter. Two appendices are attached: one dealing with a computer program which computes norms of finitely-supported vectors, while the other surveys recent work on weak Hilbert spaces (where a Tsirelson-type space provides an example).

  3. Propellant Slosh Force and Mass Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Hunt


    Full Text Available We have used electrical capacitance tomography (ECT to instrument a demonstration tank containing kerosene and have successfully demonstrated that ECT can, in real time, (i measure propellant mass to better than 1% of total in a range of gravity fields, (ii image propellant distribution, and (iii accurately track propellant centre of mass (CoM. We have shown that the ability to track CoM enables the determination of slosh forces, and we argue that this will result in disruptive changes in a propellant tank design and use in a spacecraft. Ground testing together with real-time slosh force data will allow an improved tank design to minimize and mitigate slosh forces, while at the same time keeping the tank mass to a minimum. Fully instrumented Smart Tanks will be able to provide force vector inputs to a spacecraft inertial navigation system; this in turn will (i eliminate or reduce navigational errors, (ii reduce wait time for uncertain slosh settling, since actual slosh forces will be known, and (iii simplify slosh control hardware, hence reducing overall mass. ECT may be well suited to space borne liquid measurement applications. Measurements are independent of and unaffected by orientation or levels of g. The electronics and sensor arrays can be low in mass, and critically, the technique does not dissipate heat into the propellant, which makes it intrinsically safe and suitable for cryogenic liquids. Because of the limitations of operating in earth-bound gravity, it has not been possible to check the exact numerical accuracy of the slosh force acting on the vessel. We are therefore in the process of undertaking a further project to (i build a prototype integrated “Smart Tank for Space”, (ii undertake slosh tests in zero or microgravity, (iii develop the system for commercial ground testing, and (iv qualify ECT for use in space.

  4. Transit space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raahauge, Kirsten Marie


    This article deals with representations of one specific city, Århus, Denmark, especially its central district. The analysis is based on anthropological fieldwork conducted in Skåde Bakker and Fedet, two well-off neighborhoods. The overall purpose of the project is to study perceptions of space...... and the interaction of cultural, social, and spatial organizations, as seen from the point of view of people living in Skåde Bakker and Fedet. The focus is on the city dwellers’ representations of the central district of Århus with specific reference to the concept of transit space. When applied to various Århusian...

  5. An Air Force History of Space Activities, 1945-1959 (United States)


    110 .uch Ol’JI081 t1oa tbat theT 1"’M1.l¥ 10M." vu.oa buecl ·111. optD\\ia oa tb8 Air Porn , wbich b8 4Mcnbe4 u "tile but 1D the world." ·It... Arab Bap.lbl.ic1 Ntuaecl. to. par- . . t1c1pate becaWie tbe ••·ŖMI 1Nt1𔄂 ezcluU41 8114 tbe 18 •Iaber co.ittee * . tlua --. a ].3-.-ber 1D...Mexico, PolaDd, RumaD1a, Swedea, the Soviet UDioa, tbe UD1te4 Arab Be- pub].j,c_, the United JC1as4aa, aDd tbe United State1. ’ f • 1 • • I 1 I

  6. Comprehensive Methods for Determining Space Effects on Air Force Systems (United States)


    12 5.1.4. DMSP 3 and SWX Web Survey Plot Files (SSIES, SSJ & SSM) 12 5.1.5. Raw Sensor Data Record Files (RSDR) 13 5.2. DMSP J4/J5 Data...product about 50% of the time. On the other hand, many negative ions were less reactive, particularly, SF5-, SF6~, C03~, and NCV . However, F~, CT...processing is done on a daily basis with a crontab job initiating the shell script at a specified time in the morning. 5.1.4. DMSP3 and SWX Web Survey Plot

  7. Space and Planetary Resources (United States)

    Abbud-Madrid, Angel


    The space and multitude of celestial bodies surrounding Earth hold a vast wealth of resources for a variety of space and terrestrial applications. The unlimited solar energy, vacuum, and low gravity in space, as well as the minerals, metals, water, atmospheric gases, and volatile elements on the Moon, asteroids, comets, and the inner and outer planets of the Solar System and their moons, constitute potential valuable resources for robotic and human space missions and for future use in our own planet. In the short term, these resources could be transformed into useful materials at the site where they are found to extend mission duration and to reduce the costly dependence from materials sent from Earth. Making propellants and human consumables from local resources can significantly reduce mission mass and cost, enabling longer stays and fueling transportation systems for use within and beyond the planetary surface. Use of finely grained soils and rocks can serve for habitat construction, radiation protection, solar cell fabrication, and food growth. The same material could also be used to develop repair and replacement capabilities using advanced manufacturing technologies. Following similar mining practices utilized for centuries on Earth, identifying, extracting, and utilizing extraterrestrial resources will enable further space exploration, while increasing commercial activities beyond our planet. In the long term, planetary resources and solar energy could also be brought to Earth if obtaining these resources locally prove to be no longer economically or environmentally acceptable. Throughout human history, resources have been the driving force for the exploration and settling of our planet. Similarly, extraterrestrial resources will make space the next destination in the quest for further exploration and expansion of our species. However, just like on Earth, not all challenges are scientific and technological. As private companies start working toward

  8. Into Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ China plans to launch an unmanned space module,Tiangong 1,in 2011,said Qi Faren,the chief designer of China's Shenzhou spacecraft,at the sidelines of the annual plenary session of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference(CPPCC),the country's top political advisory body,on March 3.

  9. Training Spaces (United States)

    Weinstein, Margery


    Creating a balanced learning space for employees is about more than trying different types of seating. It is a challenge that an affect how well employees absorb the lessons and whether they will be able to product better results for the company. The possible solutions are as diverse as the learners. This article describes how three companies…

  10. Space Gerontology (United States)

    Miquel, J. (Editor); Economos, A. C. (Editor)


    Presentations are given which address the effects of space flght on the older person, the parallels between the physiological responses to weightlessness and the aging process, and experimental possibilities afforded by the weightless environment to fundamental research in gerontology and geriatrics.

  11. Trading Spaces (United States)

    Cort, Cliff


    Education administrators face the dual dilemma of crowded, aging facilities and tightening capital budgets. The challenge is to build the necessary classroom, laboratory and activity space while minimizing the length and expense of the construction process. One solution that offers an affordable alternative is modular construction, a method that…

  12. Space research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tempelmayer, A.


    Space research in Austria began since 1969 and has its roots in Graz. An overview of the projects performed by Austrian organizations such as local network interconnection via satellites systems, MIGMAS (Microanalysis station), ALP-SAT (Autonomous Libration Point-Satellite), MIDAS (Micro-imaging dust analysis system), among others are described. (nevyjel)

  13. Space Conquest

    CERN Multimedia


    An old water tank from the time of the ISR is being converted into a temporary store for ATLAS muon chambers. This is the last chapter in the big programme by the PH Department to make better use of space at CERN.

  14. Management and Oversight of Services Acquisition Within the United States Air Force (United States)


    Air Mobility Command AFDW Air Force District of Washington AFSPC Air Force Space Command AT&L Acquisition Technologies and Logistics CPM ...were commonly performed in industry. The types of services included advertising for Navy recruitment, custodial services on Air Force bases, and on

  15. Forces in strategy formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensen, Elmer Fly; Sanchez, Ron


    This chapter proposes that organizational strategy formation should be characterized theoretically as a process that is subject to several interacting forces, rather than represented by separate discrete decisionmodels or theoretic perspectives, as is commonly done in the strategic management...... literature. Based on an extensive review of relevant theory and empirical work in strategic decision-making, organizational change theory, cognitive and social psychology, and strategy processes, seven kinds of ''forces'' - rational, imposed, teleological, learning, political, heuristic, and social...... - are identified as interacting in and having significant influence on the strategy formation process. It is further argued that by applying a holistic ''forces-view'' of the significant and interacting influences on strategy formation, we can better understand the dynamics and challenges in managing the process...

  16. Living in a Flexible Space (United States)

    Canepa, Simona


    How long does a space or an object have to last? If in the past an object or a building manufacturing was designed to last as much as possible, nowadays it is designed to have a life related to the time in which it will be used. Flexibility is what characterizes a space, it’s the ability to be variable and adaptable to changes in the lives of users or in relation to the use which these will make over time. The evolution of the labour market, the difficulty of inserting within it and the need to push more and more frequent move today in the trial of living space models increasingly flexible: people, especially young people, are forced to move on territory outlining a new condition to which the flexible nomadic dwellings offer an adequate response, ensuring high functional performance in confined spaces.

  17. Electrochemical force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalinin, Sergei V.; Jesse, Stephen; Collins, Liam F.; Rodriguez, Brian J.


    A system and method for electrochemical force microscopy are provided. The system and method are based on a multidimensional detection scheme that is sensitive to forces experienced by a biased electrode in a solution. The multidimensional approach allows separation of fast processes, such as double layer charging, and charge relaxation, and slow processes, such as diffusion and faradaic reactions, as well as capturing the bias dependence of the response. The time-resolved and bias measurements can also allow probing both linear (small bias range) and non-linear (large bias range) electrochemical regimes and potentially the de-convolution of charge dynamics and diffusion processes from steric effects and electrochemical reactivity.

  18. Bolt Shear Force Sensor (United States)


    0030] FIG. 7 is an isometric view of a deformable ring of the bolt shear force sensor of the present invention with an optical Attorney Docket No...102587 9 of 19 fiber having Bragg gratings wound around the ring; [0031] FIG. 8 is an isometric view of the deformable ring with wire strain... strength . [0047] Once the joint is subjected to an external load (see force arrows “F” and “F/2”); any frictional resistance to slip is overcome and

  19. Particles and forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peierls, R.


    The particles and forces of matter, found in the Universe, are discussed with especial reference to some of the laws which govern behaviour in the sub-atomic world and which determine the way forces work to give matter its various characteristics. The recent history of the search for elementary constituents of matter in this century is outlined and the replacement of the simplicity anticipated in the 1930s by the proliferation of particle states uncovered in the 1950s and 1960s which led to the quark model is examined. (U.K.)

  20. WORKSHOP: Inner space - outer space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    During the first week of May, the Fermilab theoretical astrophysics group hosted an international conference on science at the interface of particle physics and cosmology/astrophysics. The conference (Inner Space-Outer Space) was attended by a very diverse group of more than 200 physical scientists, including astronomers, astrophysicists, cosmologists, low-temperature physicists, and elementary particle theorists and experimentalists. The common interest which brought this diverse group to gether is the connection between physics on the smallest scale probed by man - the realm of elementary particle physics - and physics on the largest scale imaginable (the entire Universe) - the realm of cosmology

  1. WORKSHOP: Inner space - outer space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    During the first week of May, the Fermilab theoretical astrophysics group hosted an international conference on science at the interface of particle physics and cosmology/astrophysics. The conference (Inner Space-Outer Space) was attended by a very diverse group of more than 200 physical scientists, including astronomers, astrophysicists, cosmologists, low-temperature physicists, and elementary particle theorists and experimentalists. The common interest which brought this diverse group to gether is the connection between physics on the smallest scale probed by man - the realm of elementary particle physics - and physics on the largest scale imaginable (the entire Universe) - the realm of cosmology.

  2. Measuring pulsatile forces on the human cranium. (United States)

    Goldberg, Cory S; Antonyshyn, Oleh; Midha, Rajiv; Fialkov, Jeffrey A


    The cyclic stresses in the cranium caused by pulsation of the brain play an important role in the design of materials for cranioplasty, as well as craniofacial development. However, these stresses have never been quantified. In this study, the force in the epidural space against the cranium was measured intraoperatively in 10 patients using a miniature force probe. Heart and ventilatory rates computed from the force tracing correlated closely with the corresponding measured values in the patients, confirming that the forces measured were indeed a result of brain pulsation. The mean outward systolic normal and tangential stresses were 54.2 kilo-Pascals (kPa) and 345.4 kPa, respectively. The systolic shear stress was 199.8 kPa. Through mechanotransduction, these stresses play a role in cranial development. The calculated yield stress of a cranioplasty repair was 0.4 MPa, which is within one order of magnitude of the known strength of common calcium-phosphate cements. This indicates a possible relation of these pulsatile forces and occult failure of calcium-phosphate cement cranioplasties through material fatigue.

  3. Separation problems and forcing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zapletal, Jindřich


    Roč. 13, č. 1 (2013), s. 1350002 ISSN 0219-0613 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : separation * set of uniqueness * forcing Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.364, year: 2012

  4. Activation force splines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engell-Nørregård, Morten Pol; Erleben, Kenny

    We present a method for simulating the active contraction of deformable models, usable for interactive animation of soft deformable objects. We present a novel physical principle as the governing equation for the coupling between the low dimensional 1D activation force model and the higher...

  5. The fifth force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischbach, E.; Sudarsky, D.; Szafer, A.; Talmadge, C.; Aronson, S.H.


    We present a phenomenological description of the ''fifth force'' which focuses on the implications of the existing data from satellite and geophysical measurements of gravity, the Eoetvoes experiment, decays into hyperphotons, and the energy-dependence of the K 0 - anti K 0 parameters

  6. Air Force Leadership Diversity (United States)


    served as a deputy maintenance group commander. Following Air War College he will take command of the 8th Maintenance Group, Kunsan Air Base, Korea ...discrimination in terms of 3 race, religion , sex, etc.: the demographics we have all heard about for years. Air Force Policy Directive (AFPD) 36

  7. Projective absoluteness for Sacks forcing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikegami, D.


    We show that Sigma(1)(3)-absoluteness for Sacks forcing is equivalent to the nonexistence of a Delta(1)(2) Bernstein set. We also show that Sacks forcing is the weakest forcing notion among all of the preorders that add a new real with respect to Sigma(1)(3) forcing absoluteness.

  8. Space Toxicology (United States)

    James, John T.


    Safe breathing air for space faring crews is essential whether they are inside an Extravehicular Mobility Suit (EMU), a small capsule such as Soyuz, or the expansive International Space Station (ISS). Sources of air pollution can include entry of propellants, excess offgassing from polymeric materials, leakage of systems compounds, escape of payload compounds, over-use of utility compounds, microbial metabolism, and human metabolism. The toxicological risk posed by a compound is comprised of the probability of escaping to cause air pollution and the magnitude of adverse effects on human health if escape occurs. The risk from highly toxic compounds is controlled by requiring multiple levels of containment to greatly reduce the probability of escape; whereas compounds that are virtually non-toxic may require little or no containment. The potential for toxicity is determined by the inherent toxicity of the compound and the amount that could potentially escape into the breathing air.

  9. Spacing Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stang Våland, Marianne; Georg, Susse


    In this paper, we analyze how architectural design, and the spatial and material changes this involves, contributes to the continuous shaping of identities in an organization. Based upon a case study of organizational and architectural change in a municipal administration at a time of major public...... sector reforms, we examine how design interventions were used to (re)form work and professional relationships. The paper examines how engagements with spatial arrangements and material artifacts affected people’s sense of both occupational and organizational identity. Taking a relational approach...... to sociomateriality, the paper contributes to the further theorizing of space in organization studies by proposing the concept of spacing identity to capture the fluidity of identity performance....

  10. Communication spaces. (United States)

    Coiera, Enrico


    Annotations to physical workspaces such as signs and notes are ubiquitous. When densely annotated, work areas become communication spaces. This study aims to characterize the types and purpose of such annotations. A qualitative observational study was undertaken in two wards and the radiology department of a 440-bed metropolitan teaching hospital. Images were purposefully sampled; 39 were analyzed after excluding inferior images. Annotation functions included signaling identity, location, capability, status, availability, and operation. They encoded data, rules or procedural descriptions. Most aggregated into groups that either created a workflow by referencing each other, supported a common workflow without reference to each other, or were heterogeneous, referring to many workflows. Higher-level assemblies of such groupings were also observed. Annotations make visible the gap between work done and the capability of a space to support work. Annotations are repairs of an environment, improving fitness for purpose, fixing inadequacy in design, or meeting emergent needs. Annotations thus record the missing information needed to undertake tasks, typically added post-implemented. Measuring annotation levels post-implementation could help assess the fit of technology to task. Physical and digital spaces could meet broader user needs by formally supporting user customization, 'programming through annotation'. Augmented reality systems could also directly support annotation, addressing existing information gaps, and enhancing work with context sensitive annotation. Communication spaces offer a model of how work unfolds. Annotations make visible local adaptation that makes technology fit for purpose post-implementation and suggest an important role for annotatable information systems and digital augmentation of the physical environment.

  11. Space Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corliss, William R.


    This booklet discusses three kinds of space radiation, cosmic rays, Van Allen Belts, and solar plasma. Cosmic rays are penetrating particles that we cannot see, hear or feel, which come from distant stars. Van Allen Belts, named after their discoverer are great belts of protons and electrons that the earth has captured in its magnetic trap. Solar plasma is a gaseous, electrically neutral mixture of positive and negative ions that the sun spews out from convulsed regions on its surface.

  12. Space Handbook, (United States)


    thle early life * of" the system. Figure 4-2 shows the variation in power output for polonium - 210 (Po- 210 ) with a 138-day half-life, curium-242 (Cm...miles above the earth’s surface. Above this altitude they must take everything they need with them. The environment will supply them with neither food ...can move large payloads through space. The radioisotope heat cycle engines use high-energy particle sources such as plutonium and polonium . The walls

  13. Chart links solar, geophysical events with impacts on space technologies (United States)

    Davenport, George R.

    While developing a Space Weather Training Program for Air Force Space Command and the 50th Weather Squadron, both based in Colorado, ARINC Incorporated produced a flowchart that correlates solar and geophysical events with their impacts on Air Force systems.Personnel from both organizations collaborated in the development of the flowchart and provided many comments and suggestions. The model became the centerpiece of the Space Environment Impacts Reference Pamphlet, as well as the formal Space Weather Training Program. Although it is not a numerical or computer model, the flowchart became known as the “Space Environmental Impacts Model.”

  14. Space Nutrition (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.


    Optimal nutrition will be critical for crew members who embark on space exploration missions. Nutritional assessment provides an opportunity to ensure that crewmembers begin their missions in optimal nutritional status, to document changes during a mission and, if necessary, to provide intervention to maintain that status throughout the mission, and to assesses changes after landing in order to facilitate the return to their normal status as soon as possible after landing. We report here the findings from our nutritional assessment of astronauts who participated in the International Space Station (ISS) missions, along with flight and ground-based research findings. We also present ongoing and planned nutrition research activities. These studies provide evidence that bone loss, compromised vitamin status, and oxidative damage are the critical nutritional concerns for space travelers. Other nutrient issues exist, including concerns about the stability of nutrients in the food system, which are exposed to longterm storage and radiation during flight. Defining nutrient requirements, and being able to provide and maintain those nutrients on exploration missions, will be critical for maintaining crew member health.

  15. Game Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Erik


    , called “pervasive games.” These are games that are based on computer technology, but use a physical space as the game space as opposed to video games. Coupling spatial configuration with performance theory of rituals as liminal phenomena, I put forward a model and a new understanding of the magic circle......When we play games of any kind, from tennis to board games, it is easy to notice that games seem to be configured in space, often using stripes or a kind of map on a board. Some games are clearly performed within this marked border, while it may be difficult to pinpoint such a border in games like...... hide-and-seek, but even these games are still spatially configured. The border (visible or not) both seem to separate and uphold the game that it is meant for. This chapter sets out to analyse the possible border that separates a game from the surrounding world. Johan Huizinga noted this “separateness...

  16. Biodegradable Piezoelectric Force Sensor. (United States)

    Curry, Eli J; Ke, Kai; Chorsi, Meysam T; Wrobel, Kinga S; Miller, Albert N; Patel, Avi; Kim, Insoo; Feng, Jianlin; Yue, Lixia; Wu, Qian; Kuo, Chia-Ling; Lo, Kevin W-H; Laurencin, Cato T; Ilies, Horea; Purohit, Prashant K; Nguyen, Thanh D


    Measuring vital physiological pressures is important for monitoring health status, preventing the buildup of dangerous internal forces in impaired organs, and enabling novel approaches of using mechanical stimulation for tissue regeneration. Pressure sensors are often required to be implanted and directly integrated with native soft biological systems. Therefore, the devices should be flexible and at the same time biodegradable to avoid invasive removal surgery that can damage directly interfaced tissues. Despite recent achievements in degradable electronic devices, there is still a tremendous need to develop a force sensor which only relies on safe medical materials and requires no complex fabrication process to provide accurate information on important biophysiological forces. Here, we present a strategy for material processing, electromechanical analysis, device fabrication, and assessment of a piezoelectric Poly-l-lactide (PLLA) polymer to create a biodegradable, biocompatible piezoelectric force sensor, which only employs medical materials used commonly in Food and Drug Administration-approved implants, for the monitoring of biological forces. We show the sensor can precisely measure pressures in a wide range of 0-18 kPa and sustain a reliable performance for a period of 4 d in an aqueous environment. We also demonstrate this PLLA piezoelectric sensor can be implanted inside the abdominal cavity of a mouse to monitor the pressure of diaphragmatic contraction. This piezoelectric sensor offers an appealing alternative to present biodegradable electronic devices for the monitoring of intraorgan pressures. The sensor can be integrated with tissues and organs, forming self-sensing bionic systems to enable many exciting applications in regenerative medicine, drug delivery, and medical devices.

  17. Defense at Low Force Levels: The Effect of Force to Space Ratios on Conventional Combat Dynamics (United States)


    attempted falsification , or to answer the kinds of detailed questions that emerged once the policy community discovered the issue. How strong is the...Pat I," Milk =x.eview. September 1985, pp. 35-36.3 12CJ. Dick, ’Soviet Operational Art, Part I: The Fruits of Experience," IDR No. 7,1988, pp. 759-760...2,1989, p. 141. 3 14 DaiM M. Glantz, "Operational Art mnd Tactcs," Milk = Review, December 1988, pp. 37-38. 151bid, p. 39. 3 16 C.N. Donnelly, "The

  18. Creating Space Force Structure Through Strategic Planning: The Air Force Reserve Visioning Process

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shaw, Robert


    This research paper will assess the challenges and potential inadequacies of today's military leaders in understanding the importance of coupling strategic visioning and strategic planning processes...

  19. Escalation of the Space Domain (United States)


    vision of Arnold and other Air Force pioneers. Manned flight becomes the domain of NASA , and the United States shelves the idea of an aircraft-like...are similar in nature and application to those seen in science fiction moves or on television (i.e., Star Trek ) that can provide direct kinetic...Space, Infobase Publishing, New York: NY, 2011, pg. 12. 45 Ibid., pg. 12. 46 “Whom Gods Destroy.” Star Trek (original television series), Season 3

  20. Artificial Intelligence in Space Platforms. (United States)


    computer algorithms, there still appears to be a need for Artificial Inteligence techniques in the navigation area. The reason is that navigaion, in...RD-RI32 679 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN SPACE PLRTFORNSMU AIR FORCE 1/𔃼 INST OF TECH WRIGHT-PRTTERSON AFB OH SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING M A WRIGHT DEC 94...i4 Preface The purpose of this study was to analyze the feasibility of implementing Artificial Intelligence techniques to increase autonomy for

  1. Building the Old Contemptibles: British Military Transformation and Tactical Development from the Boer War to the Great War, 1899-1914

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Risio, Andrew J


    Impressed with the tactical lessons of the Boer War, the British Army reformed its doctrine and training from 1899 to 1914, deploying a combat ready force, the "Old Contemptibles" of the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) in 1914...

  2. Measuring the curvature of space with stretched strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyth, D.H.


    The equilibrium of a stretched string in curved space is studied. The problem is first formulated without detailed assumptions, then the force of gravity on the string is calculated from general relativity with a static metric. Apart from the latter calculation everything is done in ordinary space rather than in space-time. A number of simple cases are worked out explicitly. (author)

  3. Investigation of Calibrating Force Transducer Using Sinusoidal Force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Li; Wang Yu; Zhang Lizhe


    Sinusoidal force calibration method was studied several years before at Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). A similar dynamic force calibration system is developed at Changcheng Institute of Metrology and Measurement (CIMM). It uses electro-dynamic shakers to generate dynamic force in the range from 1 N to 20 kN, and heterodyne laser interferometers are used for acceleration measurement. The force transducer to be calibrated is mounted on the shaker, and a mass block is screwed on the top of force transducer, the sinusoidal forces realized by accelerated load masses are traceable to acceleration and mass according to the force definition. The methods of determining Spatial-dependent acceleration on mass block and measuring the end mass of force transducer in dynamic force calibration are discussed in this paper.

  4. Casimir forces and geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buescher, R.


    Casimir interactions are interactions induced by quantum vacuum fluctuations and thermal fluctuations of the electromagnetic field. Using a path integral quantization for the gauge field, an effective Gaussian action will be derived which is the starting point to compute Casimir forces between macroscopic objects analytically and numerically. No assumptions about the independence of the material and shape dependent contributions to the interaction are made. We study the limit of flat surfaces in further detail and obtain a concise derivation of Lifshitz' theory of molecular forces. For the case of ideally conducting boundaries, the Gaussian action will be calculated explicitly. Both limiting cases are also discussed within the framework of a scalar field quantization approach, which is applicable for translationally invariant geometries. We develop a non-perturbative approach to calculate the Casimir interaction from the Gaussian action for periodically deformed and ideally conducting objects numerically. The obtained results reveal two different scaling regimes for the Casimir force as a function of the distance between the objects, their deformation wavelength and -amplitude. The results confirm that the interaction is non-additive, especially in the presence of strong geometric deformations. Furthermore, the numerical approach is extended to calculate lateral Casimir forces. The results are consistent with the results of the proximity-force approximation for large deformation wavelengths. A qualitatively different behaviour between the normal and lateral force is revealed. We also establish a relation between the boundary induced change of the of the density of states for the scalar Helmholtz equation and the Casimir interaction using the path integral method. For statically deformed boundaries, this relation can be expressed as a novel trace formula, which is formally similar to the so-called Krein-Friedel-Lloyd formula. While the latter formula describes the

  5. Principles and applications of force spectroscopy using atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Kyu; Kim, Woong; Park, Joon Won [Dept. of Chemistry, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)


    Single-molecule force spectroscopy is a powerful technique for addressing single molecules. Unseen structures and dynamics of molecules have been elucidated using force spectroscopy. Atomic force microscope (AFM)-based force spectroscopy studies have provided picoNewton force resolution, subnanometer spatial resolution, stiffness of substrates, elasticity of polymers, and thermodynamics and kinetics of single-molecular interactions. In addition, AFM has enabled mapping the distribution of individual molecules in situ, and the quantification of single molecules has been made possible without modification or labeling. In this review, we describe the basic principles, sample preparation, data analysis, and applications of AFM-based force spectroscopy and its future.

  6. Health services at the Kennedy Space Center (United States)

    Ferguson, E. B.; Humbert, P.; Long, I. D.; Tipton, D. A.


    Comprehensive occupational health services are provided to approximately 17,000 workers at the Kennedy Space Center and an additional 6000 on Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. These areas cover about 120,000 acres encompassing part of the Merritt Island Wild Life Refuge and wetlands which are the habitat of numerous endangered and protected species of wildlife. The services provided at the Kennedy Space Center optimally assure a safe and healthy working environment for the employees engaged in the preparation and launching of this country's Space Shuttle and other important space exploration programs.

  7. Cosmic rays in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujitaka, Kazunobu


    Cosmos is a mysterious space by which many researchers are fascinated for many years. But, going into space means that we will receive extra exposure due to existence of cosmic rays. Cosmic rays are mainly composed of highly energetic protons. It was born in the last stage of stellar life. Understanding of cosmos will certainly bring right understanding of radiation energy, or energy itself. As no one could see the very early stage of cosmic rays, there is only a speculation. But it is better to speculate something based on certain side evidences, than to give up the whole. Such attitude shall be welcomed in the space researches. Anyway, cosmic rays were born in the last explosion of a star, which is called as Super Nova. After cosmic rays are emitted from the Super Nova, it will reach to the human surroundings. To indicate its intensity, special unit of ''dose rate'' is used. When a man climbs a mountain, cosmic ray intensity surely increases. It doubles as he goes up every 1500m elevation. It was ascertained by our own measurements. Then what happens when the goes up more? At aviation altitude, where airplanes fly, the dose rate will be increased up to 100times the high mountain cases. And what is expected when he goes up further more, up to space orbit altitude? In this case, the dose rate increases up to 10times the airplane cases. Geomagnetism affects the dose rate very much. As primary cosmic ray particles are charged particles, they cannot do well with existence of the magnetic field. In effect, cosmic rays can penetrate into the polar atmosphere along geomagnetic lines of forces which stand almost vertical, but penetration of low energy cosmic rays will be banned when they intend to penetrate crossing the geomagnetic lines of forces in equatorial region. Therefore, exposure due to cosmic rays will become large in polar region, while it remains small in equatorial region. In effect, airplanes which fly over the equator. Only, we have to know that the cosmos

  8. Space Detectives (United States)

    Tyszka, Steph; Saraiva, Jose; Doran, Rosa


    NUCLIO is a Portuguese non-profit organization with a strong record of investing in science education and outreach. We have developed and implemented many activities mostly directed to a young audience, in a bid to awaken and reinforce the interest that young people devote to Astronomy and all things spatial. In this framework, we have created a week-long program called Space Detectives, supported by the Municipality of Cascais, based on a story-line that provided a number of challenges and opportunities for learning matters as diverse as the electro-magnetic spectrum, means of communication, space travel, the martian environment, coding and robotics. We report on the first session that took place in December 2016. We had as participants several kids aged 9 to 12, with a mixed background in terms of interest in the sciences. Their response varied from enthusiastic to somewhat less interested, depending on the nature of the subject and the way it was presented - a reaction not necessarily related to its complexity. This week was taken as something of a trial run, in preparation for the European Commission- funded project "Stories of Tomorrow", to be implemented in schools. The individual activities and the way they were related to the story-line, as well as the smooth transition from one to the next, were subject to an analysis that will allow for improvements in the next installments of this program. We believe this is an excellent approach to the goals of using Space and Astronomy as an anchor for generating and keeping interest in the scientific areas, and of finding new and richer ways of learning.

  9. Learning From Critical Collective Spaces: Reflections on the Community-Diversity Dialectic in Safe Spaces


    Wallin-Ruschman, Jennifer; Patka, Mazna


    Safe spaces have the potential to become prefigurative groups that aim to create social change. The idea of a safe space as a place separate and sheltered from dominant culture to mobilize for social change has gained traction in a number of academic and practical areas. However, safe spaces have the ability to be both progressive and regressive. To guide our discussion we utilize the concept of community-diversity dialectic to address the tension between these forces within two settings. Fir...

  10. Space polypropulsion

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kellett, BJ


    Full Text Available understandably, fallen by the wayside. NASAs putative atom bomb propelled mission, coincidently also baptized ORION, was also curtailed. And last of all, the use of lasers for propulsion remains firmly “stuck in the doldrums.” This mode of access to space...) Except for LOX, very polluting. V. high ζ Launch costs: $20,000/kg. Gas guns. 1 1-4 km/s Most of the system mass stays on the ground. Recoil problems. Large NASA gas gun project abandoned. (too many “g’s”) E-M guns: rail/coil. 1.5 1-10 km...

  11. Space Technospheres (United States)

    Vidmachenko, A. P.; Steklov, A. F.; Primak, N. V.


    Two main tendencies of making the Solar System habitable are regarding nowadays: (1) making objects of the Solar System habitable; and (2) making the space of the Solar System habitable. We think that it's better to combine them. We should dezine and build settlements ('technospheres') on such objects as asteroids and comets, using their resources. That is, it is necessary to create 'space technospheres' - a long-termed human settlements in the space. To save energy resources it is necessary to use Near-Earth asteroids enriched with water ice (i. e. extinguished comets) with Near-Earth orbits. To realize listed conceptions it is necessary to decrease (up to 100 times) the cost price of the long-termed settlements. That's why even average UN country will be able to create it's own space house - artificial planet ('technosphere') and maintain life activities there. About 50-100 such artificial planets will represent the future civilization of our Solar System. At the same time Earth will stay basic, maternal planet. There is an interesting problem of correcting orbits of that objects. Orbits can be changed into circular or elongated to make them comfortable for living activities of 5000-10000 settlers, and to maintain connection with maternal planet. Technospheres with the elongated orbits are more advantageous to assimilate the Solar System. While technospheres with circular orbits suit to the industrial cycle with certain specialization. The specialization of the technosphere will depend on mine-workings and/or chosen high-technology industrial process. Because it is profitable to convert raw materials at the technosphere and then to transport finished products to the maternal planet. It worth to be mentioned that because of the low gravitation and changed life cycle technosphere settlers, new 'Columb' of the Solar System will transform into new mankind. It will happen though it is difficult to imaging this. Because long ago, when fish left the ocean, they didn

  12. Space exploration

    CERN Document Server


    Space Exploration, is one book in the Britannica Illustrated Science Library Series that is correlated to the science curriculum in grades 5-8. The Britannica Illustrated Science Library is a visually compelling set that covers earth science, life science, and physical science in 16 volumes.  Created for ages 10 and up, each volume provides an overview on a subject and thoroughly explains it through detailed and powerful graphics-more than 1,000 per volume-that turn complex subjects into information that students can grasp.  Each volume contains a glossary with full definitions for vocabulary help and an index.

  13. Space Pharmacology

    CERN Document Server

    Wotring, Virginia E


    Space Pharmacology” is a review of the current knowledge regarding the use of pharmaceuticals during spaceflights. It is a comprehensive review of the literature, addressing each area of pharmacokinetics and each major physiological system in turn. Every section begins with a topic overview, and is followed by a discussion of published data from spaceflight, and from ground experiments meant to model the spaceflight situation. Includes a discussion looking forward to the new medical challenges we are likely to face on longer duration exploration missions. This book is a snapshot of our current knowledge that also highlights areas of unknown.

  14. Task Force report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    The International Task Force on Prevention of Nuclear Terrorism was formed in 1985 under the auspices of the Nuclear Control Institute. This report is a consensus report of the 26 task force members - all members not necessarily agreeing on every point and all wordings, but in each case a substantial majority did agree. First, the report defines the threat, then establishes the priorities. Short-term recommendations are presented on: (1) protecting nuclear weapons; (2) protecting nuclear materials; (3) protecting nuclear facilities; (4) intelligence programs; (5) civil liberties concerns; (6) controlling nuclear transfers; (7) US - Soviet cooperation; (8) arms control initiatives; (9) convention of physical protection of nuclear material; (10) role of emergency management programs; and (11) role of the media. Brief long-term recommendations are included on (1) international measures, and (2) emerging nuclear technologies. An Appendix, Production of Nuclear Materials Usable in Weapons is presented for further consideration (without recommendations)

  15. ``Force,'' ontology, and language (United States)

    Brookes, David T.; Etkina, Eugenia


    We introduce a linguistic framework through which one can interpret systematically students’ understanding of and reasoning about force and motion. Some researchers have suggested that students have robust misconceptions or alternative frameworks grounded in everyday experience. Others have pointed out the inconsistency of students’ responses and presented a phenomenological explanation for what is observed, namely, knowledge in pieces. We wish to present a view that builds on and unifies aspects of this prior research. Our argument is that many students’ difficulties with force and motion are primarily due to a combination of linguistic and ontological difficulties. It is possible that students are primarily engaged in trying to define and categorize the meaning of the term “force” as spoken about by physicists. We found that this process of negotiation of meaning is remarkably similar to that engaged in by physicists in history. In this paper we will describe a study of the historical record that reveals an analogous process of meaning negotiation, spanning multiple centuries. Using methods from cognitive linguistics and systemic functional grammar, we will present an analysis of the force and motion literature, focusing on prior studies with interview data. We will then discuss the implications of our findings for physics instruction.

  16. The task force process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Applegate, J.S.


    This paper focuses on the unique aspects of the Fernald Citizens Task Force process that have contributed to a largely successful public participation effort at Fernald. The Fernald Citizens Task Force passed quickly by many procedural issues. Instead, the Task Force concentrated on (a) educating itself about the site, its problems, and possible solutions, and (b) choosing a directed way to approach its mandate: To make recommendations on several open-quotes big pictureclose quotes issues, including future use of the site, cleanup levels, waste disposition, and cleanup priorities. This paper presents the approach used at Fernald for establishing and running a focused site-specific advisory board, the key issues that have been faced, and how these issues were resolved. The success of Fernald in establishing a strong and functioning site-specific advisory board serves as a useful model for other DOE facilities, although the Fernald model is just one of many approaches that can be taken. However, the approach presented here has worked extremely well for Fernald

  17. Space ventures and society long-term perspectives (United States)

    Brown, W. M.


    A futuristic evaluation of mankind's potential long term future in space is presented. Progress in space will not be inhibited by shortages of the Earth's physical resources, since long term economic growth will be focused on ways to constrain industrial productivity by changing social values, management styles, or government competence. Future technological progress is likely to accelerate with an emphasis on international cooperation, making possible such large joint projects as lunar colonies or space stations on Mars. The long term future in space looks exceedingly bright even in relatively pessimistic scenarios. The principal driving forces will be technological progress, commercial and public-oriented satellites, space industrialization, space travel, and eventually space colonization.

  18. Space Physiology Studies (United States)

    Hargens, A. R.; Ballard, R. E.; Boda, W. L.; Ertl, A. C.; Schneider, S. M.; Hutchinson, K. J.; Lee, S. M.; Murthy, G.; Putcha, L.; Watenpaugh, D. E.


    Calculations suggest that exercise in space to date has lacked sufficient loads to maintain musculoskeletal mass. Lower body negative pressure (LBNP) produces a force at the feet equal to the product of the LBNP and body cross-sectional area at the waist. Supine exercise within 50-60 mm Hg LBNP improves tolerance to LBNP and produces forces similar to those occurring during upright posture on Earth. Thus, exercise within LBNP may help prevent deconditioning of astronauts by stressing tissues of the lower body in a manner similar to gravity and also, may provide a safe and effective alternative to centrifugation in terms of cost, mass, volume, and power usage. We hypothesize that supine treadmill exercise during LBNP at one body weight (50-60 mm Hg LBNP) will provide cardiovascular and musculoskeletal loads similar to those experienced while upright in lg. Also, daily supine treadmill running in a LBNP chamber will maintain aerobic fitness, orthostatic tolerance, and musculoskeletal structure and function during bed rest (simulated microgravity).

  19. Magnet polepiece design for uniform magnetic force on superparamagnetic beads


    Fallesen, Todd; Hill, David B.; Steen, Matthew; Macosko, Jed C.; Bonin, Keith; Holzwarth, George


    Here we report construction of a simple electromagnet with novel polepieces which apply a spatially uniform force to superparamagnetic beads in an optical microscope. The wedge-shaped gap was designed to keep ∂Bx∕∂y constant and B large enough to saturate the bead. We achieved fields of 300–600 mT and constant gradients of 67 T∕m over a sample space of 0.5×4 mm2 in the focal plane of the microscope and 0.05 mm along the microscope optic axis. Within this space the maximum force on a 2.8 μm di...

  20. Adding Value to Force Diagrams: Representing Relative Force Magnitudes (United States)

    Wendel, Paul


    Nearly all physics instructors recognize the instructional value of force diagrams, and this journal has published several collections of exercises to improve student skill in this area.1-4 Yet some instructors worry that too few students perceive the conceptual and problem-solving utility of force diagrams,4-6 and over recent years a rich variety of approaches has been proposed to add value to force diagrams. Suggestions include strategies for identifying candidate forces,6,7 emphasizing the distinction between "contact" and "noncontact" forces,5,8 and the use of computer-based tutorials.9,10 Instructors have suggested a variety of conventions for constructing force diagrams, including approaches to arrow placement and orientation2,11-13 and proposed notations for locating forces or marking action-reaction force pairs.8,11,14,15

  1. Force transmission in epithelial tissues. (United States)

    Vasquez, Claudia G; Martin, Adam C


    In epithelial tissues, cells constantly generate and transmit forces between each other. Forces generated by the actomyosin cytoskeleton regulate tissue shape and structure and also provide signals that influence cells' decisions to divide, die, or differentiate. Forces are transmitted across epithelia because cells are mechanically linked through junctional complexes, and forces can propagate through the cell cytoplasm. Here, we review some of the molecular mechanisms responsible for force generation, with a specific focus on the actomyosin cortex and adherens junctions. We then discuss evidence for how these mechanisms promote cell shape changes and force transmission in tissues. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Expeditionary Combat Support System: Root Cause Analysis (United States)


    Process Alea Bluepri’lting Ends SEP 06 Protest of SJ Contract Award SEP06 Syttem Integrator (SIJ Contnllel AWiltd (CSC ---18 months lost to t’.t...Afghan mountains (recall that the “E” in ECSS stands for “Expeditionary”).19 Lastly, ERPs are so large and affect so many different people and

  3. Conducting Expeditionary Operations in the Contested Littorals (United States)


    theatres of interest. b. Limitations Here are the major limitations that the report claims about the Chinese capabilities that could affect the...submarine for the black-sea fleet (“Russia” 2014). There is evidence that a Russian submarine (although not a littoral type) has sailed in the Gulf of...intelligence indicating Russia plans to seize Gotland, a Swedish island with a strategically valuable location in the Baltic. Analysts believe that Russians

  4. 2007 Expeditionary Warfare Conference (12th) (United States)


    performers 7 International Engagement AFRICOM Cameroon Cape Verde Islands Ghana Nigeria South Africa Tunisia SOUTHCOM Argentina Brazil Chile Colombia ...Sting Ball Grenade • TASERs • Caltrops/Stinger Spike Strips • Acoustic Hailing Device • Laser Dazzler • Shoulder Launch Running Gear Entanglement

  5. Combat Airmen: Examining USAF Expeditionary Skills Training (United States)


    Andrew M. Rose, Paul H. Radtke , Harris H. Shettel, and Joseph D. Hagman, User’s Manual for Predicting Military Task Retention: Volume I, American...2015). Rose, Andrew M., Paul H. Radtke , Harris H. Shettel, and Joseph D. Hagman. "User’s Manual for Predicting Military Task Retention: Volume I

  6. Expeditionary Operations in the Fourth Industrial Revolution (United States)


    nanotechnology, explosively formed projectile, mobilization , Marine Corps, joint While the Marine Corps is often best associated with its amphibious... generation street gangs, these criminal organizations have a common mo- tivation: profit. While some commentators dismiss them as a law-enforcement...These “multi-modal activities can be conducted by separate units, or even by the same unit, but are generally operationally and tactically directed and

  7. Decisive Army Strategic and Expeditionary Maneuver (United States)


    emerging changes will impact strategic maneuver by 2025. For example, a rapid transition is occurring in the commercial air cargo market where 777...more readily available in the international defense market and in the inventories of potential adversaries. In short, the study team believes HPMs... Cisco Visual Networking Index (VNI), available at: vni

  8. 2005 10th Annual Expeditionary Conference (United States)


    as a requirement – is this really what is desired? – Requirements should be tailored for what is anticipated e.g. maintenance parts, comsumables ...eng. & marine systems Cognitive science Neural science Behavioral science Social org./science Manpower, personnel & training Human factors Medical

  9. 2008 13th Expeditionary Warfare Conference (United States)


    platforms – Emphasize a mixed fleet approach that spans the “iron triangle” – Integrate MRAP into the fleet mix – Transition to a fleet of tactical...Urban Warfare Mountain Warfare Desert Warfare Jungle Riverine Special Skills Recon LOG CSS ENG MT HS Ord Maint EOD Pers Retrival ...Detection (Specialized Platform FLGPR)Stand-off (60M) Scaleable Neutralization (Area coverage) ABV Delivery Ground Cueing Stand-off (800M) Scaleable

  10. 14th Annual Expeditionary Warfare Conference (United States)


    the Network*  Spectrum of Effects: Non-kinetic, low-order, high-order neutralization  Forensics  Radiographic systems  Post Blast investigation...LOE 3.2: CLOC (light) part II (Dec ’09) • Refine prototypical comm suite IOT inform CAPSET V • Inclusion in ECO LOE 4 • Demand reduction (water

  11. Expeditionary Lighting Systems for Military Shelters (United States)


    Lumiled LED Housing Nonimaging Beamformer Heat Sink Connector Retractable Cable O Transportation Configuration Physical Optics Corporation (POC) LED...New Lighting Technologies: • Technology: Light Emitting Diode (LED) o Physical Optics Corp [SBIR] o Techshot [SBIR] [Congressional Effort o Jameson LED...rugged and durable—no lamp to damage or replace • Custom designed optical diffuser prevents glare and “eye spots” • Operates on universal voltage, 90

  12. Resonance-enhanced optical forces between coupled photonic crystal slabs. (United States)

    Liu, Victor; Povinelli, Michelle; Fan, Shanhui


    The behaviors of lateral and normal optical forces between coupled photonic crystal slabs are analyzed. We show that the optical force is periodic with displacement, resulting in stable and unstable equilibrium positions. Moreover, the forces are strongly enhanced by guided resonances of the coupled slabs. Such enhancement is particularly prominent near dark states of the system, and the enhancement effect is strongly dependent on the types of guided resonances involved. These structures lead to enhancement of light-induced pressure over larger areas, in a configuration that is directly accessible to externally incident, free-space optical beams.

  13. Grip Force and 3D Push-Pull Force Estimation Based on sEMG and GRNN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changcheng Wu


    Full Text Available The estimation of the grip force and the 3D push-pull force (push and pull force in the three dimension space from the electromyogram (EMG signal is of great importance in the dexterous control of the EMG prosthetic hand. In this paper, an action force estimation method which is based on the eight channels of the surface EMG (sEMG and the Generalized Regression Neural Network (GRNN is proposed to meet the requirements of the force control of the intelligent EMG prosthetic hand. Firstly, the experimental platform, the acquisition of the sEMG, the feature extraction of the sEMG and the construction of GRNN are described. Then, the multi-channels of the sEMG when the hand is moving are captured by the EMG sensors attached on eight different positions of the arm skin surface. Meanwhile, a grip force sensor and a three dimension force sensor are adopted to measure the output force of the human's hand. The characteristic matrix of the sEMG and the force signals are used to construct the GRNN. The mean absolute value and the root mean square of the estimation errors, the correlation coefficients between the actual force and the estimated force are employed to assess the accuracy of the estimation. Analysis of variance (ANOVA is also employed to test the difference of the force estimation. The experiments are implemented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed estimation method and the results show that the output force of the human's hand can be correctly estimated by using sEMG and GRNN method.

  14. Thermodynamic forces in coarse-grained simulations (United States)

    Noid, William

    Atomically detailed molecular dynamics simulations have profoundly advanced our understanding of the structure and interactions in soft condensed phases. Nevertheless, despite dramatic advances in the methodology and resources for simulating atomically detailed models, low-resolution coarse-grained (CG) models play a central and rapidly growing role in science. CG models not only empower researchers to investigate phenomena beyond the scope of atomically detailed simulations, but also to precisely tailor models for specific phenomena. However, in contrast to atomically detailed simulations, which evolve on a potential energy surface, CG simulations should evolve on a free energy surface. Therefore, the forces in CG models should reflect the thermodynamic information that has been eliminated from the CG configuration space. As a consequence of these thermodynamic forces, CG models often demonstrate limited transferability and, moreover, rarely provide an accurate description of both structural and thermodynamic properties. In this talk, I will present a framework that clarifies the origin and impact of these thermodynamic forces. Additionally, I will present computational methods for quantifying these forces and incorporating their effects into CG MD simulations. As time allows, I will demonstrate applications of this framework for liquids, polymers, and interfaces. We gratefully acknowledge the support of the National Science Foundation via CHE 1565631.

  15. In Vivo Force Decay of Niti Closed Coil Springs (United States)

    Cox, Crystal; Nguyen, Tung; Koroluk, Lorne; Ko, Ching-Chang


    Introduction Nickel-titanium (NiTi) closed coil springs are purported to deliver constant forces over extended ranges of activation and working times. In vivo studies supporting this claim are limited. The objective of this study is to evaluate changes in force decay properties of NiTi closed coil springs after clinical use. Methods Pseudoelastic force-deflection curves for 30 NiTi coil springs (used intra-orally) and 15 matched laboratory control springs (simulated intra-oral conditions - artificial saliva, 37°C) were tested pre- and post-retrieval via Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) and the Instron machine, respectively, to evaluate amount of force loss and hysteresis change following 4, 8, or 12 weeks of working time (n=10 per group). Effect of the oral environment and clinical use on force properties were evaluated by comparing in vivo and in vitro data. Results The springs studied showed a statistically significant decrease in force (~12%) following 4 weeks of clinical use (pspace closure at an average rate of 0.91mm per month was still observed despite this decrease in force. In vivo and in vitro force loss data were not statistically different. Conclusions NiTi closed coil springs do not deliver constant forces when used intra-orally, but they still allow for space closure rates of ~1mm/month. PMID:24703289

  16. Forced underwater laminar flows with active magnetohydrodynamic metamaterials (United States)

    Culver, Dean; Urzhumov, Yaroslav


    Theory and practical implementations for wake-free propulsion systems are proposed and proven with computational fluid dynamic modeling. Introduced earlier, the concept of active hydrodynamic metamaterials is advanced by introducing magnetohydrodynamic metamaterials, structures with custom-designed volumetric distribution of Lorentz forces acting on a conducting fluid. Distributions of volume forces leading to wake-free, laminar flows are designed using multivariate optimization. Theoretical indications are presented that such flows can be sustained at arbitrarily high Reynolds numbers. Moreover, it is shown that in the limit Re ≫102 , a fixed volume force distribution may lead to a forced laminar flow across a wide range of Re numbers, without the need to reconfigure the force-generating metamaterial. Power requirements for such a device are studied as a function of the fluid conductivity. Implications to the design of distributed propulsion systems underwater and in space are discussed.

  17. Weaponisation of Space - Some Legal Considerations (United States)

    Jolly, C.


    This paper will examine a current national initiative from the United States of America to achieve greater national security through the `weaponisation' of extra-atmospheric space. We will propose a synthesis of the current international legal framework pertaining to military activities in space. Based on the analysis of the legal regime and on some current national and regional political initiatives, we will make some practical recommendations to prevent an arms race in space. Civil remote sensing, telecommunications, and launchers launch vehicle technologies have all benefited from a military heritage. They are dual use technologies, in other words, technologies that have both military and civilian applications. In fact, space has always been militarised, ever since the first satellites were put in orbit for reconnaissance missions. But recently, some national policies and technological advances are making the militarisation of space less `discrete'. Military assets from different countries are already stationed in orbit (e.g. reconnaissance and navigation satellites), but they might soon be joined by new `space weapons' with lethal strike capabilities. Currently, in the United States, military and civilian space activities are being closely intertwined. A typical example is the call of the NASA Administrator Sean O'Keefe, a former Secretary of the Navy, for closer cooperation on research and development between NASA and the Department of Defense. Concerning plans to station weapons in space, the American Air Force Space Command issued, in February 2000, its `Strategic Master Plan for FY02 and Beyond'. It states that the United States "...future Air Force Space Command capabilities will enable a fully integrated Aerospace Force to rapidly engage military forces worldwide. [...] Full spectrum dominance in the space medium will be achieved through total space situational awareness, protection of friendly space assets, prevention of unauthorized use of those assets

  18. Space debris: modeling and detectability (United States)

    Wiedemann, C.; Lorenz, J.; Radtke, J.; Kebschull, C.; Horstmann, A.; Stoll, E.


    High precision orbit determination is required for the detection and removal of space debris. Knowledge of the distribution of debris objects in orbit is necessary for orbit determination by active or passive sensors. The results can be used to investigate the orbits on which objects of a certain size at a certain frequency can be found. The knowledge of the orbital distribution of the objects as well as their properties in accordance with sensor performance models provide the basis for estimating the expected detection rates. Comprehensive modeling of the space debris environment is required for this. This paper provides an overview of the current state of knowledge about the space debris environment. In particular non-cataloged small objects are evaluated. Furthermore, improvements concerning the update of the current space debris model are addressed. The model of the space debris environment is based on the simulation of historical events, such as fragmentations due to explosions and collisions that actually occurred in Earth orbits. The orbital distribution of debris is simulated by propagating the orbits considering all perturbing forces up to a reference epoch. The modeled object population is compared with measured data and validated. The model provides a statistical distribution of space objects, according to their size and number. This distribution is based on the correct consideration of orbital mechanics. This allows for a realistic description of the space debris environment. Subsequently, a realistic prediction can be provided concerning the question, how many pieces of debris can be expected on certain orbits. To validate the model, a software tool has been developed which allows the simulation of the observation behavior of ground-based or space-based sensors. Thus, it is possible to compare the results of published measurement data with simulated detections. This tool can also be used for the simulation of sensor measurement campaigns. It is

  19. Force modulation for improved conductive-mode atomic force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelmans, W.W.; Sebastian, Abu; Despont, Michel; Pozidis, Haris

    We present an improved conductive-mode atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) method by modulating the applied loading force on the tip. Unreliable electrical contact and tip wear are the primary challenges for electrical characterization at the nanometer scale. The experiments show that force modulation

  20. Quasilocal contribution to the scalar self-force: Geodesic motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottewill, Adrian C.; Wardell, Barry


    We consider a scalar charge travelling in a curved background space-time. We calculate the quasilocal contribution to the scalar self-force experienced by such a particle following a geodesic in a general space-time. We also show that if we assume a massless field and a vacuum background space-time, the expression for the self-force simplifies significantly. We consider some specific cases whose gravitational analogs are of immediate physical interest for the calculation of radiation-reaction corrected orbits of binary black hole systems. These systems are expected to be detectable by the LISA space based gravitational wave observatory. We also investigate how alternate techniques may be employed in some specific cases and use these as a check on our own results

  1. Force Limited Random Vibration Test of TESS Camera Mass Model (United States)

    Karlicek, Alexandra; Hwang, James Ho-Jin; Rey, Justin J.


    The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) is a spaceborne instrument consisting of four wide field-of-view-CCD cameras dedicated to the discovery of exoplanets around the brightest stars. As part of the environmental testing campaign, force limiting was used to simulate a realistic random vibration launch environment. While the force limit vibration test method is a standard approach used at multiple institutions including Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), European Space Research and Technology Center (ESTEC), and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), it is still difficult to find an actual implementation process in the literature. This paper describes the step-by-step process on how the force limit method was developed and applied on the TESS camera mass model. The process description includes the design of special fixtures to mount the test article for properly installing force transducers, development of the force spectral density using the semi-empirical method, estimation of the fuzzy factor (C2) based on the mass ratio between the supporting structure and the test article, subsequent validating of the C2 factor during the vibration test, and calculation of the C.G. accelerations using the Root Mean Square (RMS) reaction force in the spectral domain and the peak reaction force in the time domain.

  2. Trace spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fajstrup, Lisbeth; Goubault, Eric; Haucourt, Emmanuel


    in the interleaving semantics of a concurrent program, but rather some equivalence classes. The purpose of this paper is to describe a new algorithm to compute such equivalence classes, and a representative per class, which is based on ideas originating in algebraic topology. We introduce a geometric semantics...... of concurrent languages, where programs are interpreted as directed topological spaces, and study its properties in order to devise an algorithm for computing dihomotopy classes of execution paths. In particular, our algorithm is able to compute a control-flow graph for concurrent programs, possibly containing...... loops, which is “as reduced as possible” in the sense that it generates traces modulo equivalence. A preliminary implementation was achieved, showing promising results towards efficient methods to analyze concurrent programs, with very promising results compared to partial-order reduction techniques....

  3. Refugee and Forced Migration Studies Online

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Vibeke

    developments in communications technologies and the Internet and the proliferation of websites such as the CARFMS – Online Research and Teaching Tool and Practitioners Forum (ORTT & PF) and the Refugee Research Network (RRN), as examples, have contributed to the accessibility of information, knowledge......IASFM 14: Contested Spaces and Cartographic Challenges Kolkata, India, January 6-9, 2013 ABSTRACT for a Roundtable on the topic of Refugee and Forced Migration Studies Online: Harnessing “the Cloud” for Knowledge Generation, Instruction, and Mobilization With the advent of the Internet...... and the proliferation of websites and online instruments on refugee and forced migration studies the nature of research and information gathering, analysis, and dissemination, along with advocacy, has altered fundamentally both in its range, depth and scope. This Roundtable will seek to review how the latest...

  4. What forces act in relativistic gyroscope precession? (United States)

    Semerák, Oldrich


    The translation of the relativistic motion into the language of forces, proposed by the author (1995, Nuovo Cimento B 110 973), is employed to interpret the gyroscope precession in general relativity. The precession is referred to the comoving Frenet triad built up along the projection of the gyroscope's trajectory onto the 3-space of the local hypersurface-orthogonal observer. The contributions of the centrifugal, the gravitational and the dragging + Coriolis forces are identified respectively with the Thomas, the geodetic, and the gravitomagnetic components of precession. Explicit expressions are given for several simple types of motion in the Kerr (or simpler) field in order to show that the general formulae obtained are not only very simple, but also yield clear results in accord with intuition in concrete situations.

  5. Confined Space Evaluation Student Manual, #19613

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilmot, David Ezekiel [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    Many workplaces contain spaces that are considered to be “confined” because their configuration hinders the activities of employees who must enter into, work in, and exit from them. In general, the permit-required confined spaces (PRCSs) Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standard requires that Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) evaluate the workplace to determine if any spaces are PRCSs. The standard specifies strict procedures for the evaluation and atmospheric testing of a space before and during an entry by workers. The OSHA PRCS standard provides for alternative (less stringent than full-permit) entry procedures in cases where the only hazard in a space is atmospheric and the hazard can be controlled by forced air. At LANL, all confined spaces or potential confined spaces on LANL-owned or -operated property must be identified and evaluated by a confined space evaluator accompanied by a knowledgeable person. This course provides the information needed by confined space evaluators to make judgements about whether a space is a confined space, and if so, whether the space will require a permit for entry.

  6. Bodies, Spaces, Voices, Silences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Mazzoleni


    Full Text Available A good architecture should not only allow functional, formal and technical quality for urban spaces, but also let the voice of the city be perceived, listened, enjoyed. Every city has got its specific sound identity, or “ISO” (R. O. Benenzon, made up of a complex texture of background noises and fluctuation of sound figures emerging and disappearing in a game of continuous fadings. For instance, the ISO of Naples is characterized by a spread need of hearing the sound return of one’s/others voices, by a hate of silence. Cities may fall ill: illness from noise, within super-crowded neighbourhoods, or illness from silence, in the forced isolation of peripheries. The proposal of an urban music therapy denotes an unpublished and innovative enlarged interdisciplinary research path, where architecture, music, medicine, psychology, communication science may converge, in order to work for rebalancing spaces and relation life of the urban collectivity, through the care of body and sound dimensions.

  7. Space weather and space anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Dorman


    Full Text Available A large database of anomalies, registered by 220 satellites in different orbits over the period 1971-1994 has been compiled. For the first time, data from 49 Russian Kosmos satellites have been included in a statistical analysis. The database also contains a large set of daily and hourly space weather parameters. A series of statistical analyses made it possible to quantify, for different satellite orbits, space weather conditions on the days characterized by anomaly occurrences. In particular, very intense fluxes (>1000 pfu at energy >10 MeV of solar protons are linked to anomalies registered by satellites in high-altitude (>15000 km, near-polar (inclination >55° orbits typical for navigation satellites, such as those used in the GPS network, NAVSTAR, etc. (the rate of anomalies increases by a factor ~20, and to a much smaller extent to anomalies in geostationary orbits, (they increase by a factor ~4. Direct and indirect connections between anomaly occurrence and geomagnetic perturbations are also discussed.

  8. Modernization of African Armed Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas


    Concept paper framing the debate at the Dakar Forum Workshop on Modernization of Armed forces in Africa.......Concept paper framing the debate at the Dakar Forum Workshop on Modernization of Armed forces in Africa....

  9. Force Dynamics of Verb Complementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Woźny


    Full Text Available Force Dynamics of Verb Complementation The concepts of motion and force are both extensively discussed in cognitive linguistics literature. But they are discussed separately. The first usually in the context of ‘motion situations’ (Talmy, Slobin, Zlatev, the other as part of the Force Dynamics framework, which was developed by Talmy. The aim of this paper is twofold: first, to argue that the concepts of force and motion should not be isolated but considered as two inseparable parts of force-motion events. The second goal is to prove that the modified Force Dynamics (force-motion framework can be used for precise characterization of the verb complementation patterns. To this end, a random sample of 50 sentences containing the verb ‘went’ is analyzed, demonstrating the differences between the categories of intensive and intransitive complementation with respect to the linguistically coded parameters of force and motion.

  10. Heisenberg equation for a nonrelativistic particle on a hypersurface: From the centripetal force to a curvature induced force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Lian


    Full Text Available In classical mechanics, a nonrelativistic particle constrained on an N − 1 curved hypersurface embedded in N flat space experiences the centripetal force only. In quantum mechanics, the situation is totally different for the presence of the geometric potential. We demonstrate that the motion of the quantum particle is ”driven” by not only the centripetal force, but also a curvature induced force proportional to the Laplacian of the mean curvature, which is fundamental in the interface physics, causing curvature driven interface evolution.

  11. Atomic Force Microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, R.D.; Russell, P.E.


    The Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) is a recently developed instrument that has achieved atomic resolution imaging of both conducting and non- conducting surfaces. Because the AFM is in the early stages of development, and because of the difficulty of building the instrument, it is currently in use in fewer than ten laboratories worldwide. It promises to be a valuable tool for obtaining information about engineering surfaces and aiding the .study of precision fabrication processes. This paper gives an overview of AFM technology and presents plans to build an instrument designed to look at engineering surfaces.

  12. The law of electromagnetic force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.J. Kutkovetskyy


    Full Text Available Calculation peculiarities for Lorentz force, Ampere force, interaction of parallel electric currents, and the moment of electrical machines are analyzed. They have exceptions on application, and they are the rules which result from the law of electromagnetic force as coordinate derivative of the operating magnetic flow. An addition to the direction of electromagnetic force action is proposed. Standards of salient-pole electrical machine designing are considered.

  13. Why advanced computing? The key to space-based operations (United States)

    Phister, Paul W., Jr.; Plonisch, Igor; Mineo, Jack


    The 'what is the requirement?' aspect of advanced computing and how it relates to and supports Air Force space-based operations is a key issue. In support of the Air Force Space Command's five major mission areas (space control, force enhancement, force applications, space support and mission support), two-fifths of the requirements have associated stringent computing/size implications. The Air Force Research Laboratory's 'migration to space' concept will eventually shift Science and Technology (S&T) dollars from predominantly airborne systems to airborne-and-space related S&T areas. One challenging 'space' area is in the development of sophisticated on-board computing processes for the next generation smaller, cheaper satellite systems. These new space systems (called microsats or nanosats) could be as small as a softball, yet perform functions that are currently being done by large, vulnerable ground-based assets. The Joint Battlespace Infosphere (JBI) concept will be used to manage the overall process of space applications coupled with advancements in computing. The JBI can be defined as a globally interoperable information 'space' which aggregates, integrates, fuses, and intelligently disseminates all relevant battlespace knowledge to support effective decision-making at all echelons of a Joint Task Force (JTF). This paper explores a single theme -- on-board processing is the best avenue to take advantage of advancements in high-performance computing, high-density memories, communications, and re-programmable architecture technologies. The goal is to break away from 'no changes after launch' design to a more flexible design environment that can take advantage of changing space requirements and needs while the space vehicle is 'on orbit.'

  14. Nonlinear space charge effect of bunched beam in linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yinbao


    The nonlinear space charge effect due to the nonuniform particle density distribution in bunched beam of a linac is discussed. The formulae of nonlinear space charge effect and nonlinear focusing forces were derived for the bunched beam with Kapchinskij-Vladimirskij (K-V) distribution, waterbag (WB) distribution, parabolic (PA) distribution, and Gauss (GA) distribution in both of the space charge disk model and space charge cylinder model in the waveguide of a linac

  15. The modal logic of forcing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamkins, J.D.; Löwe, B.


    A set theoretical assertion psi is forceable or possible, written lozenge psi, if psi holds in some forcing extension, and necessary, written square psi, if psi holds in all forcing extensions. In this forcing interpretation of modal logic, we establish that if ZFC is consistent, then the

  16. Small amplitude atomic force spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Beer, Sissi; van den Ende, Henricus T.M.; Ebeling, Daniel; Mugele, Friedrich Gunther; Bhushan, Bharat


    Over the years atomic force microscopy has developed from a pure imaging technique to a tool that can be employed for measuring quantitative tip–sample interaction forces. In this chapter we provide an overview of various techniques to extract quantitative tip–sample forces focusing on both

  17. Space Industry. Industry Study, Spring 2009 (United States)


    Space Flight Center, Cocoa Beach, FL Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Cocoa Beach, FL Naval Ordnance Test Unit, Cocoa Beach, FL 50th Space Wing... America .” In 2009, as we celebrate the 40th anniversary of the fulfillment of that vision, it is appropriate to pause and reflect on how far we...value system, providing high-value services to both government and commercial consumers. The estimate of international and U.S. government consumption

  18. Defense Strategy and Forces: Setting Future Directions (United States)


    Howard Fireman, and Christopher Deegan , “A Question of Cost,” Armed Forces Journal, June 2007, pp. 24– 27, 47. See also Emelie Rutherford, “Affordable...2 is under construction. 24. Craig Covault, “Final Cape Titan Propels NRO’s Secret Operations,” 8 May 2005, available at =news/05095p04.xml (accessed November 2007); and Craig Covault, “Space Recon Dwindles as Iran, China

  19. Steam generator of the forced circulation type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forestier, Jean; Leblanc, Bernard; Monteil, Marcel; Monteil, Pierre


    The steam generator described is of the forced circulation single passage type comprising an outer casing including a vertical generally cylindrical side ring, an internal skirt coaxial with the outer casing, the bottom of this skirt having a free edge separated from a bottom end closing the outer casing, a central tube plate extending horizontally near a top end, in opposition to the bottom end, a peripheral tube plate, parallel to the central plate and located in the annular space under this central plate, a bundle of J shaped tubes [fr

  20. Kin-aesthetic Space-making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Helle


    Body Space Object Symposium 26.02.2016 Strand: The (Moving) Body as Archive Title: Kin-aesthetic Space-making The paper presents a cross-medial practice exchanging body movement and tectonic space. Working with a performative model of gesture, the practice takes up a dialogue with Jean......’s How the Body Shapes the Mind forms part of the theoretical approach to motile kin-aesthetical forces of art-making, underlying this paper. In my practice I work with body- and space gestures, interchanging through a ‘third’ material, featured on screens. The hybrid production includes animated 2 and 3......D drawings, video sequences, and technological treatment constituted by movement of camera, light and diverse editing. Creating a mutable changing sensory surface, the modelling gestures draw attention to their actual occurring in space-time, articulating and transforming space-time configurations...

  1. TRIGA forced shutdowns analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negut, Gheorghe; Laslau, Florica


    The need for improving the operation leads us to use new methods and strategies. Probabilistic safety assessments and statistical analysis provide insights useful for our reactor operation. This paper is dedicated to analysis of the forced shutdowns during the first reactor operation period, between 1980 to 1989. A forced shutdown data base was designed using data on forced shutdowns collected from the reactor operation logbooks. In order to sort out the forced shutdowns the records have the following fields: - current number, date, equipment failed, failure type (M for mechanical, E for electrical, D for irradiation device, U for human factor failure; - scram mode, SE for external scram, failure of reactor cooling circuits and/or irradiation devices, SR for reactor scram, exceeding of reactor nuclear parameters, SB for reactor scram by control rod drop, SM for manual scram required by the abnormal reactor status; - scram cause, giving more information on the forced shutdown. This data base was processed using DBase III. The data processing techniques are presented. To sort out the data, one of the criteria was the number of scrams per year, failure type, scram mode, etc. There are presented yearly scrams, total operation time in hours, total unavailable time, median unavailable time period, reactor availability A. There are given the formulae used to calculate the reactor operational parameters. There are shown the scrams per year in the 1980 to 1989 period, the reactor operation time per year, the reactor shutdown time per year and the operating time versus down time per year. Total number of scrams in the covered period was 643 which caused a reactor down time of 4282.25 hours. In a table the scrams as sorted on the failure type is shown. Summarising, this study emphasized some problems and difficulties which occurred during the TRIGA reactor operation at Pitesti. One main difficulty in creating this data base was the unstandardized scram record mode. Some times

  2. Reaction Control Engine for Space Launch Initiative (United States)


    Engineers at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) have begun a series of engine tests on a new breed of space propulsion: a Reaction Control Engine developed for the Space Launch Initiative (SLI). The engine, developed by TRW Space and Electronics of Redondo Beach, California, is an auxiliary propulsion engine designed to maneuver vehicles in orbit. It is used for docking, reentry, attitude control, and fine-pointing while the vehicle is in orbit. The engine uses nontoxic chemicals as propellants, a feature that creates a safer environment for ground operators, lowers cost, and increases efficiency with less maintenance and quicker turnaround time between missions. Testing includes 30 hot-firings. This photograph shows the first engine test performed at MSFC that includes SLI technology. Another unique feature of the Reaction Control Engine is that it operates at dual thrust modes, combining two engine functions into one engine. The engine operates at both 25 and 1,000 pounds of force, reducing overall propulsion weight and allowing vehicles to easily maneuver in space. The low-level thrust of 25 pounds of force allows the vehicle to fine-point maneuver and dock while the high-level thrust of 1,000 pounds of force is used for reentry, orbit transfer, and coarse positioning. SLI is a NASA-wide research and development program, managed by the MSFC, designed to improve safety, reliability, and cost effectiveness of space travel for second generation reusable launch vehicles.

  3. Space Exploration (United States)

    Gallagher, Dennis


    New range Passage Tomb may be the first structure with known astronomical significance. It was built around 3,200 B.C. in Ireland. It's central passage allows light end-to-end for about 2 weeks around winter solstice. The Sun, Moon, Planets, and Stars held significance in early times due to the seasons, significance for food crops, and mythology. Citation: Corel Photography and Windows to the Universe The Greek may be among the first to pursue analytical interpretations of what they saw in the sky. In about 280 B.C. Aristarchus suggested Earth revolves around the Sun and estimated the distance between. Around 130 B.C. Hipparchus developed the first accurate star map. Today still seek to understand how the universe formed and how we came to be and are we alone. Understanding the causes and consequences of climate change using advanced space missions with major Earth science and applications research. center dotFire the public imagination and inspire students to pursue STEM fields. Train college and graduate students to create a U.S. technical workforce with employees that embody the values of competence, innovation, and service. center dotDrive the technical innovations that enable exploration and become the engine of National economic growth. center dotPartner domestically and internationally to leverage resources to extend the reach of research.

  4. Air Force Space Command. Space and Missile Systems Center Standard. Configuration Management (United States)


    Engineering Drawing Practices IEEE STD 610.12 Glossary of Software Engineering Terminology, September 28,1990 ISO /IEC 12207 Software Life...item, regardless of media, formally designated and fixed at a specific time during the configuration item’s life cycle. (Source: ISO /IEC 12207

  5. Spain: Success story in space (United States)

    Longdon, Norman

    From the early 1960's, European governments were aware that they had to take part in the exploration, and potential exploitation, of space, or be left behind in a field of high-technology that had far-reaching possibilities. It was also realized that financial and manpower constraints would limit the extent to which individual nations could carry out their own national programs. They, therefor, joined forces in two organizations: the European Space Research Organization (ESRO) and the European Launcher Development Organization (ELDO). By 1975, when the potential of space development had been more fully appreciated, the two organizations were merged into the Europeans Space Agency (ESA) of which Spain was a founding member. ESA looks after the interest of 13 member states, one associated member state (Finland), and one cooperating state (Canada) in the peaceful uses of space. Its programs center around a mandatory core of technological research and space science to which member states contribute on the basis of their Gross National Product. Spain in 1992 contributes 6.46% to this mandatory program budget. The member states then have the chance to join optional programs that include telecommunications, observation of the earth and its environment, space transportation systems, microgravity research, and participation in the European contribution to the International Space Station Freedom. Each government decides whether it is in its interest to join a particular optional program, and the percentage that it wishes to contribute to the budget. Although in the early days of ESA, Spain participated in only a few optional programs, today Spain makes a significant contribution to nearly all of ESA's optional programs. This document presents Spain's contributions to particular ESA Programs and discusses Spain's future involvement in ESA.

  6. Short-range fundamental forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoniadis, I.; Baessler, S.; Buchner, M.; Fedorov, V.V.; Hoedl, S.; Nesvizhevsky, V.V.; Pignol, G.; Protasov, K.V.; Lambrecht, A.; Reynaud, S.; Sobolev, Y.


    We consider theoretical motivations to search for extra short-range fundamental forces as well as experiments constraining their parameters. The forces could be of two types: 1) spin-independent forces; 2) spin-dependent axion-like forces. Different experimental techniques are sensitive in respective ranges of characteristic distances. The techniques include measurements of gravity at short distances, searches for extra interactions on top of the Casimir force, precision atomic and neutron experiments. We focus on neutron constraints, thus the range of characteristic distances considered here corresponds to the range accessible for neutron experiments

  7. Twin probes for space geodesy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertotti, B.


    The twin probe method, proposed by Bertotti and Colombo (1972) to get rid of nongravitational forces in interplanetary space, can be applied to a near-Earth orbit to eliminate the atmospheric drag. Two equal pairs of probes, each pair consisting of two passive, small and dense spheres of equal surface and different masses, are flown on a circular orbit at an altitude of about 300 km. Each pair determines the motion of an ideal point which feels only the gravitational forces. They are separated by a distance d of (100/200) km and are tracked from a spacecraft or the Space Shuttle, flying at the same altitude. The relative motion of the two ideal points is reconstructed and yields a measurement of the fine structure of the Earth gravitational field, corresponding to a harmonic order l approximately a/d (a is the radius of the Earth). The tracking can be done by laser ranging to the four spheres, covered by corner reflectors; Doppler ranging is more convenient for higher values of l and can also be used. The accuracy in the compensation of the non-gravitational forces and in the measurements one needs for a given l are discussed in detail. (author)

  8. Optical/Infrared Signatures for Space-Based Remote Sensing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Picard, R. H; Dewan, E. M; Winick, J. R; O'Neil, R. R


    This report describes work carried out under the Air Force Research Laboratory's basic research task in optical remote-sensing signatures, entitled Optical / Infrared Signatures for Space-Based Remote Sensing...

  9. Assured Mission Support Space Architecture (AMSSA) study (United States)

    Hamon, Rob


    The assured mission support space architecture (AMSSA) study was conducted with the overall goal of developing a long-term requirements-driven integrated space architecture to provide responsive and sustained space support to the combatant commands. Although derivation of an architecture was the focus of the study, there are three significant products from the effort. The first is a philosophy that defines the necessary attributes for the development and operation of space systems to ensure an integrated, interoperable architecture that, by design, provides a high degree of combat utility. The second is the architecture itself; based on an interoperable system-of-systems strategy, it reflects a long-range goal for space that will evolve as user requirements adapt to a changing world environment. The third product is the framework of a process that, when fully developed, will provide essential information to key decision makers for space systems acquisition in order to achieve the AMSSA goal. It is a categorical imperative that military space planners develop space systems that will act as true force multipliers. AMSSA provides the philosophy, process, and architecture that, when integrated with the DOD requirements and acquisition procedures, can yield an assured mission support capability from space to the combatant commanders. An important feature of the AMSSA initiative is the participation by every organization that has a role or interest in space systems development and operation. With continued community involvement, the concept of the AMSSA will become a reality. In summary, AMSSA offers a better way to think about space (philosophy) that can lead to the effective utilization of limited resources (process) with an infrastructure designed to meet the future space needs (architecture) of our combat forces.

  10. Public Spaces - Coexistence and Participation (United States)

    Stasiak, Anna; Wojtowicz-Jankowska, Dorota


    The paper is an attempt to answer two questions: (1) how to develop positive social relations and citizenship among residents of cities in Poland and (2) how suitable shaping of public space affects the activation and integration of local residents. The specificity of the postwar process of urbanization in Poland - a country traditionally agricultural - was its political dimension (forced “nationalisation” of agriculture and industrialization of the country) ignoring the socio-cultural determinants and consequences of this process resulting in disappearance of traditional social bonds. According to forecasts, the number of urban dwellers is expected to grow by the year 2050 and increase up to 70 percent of the population. Such a rapid urban sprawl was not accompanied by appropriate social policies; the result was a low level of social organization and of a sense of citizenship. There are various attempts to change this situation. One of them is the development of a system of urban public spaces, according to the needs and preferences of residents (i.e. promotion of physical activity in public areas, introducing elements of art to the common external space, encouraging users to contribute to their surroundings and introducing the appearance of temporary, often cyclical, attractions). Regular interactions between people in public spaces are conducive to developing positive social relationships. Quality and development of the local community is dependent on the quality of space in which it is built. For this reason, attention has been paid to the factors influencing the perception of public space, i.e. geographical and natural conditions, cultural and architectural (arrangement, the availability and condition of these spaces). In the article, the examples of different types of Polish public spaces are described - permanent and temporal recreational spaces (including summer activities and winter attractions). Attempt has also been made to give an answer to the

  11. Differential magnetic force microscope imaging. (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Wang, Zuobin; Liu, Jinyun; Hou, Liwei


    This paper presents a method for differential magnetic force microscope imaging based on a two-pass scanning procedure to extract differential magnetic forces and eliminate or significantly reduce background forces with reversed tip magnetization. In the work, the difference of two scanned images with reversed tip magnetization was used to express the local magnetic forces. The magnetic sample was first scanned with a low lift distance between the MFM tip and the sample surface, and the magnetization direction of the probe was then changed after the first scan to perform the second scan. The differential magnetic force image was obtained through the subtraction of the two images from the two scans. The theoretical and experimental results have shown that the proposed method for differential magnetic force microscope imaging is able to reduce the effect of background or environment interference forces, and offers an improved image contrast and signal to noise ratio (SNR). © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Space Science in Action: Space Exploration [Videotape]. (United States)


    In this videotape recording, students learn about the human quest to discover what is out in space. Students see the challenges and benefits of space exploration including the development of rocket science, a look back at the space race, and a history of manned space travel. A special section on the Saturn V rocket gives students insight into the…

  13. Large size space construction for space exploitation (United States)

    Kondyurin, Alexey


    Space exploitation is impossible without large space structures. We need to make sufficient large volume of pressurized protecting frames for crew, passengers, space processing equipment, & etc. We have to be unlimited in space. Now the size and mass of space constructions are limited by possibility of a launch vehicle. It limits our future in exploitation of space by humans and in development of space industry. Large-size space construction can be made with using of the curing technology of the fibers-filled composites and a reactionable matrix applied directly in free space. For curing the fabric impregnated with a liquid matrix (prepreg) is prepared in terrestrial conditions and shipped in a container to orbit. In due time the prepreg is unfolded by inflating. After polymerization reaction, the durable construction can be fitted out with air, apparatus and life support systems. Our experimental studies of the curing processes in the simulated free space environment showed that the curing of composite in free space is possible. The large-size space construction can be developed. A project of space station, Moon base, Mars base, mining station, interplanet space ship, telecommunication station, space observatory, space factory, antenna dish, radiation shield, solar sail is proposed and overviewed. The study was supported by Humboldt Foundation, ESA (contract 17083/03/NL/SFe), NASA program of the stratospheric balloons and RFBR grants (05-08-18277, 12-08-00970 and 14-08-96011).

  14. Realizing spaces as path-component spaces


    Banakh, Taras; Brazas, Jeremy


    The path component space of a topological space $X$ is the quotient space $\\pi_0(X)$ whose points are the path components of $X$. We show that every Tychonoff space $X$ is the path-component space of a Tychonoff space $Y$ of weight $w(Y)=w(X)$ such that the natural quotient map $Y\\to \\pi_0(Y)=X$ is a perfect map. Hence, many topological properties of $X$ transfer to $Y$. We apply this result to construct a compact space $X\\subset \\mathbb{R}^3$ for which the fundamental group $\\pi_1(X,x_0)$ is...

  15. Driving reconnection in sheared magnetic configurations with forced fluctuations (United States)

    Pongkitiwanichakul, Peera; Makwana, Kirit D.; Ruffolo, David


    We investigate reconnection of magnetic field lines in sheared magnetic field configurations due to fluctuations driven by random forcing by means of numerical simulations. The simulations are performed with an incompressible, pseudo-spectral magnetohydrodynamics code in 2D where we take thick, resistively decaying, current-sheet like sheared magnetic configurations which do not reconnect spontaneously. We describe and test the forcing that is introduced in the momentum equation to drive fluctuations. It is found that the forcing does not change the rate of decay; however, it adds and removes energy faster in the presence of the magnetic shear structure compared to when it has decayed away. We observe that such a forcing can induce magnetic reconnection due to field line wandering leading to the formation of magnetic islands and O-points. These reconnecting field lines spread out as the current sheet decays with time. A semi-empirical formula is derived which reasonably explains the formation and spread of O-points. We find that reconnection spreads faster with stronger forcing and longer correlation time of forcing, while the wavenumber of forcing does not have a significant effect. When the field line wandering becomes large enough, the neighboring current sheets with opposite polarity start interacting, and then the magnetic field is rapidly annihilated. This work is useful to understand how forced fluctuations can drive reconnection in large scale current structures in space and astrophysical plasmas that are not susceptible to reconnection.

  16. Chin force in violin playing. (United States)

    Obata, Satoshi; Kinoshita, Hiroshi


    Force generated between the left mandible of violinists and the chinrest of the violin was examined using a force-sensing chinrest developed in this study. A strain-gauge force sensor was built, and it was fixed between the violin's top plate and a chin cup. Fifteen professional/amateur violinists held the violin statically, played musical scales with different sound properties and sounding techniques, as well as an excerpt from a Max Bruch concerto. Peak and mean forces were evaluated for each task. In a separate experiment, lateral movement of the lower teeth due to different levels of voluntary chin force exertion was measured. Static holding forces observed were 15 and 22 N with and without the help of the left hand, respectively. Peak force increased from 16 N at soft dynamics to 20 N at strong dynamics during scales. The force further increased to 29 N with the use of vibrato technique and 35 N during shifts. Tempo and hand position did not affect the force. Playing a Bruch concerto induced a mean peak force of 52 N, ranging from 31 to 82 N among the violinists. The developed force-sensing chinrest could accurately record the generated chin force. Typical chin force to stabilize the violin during ordinary musical performance was less than 30 N, but it could momentarily exceed 50 N when technically demanding musical pieces were performed. The lateral shift of the mandible was fairly small (<0.4 mm) even with high chin-force exertion, possibly due to clenching of the molars.

  17. [Galileo and centrifugal force]. (United States)

    Vilain, Christiane

    This work intends to focus on Galileo's study of what is now called "centrifugal force," within the framework of the Second Day of his Dialogo written in 1632, rather than on the previously published commentaries on the topic. Galileo proposes three geometrical demonstrations in order to prove that gravity will always overcome centrifugalforce, and that the potential rotation of the Earth, whatever its speed, cannot in any case project objects beyond it. Each of these demonstrations must consequently contain an error and it has seemed to us that the first one had not been understood up until now. Our analysis offers an opportunity to return to Galileo's geometrical representation of dynamical questions; actually, we get an insight into the sophistication of Galileo's practices more than into his mistakes. Our second point, concerning the historiography of the problem, shows an evolution from anachronic critics to more contextual considerations, in the course of the second half of the twentieth century.

  18. Force Limit System (United States)

    Pawlik, Ralph; Krause, David; Bremenour, Frank


    The Force Limit System (FLS) was developed to protect test specimens from inadvertent overload. The load limit value is fully adjustable by the operator and works independently of the test system control as a mechanical (non-electrical) device. When a test specimen is loaded via an electromechanical or hydraulic test system, a chance of an overload condition exists. An overload applied to a specimen could result in irreparable damage to the specimen and/or fixturing. The FLS restricts the maximum load that an actuator can apply to a test specimen. When testing limited-run test articles or using very expensive fixtures, the use of such a device is highly recommended. Test setups typically use electronic peak protection, which can be the source of overload due to malfunctioning components or the inability to react quickly enough to load spikes. The FLS works independently of the electronic overload protection.

  19. The resistible force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeschlin, D.L.


    Many people of today have an oppositional attitude towards the continual loss of sense of existence which manifests itself in 'the great refusal'. They also behave in an anti-authoritarian manner towards their first father Marx. They realize that it is ourselves who have to search and find. The protest groups of the most different origin have come into being as 'the sand in the wheels' of a seemingly irresistable force. They have formed themselves beyond the 'Left' and the 'Right'. Nuclear energy is the instrument which acts as a gear for their opposition, which establishes it and which provides the basis for their self-concept. It is the symbol where the conflict between living standard and living quality breaks open. In essential, however, the protest is growing towards supporting an effective administration of all goods of our world. (orig./HP) [de

  20. Students' conceptions about force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soeguet, Oe.


    Students from a young age have developed in their own minds differing concepts of things such as all creatures having a soul. Also children see the environment and interpret what they see according to their own understanding and explanation. In particular, with regards to physics, things like light, heat, motion, structure of matter and energy are understood at the level of a child s comprehension. Most often the child s understanding varies quite differently from the actual true meaning. As a result the child is reluctant to accept any other explanation. In such situations the necessary difficulties must be tackled with care and caution pertinent to the individual. Studies at K.S.U University related to force and motion of various departments in the Faculty of Science and Letters have been investigated. After evaluations of all the findings a number of suggestions have been made to change student views and ideas

  1. The forced harmonic oscillator with damping and thermal effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes Franca, H. de; Thomaz, M.T.


    Nonperturbative quantum mechanical solutions of the forced harmonic oscillator with radiation reaction damping are obtained from previous analysis based on Stochastic Electrodynamics. The transition to excited states is shown to be to coherent states which follow the classical trajectory. The quantum Wigner distribution in phase space is constructed. All the results are extended to finite temperatures. (Author) [pt

  2. Force distribution affects vibrational properties in hard-sphere glasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DeGiuli, E.; Lerner, E.; Brito, C.; Wyart, M.


    We theoretically and numerically study the elastic properties of hard-sphere glasses and provide a real-space description of their mechanical stability. In contrast to repulsive particles at zero temperature, we argue that the presence of certain pairs of particles interacting with a small force f

  3. Direct measurements of intermolecular forces by chemical force microscopy (United States)

    Vezenov, Dmitri Vitalievich


    Detailed description of intermolecular forces is key to understanding a wide range of phenomena from molecular recognition to materials failure. The unique features of atomic force microscopy (AFM) to make point contact force measurements with ultra high sensitivity and to generate spatial maps of surface topography and forces have been extended to include measurements between well-defined organic molecular groups. Chemical modification of AFM probes with self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) was used to make them sensitive to specific molecular interactions. This novel chemical force microscopy (CFM) technique was used to probe forces between different molecular groups in a range of environments (vacuum, organic liquids and aqueous solutions); measure surface energetics on a nanometer scale; determine pK values of the surface acid and base groups; measure forces to stretch and unbind a short synthetic DNA duplex and map the spatial distribution of specific functional groups and their ionization state. Studies of adhesion forces demonstrated the important contribution of hydrogen bonding to interactions between simple organic functionalities. The chemical identity of the tip and substrate surfaces as well as the medium had a dramatic effect on adhesion between model monolayers. A direct correlation between surface free energy and adhesion forces was established. The adhesion between epoxy polymer and model mixed SAMs varied with the amount of hydrogen bonding component in the monolayers. A consistent interpretation of CFM measurements in polar solvents was provided by contact mechanics models and intermolecular force components theory. Forces between tips and surfaces functionalized with SAMs terminating in acid or base groups depended on their ionization state. A novel method of force titration was introduced for highly local characterization of the pK's of surface functional groups. The pH-dependent changes in friction forces were exploited to map spatially the

  4. Curved twistor spaces and H-space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tod, K.P.


    The curved twistor space construction of Penrose for anti-self-dual solutions to the Einstein vacuum equations is described. Curved twistor spaces are defined and it is shown with the aid of an example how to obtain them by deforming the complex structure of regions of flat twistor space. The connection of this procedure with Newman's H-space construction via asymptotic twistor space is outlined. (Auth.)

  5. Preparing future space leaders - International Space University (United States)

    Stone, Barbara A.; Van Reeth, George P.


    The International Space University (ISU) concept of developing a cadre of space professionals that will lead the universities and industries into space is discussed. ISU is an innovative, permanent worldwide organization for training and academic instruction in all aspects of space studies. ISU's major goal is to provide the young professional academic instruction in technical and nontechnical areas of modern space exploration and research, and a forum to exchange ideas and develop both personal and professional ties at an international level.

  6. Gravity Probe B Space Vehicle (United States)


    The space vehicle for Gravity Probe B (GP-B) arrives at the launch site at Vandenburg Air Force Base. GP-B is the relativity experiment being developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. Scheduled for launch in 2003 and managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center, development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University, with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation.

  7. Unsteady steady-states: central causes of unintentional force drift. (United States)

    Ambike, Satyajit; Mattos, Daniela; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M; Latash, Mark L


    We applied the theory of synergies to analyze the processes that lead to unintentional decline in isometric fingertip force when visual feedback of the produced force is removed. We tracked the changes in hypothetical control variables involved in single fingertip force production based on the equilibrium-point hypothesis, namely the fingertip referent coordinate (R FT ) and its apparent stiffness (C FT ). The system's state is defined by a point in the {R FT ; C FT } space. We tested the hypothesis that, after visual feedback removal, this point (1) moves along directions leading to drop in the output fingertip force, and (2) has even greater motion along directions that leaves the force unchanged. Subjects produced a prescribed fingertip force using visual feedback and attempted to maintain this force for 15 s after the feedback was removed. We used the "inverse piano" apparatus to apply small and smooth positional perturbations to fingers at various times after visual feedback removal. The time courses of R FT and C FT showed that force drop was mostly due to a drift in R FT toward the actual fingertip position. Three analysis techniques, namely hyperbolic regression, surrogate data analysis, and computation of motor-equivalent and non-motor-equivalent motions, suggested strong covariation in R FT and C FT stabilizing the force magnitude. Finally, the changes in the two hypothetical control variables {R FT ; C FT } relative to their average trends also displayed covariation. On the whole, the findings suggest that unintentional force drop is associated with (a) a slow drift of the referent coordinate that pulls the system toward a low-energy state and (b) a faster synergic motion of R FT and C FT that tends to stabilize the output fingertip force about the slowly drifting equilibrium point.

  8. Superposed epoch analysis of physiological fluctuations: possible space weather connections. (United States)

    Wanliss, James; Cornélissen, Germaine; Halberg, Franz; Brown, Denzel; Washington, Brien


    There is a strong connection between space weather and fluctuations in technological systems. Some studies also suggest a statistical connection between space weather and subsequent fluctuations in the physiology of living creatures. This connection, however, has remained controversial and difficult to demonstrate. Here we present support for a response of human physiology to forcing from the explosive onset of the largest of space weather events-space storms. We consider a case study with over 16 years of high temporal resolution measurements of human blood pressure (systolic, diastolic) and heart rate variability to search for associations with space weather. We find no statistically significant change in human blood pressure but a statistically significant drop in heart rate during the main phase of space storms. Our empirical findings shed light on how human physiology may respond to exogenous space weather forcing.

  9. Superposed epoch analysis of physiological fluctuations: possible space weather connections (United States)

    Wanliss, James; Cornélissen, Germaine; Halberg, Franz; Brown, Denzel; Washington, Brien


    There is a strong connection between space weather and fluctuations in technological systems. Some studies also suggest a statistical connection between space weather and subsequent fluctuations in the physiology of living creatures. This connection, however, has remained controversial and difficult to demonstrate. Here we present support for a response of human physiology to forcing from the explosive onset of the largest of space weather events—space storms. We consider a case study with over 16 years of high temporal resolution measurements of human blood pressure (systolic, diastolic) and heart rate variability to search for associations with space weather. We find no statistically significant change in human blood pressure but a statistically significant drop in heart rate during the main phase of space storms. Our empirical findings shed light on how human physiology may respond to exogenous space weather forcing.

  10. Can you play basketball in space?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Aase Roland; Knudsen, Ole J.


    AbstractInspired by NASA’s Activity Kit “Toys in Space” a live program was conducted during World Space Week 2003 at The Steno Museum Planetarium (in collaboration with Orion Planetarium and Tycho Brahe Planetarium).Many well known toys act familiar because of a dominating force downwards caused ...

  11. The reconstruction property in Banach spaces and a perturbation theorem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casazza, P.G.; Christensen, Ole


    Perturbation theory is a fundamental tool in Banach space theory. However, the applications of the classical results are limited by the fact that they force the perturbed sequence to be equivalent to the given sequence. We will develop a more general perturbation theory that does not force...

  12. Body-Space, Reason and ‘the Passions’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Helle


    to feel the feelings of movement by other living beings, and is capacity as well to feel the dynamic forces of drawing architecture. A thesis of my work is that these body-space potentials may be decisive keys in the process, making aesthetical and ethical forces closely related and incorporated...

  13. Corrected direct force balance method for atomic force microscopy lateral force calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asay, David B.; Hsiao, Erik; Kim, Seong H.


    This paper reports corrections and improvements of the previously reported direct force balance method (DFBM) developed for lateral calibration of atomic force microscopy. The DFBM method employs the lateral force signal obtained during a force-distance measurement on a sloped surface and relates this signal to the applied load and the slope of the surface to determine the lateral calibration factor. In the original publication [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 043903 (2006)], the tip-substrate contact was assumed to be pinned at the point of contact, i.e., no slip along the slope. In control experiments, the tip was found to slide along the slope during force-distance curve measurement. This paper presents the correct force balance for lateral force calibration.

  14. Electric rail gun application to space propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, J.P.


    The paper examines the possibility of using the DC electric gun principles as a space vehicle propulsion system, capable of producing intermediate thrust levels. The application of an electromagnetic launch technique, called the DC electric rail gun, to the space propulsion concept of O'Neill, is examined. It is determined that the DC electric rail gun offers very high projectile accelerations and a very significant potential for reducing the size and mass of a reaction motor for space application. A detailed description of rail gun principles is given and some simple expressions for the accelerating force, gun impedance, power supply requirements, and system performance are discussed

  15. Phase space diffusion in turbulent plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécseli, Hans


    . The second type are particles introduced at a prescribed phase space position at a certain time and which then self-consistently participate in the phase space dynamics of the turbulence. The latter "active" type of particles can be subject to an effective frictional force due to radiation of plasma waves....... In terms of these test particle types, two basically different problems can be formulated. One deals with the diffusion of a particle with respect to its point of release in phase space. Alternatively the relative diffusion between many, or just two, particles can be analyzed. Analytical expressions...

  16. Automated force controller for amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyagi, Atsushi, E-mail:, E-mail:; Scheuring, Simon, E-mail:, E-mail: [U1006 INSERM, Université Aix-Marseille, Parc Scientifique et Technologique de Luminy, 163 Avenue de Luminy, 13009 Marseille (France)


    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is widely used in physics, chemistry, and biology to analyze the topography of a sample at nanometer resolution. Controlling precisely the force applied by the AFM tip to the sample is a prerequisite for faithful and reproducible imaging. In amplitude modulation (oscillating) mode AFM, the applied force depends on the free and the setpoint amplitudes of the cantilever oscillation. Therefore, for keeping the applied force constant, not only the setpoint amplitude but also the free amplitude must be kept constant. While the AFM user defines the setpoint amplitude, the free amplitude is typically subject to uncontrollable drift, and hence, unfortunately, the real applied force is permanently drifting during an experiment. This is particularly harmful in biological sciences where increased force destroys the soft biological matter. Here, we have developed a strategy and an electronic circuit that analyzes permanently the free amplitude of oscillation and readjusts the excitation to maintain the free amplitude constant. As a consequence, the real applied force is permanently and automatically controlled with picoNewton precision. With this circuit associated to a high-speed AFM, we illustrate the power of the development through imaging over long-duration and at various forces. The development is applicable for all AFMs and will widen the applicability of AFM to a larger range of samples and to a larger range of (non-specialist) users. Furthermore, from controlled force imaging experiments, the interaction strength between biomolecules can be analyzed.

  17. Force decay of elastomeric chains - a mechanical design and product comparison study. (United States)

    Balhoff, David A; Shuldberg, Matthew; Hagan, Joseph L; Ballard, Richard W; Armbruster, Paul C


    To evaluate the percentage force decay of elastomeric chain products utilizing three different design mechanisms simulating canine retraction; and to evaluate the percentage force decay of elastomeric chain products from four different companies. In vitro, laboratory study. LSUHSC Dental School, New Orleans, LA, USA. Closed (non-spaced), grey elastomeric chains from four companies were selected for the study. Three acrylic resin jigs were constructed to provide a framework for three simulated space closure mechanisms. The 6-5-3, the chain loop, and the 6-3 were the configuration mechanisms used in the study. An electronic force gauge was used to measure the percentage force decay associated with each elastomeric chain over 28 days at preselected times. There was a significant difference in the mean percentage force decay for the three different mechanisms (P < 0·001). For all four companies, the 6-3 mechanical design had the smallest mean percentage force decay. There was a significant difference in the mean percentage force decay for the different companies (P < 0·001). For all three mechanisms, Ormco had the smallest percentage force decay while Unitek had the highest percentage force decay. The significant difference in the mean percentage force decay for the different mechanisms suggests that the 6-3 design is a more efficient means of closing extraction spaces utilizing elastomeric chains.

  18. Self-Directed and Informed Forced-Landing System for UAV Avoidance of On-Ground Persons, Vehicles, and Structures, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During a piloted forced landing in which the aircraft can no longer maintain level flight and is therefore forced to make an emergency off-airport landing, the human...

  19. On RC-spaces


    Bielas, Wojciech; Plewik, Szymon


    Following Frink's characterization of completely regular spaces, we say that a regular T_1-space is an RC-space whenever the family of all regular open sets constitutes a regular normal base. Normal spaces are RC-spaces and there exist completely regular spaces which are not RC-spaces. So the question arises, which of the known examples of completely regular and not normal spaces are RC-spaces. We show that the Niemytzki plane and the Sorgenfrey plane are RC-spaces.

  20. The topological reconstruction of forced oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solari, Hernan G.; Natiello, Mario A.


    Periodically forced oscillators are among the simplest dynamical systems capable to display chaos. They can be described by the variables position and velocity, together with the phase of the force. Their phase-space corresponds therefore to R 2 xS 1 . The organization of the periodic orbits can be displayed with braids having only positive crossings. Topological characterization of dynamical systems actually began to be explored in physics on this family of problems. In this work we show that, in general, it is not possible to produce a 3-dimensional imbedding of the solutions of a forced oscillator in terms of differential imbeddings based on sampling the position only. However, it may be possible to uncover a description of the phase variable from the sampled time-series, thus producing a faithful representation of the data. We proceed to formulate new tests in order to check whether proposed imbeddings can be accepted as such. We illustrate the manuscript throughout with an example corresponding to a model of Benard-Marangoni convection.